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Sample records for a-induced hepatocyte damage

  1. Hepatic stellate cell-expressed endosialin balances fibrogenesis and hepatocyte proliferation during liver damage.

    PubMed

    Mogler, Carolin; Wieland, Matthias; König, Courtney; Hu, Junhao; Runge, Anja; Korn, Claudia; Besemfelder, Eva; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Komljenovic, Dorde; Dooley, Steven; Schirmacher, Peter; Longerich, Thomas; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-03-01

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to injury reflecting the critical balance between liver repair and scar formation. Chronic damage leads to progressive substitution of liver parenchyma by scar tissue and ultimately results in liver cirrhosis. Stromal cells (hepatic stellate cells [HSC] and endothelial cells) have been proposed to control the balance between liver fibrosis and regeneration. Here, we show that endosialin, a C-type lectin, expressed in the liver exclusively by HSC and portal fibroblasts, is upregulated in liver fibrosis in mouse and man. Chronic chemically induced liver damage resulted in reduced fibrosis and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation in endosialin-deficient (EN(KO)) mice. Correspondingly, acute-liver-damage-induced hepatocyte proliferation (partial hepatectomy) was increased in EN(KO) mice. A candidate-based screen of known regulators of hepatocyte proliferation identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as selectively endosialin-dependent hepatocyte mitogen. Collectively, the study establishes a critical role of HSC in the reciprocal regulation of fibrogenesis vs. hepatocyte proliferation and identifies endosialin as a therapeutic target in non-neoplastic settings. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  2. Hepatic stellate cell-expressed endosialin balances fibrogenesis and hepatocyte proliferation during liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Mogler, Carolin; Wieland, Matthias; König, Courtney; Hu, Junhao; Runge, Anja; Korn, Claudia; Besemfelder, Eva; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Komljenovic, Dorde; Dooley, Steven; Schirmacher, Peter; Longerich, Thomas; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to injury reflecting the critical balance between liver repair and scar formation. Chronic damage leads to progressive substitution of liver parenchyma by scar tissue and ultimately results in liver cirrhosis. Stromal cells (hepatic stellate cells [HSC] and endothelial cells) have been proposed to control the balance between liver fibrosis and regeneration. Here, we show that endosialin, a C-type lectin, expressed in the liver exclusively by HSC and portal fibroblasts, is upregulated in liver fibrosis in mouse and man. Chronic chemically induced liver damage resulted in reduced fibrosis and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation in endosialin-deficient (ENKO) mice. Correspondingly, acute-liver-damage-induced hepatocyte proliferation (partial hepatectomy) was increased in ENKO mice. A candidate-based screen of known regulators of hepatocyte proliferation identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as selectively endosialin-dependent hepatocyte mitogen. Collectively, the study establishes a critical role of HSC in the reciprocal regulation of fibrogenesis vs. hepatocyte proliferation and identifies endosialin as a therapeutic target in non-neoplastic settings. PMID:25680861

  3. TGF-beta enhances alcohol dependent hepatocyte damage via down-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase I.

    PubMed

    Ciuclan, Loredana; Ehnert, Sabrina; Ilkavets, Iryna; Weng, Hong-Lei; Gaitantzi, Haristi; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Ueberham, Elke; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M; Singer, Manfred V; Breitkopf, Katja; Dooley, Steven

    2010-03-01

    Adverse alcohol effects in the liver involve oxidative metabolism, fat deposition and release of fibrogenic mediators, including TGF-beta. The work presents an assessment of liver damaging cross-talk between ethanol and TGF-beta in hepatocytes. To investigate TGF-beta effects on hepatocytes, microarray analyses were performed and validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The cellular state was determined by assessing lactate dehydrogenase, cellular glutathione, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and neutral lipid deposition. RNA interference was used for gene silencing in vitro. TGF-beta is induced in mouse livers after chronic ethanol insult, enhances ethanol induced oxidative stress and toxicity towards cultured hepatocytes plus induces lipid-, oxidative stress metabolism- and fibrogenesis-gene expression signatures. Interestingly, TGF-beta down-regulates alcohol metabolizing enzyme Adh1 mRNA in cultured hepatocytes and liver tissue from TGF-beta transgenic mice via the ALK5/Smad2/3 signalling branch, with Smad7 as a potent negative regulator. ADH1 deficiency is a determining factor for the increased lipid accumulation and Cyp2E1 dependent toxicity in liver cells upon alcohol challenge. Further, ADH1 expression was decreased during liver damage in an intragastric ethanol infusion mouse model. In the presence of ethanol, TGF-beta displays pro-steatotic action in hepatocytes via decreasing ADH1 expression. Low ADH1 levels are correlated with enhanced hepatocyte damage upon chronic alcohol consumption by favoring secondary metabolic pathways. Copyright (c) 2009 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbendazim combined with imazalil or cypermethrin potentiate DNA damage in hepatocytes of mice.

    PubMed

    Ðikić, D; Mojsović-Cuić, A; Cupor, I; Benković, V; Horvat-Knezević, A; Lisicić, D; Orsolić, N

    2012-05-01

    Traces of pesticides imazalil, cypermethrin and carbendazim are detected in plants used for human consumption. To explore whether their application in oral combinations will induce DNA breaks in hepatocytes, a subchronic in vivo experiment was performed in Swiss mice. Doses of 10 mg kg(-1) of imazalil (im) and cypermethrin (cy), and 20 mg kg(-1) of carbendazim (car) and their combinations (im, 10 mg kg(-1) + cy, 10 mg kg(-1); im, 10 mg kg(-1) + car, 20 mg kg(-1); car, 20 mg kg(-1) + cy, 10 mg kg(-1)) were applied daily for 28 days. Afterward, DNA damage in hepatocytes was evaluated by comet assay. Individually, imazalil and cypermethrin damaged DNA at alkali-labile sites, while the tail moment (TM) of carbendazim alone was similar to control but with higher tail length. In combination with carbendazim clastogen, properties of imazalils and cypermethrins were potentiated compared to all other treatments and control. There were pronounced sex differences in pattern of fragmentation between treated groups. Higher long tail nuclei (LTN) in females indicate that certain cells in females were especially prone to total nucleus disintegration. Due to synergistic effects, low environmentally present concentrations of imazalil and cypermethrin in food, and especially their mixtures with carbendazim have genotoxic potential that could be particularly dangerous over prolonged exposure in mammalian organism.

  5. ER stress-mediated cell damage contributes to the release of EDA+ fibronectin from hepatocytes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Yuan, Fa-Hu; Chen, Ting; Huang, Qiang; Wang, Yu; Liu, Zhi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    Fibronectin containing extra domain A (EDA + FN), a functional glycoprotein participating in several cellular processes, correlates with chronic liver disease. Herein, we aim to investigate the expression and secretion of EDA + FN from hepatocytes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the underlying mechanisms. Circulating levels of EDA + FN were determined by ELISA in clinical samples. Western blotting and flow cytometry were performed on L02 and HepG2 cell lines to analyze whether the levels of EDA + FN were associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related cell death. Circulating levels of EDA + FN in NAFLD patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects, and positively related with severity of ultrasonographic steatosis score. In cultured hepatocytes, palmitate up-regulated the expression of EDA + FN in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, when the cells were pretreated with 4-phenylbutyrate, a specific inhibitor of ER stress, up-regulation of EDA + FN could be abrogated. Moreover, silencing CHOP by shRNA enhanced the release of EDA + FN from hepatocytes following palmitate treatment, which was involved in ER stress-related cell damage. These findings suggest that the up-regulated level of EDA + FN is associated with liver damage in NAFLD, and ER stress-mediated cell damage contributes to the release of EDA + FN from hepatocytes.

  6. Strong synergistic induction of CYP1A1 expression by andrographolide plus typical CYP1A inducers in mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Sirisangtrakul, Wanna

    2007-10-15

    The effects of andrographolide, the major diterpenoid constituent of Andrographis paniculata, on the expression of cytochrome P450 superfamily 1 members, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, as well as on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were investigated in comparison with the effects of typical CYP1A inducers, including benz[a]anthracene, {beta}-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Andrographolide significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner, as did the typical CYP1A inducers, but did not induce that of CYP1B1 or AhR. Interestingly, andrographolide plus the typical CYP1A inducers synergistically induced CYP1A1 expression, and the synergism wasmore » blocked by an AhR antagonist, resveratrol. The CYP1A1 enzyme activity showed a similar pattern of induction. This is the first report that shows that andrographolide has a potency to induce CYP1A1 enzyme and indicates that andrographolide could be a very useful compound for investigating the regulatory mechanism of the CYP1A1 induction pathway. In addition, our findings suggest preparing advice for rational administration of A. paniculata, according to its ability to induce CYP1A1 expression.« less

  7. Protective effects of water extract of clam on normal and CCl₄-induced damage in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chi, H M; Chou, S T; Lin, S C; Su, Z Y; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of various concentrations and incubation times of water extract of clam (WEC) on glutathione, its antioxidant and the detoxification defense systems in normal and CCl₄-induced oxidative damaged primary rat hepatocytes. This study showed that when the hepatocytes were treated with WEC (0.14 ~ 1.68 mg/ml), the intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, GSH/GSSG ratio, and the activities of GSH-related enzymes (GPx, GRd, and GST) were higher than those in the control at 24 or 48 hour treatments. However, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and microscopic observations did not differ from those of the control. Yet, when the hepatocytes were pretreated with various concentrations of WEC for 24 hours and then exposed to 5 mM carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) for 1 hour, at concentrations of WEC between 0.42 ~ 1.68 mg/ml, the viabilities, intracellular GSH level, and activities of GST and GPx were significantly increased compared to those of the CCl₄-treated control group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, WEC could improve the viability and the capabilities of detoxification and antioxidation in hepatocytes by increasing the GSH level and the activities of GSH-related enzymes.

  8. Ethanol-induced potentiation of rat hepatocyte damage due to 1,2-dibromoethane.

    PubMed

    Chiarpotto, E; Biasi, F; Aragno, M; Scavazza, A; Danni, O; Dianzani, M U; Poli, G

    1995-01-01

    Low amounts of 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), not able per se to exert pro-oxidant and cytotoxic activity on rat hepatocyte suspensions, become effective when administered with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), due to impairment of the glutathione transferase detoxication pathway by CCl4. Treatment of rats with a single dose of ethanol (2.5 g/kg body wt) 2 h before liver cell isolation potentiates the effect of DBE alone on both malonaldehyde formation and lactate dehydrogenase release by the hepatocyte. The potentiation of the DBE effects by ethanol may be through a series of mechanisms, such as a strong inactivation of hepatocyte glutathione transferase similar to that caused by CCl4, an increased basal level of lipid peroxidation and a significant loss of total glutathione.

  9. Modification of chromium(VI)-induced DNA damage by glutathione and cytochromes P-450 in chicken embryo hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Cupo, D Y; Wetterhahn, K E

    1985-01-01

    The role of glutathione and cytochrome P-450 in the production of DNA damage by chromium(VI) was examined in chicken embryo hepatocytes by the alkaline elution technique. Cellular levels of glutathione and cytochrome P-450 were altered by treating the hepatocytes with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, buthionine sulfoximine, isopentanol, or beta-naphthoflavone. A dramatic increase in chromium(VI)-induced DNA strand breaks was observed after increasing glutathione levels in the cells. Chromium(VI)-induced DNA strand breaks were even more numerous when the level of cytochrome P-450 was also increased. Upon depletion of glutathione levels and induction of cytochrome P-450 or cytochrome P-448, little or no DNA strand breaks or DNA interstrand cross-links were observed after chromium(VI) treatment. Chromium(VI)-induced DNA-protein cross-links generally decreased after either increases or decreases in cellular levels of glutathione or cytochrome P-450 or P-448. These results suggest that glutathione enhances chromium(VI)-induced DNA damage through metabolic activation of chromium(VI). The possible production of reactive chromium species upon metabolism by glutathione and cytochrome P-450 or P-448 and their involvement in DNA damage is discussed. PMID:3863126

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] on alcohol-damaged primary rat hepatocyte culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenhua; Bian, Yuzhu; Wang, Zhenghui; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2017-02-01

    We have prepared a novel nanobiotherapeutic, Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase], which not only transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide but also a therapeutic antioxidant. Our previous study in a severe sustained 90 min hemorrhagic shock rat model shows that it has a hepatoprotective effect. We investigate its hepatoprotective effect further in this present report using an alcohol-damaged primary hepatocyte culture model. Results show that it significantly reduced ethanol-induced AST release, lipid peroxidation, and ROS production in rat primary hepatocytes culture. It also significantly enhanced the viability of ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Thus, the result shows that Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] also has some hepatoprotective effects against alcohol-induced injury in in vitro rat primary hepatocytes cell culture. This collaborate our previous observation of its hepatoprotective effect in a severe sustained 90-min hemorrhagic shock rat model.

  11. Involvement of hepatic stellate cell cytoglobin in acute hepatocyte damage through the regulation of CYP2E1-mediated xenobiotic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Yuga; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Krausz, Kristopher W; Le, Thi T T; Gonzalez, Frank J; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Ikeda, Kazuo; Kawada, Norifumi

    2015-05-01

    Oxygen (O2) is required for cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent drug metabolism. Cytoglobin (CYGB) is a unique globin expressed exclusively in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). However, its role in O2-dependent metabolism in neighboring hepatocytes remains unknown. This study provides evidence that CYGB in HSCs is involved in acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels were higher in wild-type mice than in Cygb-null mice. Wild-type mice exhibited more severe hepatocyte necrosis around the central vein area compared with Cygb-null mice, thus indicating that CYGB deficiency protects against APAP-induced liver damage. Although no difference in the hepatic expression of CYP2E1, a key enzyme involved in APAP toxicity, was observed between wild-type and Cygb-null mice, the serum levels of the APAP metabolites cysteinyl-APAP and N-acetyl-cysteinyl-APAP were decreased in Cygb-null mice, suggesting reduced APAP metabolism in the livers of Cygb-null mice. In primary cultures, APAP-induced hepatocyte damage was increased by co-culturing with wild-type HSCs but not with Cygb-null HSCs. In addition, cell damage was markedly alleviated under low O2 condition (5% O2), suggesting the requirement of O2 for APAP toxicity. Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury (CYP2E1-dependent), but not lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced injury (CYP2E1-independent), was similarly alleviated in Cygb-null mice. Considering the function of CYGB as O2 carrier, these results strongly support the hypothesis that HSCs are involved in the CYP2E1-mediated xenobiotic activation by augmenting O2 supply to hepatocytes. In conclusion, CYGB in HSCs contributes to the CYP-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics in hepatocytes by supplying O2 for enzymatic oxidation.

  12. DNA damage induced by three major metabolites of 1,3-butadiene in human hepatocyte L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan-Pan; Wen, Ying; An, Jing; Yu, Ying-Xin; Wu, Ming-Hong; Zhang, Xin-Yu

    2012-09-18

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a carcinogenic air pollutant. Its bioactivation produces four major metabolites, i.e., 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), 3,4-epoxy-1,2-butanediol (EBD), 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), and 3-butene-1,2-diol (BDD). Studies have been mostly focused on DEB due to its strong mutagenicity/carcinogenicity. In contrast, studies of genotoxicity of EB, EBD, and BDD have been limited. In particular, genotoxicity of EBD and BDD using strand breaks as the endpoint has not been investigated. To obtain a more complete understanding of BD toxicity, in the present study, we used comet assay to investigate DNA damage induced by EB, EBD, and BDD in human hepatocyte L02 cells, with the aim to determine their relative potencies, the types of DNA damage, and the possible pathway to form strand breaks. Using alkaline comet assay (pH>13), it was observed that EB and EBD caused similar concentration-dependent increases in DNA migration from 50 to 1000μM. However, BDD induced a statistically significant increase only at 1000μM, and the increase itself was very small. EBD was as potent as EB at lower concentrations (≤200μM), and was slightly less potent than EB at higher concentrations. The results indicated that these metabolites could generate strand breaks in cells with the rank order of the potencies being EB>≈EBD≫BDD. All three compounds failed to cause statistically significant increases in DNA migration in pre-lysed cells, suggesting that they did not produce strand breaks through chemical pathways under our experimental conditions. By using comet assays at pH 11.9 and pH 9, it was demonstrated that EB and EBD generated both single-strand breaks (SSB) and alkali-labile sites, but BDD produced only SSB. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate EBD- and BDD-induced strand breaks in cells. The results implied that EBD could play an important role in toxicity of BD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol-induced potentiation of rat hepatocyte damage due to the carcinogen 1,2-dibromoethane.

    PubMed

    Chiarpotto, E; Biasi, F; Scavazza, A; Camandola, S; Aragno, M; Tamagno, E; Danni, O; Dianzani, M U; Poli, G

    1995-11-01

    Previous experiments with hepatocytes isolated from ethanol-treated rats showed that alcohol potentiates the toxic action of 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE) by inhibiting its metabolism via glutathione-S-transferase. The aim of this study was to investigate whether acetaldehyde, the main product of ethanol metabolism, may be responsible for such inactivation. By pretreatment with 4-methylpyrazole, an inhibitor of acetaldehyde formation, the ethanol inactivation of glutathione transferase was actually prevented. As a consequence of this protective action, 4-methylpyrazole also prevented the high basal lipid peroxidation and the potentiated DBE toxicity observed in hepatocytes from ethanol-dosed animals. Finally, the inactivation of glutathione-S-transferase by concentrations of acetaldehyde likely to occur in the ethanol-intoxicated animal was confirmed in an in vitro model by direct aldehyde addition to hepatocyte suspensions.

  14. Metabolically active extracellular vesicles released from hepatocytes under drug-induced liver-damaging conditions modify serum metabolome and might affect different pathophysiological processes.

    PubMed

    Royo, Felix; Palomo, Laura; Mleczko, Justyna; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Alonso, Cristina; Martínez, Ibon; Pérez-Cormenzana, Miriam; Castro, Azucena; Falcon-Perez, Juan M

    2017-02-15

    Hepatocytes are involved in the endogenous and drug metabolism; many of the enzymes involved in those processes are incorporated into extracellular vesicles and secreted into the bloodstream. Liver-damaging conditions modify the molecular cargo of those vesicles significantly. However, no information about the effect of these hepatic vesicles on the extracellular environment is available. Drug-induced liver damage increases the number of circulating extracellular vesicles and affects the release and content of hepatocyte-derived vesicles. In this work, we evaluated the metabolic effect of these vesicles on the composition of the serum. We performed a targeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) metabolomics analysis of serum samples. The samples had been first incubated with hepatic extracellular vesicles from hepatocytes challenged with acetaminophen or diclofenac. The incubation affected the serum levels of 67 metabolites, such as amino acids and different species of lipids. The metabolites included various species of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines. These compounds are the components of biological membranes; our observations suggest that the vesicles might take part in remodelling and maintenance of the membranes. Alterations in the levels of some other serum metabolites might have deleterious consequences, for example, the tetracosanoic acid with its cardiovascular effects. However, some of the metabolites whose levels were increased, including alpha-linoleic and tauroursodeoxycholic acids, have been reported to have a protective effect. Our targeted metabolomics analysis indicated that the hepatic extracellular vesicles act as nano-metabolic machines supplying the extracellular environment with the means to integrate diverse tissue responses. In conclusion, we show that the hepatic extracellular vesicles are metabolically active and might play a role in the physiopathological response to hepatic insults

  15. Paeoniflorin exerts a nephroprotective effect on concanavalin A-induced damage through inhibition of macrophage infiltration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Cheng, Zhuoan; Wang, Yunman; Dai, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jie; Xue, Dongying

    2015-07-25

    It is well established that macrophage infiltration is involved in concanavalin A (conA)-induced liver injury. However, the role of macrophages in conA-induced renal injury remains unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate macrophage infiltration in conA-induced renal injury and determine whether paeoniflorin (PF) could inhibit macrophage infiltration into the kidney. BALB/C mice were pre-treated with or without PF 2 h (h) before conA injection. At 8 h after con A injection, all the mice were sacrificed; The liver and kidney histology were studied. The renal CD68 expression was detected by immunohistochemical and real-time PCR analysis. The level of expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 (CXCR3) was analyzed by western blot, immunohistochemical and real-time PCR. The pathophysiological involvement of CXCR3 in macrophage infiltration were investigated using dual-colour immunofluorescence microscopy. PF administration significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and the severity of liver and renal damage compared with that in the conA-vehicle group. PF administration inhibited the increase in renal IL1β mRNA expression and concentration. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis showed that macrophages secreted CXCR3 in the kidneys of the conA-vehicle mice. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated CXCR3 bound tightly to C-X-C motif ligand 11 (CXCL11) in the kidneys of the conA-vehicle mice and showed that PF treatment could suppress CXCR3/CXCL11 over-activation. Macrophage infiltration was a notable pathological change in the kidneys of conA-treated mice. PF administration attenuated conA-induced renal damage, at least in part, by inhibiting the over-activated CXCR3/CXCL11 signal axis.

  16. Type I Interferon Supports Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Murine Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes and during Experimental Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Malte; Waibler, Zoe; Pleli, Thomas; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Cytokine regulation of high-output nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is critically involved in inflammation biology and host defense. Herein, we set out to characterize the role of type I interferon (IFN) as potential regulator of hepatic iNOS in vitro and in vivo. In this regard, we identified in murine Hepa1-6 hepatoma cells a potent synergism between pro-inflammatory interleukin-β/tumor necrosis factor-α and immunoregulatory IFNβ as detected by analysis of iNOS expression and nitrite release. Upregulation of iNOS by IFNβ coincided with enhanced binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 to a regulatory region at the murine iNOS promoter known to support target gene expression in response to this signaling pathway. Synergistic iNOS induction under the influence of IFNβ was confirmed in alternate murine Hepa56.1D hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes. To assess iNOS regulation by type I IFN in vivo, murine acetaminophen (APAP)-induced sterile liver inflammation was investigated. In this model of acute liver injury, excessive necroinflammation drives iNOS expression in diverse liver cell types, among others hepatocytes. Herein, we demonstrate impaired iNOS expression in type I IFN receptor-deficient mice which associated with diminished APAP-induced liver damage. Data presented indicate a vital role of type I IFN within the inflamed liver for fine-tuning pathological processes such as overt iNOS expression. PMID:28824623

  17. Hepatocyte Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Treyer, Aleksandr; Müsch, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocytes, like other epithelia, are situated at the interface between the organism’s exterior and the underlying internal milieu and organize the vectorial exchange of macromolecules between these two spaces. To mediate this function, epithelial cells, including hepatocytes, are polarized with distinct luminal domains that are separated by tight junctions from lateral domains engaged in cell-cell adhesion and from basal domains that interact with the underlying extracellular matrix. Despite these universal principles, hepatocytes distinguish themselves from other nonstriated epithelia by their multipolar organization. Each hepatocyte participates in multiple, narrow lumina, the bile canaliculi, and has multiple basal surfaces that face the endothelial lining. Hepatocytes also differ in the mechanism of luminal protein trafficking from other epithelia studied. They lack polarized protein secretion to the luminal domain and target single-spanning and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored bile canalicular membrane proteins via transcytosis from the basolateral domain. We compare this unique hepatic polarity phenotype with that of the more common columnar epithelial organization and review our current knowledge of the signaling mechanisms and the organization of polarized protein trafficking that govern the establishment and maintenance of hepatic polarity. The serine/threonine kinase LKB1, which is activated by the bile acid taurocholate and, in turn, activates adenosine monophosphate kinase-related kinases including AMPK1/2 and Par1 paralogues has emerged as a key determinant of hepatic polarity. We propose that the absence of a hepatocyte basal lamina and differences in cell-cell adhesion signaling that determine the positioning of tight junctions are two crucial determinants for the distinct hepatic and columnar polarity phenotypes. PMID:23720287

  18. Protective effect of Cordyceps militaris extract against bisphenol A induced reproductive damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Zhihui; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) against reproductive damage induced by bisphenol A (BPA). Rats were administrated 200 mg/kg BPA for 4 weeks and treated with C. militaris (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight/day). By the end of the fourth week, the level of oxidative damage, sperm parameters, hormone levels, and histopathological changes were examined. In the group that only received BPA, there was a significant decrease in body weight compared with the normal control (NC) group. C. militaris significantly alleviated the BPA-induced reproductive damage by increasing testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and glutathione (GSH); as well as by reducing serum malondialdehyde (MDA). C. militaris not only obviously enhanced the levels of serum LH and T, but it also improved the sperm count and motility compared to the BPA-treated group. These results suggest that C. militaris could be used as a potential natural substance for preventing BPA induced reproductive damage. Abbreviations BPA: bisphenol A; SOD: superoxide dismutase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; ROS: reactive oxygen species; T: testosterone; LH: luteinizing hormone; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone; UPLC: ultra performance liquid chromatography; RIA: radioimmunoassay; q quantitative real time PCR; NC: normal control group; BPA: 200 mg/kg BPA administered group; H: 800 mg/kg C. militaris extract administered group; LB, MB, and HB: 200 mg/kg BPA + 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg C. militaris administered group, respectively; VeB: 200 mg/kg BPA + 300 mg/kg Vitamin E administered group; Star: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 3β-HSD: 3beta-hydroxyl-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase; CYP11A1: cytochrome P 450 family 11 subfamily A member 1; CYP17A1: cytochrome P 450 family 17 subfamily A member 1.

  19. Active chemical fractions of stem bark extract of Khaya grandifoliola C.DC and Entada africana Guill. et Perr. synergistically protect primary rat hepatocytes against paracetamol-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Njayou, Frédéric Nico; Kouam, Arnaud Fondjo; Simo, Brice Fredy Nemg; Tchana, Angèle Nkouatchoua; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

    2016-07-07

    Khaya grandifoliola (Meliaceae) and Entada africana (Fabaceae) are traditionally used in Bamun (a western tribe of Cameroon) traditional medicine for the treatment of liver related diseases. In this study, the synergistic hepatoprotective effect of respective active fractions of the plants were investigated against paracetamol-induced toxicity in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Paracetamol conferred hepatocyte toxicity, as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) content assays. The crude extracts were fractionated by flash chromatography and fractions were tested for hepato-(protective and curative) activities. The most active fractions of both plants were tested individually, and in combination based on their respective half effective concentration (EC50). The methylene chloride/methanol fractions of K. grandifoliola (75:25 v/v) (KgF25) and E. africana (90:10 v/v) (EaF10) were found to be the most hepato-protective with EC50 values of 10.30 ± 1.66 μg/ml and 13.47 ± 2.06 μg/ml respectively, comparable with that of silymarin (13.71 ± 3.87 μg/ml). These fractions and their combination significantly (P <0.05) improved cell viability, inhibited ALT leakage and MDA formation, and restored cellular CAT, SOD activities and GSH content. The combination was more effective in restoring biochemical parameters with coefficients of drugs interaction (CDI) less than 1. These findings demonstrate that the active fractions have synergistic action in the protection of rat hepatocytes against paracetamol-induced damage and suggest that their hepatoprotective properties may be maximized by using them in combination.

  20. Withaferin A Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis and DNA Damage in Oral Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Li, Ruei-Nian; Wang, Hui-Ru; Liu, Jing-Ru; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Chan, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is one of the most active steroidal lactones with reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulating effects against several types of cancer. ROS regulation involves selective killing. However, the anticancer and selective killing effects of WFA against oral cancer cells remain unclear. We evaluated whether the killing ability of WFA is selective, and we explored its mechanism against oral cancer cells. An MTS tetrazolium cell proliferation assay confirmed that WFA selectively killed two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) rather than normal oral cells (HGF-1). WFA also induced apoptosis of Ca9-22 cells, which was measured by flow cytometry for subG1 percentage, annexin V expression, and pan-caspase activity, as well as western blotting for caspases 1, 8, and 9 activations. Flow cytometry analysis shows that WFA-treated Ca9-22 oral cancer cells induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and phosphorylated histone H2A.X (γH2AX)-based DNA damage. Moreover, pretreating Ca9-22 cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) rescued WFA-induced selective killing, apoptosis, G2/M arrest, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. We conclude that WFA induced oxidative stress-mediated selective killing of oral cancer cells. PMID:28936177

  1. Survival Advantage of Both Human Hepatocyte Xenografts and Genome-Edited Hepatocytes for Treatment of α-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Borel, Florie; Tang, Qiushi; Gernoux, Gwladys; Greer, Cynthia; Wang, Ziqiong; Barzel, Adi; Kay, Mark A; Shultz, Leonard D; Greiner, Dale L; Flotte, Terence R; Brehm, Michael A; Mueller, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Hepatocytes represent an important target for gene therapy and editing of single-gene disorders. In α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, one missense mutation results in impaired secretion of AAT. In most patients, lung damage occurs due to a lack of AAT-mediated protection of lung elastin from neutrophil elastase. In some patients, accumulation of misfolded PiZ mutant AAT protein triggers hepatocyte injury, leading to inflammation and cirrhosis. We hypothesized that correcting the Z mutant defect in hepatocytes would confer a selective advantage for repopulation of hepatocytes within an intact liver. A human PiZ allele was crossed onto an immune-deficient (NSG) strain to create a recipient strain (NSG-PiZ) for human hepatocyte xenotransplantation. Results indicate that NSG-PiZ recipients support heightened engraftment of normal human primary hepatocytes as compared with NSG recipients. This model can therefore be used to test hepatocyte cell therapies for AATD, but more broadly it serves as a simple, highly reproducible liver xenograft model. Finally, a promoterless adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector, expressing a wild-type AAT and a synthetic miRNA to silence the endogenous allele, was integrated into the albumin locus. This gene-editing approach leads to a selective advantage of edited hepatocytes, by silencing the mutant protein and augmenting normal AAT production, and improvement of the liver pathology. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alginate Microencapsulated Hepatocytes Optimised for Transplantation in Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Jitraruch, Suttiruk; Dhawan, Anil; Hughes, Robin D.; Filippi, Celine; Soong, Daniel; Philippeos, Christina; Lehec, Sharon C.; Heaton, Nigel D.; Longhi, Maria S.; Mitry, Ragai R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Intraperitoneal transplantation of alginate-microencapsulated human hepatocytes is an attractive option for the management of acute liver failure (ALF) providing short-term support to allow native liver regeneration. The main aim of this study was to establish an optimised protocol for production of alginate-encapsulated human hepatocytes and evaluate their suitability for clinical use. Methods Human hepatocyte microbeads (HMBs) were prepared using sterile GMP grade materials. We determined physical stability, cell viability, and hepatocyte metabolic function of HMBs using different polymerisation times and cell densities. The immune activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after co-culture with HMBs was studied. Rats with ALF induced by galactosamine were transplanted intraperitoneally with rat hepatocyte microbeads (RMBs) produced using a similar optimised protocol. Survival rate and biochemical profiles were determined. Retrieved microbeads were evaluated for morphology and functionality. Results The optimised HMBs were of uniform size (583.5±3.3 µm) and mechanically stable using 15 min polymerisation time compared to 10 min and 20 min (p<0.001). 3D confocal microscopy images demonstrated that hepatocytes with similar cell viability were evenly distributed within HMBs. Cell density of 3.5×106 cells/ml provided the highest viability. HMBs incubated in human ascitic fluid showed better cell viability and function than controls. There was no significant activation of PBMCs co-cultured with empty or hepatocyte microbeads, compared to PBMCs alone. Intraperitoneal transplantation of RMBs was safe and significantly improved the severity of liver damage compared to control groups (empty microbeads and medium alone; p<0.01). Retrieved RMBs were intact and free of immune cell adherence and contained viable hepatocytes with preserved function. Conclusion An optimised protocol to produce GMP grade alginate-encapsulated human hepatocytes

  3. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    López-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Domínguez, Mayrel; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U.; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María-Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol. PMID:26788255

  4. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    López-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Domínguez, Mayrel; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María-Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.

  5. Cyclosporine A-induced apoptosis in renal tubular cells is related to oxidative damage and mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    de Arriba, Gabriel; Calvino, Miryam; Benito, Selma; Parra, Trinidad

    2013-03-27

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) nephrotoxicity has been linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in renal cells. We have demonstrated that the antioxidant Vitamin E (Vit E) abolished renal toxicity in vivo and in vitro models. As one of the main sources of intracellular ROS are mitochondria, we studied the effects of CsA on several mitochondrial functions in LLC-PK1 cells. CsA induced ROS synthesis and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH). The drug decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and induced physiological modifications in both the inner (IMM) and the outer mitochondrial membranes (OMM). In the IMM, CsA provoked mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTP) and cytochrome c was liberated into the intermembrane space. CsA also induced pore formation in the OMM, allowing that intermembrane space contents can reach cytosol. Furthermore, CsA altered the mitochondrial dynamics, inducing an increase in mitochondrial fission; CsA increased the expression of dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) that contributes to mitochondrial fission, and decreased the expression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy protein 1 (Opa1), proteins involved in the fusion process. All these phenomena were related to apoptosis. These effects were inhibited when cells were treated with the antioxidant Vit E suggesting that they were mediated by the synthesis of ROS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Arctigenin protects against ultraviolet-A-induced damage to stemness through inhibition of the NF-κB/MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, See-Hyoung; Cho, Jae Youl; Oh, Sae Woong; Kang, Mingyeong; Lee, Seung Eun; Yoo, Ju Ah; Jung, Kwangseon; Lee, Jienny; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Jongsung

    2018-02-25

    The stemness of stem cells is negatively affected by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation. This study was performed to examine the effects of arctigenin on UVA-irradiation-induced damage to the stemness of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from adipose tissue. The mechanisms of action of arctigenin were also investigated. A BrdU-incorporation assay demonstrated that arctigenin attenuated the UVA-induced reduction of the cellular proliferative potential. Arctigenin also increased the UVA-induced reduction in stemness of hMSCs by upregulating stemness-related genes such as SOX2, OCT4, and NANOG. In addition, the UVA-induced reduction in the mRNA expression level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly recovered by arctigenin. The antagonizing effect of arctigenin on UVA irradiation was mediated by reduced PGE 2 production through the inhibition of MAPKs (p42/44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and JNK) and NF-κB. Overall, these findings suggest that arctigenin can ameliorate the reduced stemness of hMSCs induced by UVA irradiation. The effects of arctigenin are mediated by PGE 2 -cAMP signaling-dependent upregulation of HIF-1α. Therefore, arctigenin could be used as an antagonist to attenuate the effects of UVA irradiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo N-acetyl cysteine reduce hepatocyte death by induced acetaminophen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Ju; Li, Feng-Chieh; Wang, Sheng-Shun; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2011-07-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is the famous drug in global, and taking overdose Acetaminophen will intake hepatic cell injure. Desptie substantial progress in our understanding of the mechanism of hepatocellular injury during the last 40 years, many aspects of the pathophysiology are still unknown or controversial.1 In this study, mice are injected APAP overdose to damage hepatocyte. APAP deplete glutathione and ATP of cell, N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) plays an important role to protect hepatocytes be injury. N-Acetyl Cysteine provides mitochondrial to produce glutathione to release drug effect hepatocyte. By 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (6-CFDA) metabolism in vivo, glutathione keep depleting to observe the hepatocyte morphology in time. Without NAC, cell necrosis increase to plasma membrane damage to release 6-CFDA, that's rupture. After 6-CFDA injection, fluorescence will be retained in hepatocyte. For cell retain with NAC and without NAC are almost the same. With NAC, the number of cell rupture decreases about 75%.

  8. Effect of Fasciola hepatica proteins on the functioning of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Smaga-Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Kotomski, Grzegorz; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2012-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a hepatic parasitic infection that affects many mammal species and creates a great economic and veterinary problem. Molecular mechanisms of parasite-hepatocyte interactions have not been precisely characterized yet. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate alterations in the metabolic activity of rat liver cells exposed to Fasciola hepatica somatic proteins. Hepatocytes were incubated with 0-1 mg/ml of fluke's somatic proteins for various periods of time. Afterward, changes in hepatocytes metabolic activity were determined with MTT and enzyme leakage tests. Hepatocytes' capacity to synthesize albumin was also investigated. It was observed that protein concentration, as well as longevity of their action, influenced metabolic activity of rat liver cells. Diminution of hepatocytes survival rate, an increase in enzyme leakage and altered synthetic capacity after treatment with parasite's proteins were reported. It is concluded that somatic proteins of F. hepatica may play an important role in liver cell damaging.

  9. Three Dimensional Primary Hepatocyte Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoffe, Boris

    1998-01-01

    Our results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of culturing PHH in microgravity bioreactors that exceeded the longest period obtained using other methods. Within the first week of culture, isolated hepatocytes started to form aggregates, which continuously increased in size (up to 1 cm) and macroscopically appeared as a multidimensional tissue-like assembly. To improve oxygenation and nutrition within the spheroids we performed experiments with the biodegradable nonwoven fiber-based polymers made from PolyGlycolic Acid (PGA). It has been shown that PGA scaffolds stimulate isolated cells to regenerate tissue with defined sizes and shapes and are currently being studied for various tissue-engineering applications. Our data demonstrated that culturing hepatocytes in the presence of PGA scaffolds resulted in more efficient cell assembly and formations of larger cell spheroids (up to 3 cm in length, see figure). The histology of cell aggregates cultured with PGA showed polymer fibers with attached hepatocytes. We initiated experiments to co-culture primary human hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells in the bioreactor. The presence of endothelial cells in co-cultures were established by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 monoclonal Ab. Our preliminary data demonstrated that cultures of purified hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells exhibited better growth and expressed higher levels of albumin MRNA for a longer period of time than cultures of ppfified, primary human hepatocytes cultured alone. We also evaluated microsomal deethylation activity of hepatocytes cultured in the presence of endothelial cells.In summary, we have established liver cell culture, which mimicked the structure and function of the parent tissue.

  10. Resveratrol Inhibited Hydroquinone-Induced Cytotoxicity in Mouse Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Hong; Ootsuki, Yoshie; Fujita, Hirofumi; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Yie, Qinxia; Tsutsui, Ken; Sano, Kuniaki; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Ogino, Keiki

    2012-01-01

    Hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol) has been widely used in clinical situations and the cosmetic industry because of its depigmenting effects. Most skin-lightening hydroquinone creams contain 4%–5% hydroquinone. We have investigated the role of resveratrol in prevention of hydroquinone induced cytotoxicity in mouse primary hepatocytes. We found that 400 µM hydroquinone exposure alone induced apoptosis of the cells and also resulted in a significant drop of cell viability compared with the control, and pretreatment of resveratrol to a final concentration of 0.5 mM 1 h before hydroquinone exposure did not show a significant improvement in the survival rate of the hepatocytes, however, relatively higher concentrations of resveratrol (≥1 mM) inhibited apoptosis of the mouse primary hepatocytes and increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and in particular the survival rate of the hepatocytes was recovered from 28% to near 100% by 5 mM resveratrol. Interestingly, pretreatment with resveratrol for longer time (24 h), even in very low concentrations (50 µM, 100 µM), blocked the damage of hydroquinone to the cells. We also observed that resveratrol pretreatment suppressed hydroquinone-induced expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA dose-dependently. The present study suggests that resveratrol protected the cells against hydroquinone-induced toxicity through its antioxidant function and possibly suppressive effect on the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1. PMID:23202692

  11. Resveratrol inhibited hydroquinone-induced cytotoxicity in mouse primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Hong; Ootsuki, Yoshie; Fujita, Hirofumi; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Yie, Qinxia; Tsutsui, Ken; Sano, Kuniaki; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Ogino, Keiki

    2012-09-19

    Hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol) has been widely used in clinical situations and the cosmetic industry because of its depigmenting effects. Most skin-lightening hydroquinone creams contain 4%-5% hydroquinone. We have investigated the role of resveratrol in prevention of hydroquinone induced cytotoxicity in mouse primary hepatocytes. We found that 400 µM hydroquinone exposure alone induced apoptosis of the cells and also resulted in a significant drop of cell viability compared with the control, and pretreatment of resveratrol to a final concentration of 0.5 mM 1 h before hydroquinone exposure did not show a significant improvement in the survival rate of the hepatocytes, however, relatively higher concentrations of resveratrol (≥1 mM) inhibited apoptosis of the mouse primary hepatocytes and increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and in particular the survival rate of the hepatocytes was recovered from 28% to near 100% by 5 mM resveratrol. Interestingly, pretreatment with resveratrol for longer time (24 h), even in very low concentrations (50 µM, 100 µM), blocked the damage of hydroquinone to the cells. We also observed that resveratrol pretreatment suppressed hydroquinone-induced expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA dose-dependently. The present study suggests that resveratrol protected the cells against hydroquinone-induced toxicity through its antioxidant function and possibly suppressive effect on the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1.

  12. Hepatocyte growth factor protects hepatocytes against oxidative injury induced by ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Arzate, Argelia; Luna, Armando; Bucio, Leticia; Licona, Cynthia; Clemens, Dahn L; Souza, Verónica; Hernandez, Elizabeth; Kershenobich, David; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique

    2009-08-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is involved in many cellular responses, such as mitogenesis and apoptosis protection; however, its effect against oxidative injury induced by ethanol metabolism is not well understood. The aim of this work was to address the mechanism of HGF-induced protection against ethanol-generated oxidative stress damage in the human cell line VL-17A (cytochrome P450 2E1/alcohol dehydrogenase-transfected HepG2 cells). Cells were pretreated with 50 ng/ml HGF for 12 h and then treated with 100 mM ethanol for 0-48 h. Some parameters of oxidative damage were evaluated. We found that ethanol induced peroxide formation (3.3-fold) and oxidative damage as judged by lipid peroxidation (5.4-fold). Damage was prevented by HGF. To address the mechanisms of HGF-induced protection we investigated the cellular antioxidant system. We found that HGF increased the GSH/GSSG ratio, as well as SOD1, catalase, and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression. To explore the signaling pathways involved in this process, VL-17A cells were pretreated with inhibitors against PI3K, Akt, and NF-kappaB. We found that all treatments decreased the expression of the antioxidant enzymes, thus abrogating the HGF-induced protection against oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate that HGF protects cells from the oxidative damage induced by ethanol metabolism by a mechanism driven by NF-kappaB and PI3K/Akt signaling.

  13. Human hepatocyte depletion in the presence of HIV-1 infection in dual reconstituted humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weimin; Cheng, Yan; Makarov, Edward; Ganesan, Murali; Gebhart, Catherine L.; Gorantla, Santhi; Osna, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection impairs liver function, and liver diseases have become a leading cause of morbidity in infected patients. The immunopathology of liver damage caused by HIV-1 remains unclear. We used chimeric mice dually reconstituted with a human immune system and hepatocytes to address the relevance of the model to pathobiology questions related to human hepatocyte survival in the presence of systemic infection. TK-NOG males were transplanted with mismatched human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and hepatocytes, human albumin concentration and the presence of human immune cells in blood were monitored for hepatocytes and immune reconstitution, and mice were infected with HIV-1. HIV-1-infected animals showed a decline in human albumin concentration with a significant reduction in percentage of human hepatocytes compared to uninfected mice. The decrease in human albumin levels correlated with a decline in CD4+ cells in the liver and with an increase in HIV-1 viral load. HIV-1 infection elicited proinflammatory response in the immunological milieu of the liver in HIV-infected mice compared to uninfected animals, as determined by upregulation of IL23, CXCL10 and multiple toll-like receptor expression. The inflammatory reaction associated with HIV-1 infection in vivo could contribute to the depletion and dysfunction of hepatocytes. The dual reconstituted TK-NOG mouse model is a feasible platform to investigate hepatocyte-related HIV-1 immunopathogenesis. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. PMID:29361613

  14. Progenitor cell expansion and impaired hepatocyte regeneration in explanted livers from alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dubuquoy, Laurent; Louvet, Alexandre; Lassailly, Guillaume; Truant, Stéphanie; Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Artru, Florent; Maggiotto, François; Gantier, Emilie; Buob, David; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Cannesson, Amélie; Dharancy, Sébastien; Moreno, Christophe; Pruvot, François-René; Bataller, Ramon; Mathurin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Objective In alcoholic hepatitis (AH), development of targeted therapies is crucial and requires improved knowledge of cellular and molecular drivers in liver dysfunction. The unique opportunity of using explanted livers from patients with AH having undergone salvage liver transplantation allowed to perform more in-depth molecular translational studies. Design We studied liver explants from patients with AH submitted to salvage transplantation (n=16), from patients with alcoholic cirrhosis without AH (n=12) and fragments of normal livers (n=16). Hepatic cytokine content was quantified. Hepatocyte function and proliferation and the presence of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blot or quantitative PCR. Mitochondrial morphology was evaluated by electron microscopy. Results Livers from patients with AH showed decreased cytokine levels involved in liver regeneration (tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin-6), as well as a virtual absence of markers of hepatocyte proliferation compared with alcoholic cirrhosis and normal livers. Electron microscopy revealed obvious mitochondrial abnormalities in AH hepatocytes. Importantly, livers from patients with AH showed substantial accumulation of HPCs that, unexpectedly, differentiate only into biliary cells. AH livers predominantly express laminin (extracellular matrix protein favouring cholangiocyte differentiation); consequently, HPC expansion is inefficient at yielding mature hepatocytes. Conclusions AH not responding to medical therapy is associated with lack of expression of cytokines involved in liver regeneration and profound mitochondrial damage along with lack of proliferative hepatocytes. Expansion of HPCs is inefficient to yield mature hepatocytes. Manoeuvres aimed at promoting differentiation of HPCs into mature hepatocytes should be tested in AH. PMID:25731872

  15. Development of scaffold architectures and heterotypic cell systems for hepatocyte transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzebdeh, Dalia Abdelrahim

    In vitro assembly of functional liver tissue is needed to enable the transplantation of tissue-engineered livers. In addition, there is an increasing demand for in vitro models that replicate complex events occurring in the liver. However, tissue engineering of sizable implantable liver systems is currently limited by the difficulty of assembling three dimensional hepatocyte cultures of a useful size, while maintaining full cell viability, an issue which is closely related to the high metabolic rate of hepatocytes. In this study, we first compared two designs of highly porous chitosan-heparin scaffolds seeded with hepatocytes in dynamic perfusion bioreactor systems. The aim was to promote cell seeding efficiency by effectively entrapping 100 million hepatocytes at high density. We found that scaffolds with radially tapering pore architecture had highly efficient cell entrapment that maximized donor hepatocyte utilization, compared to alternate pore structures. Hepatocytes showed higher seeding efficiency and metabolic function when seeded as single cell suspensions as opposed to pre-formed, 100microm aggregates. Seeding efficiency was found to increase with flow rate, with single cell and aggregate suspension exhibiting different optimal flow rates. However, metabolic performance results indicated significant shear damage to cells at high efficiency flow rates. To better maintain hepatocyte basement membrane and cell polarity, spheroid co-cultures with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were investigated. Hepatocytes and MSCs were seeded in three different architectures in an effort to optimize the spatial arrangement of the two cell types. MSC co-culture greatly enhanced hepatocyte metabolic function in agitated cultures. Interestingly, the effects of diffusion limitations in spheroid culture, coupled with shear damage and subsequent removal of outer hepatocyte layers produced a defined oscillation of urea production rates in certain co-culture arrangements. A

  16. The ultrastructural characteristics of porcine hepatocytes donated after cardiac death and preserved with warm machine perfusion preservation.

    PubMed

    Bochimoto, Hiroki; Matsuno, Naoto; Ishihara, Yo; Shonaka, Tatsuya; Koga, Daisuke; Hira, Yoshiki; Nishikawa, Yuji; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of warm machine perfusion preservation of liver grafts donated after cardiac death on the intracellular three-dimensional ultrastructure of the organelles in hepatocytes remain unclear. Here we analyzed comparatively the ultrastructure of the endomembrane systems in porcine hepatocytes under warm ischemia and successive hypothermic and midthermic machine perfusion preservation, a type of the warm machine perfusion. Porcine liver grafts which had a warm ischemia time of 60 minutes were perfused for 4 hours with modified University of Wisconsin gluconate solution. Group A grafts were preserved with hypothermic machine perfusion preservation at 8°C constantly for 4 hours. Group B grafts were preserved with rewarming up to 22°C by warm machine perfusion preservation for 4 hours. An analysis of hepatocytes after 60 minutes of warm ischemia by scanning electron microscope revealed the appearance of abnormal vacuoles and invagination of mitochondria. In the hepatocytes preserved by subsequent hypothermic machine perfusion preservation, strongly swollen mitochondria were observed. In contrast, the warm machine perfusion preservation could preserve the functional appearance of mitochondria in hepatocytes. Furthermore, abundant vacuoles and membranous structures sequestrating cellular organelles like autophagic vacuoles were frequently observed in hepatocytes after warm machine perfusion preservation. In conclusion, the ultrastructure of the endomembrane systems in the hepatocytes of liver grafts changed in accordance with the temperature conditions of machine perfusion preservation. In addition, temperature condition of the machine perfusion preservation may also affect the condition of the hepatic graft attributed to autophagy systems, and consequently alleviate the damage of the hepatocytes.

  17. Curcumin attenuates insulin resistance in hepatocytes by inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu-Guang; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhen-Xiong; Wang, Jing-Jie; Wang, Xv-Xia; Qin, Ming; Wen, Qin-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    NF-E2-Related Factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the cellular protection against oxidative stress. Curcumin has been reported to induce Nrf2 nuclear translocation and upregulate the expression of numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying and antioxidant genes in hepatocytes. This study was designed to investigate whether curcumin-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation could reduce ROS-mediated insulin resistance in cultured LO2 hepatocytes. Human LO2 hepatocytes were incubated with curcumine and glucose oxidase (GO) in the presence/absence of wortmannin (a phosphatidyinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor), oxidative stress, cellular damage, Nrf2 nuclear translocation and insulin resistance were measured. GO exposure significantly increased intracellular ROS, glutathione (GSH) depletion, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and increased activities of cellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as causing insulin resistance. Curcumin pretreatment significantly attenuated these disturbances in intracellular ROS, liver enzyme activity and significantly antagonized the lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion and insulin resistance induced by GO in LO2 hepatocytes. These effects paralleled Nrf2 nuclear translocation induced by curcumin. Wortmannin partially blocked curcumin-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation. In addition, wortmannin prevented curcumin-induced improvements in intracellular ROS, MDA formation, GSH depletion, liver enzyme activity and insulin resistance in cultured LO2 hepatocytes. These findings suggest that curcumin could reduce ROS-mediated insulin resistance in hepatocytes, at least in part through nuclear translocation of Nrf2.

  18. Manganese influences the expression of fatty acid synthase and malic enzyme in cultured primary chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Meiling; Liao, Xiudong; Zhang, Liyang; Luo, Xugang

    2017-12-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of Mn source and concentration on the mRNA expression and enzymatic activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) in cultured primary broiler hepatocytes. In Expt 1, primary broiler hepatocytes were treated with 0 (control), 0·25, 0·50 or 0·75 mmol/l of Mn as inorganic manganese chloride (MnCl2.4H2O) for 24 and 48 h. In Expt 2, primary broiler hepatocytes were incubated with 0 (control), 0·25 or 0·50 mmol/l of Mn as either manganese chloride or Mn-amino acid chelate for 48 h. The mRNA levels and activities of FAS and ME in the hepatocytes were measured in Expts 1 and 2. The results in Expt 1 showed that only at 48 h mRNA expression levels of FAS and ME in the hepatocytes decreased linearly (P0·33) on any of the measured cellular parameters. The results suggested that Mn might reduce cell damage and regulate FAS and ME expression at a transcriptional level in primary cultured broiler hepatocytes.

  19. [Influence of electroporation on the biological activities of primary rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Yao, Y; Zhang, D; Luo, Y; Zhang, D; Huang, A; Zhou, W; Ren, H

    2001-06-01

    To investigate the influence of electroporation on the biological activities of primary rat hepatocyte and to optimize the electroporation conditions introducing foreign genes into hepatocytes. A single-pulse procedure was performed at low voltage (220-400 V) but high capacitance (500-950 microF). Its influence on hepatocyte activities was detected by Trypan blue exclusion (TBE) and MTT analysis. Besides, ALB, ALT and LDH in the supernatants of hepatocytes were tested by biochemical assay. Little hepatocyte damage and high survival rate (>90%) was found from 36 hours till 9th day of culture. At 36th hour after electroporation, ALB, ALT and LDH in the supernatants of Group B (220V, 950 microF) and C (400 V, 950 microF) were higher than those of control group. Whereas TBE and MTT analysis failed to indicate the significant difference of cell viability between electroporation groups and control group. This electroporation procedure is one of the optimal choices to introduce foreign genes into primary rat hepatocytes.

  20. Ectopic expression of H2AX protein promotes TrkA-induced cell death via modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Deok Ryong, E-mail: drkim@gnu.ac.kr

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We established TrkA-inducible U2OS cells stably expressing GFP-H2AX proteins. {yields} GFP-H2AX was colocalized with TrkA in the cytoplasm. {yields} {gamma}H2AX production was significantly increased upon activation of TrkA and suppressed by TrkA inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. {yields} Ectopic expression of H2AX promoted TrkA-mediated cell death through the modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage. -- Abstract: We previously reported that TrkA overexpression causes accumulation of {gamma}H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, subsequently leading to massive cell death in U2OS cells. To further investigate how cytoplasmic H2AX is associated with TrkA-induced cell death, we establishedmore » TrkA-inducible cells stably expressing GFP-tagged H2AX. We found that TrkA co-localizes with ectopically expressed GFP-H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, especially at the juxta-nuclear membranes, which supports our previous results about a functional connection between TrkA and {gamma}H2AX in TrkA-induced cell death. {gamma}H2AX production from GFP-H2AX proteins was significantly increased when TrkA was overexpressed. Moreover, ectopic expression of H2AX activated TrkA-mediated signal pathways via up-regulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation. In addition, suppression of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation under a certain condition was removed by ectopic expression of H2AX, indicating a functional role of H2AX in the maintenance of TrkA activity. Indeed, TrkA-induced cell death was highly elevated by ectopic H2AX expression, and it was further accelerated by DNA damage via JNK activation. These all results suggest that cytoplasmic H2AX could play an important role in TrkA-mediated cell death by modulating TrkA upon DNA damage.« less

  1. Merging bioreactor technology with 3D hepatocyte-fibroblast culturing approaches: Improved in vitro models for toxicological applications.

    PubMed

    Leite, Sofia B; Teixeira, Ana P; Miranda, Joana P; Tostões, Rui M; Clemente, João J; Sousa, Marcos F; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2011-06-01

    During the last years an increasing number of in vitro models have been developed for drug screening and toxicity testing. Primary cultures of hepatocytes are, by far, the model of choice for those high-throughput studies but their spontaneous dedifferentiation after some time in culture hinders long-term studies. Thus, novel cell culture systems allowing extended hepatocyte maintenance and more predictive long term in vitro studies are required. It has been shown that hepatocytes functionality can be improved and extended in time when cultured as 3D-cell aggregates in environmental controlled stirred bioreactors. In this work, aiming at further improving hepatocytes functionality in such 3D cellular structures, co-cultures with fibroblasts were performed. An inoculum concentration of 1.2×10(5) cell/mL and a 1:2 hepatocyte:mouse embryonic fibroblast ratio allowed to improve significantly the albumin secretion rate and both ECOD (phase I) and UGT (phase II) enzymatic activities in 3D co-cultures, as compared to the routinely used 2D hepatocyte monocultures. Significant improvements were also observed in relation to 3D monocultures of hepatocytes. Furthermore, hepatocytes were able to respond to the addition of beta-Naphtoflavone by increasing ECOD activity showing CYP1A inducibility. The dependence of CYP activity on oxygen concentration was also observed. In summary, the improved hepatocyte specific functions during long term incubation of 3D co-cultures of hepatocytes with fibroblasts indicate that this system is a promising in vitro model for long term toxicological studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ER stress induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death.

    PubMed

    Lebeaupin, C; Proics, E; de Bieville, C H D; Rousseau, D; Bonnafous, S; Patouraux, S; Adam, G; Lavallard, V J; Rovere, C; Le Thuc, O; Saint-Paul, M C; Anty, R; Schneck, A S; Iannelli, A; Gugenheim, J; Tran, A; Gual, P; Bailly-Maitre, B

    2015-09-10

    The incidence of chronic liver disease is constantly increasing, owing to the obesity epidemic. However, the causes and mechanisms of inflammation-mediated liver damage remain poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an initiator of cell death and inflammatory mechanisms. Although obesity induces ER stress, the interplay between hepatic ER stress, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death signaling has not yet been explored during the etiology of chronic liver diseases. Steatosis is a common disorder affecting obese patients; moreover, 25% of these patients develop steatohepatitis with an inherent risk for progression to hepatocarcinoma. Increased plasma LPS levels have been detected in the serum of patients with steatohepatitis. We hypothesized that, as a consequence of increased plasma LPS, ER stress could be induced and lead to NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death associated with steatohepatitis progression. In livers from obese mice, administration of LPS or tunicamycin results in IRE1α and PERK activation, leading to the overexpression of CHOP. This, in turn, activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, subsequently initiating hepatocyte pyroptosis (caspase-1, -11, interleukin-1β secretion) and apoptosis (caspase-3, BH3-only proteins). In contrast, the LPS challenge is blocked by the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA, resulting in: CHOP downregulation, reduced caspase-1, caspase-11, caspase-3 activities, lowered interleukin-1β secretion and rescue from cell death. The central role of CHOP in mediating the activation of proinflammatory caspases and cell death was characterized by performing knockdown experiments in primary mouse hepatocytes. Finally, the analysis of human steatohepatitis liver biopsies showed a correlation between the upregulation of inflammasome and ER stress markers, as well as liver injury. We demonstrate here that ER stress leads to hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome pyroptotic death, thus contributing as a novel mechanism of

  3. Cryopreservation of Hepatocyte Microbeads for Clinical Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jitraruch, Suttiruk; Hughes, Robin D.; Filippi, Celine; Lehec, Sharon C.; Glover, Leanne; Mitry, Ragai R.

    2017-01-01

    Intraperitoneal transplantation of hepatocyte microbeads is an attractive option for the management of acute liver failure. Encapsulation of hepatocytes in alginate microbeads supports their function and prevents immune attack of the cells. Establishment of banked cryopreserved hepatocyte microbeads is important for emergency use. The aim of this study was to develop an optimized protocol for cryopreservation of hepatocyte microbeads for clinical transplantation using modified freezing solutions. Four freezing solutions with potential for clinical application were investigated. Human and rat hepatocytes cryopreserved with University of Wisconsin (UW)/10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/5% (300 mM) glucose and CryoStor CS10 showed better postthawing cell viability, attachment, and hepatocyte functions than with histidine–tryptophan–ketoglutarate/10% DMSO/5% glucose and Bambanker. The 2 freezing solutions that gave better results were studied with human and rat hepatocytes microbeads. Similar effects on cryopreserved microbead morphology (external and ultrastructural), viability, and hepatocyte-functions post thawing were observed over 7 d in culture. UW/DMSO/glucose, as a basal freezing medium, was used to investigate the additional effects of cytoprotectants: a pan-caspase inhibitor (benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-dl-Asp-fluoromethylketone [ZVAD]), an antioxidant (desferoxamine [DFO]), and a buffering and mechanical protectant (human serum albumin [HSA]) on RMBs. ZVAD (60 µM) had a beneficial effect on cell viability that was greater than with DFO (1 mM), HSA (2%), and basal freezing medium alone. Improvements in the ultrastructure of encapsulated hepatocytes and a lower degree of cell apoptosis were observed with all 3 cytoprotectants, with ZVAD tending to provide the greatest effect. Cytochrome P450 activity was significantly higher in the 3 cytoprotectant groups than with fresh microbeads. In conclusion, developing an optimized cryopreservation protocol by adding

  4. The American Cockroach Peptide Periplanetasin-2 BlocksClostridium DifficileToxin A-Induced Cell Damage and Inflammation in the Gut.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Yoon, I Na; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kang, Jin Ku; Kim, Ho

    2017-04-28

    Clostridium difficile , which causes pseudomembranous colitis, releases toxin A and toxin B. These toxins are considered to be the main causative agents for the disease pathogenesis, and their expression is associated with a marked increase of apoptosis in mucosal epithelial cells. Colonic epithelial cells are believed to form a physical barrier between the lumen and the submucosa, and abnormally increased mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis is considered to be an initial step in gut inflammation responses. Therefore, one approach to treating pseudomembranous colitis would be to develop agents that block the mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis caused by toxin A, thus restoring barrier function and curing inflammatory responses in the gut. We recently isolated an antimicrobial peptide, Periplanetasin-2 (Peri-2, YPCKLNLKLGKVPFH) from the American cockroach, whose extracts have shown great potential for clinical use. Here, we assessed whether Peri-2 could inhibit the cell toxicity and inflammation caused by C. difficile toxin A. Indeed, in human colonocyte HT29 cells, Peri-2 inhibited the toxin A-induced decrease in cell proliferation and ameliorated the cell apoptosis induced by this toxin. Moreover, in the toxin A-induced mouse enteritis model, Peri-2 blocked the mucosal disruption and inflammatory response caused by toxin A. These results suggest that the American cockroach peptide Peri-2 could be a possible drug candidate for addressing the pseudomembranous colitis caused by C. difficile toxin A.

  5. Progressive induction of hepatocyte progenitor cells in chronically injured liver

    PubMed Central

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Nishikawa, Yuji; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated epithelial cells show substantial lineage plasticity upon severe tissue injuries. In chronically injured mouse livers, part of hepatocytes become Sry-HMG box containing 9 (Sox9) (+) epithelial cell adhesion molecule (−) hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (+) biphenotypic hepatocytes. However, it is not clear whether all Sox9+ hepatocytes uniformly possess cellular properties as hepatocyte progenitors. Here, we examined the microarray data comparing Sox9+ hepatocytes with mature hepatocytes and identified CD24 as a novel marker for biphenotypic hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that part of Sox9+ hepatocytes near expanded ductular structures expressed CD24 in the liver injured by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-collidine (DDC) diet and by bile duct ligation. Indeed, Sox9+ hepatocytes could be separated into CD24− and CD24+ cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting. The ratio of CD24+ cells against CD24− ones in Sox9+ hepatocytes gradually increased while DDC-injury progressed and colony-forming capability mostly attributed to CD24+ cells. Although hepatocyte markers were remarkably downregulated in of Sox9+ CD24+ hepatocytes, they re-differentiated into mature hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Our current results demonstrate that the emergence of biphenotypic hepatocytes is a sequential event including the transition from CD24− and CD24+ status, which may be a crucial step for hepatocytes to acquire progenitor properties. PMID:28051157

  6. Exosomes derived from alcohol-treated hepatocytes horizontally transfer liver specific miRNA-122 and sensitize monocytes to LPS

    PubMed Central

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Bala, Shashi; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte damage and inflammation in monocytes/macrophages are central to the pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate all of these processes. MiRNA-122 is abundantly expressed in hepatocytes while monocytes/macrophages have low levels. The role of exosomes in AH and possible cross talk between hepatocyte-derived exosomes and immune cells is not explored yet. Here, we show that the number of exosomes significantly increases in the sera of healthy individuals after alcohol binge drinking and in mice after binge or chronic alcohol consumption. Exosomes isolated from sera after alcohol consumption or from in vitro ethanol-treated hepatocytes contained miRNA-122. Exosomes derived from ethanol-treated Huh7.5 cells were taken up by the recipients THP1 monocytes and horizontally transferred a mature form of liver-specific miRNA-122. In vivo, liver mononuclear cells and Kupffer cells from alcohol-fed mice had increased miRNA-122 levels. In monocytes, miRNA-122 transferred via exosomes inhibited the HO-1 pathway and sensitized to LPS stimulation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, inflammatory effects of exosomes from ethanol-treated hepatocytes were prevented by using RNA interference via exosome-mediated delivery of a miRNA-122 inhibitor. These results demonstrate that first, exosomes mediate communication between hepatocytes and monocytes/macrophages and second, hepatocyte-derived miRNA-122 can reprogram monocytes inducing sensitization to LPS. PMID:25973575

  7. Generation of human hepatocytes by stem cell technology: definition of the hepatocyte.

    PubMed

    Hengstler, Jan G; Brulport, Marc; Schormann, Wiebke; Bauer, Alexander; Hermes, Matthias; Nussler, Andreas K; Fandrich, Fred; Ruhnke, Maren; Ungefroren, Hendrik; Griffin, Louise; Bockamp, Ernesto; Oesch, Franz; von Mach, Marc-Alexander

    2005-06-01

    Since 1999, numerous articles have reported the generation of hepatocytes from different types of extrahepatic stem or precursor cells. This opens exciting new possibilities for pharmacology and toxicology, as well as for cell therapy. Hepatocyte marker expression, including albumin, cytokeratin 18, c-met, alpha-fetoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4 and -2B6, has been observed after transplantation of different types of human stem cells into the liver of laboratory animals or in vitro after incubation with cytokines. These intriguing observations have prompted scientists to classify stem cell-derived cell populations as hepatocytes. However, this conclusion may be premature. It has been shown that factors of the liver microenvironment can induce expression of a limited number of hepatocyte marker genes in nonhepatic cell types. To conclude on the grounds of a limited number of markers that these cells are true hepatocytes is not indicated. In this case one should carefully evaluate crucial hepatocyte-defining enzymatic properties. The present article: i) reviews studies describing the fate of extrahepatic human stem and precursor cells in livers of laboratory animals, including the possibility of cell fusion; and ii) critically discusses the phenotype of stem cells after application of various differentiation protocols aimed at generating human hepatocytes. In addition, the necessary criteria needed for defining a true hepatocyte are suggested. Establishing the necessary properties for stem cell-derived hepatocytes is timely and reasonable, and thus avoids further misleading semantic confusion. Finally, it is essential to understand that the definition of a bona fide hepatocyte should not be limited to qualitative assays, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, but has to include a quantitative analysis of enzymatic activities, which allows direct comparison with primary hepatocytes. Although the stem cell-derived-hepatocyte

  8. Macrophage activation by factors released from acetaminophen-injured hepatocytes: Potential role of HMGB1

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu

    2011-06-15

    Toxic doses of acetaminophen (AA) cause hepatocellular necrosis. Evidence suggests that activated macrophages contribute to the pathogenic process; however, the factors that activate these cells are unknown. In these studies, we assessed the role of mediators released from AA-injured hepatocytes in macrophage activation. Treatment of macrophages with conditioned medium (CM) collected 24 hr after treatment of mouse hepatocytes with 5 mM AA (CM-AA) resulted in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Macrophage expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and catalase mRNA was also upregulated by CM-AA, as well as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and 12/15-lipoxygenase (LOX). CM-AA also upregulated expression of themore » proinflammatory chemokines, MIP-1{alpha} and MIP-2. The effects of CM-AA on expression of COX-2, MIP-1{alpha} and MIP-2 were inhibited by blockade of p44/42 MAP kinase, suggesting a biochemical mechanism mediating macrophage activation. Hepatocytes injured by AA were found to release HMGB1, a potent macrophage activator. This was inhibited by pretreatment of hepatocytes with ethyl pyruvate (EP), which blocks HMGB1 release. EP also blocked CM-AA induced ROS production and antioxidant expression, and reduced expression of COX-2, but not MIP-1{alpha} or MIP-2. These findings suggest that HMGB1 released by AA-injured hepatocytes contributes to macrophage activation. This is supported by our observation that expression of the HMGB1 receptor RAGE is upregulated in macrophages in response to CM-AA. These data indicate that AA-injured hepatocytes contribute to the inflammatory environment in the liver through the release of mediators such as HMGB1. Blocking HMGB1/RAGE may be a useful approach to limiting classical macrophage activation and AA-induced hepatotoxicity. - Research Highlights: > These studies analyze macrophage activation by mediators released from acetaminophen-damaged hepatocytes. > Factors released from acetaminophen-injured hepatocytes induce

  9. Hepatocyte Turnover in Chronic HCV-Induced Liver Injury and Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Karidis, Nikolaos P; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may eventually lead to progressive liver fibrosis and cirrhosis through a complex, multistep process involving hepatocyte death and regeneration. Despite common pathogenetic pathways present in all forms of liver cirrhosis irrespective of etiology, hepatocyte turnover and related molecular events in HCV-induced cirrhosis are increasingly being distinguished from even "similar" causes, such as hepatitis B virus- (HBV-) related cirrhosis. New insights in HCV-induced hepatocellular injury, differential gene expression, and regenerative pathways have recently revealed a different pattern of progression to irreversible parenchymal liver damage. A shift to the significant role of the host immune response rather than the direct effect of HCV on hepatocytes and the imbalance between antiapoptotic and proapoptotic signals have been investigated in several studies but need to be further elucidated. The present review aims to comprehensively summarize the current evidence on HCV-induced hepatocellular turnover with a view to outline the significant trends of ongoing research.

  10. Mechanisms and clinical implications of hepatocyte lipoapoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Cazanave, Sophie C; Gores, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by insulin resistance, elevated serum levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) and fatty infiltration of the liver. Accumulation of triglycerides in the hepatocyte results from the uptake and esterification of circulating FFAs by the liver. Contrary to current theory, hepatic steatosis appears to be a detoxification process, as FFAs are directly cytotoxic for the hepatocyte and inhibition of triglyceride formation enhances FFAs toxicity. Hepatocyte apoptosis is a key feature of NAFLD and correlates with disease severity. Since FFA-induced toxicity, or lipoapoptosis, represents a mechanism for the pathogenesis of NAFLD, this article will highlight the cellular pathways contributing to hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. To date, there is no proven effective therapy for patients with NAFLD and insights into the molecular mediators of lipoapoptosis should help promote effective therapeutic strategies for this disease. PMID:20368747

  11. Cold storage of rat hepatocyte spheroids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongling; Yu, Yue; Glorioso, Jaime; Mao, Shennen; Rodysil, Brian; Amiot, Bruce P; Rinaldo, Piero; Nyberg, Scott L

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based therapies for liver disease rely on a high-quality supply of hepatocytes and a means for storage during transportation from site of isolation to site of usage. Unfortunately, frozen cryopreservation is associated with unacceptable loss of hepatocyte viability after thawing. The purpose of this study was to optimize conditions for cold storage of rat hepatocyte spheroids without freezing. Rat hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step perfusion method; hepatocyte spheroids were formed during 48 h of rocked culture in serum-free medium (SFM). Spheroids were then maintained in rocked culture at 37 °C (control condition) or cold stored at 4 °C for 24 or 48 h in six different cold storage solutions: SFM alone; SFM + 1 mM deferoxamine (Def); SFM + 1 μM cyclosporin A (CsA); SFM + 1 mM Def + 1 μM CsA, University of Wisconsin (UW) solution alone, UW + 1 mM Def. Performance metrics after cold storage included viability, gene expression, albumin production, and functional activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes and urea cycle proteins. We observed that cold-induced injury was reduced significantly by the addition of the iron chelator (Def) to both SFM and UW solution. Performance metrics (ammonia detoxification, albumin production) of rat hepatocyte spheroids stored in SFM + Def for 24 h were significantly increased from SFM alone and approached those in control conditions, while performance metrics after cold storage in SFM alone or cold storage for 48 h were both significantly reduced. A serum-free medium supplemented with Def allowed hepatocyte spheroids to tolerate 24 h of cold storage with less than 10% loss in viability and functionality. Further research is warranted to optimize a solution for extended cold storage of hepatocyte spheroids.

  12. Reducing Hepatocyte Injury and Necrosis in Response to Paracetamol Using Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Szkolnicka, Dagmara; Lucendo-Villarin, Baltasar; Moore, Joanna K.; Simpson, Kenneth J.; Forbes, Stuart J.

