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Sample records for a-induced hepatocyte damage

  1. Stellate Cells Orchestrate Concanavalin A-Induced Acute Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    Rani, Richa; Tandon, Ashish; Wang, Jiang; Kumar, Sudhir; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R

    2017-09-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA) causes immune cell-mediated liver damage, but the contribution of resident nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) is also evident. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) induce hepatic inflammation and immunological reactions; we therefore investigated their role in ConA-induced liver injury. ConA was administered i.v. to control or HSC-depleted mice; hepatic histopathology and cytokines/chemokines were determined after 6 hours. In vitro, effects of ConA-conditioned HSC medium on hepatocytes were determined. ConA induced inflammation, sinusoidal congestion, and extensive midzonal hepatocyte death in control mice, which were strongly minimized in HSC-depleted mice. CD4 and natural killer T cells and neutrophils were markedly reduced in ConA-treated HSC-depleted mice compared with control mice. The increase in cytokines/chemokines of hepatic injury was much higher in ConA-treated control mice than in HSC-depleted mice. ConA-treated HSCs showed increased expression of interferon-β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and CXCL1, induced oxidative stress in hepatocytes, and caused hepatocyte apoptosis. ConA induced nuclear translocation of interferon-regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) in hepatocytes in vivo, and ConA/HSC induced a similar effect in cultured hepatocytes. IRF1-knockout mice were resistant to ConA-induced liver damage, and anti-interferon β antibody mitigated ConA/HSC-induced injury. In HSC-NPC co-culture, ConA-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines was significantly augmented compared with NPCs alone. HSCs play an essential role in ConA-induced liver injury directly via the interferon-β/IRF1 axis, and by modulating properties of NPCs. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acetaldehyde-induced mitochondrial dysfunction sensitizes hepatocytes to oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Farfán Labonne, Blanca Eugenia; Gutiérrez, Mario; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; Bucio, Leticia; Souza, Verónica; Flores, Oscar; Ortíz, Victor; Hernández, Elizabeth; Kershenobich, David; Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción

    2009-12-01

    Acetaldehyde (Ac), the main metabolite of ethanol oxidation, is a very reactive compound involved in alcohol-induced liver damage. In the present work, we studied the effect of Ac in mitochondria functionality. Mitochondria from Wistar rats were isolated and treated with Ac. Ac decreased respiratory control by 50% which was associated with a decrease in adenosine triphosphate content (28.5%). These results suggested that Ac could be inducing changes in cell redox status. We determined protein oxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione ratio, indicating that Ac induced an enhanced oxidation of proteins and a decrease in SOD activity (90%) and glutathione/oxidized GSH ratio (36%). The data suggested that Ac-induced oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria dysfunction can lead to cell sensitization and to a second oxidative challenge. We pretreated hepatocytes with Ac followed by treatment with antimycin A, and this experiment revealed a noticeable decrease in cell viability, determined by neutral red assay, in comparison with cells treated with Ac alone. Our data demonstrate that Ac impairs mitochondria functionality generating oxidative stress that sensitizes cells to a second damaging signal contributing to the development of alcoholic liver disease.

  3. CYP2E1-dependent hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage after ethanol administration in human primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lie-Gang; Yan, Hong; Yao, Ping; Zhang, Wen; Zou, Li-Jun; Song, Fang-Fang; Li, Ke; Sun, Xiu-Fa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between ethanol-induced oxidative damage in human primary cultured hepatocytes and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, in order to address if inhibition of CYP2E1 could attenuate ethanol-induced cellular damage. METHODS: The dose-dependent (25-100 mmol/L) and time-dependent (0-24 h) exposures of primary human cultured hepatocytes to ethanol were carried out. CYP2E1 activity and protein expression were detected by spectrophotometer and Western blot analysis respectively. Hepatotoxicity was investigated by determination of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) level in hepatocyte culture supernatants, as well as the intracellular formation of malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS: A dose-and time-dependent response between ethanol exposure and CYP2E1 activity in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Moreover, there was a time-dependent increase of CYP2E1 protein after 100 mmol/L ethanol exposure. Meanwhile, ethanol exposure of hepatocytes caused a time-dependent increase of cellular MDA level, LDH, and AST activities in supernatants. Furthermore, the inhibitor of CYP2E1, diallyl sulfide (DAS) could partly attenuate the increases of MDA, LDH, and AST in human hepatocytes. CONCLUSION: A positive relationship between ethanol-induced oxidative damage in human primary cultured hepatocytes and CYP2E1 activity was exhibited, and the inhibition of CYP2E1 could partly attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative damage. PMID:16052683

  4. Protective effect of allicin against acrylamide-induced hepatocyte damage in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Zhang, Huanjie; Miao, Yutian; Wu, Sijia; Ye, Haiqing; Yuan, Yuan

    2012-09-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is known to be a neurotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic compound. The presence of AA in foods causes public health concerns. In our previous study, we found that allicin can effectively reduce AA content in Maillard model system. However, there has been no report on whether allicin can reduce AA-induced toxicity in vitro and in vivo. In our present study, we evaluated the protective effect of allicin against AA-induced hepatocyte damage in cultured mouse primary hepatocytes and mouse liver. Our date suggested that allicin significantly decreased the levels of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) both in vitro and in vivo study. Allicin also markedly increased the activity of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and level of glutathione (GSH). The in vitro study revealed that 15 μM allicin was the optimum concentration for inhibiting AA-induced hepatocyte damage. The in vivo study revealed that 20mg/kg b.w./day allicin was the optimum dose for inhibiting AA-induced hepatocyte damage. The protective effects of allicin against AA-induced hepatocyte damage may be due to its ability to scavenge free radicals and its effective recovery of the antioxidative defense system, and its ability to block the epoxidation process of AA to GA by inhibiting P450 enzyme.

  5. Hepatic stellate cell-expressed endosialin balances fibrogenesis and hepatocyte proliferation during liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Mogler, Carolin; Wieland, Matthias; König, Courtney; Hu, Junhao; Runge, Anja; Korn, Claudia; Besemfelder, Eva; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Komljenovic, Dorde; Dooley, Steven; Schirmacher, Peter; Longerich, Thomas; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to injury reflecting the critical balance between liver repair and scar formation. Chronic damage leads to progressive substitution of liver parenchyma by scar tissue and ultimately results in liver cirrhosis. Stromal cells (hepatic stellate cells [HSC] and endothelial cells) have been proposed to control the balance between liver fibrosis and regeneration. Here, we show that endosialin, a C-type lectin, expressed in the liver exclusively by HSC and portal fibroblasts, is upregulated in liver fibrosis in mouse and man. Chronic chemically induced liver damage resulted in reduced fibrosis and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation in endosialin-deficient (ENKO) mice. Correspondingly, acute-liver-damage-induced hepatocyte proliferation (partial hepatectomy) was increased in ENKO mice. A candidate-based screen of known regulators of hepatocyte proliferation identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as selectively endosialin-dependent hepatocyte mitogen. Collectively, the study establishes a critical role of HSC in the reciprocal regulation of fibrogenesis vs. hepatocyte proliferation and identifies endosialin as a therapeutic target in non-neoplastic settings. PMID:25680861

  6. Early oxidative damage in primary cultured trout hepatocytes: a time course study.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Michela; Radice, Sonia; Catalani, Paolo; Francolini, Maura; Marabini, Laura; Chiesara, Enzo

    2002-09-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the two-step hepatocyte isolation procedure on primary cultured trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes over time. We characterised the possible changes of a variety of some cellular parameters within the first 24-48 h after seeding. We followed the time dependent changes of these parameters during subsequent culture times in order to see if the cells maintained a differentiated status. Scanning electron microscopy revealed bleb formation and 20% cell damage in freshly isolated hepatocytes. During subsequent culture times the bleb dimension appear to be reduced. Heat shock proteins 70 and 50 (HSP70, HSP50) were induced by hepatocyte isolation. During the first 4 h of culture, the hepatocytes showed a variation in mitochondrial activity, an increase in free radical species (ROS), and a decrease in both glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity; the generation of free radicals led to an increase in the formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the DNA. The cells showed detectable ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity after 4 h of culture, which had rapidly increased by the 24th hour. After 24 h, mitochondrial and CAT activity, free radical production, and the content of GSH and 8-OHdG returned to their original levels. P450 activity was retained for at least 48 h after seeding. Our data show that trout hepatocytes suffer significant cell injury as a result of the isolation procedure, but primary cultured cells metabolically recover from this stress after a few hours: they are capable of repairing their damaged surfaces, recovering their antioxidant defences and retaining their ability to repair DNA. Our results also confirm that trout hepatocytes in a primary culture maintain their in vivo-like metabolic activities for 3-8 days.

  7. Oval cells compensate for damage and replicative senescence of mature hepatocytes in mice with fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiqi; Koteish, Ayman; Lin, Huizhi; Huang, Jiawen; Roskams, Tania; Dawson, Valina; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2004-02-01

    Hepatic steatosis may have a generally benign prognosis, either because most hepatocytes are not significantly injured or mechanisms to replace damaged hepatocytes are induced. To determine the relative importance of these mechanisms, we compared hepatocyte damage and replication in ethanol-fed and ob/ob mice with very indolent fatty liver disease to that of healthy control mice and PARP-1(-/-) mice with targeted disruption of the DNA repair enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Compared to the healthy controls, both groups with fatty livers had significantly higher serum alanine aminotransferase values, hepatic mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production, and hepatocyte oxidative DNA damage. A significantly smaller proportion of the hepatocytes from fatty livers entered S phase when cultured with mitogens. Moreover, this replicative senescence was not reversed by treating cultured hepatocytes with agents (i.e., betaine or leptin) that improve liver disease in intact ethanol-fed or leptin-deficient mice. Hepatocytes from PARP1(-/-) mice also had more DNA damage and reduced DNA synthesis in response to mitogens. However, neither mice with fatty livers nor PARP-1-deficient mice had atrophic livers. All of the mice with senescent mature hepatocytes exhibited hepatic accumulation of liver progenitor (oval) cells and oval cell numbers increased with the demand for hepatocyte replacement. Therefore, although hepatic oxidant production and damage are generally increased in fatty livers, expansion of hepatic progenitor cell populations helps to compensate for the increased turnover of damaged mature hepatocytes. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that induction of mechanisms to replace damaged hepatocytes is important for limiting the progression of fatty liver disease.

  8. Effects of chromium picolinate on oxidative damage in primary piglet hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Bi, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Min-Hong; Feng, Jing-Hai; Xie, Peng; Zheng, Shan-Shan

    2008-12-01

    Chromium picolinate is a popular nutritional supplement whose safety has been questioned because of the potential risk of oxidative DNA damage. To investigate this possibility, a dose-dependent study was performed in piglet hepatocyte cultures in which low (8 microM), medium (200 microM), and high (400 microM) doses of chromium picolinate were tested and compared to untreated controls. After 48 h incubation, there were no significant differences in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, medium lactate dehydrogenase activity, and comet indicators between the three experimental groups and controls (p > 0.05). In the 8 microM-treated group, the intracellular malondialdehyde content was significantly decreased relative to controls (p < 0.05). All of the studied parameters showed a dose-dependent increase that was statistically significant between the low and high doses (p < 0.05). These results suggest that: (1) chromium picolinate may affect the oxidative status of piglet hepatocytes; (2) the appropriate dose (approximately physiological concentration) of chromium picolinate can inhibit lipid peroxidation, and (3) high doses of chromium picolinate have no significant effects on oxidative damage in piglet hepatocytes, but the existing evidence also imply that exposure to a higher dose appears to be unwarranted.

  9. Integrative "-Omics" Analysis in Primary Human Hepatocytes Unravels Persistent Mechanisms of Cyclosporine A-Induced Cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Jarno E J; van Herwijnen, Marcel H M; Theunissen, Daniel H J; Jennen, Danyel G J; Van den Hof, Wim F P M; de Kok, Theo M C M; Schaap, Frank G; van Breda, Simone G J; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2016-12-19

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an undecapeptide with strong immunosuppressant activities and is used a lot after organ transplantation. Furthermore, it may induce cholestasis in the liver. In general, the drug-induced cholestasis (DIC) pathway includes genes involved in the uptake, synthesis, conjugation, and secretion of bile acids. However, whether CsA-induced changes in the cholestasis pathway in vitro are persistent for repeated dose toxicity has not yet been investigated. To explore this, primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were exposed to a subcytotoxic dose of 30 μM CsA daily for 3 and 5 days. To investigate the persistence of induced changes upon terminating CsA exposure after 5 days, a subset of PHH was subjected to a washout period (WO-period) of 3 days. Multiple -omics analyses, comprising whole genome analysis of DNA methylation, gene expression, and microRNA expression, were performed. The CsA-treatment resulted after 3 and 5 days, respectively, in 476 and 20 differentially methylated genes (DMGs), 1353 and 1481 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and in 22 and 29 differentially expressed microRNAs (DE-miRs). Cholestasis-related pathways appeared induced during CsA-treatment. Interestingly, 828 persistent DEGs and 6 persistent DE-miRs but no persistent DMGs were found after the WO-period. These persistent DEGs and DE-miRs showed concordance for 22 genes. Furthermore, 29 persistent DEGs changed into the same direction as observed in livers from cholestasis patients. None of those 29 DEGs which among others relate to oxidative stress and lipid metabolism are yet present in the DIC pathway or cholestasis adverse outcome pathway (AOP) thus presenting novel findings. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time a persistent impact of repeated dose administration of CsA on genes and microRNAs related to DIC in the gold standard human liver in vitro model with PHH.

  10. Protectivity of blue honeysuckle extract against oxidative human endothelial cells and rat hepatocyte damage.

    PubMed

    Palíková, Irena; Valentová, Katerina; Oborná, Ivana; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2009-08-12

    The effect of Lonicera caerulea L. (blue honeysuckle) phenolic fraction (18.5% anthocyanins) on cell viability and against oxidative damage in low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), in rat microsomes and in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), was tested. The phenolic fraction was nontoxic to rat hepatocytes and HUVEC at tested concentrations (1-1000 microg/mL) and time intervals up to 24 h inclusive. Phenolic fraction inhibited rat liver microsome peroxidation, induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH), with IC(50) values of 160 +/- 20 microg/mL. The fraction at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL delayed LDL oxidation, induced by Cu(2+), by 130 +/- 20%, 200 +/- 30%, and 400 +/- 10%, respectively. The treatment of HUVEC with oxidatively modified LDL induced an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, and resulted in lower formazan formation from 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) uptake, most pronounced for 200 microg/mL (24 h oxidation) after 2 h of incubation. The protective effect of the phenolic fraction against cell damage caused by oxLDL was noted at 0.1 microg/mL for HUVEC and against tBH at 1000 microg/mL for both HUVEC and hepatocytes. The observed protective effects were probably due to the antioxidant properties of L. caerulea constituents, mainly anthocyanins. Microsome peroxidation and LDL oxidation inhibition results provide promising perspectives into the prevention of some oxidative stress-associated diseases. Other data are important in in vitro systems but seem to be accidental in vivo.

  11. Oxidative damage induced by copper in mouse primary hepatocytes by single-cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mingyang; Liu, Yang; Song, Wei; Yan, Yunxing; Yan, Wenbao; Liu, Rutao

    2016-01-01

    Copper can disturb the intracellular redox balance, induce oxidative stress, and subsequently cause irreversible damage, leading to a variety of diseases. In the present study, mouse primary hepatocytes were chosen to elucidate the in vitro oxidative damage of short-term copper exposure (10-200 μM) by single-cell analysis. We evaluated the toxicity of copper by reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), and oxidative DNA damage at the single-cell level. Oxidative damage induced by copper was verified by the morphological changes, persistent elevations of excessive ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA), a decrease in GSH level, and the oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, the average ROS generation, GSH consumption, and the indicators in DNA damage did not significantly change at relatively low concentrations (10 or 50 μM), but we can find the alterations of parameters in some single cells clearly. Emphasis on the analysis of single cells is conducive to gain a better understanding on the toxicity of copper. This study will also complement studies on the environmental risk assessment of copper pollution.

  12. Effects of lanthanum, cerium, and neodymium on the nuclei and mitochondria of hepatocytes: accumulation and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peili; Li, Jianxin; Zhang, Shuhua; Chen, Chunxia; Han, Ying; Liu, Na; Xiao, Yang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Man; Yu, Qiuhong; Liu, Yuting; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contents of lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), and neodymium (Nd) that accumulate in nuclei and mitochondria isolated from the liver and their corresponding potential oxidative damage effects on nuclei and mitochondria. Five-week-old male imprinting control region (ICR) mice were exposed to chlorides of La, Ce, or Nd by oral gavage with one of three doses: 10, 20, or 40 mg/kgBW/day for 6 weeks. The concentrations of administered elements in hepatocyte nuclei and mitochondria were determined with inductively coupled plasma-mass (ICP-MS) spectrometry. The accumulation of La, Ce, and Nd in hepatocyte nuclei and mitochondria gradually increased in a dose-dependent manner with exposure to the elements, although the concentrations of La, Ce, and Nd in hepatocyte mitochondria were lower than those in their counterpart nuclei. In hepatocyte nuclei, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities decreased, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased. In hepatocyte mitochondria, SOD, CAT, and GPx activities and GSH levels were significantly decreased, and MDA levels were significantly increased. These results suggest that La, Ce, and Nd presumably enter hepatocytes and mainly accumulate in the nuclei and induce oxidative damage in hepatic nuclei and mitochondria.

  13. Hepatocyte damage induced by lymphocytes from patients with chronic liver diseases, as detected by LDH release.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Cruz, E; Escartin, P; Bootello, A; Kreisler, M; Segovia de Arana, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have used a cytoplasmic enzyme system in the study of the in vitro cytotoxic activity of human peripheral blood leucocytes against isolated liver cells in patients with chronic liver diseases. Lymphocytes from primary biliary cirrhosis and chronic active liver disease patients were shown to have an in vitro capacity to induce a cytolitic effect on isolated hepatocytes, as demonstrated by the enhanced release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a cytoplasmic marker enzyme. No significant LDH release was seen with control lymphocytes of normal persons or with lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Our results corroborate, in a different assay system, by a simple, reproducible and different method, that lymphocyte-mediated liver cell damage "in vitro" occurs in both primary biliary cirrhosis and chronic active liver disease. PMID:657588

  14. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    SciTech Connect

    Vesterdal, Lise K.; Danielsen, Pernille H.; Folkmann, Janne K.; Jespersen, Line F.; Aguilar-Pelaez, Karin; Roursgaard, Martin; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2014-01-15

    Exposure to particles has been suggested to generate hepatosteatosis by oxidative stress mechanisms. We investigated lipid accumulation in cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2) and rat liver after exposure to four different carbon-based particles. HepG2 cells were exposed to particles for 3 h and subsequently incubated for another 18 h to manifest lipid accumulation. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome we investigated the association between intake of carbon black (CB, 14 nm) particles and hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and gene expression of Srebp-1, Fasn and Scd-1 involved in lipid synthesis. There was a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular lipid content after exposure to CB in HepG2 cells, which was only observed after co-exposure to oleic/palmitic acid. Similar results were observed in HepG2 cells after exposure to diesel exhaust particles, fullerenes C{sub 60} or pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes. All four types of particles also generated oxidatively damaged DNA, assessed as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, in HepG2 cells after 3 h exposure. The animal model of metabolic syndrome showed increased lipid load in the liver after one oral exposure to 6.4 mg/kg of CB in lean Zucker rats. This was not associated with increased iNOS staining in the liver, indicating that the oral CB exposure was associated with hepatic steatosis rather than steatohepatitis. The lipid accumulation did not seem to be related to increased lipogenesis because there were unaltered gene expression levels in both the HepG2 cells and rat livers. Collectively, exposure to particles is associated with oxidative stress and steatosis in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to nanosized carbon black was associated with hepatosteatosis in rats. • In vitro studies included carbon black, C{sub 60}, diesel exhaust particles and SWCNTs. • Exposure to particles and free fatty acids increased lipid load in HepG2 cells. • Unaltered

  15. Protective effect of C-phycocyanin against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yu; Zheng, Shan; Lin, Lin; Jiang, Qizhou; Yang, Xuegan

    2010-04-29

    This study focused on the hepatoprotective activity of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro study, human hepatocyte cell line L02 was used. C-PC showed its capability to reverse CCl(4)-induced L02 cells viability loss, alanine transaminase (ALT) leakage and morphological changes. C-PC also showed the following positive effects: prevent the CCl(4)-induced overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA); prevent changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; and reduce glutathione (GSH) level. In vivo, C-PC showed its capability to decrease serum ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels in CCl(4)-induced liver damage in mice. The histological observations supported the results obtained from serum enzymes assays. C-PC also showed the following effects in mice liver: prevent the CCl(4)-induced MDA formation and GSH depletion; prevent SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity; and prevent the elevation of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) mRNAs. Both the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that C-PC was useful in protecting against CCl(4)-induced hepatocyte damage. One of the mechanisms is believed to be through C-PCs scavenging ability to protect the hepatocytes from free radicals damage induced by CCl(4). In addition, C-PC may be able to block inflammatory infiltration through its anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting TGF-beta1 and HGF expression.

  16. Effect of melatonin administration on parameters related to oxidative damage in hepatocytes isolated from old Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen; Salazar, Veronica; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2005-05-01

    Aging induces changes in several organs and tissues, such as the liver, and this process might be due to oxidative damage caused by free radicals and inflammatory mediators. Melatonin is a secretory product with well-known antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin administration on age-induced alterations in hepatocytes. Twenty-two-month old male Wistar rats were treated with oral melatonin for 10 wk. At the end of the treatment, hepatocytes were isolated and cultured, and different parameters were measured in both cells and medium. Aging induced a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and cyclic guanosyl-monophosphate, as well as a reduction in adenosine triphosphate content and phosphatidylcholine synthesis when compared to young animals. Melatonin administration significantly ameliorated all these age-related changes in males. Melatonin administration seems to exert beneficial effects against age-induced changes in hepatocytes.

  17. Hepatocyte growth factor attenuates pancreatic damage in caerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Warzecha, Z; Dembiński, A; Konturek, P C; Ceranowicz, P; Konturek, S J; Tomaszewska, R; Schuppan, D; Stachura, J; Nakamura, T

    2001-10-26

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) overexpression was reported in experimental and clinical acute pancreatitis. These observations prompted us to determine the effect of HGF administration on the development of caerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Acute pancreatitis was induced by s.c. infusion of caerulein (10 microg/kg/h) for 5 h. HGF was administrated twice (30 min before caerulein or saline infusion and 3 h later) at the doses: 0.4, 2, 10 or 50 microg/kg s.c. Immediately after cessation of caerulein or saline infusion, the pancreatic blood flow, plasma amylase and lipase activity, plasma cytokines concentration, cell proliferation, and morphological signs of pancreatitis were examined. Caerulein administration induced acute edematous pancreatitis manifested by 41% decrease in DNA synthesis, 53% inhibition of pancreatic blood flow, a significant increase in plasma amylase and lipase activity, plasma interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 concentration, as well as, the development of the histological signs of pancreatic damage (edema, leukocyte infiltration, and vacuolization). Administration of HGF without induction of pancreatitis increased plasma interleukin-10. Treatment with HGF, during induction of pancreatitis, increased plasma interleukin-10 and attenuated the pancreatic damage, what was manifested by histological improvement of pancreatic integrity, the partial reversion of the drop in DNA synthesis and pancreatic blood flow, and the reduction in pancreatitis evoked increase in plasma amylase, lipase, and interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 levels. HGF administrated at the dose 2 microg/kg exhibited a similar beneficial effect as administration of HGF at the doses 10 or 50 microg/kg. Treatment with HGF at the dose 0.4 microg/kg was less effective. We conclude that: (1) administration of HGF attenuates pancreatic damage in caerulein-induced pancreatitis; (2) this effect seems to be related to the increase in production of interleukin-10, the reduction in

  18. Troglitazone, but not rosiglitazone, damages mitochondrial DNA and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rachek, Lyudmila I.; Yuzefovych, Larysa V.; LeDoux, Susan P.; Julie, Neil L.; Wilson, Glenn L.

    2009-11-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as troglitazone (TRO) and rosiglitazone (ROSI), improve insulin resistance by acting as ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). TRO was withdrawn from the market because of reports of serious hepatotoxicity. A growing body of evidence suggests that TRO caused mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptosis in human hepatocytes but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. We hypothesized that damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an initiating event involved in TRO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatotoxicity. Primary human hepatocytes were exposed to TRO and ROSI. The results obtained revealed that TRO, but not ROSI at equimolar concentrations, caused a substantial increase in mtDNA damage and decreased ATP production and cellular viability. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl cystein (NAC), significantly diminished the TRO-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting involvement of ROS in TRO-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity. The PPARgamma antagonist (GW9662) did not block the TRO-induced decrease in cell viability, indicating that the TRO-induced hepatotoxicity is PPARgamma-independent. Furthermore, TRO induced hepatocyte apoptosis, caspase-3 cleavage and cytochrome c release. Targeting of a DNA repair protein to mitochondria by protein transduction using a fusion protein containing the DNA repair enzyme Endonuclease III (EndoIII) from Escherichia coli, a mitochondrial translocation sequence (MTS) and the protein transduction domain (PTD) from HIV-1 TAT protein protected hepatocytes against TRO-induced toxicity. Overall, our results indicate that significant mtDNA damage caused by TRO is a prime initiator of the hepatoxicity caused by this drug.

  19. Troglitazone, but not rosiglitazone, damages mitochondrial DNA and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rachek, Lyudmila I; Yuzefovych, Larysa V; Ledoux, Susan P; Julie, Neil L; Wilson, Glenn L

    2009-11-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as troglitazone (TRO) and rosiglitazone (ROSI), improve insulin resistance by acting as ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). TRO was withdrawn from the market because of reports of serious hepatotoxicity. A growing body of evidence suggests that TRO caused mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptosis in human hepatocytes but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. We hypothesized that damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an initiating event involved in TRO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatotoxicity. Primary human hepatocytes were exposed to TRO and ROSI. The results obtained revealed that TRO, but not ROSI at equimolar concentrations, caused a substantial increase in mtDNA damage and decreased ATP production and cellular viability. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl cystein (NAC), significantly diminished the TRO-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting involvement of ROS in TRO-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity. The PPARgamma antagonist (GW9662) did not block the TRO-induced decrease in cell viability, indicating that the TRO-induced hepatotoxicity is PPARgamma-independent. Furthermore, TRO induced hepatocyte apoptosis, caspase-3 cleavage and cytochrome c release. Targeting of a DNA repair protein to mitochondria by protein transduction using a fusion protein containing the DNA repair enzyme Endonuclease III (EndoIII) from Escherichia coli, a mitochondrial translocation sequence (MTS) and the protein transduction domain (PTD) from HIV-1 TAT protein protected hepatocytes against TRO-induced toxicity. Overall, our results indicate that significant mtDNA damage caused by TRO is a prime initiator of the hepatoxicity caused by this drug.

  20. Troglitazone, but not rosiglitazone, damages mitochondrial DNA and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rachek, Lyudmila I.; Yuzefovych, Larysa V.; LeDoux, Susan P.; Julie, Neil L.; Wilson, Glenn L.

    2009-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as troglitazone (TRO) and rosiglitazone (ROSI), improve insulin resistance by acting as ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). TRO was withdrawn from the market because of reports of serious hepatotoxicity. A growing body of evidence suggests that TRO caused mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptosis in human hepatocytes but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. We hypothesized that damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an initiating event involved in TRO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatotoxicity. Primary human hepatocytes were exposed to TRO and ROSI. The results obtained revealed that TRO, but not ROSI at equimolar concentrations, caused a substantial increase in mtDNA damage and decreased ATP production and cellular viability. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl cystein (NAC), significantly diminished the TRO-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting involvement of ROS in TRO-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity. The PPARγ antagonist (GW9662) did not block the TRO-induced decrease in cell viability, indicating that the TRO-induced hepatotoxicity is PPARγ-independent. Furthermore, TRO induced hepatocyte apoptosis, caspase-3 cleavage and cytochrome c release. Targeting of a DNA repair protein to mitochondria by protein transduction using a fusion protein containing the DNA repair enzyme Endonuclease III (EndoIII) from Escherichia coli, a mitochondrial translocation sequence (MTS) and the protein transduction domain (PTD) from HIV-1 TAT protein protected hepatocytes against TRO-induced toxicity. Overall, our results indicate that significant mtDNA damage caused by TRO is a prime initiator of the hepatoxicity caused by this drug. PMID:19632256

  1. Strong synergistic induction of CYP1A1 expression by andrographolide plus typical CYP1A inducers in mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan Sirisangtrakul, Wanna; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Kawasaki, Yuki; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2007-10-15

    The effects of andrographolide, the major diterpenoid constituent of Andrographis paniculata, on the expression of cytochrome P450 superfamily 1 members, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, as well as on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were investigated in comparison with the effects of typical CYP1A inducers, including benz[a]anthracene, {beta}-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Andrographolide significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner, as did the typical CYP1A inducers, but did not induce that of CYP1B1 or AhR. Interestingly, andrographolide plus the typical CYP1A inducers synergistically induced CYP1A1 expression, and the synergism was blocked by an AhR antagonist, resveratrol. The CYP1A1 enzyme activity showed a similar pattern of induction. This is the first report that shows that andrographolide has a potency to induce CYP1A1 enzyme and indicates that andrographolide could be a very useful compound for investigating the regulatory mechanism of the CYP1A1 induction pathway. In addition, our findings suggest preparing advice for rational administration of A. paniculata, according to its ability to induce CYP1A1 expression.

  2. Protection of hepatocytes against death due to mitochondrial failure: effect of di-Calciphor on antimycin A-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Devlin, T M; Jones, D P

    1994-05-01

    Di-Calciphor is a synthetic derivative of prostaglandin B1 that protects against cerebral and cardiac ischemia apparently by preserving mitochondrial function. To determine whether di-Calciphor specifically protects against mitochondrial failure, we studied its effects on mitochondrial functions in hepatocytes treated with the specific mitochondrial poison, antimycin A. The results show that 1 microM di-Calciphor protects against cell death at concentrations of antimycin A that inhibited mitochondrial respiration and caused cellular ATP depletion. Di-Calciphor did not protect against loss of ATP but did protect against the loss of mitochondrial delta psi and delta pH. In addition, di-Calciphor protected against antimycin A-induced loading of phosphate into mitochondria and an associated mitochondrial swelling. Thus, these results show that di-Calciphor protects against a specific mitochondrial poison and support the interpretation that di-Calciphor is a mitochondrial protective agent. In addition, the results suggest that the protection of the mitochondria involves preservation of mitochondrial ionic and osmotic stability and does not involve improved ATP supply.

  3. A new flavanone isolated from rhizoma smilacis glabrae and the structural requirements of its derivatives for preventing immunological hepatocyte damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Li, J; Cao, J; Xu, Q; Komatsu, K; Namba, T

    1999-02-01

    From the rhizome of Smilax glabra Roxb., a new flavanone was isolated and named as smitilbin (1), together with 6 known compounds, engeletin (2), astilbin (3), dihydroquercetin (4), eurryphin (5), resveratrol (6), and 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (7). These compounds were applied to the assay of liver nonparenchymal cells (NPC) against hepatocytes (HC) isolated from mice with an immunological liver injury. Against the NPC-caused elevation of ALT (alanine transminase) in culture supernatant from HC, the pretreatment of NPC with flavanoids (1-3) dose-dependently blocked the ALT release while 4, the aglycone of 3, did not. The chromone 5 showed a much stronger inhibition. Compound 6 also showed the activity. However, 1-7 did not show any suppression of NPC or CCl4-induced ALT release when they were used to pretreat HC. These results suggest that compounds 1-3, 5, and 6 could protect the hepatocyte damage from NPC through selectively producing the dysfunction of NPC with an essential requirement of rhamnose, and the chromone part in their structures may be critical for exhibiting the activity rather than through protecting the hepatocyte membranes.

  4. Proposal of a novel evaluation index for the effects of shear stress and exposure time on hepatocyte damage.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Toshitaka; Obara, Hiromichi; Hsu, Huai-Che; Mizunuma, Hiroshi; Matsuno, Naoto; Enosawa, Shin

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a novel evaluation index for the effects of shear stress level and exposure time on hepatocyte damage. Suspensions of rat hepatocytes (0.5 mL) were subjected to shear stress from 1.2 to 3.1 Pa for 10 min (n = 3) using a rheoscope. We counted living and dead cells in photographs taken at 1-min intervals using a digital camera attached to the microscope. Living and dead cells were distinguished using a Trypan blue exclusion test. Under each level of shear stress, at each 1-min time interval, we measured the viability [living-cell number (t)/countable cell number (t)] and the ratio of living cells [RLC: living-cell number (t)/countable cell number in the initial condition]. The effects of shear stress and exposure time on viability and RLC were assessed by multiple regression analysis. As expected, we observed an increase in the number of dead cells and little change in the number of living cells when shear stress was increased. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) to predict the effectiveness of viability and RLC indicated a low to moderate correlation. Viability correlated with shear stress and exposure time (p < 0.001); however, RLC only correlated with exposure time of shear stress (p < 0.001). In this test condition, viability was strongly related not to living-cell damage but to dead-cell damage. Therefore, we propose RLC as a novel and effective index for investigating the effect of shear stress on living hepatocytes.

  5. Integrative cross-omics analysis in primary mouse hepatocytes unravels mechanisms of cyclosporin A-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Van den Hof, Wim F P M; Van Summeren, Anke; Lommen, Arjen; Coonen, Maarten L J; Brauers, Karen; van Herwijnen, Marcel; Wodzig, Will K W H; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2014-10-03

    The liver is responsible for drug metabolism and drug-induced hepatotoxicity is the most frequent reason for drug withdrawal, indicating that better pre-clinical toxicity tests are needed. In order to bypass animal models for toxicity screening, we exposed primary mouse hepatocytes for exploring the prototypical hepatotoxicant cyclosporin A. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying cyclosporin A-induced hepatotoxicity, we analyzed expression levels of proteins, mRNAs, microRNAs and metabolites. Integrative analysis of transcriptomics and proteomics showed that protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 4 was up-regulated on both the protein level and mRNA level. This protein is involved in protein folding and secretion in the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, the microRNA mmu-miR-182-5p which is predicted to interact with the mRNA of this protein, was also differentially expressed, further emphasizing endoplasmic reticulum stress as important event in drug-induced toxicity. To further investigate the interaction between the significantly expressed proteins, a network was created including genes and microRNAs known to interact with these proteins and this network was used to visualize the experimental data. In total 6 clusters could be distinguished which appeared to be involved in several toxicity related processes, including alteration of protein folding and secretion in the endoplasmic reticulum. Metabonomic analyses resulted in 5 differentially expressed metabolites, indicative of an altered glucose, lipid and cholesterol homeostasis which can be related to cholestasis. Single and integrative analyses of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics reveal mechanisms underlying cyclosporin A-induced cholestasis demonstrating that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response are important processes in drug-induced liver toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hepatoprotective effects of Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] on alcohol-damaged primary rat hepatocyte culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenhua; Bian, Yuzhu; Wang, Zhenghui; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2017-02-01

    We have prepared a novel nanobiotherapeutic, Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase], which not only transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide but also a therapeutic antioxidant. Our previous study in a severe sustained 90 min hemorrhagic shock rat model shows that it has a hepatoprotective effect. We investigate its hepatoprotective effect further in this present report using an alcohol-damaged primary hepatocyte culture model. Results show that it significantly reduced ethanol-induced AST release, lipid peroxidation, and ROS production in rat primary hepatocytes culture. It also significantly enhanced the viability of ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Thus, the result shows that Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] also has some hepatoprotective effects against alcohol-induced injury in in vitro rat primary hepatocytes cell culture. This collaborate our previous observation of its hepatoprotective effect in a severe sustained 90-min hemorrhagic shock rat model.

  7. Influence of ferulic acid on gamma-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, M; Sudheer, A Ram; Pillai, K Raveendran; Kumar, P Raghu; Sudhakaran, P R; Menon, V P

    2006-12-07

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in imbalance of the pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities ultimately resulting in cell death. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn, and ricebran. FA exhibit a wide range of pharmacological effects including antiageing, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiapoptotic, and neuroprotective. The present work is aimed at evaluating the radioprotective effect of FA, on gamma-radiation induced toxicity in primary cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of rats by collagenase perfusion. The cellular changes were estimated using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin, Vitamins A, E and C and uric acid. DNA damage was analyzed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). An increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with increasing dose (1, 2 and 4Gy) of gamma-radiation in cultured hepatocytes. TBARS were increased significantly, whereas the levels of GSH, Vitamins C, E and A, ceruloplasmin, uric acid and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated groups. The maximum damage to hepatocytes was observed at 4Gy irradiation. Pretreatment with FA (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) significantly decrease the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. In addition, pretreatment with FA significantly increased antioxidant enzymes, GSH, Vitamins A, E and C, uric acid and ceruloplasmin levels. The maximum protection of hepatocytes was observed at 10 microg/ml of FA pretreatment. Thus, pretreatment with FA helps in protecting the hepatocytes against gamma-radiation induced cellular damage and can be developed as a effective radioprotector during radiotherapy.

  8. Sex differences in DNA damage produced by the carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene in cultured human hepatocytes compared to rat liver and cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Duan, Jian-Dong; Iatropoulos, Michael J; Perrone, Carmen E

    2016-02-01

    Male rats are more susceptible to the induction of liver cancer by the aromatic amine 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) than are females. To assess the basis for this difference and to determine whether sex differences in susceptibility to AAF are present in human liver cells, the DNA reactivity of AAF was measured in livers of male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and in cultured SD rat and human hepatocytes of both sexes. In livers of rats administered oral doses of AAF, the total levels of adducts measured by nucleotide postlabelling at up to 8 weeks were about twofold greater in males than in females. Similarly, the level of AAF-DNA adducts formed in cultured male rat hepatocytes dosed with AAF was about twofold greater than in female rat hepatocytes. Also, the level of DNA repair synthesis was about threefold greater in AAF-dosed cultured male rat hepatocytes compared with female, indicating that the greater adduct levels in males was not due to lesser repair. In contrast, in cultured human hepatocytes of both sexes, AAF produced similar levels of adducts and DNA repair synthesis, which were intermediate between those produced in male and female rat hepatocytes. Thus, the greater susceptibility of male rats to AAF hepatocarcinogenicity is due at least in part to greater bioactivation and formation of AAF-DNA adducts in hepatocytes. Moreover, the data from human hepatocytes suggest that human liver could be less susceptible than male rat liver to the carcinogenic effects of aromatic amine carcinogens of the AAF type.