    2016-01-01

    The liver performs multiple functions within the human body. It is composed of numerous cell types, which play important roles in organ physiology. Our study centers on the major metabolic cell type of the liver, the hepatocyte, and its susceptibility to damage during drug overdose. In these studies, hepatocytes were generated from a renewable and genetically defined resource. In vitro-derived hepatocytes were extensively profiled and exposed to varying levels of paracetamol and plasma isolated from liver-failure patients, with a view to identifying noncoding microRNAs that could reduce drug- or serum-induced hepatotoxicity. We identified a novel anti-microRNA, which reduced paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity and glutathione depletion. Additionally, we identified a prosurvival role for anti-microRNA-324 following exposure to plasma collected from liver failure patients. We believe that these studies represent an important advance for the field, demonstrating the power of stem cell-derived systems to model human biology “in a dish” and identify novel noncoding microRNAs, which could be translated to the clinic in the future. Significance The liver performs vital functions within the human body and is composed of numerous cell types. The major metabolic cell type of the liver, the hepatocyte, is susceptible to damage during drug overdose. In these studies, hepatocytes were generated from a renewable resource and exposed to varying levels of paracetamol, with a view to identifying interventions that could reduce or attenuate drug-induced liver toxicity. A novel noncoding RNA that reduced paracetamol-induced hepatocyte toxicity was identified. These findings may represent an important advance for the field. PMID:27057006

  13. Upregulation of hemoglobin expression by oxidative stress in hepatocytes and its implication in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wensheng; Baker, Susan S; Baker, Robert D; Nowak, Norma J; Zhu, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that hemoglobin is expressed in some non-erythrocytes and it suppresses oxidative stress when overexpressed. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study was designed to investigate whether hemoglobin is expressed in hepatocytes and how it is related to oxidative stress in NASH patients. Analysis of microarray gene expression data revealed a significant increase in the expression of hemoglobin alpha (HBA1) and beta (HBB) in liver biopsies from NASH patients. Increased hemoglobin expression in NASH was validated by quantitative real time PCR. However, the expression of hematopoietic transcriptional factors and erythrocyte specific marker genes were not increased, indicating that increased hemoglobin expression in NASH was not from erythropoiesis, but could result from increased expression in hepatocytes. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated positive HBA1 and HBB expression in the hepatocytes of NASH livers. Hemoglobin expression was also observed in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Furthermore, treatment with hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative stress inducer, increased HBA1 and HBB expression in HepG2 and HEK293 cells. Importantly, hemoglobin overexpression suppressed oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. We concluded that hemoglobin is expressed by hepatocytes and oxidative stress upregulates its expression. Suppression of oxidative stress by hemoglobin could be a mechanism to protect hepatocytes from oxidative damage in NASH.

  14. In Vitro Toxicity of Epigallocatechin Gallate in Rat Liver Mitochondria and Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kucera, Otto; Mezera, Vojtech; Moravcova, Alena; Endlicher, Rene; Lotkova, Halka; Drahota, Zdenek; Cervinkova, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the main compound of green tea with well-described antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tumor-suppressing properties. However, EGCG at high doses was reported to cause liver injury. In this study, we evaluated the effect of EGCG on primary culture of rat hepatocytes and on rat liver mitochondria in permeabilized hepatocytes. The 24-hour incubation with EGCG in concentrations of 10 μmol/L and higher led to signs of cellular injury and to a decrease in hepatocyte functions. The effect of EGCG on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was biphasic. While low doses of EGCG decreased ROS production, the highest tested dose induced a significant increase in ROS formation. Furthermore, we observed a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential in cells exposed to EGCG when compared to control cells. In permeabilized hepatocytes, EGCG caused damage of the outer mitochondrial membrane and an uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. EGCG in concentrations lower than 10 μmol/L was recognized as safe for hepatocytes in vitro. PMID:25918582

  15. Wheat extracts as an efficient cryoprotective agent for primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Francine; Grondin, Mélanie; Denizeau, Francine; Averill-Bates, Diana A; Sarhan, Fathey

    2006-11-05

    Hepatocytes are an important physiological model for evaluation of metabolic and biological effects of xenobiotics. They do not proliferate in culture and are extremely sensitive to damage during freezing and thawing, even after the addition of classical cryoprotectants. Thus improved cryopreservation techniques are needed to reduce cell injury and functional impairment. Here, we describe a new and efficient cryopreservation method, which permits long-term storage and recovery of large quantities of healthy cells that maintain high hepatospecific functions. In culture, the morphology of hepatocytes cryopreserved with wheat protein extracts (WPE) was similar to that of fresh cells. Furthermore, hepatospecific functions such as albumin secretion and biotransformation of ammonium to urea were well maintained during 4 days in culture. Inductions of CYP1A1 and CYP2B in hepatocytes cryopreserved with WPEs were similar to those in fresh hepatocytes. These findings clearly show that WPEs are an excellent cryopreservant for primary hepatocytes. The extract was also found to cryopreserve other human and animal cell types such as lung carcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, Chinese hamster ovary transfected with TGF-b1 cDNA, cervical cancer taken from Henrietta Lacks, intestinal epithelium, and T cell leukemia. WPEs have potential as a universal cryopreservant agent of mammalian cells. It is an economic, efficient and non-toxic agent. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Abnormal lipid processing but normal long-term repopulation potential of myc-/- hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Lia R; Otero, P Anthony; Sharma, Lokendra; D'Souza, Sonia; Dolezal, James M; David, Sherin; Lu, Jie; Lamm, Lauren; Basantani, Mahesh; Zhang, Pili; Sipula, Ian J; Li, Lucy; Zeng, Xuemei; Ding, Ying; Ding, Fei; Beck, Megan E; Vockley, Jerry; Monga, Satdarshan P S; Kershaw, Erin E; O'Doherty, Robert M; Kratz, Lisa E; Yates, Nathan A; Goetzman, Eric P; Scott, Donald; Duncan, Andrew W; Prochownik, Edward V

    2016-05-24

    Establishing c-Myc's (Myc) role in liver regeneration has proven difficult particularly since the traditional model of partial hepatectomy may provoke an insufficiently demanding proliferative stress. We used a model of hereditary tyrosinemia whereby the affected parenchyma can be gradually replaced by transplanted hepatocytes, which replicate 50-100-fold, over several months. Prior to transplantation, livers from myc-/- (KO) mice were smaller in young animals and larger in older animals relative to myc+/+ (WT) counterparts. KO mice also consumed more oxygen, produced more CO2 and generated more heat. Although WT and KO hepatocytes showed few mitochondrial structural differences, the latter demonstrated defective electron transport chain function. RNAseq revealed differences in transcripts encoding ribosomal subunits, cytochrome p450 members and enzymes for triglyceride and sterol biosynthesis. KO hepatocytes also accumulated neutral lipids. WT and KO hepatocytes repopulated recipient tyrosinemic livers equally well although the latter were associated with a pro-inflammatory hepatic environment that correlated with worsening lipid accumulation, its extracellular deposition and parenchymal oxidative damage. Our results show Myc to be dispensable for sustained in vivo hepatocyte proliferation but necessary for maintaining normal lipid homeostasis. myc-/- livers resemble those encountered in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and, under sustained proliferative stress, gradually acquire the features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  17. Catechins: natural free-radical scavengers against ochratoxin A-induced cell damage in a pig kidney cell line (LLC-PK1).

    PubMed

    Costa, S; Utan, A; Cervellati, R; Speroni, E; Guerra, M C

    2007-10-01

    Besides aflatoxin B1, recent findings suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the toxicity of an other mycotoxin: ochratoxin A (OTA). The protective effect of two catechins (epigallocatechin gallate, EGCG, and epicatechin gallate, ECG) against OTA-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in a pig kidney cell line (LLC-PK1). The ability of the catechins to reduce ROS production and DNA fragmentation induced by OTA was also investigated. Our experiments proved the significant cytoprotective effects of the molecules in vitro from OTA-induced cell damage. In particular a 24h pre-treatment with EGCG or ECG restored cell viability with respect to OTA alone. Pre-treatment with EGCG at low concentration for 8 days protected cells from OTA-induced cell death. Moreover both catechins reduced OTA-induced ROS production. A reduction of OTA-induced DNA fragmentation was found for LLC-PK1 cells pre-treated with EGCG and ECG. The free-radical scavenging capacity of both catechins was tested with the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating method (pH approximately 2) and the TEAC assay (pH 7.4). The results show a good scavenging power according with inhibition of ROS production. Catechins could be useful to develop alimentary strategies for both humans and animals to prevent OTA-induced cytotoxicity.

  18. Evaluation of drug-metabolizing and functional competence of human hepatocytes incubated under hypothermia in different media for clinical infusion.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lechón, María José; Lahoz, Agustín; Jiménez, Nuria; Bonora, Ana; Castell, José V; Donato, María Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been proposed as a method to support patients with liver insufficiency. Key factors for clinical cell transplantation to progress is to prevent hepatocyte damage, loss of viability and cell functionality, factors that depend on the nature of the tissue used for isolation to a large extent. The main sources of tissue for hepatocyte isolation are marginal livers that are unsuitable for transplantation, and segments from reduced cadaveric grafts. Hepatocellular transplantation requires infusing human hepatocytes in suspension over a period of minutes to hours. The beneficial effect of hypothermic preservation of hepatocytes in infusion medium has been reported, but how critical issues towards the success of cell transplantation, such as the composition of infusion medium and duration of hepatocyte storage will affect hepatocyte quality for clinical cell infusion has not been systematically investigated. Infusion media composition is phosphate-buffered saline containing anticoagulants and human serum albumin. The supplementation of infusion media with glucose or N-acetyl-cystein, or with both components at the same time, has been investigated. After isolation, hepatocytes were suspended in each infusion medium and a sample at the 0 time point was harvested for cell viability and functional assessment. Thereafter, cells were incubated in different infusion media agitated on a rocker platform to simulate the clinical infusion technique. The time course of hepatocyte viability, funtionality (drug-metabolizing enzymes, ureogenic capability, ATP, glycogen, and GSH levels), apoptosis (caspase-3 activation), and attachment and monolayer formation were analyzed. The optimal preservation of cell viability, attaching capacity, and functionality, particularly GSH and glycogen levels, as well as drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes, was found in infusion media supplemented with 2 mM N-acetyl-cystein and 15 mM glucose.

  19. Microcystin-LR induced cellular effects in mammalian and fish primary hepatocyte cultures and cell lines: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Boaru, Daniela Alina; Dragoş, Nicolae; Schirmer, Kristin

    2006-02-01

    The impact of microcystin-LR, one of the most common cyanobacterial toxins, on liver and gut cells originating from mammals and fish was compared. Upon exposure of human and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cell lines up to 2.5 microM microcystin-LR, no alteration in cell viability was observed as assessed with three fluorescent indicators dyes, CFDA-AM, Alamar Blue and neutral red. The lack of sensitivity of the trout cell lines coincided with an absence of detectable mRNA levels of organic anion transporter polypeptide (OATP), which is implicated in the uptake of microcystin-LR. In contrast to the cell lines, primary rainbow trout and mouse hepatocytes showed damage to subcellular structures, particularly the lysosomes, as indicated by neutral red. This led us to propose a thus far undetected role of lysosomes as targets and mediators of microcystin-LR elicited cellular damage. An inhibitor of OATP, rifampicin, partly protected hepatocytes from this damage. Yet, the sensitivity of rainbow trout hepatocytes rapidly declined in culture, accompanied by decreasing levels of OATP mRNA. The sensitivity of mouse hepatocytes toward microcystin-LR also declined in culture but overall was about 25-fold greater than that of the trout cells. These differences mirror those observed in vivo and suggest the use hepatocytes for deciphering the species differences.

  20. Differentiation-Promoting Medium Additives for Hepatocyte Cultivation and Cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gouliarmou, Varvara; Pelkonen, Olavi; Coecke, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Isolated primary hepatocytes are considered as the reference system for in vitro hepatic methods. Following the isolation of primary hepatocytes from liver tissue, an unfavorable process named dedifferentiation is initiated leading to the attenuation of the hepatocellular phenotype both at the morphological and functional level. Freshly isolated hepatocytes can be used immediately or can be cryopreserved for future purposes. Currently, a number of antidedifferentiation strategies exist to extend the life span of isolated hepatocytes. The addition of differentiation-promoting compounds to the hepatocyte culture medium is the oldest and simplest antidedifferentiation approach applied. In the present chapter, the most commonly used medium additives for cultivation and cryopreservation of primary hepatocytes are reviewed.

  1. Accumulation of iron by primary rat hepatocytes in long-term culture: changes in nuclear shape mediated by non-transferrin-bound forms of iron.

    PubMed Central

    Cable, E. E.; Connor, J. R.; Isom, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    the total amount of ferritin. The deviation from circularity was the largest in FeSO4-treated hepatocytes, indicating that iron not properly incorporated into ferritin caused more cellular damage. We conclude that iron-loaded hepatocytes in long-term DMSO culture represent a flexible system for studying the effects of chronic iron loading on hepatocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:9502420

  2. The isolated hepatocyte preparation: 30 years on.

    PubMed

    Berry, M N; Phillips, J W

    2000-02-01

    A method for the preparation of intact rat hepatocytes in high yield was first described in 1969. The procedure involved digestion of hepatic tissue by perfusion of the liver with crude collagenase; later, purified collagenase without other enzymic additions was shown to be ineffective. Recently it has been discovered that the combination of purified collagenase plus elastase is superior to crude collagenase in that it consistently provides high yields of undamaged hepatocytes. The isolated hepatocyte preparation has proved particularly useful for the study of mechanisms responsible for long-range interactions within the cell. These can be studied over prolonged time courses and in the presence of graded concentrations of specific inhibitors. Studies of this kind have demonstrated a close relationship between cytoplasmic metabolic flows and mitochondrial forces and have also revealed that the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial free NAD-linked redox potentials are maintained by energy-dependent reactions.

  3. The ultrastructural characteristics of porcine hepatocytes donated after cardiac death and preserved with warm machine perfusion preservation

    PubMed Central

    Bochimoto, Hiroki; Ishihara, Yo; Shonaka, Tatsuya; Koga, Daisuke; Hira, Yoshiki; Nishikawa, Yuji; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of warm machine perfusion preservation of liver grafts donated after cardiac death on the intracellular three-dimensional ultrastructure of the organelles in hepatocytes remain unclear. Here we analyzed comparatively the ultrastructure of the endomembrane systems in porcine hepatocytes under warm ischemia and successive hypothermic and midthermic machine perfusion preservation, a type of the warm machine perfusion. Porcine liver grafts which had a warm ischemia time of 60 minutes were perfused for 4 hours with modified University of Wisconsin gluconate solution. Group A grafts were preserved with hypothermic machine perfusion preservation at 8°C constantly for 4 hours. Group B grafts were preserved with rewarming up to 22°C by warm machine perfusion preservation for 4 hours. An analysis of hepatocytes after 60 minutes of warm ischemia by scanning electron microscope revealed the appearance of abnormal vacuoles and invagination of mitochondria. In the hepatocytes preserved by subsequent hypothermic machine perfusion preservation, strongly swollen mitochondria were observed. In contrast, the warm machine perfusion preservation could preserve the functional appearance of mitochondria in hepatocytes. Furthermore, abundant vacuoles and membranous structures sequestrating cellular organelles like autophagic vacuoles were frequently observed in hepatocytes after warm machine perfusion preservation. In conclusion, the ultrastructure of the endomembrane systems in the hepatocytes of liver grafts changed in accordance with the temperature conditions of machine perfusion preservation. In addition, temperature condition of the machine perfusion preservation may also affect the condition of the hepatic graft attributed to autophagy systems, and consequently alleviate the damage of the hepatocytes. PMID:29023512

  4. Protective effects of melittin on transforming growth factor-{beta}1 injury to hepatocytes via anti-apoptotic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-10-15

    Melittin is a cationic, hemolytic peptide that is the main toxic component in the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Melittin has multiple effects, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory, in various cell types. However, the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of melittin have not been fully elucidated in hepatocytes. Apoptosis contributes to liver inflammation and fibrosis. Knowledge of the apoptotic mechanisms is important to develop new and effective therapies for treatment of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, liver cancer, and other liver diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. TGF-{beta}1-treated hepatocytesmore » were exposed to low doses (0.5 and 1 {mu}g/mL) and high dose (2 {mu}g/mL) of melittin. The low doses significantly protected these cells from DNA damage in TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptosis compared to the high dose. Also, melittin suppressed TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptotic activation of the Bcl-2 family and caspase family of proteins, which resulted in the inhibition of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These results demonstrate that TGF-{beta}1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis and that an optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects against TGF-{beta}1-induced injury to hepatocytes via the mitochondrial pathway. These results suggest that an optimal dose of melittin can serve to protect cells against TGF-{beta}1-mediated injury. - Highlights: > We investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on TGF-{beta}1-induced hepatocyte. > TGF-{beta}1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis. > TGF-{beta}1-treated hepatocytes were exposed to low doses and high dose of melittin. > Optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects to hepatocytes.« less

  5. Selective insulin resistance in hepatocyte senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Aravinthan, Aloysious; Challis, Benjamin; Shannon, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    Insulin resistance has been described in association with chronic liver disease for decades. Hepatocyte senescence has been demonstrated in chronic liver disease and as many as 80% of hepatocytes show a senescent phenotype in advanced liver disease. The aim of this study was to understand the role of hepatocyte senescence in the development of insulin resistance. Senescence was induced in HepG2 cells via oxidative stress. The insulin metabolic pathway was studied in control and senescent cells following insulin stimulation. GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied in HepG2 cells and human liver tissue. Further, GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied inmore » three independent chronic liver disease cohorts. Signalling impairment distal to Akt in phosphorylation of AS160 and FoxO1 was evident in senescent HepG2 cells. Persistent nuclear localisation of FoxO1 was demonstrated in senescent cells despite insulin stimulation. Increased GLUT4 and decreased GLUT2 expressions were evident in senescent cells, human cirrhotic liver tissue and publically available liver disease datasets. Changes in GLUT expressions were associated with a poor clinical prognosis. In conclusion, selective insulin resistance is evident in senescent HepG2 cells and changes in GLUT expressions can be used as surrogate markers of hepatocyte senescence. - Highlights: • Senescent hepatocytes demonstrate selective insulin resistance. • GLUT changes act as markers of hepatocyte senescence and have prognostic value. • Study offers insight into long noticed intimacy of cirrhosis and insulin resistance.« less

  6. Increased Production of Sonic Hedgehog by Ballooned Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rangwala, Fatima; Guy, Cynthia D.; Lu, Jiuyi; Suzuki, Ayako; Burchette, James L.; Abdelmalek, Manal F.; Chen, Wei; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2013-01-01

    Ballooned hepatocytes distinguish nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from steatosis. Such cells contain dilated endoplasmic reticulum and ubiquitin aggregates, characteristics of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Hepatocyte ballooning increases risk for fibrosis in NASH, suggesting ballooned hepatocytes release pro-fibrogenic factors. Hedgehog ligands function as pro-fibrogenic factors in liver diseases, but mechanisms for Hedgehog ligand production remain poorly understood. We evaluated the hypothesis that endoplasmic reticulum stress induces hepatocyte production of hedgehog ligands that provide paracrine pro-fibrogenic signals to neighboring cells. In livers from NASH patients, keratin 8/18 and ubiquitin staining demonstrated enlarged, keratin 8/18-negative/ubiquitin-positive hepatocytes (ballooned hepatocytes) that were positive for Sonic hedgehog. In order to model endoplasmic reticulum stress in vitro, primary mouse hepatocytes were treated with tunicamycin. Compared to vehicle, tunicamycin significantly increased Sonic hedgehog and Indian hedgehog expression. Furthermore, conditioned medium from tunicamycin-treated hepatocytes increased Gli-luciferase reporter activity 14-fold more than conditioned medium from vehicle-treated hepatocytes. Cyclopamine (hedgehog signaling inhibitor) abrogated the effect of conditioned medium from tunicamycin-treated hepatocytes, verifying that soluble hepatocyte-derived factors activate hedgehog signaling. Ballooned hepatocytes in NASH patients did not express the hedgehog target gene, Gli2, α-smooth muscle actin or vimentin but were surrounded by Gli2-positive stromal cells expressing these myofibroblast markers. Trichrome staining demonstrated accumulation of ballooned hepatocytes in areas of matrix deposition, and numbers of Sonic hedgehog-positive, hepatocytes correlated with degree of ballooning and fibrosis stage. Hepatocytes undergoing endoplasmic reticiulum stress generate hedgehog ligands which act as paracrine pro

  7. Regulation of adiponectin receptor 1 in human hepatocytes by agonists of nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeier, Markus; Weigert, Johanna; Schaeffler, Andreas

    2005-09-02

    The adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 have been identified to mediate the insulin-sensitizing effects of adiponectin. Although AdipoR2 was suggested to be the main receptor for this adipokine in hepatocytes, AdipoR1 protein is highly abundant in primary human hepatocytes and hepatocytic cell lines. Nuclear receptors are main regulators of lipid metabolism and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} and {gamma}, retinoid X receptor (RXR), and liver X receptor (LXR) by specific ligands may influence AdipoR1 abundance. AdipoR1 protein is neither altered by RXR or LXR agonists nor by pioglitazone. In contrast, fenofibric acid reduces AdipoR1 whereas hepatotoxic troglitazone upregulates AdipoR1more » protein in HepG2 cells. Taken together this work shows for the first time that AdipoR1 protein is expressed in human hepatocytes but that it is not a direct target gene of nuclear receptors. Elevated AdipoR1 induced by hepatotoxic troglitazone may indicate a role of this receptor in adiponectin-mediated beneficial effects in liver damage.« less

  8. Ammonia-induced energy disorders interfere with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiongye; Wang, Yanfang; Yu, Zujiang; Li, Duolu; Jia, Bin; Li, Jingjing; Guan, Kelei; Zhou, Yubing; Chen, Yanling; Kan, Quancheng

    2014-08-01

    Hyperammonemia and jaundice are the most common clinical symptoms of hepatic failure. Decreasing the level of ammonia in the blood is often accompanied by a reduction in bilirubin in patients with hepatic failure. Previous studies have shown that hyperammonemia can cause bilirubin metabolism disorders, however it is unclear exactly how hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the mechanism or mechanisms by which hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed in primary hepatocytes that had been exposed to ammonium chloride. Mitochondrial morphology and permeability were observed and analyzed, intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were determined and changes in the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism were analyzed after ammonia exposure. Hyperammonemia inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, damaged the mitochondria and hindered the TCA cycle in hepatocytes. This led to a reduction in energy synthesis, eventually affecting the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism, which then caused further problems with bilirubin metabolism. These effects were significant, but could be reversed with the addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This study demonstrates that ammonia can cause problems with bilirubin metabolism by interfering with energy synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Decreased Glucagon Receptors in Diabetic Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bhathena, Sam J.; Voyles, Nancy R.; Smith, Stewart; Recant, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous hyperglucagonemia on the specific binding of glucagon to hepatocyte receptors was studied, as was the response of cAMP to glucagon. In streptozotocin diabetic rats, blood glucose and plasma glucagon increased and plasma insulin decreased as compared with controls. Insulin treatment in diabetic rats restored blood glucose and plasma glucagon toward normal and elevated plasma insulin. Specific binding of 125I-glucagon to isolated hepatocytes (106 cells) decreased in diabetic rats (8.17±0.38%) compared to controls (14.05±0.87%) and was restored by insulin treatment (12.25±0.93%). Specific binding of 125I-insulin in controls was 7.30±10.16%; it increased in diabetic rats to 12.50±0.86%, and decreased in diabetic rats after insulin treatment (9.08±0.87%). Scatchard analysis and the competition plots of the data indicate that decreased glucagon binding and increased insulin binding in diabetes were due to change in the number of receptors rather than a change in their affinity. Hepatocyte cAMP response to glucagon (0.25-5.0 ng/ml) was almost abolished in diabetic rats and was restored with insulin treatment. Specific glucagon binding by hepatocytes from chronically hyperglucagonemic (glucagon injected) rats was decreased (P < 0.005) to 8.76±0.61% compared with controls (13.20±0.74%) and acutely hyperglucagonemic animals (13.53±1.33%). The decreased binding was associated with a 70% decrease in hepatocyte cAMP response to glucagon compared with a normal response in acutely hyperglucagonemic rats. These data appear to support the concept of receptor regulation by ambient hormone level. In both endogenous and exogenous hyperglucagonemia, however, there was a disproportionately large decrease in cAMP response to glucagon compared to the decrease in glucagon binding. PMID:207737

  10. Hypertrophy and unconventional cell division of hepatocytes underlie liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Ebato, Kazuki; Kato, Hidenori; Arakawa, Satoko; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2012-07-10

    The size of organs and tissues is basically determined by the number and size of their cells. However, little attention has been paid to this fundamental concept. The liver has a remarkable ability to regenerate after surgical resection (partial hepatectomy [PHx]), and hepatocytes account for about 80% of liver weight, so we investigate how the number and size of hepatocytes contribute to liver regeneration in mice. It has been generally accepted that hepatocytes undergo one or two rounds of cell division after 70% PHx. However, ploidy of hepatocytes is known to increase during regeneration, suggesting an unconventional cell cycle. We therefore examine cell cycle of hepatocytes in detail. By developing a method for genetic fate mapping and a high-throughput imaging system of individual hepatocytes, we show that cellular hypertrophy makes the first contribution to liver regeneration; i.e., regeneration after 30% PHx is achieved solely by hypertrophy without cell division, and hypertrophy precedes proliferation after 70% PHx. Proliferation and hypertrophy almost equally contribute to regeneration after 70% PHx. Furthermore, although most hepatocytes enter cell cycle after 70% PHx, not all hepatocytes undergo cell division. In addition, binuclear hepatocytes undergo reductive divisions to generate two mononuclear daughter hepatocytes in some cases. Our findings demonstrate the importance of hypertrophy and the unconventional cell division cycle of hepatocytes in regeneration, prompting a significant revision of the generally accepted model of liver regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Enhances Hepatitis C Virus Double-Stranded RNA Intermediates-Triggered Innate Immune Responses in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhong; Li, Jieliang; Wang, Xu; Peña, Juliet C; Li, Kui; Zhang, Ting; Ho, Wenzhe

    2016-02-16

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol component of green tea, has recently been identified as an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry. Here, we examined whether EGCG can enhance hepatocyte-mediated intracellular innate immunity against HCV. HCV dsRNAs (Core, E1-P7, NS-3'NTR and NS5A) induced interferon-λ1 (IFN-λ1) expression in human hepatocytes. These HCV dsRNAs also induced the expression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and several antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression. Although EGCG treatment of hepatocytes alone had little effect on TLR3 and RIG-I signaling pathways, EGCG significantly enhanced HCV dsRNAs-induced the expression of IFN-λ1, TLR3, RIG-I and antiviral ISGs in hepatocytes. Furthermore, treatment of HCV-infected hepatocytes with EGCG and HCV dsRNAs inhibited viral replication. Given that EGCG has the ability to enhance HCV dsRNAs-induced intracellular antiviral innate immunity against HCV, suggesting the potential application of EGCG as a new anti-HCV agent for HCV therapy.

  12. Hepatocyte Culture in Autologous Decellularized Spleen Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rui; Wu, Wanquan; Xiang, Junxi; Lv, Yi; Zheng, Xinglong; Chen, Qian; Wang, Haohua; Wang, Bo; Liu, Zhengwen; Ma, Feng

    2015-01-01

    abstract Background and Aims: Using decellularized scaffold to reengineer liver tissue is a promising alternative therapy for end-stage liver diseases. Though the decellularized human liver matrix is the ideal scaffold for reconstruction of the liver theoretically, the shortage of liver donors is still an obstacle for potential clinical application. Therefore, an appropriate alternative scaffold is needed. In the present study, we used a tissue engineering approach to prepare a rat decellularized spleen matrix (DSM) and evaluate the effectiveness of this DSM for primary rat hepatocytes culture. Methods: Rat decellularized spleen matrix (DSM) was prepared by perfusion of a series of detergents through spleen vasculature. DSM was characterized by residual DNA and specific extracellular matrix distribution. Thereafter, primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in the DSM in a 3-dimensional dynamic culture system, and liver cell survival and biological functions were evaluated by comparison with 3-dimensional sandwich culture and also with cultured in decellularized liver matrix (DLM). Results: Our research found that DSM did not exhibit any cellular components, but preserved the main extracellular matrix and the intact vasculature evaluated by DNA detection, histology, immunohistochemical staining, vessel corrosion cast and upright metallurgical microscope. Moreover, the method of DSM preparation procedure was relatively simple with high success rate (100%). After seeding primary hepatocytes in DSM, the cultured hepatocytes survived inside DSM with albumin synthesis and urea secretion within 10 d. Additionally, hepatocytes in dynamic culture medium had better biological functions at day 10 than that in sandwich culture. Albumin synthesis was 85.67 ± 6.34 μg/107cell/24h in dynamic culture in DSM compared to 62.43 ± 4.59 μg/107cell/24h in sandwich culture (P < 0.01) and to 87.54 ± 5.25 μg/107cell/24h in DLM culture (P > 0.05); urea release was 32.14 ± 8.62

  13. Primary human hepatocytes from metabolic-disordered children recreate highly differentiated liver-tissue-like spheroids on alginate scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bierwolf, Jeanette; Lutgehetmann, Marc; Deichmann, Steffen; Erbes, Johannes; Volz, Tassilo; Dandri, Maura; Cohen, Smadar; Nashan, Bjoern; Pollok, Joerg-Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Human hepatocyte transplantation has not been routinely established as an alternative to liver transplantation in liver disease due to low cell engraftment rates. Preimplantation in vitro engineering of liver tissue using primary human hepatocytes on three-dimensional scaffolds could be an alternative model. Alginate bioscaffolds were seeded with 1×10(6) hepatocytes freshly isolated from the livers of three children suffering from different metabolic disorders. During a culture period of 14 days only a marginal loss of hepatocytes was observed via measurement of DNA content per scaffold. Formation of hepatocyte spheroids was detected from day 3 onward using transmission light microscopy. Biochemical assays for albumin, α1-antitrypsin, and urea revealed excellent metabolic function with its maximum at day 7. Low lactate dehydrogenase enzyme release demonstrated minor cellular membrane damage. Hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff staining displayed high cell viability and well-preserved glycogen storage until day 7. Immunofluorescent staining of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, zonula occludens protein 1, and cytokeratin 18 revealed highly differentiated hepatocytes in spheroids with a tissue-like structure on scaffolds. Fluorescent labeling of cytochrome P450 and bile canaliculi demonstrated detoxification ability as well as a well-shaped bile canaliculi network. Almost constant expression levels in most target genes were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results of TUNEL reaction implicated a safe scaffold-dissolving procedure. Our results indicate that alginate scaffolds provide a favorable microenvironment for liver neo-tissue recreation and regeneration. Further, we demonstrate that livers from children with inherited metabolic disorders could serve as an alternative cell source for in vitro experiments.

  14. Protective effect of black garlic extracts on tert-Butyl hydroperoxide-induced injury in hepatocytes via a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ko-Chao; Teng, Chih-Chuan; Shen, Chien-Heng; Huang, Wen-Shih; Lu, Chien-Chang; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Tung, Shui-Yi

    2018-03-01

    Black garlic has been reported to show multiple bioactivities against the development of different diseases. In the present study, the hepatoprotective effect of black garlic on injured liver cells was investigated. Rat clone-9 hepatocytes were used for all experiments; tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) was used to induce injury of rat clone-9 hepatocytes. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH); anti-oxidative enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx); and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in rat clone-9 hepatocytes were determined to evaluate the level of cell damage. Black garlic extracts were demonstrated to significantly attenuate tBHP-induced cell death of rat clone-9 hepatocytes (P<0.05). Pretreatment with black garlic extracts antagonized GSH depletion, tBHP-increased MDA accumulation and the mRNA expression level of IL-6/IL-8, and tBHP-decreased antioxidative enzyme activities (all P<0.05). Moreover, the present study revealed that c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling regulated black garlic-inhibited tBHP effects in rat clone-9 hepatocytes. Our findings demonstrate that black garlic has the hepatoprotective potential to block tBHP-damaged effects on cell death, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and inflammation in rat clone-9 hepatocytes. Thus, the present study indicates that black garlic may be an excellent natural candidate in the development of adjuvant therapy and healthy foods for liver protection.

  15. Hepatocyte membrane injury and bleb formation following low dose comfrey toxicity in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, M. L.; Wakefield, S. J.; Ford, H. C.

    1993-01-01

    Comfrey, a popular herbal remedy, contains hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and has been implicated in recent human toxicity. Although alkaloids from other plant sources have been extensively researched, studies on the hepatotoxic effects of comfrey alkaloids are scant. The effects of high dose comfrey toxicity have been studied and the present investigation was undertaken to identify changes associated with relatively low dose toxicity. Eight young adult rats were dosed weekly for six weeks with 50 mg/kg of comfrey derived alkaloids. The animals were dissected one week after the last dose and the livers examined by light and electron microscopy. Changes at the light microscopic level showed vascular congestion, mild zone 3 necrosis and loss of definition of hepatocyte cellular membranes. Extensive ultrastructural abnormalities were identified in the form of endothelial sloughing and the loss of hepatocyte microvilli. A striking finding was florid bleb formation on the sinusoidal borders of hepatocytes. Many blebs were shed into the space of Disse and extruded to fill, and sometimes occlude, sinusoidal lumina. Platelets were frequently found in areas of bleb formation. There was evidence of late damage in collagenization of Disse's space. Hepatocyte bleb formation is known to occur under a variety of pathological conditions but there is little to no information in the literature on the effects, if any, of bleb formation on fibrogenesis and the microcirculation and its role in the pathogenesis of liver disease. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids of comfrey may serve as an experimental tool to study the process of bleb formation and the intimate relationship between hepatocyte and sinusoidal injury in the liver. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8499322

  16. Hepatocyte membrane injury and bleb formation following low dose comfrey toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yeong, M L; Wakefield, S J; Ford, H C

    1993-04-01

    Comfrey, a popular herbal remedy, contains hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and has been implicated in recent human toxicity. Although alkaloids from other plant sources have been extensively researched, studies on the hepatotoxic effects of comfrey alkaloids are scant. The effects of high dose comfrey toxicity have been studied and the present investigation was undertaken to identify changes associated with relatively low dose toxicity. Eight young adult rats were dosed weekly for six weeks with 50 mg/kg of comfrey derived alkaloids. The animals were dissected one week after the last dose and the livers examined by light and electron microscopy. Changes at the light microscopic level showed vascular congestion, mild zone 3 necrosis and loss of definition of hepatocyte cellular membranes. Extensive ultrastructural abnormalities were identified in the form of endothelial sloughing and the loss of hepatocyte microvilli. A striking finding was florid bleb formation on the sinusoidal borders of hepatocytes. Many blebs were shed into the space of Disse and extruded to fill, and sometimes occlude, sinusoidal lumina. Platelets were frequently found in areas of bleb formation. There was evidence of late damage in collagenization of Disse's space. Hepatocyte bleb formation is known to occur under a variety of pathological conditions but there is little to no information in the literature on the effects, if any, of bleb formation on fibrogenesis and the microcirculation and its role in the pathogenesis of liver disease. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids of comfrey may serve as an experimental tool to study the process of bleb formation and the intimate relationship between hepatocyte and sinusoidal injury in the liver.

  17. Conversion of pancreatic cells to hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tosh, David; Shen, Chia-Ning; Slack, Jonathan M W

    2002-04-01

    Transdifferentiation is the name used to describe the conversion of one differentiated cell type to another. During development, the liver and pancreas arise from the same region of the endoderm and cells from the two organs can transdifferentiate in the adult under different experimental procedures. We have produced two in vitro models for the transdifferentiation of pancreatic cells to hepatocytes. The first utilizes a pancreatic exocrine cell line AR42J-B13 and the second comprises cultures of mouse embryonic pancreas. We have analysed the pancreatic hepatocytes and they express a range of liver markers including albumin, transferrin and transthyretin. We also present evidence for (i) the molecular mechanism which regulates the conversion between pancreas and liver and (ii) the cellular basis of the switch in phenotype.

  18. Hepatocyte GP73 expression in Wilson disease

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Lorinda M.; Huster, Dominik; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Wrba, Fritz; Ferenci, Peter; Fimmel, Claus J.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Wilson disease (WD) is a disorder of copper transport caused by mutations within the ATP7B gene. WD is phenotypically variable and can present with predominantly hepatic or neurologic manifestations. The mechanisms responsible for this variability are unknown. GP73, a Golgi membrane protein, is expressed in hepatocytes in response to acute and chronic liver disease. Methods Hepatocyte GP73 expression was examined in the livers of WD patients by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry. GP73 mRNA levels were measured in mice with a deletion of the WD gene (Atp7b−/−) by real-time PCR, and these values were compared to the concomitant histological abnormalities and previously reported copper levels. Results Hepatocyte GP73 expression was more frequently observed in patients with hepatic versus neurologic presentation (79% vs. 30%, p<0.05). Furthermore, GP73 expression was significantly higher (44.7 ± 14.0 vs. 2.0 ± 0.81, p<0.05) in patients with hepatic phenotype. In Atp7b−/− mice, GP73 mRNA was significantly elevated at 20–46 weeks of age, coincident with extensive hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, but not at six weeks, when hepatic histology was normal despite significant copper overload. GP73 mRNA levels normalized concomitantly with the resolution of hepatic injury at 60-weeks, however in tumor-like nodules GP73 was strikingly elevated. Conclusion Increased hepatocyte GP73 expression is more commonly a feature of hepatic than neurologic WD, and is triggered in response to inflammation, fibrosis, and dysplasia, rather than copper overload. PMID:19596473

  19. Ethanol Suppresses Ureagenesis in Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L.; Czerny, Christoph; Beeson, Craig C.; Lemasters, John J.

    2012-01-01

    We proposed previously that closure of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) in the mitochondrial outer membrane after ethanol exposure leads to suppression of mitochondrial metabolite exchange. Because ureagenesis requires extensive mitochondrial metabolite exchange, we characterized the effect of ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde (AcAld), on total and ureagenic respiration in cultured rat hepatocytes. Ureagenic substrates increased cellular respiration from 15.8 ± 0.9 nmol O2/min/106 cells (base line) to 29.4 ± 1.7 nmol O2/min/106 cells in about 30 min. Ethanol (0–200 mm) suppressed extra respiration after ureagenic substrates (ureagenic respiration) by up to 51% but not base line respiration. Urea formation also declined proportionately. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase, cytochrome P450 2E1, and catalase with 4-methylpyrazole, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, and 3-amino-1,2,3-triazole restored ethanol-suppressed ureagenic respiration by 46, 37, and 66%, respectively. By contrast, inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase with phenethyl isothiocyanate increased the inhibitory effect of ethanol on ureagenic respiration by an additional 60%. AcAld, an intermediate product of ethanol oxidation, suppressed ureagenic respiration with an apparent IC50 of 125 μm. AcAld also inhibited entry of 3-kDa rhodamine-conjugated dextran in the mitochondrial intermembrane space of digitonin-permeabilized hepatocytes, indicative of VDAC closure. In conclusion, AcAld, derived from ethanol metabolism, suppresses ureagenesis in hepatocytes mediated by closure of VDAC. PMID:22228763

  20. Primary hepatocyte culture in collagen gel mixture and collagen sandwich.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Jie; Liu, Hong-Ling; Guo, Hai-Tao; Wen, Hong-Wei; Liu, Jun

    2004-03-01

    To explore the methods of hepatocytes culture in a collagen gel mixture or between double layers of collagen sandwich configuration and to examine the functional and cytomorphological characteristics of cultured hepatocytes. A two-step collagenase perfusion technique was used to isolate the hepatocytes from Wistar rats or newborn Chinese experimental piglets. The isolated hepatocytes were cultured in a collagen gel mixture or between double layers of collagen sandwich configuration respectively. The former was that rat hepatocytes were mixed with type I rat tail collagen solution till gelled, and the medium was added onto the gel. The latter was that swine hepatocytes were seeded on a plate precoated with collagen gel for 24 h, then another layer of collagen gel was overlaid, resulting in a sandwich configuration. The cytomorphological characteristics, albumin secretion, and LDH-release of the hepatocytes cultured in these two models were examined. Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were successfully mixed and fixed in collagen gel, and cultured in the gel condition. During the culture period, the urea synthesized and secreted by rat hepatocytes was detected throughout the period. Likewise, newborn experimental piglet hepatocytes were successfully fixed between the double layers of collagen gel, forming a sandwich configuration. Within a week of culture, the albumin secreted by swine hepatocytes was detected by SDS/PAGE analysis. The typical cytomorphological characteristics of the hepatocytes cultured by the above two culture models were found under a phase-contrast microscope. There was little LDH-release during the culture period. Both collagen gel mixture and double layers of collagen sandwich configuration can provide cultural conditions much closer to in vivo environment, and are helpful for maintaining specific hepatic functions and cytomorphological characteristics. A collagen gel mixture culture may be more eligible for the study of bioartificial livers.

  1. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase from isolated hepatocytes and Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Wincek, T J; Hupka, A L; Sweat, F W

    1975-11-25

    Hepatocytes and Kupffer cells were separated from rat liver after prelabeling the Kupffer cells with colloidal iron and perfusion of the liver with digestive enzymes. The activity of several enzymes from Kupffer cells and hepatocytes was compared to validate this method of cell separation. The ratios of hepatocyte to Kupffer cell specific activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase, adenylate cyclase, and acid phosphatase were 20, 0.39, 0.18, and 0.078, respectively. Adenylate cyclases from hepatocytes and Kupffer cells were stimulated by fluoride ion, GTP, and catecholamines. Hepatocyte adenylate cyclase was also stimulated by glucagon, secretin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and by prostaglandin E1, whereas, the Kupffer cell enzyme was completely insensitive to these hormones. The stimulation of hepatocyte adenylate cyclase by combinations of glucagon plus secretin, or glucagon plus vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, were equivalent to the sum of the individual stimulations. This suggests that the hepatocyte has specific receptors for glucagon and for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and secretin. Prostaglandin E1 stimulation of hepatocyte adenylate cyclase was not additive to the stimulation caused by polypeptide hormones or catecholamines, nor did prostaglandin E1 decrease stimulation caused by these hormones. Although prostaglandin-sensitive adenylate cyclase was recovered with hepatocytes, 40 to 50% of the total liver prostaglandin-sensitive activity was recovered in a fraction of cell debris mixed with small cells which did not phagocytize colloidal iron.

  2. Bromodomain and Extraterminal (BET) Proteins Regulate Hepatocyte Proliferation in Hepatocyte-Driven Liver Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jacquelyn O; Ko, Sungjin; Saggi, Harvinder S; Singh, Sucha; Poddar, Minakshi; Shin, Donghun; Monga, Satdarshan P

    2018-03-12

    Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins recruit key components of basic transcriptional machinery to promote gene expression. Aberrant expression and mutations in BET genes have been identified in many malignancies. Small molecule inhibitors of BET proteins like JQ1 have shown efficacy in preclinical cancer models including affecting growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. BET proteins also regulate cell proliferation in nontumor settings. We recently showed that BET proteins regulate cholangiocyte-driven liver regeneration. Here, we studied the role of BET proteins in hepatocyte-driven liver regeneration in partial hepatectomy (PHx) and acetaminophen-induced liver injury models in mice and zebrafish. JQ1 was injected 2 or 16 hours post-PHx in mice to determine effect on hepatic injury, regeneration and signaling. Mice treated with JQ1 after PHx displayed increased liver injury and a near-complete inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation. Levels of Ccnd1 mRNA and Cyclin D1 protein were reduced in 16-hour post-PHx JQ1-injected animals, and even further reduced in 2 hours post-PHx JQ1-injected mice. JQ1-treated zebrafish larvae after acetaminophen-induced injury also displayed notably impaired hepatocyte proliferation. In both models, Wnt signaling was prominently suppressed by JQ1. Our results show that BET proteins regulate hepatocyte proliferation-driven liver regeneration, and Wnt signaling is particularly sensitive to BET protein inhibition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. MicroRNA-122: A Novel Hepatocyte-Enriched in vitro Marker of Drug-Induced Cellular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kia, Richard; Kelly, Lorna; Sison-Young, Rowena L. C.; Zhang, Fang; Pridgeon, Chris S.; Heslop, James A.; Metcalfe, Pete; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Baxter, Melissa; Harrison, Sean; Hanley, Neil A.; Burke, Zoë D.; Storm, Mike P.; Welham, Melanie J.; Tosh, David; Küppers-Munther, Barbara; Edsbagge, Josefina; Starkey Lewis, Philip J.; Bonner, Frank; Harpur, Ernie; Sidaway, James; Bowes, Joanne; Fenwick, Stephen W.; Malik, Hassan; Goldring, Chris E. P.; Park, B. Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Emerging hepatic models for the study of drug-induced toxicity include pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) and complex hepatocyte-non-parenchymal cellular coculture to mimic the complex multicellular interactions that recapitulate the niche environment in the human liver. However, a specific marker of hepatocyte perturbation, required to discriminate hepatocyte damage from non-specific cellular toxicity contributed by non-hepatocyte cell types or immature differentiated cells is currently lacking, as the cytotoxicity assays routinely used in in vitro toxicology research depend on intracellular molecules which are ubiquitously present in all eukaryotic cell types. In this study, we demonstrate that microRNA-122 (miR-122) detection in cell culture media can be used as a hepatocyte-enriched in vitro marker of drug-induced toxicity in homogeneous cultures of hepatic cells, and a cell-specific marker of toxicity of hepatic cells in heterogeneous cultures such as HLCs generated from various differentiation protocols and pluripotent stem cell lines, where conventional cytotoxicity assays using generic cellular markers may not be appropriate. We show that the sensitivity of the miR-122 cytotoxicity assay is similar to conventional assays that measure lactate dehydrogenase activity and intracellular adenosine triphosphate when applied in hepatic models with high levels of intracellular miR-122, and can be multiplexed with other assays. MiR-122 as a biomarker also has the potential to bridge results in in vitro experiments to in vivo animal models and human samples using the same assay, and to link findings from clinical studies in determining the relevance of in vitro models being developed for the study of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:25527335

  4. Protective effects of Sesamum indicum extract against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Shahraki, Jafar; Tafreshian, Saman; Salimi, Ahmad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium toxicity is a challenging problem to human and animal health with no entirely understanding cytotoxic mechanisms. Previous studies in vanadium toxicity showed involvement of oxidative stress in isolated liver hepatocytes and mitochondria via increasing of ROS formation, release of cytochrome c and ATP depletion after incubation with different concentrations (25-200 µM). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Sesamum indicum seed extract (100-300 μg/mL) against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that quite similar to Alpha-tocopherol (100 µM), different concentrations of extract (100-300 μg/mL) protected the isolated hepatocyte against all oxidative stress/cytotoxicity markers induced by vanadium in including cell lysis, ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease and lysosomal membrane damage. Besides, vanadium induced mitochondrial/lysosomal toxic interaction and vanadium reductive activation mediated by glutathione in vanadium toxicity was significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by Sesamum indicum extracts. These findings suggested a hepato-protective role for extracts against liver injury resulted from vanadium toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 979-985, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cylindrospermopsin effects on cell viability and redox milieu of Neotropical fish Hoplias malabaricus hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Silva, R C; Liebel, S; de Oliveira, H H P; Ramsdorf, W A; Garcia, J R E; Azevedo, S M F O; Magalhães, V F; Oliveira Ribeiro, C A; Filipak Neto, F

    2017-10-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanotoxin that is cytotoxic to a wide variety of cells, particularly to the hepatocytes. In this study, the toxic effects of purified CYN were investigated in primary cultured hepatocytes of Neotropical fish Hoplias malabaricus. After isolation, attachment, and recovery for 72 h, the cells were exposed for 72 h to 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 μg l -1 of CYN. Then, cell viability and a set of oxidative stress biomarker responses were determined. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutathione S-transferase activities were not affected by exposure to CYN. Concentration-dependent decrease of glutathione reductase activity occurred for most CYN-exposed groups, whereas non-protein thiol content increased only for the highest CYN concentration. Lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and DNA damage levels were not altered, but reactive oxygen species levels increased in the cells exposed to the highest concentration of CYN. Cell viability decreased in all the groups exposed to CYN. Thus, CYN may cause a slight change in redox balance, but it is not the main cause of cell death in H. malabaricus hepatocytes.

  6. Minimally Invasive Liver Preconditioning for Hepatocyte Transplantation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Martin; Dagher, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    In the context of cell transplantation in the liver parenchyma, preconditioning is essential to enhance cell engraftment and liver repopulation. The authors have developed a minimally invasive technique of temporary portal embolization using an absorbable material, called reversible portal vein embolization. We hereby describe the method for isolating hepatocytes from a donor rat before transplanting hepatocytes after reversible portal vein embolization in the recipient.

  7. Insulin internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Galan, J.; Trankina, M.; Noel, R.

    1990-02-26

    This project was designed to determine whether neomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, has a significant effect upon the pathways of ligand endocytosis in isolated rat hepatocytes. The pathways studied include receptor-mediated endocytosis and fluid-phase endocytosis. Neomycin causes a dose-dependent acceleration of {sup 125}I-insulin internalization. Since fluid-phase endocytosis can also be a significant factor in {sup 125}I-insulin internalization, lucifer yellow (LY), a marker for fluid-phase endocytosis, was incorporated into an assay similar to the {sup 125}I-insulin internalization procedure. In the presence of 5 mM neomycin, a significant increase in LY uptake was evident at 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml of LY. At 0.8more » mg/ml, a decrease in LY uptake was observed. The increased rate of {sup 125}I-insulin internalization in the presence of neomycin was intriguing. Since one action of neomycin is to inhibit phosphoinositidase C, it suggests that the phosphotidylinositol cycle may be involved in ligand internalization by hepatocytes. At low insulin concentrations, receptor-mediated uptake predominates. Fluid-phase uptake can become an important uptake route as insulin concentrations are increased. Since neomycin stimulates fluid-phase endocytosis, it must also be taken into account when measuring ligand internalization.« less

  8. Activation-dependent mitochondrial translocation of Foxp3 in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, Joselyn; Teran-Angel, Guillermo; Barbosa, Luisa

    2016-05-01

    Foxp3 is considered to be the master regulator for the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg). Recently Foxp3, has been detected in extra lymphoid tissue, and in hepatocytes and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although its role has not been defined. Since it is expected that there is a relationship between protein localization, activity and cellular function, the aim of this study was to explore the subcellular localization of Foxp3 in resting and stimulated human hepatocytes. Foxp3 expression was measured by flow cytometry, subcellular fractioning, and immunofluorescence, and this data was used to track the shuttlingmore » of Foxp3 in different subcellular compartments in hepatocytes (HepG2 cell line), stimulated by using the PKC activators (PMA), core and preS1/2 antigen from hepatitis B virus (HBV). Our data shows that besides the nuclear location, mitochondrial translocation was detected after stimulation with PMA and at to a lesser extent, with preS1/2. In addition, Foxp3 is localizes at outer mitochondrial membrane. These results suggest a non-canonical role of Foxp3 in the mitochondrial compartment in human hepatocytes, and opens a new field about their role in liver damages during HBV infection. - Highlights: • The expression and subcellular distribution of Foxp3, is modulated by PMA and preS1/2. • PMA and preS1/2 increase Foxp3 expression on HepG2. • PMA and preS1/2 induce foxp3 enrichment at mitochondrial, microsomal and nuclear compartments. • Results suggest a non-canonical function of Foxp3 or a mitochondrial transcriptional activity.« less

  9. Nicotinamide N‐methyltransferase expression decreases in iron overload, exacerbating toxicity in mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Koppe, Tiago; Patchen, Bonnie; Cheng, Aaron; Bhasin, Manoj; Vulpe, Chris; Schwartz, Robert E.; Moreno‐Navarrete, Jose Maria; Fernandez‐Real, Jose Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload causes the generation of reactive oxygen species that can lead to lasting damage to the liver and other organs. The goal of this study was to identify genes that modify the toxicity of iron overload. We studied the effect of iron overload on the hepatic transcriptional and metabolomic profile in mouse models using a dietary model of iron overload and a genetic model, the hemojuvelin knockout mouse. We then evaluated the correlation of nicotinamide N‐methyltransferase (NNMT) expression with body iron stores in human patients and the effect of NNMT knockdown on gene expression and viability in primary mouse hepatocytes. We found that iron overload induced significant changes in the expression of genes and metabolites involved in glucose and nicotinamide metabolism and that NNMT, an enzyme that methylates nicotinamide and regulates hepatic glucose and cholesterol metabolism, is one of the most strongly down‐regulated genes in the liver in both genetic and dietary iron overload. We found that hepatic NNMT expression is inversely correlated with serum ferritin levels and serum transferrin saturation in patients who are obese, suggesting that body iron stores regulate human liver NNMT expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that adenoviral knockdown of NNMT in primary mouse hepatocytes exacerbates iron‐induced hepatocyte toxicity and increases expression of transcriptional markers of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, while overexpression of NNMT partially reversed these effects. Conclusion: Iron overload alters glucose and nicotinamide transcriptional and metabolic pathways in mouse hepatocytes and decreases NNMT expression, while NNMT deficiency worsens the toxic effect of iron overload. For these reasons, NNMT may be a drug target for the prevention of iron‐induced hepatotoxicity. (Hepatology Communications 2017;1:803–815) PMID:29404495

  10. Regional transient portal ischemia and irradiation as preparative regimen for hepatocyte transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koenig, S; Yuan, Q; Krause, P; Christiansen, H; Rave-Fraenk, M; Kafert-Kasting, S; Kriegbaum, H; Schneider, A; Ott, M; Meyburg, J

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is regarded as a promising option to correct hereditary metabolic liver disease. This study describes a novel method involving regional transient portal ischemia (RTPI) in combination with hepatic irradiation (IR) as a preparative regimen for hepatocyte transplantation. The right lobules of rat livers (45% of liver mass) were subjected to RTPI of 30-120 min. Liver specimens and serum samples were analyzed for transaminase levels, DNA damage, apoptosis, and proliferation. Repopulation experiments involved livers of dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPPIV)-deficient rats preconditioned with RTPI (60-90 min) either with or without prior partial hepatic IR (25 Gy). After reperfusion intervals of 1 and 24 h, 12 million wild-type (DPPIV positive) hepatocytes were transplanted into recipient livers via the spleen. RTPI of 60-90 min caused limited hepatic injury through necrosis and induced a distinct regenerative response in the host liver. Twelve weeks following transplantation, small clusters of donor hepatocytes were detected within the portal areas. Quantitative analysis revealed limited engraftment of 0.79% to 2.95%, whereas control animals (sham OP) exhibited 4.16% (determined as relative activity of DPPIV when compared to wild-type liver). Repopulation was significantly enhanced (21.43%) when IR was performed prior to RTPI, optimum preconditioning settings being 90 min of ischemia and 1 h of reperfusion before transplantation. We demonstrate that RTPI alone is disadvantageous to donor cell engraftment, whereas the combination of IR with RTPI comprises an effective preparative regimen for liver repopulation. The method described clearly has potential for clinical application. © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

  11. Recombinant human augmenter of liver regeneration protects hepatocyte mitochondrial DNA in rats with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun; Lin, Heng; Wu, Qiao; Zhang, Yujun; Bie, Ping; Yang, Juntao

    2015-06-01

    Hepatocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is an important cause of mitochondrial and hepatic function impairment in obstructive jaundice (OJ). This study investigated the protective effect of recombinant human augmenter of liver regeneration (rhALR) on hepatocyte mtDNA in rats with OJ. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: sham-operation, biliary obstruction and recanalization with rhALR treatment (BDO-RBF-rhALR), and BDO-RBF-Vehicle (n = 48 per group). After biliary obstruction, rats were intraperitoneally injected with 40 μg/kg rhALR in BDO-RBF-rhALR group and same volume of normal saline in other two groups once every 12 h, until sacrifice. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) expression in hepatocytes were detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Hepatocyte mtDNA damage was evaluated by real-time-polymerase chain reaction. Mitochondrial and hepatic functions were also assessed. After biliary obstruction, hepatic function was clearly impaired, as shown by the increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin levels, and the decrease in albumin level. Mitochondrial respiratory control ratio, phosphorus oxygen ratio, and ATP levels (all indicators of mitochondrial function) were decreased. The relative amount of total mtDNA, mtTFA, and NRF-1 expression in rat liver tissues were decreased, whereas the relative amount of deleted mtDNA was increased. However, the damage was significantly improved in the BDO-RBF-rhALR group. After recanalization, these changes were gradually restored, but the recovery was faster in the BDO-RBF-rhALR group than in BDO-RBF-Vehicle group. rhALR may protect and improve mitochondrial and hepatic functions in rats with OJ by promoting the expression of mtTFA and NRF-1 and by protecting and repairing damaged mtDNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Property of hepatitis B virus replication in Tupaia belangeri hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanada, Takahiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko, E-mail: kkohara@vet.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24, Korimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-0065

    2016-01-08

    The northern treeshrew (Tupaia belangeri) has been reported to be an effective candidate for animal infection model with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The objective of our study was to analyze the growth characteristics of HBV in tupaia hepatocytes and the host response to HBV infection. We established primary tupaia hepatocytes (3–6-week old tupaia) and infected them with HBV genotypes A, B and C, and all the genotypes proliferated as well as those in human primary hepatocytes (>10{sup 5} copies/ml in culture supernatant). We next generated a chimeric mouse with tupaia liver by transplantation of tupaia primary hepatocytes to urokinase-type plasminogenmore » activator cDNA (cDNA-uPA)/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and the replacement ratio with tupaia hepatocytes was found to be more than 95%. Infection of chimeric mice with HBV (genotypes B, C, and D) resulted in HBV-DNA level of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} copies/ml after 8 weeks of infection, which were almost similar to that in humanized chimeric mouse. In contrast, serum HBV level in adult tupaia (1-year-old tupaia) was quite low (<10{sup 3} copies/ml). Understanding the differences in the response to HBV infection in primary tupaia hepatocytes, chimeric mouse, and adult tupaia will contribute to elucidating the mechanism of persistent HBV infection and viral eradication. Thus, T. belangeri was found to be efficient for studying the host response to HBV infection, thereby providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of HBV. - Highlights: • Primary hepatocytes were established from tupaia that is a novel HBV infection model. • Tupaia primary hepatocytes were susceptible for HBV infection. • The immunodeficient chimeric mice with tupaia hepatocytes were established. • The chimeric mice with tupaia hepatocytes were susceptible for HBV infection.« less

  13. Physiological Ranges of Matrix Rigidity Modulate Primary Mouse Hepatocyte Function In Part Through Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Seema S.; Tung, Jason C.; Zhou, Vivian X.; Grenert, James P.; Malato, Yann; Rezvani, Milad; Español-Suñer, Regina; Willenbring, Holger; Weaver, Valerie M.; Chang, Tammy T.

    2016-01-01

    Matrix rigidity has important effects on cell behavior and is increased during liver fibrosis; however, its effect on primary hepatocyte function is unknown. We hypothesized that increased matrix rigidity in fibrotic livers would activate mechanotransduction in hepatocytes and lead to inhibition of hepatic-specific functions. To determine the physiologically relevant ranges of matrix stiffness at the cellular level, we performed detailed atomic force microscopy analysis across liver lobules from normal and fibrotic livers. We determined that normal liver matrix stiffness was around 150Pa and increased to 1–6kPa in areas near fibrillar collagen deposition in fibrotic livers. In vitro culture of primary hepatocytes on collagen matrix of tunable rigidity demonstrated that fibrotic levels of matrix stiffness had profound effects on cytoskeletal tension and significantly inhibited hepatocyte-specific functions. Normal liver stiffness maintained functional gene regulation by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) whereas fibrotic matrix stiffness inhibited the HNF4α transcriptional network. Fibrotic levels of matrix stiffness activated mechanotransduction in primary hepatocytes through focal adhesion kinase (FAK). In addition, blockade of the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway rescued HNF4α expression from hepatocytes cultured on stiff matrix. Conclusion Fibrotic levels of matrix stiffness significantly inhibit hepatocyte-specific functions in part by inhibiting the HNF4α transcriptional network mediated through the Rho/ROCK pathway. Increased appreciation of the role of matrix rigidity in modulating hepatocyte function will advance our understanding of the mechanisms of hepatocyte dysfunction in liver cirrhosis and spur development of novel treatments for chronic liver disease. PMID:26755329

  14. R-spondin3-LGR4 signaling protects hepatocytes against DMOG-induced hypoxia/reoxygenation injury through activating β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiying; Yin, Yue; Yu, Ruili; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

    2018-04-30

    Leucine-rich repeat G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) and its ligands R-spondin1-4 (Rspos) have been vastly investigated in embryonic development. The biological functions of Rspos-LGR4 system in liver remains largely unknown. Here, we explored whether it protects hepatocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) induced damage. H/R injury was induced by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) in AML12 cells and the effects of Rspo3 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed. Specific shRNAs were used to interfere LGR4 or β-catenin. DMOG caused hepatocytes damage evidenced by increase in HIF-1α, cell death and apoptosis genes p27 and Bax, with concurrent decrease of cell proliferation genes PCNA and CyclinD1. Of all the Rspos, Rspo3 is predominantly expressed in AML12 hepatocytes. Importantly, Rspo3 demonstrated an alteration in a manner similar to proliferation-related genes during H/R injury. Rspo3 pretreatment rendered hepatocytes less vulnerable to DMOG induced H/R injury. Ablation of LGR4 using shRNA attenuated the protective effects of Rspo3. Wnt3a also protected AML12 cells from damages caused by H/R, showing enhanced proliferation activity. Notably, knockdown of β-catenin in hepatocytes completely abolished the effect of Rspo3 pretreatment on the expression levels of PCNA and CyclinD1. Rspo3-LGR4 axis protects hepatocytes from H/R injury via activating β-catenin. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Bid Regulates Murine Hepatocyte Proliferation by Controlling ER Calcium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Hong-Min; Baty, Catherine J.; Li, Na; Ding, Wen-Xing; Gao, Wentao; Li, Min; Chen, Xiaoyun; Ma, Jianjie; Michalopoulos, George K.; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Bid, a BH3-only Bcl-2 family molecule, is generally known for its importance in activating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway following death receptor engagement, particularly in hepatocytes. However, Bid also promotes hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration and carcinogenesis. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that Bid regulated endoplasmic reticulum calcium ([Ca2+]ER) homeostasis to affect hepatocyte proliferation. We found that serum-stimulated hepatocyte proliferation was dependent on calcium and depletion of calcium using thapsigargin or EGTA inhibited the proliferation. Subcellular fractionation found that a portion of Bid was inserted in the ER-enriched membranes and single-cell calcium imaging indicated that Bid was important for maintaining [Ca2+]ER level. Bid-deficient hepatocytes manifested a delayed and reduced serum-stimulated proliferation, which was corrected by ionomycin or reconstitution of Bid, particularly an ER-targeted Bid. Finally, Bax could be also found in the ER-enriched membranes and Bax deficiency caused the same proliferation defect. However, Bid/Bax double deletion in hepatocytes did not further augment the defect, suggesting that Bid and Bax worked by the same regulatory mechanism in [Ca2+]ER control. Conclusions Bid regulates hepatocyte proliferation by positively affecting [Ca2+]ER homeostasis, which could be important for liver regeneration and carcinogenesis. PMID:20578150

  16. Highly Dynamic Host Actin Reorganization around Developing Plasmodium Inside Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Santos, Carina S. S.; Itoe, Maurice A.; Afonso, Cristina; Henriques, Ricardo; Gardner, Rui; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Simões, Pedro D.; Raquel, Helena; Almeida, António Paulo; Moita, Luis F.; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Mota, Maria M.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes and infect hepatocytes, where a single sporozoite replicates into thousands of merozoites inside a parasitophorous vacuole. The nature of the Plasmodium-host cell interface, as well as the interactions occurring between these two organisms, remains largely unknown. Here we show that highly dynamic hepatocyte actin reorganization events occur around developing Plasmodium berghei parasites inside human hepatoma cells. Actin reorganization is most prominent between 10 to 16 hours post infection and depends on the actin severing and capping protein, gelsolin. Live cell imaging studies also suggest that the hepatocyte cytoskeleton may contribute to parasite elimination during Plasmodium development in the liver. PMID:22238609

  17. The induction of microRNA targeting IRS-1 is involved in the development of insulin resistance under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyun Su; Park, Seung-Yoon; Ma, Duan; Zhang, Jin; Lee, Wan

    2011-03-25

    Mitochondrial dysfunction induces insulin resistance in myocytes via a reduction of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) expression. However, the effect of mitochondrial dysfunction on insulin sensitivity is not understood well in hepatocytes. Although research has implicated the translational repression of target genes by endogenous non-coding microRNAs (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of various diseases, the identity and role of the miRNAs that are involved in the development of insulin resistance also remain largely unknown. To determine whether mitochondrial dysfunction induced by genetic or metabolic inhibition causes insulin resistance in hepatocytes, we analyzed the expression and insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin signaling intermediates in SK-Hep1 hepatocytes. We used qRT-PCR to measure cellular levels of selected miRNAs that are thought to target IRS-1 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR). Using overexpression of miR-126, we determined whether IRS-1-targeting miRNA causes insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from genetic (mitochondrial DNA depletion) or metabolic inhibition (Rotenone or Antimycin A) induced insulin resistance in hepatocytes via a reduction in the expression of IRS-1 protein. In addition, we observed a significant up-regulation of several miRNAs presumed to target IRS-1 3'UTR in hepatocytes with mitochondrial dysfunction. Using reporter gene assay we confirmed that miR-126 directly targeted to IRS-1 3'UTR. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-126 in hepatocytes caused a substantial reduction in IRS-1 protein expression, and a consequent impairment in insulin signaling. We demonstrated that miR-126 was actively involved in the development of insulin resistance induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. These data provide novel insights into the molecular basis of insulin resistance, and implicate miRNA in the development of metabolic disease.

  18. Effects of hypertension and ovariectomy on rat hepatocytes. Are amlodipine and lacidipine protective? (A stereological and histological study).

    PubMed

    Dursun, Hakan; Albayrak, Fatih; Uyanik, Abdullah; Keleş, Nuri Osman; Beyzagül, Polat; Bayram, Ednan; Halici, Zekai; Altunkaynak, Zuhal Berrin; Süleyman, Halis; Okçu, Nihat; Ünal, Bünyamin

    2010-12-01

    Calcium channel blockers are increasingly used for the treatment of hypertension. Menopause and hypertension are both important risk factors for liver damage and several other circulatory abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of amlodipine and lacidipine in an ovariectomy-induced postmenopausal period model and a deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertensive model in rats. In this study, animals were divided into six groups as follows: control (Group 1), hypertension (Group 2), ovariectomy (Group 3), ovariectomy and hypertension (Group 4), ovariectomy, hypertension and amlodipine-treated (Group 5), and ovariectomy, hypertension and lacidipine-treated (Group 6). At the end of the experiment, the livers were removed and tissue samples were histologically and stereologically examined. The numerical densities of the hepatocytes according to group were 0.000422, 0.00329, 0.000272, 0.00259, 0.00374 and 0.000346 μm3, respectively. Significant differences were found between values of all groups (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). According to histopathological investigation, Group 3 and particularly Group 4 showed some microscopic abnormalities such as dilatation in sinusoids central veins and branches of portal vein, irregularities of the hepatocyte columns, significant mononuclear cell infiltrations, and unstained vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes. Histological structure was protected from the destructive effects of ovariectomy and hypertension in Groups 5 and 6. Our experimental results show that both hypertension and the postmenopausal period have negative effects on the number of hepatocytes and histological structure of the liver. Both amlodipine and lacidipine appear to ameliorate the hypertension and/or postmenopausal period-related decrease in hepatocyte number. We thus suggest that lacidipine and particularly amlodipine have important protective and recovering effects on the liver.

  19. Hepatocyte-specific PPARA expression exclusively promotes agonist-induced cell proliferation without influence from nonparenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Brocker, Chad N; Yue, Jiang; Kim, Donghwan; Qu, Aijuan; Bonzo, Jessica A; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2017-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARA) is a nuclear transcription factor and key mediator of systemic lipid metabolism. Prolonged activation in rodents causes hepatocyte proliferation and hepatocellular carcinoma. Little is known about the contribution of nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) to PPARA-mediated cell proliferation. NPC contribution to PPARA agonist-induced hepatomegaly was assessed in hepatocyte ( Ppara △Hep )- and macrophage ( Ppara △Mac )-specific Ppara null mice. Mice were treated with the agonist Wy-14643 for 14 days, and response of conditional null mice was compared with conventional knockout mice ( Ppara -/- ). Wy-14643 treatment caused weight loss and severe hepatomegaly in wild-type and Ppara △Mac mice, and histological analysis revealed characteristic hepatocyte swelling; Ppara △Hep and Ppara -/- mice were protected from these effects. Ppara △Mac serum chemistries, as well as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, matched wild-type mice. Agonist-treated Ppara △Hep mice had elevated serum cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides when compared with Ppara -/- mice, indicating a possible role for extrahepatic PPARA in regulating circulating lipid levels. BrdU labeling confirmed increased cell proliferation only in wild-type and Ppara △Mac mice. Macrophage PPARA disruption did not impact agonist-induced upregulation of lipid metabolism, cell proliferation, or DNA damage and repair-related gene expression, whereas gene expression was repressed in Ppara △Hep mice. Interestingly, downregulation of inflammatory cytokines IL-15 and IL-18 was dependent on macrophage PPARA. Cell type-specific regulation of target genes was confirmed in primary hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. These studies conclusively show that cell proliferation is mediated exclusively by PPARA activation in hepatocytes and that Kupffer cell PPARA has an important role in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of PPARA agonists

  20. The Fungal Metabolite, Pyrrocidine A, induces Apoptosis in HEPG2 Hepatocytes and PK15 Renal Cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyrrocidines are polyketide-amino acid-derived antibiotics produced by Acremonium zeae, a prevalent seed-borne endophyte of corn. Pyrrocidines exhibit potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including drug resistant strains, and display significant activity against Candida albicans, as well...

  1. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    PubMed Central

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  2. Reestablishment of cell polarity of rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Musat, A I; Sattler, C A; Sattler, G L; Pitot, H C

    1993-07-01

    The cell-basement membrane interaction is an important determinant of epithelial cell polarity. Although hepatocytes in situ are polarized, no morphologically identifiable basement membrane is found at their basal surface. However, several studies have demonstrated immunoreactivity to basement membrane proteins in the space of Disse, indicating the existence of an extracellular matrix, albeit of low density. Therefore we hypothesized that the interaction of hepatocytes with this matrix may determine their polarity and asked whether a basement membrane-like substrate could reestablish hepatocyte polarity in vitro. For this purpose, established monolayers of primary rat hepatocytes were cultured overlaid with a basement membrane-like matrix extracted from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm mouse tumor, mimicking thus the in situ tissue architecture. The hepatocytes in this culture configuration, unlike hepatocytes in classic cultures, developed distinct membrane domains, as demonstrated by the reformation of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, Mg(2+)-ATPase-positive bile canalicular networks and intercellular gap junctions immunolocalized to the lateral membrane with antibodies to connexin 32. The actin cytoskeleton of these cells reorganized into pericanalicular webs, and no accumulation of "stress" filaments was found beneath the membrane facing the medium. Golgi complexes appeared to be preferentially located in mitochondria-poor pericanalicular cytoplasm, indicating the polarized distribution of these organelles. Together, these data indicate that a basement membrane-like substrate present between hepatocytes and nutrient medium restores the polarity of these cells in culture. Extrapolation of these findings to the intact liver suggests that the matrix in Disse's space governs the development of hepatocyte polarity.

  3. Antioxidative effect of a chymotrypsin inhibitor from Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) seeds in a primary rat hepatocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Alex Yuen-Kam; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Fong, Wing-Ping

    2005-10-01

    The antioxidative activity of a chymotrypsin-specific potato type I inhibitor from Momordica cochinchinensis (MCoCI) (Cucurbitaceae) has been investigated using the primary rat hepatocyte system. tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) was used to induce oxidative stress. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with MCoCI for 24 h significantly reversed t-BHP-induced cell damage, and the associated glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation. The activities of glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase were also increased. These results suggested that MCoCI possessed antioxidative activity which may account for some of the pharmacological effects of Momordica cochinchinensis seeds, the traditional Chinese medicine known as Mubiezhi, from which MCoCI was isolated.

  4. Bisphenol A-Induced Ovotoxicity Involves DNA Damage Induction to Which the Ovary Mounts a Protective Response Indicated by Increased Expression of Proteins Involved in DNA Repair and Xenobiotic Biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Shanthi; Keating, Aileen F

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical with ubiquitous human exposure. BPA causes primordial follicle loss and DNA damage in germ cells, thus we hypothesized that BPA induces ovarian DNA damage, thereby precipitating follicle loss. We also anticipated that the ovary activates DNA repair and xenobiotic biotransformation to minimize oocyte damage and/or, activate cell death signaling to deplete follicles. Postnatal day 4 F344 rat ovaries were cultured in medium containing vehicle control (1% dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]) ± BPA (440 µM) for 2-8 days. BPA reduced (P < 0.05) small primary, large primary and secondary follicle numbers after 2 days, followed by a reduction (P < .05) in primordial follicle numbers after 4 days. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) and Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), markers of DNA double-strand breaks, were increased (P < .05) in abundance prior to observed follicle loss. DNA repair genes (Atm, Prkdc, Xrcc6, Brca1, Mre11a, Rad50, and Smc1a) were increased (P < .05) after 1 day of BPA exposure. mRNA encoding Meh, Gstm, c-kit, Kitlg, and Akt were increased (P < .05), as was MEH, AKT, pAKT, Jun N-terminal kinase, and P53 protein abundance, while GST isoforms pi and Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 proteins were decreased (P < .05) by BPA exposure. These data demonstrate the dynamic ovarian response to BPA exposure, which indicates that BPA, via biotransformation, may be converted to a DNA alkylating agent, causing ovarian DNA damage, to which the ovary mounts a protective response and further our knowledge on the biological impacts of BPA on the female germline. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on ConA-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK Pathway-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Junshan; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Huawei; Yin, Qin; Wang, Chengfen; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, atherosclerosis and antitumor activities. However, its effect on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation. Materials and Methods Autoimmune hepatitis was induced in in Balb/C mice using ConA (25 mg/kg), and astaxanthin was orally administered daily at two doses (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) for 14 days before ConA injection. Levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of inflammatory cytokines and other maker proteins were determined at three time points (2, 8 and 24 h). Primary hepatocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin (80 μM) in vitro 24 h before stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). The apoptosis rate and related protein expression were determined 24 h after the administration of TNF-α. Results Astaxanthin attenuated serum liver enzymes and pathological damage by reducing the release of inflammatory factors. It performed anti-apoptotic effects via the descending phosphorylation of Bcl-2 through the down-regulation of the JNK/p-JNK pathway. Conclusion This research firstly expounded that astaxanthin reduced immune liver injury in ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The mode of action appears to be downregulation of JNK/p-JNK-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25761053

  6. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of D-tagatose in cultured murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Paterna, J C; Boess, F; Stäubli, A; Boelsterli, U A

    1998-01-01

    D-Tagatose is a zero-energy producing ketohexose that is a powerful cytoprotective agent against chemically induced cell injury. To further explore the underlying mechanisms of cytoprotection, we investigated the effects of D-tagatose on both the generation of superoxide anion radicals and the consequences of oxidative stress driven by prooxidant compounds in intact cells. Primary cultures of hepatocytes derived from male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the redox cycling drug nitrofurantoin (NFT). Lethal cell injury induced by 300 microM NFT was completely prevented by high concentrations (20 mM) of D-tagatose, whereas equimolar concentrations of glucose, mannitol, or xylose were ineffective. The extent of NFT-induced intracellular superoxide anion radical formation was not altered by D-tagatose, indicating that the ketohexose did not inhibit the reductive bioactivation of NFT. However, the NFT-induced decline of the intracellular GSH content was largely prevented by D-tagatose. The sugar also afforded complete protection against NFT toxicity in hepatocytes that had been chemically depleted of GSH. Furthermore, the ketohexose fully protected from increases in both membrane lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation. In addition, D-tagatose completely prevented oxidative cell injury inflicted by toxic iron overload with ferric nitrilotriacetate (100 microM). In contrast, D-tagatose did not protect against lethal cell injury induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide, a prooxidant which acts by hydroxyl radical-independent mechanisms and which is partitioned in the lipid bilayer. These results indicate that D-tagatose, which is a weak iron chelator, can antagonize the iron-dependent toxic consequences of intracellular oxidative stress in hepatocytes. The antioxidant properties of D-tagatose may result from sequestering the redox-active iron, thereby protecting more critical targets from the damaging potential of hydroxyl radical.

  7. Irradiation as preparative regimen for hepatocyte transplantation causes prolonged cell cycle block.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Sarah; Krause, Petra; Schmidt, Thordis-Karen; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Rothe, Hilka; Hermann, Robert Michael; Becker, Heinz; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans

    2008-04-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation following liver irradiation (IR) and partial hepatectomy (PH) leads to extensive liver repopulation. We investigated the changes in the liver induced by IR explaining the loss of reproductive integrity in endogenous hepatocytes. Right lobules of rat liver underwent external beam IR (25 Gy). A second group was subjected to additional 33% PH of the untreated left liver lobule. Liver specimens and controls were analyzed for DNA damage, apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle related genes (1 hour to up to 12 weeks). Double strand breaks (phosphorylated histone H2AX) induced by IR rapidly declined within hours and were no longer detectable after 4 days. No significant apoptosis was noted and steady mRNA levels (B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (BAX), caspase 3 and 9) were in line with the lack of DNA fragmentation. However, gene expression of p53 and p21 in irradiated liver tissue increased. Transcripts of cyclin D1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin B augmented progressively, whereas cyclin E was only affected moderately. Following PH, irradiated livers displayed persistently high protein levels of p21 and cyclin D1. However, cell divisions were infrequent, as reflected by low PCNA levels up to four weeks. IR leads to a major arrest in the G(1)/S phase and to a lesser extent in the G(2)/M transition of the cell cycle, resulting in reduced regenerative response following PH. The persistent block of at least four weeks may promote preferential proliferation of transplanted hepatocytes in this milieu.

  8. Differentiated properties of hepatocytes induced from pancreatic cells.

    PubMed

    Tosh, David; Shen, Chia-Ning; Slack, Jonathan M W

    2002-09-01

    Transdifferentiation of pancreas to liver is a well-recognized phenomenon and has been described in animal experiments and human pathology. We recently produced an in vitro model for the transdifferentiation (or conversion) of the pancreatic cell line AR42J-B13 to hepatocytes based on culture with dexamethasone (Dex). To determine whether the hepatocytes express markers of hepatic intermediary metabolism and detoxification, we investigated the patterns of expression of glucokinase, cytochrome P450s CYP3A1 and CYP2B1/2, testosterone/4-nitrophenol uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT), and aryl sulfotransferase. All were expressed. We also determined the expression of 2 enzymes involved in ammonia detoxification: carbamoylphosphate synthetase I (CPS I) and glutamine synthetase (GS). These enzymes are normally strictly compartmentalized in liver in a wide periportal pattern and the last downstream perivenous hepatocytes, respectively. Following culture with Dex, CPS I and GS are expressed in 2 different cell populations, suggesting that both periportal and perivenous hepatocytes are induced. We also produced a reporter assay based on the activation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) by the transthyretin (TTR) promoter or glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) promoter. After culture with Dex, transfected cells begin to express GFP, showing that hepatic promoters are activated in concert with the induction of the hepatocyte phenotype. Lastly, we examined the stability of the hepatic phenotype and found that some cells still express liver markers (transferrin or albumin) up to 14 days after removal of Dex. In conclusion, these results suggest that pancreatic hepatocytes produced by this method may offer an alternative model to primary cultures of hepatocytes for the study of liver function.

  9. [Effect of inducible nitric oxide on intracellular homeostasis of hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xi-Feng; Zhou, Dong-Yao; Kang, Ge-Fei

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the effects of inducible nitric oxide (NO) and exogenous NO on the intracellular homeostasis of the hepatocytes. Endogenous NO was induced by combined action of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokines in cultured rat hepatocytes, and exogenous NO was supplied by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to stimulate the hepatocytes. The changes in intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione(GSH) and free calcium ([Ca2+]i) were observed. substantial increase by 7.97 times in intracellular MDA level and a decrease by 57.9% in GSH occurred in the hepatocytes after the cells had been incubated with LPS and cytokines for 24 h, which were reversed by 43.5% and 98.4% respectively by treatment with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), a competitive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Verapamil significantly reduced both endogenous NO production and oxidative stress, while the effect of A23187 was not conspicuous. Incubation with chlorpromazine and Vitamine E (VitE), however, did not result in decreased release of NO by LPS- and cytokines-induced hepatocytes. After SNP exposure of the hepatocytes, the oxidative status was reversibly enhanced in a time-dependent manner. Short exposure to SNP led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of the rapid and transient increase in free calcium induced by K(+) depolarization and hepatopoietin-coupled calcium mobilization. Inducible NO may initiate and play a key role in the latter stages of metabolic and functional stress responses of hepatocytes against endotoxin and cytokines, when the reduction occurs in the capacity of NO to independently mediate lipid peroxidation and counteract oxidation. The inhibitory effect of NO on [Ca2+]i mobilization may be an important autoregulatory mechanism by means of negative feedback on protein kinase C-associated NOS induction.

  10. The effect of pomelo citrus (Citrus maxima var. Nambangan), vitamin C and lycopene towards the number reduction of mice (Mus musculus) apoptotic hepatocyte caused of ochratoxin A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badriyah, Hastuti, Utami Sri

    2017-06-01

    Foods can contaminated by some mycotoxin produced by molds. Ochratoxin A is a sort of mycotoxin that cause structural damage on hepatocytes. Pomelo citrus (Citrus maxima var. Nambangan) contain vitamin C and lycopene that have antioxidant character. This research is done to: 1)examine the effect of pomelo citrus juice, vitamin C, and lycopene treatment towards the number reduction of mice apoptotic hepatocytes caused by ochratoxin A exposure, 2)examine the effect of vitamin C mixed with lycopene treatment towards the number reduction of mice apoptotic hepatocytes caused by ochratoxin A exposure. The experimental group used male mice strain BALB-C in the age of three month and bodyweight 20-30 grams devided in 4 experiment group and control group. The experiment group I were administered pomelo citrus juice 0,5 ml/30 grams BW/day orally during 2 weeks and then administered with ochratoxin in the dose of 1 mg/kg BW during 1 week. The experiment group II were administered with vitamin C in the dose of 5,85 µg/30g BW with the same methods. The experiment group III were administered with lycopene in the dose of 0,1025 µg/30 g BW with the same methods. The experiment group IV were administered with vitamin C mixed with lycopene with the same methods. The control group were administered with ochratoxin A in the dose of 1 mg/kg BW per oral during 1 week. The apoptotic hepatocyte number were count by microscopic observation of hepatocyte slides from experiment group as well as control group with cytochemical staining. The research result shows that: 1) the pomelo citrus juice, vitamin C as well as lycopene administration could reduce the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure, compared with the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure only; 2) the vitamin C mixed with lycopene could reduce the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure compared with the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by

  11. Effect of glycine on valproate toxicity in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vance, M A; Gray, P D; Tolman, K G

    1994-01-01

    The interaction between the amino acid glycine and valproate (VPA), an antiepileptic drug (AED) that occasionally causes hepatotoxicity, was studied in rat hepatocytes in monolayer culture. Valproate caused a dose-dependent increase in leakage of lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), and glycine prevented this toxic response. L-Carnitine, L-alanine, and L-cysteine did not protect hepatocytes from VPA. Glycine also partially antagonized inhibition of fatty acid beta-oxidation by VPA, as estimated by the generation of acid-soluble products from [14C]palmitic acid. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that glycine prevents VPA toxicity by removing acyl-CoA esters, which accumulate during VPA exposure and interfere with fatty acid beta-oxidation. Glycine, however, also antagonized the toxic effects of acetaminophen on hepatocytes, although at higher concentrations than required to protect hepatocytes from VPA. Because the mechanism of toxicity of acetaminophen probably is different from that of VPA, a nonspecific cytoprotective effect may contribute to glycine antagonism of valproate toxicity. Our results emphasize the importance of glycine in protecting hepatocytes from noxious insult in general as well as from VPA in particular.

  12. Mesangial cells but not hepatocytes are protected against NO/O(2)(-) cogeneration: mechanistic considerations.

    PubMed

    Sumbayev, Vadim V; Sandau, Katrin B; Brüne, Bernhard

    2002-05-24

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as superoxide (O(2)(-)) and nitric oxide (NO) are produced under diverse conditions and provoke distinct signaling reactions. The formation of NO has been shown to induce apoptosis and/or necrosis in mesangial cells and to protect other cells such as hepatocytes. Often, NO and O(2)(-) are simultaneously generated, which results in their diffusion-controlled interaction and, thus, redirects the signaling properties of either NO or O(2)(-). This has been proven for mesangial cells, where O(2)(-) formation attenuates NO-initiated apoptosis. As the mechanisms involved remained unclear, we studied the potential impact of the glutathione redox system and compared the results obtained with mesangial cells with those obtained with Hep G2 hepatocytes. In contrast to mesangial cells, Hep G2 cells appeared resistant to NO donors but displayed massive cell destruction following NO/O(2)(-) cogeneration. As a result, we noticed a greater increase in GSSG levels in Hep G2 cells than in mesangial cells. GSH depletion reversed the cell protection in mesangial cells and enhanced the cell damage in Hep G2 cells. NO/O(2)(-)-mediated mesangial protection is associated with an increased glutathione reductase activity and an increase in GSH. In conclusion, NO/O(2)(-) sensitivity is cell type specific and is determined by the glutathione redox system.

  13. Protective effect of NAC against malathion-induced oxidative stress in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali; Saeedi Kouzehkonani, Nazli

    2012-01-01

    Induction of oxidative stress by Organophosphate compounds (OPs) has been previously reported. In the present work, the mechanism of protective effects of N-acetylcysteine as a glutathion (GSH) prodrug against malathion-induced cell toxicity was investigated. In this work, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were used to determine the effect of NAC on malathion-induced cytotoxicity, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Rat hepatocytes were isolated using collagenase perfusion and then cell viability, mitchondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ROS formation were determined using trypan blue exclusion, Rhodamine 123 fluorescence and fluorogenic probe, 2', 7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), respectively. Despite the protective effect of NAC on malathion-induced cell toxicity and MMP dysfunction, its efficacy against ROS formation was not adequate to completely protect the cells. Cytotoxic effects of malathion regardless of its cholinergic feature, is started with gradual free radical production but, the main factor that causes cell death, is mitochondrial dysfunction, so that reduction of ROS formation alone is not sufficient for cell survival, and the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity through different mechanisms is the most ameliorative factor specially at high levels of cell damage, as NAC seemed to protect cells with various fashions apart from ROS scavenging in concentrations higher than malathion's LC50.

  14. In vitro culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes isolated by using a simplified manual perfusion method.

    PubMed

    Panda, Santanu; Bisht, Sonu; Malakar, Dhruba; Mohanty, Ashok K; Kaushik, Jai K

    2015-01-01

    In farm animals, there is no suitable cell line available to understand liver-specific functions. This has limited our understanding of liver function and metabolism in farm animals. Culturing and maintenance of functionally active hepatocytes is difficult, since they survive no more than few days. Establishing primary culture of hepatocytes can help in studying cellular metabolism, drug toxicity, hepatocyte specific gene function and regulation. Here we provide a simple in vitro method for isolation and short-term culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes. Buffalo hepatocytes were isolated from caudate lobes by using manual enzymatic perfusion and mechanical disruption of liver tissue. Hepatocyte yield was (5.3 ± 0.66)×107 cells per gram of liver tissue with a viability of 82.3 ± 3.5%. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were spherical with well contrasted border. After 24 hours of seeding onto fibroblast feeder layer and different extracellular matrices like dry collagen, matrigel and sandwich collagen coated plates, hepatocytes formed confluent monolayer with frequent clusters. Cultured hepatocytes exhibited typical cuboidal and polygonal shape with restored cellular polarity. Cells expressed hepatocyte-specific marker genes or proteins like albumin, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, cytochromes, cytokeratin and α1-antitrypsin. Hepatocytes could be immunostained with anti-cytokeratins, anti-albumin and anti α1-antitrypsin antibodies. Abundant lipid droplets were detected in the cytosol of hepatocytes using oil red stain. In vitro cultured hepatocytes could be grown for five days and maintained for up to nine days on buffalo skin fibroblast feeder layer. Cultured hepatocytes were viable for functional studies. We developed a convenient and cost effective technique for hepatocytes isolation for short-term culture that exhibited morphological and functional characteristics of active hepatocytes for studying gene

  15. [Study on hepatocyte apoptosis of domestic pigs experimentally infected with Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata].

    PubMed

    Mou, Rong; Bao, Huai-En; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Jia-Hong; Lang, Shu-Yuan

    2012-10-30

    To investigate apoptosis in liver tissue of the domestic pigs infected with eggs of Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. The adult worms of T. asiatica and T. saginata were collected and identified from the taeniasis patients in Dunyun and Congjiang districts, Guizhou province. Eggs were collected from gravid proglottids and prepared by washing and centrifugation. Nineteen 20-day hybrid domestic pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace strain) were randomly divided into T. asiatica group (6 pigs), T. saginata group (8 pigs) and control group (5 pigs). Each animal of experimental groups was infected with 1.5 x 10(5) eggs by stomach injection. On day 15, 32, 46 and 74 after infection, animals were sacrificed and liver samples were collected for further experiments. The liver tissues were sliced for glass slides and prepared for ultrathin sections. The apoptosis of hepatocytes was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick and labeling. The morphological features of liver tissue were observed under transmission electron microscope. The infection rate of two experiment groups reached 100%. Better developed cysticerci were found in liver of T. asiatica group than that of T. saginata group, but the liver pathological changes caused by cysticerci were similar. On day 15 and 32 after infection, hydropic degeneration, obvious vacuolization and some balloon-like degeneration were found in hepatocytes, and focal hepatic necrosis was observed. On day 46, spotty necrosis occurred in some local liver tissues. On day 74, main damages were granulomatous reactions surrounding cysticercus and focal liver fibrosis. On day 46, apoptosis index in T. asiatica group [(15.07 +/- 3.42)6%] and T. saginata group [(17.13 +/- 1.62)5%] was considerably higher than that in the control [(9.53 +/- 1.06)%] (P < 0.05). On day 74, apoptosis index in T. asiatica group [(27.33 +/- 0.92)5%] and T. saginata group [(34.20 +/- 0.73)%] was higher than that in the control [(13.60 +/- 2

  16. Bile canaliculi formation and biliary transport in 3D sandwich-cultured hepatocytes in dependence of the extracellular matrix composition.

    PubMed

    Deharde, Daniela; Schneider, Christin; Hiller, Thomas; Fischer, Nicolas; Kegel, Victoria; Lübberstedt, Marc; Freyer, Nora; Hengstler, Jan G; Andersson, Tommy B; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann; Zeilinger, Katrin; Damm, Georg

    2016-10-01

    CDF from the bile canaliculi into the culture supernatant with variations in dependence on the used matrix combination. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the choice of ECM has an impact on the morphology, cell assembly and bile canaliculi formation in PHH sandwich cultures. The morphology and the multicellular arrangement were essentially influenced by the underlaying matrix, while bile excretion and leakage of sandwich-cultured hepatocytes were mainly influenced by the overlay matrix. Leaking and damaged bile canaliculi could be a limitation of the investigated sandwich culture models in long-term excretion studies.

  17. MicroRNA-122: a novel hepatocyte-enriched in vitro marker of drug-induced cellular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kia, Richard; Kelly, Lorna; Sison-Young, Rowena L C; Zhang, Fang; Pridgeon, Chris S; Heslop, James A; Metcalfe, Pete; Kitteringham, Neil R; Baxter, Melissa; Harrison, Sean; Hanley, Neil A; Burke, Zoë D; Storm, Mike P; Welham, Melanie J; Tosh, David; Küppers-Munther, Barbara; Edsbagge, Josefina; Starkey Lewis, Philip J; Bonner, Frank; Harpur, Ernie; Sidaway, James; Bowes, Joanne; Fenwick, Stephen W; Malik, Hassan; Goldring, Chris E P; Park, B Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Emerging hepatic models for the study of drug-induced toxicity include pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) and complex hepatocyte-non-parenchymal cellular coculture to mimic the complex multicellular interactions that recapitulate the niche environment in the human liver. However, a specific marker of hepatocyte perturbation, required to discriminate hepatocyte damage from non-specific cellular toxicity contributed by non-hepatocyte cell types or immature differentiated cells is currently lacking, as the cytotoxicity assays routinely used in in vitro toxicology research depend on intracellular molecules which are ubiquitously present in all eukaryotic cell types. In this study, we demonstrate that microRNA-122 (miR-122) detection in cell culture media can be used as a hepatocyte-enriched in vitro marker of drug-induced toxicity in homogeneous cultures of hepatic cells, and a cell-specific marker of toxicity of hepatic cells in heterogeneous cultures such as HLCs generated from various differentiation protocols and pluripotent stem cell lines, where conventional cytotoxicity assays using generic cellular markers may not be appropriate. We show that the sensitivity of the miR-122 cytotoxicity assay is similar to conventional assays that measure lactate dehydrogenase activity and intracellular adenosine triphosphate when applied in hepatic models with high levels of intracellular miR-122, and can be multiplexed with other assays. MiR-122 as a biomarker also has the potential to bridge results in in vitro experiments to in vivo animal models and human samples using the same assay, and to link findings from clinical studies in determining the relevance of in vitro models being developed for the study of drug-induced liver injury. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http

  18. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment improves hepatocyte ultrastructure in rat liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Nuket; Tasci, Ilker; Comert, Bilgin; Ocal, Ramazan; Mas, Mehmet Refik

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the ultrastructural changes after ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment in hepatocytes from experimentally induced fibrotic livers. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with CCl4 for 12 wk, and the rats were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with saline and group II with UDCA (25 mg/kg per day) for 4 wk. All the rats were killed at wk 16. Mitochondria, nuclei, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) of hepatocytes were evaluated according to a scoring system. RESULTS: Mitochondria, nuclei, RER and SER injury scores in group II were significantly lower than those in groupI(P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: UDCA alleviates hepatocyte organelle injury in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. PMID:18286695

  19. Primary human hepatocyte culture for the study of HCV.

    PubMed

    O' Connell, J F; Cox, S; Buontempo, P; Skelton, A; Pisarov, L A; Dorko, K; Strom, S C

    1999-01-01

    Research since 1983 has demonstrated that human hepatocytes can be isolated, cultured, and used for biological investigations, including studies of gene transcription and drug metabolism (1,2). In addition, the ability to cyropreserve hepatocytes has facilitated clinical research of hepatitic cell transplantation (3). We have used primary human heptocytes as host tissue for viral infection with hepatitis C. The availability of HCV-infected livers has also allowed for the culturing and analysis of HCV-positive cells. Our laboratory (4) and others (5) have confirmed the ability of these cells to display molecular markers of HCV replication. This chapter will review the basic steps of hepatocyte isolation and culturing and analysis for HCV by RT-PCR. We have also attempted to indicate alternative techniques that may be better suited to an individual investigator's needs.

  20. Alternative Cell Sources to Adult Hepatocytes for Hepatic Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Gómez-Lechón, María José; Tolosa, Laia

    2017-01-01

    Adult hepatocyte transplantation is limited by scarce availability of suitable donor liver tissue for hepatocyte isolation. New cell-based therapies are being developed to supplement whole-organ liver transplantation, to reduce the waiting-list mortality rate, and to obtain more sustained and significant metabolic correction. Fetal livers and unsuitable neonatal livers for organ transplantation have been proposed as potential useful sources of hepatic cells for cell therapy. However, the major challenge is to use alternative cell sources for transplantation that can be derived from reproducible methods. Different types of stem cells with hepatic differentiation potential are eligible for generating large numbers of functional hepatocytes for liver cell therapy to treat degenerative disorders, inborn hepatic metabolic diseases, and organ failure. Clinical trials are designed to fully establish the safety profile of such therapies and to define target patient groups and standardized protocols.

  1. Microcystic cyanobacteria causes mitochondrial membrane potential alteration and reactive oxygen species formation in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, W X; Shen, H M; Shen, Y; Zhu, H G; Ong, C N

    1998-01-01

    Cyanobacteria contamination of water has become a growing public health problem worldwide. Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common toxic cyanobacteria. It is capable of producing microcystins, a group of cyclic heptapeptide compounds with potent hepatotoxicity and tumor promotion activity. The present study investigated the effect of microcystic cyanobacteria on primary cultured rat hepatocytes by examining mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in cells treated with lyophilized freshwater microcystic cyanobacteria extract (MCE). Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) was used as a fluorescent probe for changes in mitochondrial fluorescence intensity. The mitochondrial Rh-123 fluorescence intensity in MCE-treated hepatocytes, examined using a laser confocal microscope, responded in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The results thus indicate that the alteration of MMP might be an important event in the hepatotoxicity caused by cyanobacteria. Moreover, the parallel increase of ROS formation detected using another fluorescent probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate also suggests the involvement of oxidative stress in the hepatotoxicity caused by cyanobacteria. The fact that MMP changes precede other cytotoxic parameters such as nuclear staining by propidium iodide and cell morphological changes suggests that mitochondrial damage is closely associated with MCE-induced cell injury in cultured rat hepatocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9637798

  2. Improvement of the cold storage of isolated human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Pless, Gesine; Sauer, Igor M; Rauen, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Increasing amounts of human hepatocytes are needed for clinical applications and different fields of research, such as cell transplantation, bioartificial liver support, and pharmacological testing. This demand calls for adequate storage options for isolated human liver cells. As cryopreservation results in severe cryoinjury, short-term storage is currently performed at 2-8°C in preservation solutions developed for the storage of solid organs. However, besides slowing down cell metabolism, cold also induces cell injury, which is, in many cell types, iron dependent and not counteracted by current storage solutions. In this study, we aimed to characterize storage injury to human hepatocytes and develop a customized solution for cold storage of these cells. Human hepatocytes were isolated from material obtained from partial liver resections, seeded in monolayer cultures, and, after a preculture period, stored in the cold in classical and new solutions followed by rewarming in cell culture medium. Human hepatocytes displayed cold-induced injury, resulting in >80% cell death (LDH release) after 1 week of cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution or cell culture medium and 3 h of rewarming. Cold-induced injury could be significantly reduced by the addition of the iron chelators deferoxamine and LK 614. Experiments with modified solutions based on the new organ preservation solution Custodiol-N showed that ion-rich variants were better than ion-poor variants, chloride-rich solutions better than chloride-poor solutions, potassium as main cation superior to sodium, and pH 7.0 superior to pH 7.4. LDH release after 2 weeks of cold storage in the thus optimized solution was below 20%, greatly improving cold storage of human hepatocytes. The results were confirmed by the assessment of hepatocellular mitochondrial membrane potential and functional parameters (resazurin reduction, glucagon-stimulated glucose liberation) and thus suggest the use of a customized hepatocyte

  3. In vivo hepatocyte MR imaging using lactose functionalized magnetoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Ketkar-Atre, Ashwini; Struys, Tom; Dresselaers, Tom; Hodenius, Michael; Mannaerts, Inge; Ni, Yicheng; Lambrichts, Ivo; Van Grunsven, Leo A; De Cuyper, Marcel; Himmelreich, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a novel lactose functionalized magnetoliposomes (MLs) as an MR contrast agent to target hepatocytes as well as to evaluate the targeting ability of MLs for in vivo applications. In the present work, 17 nm sized iron oxide cores functionalized with anionic MLs bearing lactose moieties were used for targeting the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-r), which is highly expressed in hepatocytes. Non-functionalized anionic MLs were tested as negative controls. The size distribution of lactose and anionic MLs was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). After intravenous administration of both MLs, contrast enhancement in the liver was observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Label retention was monitored non-invasively by MRI and validated with Prussian blue staining and TEM for up to eight days post MLs administration. Although the MRI signal intensity did not show significant differences between functionalized and non-functionalized particles, iron-specific Prussian blue staining and TEM analysis confirmed the uptake of lactose MLs mainly in hepatocytes. In contrast, non-functionalized anionic MLs were mainly taken up by Kupffer and sinusoidal cells. Target specificity was further confirmed by high-resolution MR imaging of phantoms containing isolated hepatocytes, Kupffer cell (KCs) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) fractions. Hypointense signal was observed for hepatocytes isolated from animals which received lactose MLs but not from animals which received anionic MLs. These data demonstrate that galactose-functionalized MLs can be used as a hepatocyte targeting MR contrast agent to potentially aid in the diagnosis of hepatic diseases if the non-specific uptake by KCs is taken into account. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Notch2 controls hepatocyte-derived cholangiocarcinoma formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingxiao; Dong, Mingjie; Xu, Zhong; Song, Xinhua; Zhang, Shanshan; Qiao, Yu; Che, Li; Gordan, John; Hu, Kaiwen; Liu, Yan; Calvisi, Diego F; Chen, Xin

    2018-03-16

    Liver cancer comprises a group of malignant tumors, among which hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are the most common. ICC is especially pernicious and associated with poor clinical outcome. Studies have shown that a subset of human ICCs may originate from mature hepatocytes. However, the mechanisms driving the trans-differentiation of hepatocytes into malignant cholangiocytes remain poorly defined. We adopted lineage tracing techniques and an established murine hepatocyte-derived ICC model by hydrodynamic injection of activated forms of AKT (myr-AKT) and Yap (YapS127A) proto-oncogenes. Wild-type, Notch1 flox/flox , and Notch2 flox/flox mice were used to investigate the role of canonical Notch signaling and Notch receptors in AKT/Yap-driven ICC formation. Human ICC and HCC cell lines were transfected with siRNA against Notch2 to determine whether Notch2 regulates biliary marker expression in liver tumor cells. We found that AKT/Yap-induced ICC formation is hepatocyte derived and this process is strictly dependent on the canonical Notch signaling pathway in vivo. Deletion of Notch2 in AKT/Yap-induced tumors switched the phenotype from ICC to hepatocellular adenoma-like lesions, while inactivation of Notch1 in hepatocytes did not result in significant histomorphological changes. Finally, in vitro studies revealed that Notch2 silencing in ICC and HCC cell lines down-regulates the expression of Sox9 and EpCAM biliary markers. Notch2 is the major determinant of hepatocyte-derived ICC formation in mice.

  5. Determination of metabolic stability using cryopreserved hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard protocols for isolating, cryopreserving, and thawing rainbow trout hepatocytes are described, along with procedures for using fresh or cryopreserved hepatocytes to assess chemical metabolic stability in fish by means of a substrate depletion approach. Variations on thes...

  6. Interspecies differences in metabolism of arsenic by cultured primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Drobna, Zuzana; Walton, Felecia S.; Harmon, Anne W.

    2010-05-15

    Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in many mammalian species, including the human. However, significant interspecies differences have been reported in the rate of in vivo metabolism of iAs and in yields of iAs metabolites found in urine. Liver is considered the primary site for the methylation of iAs and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in this pathway. Thus, the As3mt-catalyzed methylation of iAs in the liver determines in part the rate and the pattern of iAs metabolism in various species. We examined kinetics and concentration-response patterns for iAsmore » methylation by cultured primary hepatocytes derived from human, rat, mice, dog, rabbit, and rhesus monkey. Hepatocytes were exposed to [{sup 73}As]arsenite (iAs{sup III}; 0.3, 0.9, 3.0, 9.0 or 30 nmol As/mg protein) for 24 h and radiolabeled metabolites were analyzed in cells and culture media. Hepatocytes from all six species methylated iAs{sup III} to methylarsenic (MAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMAs). Notably, dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes were considerably more efficient methylators of iAs{sup III} than mouse, rabbit or human hepatocytes. The low efficiency of mouse, rabbit and human hepatocytes to methylate iAs{sup III} was associated with inhibition of DMAs production by moderate concentrations of iAs{sup III} and with retention of iAs and MAs in cells. No significant correlations were found between the rate of iAs methylation and the thioredoxin reductase activity or glutathione concentration, two factors that modulate the activity of recombinant As3mt. No associations between the rates of iAs methylation and As3mt protein structures were found for the six species examined. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the superior arsenic methylation capacities of dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes examined in this study may be associated with a higher As3mt expression. However, factors other than As3mt expression may also

  7. Microencapsulation of Hepatocytes and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Therapeutic Applications.

    PubMed

    Meier, Raphael P H; Montanari, Elisa; Morel, Philippe; Pimenta, Joël; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Wandrey, Christine; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Mahou, Redouan; Bühler, Leo H

    2017-01-01

    Encapsulated hepatocyte transplantation and encapsulated mesenchymal stem cell transplantation are newly developed potential treatments for acute and chronic liver diseases, respectively. Cells are microencapsulated in biocompatible semipermeable alginate-based hydrogels. Microspheres protect cells against antibodies and immune cells, while allowing nutrients, small/medium size proteins and drugs to diffuse inside and outside the polymer matrix. Microencapsulated cells are assessed in vitro and designed for experimental transplantation and for future clinical applications.Here, we describe the protocol for microencapsulation of hepatocytes and mesenchymal stem cells within hybrid poly(ethylene glycol)-alginate hydrogels.

  8. Oral N-acetylcysteine rescues lethality of hepatocyte-specific Gclc knockout mice providing a model for hepatic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Johansson, Elisabet; Yang, Yi; Miller, Marian L.; Shen, Dongxiao; Orlicky, David J.; Shertzer, Howard G.; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Nebert, Daniel W.; Dalton, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Certain liver diseases have been associated with depletion of glutathione (GSH), the major antioxidant in liver. A recent report about Gclch/h mice having a hepatocyte-specific ablation of Gclc (the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis) has shown an essential role of GSH in hepatic function. Gclch/h mice develop severe steatosis and die of liver failure within one month, due to ~95% depletion of hepatic GSH; mitochondria are the major affected organelles, displaying abnormal ultrastructure and impaired function. Methods Gclch/h mice were fed with L-N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 10 g/L) in drinking water starting at postnatal day 18. Results Gclch/h mice were rescued by NAC supplementation to adulthood. NAC replenished the mitochondrial GSH pool and attenuated mitochondrial damage, accompanied with diminished hepatic steatosis; however, abnormal liver biochemical tests, hepatocytes death and hepatic oxidative stress persisted in the rescued mice. At age 50 days, the liver from rescued Gclch/h mice started to display characteristics of fibrosis, and at age 120 days, macronodular cirrhosis was observed. Immunohistostaining for liver-specific markers and the expression profile of hepatic cytokines indicated that the repopulation of hepatocytes in the cirrhotic nodules involves the expansion of oval cells. Conclusions Replenishment of mitochondrial GSH and restoration of mitochondrial function by NAC prevent mortality caused by loss of hepatocyte GSH de novo synthesis, allowing the progression of steatosis to a chronic stage. Thus, with NAC supplementation, Gclch/h mice provide a model for the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. PMID:20810184

  9. Comparative effects of sulfhydryl compounds on target organellae, nuclei and mitochondria, of hydroxylated fullerene-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshio; Inomata, Akiko; Ogata, Akio; Nakae, Dai

    2015-12-01

    DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by a hydroxylated fullerene [C60 (OH)24 ], which is a spherical nanomaterial and/or a water-soluble fullerene derivative, and their protection by sulfhydryl compounds were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. The exposure of hepatocytes to C60 (OH)24 at a concentration of 50 μM caused time (0 to 3 h)-dependent cell death accompanied by the formation of cell surface blebs, the loss of cellular levels of ATP and reduced glutathione, accumulation of glutathione disulfide, and induction of DNA fragmentation assayed using alkali single-cell agarose-gel electrophoresis. C60 (OH)24 -induced cytotoxicity was effectively prevented by pretreatment with sulfhydryl compounds. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), L-cysteine and L-methionine, at a concentration of 2.5 mM, ameliorated cell death, accompanied by a decrease in cellular ATP levels, formation of cell surface blebs, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential caused by C60 (OH)24 . In addition, DNA fragmentation caused by C60 (OH)24 was also inhibited by NAC, whereas an antioxidant ascorbic acid did not affect C60 (OH)24 -induced cell death and DNA damage in rat hepatocytes. Taken collectively, these results indicate that incubation of rat hepatocytes with C60 (OH)24 elicits DNA damage, suggesting that nuclei as well as mitochondria are target sites of the hydroxylated fullerene; and induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress is ameliorated by an increase in cellular GSH levels, suggesting that the onset of toxic effects may be partially attributable to a thiol redox-state imbalance caused by C60 (OH)24 . Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES.

    S. Lin1, L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo1, C. Wang2, W. R. Cullen2, and D.J. Thomas3. 1Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3National Health and En...

  11. Cryopreservation of rat hepatocytes with disaccharides for cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Liana Monteiro da Fonseca; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Henriques Pons, Andrea; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2017-10-01

    Cryopreservation of hepatocytes is a crucial step in the implementation of cell therapy for treating certain liver diseases. In the present study we investigated the effect of the some disaccharides on the cryopreservation of rat hepatocytes. Liver cells were frozen in media in the presence or absence of low concentrations of Me 2 SO (5% Me 2 SO) supplemented with varying concentrations of disaccharides (sucrose, glucose and trehalose). After 7 days of cryopreservation, the hepatocytes were thawed and viability was measure by exclusion of trypan blue and by the MTT technique, as well as by determining albumin production. Among the investigated disaccharides and concentrations, 0.2 M trehalose showed the best overall outcome. Compared to the use of Me 2 SO alone, significant improvement in post-thaw cell viability was observed. The new solution may reduce Me 2 SO side effects on patients and improve the viability and quality of cryopreserved hepatocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Preparation of hollow fiber bioreactor for culturing pig hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-jie; Liu, Hong-ling; Guo, Hai-tao; Liu, Jun; Wen, Hong-wei; Wang, Yu-ming

    2003-06-01

    To study the method of preparing the hollow fiber bioreactor for culturing pig hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from experimental suckling minipigs by two-step perfusion with collagenase, and seeded onto hollow fiber bioreactor, then cultured with an artificial capillary cell culture system. The albumin-excretion, lidocaine-transforming rate, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and the cell viability in bioreactors were examined. The porcine albumin could be detected by SDS/PAGE on the 2nd, 4th, 6th day. The rates of lidocaine-transforming ranged from 89.6% to 96.1%. The release of LDH into the culture medium increased from (23.7+/-4.6) U/L to (127.8+/-17.4) U/L (F=39.582, P<0.01) during the experiments, and the viability of pig hepatocytes in hollow fiber bioreactor reduced from 95.8%+/-0.3% to 83.8%+/-4.7% (t=5.135, P<0.01). The hollow fiber bioreactor for culturing pig hepatocytes can be prepared by artificial capillary cell culture system, which provides a certain liver-specific function in 1 week.

  13. Hepatocytes: a key cell type for innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhou; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Gao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes, the major parenchymal cells in the liver, play pivotal roles in metabolism, detoxification, and protein synthesis. Hepatocytes also activate innate immunity against invading microorganisms by secreting innate immunity proteins. These proteins include bactericidal proteins that directly kill bacteria, opsonins that assist in the phagocytosis of foreign bacteria, iron-sequestering proteins that block iron uptake by bacteria, several soluble factors that regulate lipopolysaccharide signaling, and the coagulation factor fibrinogen that activates innate immunity. In this review, we summarize the wide variety of innate immunity proteins produced by hepatocytes and discuss liver-enriched transcription factors (e.g. hepatocyte nuclear factors and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins), pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. interleukin (IL)-6, IL-22, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α), and downstream signaling pathways (e.g. signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 and nuclear factor-κB) that regulate the expression of these innate immunity proteins. We also briefly discuss the dysregulation of these innate immunity proteins in chronic liver disease, which may contribute to an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:26685902

  14. 3D Cultivation Techniques for Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anastasia; Moll, Matthias; Gottwald, Eric; Nies, Cordula; Zantl, Roman; Wagner, Helga; Burkhardt, Britta; Sánchez, Juan J. Martínez; Ladurner, Ruth; Thasler, Wolfgang; Damm, Georg; Nussler, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in drug development is the prediction of in vivo toxicity based on in vitro data. The standard cultivation system for primary human hepatocytes is based on monolayer cultures, even if it is known that these conditions result in a loss of hepatocyte morphology and of liver-specific functions, such as drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. As it has been demonstrated that hepatocytes embedded between two sheets of collagen maintain their function, various hydrogels and scaffolds for the 3D cultivation of hepatocytes have been developed. To further improve or maintain hepatic functions, 3D cultivation has been combined with perfusion. In this manuscript, we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different 3D microfluidic devices. For most systems that are currently available, the main issues are the requirement of large cell numbers, the low throughput, and expensive equipment, which render these devices unattractive for research and the drug-developing industry. A higher acceptance of these devices could be achieved by their simplification and their compatibility with high-throughput, as both aspects are of major importance for a user-friendly device. PMID:27600213

  15. TEMPORAL CHANGE IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    TEMPORAL CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY *

    The objective of this study was to examine the reduction in gap junction communication (GJC) in primary hepatocytes due to coincident melatonin and magnetic field treatments to determine if these conditions could prov...

  16. DIFFERENTIATING MECHANISMS OF REACTIVE CHEMICAL TOXICITY IN ISOLATED TROUT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of four quinones, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMONQ), 2-methyl 1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ ),1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), and 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), which redox cycle or arlyate in mammalian cells, was determined in isolated trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Mor...

  17. INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN THE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The liver is the major site for the enzymatic methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in humans. Primary cultures of normal human hepatocytes isolated from tissue obtained at surgery or from donor livers have been used to study interindividual variation in the capacity of live...

  18. A Microfabricated Platform for Generating Physiologically-Relevant Hepatocyte Zonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, William J.; Usta, O. Berk; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2016-05-01

    In vitro liver models have been important tools for more than 40 years for academic research and preclinical toxicity screening by the pharmaceutical industry. Hepatocytes, the highly metabolic parenchymal cells of the liver, are efficient at different metabolic chemistries depending on their relative spatial location along the sinusoid from the portal triad to the central vein. Although replicating hepatocyte metabolic zonation is vitally important for physiologically-relevant in vitro liver tissue and organ models, it is most often completely overlooked. Here, we demonstrate the creation of spatially-controlled zonation across multiple hepatocyte metabolism levels through the application of precise concentration gradients of exogenous hormone (insulin and glucagon) and chemical (3-methylcholanthrene) induction agents in a microfluidic device. Observed gradients in glycogen storage via periodic acid-Schiff staining, urea production via carbamoyl phosphatase synthetase I staining, and cell viability after exposure to allyl alcohol and acetaminophen demonstrated the in vitro creation of hepatocyte carbohydrate, nitrogen, alcohol degradation, and drug conjugation metabolic zonation. This type of advanced control system will be crucial for studies evaluating drug metabolism and toxicology using in vitro constructs.

  19. Hepatocytes: a key cell type for innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhou; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Gao, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocytes, the major parenchymal cells in the liver, play pivotal roles in metabolism, detoxification, and protein synthesis. Hepatocytes also activate innate immunity against invading microorganisms by secreting innate immunity proteins. These proteins include bactericidal proteins that directly kill bacteria, opsonins that assist in the phagocytosis of foreign bacteria, iron-sequestering proteins that block iron uptake by bacteria, several soluble factors that regulate lipopolysaccharide signaling, and the coagulation factor fibrinogen that activates innate immunity. In this review, we summarize the wide variety of innate immunity proteins produced by hepatocytes and discuss liver-enriched transcription factors (e.g. hepatocyte nuclear factors and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins), pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. interleukin (IL)-6, IL-22, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α), and downstream signaling pathways (e.g. signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 and nuclear factor-κB) that regulate the expression of these innate immunity proteins. We also briefly discuss the dysregulation of these innate immunity proteins in chronic liver disease, which may contribute to an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis.

  20. Effect of a herbal protein CI-1, purified from Cajanus indicus on the ultrastructural study of hepatocytes, in models of liver failure in mice.

    PubMed

    Datta, S; Bhattacharyya, P

    2001-09-01

    Ultrastructural changes in acute liver damage models in swiss albino mice (male, 30 g +/-2) induced by CCl(4) (0.1 ml/100 g); beta-galactosamine (500 mg/kg); paracetamol (300-500 mg/kg) and 40% ethanol (2 ml/100 g) were studied. Electron microscopical studies of hepatocytes of treated (hepatotoxins) mice showed-dilation of ER of both rough and smooth type with swollen mitochondria. Ethanol treated mouse hepatocytes showed giant mitochondria and presence of balloon cells. Nuclear changes showed increase in size and striking anisonucleosis, especially in CCl(4) and paracetamol treated mouse hepatocytes. Condensation of chromatin, nucleoli were fragmented and dispersed in beta-galactosamine induced hepatotoxic mice. These changes are remarkably striking in contrast to control animals. Treatment with CI-1, the herbal protein isolated from Cajanus indicus inhibited the pathogenesis of a majority of lesions produced by the hepatotoxins. Slender mitochondria, array of granular ER, presence of binucleated cells are the salient features of CI-1 treated hepatotoxic mice. Ultrastructurally, the hepatocytes of CI-1 treated mice were near normal. Thus, the herbal protein CI-1, may be a useful approach in the treatment of liver disorders for its potential in clinical medicine.

  1. Activation of AMPK by Buddleja officinalis Maxim. Flower Extract Contributes to Protecting Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji Yun; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Chung A.; Jung, Dae Hwa; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2017-01-01

    The Buddleja officinalis Maxim. flower is used in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine to treat inflammation, vascular diseases, headache, and stroke, as well as enhance liver function. This research investigated the effects of B. officinalis Maxim. flower extract (BFE) on hepatotoxicity. The cytoprotective effects and mechanism of BFE against severe mitochondrial dysfunction and H2O2 production in hepatotoxicity induced by coadministration of arachidonic acid (AA) and iron were observed in the HepG2 cell line. In addition, we performed blood biochemical, histopathological, and histomorphometric analyses of mice with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver damage. BFE inhibited the AA + iron-mediated hepatotoxicity of HepG2 cells. Moreover, it inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, H2O2 production, and glutathione depletion mediated by AA + iron in the same cells. Meanwhile, the cytoprotective effects of BFE against oxidative stress were associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In particular, based on the histopathological observations, BFE (30 and 100 mg/kg) showed clear hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced acute hepatic damage. Furthermore, it inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in hepatocytes. These results provide evidence that BFE has beneficial hepatoprotective effects against hepatic damage via the activation of AMPK pathway. Accordingly, BFE may have therapeutic potential for diverse liver disorders. PMID:28473864

  2. Activation of AMPK by Buddleja officinalis Maxim. Flower Extract Contributes to Protecting Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Yun; Lee, Chul Won; Park, Sang Mi; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Chung A; Cho, Il Je; Jung, Dae Hwa; An, Won G; Ku, Sae Kwang; Zhao, Rongjie; Kim, Sang Chan

    2017-01-01

    The Buddleja officinalis Maxim. flower is used in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine to treat inflammation, vascular diseases, headache, and stroke, as well as enhance liver function. This research investigated the effects of B. officinalis Maxim. flower extract (BFE) on hepatotoxicity. The cytoprotective effects and mechanism of BFE against severe mitochondrial dysfunction and H 2 O 2 production in hepatotoxicity induced by coadministration of arachidonic acid (AA) and iron were observed in the HepG2 cell line. In addition, we performed blood biochemical, histopathological, and histomorphometric analyses of mice with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl 4 -) induced acute liver damage. BFE inhibited the AA + iron-mediated hepatotoxicity of HepG2 cells. Moreover, it inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, H 2 O 2 production, and glutathione depletion mediated by AA + iron in the same cells. Meanwhile, the cytoprotective effects of BFE against oxidative stress were associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In particular, based on the histopathological observations, BFE (30 and 100 mg/kg) showed clear hepatoprotective effects against CCl 4 -induced acute hepatic damage. Furthermore, it inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in hepatocytes. These results provide evidence that BFE has beneficial hepatoprotective effects against hepatic damage via the activation of AMPK pathway. Accordingly, BFE may have therapeutic potential for diverse liver disorders.

  3. Co-culture system of hepatocytes and endothelial cells: two in vitro approaches for enhancing liver-specific functions of hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaoxiong; Zheng, Youshi; Wang, Yingchao; Cai, Zhixiong; Liao, Naishun; Liu, Jingfeng; Zhang, Wenmin

    2018-04-19

    Although hepatocyte transplantation and bioartificial liver support system provide new promising opportunities for those patients waiting for liver transplantation, hepatocytes are easily losing liver-specific functions by using the common in vitro cultured methods. The co-culture strategies with mimicking the in vivo microenvironment would facilitate the maintenance of liver-specific functions of hepatocytes. Considering that hepatocytes and endothelial cells (ECs) account for 80-90% of total cell populations in the liver, hepatocytes and ECs were directly co-cultured with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) or adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) at a ratio of 700:150:3 or 14:3:3 in the present study, and the liver-specific functions were carefully analyzed. Our results showed that the two co-culture systems presented the enhanced liver-specific functions through promoting secretion of urea and ALB and increasing the expressions of ALB, CYP3A4 and HNF4α, and the vessel-like structure in the co-culture system consisted of hepatocytes, ECs and ADSCs. Hence, our results suggested that the directly co-culture of hepatocytes and ECs with HSCs or ADSCs could significantly improve liver-specific functions of hepatocytes, and the co-culture system could further promote angiogenesis of ECs at a later stage. Therefore, this study provides potential interesting in vitro strategies for enhancing liver-specific functions of hepatocytes.

  4. Differentiation and Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Basma, Hesham; Soto-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Yannam, Govardhana Rao; Liu, Liping; Ito, Ryotaro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Ellis, Ewa; Carson, Steven D.; Sato, Shintaro; Chen, Yong; Muirhead, David; Navarro-Álvarez, Nalu; Wong, Ron; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta; Platt, Jeffrey L.; Mercer, David F.; Miller, John D.; Strom, Stephen C.; Kobayashi, Noaya; Fox, Ira J.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims The ability to obtain unlimited numbers of human hepatocytes would improve development of cell-based therapies for liver diseases, facilitate the study of liver biology and improve the early stages of drug discovery. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, can potentially differentiate into any cell type and could therefore be developed as a source of human hepatocytes. Methods To generate human hepatocytes, human embryonic stem cells were differentiated by sequential culture in fibroblast growth factor 2 and human Activin-A, hepatocyte growth factor, and dexamethasone. Functional hepatocytes were isolated by sorting for surface asialoglycoprotein receptor expression. Characterization was performed by real-time PCR, imunohistochemistry, immunoblot, functional assays and transplantation. Results Embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes expressed liver-specific genes but not genes representing other lineages, secreted functional human liver-specific proteins similar to those of primary human hepatocytes and demonstrated human hepatocyte cytochrome P450 metabolic activity. Serum from rodents given injections of embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes contained significant amounts of human albumin and alpha-1-antitrypsin. Colonies of cytokeratin-18 and human albumin-expressing cells were present in the livers of recipient animals. Conclusion Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into cells with many characteristics of primary human hepatocytes. Hepatocyte-like cells can be enriched and recovered based on asialoglycoprotein receptor expression and could potentially be used in drug discovery research and developed as therapeutics. PMID:19026649

  5. [The effect of recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor on the functions of rat hepatocytes in primary culture].

    PubMed

    Kamachi, H

    1995-09-01

    The effect of recombinant human Hepatocyte Growth Factor (rhHGF) on gluconeogenesis, urea synthesis, ATP level and total protein amount of rat hepatocytes in primary culture was investigated for 5 days in culture. According to the rhHGF concentration in media (1,5,10 ng/ml), three groups were designed. The group added Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) was chosen as a control group. Gluconeogenesis was increased significantly on day 1 by addition of HGF, not by a concentration dependency fashion, but urea synthesis was not activated by HGF and declined on day 5. ATP levels were maintained and kept high during the culture in the EGF group. But ATP levels in the HGF groups were lower than those of the control and significantly declined on day 5. The same tendency was observed in the total amount of protein. In the EGF group, total amount of protein was maintained throughout the experimental period, but the HGF groups could not keep the amount of protein of day 1 till day 5. Phase contrast microscopic findings also showed detachment and deformity of cells on day 5 in the HGF groups. These results suggested that HGF activated gluconeogenesis of the rat hepatocytes in primary culture in early days, but it did not activate urea synthesis, and prolonged exposure of HGF caused to decline intracellular ATP levels and led to cell death in culture condition, which was speculated that the strong effect on hepatocytes by HGF exhausted cell energy. HGF was thought to be unfavorable in the respect of maintenance of primary cultured hepatocytes, but further studies are needed to confirm this speculation.

  6. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2009-05-01

    L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 {sup o}C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increasesmore » in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.« less

  7. Impaired glutathione-conjugating capacity by cryopreserved human and rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sohlenius-Sternbeck, A-K; Schmidt, S

    2005-07-01

    The activity of glutathione transferase was measured in sonicates of fresh rat hepatocytes and of cryopreserved rat, human and dog hepatocytes in the presence of added glutathione and by using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as non-selective substrate. The glutathione-conjugating capacity was also investigated in the presence of CDNB alone (without glutathione) with intact fresh rat hepatocytes and cryopreserved rat and human hepatocytes. Finally, the intracellular level of glutathione was measured in these hepatocytes. The specific activity of glutathione transferase in sonicates of fresh rat hepatocytes (in the presence of added GSH and CDNB) was about 415 nmol/min/10(6) cells. The corresponding activities in cryopreserved rat, human and dog hepatocytes were approximately 320, 440 and 540 nmol/min/10(6) cells, respectively. In contrast, glutathione conjugation by the intact cryopreserved human and rat hepatocytes in the presence of CDNB alone was less than 10% of the corresponding conjugation by fresh rat hepatocytes, indicating that glutathione was depleted in these cryopreserved hepatocytes. Glutathione depletion was confirmed after analytical measurement of the glutathione levels in fresh and cryopreserved hepatocytes. In fresh rat hepatocytes the level of glutathione was 44 nmol/10(6) cells, whereas it was 2.5 and 4.4 nmol/10(6) cells in cryopreserved rat and human hepatocytes, respectively. In summary, glutathione transferase was active in these cryopreserved hepatocytes but the cryopreservation procedure likely causes depletion in the intracellular level of glutathione, resulting in an overall reduced glutathione conjugating capacity.

  8. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids inOpuntia ficus-indicaFruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n -butanol. The n -butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol- n -butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P x ) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3- O -methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3- O -β- d -glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n -butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-P x . OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).

  9. Idh1 protects murine hepatocytes from endotoxin-induced oxidative stress by regulating the intracellular NADP+/NADPH ratio

    PubMed Central

    Itsumi, M; Inoue, S; Elia, A J; Murakami, K; Sasaki, M; Lind, E F; Brenner, D; Harris, I S; Chio, I I C; Afzal, S; Cairns, R A; Cescon, D W; Elford, A R; Ye, J; Lang, P A; Li, W Y; Wakeham, A; Duncan, G S; Haight, J; You-Ten, A; Snow, B; Yamamoto, K; Ohashi, P S; Mak, T W

    2015-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (Idh1) is an important metabolic enzyme that produces NADPH by converting isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. Idh1 is known to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in cells by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. Here, we used Idh1-deficient knockout (Idh1 KO) mice to investigate the role of Idh1 in antioxidant defense in vivo. Idh1 KO mice showed heightened susceptibility to death induced by LPS and exhibited increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. The serum of LPS-injected Idh1 KO mice also contained elevated levels of AST, a marker of inflammatory liver damage. Furthermore, after LPS injection, livers of Idh1 KO mice showed histological evidence of elevated oxidative DNA damage compared with livers of wild-type (WT) mice. Idh1 KO livers showed a faster and more pronounced oxidative stress than WT livers. In line with that, Idh1 KO hepatocytes showed higher ROS levels and an increase in the NADP+/NADPH ratio when compared with hepatocytes isolated from WT mice. These results suggest that Idh1 has a physiological function in protecting cells from oxidative stress by regulating the intracellular NADP+/NADPH ratio. Our findings suggest that stimulation of Idh1 activity may be an effective therapeutic strategy for reducing oxidative stress during inflammatory responses, including the early stages of septic shock. PMID:25882048

  10. Idh1 protects murine hepatocytes from endotoxin-induced oxidative stress by regulating the intracellular NADP(+)/NADPH ratio.

    PubMed

    Itsumi, M; Inoue, S; Elia, A J; Murakami, K; Sasaki, M; Lind, E F; Brenner, D; Harris, I S; Chio, I I C; Afzal, S; Cairns, R A; Cescon, D W; Elford, A R; Ye, J; Lang, P A; Li, W Y; Wakeham, A; Duncan, G S; Haight, J; You-Ten, A; Snow, B; Yamamoto, K; Ohashi, P S; Mak, T W

    2015-11-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (Idh1) is an important metabolic enzyme that produces NADPH by converting isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. Idh1 is known to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in cells by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. Here, we used Idh1-deficient knockout (Idh1 KO) mice to investigate the role of Idh1 in antioxidant defense in vivo. Idh1 KO mice showed heightened susceptibility to death induced by LPS and exhibited increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. The serum of LPS-injected Idh1 KO mice also contained elevated levels of AST, a marker of inflammatory liver damage. Furthermore, after LPS injection, livers of Idh1 KO mice showed histological evidence of elevated oxidative DNA damage compared with livers of wild-type (WT) mice. Idh1 KO livers showed a faster and more pronounced oxidative stress than WT livers. In line with that, Idh1 KO hepatocytes showed higher ROS levels and an increase in the NADP(+)/NADPH ratio when compared with hepatocytes isolated from WT mice. These results suggest that Idh1 has a physiological function in protecting cells from oxidative stress by regulating the intracellular NADP(+)/NADPH ratio. Our findings suggest that stimulation of Idh1 activity may be an effective therapeutic strategy for reducing oxidative stress during inflammatory responses, including the early stages of septic shock.

  11. Logging damage

    Treesearch

    Ralph D. Nyland

    1989-01-01

    The best commercial logging will damage at least some residual trees during all forms of partial cutting, no matter how carefully done. Yet recommendations at the end of this Note show there is much that you can do to limit damage by proper road and trail layout, proper training and supervision of crews, appropriate equipment, and diligence.

  12. [Current status and future perspectives of hepatocyte transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Maupoey, Javier; San Juan, Fernando; López, Rafael; Mir, Jose

    2014-02-01

    The imbalance between the number of potential beneficiaries and available organs, originates the search for new therapeutic alternatives, such as Hepatocyte transplantation (HT).Even though this is a treatment option for these patients, the lack of unanimity of criteria regarding indications and technique, different cryopreservation protocols, as well as the different methodology to assess the response to this therapy, highlights the need of a Consensus Conference to standardize criteria and consider future strategies to improve the technique and optimize the results.Our aim is to review and update the current state of hepatocyte transplantation, emphasizing the future research attempting to solve the problems and improve the results of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fiskum, G; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-06-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staining material from the cytosol by digitonin treatment of the cells greatly enhances the visualization of the cytoskeleton. The use of this technique, together with immunofluorescent light microscopy, has verified the presence of an actin-containing filamentous network at the hepatocyte cortex as well as intermediate filaments distributed throughout the cell. Digitonin is thus useful both for selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane and for intensifying the appearance of intracellular structures such as microfilaments that are normally difficult to observe in cells such as hepatocytes.

  14. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Fiskum, G; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staining material from the cytosol by digitonin treatment of the cells greatly enhances the visualization of the cytoskeleton. The use of this technique, together with immunofluorescent light microscopy, has verified the presence of an actin-containing filamentous network at the hepatocyte cortex as well as intermediate filaments distributed throughout the cell. Digitonin is thus useful both for selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane and for intensifying the appearance of intracellular structures such as microfilaments that are normally difficult to observe in cells such as hepatocytes. Images PMID:6997878

  15. Transplantation of hepatocytes in nonhuman primates: a preclinical model for the treatment of hepatic metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Vons, C; Loux, N; Simon, L; Mahieu-Caputo, D; Dagher, I; Andreoletti, M; Borgnon, J; Di Rico, V; Bargy, F; Capron, F; Weber, A; Franco, D

    2001-09-15

    The transplantation of isolated hepatocytes in large animals, including nonhuman primates, must be evaluated before clinical trials are performed. However, in the absence of large transgenic animals and large-animal (as opposed to small-animal) models of genetic deficiencies, it is difficult to evaluate the fate of transplanted hepatocytes, their localization, survival, and function within the parenchyma of the host liver. In this work, we aimed to develop a technique for delivering hepatocytes to the liver of a nonhuman primate and to evaluate their localization and functionality in the short term. A 20% hepatectomy was performed in 34 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and hepatocytes were isolated. Hepatocytes were labeled in vitro with a recombinant retrovirus expressing the beta-galactosidase gene and returned to the liver by infusion through a portal catheter left in place. Liver biopsies were performed 4 and 7 d after transplantation. Twenty-four monkeys underwent surgery to define the necessary technical adjustments and to optimize conditions. Six monkeys died. The whole protocol, including the transplantation of genetically marked hepatocytes and procurement of liver biopsies, was performed in the remaining 10 monkeys. In eight monkeys, transplanted hepatocytes expressing the beta-galactosidase gene were widely distributed in the portal tracts, sinusoids, and hepatocyte plates of the host liver 4 and 7 d after transplantation. We have developed an experimental nonhuman primate model for the evaluation of hepatocyte transplantation. We demonstrated the engraftment and functioning of transplanted hepatocytes in the host liver 4 and 7 d after transplantation.

  16. Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeom, Chul-gon; Kim, Dong-il; Park, Min-jung

    2015-06-05

    Previously, we reported that CARM1 undergoes ubiquitination-dependent degradation in renal podocytes. It was also reported that CARM1 is necessary for fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that treatment with insulin, a hormone typically present under the ‘fed’ condition, would inhibit gluconeogenesis via CARM1 degradation. HepG2 cells, AML-12 cells, and rat primary hepatocytes were treated with insulin to confirm CARM1 downregulation. Surprisingly, insulin treatment increased CARM1 expression in all cell types examined. Furthermore, treatment with insulin increased histone 3 methylation at arginine 17 and 26 in HepG2 cells. To elucidate the role of insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation, the HA-CARM1more » plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells. CARM1 overexpression did not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins generally increased by insulin signaling. Moreover, CARM1 knockdown did not influence insulin sensitivity. Insulin is known to facilitate hepatic proliferation. Like insulin, CARM1 overexpression increased CDK2 and CDK4 expression. In addition, CARM1 knockdown reduced the number of insulin-induced G2/M phase cells. Moreover, GFP-CARM1 overexpression increased the number of G2/M phase cells. Based on these results, we concluded that insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation. These observations indicate that CARM1 plays an important role in liver pathophysiology. - Highlights: • Insulin treatment increases CARM1 expression in hepatocytes. • CARM1 overexpression does not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins. • CARM1 knockdown does not influence insulin sensitivity. • Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation.« less

  17. TRPM2 channels mediate acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Kheradpezhouh, Ehsan; Ma, Linlin; Morphett, Arthur; Barritt, Greg J; Rychkov, Grigori Y

    2014-02-25

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most frequently used analgesic and antipyretic drug available over the counter. At the same time, acetaminophen overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure and the leading cause of chronic liver damage requiring liver transplantation in developed countries. Acetaminophen overdose causes a multitude of interrelated biochemical reactions in hepatocytes including the formation of reactive oxygen species, deregulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis, covalent modification and oxidation of proteins, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation. Although an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in hepatocytes is a known consequence of acetaminophen overdose, its importance in acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity is not well understood, primarily due to lack of knowledge about the source of the Ca(2+) rise. Here we report that the channel responsible for Ca(2+) entry in hepatocytes in acetaminophen overdose is the Transient Receptor Potential Melanostatine 2 (TRPM2) cation channel. We show by whole-cell patch clamping that treatment of hepatocytes with acetaminophen results in activation of a cation current similar to that activated by H2O2 or the intracellular application of ADP ribose. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TRPM2 in hepatocytes inhibits activation of the current by either acetaminophen or H2O2. In TRPM2 knockout mice, acetaminophen-induced liver damage, assessed by the blood concentration of liver enzymes and liver histology, is significantly diminished compared with wild-type mice. The presented data strongly suggest that TRPM2 channels are essential in the mechanism of acetaminophen-induced hepatocellular death.

  18. TRPM2 channels mediate acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpezhouh, Ehsan; Ma, Linlin; Morphett, Arthur; Barritt, Greg J.; Rychkov, Grigori Y.

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most frequently used analgesic and antipyretic drug available over the counter. At the same time, acetaminophen overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure and the leading cause of chronic liver damage requiring liver transplantation in developed countries. Acetaminophen overdose causes a multitude of interrelated biochemical reactions in hepatocytes including the formation of reactive oxygen species, deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, covalent modification and oxidation of proteins, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation. Although an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in hepatocytes is a known consequence of acetaminophen overdose, its importance in acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity is not well understood, primarily due to lack of knowledge about the source of the Ca2+ rise. Here we report that the channel responsible for Ca2+ entry in hepatocytes in acetaminophen overdose is the Transient Receptor Potential Melanostatine 2 (TRPM2) cation channel. We show by whole-cell patch clamping that treatment of hepatocytes with acetaminophen results in activation of a cation current similar to that activated by H2O2 or the intracellular application of ADP ribose. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TRPM2 in hepatocytes inhibits activation of the current by either acetaminophen or H2O2. In TRPM2 knockout mice, acetaminophen-induced liver damage, assessed by the blood concentration of liver enzymes and liver histology, is significantly diminished compared with wild-type mice. The presented data strongly suggest that TRPM2 channels are essential in the mechanism of acetaminophen-induced hepatocellular death. PMID:24569808

  19. Cholangiocarcinoma in Cirrhosis: Value of Hepatocyte Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Piscaglia, Fabio; Iavarone, Massimo; Galassi, Marzia; Vavassori, Sara; Renzulli, Matteo; Forzenigo, Laura Virginia; Granito, Alessandro; Salvatore, Veronica; Sangiovanni, Angelo; Golfieri, Rita; Colombo, Massimo; Bolondi, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma (ICC) remains elusive at imaging, which is a critical issue in cirrhotic patients in whom a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be established only by imaging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of MRI in the diagnosis of ICC in cirrhosis using 'hepatocyte-specific' Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents. Sixteen histologically proven and retrospectively identified ICCs on cirrhosis were investigated with hepatocyte-specific magnetic resonance contrast agents (6 in Bologna with Gd-EOB-DTPA and 10 in Milan with Gd-BOPTA). The control group consisted of 41 consecutively and prospectively collected nodules (31 HCCs) imaged with Gd-EOB-DTPA. Fifteen ICC nodules (94%) displayed hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase, suggesting malignancy. Thirteen cholangiocarcinomas (81%) showed hyperenhancement in the venous phase. Only 2 cholangiocarcinoma nodules showed hypoenhancement in the venous phase, corresponding to washout, in both cases preceded by rim enhancement in arterial phase. All the hepatocarcinomas showed hypointensity in hepatobiliary phase, but was always preceded by hypointensity in the venous phase; arterial rim enhancement was never observed in any hepatocarcinoma or regenerative nodule. MRI with hepatocyte-specific Gd-based contrast agents showed a pattern of malignancy in almost all the ICCs, concurrently avoiding misdiagnosis with hepatocarcinoma. These findings suggest a greater diagnostic capacity for this technique compared with the results of MRI with conventional contrast agents reported in the literature in this setting. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Adropin induction of lipoprotein lipase expression in tilapia hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lian, Anji; Wu, Keqiang; Liu, Tianqiang; Jiang, Nan; Jiang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    The peptide hormone adropin plays a role in energy homeostasis. However, biological actions of adropin in non-mammalian species are still lacking. Using tilapia as a model, we examined the role of adropin in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) regulation in hepatocytes. To this end, the structural identity of tilapia adropin was established by 5'/3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The transcripts of tilapia adropin were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues with the highest levels in the liver and hypothalamus. The prolonged fasting could elevate tilapia hepatic adropin gene expression, whereas no effect of fasting was observed on hypothalamic adropin gene levels. In primary cultures of tilapia hepatocytes, synthetic adropin was effective in stimulating LPL release, cellular LPL content, and total LPL production. The increase in LPL production also occurred with parallel rises in LPL gene levels. In parallel experiments, adropin could elevate cAMP production and up-regulate protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC activities. Using a pharmacological approach, cAMP/PKA and PLC/inositol trisphosphate (IP3)/PKC cascades were shown to be involved in adropin-stimulated LPL gene expression. Parallel inhibition of p38MAPK and Erk1/2, however, were not effective in these regards. Our findings provide, for the first time, evidence that adropin could stimulate LPL gene expression via direct actions in tilapia hepatocytes through the activation of multiple signaling mechanisms. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Regorafenib impairs mitochondrial functions, activates AMP-activated protein kinase, induces autophagy, and causes rat hepatocyte necrosis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Zuquan; Luo, Yong; Yang, Xi; Greenhaw, James J; Li, Haibo; Xie, Liming; Mattes, William B; Shi, Qiang

    2015-01-02

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor regorafenib was approved by regulatory agencies for cancer treatment, albeit with strong warnings of severe hepatotoxicity included in the product label. The basis of this toxicity is unknown; one possible mechanism, that of mitochondrial damage, was tested. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, regorafenib directly uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and promoted calcium overload-induced swelling, which were respectively prevented by the recoupler 6-ketocholestanol (KC) and the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore blocker cyclosporine A (CsA). In primary hepatocytes, regorafenib uncoupled OXPHOS, disrupted mitochondrial inner membrane potential (MMP), and decreased cellular ATP at 1h, and triggered MPT at 3h, which was followed by necrosis but not apoptosis at 7h and 24h, all of which were abrogated by KC. The combination of the glycolysis enhancer fructose plus the mitochondrial ATPase synthase inhibitor oligomycin A abolished regorafenib induced necrosis at 7h. This effect was not seen at 24h nor with the fructose or oligomycin A separately. CsA in combination with trifluoperazine, both MPT blockers, showed similar effects. Two compensatory mechanisms, activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to ameliorate ATP shortage and induction of autophagy to remove dysfunctional mitochondria, were found to be mobilized. Hepatocyte necrosis was enhanced either by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C or the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine, while autophagy inducer rapamycin was strongly cytoprotective. Remarkably, all toxic effects were observed at clinically-relevant concentrations of 2.5-15μM. These data suggest that uncoupling of OXPHOS and the resulting ATP shortage and MPT induction are the key mechanisms for regorafenib induced hepatocyte injury, and AMPK activation and autophagy induction serve as pro-survival pathways against such toxicity. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Toxicological Profiling of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Liver Context Reveals Pyroptosis in Kupffer Cells and Macrophages versus Apoptosis in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Sun, Bingbing; Chang, Chong Hyun; Liao, Yu-Pei; Jiang, Wen; Jiang, Jinhong; Liu, Xiangsheng; Wang, Xiang; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2018-03-19

    The liver and the mononuclear phagocyte system are a frequent target for engineered nanomaterials, either as a result of particle uptake and spread from primary exposure sites or systemic administration of therapeutic and imaging nanoparticles. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the toxicological impact of 29 metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), some commonly used in consumer products, in transformed or primary Kupffer cells (KCs) and hepatocytes. We not only observed differences between KCs and hepatocytes, but also differences in the toxicological profiles of transition-metal oxides (TMOs, e. g., Co 3 O 4 ) versus rare-earth oxide (REO) NPs ( e. g., Gd 2 O 3 ). While pro-oxidative TMOs induced the activation of caspases 3 and 7, resulting in apoptotic cell death in both cell types, REOs induced lysosomal damage, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, caspase 1 activation, and pyroptosis in KCs. Pyroptosis was accompanied by cell swelling, membrane blebbing, IL-1β release, and increased membrane permeability, which could be reversed by knockdown of the pore forming protein, gasdermin D. Though similar features were not seen in hepatocytes, the investigation of the cytotoxic effects of REO NPs could also be seen to affect macrophage cell lines such as J774A.1 and RAW 264.7 cells as well as bone marrow-derived macrophages. These phagocytic cell types also demonstrated features of pyroptosis and increased IL-1β production. Collectively, these findings demonstrate important mechanistic considerations that can be used for safety evaluation of metal oxides, including commercial products that are developed from these materials.