  9. Lycopene as a natural protector against gamma-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, M; Sudheer, A Ram; Pillai, K Raveendran; Kumar, P Raghu; Sudhakaran, P R; Menon, V P

    2007-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of lycopene, a naturally occurring dietary carotenoid, on gamma-radiation induced toxicity in cultured rat hepatocytes. The cellular changes were estimated using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin, vitamins A, E, C and uric acid. The DNA damage was analysed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with the increase in gamma-radiation dose (1, 2 and 4 Gy) in cultured rat hepatocytes. TBARS were increased significantly whereas the levels of GSH, vitamins C, E and A, ceruloplasmin, uric acid and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated groups. The maximum damage to hepatocytes was observed at 4 Gy irradiation. Pretreatment with lycopene (1.86, 9.31 and 18.62 microM) showed a significant decrease in the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. The antioxidant enzymes increased significantly along with the levels of GSH, vitamins A, E, C, uric acid and ceruloplasmin. The maximum protection of hepatocytes was observed at 9.31 muM of lycopene pretreatment. Thus, our results show that pretreatment with lycopene offers protection against gamma-radiation induced cellular damage and can be developed as an effective radioprotector during radiotherapy.

  10. Effect of Liver Damage and Hyperbaric Oxygenation on Glutamine Synthetase of Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Savilov, P N; Yakovlev, V N

    2016-01-01

    Activity of glutamine synthetase in the hepatocytes of healthy animals and animals with chronic CCl4-induced hepatitis was studied on white mature female rats after liver resection (15-20% of organ weight) and hyperbaric oxygenation (3 atm, 50 min, 3 times). Surgically operated left and non-operated middle lobes of the liver were analyzed on day 3 after liver resection and exposure to hyperbaric oxygenation. On day 65 of CCl4 poisoning, activity of glutamine synthetase decreased in both lobes and did not recover on day 3 after toxin cessation. Liver resection under conditions of CCl4-induced hepatitis restored reduced activity of glutamine synthetase in both liver lobes to the normal level. In healthy rats, the increase in glutamine synthetase activity after liver resection was found only in the middle lobe of the liver. Hyperbaric oxygenation enhanced the stimulatory effect of liver resection on glutamine synthetase activity in hepatocytes during chronic CCl4-induced hepatitis. In healthy animals with liver resection, activity of glutamine synthetase did not change after hyperbaric oxygenation, while normally oxygenation inhibited glutamine synthetase activity.

  11. In vitro evidence for metallopeptidase participation in hepatocyte damage induced by Leishmania chagasi-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Costa, Juliana Dias; Nogueira de Melo, Ana Cristina; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Meirelles, Maria de Nazareth; Porrozzi, Renato

    2008-06-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infection activates macrophages, which release several microbicidal agents, including peptidases, to eliminate the parasite. Leishmanicidal mediators released in large amounts may cause morphological and/or functional injuries to the liver. In order to investigate the involvement of peptidases in this phenomenon, an in vitro co-culture model of peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi and hepatocytes was used. High levels of released hepatic transaminases were found in supernatants from infected co-cultures at the same time point in which alterations in hepatocyte morphology and maximum proteolytic activity were observed. The largest proteolytic activity being at pH 10 as well as the greatest efficiency of treatment with 1,10-phenantroline observed in supernatants from the infected co-cultures suggests the presence of metallopeptidases during the leishmanicidal activity by infected macrophages. Furthermore, TNF-alpha levels and high levels of TGF-beta were increased at this time point, and this can be related to the synthesis of metallopeptidases and the conversion of the latent form to the active form. Metallopeptidase activities were detected by gelatin SDS-PAGE in higher amounts in infected macrophages and co-culture supernatant; moreover, one metallopeptidase migrating at 85 kDa produced in excess (41% more) by infected macrophages was identified as MMP-9. This metallopeptidase may be participating in this phenomenon together with other leishmanicidal factors released by these host cells.

  12. Superoxide Dismutase 1 Protects Hepatocytes from Type I Interferon-Driven Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Anannya; Hegazy, Ahmed N.; Deigendesch, Nikolaus; Kosack, Lindsay; Cupovic, Jovana; Kandasamy, Richard K.; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Merkler, Doron; Kühl, Anja A.; Vilagos, Bojan; Schliehe, Christopher; Panse, Isabel; Khamina, Kseniya; Baazim, Hatoon; Arnold, Isabelle; Flatz, Lukas; Xu, Haifeng C.; Lang, Philipp A.; Aderem, Alan; Takaoka, Akinori; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Colinge, Jacques; Ludewig, Burkhard; Löhning, Max; Bergthaler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tissue damage caused by viral hepatitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Using a mouse model of viral hepatitis, we identified virus-induced early transcriptional changes in the redox pathways in the liver, including downregulation of superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1). Sod1−/− mice exhibited increased inflammation and aggravated liver damage upon viral infection, which was independent of T and NK cells and could be ameliorated by antioxidant treatment. Type I interferon (IFN-I) led to a downregulation of Sod1 and caused oxidative liver damage in Sod1−/− and wild-type mice. Genetic and pharmacological ablation of the IFN-I signaling pathway protected against virus-induced liver damage. These results delineate IFN-I mediated oxidative stress as a key mediator of virus-induced liver damage and describe a mechanism of innate-immunity-driven pathology, linking IFN-I signaling with antioxidant host defense and infection-associated tissue damage. Video Abstract PMID:26588782

  13. Omega-3 improves glucose tolerance but increases lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in hepatocytes of fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela Salim Ferreira; dos Santos, Raquel Alves; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Jordão, Alceu Afonso; Vannucchi, Helio

    2012-04-01

    The high consumption of fructose is linked to the increase in various characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Fish oil is beneficial for the treatment of these comorbidities, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of the administration of fish oil concomitant to fructose ingestion during the experiment (45 days) and during the final 15 days in high-fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control; those receiving 10% fish oil (FO); those receiving 60% fructose (Fr); those receiving 60% fructose and 10% fish oil for 45 days (FrFO); and those receiving fructose plus soybean oil for 30 days and fish oil for the final 15 days of the study (FrFO15). There was an increase in triacylglycerol, serum total cholesterol, and hepatic volume in the Fr group. The FO and FrFO groups experienced an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in serum reduced glutathione. The FrFO group suffered greater hepatic injury, with increased alanine aminotransferase levels and DNA damage. Marked n-3 incorporation occurred in the groups receiving fish oil, favoring a better response to the oral glucose tolerance test. Fructose induced comorbidities of the metabolic syndrome, and the use of fish oil promoted a better glucose tolerance, although it was accompanied by more hepatocyte damage.

  14. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki; Lu, Chengping

    2011-03-01

    The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 μg/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment (5 μg/ml) and pre- and post-treatment (5 and 10 μg/ml) of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT and MDA and increased the reduced levels of SOD and GSH-Px by CCl(4); post-treatment of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract at 5 μg/ml reduced the GPT and GOT levels and increased the GSH-Px level, but had no effect on the other parameters at all the studied concentrations. The results support the use of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish.

  15. Brucella-infected hepatocytes mediate potentially tissue-damaging immune responses.

    PubMed

    Delpino, M Victoria; Barrionuevo, Paula; Scian, Romina; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C

    2010-07-01

    Hepatic involvement is frequent in human brucellosis. While different histopathological lesions have been reported in these patients, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been addressed. This study assessed whether Brucella abortus can infect a human hepatoma cell line and induce a proinflammatory response in these cells. The bacterium not only infected the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 but also exhibited intracellular replication. The infection induced hepatoma cells to secrete IL-8, and supernatants from Brucella-infected hepatoma cells were shown to induce the migration of human neutrophils. The infection also induced the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1 on hepatoma cells, and the adhesion of neutrophils to these cells was significantly higher than to uninfected hepatoma cells. ICAM-1 expression was also induced by stimulation of hepatoma cells with supernatants from Brucella-infected neutrophils. While Brucella infection did not induce the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in hepatoma cells, it significantly induced MMP-9 in neutrophils. Hepatoma cell apoptosis was significantly induced by B. abortus infection and also by stimulation with supernatants from Brucella-infected neutrophils. The present study provides clues regarding potential mechanisms of tissue damage during liver brucellosis. Copyright 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selenomethionine alleviates AFB1-induced damage in primary chicken hepatocytes by inhibiting CYP450 1A5 expression via upregulated SelW expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingxiang; Che, Chaoping; Korolchuk, Viktor I; Gan, Fang; Pan, Cuiling; Huang, Kehe

    2017-03-13

    This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of selenomethionine (SeMet) on Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatotoxicity in primary chicken hepatocytes. Cell viability and lactic dehydrogenase activity assays revealed the dose-dependency of AFB1 toxicity to chicken hepatocytes. AFB1 concentrations above 0.05 μg/mL significantly reduced glutathione and total superoxide dismutase levels, as well as increased malondialdehyde concentration and cytochrome P450 enzyme 1A5 (CYP450 1A5) mRNA levels (P < 0.05). AFB1, however, did not affect CYP450 3A37 mRNA levels. Supplementation with 2 μM SeMet protected against AFB1-induced changes and significantly increased selenoprotein W (SelW) mRNA levels (P < 0.05). Additionally, SelW knockdown attenuated the protective effect of SeMet on AFB1-induced damage and significantly increased CYP450 1A5 expression (P < 0.05). Therefore, SeMet alleviates AFB1-induced damage in primary chicken hepatocytes by improving SelW expression, thus inhibiting CYP450 1A5 expression.

  17. DNA damage induced by three major metabolites of 1,3-butadiene in human hepatocyte L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan-Pan; Wen, Ying; An, Jing; Yu, Ying-Xin; Wu, Ming-Hong; Zhang, Xin-Yu

    2012-09-18

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a carcinogenic air pollutant. Its bioactivation produces four major metabolites, i.e., 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), 3,4-epoxy-1,2-butanediol (EBD), 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), and 3-butene-1,2-diol (BDD). Studies have been mostly focused on DEB due to its strong mutagenicity/carcinogenicity. In contrast, studies of genotoxicity of EB, EBD, and BDD have been limited. In particular, genotoxicity of EBD and BDD using strand breaks as the endpoint has not been investigated. To obtain a more complete understanding of BD toxicity, in the present study, we used comet assay to investigate DNA damage induced by EB, EBD, and BDD in human hepatocyte L02 cells, with the aim to determine their relative potencies, the types of DNA damage, and the possible pathway to form strand breaks. Using alkaline comet assay (pH>13), it was observed that EB and EBD caused similar concentration-dependent increases in DNA migration from 50 to 1000μM. However, BDD induced a statistically significant increase only at 1000μM, and the increase itself was very small. EBD was as potent as EB at lower concentrations (≤200μM), and was slightly less potent than EB at higher concentrations. The results indicated that these metabolites could generate strand breaks in cells with the rank order of the potencies being EB>≈EBD≫BDD. All three compounds failed to cause statistically significant increases in DNA migration in pre-lysed cells, suggesting that they did not produce strand breaks through chemical pathways under our experimental conditions. By using comet assays at pH 11.9 and pH 9, it was demonstrated that EB and EBD generated both single-strand breaks (SSB) and alkali-labile sites, but BDD produced only SSB. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate EBD- and BDD-induced strand breaks in cells. The results implied that EBD could play an important role in toxicity of BD.

  18. Protective effects of hepatocyte-specific glycyrrhetic derivatives against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yifei; Yang, Lingyun; Han, Yaodan; Wu, Zhenwei; Chen, Pan; Zhang, Huibin; Zhou, Jinpei

    2017-03-20

    Glycyrrhetic acid (GA), the main hydrolysate of glycyrrhizic acid extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Glycyrrhiza glabra, was reported to be accumulated in hepatocytes due to the extensive distribution of GA receptors in liver. A series of hepatocyte-specific derivatives on the basis of anetholtrithione and glycyrrhizic were designed and synthesized. The potential beneficial effect was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury model. In addition, the hepatoprotective activity of these derivatives was assessed by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes, including serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the ratio of GSH to GSSG. Gratifyingly, compounds 5a-c (100mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented CCl4-induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost a normal liver lobular architecture and cell structure of the livers, as compared to CCl4-treated group. These findings were confirmed with the histopathological observations, where hepatocyte-specific glycyrrhetic acid derivatives 5a-c were capable of reversing the toxic effects of CCl4 on hepatocytes.

  19. Increased oxidative DNA damage and hepatocyte overexpression of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in hepatitis of mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus.

    PubMed Central

    Sipowicz, M. A.; Chomarat, P.; Diwan, B. A.; Anver, M. A.; Awasthi, Y. C.; Ward, J. M.; Rice, J. M.; Kasprzak, K. S.; Wild, C. P.; Anderson, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    A recently discovered bacterium, Helicobacter hepaticus, infects the intrahepatic bile canaliculi of mice, causing a severe chronic hepatitis culminating in liver cancer. Thus, it affords an animal model for study of bacteria-associated tumorigenesis including H. pylori-related gastric cancer. Reactive oxygen species are often postulated to contribute to this process. We now report that hepatitis of male mice infected with H. hepaticus show significant increases in the oxidatively damaged DNA deoxynucleoside 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, with the degree of damage increasing with progression of the disease. Perfusion of infected livers with nitro blue tetrazolium revealed that superoxide was produced in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, especially in association with plasmacytic infiltrates near portal triads. Contrary to expectations, Kupffer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils were rarely involved. However, levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms 1A2 and 2A5 in hepatocytes appeared to be greatly increased, as indicated by the number of cells positive in immunohistochemistry and the intensity of staining in many cells, concomitant with severe hepatitis. The CYP2A5 immunohistochemical staining co-localized with formazan deposits resulting from nitro blue tetrazolium reduction and occurred in nuclei as well as cytoplasm. These findings suggest that CYP2A5 contributes to the superoxide production and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation, although reactive oxygen species from an unknown source in the hepatocytes leading to CYP2A5 induction or coincidental occurrence of these events are also possibilities. Three glutathione S-transferase isoforms, mGSTP1-1 (pi), mGSTA1-1 (YaYa), and mGSTA4-4, also showed striking increases evidencing major oxidative stress in these livers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9327726

  20. Metabolically active extracellular vesicles released from hepatocytes under drug-induced liver-damaging conditions modify serum metabolome and might affect different pathophysiological processes.

    PubMed

    Royo, Felix; Palomo, Laura; Mleczko, Justyna; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Alonso, Cristina; Martínez, Ibon; Pérez-Cormenzana, Miriam; Castro, Azucena; Falcon-Perez, Juan M

    2017-02-15

    Hepatocytes are involved in the endogenous and drug metabolism; many of the enzymes involved in those processes are incorporated into extracellular vesicles and secreted into the bloodstream. Liver-damaging conditions modify the molecular cargo of those vesicles significantly. However, no information about the effect of these hepatic vesicles on the extracellular environment is available. Drug-induced liver damage increases the number of circulating extracellular vesicles and affects the release and content of hepatocyte-derived vesicles. In this work, we evaluated the metabolic effect of these vesicles on the composition of the serum. We performed a targeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) metabolomics analysis of serum samples. The samples had been first incubated with hepatic extracellular vesicles from hepatocytes challenged with acetaminophen or diclofenac. The incubation affected the serum levels of 67 metabolites, such as amino acids and different species of lipids. The metabolites included various species of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines. These compounds are the components of biological membranes; our observations suggest that the vesicles might take part in remodelling and maintenance of the membranes. Alterations in the levels of some other serum metabolites might have deleterious consequences, for example, the tetracosanoic acid with its cardiovascular effects. However, some of the metabolites whose levels were increased, including alpha-linoleic and tauroursodeoxycholic acids, have been reported to have a protective effect. Our targeted metabolomics analysis indicated that the hepatic extracellular vesicles act as nano-metabolic machines supplying the extracellular environment with the means to integrate diverse tissue responses. In conclusion, we show that the hepatic extracellular vesicles are metabolically active and might play a role in the physiopathological response to hepatic insults

  1. Bixin protects hepatocytes against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced genotoxicity but does not suppress DNA damage and pre-neoplastic lesions in the colon of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; de Andrade, Kelly Jacqueline Barbosa; Paula, Marcela Cristina Ferreira; Oliveira Acésio, Nathália; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Borges, Priscilla Scalon Freitas; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2014-01-01

    Bixin is a carotenoid found in the seeds of Bixa orellana L., a plant native to tropical America that is used in the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bixin on DNA damage and pre-neoplastic lesions induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in the liver and colon of Wistar rats. The animals received bixin at daily doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 10mg/kg body weight (bw) by gavage. For the assessment of DNA damage in hepatocytes and colon cells with the comet assay, the administration of bixin was for 7 days. The animals received a single subcutaneous injection of 25mg/kg bw of DMH, and were euthanized 4h later. For the evaluation of the frequency of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), the animals were treated with the different doses of bixin for 4 weeks. Four doses of 40mg/kg bw DMH, two doses in the first week and two doses in the second week, were administered and euthanasia occurred at 4 weeks after the beginning of treatment. Bixin reduced the frequency of DNA damage in hepatocytes at the highest two doses tested (1.0 and 10mg/kg bw). On the other hand, no differences in the frequency of DNA damage in colon cells were observed between animals treated with bixin plus DMH and those treated with DMH alone. In addition, the frequency of ACF did not differ significantly between the group treated with bixin plus DMH and the DMH group. The results suggest that bixin does not suppress the formation of ACF, indicating the absence of a protective effect against colon carcinogenesis.

  2. [Effect of ronggan mixture on immunoregulation and hepatocyte apoptosis-related factors in concanavalin A induced acute immunological liver injury mice].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-qiang; Tang, Xu-dong; Wang, Feng-yun; Yang, Bin; Liu, Yan-ling; Guo, Peng; Wang, Ping; Bian, Li-qun; Zhao, Ying-pan

    2013-11-01

    To explore the effect of Ronggan Mixture (RM) on immunoregulation and hepatocyte apoptosis-related factors in concanavalin A (Con A) induced acute immunological liver injury mice. Totally 60 hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice were randomly divided into 6 groups, i.e., the blank control group, the model group, the RM group, the Herba Artemisiae Scopariae (HAS) group, the Yinchenhao Decoction (YD) group, and the Bifendate group, 10 mice in each group. The acute immunological liver injury model was established by tail vein injection of ConA. Fourteen days before modeling, normal saline was administered to mice in the blank control group and the model group. RM, YD, HAS decoction, and Bifendate solution was respectively given to mice in the RM group, the YD group, the HAS group, and the Bifendate group. The medication was performed once daily. One h after the last gastrogavage, phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was injected to mice in the blank control group from the tail vein. Modeling was conducted by injecting Con A at 3 microg/g body weight from the tail vein. Mice were sacrificed 8 h after modeling. Blood or tissue samples were collected to detect lab indicators such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon gamma (INF-gamma), IL-4, IL-10, Fas, FasL, Bax, and bcl-2. There was significant difference in all lab indicators between the normal group and the blank control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, ALT and AST levels were significantly lower in the RM group and the Bifendate group (P < 0.01); TBil significantly decreased in the RM group (P < 0.01). The expression level of TNF-alpha decreased in the RM group (P <0.05). The expression level of IFN-gamma decreased in the RM group and the YD group (P < 0.05). The expression level of IL-4 could be elevated in all medicated groups (P < 0.05). RM could elevate the expression level of IL-10

  3. Hepatocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Olsavsky Goyak, Katy M; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, research suggests that for certain systems, animal models are insufficient for human toxicology testing. The development of robust, in vitro models of human toxicity is required to decrease our dependence on potentially misleading in vivo animal studies. A critical development in human toxicology testing is the use of human primary hepatocytes to model processes that occur in the intact liver. However, in order to serve as an appropriate model, primary hepatocytes must be maintained in such a way that they persist in their differentiated state. While many hepatocyte culture methods exist, the two-dimensional collagen "sandwich" system combined with a serum-free medium, supplemented with physiological glucocorticoid concentrations, appears to robustly maintain hepatocyte character. Studies in rat and human hepatocytes have shown that when cultured under these conditions, hepatocytes maintain many markers of differentiation including morphology, expression of plasma proteins, hepatic nuclear factors, phase I and II metabolic enzymes. Functionally, these culture conditions also preserve hepatic stress response pathways, such as the SAPK and MAPK pathways, as well as prototypical xenobiotic induction responses. This chapter will briefly review culture methodologies but will primarily focus on hallmark hepatocyte structural, expression and functional markers that characterize the differentiation status of the hepatocyte.

  4. Type I Interferon Supports Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Murine Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes and during Experimental Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Malte; Waibler, Zoe; Pleli, Thomas; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Cytokine regulation of high-output nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is critically involved in inflammation biology and host defense. Herein, we set out to characterize the role of type I interferon (IFN) as potential regulator of hepatic iNOS in vitro and in vivo. In this regard, we identified in murine Hepa1-6 hepatoma cells a potent synergism between pro-inflammatory interleukin-β/tumor necrosis factor-α and immunoregulatory IFNβ as detected by analysis of iNOS expression and nitrite release. Upregulation of iNOS by IFNβ coincided with enhanced binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 to a regulatory region at the murine iNOS promoter known to support target gene expression in response to this signaling pathway. Synergistic iNOS induction under the influence of IFNβ was confirmed in alternate murine Hepa56.1D hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes. To assess iNOS regulation by type I IFN in vivo, murine acetaminophen (APAP)-induced sterile liver inflammation was investigated. In this model of acute liver injury, excessive necroinflammation drives iNOS expression in diverse liver cell types, among others hepatocytes. Herein, we demonstrate impaired iNOS expression in type I IFN receptor-deficient mice which associated with diminished APAP-induced liver damage. Data presented indicate a vital role of type I IFN within the inflamed liver for fine-tuning pathological processes such as overt iNOS expression.

  5. Validation of a high-throughput in vitro alkaline elution/rat hepatocyte assay for DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Gealy, Robert; Wright-Bourque, Jennifer L; Kraynak, Andrew R; McKelvey, Troy W; Barnum, John E; Storer, Richard D

    2007-04-20

    In vitro alkaline elution is a sensitive and specific short term assay which measures DNA strand breakage in a mammalian test system (primary rat hepatocytes). This lab has previously demonstrated the performance of the assay with known genotoxic and non-genotoxic compounds. The methodology employed has relatively low sample throughput and is labor-intensive, requiring a great deal of manual processing of samples in a format that is not amenable to automation. Here, we present an automated version of the assay. This high-throughput alkaline elution assay (HT-AE) was made possible through 3 key developments: (1) DNA quantitation using PicoGreen and OliGreen fluorescent DNA binding dyes; (2) design and implementation of a custom automation system; and (3) reducing the assay to a 96-well plate format. The assay can now be run with 5-50mg of test compound. HT-AE was validated in a similar manner as the original assay, including assessment of non-genotoxic and non-carcinogenic compounds and evaluation of cytotoxicity to avoid confounding effects of toxicity-associated DNA degradation. The validation test results from compounds of known genotoxic potential were used to set appropriate criteria to classify alkaline elution results for genotoxicity.

  6. Hepatocyte Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Treyer, Aleksandr; Müsch, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocytes, like other epithelia, are situated at the interface between the organism’s exterior and the underlying internal milieu and organize the vectorial exchange of macromolecules between these two spaces. To mediate this function, epithelial cells, including hepatocytes, are polarized with distinct luminal domains that are separated by tight junctions from lateral domains engaged in cell-cell adhesion and from basal domains that interact with the underlying extracellular matrix. Despite these universal principles, hepatocytes distinguish themselves from other nonstriated epithelia by their multipolar organization. Each hepatocyte participates in multiple, narrow lumina, the bile canaliculi, and has multiple basal surfaces that face the endothelial lining. Hepatocytes also differ in the mechanism of luminal protein trafficking from other epithelia studied. They lack polarized protein secretion to the luminal domain and target single-spanning and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored bile canalicular membrane proteins via transcytosis from the basolateral domain. We compare this unique hepatic polarity phenotype with that of the more common columnar epithelial organization and review our current knowledge of the signaling mechanisms and the organization of polarized protein trafficking that govern the establishment and maintenance of hepatic polarity. The serine/threonine kinase LKB1, which is activated by the bile acid taurocholate and, in turn, activates adenosine monophosphate kinase-related kinases including AMPK1/2 and Par1 paralogues has emerged as a key determinant of hepatic polarity. We propose that the absence of a hepatocyte basal lamina and differences in cell-cell adhesion signaling that determine the positioning of tight junctions are two crucial determinants for the distinct hepatic and columnar polarity phenotypes. PMID:23720287

  7. Corosolic acid protects hepatocytes against ethanol-induced damage by modulating mitogen-activated protein kinases and activating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaolan; Cui, Ruibing; Zhao, Jianjian; Mo, Rui; Peng, Lei; Yan, Ming

    2016-11-15

    The reactive oxygen species(ROS)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) destroyed autophagy and the reactive oxygen species/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway are considered closely related to ethanol-induced hepatocellular injury. Previous work indicated that corosolic acid, the natural extracts of leaves of the banaba tree, Lagerstroemia speciosa L., could protect the liver against ethanol-induced damage, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the study we found that corosolic acid significantly inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis, increased level of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species accumulation in vitro. Corosolic acid inhibited ethanol-activated p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase MAPK signaling in BRL-3A and HepG2 cells as well as in experimental rats. Corosolic acid restored the ethanol-suppressed expression of autophagy-related genes, including beclin-1 and the ratio of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3II/I (LC3II/I) via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation both in vitro and in vivo. In experimental rats, corosolic acid ameliorated the detrimental histopathological findings. Corosolic acid may protect the liver against ethanol-induced injury by modulation of MAPK signaling and autophagy activation. These findings suggested that corosolic acid might be a promising agent in treatment of alcoholic liver diseases.

  8. Genetic tracing of hepatocytes in liver homeostasis, injury, and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Huang, XiuZhen; He, Lingjuan; Pu, Wenjuan; Li, Yan; Liu, Qiaozhen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Libo; Yu, Wei; Zhao, Huan; Zhou, Yingqun; Zhou, Bin

    2017-05-26

    The liver possesses a remarkable capacity to regenerate after damage. There is a heated debate on the origin of new hepatocytes after injuries in adult liver. Hepatic stem/progenitor cells have been proposed to produce functional hepatocytes after injury. Recent studies have argued against this model and suggested that pre-existing hepatocytes, rather than stem cells, contribute new hepatocytes. This hepatocyte-to-hepatocyte model is mainly based on labeling of hepatocytes with Cre-recombinase delivered by the adeno-associated virus. However, the impact of virus infection on cell fate determination, consistency of infection efficiency, and duration of Cre-virus in hepatocytes remain confounding factors that interfere with the data interpretation. Here, we generated a new genetic tool Alb-DreER to label almost all hepatocytes (>99.5%) and track their contribution to different cell lineages in the liver. By "pulse-and-chase" strategy, we found that pre-existing hepatocytes labeled by Alb-DreER contribute to almost all hepatocytes during normal homeostasis and after liver injury. Virtually all hepatocytes in the injured liver are descendants of pre-existing hepatocytes through self-expansion. We concluded that stem cell differentiation is unlikely to be responsible for the generation of a substantial number of new hepatocytes in adult liver. Our study also provides a new mouse tool for more precise in vivo genetic study of hepatocytes in the field. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Strategies for immortalization of primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eva, Ramboer; Bram, De Craene; Joery, De Kock; Tamara, Vanhaecke; Geert, Berx; Vera, Rogiers; Mathieu, Vinken

    2014-01-01

    The liver has the unique capacity to regenerate in response to a damaging event. Liver regeneration is hereby largely driven by hepatocyte proliferation, which in turn relies on cell cycling. The hepatocyte cell cycle is a complex process that is tightly regulated by several well-established mechanisms. In vitro, isolated hepatocytes do not longer retain this proliferative capacity. However, in vitro cell growth can be boosted by immortalization of hepatocytes. Well-defined immortalization genes can be artificially overexpressed in hepatocytes or the cells can be conditionally immortalized leading to controlled cell proliferation. This paper discusses the current immortalization techniques and provides a state-of-the-art overview of the actually available immortalized hepatocyte-derived cell lines and their applications. PMID:24911463

  10. Protective effect of Cordyceps militaris extract against bisphenol A induced reproductive damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Zhihui; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) against reproductive damage induced by bisphenol A (BPA). Rats were administrated 200 mg/kg BPA for 4 weeks and treated with C. militaris (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight/day). By the end of the fourth week, the level of oxidative damage, sperm parameters, hormone levels, and histopathological changes were examined. In the group that only received BPA, there was a significant decrease in body weight compared with the normal control (NC) group. C. militaris significantly alleviated the BPA-induced reproductive damage by increasing testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and glutathione (GSH); as well as by reducing serum malondialdehyde (MDA). C. militaris not only obviously enhanced the levels of serum LH and T, but it also improved the sperm count and motility compared to the BPA-treated group. These results suggest that C. militaris could be used as a potential natural substance for preventing BPA induced reproductive damage. Abbreviations BPA: bisphenol A; SOD: superoxide dismutase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; ROS: reactive oxygen species; T: testosterone; LH: luteinizing hormone; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone; UPLC: ultra performance liquid chromatography; RIA: radioimmunoassay; q quantitative real time PCR; NC: normal control group; BPA: 200 mg/kg BPA administered group; H: 800 mg/kg C. militaris extract administered group; LB, MB, and HB: 200 mg/kg BPA + 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg C. militaris administered group, respectively; VeB: 200 mg/kg BPA + 300 mg/kg Vitamin E administered group; Star: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 3β-HSD: 3beta-hydroxyl-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase; CYP11A1: cytochrome P 450 family 11 subfamily A member 1; CYP17A1: cytochrome P 450 family 17 subfamily A member 1.

  11. Clostridium difficile toxin A induces a specific antisecretory factor which protects against intestinal mucosal damage.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, J; Jennische, E; Lange, S; Lönnroth, I

    1991-01-01

    Peroral challenge with toxin A from Clostridium difficile induced the formation of antisecretory factor in rats. The animals were given 100 micrograms of the toxin, which was followed by a pronounced diarrhoea and by the appearance of antisecretory factor in the pituitary gland. In electrofocusing, the induced antisecretory factor separated in two peaks (pI 5.4 and 5.0); both fractions showed a lectin-like binding to agarose. The pI 5.4 fraction inhibited cholera toxin as well as toxin A induced fluid secretion, while pI 5.0 inhibited toxin A induced secretion only. Immunohistochemistry showed that an antisecretory factor of pI 5.0 protected the mucosa from the cytotoxic effect of toxin A, but did not affect the binding of toxin A to the intestinal epithelium. Sodium dodecyl-sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the pI 5.0 protein showed two major fractions to be present, one of molecular weight 60 kDa, the other of 30 kDa, the latter probably being a degradation product of the former. Images Figure 3 PMID:1855687

  12. Withaferin A Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis and DNA Damage in Oral Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Li, Ruei-Nian; Wang, Hui-Ru; Liu, Jing-Ru; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Chan, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is one of the most active steroidal lactones with reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulating effects against several types of cancer. ROS regulation involves selective killing. However, the anticancer and selective killing effects of WFA against oral cancer cells remain unclear. We evaluated whether the killing ability of WFA is selective, and we explored its mechanism against oral cancer cells. An MTS tetrazolium cell proliferation assay confirmed that WFA selectively killed two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) rather than normal oral cells (HGF-1). WFA also induced apoptosis of Ca9-22 cells, which was measured by flow cytometry for subG1 percentage, annexin V expression, and pan-caspase activity, as well as western blotting for caspases 1, 8, and 9 activations. Flow cytometry analysis shows that WFA-treated Ca9-22 oral cancer cells induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and phosphorylated histone H2A.X (γH2AX)-based DNA damage. Moreover, pretreating Ca9-22 cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) rescued WFA-induced selective killing, apoptosis, G2/M arrest, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. We conclude that WFA induced oxidative stress-mediated selective killing of oral cancer cells.

  13. Therapeutic effects of quercetin against bisphenol A induced testicular damage in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Ain, Qurat Ul; Ullah, Hizb

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis were used for histology while blood plasma was used for hormonal and biochemical analysis. BPA administration resulted in a significant reduction in seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelial height with impaired spermatogenesis. Quercetin treatment resulted in restoration of spermatogenesis and reversal of histological damage. In addition, BPA treatment significantly reduced (p < 0.05) plasma testosterone level (ng/ml) while estrogen was not affected. Similarly, BPA caused a significant alteration in the lipid profile. Interestingly, quercetin treatment led to a marked increase in plasma testosterone, decrease in estrogen concentration, as well as a normalized lipid profile. In conclusion, results indicated that BPA administration induces toxic effects on testis and epididymis, impairs spermatogenesis, with an imbalance in hormonal levels and lipid profile while quercetin amended these toxic effects by restoring normal spermatogenesis, testicular tissue damage, and hormonal levels. This suggests that quercetin may be a potential therapeutic against BPA induced testicular toxicity.

  14. Long-Term Selenium-Deficient Diet Induces Liver Damage by Altering Hepatocyte Ultrastructure and MMP1/3 and TIMP1/3 Expression in Growing Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Liang, Hua; Yi, Jianhua; Tan, Wuhong; He, Shulan; Wang, Sen; Li, Feng; Wu, Xiaofang; Ma, Jing; Shi, Xiaowei; Guo, Xiong; Bai, Chuanyi

    2017-02-01

    The effects of selenium (Se)-deficient diet on the liver were evaluated by using growing rats which were fed with normal and Se-deficient diets, respectively, for 109 days. The results showed that rats fed with Se-deficient diet led to a decrease in Se concentration in the liver, particularly among male rats from the low-Se group. This causes alterations to the ultrastructure of hepatocytes with condensed chromatin and swelling mitochondria observed after low Se intake. Meanwhile, pathological changes and increased fibrosis in hepatic periportal were detected by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining in low-Se group. Furthermore, through immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, higher expressions of metalloproteinases (MMP1/3) and their tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP1/3) were observed in the hepatic periportal of rats from the low-Se group. However, higher expressions of MMP1/3 and lower expressions of TIMP1/3 were detected in hepatic central vein and hepatic sinusoid. In addition, upregulated expressions of MMP1/3 and downregulated expressions of TIMP1/3 at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels also appeared to be relevant to low Se intake. In conclusion, Se-deficient diet could cause low Se concentration in the liver, alterations of hepatocyte ultrastructure, differential expressions of MMP1/3 and TIMP1/3 as well as fibrosis in the liver hepatic periportal.

  15. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Reduces Free Cholesterol-Mediated Lipotoxicity in Primary Hepatocytes by Countering Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Nuño-Lámbarri, Natalia; Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Luna-López, Armando; Souza, Verónica; Bucio, Leticia; Miranda, Roxana U.; Muñoz, Linda; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol overload in the liver has shown toxic effects by inducing the aggravation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to steatohepatitis and sensitizing to damage. Although the mechanism of damage is complex, it has been demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a prominent role in the process. In addition, we have proved that hepatocyte growth factor induces an antioxidant response in hepatic cells; in the present work we aimed to figure out the protective effect of this growth factor in hepatocytes overloaded with free cholesterol. Hepatocytes from mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet were treated or not with HGF, reactive oxygen species present in cholesterol overloaded hepatocytes significantly decreased, and this effect was particularly associated with the increase in glutathione and related enzymes, such as γ-gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH-S-transferase. Our data clearly indicate that HGF displays an antioxidant response by inducing the glutathione-related protection system. PMID:27143995

  16. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Reduces Free Cholesterol-Mediated Lipotoxicity in Primary Hepatocytes by Countering Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Nuño-Lámbarri, Natalia; Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Luna-López, Armando; Souza, Verónica; Bucio, Leticia; Miranda, Roxana U; Muñoz, Linda; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol overload in the liver has shown toxic effects by inducing the aggravation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to steatohepatitis and sensitizing to damage. Although the mechanism of damage is complex, it has been demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a prominent role in the process. In addition, we have proved that hepatocyte growth factor induces an antioxidant response in hepatic cells; in the present work we aimed to figure out the protective effect of this growth factor in hepatocytes overloaded with free cholesterol. Hepatocytes from mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet were treated or not with HGF, reactive oxygen species present in cholesterol overloaded hepatocytes significantly decreased, and this effect was particularly associated with the increase in glutathione and related enzymes, such as γ-gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH-S-transferase. Our data clearly indicate that HGF displays an antioxidant response by inducing the glutathione-related protection system.

  17. Protective Effect of Aframomum melegueta phenolics Against CCl4-Induced Rat Hepatocytes Damage; Role of Apoptosis and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines inhibition

    PubMed Central

    El-Halawany, Ali M.; Dine, Riham Salah El; El Sayed, Nesrine S.; Hattori, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Aframomum melegueta is a commonly used African spice. Through a hepatoprotective bioassay-guided isolation, the chloroform fraction of A.melegueta seeds yielded one new diarylheptanoid named 3-(S)-acetyl-1-(4′-hydroxy-3′, 5′-di methoxyphenyl)-7-(3″,4″, 5″-trihydroxyphenyl)heptane (1), and two new hydroxyphenylalkanones, [8]-dehydrogingerdione (2) and [6]-dehydroparadol (3), in addition to six known compounds (4–9). The hepatoprotective effect of A. melegueta methanol extract, sub-fractions and isolated compounds was investigated using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in a rat hepatocytes model. The methanol, chloroform extracts and compounds 1, 5, 8 and 9 of A. melegueta significantly inhibited the elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), interleukin-1beta (Il-1β), caspase3 and 9 and enhanced the reduced liver glutathione (GSH) level caused by CCl4 intoxication. These results indicate that A.melegueta extracts, and isolated compounds play a protective role in CCl4 induced acute liver injury which might be due to elevated antioxidative defense potentials, suppressed inflammatory responses and apoptosis of liver tissue. PMID:25077538

  18. Oxidant stress evoked damage in rat hepatocyte leading to triggered nitric oxide synthase (NOS) levels on long term consumption of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates how long-term (40 mg/kg b.wt) consumption of aspartame can alter the antioxidant status, stress pathway genes, and apoptotic changes in the liver of Wistar albino rats. Numerous controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolites during metabolism. To mimic the human methanol metabolism the methotrexate treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. The aspartame treated methotrexate (MTX animals showed a marked significant increase in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the liver from control and MTX control animals, and showed a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and protein thiol in aspartame treated animals. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked significant decrease in the body weight, brain, and liver weight. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked increase in the inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS), c-fos, Heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 Tumour necrosis Factor (TNF)α, caspase 8, c-jun N terminal kinases (JNK) 3 and Nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) gene expression in the liver from control and MTX control animals. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked increase in the c-fos, Hsp 70, iNOS Caspase 8, and JNK 3 protein expression in the liver from control and MTX control animals indicating the enhancement of stress and apoptosis. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a streak of marked DNA fragmentation in the liver. On immunohistochemical analysis aspartame treated animals showed brown colored positive hepatocytes indicating the stress specific and apoptotic protein expression. Since aspartame consumption is on the rise among people, it is essential to create awareness regarding the usage of this artificial sweetener. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Mechanism of Hepatocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Quan, Xi-Bing; Zeng, Wen-Jiao; Yang, Xiao-Ou; Wang, Ming-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocyte apoptosis plays important roles in both the removal of external microorganisms and the occurrence and development of liver diseases. Different conditions, such as virus infection, fatty liver disease, hepatic ischemia reperfusion, and drug-induced liver injury, are accompanied by hepatocyte apoptosis. This review summarizes recent research on the mechanism of hepatocyte apoptosis involving the classical extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. We emphasized the major causes of apoptosis according to the characteristics of different liver diseases. Several concerns regarding future research and clinical application are also raised. PMID:28058033

  20. DNA-damage response gene GADD45A induces differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells without inhibiting cell cycle or survival.