  3. A Dual Role of Caspase-8 in Triggering and Sensing Proliferation-Associated DNA Damage, a Key Determinant of Liver Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Boege, Yannick; Malehmir, Mohsen; Healy, Marc E; Bettermann, Kira; Lorentzen, Anna; Vucur, Mihael; Ahuja, Akshay K; Böhm, Friederike; Mertens, Joachim C; Shimizu, Yutaka; Frick, Lukas; Remouchamps, Caroline; Mutreja, Karun; Kähne, Thilo; Sundaravinayagam, Devakumar; Wolf, Monika J; Rehrauer, Hubert; Koppe, Christiane; Speicher, Tobias; Padrissa-Altés, Susagna; Maire, Renaud; Schattenberg, Jörn M; Jeong, Ju-Seong; Liu, Lei; Zwirner, Stefan; Boger, Regina; Hüser, Norbert; Davis, Roger J; Müllhaupt, Beat; Moch, Holger; Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Werner, Sabine; Borsig, Lubor; Luther, Sanjiv A; Jost, Philipp J; Weinlich, Ricardo; Unger, Kristian; Behrens, Axel; Hillert, Laura; Dillon, Christopher; Di Virgilio, Michela; Wallach, David; Dejardin, Emmanuel; Zender, Lars; Naumann, Michael; Walczak, Henning; Green, Douglas R; Lopes, Massimo; Lavrik, Inna; Luedde, Tom; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Weber, Achim

    2017-09-11

    Concomitant hepatocyte apoptosis and regeneration is a hallmark of chronic liver diseases (CLDs) predisposing to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we mechanistically link caspase-8-dependent apoptosis to HCC development via proliferation- and replication-associated DNA damage. Proliferation-associated replication stress, DNA damage, and genetic instability are detectable in CLDs before any neoplastic changes occur. Accumulated levels of hepatocyte apoptosis determine and predict subsequent hepatocarcinogenesis. Proliferation-associated DNA damage is sensed by a complex comprising caspase-8, FADD, c-FLIP, and a kinase-dependent function of RIPK1. This platform requires a non-apoptotic function of caspase-8, but no caspase-3 or caspase-8 cleavage. It may represent a DNA damage-sensing mechanism in hepatocytes that can act via JNK and subsequent phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun; Choi, Dongho

    2017-02-01

    The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6-8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 10 7 hepatocytes with 80%-90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin , HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers.

  5. Partial blockage of hepatocyte maturation in hepatoma-derived growth factor transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Hirayuki; Nakamura, Hideji; Komatsu-Kanatani, Naoko; Liu, Yu; Yoshida, Kenya; Okuda, Yorihide; Yamamoto, Teruhisa; Liu, Weidong; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2009-10-31

    To investigate the role of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) in liver development, especially in the hepatocyte differentiation. We generated transgenic mice which overexpressed HDGF in hepatocytes under the transcriptional control of mouse albumin promoter/enhancer. To examine the effects of HDGF overexpression on hepatocyte differentiation, we investigated the expression patterns of the differentiation marker genes. The HDGF transgenic mice developed normally and showed no apparent abnormality in the liver. However, the gene expression patterns of the liver in adult transgenic mice were similar to those of the neonatal liver in control mice. These findings suggest that HDGF-overexpression partially suppresses hepatocyte maturation.

  6. DNA synthesis in periportal and perivenous hepatocytes of intact and hepatectomized young mice.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Blanco, A; Inda, A M; Errecalde, A L

    2015-01-01

    DNA synthesis of hepatocytes in two areas of Intact and Hepatectomized young mice liver along a circadian period was studied. DNA synthesis was significantly different at all analyzed time points in Intact and Hepatectomized animals. Differences between periportal and perivenous hepatocytes were found in hepatectomized animals at 04/42 and 08/46 hr of day/hour post-hepatectomy. DNAs peak in periportal hepatocytes regenerating liver occurs 4 hr earlier than in perivenous hepatocytes, probably reflecting their shorter G1 phase. Besides, daily mean values of regenerating livers were higher than those observed in Intact animals, as a consequence of surgical removal.

  7. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. Methods To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6–8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 107 hepatocytes with 80%–90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Results Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin, HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Conclusion Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers. PMID:28203553

  8. The influence of different cultivation conditions on the metabolic functionality of encapsulated primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, S; Glöckner, P; Bader, A

    2007-03-01

    The clinical application of bioartificial liver support systems (BALS) is still limited because of technical problems associated with the storage, transport and scale-up of common systems. The encapsulation of primary hepatocytes could solve these problems since the scale-up depends only on the number of the beads and encapsulation leads to protection of the cells during the process of freezing and thawing. Many efforts have been made to find an appropriate material for the encapsulation of primary hepatocytes in terms of mechanical resistance as well as appropriate bio- and hemo-compatibility. This study focuses on the improvement of the metabolic functionality of encapsulated primary hepatocytes. A comparison between two different cultivation models showed that dynamic cultivation conditions lead to a 20.4-fold increase in the albumin production and a 5.21-fold increase in the urea synthesis of encapsulated hepatocytes. Furthermore, the influence of different ratios of the number of the cells to the volume of the media was analyzed. Encapsulated hepatocytes cultured with a high amount of medium were characterized by a significantly higher metabolic activity compared to encapsulated hepatocytes cultured with a low level of medium. Interestingly, the cell concentration per mL alginate has no significant influence on the metabolic activity of encapsulated hepatocytes. In conclusion, different optimization strategies are discussed and, finally, the functionality of encapsulated hepatocytes is compared to the standard model of hepatocyte culture, the collagen sandwich.

  9. FOXA2 alleviates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis by protecting hepatocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Li-Jia; Shen, Weifeng; Ding, Kai; Shi, Pei-Mei; Chen, Fei; He, Jin; Ding, Jin; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Wei-Fen

    2017-11-14

    The liver-enriched transcription factor Forkhead Box A2 (FOXA2) has been reported to be involved in bile acid homeostasis and bile duct development. However, the role of FOXA2 in liver fibrogenesis remains undefined. In this study, we found that the abundance of FOXA2 was significantly lower in fibrotic livers of patients and mice treated with CCl 4 than in controls. Interestingly, the expression level of FOXA2 decreased in hepatocytes, whereas FOXA2 was elevated in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of mouse fibrotic livers. Hepatocyte-specific ablation of FOXA2 in adult mice exacerbated liver fibrosis induced by CCl 4 . Either lentivirus LV-CMV-FOXA2 mediated FOXA2 overexpression in the liver or adeno-associated virus AAV8-TBG-FOXA2-mediated hepatocyte-specific upregulation of FOXA2 alleviated hepatic fibrosis. Overexpression of FOXA2 in HSCs did not obviously affect hepatic fibrogenesis. Additionally, FOXA2 knockout in hepatocytes resulted in aberrant transcription of metabolic genes. Furthermore, hepatocyte-specific knockout of FOXA2 enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and the apoptosis of hepatocytes, whereas FOXA2 overexpression in hepatocytes suppressed ER stress and hepatocyte apoptosis in mouse fibrotic livers. In conclusion, our findings suggested that FOXA2-mediated hepatocyte protection has a therapeutic role in hepatic fibrosis, and thus may be a new, promising anti-fibrotic option for treating chronic liver diseases.

  10. Protective effects of antioxidant vitamins on Aroclor 1254-induced toxicity in cultured chicken embryo hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Caiqin; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2005-08-01

    Primary culture of chicken embryo hepatocytes (CEHs) was established to reveal toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and attenuating effects of antioxidants vitamin E (VE), vitamin C (VC) and vitamin A (VA) on PCBs-induced cytotoxicity. CEHs were dispersed from 14-day-old chicken embryo livers and exposed to Aroclor 1254 (A1254) in the range of 0.1-10 microg/ml, A1254 (10 microg/ml) and each vitamin (10 microg/ml) for 24 h. Cell viability was evaluated by determinations of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. The antioxidant status, namely cellular lipid peroxidation, was evaluated by measuring the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathion (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The cultured CEHs maintained normal polygonal cell shape and formed confluent monolayer after 24-h culture. A1254 (10 microg/ml) caused irreversible damage to cell membrane integrity and induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. It induced increased TBARS production, decreased SOD activity and GSH concentration. VE, VC and VA alone or combinations of VE+VC and VE+VA significantly attenuated A1254-induced toxic effects, which suggested that lipid peroxidation was involved in the sequence of events leading to A1254-induced damage or death of the cultured CEHs. These results indicated that CEHs in serum-free culture represented a suitable model for rapid toxicity assessment of environmental pollutants such as PCBs in a visible manner. Antioxidant vitamins displayed protective effects on CEHs from A1254-induced damage through preventing lipid peroxidation.

  11. [Oxidative stress of human derived fetal hepatocytes induced by product of chlorinated drinking water (MX)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lihong; Zou, Yaling; Lai, Ruiping; Fan, Guanyu

    2007-03-01

    To study the oxidative stress induced by 3-chloro-4-( dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 [5H]-furanone (MX) (a product of chlorinated drinking water) in human derived fetal hepatocytes (L-02) in vitro. L-02 cells were treated at the doses of 10, 30, 100 and 300 micromol/L of MX for 24h. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), the representative of antioxidative molecules and the marker of DNA oxidative damage respectively, were detected in L-02 cell treated by MX. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as solvent control. (1) The content of MDA was significantly increased in L-02 cells etreated by MX at the doses of 30, 100, 300 micromol/L in comparison with solvent control. (2) The level of GSH was significantly decreased and the level of 8-OHdG was significantly increased in L-02 cells treated by MX at the concentration of 100, 300 micromol/L in comparison with solvent control. (3) There was a striking positive association between MDA content and 8-OHdG level (r = 0.767, P < 0.01) and a negative association between GSH level and 8-OHdG level (r = 0.761, P < 0.01) in L-02 cells treated by MX at the doses from 0 to 300 micromol/L. MX could induce oxidative stress in L-02 cells including increases of lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidative damage, and weakened effect of antioxidation. DNA oxidative damage in L-02 cells might be associated with lipid peroxidation and the weakening of antioxidation induced by MX.

  12. Nucleation and growth of ice crystals inside cultured hepatocytes during freezing in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, J O; Cravalho, E G; Borel Rinkes, I H; Tompkins, R G; Yarmush, M L; Toner, M

    1993-01-01

    A three-part, coupled model of cell dehydration, nucleation, and crystal growth was used to study intracellular ice formation (IIF) in cultured hepatocytes frozen in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Heterogeneous nucleation temperatures were predicted as a function of DMSO concentration and were in good agreement with experimental data. Simulated freezing protocols correctly predicted and explained experimentally observed effects of cooling rate, warming rate, and storage temperature on hepatocyte function. For cells cooled to -40 degrees C, no IIF occurred for cooling rates less than 10 degrees C/min. IIF did occur at faster cooling rates, and the predicted volume of intracellular ice increased with increasing cooling rate. Cells cooled at 5 degrees C/min to -80 degrees C were shown to undergo nucleation at -46.8 degrees C, with the consequence that storage temperatures above this value resulted in high viability independent of warming rate, whereas colder storage temperatures resulted in cell injury for slow warming rates. Cell damage correlated positively with predicted intracellular ice volume, and an upper limit for the critical ice content was estimated to be 3.7% of the isotonic water content. The power of the model was limited by difficulties in estimating the cytosol viscosity and membrane permeability as functions of DMSO concentration at low temperatures. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8312489

  13. Copper induces hepatocyte injury due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured cells and patients with Wilson disease

    SciTech Connect

    Oe, Shinji, E-mail: ooes@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Miyagawa, Koichiro, E-mail: koichiro@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Honma, Yuichi, E-mail: y-homma@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2016-09-10

    Copper is an essential trace element, however, excess copper is harmful to human health. Excess copper-derived oxidants contribute to the progression of Wilson disease, and oxidative stress induces accumulation of abnormal proteins. It is known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in proper protein folding, and that accumulation of misfolded proteins disturbs ER homeostasis resulting in ER stress. However, copper-induced ER homeostasis disturbance has not been fully clarified. We treated human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) and immortalized-human hepatocyte cell line (OUMS29) with copper and chemical chaperones, including 4-phenylbutyrate and ursodeoxycholic acid. We examined copper-induced oxidative stress, ERmore » stress and apoptosis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, we examined the effects of copper on carcinogenesis. Excess copper induced not only oxidative stress but also ER stress. Furthermore, excess copper induced DNA damage and reduced cell proliferation. Chemical chaperones reduced this copper-induced hepatotoxicity. Excess copper induced hepatotoxicity via ER stress. We also confirmed the abnormality of ultra-structure of the ER of hepatocytes in patients with Wilson disease. These findings show that ER stress plays a pivotal role in Wilson disease, and suggests that chemical chaperones may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Wilson disease.« less

  14. [High replicated hepatitis B virus induces apoptosis of hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Ben; Han, Jin-Chao; Gao, Yan; Wei, Lai

    2008-03-25

    To investigate the effects of high level hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication on the hepatocytes. QSG-7701 cells. Human hepatocytes of the line QSG-7701 were cultured and transfected with the plasmid pUC18-HBV1.2 or pUC18 containing 1.2 full length HBV DNA by the standard calcium phosphate precipitation method. Other QSG-7701 cells were transfected with the plasmid pUC18 as controls. Cell growth curves were drawn for 7 days after transfection. Four 4 days after transfection, HBV DNA in the culture medium was detected by using fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR. Cell apoptosis was detected by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and electronic microscopy. Differential expressed genes were analyzed by using Oliga signal pathway micro-array. The curves of cell growth showed that the amount of control QSG-7701 cells increased by (8.3 +/- 1.2) times, significantly faster than the pUC18-HBV1. 2 transfected QSG-7701 cells that increased only by (1.1 +/- 0.2) times (P < 0.01). Four days after transfection, the HBsAg positive rate of the pUC18-HBV1.2 transfected cells was 35.4% +/- 6.7%, and the apoptotic rate was 15.2% +/- 4.3%. The HBV DNA level in the culture supernatant peaked 4 days adder transfection with the maximum value of (5.8 +/- 2.6) x 10(6) copies/ml. Genes related to cell growth and apoptosis, such as CASP3 (2.7981) ,CASP7 (2.2643), 3-Apr (3.5013), CDC2 (0.4380), MAPK6 (0.4447), and MAP3K2 (0.2785), were differentially expressed. High replicated HBV markedly inhibits the growth of hepatocytes and induces cell apoptosis.

  15. Noninvasive imaging of liver repopulation following hepatocyte transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Sarah; Krause, Petra; Hosseini, Ali Seif Amir; Dullin, Christian; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Kimmina, Sarah; Entwistle, Andrew Lee; Hermann, Robert Michael; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Becker, Heinz; Christiansen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) optical imaging is a technique particularly powerful when studying in vivo processes at the molecular level in preclinical animal models. We recently demonstrated liver irradiation under the additional stimulus of partial hepatectomy as being an effective primer in the rat liver repopulation model based on hepatocyte transplantation. The purpose of this study was to assess optical imaging and the feasibility of donor cell expansion tracking in vivo using a fluorescent probe. Livers of dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPPIV)-deficient rats were preconditioned with irradiation. Four days later, a partial hepatectomy was performed and wild-type (DPPIV+) hepatocytes were transplanted into recipient livers via the spleen. Repopulation by transplanted DPPIV+ hepatocytes was detected in vivo with Cy5.5-conjugated DPPIV antibody using the eXplore Optix System (GE HealthCare). Results were compared with nontransplanted control animals and transplanted animals receiving nonspecific antibody. Optical imaging detected Cy5.5-specific fluorescence in the liver region of the transplanted animals, increasing in intensity with time, representing extensive host liver repopulation within 16 weeks following transplantation. A general pattern of donor cell multiplication emerged, with an initially accelerating growth curve and later plateau phase. In contrast, no specific fluorescence was detected in the control groups. Comparison with ex vivo immunofluorescence staining of liver sections confirmed the optical imaging results. Optical imaging constitutes a potent method of assessing the longitudinal kinetics of liver repopulation in the rat transplantation model. Our results provide a basis for the future development of clinical protocols for suitable fluorescent dyes and imaging technologies.

  16. Noninvasive Imaging of Liver Repopulation following Hepatocyte Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Sarah; Krause, Petra; Hosseini, Ali Seif Amir; Dullin, Christian; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Kimmina, Sarah; Entwistle, Andrew Lee; Hermann, Robert Michael; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Becker, Heinz; Christiansen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) optical imaging is a technique particularly powerful when studying in vivo processes at the molecular level in preclinical animal models. We recently demonstrated liver irradiation under the additional stimulus of partial hepatectomy as being an effective primer in the rat liver repopulation model based on hepatocyte transplantation. The purpose of this study was to assess optical imaging and the feasibility of donor cell expansion tracking in vivo using a fluorescent probe. Livers of dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPPIV)-deficient rats were preconditioned with irradiation. Four days later, a partial hepatectomy was performed and wild-type (DPPIV + ) hepatocytes were transplanted into recipient livers via the spleen. Repopulation by transplanted DPPIV + hepatocytes was detected in vivo with Cy5.5-conjugated DPPIV antibody using the eXplore Optix ™ System (GE HealthCare). Results were compared with nontransplanted control animals and transplanted animals receiving nonspecific antibody. Optical imaging detected Cy5.5-specific fluorescence in the liver region of the transplanted animals, increasing in intensity with time, representing extensive host liver repopulation within 16 weeks following transplantation. A general pattern of donor cell multiplication emerged, with an initially accelerating growth curve and later plateau phase. In contrast, no specific fluorescence was detected in the control groups. Comparison with ex vivo immunofluorescence staining of liver sections confirmed the optical imaging results. Optical imaging constitutes a potent method of assessing the longitudinal kinetics of liver repopulation in the rat transplantation model. Our results provide a basis for the future development of clinical protocols for suitable fluorescent dyes and imaging technologies.

  17. Contextualizing Hepatocyte Functionality of Cryopreserved HepaRG Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jonathan P.; Li, Linhou; Chamberlain, Erica D.; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade HepaRG cells have emerged as a promising alternative to primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and have been featured in over 300 research publications. Most of these reports employed freshly differentiated HepaRG cells that require time-consuming culture (∼28 days) for full differentiation. Recently, a cryopreserved, predifferentiated format of HepaRG cells (termed here “cryo-HepaRG”) has emerged as a new model that improves global availability and experimental flexibility; however, it is largely unknown whether HepaRG cells in this format fully retain their hepatic characteristics. Therefore, we systematically investigated the hepatocyte functionality of cryo-HepaRG cultures in context with the range of interindividual variation observed with PHH in both sandwich-culture and suspension formats. These evaluations uncovered a novel adaptation period for the cryo-HepaRG format and demonstrated the impact of extracellular matrix on cryo-HepaRG functionality. Pharmacologically important drug-metabolizing alleles were genotyped in HepaRG cells and poor metabolizer alleles for CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A5 were identified and consistent with higher frequency alleles found in individuals of Caucasian decent. We observed liver enzyme inducibility with aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and pregnane X receptor activators comparable to that of sandwich-cultured PHH. Finally, we show for the first time that cryo-HepaRG supports proper CAR cytosolic sequestration and translocation to hepatocyte nuclei in response to phenobarbital treatment. Taken together, these data reveal important considerations for the use of this cell model and demonstrate that cryo-HepaRG are suitable for metabolism and toxicology screening. PMID:27338863

  18. Cytotoxicity of 34 FDA approved small-molecule kinase inhibitors in primary rat and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Ren, Lijun; Yang, Xi; White, Matthew; Greenhaw, James; Harris, Tashika; Wu, Qiangen; Bryant, Matthew; Papoian, Thomas; Mattes, William; Shi, Qiang

    2018-04-12

    Of the 34 FDA approved oral small-molecule kinase inhibitors (KI), 23 (68%) have warnings for hepatotoxicity in product labeling. To better understand the mechanisms of KI hepatotoxicity and whether such effects can be predicted, we examined 34 KIs for cytotoxicity in primary rat and human hepatocytes. The hepatocytes were treated with KIs at ten concentrations normalized to maximal therapeutic blood levels (Cmax). At 5 and 24 h post treatment, lactate dehydrogenase or alanine aminotransferase leakage, caspase 3/7 activities and cellular adenosine triphosphate levels were measured. At 1 to 100-fold Cmax, while 5 KIs were neither toxic to human nor rat hepatocytes, 3 KIs showed similar cytotoxicity in both species and 26 KIs showed species-biased cytotoxicity, with 16 KIs being more toxic to human hepatocytes and 10 KIs being more toxic to rat hepatocytes. At concentrations of 1-, 2.5-, 5-, 10-, 100-fold Cmax, the number of cytotoxic KIs in human hepatocytes was 4, 8, 11, 14 and 27, respectively, and the corresponding number in rat hepatocytes was 1, 4, 9, 12 and 27, respectively. When hepatocyte cytotoxicity at 100-fold Cmax was used to predict KI clinical hepatotoxicity reflected in product labeling, the accuracy was 0.65 with human hepatocytes and 0.59 with rat cells. When the criterion of daily dose ≥100 mg or Cmax ≥1.1 μM was used to predict KI hepatotoxicity, the accuracy was 0.56 or 0.47, respectively. These results suggest both indirect and direct drug-induced hepatocyte toxicity may contribute to the mechanisms of KI-induced hepatotoxicity seen clinically and use of primary hepatocytes is a useful in vitro model to help predict such toxicity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Hepatocyte growth factor promotes liver regeneration and protein synthesis after hepatectomy in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Y; Hamanoue, M; Tanabe, G; Mitsue, S; Yoshidome, S; Nuruki, K; Aikou, T

    2001-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor, a potent mitogen for hepatocytes has been reported to be a hepatrophic factor in normal livers. In this study, the effect of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor on liver regeneration in cirrhotic rats was investigated, in vitro and in vivo. Liver cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal injections of an emulsion, carbon tetrachloride and olive oil, twice weekly for 10 weeks. In vitro, various amounts of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor; 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 ng/mL; were added to the hepatocytes isolated using in situ perfusion method. In vivo, partial hepatectomy (Hx), according to the procedure described by Higgins and Anderson, was performed on cirrhotic rats. Saline solution (control group) or 3 micrograms/kg of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor (HGF group) was then injected through the tail vein at intervals 12 hours after Hx. In vitro, DNA synthesis in hepatocytes obtained from cirrhotic livers increased following exogenous hepatocyte growth factor in dose-dependent fashion. In vivo, the labeling index of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine at 24 hours after Hx was markedly increased by exogenous hepatocyte growth factor (control, 10.0 +/- 3.1%; hepatocyte growth factor, 25.8 +/- 9.8%; P < 0.01). Furthermore, serum albumin at 24 and 72 hours and a normotest at 24 hours after Hx, were significantly higher in the HGF group than in the control group. These results indicate that exogenous hepatocyte growth factor may promote DNA synthesis and protein synthesis during liver regeneration after Hx with cirrhosis.

  20. Hepatic Hyperplasia Associated with Discordant Xenogeneic Parenchymal-Nonparenchymal Interactions in Human Hepatocyte-Repopulated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Utoh, Rie; Tateno, Chise; Kataoka, Miho; Tachibana, Asato; Masumoto, Norio; Yamasaki, Chihiro; Shimada, Takashi; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2010-01-01

    Liver mass is optimized in relation to body mass. Rat (r) and human (h) hepatocytes were transplanted into liver-injured immunodeficient mice and allowed to proliferate for 3 or 11 weeks, respectively, when the transplants stopped proliferating. Liver/body weight ratio was normal throughout in r-hepatocyte-bearing mice (r-hep-mice), but increased continuously in h-hepatocyte-bearing mice (h-hep-mice), until reaching approximately three times the normal m-liver size, which was considered to be hyperplasia of h-hepatocytes because there were no significant differences in cell size among host (mouse [m-]) and donor (r- and h-) hepatocytes. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type I receptor, TGF-β type II receptor, and activin A type IIA receptor mRNAs in proliferating r-hepatocytes of r-hep-mice were lower than in resting r-hepatocytes (normal levels) and increased to normal levels during the termination phase. Concomitantly, m-hepatic stellate cells began to express TGF-β proteins. In stark contrast, TGF-β type II receptor and activin A type IIA receptor mRNAs in h-hepatocytes remained low throughout and m-hepatic stellate cells did not express TGF-β in h-hep-mice. As expected, Smad2 and 3 translocated into nuclei in r-hep-mice but not in h-hep-mice. Histological analysis showed a paucity of m-stellate cells in h-hepatocyte colonies of h-hep-mouse liver. We conclude that m-stellate cells are able to normally interact with concordant r-hepatocytes but not with discordant h-hepatocytes, which seems to be at least partly responsible for the failure of the liver size optimization in h-hep-mice. PMID:20522646

  1. Identification of early target genes of aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes, inter-individual variability and comparison with other genotoxic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Josse, Rozenn; Dumont, Julie; Fautrel, Alain

    2012-01-15

    Gene expression profiling has recently emerged as a promising approach to identify early target genes and discriminate genotoxic carcinogens from non-genotoxic carcinogens and non-carcinogens. However, early gene changes induced by genotoxic compounds in human liver remain largely unknown. Primary human hepatocytes and differentiated HepaRG cells were exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that induces DNA damage following enzyme-mediated bioactivation. Gene expression profile changes induced by a 24 h exposure of these hepatocyte models to 0.05 and 0.25 μM AFB1 were analyzed by using oligonucleotide pangenomic microarrays. The main altered signaling pathway was the p53 pathway and related functions such as cellmore » cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. Direct involvement of the p53 protein in response to AFB1 was verified by using siRNA directed against p53. Among the 83 well-annotated genes commonly modulated in two pools of three human hepatocyte populations and HepaRG cells, several genes were identified as altered by AFB1 for the first time. In addition, a subset of 10 AFB1-altered genes, selected upon basis of their function or tumor suppressor role, was tested in four human hepatocyte populations and in response to other chemicals. Although they exhibited large variable inter-donor fold-changes, several of these genes, particularly FHIT, BCAS3 and SMYD3, were found to be altered by various direct and other indirect genotoxic compounds and unaffected by non-genotoxic compounds. Overall, this comprehensive analysis of early gene expression changes induced by AFB1 in human hepatocytes identified a gene subset that included several genes representing potential biomarkers of genotoxic compounds. -- Highlights: ► Gene expression profile changes induced by aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes. ► AFB1 modulates various genes including tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. ► Important inter-individual variations in the response to AFB1. ► Some genes also altered

  2. Effects of methylmercury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes: Cell injury and inhibition of growth factor stimulated DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tanno, Keiichi; Fukazawa, Toshiyuki; Tajima, Shizuko

    1992-08-01

    Many more studies deal with the toxicity of methylmercury on nervous tissue than on its toxicity to the liver. Methylmercury accumulates in the liver in higher concentrations than brain and the liver has the primary function of detoxifying methylmercury. According to recent studies, hepatocyte mitochondrial membranes are destroyed by methylmercury and DNA synthesis is inhibited by methylmercury during hepatocyte regeneration. Methylmercury alters the membrane ion permeability of isolate skate hepatocytes, and inhibits the metal-sensitive alcohol dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase of primary cultured rat hepatocytes. However, little is known about the effect of methylmercury on hepatocyte proliferation in primary cultured ratmore » hepatocytes. We therefore used the primary cultured rat hepatocytes to investigate the effects of methylmercury on cell injury and growth factor stimulate DNA synthesis. The primary effect of methylmercury is to inhibit hepatocyte proliferation rather than to cause direct cell injury. 16 refs., 4 figs.« less

  3. The effect of laurel leaf extract against toxicity induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyikoglu, Fatime

    2011-12-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a very toxic environmental pollutant that raises great public concern about its impact on human health. Recent studies indicate that laurel leaf extract exhibits antioxidant properties that can counter the toxic effects of certain compounds in the liver. The aim of this study was to assess how effective LE is against the toxicity of TCDD in a primary culture of rat hepatocytes. The extract (50 mg L(-1), 100 mg L(-1), and 200 mg L(-1)) was added to cultures alone or with TCDD (1.61 mg L(-1) and 3.22 mg L(-1)) for 48 hours. Cell viability was measured using the [3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay, while oxidative damage was assessed by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS). DNA damage was also analysed using the micronucleus (MN) assay of the cultured hepatocytes. TCDD alone lowered, and laurel extract had no effect on cell viability. TCDD also increased TOS and significantly decreased TAC. It significantly increased the frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In cultures exposed to LE alone, TOS did not change and TAC significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Added to TCDD, laurel countered its toxic effects and showed protective effects against TCDD-mediated DNA damage. This points to the therapeutic potential of laurel against TCDD toxicity in the liver.

  4. Hepatocyte hollow-fibre bioreactors: design, set-up, validation and applications.

    PubMed

    Planchamp, Corinne; Vu, Thanh L; Mayer, Joachim M; Reist, Marianne; Testa, Bernard

    2003-09-01

    Hepatocytes carry out many vital biological functions, such as synthetic and catabolic reactions, detoxification and excretion. Due to their ability to restore a tissue-like environment, hollow-fibre bioreactors (HFBs) show great potential among the different systems used to culture hepatocytes. Several designs of HFBs have been proposed in which hepatocytes or hepatocyte-derived cell lines can be cultured in suspensions or on a solid support. Currently the major use of hepatocyte HFBs is as bioartificial livers to sustain patients suffering from acute liver failure, but they can also be used to synthesize cell products and as cellular models for drug metabolism and transport studies. Here, we present an overview of the set-up of hepatocyte HFBs and aim to provide potential users with the basic knowledge necessary to develop their own system. First, general information on HFBs is given, including basic principles, transport phenomena, designs and cell culture conditions. The importance of the tests necessary to assess the performance of the HFBs, i.e. the viability and functionality of hepatocytes, is underlined. Special attention is paid to drug metabolism studies and to adequate analytical methods. Finally, the potential uses of hepatocyte HFBs are described.

  5. High Efficient Differentiation of Functional Hepatocytes from Porcine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Ying; Mich-Basso, Jocelyn Danielle; Lin, Bo; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is considered to be a promising therapy for patients with liver diseases. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide an unlimited source for the generation of functional hepatocytes. In this study, we generated iPSCs from porcine ear fibroblasts (PEFs) by overexpressing Sox2, Klf4, Oct4, and c-Myc (SKOM), and developed a novel strategy for the efficient differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells from porcine iPSCs by following the processes of early liver development. The differentiated cells displayed the phenotypes of hepatocytes, exhibited classic hepatocyte-associated bio-functions, such as LDL uptake, glycogen storage and urea secretion, as well as possessed the metabolic activities of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A and 2C. Furthermore, we compared the hepatocyte differentiation efficacy of our protocol with another published method, and the results demonstrated that our differentiation strategy could significantly improve the generation of morphological and functional hepatocyte-like cells from porcine iPSCs. In conclusion, this study establishes an efficient method for in vitro generation of functional hepatocytes from porcine iPSCs, which could represent a promising cell source for preclinical testing of cell-based therapeutics for liver failure and for pharmacological applications. PMID:24949734

  6. Maintenance of Human Hepatocyte Function In Vitro by Liver-Derived Extracellular Matrix Gels

    PubMed Central

    Sellaro, Tiffany L.; Ranade, Aarati; Faulk, Denver M.; McCabe, George P.; Dorko, Kenneth; Strom, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TE&RM) approaches to treating liver disease have the potential to provide temporary support with biohybrid-liver-assist devices or long-term therapy by replacing the diseased liver with functional constructs. A rate-limiting step for TE&RM strategies has been the loss of hepatocyte-specific functions after hepatocytes are isolated from their highly specialized in vivo microenvironment and placed in in vitro culture systems. The identification of a biologic substrate that can maintain a functional hepatocyte differentiation profile during in vitro culture would advance potential TE&RM therapeutic strategies. The present study compared two different biologic substrates for their ability to support human hepatocyte function in vitro: porcine-liver-derived extracellular matrix (PLECM) or MatrigelTM. Because Matrigel has been shown to be the most useful matrix for static, traditional hepatocyte culture, we directly compared PLECM with Matrigel in each experiment. Albumin secretion, hepatic transport activity, and ammonia metabolism were used to determine hepatocyte function. Hepatocytes cultured between two layers of PLECM or Matrigel showed equally high levels of albumin expression and secretion, ammonia metabolism, and hepatic transporter expression and function. We conclude that like Matrigel, PLECM represents a favorable substrate for in vitro culture of human hepatocytes. PMID:19845461

  7. Interactions between macrophage/Kupffer cells and hepatocytes in surgical sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    West, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the role of Kupffer cell/macrophage interactions with hepatocytes in modulating liver function during infections using direct in vitro cocultivation of rat macrophages or Kupffer cells with rat hepatocytes. Protein synthesis was assayed as a sensitive indicator of integrated hepatocellular function by measuring {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into hepatocyte protein. Septic stimuli such as lipoploysaccharide and killed bacteria were added to cocultures of hepatocytes and macrophages or Kupffer cells and the responses compared to hepatocytes alone. Information about the types of proteins synthesized by hepatocytes under various culture conditions was determined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography.more » These experiments showed that septic stimuli alter the amount and type of protein synthesized by hepatocytes and had no direct effect on hepatocytes in the absence of macrophages or Kupffer cells. The mediator(s) appears to be a heat labile, soluble monokine(s) which is distinct from interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor. The important role of Kupffer cells/macrophages in mediating alterations in hepatocellular function in sepsis may ultimately improve patient care.« less

  8. Application of isolated hepatocytes to studies of drug metabolism in large food animals.

    PubMed

    Shull, L R; Kirsch, D G; Lohse, C L; Wisniewski, J A

    1987-03-01

    A definitive hazard assessment of xenobiotics translocated through food animals into edible products such as meat or milk requires a complete analysis of metabolism in food animals. However, large animal metabolism studies present many experimental difficulties. None of several in vitro alternatives such as subcellular fractions has been established as an acceptable predictor of in vivo metabolism. The feasibility of using isolated hepatocytes to predict the metabolism of xenobiotics, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in large ruminant animals (e.g. cattle) is being studied in our laboratory. A procedure was developed for isolating hepatocytes aseptically from the caudate process of the liver which was obtained surgically from 100-125 kg calves. A modified two-step vascular perfusion procedure provides hepatocyte suspensions that are typically greater than or equal to 85% viable and greater than or equal to 1 X 10(7) viable hepatocytes/g of liver (wet wt). Xenobiotic metabolism has been evaluated in suspensions and primary cultures using aldrin epoxidation, ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation, and 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronidation and sulfation. Metabolic activities are relatively short-lived in suspensions less than or equal to 4 h, but quite stable up to 10 h when cultured on collagen-coated plates in chemically defined medium. Bovine hepatocytes behave similarly in culture to rodent hepatocytes. Although primary culturing of hepatocytes is more difficult than suspensions, primarily due to the asepsis requirements, it is the method of choice for xenobiotic metabolism determinations in isolated hepatocytes of cattle.

  9. High throughput micro-well generation of hepatocyte micro-aggregates for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Elien; Dollé, Laurent; Billiet, Thomas; Dubruel, Peter; van Grunsven, Leo; van Apeldoorn, Aart; Cornelissen, Ria

    2014-01-01

    The main challenge in hepatic tissue engineering is the fast dedifferentiation of primary hepatocytes in vitro. One successful approach to maintain hepatocyte phenotype on the longer term is the cultivation of cells as aggregates. This paper demonstrates the use of an agarose micro-well chip for the high throughput generation of hepatocyte aggregates, uniform in size. In our study we observed that aggregation of hepatocytes had a beneficial effect on the expression of certain hepatocyte specific markers. Moreover we observed that the beneficial effect was dependent on the aggregate dimensions, indicating that aggregate parameters should be carefully considered. In a second part of the study, the selected aggregates were immobilized by encapsulation in methacrylamide-modified gelatin. Phenotype evaluations revealed that a stable hepatocyte phenotype could be maintained during 21 days when encapsulated in the hydrogel. In conclusion we have demonstrated the beneficial use of micro-well chips for hepatocyte aggregation and the size-dependent effects on hepatocyte phenotype. We also pointed out that methacrylamide-modified gelatin is suitable for the encapsulation of these aggregates.

  10. High Throughput Micro-Well Generation of Hepatocyte Micro-Aggregates for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Gevaert, Elien; Dollé, Laurent; Billiet, Thomas; Dubruel, Peter; van Grunsven, Leo; van Apeldoorn, Aart; Cornelissen, Ria

    2014-01-01

    The main challenge in hepatic tissue engineering is the fast dedifferentiation of primary hepatocytes in vitro. One successful approach to maintain hepatocyte phenotype on the longer term is the cultivation of cells as aggregates. This paper demonstrates the use of an agarose micro-well chip for the high throughput generation of hepatocyte aggregates, uniform in size. In our study we observed that aggregation of hepatocytes had a beneficial effect on the expression of certain hepatocyte specific markers. Moreover we observed that the beneficial effect was dependent on the aggregate dimensions, indicating that aggregate parameters should be carefully considered. In a second part of the study, the selected aggregates were immobilized by encapsulation in methacrylamide-modified gelatin. Phenotype evaluations revealed that a stable hepatocyte phenotype could be maintained during 21 days when encapsulated in the hydrogel. In conclusion we have demonstrated the beneficial use of micro-well chips for hepatocyte aggregation and the size-dependent effects on hepatocyte phenotype. We also pointed out that methacrylamide-modified gelatin is suitable for the encapsulation of these aggregates. PMID:25133500

  11. Abnormal mitochondria in hepatocytes in human fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P

    1977-05-01

    Liver biopsies from fatty livers in thirty patients whose daily alcohol consumption was excessive, or they were in a diabetic state or overweight, and liver biopsies from seven control patients not presenting the above disorders, were studied by light microscopy 0.75 micronm EPON embedded, toluidine blue stained sections, and electron microscopy. Abnormal mitochondria were rarely found in normal liver tissue and, if present, they were found only in periportal hepatocytes. The frequency of hepatocytes containing abnormal mitochondria was significantly higher in fatty liver than in normal liver (p less than 0.01). These cells were usually localized periportally, practically never in the centre of the lobule (p less than 0.01). The occurrence of abnormal mitochondria was not correlated with the degree of steatosis, and the increase in number of abnormal mitochondria was equally high in alcoholists, diabetics, and overweight subjects. The ultrastructural appearance and the periportal localization suggest a hyperfunction of the mitochondria, which may prevent a development of steatosis in these areas.

  12. Metabolism of reverse triiodothyronine by isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rooda, S J; van Loon, M A; Visser, T J

    1987-01-01

    Reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) is metabolized predominantly by outer ring deiodination to 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2) in the liver. Metabolism of rT3 and 3,3'-T2 by isolated rat hepatocytes was analyzed by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, and radioimmunoassay, with closely agreeing results. Deiodinase activity was inhibited with propylthiouracil (PTU) and sulfotransferase activity by sulfate depletion or addition of salicylamide or dichloronitrophenol. Normally, little 3,3'-T2 production from rT3 was observed, and 125I- was the main product of both 3,[3'-125I]T2 and [3',5'-125I]rT3. PTU inhibited rT3 metabolism but did not affect 3,3'-T2 clearance as explained by accumulation of 3,3'-T2 sulfate. Inhibition of sulfation did not affect rT3 clearance but 3,3'-T2 metabolism was greatly diminished. The decrease in I- formation from rT3 was compensated by an increased recovery of 3,3'-T2 up to 70% of rT3 metabolized. In conclusion, significant production of 3,3'-T2 from rT3 by rat hepatocytes is only observed if further sulfation is inhibited. PMID:3584467

  13. Methamphetamine enhances Hepatitis C virus replication in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ye, L; Peng, J S; Wang, X; Wang, Y J; Luo, G X; Ho, W Z

    2008-04-01

    Very little is known about the interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and methamphetamine, which is a highly abused psychostimulant and a known risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV infection. This study examined whether methamphetamine has the ability to inhibit innate immunity in the host cells, facilitating HCV replication in human hepatocytes. Methamphetamine inhibited intracellular interferon alpha expression in human hepatocytes, which was associated with the increase in HCV replication. In addition, methamphetamine also compromised the anti-HCV effect of recombinant interferon alpha. Further investigation of mechanism(s) responsible for the methamphetamine action revealed that methamphetamine was able to inhibit the expression of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, a key modulator in interferon-mediated immune and biological responses. Methamphetamine also down-regulated the expression of interferon regulatory factor-5, a crucial transcriptional factor that activates the interferon pathway. These in vitro findings that methamphetamine compromises interferon alpha-mediated innate immunity against HCV infection indicate that methamphetamine may have a cofactor role in the immunopathogenesis of HCV disease.

  14. Myosin Vb mediates Cu+ export in polarized hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arnab; Schell, Michael J.; Bhattacharjee, Ashima; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Hubbard, Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cellular machinery responsible for Cu+-stimulated delivery of the Wilson-disease-associated protein ATP7B to the apical domain of hepatocytes is poorly understood. We demonstrate that myosin Vb regulates the Cu+-stimulated delivery of ATP7B to the apical domain of polarized hepatic cells, and that disruption of the ATP7B-myosin Vb interaction reduces the apical surface expression of ATP7B. Overexpression of the myosin Vb tail, which competes for binding of subapical cargos to myosin Vb bound to subapical actin, disrupted the surface expression of ATP7B, leading to reduced cellular Cu+ export. The myosin-Vb-dependent targeting step occurred in parallel with hepatocyte-like polarity. If the myosin Vb tail was expressed acutely in cells just prior to the establishment of polarity, it appeared as part of an intracellular apical compartment, centered on γ-tubulin. ATP7B became selectively arrested in this compartment at high [Cu+] in the presence of myosin Vb tail, suggesting that these compartments are precursors of donor–acceptor transfer stations for apically targeted cargos of myosin Vb. Our data suggest that reduced hepatic Cu+ clearance in idiopathic non-Wilsonian types of disease might be associated with the loss of function of myosin Vb. PMID:26823605

  15. Hepatocytes Express Nerve Growth Factor during Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Fiona; Trim, Nathan; Constandinou, Christothea M.; Ye, Weilan; Gray, Alane M.; Frantz, Gretchen; Hillan, Kenneth; Kendall, Tim; Benyon, R. Christopher; Mann, Derek A.; Iredale, John P.

    2003-01-01

    A key feature of recovery from liver fibrosis is hepatic stellate cell (HSC) apoptosis, which serves the dual function of removing the major source of neomatrix and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases thereby facilitating matrix degradation. The mechanisms regulating HSC apoptosis remain undefined but may include the interaction of nerve growth factor (NGF) with its receptor, p75, on HSC. In this study, by TaqMan polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that NGF is expressed by hepatocytes during fibrotic injury. Peak hepatocyte expression of NGF (48 hours after CCl4 injection) coincides with maximal rate of apoptosis of HSC by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling staining. Addition of recombinant NGF to HSC in tissue culture causes a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis. NGF regulates nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, reducing p50/p65 binding detected by electromobility shift assay and reduced NF-κB CAT reporter activities from both basal unstimulated levels and after NF-κB induction by tumor necrosis factor. In each case, a relative reduction in NF-κB binding was associated with a significant increase in caspase 3 activity. These data provide evidence that NGF is expressed during fibrotic liver injury and may regulate number of activated HSCs via induction of apoptosis. PMID:14578185

  16. Identification of glutathione conjugates of troglitazone in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Saileta; Fackett, Andrew; Lloyd, Scott; McClellan, Holly A; Terrell, Chris M; Silber, Paul M; Li, Albert P

    2002-11-10

    Troglitazone (TGZ) is an orally active antihyperglycemic agent used in the treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Several cases of liver failure following TGZ administration led to its withdrawal from the market. The mechanism of toxicity is still not understood. The formation of toxic metabolites is believed to play an important role. Herein, we report the biotransformation of TGZ in human hepatocytes. TGZ at 50 microM concentration was incubated with cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Four metabolites were found-glucuronide, sulfate, and two glutathione (GSH) conjugates of TGZ. The two GSH metabolites could be conjugation at the 6-hydroxychromane nucleus and the thiazolidinedione ring. Alternatively, the conjugation could be one of the two rings, with the two GSH metabolites are diastereomers. The sulfate conjugate was the major metabolite found. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitors furafylline (CYP1A1/2), omeprazole (CYP2C19), ketoconazole (CYP3A4), and sulfaphenazole (CYP2C9) had no inhibitory effect on the TGZ metabolism suggesting that several P450s may play a role in the TGZ metabolic pathway. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown a large interindividual variation between different donors in cytotoxicity after dosing with TGZ. Based on EC(50) values, donors were classified as sensitive or resistant. The sensitive human donors were found to form significantly less troglitazone GSH conjugates and glucuronides than the resistant donors.

  17. Metformin Protects Rat Hepatocytes against Bile Acid-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Woudenberg-Vrenken, Titia E.; Conde de la Rosa, Laura; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han

    2013-01-01

    Background Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Both AMPK and mTOR are able to modulate cell death. Aim To evaluate the effects of metformin on hepatocyte cell death. Methods Apoptotic cell death was induced in primary rat hepatocytes using either the bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) or TNFα in combination with actinomycin D (actD). AMPK, mTOR and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt were inhibited using pharmacological inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by caspase activation, acridine orange staining and Sytox green staining respectively. Results Metformin dose-dependently reduces GCDCA-induced apoptosis, even when added 2 hours after GCDCA, without increasing necrotic cell death. Metformin does not protect against TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of metformin is dependent on an intact PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, but does not require AMPK/mTOR-signaling. Metformin does not inhibit NF-κB activation. Conclusion Metformin protects against bile acid-induced apoptosis and could be considered in the treatment of chronic liver diseases accompanied by inflammation. PMID:23951244

  18. Measurement of Blood Coagulation Factor Synthesis in Cultures of Human Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Stefan; Braspenning, Joris

    2015-01-01

    An important function of the liver is the synthesis and secretion of blood coagulation factors. Within the liver, hepatocytes are involved in the synthesis of most blood coagulation factors, such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, as well as protein C and S, and antithrombin, whereas liver sinusoidal endothelial cells produce factor VIII and von Willebrand factor. Here, we describe methods for the detection and quantification of most blood coagulation factors in hepatocytes in vitro. Hepatocyte cultures indeed provide a valuable tool to study blood coagulation factors. In addition, the generation and expansion of hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cells may be used in future for cell-based therapies of liver diseases, including blood coagulation factor deficiencies.

  19. Transfer of 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate as oxidizing potential from hepatocytes to erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, C H; Yeh, G C; Phang, J M

    1982-01-01

    The interconversions of proline and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate form an intercellular cycle that is the basis of a metabolic interaction between hepatocytes and erythrocytes. The cycle transfers oxidizing potential from hepatocytes to erythrocytes, which stimulates pentose phosphate pathway in erythrocytes. This interaction depends on the differential metabolism of proline and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate in erythrocytes and hepatocytes and consists of the following: in hepatocytes proline oxidase converts proline into 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, which is released into the medium and taken up by erythrocytes; erythrocyte 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase converts 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate into proline and concomitantly generates NADP+; the generated oxidizing potential drives glucose metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway in erythrocytes; finally, erythrocytes release proline into the medium, enabling it to re-enter hepatocytes and repeat the cycle. The increased activity of the pentose phosphate pathway in erythrocytes may enhance the production of 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, a necessary moiety for the processing of purines. PMID:7082315

  20. Involvement of Reactive Metabolites of Diclofenac in Cytotoxicity in Sandwich-Cultured Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Ryota; Shibata, Mai; Shimada, Hiroaki; Iwaki, Masahiro

    Diclofenac (DIC) is metabolized to reactive metabolites such as diclofenac acyl-β-d-glucuronide (DIC-AG). It is possible that such reactive metabolites could cause tissue damage by formation of covalent protein adducts and other modification of cellular proteins or by induction of immune responses against its covalent protein adducts. However, the detailed mechanisms of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) have been unclear. The objective is to clarify the involvement of DIC-AG and 4'hydroxydiclofenac (4'OH-DIC) in acute DILI. We examined the effects of inhibiting DIC-AG and 4'OH-DIC production on covalent protein adduct formation and lactate dehydrogenase leakage using sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes (SCRHs). After pretreatment of SCRH with (-)-borneol (BOR, a uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase inhibitor) or sulfaphenazole (SUL, a cytochrome P450 2C9 inhibitor) for 30 minutes, intracellular concentrations of DIC, DIC-AG, and 4'OH-DIC were determined after further treating cells with 300 μM DIC for 3 hours. The decreased levels of reactive metabolites caused by BOR or SUL pretreatment resulted in decreased lactate dehydrogenase leakage from SCRH, although the formation of covalent protein adducts was not affected. These results suggested that both DIC-AG and 4'OH-DIC may be involved in acute cytotoxicity by DIC.

  1. Cellular and molecular etiology of hepatocyte injury in a murine model of environmentally induced liver abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Al-Griw, M.A.; Alghazeer, R.O.; Al-Azreg, S.A.; Bennour, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposures to a wide variety of environmental substances are negatively associated with many biological cell systems both in humans and rodents. Trichloroethane (TCE), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, is used in large quantities as a dissolvent, metal degreaser, chemical intermediate, and component of consumer products. This increases the likelihood of human exposure to these compounds through dermal, inhalation and oral routes. The present in vivo study was aimed to investigate the possible cellular and molecular etiology of liver abnormality induced by early exposure to TCE using a murine model. The results showed a significant increase in liver weight. Histopathological examination revealed a TCE-induced hepatotoxicity which appeared as heavily congested central vein and blood sinusoids as well as leukocytic infiltration. Mitotic figures and apoptotic changes such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragments were also identified. Cell death analysis demonstrates hepatocellular apoptosis was evident in the treated mice compared to control. TCE was also found to induce oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation, an oxidative stress marker. There was also a significant decrease in the DNA content of the hepatocytes of the treated groups compared to control. Agarose gel electrophoresis also provided further biochemical evidence of apoptosis by showing internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the liver cells, indicating oxidative stress as the cause of DNA damage. These results suggest the need for a complete risk assessment of any new chemical prior to its arrival into the consumer market. PMID:27800299

  2. Cellular and molecular etiology of hepatocyte injury in a murine model of environmentally induced liver abnormality.

    PubMed

    Al-Griw, M A; Alghazeer, R O; Al-Azreg, S A; Bennour, E M

    2016-01-01

    Exposures to a wide variety of environmental substances are negatively associated with many biological cell systems both in humans and rodents. Trichloroethane (TCE), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, is used in large quantities as a dissolvent, metal degreaser, chemical intermediate, and component of consumer products. This increases the likelihood of human exposure to these compounds through dermal, inhalation and oral routes. The present in vivo study was aimed to investigate the possible cellular and molecular etiology of liver abnormality induced by early exposure to TCE using a murine model. The results showed a significant increase in liver weight. Histopathological examination revealed a TCE-induced hepatotoxicity which appeared as heavily congested central vein and blood sinusoids as well as leukocytic infiltration. Mitotic figures and apoptotic changes such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragments were also identified. Cell death analysis demonstrates hepatocellular apoptosis was evident in the treated mice compared to control. TCE was also found to induce oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation, an oxidative stress marker. There was also a significant decrease in the DNA content of the hepatocytes of the treated groups compared to control. Agarose gel electrophoresis also provided further biochemical evidence of apoptosis by showing internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the liver cells, indicating oxidative stress as the cause of DNA damage. These results suggest the need for a complete risk assessment of any new chemical prior to its arrival into the consumer market.

  3. Protective effect of mild endoplasmic reticulum stress on radiation-induced bystander effects in hepatocyte cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuexia; Ye, Shuang; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Tu, Wenzhi; Liu, Peifeng; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the defense and self-protective mechanisms of bystander normal cells are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia, where the ratio of the yield of bystander MN induction to the yield of radiation-induced MN formation under hypoxia was much higher than that of normoxia. Nonetheless, thapsigargin induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and dramatically suppressed this bystander response manifested as the decrease of MN and apoptosis inductions. Meanwhile, the interference of BiP gene, a major ER chaperone, amplified the detrimental RIBE. More precisely, thapsigargin provoked ER sensor of PERK to initiate an instantaneous and moderate ER stress thus defensed the hazard form RIBE, while BiP depletion lead to persistently destroyed homeostasis of ER and exacerbated cell injury. These findings provide new insights that the mild ER stress through BiP-PERK-p-eIF2α signaling pathway has a profound role in protecting cellular damage from RIBE and hence may decrease the potential secondary cancer risk after cancer radiotherapy. PMID:27958308

  4. Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kanbe, Takamasa; Murai, Rie; Mukoyama, Tomoyuki

    2006-07-14

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SR{alpha} promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells thanmore » in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes.« less

  5. Mechanistic Approach for Toxic Effects of Bupropion in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Elham; Babaei, Hossein; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Eftekhari, Aziz; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2017-04-01

    Bupropion is a widely prescribed antidepressant/smoke cessation drug. However, hepatotoxicity is one of its side effects reported in some recipients. The mechanisms by which bupropion induces hepatotoxicity is not clear yet. This experiment was intended to assess the cytotoxic mechanisms of bupropion toward primary rat hepatocytes. Additionally, the effect of α-tocopherol succinate (ALPHA-TOS) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore sealing agent cyclosporine A (Cs A) on this toxicity was investigated. Cell death, LDH leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and mitochondrial depolarization were examined as toxicity indicators. Results revealed that bupropion led to a surge in ROS formation, depletion of intracellular glutathione, elevation of LPO, and mitochondrial collapse. ALPHA-TOS, NAC and Cs A administration diminished the intensity of cellular damage caused by bupropion. This experiment suggests the protective role of ALPHA-TOS, NAC and Cs A against bupropion-mediated cytotoxicity possibly through their reactive radical scavenging properties and their impacts on mitochondria. Furthermore, mitochondria might be contributed to the oxidative stress response and subsequent toxicological results observed by bupropion. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Zea mays, Stigma maydis prevents and extenuates acetaminophen-perturbed oxidative onslaughts in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Saheed, Sabiu; Frans Hendrik, O'Neill; Tom, Ashafa Anofi Omotayo

    2016-11-01

    Zea mays L. (Poaceae) Stigma maydis is an underutilized product of corn cultivation finding therapeutic applications in oxidative stress-related disorders. This study investigated its aqueous extract against acetaminophen (APAP)-perturbed oxidative insults in rat hepatocytes. Hepatotoxic rats were orally pre- and post-treated with the extract (at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) and vitamin C (200 mg/kg body weight), respectively, for 14 days. Liver function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The APAP-induced marked (p < 0.05) increases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase and the concentrations of bilirubin, oxidized glutathione, protein carbonyls, malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently extenuated in the extract-treated animals. The extract also significantly (p < 0.05) improved the reduced activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase as well as total protein, albumin and glutathione concentrations in the hepatotoxic rats. These improvements may be attributed to the bioactive constituents as revealed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometric chromatogram of the extract. The observed effects compared favourably with vitamin C and are informative of hepatoprotective and antioxidative attributes of the extract and were further supported by the histological analysis. The data from the present findings suggest that Stigma maydis aqueous extract is capable of preventing and ameliorating APAP-mediated oxidative hepatic damage via enhancement of antioxidant defence systems.

  7. Senescent human hepatocytes express a unique secretory phenotype and promote macrophage migration

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Katharine M; Skoien, Richard; Bokil, Nilesh J; Melino, Michelle; Thomas, Gethin P; Loo, Dorothy; Gabrielli, Brian; Hill, Michelle M; Sweet, Matthew J; Clouston, Andrew D; Powell, Elizabeth E

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To develop a model of stress-induced senescence to study the hepatocyte senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). METHODS: Hydrogen peroxide treatment was used to induce senescence in the human HepG2 hepatocyte cell line. Senescence was confirmed by cytochemical staining for a panel of markers including Ki67, p21, heterochromatin protein 1β, and senescence-associated-β-galactosidase activity. Senescent hepatocytes were characterised by gene expression arrays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and conditioned media was used in proteomic analyses, a human chemokine protein array, and cell migration assays to characterise the composition and function of the hepatocyte SASP. RESULTS: Senescent hepatocytes induced classical markers of senescence (p21, heterochromatin protein 1β, and senescence-associated-β-galactosidase activity); and downregulated the proliferation marker, Ki67. Hepatocyte senescence induced a 4.6-fold increase in total secreted protein (P = 0.06) without major alterations in the protein profile. Senescence-induced genes were identified by microarray (Benjamini Hochberg-corrected P < 0.05); and, consistent with the increase in secreted protein, gene ontology analysis revealed a significant enrichment of secreted proteins among inducible genes. The hepatocyte SASP included characteristic factors such as interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6, as well as novel components such as SAA4, IL-32 and Fibrinogen, which were validated by qPCR and/or chemokine protein array. Senescent hepatocyte-conditioned medium elicited migration of inflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, GM-CSF-derived), but not non-inflammatory (CSF-1-derived) human macrophages (P = 0.022), which could contribute to a pro-inflammatory microenvironment in vivo, or facilitate the clearance of senescent cells. CONCLUSION: Our novel model of hepatocyte senescence provides insights into mechanisms by which senescent hepatocytes may promote chronic

  8. Proteome-wide analyses of human hepatocytes during differentiation and dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Cliff; Gerrard, Dave T; Jenkins, Roz; Berry, Andrew; Durkin, Kesta; Sundstrom, Lars; Goldring, Chris E; Park, B Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R; Hanley, Karen Piper; Hanley, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    Failure to predict hepatotoxic drugs in preclinical testing makes it imperative to develop better liver models with a stable phenotype in culture. Stem cell-derived models offer promise, with differentiated hepatocyte-like cells currently considered to be "fetal-like" in their maturity. However, this judgment is based on limited biomarkers or transcripts and lacks the required proteomic datasets that directly compare fetal and adult hepatocytes. Here, we quantitatively compare the proteomes of human fetal liver, adult hepatocytes, and the HepG2 cell line. In addition, we investigate the proteome changes in human fetal and adult hepatocytes when cultured in a new air-liquid interface format compared to conventional submerged extracellular matrix sandwich culture. From albumin and urea secretion, and luciferase-based cytochrome P450 activity, adult hepatocytes were viable in either culture model over 2 weeks. The function of fetal cells was better maintained in the air-liquid interface system. Strikingly, the proteome was qualitatively similar across all samples but hierarchical clustering showed that each sample type had a distinct quantitative profile. HepG2 cells more closely resembled fetal than adult hepatocytes. Furthermore, clustering showed that primary adult hepatocytes cultured at the air-liquid interface retained a proteome that more closely mimicked their fresh counterparts than conventional culture, which acquired myofibroblast features. Principal component analysis extended these findings and identified a simple set of proteins, including cytochrome P450 2A6, glutathione S transferase P, and alcohol dehydrogenases as specialized indicators of hepatocyte differentiation. Our quantitative datasets are the first that directly compare multiple human liver cells, define a model for enhanced maintenance of the hepatocyte proteome in culture, and provide a new protein "toolkit" for determining human hepatocyte maturity in cultured cells. Copyright © 2013 by

  9. Exosomes from mesenchymal stem cells induce the conversion of hepatocytes into progenitor oval cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao-Hsiang; Lee, Oscar K

    2017-05-23

    We previously reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess therapeutic effects in a murine model of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver failure. In the study, we observed that the majority of repopulated hepatocytes were of recipient origin and were adjacent to transplanted MSCs; only a low percentage of repopulated hepatocytes were from transplanted MSCs. The findings indicate that MSCs guided the formation of new hepatocytes. Exosomes are important messengers for paracrine signaling delivery. The aim of this study is to investigate the paracrine effects, in particular, the effects of exosomes from MSCs, on hepatocytes. Mature hepatocytes were isolated from murine liver by a two-step perfusion method with collagenase digestion. MSCs were obtained from murine bone marrow, and conditioned medium (CM) from MSC culture was then collected. Time-lapse imaging was used for observation of cell morphological change induced by CM on hepatocytes. In addition, expression of markers for hepatic progenitors including oval cells, intrahepatic stem cells, and hepatoblasts were analyzed. Treatment with the CM promoted the formation of small oval cells from hepatocytes; time-lapse imaging demonstrated the change from epithelial to oval cell morphology at the single hepatocyte level. Additionally, expression of EpCAM and OC2, markers of hepatic oval cells, was upregulated. Also, the number of EpCAM high cells was increased after CM treatment. The EpCAM high small oval cells possessed colony-formation ability; they also expressed cytokeratin 18 and were able to store glycogen upon induction of hepatic differentiation. Furthermore, exosomes from MSC-CM could induce the conversion of mature hepatocytes to EpCAM high small oval cells. In summary, paracrine signaling through exosomes from MSCs induce the conversion of hepatocytes into hepatic oval cells, a mechanism of action which has not been reported regarding the therapeutic potentials of MSCs in liver regeneration

  10. TGFbeta Induces Binucleation/Polyploidization in Hepatocytes through a Src-Dependent Cytokinesis Failure

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Germana; Bisceglia, Francesca; Strippoli, Raffaele; Guarguaglini, Giulia; Citarella, Franca; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Tripodi, Marco; Amicone, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In all mammals, the adult liver shows binucleated as well as mononucleated polyploid hepatocytes. The hepatic polyploidization starts after birth with an extensive hepatocyte binucleation and generates hepatocytes of several ploidy classes. While the functional significance of hepatocyte polyploidy is becoming clearer, how it is triggered and maintained needs to be clarified. Aim of this study was to identify a major inducer of hepatocyte binucleation/polyploidization and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. We found that, among several cytokines analyzed, known to be involved in early liver development and/or mass control, TGFbeta1 was capable to induce, together with the expected morphological changes, binucleation in hepatocytes in culture. Most importantly, the pharmacological inhibition of TGFbeta signaling in healthy mice during weaning, when the physiological binucleation occurs, induced a significant decrease of hepatocyte binucleation rate, without affecting cell proliferation and hepatic index. The TGFbeta-induced hepatocyte binucleation resulted from a cytokinesis failure, as assessed by video microscopy, and is associated with a delocalization of the cytokinesis regulator RhoA-GTPase from the mid-body of dividing cells. The use of specific chemical inhibitors demonstrated that the observed events are Src-dependent. Finally, the restoration of a fully epithelial phenotype by TGFbeta withdrawal gave rise to a cell progeny capable to maintain the polyploid state. In conclusion, we identified TGFbeta as a major inducer of hepatocyte binucleation both in vitro and in vivo, thus ascribing a novel role to this pleiotropic cytokine. The production of binucleated/tetraploid hepatocytes is due to a cytokinesis failure controlled by the molecular axis TGFbeta/Src/RhoA. PMID:27893804

  11. Effect of HSP27 and Cofilin in the injury of hypoxia/reoxygenation on hepatocyte membrane F-actin microfilaments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yafei; Wang, Jiazhong; Ji, Hong; Lu, Hongwei; Lu, Le; Wang, Jinlong; Li, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hypoxia–reoxygenation (H/R) injury hepatocyte models were established to simulate the ischemia/reperfusion injury of transplanted organ. Through the study of the molecular mechanism of H/R on the F-actin damage of the liver cytomembrane, the mechanism of F-actin damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion was studied from the level of cell and molecule. The hypoxic environment of cells in vitro was simulated by chemical hypoxia agent CoCl2. Liver cells were detected by MTT, H/R group was subdivided into 3 subgroups: H/R 2, 4, and 6 h. Changes of cell shape and the growth state, apoptosis, ultrastructural changes, and the changes in F-actin microfilament content were observed. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), Cofilin, and F-actin gene and protein levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot assay, respectively. Cells showed circular adherence growth under normal circumstances, while the spindle cells and shedding cells were significantly increased in H/R groups. Apoptosis cells in H/R group were increased significantly with the extension of hypoxia time. The number of endoplasmic reticulum was decreased significantly in the H/R group, the mitochondrion hydropic was degenerated and the glycogen was disappeared. The F-actin fibers in the H/R group were disordered, the morphology of the fibers was obviously decreased, and the fluorescence staining decreased obviously (P < .05). The transcription and expression levels of HSP27, Cofilin, and F-actin were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < .05). These results demonstrate that H/R can affect the correct assembly of F-actin microfilaments and weakens the normal cycle of F-actin microfilaments through inhibiting the protein expression and gene transcription of HSP27 and Cofilin in hepatocytes, thereby changing the skeleton of F-actin microfilaments. PMID:28422872

  12. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 prevents silencing of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 expression in hepatoma x fibroblast cell hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Bulla, G A

    1997-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factors-1alpha (HNF1alpha) and -4 (HNF4) are components of a liver-enriched transcription activation pathway which is thought to play a critical role in hepatocyte-specific gene expression, including activation of alpha1-antitrypsin gene expression. HNF1alpha, HNF4 and alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) genes are extinguished in hepatoma/fibroblast somatic cell hybrids, suggesting that fibroblasts contain a repressor-like activity. To determine the molecular basis for silencing of these genes in cell hybrids, ectopic expression of HNF1alpha and HNF4 was used. Results show that constitutive expression of HNF4 prevents extinction of HNF1alpha gene expression in hepatoma/fibroblast hybrids. In contrast, forced HNF1alpha expression failed to prevent extinction of the HNF4 locus in cell hybrids. Likewise, the alpha1AT gene remained silent in the presence of both HNF1alpha and HNF4. These results suggest that extinction of HNF1alpha is a simple lack-of-activation phenotype, whereas extinction of HNF4 andalpha1AT loci is more complex, perhaps involving negative regulation. PMID:9171105

  13. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha enhances the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha-mediated activation of transcription.

    PubMed

    Eeckhoute, J; Formstecher, P; Laine, B

    2004-01-01

    Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1alpha (HNF1alpha) and Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha) are two liver-enriched transcription factors coexpressed in specific tissues where they play a crucial role through their involvement in a complex cross-regulatory network. HNF1alpha down regulates HNF4alpha-mediated activation of transcription via a direct protein-protein interaction. Here we show that HNF4alpha enhances the transcriptional activity of HNF1alpha in a DNA binding independent manner, thus indicating that it behaves as a HNF1alpha coactivator. Using mutations in the ligand binding domain (LBD) of HNF4alpha, we confirmed the involvement of the Activation Function 2 module and demonstrated the requirement of the integrity of the LBD for the interaction with HNF1alpha. Moreover, we show that HNF4alpha cooperates with p300 to achieve the highest HNF1alpha-mediated transcription rates. Our findings highlight a new way by which HNF4alpha can regulate gene expression and extend our knowledge of the complexity of the transcriptional network involving HNF4alpha and HNF1alpha.

  14. Detection of nanolevel drug metabolites in an organotypic culture of primary human hepatocytes and porcine hepatocytes with special reference to a two-compartment model

    PubMed Central

    Acikgöz, Ali; Giri, Shibashish; Bader, Augustinus

    2012-01-01

    The quantification of drug metabolites produced during drug metabolism is a growing concern for the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency, and others. As 70% of drugs are known reactive metabolites and have black box warnings, they are a major cause of drug-induced injury and lead to drug attrition in early or late clinical stages. According to a 2006 survey report of pharmaceutical companies, drug-induced liver injury was ranked first in terms of adverse events, and it remains the most common reason for restriction or withdrawal of a drug from the market by the Food and Drug Administration. Although there are many reasons underlying drug-induced liver injury, one of the most important is liver failure induced by drug metabolites. Generally, a drug produces metabolites that may bind to cellular molecules and trigger a toxicological effect, cause serious adverse drug reactions, or alter cellular functions. Experimental cellular models that attempt to qualify drug metabolites from cell cultures rely on human plasma and urine obtained from clinical trials and supernatant during early in vitro experiments. However, there is a lack of information about the quantification of drug metabolites inside human hepatocytes, where the drug is extensively metabolized. To overcome this limitation, we used the highly accepted, gold standard organotypic cellular model of primary human hepatocytes to investigate and quantify the parent drug, as well as drug metabolites inside human hepatocytes and outside human hepatocytes to evaluate the quantity of drug metabolites, which are assumed to have remained inside the primary human hepatocytes. We refer to this as a two-compartment model, where one compartment is supernatant compared with in vivo hepatic blood circulation, and the other is inside the hepatocyte cell compared with the inside of in vivo human liver. We detected the nanoconcentrations of all

  15. Detection of nanolevel drug metabolites in an organotypic culture of primary human hepatocytes and porcine hepatocytes with special reference to a two-compartment model.

    PubMed

    Acikgöz, Ali; Giri, Shibashish; Bader, Augustinus

    2012-01-01

    The quantification of drug metabolites produced during drug metabolism is a growing concern for the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency, and others. As 70% of drugs are known reactive metabolites and have black box warnings, they are a major cause of drug-induced injury and lead to drug attrition in early or late clinical stages. According to a 2006 survey report of pharmaceutical companies, drug-induced liver injury was ranked first in terms of adverse events, and it remains the most common reason for restriction or withdrawal of a drug from the market by the Food and Drug Administration. Although there are many reasons underlying drug-induced liver injury, one of the most important is liver failure induced by drug metabolites. Generally, a drug produces metabolites that may bind to cellular molecules and trigger a toxicological effect, cause serious adverse drug reactions, or alter cellular functions. Experimental cellular models that attempt to qualify drug metabolites from cell cultures rely on human plasma and urine obtained from clinical trials and supernatant during early in vitro experiments. However, there is a lack of information about the quantification of drug metabolites inside human hepatocytes, where the drug is extensively metabolized. To overcome this limitation, we used the highly accepted, gold standard organotypic cellular model of primary human hepatocytes to investigate and quantify the parent drug, as well as drug metabolites inside human hepatocytes and outside human hepatocytes to evaluate the quantity of drug metabolites, which are assumed to have remained inside the primary human hepatocytes. We refer to this as a two-compartment model, where one compartment is supernatant compared with in vivo hepatic blood circulation, and the other is inside the hepatocyte cell compared with the inside of in vivo human liver. We detected the nanoconcentrations of all

  16. Hypervitaminosis A induced teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Geelen, J A

    1979-11-01

    In the past decade, the toxicology of reproduction has become increasingly important. This branch of toxicology focuses on mutagenic and embryotoxic effects. The study of embryotoxicity requires an extensive knowledge of the interaction of drugs and embryonic tissues, normal and abnormal developmental processes, and the susceptible stages during prenatal development. Hypervitaminosis A is one of the most extensively studied teratogens. It produces defects in almost all organ systems. Therefore, this article will first of all review the vitamin A-induced malformations in several organ systems. Moreover, it will discuss their morphogenesis and the susceptible developmental stages. Thus, the first ten chapters will cover the following subjects: malformations of the nervous system, ocular malformations, malformations of the ear, craniofacial malformations, cleft palate, defects of the circulatory system, defects of the respiratory systems, defects of the digestive tract, urogenital defects, skeletal malformations, and abnormal postnatal development. Since in general little is known about the mechanisms involved in the induction of congenital defects, we think it is of great value to review the knowledge and experience that have been gathered by the experimental work with hypervitaminosis A. Therefore, the next chapters will discuss the following subjects: teratogenic effects in different species, minimum effective dose, interaction with other agents, influence of chemical form, solvent, and route of administration, pathophysiology of vitamin A embryotoxicity, and hypervitaminosis A and human pregnancy.

  17. Effect of spaceflight on rat hepatocytes - A morphometric study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racine, Richard N.; Cormier, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    Hepatic tissue from flight, synchronous, vivarium, and tail-suspended rats was examined by light microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis. Glycogen levels in flight rats were found to be significantly elevated over those in controls. Lipid was also higher but not significantly different. Hepatocytes appeared larger in flight animals because of area attributed to increased glycogen. Sinusoids were less prominent in flight animals than in controls. The total Kupffer cell population appeared to be reduced in flight animals and may represent changes in defensive capacity of the liver. Alterations in the storage of glycogen and number of Kupffer cells suggest an important effect of spacefligtht on the function of the liver that may have important implications for long-term spaceflight.

  18. Hybrid Periportal Hepatocytes Regenerate the Injured Liver without Giving Rise to Cancer.

    PubMed

    Font-Burgada, Joan; Shalapour, Shabnam; Ramaswamy, Suvasini; Hsueh, Brian; Rossell, David; Umemura, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Koji; Nakagawa, Hayato; Valasek, Mark A; Ye, Li; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Carter, Hannah; Deisseroth, Karl; Verma, Inder M; Karin, Michael

    2015-08-13

    Compensatory proliferation triggered by hepatocyte loss is required for liver regeneration and maintenance but also promotes development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite extensive investigation, the cells responsible for hepatocyte restoration or HCC development remain poorly characterized. We used genetic lineage tracing to identify cells responsible for hepatocyte replenishment following chronic liver injury and queried their roles in three distinct HCC models. We found that a pre-existing population of periportal hepatocytes, located in the portal triads of healthy livers and expressing low amounts of Sox9 and other bile-duct-enriched genes, undergo extensive proliferation and replenish liver mass after chronic hepatocyte-depleting injuries. Despite their high regenerative potential, these so-called hybrid hepatocytes do not give rise to HCC in chronically injured livers and thus represent a unique way to restore tissue function and avoid tumorigenesis. This specialized set of pre-existing differentiated cells may be highly suitable for cell-based therapy of chronic hepatocyte-depleting disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of biochemical and cytotoxic functions of hepatocytes from goat, pig and human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, V; Naseem, B; Khan, A A; Capoor, A K; Habibullah, C M

    2004-09-01

    To overcome the problem of shortage of donor organs, xenotransplantation of cells offers an alternative to orthotopic transplantation. Of the higher animals, the pig is considered as a suitable donor because of the similarity in size and function of pig organs to human organs. However, successful transplantation of pig organs/cells for human therapy is limited by hyperacute rejection, improper functioning of xenografts and the risk of transmission of endogenous retroviruses to the recipient. Thus, there is a pressing need to explore an alternate mammalian source to bridge the gap between the donor and the recipient waiting for transplantation. This has warranted us to explore the application of goat hepatocytes as a treatment modality in acute liver failure. In the present investigation, isolated goat hepatocytes were assessed for their viability, membrane integrity, synthetic and cytotoxic functions, and compared with the hepatocytes of pig and human fetuses (28-36 weeks). The isolated hepatocytes from goat, pig and human fetuses were comparable in their viability, membrane integrity and synthetic functions. However, the cytotoxic functions assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay demonstrated a significant reduction in the viability of the pig hepatocytes (38%) as compared with the goat and human fetal hepatocytes, which retained their viability (98%) on incubation with normal human serum. These observations are significant as they suggest that goat hepatocytes probably can be explored as a source for cell therapy in the treatment of acute liver failure.

  20. Sodium-independent, bicuculline-sensitive (/sup 3/H)GABA binding to isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Minuk, G.Y.; Bear, C.E.; Sarjeant, E.J.

    1987-05-01

    To determine whether hepatocytes possess specific receptor sites for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a potent amino acid neurotransmitter, (/sup 3/H)GABA, was added to sodium-free suspensions of Percoll-purified hepatocytes derived from collagenase-perfused rat livers under various experimental conditions and in the presence or absence of specific GABA receptor agonists (muscimol) and antagonists (bicuculline). The effects of GABA, muscimol, and bicuculline on hepatocyte resting membrane potentials were also determined. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GABA to hepatocytes was a consistent finding. GABA-hepatocyte interactions were reversible and temperature dependent. Muscimol and bicuculline inhibited binding in a dose-dependent manner (IC50, 30 nM and 50 microM, respectively),more » whereas strychnine (1.0-100 microM), a nonspecific central nervous system stimulant, had no appreciable effect. Both GABA and muscimol (100 microM) caused significant hyperpolarization of hepatocyte resting membrane potential (delta PD 5.4 +/- 3.1 and 22.2 +/- 16.2 mV, respectively, means +/- SD, P less than 0.0005). Bicuculline (100 microM) inhibited the effect of muscimol (P less than 0.05). The results of this study suggest that specific GABA receptor sites exist on the surface of isolated rat hepatocytes. The presence of such sites raises the possibility that, in addition to adrenergic and cholinergic innervation, hepatic function may be influenced by GABA-ergic neurotransmitter mechanisms.« less

  1. Hepatocyte growth factor in physiology and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Ryu; Matsumoto, Kunio

    2017-10-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine composed of an α-chain and a β-chain, and these chains contain four kringle domains and a serine protease-like structure, respectively. The receptor for HGF was identified as the c-met proto-oncogene product of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. HGF-induced signaling through the receptor Met provokes dynamic biological responses that support morphogenesis, regeneration, and the survival of various cells and tissues, which includes hepatocytes, renal tubular cells, and neurons. Characterization of tissue-specific Met knockout mice has further indicated that the HGF-Met system modulates immune cell functions and also plays an inhibitory role in the progression of chronic inflammation and fibrosis. However, the biological actions that are driven by the HGF-Met pathway all play a role in the acquisition of the malignant characteristics in tumor cells, such as invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance in the tumor microenvironment. Even though oncogenic Met signaling remains the major research focus, the HGF-Met axis has also been implicated in infectious diseases. Many pathogens try to utilize host HGF-Met system to establish comfortable environment for infection. Their strategies are not only simply change the expression level of HGF or Met, but also actively hijack HGF-Met system and deregulating Met signaling using their pathogenic factors. Consequently, the monitoring of HGF and Met expression, along with real-time detection of Met activation, can be a beneficial biomarker of these infectious diseases. Preclinical studies designed to address the therapeutic significance of HGF have been performed on injury/disease models, including acute tissue injury, chronic fibrosis, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Likewise, manipulating the HGF-Met system with complete control will lead to a tailor made treatment for those infectious diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Normal Atmospheric Oxygen Tension and the Use of Antioxidants Improve Hepatocyte Spheroid Viability and Function

    PubMed Central

    Lillegard, Joseph B.; Fisher, James E.; Nedredal, Geir; Luebke-Wheeler, Jennifer; Bao, Ji; Wang, William; Amoit, Bruce; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte spheroids have been proposed for drug metabolism studies and in bioartificial liver devices. However, the optimal conditions required to meet the aerobic demands of mitochondria-rich hepatocyte spheroids is not well studied. We hypothesized that an optimal concentration of oxygen could be identified and that the health of hepatocyte spheroids might be further improved by antioxidant therapy. Methods Rat hepatocyte spheroids were maintained in suspension culture for 7 days under a mixture of 5% CO2 plus O2:N2 to achieve fractional oxygen contents of 6% (C1), 21% (C2), 58% (C3), 95% (C4). Spheroid health was assessed under each condition by vital staining, TEM, oxygen consumption and mitochondrial counts. Hepatocyte differentiation was assessed by expression of ten liver-related genes (HNF4a, HNF6, Cyp1A1, albumin, Nags, Cps1, Otc, Ass, Asl, Arg1). Functional markers (albumin and urea) were measured. The influence of oxygen tension and antioxidant treatment on the production of reactive oxygen species was assessed by confocal microscopy. Results We observed that the hepatocyte spheroids were healthiest under normal atmospheric (C2) conditions with antioxidants ascorbic acid and L-carnitine. Cell death and reduced functionality of hepatocyte spheroids correlated with the formation of reactive oxygen species. Conclusion Normal atmospheric conditions provided the optimal oxygen tension for suspension culture of hepatocyte spheroids. The formation and deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species were further reduced by adding antioxidants to the culture medium. These findings have direct application to development of the spheroid reservoir bioartificial liver and the use of hepatocyte spheroids in drug metabolism studies. PMID:21302300

  3. Vectorial Entry and Release of Hepatitis A Virus in Polarized Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Snooks, Michelle J.; Bhat, Purnima; Mackenzie, Jason; Counihan, Natalie A.; Vaughan, Nicola; Anderson, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an enterically transmitted virus that replicates predominantly in hepatocytes within the liver before excretion via bile through feces. Hepatocytes are polarized epithelial cells, and it has been assumed that the virus load in bile results from direct export of HAV via the apical domain of polarized hepatocytes. We have developed a subclone of hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells (clone N6) that maintains functional characteristics of polarized hepatocytes but displays morphology typical of columnar epithelial cells, rather than the complex morphology that is typical of hepatocytes. N6 cells form microcolonies of polarized cells when grown on glass and confluent monolayers of polarized cells on semipermeable membranes. When N6 microcolonies were exposed to HAV, infection was restricted to peripheral cells of polarized colonies, whereas all cells could be infected in colonies of nonpolarized HepG2 cells (clone C11) or following disruption of tight junctions in N6 colonies with EGTA. This suggests that viral entry occurs predominantly via the basolateral plasma membrane, consistent with uptake of virus from the bloodstream after enteric exposure, as expected. Viral export was also found to be markedly vectorial in N6 but not C11 cells. However, rather than being exported from the apical domain as expected, more than 95% of HAV was exported via the basolateral domain of N6 cells, suggesting that virus is first excreted from infected hepatocytes into the bloodstream rather than to the biliary tree. Enteric excretion of HAV may therefore rely on reuptake and transcytosis of progeny HAV across hepatocytes into the bile. These studies provide the first example of the interactions between viruses and polarized hepatocytes. PMID:18579610

  4. Biliary fibrosis drives liver repopulation and phenotype transition of transplanted hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yovchev, Mladen I.; Locker, Joseph; Oertel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Current research focuses on developing alternative strategies to restore decreased liver mass prior to the onset of endstage liver disease. Cell engraftment/repopulation requires regeneration in normal liver, but we have shown that severe liver injury stimulates repopulation without partial hepatectomy (PH). We have now investigated whether a less severe injury, secondary biliary fibrosis, would drive engraftment/repopulation of ectopically transplanted mature hepatocytes. Methods Ductular proliferation and progressive fibrosis in DPPIV− F344 rats was induced by common bile duct ligation (BDL). Purified DPPIV+/GFP+ hepatocytes were infused without PH into the spleen of BDL rats and compared to rats without BDL. Results Within one week, transplanted hepatocytes were detected in hepatic portal areas and at the periphery of expanding portal regions. DPPIV+/GFP+ repopulating cell clusters of different sizes were observed in BDL rats but not untreated normal recipients. Surprisingly, some engrafted hepatocytes formed CK-19/claudin-7 expressing epithelial cells resembling cholangiocytes within repopulating clusters. In addition, substantial numbers of hepatocytes engrafted at the intrasplenic injection site assembled into multicellular groups. These also showed biliary “transdifferentiation” in the majority of intrasplenic injection sites of rats that received BDL but not in untreated recipients. PCR array analysis showed up-regulation of osteopontin (SPP1). Cell culture studies demonstrated increased Itgβ4, HNF1β, HNF6, Sox-9, and CK-19 mRNA expression in hepatocytes incubated with osteopontin, suggesting that this secreted protein promotes dedifferentiation of hepatocytes. Conclusions Our studies show that biliary fibrosis stimulates liver repopulation by ectopically transplanted hepatocytes and also stimulates hepatocyte transition towards a biliary epithelial phenotype. Words: 249 PMID:26855174

  5. Spontaneous hepatic repopulation in transgenic mice expressing mutant human α1-antitrypsin by wild-type donor hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jianqiang; Yannam, Govardhana R.; Roy-Chowdhury, Namita; Hidvegi, Tunda; Basma, Hesham; Rennard, Stephen I.; Wong, Ronald J.; Avsar, Yesim; Guha, Chandan; Perlmutter, David H.; Fox, Ira J.; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta

    2011-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency is an inherited condition that causes liver disease and emphysema. The normal function of this protein, which is synthesized by the liver, is to inhibit neutrophil elastase, a protease that degrades connective tissue of the lung. In the classical form of the disease, inefficient secretion of a mutant α1-antitrypsin protein (AAT-Z) results in its accumulation within hepatocytes and reduced protease inhibitor activity, resulting in liver injury and pulmonary emphysema. Because mutant protein accumulation increases hepatocyte cell stress, we investigated whether transplanted hepatocytes expressing wild-type AAT might have a competitive advantage relative to AAT-Z–expressing hepatocytes, using transgenic mice expressing human AAT-Z. Wild-type donor hepatocytes replaced 20%–98% of mutant host hepatocytes, and repopulation was accelerated by injection of an adenovector expressing hepatocyte growth factor. Spontaneous hepatic repopulation with engrafted hepatocytes occurred in the AAT-Z–expressing mice even in the absence of severe liver injury. Donor cells replaced both globule-containing and globule-devoid cells, indicating that both types of host hepatocytes display impaired proliferation relative to wild-type hepatocytes. These results suggest that wild-type hepatocyte transplantation may be therapeutic for AAT-Z liver disease and may provide an alternative to protein replacement for treating emphysema in AAT-ZZ individuals. PMID:21505264

  6. Nanofabricated Collagen-Inspired Synthetic Elastomers for Primary Rat Hepatocyte Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bettinger, Christopher J.; Kulig, Katherine M.; Vacanti, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic substrates that mimic the properties of extracellular matrix proteins hold significant promise for use in systems designed for tissue engineering applications. In this report, we designed a synthetic polymeric substrate that is intended to mimic chemical, mechanical, and topological characteristics of collagen. We found that elastomeric poly(ester amide) substrates modified with replica-molded nanotopographic features enhanced initial attachment, spreading, and adhesion of primary rat hepatocytes. Further, hepatocytes cultured on nanotopographic substrates also demonstrated reduced albumin secretion and urea synthesis, which is indicative of strongly adherent hepatocytes. These results suggest that these engineered substrates can function as synthetic collagen analogs for in vitro cell culture. PMID:18847357

  7. Disappearance of GFP-Positive Hepatocytes Transplanted into the Liver of Syngeneic Wild-Type Rats Pretreated with Retrorsine

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Shigoka, Masatoshi; Wang, Yongchun; Fu, Yingxin; Wesson, Russell N.; Lin, Qing; Montgomery, Robert A.; Enzan, Hideaki; Sun, Zhaoli

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a widely used molecular tag to trace transplanted cells in rodent liver injury models. The differing results from various previously reported studies using GFP could be attributed to the immunogenicity of GFP. Methods Hepatocytes were obtained from GFP-expressing transgenic (Tg) Lewis rats and were transplanted into the livers of wild-type Lewis rats after they had undergone a partial hepatectomy. The proliferation of endogenous hepatocytes in recipient rats was inhibited by pretreatment with retrorsine to enhance the proliferation of the transplanted hepatocytes. Transplantation of wild-type hepatocytes into GFP-Tg rat liver was also performed for comparison. Results All biopsy specimens taken seven days after transplantation showed engraftment of transplanted hepatocytes, with the numbers of transplanted hepatocytes increasing until day 14. GFP-positive hepatocytes in wild-type rat livers were decreased by day 28 and could not be detected on day 42, whereas the number of wild-type hepatocytes steadily increased in GFP-Tg rat liver. Histological examination showed degenerative change of GFP-positive hepatocytes and the accumulation of infiltrating cells on day 28. PCR analysis for the GFP transgene suggested that transplanted hepatocytes were eliminated rather than being retained along with the loss of GFP expression. Both modification of the immunological response using tacrolimus and bone marrow transplantation prolonged the survival of GFP-positive hepatocytes. In contrast, host immunization with GFP-positive hepatocytes led to complete loss of GFP-positive hepatocytes by day 14. Conclusion GFP-positive hepatocytes isolated from GFP-Tg Lewis rats did not survive long term in the livers of retrorsine-pretreated wild-type Lewis rats. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon most likely involves an immunological reaction against GFP. The influence of GFP immunogenicity on cell transplantation models should be

  8. MRI-based assessment of liver perfusion and hepatocyte injury in the murine model of acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Byk, Katarzyna; Jasinski, Krzysztof; Bartel, Zaneta; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Sitek, Barbara; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Chlopicki, Stefan; Skorka, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    To assess alterations in perfusion and liver function in the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mouse model of acute liver failure (ALF) using two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based methods: dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with Gd-EOB-DTPA contrast agent and arterial spin labelling (ASL). BALB/c mice were studied using a 9.4 T MRI system. The IntraGateFLASH TM and FAIR-EPI pulse sequences were used for optimum mouse abdomen imaging. The average perfusion values for the liver of the control and ConA group were equal to 245 ± 20 and 200 ± 32 ml/min/100 g (p = 0.008, respectively). DCE-MRI showed that the time to the peak of the image enhancement was 6.14 ± 1.07 min and 9.72 ± 1.69 min in the control and ConA group (p < 0.001, respectively), while the rate of the contrast wash-out in the control and ConA group was 0.037 ± 0.008 and 0.021 ± 0.008 min -1 (p = 0.004, respectively). These results were consistent with hepatocyte injury in the ConA-treated mice as confirmed by histopathological staining. Both the ASL and DCE-MRI techniques represent a reliable methodology to assess alterations in liver perfusion and hepatocyte integrity in murine hepatitis.

  9. The role of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs/SLCOs) in the toxicity of different microcystin congeners in vitro: A comparison of primary human hepatocytes and OATP-transfected HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A.; Hoeger, S.J.; Stemmer, K.

    2010-05-15

    Cellular uptake of microcystins (MCs), a family of cyclic cyanobacterial heptapeptide toxins, occurs via specific organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), where MCs inhibit serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase (PP). Despite comparable PP-inhibitory capacity, MCs differ greatly in their acute toxicity, thus raising the question whether this discrepancy results from MC-specific toxikokinetic rather than toxicodynamic differences. OATP-mediated uptake of MC congeners MCLR, -RR, -LW and -LF was compared in primary human hepatocytes and HEK293 cells stably expressing recombinant human OATP1B1/SLCO1B1 and OATP1B3/SLCO1B3 in the presence/absence of OATP substrates taurocholate (TC) and bromosulfophthalein (BSP) and measuring PP-inhibition and cytotoxicity. Control vector expressing HEK293 weremore » resistant to MC cytotoxicity, while TC and BSP competition experiments reduced MC cytotoxicity in HEK293-OATP transfectants, thus confirming the requirement of OATPs for trans-membrane transport. Despite comparable PP-inhibiting capabilities, MCLW and -LF elicited cytotoxic effects at lower equimolar concentrations than MCLR and MCRR, hence suggesting congener selective transport into HEK293-OATP transfectants and primary human hepatocytes. Primary human hepatocytes appeared one order of magnitude more sensitive to MC congeners than the corresponding HEK293 -OATP transfectants. Although the latter maybe due to a much lower level of PPs in primary human hepatocytes, the presence of OATPs other than 1B1 or 1B3 may have added to an increased uptake of MCs. In view of the high sensitivity of human hepatocytes and currently MCLR-only based risk calculations, the actual risk of human MC-intoxication and ensuing liver damage could be underestimated in freshwater cyanobacterial blooms where MCLW and-LF predominate.« less

  10. [The morphometric changes of chronic ischemia in the hepatocyte. An experimental study in the rat].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pascual, M C; Diago, M V; Rodríguez-Toves, L A; Alvarez-Conde, J L; Martín del Olmo, J C; Vaquero, C

    1994-09-01

    The effects of chronic ischemia on the rat hepatocyte are morphometrically analyzed in the present study. Rats Wistar-Lewis are used. Rats underwent a stenosis of the celiac artery by using a metallic guide. The interval between the experimentation until the sacrifice was 15, 30, 90, 180, and 360 days. We have performed a morphometric study using a semiautomated image analyzer system (VIDS III, Analytical Measuring Systems). Morphological disturbances in the chronic ischemia periods above mentioned can be measured: an increase in the hepatocyte area starting from 90 days of experimentation and also an increase in the hepatocyte perimeter starting from 30 days of ischemia. On the other hand, both the nuclear area and the nuclear perimeter are increased in every period studied. The number of hepatocytes per microscopic field doesn't show any change in relation to ischemia time. Cellular swelling suggests some degree of cellular hypoxia in contradiction with other observations.

  11. Mode of swine hepatitis E virus infection and replication in primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Yukio; Yasue, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Shinji; Ideno, Shoji; Urayama, Takeru; Chiba, Mitsuru; Osari, Suguru; Naito, Tadasuke; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Nagata, Kyosuke; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the infection and replication of swine-derived hepatitis E virus (HEV) in primary cultured human hepatocytes (PHCs). Hepatocytes were cultured from the resected normal livers of patients with metastatic tumours. These cultured hepatocytes were infected with swine-derived genotype 3 or 4 HEV. Viral replication was monitored using reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR. The amount of HEV RNA increased in the culture media and cells following infection. Immunofluorescence staining implied that the spread of HEV infection in hepatocytes was attributed mainly to cell-to-cell transmission via the cell membrane. The sequences of the inoculated and propagated HEV were determined to examine whether sequence variation occurred during infection. Sequence analysis showed that there were no differences between inoculated and propagated HEV, demonstrating that in vitro infection and replication of swine HEV in PHCs occurred without sequence variation. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. Identification of transcriptional networks involved in peroxisome proliferator chemical-induced hepatocyte proliferation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemical (PPC) exposure leads to increases in rodent liver tumors through a non-genotoxic mode of action (MOA). The PPC MOA includes increased oxidative stress, hepatocyte proliferation and decreased apoptosis. We investigated the putative genetic regulato...

  13. Optimizing the use of rainbow trout hepatocytes for bioaccumulation assessments with fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measured rates of biotransformation by cryopreserved trout hepatocytes can be extrapolated to the whole animal as a means of predicting metabolism impacts on chemical bioaccumulation. Future use of these methods within a regulatory context requires, however, that they be standar...

  14. Serum-Derived Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Primary Human Hepatocytes Is Tetraspanin CD81 Dependent▿

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Sonia; Castet, Valerie; Pichard-Garcia, Lydiane; Wychowski, Czeslaw; Meurs, Eliane; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Sureau, Camille; Fabre, Jean-Michel; SaCunha, Antonio; Larrey, Dominique; Dubuisson, Jean; Coste, Joliette; McKeating, Jane; Maurel, Patrick; Fournier-Wirth, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus-positive serum (HCVser, genotypes 1a to 3a) or HCV cell culture (JFH1/HCVcc) infection of primary normal human hepatocytes was assessed by measuring intracellular HCV RNA strands. Anti-CD81 antibodies and siRNA-CD81 silencing markedly inhibited (>90%) HCVser infection irrespective of HCV genotype, viral load, or liver donor, while hCD81-large intracellular loop (LEL) had no effect. However, JFH1/HCVcc infection of hepatocytes was modestly inhibited (40 to 60%) by both hCD81-LEL and anti-CD81 antibodies. In conclusion, CD81 is involved in HCVser infection of human hepatocytes, and comparative studies of HCVser versus JFH1/HCVcc infection of human hepatocytes and Huh-7.5 cells revealed that the cell-virion combination is determinant of the entry process. PMID:17942559

  15. Cadmium exposure exacerbates hyperlipidemia in cholesterol-overloaded hepatocytes via autophagy dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Cruz, Patricia; Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Reyes-Zárate, Elizabeth; Bello-Monroy, Oscar; Enríquez-Cortina, Cristina; Miranda-Labra, Roxana; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Rojas-Del Castillo, Emilio; Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción; Souza-Arroyo, Verónica

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic factors are the major risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, although other factors may contribute steatosis. Cadmium exposure produces histopathological and molecular changes in liver, which are consistent with steatosis. In the present study, we describe the effect of low cadmium acute treatment on hepatocytes obtained from mice fed with a high cholesterol diet. Our data suggest that hepatocytes with cholesterol overload promote an adaptive response against cadmium-induced acute toxicity by up-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins, managing ROS overproduction, increasing GSH synthesis and MT-II content to avoid protein oxidation. Cadmium treatment increases lipid content in cholesterol-fed mice hepatocytes because of an impaired autophagy process. Our data suggest an essential function of macroautophagy in the regulation of lipid storage induced by Cd on hepatocytes, that implies that alterations in this pathway may be a mechanism that aggravates hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. COVALENT BINDING OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE TO PROTEINS IN HUMAN AND RAT HEPATOCYTES. (R826409)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental contaminant and occupational solvent trichloroethylene is metabolized to a reactive intermediate that covalently binds to specific hepatic proteins in exposed mice and rats. In order to compare covalent binding between humans and rodents, primary hepatocyte c...

  17. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma can arise from Notch-mediated conversion of hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, Sayaka; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary malignancy in the liver. ICC has been classified as a malignant tumor arising from cholangiocytes; however, the co-occurrence of ICC and viral hepatitis suggests that ICC originates in hepatocytes. In order to determine the cellular origin of ICC, we used a mouse model of ICC in which hepatocytes and cholangiocytes were labeled with heritable, cell type–specific reporters. Our studies reveal that ICC is generated by biliary lineage cells derived from hepatocytes, rather than cholangiocytes. Additionally, we found that Notch activation is critical for hepatocyte conversion into biliary lineage cells during the onset of ICC and its subsequent malignancy and progression. These findings will help to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of ICC and to develop therapeutic strategies for this refractory disease. PMID:23023701

  18. Layered patterning of hepatocytes in co-culture systems using microfabricated stencils

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Cheul H.; Park, Jaesung; Tilles, Arno W.; Berthiaume, François; Toner, Mehmet; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Microfabrication and micropatterning techniques in tissue engineering offer great potential for creating and controlling microenvironments in which cell behavior can be observed. Here we present a novel approach to generate layered patterning of hepatocytes on micropatterned fibroblast feeder layers using microfabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencils. We fabricated PDMS stencils to pattern circular holes with diameters of 500 µm. Hepatocytes were co-cultured with 3T3-J2 fibroblasts in two types of patterns to evaluate and characterize the cellular interactions in the co-culture systems. Results of this study demonstrated uniform intracellular albumin staining and E-cadherin expression, increased liver-specific functions, and active glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes when the heterotypic interface between hepatocytes and fibroblasts was increased by the layered patterning technique. This patterning technique can be a useful experimental tool for applications in basic science, drug screening, and tissue engineering, as well as in the design of bioartificial liver devices. PMID:20078427

  19. The generation of hepatocytes from mesenchymal stem cells and engraftment into murine liver.

    PubMed

    Stock, Peggy; Brückner, Sandra; Ebensing, Sabine; Hempel, Madlen; Dollinger, Matthias M; Christ, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    Donor organ shortage is still the major obstacle for the clinical application of hepatocyte transplantation in the treatment of liver diseases. However, generation of hepatocyte-like cells from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has become a real alternative to the isolation of primary hepatocytes. MSCs are extracted from the tissue by collagenase digestion and enriched by their capacity to grow on plastic surfaces. Enriched cells display distinct mesenchymal surface markers and are capable of multiple lineage differentiation. In the presence of specific growth conditions, the cells adopt functional features of differentiated hepatocytes. After orthotopic transplantation, differentiated human stem cells engraft in the host liver parenchyma of immunocompromised mice. This protocol describes the in vitro differentiation of stem cells from human bone marrow and their transplantation into livers of immunodeficient mice. The cell culture procedures take about 4-5 weeks, and cells engrafted in the mouse liver may be detected 2-3 months after transplantation.

  20. Hepatocyte isolation from resected benign tissues: Results of a 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fan-Ying; Liu, Li; Liu, Jun; Li, Chun-You; Wang, Jian-Ping; Yang, Feng-Hui; Chen, Zhi-Shui; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze retrospectively a 5-year experience of human hepatocyte isolation from resected liver tissues with benign disease. METHODS We established a method of modified four-step retrograde perfusion to isolate primary human hepatocytes. Samples were collected from the resected livers of patients with intrahepatic duct calculi (n = 7) and liver hemangioma (n = 17). Only the samples weighing ≥ 15 g were considered suitable for hepatocyte isolation. By using the standard trypan blue exclusion technique, hepatocyte viability and yield were immediately determined after isolation. RESULTS Twenty-four liver specimens, weighing 15-42 g, were immediately taken from the margin of the removed samples and transferred to the laboratory for hepatocyte isolation. Warm ischemia time was 5-35 min and cold ischemia time was 15-45 min. For the 7 samples of intrahepatic duct calculi, the method resulted in a hepatocyte yield of 3.49 ± 2.31 × 106 hepatocytes/g liver, with 76.4% ± 10.7% viability. The 17 samples of liver hemangioma had significantly higher yield of cells (5.4 ± 1.71 × 106 cells/g vs 3.49 ± 2.31 × 106 cells/g, P < 0.05) than the samples of intrahepatic duct calculi. However, there seems to be no clear difference in cell viability (80.3% ± 9.67% vs 76.4% ± 10.7%, P > 0.05). We obtained a cell yield of 5.31 ± 1.87 × 106 hepatocytes/g liver when the samples weighed > 20 g. However, for the tissues weighing ≤ 20 g, a reduction in yield was found (3.08 ± 1.86 × 106 cells/g vs 5.31 ± 1.87 × 106 cells/g, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Benign diseased livers are valuable sources for large-number hepatocyte isolation. Our study represents the largest number of primary human hepatocytes isolated from resected specimens from patients with benign liver disease. We evaluated the effect of donor liver characteristics on cell isolation, and we found that samples of liver hemangioma can provide better results than intrahepatic duct calculi, in terms of cell yield

  1. Hepatocyte Produced Matrix Metalloproteinases Are Regulated by CD147 in Liver Fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Alison J.; Tu, Thomas; Wen, Victoria W.; Yee, Christine; Mridha, Auvro; Lee, Maggie; d'Avigdor, William; Locarnini, Stephen A.; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; Warner, Fiona J.; McLennan, Susan V.; Shackel, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The classical paradigm of liver injury asserts that hepatic stellate cells (HSC) produce, remodel and turnover the abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) of fibrosis via matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In extrahepatic tissues MMP production is regulated by a number of mechanisms including expression of the glycoprotein CD147. Previously, we have shown that CD147 is expressed on hepatocytes but not within the fibrotic septa in cirrhosis [1]. Therefore, we investigated if hepatocytes produce MMPs, regulated by CD147, which are capable of remodelling fibrotic ECM independent of the HSC. Methods Non-diseased, fibrotic and cirrhotic livers were examined for MMP activity and markers of fibrosis in humans and mice. CD147 expression and MMP activity were co-localised by in-situ zymography. The role of CD147 was studied in-vitro with siRNA to CD147 in hepatocytes and in-vivo in mice with CCl4 induced liver injury using ãCD147 antibody intervention. Results In liver fibrosis in both human and mouse tissue MMP expression and activity (MMP-2, -9, -13 and -14) increased with progressive injury and localised to hepatocytes. Additionally, as expected, MMPs were abundantly expressed by activated HSC. Further, with progressive fibrosis there was expression of CD147, which localised to hepatocytes but not to HSC. Functionally significant in-vitro regulation of hepatocyte MMP production by CD147 was demonstrated using siRNA to CD147 that decreased hepatocyte MMP-2 and -9 expression/activity. Further, in-vivo α-CD147 antibody intervention decreased liver MMP-2, -9, -13, -14, TGF-β and α-SMA expression in CCl4 treated mice compared to controls. Conclusion We have shown that hepatocytes produce active MMPs and that the glycoprotein CD147 regulates hepatocyte MMP expression. Targeting CD147 regulates hepatocyte MMP production both in-vitro and in-vivo, with the net result being reduced fibrotic matrix turnover in-vivo. Therefore, CD147 regulation of hepatocyte MMP is a

  2. Hepatocyte produced matrix metalloproteinases are regulated by CD147 in liver fibrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Calabro, Sarah R; Maczurek, Annette E; Morgan, Alison J; Tu, Thomas; Wen, Victoria W; Yee, Christine; Mridha, Auvro; Lee, Maggie; d'Avigdor, William; Locarnini, Stephen A; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Warner, Fiona J; McLennan, Susan V; Shackel, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    The classical paradigm of liver injury asserts that hepatic stellate cells (HSC) produce, remodel and turnover the abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) of fibrosis via matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In extrahepatic tissues MMP production is regulated by a number of mechanisms including expression of the glycoprotein CD147. Previously, we have shown that CD147 is expressed on hepatocytes but not within the fibrotic septa in cirrhosis [1]. Therefore, we investigated if hepatocytes produce MMPs, regulated by CD147, which are capable of remodelling fibrotic ECM independent of the HSC. Non-diseased, fibrotic and cirrhotic livers were examined for MMP activity and markers of fibrosis in humans and mice. CD147 expression and MMP activity were co-localised by in-situ zymography. The role of CD147 was studied in-vitro with siRNA to CD147 in hepatocytes and in-vivo in mice with CCl4 induced liver injury using ãCD147 antibody intervention. In liver fibrosis in both human and mouse tissue MMP expression and activity (MMP-2, -9, -13 and -14) increased with progressive injury and localised to hepatocytes. Additionally, as expected, MMPs were abundantly expressed by activated HSC. Further, with progressive fibrosis there was expression of CD147, which localised to hepatocytes but not to HSC. Functionally significant in-vitro regulation of hepatocyte MMP production by CD147 was demonstrated using siRNA to CD147 that decreased hepatocyte MMP-2 and -9 expression/activity. Further, in-vivo α-CD147 antibody intervention decreased liver MMP-2, -9, -13, -14, TGF-β and α-SMA expression in CCl4 treated mice compared to controls. We have shown that hepatocytes produce active MMPs and that the glycoprotein CD147 regulates hepatocyte MMP expression. Targeting CD147 regulates hepatocyte MMP production both in-vitro and in-vivo, with the net result being reduced fibrotic matrix turnover in-vivo. Therefore, CD147 regulation of hepatocyte MMP is a novel pathway that could be targeted by

  3. A fat option for the pig: Hepatocytic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells for translational research

    SciTech Connect

    Brückner, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.brueckner@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael, E-mail: hans-michael.tautenhahn@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; TRM, Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, Leipzig D-04103

    2014-02-15

    Study background: Extended liver resection is the only curative treatment option of liver cancer. Yet, the residual liver may not accomplish the high metabolic and regenerative capacity needed, which frequently leads to acute liver failure. Because of their anti-inflammatory and -apoptotic as well as pro-proliferative features, mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells might provide functional and regenerative compensation. Clinical translation of basic research requires pre-clinical approval in large animals. Therefore, we characterized porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from adipose tissue and bone marrow and their hepatocyte differentiation potential for future assessment of functional liver support after surgical intervention inmore » the pig model. Methods: Mesenchymal surface antigens and multi-lineage differentiation potential of porcine MSC isolated by collagenase digestion either from bone marrow or adipose tissue (subcutaneous/visceral) were assessed by flow cytometry. Morphology and functional properties (urea-, glycogen synthesis and cytochrome P450 activity) were determined during culture under differentiation conditions and compared with primary porcine hepatocytes. Results: MSC from porcine adipose tissue and from bone marrow express the typical mesenchymal markers CD44, CD29, CD90 and CD105 but not haematopoietic markers. MSC from both sources displayed differentiation into the osteogenic as well as adipogenic lineage. After hepatocyte differentiation, expression of CD105 decreased significantly and cells adopted the typical polygonal morphology of hepatocytes. Glycogen storage was comparable in adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived cells. Urea synthesis was about 35% lower in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived MSC. Cytochrome P450 activity increased significantly during differentiation and was twice as high in hepatocyte-like cells generated from bone marrow as from adipose tissue. Conclusion: The

  4. Optimization of the cryopreservation and thawing protocol for human hepatocytes for use in cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Terry, Claire; Dhawan, Anil; Mitry, Ragai R; Lehec, Sharon C; Hughes, Robin D

    2010-02-01

    Cryopreservation of human hepatocytes is important for their use in hepatocyte transplantation. On thawing, cryopreserved hepatocytes often have reduced viability and metabolic function in comparison with fresh cells. The aim of this study was to modify the different steps in the standard cryopreservation procedure in an attempt to improve the overall outcome. Human hepatocytes with a viability of 69% +/- SD 16% were isolated from donor livers with a collagenase perfusion technique. Different cell densities, concentrations, rates, and methods of addition of dimethyl sulfoxide were tested for the freezing solution. Modified controlled-rate freezer programs were tested to obtain a linear decrease in the temperature. Once they were frozen, the storage time and thawing method for hepatocytes were investigated. The effects on thawed cell viability and attachment, lactate dehydrogenase release, cytochrome P450 1A1/2 activity, and albumin synthesis were determined. The results were used to produce an improved cryopreservation protocol suitable for good manufacturing practice conditions. With a cell density of 10(7) cells/mL in University of Wisconsin solution containing 300 mM glucose, 10% (vol/vol) dimethyl sulfoxide was added dropwise over 5 minutes, and was immediately frozen. Thawing was done rapidly at 37 degrees C, and dilution was performed with Eagle's minimum essential medium containing 300 mM glucose and 4% human serum albumin. Hepatocytes could be stored at -140 degrees C without significant further loss of function for up to 3 years. With this protocol, hepatocytes had a viability of 52% +/- 9%, an attachment efficiency of 48% +/- 8%, and lactate dehydrogenase leakage of 17% +/- 4%. This protocol is currently in use to cryopreserve hepatocytes for use in cell transplantation at our center.

  5. Role of CYP2B in Phenobarbital-Induced Hepatocyte Proliferation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Bao, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Negishi, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) promotes liver tumorigenesis in rodents, in part through activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the consequent changes in hepatic gene expression and increases in hepatocyte proliferation. A typical effect of CAR activation by PB is a marked induction of Cyp2b10 expression in the liver; the latter has been suspected to be vital for PB-induced hepatocellular proliferation. This hypothesis was tested here by using a Cyp2a(4/5)bgs-null (null) mouse model in which all Cyp2b genes are deleted. Adult male and female wild-type (WT) and null mice were treated intraperitoneally with PB at 50 mg/kg once daily for 5 successive days and tested on day 6. The liver-to-body weight ratio, an indicator of liver hypertrophy, was increased by 47% in male WT mice, but by only 22% in male Cyp2a(4/5)bgs-null mice, by the PB treatment. The fractions of bromodeoxyuridine-positive hepatocyte nuclei, assessed as a measure of the rate of hepatocyte proliferation, were also significantly lower in PB-treated male null mice compared with PB-treated male WT mice. However, whereas few proliferating hepatocytes were detected in saline-treated mice, many proliferating hepatocytes were still detected in PB-treated male null mice. In contrast, female WT mice were much less sensitive than male WT mice to PB-induced hepatocyte proliferation, and PB-treated female WT and PB-treated female null mice did not show significant difference in rates of hepatocyte proliferation. These results indicate that CYP2B induction plays a significant, but partial, role in PB-induced hepatocyte proliferation in male mice. PMID:28546505

  6. Cell-autonomous decrease in proliferative competitiveness of the aged hepatocyte.

    PubMed

    Serra, Maria Paola; Marongiu, Fabio; Marongiu, Michela; Contini, Antonella; Laconi, Ezio

    2015-06-01

    The regenerative potential of the liver declines with age, this might be dependent on a decrease in the intensity of the stimulus and/or an increased refractoriness of the target. In the present study, we compared the in vivo growth capacity of young and old hepatocytes transplanted into the same host. We utilized the retrorsine (RS)-based model for liver repopulation, which provides a specific and effective stimulus for transplanted hepatocytes. Rats of the dipeptidyl-peptidase type IV (DPP-IV)-deficient strain were given RS and were injected with a mix of hepatocytes isolated from either a 2-month old or an 18-month old donor. To follow the fate of transplanted cells, they were each identified through a specific tag: young hepatocytes expressed the green fluorescent protein (GFP(+)), while those from old donors were DPP-IV-positive. At 1 month post-transplantation, DPP-IV-positive clusters (derived from old donor) were consistently smaller than those GFP(+) (young donor); the cross sectional area of clusters was decreased by 50%, while the mean volume was reduced to 1/3. Furthermore, when 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) was performed, the S-phase response of old hepatocyte-derived clusters was only 30-40% compared to that observed in cluster originating from young hepatocytes. No markers of cell senescence were expressed in clusters of transplanted hepatocytes. This is the first direct evidence in vivo that hepatocytes in the aged liver express a cell-autonomous decline in their replicative capacity and in their regenerative response to PH compared to those from a young animal. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Melatonin on the Isolation of Human Primary Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Solanas, Estela; Sostres, Carlos; Serrablo, Alejandro; García-Gil, Agustín; García, Joaquín J; Aranguren, Francisco J; Jiménez, Pilar; Hughes, Robin D; Serrano, María T

    2015-01-01

    The availability of fully functional human hepatocytes is critical for progress in human hepatocyte transplantation and the development of bioartificial livers and in vitro liver systems. However, the cell isolation process impairs the hepatocyte status and determines the number of viable cells that can be obtained. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and melatonin in the human hepatocyte isolation protocol. Human hepatocytes were isolated from liver pieces resected from 10 patients undergoing partial hepatectomy. Each piece was dissected into 2 equally sized pieces and randomized, in 5 of 10 isolations, to perfusion with 1% DMSO-containing perfusion buffer or buffer also containing 5 mM melatonin using the 2-step collagenase perfusion technique (experiment 1), and in the other 5 isolations to standard perfusion or perfusion including 1% DMSO (experiment 2). Tissues perfused with DMSO yielded 70.6% more viable hepatocytes per gram of tissue (p = 0.076), with a 26.1% greater albumin production (p < 0.05) than those perfused with control buffer. Melatonin did not significantly affect (p > 0.05) any of the studied parameters, but cell viability, dehydrogenase activity, albumin production, urea secretion, and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity were slightly higher in cells isolated with melatonin-containing perfusion buffer compared to those isolated with DMSO. In conclusion, addition of 1% DMSO to the hepatocyte isolation protocol could improve the availability and functionality of hepatocytes for transplantation, but further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Subtoxic Alterations in Hepatocyte-Derived Exosomes: An Early Step in Drug-Induced Liver Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Natalie S.; Mosedale, Merrie; Wolf, Kristina K.; LeCluyse, Edward L.; Watkins, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant clinical and economic problem in the United States, yet the mechanisms that underlie DILI remain poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that signaling molecules released by stressed hepatocytes can trigger immune responses that may be common across DILI mechanisms. Extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes, principally hepatocyte-derived exosomes (HDEs), may constitute one such signal. To examine HDE alterations as a function of drug-induced stress, this work utilized prototypical hepatotoxicant acetaminophen (APAP) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, SD rat hepatocytes, and primary human hepatocytes. HDE were isolated using ExoQuick precipitation reagent and analyzed by quantification of the liver-specific RNAs albumin and microRNA-122 (miR-122). In vivo, significant elevations in circulating exosomal albumin mRNA were observed at subtoxic APAP exposures. Significant increases in exosomal albumin mRNA were also observed in primary rat hepatocytes at subtoxic APAP concentrations. In primary human hepatocytes, APAP elicited increases in both exosomal albumin mRNA and exosomal miR-122 without overt cytotoxicity. However, the number of HDE produced in vitro in response to APAP did not increase with exosomal RNA quantity. We conclude that significant drug-induced alterations in the liver-specific RNA content of HDE occur at subtoxic APAP exposures in vivo and in vitro, and that these changes appear to reflect selective packaging rather than changes in exosome number. The current findings demonstrate that translationally relevant HDE alterations occur in the absence of overt hepatocellular toxicity, and support the hypothesis that HDE released by stressed hepatocytes may mediate early immune responses in DILI. PMID:26962055

  9. Subtoxic Alterations in Hepatocyte-Derived Exosomes: An Early Step in Drug-Induced Liver Injury?

    PubMed

    Holman, Natalie S; Mosedale, Merrie; Wolf, Kristina K; LeCluyse, Edward L; Watkins, Paul B

    2016-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant clinical and economic problem in the United States, yet the mechanisms that underlie DILI remain poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that signaling molecules released by stressed hepatocytes can trigger immune responses that may be common across DILI mechanisms. Extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes, principally hepatocyte-derived exosomes (HDEs), may constitute one such signal. To examine HDE alterations as a function of drug-induced stress, this work utilized prototypical hepatotoxicant acetaminophen (APAP) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, SD rat hepatocytes, and primary human hepatocytes. HDE were isolated using ExoQuick precipitation reagent and analyzed by quantification of the liver-specific RNAs albumin and microRNA-122 (miR-122). In vivo, significant elevations in circulating exosomal albumin mRNA were observed at subtoxic APAP exposures. Significant increases in exosomal albumin mRNA were also observed in primary rat hepatocytes at subtoxic APAP concentrations. In primary human hepatocytes, APAP elicited increases in both exosomal albumin mRNA and exosomal miR-122 without overt cytotoxicity. However, the number of HDE produced in vitro in response to APAP did not increase with exosomal RNA quantity. We conclude that significant drug-induced alterations in the liver-specific RNA content of HDE occur at subtoxic APAP exposures in vivo and in vitro, and that these changes appear to reflect selective packaging rather than changes in exosome number. The current findings demonstrate that translationally relevant HDE alterations occur in the absence of overt hepatocellular toxicity, and support the hypothesis that HDE released by stressed hepatocytes may mediate early immune responses in DILI. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent production of profibrotic mediators by hypoxic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Copple, Bryan L; Bustamante, Juan J; Welch, Timothy P; Kim, Nam Deuk; Moon, Jeon-Ok

    2009-08-01

    During the development of liver fibrosis, mediators are produced that stimulate cells in the liver to differentiate into myofibroblasts and to produce collagen. Recent studies demonstrated that the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), is critical for upregulation of profibrotic mediators, such as platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A), PDGF-B and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the liver, during the development of fibrosis. What remains unknown is the cell type-specific regulation of these genes by HIF-1alpha in liver cell types. Accordingly, the hypothesis was tested that HIF-1alpha is activated in hypoxic hepatocytes and regulates the production of profibrotic mediators by these cells. In this study, hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of control and HIF-1alpha- or HIF-1beta-deficient mice and exposed to hypoxia. Exposure of primary mouse hepatocytes to 1% oxygen stimulated nuclear accumulation of HIF-1alpha and upregulated PAI-1, vascular endothelial cell growth factor and the vasoactive peptides adrenomedullin-1 (ADM-1) and ADM-2. In contrast, the levels of PDGF-A and PDGF-B mRNAs were unaffected in these cells by hypoxia. Exposure of HIF-1alpha-deficient hepatocytes to 1% oxygen only partially prevented upregulation of these genes, suggesting that other hypoxia-regulated transcription factors, such as HIF-2alpha, may also regulate these genes. In support of this, HIF-2alpha was activated in hypoxic hepatocytes, and exposure of HIF-1beta-deficient hepatocytes to 1% oxygen completely prevented upregulation of PAI-1, vascular endothelial cell growth factor and ADM-1, suggesting that HIF-2alpha may also contribute to upregulation of these genes in hypoxic hepatocytes. Collectively, our results suggest that HIFs may be important regulators of profibrotic and vasoactive mediators by hypoxic hepatocytes.

  11. Damaged Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  12. Sex-specific biotransformation and detoxification after xenobiotic exposure of primary cultured hepatocytes of European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.).

    PubMed

    Winzer, Katja; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Köhler, Angela

    2002-09-10

    Sex-specific effects of sublethal concentrations of known effective pro-oxidants such as 100,200 and 400 microM benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]p), 50 microM nitrofurantoin (NF) and 100 microM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on biotransformation pathways were studied in isolated hepatocytes of immature female and male European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.). Cell responses were assessed at the level of: (1) stress induction as measured by formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly superoxide radicals, and induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) biotransformation activity; (2) cellular antioxidant defences, both non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione) and enzymatic (DT-diaphorase (DTD) or quinone oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.2); (3) detoxification (aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), EC 1.2.1.3); and (4) cellular damage as measured by reduced lysosomal membrane stability and cell death. As there is increasing evidence that 17-beta-estradiol interferes with certain pathways of xenobiotic biotransformation, we additionally tested the effects of different concentrations of 17-beta-estradiol (0.2-10 microM) alone and 17-beta-estradiol (1 microM) in combination with 100 microM B[a]p. Parameters were monitored after 1 and 9 days of exposure by quantitative image analysis of chromogenic or fluorogenic reaction products. Our study revealed sex-dependent differences in cellular stress responses. In hepatocytes of female flounder, biotransformation was slower and the capacity of non-enzymatic antioxidant defences and detoxification of toxic aldehydes was lower than in males. Additional administration of 17-beta-estradiol enlarged these differences between the sexes with respect to biotransformation activity and antioxidant defence in xenobiotic-induced injury. These findings may explain the higher susceptibility of female flounder to toxic and carcinogenic compounds in the marine environment.

  13. Comparative gene expression profiles induced by PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Universite de Rennes 1, 35065 Rennes Cedex; Biologie Servier, 45520 Gidy

    2011-07-01

    Species-differential toxic effects have been described with PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists between rodent and human liver. PPAR{alpha} agonists (fibrates) are potent hypocholesterolemic agents in humans while they induce peroxisome proliferation and tumors in rodent liver. By contrast, PPAR{gamma} agonists (glitazones) and even dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists (glitazars) have caused idiosyncratic hepatic and nonhepatic toxicities in human without evidence of any damage in rodent during preclinical studies. The mechanisms involved in such differences remain largely unknown. Several studies have identified the major target genes of PPAR{alpha} agonists in rodent liver while no comprehensive analysis has been performed on gene expression changes inducedmore » by PPAR{gamma} and dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists. Here, we investigated transcriptomes of rat hepatocytes after 24 h treatment with two PPAR{gamma} (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists. Although, hierarchical clustering revealed a gene expression profile characteristic of each PPAR agonist class, only a limited number of genes was specifically deregulated by glitazars. Functional analyses showed that many genes known as PPAR{alpha} targets were also modulated by both PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists and quantitative differences in gene expression profiles were observed between these two classes. Moreover, most major genes modulated in rat hepatocytes were also found to be deregulated in rat liver after tesaglitazar treatment. Taken altogether, these results support the conclusion that differential toxic effects of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists in rodent liver do not result from transcriptional deregulation of major PPAR target genes but rather from qualitative and/or quantitative differential responses of a small subset of genes.« less

  14. Role of TRAIL and the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Bim in acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Badmann, A; Keough, A; Kaufmann, T; Bouillet, P; Brunner, T; Corazza, N

    2011-06-09

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP), paracetamol) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, accidental or intentional overdose causes acute liver failure characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis with high morbidity and mortality. Although many molecular aspects of APAP-induced cell death have been described, no conclusive mechanism has been proposed. We recently identified TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and c-Jun kinase (JNK)-dependent activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Bim as an important apoptosis amplification pathway in hepatocytes. In this study, we, thus, investigated the role of TRAIL, c-JNK and Bim in APAP-induced liver damage. Our results demonstrate that TRAIL strongly synergizes with APAP in inducing cell death in hepatocyte-like cells lines and primary hepatocyte. Furthermore, we found that APAP strongly induces the expression of Bim in a c-JNK-dependent manner. Consequently, TRAIL- or Bim-deficient mice were substantially protected from APAP-induced liver damage. This study identifies the TRAIL-JNK-Bim axis as a novel target in the treatment of APAP-induced liver damage and substantiates its general role in hepatocyte death.

  15. Helicobacter hepaticus Induces an Inflammatory Response in Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kleine, Moritz; Worbs, Tim; Schrem, Harald; Vondran, Florian W. R.; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Förster, Reinhold; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Bektas, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus can lead to chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in certain strains of mice. Until now the pathogenic role of Helicobacter species on human liver tissue is still not clarified though Helicobacter species identification in human liver cancer was successful in case controlled studies. Therefore we established an in vitro model to investigate the interaction of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) with Helicobacter hepaticus. Successful co-culturing of PHH with Helicobacter hepaticus was confirmed by visualization of motile bacteria by two-photon-microscopy. Isolated human monocytes were stimulated with PHH conditioned media. Changes in mRNA expression of acute phase cytokines and proteins in PHH and stimulated monocytes were determined by Real-time PCR. Furthermore, cytokines and proteins were analyzed in PHH culture supernatants by ELISA. Co-cultivation with Helicobacter hepaticus induced mRNA expression of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in PHH (p<0.05) resulting in a corresponding increase of IL-8 and MCP-1 concentrations in PHH supernatants (p<0.05). IL-8 and IL-1β mRNA expression was induced in monocytes stimulated with Helicobacter hepaticus infected PHH conditioned media (p<0.05). An increase of Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was observed, with a concomitant increase of prostaglandin E2 concentration in PHH supernatants at 24 and 48 h (p<0.05). In contrast, at day 7 of co-culture, no persistent elevation of cytokine mRNA could be detected. High expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on PHH cell membranes after co-culture was shown by two-photon-microscopy and confirmed by flow-cytomety. Finally, expression of Cytochrome P450 3A4 and albumin mRNA were downregulated, indicating an impairment of hepatocyte synthesis function by Helicobacter hepaticus presence. This is the first in vitro model demonstrating a pathogenic effect of a

  16. Human Upcyte Hepatocytes: Characterization of the Hepatic Phenotype and Evaluation for Acute and Long-Term Hepatotoxicity Routine Testing.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Laia; Gómez-Lechón, M José; López, Silvia; Guzmán, Carla; Castell, José V; Donato, M Teresa; Jover, Ramiro

    2016-07-01

    The capacity of human hepatic cell-based models to predict hepatotoxicity depends on the functional performance of cells. The major limitations of human hepatocytes include the scarce availability and rapid loss of the hepatic phenotype. Hepatoma cells are readily available and easy to handle, but are metabolically poor compared with hepatocytes. Recently developed human upcyte hepatocytes offer the advantage of combining many features of primary hepatocytes with the unlimited availability of hepatoma cells. We analyzed the phenotype of upcyte hepatocytes comparatively with HepG2 cells and adult primary human hepatocytes to characterize their functional features as a differentiated hepatic cell model. The transcriptomic analysis of liver characteristic genes confirmed that the upcyte hepatocytes expression profile comes closer to human hepatocytes than HepG2 cells. CYP activities were measurable and showed a similar response to prototypical CYP inducers than primary human hepatocytes. Upcyte hepatocytes also retained conjugating activities and key hepatic functions, e.g. albumin, urea, lipid and glycogen synthesis, at levels close to hepatocytes. We also investigated the suitability of this cell model for preclinical hepatotoxicity risk assessments using multiparametric high-content screening, as well as transcriptomics and targeted metabolomic analysis. Compounds with well-documented in vivo hepatotoxicity were screened after acute and repeated doses up to 1 week. The evaluation of complex mechanisms of cell toxicity, drug-induced steatosis and oxidative stress biomarkers demonstrated that, by combining the phenotype of primary human hepatocytes and the ease of handling of HepG2 cells, upcyte hepatocytes offer suitable properties to be potentially used for toxicological assessments during drug development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Priming of hepatocytes enhances in vivo liver transduction with lentiviral vectors in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Pichard, Virginie; Boni, Sébastien; Baron, William; Nguyen, Tuan Huy; Ferry, Nicolas

    2012-02-01

    Lentiviral vectors are promising tools for liver disease gene therapy, because they can achieve protracted expression of transgenes in hepatocytes. However, the question as to whether cell division is required for optimal hepatocyte transduction has still not been completely answered. Liver gene-transfer efficiency after in vivo administration of recombinant lentiviral vectors carrying a green fluorescent protein reporter gene under the control of a liver-specific promoter in mice that were either hepatectomized or treated with cholic acid or phenobarbital was compared. Phenobarbital is known as a weak inducer of hepatocyte proliferation, whereas cholic acid has no direct effect on the cell cycle. This study shows that cholic acid is able to prime hepatocytes without mitosis induction. Both phenobarbital and cholic acid significantly increased hepatocyte transduction six- to ninefold, although cholic acid did not modify the mitotic index or cell-cycle entry. However, the effect of either compound was weaker than that observed after partial hepatectomy. In no cases was there a correlation between the expression of cell-cycle marker and transduction efficiency. We conclude that priming of hepatocytes should be considered a clinically applicable strategy to enhance in vivo liver gene therapy with lentiviral vectors.

  18. YAP inhibition restores hepatocyte differentiation in advanced HCC leading to tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Fitamant, Julien; Kottakis, Filippos; Benhamouche, Samira; Tian, Helen S.; Chuvin, Nicolas; Parachoniak, Christine A.; Nagle, Julia M.; Perera, Rushika M.; Lapouge, Marjorie; Deshpande, Vikram; Zhu, Andrew X.; Lai, Albert; Min, Bosun; Hoshida, Yujin; Avruch, Joseph; Sia, Daniela; Campreciós, Genís; McClatchey, Andrea I.; Llovet, Josep M.; Morrissey, David; Raj, Lakshmi; Bardeesy, Nabeel

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Defective Hippo/YAP signaling in the liver results in tissue overgrowth and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we uncover mechanisms of YAP-mediated hepatocyte reprogramming and HCC pathogenesis. YAP functions as a rheostat maintaining metabolic specialization, differentiation and quiescence within the hepatocyte compartment. Increased or decreased YAP activity reprograms subsets of hepatocytes to different fates associated with deregulation of the HNF4A, CTNNB1, and E2F transcriptional programs controlling hepatocyte quiescence and differentiation. Importantly, treatment with siRNA-lipid nanoparticles (siRNA-LNPs) targeting YAP restores hepatocyte differentiation and causes pronounced tumor regression in a genetically engineered mouse HCC model. Furthermore, YAP targets are enriched in an aggressive human HCC subtype characterized by a proliferative signature and absence of CTNNB1 mutations. Thus, our work reveals Hippo signaling as a key regulator of positional identity of hepatocytes, supports targeting YAP using siRNA-LNPs as a paradigm of differentiation-based therapy, and identifies an HCC subtype potentially responsive to this approach. PMID:25772357

  19. Hepatocyte growth factor ameliorates inflammatory bowel disease in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Arthur, L Grier; Kuenzler, Keith A; Schwartz, Marshall Z

    2003-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the benefits of administration of hepatocyte growth factor in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease. Transfection of the HLA-B27 gene into Fisher rats induces a phenotype similar to inflammatory bowel disease. Fisher rats and HLA-B27 rats were divided into six groups: (1) Fisher, intravenous saline; (2) HLA-B27, intravenous saline; (3) HLA-B27, intravenous hepatocyte growth factor; (4) Fisher, luminal saline; (5) HLA-B27, luminal saline; and (6) HLA-B27, luminal hepatocyte growth factor. Rats received a 14-day infusion through an osmotic pump attached to a catheter positioned in either the jugular vein or the terminal ileum. Rats were evaluated for stool character, and gross and microscopic bowel inflammation. Statistics were analyzed using analysis of variance or the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. A value of P<0.05 was significant. Compared to untreated HLA-B27 rats, intravenous administration of hepatocyte growth factor decreased diarrhea by 41% and microscopic inflammation by 54% (P<0.05). Luminal hepatocyte growth factor exposure decreased total bowel lesions by 53% and microscopic inflammation by 40% compared to untreated HLA-B27 rats (P<0.05), but it did not have an effect on diarrhea. Administration of hepatocyte growth factor ameliorates many of the features of bowel disease in this rat model and theoretically could have therapeutic applications in the management of inflammatory bowel disease in humans.

  20. LKB1/AMPK and PKA control ABCB11 trafficking and polarization in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Homolya, László; Fu, Dong; Sengupta, Prabuddha; Jarnik, Michal; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Vitale-Cross, Lynn; Gutkind, J Silvio; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Arias, Irwin M

    2014-01-01

    Polarization of hepatocytes is manifested by bile canalicular network formation and activation of LKB1 and AMPK, which control cellular energy metabolism. The bile acid, taurocholate, also regulates development of the canalicular network through activation of AMPK. In the present study, we used collagen sandwich hepatocyte cultures from control and liver-specific LKB1 knockout mice to examine the role of LKB1 in trafficking of ABCB11, the canalicular bile acid transporter. In polarized hepatocytes, ABCB11 traffics from Golgi to the apical plasma membrane and endogenously cycles through the rab 11a-myosin Vb recycling endosomal system. LKB1 knockout mice were jaundiced, lost weight and manifested impaired bile canalicular formation and intracellular trafficking of ABCB11, and died within three weeks. Using live cell imaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), particle tracking, and biochemistry, we found that LKB1 activity is required for microtubule-dependent trafficking of ABCB11 to the canalicular membrane. In control hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking was accelerated by taurocholate and cAMP; however, in LKB1 knockout hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking to the apical membrane was greatly reduced and restored only by cAMP, but not taurocholate. cAMP acted through a PKA-mediated pathway which did not activate AMPK. Our studies establish a regulatory role for LKB1 in ABCB11 trafficking to the canalicular membrane, hepatocyte polarization, and canalicular network formation.

  1. LKB1/AMPK and PKA Control ABCB11 Trafficking and Polarization in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Homolya, László; Fu, Dong; Sengupta, Prabuddha; Jarnik, Michal; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Vitale-Cross, Lynn; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Arias, Irwin M.

    2014-01-01

    Polarization of hepatocytes is manifested by bile canalicular network formation and activation of LKB1 and AMPK, which control cellular energy metabolism. The bile acid, taurocholate, also regulates development of the canalicular network through activation of AMPK. In the present study, we used collagen sandwich hepatocyte cultures from control and liver-specific LKB1 knockout mice to examine the role of LKB1 in trafficking of ABCB11, the canalicular bile acid transporter. In polarized hepatocytes, ABCB11 traffics from Golgi to the apical plasma membrane and endogenously cycles through the rab 11a-myosin Vb recycling endosomal system. LKB1 knockout mice were jaundiced, lost weight and manifested impaired bile canalicular formation and intracellular trafficking of ABCB11, and died within three weeks. Using live cell imaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), particle tracking, and biochemistry, we found that LKB1 activity is required for microtubule-dependent trafficking of ABCB11 to the canalicular membrane. In control hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking was accelerated by taurocholate and cAMP; however, in LKB1 knockout hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking to the apical membrane was greatly reduced and restored only by cAMP, but not taurocholate. cAMP acted through a PKA-mediated pathway which did not activate AMPK. Our studies establish a regulatory role for LKB1 in ABCB11 trafficking to the canalicular membrane, hepatocyte polarization, and canalicular network formation. PMID:24643070

  2. Kupffer cells induce Notch-mediated hepatocyte conversion in a common mouse model of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Maiko; Horisawa, Kenichi; Miura, Shizuka; Takashima, Yasuo; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Sekiya, Sayaka; Matsuda-Ito, Kanae; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of cells resembling cholangiocytes that line the intrahepatic bile ducts in portal areas of the hepatic lobule. Although ICC has been defined as a tumor arising from cholangiocyte transformation, recent evidence from genetic lineage-tracing experiments has indicated that hepatocytes can be a cellular origin of ICC by directly changing their fate to that of biliary lineage cells. Notch signaling has been identified as an essential factor for hepatocyte conversion into biliary lineage cells at the onset of ICC. However, the mechanisms underlying Notch signal activation in hepatocytes remain unclear. Here, using a mouse model of ICC, we found that hepatic macrophages called Kupffer cells transiently congregate around the central veins in the liver and express the Notch ligand Jagged-1 coincident with Notch activation in pericentral hepatocytes. Depletion of Kupffer cells prevents the Notch-mediated cell-fate conversion of hepatocytes to biliary lineage cells, inducing hepatocyte apoptosis and increasing mortality in mice. These findings will be useful for uncovering the pathogenic mechanism of ICC and developing prevenient and therapeutic strategies for this refractory disease. PMID:27698452

  3. Induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes in primary equine hepatocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Stefanski, A; Mevissen, M; Möller, A-M; Kuehni-Boghenbor, K; Schmitz, A

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we established cell culture conditions for primary equine hepatocytes allowing cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) induction experiments. Hepatocytes were isolated after a modified method of Bakala et al. (2003) and cultivated on collagen I coated plates. Three different media were compared for their influence on morphology, viability and CYP activity of the hepatocytes. CYP activity was evaluated with the fluorescent substrate 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin. Induction experiments were carried out with rifampicin, dexamethasone or phenobarbital. Concentration-response curves for induction with rifampicin were created. Williams' medium E showed the best results on morphology and viability of the hepatocytes and was therefore used for the following induction experiments. Cells cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium were not inducible. Incubation with rifampicin increased the CYP activity in two different hepatocyte preparations in a dose dependent manner (EC₅₀=1.20 μM and 6.06 μM; Emax=4.1- and 3.4-fold induction). No increase in CYP activity was detected after incubation with dexamethasone or phenobarbital. The hepatocyte culture conditions established in this study proved to be valuable for investigation of the induction of equine CYPs. In further studies, other equine drugs can be evaluated for CYP induction with this in vitro system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectroscopic signature of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes using synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumanu, Kanjana; Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Ye, Danna; Sangmalee, Anawat; Lorthongpanich, Chanchao; Parnpai, Rangsun; Heraud, Philip

    2011-05-01

    Stem cell-based therapy for liver regeneration has been proposed to overcome the persistent shortage in the supply of suitable donor organs. A requirement for this to succeed is to find a rapid method to detect functional hepatocytes, differentiated from embryonic stem cells. We propose Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy as a versatile method to identify the early and last stages of the differentiation process leading to the formation of hepatocytes. Using synchrotron-FTIR microspectroscopy, the means of identifying hepatocytes at the single-cell level is possible and explored. Principal component analysis and subsequent partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis is applied to distinguish endoderm induction from hepatic progenitor cells and matured hepatocyte-like cells. The data are well modeled by PLS with endoderm induction, hepatic progenitor cells, and mature hepatocyte-like cells able to be discriminated with very high sensitivity and specificity. This method provides a practical tool to monitor endoderm induction and has the potential to be applied for quality control of cell differentiation leading to hepatocyte formation.

  5. SIMPLE MACHINE PERFUSION SIGNIFICANTLY ENHANCES HEPATOCYTE YIELDS OF ISCHEMIC AND FRESH RAT LIVERS.

    PubMed

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Calhoun, Candice; Uygun, Basak E; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Price, Gavrielle; Luitje, Martha; Saeidi, Nima; Yarmush, Martin L; Uygun, Korkut

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of viable hepatocytes is a significant bottleneck in cell transplantation, drug discovery, toxicology, tissue engineering, and bioartificial assist devices, where trillions of high-functioning hepatocytes are needed annually. We took the novel approach of using machine perfusion to maximize cell recovery, specifically from uncontrolled cardiac death donors, the largest source of disqualified donor organs. In a rat model, we developed a simple 3 hour room temperature (20±2°C) machine perfusion protocol to treat non-premedicated livers exposed to 1 hour of warm (34°C) ischemia. Treated ischemic livers were compared to fresh, fresh-treated and untreated ischemic livers using viable hepatocyte yields and in vitro performance as quantitative endpoints. Perfusion treatment resulted in both a 25-fold increase in viable hepatocytes from ischemic livers, and a 40% increase from fresh livers. While cell morphology and function in suspension and plate cultures of untreated warm ischemic cells was significantly impaired, treated warm ischemic cells were indistinguishable from fresh hepatocytes. Further, a strong linear correlation between tissue ATP and cell yield enabled accurate evaluation of the extent of perfusion recovery. Maximal recovery of warm ischemic liver ATP content appears to be correlated with optimal flow through the microvasculature. These data demonstrate that the inclusion of a simple perfusion-preconditioning step can significantly increase the efficiency of functional hepatocyte yields and the number of donor livers that can be gainfully utilized.

  6. Simple Machine Perfusion Significantly Enhances Hepatocyte Yields of Ischemic and Fresh Rat Livers

    PubMed Central

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Calhoun, Candice; Uygun, Basak E.; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Price, Gavrielle; Luitje, Martha; Saeidi, Nima; Yarmush, Martin L.; Uygun, Korkut

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of viable hepatocytes is a significant bottleneck in cell transplantation, drug discovery, toxicology, tissue engineering, and bioartificial assist devices, where trillions of high-functioning hepatocytes are needed annually. We took the novel approach of using machine perfusion to maximize cell recovery, specifically from uncontrolled cardiac death donors, the largest source of disqualified donor organs. In a rat model, we developed a simple 3-h room temperature (20 ± 2°C) machine perfusion protocol to treat nonpremedicated livers exposed to 1 h of warm (34°C) ischemia. Treated ischemic livers were compared to fresh, fresh-treated, and untreated ischemic livers using viable hepatocyte yields and in vitro performance as quantitative endpoints. Perfusion treatment resulted in both a 25-fold increase in viable hepatocytes from ischemic livers and a 40% increase from fresh livers. While cell morphology and function in suspension and plate cultures of untreated warm ischemic cells was significantly impaired, treated warm ischemic cells were indistinguishable from fresh hepatocytes. Furthermore, a strong linear correlation between tissue ATP and cell yield enabled accurate evaluation of the extent of perfusion recovery. Maximal recovery of warm ischemic liver ATP content appears to be correlated with optimal flow through the microvasculature. These data demonstrate that the inclusion of a simple perfusion-preconditioning step can significantly increase the efficiency of functional hepatocyte yields and the number of donor livers that can be gainfully utilized. PMID:25431743

  7. Palmitate Inhibits SIRT1-Dependent BMAL1/CLOCK Interaction and Disrupts Circadian Gene Oscillations in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Arthurs, Blake; Li, Pei; Durudogan, Leigh; Gupta, Neil; Yin, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum saturated fatty acid palmitate have been shown to promote insulin resistance, increase cellular ROS production, and trigger cell apoptosis in hepatocytes during the development of obesity. However, it remains unclear whether palmitate directly impacts the circadian clock in hepatocytes, which coordinates nutritional inputs and hormonal signaling with downstream metabolic outputs. Here we presented evidence that the molecular clock is a novel target of palmitate in hepatocytes. Palmitate exposure at low dose inhibits the molecular clock activity and suppresses the cyclic expression of circadian targets including Dbp, Nr1d1 and Per2 in hepatocytes. Palmitate treatment does not seem to alter localization or reduce protein expression of BMAL1 and CLOCK, the two core components of the molecular clock in hepatocytes. Instead, palmitate destabilizes the protein-protein interaction between BMAL1-CLOCK in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that SIRT1 activators could reverse the inhibitory action of palmitate on BMAL1-CLOCK interaction and the clock gene expression, whereas inhibitors of NAD synthesis mimic the palmitate effects on the clock function. In summary, our findings demonstrated that palmitate inhibits the clock function by suppressing SIRT1 function in hepatocytes. PMID:26075729

  8. Energy determinants GAPDH and NDPK act as genetic modifiers for hepatocyte inclusion formation.

    PubMed

    Snider, Natasha T; Weerasinghe, Sujith V W; Singla, Amika; Leonard, Jessica M; Hanada, Shinichiro; Andrews, Philip C; Lok, Anna S; Omary, M Bishr

    2011-10-17

    Genetic factors impact liver injury susceptibility and disease progression. Prominent histological features of some chronic human liver diseases are hepatocyte ballooning and Mallory-Denk bodies. In mice, these features are induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) in a strain-dependent manner, with the C57BL and C3H strains showing high and low susceptibility, respectively. To identify modifiers of DDC-induced liver injury, we compared C57BL and C3H mice using proteomic, biochemical, and cell biological tools. DDC elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress enzymes preferentially in C57BL livers and isolated hepatocytes. C57BL livers and hepatocytes also manifested significant down-regulation, aggregation, and nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). GAPDH knockdown depleted bioenergetic and antioxidant enzymes and elevated hepatocyte ROS, whereas GAPDH overexpression decreased hepatocyte ROS. On the other hand, C3H livers had higher expression and activity of the energy-generating nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDPK), and knockdown of hepatocyte NDPK augmented DDC-induced ROS formation. Consistent with these findings, cirrhotic, but not normal, human livers contained GAPDH aggregates and NDPK complexes. We propose that GAPDH and NDPK are genetic modifiers of murine DDC-induced liver injury and potentially human liver disease.