    PubMed

    Wingert, Susanne; Thalheimer, Frederic B; Haetscher, Nadine; Rehage, Maike; Schroeder, Timm; Rieger, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain blood cell production life-long by their unique abilities of self-renewal and differentiation into all blood cell lineages. Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 alpha (GADD45A) is induced by genotoxic stress in HSCs. GADD45A has been implicated in cell cycle control, cell death and senescence, as well as in DNA-damage repair. In general, GADD45A provides cellular stability by either arresting the cell cycle progression until DNA damage is repaired or, in cases of fatal damage, by inducing apoptosis. However, the function of GADD45A in hematopoiesis remains controversial. We revealed the changes in murine HSC fate control orchestrated by the expression of GADD45A at single cell resolution. In contrast to other cellular systems, GADD45A expression did not cause a cell cycle arrest or an alteration in the decision between cell survival and apoptosis in HSCs. Strikingly, GADD45A strongly induced and accelerated the differentiation program in HSCs. Continuous tracking of individual HSCs and their progeny via time-lapse microscopy elucidated that once GADD45A was expressed, HSCs differentiate into committed progenitors within 29 hours. GADD45A-expressing HSCs failed to long-term reconstitute the blood of recipients by inducing multilineage differentiation in vivo. Importantly, γ-irradiation of HSCs induced their differentiation by upregulating endogenous GADD45A. The differentiation induction by GADD45A was transmitted by activating p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and allowed the generation of megakaryocytic-erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid lineages. These data indicate that genotoxic stress-induced GADD45A expression in HSCs prevents their fatal transformation by directing them into differentiation and thereby clearing them from the system.

  1. Transforming Growth Factor β1/SMAD Signaling Pathway Activation Protects the Intestinal Epithelium from Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Damage.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Veras, Christianne Maria; Santos, Ana Angélica Q A; Stipursky, Joice; Meloni, Marcelo; Araujo, Ana Paula Bérgamo; Foschetti, Danielle Abreu; López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Leitão, Renata F C; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro

    2017-10-01

    Clostridium difficile, the main cause of diarrhea in hospitalized patients, produces toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), which affect intestinal epithelial cell survival, proliferation, and migration and induce an intense inflammatory response. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine affecting enterocyte and immune/inflammatory responses. However, it has been shown that exposure of intestinal epithelium to a low concentration of TcdA induces the release of TGF-β1, which has a protective effect on epithelial resistance and a TcdA/TGF-β signaling pathway interaction. The activation of this pathway in vivo has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the TGF-β1 pathway in TcdA-induced damage in a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) and in a mouse model of an ileal loop. TcdA increased the expression of TGF-β1 and its receptor, TβRII, in vitro and in vivo TcdA induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factors SMAD2/3, a hallmark of TGF-β1 pathway activation, both in IEC cells and in mouse ileal tissue. The addition of recombinant TGF-β1 (rTGF-β) prevented TcdA-induced apoptosis/necrosis and restored proliferation and repair activity in IEC-6 cells in the presence of TcdA. Together, these data show that TcdA induces TGF-β1 signaling pathway activation and suggest that this pathway might play a protective role against the effect of C. difficile-toxin. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. DNA‐damage response gene GADD45A induces differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells without inhibiting cell cycle or survival

    PubMed Central

    Wingert, Susanne; Thalheimer, Frederic B.; Haetscher, Nadine; Rehage, Maike; Schroeder, Timm

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain blood cell production life‐long by their unique abilities of self‐renewal and differentiation into all blood cell lineages. Growth arrest and DNA‐damage‐inducible 45 alpha (GADD45A) is induced by genotoxic stress in HSCs. GADD45A has been implicated in cell cycle control, cell death and senescence, as well as in DNA‐damage repair. In general, GADD45A provides cellular stability by either arresting the cell cycle progression until DNA damage is repaired or, in cases of fatal damage, by inducing apoptosis. However, the function of GADD45A in hematopoiesis remains controversial. We revealed the changes in murine HSC fate control orchestrated by the expression of GADD45A at single cell resolution. In contrast to other cellular systems, GADD45A expression did not cause a cell cycle arrest or an alteration in the decision between cell survival and apoptosis in HSCs. Strikingly, GADD45A strongly induced and accelerated the differentiation program in HSCs. Continuous tracking of individual HSCs and their progeny via time‐lapse microscopy elucidated that once GADD45A was expressed, HSCs differentiate into committed progenitors within 29 hours. GADD45A‐expressing HSCs failed to long‐term reconstitute the blood of recipients by inducing multilineage differentiation in vivo. Importantly, γ‐irradiation of HSCs induced their differentiation by upregulating endogenous GADD45A. The differentiation induction by GADD45A was transmitted by activating p38 Mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and allowed the generation of megakaryocytic‐erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid lineages. These data indicate that genotoxic stress‐induced GADD45A expression in HSCs prevents their fatal transformation by directing them into differentiation and thereby clearing them from the system. Stem Cells 2016;34:699–710 PMID:26731607

  3. The American cockroach peptide periplanetasin-2 blocks Clostridium Difficile toxin A-induced cell damage and inflammation in the gut.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Yoon, I Na; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kang, Jin Ku; Kim, Ho

    2017-02-07

    Clostridium difficile, which causes pseudomembranous colitis, releases toxin A and toxin B. These toxins are considered to be the main causative agents for the disease pathogenesis, and their expression is associated with a marked increase of apoptosis in mucosal epithelial cells. Colonic epithelial cells are believed to form a physical barrier between the lumen and the submucosa, and abnormally increased mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis is considered to be an initial step in gut inflammation responses. Therefore, one approach to treating pseudomembranous colitis would be to develop agents that block the mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis caused by toxin A, thus restoring barrier function and curing inflammatory responses in the gut. We recently isolated an antimicrobial peptide, Periplanetasin-2 (Peri-2, YPCKLNLKLGKVPFH) from the American cockroach, whose extracts have shown great potential for clinical use. Here, we assessed whether Peri-2 could inhibit the cell toxicities and inflammation caused by C. difficile toxin A. Indeed, in human colonocyte HT29 cells, Peri-2 inhibited the toxin A-induced decrease in cell proliferation and ameliorated the cell apoptosis induced by this toxin. Moreover, in the toxin A-induced mouse enteritis model, Peri-2 blocked the mucosal disruption and inflammatory response caused by toxin A. These results suggest that the American cockroach peptide, Peri-2, could be a possible drug candidate for addressing the pseudomembranous colitis caused by C. difficile toxin A.

  4. Protective effects of melatonin and Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on ochratoxin A--induced damages on testes in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Malekinejad, Hassan; Mirzakhani, Navideh; Razi, Mazdak; Cheraghi, Hadi; Alizadeh, Arash; Dardmeh, Fereshteh

    2011-02-01

    The effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (GgE) as a natural antioxidant and melatonin (MEL) on ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced histopathological damages on the testes and oxidative stress was evaluated in male rats. The animals were assigned into four groups (n = 8) including control and test groups. The rats in control group received saline and the animals in the test groups received (200 µg/kg) of OTA, (15 mg/kg) of MEL + (200 µg/kg) OTA and (100 mg/kg) of GgE + (200 µg/kg) OTA, respectively, during 28 consecutive days. The serum total antioxidant power (TAOP) and total thiol molecules (TTM) production were assessed. Moreover, histopathological and histochemical studies were also performed. The results showed that the TAOP and TTM were decreased in OTA-exposed rats, while the animals that received MEL + OTA or GgE + OTA showed an enhancement in the serum TAOP and TTM levels. Histopathological analyses demonstrated that in OTA-exposed rats, the testicular degeneration, seminiferous tubule atrophy, dissociation of germinative epithelium, vasodilatation with vascular thrombosis, perivascular immune cell infiltration, hypertrophied leydic cells, giant cell formation, and negative tubular differentiation index (TDI) were observed. Surprisingly, both the biochemical and histopathological examinations showed that MEL and GgE, albeit with some differences, exerted a protective effect on OTA-induced damages. In conclusion, this data suggest that OTA contamination in animal feeds and human foods could cause reproductive abnormalities. Our data also indicate that OTA, at least partly by interfering in oxidative stress system, exerts its toxic effects on testes whereas MEL and GgE with antioxidant properties could fairly protect rats against OTA toxic effects.

  5. Autocrine expression of hepatocyte growth factor and its cytoprotective effect on hepatocyte poisoning

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Zhou, Jun; Dou, Ke-Feng; Chen, Yong; Yan, Qing-Guo; Li, Hai-Min

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct pEGFP-hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression vector, the to detect its expression in transfected human hepatocytes, and to investigate the influence of autocrine HGF expression on the proliferative potential and cytoprotective effects in human hepatocytes. METHODS: Human HGF cDNA was ligated to the pEGFP vector. Recombinant plasmid was transfected into human hepatocyte line QZG with liposome. Expression of HGF protein was observed by fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Hepatic cells were collected 24, 48, and 72 h after transfection to detect the number of [3H]-TdR uptake in DNA. DNA synthesis was observed by using PCNA stain immunohistochemistry. Acute liver cell damage was induced by carbon tetrachloride. Cytoprotective effect was observed by examining the survival rate of hepatocytes and leakage of intracellular alanine transaminase (ALT) and potassium ions. RESULTS: HGF identification of pEGFP-HGF by enzyme digestion showed that HGF fragment was cloned into BamH I and Sal I sites of pEGFP-N3. Expression of GFP in transfected hepatocytes was observed with fluorescence microscopy. The [3H]-TdR uptake became 7 times as many as in the control group 96 h after transfection. After HGF transfection, the survival rate of hepatocytes poisoned by CCl4 significantly increased (83% vs 61%, P < 0.05), and the leakage of intracellular alanine transaminase and potassium ions decreased (586 nkat/L vs 1089 nkat/L, P < 0.01; and 5.59 mmol/L vs 6.02 mmol/L, P < 0.01 respectively). Culture of transfected hepatic cells promoted the proliferation of other non-transfected cells. CONCLUSION: Transfected HGF is expressed in hepatic cells and has the activity of promoting cell division and protecting hepatic cells against poisoning. PMID:15334679

  6. Targeted transplantation of mitochondria to hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wu, Catherine H; Wu, George Y

    2016-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial defects in hepatocytes can result in liver dysfunction and death. Hepatocytes have cell-surface asialoglycoprotein receptors (AsGRs) which internalize AsGs within endosomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether mitochondria could be targeted to hepatocytes by AsGR-mediated endocytosis. Materials and methods An AsG, AsOR, was linked to polylysine to create a conjugate, AsOR-PL, and complexed with healthy and functional mitochondria (defined by normal morphology, cytochrome c assays, and oxygen-consumption rates). Huh7 (AsGR+) and SK Hep1 (AsGR−) cells were treated with a mitochondrial toxin to form Huh7-Mito− and SK Hep1-Mito− cells, lacking detectable mitochondrial DNA. An endosomolytic peptide, LLO, was coupled to AsOR to form AsOR-LLO. A lysosomal inhibitor, amantadine, was used in mitochondria-uptake studies as a control for nonspecific endosomal release. Results Coincubation of complexed mitochondria and AsOR-LLO with Huh7-Mito− cells increased mitochondrial DNA to >9,700-fold over control at 7 days (P<0.001), and increased mitochondrial oxygen-consumption rates to >90% of control by 10 days. Conclusion Rescue of mitochondria-damaged hepatocytes can be achieved by targeted uptake of normal mitochondria through receptor-mediated endocytosis. PMID:27942238

  7. Protective effect of chromene isolated from Sargassum horneri against UV-A-induced damage in skin dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ae; Ahn, Byul-Nim; Kong, Chang-Suk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2012-08-01

    Skin homoeostasis is interrupted during UV-A irradiation. How the UV-A-altered skin components influences photoageing of skin should be investigated using human in vitro models that are important for understanding skin ageing. In this study, chromene compound, sargachromenol, was isolated from Sargassum horneri, and its potency on inhibition of photoageing was investigated in UV-A-irradiated dermal fibroblasts. Effects of sargachromenol on the prevention of photoageing were evaluated by measuring ROS production, membrane protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and ageing-related gene expression in UV-A-irradiated human skin dermal fibroblasts. The results indicated that treatment with sargachromenol suppressed the collagenase matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression without any cytotoxicity and phototoxicity. It was further found that these inhibitions were because of increase in the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 genes. Furthermore, we confirmed that the UV-A-induced transcriptions of AP-1 signalling pathway were regulated by sargachromenol treatment in UV-A-irradiated dermal fibroblasts. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to functional and expandable hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pengyu; Zhang, Ludi; Gao, Yimeng; He, Zhiying; Yao, Dan; Wu, Zhitao; Cen, Jin; Chen, Xiaotao; Liu, Changcheng; Hu, Yiping; Lai, Dongmei; Hu, Zhenlei; Chen, Li; Zhang, Ying; Cheng, Xin; Ma, Xiaojun; Pan, Guoyu; Wang, Xin; Hui, Lijian

    2014-03-06

    The generation of large numbers of functional human hepatocytes for cell-based approaches to liver disease is an important and unmet goal. Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts to hepatic lineages could offer a solution to this problem but so far has only been achieved with mouse cells. Here, we generated human induced hepatocytes (hiHeps) from fibroblasts by lentiviral expression of FOXA3, HNF1A, and HNF4A. hiHeps express hepatic gene programs, can be expanded in vitro, and display functions characteristic of mature hepatocytes, including cytochrome P450 enzyme activity and biliary drug clearance. Upon transplantation into mice with concanavalin-A-induced acute liver failure and fatal metabolic liver disease due to fumarylacetoacetate dehydrolase (Fah) deficiency, hiHeps restore the liver function and prolong survival. Collectively, our results demonstrate successful lineage conversion of nonhepatic human cells into mature hepatocytes with potential for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.

  9. Hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cattle during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Takamizawa, Aya; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Endoh, Daiji; Oikawa, Shin

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cows during the transition period. Four clinically healthy, pregnant dairy cattle were used. The cows had no clinical diseases throughout this study. Blood samples were collected and livers were biopsied from the cows at 3 different times: 3 weeks before expected partition (wk -3); during parturition (wk 0), and 3 weeks (wk +3) after parturition. The damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) caused by hepatocytes was evaluated by comet assay. The apoptotic features of hepatocytes were examined by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic analyses. The hepatic triglyceride content markedly increased at wk 0 and wk +3 compared with the values at wk -3. The results of the comet assay showed increases in the mean tail moment values of hepatic cells after parturition in all cows, which suggested increased DNA damage. Histopathologically, the hepatocytes began to contain lipid droplets at wk 0 and were severely opacified at wk +3. Caspase-3-positive and single-stranded DNA-(ssDNA)-positive cells were first detected in the liver after parturition. Condensation of nuclear chromatin, a typical sign of apoptosis, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy after parturition. These results suggest that apoptosis is induced in hepatocytes of dairy cows around parturition and may result from lipotoxicity in hepatocytes.

  10. Hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cattle during the transition period

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Takamizawa, Aya; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z.; Endoh, Daiji; Oikawa, Shin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cows during the transition period. Four clinically healthy, pregnant dairy cattle were used. The cows had no clinical diseases throughout this study. Blood samples were collected and livers were biopsied from the cows at 3 different times: 3 weeks before expected partition (wk −3); during parturition (wk 0), and 3 weeks (wk +3) after parturition. The damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) caused by hepatocytes was evaluated by comet assay. The apoptotic features of hepatocytes were examined by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic analyses. The hepatic triglyceride content markedly increased at wk 0 and wk +3 compared with the values at wk −3. The results of the comet assay showed increases in the mean tail moment values of hepatic cells after parturition in all cows, which suggested increased DNA damage. Histopathologically, the hepatocytes began to contain lipid droplets at wk 0 and were severely opacified at wk +3. Caspase-3-positive and single-stranded DNA-(ssDNA)-positive cells were first detected in the liver after parturition. Condensation of nuclear chromatin, a typical sign of apoptosis, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy after parturition. These results suggest that apoptosis is induced in hepatocytes of dairy cows around parturition and may result from lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. PMID:23543948

  11. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    López-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Domínguez, Mayrel; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María-Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.

  12. Gel entrapment culture of rat hepatocytes for investigation of tetracycline-induced toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Chong; Meng Qin Schmelzer, Eva; Bader, Augustinus

    2009-07-15

    This paper aimed to explore three-dimensionally cultured hepatocytes for testing drug-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gel entrapped rat hepatocytes were applied for investigation of the tetracycline-induced steatohepatitis, while hepatocyte monolayer was set as a control. The toxic responses of hepatocytes were systematically evaluated by measuring cell viability, liver-specific function, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, adenosine triphosphate content and mitochondrial membrane potential. The results suggested that gel entrapped hepatocytes showed cell death after 96 h of tetracycline treatment at 25 {mu}M which is equivalent to toxic serum concentration in rats, while hepatocyte monolayer showed cell death at a high dose of 200 {mu}M. The concentration-dependent accumulation of lipid as well as mitochondrial damage were regarded as two early events for tetracycline hepatotoxicity in gel entrapment culture due to their detectability ahead of subsequent increase of oxidative stress and a final cell death. Furthermore, the potent protection of fenofibrate and fructose-1,6-diphosphate were evidenced in only gel entrapment culture with higher expressions on the genes related to {beta}-oxidation than hepatocyte monolayer, suggesting the mediation of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial damage in tetracycline toxicity. Overall, gel entrapped hepatocytes in three-dimension reflected more of the tetracycline toxicity in vivo than hepatocyte monolayer and thus was suggested as a more relevant system for evaluating steatogenic drugs.

  13. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    López-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Domínguez, Mayrel; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U.; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María-Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol. PMID:26788255

  14. [An experimental study on the protective effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) for the primary cultured hepatocytes obtained from iron-loaded rats].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, J

    1995-01-01

    Pathological iron deposition in liver is often found in various liver diseases. The deposited iron is thought to be one of the most important factor of liver cell injury, not only in hemochromotosis but also in cirrhosis following hepatitis virus B or C infection. To investigate the influence of the deposited iron on damage and regeneration of hepatocyte, primary cultured hepatocytes obtained from carbonyl iron-loaded rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the presence or absence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Although the section of liver from carbonyl iron-loaded rats showed no necrosis and fibrosis, iron-loaded hepatocytes contained about twofold more iron than control. The damage of iron-loaded hepatocytes induced by CCl4 was more serious than that of control, and HGF decreased this injury only in iron-loaded hepatocytes but not in control. There is no difference in DNA synthesis stimulated by HGF between iron-loaded hepatocytes and control. These findings suggest that the pathological iron deposition induces the fragility of hepatocyte and that cytoprotective effect of HGF is induced by this pathological iron.

  15. Salvianolate Protects Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress by Attenuating Mitochondrial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiang; Peng, Yuan; Huang, Kai; Lei, Yang; Liu, Hong-Liang; Tao, Yan-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Salvianolate is widely used to treat angiocardiopathy in clinic in China, but its application in liver diseases remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Salvianolate on rat hepatic injury by protecting hepatocyte mitochondria. To evaluate the effects of Salvianolate on injured hepatocytes, alpha mouse liver 12 (AML-12) cells were induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and treated with Salvianolate. Cell viability and MitoTracker Green for mitochondria and 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazole-carbocyanide iodine (JC-1) levels and cytochrome C (Cyto-C) expressions were detected in vitro. To identify the effect of Salvianolate on protecting against mitochondria injury, male Wistar rats were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated with Salvianolate (40 mg·kg−1). Serum liver function, parameters for peroxidative damage, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) of hepatocyte mitochondria were assayed. Our results showed that Salvianolate effectively protected hepatocytes, increased mitochondria vitality, and decreased Cyto-C expressions in vitro. Besides, Salvianolate alleviated the liver function, attenuated the indicators of peroxidation, and relieved the mitochondria injury in vivo. In conclusion, Salvianolate is effective in protecting hepatocytes from injury in vitro and in vivo, and the mechanism might be related to its protective effect on hepatocyte mitochondria against oxidative stress. PMID:27340417

  16. Salvianolate Protects Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress by Attenuating Mitochondrial Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Peng, Yuan; Huang, Kai; Lei, Yang; Liu, Hong-Liang; Tao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Salvianolate is widely used to treat angiocardiopathy in clinic in China, but its application in liver diseases remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Salvianolate on rat hepatic injury by protecting hepatocyte mitochondria. To evaluate the effects of Salvianolate on injured hepatocytes, alpha mouse liver 12 (AML-12) cells were induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and treated with Salvianolate. Cell viability and MitoTracker Green for mitochondria and 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazole-carbocyanide iodine (JC-1) levels and cytochrome C (Cyto-C) expressions were detected in vitro. To identify the effect of Salvianolate on protecting against mitochondria injury, male Wistar rats were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated with Salvianolate (40 mg·kg(-1)). Serum liver function, parameters for peroxidative damage, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) of hepatocyte mitochondria were assayed. Our results showed that Salvianolate effectively protected hepatocytes, increased mitochondria vitality, and decreased Cyto-C expressions in vitro. Besides, Salvianolate alleviated the liver function, attenuated the indicators of peroxidation, and relieved the mitochondria injury in vivo. In conclusion, Salvianolate is effective in protecting hepatocytes from injury in vitro and in vivo, and the mechanism might be related to its protective effect on hepatocyte mitochondria against oxidative stress.

  17. Species-specific toxicity of troglitazone on rats and human by gel entrapped hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Chong; Meng, Qin; Zhang, Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    Troglitazone, despite passing preclinical trials on animals, was shortly withdrawn from market due to its severe hepatotoxicity in clinic. As rat hepatocyte monolayer consistently showed sensitive troglitazone toxicity as human hepatocyte monolayer in contrast to the species-specific toxicity in vivo, this paper utilized both hepatocytes in three-dimensional culture of gel entrapment to reflect the species difference on hepatotoxicity. Rat hepatocytes in gel entrapment did not show obvious cellular damage even under a long-term exposure for 21 days while gel entrapped human hepatocytes significantly displayed oxidative stress, steatosis, mitochondrial damage and cell death at a short exposure for 4 days. As a result, the detected species-specific toxicity of troglitazone between gel entrapped rat and human hepatocytes consisted well with the situation in vivo but was in a sharp contrast to the performance of two hepatocytes by monolayer culture. Such contradictory toxicity of rat hepatocytes between monolayer and gel entrapment culture could be explained by the fact that troglitazone was cleared more rapidly in gel entrapment than in monolayer culture. Similarly, the differential clearance of troglitazone in rat and human might also explain its species-specific toxicity. Therefore, gel entrapment of hepatocytes might serve as a platform for evaluation of drug toxicity at early stage of drug development by reducing costs, increasing the likelihood of clinical success and limiting human exposure to unsafe drugs. -- Highlights: ► Species-specific toxicity of troglitazone reflected by rat/human hepatocytes ► 3D hepatocytes in 21 days’ long-term culture used for drug hepatotoxicity ► Oversensitive toxicity in hepatocyte monolayer by slow troglitazone clearance.

  18. In vivo N-acetyl cysteine reduce hepatocyte death by induced acetaminophen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Ju; Li, Feng-Chieh; Wang, Sheng-Shun; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2011-07-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is the famous drug in global, and taking overdose Acetaminophen will intake hepatic cell injure. Desptie substantial progress in our understanding of the mechanism of hepatocellular injury during the last 40 years, many aspects of the pathophysiology are still unknown or controversial.1 In this study, mice are injected APAP overdose to damage hepatocyte. APAP deplete glutathione and ATP of cell, N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) plays an important role to protect hepatocytes be injury. N-Acetyl Cysteine provides mitochondrial to produce glutathione to release drug effect hepatocyte. By 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (6-CFDA) metabolism in vivo, glutathione keep depleting to observe the hepatocyte morphology in time. Without NAC, cell necrosis increase to plasma membrane damage to release 6-CFDA, that's rupture. After 6-CFDA injection, fluorescence will be retained in hepatocyte. For cell retain with NAC and without NAC are almost the same. With NAC, the number of cell rupture decreases about 75%.

  19. Protective effects of HGF gene-expressing human mesenchymal stem cells in acetaminophen-treated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yun Ho; You, Dong Hun; Nam, Myeong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) secrete a great variety of cytokines that have beneficial paracrine actions. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes proliferation in several cell types. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of HGF gene-transfected MSC (HGF-MSC) in acetaminophen (AAP)-treated hepatocytes. We transfected the HGF gene into MSCs and confirmed HGF expression by RT-PCR and western blot. The concentration of HGF in HGF-MSC conditioned media (HGFCM) was upregulated compared with that in control MSCCM samples. Cell viability was increased in HGFCM-treated hepatocytes. Expression of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptosis protein, was increased and expression of pro-apoptosis proteins (Bad, Bik and Bid) was decreased in HGFCM-treated hepatocytes. HGF-MSC had protective effects on AAP-induced hepatocyte damage by enhancing proliferation. These results suggest that HGF-expressing MSCs may provide regenerative potential for liver cell damage.

  20. Aniline Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Hong; Na, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Shu-Ying; Dong, Hong-Wei; Yu, Jia; Jia, Li; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected. Levels of ROS and MDA were significantly increased and levels of GSH and CAT, activity of SOD, and mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocytes were significantly decreased by aniline compared with the negative control group. The tail moment and DNA content of the tail in exposed groups were significantly higher than those in the negative control group. Cell viability was reduced and apoptotic death was induced by aniline in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of ROS generation, oxidative damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage and apoptosis could be prevented if ROS inhibitor NAC was added. ROS generation is involved in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA injury, which may play a role in aniline-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of aniline-induced toxicity and apoptosis of hepatocytes.

  1. Aniline Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Hong; Na, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Shu-Ying; Dong, Hong-Wei; Yu, Jia; Jia, Li; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected. Levels of ROS and MDA were significantly increased and levels of GSH and CAT, activity of SOD, and mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocytes were significantly decreased by aniline compared with the negative control group. The tail moment and DNA content of the tail in exposed groups were significantly higher than those in the negative control group. Cell viability was reduced and apoptotic death was induced by aniline in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of ROS generation, oxidative damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage and apoptosis could be prevented if ROS inhibitor NAC was added. ROS generation is involved in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA injury, which may play a role in aniline-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of aniline-induced toxicity and apoptosis of hepatocytes. PMID:27916916

  2. Oxidative Stress and Liver Morphology in Experimental Cyclosporine A-Induced Hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Korolczuk, Agnieszka; Caban, Kinga; Amarowicz, Magdalena; Czechowska, Grażyna; Irla-Miduch, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine A is an immunosuppressive drug used after organ's transplantation. The adverse effects on such organs as kidney or liver may limit its use. Oxidative stress is proposed as one of the mechanisms of organs injury. The study was designed to elucidate CsA-induced changes in liver function, morphology, oxidative stress parameters, and mitochondria in rat's hepatocytes. Male Wistar rats were used: group A (control) receiving physiological saline, group B cyclosporine A in a dose of 15 mg/kg/day subcutaneously, and group C the CsA-vehicle (olive oil). On the 28th day rats were anesthetized. The following biochemical changes were observed in CsA-treated animals: increased levels of ALT, AST, and bilirubin in the serum, statistically significant changes in oxidative stress parameters, and lipid peroxidation products in the liver supernatants: MDA+4HAE, GSH, GSSG, caspase 3 activity, and ADP/ATP, NAD(+)/NADH, and NADP(+)/NADPH ratios. Microscopy of the liver revealed congestion, sinusoidal dilatation, and focal hepatocytes necrosis with mononuclear cell infiltration. Electron microscope revealed marked mitochondrial damage. Biochemical studies indicated that CsA treatment impairs liver function and triggers oxidative stress and redox imbalance in rats hepatocytes. Changes of oxidative stress markers parallel with mitochondrial damage suggest that these mechanisms play a crucial role in the course of CsA hepatotoxicity.

  3. Oxidative Stress and Liver Morphology in Experimental Cyclosporine A-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Czechowska, Grażyna; Irla-Miduch, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine A is an immunosuppressive drug used after organ's transplantation. The adverse effects on such organs as kidney or liver may limit its use. Oxidative stress is proposed as one of the mechanisms of organs injury. The study was designed to elucidate CsA-induced changes in liver function, morphology, oxidative stress parameters, and mitochondria in rat's hepatocytes. Male Wistar rats were used: group A (control) receiving physiological saline, group B cyclosporine A in a dose of 15 mg/kg/day subcutaneously, and group C the CsA-vehicle (olive oil). On the 28th day rats were anesthetized. The following biochemical changes were observed in CsA-treated animals: increased levels of ALT, AST, and bilirubin in the serum, statistically significant changes in oxidative stress parameters, and lipid peroxidation products in the liver supernatants: MDA+4HAE, GSH, GSSG, caspase 3 activity, and ADP/ATP, NAD+/NADH, and NADP+/NADPH ratios. Microscopy of the liver revealed congestion, sinusoidal dilatation, and focal hepatocytes necrosis with mononuclear cell infiltration. Electron microscope revealed marked mitochondrial damage. Biochemical studies indicated that CsA treatment impairs liver function and triggers oxidative stress and redox imbalance in rats hepatocytes. Changes of oxidative stress markers parallel with mitochondrial damage suggest that these mechanisms play a crucial role in the course of CsA hepatotoxicity. PMID:27298826

  4. Current status of hepatocyte xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Meier, Raphael P H; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Morel, Philippe; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Strom, Stephen; Bühler, Leo H

    2015-11-01

    The treatment of acute liver failure, a condition with high mortality, comprises optimal clinical care, and in severe cases liver transplantation. However, there are limitations in availability of organ donors. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising alternative that could fill the medical need, in particular as the bridge to liver transplantation. Encapsulated porcine hepatocytes represent an unlimited source that could function as a bioreactor requiring minimal immunosuppression. Besides patients with acute liver failure, patients with alcoholic hepatitis who are unresponsive to a short course of corticosteroids are a target for hepatocyte transplantation. In this review we present an overview of the innate immune barriers in hepatocyte xenotransplantation, including the role of complement and natural antibodies; the role of phagocytic cells and ligands like CD47 in the regulation of phagocytic cells; and the role of Natural Killer cells. We present also some illustrations of physiological species incompatibilities in hepatocyte xenotransplantation, such as incompatibilities in the coagulation system. An overview of the methodology for cell microencapsulation is presented, followed by proof-of-concept studies in rodent and nonhuman primate models of fulminant liver failure: these studies document the efficacy of microencapsulated porcine hepatocytes which warrants progress towards clinical application. Lastly, we present an outline of a provisional clinical trial, that upon completion of preclinical work could start within the upcoming 2-3 years.

  5. Steatotic rat hepatocytes in primary culture are more susceptible to the acute toxic effect of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Kučera, O; Al-Dury, S; Lotková, H; Roušar, T; Rychtrmoc, D; Červinková, Z

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in humans. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most frequent chronic liver disease in developed countries. The aim of our work was to compare the effect of APAP on intact rat hepatocytes and hepatocytes isolated from steatotic liver in primary cultures. Male Wistar rats were fed with standard diet (10 % energy from fat) and high-fat diet (71 % energy from fat) for 6 weeks and then hepatocytes were isolated. After cell attachment, APAP (1; 2.5; 3.75 and 5 mM) was added to culture media (William's E medium) and hepatocytes were cultured for up to 24 hours. APAP caused more severe dose-dependent damage of steatotic hepatocytes as documented by increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH leakage, decreased activity of cellular dehydrogenases (WST-1 test) and reduced albumin production. Intact steatotic hepatocytes contained lower amount of reduced glutathione (GSH). Treatment with APAP (1 and 2.5 mmol/l) caused more pronounced decrease in GSH in steatotic hepatocytes. ROS (reactive oxygen species) formation after 24-hour incubation was significantly higher in fatty hepatocytes using APAP at concentration of 3.75 and 5 mmol/l. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) production was elevated in 2.5 mM APAP-treated nonsteatotic and steatotic hepatocyte cultures at 8 hours, compared to appropriate controls. In conclusions, our results indicate that steatotic hepatocytes exert higher sensitivity to the toxic action of APAP. This sensitivity may be caused by lower content of GSH in intact steatotic hepatocytes and by more pronounced APAP-induced decrease in intracellular concentration of GSH.

  6. Three Dimensional Primary Hepatocyte Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoffe, Boris

    1998-01-01

    Our results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of culturing PHH in microgravity bioreactors that exceeded the longest period obtained using other methods. Within the first week of culture, isolated hepatocytes started to form aggregates, which continuously increased in size (up to 1 cm) and macroscopically appeared as a multidimensional tissue-like assembly. To improve oxygenation and nutrition within the spheroids we performed experiments with the biodegradable nonwoven fiber-based polymers made from PolyGlycolic Acid (PGA). It has been shown that PGA scaffolds stimulate isolated cells to regenerate tissue with defined sizes and shapes and are currently being studied for various tissue-engineering applications. Our data demonstrated that culturing hepatocytes in the presence of PGA scaffolds resulted in more efficient cell assembly and formations of larger cell spheroids (up to 3 cm in length, see figure). The histology of cell aggregates cultured with PGA showed polymer fibers with attached hepatocytes. We initiated experiments to co-culture primary human hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells in the bioreactor. The presence of endothelial cells in co-cultures were established by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 monoclonal Ab. Our preliminary data demonstrated that cultures of purified hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells exhibited better growth and expressed higher levels of albumin MRNA for a longer period of time than cultures of ppfified, primary human hepatocytes cultured alone. We also evaluated microsomal deethylation activity of hepatocytes cultured in the presence of endothelial cells.In summary, we have established liver cell culture, which mimicked the structure and function of the parent tissue.

  7. The current status of primary hepatocyte culture

    PubMed Central

    Mitaka, Toshihiro

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there have been significant advances toward the development of culture conditions that promote proliferation of primary rodent hepatocytes. There are two major methods for the multiplication of hepatocytes in vitro: one is the use of nicotinamide, the other is the use of a nutrient-rich medium. In the medium containing a high concentration of nicotinamide and a growth factor, primary hepatocytes can proliferate well. In this culture condition small mononucleate cells, which are named small hepatocytes, appear and form colonies. Small hepatocytes have a high potential to proliferate while maintaining hepatic characteristics, and can differentiate into mature ones. On the other hand, combining the nutrient-rich medium with 2% DMSO, the proliferated hepatocytes can recover the hepatic differentiated functions and maintain them for a long time. In this review I describe the culture conditions for the proliferation and differentiation of primary hepatocytes and discuss the small hepatocytes, especially their roles in liver growth. PMID:10319020

  8. Electrochemical sensing of hepatocyte viability.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hweiyan; Tsai, Shang-heng; Ting, Wei-Jen; Hu, Chao-Chin; Fuh, C Bor

    2014-05-21

    We investigated the use of amperometric and chronoamperometric methods with a double mediator system and screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) for the electrochemical sensing of hepatocyte viability. Cell counts were determined based on measuring cellular respiration via interaction of electroactive redox mediators. The oxidation currents of chronoamperometric measurement were proportional to the concentrations of ferrocyanide which was produced via interaction of cellular respiration, succinate and ferricyanide. The integrated oxidation charges increased linearly with the density of the cultured primary rat hepatocytes over a range of 1 × 10(5) to 5 × 10(5) cells per well (slope = 1.98 (±0.08) μC per 10(5) cells; R(2) = 0.9969), and the detection limit was 7600 (±300) cells per well based on S/N = 3. Each density of cells was cultured in triple replicates and individual cell samples were evaluated. The results of the cytotoxic effect of the chronoamperometric method are comparable to those of the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay. The chronoamperometric method with ferricyanide and succinate mediators is an efficient, alternative method for assessing the viability of primary hepatocytes which can be completed in 20 min. Succinate did not provide an efficient electron shuttle between cytosolic respiratory redox activity of cancer cells and extracellular ferricyanide, an effect that may be useful for distinguishing hepatocarcinoma cells from healthy hepatocytes.

  9. Cell therapy from bench to bedside: Hepatocytes from fibroblasts - the truth and myth of transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2015-06-07

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an alternative to liver transplantation in certain disorders such as inherited liver diseases and liver failure. It is a relatively less complicated surgical procedure, and has the advantage that it can be repeated several times if unsuccessful. Another advantage is that hepatocytes can be isolated from partly damaged livers which are not suitable for liver transplantation. Despite these advantages hepatocyte transplantation is less popular. Important issues are poor engraftment of the transplanted cells and the scarcity of donor hepatocytes. Generation of "hepatocyte like cells"/iHeps from embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by directed differentiation is an emerging solution to the latter issue. Direct conversation or trans-differentiation of fibroblasts to "hepatocyte like cells" is another way which is, being explored. However this method has several inherent and technical disadvantages compared to the directed differentiation from ES or iPSC. There are several methods claiming to be "highly efficient" for generating "highly functional" "hepatocyte like cells". Currently different groups are working independently and coming up with differentiation protocols and each group claiming an advantage for their protocol. Directed differentiation protocols need to be designed, compared, analyzed and tweaked systematically and logically than empirically. There is a need for a well-coordinated global initiative comparable to the Human Genome Project to achieve this goal in the near future.