  9. Accessing 3D microtissue metabolism: Lactate and oxygen monitoring in hepatocyte spheroids.

    PubMed

    Weltin, Andreas; Hammer, Steffen; Noor, Fozia; Kaminski, Yeda; Kieninger, Jochen; Urban, Gerald A

    2017-01-15

    3D hepatic microtissues, unlike 2D cell cultures, retain many of the in-vivo-like functionalities even after long-term cultivation. Such 3D cultures are increasingly applied to investigate liver damage due to drug exposure in toxicology. However, there is a need for thorough metabolic characterization of these microtissues for mechanistic understanding of effects on culture behaviour. We measured metabolic parameters from single human HepaRG hepatocyte spheroids online and continuously with electrochemical microsensors. A microsensor platform for lactate and oxygen was integrated in a standard 96-well plate. Electrochemical microsensors for lactate and oxygen allow fast, precise and continuous long-term measurement of metabolic parameters directly in the microwell. The demonstrated capability to precisely detect small concentration changes by single spheroids is the key to access their metabolism. Lactate levels in the culture medium starting from 50µM with production rates of 5µMh -1 were monitored and precisely quantified over three days. Parallel long-term oxygen measurements showed no oxygen depletion or hypoxic conditions in the microwell. Increased lactate production by spheroids upon suppression of the aerobic metabolism was observed. The dose-dependent decrease in lactate production caused by the addition of the hepatotoxic drug Bosentan was determined. We showed that in a toxicological application, metabolic monitoring yields quantitative, online information on cell viability, which complements and supports other methods such as microscopy. The demonstrated continuous access to 3D cell culture metabolism within a standard setup improves in vitro toxicology models in replacement strategies of animal experiments. Controlling the microenvironment of such organotypic cultures has impact in tissue engineering, cancer therapy and personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. MicroRNA-375 Is Induced in Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity to Repress Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-β*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jielu; Lou, Qiang; Wei, Qingqing; Mei, Shuqin; Li, Lin; Wu, Guangyu; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Mei, Changlin; Dong, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of cisplatin-mediated chemotherapy in cancer patients. The pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remains largely unclear, making it difficult to design effective renoprotective approaches. Here, we have examined the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We show that cisplatin nephrotoxicity was not affected by overall depletion of both beneficial and detrimental miRNAs from kidney proximal tubular cells in mice in which the miRNA-generating enzyme Dicer had been conditionally knocked out. To identify miRNAs involved in cisplatin nephrotoxicity, we used microarray analysis to profile miRNA expression and identified 47 up-regulated microRNAs and 20 down-regulated microRNAs in kidney cortical tissues. One up-regulated miRNA was miR-375, whose expression was also induced in cisplatin-treated renal tubular cells. Interestingly, inhibition of miR-375 decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that miR-375 is a cell-damaging or pro-apoptotic agent. Blockade of P53 or NF-κB attenuated cisplatin-induced miR-375 expression, supporting a role of P53 and NF-κB in miR-375 induction. We also identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF-1β) as a key downstream target of miR-375. Of note, we further demonstrated that HNF-1β protected renal cells against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that upon cisplatin exposure, P53 and NF-κB collaboratively induce miR-375 expression, which, in turn, represses HNF-1β activity, resulting in renal tubular cell apoptosis and nephrotoxicity. PMID:28119452

  11. MicroRNA-375 Is Induced in Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity to Repress Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-β.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jielu; Lou, Qiang; Wei, Qingqing; Mei, Shuqin; Li, Lin; Wu, Guangyu; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Mei, Changlin; Dong, Zheng

    2017-03-17

    Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of cisplatin-mediated chemotherapy in cancer patients. The pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remains largely unclear, making it difficult to design effective renoprotective approaches. Here, we have examined the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We show that cisplatin nephrotoxicity was not affected by overall depletion of both beneficial and detrimental miRNAs from kidney proximal tubular cells in mice in which the miRNA-generating enzyme Dicer had been conditionally knocked out. To identify miRNAs involved in cisplatin nephrotoxicity, we used microarray analysis to profile miRNA expression and identified 47 up-regulated microRNAs and 20 down-regulated microRNAs in kidney cortical tissues. One up-regulated miRNA was miR-375, whose expression was also induced in cisplatin-treated renal tubular cells. Interestingly, inhibition of miR-375 decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that miR-375 is a cell-damaging or pro-apoptotic agent. Blockade of P53 or NF-κB attenuated cisplatin-induced miR-375 expression, supporting a role of P53 and NF-κB in miR-375 induction. We also identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF-1β) as a key downstream target of miR-375. Of note, we further demonstrated that HNF-1β protected renal cells against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that upon cisplatin exposure, P53 and NF-κB collaboratively induce miR-375 expression, which, in turn, represses HNF-1β activity, resulting in renal tubular cell apoptosis and nephrotoxicity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Hepatocyte growth factor demonstrates racial heterogeneity as a biomarker for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bielinski, Suzette J; Berardi, Cecilia; Decker, Paul A; Larson, Nicholas B; Bell, Elizabeth J; Pankow, James S; Sale, Michele M; Tang, Weihong; Hanson, Naomi Q; Wassel, Christina L; de Andrade, Mariza; Budoff, Matthew J; Polak, Joseph F; Sicotte, Hugues; Tsai, Michael Y

    2017-08-01

    To determine if hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a promising biomarker of coronary heart disease (CHD) given its release into circulation in response to endothelial damage, is associated with subclinical and clinical CHD in a racial/ethnic diverse population. HGF was measured in 6738 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Highest mean HGF values (pg/mL) were observed in Hispanic, followed by African, non-Hispanic white, then Chinese Americans. In all races/ethnicities, HGF levels were associated with older age, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and body mass index, lower high-density lipoprotein, diabetes and current smoking. In fully adjusted models, each SD higher HGF was associated with an average increase in coronary artery calcium (CAC) of 55 Agatston units for non-Hispanic whites (p<0.001) and 51 Agatston units for African-Americans (p=0.007) but was not in the other race/ethnic groups (interaction p=0.02). There were 529 incident CHD events, and CHD risk was 41% higher in African (p<0.001), 17% in non-Hispanic white (p=0.026) and Chinese (p=0.36), and 6% in Hispanic Americans (p=0.56) per SD increase in HGF. In a large and diverse population-based cohort, we report that HGF is associated with subclinical and incident CHD. We demonstrate evidence of racial/ethnic heterogeneity within these associations, as the results are most compelling in African-Americans and non-Hispanic white Americans. We provide evidence that HGF is a biomarker of atherosclerotic disease that is independent of traditional risk factors. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Differential entry of ricin into malignant and normal rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Decastel, M.; Haentjens, G.; Aubery, M.

    1989-02-01

    The authors have compared the mechanisms of ricin binding to and entry into Zajdela hepatoma cells (ZHC) and normal rat hepatocytes (HyC). Lactose but not mannan was found to inhibit ricin binding to and toxicity on ZHC and HyC. This finding suggests that ricin binding, entry, and toxicity are expressed only through the galactose binding sites on ZHC and HyC. Nevertheless, the characteristics of ricin binding and its entry pathway appeared to be different in several respects in ZHC and HyC. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium data determined over a wide range of {sup 125}I-labeled ricin concentrations yielded a curvilinear plotmore » for ZHC, while a straight line was obtained for HyC. These results indicate that only ZHC possess high-affinity receptors for ricin. Analysis of ricin toxicity of ZHC and HyC, in the presence of ammonium chloride or after K{sup +}-depletion in both cell types, suggests that the ricin bound to galactose receptors entered through neutral vesicles in ZHC, and through both neutral and acidic vesicles in HyC. The qualitative and quantitative differences found between the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis of ricin in ZHC and HyC might explain the differential sensitivity of the two cell types toward the toxin.« less

  14. Hepatocyte growth factor, a biomarker of macroangiopathy in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Konya, Hiroyuki; Miuchi, Masayuki; Satani, Kahori; Matsutani, Satoshi; Tsunoda, Taku; Yano, Yuzo; Katsuno, Tomoyuki; Hamaguchi, Tomoya; Miyagawa, Jun-Ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-10-15

    Atherosclerotic involvements are an essential causal element of prospect in diabetes mellitus (DM), with carotid atherosclerosis (CA) being a common risk-factor for prospective crisis of coronary artery diseases (CAD) and/or cerebral infarction (CI) in DM subjects. From another point of view, several reports have supplied augmenting proof that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has a physiopathological part in DM involvements. HGF has been a mesenchymal-derived polyphenic factor which modulates development, motion, and morphosis of diverse cells, and has been regarded as a humor intermediator of epithelial-mesenchymal interplays. The serum concentrations of HGF have been elevated in subjects with CAD and CI, especially during the acute phase of both disturbances. In our study with 89 type 2 DM patients, the association between serum concentrations of HGF and risk-factors for macrovascular complications inclusive of CA were examined. The average of serum HGF levels in the subjects was more elevated than the reference interval. The serum HGF concentrations associated positively with both intimal-media thickness (IMT) (r = 0.24, P = 0.0248) and plaque score (r = 0.27, P = 0.0126), indicating a relationship between the elevated HGF concentrations and advancement of CA involvements. Multivariate statistical analysis accentuated that serum concentrations of HGF would be associated independently with IMT (standardized = 0.28, P = 0.0499). The review indicates what is presently known regarding serum HGF might be a new and meaningful biomarker of macroangiopathy in DM subjects.

  15. Nuclear lactate dehydrogenase modulates histone modification in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Castonguay, Zachary; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C.

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Nuclear LDH is up-regulated under oxidative stress. • SIRT1 is co-immunoprecipitated bound to nuclear LDH. • Nuclear LDH is involved in histone deacetylation and epigenetics. - Abstract: It is becoming increasingly apparent that the nucleus harbors metabolic enzymes that affect genetic transforming events. Here, we describe a nuclear isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (nLDH) and its ability to orchestrate histone deacetylation by controlling the availability of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), a key ingredient of the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) deacetylase system. There was an increase in the expression of nLDH concomitant with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})more » in the culture medium. Under oxidative stress, the NAD{sup +} generated by nLDH resulted in the enhanced deacetylation of histones compared to the control hepatocytes despite no discernable change in the levels of SIRT1. There appeared to be an intimate association between nLDH and SIRT1 as these two enzymes co-immunoprecipitated. The ability of nLDH to regulate epigenetic modifications by manipulating NAD{sup +} reveals an intricate link between metabolism and the processing of genetic information.« less

  16. A Hepatocyte-Mimicking Antidote for Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Xu, Duo; Han, Hui; He, Yuxin; Lee, Harrison; Wu, Di; Liu, Fang; Liu, Xiangsheng; Liu, Yang; Lu, Yunfeng; Ji, Cheng

    2018-04-11

    Alcohol intoxication causes serious diseases, whereas current treatments are mostly supportive and unable to remove alcohol efficiently. Upon alcohol consumption, alcohol is sequentially oxidized to acetaldehyde and acetate by the endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively. Inspired by the metabolism of alcohol, a hepatocyte-mimicking antidote for alcohol intoxication through the codelivery of the nanocapsules of alcohol oxidase (AOx), catalase (CAT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) to the liver, where AOx and CAT catalyze the oxidation of alcohol to acetaldehyde, while ALDH catalyzes the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate. Administered to alcohol-intoxicated mice, the antidote rapidly accumulates in the liver and enables a significant reduction of the blood alcohol concentration. Moreover, blood acetaldehyde concentration is maintained at an extremely low level, significantly contributing to liver protection. Such an antidote, which can eliminate alcohol and acetaldehyde simultaneously, holds great promise for the treatment of alcohol intoxication and poisoning and can provide therapeutic benefits. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Protein phosphorylation in isolated hepatocytes of septic and endotoxemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Deaciuc, I.V.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible alterations induced by sepsis and endotoxicosis in the late phase of Ca2+-dependent signaling in rat liver. Hepatocytes isolated from septic or chronically endotoxin (ET)-treated rats were labeled with (32P)H3PO4 and stimulated with various agents. Proteins were resolved by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiographed. Vasopressin (VP)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced responses were attenuated in both septic and ET-treated rats for cytosolic and membrane proteins compared with their respective controls. Glucagon and 12-O-myristate phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) affected only the phosphorylation of membrane proteins. Glucagon-induced changes in the phosphorylation of membrane proteins were affected bymore » both sepsis and endotoxicosis, whereas TPA-stimulated phosphorylation was lowered only in endotoxicosis. Response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was depressed in septic rats for cytosolic proteins. The phosphorylation of two cytosolic proteins, i.e., 93 and 61 kDa (previously identified as glycogen phosphorylase and pyruvate kinase, respectively), in response to VP, PE, and A23187 was severely impaired by endotoxicosis and sepsis. TPA did not affect the phosphorylation state of these two proteins. The results show that sepsis and endotoxicosis produce perturbations of the phosphorylation step in Ca2+ transmembrane signaling. Such changes can explain alterations of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis associated with sepsis and endotoxicosis.« less

  18. Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 34 regulates liver regeneration in hepatic steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yuka; Furutani, Tomoko; Kimura, Kumi; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Haga, Sanae; Kido, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Harada, Kenichi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Ozaki, Michitaka; Kasuga, Masato; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The liver has robust regenerative potential in response to damage, but hepatic steatosis (HS) weakens this potential. We found that the enhanced integrated stress response (ISR) mediated by phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) impairs regeneration in HS and that growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 34 (Gadd34)-dependent suppression of ISR plays a crucial role in fatty liver regeneration. Although mice fed a high-fat diet for 2 weeks developed moderate fatty liver with no increase in eIF2α phosphorylation before 70% hepatectomy, they showed impaired liver regeneration as a result of reduced proliferation and increased death of hepatocytes with increased phosphorylation of eIF2α and ISR. An increased ISR through Gadd34 knockdown induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)-dependent apoptosis and receptor-interacting protein kinase 3-dependent necrosis, resulting in increased hepatocyte death during fatty liver regeneration. Furthermore, Gadd34 knockdown and increased phosphorylation of eIF2α decreased cyclin D1 protein and reduced hepatocyte proliferation. In contrast, enhancement of Gadd34 suppressed phosphorylation of eIF2α and reduced CHOP expression and hepatocyte apoptosis without affecting hepatocyte proliferation, clearly improving fatty liver regeneration. In more severe fatty liver of leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, forced expression of hepatic Gadd34 also promoted hepatic regeneration after hepatectomy. Gadd34-mediated regulation of ISR acts as a physiological defense mechanism against impaired liver regeneration resulting from steatosis and is thus a possible therapeutic target for impaired regeneration in HS. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Improved oxygenation dramatically alters metabolism and gene expression in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gilglioni, Eduardo H.; Chang, Jung‐Chin; Duijst, Suzanne; Go, Simei; Adam, Aziza A. A.; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje; Verhoeven, Arthur J.; Ishii‐Iwamoto, Emy L.

    2018-01-01

    Primary hepatocyte culture is an important in vitro system for the study of liver functions. In vivo, hepatocytes have high oxidative metabolism. However, oxygen supply by means of diffusion in in vitro static cultures is much less than that by blood circulation in vivo. Therefore, we investigated whether hypoxia contributes to dedifferentiation and deregulated metabolism in cultured hepatocytes. To this end, murine hepatocytes were cultured under static or shaken (60 revolutions per minute) conditions in a collagen sandwich. The effect of hypoxia on hepatocyte cultures was examined by metabolites in media and cells, hypoxia‐inducible factors (HIF)‐1/2α western blotting, and real‐time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for HIF target genes and key genes of glucose and lipid metabolism. Hepatocytes in shaken cultures showed lower glycolytic activity and triglyceride accumulation than static cultures, compatible with improved oxygen delivery and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Consistently, static cultures displayed significant HIF‐2α expression, which was undetectable in freshly isolated hepatocytes and shaken cultures. Transcript levels of HIF target genes (glyceraldehyde 3‐phosphate dehydrogenase [Gapdh], glucose transporter 1 [Glut1], pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 [Pdk1], and lactate dehydrogenase A [Ldha]) and key genes of lipid metabolism, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1), apolipoprotein B (Apob), and acetyl‐coenzyme A carboxylase 1 (Acc1), were significantly lower in shaken compared to static cultures. Moreover, expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (Hnf4α) and farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) were better preserved in shaken cultures as a result of improved oxygen delivery. We further revealed that HIF‐2 signaling was involved in hypoxia‐induced down‐regulation of Fxr. Conclusion: Primary murine hepatocytes in static culture suffer from hypoxia. Improving oxygenation by simple shaking prevents major changes in

  20. Improved oxygenation dramatically alters metabolism and gene expression in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gilglioni, Eduardo H; Chang, Jung-Chin; Duijst, Suzanne; Go, Simei; Adam, Aziza A A; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje; Verhoeven, Arthur J; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy L; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J

    2018-03-01

    Primary hepatocyte culture is an important in vitro system for the study of liver functions. In vivo , hepatocytes have high oxidative metabolism. However, oxygen supply by means of diffusion in in vitro static cultures is much less than that by blood circulation in vivo . Therefore, we investigated whether hypoxia contributes to dedifferentiation and deregulated metabolism in cultured hepatocytes. To this end, murine hepatocytes were cultured under static or shaken (60 revolutions per minute) conditions in a collagen sandwich. The effect of hypoxia on hepatocyte cultures was examined by metabolites in media and cells, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1/2α western blotting, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for HIF target genes and key genes of glucose and lipid metabolism. Hepatocytes in shaken cultures showed lower glycolytic activity and triglyceride accumulation than static cultures, compatible with improved oxygen delivery and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Consistently, static cultures displayed significant HIF-2α expression, which was undetectable in freshly isolated hepatocytes and shaken cultures. Transcript levels of HIF target genes (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [ Gapdh ], glucose transporter 1 [ Glut1 ], pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 [ Pdk1 ], and lactate dehydrogenase A [ Ldha ]) and key genes of lipid metabolism, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 ( Cpt1 ), apolipoprotein B ( Apob ), and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 1 ( Acc1 ), were significantly lower in shaken compared to static cultures. Moreover, expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α ( Hnf4α ) and farnesoid X receptor ( Fxr ) were better preserved in shaken cultures as a result of improved oxygen delivery. We further revealed that HIF-2 signaling was involved in hypoxia-induced down-regulation of Fxr . Conclusion : Primary murine hepatocytes in static culture suffer from hypoxia. Improving oxygenation by simple shaking prevents major changes in

  1. Embryonic hepatocyte transplantation for hepatic cirrhosis: Efficacy and mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Wen-Ting; Ma, Li-Mei; Xu, Qing; Shi, Xiao-Lin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and mechanism of action of allogeneic embryonic hepatocyte transplantation for the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis. METHODS: Rat embryonic hepatocytes were characterized by examining cell markers. Wistar rats with CCl4-induced cirrhosis were randomly divided into two groups: a model group receiving continuous CCl4, and a cell transplantation group receiving continuous CCl4 and transplanted with embryonic fluorescent-labeled hepatocytes. In addition, a normal control group was composed of healthy rats. All rats were sacrificed after 2 wk following the initiation of the cell transplant. Ultrasound, pathological analyses and serum biochemical tests were used to evaluate the efficacy of embryonic hepatocyte transplantation. To analyze the recovery status of cirrhotic hepatocytes and the signaling pathways influenced by embryonic hepatocyte transplantation, real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine the mRNA expression of stellate activation-associated protein (STAP), c-myb, α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were employed to detect α-SMA and ET-1 protein expression in hepatic tissues. RESULTS: Gross morphological, ultrasound and histopathological examinations, serum biochemical tests and radioimmunoassays demonstrated that hepatic cirrhosis was successfully established in the Wistar rats. Stem cell factor receptor (c-kit), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met), Nestin, α fetal protein, albumin and cytokeratin19 markers were observed in the rat embryonic hepatocytes. Following embryonic hepatocyte transplantation, there was a significant reversal in the gross appearance, ultrasound findings, histopathological properties, and serum biochemical parameters of the rat liver. In addition, after the activation of hepatic stellate cells and STAP signaling, α-SMA, c-myb and ET-1 mRNA levels became significantly lower than in the untreated cirrhotic group (P

  2. Functional 3D human primary hepatocyte spheroids made by co-culturing hepatocytes from partial hepatectomy specimens and human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    No, Da Yoon; Lee, Seung-A; Choi, Yoon Young; Park, DoYeun; Jang, Ju Yun; Kim, Dong-Sik; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    We have generated human hepatocyte spheroids with uniform size and shape by co-culturing 1∶1 mixtures of primary human hepatocytes (hHeps) from partial hepatectomy specimens and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in concave microwells. The hADSCs in spheroids could compensate for the low viability and improve the functional maintenance of hHeps. Co-cultured spheroids aggregated and formed compact spheroidal shapes more rapidly, and with a significantly higher viability than mono-cultured spheroids. The liver-specific functions of co-cultured spheroids were greater, although they contained half the number of hepatocytes as mono-cultured spheroids. Albumin secretion by co-cultured spheroids was 10% higher on day 7, whereas urea secretion was similar, compared with mono-cultured spheroids. A quantitative cytochrome P450 assay showed that the enzymatic activity of co-cultured spheroids cultured for 9 days was 28% higher than that of mono-cultured spheroids. These effects may be due to the transdifferentiation potential and paracrine healing effects of hADSCs on hHeps. These co-cultured spheroids may be useful for creating artificial three-dimensional hepatic tissue constructs and for cell therapy with limited numbers of human hepatocytes.

  3. Hepatocyte-specific S100a8 and S100a9 transgene expression in mice causes Cxcl1 induction and systemic neutrophil enrichment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Calprotectin consists of the Ca2+-binding proteins S100a8 and S100a9 that are induced in epithelial cells in response to tissue damage and infection. Both proteins are also secreted by activated innate immune cells and numerous studies demonstrate their crucial role in pathological conditions of acute and chronic inflammation. Results Here, we established a conditional mouse model with simultaneous S100a8 and S100a9 transgene expression in hepatocytes (TgS100a8a9hep) under the control of doxycycline to unravel the role of epithelial-derived Calprotectin on tissue homeostasis and inflammation. TgS100a8a9hep mice displayed a significant enrichment of neutrophils in peripheral blood and tissues with high blood content. Interestingly, Cxcl1 transcription was significantly induced in the liver of TgS100a8a9hep mice and primary hepatocytes derived thereof as compared to Control mice, accompanied by an increase of Cxcl1 serum levels. However, expression of other chemokines with a known function in neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow, e.g. Csf3 and Cxcl2, was not altered. Doxycycline treatment of TgS100a8a9hep mice reduced Cxcl1 expression in the liver and resulted in normal numbers of neutrophils. Conclusion In summary, our data demonstrate for the first time that hepatocyte-specific S100a8 and S100a9 expression induces a systemic mobilization of neutrophils by a specific activation of Cxcl1 transcription in the liver. PMID:23241281

  4. Enhanced antioxidant capacity of dental pulp-derived iPSC-differentiated hepatocytes and liver regeneration by injectable HGF-releasing hydrogel in fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Wu, Wai-Wah; Li, Hsin-Yang; Chien, Yueh; Sun, Cho-Chin; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Huang, Chi-Shuan; Lai, Ying-Hsiu; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Hung, Shuen-Iu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Lan, Yuan-Tzu; Liu, Dean-Mo; Chien, Chian-Shiu; Huo, Teh-Ia; Lee, Shou-Dong; Wang, Chien-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatic failure (AHF) is a severe liver injury leading to sustained damage and complications. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be an alternative option for the treatment of AHF. In this study, we reprogrammed human dental pulp-derived fibroblasts into iPSCs, which exhibited pluripotency and the capacity to differentiate into tridermal lineages, including hepatocyte-like cells (iPSC-Heps). These iPSC-Heps resembled human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells in gene signature and hepatic markers/functions. To improve iPSC-Heps engraftment, we next developed an injectable carboxymethyl-hexanoyl chitosan hydrogel (CHC) with sustained hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) release (HGF-CHC) and investigated the hepatoprotective activity of HGF-CHC-delivered iPSC-Heps in vitro and in an immunocompromised AHF mouse model induced by thioacetamide (TAA). Intrahepatic delivery of HGF-CHC-iPSC-Heps reduced the TAA-induced hepatic necrotic area and rescued liver function and recipient viability. Compared with PBS-delivered iPSC-Heps, the HGF-CHC-delivered iPSC-Heps exhibited higher antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities that reduced hepatic necrotic area. Importantly, these HGF-CHC-mediated responses could be abolished by administering anti-HGF neutralizing antibodies. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that HGF mediated the enhancement of iPSC-Hep antioxidant/antiapoptotic capacities and hepatoprotection and that HGF-CHC is as an excellent vehicle for iPSC-Hep engraftment in iPSC-based therapy against AHF.

  5. Prostaglandin E1 protects hepatocytes against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis via protein kinase A-dependent induction of glucose-regulated protein 78 expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang-Wan; Fu, Yu; Li, Ying; He, Yi-Huai; Mu, Mao-Yuan; Liu, Qi-Chuan; Long, Jun; Lin, Shi-De

    2017-10-28

    To investigate the protective effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Thapsigargin (TG) was used to induce ER stress in the human hepatic cell line L02 and hepatocarcinoma-derived cell line HepG2. To evaluate the effects of PGE1 on TG-induced apoptosis, PGE1 was used an hour prior to TG treatment. Activation of unfolded protein response signaling pathways were detected by western blotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Apoptotic index and cell viability of L02 cells and HepG2 cells were determined with flow cytometry and MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay. Pretreatment with 1 μmol/L PGE1 protected against TG-induced apoptosis in both L02 cells and HepG2 cells. PGE1 enhanced the TG-induced expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 and spliced X box-binding protein 1 at 6 h. However, it attenuated their expressions after 24 h. PGE1 alone induced protein and mRNA expressions of GRP78; PGE1 also induced protein expression of DNA damage-inducible gene 34 and inhibited the expressions of phospho-PKR-like ER kinase, phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and CHOP. Treatment with protein kinase A (PKA)-inhibitor H89 or KT5720 blocked PGE1-induced up-regulation of GRP78. Further, the cytoprotective effect of PGE1 on hepatocytes was not observed after blockade of GRP78 expression by H89 or small interfering RNA specifically targeted against human GRP78. Our study demonstrates that PGE1 protects against ER stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis via PKA pathway-dependent induction of GRP78 expression.

  6. Hepatitis B virus modulates store-operated calcium entry to enhance viral replication in primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Casciano, Jessica C.; Duchemin, Nicholas J.; Lamontagne, R. Jason; Steel, Laura F.; Bouchard, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Many viruses modulate calcium (Ca2+) signaling to create a cellular environment that is more permissive to viral replication, but for most viruses that regulate Ca2+ signaling, the mechanism underlying this regulation is not well understood. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBx protein modulates cytosolic Ca2+ levels to stimulate HBV replication in some liver cell lines. A chronic HBV infection is associated with life-threatening liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and HBx modulation of cytosolic Ca2+ levels could have an important role in HBV pathogenesis. Whether HBx affects cytosolic Ca2+ in a normal hepatocyte, the natural site of an HBV infection, has not been addressed. Here, we report that HBx alters cytosolic Ca2+ signaling in cultured primary hepatocytes. We used single cell Ca2+ imaging of cultured primary rat hepatocytes to demonstrate that HBx elevates the cytosolic Ca2+ level in hepatocytes following an IP3-linked Ca2+ response; HBx effects were similar when expressed alone or in the context of replicating HBV. HBx elevation of the cytosolic Ca2+ level required extracellular Ca2+ influx and store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) entry and stimulated HBV replication in hepatocytes. We used both targeted RT-qPCR and transcriptome-wide RNAseq analyses to compare levels of SOC channel components and other Ca2+ signaling regulators in HBV-expressing and control hepatocytes and show that the transcript levels of these various proteins are not affected by HBV. We also show that HBx regulation of SOC-regulated Ca2+ accumulation is likely the consequence of HBV modulation of a SOC channel regulatory mechanism. In support of this, we link HBx enhancement of SOC-regulated Ca2+ accumulation to Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria and demonstrate that HBx stimulates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in primary hepatocytes. The results of our study may provide insights into viral mechanisms that affect Ca2+ signaling to regulate viral replication and virus-associated diseases

  7. Hypoxia promotes liver-stage malaria infection in primary human hepatocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shengyong; March, Sandra; Galstian, Ani; Hanson, Kirsten; Carvalho, Tânia; Mota, Maria M.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Homeostasis of mammalian cell function strictly depends on balancing oxygen exposure to maintain energy metabolism without producing excessive reactive oxygen species. In vivo, cells in different tissues are exposed to a wide range of oxygen concentrations, and yet in vitro models almost exclusively expose cultured cells to higher, atmospheric oxygen levels. Existing models of liver-stage malaria that utilize primary human hepatocytes typically exhibit low in vitro infection efficiencies, possibly due to missing microenvironmental support signals. One cue that could influence the infection capacity of cultured human hepatocytes is the dissolved oxygen concentration. We developed a microscale human liver platform comprised of precisely patterned primary human hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells to model liver-stage malaria, but the oxygen concentrations are typically higher in the in vitro liver platform than anywhere along the hepatic sinusoid. Indeed, we observed that liver-stage Plasmodium parasite development in vivo correlates with hepatic sinusoidal oxygen gradients. Therefore, we hypothesized that in vitro liver-stage malaria infection efficiencies might improve under hypoxia. Using the infection of micropatterned co-cultures with Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium yoelii or Plasmodium falciparum as a model, we observed that ambient hypoxia resulted in increased survival of exo-erythrocytic forms (EEFs) in hepatocytes and improved parasite development in a subset of surviving EEFs, based on EEF size. Further, the effective cell surface oxygen tensions (pO2) experienced by the hepatocytes, as predicted by a mathematical model, were systematically perturbed by varying culture parameters such as hepatocyte density and height of the medium, uncovering an optimal cell surface pO2 to maximize the number of mature EEFs. Initial mechanistic experiments revealed that treatment of primary human hepatocytes with the hypoxia mimetic, cobalt(II) chloride, as well as

  8. Oxidative stress is involved in Dasatinib-induced apoptosis in rat primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Tao; Luo, Peihua; Zhu, Hong

    2012-06-15

    Dasatinib, a multitargeted inhibitor of BCR–ABL and SRC kinases, exhibits antitumor activity and extends the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, some patients suffer from hepatotoxicity, which occurs through an unknown mechanism. In the present study, we found that Dasatinib could induce hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Dasatinib reduced the cell viability of rat primary hepatocytes, induced the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in vitro, and triggered the ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes in Sprague–Dawley rats in vivo. Apoptotic markers (chromatin condensation, cleaved caspase-3 andmore » cleaved PARP) were detected to indicate that the injury induced by Dasatinib in hepatocytes in vitro was mediated by apoptosis. This result was further validated in vivo using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Here we found that Dasatinib dramatically increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes, reduced the intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, attenuated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), generated malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) related to oxidative stress and survival. These results confirm that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in Dasatinib-mediated hepatotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a typical antioxidant, can scavenge free radicals, attenuate oxidative stress, and protect hepatocytes against Dasatinib-induced injury. Thus, relieving oxidative stress is a viable strategy for reducing Dasatinib-induced hepatotoxicity. -- Highlights: ►Dasatinib shows potential hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. ►Apoptosis plays a vital role in

  9. Hepatocyte polarization is essential for the productive entry of the hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Andreas; Mills, Kerry; Weiss, Thomas S; Urban, Stephan

    2012-02-01

    Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is characterized by a high species specificity and a distinct liver tropism. Within the liver, HBV replication occurs in differentiated and polarized hepatocytes. Accordingly, the in vitro HBV infection of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and the human hepatoma cell line, HepaRG, is restricted to differentiated, hepatocyte-like cells. Though preparations of PHH contain up to 100% hepatic cells, cultures of differentiated HepaRG cells are a mixture of hepatocyte-like and biliary-like epithelial cells. We used PHH and HepaRG cells and compared the influence of virus inoculation dose, cell differentiation, and polarization on productive HBV infection. At multiplicities of genome equivalents (mge) >8,000, almost 100% of PHHs could be infected. In contrast, only a subset of HepaRG cells stained positive for HBcAg at comparable or even higher mge. Infection predominantly occurred at the edges of islands of hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells. This indicates a limited accessibility of the HBV receptor, possibly as a result of its polar sorting. Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), a marker selectively transported to the apical (i.e., canalicular) cell membrane, revealed two polarization phenotypes of HepaRG cells. HBV infection within the islands of hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells preferentially occurred in cells that resemble PHH, exhibiting canalicular structures. However, disruption of cell-cell junctions allowed the additional infection of cells that do not display a PHH-like polarization. HBV enters hepatocytes via the basolateral membrane. This model, at least partially, explains the difference of PHH and HepaRG cells in infection efficacy, provides insights into natural HBV infection, and establishes a basis for optimization of the HepaRG infection system. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. β-Adrenergic induction of lipolysis in hepatocytes is inhibited by ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Schott, Micah B; Rasineni, Karuna; Weller, Shaun G; Schulze, Ryan J; Sletten, Arthur C; Casey, Carol A; McNiven, Mark A

    2017-07-14

    In liver steatosis ( i.e. fatty liver), hepatocytes accumulate many large neutral lipid storage organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs). LDs are important in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, but the signaling mechanisms that stimulate LD metabolism in hepatocytes are poorly defined. In adipocytes, catecholamines target the β-adrenergic (β-AR)/cAMP pathway to activate cytosolic lipases and induce their recruitment to the LD surface. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether hepatocytes, like adipocytes, also undergo cAMP-mediated lipolysis in response to β-AR stimulation. Using primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cells, we found that treatment with the β-AR agent isoproterenol caused substantial LD loss via activation of cytosolic lipases adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). β-Adrenergic stimulation rapidly activated PKA, which led to the phosphorylation of ATGL and HSL and their recruitment to the LD surface. To test whether this β-AR-dependent lipolysis pathway was altered in a model of alcoholic fatty liver, primary hepatocytes from rats fed a 6-week EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli diet were treated with cAMP agonists. Compared with controls, EtOH-exposed hepatocytes showed a drastic inhibition in β-AR/cAMP-induced LD breakdown and the phosphorylation of PKA substrates, including HSL. This observation was supported in VA-13 cells, an EtOH-metabolizing human hepatoma cell line, which displayed marked defects in both PKA activation and isoproterenol-induced ATGL translocation to the LD periphery. In summary, these findings suggest that β-AR stimulation mobilizes cytosolic lipases for LD breakdown in hepatocytes, and perturbation of this pathway could be a major consequence of chronic EtOH insult leading to fatty liver.

  11. Effect of Immunosuppressive Agents on Hepatocyte Apoptosis Post-Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eu Jin; Chin, Ruth; Nachbur, Ueli; Silke, John; Jia, Zhiyuan; Angus, Peter W.; Torresi, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Immunosuppressants are used ubiquitously post-liver transplantation to prevent allograft rejection. However their effects on hepatocytes are unknown. Experimental data from non-liver cells indicate that immunosuppressants may promote cell death thereby driving an inflammatory response that promotes fibrosis and raises concerns that a similar effect may occur within the liver. We evaluated apoptosis within the liver tissue of post-liver transplant patients and correlated these findings with in vitro experiments investigating the effects of immunosuppressants on apoptosis in primary hepatocytes. Methods Hepatocyte apoptosis was assessed using immunohistochemistry for M30 CytoDEATH and cleaved PARP in human liver tissue. Primary mouse hepatocytes were treated with various combinations of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus, or MMF. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using crystal violet assays and Western immunoblots probed for cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase 3. Results Post-liver transplant patients had a 4.9-fold and 1.7-fold increase in M30 CytoDEATH and cleaved PARP compared to normal subjects. Cyclosporine and tacrolimus at therapeutic concentrations did not affect hepatocyte apoptosis, however when they were combined with MMF, cell death was significantly enhanced. Cell viability was reduced by 46% and 41%, cleaved PARP was increased 2.6-fold and 2.2-fold, and cleaved caspase 3 increased 2.2-fold and 1.8-fold following treatment with Cyclosporine/MMF and Tacrolimus/MMF respectively. By contrast, the sirolimus/MMF combination did not significantly reduce hepatocyte viability or promote apoptosis. Conclusion Commonly used immunosuppressive drug regimens employed after liver transplantation enhance hepatocyte cell death and may thus contribute to the increased liver fibrosis that occurs in a proportion of liver transplant recipients. PMID:26390404

  12. A new culture technique for hepatocyte organoid formation and long-term maintenance of liver-specific functions.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Kazuhisa; Nakazawa, Kohji; Ijima, Hiroyuki; Funatsu, Kazumori; Kajiwara, Toshihisa

    2008-06-01

    To develop a useful hybrid artificial liver, it is important to use cultured hepatocytes that maintain liver-specific functions for a long time. These requirements were achieved recently by the use of a hepatocyte multicellular aggregate (organoid) with a tissue-like structure. In this study, we developed a three-dimensional culture of hepatocytes that formed an organoid. Primary rat hepatocytes were immobilized inside hollow fibers (for plasma separation) by centrifugation. Hepatocytes formed a cylindrical organoid (cylindroid) of 200 mum in diameter by day 2 of culture. We used two types of culture media, medium A (Williams' medium E containing insulin and epidermal growth factor) and medium B (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing insulin, epidermal growth factor, and hydrocortisone). In medium A, the hepatocyte cylindroid diminished after 14 days of culture and liver-specific functions of the hepatocyte cylindroid nearly disappeared after 1 month of culture. In contrast, hepatocyte cylindroid cultured in medium B maintained its morphology and liver-specific functions for 2-5 months. These results indicate that a combination of the new culture technique and suitable culture medium is effective for expression and maintenance of liver-specific functions of hepatocytes. This culture technique will be helpful in the development of a hybrid artificial liver.

  13. Characteristics of bile salt uptake into skate hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Fricker, G; Dubost, V; Finsterwald, K; Boyer, J L

    1994-01-01

    The substrate specificity for the transporter that mediates the hepatic uptake of organic anions in freshly isolated hepatocytes of the elasmobranch little skate (Raja erinacea) was determined for bile salts and bile alcohols. The Na(+)-independent transport system exhibits a substrate specificity, which is different from the specificity of Na(+)-dependent bile salt transport in mammals. Unconjugated and conjugated di- and tri-hydroxylated bile salts inhibit uptake of cholyltaurine and cholate competitively. Inhibition is significantly greater with unconjugated as opposed to glycine- or taurine-conjugated bile salts. However, the number of hydroxyl groups in the steroid moiety of the bile salts has only minor influences on the inhibition by the unconjugated bile salts. Since the transport system seems to represent an archaic organic-anion transport system, other anions, such as dicarboxylates, amino acids and sulphate, were also tested, but had no inhibitory effect on bile salt uptake. To clarify whether bile alcohols, the physiological solutes in skate bile, share this transport system, cholyltaurine transport was studied after addition of 5 beta-cholestane-3 beta,5 alpha,6 beta-triol, 5 alpha-cholestan-3 beta-ol and 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol. These bile alcohols inhibit cholyltaurine uptake non-competitively. In contrast, uptake of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-triol, which is Na(+)-independent, is not inhibited by cholyltaurine. The findings further characterize a Na(+)-independent organic-anion transport system in skate liver cells, which is not shared by bile alcohols and has preference for unconjugated lipophilic bile salts. PMID:8192655

  14. Inhibition by AICA riboside of gluconeogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vincent, M F; Marangos, P J; Gruber, H E; Van den Berghe, G

    1991-10-01

    5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide (AICA) riboside, the nucleoside corresponding to AICA ribotide (AICAR or ZMP), an intermediate of the de novo pathway of purine biosynthesis, was found to exert a dose-dependent inhibition on gluconeogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Production of glucose from lactate-pyruvate mixtures was half-maximally inhibited by approximately 100 microM and completely suppressed by 500 microM AICA riboside. AICA riboside also inhibited the production of glucose from all other gluconeogenic precursors investigated, i.e., fructose, dihydroxyacetone, and L-proline. Measurements of intermediates of the glycolytic-gluconeogenic pathway showed that AICA riboside provoked elevations of triose phosphates and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and decreases in fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate. The effects of AICA riboside persisted when the cells were washed 10 min after its addition but were suppressed by 5-iodotubercidin, an inhibitor of adenosine kinase. AICA riboside provoked a dose-dependent buildup of normally undetectable Z nucleotides. After 20 min of incubation with 500 microM AICA riboside, ZMP, ZTP, and ZDP reached 3, 0.3, and 0.1 mumol/g cells, respectively. Concentrations of ATP were not significantly modified by addition of up to 500 microM AICA riboside when the cells were incubated with lactate-pyruvate but decreased with fructose or dihydroxyacetone. The activity of rat liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was inhibited by ZMP with an apparent Ki of 370 microM. It is concluded that AICA riboside exerts a suppressive effect on gluconeogenesis because it provokes an accumulation of ZMP, which inhibits fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Reversal of acetaminophen toxicity in isolated hamster hepatocytes by dithiothreitol

    SciTech Connect

    Tee, L.B.; Boobis, A.R.; Huggett, A.C.

    1986-04-01

    The toxicity of acetaminophen in freshly isolated hamster hepatocytes was investigated. Cells exposed to 2.5 mM acetaminophen for 90 min, followed by washing to completely remove unbound acetaminophen, and resuspension in fresh buffer, showed a dramatic decrease in viability over the ensuing 4.5 hr by which time only 4% of the cells could still exclude trypan blue. During the initial 90-min incubation, there was a substantial depletion of glutathione, to 19% of control values, covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)acetaminophen to cellular proteins, and evidence of morphological changes consistent with some disturbance of the plasma membrane. During subsequent incubation of thesemore » cells, covalent binding did not change nor did lipid peroxidation, despite the decrease in viability that occurred. Subsequent incubation of cells exposed to acetaminophen for 90 min in buffer containing 1.5 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), a disulfide-reducing agent, largely prevented the decrease in cell viability and reversed the morphological changes that occurred during the first 90-min incubation. However, there was no change in lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, or covalent binding. It is concluded that acetaminophen interacted with some critical target in the cell, and that this left unchecked, led eventually to the death of the cell. DTT prevented and reversed this effect. The toxicity of acetaminophen, and its reversal by DTT, appear independent of either covalent binding of acetaminophen or lipid peroxidation. In addition, the effect of DTT was independent of the concentration of glutathione, most probably acting by directly reducing oxidized SH-groups in critical enzymes, possibly membrane-bound ATP-dependent Ca2+ translocases.« less

  16. Safety assessment of potential food ingredients in canine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leshuai W; Koci, Juraj; Jeffery, Brett; Riviere, Jim E; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A

    2015-04-01

    This research aimed to develop in vitro methods to assess hazard of canine food ingredients. Canine hepatocytes were harvested and cell viability of clove-leaf oil (CLO), eugenol (EUG), lemongrass oil (LGO), guanosine monophosphate (GMP), inosine monophosphate (IMP), sorbose, ginger-root extract (GRE), cinnamon-bark oil (CBO), cinnamaldehyde (CINA), thymol oil (TO), thymol (THYM), and citric acid were assessed with positive controls: acetaminophen (APAP), aflatoxin B1 and xylitol. Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder array (MTPF) analyzed toxicity mechanisms for LGO. LC50 for APAP was similar among human (3.45), rat (2.35), dog (4.26 mg/ml). Aflatoxin B1 had an LC50 of 4.43 (human), 5.78 (rat) and 6.05 (dog) µg/ml; xylitol did not decrease viability. LC50 of CLO (0.185 ± 0.075(SD)), EUG (0.165 ± 0.112), LGO (0.220 ± 0.012), GRE (1.54 ± 0.31) mg/ml; GMP (166.03 ± 41.83), GMP + IMP (208.67 ± 15.27) mM; CBO (0.08 ± 0.03), CINA (0.11 ± 0.01), TO (0.21 ± 0.03), THYM (0.05 ± 0.01), citric acid (1.58 ± 0.08) mg/ml, while sorbose was non-toxic. LGO induced upregulation of 16 and down-regulation of 24 genes, which CYP and heat shock most affected. These results suggest that in vitro assays such as this may be useful for hazard assessment of food ingredients for altered hepatic function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Live cell imaging of cytosolic NADH/NAD+ ratio in hepatocytes and liver slices.

    PubMed

    Masia, Ricard; McCarty, William J; Lahmann, Carolina; Luther, Jay; Chung, Raymond T; Yarmush, Martin L; Yellen, Gary

    2018-01-01

    Fatty liver disease (FLD), the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, may be caused by alcohol or the metabolic syndrome. Alcohol is oxidized in the cytosol of hepatocytes by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which generates NADH and increases cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio. The increased ratio may be important for development of FLD, but our ability to examine this question is hindered by methodological limitations. To address this, we used the genetically encoded fluorescent sensor Peredox to obtain dynamic, real-time measurements of cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio in living hepatocytes. Peredox was expressed in dissociated rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells by transfection, and in mouse liver slices by tail-vein injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-encoded sensor. Under control conditions, hepatocytes and liver slices exhibit a relatively low (oxidized) cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio as reported by Peredox. The ratio responds rapidly and reversibly to substrates of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). Ethanol causes a robust dose-dependent increase in cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio, and this increase is mitigated by the presence of NAD + -generating substrates of LDH or SDH. In contrast to hepatocytes and slices, HepG2 cells exhibit a relatively high (reduced) ratio and show minimal responses to substrates of ADH and SDH. In slices, we show that comparable results are obtained with epifluorescence imaging and two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2p-FLIM). Live cell imaging with Peredox is a promising new approach to investigate cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio in hepatocytes. Imaging in liver slices is particularly attractive because it allows preservation of liver microanatomy and metabolic zonation of hepatocytes. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We describe and validate a new approach for measuring free cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio in hepatocytes and liver slices: live cell imaging with the fluorescent biosensor Peredox. This approach yields dynamic, real

  18. Effect of endogenous nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiration of rat hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, J.; Curran, R.D.; Ochoa, J.B.

    1991-02-01

    Nitric oxide, a highly reactive radical, was recently identified as an intermediate of L-arginine metabolism in mammalian cells. We have shown that nitric oxide synthesis is induced in vitro in cultured hepatocytes by supernatants from activated Kupffer cells or in vivo by injecting rats with nonviable Corynebacterium parvum. In both cases, nitric oxide biosynthesis in hepatocytes was associated with suppression of total protein synthesis. This study attempts to determine the effect of nitric oxide biosynthesis on the activity of specific hepatocytic mitochondrial enzymes and to determine whether inhibition of protein synthesis is caused by suppression of energy metabolism. Exposure ofmore » hepatocytes to supernatants from activated Kupffer cells led to a 30% decrease of aconitase (Krebs cycle) and complex I (mitochondrial electron transport chain) activity. Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity was due, in part, to the action of nitric oxide. In contrast, in vivo nitric oxide synthesis of hepatocytes from Corynebacterium parvum-treated animals had no effect on mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that inhibition of protein synthesis by nitric oxide is not likely to be mediated by inhibition of energy metabolism.« less

  19. Evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers in hepatocytes of grey mullet inhabiting natural and polluted estuaries.

    PubMed

    Padmini, Ekambaram; Rani, Munuswamy Usha

    2009-07-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of environmental contaminants on oxidative stress biomarkers in hepatocytes of Indian estuarine water grey mullet, Mugil cephalus collected from unpolluted Kovalam and polluted Ennore estuaries. Initially, a comparison was made between the general water chemistry and environmental pollutants like heavy metals to identify the ecotype of the estuaries. Biomarker responses and bioaccumulation of metals were determined along with histological studies of fish hepatocytes to assess contamination impact. Water chemistry data with higher temperature, salinity, pH, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and low dissolved oxygen and environmental pollutants with higher metal concentration (p<0.05) were observed at Ennore than Kovalam indicating its polluted environment. A significant increase (p<0.05) in lipid and protein oxidation markers, decrease (p<0.05) in thiol status and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in the Ennore fish hepatocytes compared to Kovalam counterpart. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals was significantly higher (p<0.05) in fish from Ennore. Hepatocytes from Ennore also featured extensive lipid-type vacuolation, increased size and membrane disruption. All the findings highlighted the value of oxidative stress biomarkers and membrane disruption as the sensitive parameters of environmental pollutant contamination and their importance in biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems. This is also the first such attempt reported at the cellular level from South India stressing the importance of biomarkers in biomonitoring programmes using fish hepatocytes as the model system.

  20. Glutamic Acid as Enhancer of Protein Synthesis Kinetics in Hepatocytes from Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, V Y; Malchenko, L A; Butorina, N N; Lazarev Konchenko, D S; Zvezdina, N D; Dubovaya, T K

    2017-08-01

    Dense cultures of hepatocytes from old rats (~2 years old, body weight 530-610 g) are different from similar cultures of hepatocytes from young rats by the low amplitude of protein synthesis rhythm. Addition of glutamic acid (0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/ml) into the culture medium with hepatocytes of old rats resulted in increase in the oscillation amplitudes of the protein synthesis rhythm to the level of young rats. A similar action of glutamic acid on the protein synthesis kinetics was observed in vivo after feeding old rats with glutamic acid. Inhibition of metabotropic receptors of glutamic acid with α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (0.01 mg/ml) abolished the effect of glutamic acid. The amplitude of oscillation of the protein synthesis rhythm in a cell population characterizes synchronization of individual oscillations caused by direct cell-cell communications. Hence, glutamic acid, acting as a receptor-dependent transmitter, enhanced direct cell-cell communications of hepatocytes that were decreased with aging. As differentiated from other known membrane signaling factors (gangliosides, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine), glutamic acid can penetrate into the brain and thus influence the communications and protein synthesis kinetics that are disturbed with aging not only in hepatocytes, but also in neurons.

  1. Activation of an alternative death receptor-induced signaling pathway in human hepatocytes under caspase arrest.

    PubMed

    Dünstl, Georg; Weiland, Timo; Schlaeger, Christof; Nüssler, Andreas; Künstle, Gerald; Wendel, Albrecht

    2007-06-15

    Caspases are thought to be essential in execution of death receptor-induced apoptosis. However, recent findings suggest the existence of alternative pathways independent of caspases. We provide further evidence for such signaling in hepatocytes. Death receptor-induced activation of caspases and apoptosis in primary murine hepatocytes was completely blocked in presence of 1.5 microM N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-(O-methyl)fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk). Whereas the same concentration of the inhibitor was sufficient to block TNF receptor 1-, CD95- or TRAIL receptor 1/-2-induced activation of caspases in primary human hepatocytes or HepG2 cells, complete prevention apoptotic cell death needed almost 100 microM zVAD-fmk. Under caspase-inhibitory but non-protective conditions, i.e. at 1.5 microM zVAD-fmk, various serine protease inhibitors prevented apoptosis-like cell death. Neither sole arrest of caspases nor inhibition of serine proteases alone protected human hepatocytes. Human but not murine hepatocytes bear the potential to activate a permissive, serine protease inhibitor-sensitive alternative death signaling pathway under caspase-inhibitory conditions.

  2. Differentiation of hepatocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xu; Lv, Shuang; He, Xia; Liu, Xiaomei; Sun, Meiyu; Li, Meiying; Chi, Guangfan; Li, Yulin

    2016-10-01

    Due to the limitations of organ donors and immune rejection in severe liver diseases, stem cell-based therapy presents a promising application for tissue repair and regeneration. As a novel cell source, mesenchymal stem cells separated from human hair follicles (HF-MSCs) are convenient to obtain and have no age limit. To date, the differentiation of HF-MSCs into hepatocytes has not been reported. In this study, we explored whether HF-MSCs and HF-MSC-derived-induced pluripotent stem cells (HF-iPS) could differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. Flow cytometry, Oil Red O stain and Alizarin Red stain were used to identify the characteristics of HF-MSCs. The expression of liver-specific gene was detected by immunofluorescence and Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Periodic Acid-Schiff stain, Indocyanine Green stain and Low-Density Lipoprotein stain were performed to evaluate the functions of induced hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). HF-MSCs were unable to differentiate into HLCs using previously reported procedures for MSCs from other tissues. However, HF-iPS efficiently induced the generation of HLCs that expressed hepatocyte markers and drug metabolism-related genes. HF-iPS can be used as novel and alternative cellular tools for inducing hepatocytes in vitro, simultaneously benefiting from utilizing HF-MSCs as a noninvasive and convenient cell source for reprogramming.

  3. Deletion of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta in an infant with prune belly syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Sina; Devers, Patricia L; Kaiser-Rogers, Kathleen A; Moylan, Vincent J; Torchia, Beth S; Horton, Amanda L; Wolfe, Honor M; Aylsworth, Arthur S

    2010-08-01

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by deficiency of abdominal wall muscles, cryptorchidism, and urinary tract anomalies. We have had the opportunity to study a baby with prune belly syndrome associated with an apparently de novo 1.3-megabase interstitial 17q12 microdeletion that includes the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta gene at 17q12. One previous patient, an adult, has been reported with prune belly syndrome and a hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta microdeletion. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta is a widely expressed transcription factor that regulates tissue-specific gene expression and is expressed in numerous tissues including mesonephric duct derivatives, the renal tubule of the metanephros, and the developing prostate of the mouse. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta cause the "renal cysts and diabetes syndrome," isolated renal cystic dysplasia, and a variety of other malformations. Based on its expression pattern and the observation of two affected cases, we propose that haploinsufficiency of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta may be causally related to the production of the prune belly syndrome phenotype through a mechanism of prostatic and ureteral hypoplasia that results in severe obstructive uropathy with urinary tract and abdominal distension. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  4. A novel BES-gluconate-sucrose (BGS) solution for cold storage of isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mamprin, Maria Eugenia; Petrocelli, Silvana; Guibert, Edgardo; Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2008-01-01

    We have used hepatocyte suspensions to study how hypothermic storage in a modified University of Wisconsin (mUW) solution affects liver cell metabolism and cell membrane properties. At present the UW solution is the gold standard of organ preservation. However it contains several ingredients which either are expensive or cannot easily be obtained worldwide. The aim of the present study was the development of a novel preservation solution for rat hepatocytes effective and comparable with the mUW, with enhanced buffer capacity and less expensive. In particular, we investigated the effects of the buffering agent BES, a derivate of aminosulfonic acid, on liver cells metabolism during cold storage and rewarming. In the development of this novel preservation solution we have included three key components: gluconate as impermeant anion, sucrose to give additional osmotic support and the aminosulfonic acid BES for its buffer capacity. Our results shown that BGS solution was equally effective to mUW to protect rat hepatocytes against cold preservation injury due to ischemia and reoxigenation. Also, BGS solution is a good alternative with its high buffer capacity, best indices of respiration activity and it is considerably less expensive than the mUW solution. The use of this solution for the storage of isolated hepatocytes may facilitate hepatocyte research in situations in which the more complex and expensive mUW solution is not available since the cost of one liter of BGS is about 1/3 that an equal volume of mUW solution.

  5. Regulation of ketogenesis during the suckling-weanling transition in the rat. Studies with isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Benito, M; Whitelaw, E; Williamson, D H

    1979-04-15

    The rates of ketogenesis from endogenous substrates, butyrate or oleate, have been measured in isolated hepatocytes from suckling and weanling rats. Ketogenesis from endogenous substrate and from oleate decreased on weaning, whereas the rate from butyrate remained unchanged. It is concluded that the major site of regulation of ketogenesis during this period of development involves the disposal of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA between the esterification and beta-oxidation pathways. Modulators of lipogenesis [dihydroxyacetone and 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid] did not alter the rate of ketogenesis in hepatocytes from suckling rats, and it is suggested that this is due to the low rate of lipogenesis in these cells. Hepatocytes from fed weanling rats have a high rate of lipogenesis and evidence is presented for a reciprocal relationship between ketogenesis and lipogenesis, and ketogenesis, and esterification in these cells. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP stimulated ketogenesis from oleate in hepatocytes from fed weanling rats, even in the presence of an inhibitor of lipogenesis [5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid], but not in cells from suckling rats. It is suggested that cyclic AMP may act via inhibition of esterification and that in hepatocytes from suckling rats ketogenesis is already maximally stimulated by the high basal concentrations of cyclic AMP [Beaudry, Chiasson & Exton (1977) Am. J. Physiol. 233, E175--E180].

  6. Regulation of ketogenesis during the suckling-weanling transition in the rat. Studies with isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Benito, M; Whitelaw, E; Williamson, D H

    1979-01-01

    The rates of ketogenesis from endogenous substrates, butyrate or oleate, have been measured in isolated hepatocytes from suckling and weanling rats. Ketogenesis from endogenous substrate and from oleate decreased on weaning, whereas the rate from butyrate remained unchanged. It is concluded that the major site of regulation of ketogenesis during this period of development involves the disposal of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA between the esterification and beta-oxidation pathways. Modulators of lipogenesis [dihydroxyacetone and 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid] did not alter the rate of ketogenesis in hepatocytes from suckling rats, and it is suggested that this is due to the low rate of lipogenesis in these cells. Hepatocytes from fed weanling rats have a high rate of lipogenesis and evidence is presented for a reciprocal relationship between ketogenesis and lipogenesis, and ketogenesis, and esterification in these cells. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP stimulated ketogenesis from oleate in hepatocytes from fed weanling rats, even in the presence of an inhibitor of lipogenesis [5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid], but not in cells from suckling rats. It is suggested that cyclic AMP may act via inhibition of esterification and that in hepatocytes from suckling rats ketogenesis is already maximally stimulated by the high basal concentrations of cyclic AMP [Beaudry, Chiasson & Exton (1977) Am. J. Physiol. 233, E175--E180]. PMID:226064

  7. Dynamic regulation of EZH2 from HPSc to hepatocyte-like cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Helsen, Nicky; Vanhove, Jolien; Boon, Ruben; Xu, Zhuofei; Ordovas, Laura; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, drug metabolization and toxicity studies rely on the use of primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines, which both have conceivable limitations. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)—derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) are an alternative and valuable source of hepatocytes that can overcome these limitations. EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), a transcriptional repressor of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), may play an important role in hepatocyte development, but its role during in vitro hPSC-HLC differentiation has not yet been assessed. We here demonstrate dynamic regulation of EZH2 during hepatic differentiation of hPSC. To enhance EZH2 expression, we inducibly overexpressed EZH2 between d0 and d8, demonstrating a significant improvement in definitive endoderm formation, and improved generation of HLCs. Despite induction of EZH2 overexpression until d8, EZH2 transcript and protein levels decreased from d4 onwards, which might be caused by expression of microRNAs predicted to inhibit EZH2 expression. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that EZH2 plays a role in endoderm formation and hepatocyte differentiation, but its expression is tightly post-transcriptionally regulated during this process. PMID:29091973

  8. Evaluation of alamar blue reduction for the in vitro assay of hepatocyte toxicity.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, M R; Bugelski, P J; O'Brien, P J

    1999-01-01

    Alamar Blue (AB) reduction is a promising new in vitro assay which is simple to conduct and amenable to repeated measurements and high-throughput screening; however, evaluation with hepatocytes has not been reported. Accordingly, we compared AB reduction with established markers of hepatocyte viability and cell density. Primary rat hepatocytes were allowed to adhere to collagen-coated 96-well plates, then exposed for 16 hours to culture medium, 0.7% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in medium, 500 mum CCl(4), 500 mum eugenol or 15 or 150 mum of a novel substituted indoline (the latter three in medium with 0.7% DMSO; medium also contained hydrocortisone during exposure period). Using a spectrophotometric plate reader, AB reduction was compared with lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH) release, neutral red (NR) uptake, total protein (TP) and cell seed density. AB reduction showed a linear relationship and good correlation with NR uptake, LDH release, TP and cell density. AB assay precision varied with cell density, but was similar to other assays in cytotoxicity screening. Good correlation with cell density indicates AB to have the potential for assessment of hepatocyte proliferation. From the results reported here, we recommend further evaluation and optimization of a protocol for application of AB reduction as a test for cytotoxicity and proliferation in primary hepatocyte cultures.

  9. Generation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells for drug toxicity screening.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kazuo; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Because drug-induced liver injury is one of the main reasons for drug development failures, it is important to perform drug toxicity screening in the early phase of pharmaceutical development. Currently, primary human hepatocytes are most widely used for the prediction of drug-induced liver injury. However, the sources of primary human hepatocytes are limited, making it difficult to supply the abundant quantities required for large-scale drug toxicity screening. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a novel unlimited, efficient, inexpensive, and predictive model which can be applied for large-scale drug toxicity screening. Human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are able to replicate indefinitely and differentiate into most of the body's cell types, including hepatocytes. It is expected that hepatocyte-like cells generated from human ES/iPS cells (human ES/iPS-HLCs) will be a useful tool for drug toxicity screening. To apply human ES/iPS-HLCs to various applications including drug toxicity screening, homogenous and functional HLCs must be differentiated from human ES/iPS cells. In this review, we will introduce the current status of hepatocyte differentiation technology from human ES/iPS cells and a novel method to predict drug-induced liver injury using human ES/iPS-HLCs. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone marrow-derived liver stem cell and mature hepatocyte engraftment in livers undergoing rejection.

    PubMed

    Avital, Itzhak; Feraresso, Chiara; Aoki, Takeshi; Hui, Thomas; Rozga, Jacek; Demetriou, Achilles; Muraca, Maurizio

    2002-08-01

    The definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease is orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). However, rejection is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity following OLT. Hepatocyte transplantation has been used experimentally to treat liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bone marrow-derived liver stem cells (BDLSC) and mature hepatocytes could repopulate transplanted livers undergoing rejection. OLT was carried out from D'Agouti (C3-positive female) into Lewis (C3-negative female) rats. BDLSC were transplanted from Lewis (male) into livers of D'Agouti (female) rats. Group A (n = 9) received intraportal normal saline. Groups B (n = 9) and C (n = 9) underwent intraportal transplantation of mature hepatocytes (Lewis female, 0.75 x 10(7)) and DBLSC (Lewis male, 5 x 10(4)) respectively. All groups received subtherapeutic immunosuppression (Cyclosporin 0.25 mg/kg/d) for 13 days. Liver repopulation was assessed using immunohistochemistry (C3 antigen-negative cells), in-situ hybridization, (Y-chromosome-positive BDLSC) and histologic assessment (hematoxylin and eosin) for rejection. BDLSC and mature hepatocytes repopulated 62 +/- 12.3% and 2.5 +/- 1.7% of rejecting livers, respectively. BDLSC demonstrated formation of hepatic lobules and portal triads with little evidence of rejection 36 days after discontinuation of immunosuppression. BDLSC can repopulate livers undergoing severe rejection. Moreover, BDLSC can differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. This finding may have important clinical implications.

  11. 5α-Reductase Type 2 Regulates Glucocorticoid Action and Metabolic Phenotype in Human Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Maryam; Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Parajes, Silvia; Krone, Nils P; Valsamakis, George; Mastorakos, George; Hughes, Beverly; Taylor, Angela; Bujalska, Iwona J; Gathercole, Laura L; Tomlinson, Jeremy W

    2015-08-01

    Glucocorticoids and androgens have both been implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); androgen deficiency in males, androgen excess in females, and glucocorticoid excess in both sexes are associated with NAFLD. Glucocorticoid and androgen action are regulated at a prereceptor level by the enzyme 5α-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2), which inactivates glucocorticoids to their dihydrometabolites and converts T to DHT. We have therefore explored the role of androgens and glucocorticoids and their metabolism by SRD5A2 upon lipid homeostasis in human hepatocytes. In both primary human hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell lines, glucocorticoids decreased de novo lipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Whereas androgen treatment (T and DHT) increased lipogenesis in cell lines and in primary cultures of human hepatocytes from female donors, it was without effect in primary hepatocyte cultures from men. SRD5A2 overexpression reduced the effects of cortisol to suppress lipogenesis and this effect was lost following transfection with an inactive mutant construct. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition using the 5α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride augmented cortisol action. We have demonstrated that manipulation of SRD5A2 activity can regulate lipogenesis in human hepatocytes in vitro. This may have significant clinical implications for those patients prescribed 5α-reductase inhibitors, in particular augmenting the actions of glucocorticoids to modulate hepatic lipid flux.

  12. CO2 Permeability of Rat Hepatocytes and Relation of CO2 Permeability to CO2 Production.

    PubMed

    Arias-Hidalgo, Mariela; Yuan, Qinggong; Carta, Fabrizio; Supuran, Claudiu T; Gros, Gerolf; Endeward, Volker

    2018-01-01

    It has been described that cells in culture with very low oxidative metabolism possess a low CO2 membrane permeability, PCO2, of ∼ 0.01 cm/s. On the other hand, cardiomyocytes and mitochondria with extremely high rates of O2 consumption exhibit very high CO2 membrane permeabilities of 0.1 and 0.3 cm/s, repectively. To ascertain that this represents a systematic relationship, we determine here PCO2 of hepatocytes, which exhibit an intermediate rate of O2 consumption. We isolated intact hepatocytes with vitalities of ∼ 70% from rat liver and measured their CO2 permeability by the previously published mass spectrometric 18O exchange technique. We find a PCO2 of hepatocytes of 0.03 cm/s in the presence of FC5-208A and verapamil. FC5-208A was necessary to inhibt extracellular carbonic anhydrase, and verapamil was necessary to inhibit intracellular uptake of FC5-208A by the organic cation transporter OCT1 of hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes with their intermediate rate of oxygen consumption also possess an intermediate CO2 permeability. From pairs of data for five types of cells/organelles, we find an excellent positive linear correlation between PCO2 and metabolic rate, suggesting an adaptation of PCO2 to the rate of O2 consumption. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Hepatocytes of cirrhotic rat liver accumulate glycogen more slowly than normal ones.

    PubMed

    Bezborodkina, Natalia N; Okovity, Sergey V; Chestnova, Anna Yu; Kudryavtsev, Boris N

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the accumulation of glycogen in cirrhotic rat liver at several time intervals after per os administration of glucose to fasted animals. Liver cirrhosis was produced by inhalation of the hepatotropic poison CCl4. Glycogen concentration in the liver was determined biochemically. Glycogen content in hepatocytes was measured cytofluorimetrically in the smears stained with a fluorescent PAS reaction. Glycogen content in the hepatocytes of the portal and the central zone of the liver lobule was determined by absorption cytophotometry. Rats poisoned with CCl4 for 6 months developed typical liver cirrhosis characterized by a fourfold (p < 0.001) increase in the proportion of the connective tissue. In the cirrhotic rats fasted for 48 h, glycogen concentration in the liver and glycogen content in hepatocytes were lower as compared with the control by 36 and 27 % (p < 0.01), respectively. According to data obtained by different methods, the control animals accumulated glycogen at a high rate. In particular, the glycogen content in hepatocytes increased by 34 % after 10 min (p < 0.01). In the cirrhotic rats, glycogen content remained at the same level for 20 min. In both groups of animals, hepatocytes of the portal zone accumulated more glycogen than those of the central zone. Glycogen accumulation in cirrhotic rats starts after a delay and proceeds at a lower rate than in the norm.

  14. Maturation of fetal hepatocytes in vitro by extracellular matrices and oncostatin M: induction of tryptophan oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Akihide; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Kinoshita, Taisei; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Miyaijma, Atsushi

    2002-06-01

    Previously, we described that embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) mouse fetal hepatocytes differentiate to express tyrosine amino transferase (TAT) and glucose-6-phosphatase, which are expressed in the perinatal liver, in response to oncostatin M (OSM) or in high-cell-density culture. However, under such conditions, fetal hepatic cells failed to express genes for adult liver-specific enzymes, such as tryptophan oxygenase (TO). Although phenobarbital (PB) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been known to maintain the functions of adult hepatocytes in vitro, they failed to induce TO expression in fetal hepatic cells. Thus far, no system has been developed that reproduces terminal differentiation of fetal hepatocytes in vitro. Here, we describe that extracellular matrices derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma (EHS) in combination with OSM or high-cell-density culture induced expression of TO as well as cytochrome P450 genes that are involved in detoxification. However, EHS alone was insufficient to induce expression of TO, although it induced TAT expression in fetal hepatocytes. In addition, high-density culture further augmented differentiation. In conclusion, the combination of signals by cytokines, cell-cell contact, and cell-matrix interaction is required for induction of adult liver functions in fetal hepatocytes in vitro. This primary culture system will be useful for studying the mechanism of liver development.