  10. Bile acids initiate cholestatic liver injury by triggering a hepatocyte-specific inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yonglin; Soroka, Carol J.; Wang, Juxian; Mennone, Albert; Wang, Yucheng; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Jain, Dhanpat; Boyer, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms of bile acid–induced (BA-induced) liver injury in cholestasis are controversial, limiting development of new therapies. We examined how BAs initiate liver injury using isolated liver cells from humans and mice and in-vivo mouse models. At pathophysiologic concentrations, BAs induced proinflammatory cytokine expression in mouse and human hepatocytes, but not in nonparenchymal cells or cholangiocytes. These hepatocyte-specific cytokines stimulated neutrophil chemotaxis. Inflammatory injury was mitigated in Ccl2–/– mice treated with BA or after bile duct ligation, where less hepatic infiltration of neutrophils was detected. Neutrophils in periportal areas of livers from cholestatic patients also correlated with elevations in their serum aminotransferases. This liver-specific inflammatory response required BA entry into hepatocytes via basolateral transporter Ntcp. Pathophysiologic levels of BAs induced markers of ER stress and mitochondrial damage in mouse hepatocytes. Chemokine induction by BAs was reduced in hepatocytes from Tlr9–/– mice, while liver injury was diminished both in conventional and hepatocyte-specific Tlr9–/– mice, confirming a role for Tlr9 in BA-induced liver injury. These findings reveal potentially novel mechanisms whereby BAs elicit a hepatocyte-specific cytokine-induced inflammatory liver injury that involves innate immunity and point to likely novel pathways for treating cholestatic liver disease. PMID:28289714

  11. U. v. -enhanced reactivation of u. v. -irradiated herpes virus by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zurlo, J.; Yager, J.D. )

    1984-04-01

    Carcinogen treatment of cultured mammalian cells prior to infection with u.v.-irradiated virus results in enhanced virus survival and mutagenesis suggesting the induction of SOS-type processes. The development of a primary rat hepatocyte culture system is reported to investigate cellular responses to DNA damage which may be relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis in vivo. Enhanced reactivation of u.v.-irradiated Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) occurred in hepatocytes irradiated with u.v. Cultured hepatocytes were pretreated with u.v. at the time of enhanced DNA synthesis. These treatments caused an inhibition followed by a recovery of DNA synthesis. At various times after pretreatment, the hepatocytes were infected with control or u.v.-irradiated HSV-1 at low multiplicity, and virus survival was measured. U.v.-irradiated HSV-1 exhibited the expected two-component survival curve in control or u.v. pretreated hepatocytes. The magnitude of enhanced reactivation of HSV-1 was dependent on the u.v. dose to the hepatocytes, the time of infection following u.v. pretreatment, and the level of DNA synthesis at the time of pretreatment. These results suggest that u.v. treatment of rat hepatocytes causes the induction of SOS-type functions tht may have a role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  12. Progenitor cell expansion and impaired hepatocyte regeneration in explanted livers from alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dubuquoy, Laurent; Louvet, Alexandre; Lassailly, Guillaume; Truant, Stéphanie; Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Artru, Florent; Maggiotto, François; Gantier, Emilie; Buob, David; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Cannesson, Amélie; Dharancy, Sébastien; Moreno, Christophe; Pruvot, François-René; Bataller, Ramon; Mathurin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Objective In alcoholic hepatitis (AH), development of targeted therapies is crucial and requires improved knowledge of cellular and molecular drivers in liver dysfunction. The unique opportunity of using explanted livers from patients with AH having undergone salvage liver transplantation allowed to perform more in-depth molecular translational studies. Design We studied liver explants from patients with AH submitted to salvage transplantation (n=16), from patients with alcoholic cirrhosis without AH (n=12) and fragments of normal livers (n=16). Hepatic cytokine content was quantified. Hepatocyte function and proliferation and the presence of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blot or quantitative PCR. Mitochondrial morphology was evaluated by electron microscopy. Results Livers from patients with AH showed decreased cytokine levels involved in liver regeneration (tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin-6), as well as a virtual absence of markers of hepatocyte proliferation compared with alcoholic cirrhosis and normal livers. Electron microscopy revealed obvious mitochondrial abnormalities in AH hepatocytes. Importantly, livers from patients with AH showed substantial accumulation of HPCs that, unexpectedly, differentiate only into biliary cells. AH livers predominantly express laminin (extracellular matrix protein favouring cholangiocyte differentiation); consequently, HPC expansion is inefficient at yielding mature hepatocytes. Conclusions AH not responding to medical therapy is associated with lack of expression of cytokines involved in liver regeneration and profound mitochondrial damage along with lack of proliferative hepatocytes. Expansion of HPCs is inefficient to yield mature hepatocytes. Manoeuvres aimed at promoting differentiation of HPCs into mature hepatocytes should be tested in AH. PMID:25731872

  13. Cell therapy from bench to bedside: Hepatocytes from fibroblasts - the truth and myth of transdifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an alternative to liver transplantation in certain disorders such as inherited liver diseases and liver failure. It is a relatively less complicated surgical procedure, and has the advantage that it can be repeated several times if unsuccessful. Another advantage is that hepatocytes can be isolated from partly damaged livers which are not suitable for liver transplantation. Despite these advantages hepatocyte transplantation is less popular. Important issues are poor engraftment of the transplanted cells and the scarcity of donor hepatocytes. Generation of “hepatocyte like cells”/iHeps from embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by directed differentiation is an emerging solution to the latter issue. Direct conversation or trans-differentiation of fibroblasts to “hepatocyte like cells” is another way which is, being explored. However this method has several inherent and technical disadvantages compared to the directed differentiation from ES or iPSC. There are several methods claiming to be “highly efficient” for generating “highly functional” “hepatocyte like cells”. Currently different groups are working independently and coming up with differentiation protocols and each group claiming an advantage for their protocol. Directed differentiation protocols need to be designed, compared, analyzed and tweaked systematically and logically than empirically. There is a need for a well-coordinated global initiative comparable to the Human Genome Project to achieve this goal in the near future. PMID:26074681

  14. Ectopic expression of H2AX protein promotes TrkA-induced cell death via modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Deok Ryong

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We established TrkA-inducible U2OS cells stably expressing GFP-H2AX proteins. {yields} GFP-H2AX was colocalized with TrkA in the cytoplasm. {yields} {gamma}H2AX production was significantly increased upon activation of TrkA and suppressed by TrkA inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. {yields} Ectopic expression of H2AX promoted TrkA-mediated cell death through the modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage. -- Abstract: We previously reported that TrkA overexpression causes accumulation of {gamma}H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, subsequently leading to massive cell death in U2OS cells. To further investigate how cytoplasmic H2AX is associated with TrkA-induced cell death, we established TrkA-inducible cells stably expressing GFP-tagged H2AX. We found that TrkA co-localizes with ectopically expressed GFP-H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, especially at the juxta-nuclear membranes, which supports our previous results about a functional connection between TrkA and {gamma}H2AX in TrkA-induced cell death. {gamma}H2AX production from GFP-H2AX proteins was significantly increased when TrkA was overexpressed. Moreover, ectopic expression of H2AX activated TrkA-mediated signal pathways via up-regulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation. In addition, suppression of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation under a certain condition was removed by ectopic expression of H2AX, indicating a functional role of H2AX in the maintenance of TrkA activity. Indeed, TrkA-induced cell death was highly elevated by ectopic H2AX expression, and it was further accelerated by DNA damage via JNK activation. These all results suggest that cytoplasmic H2AX could play an important role in TrkA-mediated cell death by modulating TrkA upon DNA damage.

  15. Development of scaffold architectures and heterotypic cell systems for hepatocyte transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzebdeh, Dalia Abdelrahim

    In vitro assembly of functional liver tissue is needed to enable the transplantation of tissue-engineered livers. In addition, there is an increasing demand for in vitro models that replicate complex events occurring in the liver. However, tissue engineering of sizable implantable liver systems is currently limited by the difficulty of assembling three dimensional hepatocyte cultures of a useful size, while maintaining full cell viability, an issue which is closely related to the high metabolic rate of hepatocytes. In this study, we first compared two designs of highly porous chitosan-heparin scaffolds seeded with hepatocytes in dynamic perfusion bioreactor systems. The aim was to promote cell seeding efficiency by effectively entrapping 100 million hepatocytes at high density. We found that scaffolds with radially tapering pore architecture had highly efficient cell entrapment that maximized donor hepatocyte utilization, compared to alternate pore structures. Hepatocytes showed higher seeding efficiency and metabolic function when seeded as single cell suspensions as opposed to pre-formed, 100microm aggregates. Seeding efficiency was found to increase with flow rate, with single cell and aggregate suspension exhibiting different optimal flow rates. However, metabolic performance results indicated significant shear damage to cells at high efficiency flow rates. To better maintain hepatocyte basement membrane and cell polarity, spheroid co-cultures with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were investigated. Hepatocytes and MSCs were seeded in three different architectures in an effort to optimize the spatial arrangement of the two cell types. MSC co-culture greatly enhanced hepatocyte metabolic function in agitated cultures. Interestingly, the effects of diffusion limitations in spheroid culture, coupled with shear damage and subsequent removal of outer hepatocyte layers produced a defined oscillation of urea production rates in certain co-culture arrangements. A

  16. Cadmium induces apoptosis and genotoxicity in rainbow trout hepatocytes through generation of reactive oxygene species.

    PubMed

    Risso-de Faverney, C; Devaux, A; Lafaurie, M; Girard, J P; Bailly, B; Rahmani, R

    2001-06-01

    Cadmium poses a serious environmental threat in aquatic ecosystems but the mechanisms of its toxicity remain unclear. The purpose of this work was first to determine whether cadmium induced apoptosis in trout hepatocytes, second to determine whether or not reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis and genotoxicity. Hepatocytes exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations (in the range of 1-10 microM) showed a molecular hallmark of apoptosis which is the fragmentation of the nuclear DNA into oligonucleosomal-length fragments, resulting from an activation of endogenous endonucleases and recognized as a 'DNA ladder' on conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. Exposure of hepatocytes to cadmium led clearly to the DEVD-dependent protease activation, acting upstream from the endonucleases and considered as central mediators of apoptosis. DNA strand breaks in cadmium-treated trout hepatocytes was assessed using the comet assay, a rapid and sensitive single-cell gel electrophoresis technique used to detect DNA primary damage in individual cells. Simultaneous treatment of trout hepatocytes with cadmium and the nitroxide radical TEMPO used as a ROS scavenger, reduced significantly DNA fragmentation, DEVD-related protease activity and DNA strand breaks formation. These results lead to a working hypothesis that cadmium-induced apoptosis and DNA strand breaks in trout hepatocytes are partially triggered by the generation of ROS. Additional studies are required for proposing a mechanistic model of cadmium-induced apoptosis and genotoxicity in trout liver cells, in underlying the balance between DNA damage and cellular defence systems in fish.

  17. Efficient amelioration of carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes by Syzygium cumini Skeels extract.

    PubMed

    Veigas, Jyothi M; Shrivasthava, Richa; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2008-09-01

    Syzygium cumini, Indian black plum or Java plum, is a rich source for anthocyanins (230 mg/100g DW) showing high antioxidant activity in vitro. In the following study it is further demonstrated that S. cumini peel extract rich in anthocyanins (SCA) offers considerable protection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced damage in rat hepatocytes. SCA itself being non-toxic to primary rat hepatocytes at concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 ppm, was found to suppress CCl(4)-induced LDH leakage by 54% at 50ppm, thereby improving the cell viability by 39%. The SCA significantly reversed the CCl(4) induced changes in cellular glutathione (GSH) level, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Exposure of hepatocytes to SCA after CCl(4) treatment was found to elevate GSH and GPx activities by 2-folds, whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were not significantly affected. The fruit pulp extract (SPE) was less effective in offering protection to rat hepatocytes, particularly in terms of total GSH content and a consequent increase in lipid peroxidation although the higher GPx activity suggests the probable involvement of GSH as a substrate for GPx. These observations suggest that the fruit peel extract of S. cumini, is largely responsible for the reversal of CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in rat hepatocytes. Both peel and pulp extract appear to offer protection to rat hepatocytes through GPx along with other biological pathways independent of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

  18. Effect of curcumin analog on gamma-radiation-induced cellular changes in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, M; Sudheer, A Ram; Rajasekaran, K N; Menon, Venugopal P

    2008-10-22

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of curcumin analog, on gamma-radiation-induced toxicity in primary cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of rats by collagenase perfusion. The DNA damage was analysed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). An increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with the increase in gamma-radiation dose at 1-4 Gy in cultured rat hepatocytes. The levels of lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) were increased significantly, whereas the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated groups. The maximum damage to hepatocytes was observed at 4Gy gamma-irradiation. Pretreatment with different concentrations of curcumin analog (1.38, 6.91 and 13.82 microM) shows a significant decrease in the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. Pretreatment with curcumin analog prevents the loss of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants like GSH upon gamma-irradiation. The maximum protection of hepatocytes was observed at 6.91 microM of curcumin analog pretreatment. Thus, our result shows that pretreatment with curcumin analog protects the hepatocytes against gamma-radiation-induced cellular damage.

  19. Exocrine pancreas trans-differentiation to hepatocytes--a physiological response to elevated glucocorticoid in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Karen; Marek, Carylyn J; Currie, Richard A; Wright, Matthew C

    2009-08-01

    Damage or ectopic expression of some growth factors can lead to the appearance of hepatocyte-like cells within the pancreas. Since glucocorticoids promote liver hepatocyte phenotype in vitro, the effect of glucocorticoid on pancreatic differentiation in vivo was examined. Treatment of rats with glucocorticoid for 25 days at levels that significantly inhibited weight gain resulted in the appearance of acinar cells expressing cytokeratin 7 and hepatocyte markers glutamine synthetase, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and cytochrome P450 2E (the nomenclature employed is that given at http://drnelson.utmem.edu/CytochromeP450.html). Using a plastic pancreatic acinar cell line, this response was shown to be associated with changes in the regulation of WNT signalling-related gene expression and a repression of WNT signalling activity. These data suggest that a pathological response of the pancreas in vivo to elevated glucocorticoid is a differentiation of exocrine pancreatic cells or pancreatic progenitor cells to an hepatocyte-like phenotype.

  20. Hepatocytes: critical for glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Klover, Peter J; Mooney, Robert A

    2004-05-01

    Maintaining blood glucose levels within a narrow range is a critical physiological function requiring multiple metabolic pathways and involving several cell types, including a prominent role for hepatocytes. Under hormonal control, hepatocytes can respond to either feeding or fasting conditions by storing or producing glucose as necessary. In the fasting state, the effects of glucagon avoid hypoglycemia by stimulating glucogenesis and glycogenolysis and initiating hepatic glucose release. Postprandially, insulin prevents hyperglycemia, in part, by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis and facilitating hepatic glycogen synthesis. Both transcriptional regulation of rate limiting enzymes and modulation of enzyme activity through phosphorylation and allosteric regulation are involved. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common serious metabolic condition in the world, and results from a subnormal response of tissues to insulin (insulin resistance) and a failure of the insulin-secreting beta cells to compensate. In type 2 diabetes, glucose is overproduced by the hepatocyte and is ineffectively metabolized by other organs. Impairments in the insulin signal transduction pathway appear to be critical lesions contributing to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  1. Identification of cromolyn sodium as an anti-fibrotic agent targeting both hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Kim, Jun Ki; Yang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Yeseul; Kim, Pilhan; Park, Sang Gyu; Cho, Eun-Young; Lee, Dae Ho; Choi, Jin Woo

    2015-12-01

    Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, the late stage of fibrosis, are threatening diseases that lead to liver failure and patient death. Although aberrantly activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main cause of disease initiation, the symptoms are primarily related to damaged hepatocytes. Thus, damaged hepatocytes, as well as HSCs, need to be simultaneously considered as therapeutic targets to develop more efficient treatments. Here, we suggest cromolyn sodium as an anti-fibrotic agent to commonly modulate hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells. The differentially expressed genes from 6 normal and 40 cirrhotic liver tissues which were collected from GEO data were assessed by pharmacokinetic analysis using a connectivity map to identify agents that commonly revert abnormal hepatocytes and HSCs to normal conditions. Based on a series of analyses, a few candidates were selected. Candidates were tested in vitro to determine their anti-fibrotic efficacy on HSCs and hepatocytes. Cromolyn, which was originally developed as a mast cell stabilizer, showed the potential to ameliorate activated HSCs in vitro. The activation and collagen accumulation for HSC cell lines LX2 and HSC-T6 were reduced by 50% after cromolyn treatment at a low concentration without apoptosis. Furthermore, cromolyn treatment compromised the TGF-β-induced epithelial mesenchyme transition and replicative senescence rate of hepatocytes, which are generally associated with fibrogenesis. Taken together, cromolyn may be the basis for an effective cure for fibrosis and cirrhosis because it targets both HSCs and hepatocytes.

  2. Polyethylene glycol protects primary hepatocytes during supercooling preservation.

    PubMed

    Puts, C F; Berendsen, T A; Bruinsma, B G; Ozer, Sinan; Luitje, Martha; Usta, O Berk; Yarmush, M L; Uygun, K

    2015-08-01

    Cold storage (at 4°C) offers a compromise between the benefits and disadvantages of cooling. It allows storage of organs or cells for later use that would otherwise quickly succumb to warm ischemia, but comprises cold ischemia that, when not controlled properly, can result in severe damage as well by both similar and unique mechanisms. We hypothesized that polyethylene glycol (PEG) 35 kDa would ameliorate these injury pathways and improve cold primary hepatocyte preservation. We show that reduction of the storage temperature to below zero by means of supercooling, or subzero non-freezing, together with PEG supplementation increases the viable storage time of primary rat hepatocytes in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution from 1 day to 4 days. We find that the addition of 5% PEG 35 kDa to the storage medium prevents cold-induced lipid peroxidation and maintains hepatocyte viability and functionality during storage. These results suggest that PEG supplementation in combination with supercooling may enable a more optimized cell and organ preservation.

  3. Polyethylene glycol protects primary hepatocytes during supercooling preservation

    PubMed Central

    Puts, C.F.; Berendsen, T.A.; Bruinsma, B.G.; Ozer, Sinan; Luitje, Martha; Usta, O. Berk; Yarmush, M.L.; Uygun, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cold storage (at 4 °C) offers a compromise between the benefits and disadvantages of cooling. It allows storage of organs or cells for later use that would otherwise quickly succumb to warm ischemia, but comprises cold ischemia that, when not controlled properly, can result in severe damage as well by both similar and unique mechanisms. We hypothesized that polyethylene glycol (PEG) 35 kDa would ameliaorate these injury pathways and improve cold primary hepatocyte preservation. We show that reduction of the storage temperature to below zero by means of supercooling, or subzero non-freezing, together with PEG supplementation increases the viable storage time of primary rat hepatocytes in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution from 1 day to 4 days. We find that the addition of 5% PEG 35 kDa to the storage medium prevents cold-induced lipid peroxidation and maintains hepatocyte viability and functionality during storage. These results suggest that PEG supplementation in combination with supercooling may enable a more optimized cell and organ preservation. PMID:25936340

  4. Techniques for pharmacological and toxicological studies with isolated hepatocyte suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, M.N.; Halls, H.J.; Grivell, M.B. )

    1992-01-01

    The isolated hepatocyte preparation is particularly convenient for the study of the kinetics of hepatic drug uptake and excretion because the cells can be rapidly separated from the incubation medium. Isolated liver cells have also proved valuable for investigating drug metabolism since they show many of the features of the intact liver. However, they also show important differences such as losses of membrane specialization, some degree of cell polarity and the capacity to form bile. The many consequences of the hepatic toxicity of xenobiotics including lipid peroxidation, free radical formation, glutathione depletion, and covalent binding to macromolecules are also readily studied with the isolated liver cell preparation. A particular advantage is the ease with which morphological changes as a result of drug exposure can be observed in isolated hepatocytes. However, it must be remembered that the isolation procedure inevitably introduces changes that may make the cells more susceptible than the normal liver to damage by xenobiotic agents. Despite its limitations, the isolated hepatocyte preparation is now firmly established in the armamentarium of the investigator examining the interaction of the liver with xenobiotics. 237 refs.

  5. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kheradpezhouh, E; Barritt, G J; Rychkov, G Y

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca(2+) entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca(2+)]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels.

  6. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpezhouh, E.; Barritt, G.J.; Rychkov, G.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca2+ entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5 µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca2+]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50 nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels. PMID:26609559

  7. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α in adult mice results in increased hepatocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Walesky, Chad; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Terwilliger, Ernest F.; Edwards, Genea; Borude, Prachi

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF4α) is known as the master regulator of hepatocyte differentiation. Recent studies indicate that HNF4α may inhibit hepatocyte proliferation via mechanisms that have yet to be identified. Using a HNF4α knockdown mouse model based on delivery of inducible Cre recombinase via an adeno-associated virus 8 viral vector, we investigated the role of HNF4α in the regulation of hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of HNF4α resulted in increased hepatocyte proliferation. Global gene expression analysis showed that a majority of the downregulated genes were previously known HNF4α target genes involved in hepatic differentiation. Interestingly, ≥500 upregulated genes were associated with cell proliferation and cancer. Furthermore, we identified potential negative target genes of HNF4α, many of which are involved in the stimulation of proliferation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we confirmed binding of HNF4α at three of these genes. Furthermore, overexpression of HNF4α in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cells resulted in a decrease in promitogenic gene expression and cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these data indicate that, apart from its role in hepatocyte differentiation, HNF4α actively inhibits hepatocyte proliferation by repression of specific promitogenic genes. PMID:23104559

  8. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α in adult mice results in increased hepatocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Walesky, Chad; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Edwards, Genea; Borude, Prachi; Apte, Udayan

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF4α) is known as the master regulator of hepatocyte differentiation. Recent studies indicate that HNF4α may inhibit hepatocyte proliferation via mechanisms that have yet to be identified. Using a HNF4α knockdown mouse model based on delivery of inducible Cre recombinase via an adeno-associated virus 8 viral vector, we investigated the role of HNF4α in the regulation of hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of HNF4α resulted in increased hepatocyte proliferation. Global gene expression analysis showed that a majority of the downregulated genes were previously known HNF4α target genes involved in hepatic differentiation. Interestingly, ≥500 upregulated genes were associated with cell proliferation and cancer. Furthermore, we identified potential negative target genes of HNF4α, many of which are involved in the stimulation of proliferation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we confirmed binding of HNF4α at three of these genes. Furthermore, overexpression of HNF4α in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cells resulted in a decrease in promitogenic gene expression and cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these data indicate that, apart from its role in hepatocyte differentiation, HNF4α actively inhibits hepatocyte proliferation by repression of specific promitogenic genes.

  9. BOTULINUM TOXIN A INDUCED PARALYSIS OF THE LATERAL ABDOMINAL WALL AFTER DAMAGE CONTROL LAPAROTOMY: A MULTIINSTITUTIONAL, PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED, PLACEBO CONTROLLED PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Martin D.; Kuntz, Melissa; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zagar, Abigail E.; Khasawneh, Mohammad A.; Zendejas, Benjamin; Polites, Stephanie F.; Ferrara, Michael; Harmsen, William S.; Ballman, Karla S.; Park, Myung S.; Schiller, Henry J.; Dries, David; Jenkins, Donald H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Damage control laparotomy (DCL) is a life-saving operation used in critically ill patients; however, interval primary fascial closure remains a challenge. We hypothesized that flaccid paralysis of the lateral abdominal wall musculature induced by Botulinum Toxin A (BTX), would improve of rates of primary fascial closure, decrease duration of hospital stay (LOS), and enhance pain control. METHODS Consenting adults who had undergone a DCL at two institutions were prospectively randomized to receive ultrasound-guided injections of their external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominus muscles with either BTX (150cc, 2units/cc) or placebo (150cc 0.9%NaCl). Patients were excluded if they had a BMI>50, remained unstable or coagulopathic, were home O2 dependent or had an existing neuromuscular disorder. Outcomes were assessed in a double-blinded manner. Univariate and Kaplan Meier estimates of cumulative probability of abdominal closure were performed. RESULTS We randomized 46 patients (24 BTX, 22 placebo). There were no significant differences in demographics, comorbidities, and physiological status. Injections were performed on average 1.8 ± 2.8 days after DCL (range 0-14). The 10-day cumulative probability of primary fascial closure was similar between groups: 96% for BTX (95% CI 72%-99%) and 93% for placebo (95% CI 61%-99%); HR =1.0 (95% CI 0.5-1.8). No difference between BTX and placebo groups was observed for LOS (37 vs 26 days, p=0.30) or intensive care unit stay (17 vs 11 days, p=0.27). There was no difference in median morphine equivalents following DCL. The overall complication rate was similar (63% vs 68%, p=0.69), with 2 deaths in the placebo group and 0 in the BTX group. No BTX or injection procedure complications were observed. CONCLUSION Use of BTX after DCL was safe but did not appear to affect primary fascial closure, LOS, or pain modulation after DCL. Given higher than expected rates of primary fascial closure, type II error

  10. Botulinum toxin A-induced paralysis of the lateral abdominal wall after damage-control laparotomy: A multi-institutional, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Martin D; Kuntz, Melissa; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zagar, Abigail E; Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Zendejas, Benjamin; Polites, Stephanie F; Ferrara, Michael; Harmsen, William Scott; Ballman, Karla S; Park, Myung S; Schiller, Henry J; Dries, David; Jenkins, Donald H

    2016-02-01

    Damage-control laparotomy (DCL) is a lifesaving operation used in critically ill patients; however, interval primary fascial closure remains a challenge. We hypothesized that flaccid paralysis of the lateral abdominal wall musculature induced by botulinum toxin A (BTX) would improve rates of primary fascial closure, decrease duration of hospital stay, and enhance pain control. Consenting adults who had undergone a DCL at two institutions were prospectively randomized to receive ultrasound-guided injections of their external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominus muscles with either BTX (150 mL, 2 U/mL) or placebo (150-mL 0.9% NaCl). Patients were excluded if they had a body mass index of greater than 50, remained unstable or coagulopathic, were home O2 dependent, or had an existing neuromuscular disorder. Outcomes were assessed in a double-blinded manner. Univariate and Kaplan-Meier estimates of cumulative probability of abdominal closure were performed. We randomized 46 patients (24 BTX, 22 placebo). There were no significant differences in demographics, comorbidities, and physiologic status. Injections were performed on average 1.8 ± 2.8 days (range, 0-14 days) after DCL. The 10-day cumulative probability of primary fascial closure was similar between groups: 96% for BTX (95% confidence interval [CI], 72-99%) and 93% for placebo (95% CI, 61-99%) (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-1.8). No difference between BTX and placebo groups was observed for hospital length of stay (37 days vs. 26 days, p = 0.30) or intensive care unit length of stay (17 days vs. 11 days, p = 0.27). There was no difference in median morphine equivalents following DCL. The overall complication rate was similar (63% vs. 68%, p = 0.69), with two deaths in the placebo group and none in the BTX group. No BTX or injection procedure complications were observed. The use of BTX after DCL was safe but did not seem to affect primary fascial closure, hospital length of stay, or pain modulation after

  11. The effect of cysteine oxidation on isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Viña, J; Saez, G T; Wiggins, D; Roberts, A F; Hems, R; Krebs, H A

    1983-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes incubated with 4mM-cysteine lose reduced glutathione, adenine nucleotides and intracellular enzymes, thus showing extensive membrane damage. The toxic effects of cysteine are enhanced by NH4Cl. Lactate, ethanol and unsaturated fatty acids afford significant protection against cysteine-induced cytoxicity. Addition of catalase to the incubation medium also protected against cysteine toxicity, indicating that H2O2 formed during the oxidation of cysteine is involved in the toxic effects observed. Under anaerobic conditions cysteine did not cause leakage of lactate dehydrogenase from cells, confirming that rapid autoxidation is an essential condition for development of the toxic effects of cysteine. PMID:6870855

  12. ER stress induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death

    PubMed Central

    Lebeaupin, C; Proics, E; de Bieville, C H D; Rousseau, D; Bonnafous, S; Patouraux, S; Adam, G; Lavallard, V J; Rovere, C; Le Thuc, O; Saint-Paul, M C; Anty, R; Schneck, A S; Iannelli, A; Gugenheim, J; Tran, A; Gual, P; Bailly-Maitre, B

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of chronic liver disease is constantly increasing, owing to the obesity epidemic. However, the causes and mechanisms of inflammation-mediated liver damage remain poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an initiator of cell death and inflammatory mechanisms. Although obesity induces ER stress, the interplay between hepatic ER stress, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death signaling has not yet been explored during the etiology of chronic liver diseases. Steatosis is a common disorder affecting obese patients; moreover, 25% of these patients develop steatohepatitis with an inherent risk for progression to hepatocarcinoma. Increased plasma LPS levels have been detected in the serum of patients with steatohepatitis. We hypothesized that, as a consequence of increased plasma LPS, ER stress could be induced and lead to NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death associated with steatohepatitis progression. In livers from obese mice, administration of LPS or tunicamycin results in IRE1α and PERK activation, leading to the overexpression of CHOP. This, in turn, activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, subsequently initiating hepatocyte pyroptosis (caspase-1, -11, interleukin-1β secretion) and apoptosis (caspase-3, BH3-only proteins). In contrast, the LPS challenge is blocked by the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA, resulting in: CHOP downregulation, reduced caspase-1, caspase-11, caspase-3 activities, lowered interleukin-1β secretion and rescue from cell death. The central role of CHOP in mediating the activation of proinflammatory caspases and cell death was characterized by performing knockdown experiments in primary mouse hepatocytes. Finally, the analysis of human steatohepatitis liver biopsies showed a correlation between the upregulation of inflammasome and ER stress markers, as well as liver injury. We demonstrate here that ER stress leads to hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome pyroptotic death, thus contributing as a novel mechanism of

  13. [Hepatocyte mitochondrion respiratory chain in rats with experimental toxic hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Shiriaeva, A P; Baĭdiuk, E V; Arkad'eva, A V; Okovityĭ, S V; Morozov, V I; Sakuta, G A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine hepatocyte mitochondrion respiratory chain in rats subjected to ethanol and CCl4 administration within 4 weeks to induce an experimental hepatitis. Oxygen consumption was determined as a measure of mitochondrion respiration chain function. The development of liver pathology was accompanied by fat accumulation, fibrosis, triglycerides and lipid peroxidation increase. Respiratory chain characteristics damage was found. Endogenous oxygen consumption by hepatocytes isolated from pathological liver was found 34% higher compared to control. Exogenous malate and pyruvate substrates delivery didn't stimulate cell respiration. Rotenone (the inhibitor of the I complex) decreased 27% oxygen consumption by pathological hepatocytes while dinitrophenol produced 37% cell respiration increase. States 3 (V3) and 4 (V4) mitochondrial respiration with malate + glutamate as substrates were found to be 70 and 56% higher accordingly compared to control level. V3 and Vd (dinitrophenol respiration) for mitochondria from pathological liver didn't differ from control when being tested with malate + glutamate or succinate as substrates. Cytochrome c oxidase activity increased (+ 80%) as compared to control. Administration of hypolipidemic agent simvastatin simultaneously with ethanol and CC14 resulted in decrease liver fat accumulation, fibrosis and peroxidation products. Simvastatin administration caused hepatocyte endogenous respiration decrease while malate + pyruvate, dinitrophenol or rotenone delivery produced oxygen consumption alterations similar to control. However, when isolated mitochondria from liver of simvastatin treated animals being tested the decrease of oxidative phosphorylation coupling for substrates malate + glutamate was found. While simvastatin did not cause changes in cytochrome c oxidase activity. We propose the hypothesis that the NCCR complex in rat mitochondria with experimental toxic hepatitis works extensively on

  14. Hepatocyte Death: A Clear and Present Danger

    PubMed Central

    MALHI, HARMEET; GUICCIARDI, MARIA EUGENIA; GORES, GREGORY J.

    2010-01-01

    The hepatocyte is especially vulnerable to injury due to its central role in xenobiotic metabolism including drugs and alcohol, participation in lipid and fatty acid metabolism, its unique role in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, the widespread prevalence of hepatotropic viruses, and its existence within a milieu of innate immune responding cells. Apoptosis and necrosis are the most widely recognized forms of hepatocyte cell death. The hepatocyte displays many unique features regarding cell death by apoptosis. It is quite susceptible to death receptor-mediated injury, and its death receptor signaling pathways involve the mitochondrial pathway for efficient cell killing. Also, death receptors can trigger lysosomal disruption in hepatocytes which further promote cell and tissue injury. Interestingly, hepatocytes are protected from cell death by only two anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, which have nonredundant functions. Endoplasmic reticulum stress or the unfolded protein response contributes to hepatocyte cell death during alterations of lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Finally, the current information implicating RIP kinases in necrosis provides an approach to more fully address this mode of cell death in hepatocyte injury. All of these processes contributing to hepatocyte injury are discussed in the context of potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:20664081

  15. Preparation of equine isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bakala, A; Karlik, W; Wiechetek, M

    2003-01-01

    In this study a detailed description of the equine hepatocyte isolation procedure is presented. Livers were obtained from horses slaughtered at the local slaughterhouse. For blood removal and liver preservation the following steps are suggested: perfusion with the oxygenated HBSS (0-2 degrees C, with continuous flow of 500-800 ml/min for 3-6 min), protection from ischemia injury by flushing with ice-cold University of Wisconsin Solution (UW, flow rate of 500-800 ml/min), and finally immersion of the liver lobe in UW solution (2 degrees C) during its transport to the laboratory. For equine isolated hepatocyte preparation a "three-step" perfusion procedure was elaborated: rewarming, chelating and collagenase perfusion. We found optimal cell yield and viability under the following conditions: rewarming with UW (38 degrees C) for 8-14 min, chelating with calcium free Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS, 38 degrees C) supplemented with 1 mM ethylene glycol-bis[beta-aminoethyl esther]-N,N,N'N'-tetracetic acid at the flow rate of 450 ml/min for 6 min and enzymatic digestion with HBSS supplemented with 0.1% collagenase at 38 degrees C and 450 ml/min flow rate for 8-27 min. These conditions consistently generated cell harvests of 21 x 10(6)+/-4.86 cells/g of perfused liver tissue with viability of 82.7%+/-10.2.

  16. Induction of hepatocyte proliferation by retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Ledda-Columbano, G M; Pibiri, M; Molotzu, F; Cossu, C; Sanna, L; Simbula, G; Perra, A; Columbano, A

    2004-11-01

    Retinoids have been shown to exert an anticarcinogenic effect through suppression of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and/or differentiation. In rat liver, in particular, retinoic acid has been shown to inhibit regeneration after partial hepatectomy, most probably through repression of the expression of c-fos and c-jun. Surprisingly enough, in spite of the proposed therapeutic effects of all-trans retinoic acid (tRA) no data are available on its effect on normal adult liver. Here, we show that tRA administration in the diet (150 mg/kg) increased DNA synthesis in mouse liver, at 1 and 2 weeks, with a return to control values at 4 weeks (labelling index was 16.5, 8.3 and 3.3%, respectively, versus control values of 1.4, 1.3 and 2.5%). Increase in mitotic index paralleled that of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Kinetic studies showed that entry into S phase began between 24 and 48 h, with a peak between 96 and 120 h. Histological observation of the liver and biochemical evaluation of the levels of serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminases did not reveal any evidence of cell death demonstrating that increased DNA synthesis was not due to tRA-induced liver damage and regeneration, but rather the consequence of a direct mitogenic effect. In addition, analysis of total hepatic DNA content after a 7-day treatment showed a significant increase in tRA-fed mice compared with controls (21.11 mg/100 g body wt in tRA-fed mice versus 15.67 mg/100 g body wt of controls). Hepatocyte proliferation in tRA-fed mice was associated with increased hepatic levels of cyclin D1, E and A, and enhanced expression of the member of pRb family, p107. In conclusion, the results showed that tRA induces hepatocyte proliferation in the absence of cell death, similarly to other ligands of steroid/thyroid hormone nuclear receptor superfamily. The mitogenic effect of tRA cautions about its possible use for antitumoral purposes in liver carcinogenesis.

  17. Rescuing hepatocytes from iron-catalyzed oxidative stress using vitamins B1 and B6.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rhea; Dedina, Liana; O'Brien, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    In the following rescue experiments, iron-mediated hepatocyte oxidative stress cytotoxicity was found to be prevented if vitamin B1 or B6 was added 1h after treatment with iron. The role of iron in catalyzing Fenton-mediated oxidative damage has been implicated in iron overload genetic diseases, carcinogenesis (colon cancer), Alzheimer's disease and complications associated with the metabolic syndrome through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objectives of this study were to interpret the cytotoxic mechanisms and intracellular targets of oxidative stress using "accelerated cytotoxicity mechanism screening" techniques (ACMS) and to evaluate the rescue strategies of vitamins B1 and B6. Significant cytoprotection by antioxidants or ROS scavengers indicated that iron-mediated cytotoxicity could be attributed to reactive oxygen species. Of the B6 vitamers, pyridoxal was best at rescuing hepatocytes from iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein oxidation, and DNA damage, while pyridoxamine manifested greatest protection against ROS-mediated damage. Thiamin (B1) decreased LPO, mitochondrial and protein damage and DNA oxidation. Together, these results indicate that added B1 and B6 vitamins protect against the multiple targets of iron-catalyzed oxidative damage in hepatocytes. This study provides insight into the search for multi-targeted natural therapies to slow or retard the progression of diseases associated with Fenton-mediated oxidative damage.

  18. Exosomes derived from alcohol-treated hepatocytes horizontally transfer liver specific miRNA-122 and sensitize monocytes to LPS.

    PubMed

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Bala, Shashi; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2015-05-14

    Hepatocyte damage and inflammation in monocytes/macrophages are central to the pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate all of these processes. MiRNA-122 is abundantly expressed in hepatocytes while monocytes/macrophages have low levels. The role of exosomes in AH and possible cross talk between hepatocyte-derived exosomes and immune cells is not explored yet. Here, we show that the number of exosomes significantly increases in the sera of healthy individuals after alcohol binge drinking and in mice after binge or chronic alcohol consumption. Exosomes isolated from sera after alcohol consumption or from in vitro ethanol-treated hepatocytes contained miRNA-122. Exosomes derived from ethanol-treated Huh7.5 cells were taken up by the recipients THP1 monocytes and horizontally transferred a mature form of liver-specific miRNA-122. In vivo, liver mononuclear cells and Kupffer cells from alcohol-fed mice had increased miRNA-122 levels. In monocytes, miRNA-122 transferred via exosomes inhibited the HO-1 pathway and sensitized to LPS stimulation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, inflammatory effects of exosomes from ethanol-treated hepatocytes were prevented by using RNA interference via exosome-mediated delivery of a miRNA-122 inhibitor. These results demonstrate that first, exosomes mediate communication between hepatocytes and monocytes/macrophages and second, hepatocyte-derived miRNA-122 can reprogram monocytes inducing sensitization to LPS.

  19. Progressive induction of hepatocyte progenitor cells in chronically injured liver

    PubMed Central

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Nishikawa, Yuji; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated epithelial cells show substantial lineage plasticity upon severe tissue injuries. In chronically injured mouse livers, part of hepatocytes become Sry-HMG box containing 9 (Sox9) (+) epithelial cell adhesion molecule (−) hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (+) biphenotypic hepatocytes. However, it is not clear whether all Sox9+ hepatocytes uniformly possess cellular properties as hepatocyte progenitors. Here, we examined the microarray data comparing Sox9+ hepatocytes with mature hepatocytes and identified CD24 as a novel marker for biphenotypic hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that part of Sox9+ hepatocytes near expanded ductular structures expressed CD24 in the liver injured by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-collidine (DDC) diet and by bile duct ligation. Indeed, Sox9+ hepatocytes could be separated into CD24− and CD24+ cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting. The ratio of CD24+ cells against CD24− ones in Sox9+ hepatocytes gradually increased while DDC-injury progressed and colony-forming capability mostly attributed to CD24+ cells. Although hepatocyte markers were remarkably downregulated in of Sox9+ CD24+ hepatocytes, they re-differentiated into mature hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Our current results demonstrate that the emergence of biphenotypic hepatocytes is a sequential event including the transition from CD24− and CD24+ status, which may be a crucial step for hepatocytes to acquire progenitor properties. PMID:28051157

  20. Macrophage activation by factors released from acetaminophen-injured hepatocytes: Potential role of HMGB1

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2011-06-15

    Toxic doses of acetaminophen (AA) cause hepatocellular necrosis. Evidence suggests that activated macrophages contribute to the pathogenic process; however, the factors that activate these cells are unknown. In these studies, we assessed the role of mediators released from AA-injured hepatocytes in macrophage activation. Treatment of macrophages with conditioned medium (CM) collected 24 hr after treatment of mouse hepatocytes with 5 mM AA (CM-AA) resulted in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Macrophage expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and catalase mRNA was also upregulated by CM-AA, as well as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and 12/15-lipoxygenase (LOX). CM-AA also upregulated expression of the proinflammatory chemokines, MIP-1{alpha} and MIP-2. The effects of CM-AA on expression of COX-2, MIP-1{alpha} and MIP-2 were inhibited by blockade of p44/42 MAP kinase, suggesting a biochemical mechanism mediating macrophage activation. Hepatocytes injured by AA were found to release HMGB1, a potent macrophage activator. This was inhibited by pretreatment of hepatocytes with ethyl pyruvate (EP), which blocks HMGB1 release. EP also blocked CM-AA induced ROS production and antioxidant expression, and reduced expression of COX-2, but not MIP-1{alpha} or MIP-2. These findings suggest that HMGB1 released by AA-injured hepatocytes contributes to macrophage activation. This is supported by our observation that expression of the HMGB1 receptor RAGE is upregulated in macrophages in response to CM-AA. These data indicate that AA-injured hepatocytes contribute to the inflammatory environment in the liver through the release of mediators such as HMGB1. Blocking HMGB1/RAGE may be a useful approach to limiting classical macrophage activation and AA-induced hepatotoxicity. - Research Highlights: > These studies analyze macrophage activation by mediators released from acetaminophen-damaged hepatocytes. > Factors released from acetaminophen-injured hepatocytes induce

  1. Pericentral hepatocytes produce IGF-2 to promote liver regeneration during special injuries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junlai; Hu, Xiao; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinqi; Wang, Lu; Wang, Binbin; Peng, Wenbo; Yang, Cuiwei; Li, Zhijie; Chen, Yan; Wang, Yue J; Li, Chuanjiang; Li, Xiajun; Yan, Fang; Wang, Yunfang; Shang, Changzhen; Wang, Xin; Chen, Tao; Huang, Pengyu

    2017-06-27

    Liver regeneration happens after various types of injuries. Unlike the well-studied liver regeneration caused by partial hepatectomy, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that liver regeneration during other injuries may result from some unknown mechanism. In this study, we found that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) was drastically induced following the liver injuries caused by tyrosinemia or long-term treatments of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ). However, it was not observed during the early phase of acute liver injuries after partial hepatectomy or single treatment of CCl4 . Remarkably, most of IGF-2 expressing hepatocytes were located at the histological area around the central vein of liver lobule after the liver injuries caused either in Fah-deficient mice or in CCl4 chronically treated mice. Hepatocyte proliferation in vivo was significantly promoted by the induced IGF-2 over-expression, which could be inhibited by AAV-delivered IGF-2 shRNAs or linsitinib, an inhibitor of IGF-2 signaling. Proliferating hepatocytes in vivo responded to IGF-2 via both insulin receptor and IGF-1 receptor. IGF-2 also significantly promoted DNA synthesis of primary hepatocytes in vitro. More interestingly, the significantly induced IGF-2 was also found to co-localize with glutamine synthetase in the region enriched with proliferating hepatocytes for the liver samples from patients with liver fibrosis. IGF-2 is produced by pericentral hepatocytes to promote hepatocyte proliferation and repair tissue damage in the setting of chronic liver injury, which is distinct from the signaling that occurs after partial hepatectomy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Trigger Loss of Function and Perturbation of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Vaishaali; Wilson, Christina L.; Hayward, Stephen L.; Kidambi, Srivatsan

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are one of the most highly manufactured and employed nanomaterials in the world with applications in copious industrial and consumer products. The liver is a major accumulation site for many nanoparticles, including TiO2, directly through intentional exposure or indirectly through unintentional ingestion via water, food or animals and increased environmental contamination. Growing concerns over the current usage of TiO2 coupled with the lack of mechanistic understanding of its potential health risk is the motivation for this study. Here we determined the toxic effect of three different TiO2 nanoparticles (commercially available rutile, anatase and P25) on primary rat hepatocytes. Specifically, we evaluated events related to hepatocyte functions and mitochondrial dynamics: (1) urea and albumin synthesis using colorimetric and ELISA assays, respectively; (2) redox signaling mechanisms by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP); (3) OPA1 and Mfn-1 expression that mediates the mitochondrial dynamics by PCR; and (4) mitochondrial morphology by MitoTracker Green FM staining. All three TiO2 nanoparticles induced a significant loss (p < 0.05) in hepatocyte functions even at concentrations as low as 50 ppm with commercially used P25 causing maximum damage. TiO2 nanoparticles induced a strong oxidative stress in primary hepatocytes. TiO2 nanoparticles exposure also resulted in morphological changes in mitochondria and substantial loss in the fusion process, thus impairing the mitochondrial dynamics. Although this study demonstrated that TiO2 nanoparticles exposure resulted in substantial damage to primary hepatocytes, more in vitro and in vivo studies are required to determine the complete toxicological mechanism in primary hepatocytes and subsequently liver function. PMID:26247363

  3. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Trigger Loss of Function and Perturbation of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Primary Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Vaishaali; Wilson, Christina L; Hayward, Stephen L; Kidambi, Srivatsan

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are one of the most highly manufactured and employed nanomaterials in the world with applications in copious industrial and consumer products. The liver is a major accumulation site for many nanoparticles, including TiO2, directly through intentional exposure or indirectly through unintentional ingestion via water, food or animals and increased environmental contamination. Growing concerns over the current usage of TiO2 coupled with the lack of mechanistic understanding of its potential health risk is the motivation for this study. Here we determined the toxic effect of three different TiO2 nanoparticles (commercially available rutile, anatase and P25) on primary rat hepatocytes. Specifically, we evaluated events related to hepatocyte functions and mitochondrial dynamics: (1) urea and albumin synthesis using colorimetric and ELISA assays, respectively; (2) redox signaling mechanisms by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP); (3) OPA1 and Mfn-1 expression that mediates the mitochondrial dynamics by PCR; and (4) mitochondrial morphology by MitoTracker Green FM staining. All three TiO2 nanoparticles induced a significant loss (p < 0.05) in hepatocyte functions even at concentrations as low as 50 ppm with commercially used P25 causing maximum damage. TiO2 nanoparticles induced a strong oxidative stress in primary hepatocytes. TiO2 nanoparticles exposure also resulted in morphological changes in mitochondria and substantial loss in the fusion process, thus impairing the mitochondrial dynamics. Although this study demonstrated that TiO2 nanoparticles exposure resulted in substantial damage to primary hepatocytes, more in vitro and in vivo studies are required to determine the complete toxicological mechanism in primary hepatocytes and subsequently liver function.

  4. Reducing Hepatocyte Injury and Necrosis in Response to Paracetamol Using Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Szkolnicka, Dagmara; Lucendo-Villarin, Baltasar; Moore, Joanna K; Simpson, Kenneth J; Forbes, Stuart J; Hay, David C

    2016-06-01

    The liver performs multiple functions within the human body. It is composed of numerous cell types, which play important roles in organ physiology. Our study centers on the major metabolic cell type of the liver, the hepatocyte, and its susceptibility to damage during drug overdose. In these studies, hepatocytes were generated from a renewable and genetically defined resource. In vitro-derived hepatocytes were extensively profiled and exposed to varying levels of paracetamol and plasma isolated from liver-failure patients, with a view to identifying noncoding microRNAs that could reduce drug- or serum-induced hepatotoxicity. We identified a novel anti-microRNA, which reduced paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity and glutathione depletion. Additionally, we identified a prosurvival role for anti-microRNA-324 following exposure to plasma collected from liver failure patients. We believe that these studies represent an important advance for the field, demonstrating the power of stem cell-derived systems to model human biology "in a dish" and identify novel noncoding microRNAs, which could be translated to the clinic in the future. The liver performs vital functions within the human body and is composed of numerous cell types. The major metabolic cell type of the liver, the hepatocyte, is susceptible to damage during drug overdose. In these studies, hepatocytes were generated from a renewable resource and exposed to varying levels of paracetamol, with a view to identifying interventions that could reduce or attenuate drug-induced liver toxicity. A novel noncoding RNA that reduced paracetamol-induced hepatocyte toxicity was identified. These findings may represent an important advance for the field. ©AlphaMed Press.

  5. Reducing Hepatocyte Injury and Necrosis in Response to Paracetamol Using Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Szkolnicka, Dagmara; Lucendo-Villarin, Baltasar; Moore, Joanna K.; Simpson, Kenneth J.; Forbes, Stuart J.

    2016-01-01

    The liver performs multiple functions within the human body. It is composed of numerous cell types, which play important roles in organ physiology. Our study centers on the major metabolic cell type of the liver, the hepatocyte, and its susceptibility to damage during drug overdose. In these studies, hepatocytes were generated from a renewable and genetically defined resource. In vitro-derived hepatocytes were extensively profiled and exposed to varying levels of paracetamol and plasma isolated from liver-failure patients, with a view to identifying noncoding microRNAs that could reduce drug- or serum-induced hepatotoxicity. We identified a novel anti-microRNA, which reduced paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity and glutathione depletion. Additionally, we identified a prosurvival role for anti-microRNA-324 following exposure to plasma collected from liver failure patients. We believe that these studies represent an important advance for the field, demonstrating the power of stem cell-derived systems to model human biology “in a dish” and identify novel noncoding microRNAs, which could be translated to the clinic in the future. Significance The liver performs vital functions within the human body and is composed of numerous cell types. The major metabolic cell type of the liver, the hepatocyte, is susceptible to damage during drug overdose. In these studies, hepatocytes were generated from a renewable resource and exposed to varying levels of paracetamol, with a view to identifying interventions that could reduce or attenuate drug-induced liver toxicity. A novel noncoding RNA that reduced paracetamol-induced hepatocyte toxicity was identified. These findings may represent an important advance for the field. PMID:27057006

  6. N-acetylcysteine protects against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jicang; Zhu, Huali; Liu, Xuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known hepatotoxic environmental pollutant. We used rat hepatocytes as a model to study oxidative damage induced by Cd, effects on the antioxidant systems, and the role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in protecting cells against Cd toxicity. Hepatocytes were incubated for 12 and 24 h with Cd (2.5, 5, 10 µM). Results showed that Cd can induce cytotoxicity: 10 µM resulted in 36.2% mortality after 12 h and 47.8% after 24 h. Lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities increased. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation increased in Cd-treated hepatocytes along with malondialdehyde levels. Glutathione concentrations significantly decreased after treatment with Cd for 12 h but increased after 24 h of Cd exposure. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase activity significantly increased after treatment with Cd for 12 h but decreased after 24 h. superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased at 12 h and 24 h. glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities decreased, but not significantly. Rat hepatocytes incubated with NAC and Cd simultaneously had significantly increased viability and decreased Cd-induced ROS generation. Our results suggested that Cd induces ROS generation that leads to oxidative stress. Moreover, NAC protects rat hepatocytes from cytotoxicity associated with Cd. PMID:25234327

  7. Abnormal lipid processing but normal long-term repopulation potential of myc−/− hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Lia R.; Otero, P. Anthony; Sharma, Lokendra; D'souza, Sonia; Dolezal, James M.; David, Sherin; Lu, Jie; Lamm, Lauren; Basantani, Mahesh; Zhang, Pili; Sipula, Ian J.; Li, Lucy; Zeng, Xuemei; Ding, Ying; Ding, Fei; Beck, Megan E.; Vockley, Jerry; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Kershaw, Erin E.; O'Doherty, Robert M.; Kratz, Lisa E.; Yates, Nathan A.; Goetzman, Eric P.; Scott, Donald; Duncan, Andrew W.; Prochownik, Edward V.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing c-Myc's (Myc) role in liver regeneration has proven difficult particularly since the traditional model of partial hepatectomy may provoke an insufficiently demanding proliferative stress. We used a model of hereditary tyrosinemia whereby the affected parenchyma can be gradually replaced by transplanted hepatocytes, which replicate 50-100-fold, over several months. Prior to transplantation, livers from myc−/− (KO) mice were smaller in young animals and larger in older animals relative to myc+/+ (WT) counterparts. KO mice also consumed more oxygen, produced more CO2 and generated more heat. Although WT and KO hepatocytes showed few mitochondrial structural differences, the latter demonstrated defective electron transport chain function. RNAseq revealed differences in transcripts encoding ribosomal subunits, cytochrome p450 members and enzymes for triglyceride and sterol biosynthesis. KO hepatocytes also accumulated neutral lipids. WT and KO hepatocytes repopulated recipient tyrosinemic livers equally well although the latter were associated with a pro-inflammatory hepatic environment that correlated with worsening lipid accumulation, its extracellular deposition and parenchymal oxidative damage. Our results show Myc to be dispensable for sustained in vivo hepatocyte proliferation but necessary for maintaining normal lipid homeostasis. myc−/− livers resemble those encountered in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and, under sustained proliferative stress, gradually acquire the features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:27105497

  8. Protective effect of metallothionein on cadmium toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Din, W S; Frazier, J M

    1985-01-01

    An isolated rat hepatocyte preparation was used to study the cellular toxicity of cadmium and the protective effects of metallothionein on cadmium-induced toxicity. Exposure of primary suspension cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes to Cd2+ (0-35.7 microM) for 15 min resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the synthesis of cellular proteins during a subsequent 6 h incubation. Such inhibition could not be correlated with cellular lethality or gross membrane damage. Pre-induction of metallothionein in hepatocytes by zinc treatment in vivo of donor rats protected hepatocytes in vitro from cadmium-induced inhibition of protein synthesis. The protective effects in zinc-pre-induced hepatocytes are not due to alterations in the level of total cellular cadmium, but could be accounted for by the redistribution of intracellular cadmium in the presence of high levels of zinc-metallothionein. The data suggest that metallothionein exerts its protective effect by a kinetic detoxification mechanism, i.e. a decrease in reactive intracellular cadmium. PMID:4052053

  9. In utero Transplanted Human Hepatocytes Allows for Postnatal Engraftment of Human Hepatocytes in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, James E; Lillegard, Joseph B; Mckenzie, Travis J; Rodysill, Brian R; Wettstein, Peter J; Nyberg, Scott L

    2012-01-01

    In utero cell transplantation (IUCT) can lead to postnatal engraftment of human cells in the xenogeneic recipient. Most reports of IUCTs have involved hematopoietic stem cells. It is unknown if human hepatocytes used for IUCT in fetal pigs will lead to engraftment of these same cells in the postnatal environment. In this study, fetal pigs received direct liver injections of 1×107 human hepatocytes in utero and were delivered by cesarean-section at term. Piglets received a second direct liver injection of 5×107 human hepatocytes 1 week postnatally. Serum was analyzed for human albumin at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-engraftment. Piglet livers were harvested 6 weeks after transplantation and examined by immunohistochemistry, PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization for human specific sequences. Piglets receiving IUCT with human hepatocytes that were postnatally engrafted with human hepatocytes showed significant levels of human albumin production in their serum at all post-engraftment time points. Human albumin gene expression, the presence of human hepatocytes and the presence of human beta-2 microglobulin were all confirmed 6 weeks post-engraftment. IUCT in fetal pigs using human hepatocytes early in gestation allowed for engraftment of human hepatocytes, which remained viable and functional for weeks after transplantation. IUCT followed by postnatal engraftment may provide a future means for large scale expansion of human hepatocytes in genetically-engineered pigs. PMID:23280879

  10. An HNF1α-regulated feedback circuit modulates hepatic fibrogenesis via the crosstalk between hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hui; Deng, Xing; Huang, Zhao-Wei; Wei, Ji; Ding, Chen-Hong; Feng, Ren-Xin; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Yue-Xiang; Ding, Jin; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhen-Lin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Hong-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ping; Xie, Wei-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocytes are critical for the maintenance of liver homeostasis, but its involvement in hepatic fibrogenesis remains elusive. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) is a liver-enriched transcription factor that plays a key role in hepatocyte function. Our previous study revealed a significant inhibitory effect of HNF1α on hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we report that the expression of HNF1α is significantly repressed in both human and rat fibrotic liver. Knockdown of HNF1α in the liver significantly aggravates hepatic fibrogenesis in either dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) or bile duct ligation (BDL) model in rats. In contrast, forced expression of HNF1α markedly alleviates hepatic fibrosis. HNF1α regulates the transcriptional expression of SH2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) via directly binding to SHP-1 promoter in hepatocytes. Inhibition of SHP-1 expression abrogates the anti-fibrotic effect of HNF1α in DMN-treated rats. Moreover, HNF1α repression in primary hepatocytes leads to the activation of NF-κB and JAK/STAT pathways and initiates an inflammatory feedback circuit consisting of HNF1α, SHP-1, STAT3, p65, miR-21 and miR-146a, which sustains the deregulation of HNF1α in hepatocytes. More interestingly, a coordinated crosstalk between hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) participates in this positive feedback circuit and facilitates the progression of hepatocellular damage. Our findings demonstrate that impaired hepatocytes play an active role in hepatic fibrogenesis. Early intervention of HNF1α-regulated inflammatory feedback loop in hepatocytes may have beneficial effects in the treatment of chronic liver diseases. PMID:26169608

  11. Valproic acid II: effects on oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytotoxicity in glutathione-depleted rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tong, Vincent; Teng, Xiao Wei; Chang, Thomas K H; Abbott, Frank S

    2005-08-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with valproic acid (VPA) treatment, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of VPA-idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of VPA and the role of GSH on oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, and toxicity in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, and total levels of glutathione (GSH) reduced by pretreatment with a combination of L-buthionine sulfoximine (2 mM) and diethylmaleate (0.5 mM) prior to VPA (0-1000 microg/ml) treatment. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the levels of 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) was determined by using the dual-fluorescent dye JC-1, and cell viability was evaluated by the water-soluble tetrazolium salt WST-1 assay. Exposure of rat hepatocytes to VPA (0-1000 mug/ml) resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in 15-F(2t)-IsoP and DCF fluorescence, and these levels were further elevated in GSH-reduced hepatocytes. In control hepatocytes, VPA had no effect on cell viability; however, significant cytotoxicity was observed in the glutathione-depleted hepatocytes treated with 1000 mug/ml VPA. The Deltapsi(m) was only reduced in glutathione-reduced hepatocytes at 500 and 1000 microg/ml VPA. Our novel findings indicate that acute treatment of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with VPA resulted in oxidative stress, which occurred in the absence of cytotoxicity, and that glutathione confers protection to hepatocytes against mitochondrial damage by VPA.

  12. Protective effects of melittin on transforming growth factor-{beta}1 injury to hepatocytes via anti-apoptotic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Yoon-Yub; Han, Sang-Mi; Park, Kwan-kyu

    2011-10-15

    Melittin is a cationic, hemolytic peptide that is the main toxic component in the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Melittin has multiple effects, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory, in various cell types. However, the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of melittin have not been fully elucidated in hepatocytes. Apoptosis contributes to liver inflammation and fibrosis. Knowledge of the apoptotic mechanisms is important to develop new and effective therapies for treatment of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, liver cancer, and other liver diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. TGF-{beta}1-treated hepatocytes were exposed to low doses (0.5 and 1 {mu}g/mL) and high dose (2 {mu}g/mL) of melittin. The low doses significantly protected these cells from DNA damage in TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptosis compared to the high dose. Also, melittin suppressed TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptotic activation of the Bcl-2 family and caspase family of proteins, which resulted in the inhibition of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These results demonstrate that TGF-{beta}1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis and that an optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects against TGF-{beta}1-induced injury to hepatocytes via the mitochondrial pathway. These results suggest that an optimal dose of melittin can serve to protect cells against TGF-{beta}1-mediated injury. - Highlights: > We investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on TGF-{beta}1-induced hepatocyte. > TGF-{beta}1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis. > TGF-{beta}1-treated hepatocytes were exposed to low doses and high dose of melittin. > Optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects to hepatocytes.

  13. Reduced expression of mature TGF beta 1 correlates with the suppression of rat hepatocyte apoptosis by the peroxisome proliferator, nafenopin.

    PubMed

    Strange, J; Roberts, R A

    1996-11-11

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens cause cancer without damaging the DNA. Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) are a class of potent rodent non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens that may act by perturbing hepatocyte growth regulation. Previously, we have shown that although cultured rat hepatocytes degenerate rapidly in culture, their survival can be reversibly maintained by the PP nafenopin. This prolonged survival is associated with a decrease in the number of hepatocytes displaying the chromatin condensation characteristic of apoptosis. The addition of the negative growth regulator TGF beta-1 induced high levels of hepatocyte apoptosis but nafenopin was able to suppress this TGF beta-1 induced apoptosis. These data suggested that increased levels of mature TGF beta-1 may be involved in the signalling of the apoptosis seen in degenerating hepatocyte cultures. To test this hypothesis, we carried out Western blot analyses using a anti-TGF beta 1 antibody. There was an increase (p = 0.014) in expression of mature TGF beta 1 in degenerating rat hepatocyte cultures compared with hepatocyte cultures surviving in the presence of nafenopin. However, there was a concomitant decrease (p = 0.024) in TGF beta 1-latency activated protein (TGF beta 1-LAP), the precursor of the active, mature form. Immunocytochemistry confirmed that TGF beta 1/TGF beta 1-LAP expression was predominantly in the hepatocytes displaying apoptotic morphology although expression was detected also in non-parenchymal liver cells. The immunocytochemistry data indicate that TGF beta 1 is involved during the onset of hepatocyte apoptosis and that the PP nafenopin can impinge on this cell death pathway. TGF beta 1-LAP, probably produced mainly by the non-parenchymal liver cells, may be processed less efficiently to the mature, active form in the presence of nafenopin, although more data are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  14. Selective insulin resistance in hepatocyte senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Aravinthan, Aloysious; Challis, Benjamin; Shannon, Nicholas; Hoare, Matthew; Heaney, Judith; Alexander, Graeme J.M.

    2015-02-01

    Insulin resistance has been described in association with chronic liver disease for decades. Hepatocyte senescence has been demonstrated in chronic liver disease and as many as 80% of hepatocytes show a senescent phenotype in advanced liver disease. The aim of this study was to understand the role of hepatocyte senescence in the development of insulin resistance. Senescence was induced in HepG2 cells via oxidative stress. The insulin metabolic pathway was studied in control and senescent cells following insulin stimulation. GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied in HepG2 cells and human liver tissue. Further, GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied in three independent chronic liver disease cohorts. Signalling impairment distal to Akt in phosphorylation of AS160 and FoxO1 was evident in senescent HepG2 cells. Persistent nuclear localisation of FoxO1 was demonstrated in senescent cells despite insulin stimulation. Increased GLUT4 and decreased GLUT2 expressions were evident in senescent cells, human cirrhotic liver tissue and publically available liver disease datasets. Changes in GLUT expressions were associated with a poor clinical prognosis. In conclusion, selective insulin resistance is evident in senescent HepG2 cells and changes in GLUT expressions can be used as surrogate markers of hepatocyte senescence. - Highlights: • Senescent hepatocytes demonstrate selective insulin resistance. • GLUT changes act as markers of hepatocyte senescence and have prognostic value. • Study offers insight into long noticed intimacy of cirrhosis and insulin resistance.

  15. Hepatic heme catabolism in cultured hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, B.C.; Bonkovsky, H.L.

    1987-05-01

    Uncertainty persists concerning the role and importance of heme oxygenase in the catabolism of heme by hepatocytes. The products of heme oxygenase catalyzed heme catabolism are equimolar amounts of biliverdin IX..cap alpha.., CO, and iron. Previous reports from studies with rodent hepatocyte cultures have suggested the possibility that non-heme oxygenase pathway(s) predominate in the breakdown of hepatic hemoprotein heme. The authors have studied this question in cultured chick embryo hepatocytes, which retain normal regulation of heme metabolism and levels of cytochromes P-450 as in intact animals. Exogenous heme added to the culture medium with control chick embryo hepatocyte cultures was quantitatively converted to biliverdin IX..cap alpha... To study endogenous heme breakdown, cellular heme was labelled by exposing cultured cells to (5-/sup 14/C) 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). The hepatocytes were also treated with mephenytoin that increases cytochrome P-450, total hepatic heme and heme oxygenase. At various times after labelling heme, biliverdin, and CO were isolated and counted. For at least 8 hrs, the increase in CO radioactivity corresponded to the loss of radioactivity in heme. Beyond 1 h biliverdin was unstable in culture medium, but for 1 h after labelling (dpm BVIX..cap alpha.. + dpm CO) ..delta..dpm heme. All BV detected was the ..cap alpha.. isomer. They conclude that heme oxygenase accounts for both endogenous and exogenous heme breakdown by hepatocytes.

  16. Activation of factor X by rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, A.K.; Matschiner, J.T.

    1986-05-01

    Synthesis and secretion of blood coagulation factor X was studied in hepatocytes prepared by perfusion of rat livers with collagenase. Hepatocytes were incubated in the presence of vitamin K and /sup 3/H-leucine for up to 4h at 37/sup 0/C. Factor X was isolated from the incubation medium by immunochemical techniques and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The recovered /sup 3/H-labeled proteins migrated, after reduction of disulfides, as two polypeptide chains with apparent molecular weights (M/sub r/) of approximately 42,000 and 22,000 representing the heavy and light chains of factor X respectively. The apparent M/sub r/ of the heavy chain was about 10,000 daltons lighter than seen with the heavy chain of factor X isolated from rat plasma and was more characteristic of the heavy chain of factor Xa. When the levels of factor X secreted by hepatocytes were determined by clotting assays, activity was present as factor Xa. Also, when purified plasma factor X was added to incubations of hepatocytes (>95% parenchymal cells) the added factor X was rapidly converted to factor Xa. Plasma membranes prepared from isolated hepatocytes or from liver homogenates contained an enzyme that converted factor X to factor Xa in a calcium dependent reaction. The physiological significance of a factor X activating enzyme on hepatocyte plasma membranes is not clear.

  17. Organic anion uptake by hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, Allan W

    2014-10-01

    Many of the compounds taken up by the liver are organic anions that circulate tightly bound to protein carriers such as albumin. The fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver permits these compounds to have access to hepatocytes. Studies to characterize hepatic uptake of organic anions through kinetic analyses, suggested that it was carrier-mediated. Attempts to identify specific transporters by biochemical approaches were largely unsuccessful and were replaced by studies that utilized expression cloning. These studies led to identification of the organic anion transport proteins (oatps), a family of 12 transmembrane domain glycoproteins that have broad and often overlapping substrate specificities. The oatps mediate Na(+)-independent organic anion uptake. Other studies identified a seven transmembrane domain glycoprotein, Na(+)/taurocholate transporting protein (ntcp) as mediating Na(+)-dependent uptake of bile acids as well as other organic anions. Although mutations or deficiencies of specific members of the oatp family have been associated with transport abnormalities, there have been no such reports for ntcp, and its physiologic role remains to be determined, although expression of ntcp in vitro recapitulates the characteristics of Na(+)-dependent bile acid transport that is seen in vivo. Both ntcp and oatps traffic between the cell surface and intracellular vesicular pools. These vesicles move through the cell on microtubules, using the microtubule based motors dynein and kinesins. Factors that regulate this motility are under study and may provide a unique mechanism that can alter the plasma membrane content of these transporters and consequently their accessibility to circulating ligands.

  18. Organic Anion Uptake by Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wolkoff, Allan W.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the compounds taken up by the liver are organic anions that circulate tightly bound to protein carriers such as albumin. The fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver permits these compounds to have access to hepatocytes. Studies to characterize hepatic uptake of organic anions through kinetic analyses, suggested that it was carrier-mediated. Attempts to identify specific transporters by biochemical approaches were largely unsuccessful and were replaced by studies that utilized expression cloning. These studies led to identification of the organic anion transport proteins (oatps), a family of 12 transmembrane domain glycoproteins that have broad and often overlapping substrate specificities. The oatps mediate Na+-independent organic anion uptake. Other studies identified a seven transmembrane domain glycoprotein, Na+/taurocholate transporting protein (ntcp) as mediating Na+-dependent uptake of bile acids as well as other organic anions. Although mutations or deficiencies of specific members of the oatp family have been associated with transport abnormalities, there have been no such reports for ntcp, and its physiologic role remains to be determined, although expression of ntcp in vitro recapitulates the characteristics of Na+-dependent bile acid transport that is seen in vivo. Both ntcp and oatps traffic between the cell surface and intracellular vesicular pools. These vesicles move through the cell on microtubules, using the microtubule based motors dynein and kinesins. Factors that regulate this motility are under study and may provide a unique mechanism that can alter the plasma membrane content of these transporters and consequently their accessibility to circulating ligands. PMID:25428858

  19. Differentiation-Promoting Medium Additives for Hepatocyte Cultivation and Cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gouliarmou, Varvara; Pelkonen, Olavi; Coecke, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Isolated primary hepatocytes are considered as the reference system for in vitro hepatic methods. Following the isolation of primary hepatocytes from liver tissue, an unfavorable process named dedifferentiation is initiated leading to the attenuation of the hepatocellular phenotype both at the morphological and functional level. Freshly isolated hepatocytes can be used immediately or can be cryopreserved for future purposes. Currently, a number of antidedifferentiation strategies exist to extend the life span of isolated hepatocytes. The addition of differentiation-promoting compounds to the hepatocyte culture medium is the oldest and simplest antidedifferentiation approach applied. In the present chapter, the most commonly used medium additives for cultivation and cryopreservation of primary hepatocytes are reviewed.

  20. Ultrastructural hepatocytic alterations induced by silver nanoparticle toxicity.

    PubMed

    Almansour, Mansour; Sajti, Laszlo; Melhim, Walid; Jarrar, Bashir M

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are widely used in nanomedicine and consuming products with potential risk to human health. While considerable work was carried out on the molecular, biochemical, and physiological alterations induced by these particles, little is known of the ultrastructural pathological alterations that might be induced by nanosilver materials. The aim of the present work is to investigate the hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations that might be induced by SNP exposure. Male rats were subjected to a daily single dose (2 mg/kg) of SNPs (15-35 nm diameter) for 21 days. Liver biopsies from all rats under study were processed for transmission electron microscopy examination. The following hepatic ultrastructural alterations were demonstrated: mitochondria swelling and crystolysis, endoplasmic reticulum disruption, cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid droplets accumulation, glycogen depletion, karyopyknosis, apoptosis, sinusoidal dilatation, Kupffer cells activation, and myelin figures formation. The current findings may indicate that SNPs can induce hepatocyte organelles alteration, leading to cellular damage that may affect the function of the liver. These findings might indicate that SNPs potentially trigger heptocyte ultrastructural alterations that may affect the function of the liver with potential risk on human health in relation to numerous applications of these particles. More work is needed to elucidate probable ultrastructural alterations in the vital organs that might result from nanosilver toxicity.

  1. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of roundup (glyphosate) in L-02 hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yiyuan; Zeng, Ming; Zhong, Caigao; Xiao, Fang

    2017-06-03

    The goal of the present study was to elucidate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Roundup and to reveal the possible related mechanisms in L-02 hepatocytes. By detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH)/superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) open rate, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and alanine aminotransferease (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) leakage, we determined that Roundup induced anti-oxidant system inhibition, mitochondria damage, DNA damage, membrane integrity and permeability changes, and apoptosis in L-02 hepatocytes. By revealing the mechanistic insights of Roundup-induced cytotoxicity, our results are valuable for the design of preventive and therapeutic strategies for the occupational population exposed to Roundup and other pesticides.

  2. Histological Organization in Hepatocyte Organoid Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, George K.; Bowen, William C.; Mulè, Karen; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2001-01-01

    Hepatocytes and other cellular elements isolated by collagenase perfusion of the liver and maintained in defined culture conditions undergo a series of complex changes, including apoptosis and cell proliferation, to reconstruct tissue with specific architecture. Cultures in collagen-coated pleated surface roller bottles, with hepatocyte growth medium medium and in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), form characteristic and reproducible tissue architecture composed of a superficial layer of biliary epithelial cells, an intermediate layer of connective tissue and hepatocytes, and a basal layer of endothelial cells. Dexamethasone, EGF, and HGF are required for the complete histological organization. Analysis of the structures formed demonstrates that the receptor tyrosine kinase ligands HGF and EGF are required for the presence, growth, and phenotypic maturation of the biliary epithelium on the surface of the cultures and for the formation of connective tissue in the cultures. Dexamethasone, in the presence of HGF and EGF, was required for the phenotypic maturation of hepatocytes. The results demonstrate the role of these molecules for the formation and phenotypic maturation of specific histological elements of the liver and suggest roles for these signaling molecules in the formation and structure of the in vivo hepatic architecture. PMID:11696448

  3. Propolis protects against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced toxicity in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Türkez, Hasan; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Geyikoglu, Fatime

    2012-06-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of TCDD on cultured primary rat hepatocytes. Propolis (25, 50 and 100 μM) was added to plain culture or simultaneously with TCDD (5 and 10 μM). The hepatocytes were treated with TCDD and propolis for 48 h. Then cell viability was detected by [3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS) levels were determined to evaluate the oxidative injury. The DNA damage was also analyzed by liver micronucleus assay (LMN) and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). The results of MTT and LDH assays showed that TCDD decreased cell viability. TCDD also increased TOS level and decreased TAC level in rat hepatocytes. On the basis of increasing doses, the TCDD caused significant increases of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) and 8-OH-dG levels as compared to control culture. In cultures treated with propolis alone, cell viability and TOS level were not affected, while the level of TAC was significantly increased in dose-dependent fashion. The presence of propolis with TCDD modulated its toxic effects on primary hepatocytes cultures. Noteworthy, propolis has a protective effect against TCDD-mediated DNA damages. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Cholangiocarcinomas can originate from hepatocytes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Biao; Malato, Yann; Calvisi, Diego F.; Naqvi, Syed; Razumilava, Nataliya; Ribback, Silvia; Gores, Gregory J.; Dombrowski, Frank; Evert, Matthias; Chen, Xin; Willenbring, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) are primary liver tumors with a poor prognosis. The development of effective therapies has been hampered by a limited understanding of the biology of ICCs. Although ICCs exhibit heterogeneity in location, histology, and marker expression, they are currently thought to derive invariably from the cells lining the bile ducts, biliary epithelial cells (BECs), or liver progenitor cells (LPCs). Despite lack of experimental evidence establishing BECs or LPCs as the origin of ICCs, other liver cell types have not been considered. Here we show that ICCs can originate from fully differentiated hepatocytes. Using a mouse model of hepatocyte fate tracing, we found that activated NOTCH and AKT signaling cooperate to convert normal hepatocytes into biliary cells that act as precursors of rapidly progressing, lethal ICCs. Our findings suggest a previously overlooked mechanism of human ICC formation that may be targetable for anti-ICC therapy. PMID:22797301

  5. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and hemodialysis: physiopathology and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Libetta, Carmelo; Esposito, Pasquale; Martinelli, Claudia; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Gregorini, Marilena; Rampino, Teresa; Dal Canton, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine which exerts a variety of effects on several cells, being involved in the regulation of many biological processes, such as inflammation, tissue repair, morphogenesis, angiogenesis, tumour propagation, immunomodulation of viral infections and cardio-metabolic activities. Patients undergoing regular hemodialysis (HD) present elevated levels of HGF, mainly due to the leukocyte activation associated with HD treatment. High HGF levels might account for specific clinical features of HD patients, i.e. mild liver damage in course of HCV-infection and high cardiovascular risk profile. Moreover, in patients with acute kidney injury, the induction of HGF may represent a crucial step to promote renal recovery, which can have important prognostic consequences in the short and long-term. In this review we discuss the mechanisms underlying HGF production in HD patients, the role of HGF in this particular patient population and the potential clinical implications derived from the study of HGF in HD patients.

  6. Activation-dependent mitochondrial translocation of Foxp3 in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Joselyn; Teran-Angel, Guillermo; Barbosa, Luisa; Peterson, Darrell L; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham

    2016-05-01

    Foxp3 is considered to be the master regulator for the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg). Recently Foxp3, has been detected in extra lymphoid tissue, and in hepatocytes and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although its role has not been defined. Since it is expected that there is a relationship between protein localization, activity and cellular function, the aim of this study was to explore the subcellular localization of Foxp3 in resting and stimulated human hepatocytes. Foxp3 expression was measured by flow cytometry, subcellular fractioning, and immunofluorescence, and this data was used to track the shuttling of Foxp3 in different subcellular compartments in hepatocytes (HepG2 cell line), stimulated by using the PKC activators (PMA), core and preS1/2 antigen from hepatitis B virus (HBV). Our data shows that besides the nuclear location, mitochondrial translocation was detected after stimulation with PMA and at to a lesser extent, with preS1/2. In addition, Foxp3 is localizes at outer mitochondrial membrane. These results suggest a non-canonical role of Foxp3 in the mitochondrial compartment in human hepatocytes, and opens a new field about their role in liver damages during HBV infection.

  7. Ammonia-induced energy disorders interfere with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiongye; Wang, Yanfang; Yu, Zujiang; Li, Duolu; Jia, Bin; Li, Jingjing; Guan, Kelei; Zhou, Yubing; Chen, Yanling; Kan, Quancheng

    2014-08-01

    Hyperammonemia and jaundice are the most common clinical symptoms of hepatic failure. Decreasing the level of ammonia in the blood is often accompanied by a reduction in bilirubin in patients with hepatic failure. Previous studies have shown that hyperammonemia can cause bilirubin metabolism disorders, however it is unclear exactly how hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the mechanism or mechanisms by which hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed in primary hepatocytes that had been exposed to ammonium chloride. Mitochondrial morphology and permeability were observed and analyzed, intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were determined and changes in the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism were analyzed after ammonia exposure. Hyperammonemia inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, damaged the mitochondria and hindered the TCA cycle in hepatocytes. This led to a reduction in energy synthesis, eventually affecting the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism, which then caused further problems with bilirubin metabolism. These effects were significant, but could be reversed with the addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This study demonstrates that ammonia can cause problems with bilirubin metabolism by interfering with energy synthesis.