  15. Complementation of the metabolic defect in CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2)-deficient primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Morgan D; Bakovic, Marica

    2010-12-01

    The CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase gene (Pcyt2) regulates the synthesis of CDP-ethanolamine, which is combined with diacylglycerol (DAG) to form the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) via the de novo Kennedy pathway. [¹⁴C]Ethanolamine and [³H]glycerol radiolabeling experiments established that PE synthesis and turnover are reduced in primary hepatocytes isolated from Pcyt2-deficient (Pcyt2+/⁻) mice relative to littermate controls. [³H]Glycerol radiolabeling revealed an increased formation of both DAG and triglyceride (TAG) and only increased turnover of DAG, consistent with elevated TAG accumulation. [³H]Acetate radiolabeling showed that de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis also increased in Pcyt2-deficient hepatocytes. Overexpression of a Myc/His-tagged Pcyt2 complementary DNA into deficient hepatocytes increased Pcyt2 protein expression; normalized PE synthesis and turnover; and reduced FA, DAG, and TAG synthesis. Although increased Pcyt2-myc/His complementary DNA expression normalized lipid homeostasis, a Pcyt2 mutant with 60% catalytic activity (H244Y) was unable to normalize any of the parameters investigated. Only when PE synthesis was fully reestablished did the lipogenic gene expression and the formation of FA, DAG, and TAG revert to the levels of wild-type hepatocytes. These data unambiguously establish that the TAG accumulation present in Pcyt2-deficient hepatocytes is a direct consequence of Pcyt2 gene deficiency and reduced functioning of the de novo Kennedy pathway. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Superior performance of co-cultured mesenchymal stem cells and hepatocytes in poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) scaffolds for the treatment of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingying; Yang, Jiacai; Hu, Wenjun; Zhang, Shichang; Wang, Yingjie

    2016-02-02

    Recently, cell-based therapies have attracted attention as promising treatments for acute liver failure (ALF). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential candidates for co-culture with hepatocytes in poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds to support hepatocellular function. However, the mechanism of culturing protocol using PLGA scaffolds for MSC differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells as well as the therapeutic effect of cell seeded PLGA scaffolds on ALF remain unsatisfactory in clinical application. Here, MSCs and hepatocytes were co-cultured at ratios of 1:2.5 (MSCs: Hep), 1:5 and 1:10, respectively. The proliferation abilities of these co-cultured cells were detected by CCK8, MTT, EdU and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the ability of MSCs to differentiate into hepatocytes was detected by PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Therapeutic trials of cell seeded PLGA scaffolds were conducted through mouse abdominal cavity transplantation. Results showed that the 1:5 group showed significantly higher cellular proliferation than the 1:2.5 and 1:10 groups, supernatant albumin and urea nitrogen levels were also significantly higher in the 1:5 group than in other two groups. Similarly, the 1:5 group demonstrated better DNA transcription and liver-specific protein (albumin, CK18 and P450) production. Meanwhile, the GalN-stimulated levels of ALT, AST and TBil in mouse serum were down-regulated significantly more by (MSC  +  Hep)-PLGA scaffold treatment than MSC-PLGA or Hep-PLGA scaffold treatments. Furthermore, the (MSC  +  Hep)-PLGA scaffold-treated ALF mice showed a lower immunogenic response level than the other two groups. These data suggested that the ratio of 1:5 (MSC:Hep) co-cultures was the optimal ratio for MSCs to support hepatocellular metabolism and function in PLGA scaffolds in vitro, the (MSC  +  Hep)-PLGA scaffold treatment could perform better restoration for damaged liver

  17. T lymphocytes from mice immunized with irradiated sporozoites eliminated malaria from hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, S.L.; Isenbarger, D.; Long, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    When mice are immunized with radiation-attenuated sporozoites they are solidly protected against sporozoite challenge by an immune response that has been shown to require CD8+ lymphocytes in several strains of mice. The target of this CD8+ T-cell-dependent immunity has not been established. Immune BALB/c mice were shown to develop malaria-specific. CD8+ T-cell-dependent inflammatory infiltrates in their livers after challenge with Plasmodium berghei sporozoites. Spleen cells from immune BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice eliminated hepatocytes infected with the liver stage of P. berghei in vitro. The activity against infected hepatocytes is not inhibited by antibodies to interferon-y and is not present inmore » culture supernatants. It is generally restricted, an indication that malaria antigens on the hepatocyte surface are recognized by immune T-effector cells.« less

  18. SIRT1 Disruption in Human Fetal Hepatocytes Leads to Increased Accumulation of Glucose and Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Tobita, Takamasa; Guzman-Lepe, Jorge; Takeishi, Kazuki; Nakao, Toshimasa; Wang, Yang; Meng, Fanying; Deng, Chu-Xia; Collin de l’Hortet, Alexandra; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    There are unprecedented epidemics of obesity, such as type II diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) in developed countries. A concerning percentage of American children are being affected by obesity and NAFLD. Studies have suggested that the maternal environment in utero might play a role in the development of these diseases later in life. In this study, we documented that inhibiting SIRT1 signaling in human fetal hepatocytes rapidly led to an increase in intracellular glucose and lipids levels. More importantly, both de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis related genes were upregulated upon SIRT1 inhibition. The AKT/FOXO1 pathway, a major negative regulator of gluconeogenesis, was decreased in the human fetal hepatocytes inhibited for SIRT1, consistent with the higher level of gluconeogenesis. These results indicate that SIRT1 is an important regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms within human fetal hepatocytes, acting as an adaptive transcriptional response to environmental changes. PMID:26890260

  19. Micropatterned coculture of primary human hepatocytes and supportive cells for the study of hepatotropic pathogens

    PubMed Central

    March, Sandra; Ramanan, Vyas; Trehan, Kartik; Ng, Shengyong; Galstian, Ani; Gural, Nil; Scull, Margaret A.; Shlomai, Amir; Mota, Maria; Fleming, Heather E.; Khetani, Salman R.; Rice, Charles M.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2018-01-01

    Studying human hepatotropic pathogens such as hepatitis B and C viruses and malaria will be necessary for understanding host-pathogen interactions, and developing therapy and prophylaxis. Unfortunately, existing in vitro liver models typically employ either cell lines that exhibit aberrant physiology, or primary human hepatocytes in culture configurations wherein they rapidly lose their hepatic functional phenotype. Stable, robust, and reliable in vitro primary human hepatocyte models are needed as platforms for infectious disease applications. For this purpose, we describe the application of micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs), which consist of primary human hepatocytes organized into 2D islands that are surrounded by supportive cells. Using this system, we demonstrate how to recapitulate in vitro liver infection by the hepatitis B and C viruses and Plasmodium pathogens. In turn, the MPCC platform can be used to uncover aspects of host-pathogen interactions, and has the potential to be used for medium-throughput drug screening and vaccine development. PMID:26584444

  20. Cultivation of porcine hepatocytes in polyurethane nonwovens as part of a biohybrid liver support system.

    PubMed

    Linti, C; Zipfel, A; Schenk, M; Dauner, M; Doser, M; Viebahn, R; Becker, H D; Planck, H

    2002-10-01

    Many patients suffering from end-stage liver disease cannot be transplanted within reasonable time due to the shortage of donor organs. Bioartificial liver support systems may contribute to the liver regeneration or bridging the time until a liver graft for transplantation becomes available. Nonwovens with integrated oxygenation capacity have been developed and manufactured by melt blow technology using thermoplastic polyurethane. Capillary membranes for oxygenation were integrated into the nonwoven during the processing. The polyurethane nonwoven structures with adapted pore size and high pore volume allow high cell densities in the hepatocyte culture. The three-dimensional cell culture was housed by a flow bioreactor system and was integrated in a closed loop circulation with monitoring possibilities for pressure, pH, temperature, ammonia, and oxygen. Hepatocytes were isolated from rats or pigs by collagenase perfusion and infused into the medium-perfused circulation. Cells showed high viability and hepatocyte specific cytochrome P450-dependent metabolic function in culture (MEGX test).

  1. Preventing hepatocyte oxidative stress cytotoxicity with Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    PubMed

    Remirez, Diadelis; Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Delgado, Rene; Harandi, Asghar A; O'Brien, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases. In the present study we evaluated the effects of Vimang at preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation in intact isolated rat hepatocytes. Vimang at 20, 50 and 100 microg/ml inhibited hepatocyte ROS formation induced by glucose-glucose oxidase. Hepatocyte cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide was also inhibited by Vimang in a dose and time dependent manner at the same concentration. Vimang also inhibited superoxide radical formation by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine. The superoxide radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of the Vimang extract was likely related to its gallates, catechins and mangiferin content. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cytoprotective antioxidant effects of Vimang in cellular oxidative stress models.

  2. Iron and oxidative stress in cold-initiated necrotic death of rat hepatocyte.

    PubMed

    Niu, X; Arthur, P G; Jeffrey, G P

    2010-06-01

    Iron chelators and antioxidants have been shown to prevent hypothermia-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. This study examined whether iron chelation and antioxidants could also prevent hypothermia-induced necrosis. Isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated at 4 degrees C for 6 hours and then rewarmed at 37 degrees C for 18 hours with or without the iron chelator deferoxamine and a selection of antioxidants. There was no evidence of increased cell death or adenosine triphosphate depletion during hypothermic incubation. After hypothermia and rewarming, the majority of rat hepatocytes died of necrosis as indicated by the absence of DNA fragmentation, caspase 3 activity, and apoptotic bodies. Cell death was significantly reduced if deferoxamine or a selection of antioxidants were present during hypothermia and rewarming. Deferoxamine was more effective in preventing cell death when added prior to hypothermia, indicating cell death processes were likely initiated during hypothermia.

  3. Role of a liver fatty acid-binding protein gene in lipid metabolism in chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, G L; Na, W; Wang, Y X; Zhang, H F; Li, H; Wang, Q G

    2015-05-11

    This study investigated the role of the chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, and the regulatory relationships between L-FABP and genes related to lipid metabolism. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference vector with L-FABP and an eukaryotic expression vector were used. Chicken hepatocytes were subjected to shRNA-mediated knockdown or L-FABP cDNA overexpression. Expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and biochemical parameters were detected 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h after transfection with the interference or overexpression plasmids for L-FABP, PPARα and L-BABP expression levels, and the total amount of cholesterol, were significantly affected by L-FABP expression. L-FABP may affect lipid metabolism by regulating PPARα and L-BABP in chicken hepatocytes.

  4. Dependence with nutritional status of the ethanol effects on fatty acid metabolism in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Maquedano, A; Guzmán, M; Castro, J

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of ethanol on fatty acid synthesis, esterification and oxidation were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and 24 hr fasted rats. 2. [3H]H2O was preferentially incorporated into the glycerol backbone of triglycerides and phospholipids. Addition of ethanol markedly increased the incorporation of this label in both classes of glycerolipids; the increase was higher in fasted rat hepatocytes, both in the glycerol backbone and acyl groups of glycerolipids. 3. Ethanol increased [U-14C]palmitate incorporation into triglycerides only in hepatocytes from fasted rats. 4. [14C]CO2 and total acid soluble product formation from [1-14C]palmitate resulted inhibited by ethanol both in the fed and the fasted state.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide impairs hepatocyte ureagenesis from ammonia: involvement of mitochondrial aquaporin-8.

    PubMed

    Soria, Leandro R; Marrone, Julieta; Molinas, Sara M; Lehmann, Guillermo L; Calamita, Giuseppe; Marinelli, Raúl A

    2014-05-02

    We recently reported that hepatocyte mitochondrial aquaporin-8 (mtAQP8) channels facilitate the uptake of ammonia and its metabolism into urea. Here we studied the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on ammonia-derived ureagenesis. In LPS-treated rats, hepatic mtAQP8 protein expression and diffusional ammonia permeability (measured utilizing ammonia analogues) of liver inner mitochondrial membranes were downregulated. NMR studies using 15N-labeled ammonia indicated that basal and glucagon-induced ureagenesis from ammonia were significantly reduced in hepatocytes from LPS-treated rats. Our data suggest that hepatocyte mtAQP8-mediated ammonia removal via ureagenesis is impaired by LPS, a mechanism potentially relevant to the molecular pathogenesis of defective hepatic ammonia detoxification in sepsis. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum hepatocyte growth factor and clinical outcome in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Vejchapipat, Paisarn; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Chaokhonchai, Rapeepan; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Chittmittrapap, Soottiporn; Poovorawan, Yong

    2004-07-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) remains one of the most intractable liver diseases leading to liver fibrosis. Serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to increase in cirrhotic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of HGF in BA. Serum levels of HGF were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from 28 BA patients and 25 healthy children. The patients were categorized into 3 groups according to their clinical outcomes (good, fair, and poor): group A (good), jaundice-free patients (total bilirubin [TB] < 2.0 mg%); group B (fair), patients with mild to moderate jaundice (TB, 2 to 10 mg%); and group C (poor), patients with marked jaundice (TB > 10 mg%). Unpaired t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc tests were used. Data were expressed as mean and SEM. Serum HGF levels in BA patients were higher than the controls (P =.02). Subgroup analysis found that there were 12 patients in group A, 8 patients in group B, and 8 patients in group C. The mean age of patients in groups A, B, and C were 5.34 +/- 0.52, 7.45 +/- 1.98, and 5.49 +/- 1.57 years (P >.05). Serum HGF in controls and groups A, B, and C were 0.24 +/- 0.03, 0.28 +/- 0.04, 0.36 +/- 0.09, and 0.56 +/- 0.07 ng/mL, respectively. Serum HGF levels in BA patients with poor outcome were higher than patients with good outcome (P =.02). There was no difference in serum HGF of BA patients with fair outcome compared with other groups. Serum HGF is elevated in BA. Furthermore, BA patients with poor outcome have significantly elevated HGF compared with patients with good outcome. Serum HGF levels may be predictive of prognosis with respect to the progression of liver dysfunction. However, the results of HGF in patients with fair outcome are inconclusive, probably because of the small sample size. Further studies are needed to elucidate the detailed mechanisms.

  7. Hepatocyte growth factor regulates neovascularization in developing fat pads

    PubMed Central

    White, Heather M.; Acton, Anthony J.; Kamocka, Malgorzata M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used lentiviral-delivered shRNA to generate a clonal line of 3T3-F442A preadipocytes with stable silencing of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression and examined the long-term consequence of this modification on fat pad development. HGF mRNA expression was reduced 94%, and HGF secretion 79% (P < 0.01), compared with preadipocytes treated with nontargeting shRNA. Fat pads derived from HGF knockdown preadipocytes were significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than control pads beginning at 3 days postinjection (0.022 ± 0.003 vs. 0.037 ± 0.004 g), and further decreased in size at day 7 (0.015 ± 0.004 vs. 0.037 ± 0.003 g) and day 14 (0.008 ± 0.002 vs. 0.045 ± 0.007 g). Expression of the endothelial cell genes TIE1 and PECAM1 increased over time in control fat pads (1.6 ± 0.4 vs. 11.4 ± 1.7 relative units at day 3 and 14, respectively; P < 0.05) but not in HGF knockdown fat pads (1.1 ± 0.5 vs. 5.9 ± 2.2 relative units at day 3 and 14). Contiguous vascular structures were observed in control fat pads but were much less developed in HGF knockdown fat pads. Differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes was significantly attenuated in HGF knockdown fat pads. Fat pads derived from preadipocytes with knockdown of the HGF receptor c-MET were smaller than control pads at day 3 postinjection (0.034 ± 0.002 vs. 0.049 ± 0.004 g; P < 0.05), and remained the same size through day 14. c-MET knockdown fat pads developed a robust vasculature, and preadipocytes differentiated to mature adipocytes. Overall these data suggest that preadipocyte-secreted HGF is an important regulator of neovascularization in developing fat pads. PMID:24302003

  8. Resveratrol Differentially Regulates NAMPT and SIRT1 in Hepatocarcinoma Cells and Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Susanne; Penke, Melanie; Gorski, Theresa; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Damm, Georg; Gebhardt, Rolf; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is reported to possess chemotherapeutic properties in several cancers. In this study, we wanted to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as well as the impact of resveratrol on NAMPT and SIRT1 protein function and asked whether there are differences in hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2, Hep3B cells) and non-cancerous primary human hepatocytes. We found a lower basal NAMPT mRNA and protein expression in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to primary hepatocytes. In contrast, SIRT1 was significantly higher expressed in hepatocarcinoma cells than in primary hepatocytes. Resveratrol induced cell cycle arrest in the S- and G2/M- phase and apoptosis was mediated by activation of p53 and caspase-3 in HepG2 cells. In contrast to primary hepatocytes, resveratrol treated HepG2 cells showed a reduction of NAMPT enzymatic activity and increased p53 acetylation (K382). Resveratrol induced NAMPT release from HepG2 cells which was associated with increased NAMPT mRNA expression. This effect was absent in primary hepatocytes where resveratrol was shown to function as NAMPT and SIRT1 activator. SIRT1 inhibition by EX527 resembled resveratrol effects on HepG2 cells. Furthermore, a SIRT1 overexpression significantly decreased both p53 hyperacetylation and resveratrol-induced NAMPT release as well as S-phase arrest in HepG2 cells. We could show that NAMPT and SIRT1 are differentially regulated by resveratrol in hepatocarcinoma cells and primary hepatocytes and that resveratrol did not act as a SIRT1 activator in hepatocarcinoma cells. PMID:24603648

  9. 3D-printed gelatin scaffolds of differing pore geometry modulate hepatocyte function and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Phillip L; Green, Richard M; Shah, Ramille N

    2018-03-15

    Three dimensional (3D) printing is highly amenable to the fabrication of tissue-engineered organs of a repetitive microstructure such as the liver. The creation of uniform and geometrically repetitive tissue scaffolds can also allow for the control over cellular aggregation and nutrient diffusion. However, the effect of differing geometries, while controlling for pore size, has yet to be investigated in the context of hepatocyte function. In this study, we show the ability to precisely control pore geometry of 3D-printed gelatin scaffolds. An undifferentiated hepatocyte cell line (HUH7) demonstrated high viability and proliferation when seeded on 3D-printed scaffolds of two different geometries. However, hepatocyte specific functions (albumin secretion, CYP activity, and bile transport) increases in more interconnected 3D-printed gelatin cultures compared to a less interconnected geometry and to 2D controls. Additionally, we also illustrate the disparity between gene expression and protein function in simple 2D culture modes, and that recreation of a physiologically mimetic 3D environment is necessary to induce both expression and function of cultured hepatocytes. Three dimensional (3D) printing provides tissue engineers the ability spatially pattern cells and materials in precise geometries, however the biological effects of scaffold geometry on soft tissues such as the liver have not been rigorously investigated. In this manuscript, we describe a method to 3D print gelatin into well-defined repetitive geometries that show clear differences in biological effects on seeded hepatocytes. We show that a relatively simple and widely used biomaterial, such as gelatin, can significantly modulate biological processes when fabricated into specific 3D geometries. Furthermore, this study expands upon past research into hepatocyte aggregation by demonstrating how it can be manipulated to enhance protein function, and how function and expression may not precisely correlate in

  10. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF PERMEABILIZED HEPATOCYTES MODEL FOR INVESTIGATION OF MITOCHONDRIA IN SITU RESPIRATION.

    PubMed

    Merlavsky, V M; Manko, B O; Ikkert, O V; Manko, V V

    2015-01-01

    To verify experimentally the model of permeabilized hepatocytes, the degree of cell permeability was assessed using trypan blue and polarographycally determined cell respiration rate upon succinate (0.35 mM) and a-ketoglutarate (1 mM) oxidation. Oxidative phosphorylation was stimulated by ADP (750 μM). Hepatocyte permeabilization depends on digitonin concentraion in medium and on the number of cells in suspension. Thus, the permeabilization of 0.9-1.7 million cells/ml was completed by 25 μg/ml of digitonin, permeabilization of 2.0-3.0 million cells/ml--by 50 μg/ml of digitonin and permeabilization of 4.0-5.6 million cells/ml--by 100 μg/ml. Thus, the higher is the suspension density, the higher digitonin concentration is required. Treatment of hepatocytes with digitonin resulted in a decrease of endogenous respiration rate to a minimum upon 20-22 μg of digitonin per 1 million cells. Supplementation of permeabilized hepatocytes with α-ketoglutarate maintained stable respiration rate, on the level higher than endogenous respiration at the corresponding digitonin concentration, unlike the intact cells. Respiration rate of permeabilized hepatocytes at the simultaneous addition of α-ketoglutarate and ADP increased to the level of intact cell respiration, irrespective of digitonin concentration. Addition of solely succinate and especially succinate plus ADP markedly intensified the respiration of permeabilized hepatocytes to the level higher than that of intact cells. The dependence of succinate-stimulated respiration on digitonin concentration reached maximum at 20-22 αg of digitonin per 1 million cells. Optimal ratio of digitonin amount and the cell number in suspension is expected to be different in various tissues.

  11. Fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stromal cells augment engraftment of transplanted hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Meghnad; Patil, Pradeep B.; He, Zhong; Holgersson, Jan; Olausson, Michael; Sumitran-Holgersson, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    Background aims One important problem commonly encountered after hepatocyte transplantation is the low numbers of transplanted cells found in the graft. If hepatocyte transplantation is to be a viable therapeutic approach, significant liver parenchyma repopulation is required. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) produce high levels of various growth factors, cytokines and metalloproteinases, and have immunomodulatory effects. We therefore hypothesized that co-transplantation of MSC with human fetal hepatocytes (hFH) could augment in vivo expansion after transplantation. We investigated the ability of human fetal liver MSC (hFLMSC) to augment expansion of phenotypically and functionally well-characterized hFH. Methods Two million hFH (passage 6) were either transplanted alone or together (1:1 ratio) with green fluorescence protein-expressing hFLMSC into the spleen of C57BL/6 nude mice with retrorsine-induced liver injury. Results After 4 weeks, engraftment of cells was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a human-specific DNA probe. Significantly higher numbers of cells expressing human cytokeratin (CK)8, CK18, CK19, Cysteine-rich MNNG HOS Transforming gene (c-Met), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human nuclear antigen, mitochondrial antigen, hepatocyte-specific antigen and albumin (ALB) were present in the livers of recipient animals co-transplanted with hFLMSC compared with those without. Furthermore, expression of human hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α and HNF-1β, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A7 mRNA was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in these animals. In addition, significantly increased amounts of human ALB were detected. Importantly, hFLMSC did not transdifferentiate into hepatocytes. Conclusions Our study reports the use of a novel strategy for enhanced liver repopulation and thereby advances this experimental procedure closer to clinical liver cell therapy. PMID:22424216

  12. An in vivo transfection system for inducible gene expression and gene silencing in murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hubner, Eric K; Lechler, Christian; Kohnke-Ertel, Birgit; Zmoos, Anne-Flore; Sage, Julien; Schmid, Roland M; Ehmer, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Hydrodynamic tail vein injection (HTVI) of transposon-based integration vectors is an established system for stably transfecting mouse hepatocytes in vivo that has been successfully employed to study key questions in liver biology and cancer. Refining the vectors for transposon-mediated hepatocyte transfection will further expand the range of applications of this technique in liver research. In the present study, we report an advanced transposon-based system for manipulating gene expression in hepatocytes in vivo. Transposon-based vector constructs were generated to enable the constitutive expression of inducible Cre recombinase (CreER) together with tetracycline-inducible transgene or miR-small hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression (Tet-ON system). Transposon and transposase expression vectors were co-injected into R26R-mTmG reporter mice by HTVI. Cre-mediated gene recombination was induced by tamoxifen, followed by the administration of doxycycline to drive tetracycline-inducible gene or shRNA expression. Expression was visualized by immunofluorescence staining in livers of injected mice. After HTVI, Cre recombination by tamoxifen led to the expression of membrane-bound green fluorescent protein in transfected hepatocytes. Activation of inducible gene or shRNA expression was detected by immunostaining in up to one-third of transfected hepatocytes, with an efficiency dependent on the promoter driving the Tet-ON system. Our vector system combines Cre-lox mediated gene mutation with inducible gene expression or gene knockdown, respectively. It provides the opportunity for rapid and specific modification of hepatocyte gene expression and can be a useful tool for genetic screening approaches and analysis of target genes specifically in genetically engineered mouse models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Recapitulation of metabolic defects in a model of propionic acidemia using patient-derived primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kimberly A; Collado, Maria S; Figler, Robert A; Hoang, Stephen A; Armstrong, Allison J; Cui, Wanxing; Purdy, Michael; Simmers, Michael B; Yazigi, Nada A; Summar, Marshall L; Wamhoff, Brian R; Dash, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is a disorder of intermediary metabolism with defects in the alpha or beta subunits of propionyl CoA carboxylase (PCCA and PCCB respectively) enzyme. We previously described a liver culture system that uses liver-derived hemodynamic blood flow and transport parameters to restore and maintain primary human hepatocyte biology and metabolism utilizing physiologically relevant milieu concentrations. In this study, primary hepatocytes isolated from the explanted liver of an 8-year-old PA patient were cultured in the liver system for 10 days and evaluated for retention of differentiated polarized morphology. The expression of PCCA and PCCB was assessed at a gene and protein level relative to healthy donor controls. Ammonia and urea levels were measured in the presence and absence of amino acid supplements to assess the metabolic consequences of branched-chain amino acid metabolism in this disease. Primary hepatocytes from the PA patient maintained a differentiated polarized morphology (peripheral actin staining) over 10 days of culture in the system. We noted lower levels of PCCA and PCCB relative to normal healthy controls at the mRNA and protein level. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine (5mM) and valine (5mM) in the medium, resulted in increased ammonia and decreased urea in the PA patient hepatocyte system, but no such response was seen in healthy hepatocytes or patient-derived fibroblasts. We demonstrate for the first time the successful culture of PA patient-derived primary hepatocytes in a differentiated state, that stably retain the PCCA and PCCB enzyme defects at a gene and protein level. Phenotypic response of the system to an increased load of branched-chain amino acids, not possible with fibroblasts, underscores the utility of this system in the better understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of PA and examining the effectiveness of potential therapeutic agents in the most relevant tissue. Copyright © 2015

  14. Generation of functional hepatocyte-like cells from human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanthan, Punitha; Jayaraman, Pukana; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Lawrence, Anthony; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu

    2016-08-01

    Human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells have been introduced for as an easily accessible source of stem cells from dental origin. Although recent studies have revealed the ability of these stem cells in multipotential attribute, their efficiency of hepatic lineage differentiation has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study is to investigate hepatic lineage fate competence of periodontal ligament stem cells through direct media induction. Differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells was conducted by the exposure of two phase media induction. First phase was performed in the presence of hepatocyte growth factors to induce a definitive endoderm formation. In the subsequent phase, the cells were treated with oncostatin M and dexamethosone followed by insulin and transferrin to generate hepatocyte-like cells. Hepatic-related characters of the generated hepatocyte-like cells were determined at both mRNA and protein level followed by functional assays. Foremost changes observed in the generation of hepatocyte-like cells were the morphological features in which these cells were transformed from fibroblastic shape to polygonal shape. Temporal expression of hepatic markers ranging from early endodermal up to late markers were detected in the hepatocyte-like cells. Crucial hepatic markers such as glycogen storage, albumin, and urea secretion were also shown. These findings exhibited the ability of periodontal ligament stem cells of dental origin to be directed into hepatic lineage fate. These cells can be regarded as an alternative autologous source in the usage of stem cell-based treatment for liver diseases.

  15. Localization of Liv2 as an Immature Hepatocyte Marker in EB Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Takashimizu, Ikkei; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Yoshie, Susumu; Kano, Yoshiya; Ichikawa, Hinako; Cui, Li; Ogiwara, Naoko; Johkura, Kohei; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish Liv2, a surface marker of mouse immature hepatocytes (hepatoblasts), as a selection tool for embryonic stem (ES) cell–derived immature hepatocytes by acquiring basic data on Liv2 in normal mouse embryos and by confirming Liv2 expression in mouse ES-derived cells. The estimated molecular weight of Liv2 was 40–45 kDa, and immunoreactivity was definitively detected in the cell membrane of fetal hepatocytes on embryonic day (E) 9.5, declined gradually until E12.5, and subsequently became undetectable. Liv2 was localized on and close to the cell membrane. Embryoid bodies (EB) were formed from mouse ES cells whose undifferentiated state was confirmed with immunostaining of Nanog by the hanging drop method. A few Liv2-positive cells occurred as a cluster in EB outgrowth on day 7, but only some of these were albumin (ALB)-positive on day 13. These cells had the same pattern of immunoreactivity, i.e., localization on the cell membrane, as immature hepatocytes in the developing liver, although there were other types of cells with a different pattern of immunoreactivity that were seen only as a granular pattern in the cytoplasm and without ALB or the neuronal marker nestin. These results suggest that Liv2 may be useful as a surface marker for immature hepatocytes derived from ES cells. This application would allow for the sole selection of immature hepatocytes and provide a useful tool for regenerative medicine. PMID:19252758

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 7 inhibits cholesterol 7{alpha}-hydroxylase gene expression in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhichao; Yu, Xuemei; Wu, Weibin

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF7 strongly and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP7A1 in hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF7 suppresses the expression of CYP7A1 via FGFR2 and downstream JNK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blocking FGF7 abrogates HSC-induced inhibition of CYP7A1 expression in hepatocytes. -- Abstract: Cholesterol 7{alpha}-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. Transcription of the CYP7A1 gene is regulated by bile acids, nuclear receptors and cytokines. Fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) secreted from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) during chronic liver fibrosis regulates hepatocyte survival and liver regeneration. In the carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced fibrotic mouse liver, we demonstrated thatmore » the expression of CYP7A1 was largely decreased while the expression of FGF7 was significantly increased. We further demonstrated that FGF7 inhibited CYP7A1 gene expression in hepatocytes. Knockdown study by short interfering RNA, kinase inhibition and phosphorylation assays revealed that the suppression of CYP7A1 expression by FGF7 was mediated by FGFR2 and its downstream JNK signaling cascade. The FGF7 neutralizing antibody restored CYP7A1 expression in Hep3B cells treated with conditioned medium from HSC. In summary, the data suggest that FGF7 is a novel regulator of CYP7A1 expression in hepatocytes and may prevent hepatocytes from accumulating toxic bile acids during liver injury and fibrosis.« less

  17. Enhancement of DMNQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity by cytochrome P450 inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Shiba, Dai; Shimamoto, Norio

    2006-07-15

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain quinone cytotoxicity: oxidative stress via the redox cycle and the arylation of intracellular nucleophiles. As the redox cycle is catalyzed by NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome P450 systems are expected to be related to the cytotoxicity induced by redox-cycling quinones. Thus, we investigated the relationship between cytochrome P450 systems and quinone toxicity for rat primary hepatocytes using an arylator, 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), and a redox cycler, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). The hepatocyte toxicity of both BQ and DMNQ increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with cytochrome P450 inhibitors, such as SKF-525A (SKF), ketoconazole andmore » 2-methy-1,2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone, enhanced the hepatocyte toxicity induced by DMNQ but did not affect BQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity. The production of superoxide anion and the levels of glutathione disulfide and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances were increased by treatment with DMNQ, and SKF pretreatment further enhanced their increases. In addition, NADPH oxidation in microsomes was increased by treatment with DMNQ and further augmented by pretreatment with SKF, and a NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride completely suppressed NADPH oxidations increased by treatment with either DMNQ- or DMNQ + SKF. Pretreatment with antioxidants, such as {alpha}-tocopherol, reduced glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine or an iron ion chelator deferoxamine, totally suppressed DMNQ- and DMNQ + SKF-induced hepatocyte toxicity. These results indicate that the hepatocyte toxicity of redox-cycling quinones is enhanced under cytochrome P450 inhibition, and that this enhancement is caused by the potentiation of oxidative stress.« less

  18. Palm kernel cake extract exerts hepatoprotective activity in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Goh, Yong Meng; Shakeri, Majid; Oskoueian, Armin

    2014-10-02

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens. This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of PKC extract in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes. The nature of the active metabolites and elucidation of the possible mechanism involved were also investigated. The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p < 0.05) lower than silymarin as the reference antioxidant. Heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocyte impaired the total protein, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity significantly (p < 0.05). Treatment of heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p < 0.05). The real time PCR and western blot analyses revealed the significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of oxidative stress biomarkers including TNF-like, IFN-γ and IL-1β genes; NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins expression upon heat stress in chicken hepatocytes. The PKC extract and silymarin were able to alleviate the expression of all of these biomarkers in heat-induced chicken hepatocytes. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity. Palm kernel cake extract could be a potential agent to protect hepatocytes function under heat induced oxidative stress.

  19. [Pathological changes in hepatocytes of mice with obesity-induced type 2 diabetes by monosodium glutamate].

    PubMed

    Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Motojima, Kento; Kamata, Sumito; Yoshida, Testuro; Hikita, Masaaki; Wakamatsu, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes caused by chronic obesity is a major lifestyle-related disease. The present study aimed to determine the pathological changes in hepatocytes in chronic obesity. To develop our type 2 diabetes mouse model, we induced chronic obesity to mice by monosodium glutamate. By overeating, the mice significantly increased their body weight compared with age-matched healthy animals. To analyze the pathological changes in hepatocytes of chronic obesity before preclinical stage of type 2 diabetes, the mice were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining of tissue sections at 15 w of age. In these mice, we observed eosin-negative accumulations of hepatocytes around central veins in the hepatic lobule. By Oil-Red O staining, the eosin-negative granules were identified in the lipid droplets. We then ascertained whether these lipid droplets of hepatocytes in the obese mice could be modified by diet. After 24 h of diet restriction, the lipid droplets of hepatocytes in the obese mice were swollen. Furthermore, after 48 h of the diet restriction, the lipid droplets continued swelling and the autophagy-like structures that were found in the healthy mice under the same condition in the obese mice were not observed. These results suggest that the obese mice might have delayed energy metabolism, which might have influenced the mechanisms of hepatocytes. These findings provide new insight into the functional changes in chronic obesity-induced type 2 diabetes and it is possible that the pathological feature make a contribution to promise the target of pharmacological therapy.

  20. Induced mitogenic activity in AML-12 mouse hepatocytes exposed to low-dose ultra-wideband electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, W C; Ford, B D; Roane, L; Haynie, D T; Tchounwou, P B

    2005-04-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) technology has increased with the use of various civilian and military applications. In the present study, we hypothesized that low-dose UWB electromagnetic radiation (UWBR) could elicit a mitogenic effect in AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, in vitro. To test this hypothesis, we exposed AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, to UWBR in a specially constructed gigahertz transverse electromagnetic mode (GTEM) cell. Cells were exposed to UWBR for 2 h at a temperature of 23 degrees C, a pulse width of 10 ns, a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and field strength of 5-20 kV/m. UWB pulses were triggered by an external pulse generator for UWBR exposure but were not triggered for the sham exposure. We performed an MTT Assay to assess cell viability for UWBR-treated and sham-exposed hepatocytes. Data from viability studies indicated a time-related increase in hepatocytes at time intervals from 8-24 h post exposure. UWBR exerted a statistically significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent response in cell viability in both serum-treated and serum free medium (SFM) -treated hepatocytes. Western blot analysis of hepatocyte lysates demonstrated that cyclin A protein was induced in hepatocytes, suggesting that increased MTT activity after UWBR exposure was due to cell proliferation. This study indicates that UWBR has a mitogenic effect on AML-12 mouse hepatocytes and implicates a possible role for UWBR in hepatocarcinoma.

  1. Construction of the Database of Rat Repeated-dose Toxicity Tests of Pesticides for the Toxicological Characterization of Hepatocyte Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akane; Masuda, Miyabi; Kawano, Takuya; Kitsunai, Yoko; Nakayama, Haruka; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Uramaru, Naoto; Hosaka, Takuomi; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2017-01-01

    Liver and hepatocyte hypertrophy can be induced by exposure to chemical compounds, but the mechanisms and toxicological characteristics of these phenomena have not yet been investigated extensively. In particular, it remains unclear whether the hepatocyte hypertrophy induced by chemical compounds should be judged as an adaptive response or an adverse effect. Thus, understanding of the toxicological characteristics of hepatocyte hypertrophy is of great importance to the safety evaluation of pesticides and other chemical compounds. To this end, we have constructed a database of potentially toxic pesticides. Using risk assessment reports of pesticides that are publicly available from the Food Safety Commission of Japan, we extracted all observations/findings that were based on 90-day subacute toxicity tests and 2-year chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity tests in rats. Analysis of the database revealed that hepatocyte hypertrophy was observed for 37-47% of the pesticides investigated (varying depending on sex and testing period), and that centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy was the most frequent among the various types of hepatocyte hypertrophy in both the 90-day and 2-year studies. The database constructed in this study enables us to investigate the relationships between hepatocyte hypertrophy and other toxicological observations/findings, and thus will be useful for characterizing hepatocyte hypertrophy.

  2. Hepatocyte-specific IKK-β activation enhances VLDL-triglyceride production in APOE*3-Leiden mice[S

    PubMed Central

    van Diepen, Janna A.; Wong, Man C.; Guigas, Bruno; Bos, Jasper; Stienstra, Rinke; Hodson, Leanne; Shoelson, Steven E.; Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation in different tissues, including activation of the nuclear factor κB pathway in liver, is involved in metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this study, we investigated the relation between chronic hepatocyte-specific overexpression of IkB kinase (IKK)-β and hypertriglyceridemia, an important risk factor for CVD, by evaluating whether activation of IKK-β only in the hepatocyte affects VLDL-triglyceride (TG) metabolism directly. Transgenic overexpression of constitutively active human IKK-β specifically in hepatocytes of hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden mice clearly induced hypertriglyceridemia. Mechanistic in vivo studies revealed that the hypertriglyceridemia was caused by increased hepatic VLDL-TG production rather than a change in plasma VLDL-TG clearance. Studies in primary hepatocytes showed that IKK-β overexpression also enhances TG secretion in vitro, indicating a direct relation between IKK-β activation and TG production within the hepatocyte. Hepatic lipid analysis and hepatic gene expression analysis of pathways involved in lipid metabolism suggested that hepatocyte-specific IKK-β overexpression increases VLDL production not by increased steatosis or decreased FA oxidation, but most likely by carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein-mediated upregulation of Fas expression. These findings implicate that specific activation of inflammatory pathways exclusively within hepatocytes induces hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we identify the hepatocytic IKK-β pathway as a possible target to treat hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:21357939

  3. Induced Mitogenic Activity in AML-12 Mouse Hepatocytes Exposed to Low-dose Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, W. C.; Ford, B. D.; Roane, L.; Haynie, D. T.; Tchounwou, P. B.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra–wideband (UWB) technology has increased with the use of various civilian and military applications. In the present study, we hypothesized that low-dose UWB electromagnetic radiation (UWBR) could elicit a mitogenic effect in AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, in vitro. To test this hypothesis, we exposed AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, to UWBR in a specially constructed gigahertz transverse electromagnetic mode (GTEM) cell. Cells were exposed to UWBR for 2 h at a temperature of 23°C, a pulse width of 10 ns, a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and field strength of 5–20 kV/m. UWB pulses were triggered by an external pulse generator for UWBR exposure but were not triggered for the sham exposure. We performed an MTT Assay to assess cell viability for UWBR-treated and sham-exposed hepatocytes. Data from viability studies indicated a time-related increase in hepatocytes at time intervals from 8–24 h post exposure. UWBR exerted a statistically significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent response in cell viability in both serum-treated and serum free medium (SFM) -treated hepatocytes. Western blot analysis of hepatocyte lysates demonstrated that cyclin A protein was induced in hepatocytes, suggesting that increased MTT activity after UWBR exposure was due to cell proliferation. This study indicates that UWBR has a mitogenic effect on AML-12 mouse hepatocytes and implicates a possible role for UWBR in hepatocarcinoma. PMID:16705798

  4. Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes Modulated by Toxcast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary human hepatocyte cultures are useful in vitro model systems of human liver because when cultured under appropriate conditions the hepatocytes retain liver-like functionality such as metabolism, transport, and cell signaling. This model system was used to characterize the ...

  5. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase exerts different biologic activities in apoptotic and proliferating hepatocytes according to its subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Barbini, Luciana; Rodríguez, Joaquin; Dominguez, Fernando; Vega, Felix

    2007-06-01

    Recent evidences indicate new roles for the glycolytic protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in essential mammalian cell processes, such as apoptosis and proliferation. To clarify the involvement of this protein in growth and programmed cell death in the liver, cell models of hepatocytes in culture were used to study GAPDH expression, localization and enzymatic activity in hepatocyte proliferation and apoptosis. GAPDH expression in cell compartments was studied by Western blot. Nuclear expression of GAPDH increased in apoptosis, and cytoplasmic expression was elevated in apoptosis and proliferation. Subcellular localization was determined by GAPDH immunostaining and confocal microscopic analysis. Quiescent and proliferating hepatocytes showed cytoplasmic GAPDH, while apoptotic cells showed cytoplasmic but also some nuclear staining. The glycolytic activity of GAPDH was studied in nuclear and cytoplasmic cell compartments. GAPDH enzymatic activity increased in the nucleus of apoptotic cells and in cytoplasms of apoptotic and proliferating hepatocytes. Our observations indicate that during hepatocyte apoptosis GAPDH translocates to the nucleus, maintaining in part its dehydrogenase activity, and suggest that this translocation may play a role in programmed hepatocyte death. GAPDH over-expression and the increased enzymatic activity in proliferating cells, with preservation of its cytoplasmic localization, would occur in response to the elevated energy requirements of dividing hepatocytes. In conclusion, GAPDH plays different roles or biological activities in proliferating and apoptotic hepatocytes, according to its subcellular localization.

  6. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    SciTech Connect

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth; Antoine, Daniel J.

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with,more » or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA

  7. Metabolic impact of overexpression of liver glycogen synthase with serine-to-alanine substitutions in rat primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kadotani, Akito; Fujimura, Maho; Nakamura, Takao; Ohyama, Sumika; Harada, Naomoto; Maruki, Hiroko; Tamai, Yoshitaka; Kanatani, Akio; Eiki, Jun-Ichi; Nagata, Yasufumi

    2007-10-15

    To investigate the effect of elevation of liver glycogen synthase (GYS2) activity on glucose and glycogen metabolism, we performed adenoviral overexpression of the mutant GYS2 with six serine-to-alanine substitutions in rat primary hepatocytes. Cell-free assays demonstrated that the serine-to-alanine substitutions caused constitutive activity and electrophoretic mobility shift. In rat primary hepatocytes, overexpression of the mutant GYS2 significantly reduced glucose production by 40% and dramatically induced glycogen synthesis via the indirect pathway rather than the direct pathway. Thus, we conclude that elevation of glycogen synthase activity has an inhibitory effect on glucose production in hepatocytes by shunting gluconeogenic precursors into glycogen. In addition, although intracellular compartmentation of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) remains unclear in hepatocytes, our results imply that there are at least two G6P pools via gluconeogenesis and due to glucose phosphorylation, and that G6P via gluconeogenesis is preferentially used for glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes.

  8. Evaluation of toxic/protective effects of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis on freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lima, C F; Carvalho, F; Fernandes, E; Bastos, M L; Santos-Gomes, P C; Fernandes-Ferreira, M; Pereira-Wilson, C

    2004-08-01

    For this study the essential oil (EO) of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) was isolated from air-dried vegetative aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total yield of 12.07 mg of EO per g of plant dry mass was obtained and more than 50 compounds identified. The major compounds were cis-thujone (17.4%), alpha-humulene (13.3%), 1,8-cineole (12.7%), E-caryophyllene (8.5%) and borneol (8.3%). The EO fraction of sage tea was also isolated by partition with pentane and the respective components identified. The toxic and antioxidant protective effects of S. officinalis EO were evaluated on freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Cell viability (LDH leakage), lipid peroxidation and glutathione status were measured in experiments undertaken with cells (suspensions of 1 x 10(6) cells per millilitre) exposed to EO alone (toxicity of the EO;t-BHP as positive control); and with cells exposed to EO and an oxidative compound (t-BHP) together (in EO protection evaluation; quercetin as positive control) for 30 min. The results show that the EO is not toxic when present at concentrations below 200 nl/ml; it was only at 2000 nl EO/ml that a significant LDH leakage and GSH decrease were observed indicating cell damage. In the range of concentrations tested, the EO did not show protective effects against t-BHP-induced toxicity.

  9. RNAi in murine hepatocytes: the agony of choice--a study of the influence of lipid-based transfection reagents on hepatocyte metabolism.

    PubMed

    Böttger, Jan; Arnold, Katrin; Thiel, Carlo; Rennert, Christiane; Aleithe, Susanne; Hofmann, Ute; Vlaic, Sebastian; Sales, Susanne; Shevchenko, Andrej; Matz-Soja, Madlen

    2015-09-01

    Primary hepatocyte cell cultures are widely used for studying hepatic diseases with alterations in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism, such as diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) provide a potent and specific tool to elucidate the signaling pathways and gene functions involved in these pathologies. Although RNA interference (RNAi) in vitro is frequently used in these investigations, the metabolic alterations elucidated by different siRNA delivery strategies have hardly been investigated in transfected hepatocytes. To elucidate the influence of the most commonly used lipid-based transfection reagents on cultured primary hepatocytes, we studied the cytotoxic effects and transfection efficiencies of INTERFERin(®), Lipofectamine(®)RNAiMAX, and HiPerFect(®). All of these transfection agents displayed low cytotoxicity (5.6-9.0 ± 1.3-3.4%), normal cell viability, and high transfection efficiency (fold change 0.08-0.13 ± 0.03-0.05), and they also favored the satisfactory down-regulation of target gene expression. However, when effects on the metabolome and lipidome were studied, considerable differences were observed among the transfection reagents. Cellular triacylglycerides levels were either up- or down-regulated [maximum fold change: INTERFERin(®) (48 h) 2.55 ± 0.34, HiPerFect(®) (24 h) 0.79 ± 0.08, Lipofectamine(®)RNAiMAX (48 h) 1.48 ± 0.21], and mRNA levels of genes associated with lipid metabolism were differentially affected. Likewise, metabolic functions such as amino acid utilization from were perturbed (alanine, arginine, glycine, ornithine, and pyruvate). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the choice of non-viral siRNA delivery agent is critical in hepatocytes. This should be remembered, especially if RNA silencing is used for studying hepatic lipid homeostasis and its regulation.

  10. P2Y2 purinergic receptor activation is essential for efficient hepatocyte proliferation in response to partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Bryan C; Sun, Hongdan; Mei, Yu; Maynard, Janielle P; Cheruvu, Sayuri; Mani, Arunmani; Hernandez-Garcia, Andres; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Karpen, Saul J; Thevananther, Sundararajah

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular nucleotides via activation of P2 purinergic receptors influence hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration in response to 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). Adult hepatocytes express multiple P2Y (G protein-coupled) and P2X (ligand-gated ion channels) purinergic receptor subtypes. However, the identity of key receptor subtype(s) important for efficient hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating livers remains unknown. To evaluate the impact of P2Y2 purinergic receptor-mediated signaling on hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating livers, wild-type (WT) and P2Y2 purinergic receptor knockout (P2Y2-/-) mice were subjected to 70% PH. Liver tissues were analyzed for activation of early events critical for hepatocyte priming and subsequent cell cycle progression. Our findings suggest that early activation of p42/44 ERK MAPK (5 min), early growth response-1 (Egr-1) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA-binding activity (30 min), and subsequent hepatocyte proliferation (24-72 h) in response to 70% PH were impaired in P2Y2-/- mice. Interestingly, early induction of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and cytokine-mediated signaling (NF-κB, STAT-3) were intact in P2Y2-/- remnant livers, uncovering the importance of cytokine-independent and nucleotide-dependent early priming events critical for subsequent hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating livers. Hepatocytes isolated from the WT and P2Y2-/- mice were treated with ATP or ATPγS for 5-120 min and 12-24 h. Extracellular ATP alone, via activation of P2Y2 purinergic receptors, was sufficient to induce ERK phosphorylation, Egr-1 protein expression, and key cyclins and cell cycle progression of hepatocytes in vitro. Collectively, these findings highlight the functional significance of P2Y2 purinergic receptor activation for efficient hepatocyte priming and proliferation in response to PH. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Magentic Cell labeling of primary and stem cell-derived pig hepatocytes for MRI-based cell tracking of heptocytes transplantation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pig hepatocytes are an important investigational tool for optimizing hepatocyte transplantation schemes in both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplant scenarios. MRI can be used to serially monitor the transplanted cells, but only if the hepatocytes can be labeled with a magnetic particle. In this wo...

  12. Liver Damage and Mortality in a Male Lewis Rat of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ghaffarinia, Ameneh; Jalili, Cyrus; Mostafaie, Ali; Parvaneh, Shahram; Pakravan, Nafiseh

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. This is due to migration of peripherally activated lymphocytes to central nervous system leading to inflammatory lesions. However, liver has an anti-inflammatory microenvironment. Myelin expression in the liver of transgenic mice suppresses inflammatory lesions within central nervous system. Considering the notion that the inflammatory events originate from periphery, we investigated if the liver was affected in an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in male Lewis rats using guinea pig spinal cord and complete Freund's adjuvant. Weight, clinical score, and survival rate were evaluated for 14 days post immunization. Liver sections were taken and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and examined with an Olympus microscope. Mortality was accompanied by liver damage. Sinusoidal congestion, pycnotic nuclei within hepatocytes, hepatocyte necrosis, and severe widespread congestion along with fat accumulation within hepatocytes (fatty degeneration) were observed in liver tissue sections. Liver damage occurs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The perpetuation of self antigen leading to continuous migration of extrahepatically activated T cells makes an inflammatory milieu in the liver. It follows migration and development of more inflammatory cells and may paralyses tolerance inducing mechanisms. Apart from central nervous system lesion, liver injury may act as synergistic factor for debilitation and mortality.

  13. Liver Damage and Mortality in a Male Lewis Rat of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffarinia, Ameneh; Jalili, Cyrus; Mostafaie, Ali; Parvaneh, Shahram; Pakravan, Nafiseh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. This is due to migration of peripherally activated lymphocytes to central nervous system leading to inflammatory lesions. However, liver has an anti-inflammatory microenvironment. Myelin expression in the liver of transgenic mice suppresses inflammatory lesions within central nervous system. Considering the notion that the inflammatory events originate from periphery, we investigated if the liver was affected in an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Methods: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in male Lewis rats using guinea pig spinal cord and complete Freund's adjuvant. Weight, clinical score, and survival rate were evaluated for 14 days post immunization. Liver sections were taken and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and examined with an Olympus microscope. Results: Mortality was accompanied by liver damage. Sinusoidal congestion, pycnotic nuclei within hepatocytes, hepatocyte necrosis, and severe widespread congestion along with fat accumulation within hepatocytes (fatty degeneration) were observed in liver tissue sections. Conclusion: Liver damage occurs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The perpetuation of self antigen leading to continuous migration of extrahepatically activated T cells makes an inflammatory milieu in the liver. It follows migration and development of more inflammatory cells and may paralyses tolerance inducing mechanisms. Apart from central nervous system lesion, liver injury may act as synergistic factor for debilitation and mortality. PMID:26516320

  14. Regulation of hepatocyte proliferation. The feed-back system of hepatopoietin.

    PubMed

    Ruhenstroth-Bauer, G; Goldberg, M; Vogl, S

    1984-08-01

    After partial hepatectomy the low proliferation rate of hepatocytes increases dramatically. This is based on a feed-back system whose central link is a liver cell proliferation hormon, the so-called hepatopoietin. The hormon originates from the Peyer's patches: after their resection, the liver cell proliferation after partial hepatectomy decreases by about 80%. Hepatopoietin effects organ specific but species nonspecific.

  15. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, H.; Armentano, D.; Mackenzie-Graham, L.

    1988-11-01

    Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. The authors report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of humanmore » phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating from the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the {alpha}{sub 1} antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes.« less

  16. Senescent hepatocyte secretion of matrix metalloproteinases is regulated by nuclear factor-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Zang, Jinfeng; Sha, Min; Zhang, Chi; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Kezhi; Gao, Junye

    2017-12-15

    Cellular senescence and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in liver diseases. The source and regulating factors of MMPs in senescent hepatocytes are not known. We investigated whether senescent hepatocytes secreted MMPs and if this was regulated by nuclear factor (NF)-κB. The TGF-α transgenic mouse hepatocyte line AML12 was treated with H 2 O 2 to induce senescence. NF-κB signaling was examined by Western blotting and luciferase reporter assays. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluated expression of MMP-2, -9 and -13. AML12 cells treated with H 2 O 2 showed the characteristic morphology of senescence. The activity of NF-κB and expression of MMP-2, -9 and -13 were increased in senescent AML12 cells. The NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 decreased the levels of MMPs. These results suggest that senescent hepatocytes are involved in the pathology of liver diseases through remodeling the extracellular matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Expression of the Hepatocyte SLAMF3 (CD229) Receptor Enhances the Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cartier, Flora; Marcq, Ingrid; Douam, Florian; Ossart, Christèle; Regnier, Aline; Debuysscher, Véronique; Lavillette, Dimitri; Bouhlal, Hicham

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer worldwide. We recently characterized for the first time the expression of Signaling Lymphocyte Activating Molecule 3 (SLAMF3) in human hepatocytes and here, we report that SLAMF3 interacts with the HCV viral protein E2 and is implicated in HCV entry process. We found a strong correlation between SLAMF3 expression level and hepatocyte susceptibility to HCV infection. The use of specific siRNAs to down-modulate SLAMF3 expression and SLAMF3-blocking antibodies both decreased the hepatocytes susceptibility to HCV infection. Moreover, SLAMF3 over-expression significantly increased susceptibility to HCV infection. Interestingly, experiments with peptides derived from each SLAMF3 domain showed that the first N-terminal extracellular domain is essential for interaction with HCV particles. Finally, we showed that recombinant HCV envelop protein E2 can bind SLAMF3 and that anti-SLAMF3 antibodies inhibited specifically this interaction. Overall, our results revealed that SLAMF3 plays a role during HCV entry, likely by enhancing entry of viral particle within hepatocytes. PMID:24927415

  18. APPARENT SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN METABOLISM OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    APPARENT SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN METABOLISM OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN HUMAN HEPATOCYTES. M Styblo1, G A Hamilton1, E L LeCluyse1 and D J Thomas2. 1University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    The liver is considered a m...

  19. Comparative Metabolism, Cytotoxicity, and Genotoxicity of Chemical Carcinogens in Primary Cultures of Hepatocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    metabolism was assessed 30-36 hours after the addition of TCDD. 244 A suspected hepatocarcinogen, senecionine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid isolated from...and J. L. Byard (1981), Metabolism, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid sene- cionine in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

  20. Influence of Novosibirsk Terahertz free Electron Laser Radiation on the Morphology of Chicken Hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelentsov, E. L.; Kozlov, A. S.; Petrov, A. K.; Malyshkin, S. B.; Shevchenko, O. A.

    The present report examines the impact of terahertz radiation of Novosibirsk free electron laser on the state of membrane and morphology of hepatocytes and erythrocytes in vitro. The aim of this work is a detailed study of the effects of terahertz laser radiation on cells, identification of the specific membrane effects, and comparison with similar effects to the erythrocytes.

  1. A20 prevents chronic liver inflammation and cancer by protecting hepatocytes from death.

    PubMed

    Catrysse, L; Farhang Ghahremani, M; Vereecke, L; Youssef, S A; Mc Guire, C; Sze, M; Weber, A; Heikenwalder, M; de Bruin, A; Beyaert, R; van Loo, G

    2016-06-02

    An important regulator of inflammatory signalling is the ubiquitin-editing protein A20 that acts as a break on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, but also exerts important cytoprotective functions. A20 knockout mice are cachectic and die prematurely due to excessive multi-organ inflammation. To establish the importance of A20 in liver homeostasis and pathology, we developed a novel mouse line lacking A20 specifically in liver parenchymal cells. These mice spontaneously develop chronic liver inflammation but no fibrosis or hepatocellular carcinomas, illustrating an important role for A20 in normal liver tissue homeostasis. Hepatocyte-specific A20 knockout mice show sustained NF-κB-dependent gene expression in the liver upon tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or lipopolysaccharide injection, as well as hepatocyte apoptosis and lethality upon challenge with sublethal doses of TNF, demonstrating an essential role for A20 in the protection of mice against acute liver failure. Finally, chronic liver inflammation and enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis in hepatocyte-specific A20 knockout mice was associated with increased susceptibility to chemically or high fat-diet-induced hepatocellular carcinoma development. Together, these studies establish A20 as a crucial hepatoprotective factor.

  2. GATA4 loss of function in liver cancer impedes precursor to hepatocyte transition

    PubMed Central

    Enane, Francis O.; Shuen, Wai Ho; Gu, Xiaorong; Quteba, Ebrahem; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Makishima, Hideki; Bodo, Juraj; Ng, Joanna; Chee, Chit Lai; Ba, Rebecca; Seng Koh, Lip; Lim, Janice; Cheong, Rachael; Teo, Marissa; Hu, Zhenbo; Ng, Kwok Peng; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Chung, Alexander; Ooi, London Lucien; Tan, Yu Meng; Cheow, Peng-Chung; Chow, Pierce; Chan, Chung Yip; Lim, Kiat Hon; Yerian, Lisa; Hsi, Eric; Toh, Han Chong

    2017-01-01

    The most frequent chromosomal structural loss in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is of the short arm of chromosome 8 (8p). Genes on the remaining homologous chromosome, however, are not recurrently mutated, and the identity of key 8p tumor-suppressor genes (TSG) is unknown. In this work, analysis of minimal commonly deleted 8p segments to identify candidate TSG implicated GATA4, a master transcription factor driver of hepatocyte epithelial lineage fate. In a murine model, liver-conditional deletion of 1 Gata4 allele to model the haploinsufficiency seen in HCC produced enlarged livers with a gene expression profile of persistent precursor proliferation and failed hepatocyte epithelial differentiation. HCC mimicked this gene expression profile, even in cases that were morphologically classified as well differentiated. HCC with intact chromosome 8p also featured GATA4 loss of function via GATA4 germline mutations that abrogated GATA4 interactions with a coactivator, MED12, or by inactivating mutations directly in GATA4 coactivators, including ARID1A. GATA4 reintroduction into GATA4-haploinsufficient HCC cells or ARID1A reintroduction into ARID1A-mutant/GATA4-intact HCC cells activated hundreds of hepatocyte genes and quenched the proliferative precursor program. Thus, disruption of GATA4-mediated transactivation in HCC suppresses hepatocyte epithelial differentiation to sustain replicative precursor phenotype. PMID:28758902

  3. In vitro differentiation and maturation of mouse embryonic stem cells into hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Takamichi; Yasuchika, Kentaro; Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Stem Cell Research Center, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto,

    2005-09-10

    It is difficult to induce the maturation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into hepatocytes in vitro. We previously reported that Thy1-positive mesenchymal cells derived from the mouse fetal liver promote the maturation of hepatic progenitor cells. Here, we isolated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing cells from mouse ES cells for subsequent differentiation into hepatocytes in vitro by coculture with Thy1-positive cells. ES cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of an AFP promoter were cultured under serum- and feeder layer-free culture conditions. The proportion of GFP-positive cells plateaued at 41.6 {+-} 12.2% (means {+-} SD) by day 7. GFP-positive cells, isolatedmore » by flow cytometry, were cultured in the presence or absence of Thy1-positive cells as a feeder layer. Isolated GFP-positive cells were stained for AFP, Foxa2, and albumin. The expression of mRNAs encoding tyrosine amino transferase, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, and glucose-6-phosphatase were only detected following coculture with Thy1-positive cells. Following coculture with Thy1-positive cells, the isolated cells produced and stored glycogen. Ammonia clearance activity was also enhanced following coculture. Electron microscopic analysis indicated that the cocultured cells exhibited the morphologic features of mature hepatocytes. In conclusion, coculture with Thy1-positive cells in vitro induced the maturation of AFP-producing cells isolated from ES cell cultures into hepatocytes.« less

  4. SIRT3 protects hepatocytes from oxidative injury by enhancing ROS scavenging and mitochondrial integrity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evidences of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been recognized in most of clinical and experimental liver diseases. SIRT3, a member of NAD+-dependent deacetylases, is mainly localized in mitochondria. So far, the role of SIRT3 in protecting hepatocytes against oxidative stress rema...

  5. Enhancement of proliferation in a rat hepatocyte co-culture model after mitogenic stimulation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary mouse and rat hepatocyte cultures have long been the gold standard for assessment of cellular changes following chemical exposure. While helpful for assessing proliferative and responses in vitro, these cultures are limited to 1 or 2 days of incubation. Our motivation was...

  6. Methotrexate induced mitochondrial injury and cytochrome c release in rat liver hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Al Maruf, Abdullah; O'Brien, Peter J; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Fathian, Rozhina; Salimi, Ahmad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2018-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid antagonist that is widely used to treat a variety of diseases. One of the most serious side effects of MTX therapy is hepatotoxicity. The potential molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of MTX toward isolated rat hepatocytes were investigated using Accelerated Cytotoxicity Mechanism Screening (ACMS) techniques. A concentration and time dependent increase in cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were observed with MTX. Furthermore, a significant increase in MTX (300 μM)-induced cytotoxicity and ROS formation were observed when glutathione (GSH)-depleted hepatocytes were used whereas addition of N-acetylcysteine (a GSH precursor) decreased cytotoxicity. Catalase inactivation also increased MTX-induced cytotoxicity, while the direct addition of catalase to the hepatocytes decreased cytotoxicity. MTX treatment in isolated rat mitochondria caused swelling and significantly decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and GSH content, and cytochrome c release. Potent antioxidants such as mesna, resveratrol and Trolox decreased MTX-induced cytotoxicity and ROS formation and increased MMP. This study suggests that MTX-induced cytotoxicity caused by ROS formation and GSH oxidation leads to oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury in rat hepatocytes.

  7. Aluminum Trichloride Disorders Bile Acid Secretion and Induces Hepatocyte Apoptosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    She, Yue; Zhao, Hansong; Zhu, Yanzhu; Han, Yanfei; Xia, Shiliang; Bai, Chongsheng; Zhang, Jihong; Li, Yanfei

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine effects of aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) on the bile acid secretion and hepatocyte apoptosis in rats. Forty male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) weighed 110-120 g were orally exposed to AlCl3 at doses of 0, 64.18 (1/20LD50), 128.36 (1/10LD50), and 256.72 (1/5LD50) mg/kg body weight in drinking water for 120 days. Each group had ten rats. The serum total bile acid (TBA) concentration, the early and total hepatocyte apoptosis indexes, and protein and mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax were determined. The results showed that the serum TBA concentration, the early and total hepatocyte apoptosis indexes, and protein and mRNA expression of Bax increased, while protein and mRNA expression of Bcl-2 decreased in AlCl3-treated rats. The results indicate that AlCl3 disorders bile acid secretion and induces hepatocyte apoptosis in rats.

  8. ESRP2 controls an adult splicing programme in hepatocytes to support postnatal liver maturation.

    PubMed

    Bhate, Amruta; Parker, Darren J; Bebee, Thomas W; Ahn, Jaegyoon; Arif, Waqar; Rashan, Edrees H; Chorghade, Sandip; Chau, Anthony; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Anakk, Sayeepriyadarshini; Carstens, Russ P; Xiao, Xinshu; Kalsotra, Auinash

    2015-11-04

    Although major genetic networks controlling early liver specification and morphogenesis are known, the mechanisms responsible for postnatal hepatic maturation are poorly understood. Here we employ global analyses of the mouse liver transcriptome to demonstrate that postnatal remodelling of the liver is accompanied by large-scale transcriptional and post-transcriptional transitions that are cell-type-specific and temporally coordinated. Combining detailed expression analyses with gain- and loss-of-function studies, we identify epithelial splicing regulatory protein 2 (ESRP2) as a conserved regulatory factor that controls the neonatal-to-adult switch of ∼20% of splice isoforms in mouse and human hepatocytes. The normal shift in splicing coincides tightly with dramatic postnatal induction of ESRP2 in hepatocytes. We further demonstrate that forced expression of ESRP2 in immature mouse and human hepatocytes is sufficient to drive a reciprocal shift in splicing and causes various physiological abnormalities. These findings define a direct role for ESRP2 in the generation of conserved repertoires of adult splice isoforms that facilitate terminal differentiation and maturation of hepatocytes.

  9. [Permeability of isolated rat hepatocyte plasma membranes for molecules of dimethyl sulfoxide].

    PubMed

    Kuleshova, L G; Gordienko, E A; Kovalenko, I F

    2014-01-01

    We have studied permeability of isolated rat hepatocyte membranes for molecules of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different hypertonicity of a cryoprotective medium. The permeability coefficient of hepatocyte membranes κ1 for DMSO molecules was shown to be the differential function of osmotic pressure between a cell and an extracellular medium. Ten-fold augmentation of DMSO concentration in the cryoprotective medium causes the decrease of permeability coefficients κ1 probably associated with the increased viscosity in membrane-adjacent liquid layers as well as partial limitations appeared as a result of change in cell membrane shape after hepatocyte dehydration. We have found out that in aqueous solutions of NaCl (2246 mOsm/l) and DMSO (2250 mOsm/l) the filtration coefficient L(p) in the presence of a penetrating cryoprotectant (L(pDMSO) = (4.45 ± 0.04) x 10(-14) m3/Ns) is 3 orders lower compared to the case with electrolyte (L(pNaCl) = (2.25 ± 0.25) x 10(-11) m3/Ns). This phenomenon is stipulated by the cross impact of flows of a cryoprotectant and water at the stage of cell dehydration. Pronounced lipophilicity of DMSO, geometric parameters of its molecule as well as the presence of large aqueous pores in rat hepatocyte membranes allow of suggesting the availability of two ways of penetrating this cryoprotectant into the cells by non-specific diffusion through membrane lipid areas and hydrophilic channels.

  10. SELENIUM MODIFIES THE METABOLISM AND TOXICITY OF ARSENIC IN PRIMARY RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Selenium Modifies the Metabolism and Toxicity of Arsenic in Primary Rat Hepatocytes. Miroslav Styblo, David J. Thomas (2000) Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
    Arsenic and selenium are metalloids with similar chemical properties and metabolic fates. Inorganic arsenic (iAs...

  11. Toxicity of 1,2-dibromoethane in isolated hepatocytes: role of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Albano, E; Poli, G; Tomasi, A; Bini, A; Vannini, V; Dianzani, M U

    1984-08-01

    Treatment of isolated hepatocytes with 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE) caused a concentration dependent depletion of cellular glutathione (GSH) content and a parallel increase in the covalent binding of reactive intermediates to cell proteins, as a consequence of the haloalkane activation. The reduction of the hepatocyte GSH content, induced by DBE, stimulated the onset of lipid peroxidation, as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. N-Acetylcysteine (1 mM) was found to partially prevent GSH loss and to inhibit MDA formation, whereas equal concentrations of cysteine and methionine were ineffective on these respects. The stimulation of the peroxidative reactions appeared to be also associated with an increase in the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the cells, indicative of a severe hepatocyte injury. Antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol, N,N'-phenyl-phenylenediamine (DPPD) and promethazine, as well as N-acetylcysteine reduced MDA formation to various extents and also protect against LDH release, yet without interfering with the covalent binding of DBE reactive intermediates to hepatocyte proteins. These results suggest the involvement of lipid peroxidation, consequent to GSH depletion, in the pathogenesis of liver cell necrosis due to DBE.

  12. Acidosis-induced downregulation of hepatocyte mitochondrial aquaporin-8 and ureagenesis from ammonia.

    PubMed

    Molinas, Sara M; Soria, Leandro R; Marrone, Julieta; Danielli, Mauro; Trumper, Laura; Marinelli, Raúl A

    2015-08-01

    It has been proposed that, during metabolic acidosis, the liver downregulates mitochondrial ammonia detoxification via ureagenesis, a bicarbonate-consuming process. Since we previously demonstrated that hepatocyte mitochondrial aquaporin-8 channels (mtAQP8) facilitate the uptake of ammonia and its metabolism into urea, we studied whether mtAQP8 is involved in the liver adaptive response to acidosis. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were adapted to acidosis by exposing them to culture medium at pH 7.0 for 40 h. Control cells were exposed to pH 7.4. Hepatocytes exposed to acid medium showed a decrease in mtAQP8 protein expression (-30%, p < 0.05). Ureagenesis from ammonia was assessed by incubating the cells with (15)N-labeled ammonia and measuring (15)N-labeled urea synthesis by nuclear magnetic resonance. Reduced ureagenesis was found in acidified hepatocytes (-31%, p < 0.05). In vivo studies in rats subjected to 7 days acidosis also showed decreased protein expression of hepatic mtAQP8 (-50%, p < 0.05) and reduced liver urea content (-35%; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo data suggest that hepatic mtAQP8 expression is downregulated in acidosis, a mechanism that may contribute to decreased ureagenesis from ammonia in response to acidosis.

  13. Dissecting modes of action of non-genotoxic carcinogens in primary mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Mirjam M; Zwart, Edwin P; Wackers, Paul F K; Huijskens, Ilse; van de Water, Bob; Breit, Timo M; van Steeg, Harry; Jonker, Martijs J; Luijten, Mirjam

    2012-11-01

    Under REACH, the European Community Regulation on chemicals, the testing strategy for carcinogenicity is based on in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Given that non-genotoxic carcinogens are negative for genotoxicity and chronic bioassays are no longer regularly performed, this class of carcinogens will go undetected. Therefore, test systems detecting non-genotoxic carcinogens, or even better their modes of action, are required. Here, we investigated whether gene expression profiling in primary hepatocytes can be used to distinguish different modes of action of non-genotoxic carcinogens. For this, primary mouse hepatocytes were exposed to 16 non-genotoxic carcinogens with diverse modes of action. Upon profiling, pathway analysis was performed to obtain insight into the biological relevance of the observed changes in gene expression. Subsequently, both a supervised and an unsupervised comparison approach were applied to recognize the modes of action at the transcriptomic level. These analyses resulted in the detection of three of eight compound classes, that is, peroxisome proliferators, metalloids and skin tumor promotors. In conclusion, gene expression profiles in primary hepatocytes, at least in rodent hepatocytes, appear to be useful to detect some, certainly not all, modes of action of non-genotoxic carcinogens.

  14. FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES. X. Wang1 *, D.E. Housel *, J. Page2, C.F. Blackmanl. 1 National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 USA, 2Oakland, California USA
    ...

  15. Comparison of trout hepatocytes and liver S9 fractions as in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Isolated hepatocytes and liver S9 fractions have been used to collect in vitro biotransformation data for fish as a means of improving modeled estimates of chemical bioaccumulation. To date, however, there have been few direct comparisons of these two methods. In the present study, cryopreserved trout hepatocytes were used to measure in vitro intrinsic clearance rates for 6 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These rates were extrapolated to estimates of in vivo intrinsic clearance and used as inputs to a well-stirred liver model to predict hepatic clearance. Predicted rates of hepatic clearance were then evaluated by comparison to measured rates determined previously using isolated perfused livers. Hepatic clearance rates predicted using hepatocytes were in good agreement with measured values (< 2.1 fold difference for 5 of 6 compounds) under two competing binding assumptions. These findings, which may be attributed in part to high rates of PAH metabolism, are similar to those obtained previously using data from liver S9 fractions. For one compound (benzo[a]pyrene), the in vivo intrinsic clearance rate calculated using S9 data was 10-fold higher than that determined using hepatocytes, possibly due to a diffusion limitation on cellular uptake. Generally, however, there was good agreement between calculated in vivo intrinsic clearance rates obtained using either in vitro test system. These results suggest that both systems can be used to improve

  16. Proteomic Characterization of Primary Mouse Hepatocytes in Collagen Monolayer and Sandwich Culture.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Malina; Sperber, Saskia; Noor, Fozia; Hoffmann, Esther; Weber, Susanne N; Hall, Rabea A; Lammert, Frank; Heinzle, Elmar

    2018-01-01

    Dedifferentiation of primary hepatocytes in vitro makes their application in long-term studies difficult. Embedding hepatocytes in a sandwich of extracellular matrix is reported to delay the dedifferentiation process to some extent. In this study, we compared the intracellular proteome of primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH) in conventional monolayer cultures (ML) to collagen sandwich culture (SW) after 1 day and 5 days of cultivation. Quantitative proteome analysis of PMH showed no differences between collagen SW and ML cultures after 1 day. Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis were strongly affected by long-term cultivation in both ML and SW cultures. Interestingly, culture conditions had no effect on cellular lipid metabolism. After 5 days, PMH in collagen SW and ML cultures exhibit characteristic indications of oxidative stress. However, in the SW culture the defense system against oxidative stress is significantly up-regulated to deal with this, whereas in the ML culture a down-regulation of these important enzymes takes place. Regarding the multiple effects of ROS and oxidative stress in cells, we conclude that the down-regulation of these enzymes seem to play a role in the loss of hepatic function observed in the ML cultivation. In addition, enzymes of the urea cycle were clearly down-regulated in ML culture. Proteomics confirms lack in oxidative stress defense mechanisms as the major characteristic of hepatocytes in monolayer cultures compared to sandwich cultures. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 447-454, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. DISCRIMINATING REDOX CYCLING AND ARYLATION PATHWAYS OF REACTIVE CHEMICAL TOXICITY IN TROUT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of four quinones, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMONQ), 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ), 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), and 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), which redox cycle or arlyate in mammalian cells, was determined in isolated trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Mor...