  8. Involvement of hepatic stimulator substance in the regulation of hepatoblast maturation into hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guang-Yong; Dong, Ling-Yue; An, Wei

    2014-07-15

    Hepatic stimulator substance (HSS), also known as augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), acts as a hepatotrophic growth factor to promote liver regeneration after liver damage or partial hepatectomy. However, the expression and function of HSS during liver development in mammals remain largely unknown. In this work, the hepatoblasts were isolated from mice at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), and HSS expression and its role during hepatoblast maturation were investigated. The results showed that HSS expression was enhanced in the hepatoblasts compared with mouse primary hepatocytes. HSS expression (23 kDa) was significantly decreased if the hepatoblast maturation was induced by a combination of oncostatin M (OSM), dexamethasone (DEX), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We also found that knockdown of HSS expression (mainly 23-kDa isoform) by siRNA promoted hepatoblast maturation and also activated the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation levels. However, if STAT3 activity was blocked by a small-molecule inhibitor Stattic, then hepatocyte maturation could be abolished, suggesting that STAT3 was most likely a potential molecule responsible for HSS signaling. In summary, our results demonstrated for the first time that HSS might be an active factor participating in the regulation of liver development and hepatocyte maturation.

  9. Regulation of adiponectin receptor 1 in human hepatocytes by agonists of nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeier, Markus; Weigert, Johanna; Schaeffler, Andreas; Weiss, Thomas; Kirchner, Stefan; Laberer, Sabine; Schoelmerich, Juergen; Buechler, Christa . E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2005-09-02

    The adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 have been identified to mediate the insulin-sensitizing effects of adiponectin. Although AdipoR2 was suggested to be the main receptor for this adipokine in hepatocytes, AdipoR1 protein is highly abundant in primary human hepatocytes and hepatocytic cell lines. Nuclear receptors are main regulators of lipid metabolism and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} and {gamma}, retinoid X receptor (RXR), and liver X receptor (LXR) by specific ligands may influence AdipoR1 abundance. AdipoR1 protein is neither altered by RXR or LXR agonists nor by pioglitazone. In contrast, fenofibric acid reduces AdipoR1 whereas hepatotoxic troglitazone upregulates AdipoR1 protein in HepG2 cells. Taken together this work shows for the first time that AdipoR1 protein is expressed in human hepatocytes but that it is not a direct target gene of nuclear receptors. Elevated AdipoR1 induced by hepatotoxic troglitazone may indicate a role of this receptor in adiponectin-mediated beneficial effects in liver damage.

  10. Effect of growth hormone and estrogen administration on hepatocyte alterations in old ovariectomized female wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen; Salazar, Veronica; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2005-02-01

    Aging could be due to the accumulation of oxidative damage. On the other hand, growth hormone (GH) and estrogen deficiency induce deleterious effects on different tissues, and hormonal replacement could counteract these effects. We have investigated whether GH and estrogen administration modify some parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammation in hepatocytes isolated from old ovariectomized female rats. Twenty-two month-old ovariectomized animals were divided into control rats, rats treated with GH, rats treated with estradiol, and rats treated with GH+estradiol. Two-month-old intact female rats were used as young reference group. Hepatocytes were isolated, cultured, and CO and NO release, ATP, cyclic-guanosyl monophosphate (cGMP), and lipid peroxide (LPO) content of cells, as well as phosphatidylcholine (PC)synthesis, were measured. Hepatocytes isolated from old ovariectomized rats showed a decrease in ATP content and PC synthesis compared to young rats. Age also induced an increase in LPO, NO, CO, and cGMP. Treating old rats with GH significantly increased ATP and reduced CO and cGMP levels. Estradiol administration improved all the parameters that were altered. Co-administration of GH and estrogens induced a more marked effect than estrogens alone only in cGMP content. In conclusion, administration of estrogens to old ovariectomized females seemed to prevent oxidative changes in hepatocytes, whereas the effect of GH is not so evident.

  11. Soyasaponin Bb Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress by Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Lijie, Zhu; Ranran, Fu; Xiuying, Liu; Yutang, He; Bo, Wang; Tao, Ma

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been known that oxidative stress induced by alcohol played a crucial role in the formation of alcoholic liver disease. Although the formation mechanisms underlying liver injury induced by alcohol still remained largely unknown, it has been considered that oxidative stress played a core role in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte damage. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soyasaponin Bb (Ss-Bb) on oxidative stress in alcohol-induced rat hepatocyte injury. Results: It has been shown that the administration of Ss-Bb could significantly restore antioxidant activity in BRL 3A cells. Moreover, the impaired liver function and morphology changes resulting from ethanol exposure were improved by Ss-Bb treatment. Treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) indicated a critical role of HO-1 in mediating the protective role. Finally, we found that pretreatment with Ss-Bb to ethanol exposure cells increased the expression level of HO-1. Conclusion: It was suggested that Ss-Bb may protect against alcohol-induced hepatocyte injury through ameliorating oxidative stress, and the induction of HO-1 was an important protective mechanism. SUMMARY Effects of soyasaponin Bb was investigated on oxidative stress in rat hepatocytesCell viability and antioxidant capacities were evaluated to determine the effectsThe expression level of HO-1 was measured to reveal the proptective mechanisms PMID:27867273

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine induced oxidative injury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ji, LiLi; Liu, TianYu; Wang, ZhengTao

    2010-04-01

    Clivorine is an otonecine-type hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid (HPAs), to which humans are exposed when consuming herbs containing such components. In the present study, we investigated clivorine-induced oxidative stress injury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes were treated with various concentrations of clivorine (1-100 microM) for 48 hours, and then cell viability was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined to evaluate the oxidative injury. The results of MTT assay showed that clivorine decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Clivorine also increased LPO amounts in rat hepatocytes at the concentrations of 50 microM and 100 microM. Further results showed that clivorine decreased GPx, GST and GR activities, which are all reduced glutathione (GSH)-related antioxidant enzymes. CAT and SOD are both important antioxidant enzymes, and the results showed that clivorine increased CAT activity at the low concentration of 5 muM and decreased cellular SOD activity at all concentrations. Taken together, our results demonstrated that clivorine induced toxicity on primary cultured rat hepatocytes by causing the damage on cellular redox balance.

  13. Increased Expression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 6 Stimulates Hepatocyte Proliferation during Mouse Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yongjun; Yoshida, Yuichi; Hughes, Douglas E.; Costa, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 6 (HNF6 or ONECUT-1) protein is a cell-type specific transcription factor that regulates expression of hepatocyte-specific genes. Using hepatocytes for Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, the HNF6 protein was shown to associate with cell cycle regulatory promoters. Here, we examined whether increased levels of HNF6 stimulate hepatocyte proliferation during mouse liver regeneration. Methods Tail vein injection of adenovirus expressing the HNF6 cDNA (AdHNF6) was used to increase hepatic HNF6 levels during mouse liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy, and DNA replication was determined by Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Cotransfection and ChIP assays were used to determine transcriptional target promoters. Results Elevated expression of HNF6 during mouse liver regeneration causes a significant increase in the number of hepatocytes entering DNA replication (S-phase) and mouse hepatoma Hepa1-6 cells diminished for HNF6 levels by siRNA transfection exhibit a 50% reduction in S-phase following serum stimulation. This stimulation in hepatocyte S-phase progression was associated with increased expression of the hepatocyte mitogen Tumor Growth Factor α (TGFα) and the cell cycle regulators Cyclin D1 and Forkhead Box m1 (Foxm1) transcription factor. Cotransfection and ChIP assays show that TGFα, Cyclin D1, and HNF6 promoter regions are direct transcriptional targets of the HNF6 protein. Co-immunoprecipitation assays with regenerating mouse liver extracts reveal association between HNF6 and Foxm1 proteins and cotransfection assays show that HNF6 stimulates Foxm1 transcriptional activity. Conclusion These mouse liver regeneration studies show that increased HNF6 levels stimulate hepatocyte proliferation through transcriptional induction of cell cycle regulatory genes. PMID:16618419

  14. Constrained spheroids for prolonged hepatocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wen Hao; Fang, Yu; Yan, Jie; Hong, Xin; Hari Singh, Nisha; Wang, Shu Rui; Nugraha, Bramasta; Xia, Lei; Fong, Eliza Li Shan; Iliescu, Ciprian; Yu, Hanry

    2016-02-01

    Liver-specific functions in primary hepatocytes can be maintained over extended duration in vitro using spheroid culture. However, the undesired loss of cells over time is still a major unaddressed problem, which consequently generates large variations in downstream assays such as drug screening. In static culture, the turbulence generated by medium change can cause spheroids to detach from the culture substrate. Under perfusion, the momentum generated by Stokes force similarly results in spheroid detachment. To overcome this problem, we developed a Constrained Spheroids (CS) culture system that immobilizes spheroids between a glass coverslip and an ultra-thin porous Parylene C membrane, both surface-modified with poly(ethylene glycol) and galactose ligands for optimum spheroid formation and maintenance. In this configuration, cell loss was minimized even when perfusion was introduced. When compared to the standard collagen sandwich model, hepatocytes cultured as CS under perfusion exhibited significantly enhanced hepatocyte functions such as urea secretion, and CYP1A1 and CYP3A2 metabolic activity. We propose the use of the CS culture as an improved culture platform to current hepatocyte spheroid-based culture systems.

  15. Low-level HIV infection of hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are only limited data on whether HIV infection occurs within the liver; therefore, we explored early and late stages of the HIV life cycle in two hepatocyte cell lines – Huh7.5 and Huh7.5JFH1 – as well as in primary human hepatocytes. Results Integrated HIV DNA was detected in Huh7.5 and Huh7.5JFH1 cells, as well as in primary hepatocytes, and was inhibited by the integrase inhibitor raltegravir in a dose-dependent manner. HIV p24 protein was also detected in cell culture supernatants at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infection and was inhibited by AZT, although levels were modest compared to those in a lymphocyte cell line. Culture supernatants from HIV-infected hepatocytes were capable of infecting a non-hepatic HIV indicator cell line. Conclusions These results indicating low-level HIV replication in hepatoctyes in vitro complement evidence suggesting that HIV has deleterious effects on the liver in vivo. PMID:22877244

  16. Hormonal regulation of hepatocyte tight junctional permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.J.; Miyai, K.; Steinbach, J.H.; Hardison, W.G.M. Univ. of California, San Diego )

    1988-10-01

    The authors have investigated the effects of hormones on the permeability of the hepatocyte tight junction to two probes, ({sup 14}C)sucrose and horseradish peroxidase, using one-pass perfused rat livers. Using a single injection of horseradish peroxidase the authors have demonstrated that this probe can enter bile by two pathways that are kinetically distinct, a fast pathway, which corresponds to the passage of the probe through the hepatocyte tight junctions, and a slow pathway, which corresponds to the transcytotic entry into bile. The passage of horseradish peroxidase through the hepatocyte tight junctions was confirmed by electron microscopic histochemistry. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and angiotensin II, hormones that act in the hepatocyte through the intracellular mediators calcium, the inositol polyphosphates, and diacylglycerol, increased the bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio of ({sup 14}C)sucrose and the rapid entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile, indicating that the permeability of the tight junctions to these probes was increased. The effect of these hormones was dose dependent and in the cases of angiotensin II and epinephrine was inhibited by the specific inhibitors (Sar{sup 1},Thr{sup 8})angiotensin II and prazosin, respectively. Dibutyryl adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate did not affect the ({sup 14}C)sucrose bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio or the fast entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile. These results suggest that the hepatocyte tight junction can no longer be considered a static system of pores separating blood from bile. It is rather a dynamic barrier potentially capable of influencing the composition of the bile.

  17. Cryopreservation of primarily isolated porcine hepatocytes with UW solution.

    PubMed

    Kunieda, Takemi; Maruyama, Masanobu; Okitsu, Teru; Shibata, Norikuni; Takesue, Michihiko; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Kosaka, Yoshikazu; Arata, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Ikeda, Hideaki; Oshita, Mizuko; Nakaji, Shuhei; Ohmoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kurabayashi, Yuzuru; Kodama, Makoto; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Naoya

    2003-01-01

    Development of liver-targeted cell therapies, such as hepatocyte transplantation and bioartificial livers, requires a large amount of functional hepatocytes as needed. To achieve this development, establishing an excellent cryopreservation method of hepatocytes is an extremely important issue. Therefore, we performed a comparative review of cryoprotective effects of various cryopreservation solutions using primarily isolated porcine hepatocytes. Porcine hepatocytes were isolated with a four-step dispase and collagenase perfusion method. The obtained hepatocytes with the initial viabilities of 76%, 84%, and 96% were assigned to the following four groups for cryopreservation at -80 degrees C: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) + 12% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (group A), University of Wisconsin (UW) solution + 12% DMSO (group B), Cell Banker 1 (group C), and Cell Banker 2 (group D). The hepatocytes in each group were thawed at 3 days, 10 days, and 5 months of cryopreservation and subjected to comparative analyses, including viability, plating efficiency, LDH release, ammonia removal test, and lentiviral gene transfer. These parameters were the most favorable in the hepatocytes cryopreserved with UW solution. Approximately 5% of thawed cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes expressed LacZ activity after lentiviral transduction. Intrasplenic transplantation of UW solution-cryopreserved hepatocytes improved the survival of rats treated with D-galactosamine. UW solution maintained the functions of cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes.

  18. Endothelial Signals Modulate Hepatocyte Apicobasal Polarization in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Takuya F.; Sadler, Kirsten C.; Crosnier, Cecile; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Emerging evidence indicates that paracrine signals from endothelial cells play a role in tissue differentiation and organ formation [1–3]. Here, we identify a novel role for endothelial cells in modulating hepatocyte polarization during liver organogenesis. We find that in zebrafish, the apical domain of the hepatocytes predicts the location of the intrahepatic biliary network. The refinement of hepatocyte polarization coincides with the invasion of endothelial cells into the liver, and these endothelial cells migrate along the maturing basal surface of the hepatocytes. Using genetic, pharmacological, and transplantation experiments, we provide evidence that endothelial cells influence the polarization of the adjacent hepatocytes. This influence of endothelial cells on hepatocytes is mediated at least in part by the cell-surface protein Heart of glass and contributes to the establishment of coordinately aligned hepatocyte apical membranes and evenly spaced intrahepatic conduits. PMID:18951027

  19. A semi-mechanistic integrated toxicokinetic–toxicodynamic (TK/TD) model for arsenic(III) in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stamatelos, Spyros K.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-01-01

    Background A systems engineering approach is presented for describing the kinetics and dynamics that are elicited upon arsenic exposure of human hepatocytes. The mathematical model proposed here tracks the cellular reaction network of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds present in the hepatocyte and analyzes the production of toxicologically potent by-products and the signaling they induce in hepatocytes. Methods and results The present modeling effort integrates for the first time a cellular-level semi-mechanistic toxicokinetic (TK) model of arsenic in human hepatocytes with a cellular-level toxicodynamic (TD) model describing the arsenic-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, the antioxidant response, and the oxidative DNA damage repair process. The antioxidant response mechanism is described based on the Keap1-independent Nuclear Factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling cascade and accounts for the upregulation of detoxifying enzymes. The ROS-induced DNA damage is simulated by coupling the TK/TD formulation with a model describing the multistep pathway of oxidative DNA repair. The predictions of the model are assessed against experimental data of arsenite-induced genotoxic damage to human hepatocytes; thereby capturing in silico the mode of the experimental dose–response curve. Conclusions The integrated cellular-level TK/TD model presented here provides significant insight into the underlying regulatory mechanism of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response due to arsenic exposure. While computational simulations are in a fair good agreement with relevant experimental data, further analysis of the system unravels the role of a dynamic interplay among the feedback loops of the system in controlling the ROS upregulation and DNA damage response. This TK/TD framework that uses arsenic as an example can be further extended to other toxic or pharmaceutical agents. PMID:23069314

  20. Programmed hepatocytes cell death associated with FLIP downregulation in response to extracellular preS1/2.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Masyelly D; Peterson, Darrell L; Barboza, Luisa; Terán-Ángel, Guillermo; Labastida-Moreno, Cesar A; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham

    2014-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection involves liver damage resulting in continuous cell injury and death. During HBV infection, hepatocytes exhibit changes in death receptor expression and in their susceptibility to death. These changes are observed not only in infected cells but also in bystander cells. Because excess viral surface protein (HBsAg) is secreted in large amounts as soluble particles containing preS proteins, the role of soluble preS1/2 in hepatocyte (HepG2) death modulation is an important issue to be explored. An increase of cell death induced by preS1/2 was observed. Also, cell death was associated with the down-regulation of FLIP and activation of caspase 8, caspase 9, and BID. Additionally, hepatocytes exhibited a sensitization to death mediated by the Fas receptor. These results, may contribute to understanding the role of envelope proteins (preS1/2) in the pathogenesis of HBV infection.

  1. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A protects hepatocytes against acetaminophen-induced toxicity via regulation of thioredoxin reductase 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2017-06-03

    Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) is associated with susceptibility to acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an antioxidant and protein repair enzyme that specifically catalyzes the reduction of methionine S-sulfoxide residues. We have previously shown that MsrA deficiency exacerbates acute liver injury induced by APAP. In this study, we used primary hepatocytes to investigate the underlying mechanism of the protective effect of MsrA against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. MsrA gene-deleted (MsrA(-/-)) hepatocytes showed higher susceptibility to APAP-induced cytotoxicity than wild-type (MsrA(+/+)) cells, consistent with our previous in vivo results. MsrA deficiency increased APAP-induced glutathione depletion and reactive oxygen species production. APAP treatment increased Nrf2 activation more profoundly in MsrA(-/-) than in MsrA(+/+) hepatocytes. Basal TXNRD1 levels were significantly higher in MsrA(-/-) than in MsrA(+/+) hepatocytes, while TXNRD1 depletion in both MsrA(-/-) and MsrA(+/+) cells resulted in increased resistance to APAP-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, APAP treatment significantly increased TXNRD1 expression in MsrA(-/-) hepatocytes, while no significant change was observed in MsrA(+/+) cells. Overexpression of MsrA reduced APAP-induced cytotoxicity and TXNRD1 expression levels in APAP-treated MsrA(-/-) hepatocytes. Collectively, our results suggest that MsrA protects hepatocytes from APAP-induced cytotoxicity through the modulation of TXNRD1 expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary human hepatocytes from metabolic-disordered children recreate highly differentiated liver-tissue-like spheroids on alginate scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bierwolf, Jeanette; Lutgehetmann, Marc; Deichmann, Steffen; Erbes, Johannes; Volz, Tassilo; Dandri, Maura; Cohen, Smadar; Nashan, Bjoern; Pollok, Joerg-Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Human hepatocyte transplantation has not been routinely established as an alternative to liver transplantation in liver disease due to low cell engraftment rates. Preimplantation in vitro engineering of liver tissue using primary human hepatocytes on three-dimensional scaffolds could be an alternative model. Alginate bioscaffolds were seeded with 1×10(6) hepatocytes freshly isolated from the livers of three children suffering from different metabolic disorders. During a culture period of 14 days only a marginal loss of hepatocytes was observed via measurement of DNA content per scaffold. Formation of hepatocyte spheroids was detected from day 3 onward using transmission light microscopy. Biochemical assays for albumin, α1-antitrypsin, and urea revealed excellent metabolic function with its maximum at day 7. Low lactate dehydrogenase enzyme release demonstrated minor cellular membrane damage. Hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff staining displayed high cell viability and well-preserved glycogen storage until day 7. Immunofluorescent staining of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, zonula occludens protein 1, and cytokeratin 18 revealed highly differentiated hepatocytes in spheroids with a tissue-like structure on scaffolds. Fluorescent labeling of cytochrome P450 and bile canaliculi demonstrated detoxification ability as well as a well-shaped bile canaliculi network. Almost constant expression levels in most target genes were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results of TUNEL reaction implicated a safe scaffold-dissolving procedure. Our results indicate that alginate scaffolds provide a favorable microenvironment for liver neo-tissue recreation and regeneration. Further, we demonstrate that livers from children with inherited metabolic disorders could serve as an alternative cell source for in vitro experiments.

  3. Benzylpenicillin, acetylcysteine and silibinin as antidotes in human hepatocytes intoxicated with alpha-amanitin.

    PubMed

    Magdalan, Jan; Ostrowska, Alina; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Gomułkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podhorska-Okołów, Marzena; Patrzałek, Dariusz; Szelag, Adam; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    Fatalities due to mushroom poisonings are increasing worldwide, with high mortality rate resulting from ingestion of amanitin-producing species. Intoxications caused by amanitin-containing mushrooms represent an unresolved problem in clinical toxicology since no specific and fully efficient antidote is available. The objective of this study was a comparative evaluation of benzylpenicillin (BPCN), acetylcysteine (ACC) and silibinin (SIL) as an antidotes in human hepatocytes intoxicated with alpha-amanitin (alpha-AMA). All experiments were performed on cultured human hepatocytes. Cytotoxicity evaluation of cultured cells using MTT assay and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was performed at 12, 24 and 48h of exposure to alpha-AMA and/or antidotes. The significant decline of cell viability and significant increase of LDH activity were observed in all experimental hepatocyte cultures after 12, 24 and 36h exposure to alpha-AMA at concentration 2microM. Exposure of the cells to alpha-AMA resulted also in significant reduction of cell spreading and attachment. However, addition of tested antidotes to experimental cultures significantly stimulated cell proliferation and attachment. In cell cultures exposed simultaneously to alpha-AMA and tested antidotes cytotoxic parameters (MTT and LDH) were not significantly different from control incidences. The cytoprotective effect of all antidotes was not dose-related, which reflects a high efficacy of all these substances. Administration of studied antidotes was not associated with any adverse effects in hepatocytes. The administration of ACC, BPCN or SIL to human hepatocyte cultures showed a similar strong protective effect against cell damage in alpha-AMA toxicity.

  4. [Influence of ionizing radiation on enzymatic activity and state of nucleus-nucleolar apparatus in rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Nersesova, L S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Pogosian, S A; Pogosian, L L; Karalova, E M; Avetisian, A S; Abroian, l O; Karalian, Z A; Akopian, Zh I

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a single exposure of rats to the whole-body roentgen irradiation at the doses of 3.5 Gy and 4.5 Gy on the activity of creatine kinase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, as well as on the state of the nuclear-nucleolar apparatus in rat hepatocytes on the 6th and 13th days after radiation exposure have been studied. Irradiation at the above doses induced changes in the levels of enzymatic activity of different values and different directions within the same time periods, as well as oscillating changes in this type of enzymatic activity over time. This demonstrates various radiosensitivity and adaptation abilities of these enzymatic activities. The changes in the enzymatic activity significantly correspond to the changes in the morphometric indices of nuclear-nucleolar apparatus of hepatocytes, as well as the distribution of hepatocytes within the ploidy classes: in particular, stabilization of the enzymatic activity on the 13th day after irradiation correlates with the increased transcriptional activity, which is detectable through the increased number of nucleoli per nucleus and the expanded space of a hepatocyte nucleus. The compensation mechanisms are likely to be targeted at the changes in the functional activity of surviving hepatocytes, rather than at the replacement of the damaged cells by the new ones.

  5. Hepatocyte Culture in Autologous Decellularized Spleen Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rui; Wu, Wanquan; Xiang, Junxi; Lv, Yi; Zheng, Xinglong; Chen, Qian; Wang, Haohua; Wang, Bo; Liu, Zhengwen; Ma, Feng

    2015-01-01

    abstract Background and Aims: Using decellularized scaffold to reengineer liver tissue is a promising alternative therapy for end-stage liver diseases. Though the decellularized human liver matrix is the ideal scaffold for reconstruction of the liver theoretically, the shortage of liver donors is still an obstacle for potential clinical application. Therefore, an appropriate alternative scaffold is needed. In the present study, we used a tissue engineering approach to prepare a rat decellularized spleen matrix (DSM) and evaluate the effectiveness of this DSM for primary rat hepatocytes culture. Methods: Rat decellularized spleen matrix (DSM) was prepared by perfusion of a series of detergents through spleen vasculature. DSM was characterized by residual DNA and specific extracellular matrix distribution. Thereafter, primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in the DSM in a 3-dimensional dynamic culture system, and liver cell survival and biological functions were evaluated by comparison with 3-dimensional sandwich culture and also with cultured in decellularized liver matrix (DLM). Results: Our research found that DSM did not exhibit any cellular components, but preserved the main extracellular matrix and the intact vasculature evaluated by DNA detection, histology, immunohistochemical staining, vessel corrosion cast and upright metallurgical microscope. Moreover, the method of DSM preparation procedure was relatively simple with high success rate (100%). After seeding primary hepatocytes in DSM, the cultured hepatocytes survived inside DSM with albumin synthesis and urea secretion within 10 d. Additionally, hepatocytes in dynamic culture medium had better biological functions at day 10 than that in sandwich culture. Albumin synthesis was 85.67 ± 6.34 μg/107cell/24h in dynamic culture in DSM compared to 62.43 ± 4.59 μg/107cell/24h in sandwich culture (P < 0.01) and to 87.54 ± 5.25 μg/107cell/24h in DLM culture (P > 0.05); urea release was 32.14 ± 8.62

  6. HBV DNA Integration and Clonal Hepatocyte Expansion in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Considered Immune Tolerant.

    PubMed

    Mason, William S; Gill, Upkar S; Litwin, Samuel; Zhou, Yan; Peri, Suraj; Pop, Oltin; Hong, Michelle L W; Naik, Sandhia; Quaglia, Alberto; Bertoletti, Antonio; Kennedy, Patrick T F

    2016-11-01

    this early phase be called a high-replication, low-inflammation stage. The timing of therapeutic interventions to minimize further genetic damage to the hepatocyte population should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The impairment of hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells during cold preservation in rat fatty liver induced by alcohol and the beneficial effect of hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yoshihisa; Arii, Shigeki; Kaido, Toshimi; Imamura, Masayuki

    2003-04-01

    A fatty liver resulting from alcohol intake is often unattractive for grafting. In this study, we investigated the impairment of hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) during cold preservation of alcohol-induced fatty liver and examined the efficacy of human recombinant hepatocyte growth factor (hrHGF). Rats were fed an alcohol diet. We performed histological examinations of the hepatocytes and observed the ultrastructural alteration of the SECs. Additionally, we measured hepatic transaminase and peroxidative lipids for hepatocellular injury and the hyaluronic acid uptake rate (HUR) to determine SEC injury. We added hrHGF to University of Wisconsin (UW) solution to assess the protective effect of the agent. Numerous fatty deposits were observed in ethanol-induced fatty livers. These grew with the duration of cold storage. Hepatic transaminases of the effluents increased during cold preservation in the livers of alcohol-treated rats. Additionally, peroxidative lipids in the effluents increased during cold preservation in the livers of alcohol-treated rats, whereas they were undetectable in non-alcohol-treated rat livers. The sinusoidal endothelium had severely deteriorated in the livers of alcohol-treated rats. Further, the HUR decreased with ethanol treatment and/or cold preservation. The addition of hrHGF suppressed the increase of hepatic transaminase in the effluent of cold-preserved alcohol-treated livers. Peroxidative lipids in the same effluents were undetectable. In fatty livers, both hepatocytes and SECs received severe damage during cold preservation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that hepatocellular injury was significantly inhibited by hrHGF.

  8. Experimental hepatocyte xenotransplantation--a comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huidong; Liu, Hong; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Schmelzer, Eva; Wang, Yi; Gerlach, Jörg; Gridelli, Bruno; Cooper, David K C

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation (Tx) is a potential therapy for certain diseases of the liver, including hepatic failure. However, there is a limited supply of human livers as a source of cells and, after isolation, human hepatocytes can be difficult to expand in culture, limiting the number available for Tx. Hepatocytes from other species, for example, the pig, have therefore emerged as a potential alternative source. We searched the literature through the end of 2014 to assess the current status of experimental research into hepatocyte xenoTx. The literature search identified 51 reports of in vivo cross-species Tx of hepatocytes in a variety of experimental models. Most studies investigated the Tx of human (n = 23) or pig (n = 19) hepatocytes. No studies explored hepatocytes from genetically engineered pigs. The spleen was the most common site of Tx (n = 23), followed by the liver (through the portal vein [n = 6]) and peritoneal cavity (n = 19). In 47 studies (92%), there was evidence of hepatocyte engraftment and function across a species barrier. The data provided by this literature search strengthen the hypothesis that xenoTx of hepatocytes is feasible and potentially successful as a clinical therapy for certain liver diseases, including hepatic failure. By excluding vascular structures, hepatocytes isolated from genetically engineered pig livers may address some of the immunological problems of xenoTx.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL HEPATOCYTE XENOTRANSPLANTATION – A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huidong; Liu, Hong; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Schmelzer, Eva; Wang, Yi; Gerlach, Jörg; Gridelli, Bruno; Cooper, David K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte transplantation is a potential therapy for certain diseases of the liver, including hepatic failure. However, there is a limited supply of human livers as a source of cells and, after isolation, human hepatocytes can be difficult to expand in culture, limiting the number available for transplantation. Hepatocytes from other species, e.g., the pig, have therefore emerged as a potential alternative source. We searched the literature through the end of 2014 to assess the current status of experimental research into hepatocyte xenotransplantation. Literature search and results The literature search identified 51 reports of in vivo cross-species transplantation of hepatocytes in a variety of experimental models. Most studies investigated the transplantation of human (n=23) or pig (n=19) hepatocytes. No studies explored hepatocytes from genetically-engineered pigs. The spleen was the most common site of transplantation (n=23), followed by the liver (through the portal vein [n=6]) and peritoneal cavity (n=19). In 47 studies (92%), there was evidence of hepatocyte engraftment and function across a species barrier. Conclusions The data provided by this literature search strengthen the hypothesis that xenotransplantation of hepatocytes is feasible and potentially successful as a clinical therapy for certain liver diseases, including hepatic failure. By excluding vascular structures, hepatocytes isolated from genetically-engineered pig livers may address some of the immunological problems of xenotransplantation. PMID:25950141

  10. Assessing the therapeutic potential of lab-made hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Milad; Grimm, Andrew A; Willenbring, Holger

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has potential as a bridge or even alternative to whole-organ liver transplantation. Because donor livers are scarce, realizing this potential requires the development of alternative cell sources. To be therapeutically effective, surrogate hepatocytes must replicate the complex function and ability to proliferate of primary human hepatocytes. Ideally, they are also autologous to eliminate the need for immune suppression, which can have severe side effects and may not be sufficient to prevent rejection long term. In the past decade, several methods have been developed to generate hepatocytes from other readily and safely accessible somatic cells. These lab-made hepatocytes show promise in animal models of liver diseases, supporting the feasibility of autologous liver cell therapies. Here, we review recent preclinical studies exemplifying different types of lab-made hepatocytes that can potentially be used in autologous liver cell therapies. To define the therapeutic efficacy of current lab-made hepatocytes, we compare them to primary human hepatocytes, focusing on engraftment efficiency and posttransplant proliferation and function. In addition to summarizing published results, we discuss animal models and assays effective in assessing therapeutic efficacy. This analysis underscores the therapeutic potential of current lab-made hepatocytes, but also highlights deficiencies and uncertainties that need to be addressed in future studies aimed at developing liver cell therapies with lab-made hepatocytes. (Hepatology 2016;64:287-294). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Metabolism of lipoproteins by human fetal hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, B.R.

    1987-12-01

    The rate of clearance of lipoproteins from plasma appears to play a role in the development of atherogenesis. The liver may account for as much as two thirds of the removal of low-density lipoprotein and one third of the clearance of high-density lipoprotein in certain animal species and humans, mainly by receptor-mediated pathways. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if human fetal hepatocytes maintained in vitro take up and degrade lipoproteins. We first determined that the maximal binding capacity of iodine 125-iodo-LDL was approximately 300 ng of low-density lipoprotein protein/mg of membrane protein and an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 60 micrograms low-density lipoprotein protein/ml in membranes prepared from human fetal liver. We found that the maximal uptake of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by fetal hepatocytes occurred after 12 hours of incubation. Low-density lipoprotein uptake preceded the appearance of degradation products by 4 hours, and thereafter the degradation of low-density lipoprotein increased linearly for at least 24 hours. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein was not degraded to any extent by fetal hepatocytes. (/sup 125/I)Iodo-LDL uptake and degradation were inhibited more than 75% by preincubation with low-density lipoprotein but not significantly by high-density lipoprotein, whereas (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL uptake was inhibited 70% by preincubation with high-density lipoprotein but not by low-density lipoprotein. In summary, human fetal hepatocytes take up and degrade low-density lipoprotein by a receptor-mediated process similar to that described for human extrahepatic tissues.

  12. Bile acid formation in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Einarsson, Curt; Ellis, Ewa; Abrahamsson, Anna; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Björkhem, Ingemar; Axelson, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate a culture system for bile acid formation in primary human hepatocytes in comparison with HepG2 cells. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from normal human liver tissue and were cultured in serum-free William’s E medium. The medium was collected and re newed every 24 h. Bile acids and their precursors in media were finally analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) conjugated with glycine or taurine accounted for 70% and 25% of total steroids. A third of CDC A was also conjugated with sulphuric acid. Dexamethasone and thyroid hormone alone or in combination did not significantly effect bile acid formation. The addit ion of cyclosporin A (10 μmol/L) inhibited the synthesis of CA and CDCA by about 13% and 30%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Isolated human hepatocytes in primary culture behave as in the intact liver by converting cholesterol to conjugated CA and CDCA. This is in contrast to cultured HepG2 cells, which release large amounts of bile acid precursors and unconjugated bile acids into the medium. PMID:11819640

  13. Hepatocyte xenotransplantation for treating liver disease.

    PubMed

    Bonavita, André Gustavo; Quaresma, Kátia; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Saraiva, Roberto Magalhães; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of acute and chronic liver failure is still a challenge despite modern therapeutic innovations. While liver transplantation can restore liver function and improve patient survival, donor shortages limit this treatment to a small number of patients. Cellular xenotransplantation has emerged as an alternative for treating liver failure. Xenohepatocytes could be readily available in sufficient quantities to treat patients in critical condition and thereby reduce the donor shortage. The use of isolated encapsulated or non-encapsulated cells can reduce the immunorejection response. Several studies using animal models of acute or chronic liver failure have demonstrated improved survival and recovery of liver function after xenotransplantation of adult hepatocytes. Porcine liver cells are a potential source of xenohepatocytes due to similarities with human physiology and the great number of hepatocytes that can be obtained. The recent development of less immunogenic transgenic pigs, new immunosuppressive drugs, and cellular encapsulation systems represents important advances in the field of cellular xenotransplantation. In this study, we review the work carried out in animal models that deals with the advantages and limitations of hepatocyte xenotransplantation, and we propose new studies needed in this field.

  14. Parvovirus B19-Induced Apoptosis of Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Brian D.; Karetnyi, Yuory V.; Naides, Stanley J.

    2004-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19 virus) can persist in multiple tissues and has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including acute fulminant liver failure. The mechanism by which B19 virus induces liver failure remains unknown. Hepatocytes are nonpermissive for B19 virus replication. We previously reported that acute fulminant liver failure associated with B19 virus infection was characterized by hepatocellular dropout. We inoculated both primary hepatocytes and the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep G2 with B19 virus and assayed for apoptosis by using annexin V staining. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis and immunofluorescence demonstrated that B19 virus was able to infect the cells and produce its nonstructural protein but little or no structural capsid protein. Infection with B19 virus induced means of 28% of Hep G2 cells and 10% of primary hepatocytes to undergo apoptosis, which were four- and threefold increases, respectively, over background levels. Analysis of caspase involvement showed that B19 virus-inoculated cultures had a significant increase in the number of cells with active caspase 3. Inhibition studies demonstrated that caspases 3 and 9, but not caspase 8, are required for B19 virus-induced apoptosis. PMID:15220451

  15. Effects of long-term administration of the antiepileptic drug--sodium valproate upon the ultrastructure of hepatocytes in rats.

    PubMed

    Sobaniec-Lotowska, M E

    1997-08-01

    Chronic intragastric application (1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) of the antiepileptic drug--sodium valproate (VPA; Vupral "Polfa") to rats in the effective dose of 200 mg/kg b.w./day exerts hepatotoxic effect after 9 and 12 months of the experiment. The first ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes were observed after 3 months of the drug administration. These became more intense in the subsequent stages of the experiment, to be most pronounced after 12 months. The most striking changes were in the mitochondria (significant swelling, an increase in their number, degeneration of matrix and cristae, disruption of the outer mitochondrial membrane) and in peroxisomes (proliferation, enlargement and the presence of distinct nucleoids). Further alterations in hepatocytes manifested themselves in: microvesicular fatty change with cholesterolosis (cholesterol clefts), damage to the cellular membrane of the sinusoidal pole with dilation of the perisinusoidal space of Disse, presence of cystern-like cytoplasmic vacuoles in the sinusoidal region, filled with plasma-like material and focal cytoplasmic necrosis. The changes in hepatocytes coexisted with the swelling and activation of sinusoidal cells, endothelial cells and Kupffer cells. The author suggests that mitochondria and peroxisomes considerably contribute to the morphogenesis of hepatocyte damage by VPA in the chronic experimental model.

  16. Cytotoxicity of mequindox and its metabolites in HepG2 cells in vitro and murine hepatocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingchun; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Yongjun; Liu, Yanyan; Zeng, Peng; Xue, Feiqun; Wang, Quan

    2016-02-01

    Mequindox, a quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide, is widely used as a feed additive in the Chinese livestock industry because of its effective antibacterial properties. Many recent studies have found that mequindox is rapidly metabolized to numerous metabolites following administration to animals. There have, however, been few reports describing the cytotoxicity of mequindox metabolites. In this study, HepG2 cells were treated with mequindox (0, 2, 10, 50 or 100 μg/ml) or its major metabolites (0, 40, 100, 250 or 500 μg/ml) for 24h. Mice were administrated with mequindox (0, 50, 200 or 500 mg/kg.bw) for five days. DNA damage in the HepG2 cells and mouse hepatocytes was then assessed using an SCGE assay. The cell cycle of the HepG2 cells was also determined by flow cytometry. Mequindox was found to induce cell cycle arrest to the G2/M phase and cause dose-dependent DNA damage in HepG2 cells in vitro and in murine hepatocytes in vivo. Compared with mequindox, the major metabolites had much smaller effects on the cell cycle and caused much less DNA damage in HepG2 cells. And the results indicated that the process of metabolites formed by reduction of the MEQ acetyl group or reduction of the N → O groups could contribute to DNA damage in murine hepatocytes in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatocyte transplantation program: Lessons learned and future strategies.

    PubMed

    Ibars, Eugenia Pareja; Cortes, Miriam; Tolosa, Laia; Gómez-Lechón, Maria José; López, Slivia; Castell, José Vicente; Mir, José

    2016-01-14

    This review aims to share the lessons we learned over time during the setting of the hepatocyte transplantation (HT) program at the Hepatic Cell Therapy Unit at Hospital La Fe in Valencia. New sources of liver tissue for hepatocyte isolation have been explored. The hepatocyte isolation and cryopreservation procedures have been optimized and quality criteria for assessment of functionality of hepatocyte preparations and suitability for HT have been established. The results indicate that: (1) Only highly viable and functional hepatocytes allow to recover those functions lacking in the native liver; (2) Organs with steatosis (≥ 40%) and from elderly donors are declined since low hepatocyte yields, viability and cell survival after cryopreservation, are obtained; (3) Neonatal hepatocytes are cryopreserved without significant loss of viability or function representing high-quality cells to improve human HT; (4) Cryopreservation has the advantage of providing hepatocytes constantly available and of allowing the quality evaluation and suitability for transplantation; and (5) Our results from 5 adults with acute liver failure and 4 from children with inborn metabolic diseases, indicate that HT could be a very useful and safe cell therapy, as long as viable and metabolically functional human hepatocytes are used.