  18. A comparison of hepatocyte cytotoxic mechanisms for thallium (I) and thallium (III).

    PubMed

    Pourahmad, Jalal; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Daraei, Bahram

    2010-10-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal though up to now its mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we comparatively investigated the cytotoxic mechanisms of Tl(I) and Tl(III) in isolated rat hepatocytes. Both Tl(I) and Tl(III) cytotoxicities were associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspases cascade, lysosomal membrane leakiness, and cellular proteolysis. Hepatocyte glutathione (GSH) was also rapidly oxidized. GSH-depleted hepatocytes were more resistant to Tl(I)-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation and lipid peroxidation. This suggests that Tl(I) is reductively activated by GSH. On the other hand, GSH-depleted hepatocytes were much more sensitive to Tl(III)-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation, and lipid peroxidation. This suggests that GSH only plays an antioxidant role against Tl(III) cytotoxicity. Our results also showed that CYP2E1 involves in Tl(I) and Tl(III) oxidative stress cytotoxicity mechanism and both cations detoxified via methylation. In conclusion, both Tl(I) and Tl(III) cytotoxicities were associated with mutual mitochondrial/lysosomal injuries (cross-talk) initiated by increased ROS formation resulted from metal-CYP2E1 destructive interaction or metal-induced disruption of mitochondrial electron transfer chain. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2010.

  19. Regulation of Liver Enriched Transcription Factors in Rat Hepatocytes Cultures on Collagen and EHS Sarcoma Matrices.

    PubMed

    Borlak, Jürgen; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Rittelmeyer, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Liver-enriched transcription factors (LETF) play a crucial role in the control of liver-specific gene expression and for hepatocytes to retain their molecular and cellular functions complex interactions with extra cellular matrix (ECM) are required However, during cell isolation ECM interactions are disrupted and for hepatocytes to regain metabolic competency cells are cultured on ECM substrata. The regulation of LETFs in hepatocytes cultured on different ECM has not been studied in detail. We therefore compared two common sources of ECM and evaluated cellular morphology and hepatocyte differentiation by investigating DNA binding activity of LETFs at gene specific promoters and marker genes of hepatic metabolism. Furthermore, we studied testosterone metabolism and albumin synthesis to assess the metabolic competence of cell cultures. Despite significant difference in morphological appearance and except for HNF1β (p<0.001) most LETFs and several of their target genes did not differ in transcript expression after Bonferroni adjustment when cultured on collagen or Matrigel. Nonetheless, Western blotting revealed HNF1β, HNF3α, HNF3γ, HNF4α, HNF6 and the smaller subunits of C/EBPα and C/EBPβ to be more abundant on Matrigel cultured cells. Likewise, DNA binding activity of HNF3α, HNF3β, HNF4α, HNF6 and gene expression of hepatic lineage markers were increased on Matrigel cultured hepatocytes. To further investigate hepatic gene regulation, the effects of Aroclor 1254 treatment, e.g. a potent inducer of xenobiotic defense were studied in vivo and in vitro. The gene expression of C/EBP-α increased in rat liver and hepatocytes cultured on collagen and this treatment induced DNA binding activity of HNF4α, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ and gene expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in vivo and in vitro. Taken collectively, two sources of ECM greatly affected hepatocyte morphology, activity of liver enriched transcription factors, hepatic gene expression and metabolic competency

  20. Regulation of Liver Enriched Transcription Factors in Rat Hepatocytes Cultures on Collagen and EHS Sarcoma Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Borlak, Jürgen; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Rittelmeyer, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Liver-enriched transcription factors (LETF) play a crucial role in the control of liver-specific gene expression and for hepatocytes to retain their molecular and cellular functions complex interactions with extra cellular matrix (ECM) are required However, during cell isolation ECM interactions are disrupted and for hepatocytes to regain metabolic competency cells are cultured on ECM substrata. The regulation of LETFs in hepatocytes cultured on different ECM has not been studied in detail. We therefore compared two common sources of ECM and evaluated cellular morphology and hepatocyte differentiation by investigating DNA binding activity of LETFs at gene specific promoters and marker genes of hepatic metabolism. Furthermore, we studied testosterone metabolism and albumin synthesis to assess the metabolic competence of cell cultures. Despite significant difference in morphological appearance and except for HNF1β (p<0.001) most LETFs and several of their target genes did not differ in transcript expression after Bonferroni adjustment when cultured on collagen or Matrigel. Nonetheless, Western blotting revealed HNF1β, HNF3α, HNF3γ, HNF4α, HNF6 and the smaller subunits of C/EBPα and C/EBPβ to be more abundant on Matrigel cultured cells. Likewise, DNA binding activity of HNF3α, HNF3β, HNF4α, HNF6 and gene expression of hepatic lineage markers were increased on Matrigel cultured hepatocytes. To further investigate hepatic gene regulation, the effects of Aroclor 1254 treatment, e.g. a potent inducer of xenobiotic defense were studied in vivo and in vitro. The gene expression of C/EBP-α increased in rat liver and hepatocytes cultured on collagen and this treatment induced DNA binding activity of HNF4α, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ and gene expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in vivo and in vitro. Taken collectively, two sources of ECM greatly affected hepatocyte morphology, activity of liver enriched transcription factors, hepatic gene expression and metabolic competency

  1. Hepatocyte nuclear receptor SHP suppresses inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Zou, An; Magee, Nancy; Deng, Fengyan; Lehn, Sarah; Zhong, Cuncong; Zhang, Yuxia

    2018-04-17

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem worldwide, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis without hepatocellular injury) to the more aggressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, steatosis with ballooning, inflammation, or fibrosis). Although many studies have greatly contributed to the elucidation of NAFLD pathogenesis, the disease progression from NAFL to NASH still remains incompletely understood. Nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (Nr0b2, SHP) is a transcriptional regulator critical for the regulation of bile acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism. Here, we show that SHP levels are decreased in the livers of patients with NASH and in diet-induced mouse NASH. Exposing primary mouse hepatocytes to palmitic acid (PA) and liposaccharide (LPS) in vitro , we demonstrated that the suppression of Shp expression in hepatocytes is due to c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which stimulates c-Jun-mediated transcriptional repression of Shp. Interestingly, in vivo induction of hepatocyte-specific SHP in steatotic mouse liver ameliorated NASH progression by attenuating liver inflammation and fibrosis, but not steatosis. Moreover, a key mechanism linking the anti-inflammatory role of hepatocyte-specific SHP expression to inflammation involved SHP-induced suppression of NFκB p65-mediated induction of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) which activates macrophage proinflammatory polarization and migration. In summary, our results indicate that a JNK/SHP/NFκB/CCL2 regulatory network controls communications between hepatocytes and macrophages and contributes to the disease progression from NAFL to NASH. Our findings may benefit the development of new management or prevention strategies for NASH. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. cAMP prevents the glucose-mediated stimulation of GLUT2 gene transcription in hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rencurel, F; Waeber, G; Bonny, C; Antoine, B; Maulard, P; Girard, J; Leturque, A

    1997-01-01

    Glucose homoeostasis necessitates the presence in the liver of the high Km glucose transporter GLUT2. In hepatocytes, we and others have demonstrated that glucose stimulates GLUT2 gene expression in vivo and in vitro. This effect is transcriptionally regulated and requires glucose metabolism within the hepatocytes. In this report, we further characterized the cis-elements of the murine GLUT2 promoter, which confers glucose responsiveness on a reporter gene coding the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene. 5'-Deletions of the murine GLUT2 promoter linked to the CAT reporter gene were transfected into a GLUT2 expressing hepatoma cell line (mhAT3F) and into primary cultured rat hepatocytes, and subsequently incubated at low and high glucose concentrations. Glucose stimulates gene transcription in a manner similar to that observed for the endogenous GLUT2 mRNA in both cell types; the -1308 to -212 bp region of the promoter contains the glucose-responsive elements. Furthermore, the -1308 to -338 bp region of the promoter contains repressor elements when tested in an heterologous thymidine kinase promoter. The glucose-induced GLUT2 mRNA accumulation was decreased by dibutyryl-cAMP both in mhAT3F cells and in primary hepatocytes. A putative cAMP-responsive element (CRE) is localized at the -1074/-1068 bp region of the promoter. The inhibitory effect of cAMP on GLUT2 gene expression was observed in hepatocytes transfected with constructs containing this CRE (-1308/+49 bp fragment), as well as with constructs not containing the consensus CRE (-312/+49 bp fragment). This suggests that the inhibitory effect of cAMP is not mediated by the putative binding site located in the repressor fragment of the GLUT2 promoter. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the elements conferring glucose and cAMP responsiveness on the GLUT2 gene are located within the -312/+49 region of the promoter. PMID:9065761

  3. Ethanol exposure inhibits hepatocyte lipophagy by inactivating the small guanosine triphosphatase Rab7

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Ryan J.; Rasineni, Karuna; Weller, Shaun G.; Schott, Micah B.; Schroeder, Barbara; Casey, Carol A.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a well‐established risk factor for the onset and progression of fatty liver disease. An estimated 90% of heavy drinkers are thought to develop significant liver steatosis. For these reasons, an increased understanding of the molecular basis for alcohol‐induced hepatic steatosis is important. It has become clear that autophagy, a catabolic process of intracellular degradation and recycling, plays a key role in hepatic lipid metabolism. We have shown that Rab7, a small guanosine triphosphatase known to regulate membrane trafficking, acts as a key orchestrator of hepatocellular lipophagy, a selective form of autophagy in which lipid droplets (LDs) are specifically targeted for turnover by the autophagic machinery. Nutrient starvation results in Rab7 activation on the surface of the LD and lysosomal compartments, resulting in the mobilization of triglycerides stored within the LDs for energy production. Here, we examine whether the steatotic effects of alcohol exposure are a result of perturbations to the Rab7‐mediated lipophagic pathway. Rats chronically fed an ethanol‐containing diet accumulated significantly higher levels of fat in their hepatocytes. Interestingly, hepatocytes isolated from these ethanol‐fed rats contained juxtanuclear lysosomes that exhibited impaired motility. These changes are similar to those we observed in Rab7‐depleted hepatocytes. Consistent with these defects in the lysosomal compartment, we observed a marked 80% reduction in Rab7 activity in cultured hepatocytes as well as a complete block in starvation‐induced Rab7 activation in primary hepatocytes isolated from chronic ethanol‐fed animals. Conclusion: A mechanism is supported whereby ethanol exposure inhibits Rab7 activity, resulting in the impaired transport, targeting, and fusion of the autophagic machinery with LDs, leading to an accumulation of hepatocellular lipids and hepatic steatosis. (Hepatology Communications 2017;1:140‐152) PMID:29404450

  4. Subculture of proliferating adult rat hepatocytes in medium supplemented with nicotinamide and EGF.

    PubMed

    Mitaka, T; Kojima, T; Mizuguchi, T; Mochizuki, Y

    1996-09-01

    To establish parenchymal hepatocyte cell lines, we tried to subculture the primary hepatocytes isolated from adult rats. The hepatocytes were cultured in serum-free modified Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10 mM nicotinamide and 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor. When 6 x 10(5) cells were plated on 35-mm dishes coated with rat tail collagen, the cells proliferated and reached confluence at Day 6 to Day 8. The first subculture was carried out at Day 8 using 0.005% collagenase and gentle pipettings. Most cells were recovered and plated on the new dishes coated with the collagen (first passage). The attached cells could proliferate and reached near confluence when the cells occupied more than two-thirds of the dish surface. About a week after the first subculture, the second one was conducted. Although the number of the recovered cells was smaller than at the first passage, the cells could attach and proliferate to a certain extent. Thereafter, they were maintained for more than 2 mo, but they never overgrew. Albumin secretion into the culture medium was confirmed in the subcultured cells. Ultrastructurally, these subcultured cells possessed hepatic characteristics such as peroxisomes with a crystalline nucleiod and bile-canaliculus structures. When 10% fetal bovine serum and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate were added to the cells of the second passage, they began to proliferate very slowly. These proliferating cells were mainly mononucleate and had a small cytoplasm. In addition, some of them could differentitate into typical mature hepatocytes by forming a three-dimensional structure interacting with nonparenchymal cells. In this experiment, we showed the successful subculturing of parenchymal hepatocytes isolated from adult rats and provided evidence that the subcultured cells still have the potential to proliferate and to differentiate.

  5. Production of Selenoprotein P (Sepp1) by Hepatocytes Is Central to Selenium Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kristina E.; Wu, Sen; Motley, Amy K.; Stevenson, Teri D.; Winfrey, Virginia P.; Capecchi, Mario R.; Atkins, John F.; Burk, Raymond F.

    2012-01-01

    Sepp1 is a widely expressed extracellular protein that in humans and mice contains 10 selenocysteine residues in its primary structure. Extra-hepatic tissues take up plasma Sepp1 for its selenium via apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (apoER2)-mediated endocytosis. The role of Sepp1 in the transport of selenium from liver, a rich source of the element, to peripheral tissues was studied using mice with selective deletion of Sepp1 in hepatocytes (Sepp1c/c/alb-cre+/− mice). Deletion of Sepp1 in hepatocytes lowered plasma Sepp1 concentration to 10% of that in Sepp1c/c mice (controls) and increased urinary selenium excretion, decreasing whole-body and tissue selenium concentrations. Under selenium-deficient conditions, Sepp1c/c/alb-cre+/− mice accumulated selenium in the liver at the expense of extra-hepatic tissues, severely worsening clinical manifestations of dietary selenium deficiency. These findings are consistent with there being competition for metabolically available hepatocyte selenium between the synthesis of selenoproteins and the synthesis of selenium excretory metabolites. In addition, selenium deficiency down-regulated the mRNA of the most abundant hepatic selenoprotein, glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1), to 15% of the selenium-replete value, while reducing Sepp1 mRNA, the most abundant hepatic selenoprotein mRNA, only to 61%. This strongly suggests that Sepp1 synthesis is favored in the liver over Gpx1 synthesis when selenium supply is limited, directing hepatocyte selenium to peripheral tissues in selenium deficiency. We conclude that production of Sepp1 by hepatocytes is central to selenium homeostasis in the organism because it promotes retention of selenium in the body and effects selenium distribution from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues, especially under selenium-deficient conditions. PMID:23038251

  6. Acrolein cytotoxicity in hepatocytes involves endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mohammad K; Avila, Diana; Zhang, Jingwen; Barve, Shirish; Arteel, Gavin; McClain, Craig; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2012-01-01

    Acrolein is a common environmental, food and water pollutant and a major component of cigarette smoke. Also, it is produced endogenously via lipid peroxidation and cellular metabolism of certain amino acids and drugs. Acrolein is cytotoxic to many cell types including hepatocytes; however the mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying acrolein hepatotoxicity in primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Acrolein, at pathophysiological concentrations, caused a dose-dependent loss of viability of hepatocytes. The death was apoptotic at moderate and necrotic at high concentrations of acrolein. Acrolein exposure rapidly and dramatically decreased intracellular glutathione and overall antioxidant capacity, and activated the stress-signaling MAP-kinases JNK, p42/44 and p38. Our data demonstrate for the first time in human hepatocytes, that acrolein triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated eIF2α, ATF-3 and -4, and Gadd153/CHOP, resulting in cell death. Notably, the protective/adaptive component of ER stress was not activated, and acrolein failed to up-regulate the protective ER-chaperones, GRP78 and GRP94. Additionally, exposure to acrolein disrupted mitochondrial integrity/function, and led to the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and ATP depletion. Acrolein-induced cell death was attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine, phenyl-butyric acid, and caspase and JNK inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that exposure to acrolein induces a variety of stress responses in hepatocytes, including GSH depletion, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress (without ER-protective responses) which together contribute to acrolein toxicity. Our study defines basic mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by reactive aldehyde pollutants such as acrolein. PMID:23026831

  7. Optimizing human hepatocyte models for metabolic phenotype and function: effects of treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Green, Charlotte J; Gunn, Pippa J; Hodson, Leanne; Tomlinson, Jeremy W

    2016-11-01

    Primary human hepatocytes are considered to be the "gold standard" cellular model for studying hepatic fatty acid and glucose metabolism; however, they come with limitations. Although the HepG2 cell line retains many of the primary hepatocyte metabolic functions they have a malignant origin and low rates of triglyceride secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dimethyl sulfoxide supplementation in the media of HepG2 cells would enhance metabolic functionality leading to the development of an improved in vitro cell model that closely recapitulates primary human hepatocyte metabolism. HepG2 cells were cultured in media containing 1% dimethyl sulfoxide for 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days. Gene expression, protein levels, intracellular triglyceride, and media concentrations of triglyceride, urea, and 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured. Dimethyl sulfoxide treatment altered the expression of genes involved in lipid (FAS, ACC1, ACC2, DGAT1, DGAT2, SCD) and glucose (PEPCK, G6Pase) metabolism as well as liver functionality (albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, AFP). mRNA changes were paralleled by alterations at the protein level. DMSO treatment decreased intracellular triglyceride content and lactate production and increased triglyceride and 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in the media in a time-dependent manner. We have demonstrated that the addition of 1% dimethyl sulfoxide to culture media changes the metabolic phenotype of HepG2 cells toward a more primary human hepatocyte phenotype. This will enhance the currently available in vitro model systems for the study of hepatocyte biology related to pathological processes that contribute to disease and their response to specific therapeutic interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  8. Targeted antagonism of galactosamine toxicity in normal rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, G Y; Keegan-Rogers, V; Franklin, S; Midford, S; Wu, C H

    1988-04-05

    We present evidence that normal hepatocytes can be specifically protected from galactosamine toxicity in vitro by targeting an antagonist to these cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The strategy is based upon the following principles: 1) galactosamine is a highly selective hepatotoxin that causes a dose-dependent depletion of uridine intermediates; 2) galactosamine toxicity can be antagonized by supplemental administration of uridine; 3) normal hepatocytes possess unique cell-surface receptors that can internalize galactose terminal (asialo-)glycoproteins with subsequent degradation of the glycoprotein ligand. Based on these facts, we hypothesized that chemical coupling of a galactosamine antagonist to an asialoglycoprotein could result in cell-specific delivery and protection of normal hepatocytes by targeting the antagonist via asialoglycoprotein receptors. Using a model system consisting of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes (receptor (+)) and Morris 7777 rat hepatoma (receptor (-)) cells, sensitivity to galactosamine in vitro was determined and found to be similar for both types of cells. A targetable antagonist was synthesized by coupling uridine monophosphate to asialoorosomucoid in a molar ratio of 5 to 1. Exposure of Morris 7777 cells to the targetable antagonist in the presence of a toxic concentration of galactosamine did not protect these cells as evidenced by a steady decline in the number of viable cells in a fashion identical to cells treated with galactosamine alone. However, normal hepatocytes that received the conjugate in the presence of galactosamine were protected as their viable cell number remained the same as control (untreated) cells. Competition by an excess of asialoglycoprotein inhibited the protective effect of the conjugate, supporting the concept that the asialoglycoprotein component of the conjugate was responsible for the specific delivery of the antagonist to the target cells.

  9. PCNA Expression and Electron Microscopic Study of Acinus-Forming Hepatocytes in Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Han, Nam Ik; Lee, Young Sok; Choi, Hwang; Choi, Jong Young; Yun, Seung Kyu; Cho, Se Hyun; Han, Jun Youl; Yang, Jin Mo; Ahn, Byung Min; Choi, Sang Wook; Lee, Chang Don; Cha, Sang Bok; Sun, Hee Sik; Park, Doo Ho

    2002-01-01

    Background One of the major morphologic characteristics of hepatitis B is a hepatocellular regeneration which is induced by massive hepatocyte necrosis and associated with proliferative activity of hepatocytes. The purpose of this study is to document the proliferative activity of hepatocytes in various types of hepatitis B by immunohistochemical staining for proliferative cell nuclear antigen-labelling index (PCNA-LI) and electron microscopy. Methods We studied 83 patients with hepatitis B; 11 cases of acute viral hepatitis, 24 cases of mild chronic hepatitis, 34 cases of severe chronic hepatitis with early cirrhosis and 14 cases of severe chronic hepatitis. The PCNA was tested by immunohistochemical staining using anti-PCNA antibody. Furthermore we evaluated the ultrastructure of acinus-forming hepatocytes (AFH) by electron microscopy. Results The expression rate and labelling index of PCNA were 27.3% and 5.3±0.9% in acute viral hepatitis, 62.5% and 22.9±31.7% in mild chronic hepatits, and then 47.1% and 14.7±24.2% in severe chronic hepatitis with early cirrhosis, respectively (Figure 1). By contrast, no detectable PCNA expression was noted in AFH. Electron microscopic findings showed that hepatocytes forming a rosette underwent marked degenerative changes with sinusoidal capillarization and increased fine strands of collagen fiber in portal area. Conclusion The proliferative acitivity of hepatitis B was significantly decreased in severe chronic hepatitis containing AFH. This result suggested that differences in proliferative activity was associated with hepatic cell necrosis and AFH. PMID:12164086

  10. Role of Tribbles Pseudokinase 1 (TRIB1) in human hepatocyte metabolism.

    PubMed

    Soubeyrand, Sébastien; Martinuk, Amy; Naing, Thet; Lau, Paulina; McPherson, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies for plasma triglycerides and hepatic steatosis identified a risk locus on chromosome 8q24 close to the TRIB1 gene, encoding Tribbles Pseudokinase 1 (TRIB1). In previous studies conducted in murine models, hepatic over-expression of Trib1 was shown to increase fatty acid oxidation and decrease triglyceride synthesis whereas Trib1 knockdown mice exhibited hypertriglyceridemia. Here we have examined the impact of TRIB1 suppression in human and mouse hepatocytes. Examination of a panel of lipid regulator transcripts revealed species-specific effects, prompting us to focus on human models for the remainder of the study. Acute knockdown of TRIB1 in human primary hepatocytes resulted in decreased expression of MTTP and APOB, required for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly although particle secretion was not significantly affected. A parallel analysis performed in HepG2 revealed reduced MTTP, but not APOB, protein as a result of TRIB1 suppression. Global gene expression changes of human primary hepatocytes upon TRIB1 suppression were analyzed by clustering algorithms and found to be consistent with dysregulation of several pathways fundamental to liver function, including altered CEBPA and B transcript levels and impaired glucose handling. Indeed, TRIB1 expression in HepG2 cells was found to be inversely proportional to glucose concentration. Lastly TRIB1 downregulation in primary hepatocytes was associated with suppression of the HNF4A axis. In HepG2 cells, TRIB1 suppression resulted in reduced HNF4A protein levels while HNF4A suppression increased TRIB1 expression. Taken together these studies reveal an important role for TRIB1 in human hepatocyte biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. WNT-3A Regulates an Axin1/NRF2 Complex That Regulates Antioxidant Metabolism in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rada, Patricia; Rojo, Ana I.; Offergeld, Anika; Feng, Gui Jie; Velasco-Martín, Juan P.; González-Sancho, José Manuel; Valverde, Ángela M.; Dale, Trevor; Regadera, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) is a master regulator of oxidant and xenobiotic metabolism, but it is unknown how it is regulated to provide basal expression of this defense system. Here, we studied the putative connection between NRF2 and the canonical WNT pathway, which modulates hepatocyte metabolism. Results: WNT-3A increased the levels of NRF2 and its transcriptional signature in mouse hepatocytes and HEK293T cells. The use of short interfering RNAs in hepatocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts which are deficient in the redox sensor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) indicated that WNT-3A activates NRF2 in a β-Catenin- and KEAP1-independent manner. WNT-3A stabilized NRF2 by preventing its GSK-3-dependent phosphorylation and subsequent SCF/β-TrCP-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Axin1 and NRF2 were physically associated in a protein complex that was regulated by WNT-3A, involving the central region of Axin1 and the Neh4/Neh5 domains of NRF2. Axin1 knockdown increased NRF2 protein levels, while Axin1 stabilization with Tankyrase inhibitors blocked WNT/NRF2 signaling. The relevance of this novel pathway was assessed in mice with a conditional deletion of Axin1 in the liver, which showed upregulation of the NRF2 signature in hepatocytes and disruption of liver zonation of antioxidant metabolism. Innovation: NRF2 takes part in a protein complex with Axin1 that is regulated by the canonical WNT pathway. This new WNT-NRF2 axis controls the antioxidant metabolism of hepatocytes. Conclusion: These results uncover the participation of NRF2 in a WNT-regulated signalosome that participates in basal maintenance of hepatic antioxidant metabolism. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 555–571. PMID:25336178

  12. Tributyltin induces apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes through pathways involving the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, Melanie; Marion, Michel; Denizeau, Francine

    2007-07-01

    Tri-n-butyltin is a widespread environmental toxicant, which accumulates in the liver. This study investigates whether tri-n-butyltin induces pro-apoptotic signaling in rat liver hepatocytes through pathways involving the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Tri-n-butyltin activated the endoplasmic reticulum pathway of apoptosis, which was demonstrated by the activation of the protease calpain, its translocation to the plasma membrane, followed by cleavage of the calpain substrates, cytoskeletal protein vinculin, and caspase-12. Caspase-12 is localized to the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in apoptosis mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum. Tri-n-butyltin also caused translocation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad frommore » the cytosol to mitochondria, as well as changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability, events which can activate the mitochondrial death pathway. Tri-n-butyltin induced downstream apoptotic events in rat hepatocytes at the nuclear level, detected by chromatin condensation and by confocal microscopy using acridine orange. We investigated whether the tri-n-butyltin-induced pro-apoptotic events in hepatocytes could be linked to perturbation of intracellular calcium homeostasis, using confocal microscopy. Tri-n-butyltin caused changes in intracellular calcium distribution, which were similar to those induced by thapsigargin. Calcium was released from a subcellular compartment, which is likely to be the endoplasmic reticulum, into the cytosol. Cytosolic acidification, which is known to trigger apoptosis, also occurred and involved the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3} {sup -} exchanger. Pro-apoptotic events in hepatocytes were inhibited by the calcium chelator, Bapta-AM, and by a calpain inhibitor, which suggests that changes in intracellular calcium homeostasis are involved in tri-n-butyltin-induced apoptotic signaling in rat hepatocytes.« less

  13. The TLR4-IRE1α pathway activation contributes to palmitate-elicited lipotoxicity in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Ma, Wang; Ding, Lei; Li, Songtao; Dou, Xiaobing; Song, Zhenyuan

    2018-04-19

    Lipotoxicity induced by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) plays a pathological role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the exact mechanism(s) remain to be clearly elucidated. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 plays a fundamental role in activating the innate immune system. Intriguingly, hepatocytes express TLR4 and machinery for TLR4 signalling pathway. That liver-specific TLR4 knockout mice are protective against diet-induced NAFLD suggests that hepatocyte TLR4 signalling pathway plays an important role in NAFLD pathogenesis. Herein, using cultured hepatocytes, we sought to directly examine the role of TLR4 signalling pathway in palmitate-elicited hepatotoxicity and to elucidate underlying mechanism(s). Our data reveal that palmitate exposure up-regulates TLR4 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in hepatocytes, which are associated with NF-κB activation. The inhibition of TLR4 signalling pathway through both pharmacological and genetic approaches abolished palmitate-induced cell death, suggesting that TLR4 signalling pathway activation contributes to palmitate-induced hepatotoxicity. Mechanistic investigations demonstrate that inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), one of three major signal transduction pathways activated during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, is the downstream target of palmitate-elicited TLR4 activation and mechanistically implicated in TLR4 activation-triggered cell death in response to palmitate exposure. Collectively, our data identify that the TLR4-IRE1α pathway activation contributes to palmitate-elicited lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. Our findings suggest that targeting TLR4-IRE1α pathway can be a potential therapeutic choice for the treatment of NAFLD as well as other metabolic disorders, with lipotoxicity being the principal pathomechanism. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. Characterization of Conserved Toxicogenomic Responses in Chemically Exposed Hepatocytes across Species and Platforms.

    PubMed

    El-Hachem, Nehme; Grossmann, Patrick; Blanchet-Cohen, Alexis; Bateman, Alain R; Bouchard, Nicolas; Archambault, Jacques; Aerts, Hugo J W L; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Genome-wide expression profiling is increasingly being used to identify transcriptional changes induced by drugs and environmental stressors. In this context, the Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation system (TG-GATEs) project generated transcriptional profiles from rat liver samples and human/rat cultured primary hepatocytes exposed to more than 100 different chemicals. To assess the capacity of the cell culture models to recapitulate pathways induced by chemicals in vivo, we leveraged the TG-GATEs data set to compare the early transcriptional responses observed in the liver of rats treated with a large set of chemicals with those of cultured rat and human primary hepatocytes challenged with the same compounds in vitro. We developed a new pathway-based computational pipeline that efficiently combines gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) using pathways from the Reactome database with biclustering to identify common modules of pathways that are modulated by several chemicals in vivo and in vitro across species. We found that some chemicals induced conserved patterns of early transcriptional responses in in vitro and in vivo settings, and across human and rat genomes. These responses involved pathways of cell survival, inflammation, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Moreover, our results support the transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGF-βR) signaling pathway as a candidate biomarker associated with exposure to environmental toxicants in primary human hepatocytes. Our integrative analysis of toxicogenomics data provides a comprehensive overview of biochemical perturbations affected by a large panel of chemicals. Furthermore, we show that the early toxicological response occurring in animals is recapitulated in human and rat primary hepatocyte cultures at the molecular level, indicating that these models reproduce key pathways in response to chemical stress. These findings expand our understanding and interpretation

  15. A novel bile acid-activated vitamin D receptor signaling in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuxin; Li, Tiangang; Ellis, Ewa; Strom, Stephen; Chiang, John Y L

    2010-06-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is activated by natural ligands, 1alpha, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D(3) [1alpha,25(OH)(2)-D(3)] and lithocholic acid (LCA). Our previous study shows that VDR is expressed in human hepatocytes, and VDR ligands inhibit bile acid synthesis and transcription of the gene encoding cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). Primary human hepatocytes were used to study LCA and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-D(3) activation of VDR signaling. Confocal immunofluorescent microscopy imaging and immunoblot analysis showed that LCA and 1alpha, 25(OH)(2)-D(3) induced intracellular translocation of VDR from the cytosol to the nucleus and also plasma membrane where VDR colocalized with caveolin-1. VDR ligands induced tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src and VDR and their interaction. Inhibition of c-Src abrogated VDR ligand-dependent inhibition of CYP7A1 mRNA expression. Kinase assays showed that VDR ligands specifically activated the c-Raf/MEK1/2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway, which stimulates serine phosphorylation of VDR and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha, and their interaction. Mammalian two-hybrid assays showed a VDR ligand-dependent interaction of nuclear receptor corepressor-1 and silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid with VDR/retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRalpha). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that an ERK1/2 inhibitor reversed VDR ligand-induced recruitment of VDR, RXRalpha, and corepressors to human CYP7A1 promoter. In conclusion, VDR ligands activate membrane VDR signaling to activate the MEK1/2/ERK1/2 pathway, which stimulates nuclear VDR/RXRalpha recruitment of corepressors to inhibit CYP7A1 gene transcription in human hepatocytes. This membrane VDR-signaling pathway may be activated by bile acids to inhibit bile acid synthesis as a rapid response to protect hepatocytes from cholestatic liver injury.

  16. DNA content of hepatocyte and erythrocyte nuclei of the spined loach (Cobitis taenia L.) and its polyploid forms.

    PubMed

    Juchno, Dorota; Lackowska, Bozena; Boron, Alicja; Kilarski, Wincenty

    2010-09-01

    We analyzed the DNA content of hepatocyte and erythrocyte nuclei of the spined loach Cobitis taenia (diploid) and its allopolyploid forms. Twenty triploid females and one tetraploid were used. At least 20,000 hepatocyte and erythrocyte nuclei were acquired and analyzed by flow cytometry. C. taenia erythrocyte nuclei contain 3.15 +/- 0.21 pg of DNA and the hepatocyte nuclei 4.45 +/- 0.46 pg of DNA. Triploid Cobitis have 5.08 +/- 0.41 pg of DNA in erythrocyte nuclei and 6.11 +/- 0.40 pg of DNA in hepatocyte nuclei, whereas the tetraploid erythrocyte and hepatocyte nuclei contained 6.60 and 7.40 pg of DNA, respectively. In general, the DNA contents correlate positively with the ploidy level of the fish investigated. The DNA content variation in the hepatocyte and erythrocyte nuclei may be due to differences in extent of chromatin condensation, which is more pronounced in the erythrocyte than hepatocyte nuclei, or to the several orders of ploidy that occur in the parenchymal liver cells.

  17. Dehydroepiandrosterone reduced lipid droplet accumulation via inhibiting cell proliferation and improving mitochondrial function in primary chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Long; Wang, Dian; Ge, Chong-Yang; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Jin-Long; Ma, Hai-Tian

    2018-03-12

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) possesses fat-reducing effect, while little information is available on whether DHEA regulates cell proliferation and mitochondrial function, which would, in turn, affect lipid droplet accumulation in broiler. In this study, the lipid droplet accumulation, cell proliferation, cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential were analysis in primary chicken hepatocytes treated with DHEA. The results showed that total area and counts of lipid droplet were significantly decreased in hepatocytes after DHEA treated. DHEA treatment significantly increased the cell viability, while the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited in a dose dependent manner in primary chicken hepatocytes treated with DHEA. DHEA treatment significantly increased the cell population of S phase and decreased the population of G2/M in primary chicken hepatocytes. Meanwhile, the cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinases 2 (CDK2) mRNA abundance were significantly decreased in hepatocytes after DHEA treated. No significant differences were observed on the number of mitochondria, while the mitochondrial membrane permeability and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity were significantly increased in hepatocytes treated with DHEA. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that DHEA reduced lipid droplet accumulation by inhibiting cell proliferation and enhancing mitochondrial function in primary chicken hepatocytes.

  18. Glycogen content in hepatocytes is related with their size in normal rat liver but not in cirrhotic one.

    PubMed

    Bezborodkina, Natalia N; Chestnova, Anna Yu; Vorobev, Mikhail L; Kudryavtsev, Boris N

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocytes differ from one another by the degree of the ploidy, size, position in the liver lobule, and level of the DNA-synthetic processes. It is believed, that the cell size exerts substantial influence on the metabolism of the hepatocytes and the glycogen content in them. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis. Dry weight of hepatocytes, their ploidy and glycogen content were determined in the normal and the cirrhotic rat liver. Liver cirrhosis in rats was produced by chronic inhalation of CCl4 vapours in the course of 6 months. A combined cytophotometric method was used. Dry weight of the cell, its glycogen and DNA content were successively measured on a mapped preparation. Hepatocytes of each ploidy class in the normal and the cirrhotic rat liver accumulated glycogen at the same rate. In the normal liver, there was a distinct correlation between the size of hepatocytes and glycogen content in them. This correlation was observed in each ploidy class, and was especially pronounced in the class of mononucleate tetraploid hepatocytes. In the cirrhotic liver, there was no correlation between the size of the cells and their glycogen content. The impairment of liver lobular structure probably explains the observed lack of correlation between hepatocyte size and their glycogen content in the cirrhotic liver. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. Use of mRNA expression to detect the induction of drug metabolising enzymes in rat and human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Richert, L.; Laboratoire de Toxicologie Cellulaire, EA 3921, IFR 133, Faculte de Medecine et de Pharmacie, 25030 Besancon; Tuschl, G.

    2009-02-15

    It is important to investigate the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes by drugs. The most relevant end point is enzyme activity; however, this requires many cells and is low throughput. We have compared the CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A induction response to eight inducers in rat and human hepatocytes using enzyme activities (CYP1A2 (ethoxyresorufin), 2B (benzoxyresorufin for rat and bupropion for human) and CYP3A (testosterone)) and Taqman{sup TM} Low Density Array (TLDA) analysis. There was a good correlation between the induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities and mRNA expression in human hepatocytes. In contrast, BROD activities and mRNAmore » expression in rat hepatocytes correlated poorly. However, bupropion hydroxylation correlated well with Cyp2b1 expression in rat hepatocytes. TLDA analysis of a panel of mRNAs encoding for CYPs, phase 2 enzymes, nuclear receptors and transporters revealed that the main genes induced by the 8 compounds tested were the CYPs. AhR ligands also induced UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and glutathione S-transferases in rat and human hepatocytes. The transporters, MDR1, MDR3 and OATPA were the only transporter genes significantly up-regulated in human hepatocytes. In rat hepatocytes Bsep, Mdr2, Mrp2, Mrp3 and Oatp2 were up-regulated. We could then show a good in vivo:in vitro correlation in the induction response of isolated rat hepatocytes and ex-vivo hepatic microsomes for the drug development candidate, EMD392949. In conclusion, application of TLDA methodology to investigate the potential of compounds to induce enzymes in rat and human hepatocytes increases the throughput and information gained from one assay, without reducing the predictive capacity.« less

  20. Liver damage and senescence increases in patients developing hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rey, Silvia; Quintavalle, Cristina; Burmeister, Katharina; Calabrese, Diego; Schlageter, Manuel; Quagliata, Luca; Cathomas, Gieri; Diebold, Joachim; Molinolo, Alfredo; Heim, Markus H; Terracciano, Luigi M; Matter, Matthias S

    2017-08-01

    Most patients with a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have an underlying chronic liver inflammation, which causes a continuous damage leading to liver cirrhosis and eventually HCC. However, only a minority of cirrhotic patients develop HCC. To assess a possible differential impact of liver inflammation in patients developing HCC versus patients remaining tumor-free, we designed a longitudinal study and analysed liver tissue of the same patients (n = 33) at two points in time: once when no HCC was present and once several years later when an HCC was present. As a control group, we followed cirrhotic patients (n = 37) remaining tumor-free over a similar time frame. We analysed cell damage and senescence of hepatocytes by measuring γ-H2AX positivity, p16 INK4 and p21 WAF/Cip1 expression, nuclear size, and telomere length. γ-H2AX positivity, p16 INK4 and p21 WAF/Cip1 expression, in the first liver biopsy was similar in patients developing HCC later on and cirrhotic patients remaining tumor free. In contrast, γ-H2AX positivity, p16 INK4 and p21 WAF/Cip1 expression, was significantly higher in the second non-tumoral liver biopsy of HCC patients than in the control patients. Consequently, the individual increase in γ-H2AX positivity, p16 INK4 and p21 WAF/Cip1 expression, from the first biopsy to the second biopsy was significantly higher in patients developing HCC than in patients remaining tumor free. In addition, changes in nuclear size and telomere length revealed a more pronounced cell aging in patients developing HCC than in patients remaining tumor free. Hepatocytes from patients developing HCC go through more pronounced cell damage and senescence in contrast to cirrhotic patients remaining tumor free. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Fault damage zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Seog; Peacock, David C. P.; Sanderson, David J.

    2004-03-01

    Damage zones show very similar geometries across a wide range of scales and fault types, including strike-slip, normal and thrust faults. We use a geometric classification of damage zones into tip-, wall-, and linking-damage zones, based on their location around faults. These classes can be sub-divided in terms of fault and fracture patterns within the damage zone. A variety of damage zone structures can occur at mode II tips of strike-slip faults, including wing cracks, horsetail fractures, antithetic faults, and synthetic branch faults. Wall damage zones result from the propagation of mode II and mode III fault tips through a rock, or from damage associated with the increase in slip on a fault. Wall damage zone structures include extension fractures, antithetic faults, synthetic faults, and rotated blocks with associated triangular openings. The damage formed at the mode III tips of strike-slip faults (e.g. observed in cliff sections) are classified as wall damage zones, because the damage zone structures are distributed along a fault trace in map view. Mixed-mode tips are likely to show characteristics of both mode II and mode III tips. Linking damage zones are developed at steps between two sub-parallel faults, and the structures developed depend on whether the step is extensional or contractional. Extension fractures and pull-aparts typically develop in extensional steps, whilst solution seams, antithetic faults and synthetic faults commonly develop in contractional steps. Rotated blocks, isolated lenses or strike-slip duplexes may occur in both extensional and contractional steps. Damage zone geometries and structures are strongly controlled by the location around a fault, the slip mode at a fault tip, and by the evolutionary stage of the fault. Although other factors control the nature of damage zones (e.g. lithology, rheology and stress system), the three-dimensional fault geometry and slip mode at each tip must be considered to gain an understanding of

  2. Cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, a natural free-radical scavenger against aflatoxin B1- and ochratoxin A-induced cell damage in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) and a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line (CaCo-2).

    PubMed

    Guerra, M C; Galvano, F; Bonsi, L; Speroni, E; Costa, S; Renzulli, C; Cervellati, R

    2005-08-01

    Recent findings have suggested that oxidative damage might contribute to the cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Induction of oxidative stress also plays an important role in the toxicity of another mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA). In the present study, the protective effect of cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (C-3-G; an anthocyanin contained in oranges, blackberries, strawberries and cranberries) against AFB1- and OTA-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in a human hepatoma-derived cell line (Hep G2) and a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line (CaCo-2). The ability of C-3-G to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the inhibition of protein and DNA synthesis and the apoptosis caused by the two mycotoxins was also investigated in both cell lines. Our experiments proved the significant cytoprotective effect of C-3-G in vitro against OTA- and AFB1-induced cell damage. In particular, 24 h of pretreatment with 50 microm-C-3-G inhibited the cytotoxicity of 10 microm-AFB1 (by 35 %) and of 10 microm-OTA (by 25 %) in Hep G2 cells (P < 0.001) and of 10 microm-AFB1 (by 10 %, P < 0.01) and of 10 microm-OTA (by 14 %, P < 0.05) in CaCo-2 cells. Moreover, 50 microm-C-3-G attenuated ROS production induced by the two toxins in both cell lines (P < 0.05). Inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis induced by the mycotoxins was counteracted by pretreatment with the antioxidant at 50 microm. Similarly, apoptotic cell death was prevented as demonstrated by a reduction of DNA fragmentation and inhibition of caspase-3 activation. The in vitro free-radical scavenging capacity of the anthocyanin was tested with the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction. This system works at pH approximately 2. The results showed good scavenging power, in accordance with the observed inhibition of ROS production.

  3. DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogens 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole and 4-aminobiphenyl are formed at environmental exposure levels and persist in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nauwelaërs, Gwendoline; Bellamri, Medjda; Fessard, Valérie; Turesky, Robert J; Langouët, Sophie

    2013-09-16

    Aromatic amines and structurally related heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are produced during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meat. Exposure to some of these chemicals may contribute to the etiology of several common types of human cancers. 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is the most abundant HAA formed in mainstream tobacco smoke: it arises in amounts that are 25-100 times greater than the levels of the arylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a human carcinogen. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) is a prevalent HAA formed in cooked meats. AαC and MeIQx are rodent carcinogens; however, their carcinogenic potency in humans is unknown. A preliminary assessment of the carcinogenic potential of these HAAs in humans was conducted by examining the capacity of primary human hepatocytes to form DNA adducts of AαC and MeIQx, in comparison to 4-ABP, followed by the kinetics of DNA adduct removal by cellular enzyme repair systems. The principal DNA adducts formed were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. Comparable levels of DNA adducts were formed with AαC and 4-ABP, whereas adduct formation was ∼5-fold lower for MeIQx. dG-C8-AαC and dG-C8-4-ABP were formed at comparable levels in a concentration-dependent manner in human hepatocytes treated with procarcinogens over a 10,000-fold concentration range (1 nM-10 μM). Pretreatment of hepatocytes with furafylline, a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, resulted in a strong diminution of DNA adducts signifying that P450 1A2 is a major P450 isoform involved in bioactivation of these procarcinogens. The kinetics of adduct removal varied for each hepatocyte donor. Approximately half of the DNA adducts were removed within 24 h of treatment; however, the remaining lesions persisted over 5 days. The high levels of AαC present in tobacco smoke and its propensity to form persistent DNA adducts in human hepatocytes suggest that AαC can contribute to DNA damage

  4. DNA Adducts of the Tobacco Carcinogens 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole and 4-Aminobiphenyl are Formed at Environmental Exposure levels and Persist in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nauwelaërs, Gwendoline; Bellamri, Medjda; Fessard, Valérie; Turesky, Robert J.; Langouët, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic amines and structurally related heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are produced during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meat. Exposure to some of these chemicals may contribute to the etiology of several common types of human cancers. 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is the most abundant HAA formed in mainstream tobacco smoke: it arises in amounts that are 25–100 times greater than the levels of the arylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a human carcinogen. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) is a prevalent HAA formed in cooked meats. AαC and MeIQx are rodent carcinogens; however, their carcinogenic potency in humans is unknown. A preliminary assessment of the carcinogenic potential of these HAAs in humans was conducted by examining the capacity of primary human hepatocytes to form DNA adducts of AαC and MeIQx, in comparison to 4-ABP, followed by the kinetics of DNA adduct removal by cellular enzyme repair systems. The principal DNA adducts formed were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. Comparable levels of DNA adducts were formed with AαC and 4-ABP, whereas adduct formation was ~5-fold lower for MeIQx. dG-C8-AαC and dG-C8-4-ABP were formed at comparable levels in a concentration-dependent manner in human hepatocytes treated with procarcinogens over a ten thousand-fold concentration range (1 nM – 10 µM). Pretreatment of hepatocytes with furafylline, a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, resulted in a strong diminution of DNA adducts signifying that P450 1A2 is a major P450 isoform involved in bioactivation of these procarcinogens. The kinetics of adduct removal varied for each hepatocyte donor. Approximately half of the DNA adducts were removed within 24 h of treatment; however, the remaining lesions persisted over 5 days. The high levels of AαC present in tobacco smoke and its propensity to form persistent DNA adducts in human hepatocytes, suggests that AαC can contribute to

  5. Acrolein cytotoxicity in hepatocytes involves endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville; Avila, Diana

    2012-11-15

    Acrolein is a common environmental, food and water pollutant and a major component of cigarette smoke. Also, it is produced endogenously via lipid peroxidation and cellular metabolism of certain amino acids and drugs. Acrolein is cytotoxic to many cell types including hepatocytes; however the mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying acrolein hepatotoxicity in primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Acrolein, at pathophysiological concentrations, caused a dose-dependent loss of viability of hepatocytes. The death was apoptotic at moderate and necrotic at high concentrations of acrolein. Acrolein exposure rapidly and dramatically decreased intracellular glutathione and overall antioxidantmore » capacity, and activated the stress-signaling MAP-kinases JNK, p42/44 and p38. Our data demonstrate for the first time in human hepatocytes, that acrolein triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated eIF2α, ATF-3 and -4, and Gadd153/CHOP, resulting in cell death. Notably, the protective/adaptive component of ER stress was not activated, and acrolein failed to up-regulate the protective ER-chaperones, GRP78 and GRP94. Additionally, exposure to acrolein disrupted mitochondrial integrity/function, and led to the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and ATP depletion. Acrolein-induced cell death was attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine, phenyl-butyric acid, and caspase and JNK inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that exposure to acrolein induces a variety of stress responses in hepatocytes, including GSH depletion, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress (without ER-protective responses) which together contribute to acrolein toxicity. Our study defines basic mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by reactive aldehyde pollutants such as acrolein. -- Highlights: ► Human primary hepatocytes and cultured cell lines are used. ► Multiple cell death signaling pathways are activated by acrolein. ► Novel

  6. Entry and Release of Hepatitis C Virus in Polarized Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Danneels, Adeline; Fénéant, Lucie; Séron, Karin; Rouillé, Yves

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) primarily infects hepatocytes, which are highly polarized cells. The relevance of cell polarity in the HCV life cycle has been addressed only in distantly related models and remains poorly understood. Although polarized epithelial cells have a rather simple morphology with a basolateral and an apical domain, hepatocytes exhibit complex polarization structures. However, it has been reported that some selected polarized HepG2 cell clones can exhibit a honeycomb pattern of distribution of the tight-junction proteins typical of columnar polarized epithelia, which can be used as a simple model to study the role of cell polarization in viral infection of hepatocytes. To obtain similar clones, HepG2 cells expressing CD81 (HepG2-CD81) were used, and clones were isolated by limiting dilutions. Two clones exhibiting a simple columnar polarization capacity when grown on a semipermeable support were isolated and characterized. To test the polarity of HCV entry and release, our polarized HepG2-CD81 clones were infected with cell culture-derived HCV. Our data indicate that HCV binds equally to both sides of the cells, but productive infection occurs mainly when the virus is added at the basolateral domain. Furthermore, we also observed that HCV virions are released from the basolateral domain of the cells. Finally, when polarized cells were treated with oleic acid and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, to promote lipoprotein secretion, a higher proportion of infectious viral particles of lower density were secreted. This cell culture system provides an excellent model to investigate the influence of cell polarization on the HCV life cycle. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C is a major health burden, with approximately 170 million persons infected worldwide. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) primarily infects hepatocytes, which are highly polarized cells with a complex organization. The relevance of cell polarity in the HCV life cycle has been addressed in distantly related

  7. Entry and release of hepatitis C virus in polarized human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Belouzard, Sandrine; Danneels, Adeline; Fénéant, Lucie; Séron, Karin; Rouillé, Yves; Dubuisson, Jean

    2017-06-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects primarily hepatocytes that are highly polarized cells. The relevance of cell polarity in the HCV life cycle has only been addressed in distant models and remains poorly understood. Although polarized epithelial cells have a rather simple morphology with a basolateral and an apical domain, hepatocytes exhibit complex polarization structures. However, it has been reported that some selected polarized HepG2 cell clones can exhibit a honeycomb pattern of distribution of the tight-junction proteins, typical of columnar polarized epithelia which can be used as a simple model to study the role of cell polarization in viral infection of hepatocytes. To obtain similar clones, HepG2 cells expressing CD81 (HepG2-CD81) were used and clones were isolated by limiting dilutions. Two clones exhibiting a simple columnar polarization capacity when grown on semi-permeable support were isolated and characterized. To test the polarity of HCV entry and release, our polarized HepG2-CD81 clones were infected with cell culture derived HCV. Our data indicate that HCV binds equally to both sides of the cells, but productive infection occurs mainly when the virus is added at the basolateral domain. Furthermore, we also observed that HCV virions are released from the basolateral domain of the cells. Finally, when polarized cells were treated with oleic acid and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, to promote lipoprotein secretion, a higher proportion of infectious viral particles of lower density was secreted. This cell culture system provides an excellent model to investigate the influence of cell polarization on the HCV life cycle.IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C is a major health burden with approximately 170 million persons infected worldwide. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects primarily hepatocytes that are highly polarized cells with a complex organization. The relevance of cell polarity in the HCV life cycle has been addressed in distant models and remains unclear. Hepatocyte

  8. Hepatocytes contribute to residual glucose production in a mouse model for glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    PubMed

    Hijmans, Brenda S; Boss, Andreas; van Dijk, Theo H; Soty, Maud; Wolters, Henk; Mutel, Elodie; Groen, Albert K; Derks, Terry G J; Mithieux, Gilles; Heerschap, Arend; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Rajas, Fabienne; Oosterveer, Maaike H

    2017-12-01

    It is a long-standing enigma how glycogen storage disease (GSD) type I patients retain a limited capacity for endogenous glucose production despite the loss of glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Insight into the source of residual endogenous glucose production is of clinical importance given the risk of sudden death in these patients, but so far contradictory mechanisms have been proposed. We investigated glucose-6-phosphatase-independent endogenous glucose production in hepatocytes isolated from a liver-specific GSD Ia mouse model (L-G6pc -/- mice) and performed real-time analysis of hepatic glucose fluxes and glycogen metabolism in L-G6pc -/- mice using state-of-the-art stable isotope methodologies. Here we show that G6pc-deficient hepatocytes are capable of producing glucose. In vivo analysis of hepatic glucose metabolism revealed that the hepatic glucokinase flux was decreased by 95% in L-G6pc -/- mice. It also showed increased glycogen phosphorylase flux in L-G6pc -/- mice, which is coupled to the release of free glucose through glycogen debranching. Although the ex vivo activities of debranching enzyme and lysosomal acid maltase, two major hepatic α-glucosidases, were unaltered in L-G6pc -/- mice, pharmacological inhibition of α-glucosidase activity almost completely abolished residual glucose production by G6pc-deficient hepatocytes. Our data indicate that hepatocytes contribute to residual glucose production in GSD Ia. We show that α-glucosidase activity, i.e. glycogen debranching and/or lysosomal glycogen breakdown, contributes to residual glucose production by GSD Ia hepatocytes. A strong reduction in hepatic GCK flux in L-G6pc-/- mice furthermore limits the phosphorylation of free glucose synthesized by G6pc-deficient hepatocytes, allowing the release of glucose into the circulation. The almost complete abrogation of GCK flux in G6pc-deficient liver also explains the contradictory reports on residual glucose production in GSD Ia patients. (Hepatology

  9. Basolateral and canalicular transport of xenobiotics in the hepatocyte: A review.

    PubMed

    Diaz, G J

    2000-11-01

    The molecular and functional characterization of severalproteins involved in the uptake and excretion of xenobioticsand endogenous compounds in the hepatocyte has been achievedthrough intensive research conducted in the past few years.These studies have lead to the identification of specificmembrane transporters located in the basolateral andcanalicular membrane domains of the hepatocyte. The organicanion-transporting polypeptide (OATP), present in thebasolateral membrane of the hepatocyte, is responsible for thetranslocation of xenobiotics from the sinusoidal space into thehepatocyte. Once inside the cell, unconjugated neutral, anionicand cationic xenobiotics can be secreted into bile by themultidrug-resistance P-glycoprotein 1 (MDR1). Conjugatedxenobiotics (e.g. glucuronides and glutathione conjugates) aresecreted into bile by the canalicular multispecific organicanion transporter (cMOAT). Other transporters play keyphysiological roles, including the basolateral uptake of bilesalts (sodium-taurocholate cotransporter, NTCP) and thesecretion into bile of conjugated and unconjugated bile salts(bile salt export pump, BSEP) and phospholipids (MDR2).Experimental approaches used to investigate the role of thebasolateral and canalicular transporters in the hepatocyte haveincluded both in vivo and in vitro models. Animalmodels lacking canalicular transporters include the;hyperbilirubinemic' rats (Groningen-Yellow (GY), Eisaihyperbilirubinemic (EHB) and TR(-) rats), which aredeficient in the cMOAT protein, and ;knock-out' mice, lackingeither the MDR1 or MDR2 transporter. Although no animal modelsare currently available for the study of basolateraltransporters, their function has been conveniently investigatedthrough heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytesand also with basolateral membrane vesicles isolated fromhepatocytes. The total number of basolateral and canaliculartransport proteins present in the hepatocyte is still unknown,but current knowledge indicates

  10. Activation of hepatocyte protein kinase C by redox-cycling quinones.

    PubMed Central

    Kass, G E; Duddy, S K; Orrenius, S

    1989-01-01

    The effects of quinone-generated active oxygen species on rat hepatocyte protein kinase C were investigated. The specific activity of cytosolic protein kinase C was increased 2-3-fold in hepatocytes incubated with the redox-cycling quinones, menadione, duroquinone or 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, without alterations in particulate protein kinase C specific activity or Ca2+- and lipid-independent kinase activities. Redox-cycling quinones did not stimulate translocation of protein kinase C; however, activated protein kinase C was redistributed from cytosol to the particulate fraction when quinone-treated hepatocytes were exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Quinone treatment did not alter cytosolic phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding capacity, and the cytosol of both control and quinone-treated hepatocytes exhibited a Kd for PDBu binding of 2 nM. Quinone-mediated activation of cytosolic protein kinase C was reversed by incubation with 10 mM-beta-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol or GSH, at 4 degrees C for 24 h. Furthermore, protein kinase C specific activity in control cytosol incubated in air increased by over 100% within 3 h; this increase was reversed by thiol-reducing agents. Similarly, incubation of partially-purified rat brain protein kinase C in air, or with low concentrations of GSSG in the presence of GSH, resulted in a 2-2.5-fold increase in Ca2+- and lipid-dependent kinase activity. In contrast with the effects of the redox-cycling quinones, when hepatocytes were treated with the thiol agents N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), p-benzoquinone (pBQ) or p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (pCMB), the cytosolic Ca2+- and lipid-dependent kinase activity was significantly inhibited, but the particulate-associated protein kinase C activity was unaffected. The Ca2+- and lipid-independent kinase activity of both the cytosolic and particulate fractions was significantly stimulated by NEM, but was unaffected by pBQ and pCMB. These results show that hepatocyte

  11. Activin A is a prominent autocrine regulator of hepatocyte growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Haridoss, Srividyameena; Yovchev, Mladen I; Schweizer, Hannah; Megherhi, Sabreen; Beecher, Maria; Locker, Joseph; Oertel, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Activin A, a multifunctional cytokine, plays an important role in hepatocyte growth suppression and is involved in liver size control. The present study was aimed to determine the cell location of activin A in the normal rat liver microenvironment and the contribution of activin A signaling to the hepatocyte phenotype to obtain insight into molecular mechanisms. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses identified hepatocytes as the major activin A-positive cell population in normal liver and identified mast cells as an additional activin A source. To investigate paracrine and autocrine activin A-stimulated effects, hepatocytes were cocultured with engineered activin A-secreting cell lines (RF1, TL8) or transduced with an adeno-associated virus vector encoding activin βA, which led to strikingly altered expression of cell cycle-related genes (Ki-67, E2F transcription factor 1 [ E2F1 ], minichromosome maintenance complex component 2 [ Mcm2 ], forkhead box M1 [ FoxM1 ]) and senescence-related genes (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B [p15 INK4b / CDKN2B ], differentiated embryo-chondrocyte expressed gene 1 [ DEC1 ]) and reduced proliferation and induction of senescence. Microarray analyses identified 453 differentially expressed genes, many of which were not yet recognized as activin A downstream targets (e.g., ADAM metallopeptidase domain 12 [ Adam12 ], semaphorin 7A [ Sema7a ], LIM and cysteine-rich domains-1 [ Lmcd1 ], DAB2, clathrin adaptor protein [ Dab2 ]). Among the main activin A-mediated molecular/cellular functions are cellular growth/proliferation and movement, molecular transport, and metabolic processes containing highly down-regulated genes, such as cytochrome P450, subfamily 2, polypeptide 11 ( Cyp2C11 ), sulfotransferase family 1A, member 1 ( Sult1a1 ), glycine-N-acyltransferase ( Glyat ), and bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase ( Baat ). Moreover, Ingenuity Pathway Analyses identified particular gene networks regulated by

  12. Characterization of Conserved Toxicogenomic Responses in Chemically Exposed Hepatocytes across Species and Platforms

    PubMed Central

    El-Hachem, Nehme; Grossmann, Patrick; Blanchet-Cohen, Alexis; Bateman, Alain R.; Bouchard, Nicolas; Archambault, Jacques; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background Genome-wide expression profiling is increasingly being used to identify transcriptional changes induced by drugs and environmental stressors. In this context, the Toxicogenomics Project–Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation system (TG-GATEs) project generated transcriptional profiles from rat liver samples and human/rat cultured primary hepatocytes exposed to more than 100 different chemicals. Objectives To assess the capacity of the cell culture models to recapitulate pathways induced by chemicals in vivo, we leveraged the TG-GATEs data set to compare the early transcriptional responses observed in the liver of rats treated with a large set of chemicals with those of cultured rat and human primary hepatocytes challenged with the same compounds in vitro. Methods We developed a new pathway-based computational pipeline that efficiently combines gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) using pathways from the Reactome database with biclustering to identify common modules of pathways that are modulated by several chemicals in vivo and in vitro across species. Results We found that some chemicals induced conserved patterns of early transcriptional responses in in vitro and in vivo settings, and across human and rat genomes. These responses involved pathways of cell survival, inflammation, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Moreover, our results support the transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGF-βR) signaling pathway as a candidate biomarker associated with exposure to environmental toxicants in primary human hepatocytes. Conclusions Our integrative analysis of toxicogenomics data provides a comprehensive overview of biochemical perturbations affected by a large panel of chemicals. Furthermore, we show that the early toxicological response occurring in animals is recapitulated in human and rat primary hepatocyte cultures at the molecular level, indicating that these models reproduce key pathways in response to chemical stress. These

  13. Reabsorption of iron into acutely damaged rat liver: A role for ferritins

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed; Wilting, Jörg; Ramadori, Giuliano; Naz, Naila

    2017-01-01

    AIM To studied iron metabolism in liver, spleen, and serum after acute liver-damage, in relation to surrogate markers for liver-damage and repair. METHODS Rats received intraperitoneal injection of the hepatotoxin thioacetamide (TAA), and were sacrificed regularly between 1 and 96 h thereafter. Serum levels of transaminases and iron were measured using conventional laboratory assays. Liver tissue was used for conventional histology, immunohistology, and iron staining. The expression of acute-phase cytokines, ferritin light chain (FTL), and ferritin heavy chain (FTH) was investigated in the liver by qRT-PCR. Western blotting was used to investigate FTL and FTH in liver tissue and serum. Liver and spleen tissue was also used to determine iron concentrations. RESULTS After a short initial decrease, iron serum concentrations increased in parallel with serum transaminase (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) levels, which reached a maximum at 48 h, and decreased thereafter. Similarly, after 48 h a significant increase in FTL, and after 72h in FTH was detected in serum. While earliest morphological signs of inflammation in liver were visible after 6 h, increased expression of the two acute-phase cytokines IFN-γ (1h) and IL-1β (3h) was detectable earlier, with maximum values after 12-24 h. Iron concentrations in liver tissue increased steadily between 1 h and 48 h, and remained high at 96 h. In contrast, spleen iron concentrations remained unchanged until 48 h, and increased mildly thereafter (96 h). Although tissue iron staining was negative, hepatic FTL and FTH protein levels were strongly elevated. Our results reveal effects on hepatic iron concentrations after direct liver injury by TAA. The increase of liver iron concentrations may be due to the uptake of a significant proportion of the metal by healthy hepatocytes, and only to a minor extent by macrophages, as spleen iron concentrations do not increase in parallel. The temporary increase of

  14. Differential Effects of Omeprazole and Lansoprazole Enantiomers on Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Human Hepatocytes and Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Novotna, Aneta; Srovnalova, Alzbeta; Svecarova, Michaela; Korhonova, Martina; Bartonkova, Iveta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors omeprazole and lansoprazole contain chiral sulfur atom and they are administered as a racemate, i.e. equimolar mixture of S- and R-enantiomers. The enantiopure drugs esomeprazole and dexlansoprazole have been developed and introduced to clinical practice due to their improved clinical and therapeutic properties. Since omeprazole and lansoprazole are activators of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and inducers of CYP1A genes, we examined their enantiospecific effects on AhR-CYP1A pathway in human cancer cells and primary human hepatocytes. We performed gene reporter assays for transcriptional activity of AhR, RT-PCR analyses for CYP1A1/2 mRNAs, western blots for CYP1A1/2 proteins and EROD assay for CYP1A1/2 catalytic activity. Lansoprazole and omeprazole enantiomers displayed differential effects on AhR-CYP1A1/2 pathway. In general, S-enantiomers were stronger activators of AhR and inducers of CYP1A genes as compared to R-enantiomers in lower concentrations, i.e. 1–10 µM for lansoprazole and 10–100 µM for omeprazole. In contrast, R-enantiomers were stronger AhR activators and CYP1A inducers than S-enantiomers in higher concentrations, i.e. 100 µM for lansoprazole and 250 µM for omeprazole. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence of enantiospecific effects of omeprazole and lansoprazole on AhR signaling pathway. PMID:24887303

  15. Differential effects of omeprazole and lansoprazole enantiomers on aryl hydrocarbon receptor in human hepatocytes and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Novotna, Aneta; Srovnalova, Alzbeta; Svecarova, Michaela; Korhonova, Martina; Bartonkova, Iveta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors omeprazole and lansoprazole contain chiral sulfur atom and they are administered as a racemate, i.e. equimolar mixture of S- and R-enantiomers. The enantiopure drugs esomeprazole and dexlansoprazole have been developed and introduced to clinical practice due to their improved clinical and therapeutic properties. Since omeprazole and lansoprazole are activators of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and inducers of CYP1A genes, we examined their enantiospecific effects on AhR-CYP1A pathway in human cancer cells and primary human hepatocytes. We performed gene reporter assays for transcriptional activity of AhR, RT-PCR analyses for CYP1A1/2 mRNAs, western blots for CYP1A1/2 proteins and EROD assay for CYP1A1/2 catalytic activity. Lansoprazole and omeprazole enantiomers displayed differential effects on AhR-CYP1A1/2 pathway. In general, S-enantiomers were stronger activators of AhR and inducers of CYP1A genes as compared to R-enantiomers in lower concentrations, i.e. 1-10 µM for lansoprazole and 10-100 µM for omeprazole. In contrast, R-enantiomers were stronger AhR activators and CYP1A inducers than S-enantiomers in higher concentrations, i.e. 100 µM for lansoprazole and 250 µM for omeprazole. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence of enantiospecific effects of omeprazole and lansoprazole on AhR signaling pathway.

  16. Alterations of Ultrastructural and Fission/Fusion Markers in Hepatocyte Mitochondria From Mice Following Calorie Restriction With Different Dietary Fats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed ultrastructural changes and markers of fission/fusion in hepatocyte mitochondria from mice submitted to 40% calorie restriction (CR) for 6 months versus ad-libitum-fed controls. To study the effects of dietary fat under CR, animals were separated into three CR groups with soybean oil (also in controls), fish oil, and lard. CR induced differential changes in hepatocyte and mitochondrial size, in the volume fraction occupied by mitochondria, and in the number of mitochondria per hepatocyte. The number of cristae per mitochondrion was significantly higher in all CR groups compared with controls. Proteins related to mitochondrial fission (Fis1 and Drp1) increased with CR, but no changes were detected in proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion (Mfn1, Mfn2, and OPA1). Although many of these changes could be attributed to CR regardless of dietary fat, changing membrane lipid composition by different fat sources did modulate the effects of CR on hepatocyte mitochondria. PMID:23403066

  17. Intra- and inter-laboratory reliability of a cryopreserved trout hepatocyte assay for the prediction of chemical bioaccumulation potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cryopreserved trout hepatocytes provide a convenient in vitro system for measuring the intrinsic clearance of xenobiotics. Measured clearance rates can then be extrapolated to the whole animal as a means of improving modeled bioaccumulation predictions. To date, however, the in...

  18. Use of Isolated Trout Hepatocytes to Predict Measured Hepatic Clearance and Whole-animal Bioconcentration Factors for Six Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatic metabolism is an important determinant of chemical bioaccumulation in fish. Consequently, measured in vitro hepatic metabolism may improve model predictions of bioaccumulation. In this study, fresh and cryopreserved trout hepatocytes were used to measure in vitro intrin...

  19. Pathway Analysis and Modeling of the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Hepatocyte-like Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalaki, Andriani; Jozefczuk, Justyna; Lehrach, Hans; Adjaye, James; Wierling, Christoph

    2011-06-01

    A more detailed understanding of the differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells can help to improve therapies for liver diseases, like steatohepatitis. In this work we used microarray-based expression data to analyze the in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into hepatocytes. Pathway analysis has been carried out on gene expression data of different stages of the differentiation process from embryonic stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells via definitive endoderm and hepatic endoderm. Based on pathway analysis we identified signaling pathways, like the GPCR signaling pathway as well as FOXA2 regulatory networks. Based on these highly enriched pathways we constructed a model prototype to better understand and study the differentiation of stem cells into hepatocytes.

  20. Inter-laboratory comparison of clearance rates of xenobiotics by cryopreserved trout hepatocytes for the prediction of bioaccumulation potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatic biotransformation is an important determinant of chemical bioaccumulation in fish. Consequently, improvements to bioaccumulation models can be made using estimates of chemical biotransformation rates. Cryopreserved trout hepatocytes have previously been used to measure ...

  1. Inter-laboratory comparison of xenobiotic clearance rates determined using cryopreserved trout hepatocytes for improving bioaccumulation predictions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatic biotransformation is an important determinant of chemical bioaccumulation in fish. Consequently, bioaccumulation models can be improved using estimates of chemical biotransformation rates. Cryopreserved trout hepatocytes have been used to measure the clearance rates of so...

  2. Extracellular ATP activates c-jun N-terminal kinase signaling and cell cycle progression in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Thevananther, Sundararajah; Sun, Hongdan; Li, Duo; Arjunan, Vijaya; Awad, Samir S; Wyllie, Samuel; Zimmerman, Tracy L; Goss, John A; Karpen, Saul J

    2004-02-01

    Partial hepatectomy leads to an orchestrated regenerative response, activating a cascade of cell signaling events necessary for cell cycle progression and proliferation of hepatocytes. However, the identity of the humoral factors that trigger the activation of these pathways in the concerted regenerative response in hepatocytes remains elusive. In recent years, extracellular ATP has emerged as a rapidly acting signaling molecule that influences a variety of liver functions, but its role in hepatocyte growth and regeneration is unknown. In this study, we sought to determine if purinergic signaling can lead to the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a known central player in hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. Hepatocyte treatment with ATPgammaS, a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog, recapitulated early signaling events associated with liver regeneration-that is, rapid and transient activation of JNK signaling, induction of immediate early genes c-fos and c-jun, and activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA-binding activity. The rank order of agonist preference, UTP>ATP>ATPgammaS, suggests that the effects of extracellular ATP is mediated through the activation of P2Y2 receptors in hepatocytes. ATPgammaS treatment alone and in combination with epidermal growth factor (EGF) substantially increased cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression and hepatocyte proliferation in vitro. Extracellular ATP as low as 10 nM was sufficient to potentiate EGF-induced cyclin D1 expression. Infusion of ATP by way of the portal vein directly activated hepatic JNK signaling, while infusion of a P2 purinergic receptor antagonist prior to partial hepatectomy inhibited JNK activation. In conclusion, extracellular ATP is a hepatic mitogen that can activate JNK signaling and hepatocyte proliferation in vitro and initiate JNK signaling in regenerating liver in vivo. These findings have implications for enhancing our understanding of novel factors involved in

  3. Hydrodynamic Delivery of Cre Protein to Lineage-Mark or Time-Stamp Mouse Hepatocytes In situ

    PubMed Central

    Sonsteng, Katherine M.; Prigge, Justin R.; Talago, Emily A.; June, Ronald K.; Schmidt, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Cre-responsive fluorescent marker alleles are powerful tools for cell lineage tracing in mice; however their utility is limited by regulation of Cre activity. When targeting hepatocytes, hydrodynamic delivery of a Cre-expression plasmid can convert Cre-responsive alleles without inducing the intracellular or systemic antiviral responses often associated with viral-derived Cre-expression vectors. In this method, rapid high-volume intravenous inoculation induces hepatocyte-targeted uptake of extracel