  18. Structural and functional hepatocyte polarity and liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Gissen, Paul; Arias, Irwin M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocytes form a crucially important cell layer that separates sinusoidal blood from the canalicular bile. They have a uniquely organized polarity with a basal membrane facing liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, while one or more apical poles can contribute to several bile canaliculi jointly with the directly opposing hepatocytes. Establishment and maintenance of hepatocyte polarity is essential for many functions of hepatocytes and requires carefully orchestrated cooperation between cell adhesion molecules, cell junctions, cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix and intracellular trafficking machinery. The process of hepatocyte polarization requires energy and, if abnormal, may result in severe liver disease. A number of inherited disorders affecting tight junction and intracellular trafficking proteins have been described and demonstrate clinical and pathophysiological features overlapping those of the genetic cholestatic liver diseases caused by defects in canalicular ABC transporters. Thus both structural and functional components contribute to the final hepatocyte polarity phenotype. Many acquired liver diseases target factors that determine hepatocyte polarity, such as junctional proteins. Hepatocyte depolarization frequently occurs but is rarely recognized because hematoxylin-eosin staining does not identify the bile canaliculus. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not well understood. Here we aim to provide an update on the key factors determining hepatocyte polarity and how it is affected in inherited and acquired diseases. PMID:26116792

  19. Hepatocyte transplantation program: Lessons learned and future strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ibars, Eugenia Pareja; Cortes, Miriam; Tolosa, Laia; Gómez-Lechón, Maria José; López, Slivia; Castell, José Vicente; Mir, José

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to share the lessons we learned over time during the setting of the hepatocyte transplantation (HT) program at the Hepatic Cell Therapy Unit at Hospital La Fe in Valencia. New sources of liver tissue for hepatocyte isolation have been explored. The hepatocyte isolation and cryopreservation procedures have been optimized and quality criteria for assessment of functionality of hepatocyte preparations and suitability for HT have been established. The results indicate that: (1) Only highly viable and functional hepatocytes allow to recover those functions lacking in the native liver; (2) Organs with steatosis (≥ 40%) and from elderly donors are declined since low hepatocyte yields, viability and cell survival after cryopreservation, are obtained; (3) Neonatal hepatocytes are cryopreserved without significant loss of viability or function representing high-quality cells to improve human HT; (4) Cryopreservation has the advantage of providing hepatocytes constantly available and of allowing the quality evaluation and suitability for transplantation; and (5) Our results from 5 adults with acute liver failure and 4 from children with inborn metabolic diseases, indicate that HT could be a very useful and safe cell therapy, as long as viable and metabolically functional human hepatocytes are used. PMID:26811633

  20. Oxidative DNA damage is involved in ochratoxin A-induced G2 arrest through ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) pathways in human gastric epithelium GES-1 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jinfeng; Liu, Jing; Wu, Sha; Wang, Yuan; Shen, Haitao; Xing, Lingxiao; Wang, Junling; Yan, Xia; Zhang, Xianghong

    2013-10-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the most abundant mycotoxin food contaminants, is classified as "possibly carcinogenic to humans." Our previous study showed that OTA could induce a G2 arrest in immortalized human gastric epithelium cells (GES-1). To explore the putative roles of oxidative DNA damage and the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) pathways on the OTA-induced G2 arrest, the current study systematically evaluated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damage, and ATM-dependent pathway activation on the OTA-induced G2 phase arrest in GES-1 cells. The results showed that OTA exposure elevated intracellular ROS production, which directly induced DNA damage and increased the levels of 8-OHdG and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In addition, it was found that OTA treatment induced the phosphorylation of the ATM protein, as well as its downstream molecules Chk2 and p53, in response to DNA DSBs. Inhibition of ATM by the pharmacological inhibitor caffeine or siRNA effectively prevented the activation of ATM-dependent pathways and rescued the G2 arrest elicited by OTA. Finally, pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reduced the OTA-induced DNA DSBs, ATM phosphorylation, and G2 arrest. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that OTA-induced oxidative DNA damage triggered the ATM-dependent pathways, which ultimately elicited a G2 arrest in GES-1 cells.

  1. The effects of flubendazole and mebendazole on cytochromes P4501A in pheasant hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Savlík, M; Polásková, P; Szotáková, B; Lamka, J; Skálová, L

    2005-10-01

    Many benzimidazoles are known inducers of cytochromes P4501A (CYP1A) in laboratory animals and cell lines. As flubendazole and mebendazole are benzimidazole anthelmintics often used in a pheasant, in the present study an effect of these drugs in primary cultures of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) hepatocytes was investigated. After 48 h incubation of the hepatocytes with the benzimidazoles (0.2-5 microM), CYP1A activities -- ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylation (MROD) activities were measured and the CYP1A protein levels were determined by Western blotting. None of the tested benzimidazoles influenced the CYP1A protein content. No pharmacologically significant enhancement of CYP1A after exposure of the hepatocytes to flubendazole and mebendazole was found. Inhibition of the EROD/MROD activities caused by both tested substances was observed only at the highest concentration (5 microM). From a point of view of CYP1A induction or inhibition, the treatment of pheasants by both anthelmintics tested seems to be safe. Our study demonstrates the inter-species differences in CYP1A inducibility and the importance of induction/inhibition studies on target animals.

  2. MicroRNA-122: a novel hepatocyte-enriched in vitro marker of drug-induced cellular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kia, Richard; Kelly, Lorna; Sison-Young, Rowena L C; Zhang, Fang; Pridgeon, Chris S; Heslop, James A; Metcalfe, Pete; Kitteringham, Neil R; Baxter, Melissa; Harrison, Sean; Hanley, Neil A; Burke, Zoë D; Storm, Mike P; Welham, Melanie J; Tosh, David; Küppers-Munther, Barbara; Edsbagge, Josefina; Starkey Lewis, Philip J; Bonner, Frank; Harpur, Ernie; Sidaway, James; Bowes, Joanne; Fenwick, Stephen W; Malik, Hassan; Goldring, Chris E P; Park, B Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Emerging hepatic models for the study of drug-induced toxicity include pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) and complex hepatocyte-non-parenchymal cellular coculture to mimic the complex multicellular interactions that recapitulate the niche environment in the human liver. However, a specific marker of hepatocyte perturbation, required to discriminate hepatocyte damage from non-specific cellular toxicity contributed by non-hepatocyte cell types or immature differentiated cells is currently lacking, as the cytotoxicity assays routinely used in in vitro toxicology research depend on intracellular molecules which are ubiquitously present in all eukaryotic cell types. In this study, we demonstrate that microRNA-122 (miR-122) detection in cell culture media can be used as a hepatocyte-enriched in vitro marker of drug-induced toxicity in homogeneous cultures of hepatic cells, and a cell-specific marker of toxicity of hepatic cells in heterogeneous cultures such as HLCs generated from various differentiation protocols and pluripotent stem cell lines, where conventional cytotoxicity assays using generic cellular markers may not be appropriate. We show that the sensitivity of the miR-122 cytotoxicity assay is similar to conventional assays that measure lactate dehydrogenase activity and intracellular adenosine triphosphate when applied in hepatic models with high levels of intracellular miR-122, and can be multiplexed with other assays. MiR-122 as a biomarker also has the potential to bridge results in in vitro experiments to in vivo animal models and human samples using the same assay, and to link findings from clinical studies in determining the relevance of in vitro models being developed for the study of drug-induced liver injury.

  3. Inhibition of Drp1 protects against senecionine-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in primary hepatocytes and in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Wang, Hua; Ni, Hong-Min; Xiong, Aizhen; Wang, Zhengtao; Sesaki, Hiromi; Ding, Wen-Xing; Yang, Li

    2017-03-02

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a group of compounds found in various plants and some of them are widely consumed in the world as herbal medicines and food supplements. PAs are potent hepatotoxins that cause irreversible liver injury in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms by which PAs induce liver injury are not clear. In the present study, we determined the hepatotoxicity and molecular mechanisms of senecionine, one of the most common toxic PAs, in primary cultured mouse and human hepatocytes as well as in mice. We found that senecionine administration increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels in mice. H&E and TUNEL staining of liver tissues revealed increased hemorrhage and hepatocyte apoptosis in liver zone 2 areas. Mechanistically, senecionine induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c as well as mitochondrial JNK translocation and activation prior to the increased DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in primary cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. SP600125, a specific JNK inhibitor, and ZVAD-fmk, a general caspase inhibitor, alleviated senecionine-induced apoptosis in primary hepatocytes. Interestingly, senecionine also caused marked mitochondria fragmentation in hepatocytes. Pharmacological inhibition of dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1), a protein that is critical to regulate mitochondrial fission, blocked senecionine-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and apoptosis. More importantly, hepatocyte-specific Drp1 knockout mice were resistant to senecionine-induced liver injury due to decreased mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. In conclusion, our results uncovered a novel mechanism of Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation in senecionine-induced liver injury. Targeting Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis may be a potential avenue to prevent and treat hepatotoxicity induced by PAs.

  4. MicroRNA-122: A Novel Hepatocyte-Enriched in vitro Marker of Drug-Induced Cellular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kia, Richard; Kelly, Lorna; Sison-Young, Rowena L. C.; Zhang, Fang; Pridgeon, Chris S.; Heslop, James A.; Metcalfe, Pete; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Baxter, Melissa; Harrison, Sean; Hanley, Neil A.; Burke, Zoë D.; Storm, Mike P.; Welham, Melanie J.; Tosh, David; Küppers-Munther, Barbara; Edsbagge, Josefina; Starkey Lewis, Philip J.; Bonner, Frank; Harpur, Ernie; Sidaway, James; Bowes, Joanne; Fenwick, Stephen W.; Malik, Hassan; Goldring, Chris E. P.; Park, B. Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Emerging hepatic models for the study of drug-induced toxicity include pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) and complex hepatocyte-non-parenchymal cellular coculture to mimic the complex multicellular interactions that recapitulate the niche environment in the human liver. However, a specific marker of hepatocyte perturbation, required to discriminate hepatocyte damage from non-specific cellular toxicity contributed by non-hepatocyte cell types or immature differentiated cells is currently lacking, as the cytotoxicity assays routinely used in in vitro toxicology research depend on intracellular molecules which are ubiquitously present in all eukaryotic cell types. In this study, we demonstrate that microRNA-122 (miR-122) detection in cell culture media can be used as a hepatocyte-enriched in vitro marker of drug-induced toxicity in homogeneous cultures of hepatic cells, and a cell-specific marker of toxicity of hepatic cells in heterogeneous cultures such as HLCs generated from various differentiation protocols and pluripotent stem cell lines, where conventional cytotoxicity assays using generic cellular markers may not be appropriate. We show that the sensitivity of the miR-122 cytotoxicity assay is similar to conventional assays that measure lactate dehydrogenase activity and intracellular adenosine triphosphate when applied in hepatic models with high levels of intracellular miR-122, and can be multiplexed with other assays. MiR-122 as a biomarker also has the potential to bridge results in in vitro experiments to in vivo animal models and human samples using the same assay, and to link findings from clinical studies in determining the relevance of in vitro models being developed for the study of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:25527335

  5. Oxidative Stress in the Healthy and Wounded Hepatocyte: A Cellular Organelles Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Tommaso; Zanieri, Francesca; Ceni, Elisabetta; Galli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Accurate control of the cell redox state is mandatory for maintaining the structural integrity and physiological functions. This control is achieved both by a fine-tuned balance between prooxidant and anti-oxidant molecules and by spatial and temporal confinement of the oxidative species. The diverse cellular compartments each, although structurally and functionally related, actively maintain their own redox balance, which is necessary to fulfill specialized tasks. Many fundamental cellular processes such as insulin signaling, cell proliferation and differentiation and cell migration and adhesion, rely on localized changes in the redox state of signal transducers, which is mainly mediated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Therefore, oxidative stress can also occur long before direct structural damage to cellular components, by disruption of the redox circuits that regulate the cellular organelles homeostasis. The hepatocyte is a systemic hub integrating the whole body metabolic demand, iron homeostasis and detoxification processes, all of which are redox-regulated processes. Imbalance of the hepatocyte's organelles redox homeostasis underlies virtually any liver disease and is a field of intense research activity. This review recapitulates the evolving concept of oxidative stress in the diverse cellular compartments, highlighting the principle mechanisms of oxidative stress occurring in the healthy and wounded hepatocyte. PMID:26788252

  6. Role of hydrazine in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in a hepatocyte inflammation model

    SciTech Connect

    Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Mashregi, Mariam; O'Brien, Peter J.

    2008-05-15

    Isoniazid is an anti-tuberculosis drug that can cause hepatotoxicity in 20% of patients that is usually associated with an inflammatory response. Hepatocytes when exposed to non-toxic levels of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, to simulate H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation by inflammatory cells, became twice as sensitive to isoniazid toxicity. Isoniazid cytotoxicity was prevented by 1-aminobenzotriazole, a non-selective P450 inhibitor or by bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate (BNPP), an esterase inhibitor. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of hydrazine, the metabolite formed by amidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of isoniazid, was increased 16-fold by a non-toxic H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-generating system. The acetylhydrazine metabolite was found to be much less cytotoxic than hydrazine in this hepatocyte inflammation model. Hydrazine, therefore, seems to be the isoniazid reactive metabolite in this inflammation model. The molecular mechanism of hydrazine-induced cytotoxicity was attributed to oxidative stress as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein carbonyl formation occurred before the onset of hepatocyte toxicity. Hydrazine toxicity also involved significant production of endogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which resulted in lysosomal membrane damage and leads to a collapse in mitochondrial membrane potential. These results implicated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, a cellular mediator of inflammation, as a potential risk factor for the manifestation of adverse drug reactions, particularly those caused by hydrazine containing drugs.

  7. Oxidative Stress in the Healthy and Wounded Hepatocyte: A Cellular Organelles Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mello, Tommaso; Zanieri, Francesca; Ceni, Elisabetta; Galli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Accurate control of the cell redox state is mandatory for maintaining the structural integrity and physiological functions. This control is achieved both by a fine-tuned balance between prooxidant and anti-oxidant molecules and by spatial and temporal confinement of the oxidative species. The diverse cellular compartments each, although structurally and functionally related, actively maintain their own redox balance, which is necessary to fulfill specialized tasks. Many fundamental cellular processes such as insulin signaling, cell proliferation and differentiation and cell migration and adhesion, rely on localized changes in the redox state of signal transducers, which is mainly mediated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Therefore, oxidative stress can also occur long before direct structural damage to cellular components, by disruption of the redox circuits that regulate the cellular organelles homeostasis. The hepatocyte is a systemic hub integrating the whole body metabolic demand, iron homeostasis and detoxification processes, all of which are redox-regulated processes. Imbalance of the hepatocyte's organelles redox homeostasis underlies virtually any liver disease and is a field of intense research activity. This review recapitulates the evolving concept of oxidative stress in the diverse cellular compartments, highlighting the principle mechanisms of oxidative stress occurring in the healthy and wounded hepatocyte.

  8. Protective effects of Sesamum indicum extract against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Shahraki, Jafar; Tafreshian, Saman; Salimi, Ahmad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium toxicity is a challenging problem to human and animal health with no entirely understanding cytotoxic mechanisms. Previous studies in vanadium toxicity showed involvement of oxidative stress in isolated liver hepatocytes and mitochondria via increasing of ROS formation, release of cytochrome c and ATP depletion after incubation with different concentrations (25-200 µM). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Sesamum indicum seed extract (100-300 μg/mL) against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that quite similar to Alpha-tocopherol (100 µM), different concentrations of extract (100-300 μg/mL) protected the isolated hepatocyte against all oxidative stress/cytotoxicity markers induced by vanadium in including cell lysis, ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease and lysosomal membrane damage. Besides, vanadium induced mitochondrial/lysosomal toxic interaction and vanadium reductive activation mediated by glutathione in vanadium toxicity was significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by Sesamum indicum extracts. These findings suggested a hepato-protective role for extracts against liver injury resulted from vanadium toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 979-985, 2016.

  9. Relative and combined effects of selenium, protein deficiency and ethanol on hepatocyte ballooning and liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Monedero-Prieto, M J; González-Pérez, J M; Durán-Castellón, M C; Galindo-Martín, L; Abreu-González, P; Sánchez-Pérez, M J; Santolaria-Fernández, F

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative damage plays a key role in alcohol-mediated liver alterations. Selenium, a potent antioxidant, is decreased in alcoholics. This study was conducted to analyse if the supplementation with selenium may alter liver changes in a murine model fed ethanol and/or a 2 % protein-containing diet, following the Lieber-DeCarli design. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into eight groups which received the Lieber-DeCarli control diet; an isocaloric, 36 % ethanol-containing diet; an isocaloric, 2 % protein-containing diet; and an isocaloric diet containing 2 % protein and 36 % ethanol diet; and other similar four groups to which selenomethionine (1 mg/kg body weight) was added. After sacrifice (5 weeks later), liver fat amount and hepatocyte areas of pericentral and periportal cells were measured, and liver and serum selenium, activity of liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and liver malondialdehyde were determined. Ethanol-fed rats showed increased hepatocyte areas and fat accumulation especially when ethanol was added to a 2 % protein diet. Selenium caused a decrease in hepatocyte ballooning and liver fat amount, but an increase in GPX activity, and a marked increase in serum and liver selenium. The present study demonstrates that selenium, added to the diet of rats in the form of seleniomethionine, prevents the appearance of early signs of ethanol-mediated liver injury under the conditions of the Lieber-DeCarli experimental design.

  10. Cytoprotective effects of taurine against toxicity induced by isoniazid and hydrazine in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Reza; Babaei, Hossein; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    Isoniazid is one of the most commonly used drugs to treat tuberculosis. Its administration is associated with a high incidence of hepatotoxicity. The aim of this study was to establish the protective effects of taurine against cytotoxicity induced by isoniazid and its suspected toxic metabolite hydrazine in isolated rat hepatocytes by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial depolarisation, reduced glutathione (GSH), and oxidised glutathione (GSSG). Isoniazid caused no significant ROS formation in normal hepatocytes, but in glutathione-depleted cells it was considerable. Hydrazine caused ROS formation and lipid peroxidation in both intact and glutathione-depleted cells. Both isoniazid and hydrazine caused mitochondrial membrane depolarisation. Hydrazine lowered cellular GSH reserve and increased GSSG. Taurine (200 μmol L(-1)) and N-acetylcysteine (200 μmol L(-1)) effectively countered the toxic effects of isoniazid and/or hydrazine by decreasing ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial damage. Taurine prevented depletion of GSH and lowered GSSG levels in hydrazine-treated cells. This study suggests that the protective effects of taurine against isoniazid and its intermediary metabolite hydrazine cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes could be attributed to antioxidative action.

  11. Venlafaxine-Induced Cytotoxicity Towards Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Involves Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial/Lysosomal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Elham; Babaei, Hossein; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Eftekhari, Aziz; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Depression is a public disorder worldwide. Despite the widespread use of venlafaxine in the treatment of depression, it has been associated with the incidence of toxicities. Hence, the goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the mechanisms of venlafaxine–induced cell death in the model of the freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Methods: Collagenase-perfused rat hepatocytes were treated with venlafaxine and other agents. Cell damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal damage, glutathione (GSH) level were analyzed. Moreover, rat liver mitochondria were isolated through differential centrifugation to assess respiratory chain functionality. Results: Our results demonstrated that venlafaxine could induce ROS formation followed by lipid peroxidation, cellular GSH content depletion, elevated GSSG level, loss of lysosmal membrane integrity, MMP collapse and finally cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. N-acetyl cysteine, taurine and quercetine significantly decreased the aforementioned venlafaxine-induced cellular events. Also, radical scavenger (butylatedhydroxytoluene and α-tocopherol), CYP2E1 inhibitor (4-methylpyrazole), lysosomotropic agents (methylamine and chloroquine), ATP generators (L-gluthamine and fructose) and mitochondrial pore sealing agents (trifluoperazine and L-carnitine) considerably reduced cytotoxicity, ROS generation and lysosomal leakage following venlafaxine treatment. Mitochondrion dysfunction was concomitant with the blockade of the electron transfer complexes II and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory system. Conclusion: Therefore, our data indicate that venlafaxine induces oxidative stress towards hepatocytes and our findings provide evidence to propose that mitochondria and lysosomes are of the primary targets in venlafaxine-mediated cell damage. PMID:28101459

  12. Comparative cytotoxicity between butylated hydroxytoluene and its methylcarbamate derivative, terbucarb, on isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Y.; Yaguchi, K.; Suzuki, T. )

    1994-08-01

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene; BHT) is widely used as phenolic antioxidant in processed foods, cosmetics and petroleum products. It is well known that high doses of BHT cause acute hepatic damage accompanied by centrilobular necrosis in rats. The hepatic damage is associated with prolonged depletion of glutathione (GSH). Terbucarb (2,6-di-tert-butyl-para-tolyl-methylcarbamate), which has a methylcarbamate group substituted for the phenol group on BHT, was developed as an insecticide and is also presently used as a herbicide on turfgrass. Despite the metabolic and toxicological details known about BHT in vivo and in vitro, no extensive studies have been reported on the metabolism and toxicity of Terbucarb. The isolated hepatocyte system provides a very useful system for the study of the temporal sequences leading to cell damage caused by chemicals and drugs. Here, using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, we report on the comparative toxic effects of BHT and its methylcarbamate derivative, Terbucarb. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Perfused human hepatocyte microtissues identify reactive metabolite-forming and mitochondria-perturbing hepatotoxins.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Cliff; Shaeri, Mohsen; Large, Emma; Cornforth, Terri; Robinson, Angela; Kostrzewski, Tomasz; Sison-Young, Rowena; Goldring, Christopher; Park, Kevin; Hughes, David

    2017-09-15

    Hepatotoxins cause liver damage via many mechanisms but the formation of reactive metabolites and/or damage to liver mitochondria are commonly implicated. We assess 3D human primary hepatocyte microtissues as a platform for hepatotoxicity studies with reactive metabolite-forming and mitochondria-perturbing compounds. We show that microtissues formed from cryopreserved human hepatocytes had bile canaliculi, transcribed mRNA from genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and expressed functional cytochrome P450 enzymes. Hierarchical clustering was used to distinguish dose-dependent hepatotoxicity elicited by clozapine, fialuridine and acetaminophen (APAP) from control cultures and less liver-damaging compounds, olanzapine and entecavir. The regio-isomer of acetaminophen, N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) clustered with the hepatotoxic compounds. The principal metabolites of APAP were formed and dose-dependent changes in metabolite profile similar to those seen in patient overdose was observed. The toxicological profile of APAP was indistinguishable from that of AMAP, confirming AMAP as a human hepatotoxin. Tissue oxygen consumption rate was significantly decreased within 2h of exposure to APAP or AMAP, concomitant with glutathione depletion. These data highlight the potential utility of perfused metabolically functional human liver microtissues in drug development and mechanistic toxicology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Improve the Mouse Liver after Acute Acetaminophen Intoxication by Preventing Progress of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Peggy; Brückner, Sandra; Winkler, Sandra; Dollinger, Matthias M.; Christ, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC) have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC) and transplanted into livers of immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2−/− mice treated with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP) to induce acute liver injury. APAP induced a time- and dose-dependent damage of perivenous areas of the liver lobule. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased to similar levels irrespective of hMSC-HC transplantation. Yet, hMSC-HC resided in the damaged perivenous areas of the liver lobules short-term preventing apoptosis and thus progress of organ destruction. Disturbance of metabolic protein expression was lower in the livers receiving hMSC-HC. Seven weeks after APAP treatment, hepatic injury had completely recovered in groups both with and without hMSC-HC. Clusters of transplanted cells appeared predominantly in the periportal portion of the liver lobule and secreted human albumin featuring a prominent quality of differentiated hepatocytes. Thus, hMSC-HC attenuated the inflammatory response and supported liver regeneration after acute injury induced by acetaminophen. They hence may serve as a novel source of hepatocyte-like cells suitable for cell therapy of acute liver diseases. PMID:24758938

  15. [Encapsulating hepatocytes with chitosan in physiological conditions].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianhang; Zhang, Bao; Yan, Xiluan; Lao, Xuejun; Yu, Hanry

    2006-10-01

    Prepared from 15.3% N-acetylated chitosan (FNC), half N-acetylated chitosan (HNC) possesses a good solubility in a weak basic solution, guaranteeing the formation of microcapsules by the coacervating reaction between HNC and methacrylic acid (MAA)-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-methyl methacrylate (MMA) (MAA-HEMA-MMA) terpolymer under physiological conditions. When hepatocytes were encapsulated in such 3-dimensional microenvironment, as compared to monolayer culture, cell functions, including P450 activity, urea production and albumin release, were well supported. The prepared microcapsules have good mechanical stability and permeability.

  16. Recombinant human augmenter of liver regeneration protects hepatocyte mitochondrial DNA in rats with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun; Lin, Heng; Wu, Qiao; Zhang, Yujun; Bie, Ping; Yang, Juntao

    2015-06-01

    Hepatocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is an important cause of mitochondrial and hepatic function impairment in obstructive jaundice (OJ). This study investigated the protective effect of recombinant human augmenter of liver regeneration (rhALR) on hepatocyte mtDNA in rats with OJ. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: sham-operation, biliary obstruction and recanalization with rhALR treatment (BDO-RBF-rhALR), and BDO-RBF-Vehicle (n = 48 per group). After biliary obstruction, rats were intraperitoneally injected with 40 μg/kg rhALR in BDO-RBF-rhALR group and same volume of normal saline in other two groups once every 12 h, until sacrifice. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) expression in hepatocytes were detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Hepatocyte mtDNA damage was evaluated by real-time-polymerase chain reaction. Mitochondrial and hepatic functions were also assessed. After biliary obstruction, hepatic function was clearly impaired, as shown by the increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin levels, and the decrease in albumin level. Mitochondrial respiratory control ratio, phosphorus oxygen ratio, and ATP levels (all indicators of mitochondrial function) were decreased. The relative amount of total mtDNA, mtTFA, and NRF-1 expression in rat liver tissues were decreased, whereas the relative amount of deleted mtDNA was increased. However, the damage was significantly improved in the BDO-RBF-rhALR group. After recanalization, these changes were gradually restored, but the recovery was faster in the BDO-RBF-rhALR group than in BDO-RBF-Vehicle group. rhALR may protect and improve mitochondrial and hepatic functions in rats with OJ by promoting the expression of mtTFA and NRF-1 and by protecting and repairing damaged mtDNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) affects distinct molecular signalling pathways in human primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Buhrke, Thorsten; Krüger, Eileen; Pevny, Sophie; Rößler, Manuela; Bitter, Katja; Lampen, Alfonso

    2015-07-03

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was shown to damage the liver of rodents and to impair embryonic development. At the molecular level, the hepatotoxic effects were attributed to the PFOA-mediated activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). In general, PPARα-dependent effects are less pronounced in humans than in rodents, and the hazard potential of PFOA for humans is controversially discussed. To analyse the effects of PFOA in human hepatocytes, a microarray analysis was conducted to screen for PFOA-mediated alterations in the transcriptome of human primary hepatocytes. A subsequent network analysis revealed that PFOA had an impact on several signalling pathways in addition to the well-known activation of PPARα. The microarray data confirmed earlier findings that PFOA: (i) affects the estrogen receptor ERα, (ii) activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and (iii) inhibits the function of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) which is an essential factor for liver development and embryogenesis. Finally, as a novel finding, PFOA was shown to stimulate gene expression of the proto-oncogenes c-Jun and c-Fos. This was confirmed by using the HepG2 cell line as a model for human hepatocytes. PFOA stimulated cellular proliferation and the metabolic activity of the cells, and upregulated the expression of various cyclins which have a central function in the regulation of cell cycle control. Functional studies, however, indicated that PFOA had no impact on c-Jun and c-Fos phosphorylation and on AP-1-dependent gene transcription, thus demonstrating that PFOA-induced proliferation occurs largely independent of c-Jun and c-Fos. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perifusion of co-cultured hepatocytes: optimization of studies on drug metabolism and cytotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, R; Wegner, H; Alber, J

    1996-04-01

    The combination of co-cultivation of hepatocytes and epithelial cell lines with a newly developed perifusion system was used for in vitro studies on drug metabolism and cytotoxicity. This approach improved the viability and enhanced the induction of the biotransforming capacity of the hepatocytes. As demonstrated for the induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity by 3-methylcholanthrene or benzanthracene, co-cultured hepatocytes in the perifusion system responded more sensitively to these inducers than without perifusion, most likely owing to stable (steady-state) concentrations of the inducers under the former conditions and rapidly declining concentrations under the latter conditions. The perifusion approach rendered it possible to determine the kinetics of drug metabolism during single or sequential incubations. After induction with 3-methylcholanthrene and phenobarbital, phase I metabolism of lonazolac to the monohydroxylated product in perifused co-cultures closely (87%) approached the values reported for the in vivo production, whereas in stationary co-cultures only 52% could be reached. Likewise, cytotoxic effects could be detected more precisely in the perifused co-cultures. If cells were pretreated with 0.2 mmol/L galactosamine for 3 h, perifusion with increasing concentrations of menadione differentially killed epithelial RL-ET-14 cells and hepatocytes at low and high concentrations, respectively, while in stationary co-cultures no differential effect was observed and only the higher concentrations were cytotoxic for both cells. Prevention by incubation with S-adenosylmethionine of menadione cytotoxicity up to a menadione concentration of 250 micromol/L was seen only in the perifused co-cultures, whereas in stationary cultures only a slight shift of the cytotoxic concentration exerting 50% cell damage to higher values was noted. These results demonstrate the versatile application of perifused co-cultures for studies on drug metabolism including

  19. Isoniazid-induced cell death is precipitated by underlying mitochondrial complex I dysfunction in mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Kwang; Fujimoto, Kazunori; Zhang, Carmen; Schwall, Christine T; Alder, Nathan N; Pinkert, Carl A; Krueger, Winfried; Rasmussen, Theodore; Boelsterli, Urs A

    2013-12-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is an antituberculosis drug that has been associated with idiosyncratic liver injury in susceptible patients. The underlying mechanisms are still unclear, but there is growing evidence that INH and/or its major metabolite, hydrazine, may interfere with mitochondrial function. However, hepatic mitochondria have a large reserve capacity, and minor disruption of energy homeostasis does not necessarily induce cell death. We explored whether pharmacologic or genetic impairment of mitochondrial complex I may amplify mitochondrial dysfunction and precipitate INH-induced hepatocellular injury. We found that INH (≤ 3000 μM) did not induce cell injury in cultured mouse hepatocytes, although it decreased hepatocellular respiration and ATP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, coexposure of hepatocytes to INH and nontoxic concentrations of the complex I inhibitors rotenone (3 μM) or piericidin A (30 nM) resulted in massive ATP depletion and cell death. Although both rotenone and piericidin A increased MitoSox-reactive fluorescence, Mito-TEMPO or N-acetylcysteine did not attenuate the extent of cytotoxicity. However, preincubation of cells with the acylamidase inhibitor bis-p-nitrophenol phosphate provided protection from hepatocyte injury induced by rotenone/INH (but not rotenone/hydrazine), suggesting that hydrazine was the cell-damaging species. Indeed, we found that hydrazine directly inhibited the activity of solubilized complex II. Hepatocytes isolated from mutant Ndufs4(+/-) mice, although featuring moderately lower protein expression levels of this complex I subunit in liver mitochondria, exhibited unchanged hepatic complex I activity and were therefore not sensitized to INH. These data indicate that underlying inhibition of complex I, which alone is not acutely toxic, can trigger INH-induced hepatocellular injury.

  20. Cytoprotective Effects of Organosulfur Compounds against Methimazole Induced Toxicity in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Reza; Babaei, Hossein; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Methimazole is a drug widely used in hyperthyroidism. However, life threatening hepatotoxicity has been associated with its clinical use. No protective agent has been found to be effective against methimazole induced hepatotoxicity yet. Hence, the capacity of organosulfur compounds to protect rat hepatocytes against cytotoxic effects of methimazole and its proposed toxic metabolite, N-methylthiourea was evaluated. Methods: Hepatocytes were prepared by the method of collagenase enzyme perfusion via portal vein. Cells were treated with different concentrations of methimazole, N methylthiourea, and organosulfur chemicals. Cell death, protein carbonylation, reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarization were assessed as toxicity markers and the role of organosulfurs administration on them was investigated. Results: Methimazole caused a decrease in cellular glutathione content, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) collapse, and protein carbonylation. In addition, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation was observed. Treating hepatocytes with N methylthiourea caused a reduction in hepatocytes glutathione reservoirs and an elevation in carbonylated proteins, but no significant ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, or mitochondrial depolarization was observed. N-acetyl cysteine, allylmercaptan, and diallyldisulfide attenuated cell death and prevented ROS formation and lipid peroxidation caused by methimazole. Furthermore, organosulfur compounds diminished methimazole induced mitochondrial damage and reduced the carbonylated proteins. In addition, these chemicals showed protective effects against cell death and protein carbonylation induced by methimazole metabolite. Conclusion: Organosulfur chemicals extend their protective effects against methimazole-induced toxicity by attenuating oxidative stress caused by this drug and preventing the adverse effects of methimazole and/or its

  1. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    PubMed

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-09-06

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Age-dependent hepatocyte transplantation for functional liver tissue reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Stock, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    The transplantation of hepatocytes could be an alternative therapeutic option to the whole organ transplantation for the treatment of end-stage liver diseases. However, this cell-based therapy needs the understanding of the molecular mechanisms to improve efficacy. This chapter includes a detailed method of a rat model for liver regeneration studies after age-dependent hepatocyte transplantation.

  3. The Optimization of Short-Term Hepatocyte Preservation Before Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Kengo; Inagaki, Akiko; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Muneyuki; Yoshida, Satoru; Imura, Takehiro; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Miyagi, Shigehito; Ohashi, Kazuo; Enosawa, Shin; Kamei, Takashi; Unno, Michiaki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Satomi, Susumu; Goto, Masafumi

    2017-07-01

    No optimal methods for short-term hepatocyte preservation have been established. We have recently developed a prominent oxygen-permeable bag (Tohoku Device [TD]) for pancreatic islet culture and transplantation. In this study, we investigated whether TD is also effective for hepatocyte preservation and tried to optimize other conditions. Hepatocytes were preserved in the following conditions, and their outcomes were observed. First, the effectiveness of TD was investigated. Second, hepatocyte medium (HM) and organ preservation solutions with or without fetal bovine serum (FBS) were compared. Third, as supplementations, FBS and human serum albumin (HSA) were compared. Fourth, low, room and high temperature were compared. And finally, hepatocytes preserved in various conditions were transplanted into the subrenal capsule space of nonalbumin rats and engrafted areas were assessed. The survival rate of hepatocytes preserved in TD tended to be higher and their viability and function were maintained significantly greater than those of non-TD group. Irrespective of FBS supplementation, the survival rate of HM group was significantly higher than those of organ preservation solution group while viabilities and plating efficiency were similar among them. Although survival rates of groups without FBS were extremely low, results of HSA supplemented group were not inferior to FBS supplemented group. Hepatocytes preserved at high temperature had the worst results. The engrafted area of TD group tended to be higher than those of other groups. TD is effective for short-term hepatocyte preservation. HSA is a useful substitute for FBS, and preserving in HM at low temperature is recommended.

  4. Hepatocyte membrane water permeability measured by silicone layer filtering centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Gradilone, Sergio A; Ochoa, J Elena; García, Fabiana; Larocca, M Cecilia; Pellegrino, José M; Marinelli, Raúl A

    2002-03-01

    We previously found that hepatocytes are able to control their osmotic membrane water permeability (P(f)) by regulating the number of surface aquaporin water channels. Hepatocyte P(f) has been assessed by phase-contrast microscopy and cell image analysis, an established but relatively laborious procedure. We report here an alternative method to assess hepatocyte P(f) based on a single silicone layer filtering centrifugation system. Isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated in hypotonic or isotonic buffers containing (3)H(2)O as a tracer and, then, were filtered by rapid centrifugation through a silicone layer down to a lysis layer. Osmotically driven radioactivity (i.e., (3)H(2)O) within hepatocytes was calculated as the difference between the dpm in lysis media measured under hypotonic and isotonic conditions. The P(f) calculated from the initial slope of the radioactivity-versus-time curve was 18 microm/s at 4 degrees C. Hepatocytes treated with dibutyryl cyclic AMP, to increase P(f) through the plasma membrane insertion of aquaporins, showed an increased P(f) value of 37 microm/s. The aquaporin blocker dimethyl sulfoxide selectively prevented the agonist-induced hepatocyte P(f). These data are in good agreement with the corresponding values determined by quantitative phase-contrast microscopy; thus, the method developed allows the rapid and reliable measurement of hepatocyte P(f).

  5. Mouse white adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells gain pericentral and periportal hepatocyte features after differentiation in vitro, which are preserved in vivo after hepatic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Winkler, S; Hempel, M; Brückner, S; Mallek, F; Weise, A; Liehr, T; Tautenhahn, H-M; Bartels, M; Christ, B

    2015-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells may differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, they are considered a novel cell resource for the treatment of various liver diseases. Here, the aim was to demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells may adopt both perivenous and periportal hepatocyte-specific functions in vitro and in vivo. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from immunodeficient C57BL/6 (B6.129S6-Rag2(tm1Fwa) Prf1(tm1Clrk) ) mice and differentiated into the hepatocytic phenotype by applying a simple protocol. Their physiological and metabolic functions were analysed in vitro and after hepatic transplantation in vivo. Mesenchymal stem cells changed their morphology from a fibroblastoid into shapes of osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes and hepatocytes. Typical for mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic marker genes were not expressed. CD90, which is not expressed on mature hepatocytes, decreased significantly after hepatocytic differentiation. Markers indicative for liver development like hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha, or for perivenous hepatocyte specification like cytochrome P450 subtype 3a11, and CD26 were significantly elevated. Periportal hepatocyte-specific markers like carbamoylphosphate synthetase 1, the entry enzyme of the urea cycle, were up-regulated. Consequently, cytochrome P450 enzyme activity and urea synthesis increased significantly to values comparable to cultured primary hepatocytes. Both perivenous and periportal qualities were preserved after hepatic transplantation and integration into the host parenchyma. Adult mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells featuring both periportal and perivenous functions. Hence, they are promising candidates for the treatment of region-specific liver cell damage and may support organ regeneration in acute and chronic liver diseases. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Insulin internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Galan, J.; Trankina, M.; Noel, R.; Ward, W. )

    1990-02-26

    This project was designed to determine whether neomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, has a significant effect upon the pathways of ligand endocytosis in isolated rat hepatocytes. The pathways studied include receptor-mediated endocytosis and fluid-phase endocytosis. Neomycin causes a dose-dependent acceleration of {sup 125}I-insulin internalization. Since fluid-phase endocytosis can also be a significant factor in {sup 125}I-insulin internalization, lucifer yellow (LY), a marker for fluid-phase endocytosis, was incorporated into an assay similar to the {sup 125}I-insulin internalization procedure. In the presence of 5 mM neomycin, a significant increase in LY uptake was evident at 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml of LY. At 0.8 mg/ml, a decrease in LY uptake was observed. The increased rate of {sup 125}I-insulin internalization in the presence of neomycin was intriguing. Since one action of neomycin is to inhibit phosphoinositidase C, it suggests that the phosphotidylinositol cycle may be involved in ligand internalization by hepatocytes. At low insulin concentrations, receptor-mediated uptake predominates. Fluid-phase uptake can become an important uptake route as insulin concentrations are increased. Since neomycin stimulates fluid-phase endocytosis, it must also be taken into account when measuring ligand internalization.

  7. Mechanisms of the statins cytotoxicity in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Narges; Heidari, Reza; Azarmi, Yadollah; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    Statins are potent drugs, used as lipid-lowering agents in cardiovascular diseases. Hepatotoxicity is one of the serious adverse effects of statins, and the exact mechanism of hepatotoxicity is not yet clear. In this study, the cytotoxic effects of the most commonly used statins, that is, atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin toward isolated rat hepatocytes, were evaluated. Markers, such as cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the amount of reduced and oxidized glutathione in the statin-treated hepatocytes, were investigated. It was found that the statins caused cytotoxicity toward rat hepatocytes dose dependently. An elevation in ROS formation, accompanied by a significant amount of lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial depolarization, was observed. Cellular glutathione reservoirs were decreased, and a significant amount of oxidized glutathione was formed. This study suggests that the adverse effect of statins toward hepatocytes is mediated through oxidative stress and the hepatocytes mitochondria play an important role in the statin-induced toxicity.

  8. Property of hepatitis B virus replication in Tupaia belangeri hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanada, Takahiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Benjelloun, Soumaya; Murakami, Shuko; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Tateno, Chise; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-01-08

    The northern treeshrew (Tupaia belangeri) has been reported to be an effective candidate for animal infection model with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The objective of our study was to analyze the growth characteristics of HBV in tupaia hepatocytes and the host response to HBV infection. We established primary tupaia hepatocytes (3–6-week old tupaia) and infected them with HBV genotypes A, B and C, and all the genotypes proliferated as well as those in human primary hepatocytes (>10{sup 5} copies/ml in culture supernatant). We next generated a chimeric mouse with tupaia liver by transplantation of tupaia primary hepatocytes to urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA (cDNA-uPA)/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and the replacement ratio with tupaia hepatocytes was found to be more than 95%. Infection of chimeric mice with HBV (genotypes B, C, and D) resulted in HBV-DNA level of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} copies/ml after 8 weeks of infection, which were almost similar to that in humanized chimeric mouse. In contrast, serum HBV level in adult tupaia (1-year-old tupaia) was quite low (<10{sup 3} copies/ml). Understanding the differences in the response to HBV infection in primary tupaia hepatocytes, chimeric mouse, and adult tupaia will contribute to elucidating the mechanism of persistent HBV infection and viral eradication. Thus, T. belangeri was found to be efficient for studying the host response to HBV infection, thereby providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of HBV. - Highlights: • Primary hepatocytes were established from tupaia that is a novel HBV infection model. • Tupaia primary hepatocytes were susceptible for HBV infection. • The immunodeficient chimeric mice with tupaia hepatocytes were established. • The chimeric mice with tupaia hepatocytes were susceptible for HBV infection.

  9. Expansion and hepatocytic differentiation of liver progenitor cells in vivo using a vascularized tissue engineering chamber in mice.

    PubMed

    Forster, Natasha; Palmer, Jason A; Yeoh, George; Ong, Wei-Chen; Mitchell, Geraldine M; Slavin, John; Tirnitz-Parker, Janina; Morrison, Wayne A

    2011-03-01

    Current cell-based treatment alternatives to organ transplantation for liver failure remain unsatisfactory. Hepatocytes have a strong tendency to dedifferentiate and apoptose when isolated and maintained in culture. In contrast, liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are robust, easy to culture and have been shown to replace damaged hepatocytes in liver disease. In this study we investigate whether isolated LPCs can survive and differentiate toward mature hepatocytes in vivo when implanted into a heterotopic mouse tissue engineering chamber model. Healthy Balb/c mice and those put on a choline-deficient ethionin-supplemented diet to induce chronic liver disease were implanted with a tissue engineering chamber based on the epigastric flow through pedicle model, containing either 1 × 10(6) LPCs suspended in Matrigel, or LPC-spheroids produced by preculture for 1 week in Matrigel. Four weeks after implantation the chamber contents were harvested. In all four groups, progenitor cells persisted in large numbers to 4 weeks and demonstrated evidence of considerable proliferation judged by Ki67-positive cells. Periodic acid Schiff staining demonstrated differentiation of some cells into mature hepatocytes. Constructs grown from LPC-spheroids demonstrated considerably greater LPC survival than those from LPCs that were grown as monolayers and implanted as dissociated cells. The combined use of LPC spheroids and the vascularized chamber model could be the basis for a viable alternative to current treatments for chronic liver failure.

  10. Protective Role of Morin, a Flavonoid, against High Glucose Induced Oxidative Stress Mediated Apoptosis in Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Radhika; Kakkar, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is an early event of liver damage in diabetes and oxidative stress has been linked to accelerate the apoptosis in hepatocytes. Therefore, the compounds that can scavenge ROS may confer regulatory effects on high-glucose induced apoptosis. In the present study, primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to high concentration (40 mM) of glucose. At this concentration decreased cell viability and enhanced ROS generation was observed. Depleted antioxidant status of hepatocytes under high glucose stress was also observed as evident from transcriptional level and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Further, mitochondrial depolarisation was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial integrity and altered expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Increased translocation of apoptotic proteins like AIF (Apoptosis inducing factor) & Endo-G (endonuclease-G) from its resident place mitochondria to nucleus was also observed. Cyt-c residing in the inter-membrane space of mitochondria also translocated to cytoplasm. These apoptotic proteins initiated caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, increased apoptotic DNA content in glucose treated hepatocytes, suggesting mitochondria mediated apoptotic mode of cell death. Morin, a dietary flavonoid from Psidium guajava was effective in increasing the cell viability and decreasing the ROS level. It maintained mitochondrial integrity, inhibited release of apoptotic proteins from mitochondria, prevented DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and hypodiploid DNA upon exposure to high glucose. This study confirms the capacity of dietary flavonoid Morin in regulating apoptosis induced by high glucose via mitochondrial mediated pathway through intervention of oxidative stress. PMID:22899998

  11. Efficient liver repopulation of transplanted hepatocyte prevents cirrhosis in a rat model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ludi; Shao, Yanjiao; Li, Lu; Tian, Feng; Cen, Jin; Chen, Xiaotao; Hu, Dan; Zhou, Yan; Xie, Weifen; Zheng, Yunwen; Ji, Yuan; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali; Hui, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah). Fah-deficient mice and pigs are phenotypically analogous to human HT1, but do not recapitulate all the chronic features of the human disorder, especially liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Rats as an important model organism for biomedical research have many advantages over other animal models. Genome engineering in rats is limited till the availability of new gene editing technologies. Using the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 technique, we generated Fah−/− rats. The Fah−/− rats faithfully represented major phenotypic and biochemical manifestations of human HT1, including hypertyrosinemia, liver failure, and renal tubular damage. More importantly, the Fah−/− rats developed remarkable liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which have not been observed in Fah mutant mice or pigs. Transplantation of wild-type hepatocytes rescued the Fah−/− rats from impending death. Moreover, the highly efficient repopulation of hepatocytes in Fah−/− livers prevented the progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and in turn restored liver architecture. These results indicate that Fah−/− rats may be used as an animal model of HT1 with liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, Fah−/− rats may be used as a tool in studying hepatocyte transplantation and a bioreactor for the expansion of hepatocytes. PMID:27510266

  12. The effect of oleic and palmitic acid on induction of steatosis and cytotoxicity on rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, A; Červinková, Z; Kučera, O; Mezera, V; Rychtrmoc, D; Lotková, H

    2015-01-01

    In vitro models serve as a tool for studies of steatosis. Palmitic and oleic acids can induce steatosis in cultured hepatocytes. The aim of our study was to verify steatogenic and cytotoxic effects of palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA) and their combinations as well as their impact on functional capacity of rat primary hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were exposed to OA or PA (0.125-2 mmol/l) or their combination at ratios of 3:1, 2:1 or 1:1 at the final concentrations of 0.5-1 mmol/l. Both OA and PA caused a dose-dependent increase in triacylglycerol content in hepatocytes. PA was more steatogenic at 0.25 and 0.5 mmol/l while OA at 0.75 and 1 mmol/l. PA exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect associated with ROS production, present markers of apoptosis and necrosis and a decrease in albumin production. OA induced a damage of the cytoplasmic membrane from 1 mM concentration. Mixture of OA and PA induced lower cytotoxicity with less weakened functional capacity than did PA alone. Extent of steatosis was comparable to that after exposure to OA alone. In conclusion, OA or combination of OA with PA is more suitable for simulation of simple steatosis than PA alone.

  13. Functional human induced hepatocytes (hiHeps) with bile acid synthesis and transport capacities: A novel in vitro cholestatic model

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xuan; Gao, Yimeng; Wu, Zhitao; Ma, Leilei; Chen, Chen; Wang, Le; Lin, Yunfei; Hui, Lijian; Pan, Guoyu

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced cholestasis is a leading cause of drug withdrawal. However, the use of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs), the gold standard for predicting cholestasis in vitro, is limited by their high cost and batch-to-batch variability. Mature hepatocyte characteristics have been observed in human induced hepatocytes (hiHeps) derived from human fibroblast transdifferentiation. Here, we evaluated whether hiHeps could biosynthesize and excrete bile acids (BAs) and their potential as PHH alternatives for cholestasis investigations. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting indicated that hiHeps highly expressed BA synthases and functional transporters. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed that hiHeps produced normal intercellular unconjugated BAs but fewer conjugated BAs than human hepatocytes. When incubated with representative cholestatic agents, hiHeps exhibited sensitive drug-induced bile salt export pump (BSEP) dysfunction, and their response to cholestatic agent-mediated cytotoxicity correlated well with that of PHHs (r2 = 0.8032). Deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced hepatotoxicity in hiHeps was verified by elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl-transferase (γ-GT) levels. Mitochondrial damage and cell death suggested DCA-induced toxicity in hiHeps, which were attenuated by hepatoprotective drugs, as in PHHs. For the first time, hiHeps were reported to biosynthesize and excrete BAs, which could facilitate predicting cholestatic hepatotoxicity and screening potential therapeutic drugs against cholestasis. PMID:27934920

  14. IRF-1 promotes liver transplant ischemia/reperfusion injury via hepatocyte IL-15/IL-15Rα production

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Dou, Lei; Spadaro, Anthony V.; Isse, Kumiko; Ross, Mark A.; Stolz, Donna B.; Kimura, Shoko; Du, Qiang; Demetris, Anthony J.; Thomson, Angus W.; Geller, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury following liver transplantation (LTx) is an important problem that significantly impacts clinical outcomes. Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a nuclear transcription factor that plays a critical role in liver injury. Our objective was to determine the immunomodulatory role of IRF-1 during I/R injury following allogeneic LTx. IRF-1 was induced in liver grafts immediately after reperfusion in both human and mouse LTx. IRF-1 contributed significantly to I/R injury as IRF-1 KO grafts displayed much less damage assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and histology. In vitro, IRF-1 regulated both constitutive and induced expression of IL-15, as well as IL-15Rα mRNA expression in murine hepatocytes and liver dendritic cells (DC). Specific knockdown of IRF-1 in human primary hepatocytes gave similar results. In addition, we identified hepatocytes as the major producer of soluble IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes in the liver. IRF-1 KO livers had significantly reduced NK, NKT and CD8+T cell numbers, while rIL-15/IL-15Rα restored these immune cells, augmented cytotoxic effector molecules, promoted systemic inflammatory responses, and exacerbated liver injury in IRF-1 KO graft recipients. These results indicate that IRF-1 promotes LTx I/R injury via hepatocyte IL-15/IL-15Rα production and suggest that targeting IRF-1 and IL-15/IL-15Rα may be effective in reducing I/R injury associated with LTx. PMID:25964490

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor beta regulate 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene expression in rat hepatocyte primary cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Joaquin, M; Rosa, J L; Salvadó, C; López, S; Nakamura, T; Bartrons, R; Gil, J; Tauler, A

    1996-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) are believed to be of major importance for hepatic regeneration after liver damage. We have studied the effect of these growth factors on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) levels and the expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase) in rat hepatocyte primary cultures. Our results demonstrate that HGF activates the expression of the 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene by increasing the levels of its mRNA. As a consequence of this activation, the amount of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase protein and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity increased, which was reflected by a rise in Fru-2,6-P2 levels. In contrast, TGF-beta decreased the levels of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase mRNA, which led to a decrease in the amount of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase protein and Fru-2,6-P2. The different actions of HGF and TGF-beta on 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression are concomitant with their effect on cell proliferation. Here we show that, in the absence of hormones, primary cultures of hepatocytes express the F-type isoenzyme. In addition, HGF increases the expression of this isoenzyme, and dexamethasone activates the L-type isoform. HGF and TGF-beta were able to inhibit this activation. PMID:8660288

  16. HIV increases HCV-induced hepatocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae Young; Shao, Run-Xuan; Lin, Wenyu; Weinberg, Ethan; Chung, Woo Jin; Tsai, Wei Lun; Zhao, Hong; Goto, Kaku; Zhang, Leiliang; Mendez-Navarro, Jorge; Jilg, Nikolaus; Peng, Lee F.; Brockman, Mark A.; Chung, Raymond T.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims HCV related liver disease is one of the most important complications in persons with HIV, with accelerated fibrosis progression in coinfected persons compared to those with HCV alone. We hypothesized that HIV coinfection increases HCV related hepatocyte apoptosis and that HCV and HIV influence TRAIL signaling in hepatocytes. Methods We analyzed the effect of HIV on JFH1-infected Huh 7.5.1 cells. Apoptosis was measured by Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay and Western blot for cleaved PARP. TRAIL, TRAIL receptor 1 (DR4) and 2 (DR5) mRNA and protein levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot. We also investigated activation of caspase pathways using caspase inhibitors and assessed expression of Bid and cytochrome C. Results We found increased caspase 3/7 activity and cleaved PARP in JFH1 HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cells in the presence of heat-inactivated HIV compared to Huh7.5.1 cells infected with JFH1 or exposed to heat-inactivated HIV alone. Both DR4 and DR5 mRNA and protein expression were increased in JFH1-infected cells in the presence of inactivated HIV compared to Huh7.5.1 cells infected with JFH1 or exposed to heat-inactivated HIV alone. Pancaspase, Caspase-8, and caspase-9 inhibition blocked apoptosis induced by HCV, inactivated HIV and HCV plus inactivated HIV. A caspase-9 inhibitor blocked apoptosis induced by HCV, HIV and HCV-HIV comparably to pancaspase and caspase-8 inhibitors. HCV induced the activation of Bid cleavage and cytochrome C release. The addition of HIV substantially augmented this induction. Conclusions Our findings indicate that hepatocyte apoptosis is increased in the presence of HCV and HIV compared to HCV or HIV alone, and that this increase is mediated by DR4 and DR5 up-regulation. They provide an additional mechanism for the observed accelerated liver disease progression observed in HCV-HIV coinfection. PMID:21146890

  17. The Fungal Metabolite, Pyrrocidine A, induces Apoptosis in HEPG2 Hepatocytes and PK15 Renal Cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyrrocidines are polyketide-amino acid-derived antibiotics produced by Acremonium zeae, a prevalent seed-borne endophyte of corn. Pyrrocidines exhibit potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including drug resistant strains, and display significant activity against Candida albicans, as well...

  18. Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on ConA-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK Pathway-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Junshan; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Huawei; Yin, Qin; Wang, Chengfen; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, atherosclerosis and antitumor activities. However, its effect on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation. Materials and Methods Autoimmune hepatitis was induced in in Balb/C mice using ConA (25 mg/kg), and astaxanthin was orally administered daily at two doses (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) for 14 days before ConA injection. Levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of inflammatory cytokines and other maker proteins were determined at three time points (2, 8 and 24 h). Primary hepatocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin (80 μM) in vitro 24 h before stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). The apoptosis rate and related protein expression were determined 24 h after the administration of TNF-α. Results Astaxanthin attenuated serum liver enzymes and pathological damage by reducing the release of inflammatory factors. It performed anti-apoptotic effects via the descending phosphorylation of Bcl-2 through the down-regulation of the JNK/p-JNK pathway. Conclusion This research firstly expounded that astaxanthin reduced immune liver injury in ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The mode of action appears to be downregulation of JNK/p-JNK-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25761053

  19. Hepatocyte transplantation in children with liver cell failure

    PubMed Central

    Hamooda, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hepatic failure and liver-based metabolic disorders require management which is both costly and complex. Hepatocyte transplantation has been very encouraging as an alternative to organ transplantation for liver disease treatment, and studies in rodents, show that transplants involving isolated liver cells can reverse hepatic failure, and correct various metabolic deficiencies of the liver. This 2016 review is based on a literature search using PubMed including original articles, reviews, cases and clinical guidelines. The search terms were “hepatocyte transplantation”, “liver transplantation”, “liver cell failure”, “metabolic liver disorders”, “orthotropic liver transplantation”, “hepatocytes” and “stem cell transplantation”. The goal of this review is to summarize the significance of hepatocyte transplantation, the sources of hepatocytes and the barriers of hepatocyte transplantation using a detailed review of literature. Our review shows that treatment of patients with liver disease by hepatocyte transplantation has expanded exponentially, especially for patients suffering from liver-based metabolic disorders. Once hepatocyte transplantation has been shown to effectively replace organ transplantation for a portion of patients with life-threatening liver metabolic diseases and those with liver failure it will make cell therapy effective and available for a broad population of patients with liver disorders. PMID:27957309

  20. New method of hepatocyte transplantation and extracorporeal liver support.

    PubMed Central

    Demetriou, A A; Whiting, J; Levenson, S M; Chowdhury, N R; Schechner, R; Michalski, S; Feldman, D; Chowdhury, J R

    1986-01-01

    A technique has been developed by the authors that allows hepatocyte attachment on collagen-coated microcarriers resulting in prolonged hepatocyte viability and function both in vivo and in vitro. Rat hepatocytes were obtained by portal vein collagenase perfusion. Intraperitoneally transplanted microcarrier-attached normal hepatocytes into congeneic Gunn rats were functioning 3-4 weeks later, as shown by the presence and persistence of conjugated bilirubin in recipient bile, sustained decrease in serum bilirubin, uptake of Tc99m-DESIDA, and morphologic criteria. Intraperitoneal transplantation of normal microcarrier-attached hepatocytes into genetically albumin deficient rats (NAR) resulted in marked increase in plasma albumin levels (6 days without and 21 days with Cyclosporin A immunosuppression). Microcarrier-attached hepatocytes transplanted after 2 weeks of storage at -80 C into congeneic Gunn rats were viable and functional as assessed by criteria outlined above. An extracorporeal liver perfusion system was developed using the microcarrier-attached hepatocytes that was capable of synthesizing and conjugating bilirubin and synthesizing liver-specific proteins. Images FIGS. 5A and B. FIG. 7. FIG. 8. FIG. 9. FIG. 12. PMID:3530153

  1. In vitro cultivation and cryopreservation of duck embryonic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Schacke, M; Glück, B; Wutzler, P; Sauerbrei, A

    2009-04-01

    Hepatitis B-virucidal testing of biocides in quantitative suspension tests using duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) requires primary duck embryonic hepatocytes for viral propagation. To improve the test system and availability of these cells, commercial culture plates with different growth surfaces were tested for cell cultivation and different approaches for cryopreservation of hepatocyte suspension were examined. After 12 days of culture, the largest amounts of hepatocytes were grown in CellBIND and TTP plates and CellBIND surface showed the lowest tendency of monolayer detachment nearly comparable with collagen 1-coated CELLCOAT plates. For cryopreservation of hepatocyte suspension, the use of growth medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (ME(2)SO), FCS supplemented with ME(2)SO or cryosafe-1 as cryoprotective agents provided the highest rates of surviving cells after thawing. The freezing-thawing process did not significantly reduce the susceptibility of hepatocytes to infection with DHBV. In conclusion, plates without collagen 1 such as CellBIND are recommended for cultivation of primary duck embryonic hepatocytes in infectivity experiments of DHBV for virucidal testing of biocides. The use of cryopreserved hepatocytes is possible when freshly isolated cells from the liver of duck embryos are not available.

  2. Isolation of centrolobular and perilobular hepatocytes after phenobarbital treatment

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Daily phenobarbital (PB) injections, on 3-7 consecutive days, induce an intense proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) associated with a decrease of the glucose-6-phosphatase activity. This situation first affects the centrolobular hepatocytes, enhancing the degree of liver lobule heterogeneity. This experimental model was used for isolation and further subfractionation of hepatocytes on Ficoll density gradients, as described in the preceding paper. Profiles of protein, DNA, RNA, glycogen, phosphorylase, and glucose-6-phosphatase were determined all along the gradient. Two liver cell populations were distinguished: (a) light hepatocytes (mean density 1.10) present the same morphological characteristics as centrolobular cells, i.e., an abundant smooth ER composed of tubular elements, numerous small mitochondria, and few glycogen particles; (b) heavy hepatocytes (mean density 1.14) are characterized by large and compact glycogen areas and prominent rough endoplasmic cisternae, as are the perilobular cells. After incubation in the Wachstein-Meisel medium, Centrolobular hepatocytes exhibit dispersed reaction sites of glucose-6-phosphatase activity, whereas perilobular cells present a continuous and intense reaction. Morphometric determinations were carried out for both cell populations. Centrolobular PB hepatocytes are considerably enlarged (mean diameter: 23.7 mum); perilobular hepatocytes have a significantly smaller mean diameter of 19.2 mum, which is close to the values of control liver cells. PMID:167029

  3. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes as an alternative to human adult hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Takeshi; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell research have attracted much attention. The ability to generate such cells from somatic cells has implications for overcoming both immunological rejection and the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Hepatocytes derived from patient-specific iPS cells offer a possible solution to the shortage of cell sources in cell replacement therapy, drug screening, and disease model. Despite such great promise, however, recent articles have questioned the viability of the therapeutic applications of iPS cells. These cells must, therefore, satisfy stringent criteria prior to practical use. The main focus of this review is a description of the current status of hepatic differentiation technology of iPS cells and a discussion of the concerns regarding the practical use of these techniques in cell replacement therapy, drug screening, and disease model. The current status of strategies for generating iPS cells and the accumulated knowledge on strategies for differentiating ES cells into hepatocytes will be summarized. We also refer to the possibility of direct conversion of adult somatic cells into functional hepatocytes.

  4. Toxicogenomics directory of chemically exposed human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Marianna; Stöber, Regina M; Edlund, Karolina; Rempel, Eugen; Godoy, Patricio; Reif, Raymond; Widera, Agata; Madjar, Katrin; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Marchan, Rosemarie; Sachinidis, Agapios; Spitkovsky, Dimitry; Hescheler, Jürgen; Carmo, Helena; Arbo, Marcelo D; van de Water, Bob; Wink, Steven; Vinken, Mathieu; Rogiers, Vera; Escher, Sylvia; Hardy, Barry; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Waldmann, Tanja; Mardinoglu, Adil; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Nüssler, Andreas; Weiss, Thomas S; Oberemm, Axel; Lampen, Alfons; Schaap, Mirjam M; Luijten, Mirjam; van Steeg, Harry; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Stierum, Rob H; Leist, Marcel; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Hengstler, Jan G

    2014-12-01

    A long-term goal of numerous research projects is to identify biomarkers for in vitro systems predicting toxicity in vivo. Often, transcriptomics data are used to identify candidates for further evaluation. However, a systematic directory summarizing key features of chemically influenced genes in human hepatocytes is not yet available. To bridge this gap, we used the Open TG-GATES database with Affymetrix files of cultivated human hepatocytes incubated with chemicals, further sets of gene array data with hepatocytes from human donors generated in this study, and publicly available genome-wide datasets of human liver tissue from patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). After a curation procedure, expression data of 143 chemicals were included into a comprehensive biostatistical analysis. The results are summarized in the publicly available toxicotranscriptomics directory ( http://wiki.toxbank.net/toxicogenomics-map/ ) which provides information for all genes whether they are up- or downregulated by chemicals and, if yes, by which compounds. The directory also informs about the following key features of chemically influenced genes: (1) Stereotypical stress response. When chemicals induce strong expression alterations, this usually includes a complex but highly reproducible pattern named 'stereotypical response.' On the other hand, more specific expression responses exist that are induced only by individual compounds or small numbers of compounds. The directory differentiates if the gene is part of the stereotypical stress response or if it represents a more specific reaction. (2) Liver disease-associated genes. Approximately 20 % of the genes influenced by chemicals are up- or downregulated, also in liver disease. Liver disease genes deregulated in cirrhosis, HCC, and NASH that overlap with genes of the aforementioned stereotypical chemical stress response include CYP3A7, normally expressed in fetal liver; the

  5. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. Objective: To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). Materials and Methods: The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Results: Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. Conclusions: OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. SUMMARY Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). PMID:28839374

  6. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).

  7. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    PubMed Central

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  8. Hepatocytic parental progenitor cells of rat small hepatocytes maintain self-renewal capability after long-term culture

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Masayuki; Kino, Junichi; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Tanimizu, Naoki; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mizuguchi, Toru; Hirata, Koichi; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    The liver has a variety of functions for maintaining homeostasis, and hepatocytes play a major role. In contrast with the high regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes (MHs) in vivo, they have not been successfully expanded ex vivo. Here we demonstrate that CD44-positive cells sorted from small hepatocyte (SH) colonies derived from a healthy adult rat liver can proliferate on a Matrigel-coated dish in serum-free chemically defined medium; in addition, a subpopulation of the cells can divide more than 50 times in a period of 17 weeks every 4-week-passage. The passage cells retained the capability to recover highly differentiated functions, such as glycogen storage, CYP activity and bile secretion. When Matrigel-treated cells from the third passage were transplanted into retrorsine/partial hepatectomy-treated rat livers, the cells engrafted to differentiate into MHs and cholangiocytes. These results suggest that long-term cultured CD44+ SHs retain hepatocytic characteristics in vitro and the capability to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in vivo. Thus, a newly identified subpopulation of MHs possessing the attributes of hepatocytic stem/progenitor cells can be passaged several times without losing hepatocytic characteristics. PMID:28397810

  9. Cell Fusion Reprogramming Leads to a Specific Hepatic Expression Pattern during Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Hepatocyte Formation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Arza, Elvira; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fabregat, Isabel; Garcia-Bravo, Maria; Meza, Nestor W.; Segovia, Jose C.

    2012-01-01

    The fusion of bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic cells with hepatocytes to generate BM derived hepatocytes (BMDH) is a natural process, which is enhanced in damaged tissues. However, the reprogramming needed to generate BMDH and the identity of the resultant cells is essentially unknown. In a mouse model of chronic liver damage, here we identify a modification in the chromatin structure of the hematopoietic nucleus during BMDH formation, accompanied by the loss of the key hematopoietic transcription factor PU.1/Sfpi1 (SFFV proviral integration 1) and gain of the key hepatic transcriptional regulator HNF-1A homeobox A (HNF-1A/Hnf1a). Through genome-wide expression analysis of laser captured BMDH, a differential gene expression pattern was detected and the chromatin changes observed were confirmed at the level of chromatin regulator genes. Similarly, Tranforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and neurotransmitter (e.g. Prostaglandin E Receptor 4 [Ptger4]) pathway genes were over-expressed. In summary, in vivo BMDH generation is a process in which the hematopoietic cell nucleus changes its identity and acquires hepatic features. These BMDHs have their own cell identity characterized by an expression pattern different from hematopoietic cells or hepatocytes. The role of these BMDHs in the liver requires further investigation. PMID:22457803

  10. Mitochondria in peroxisome-deficient hepatocytes exhibit impaired respiration, depleted DNA, and PGC-1α independent proliferation.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Annelies; Shinde, Abhijit Babaji; Dirkx, Ruud; Smet, Joél; De Bock, Katrien; Espeel, Marc; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Vanlander, Arnaud; Van Coster, Rudy; Carmeliet, Peter; Fransen, Marc; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Baes, Myriam

    2015-02-01

    The tight interrelationship between peroxisomes and mitochondria is illustrated by their cooperation in lipid metabolism, antiviral innate immunity and shared use of proteins executing organellar fission. In addition, we previously reported that disruption of peroxisome biogenesis in hepatocytes severely impacts on mitochondrial integrity, primarily damaging the inner membrane. Here we investigated the molecular impairments of the dysfunctional mitochondria in hepatocyte selective Pex5 knockout mice. First, by using blue native electrophoresis and in-gel activity stainings we showed that the respiratory complexes were differentially affected with reduction of complexes I and III and incomplete assembly of complex V, whereas complexes II and IV were normally active. This resulted in impaired oxygen consumption in cultured Pex5(-/-) hepatocytes. Second, mitochondrial DNA was depleted causing an imbalance in the expression of mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded subunits of the respiratory chain complexes. Third, mitochondrial membranes showed increased permeability and fluidity despite reduced content of the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid. Fourth, the affected mitochondria in peroxisome deficient hepatocytes displayed increased oxidative stress. Acute deletion of PEX5 in vivo using adeno-Cre virus phenocopied these effects, indicating that mitochondrial perturbations closely follow the loss of functional peroxisomes in time. Likely to compensate for the functional impairments, the volume of the mitochondrial compartment was increased several folds. This was not driven by PGC-1α but mediated by activation of PPARα, possibly through c-myc overexpression. In conclusion, loss of peroxisomal metabolism in hepatocytes perturbs the mitochondrial inner membrane, depletes mitochondrial DNA and causes mitochondrial biogenesis independent of PGC-1α. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Repopulation of the fibrotic/cirrhotic rat liver by transplanted hepatic stem/progenitor cells and mature hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yovchev, Mladen I.; Xue, Yuhua; Shafritz, David A.; Locker, Joseph; Oertel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aim Considerable progress has been made in developing anti-fibrotic agents and other strategies to treat liver fibrosis; however, significant long-term restoration of functional liver mass has not yet been achieved. Therefore, we investigated whether transplanted hepatic stem/progenitor cells can effectively repopulate the liver with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Methods Stem/progenitor cells derived from fetal livers or mature hepatocytes from DPPIV+ F344 rats were transplanted into DPPIV− rats with thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis/cirrhosis; rats were sacrificed 1, 2, or 4 months later. Liver tissues were analyzed by histochemistry, hydroxyproline determination, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Results After chronic TAA administration, DPPIV− F344 rats exhibited progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis and severe hepatocyte damage. Besides stellate cell activation, increased numbers of stem/progenitor cells (Dlk-1+, AFP+, CD133+, Sox-9+, FoxJ1+) were observed. In conjunction with partial hepatectomy (PH), transplanted stem/progenitor cells engrafted, proliferated competitively compared to host hepatocytes, differentiated into hepatocytic and biliary epithelial cells, and generated new liver mass with extensive long-term liver repopulation (40.8 ± 10.3%). Remarkably, more than 20% liver repopulation was achieved in the absence of PH, associated with reduced fibrogenic activity (e.g., expression of α-SMA, PDGFRβ, desmin, vimentin, TIMP1) and fibrosis (reduced collagen). Furthermore, hepatocytes can also replace liver mass with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis, but to a lesser extent than FLSPCs. Conclusions This study is a Proof of Principle demonstration that transplanted epithelial stem/progenitor cells can restore injured parenchyma in a liver environment with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis and exhibit anti-fibrotic effects. PMID:23840008

  12. Heat-shock protein 70 modulates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 in stressed hepatocytes of Mugil cephalus.

    PubMed

    Padmini, Ekambaram; Tharani, Jayachandran

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress causes damage at the cellular level and activates a number of signaling pathways. Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in repair and protective mechanisms under cell response to stress conditions. HSP70 has been shown to act as an inhibitor of apoptosis. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) activity is regulated at multiple levels, one of which is through inhibition by cytosolic chaperons HSP70. The current study was aimed to investigate the alteration in signaling molecules that allow the fish to survive under stressed natural field conditions. The study also investigates the variation in biomolecular composition of hepatocytes by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The impact of stress on hepatocytes was assessed by measuring the level of lipid peroxides (LPO), catalase activity (CAT) and assessing the changes in hepatocytes of Mugil cephalus inhabiting Kovalam and Ennore estuaries. The expression of HSP70 and ASK1 were analyzed by immunoblot analysis and ELISA, respectively. The spectral analysis showed variations in biomolecular composition of hepatocytes at a wave number region of 4,000-400 cm(-1). There was significant decrease of CAT activity (p < 0.01) (25 %) with significant increase of LPO (p < 0.001) (35 %) and HSP70 (p < 0.001) and insignificant increase of ASK1 (p < 0.05) (16 %) in fish hepatocytes inhabiting Ennore estuary than Kovalam estuary. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the survival of fish in the Ennore estuary under stressed condition may be due to the upregulation of HSP70 that mediates the altered signal pathway which promotes cellular resistance against apoptosis.

  13. Sry HMG Box Protein 9-positive (Sox9+) Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-negative (EpCAM−) Biphenotypic Cells Derived from Hepatocytes Are Involved in Mouse Liver Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Nishikawa, Yuji; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that mature hepatocytes compensate tissue damages not only by proliferation and/or hypertrophy but also by conversion into cholangiocyte-like cells. We found that Sry HMG box protein 9-positive (Sox9+) epithelial cell adhesion molecule-negative (EpCAM−) hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α-positive (HNF4α+) biphenotypic cells showing hepatocytic morphology appeared near EpCAM+ ductular structures in the livers of mice fed 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-containing diet. When Mx1-Cre:ROSA mice, which were injected with poly(I:C) to label mature hepatocytes, were fed with the DDC diet, we found LacZ+Sox9+ cells near ductular structures. Although Sox9+EpCAM− cells adjacent to expanding ducts likely further converted into ductular cells, the incidence was rare. To know the cellular characteristics of Sox9+EpCAM− cells, we isolated them as GFP+EpCAM− cells from DDC-injured livers of Sox9-EGFP mice. Sox9+EpCAM− cells proliferated and could differentiate to functional hepatocytes in vitro. In addition, Sox9+EpCAM− cells formed cysts with a small central lumen in collagen gels containing Matrigel® without expressing EpCAM. These results suggest that Sox9+EpCAM− cells maintaining biphenotypic status can establish cholangiocyte-type polarity. Interestingly, we found that some of the Sox9+ cells surrounded luminal spaces in DDC-injured liver while they expressed HNF4α. Taken together, we consider that in addition to converting to cholangiocyte-like cells, Sox9+EpCAM− cells provide luminal space near expanded ductular structures to prevent deterioration of the injuries and potentially supply new hepatocytes to repair damaged tissues. PMID:24482234

  14. Sry HMG box protein 9-positive (Sox9+) epithelial cell adhesion molecule-negative (EpCAM-) biphenotypic cells derived from hepatocytes are involved in mouse liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Nishikawa, Yuji; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2014-03-14

    It has been shown that mature hepatocytes compensate tissue damages not only by proliferation and/or hypertrophy but also by conversion into cholangiocyte-like cells. We found that Sry HMG box protein 9-positive (Sox9(+)) epithelial cell adhesion molecule-negative (EpCAM(-)) hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α-positive (HNF4α(+)) biphenotypic cells showing hepatocytic morphology appeared near EpCAM(+) ductular structures in the livers of mice fed 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-containing diet. When Mx1-Cre:ROSA mice, which were injected with poly(I:C) to label mature hepatocytes, were fed with the DDC diet, we found LacZ(+)Sox9(+) cells near ductular structures. Although Sox9(+)EpCAM(-) cells adjacent to expanding ducts likely further converted into ductular cells, the incidence was rare. To know the cellular characteristics of Sox9(+)EpCAM(-) cells, we isolated them as GFP(+)EpCAM(-) cells from DDC-injured livers of Sox9-EGFP mice. Sox9(+)EpCAM(-) cells proliferated and could differentiate to functional hepatocytes in vitro. In addition, Sox9(+)EpCAM(-) cells formed cysts with a small central lumen in collagen gels containing Matrigel® without expressing EpCAM. These results suggest that Sox9(+)EpCAM(-) cells maintaining biphenotypic status can establish cholangiocyte-type polarity. Interestingly, we found that some of the Sox9(+) cells surrounded luminal spaces in DDC-injured liver while they expressed HNF4α. Taken together, we consider that in addition to converting to cholangiocyte-like cells, Sox9(+)EpCAM(-) cells provide luminal space near expanded ductular structures to prevent deterioration of the injuries and potentially supply new hepatocytes to repair damaged tissues.

  15. Labeling of primary human hepatocytes with micron-sized iron oxide particles in suspension culture suitable for large-scale preparation.

    PubMed

    Kammer, Nora N; Billecke, Nils; Morgul, Mehmet H; Adonopoulou, Michaela K; Mogl, Martina; Huang, Mao D; Florek, Stefan; Schmitt, Katharina R L; Raschzok, Nathanael; Sauer, Igor M

    2011-04-01

    Labeling of hepatocytes with micron-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs) enables cell detection using clinical magnetic resonance equipment. For clinical applications, large numbers of cells must be labeled in a simple and rapid manner and have to be applied in suspension. However, all existing protocols are based on adhesion culture labeling with subsequent resuspension, only suitable for small experimental settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of preparing MPIO-labeled primary human hepatocytes in a temporary suspension culture. Human hepatocytes were isolated from 16 donors and labeled with MPIOs in suspension, using the Rotary Cell Culture System. Particle incorporation was investigated by light and electron microscopy. Cells were compared with adhesion culture-labeled and subsequently enzymatically resuspended cells. During a period of 5 days, hepatocyte-specific parameters of cell damage (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) and metabolic activity (urea and albumin) were analyzed (n=7). Suspension cultures showed a higher outcome in cell recovery compared with the conventional labeling method. When incubated with 180 particles/viable cell for 4 h, the mean particle uptake was 28.8 particles/cell at a labeling efficiency of 95.1%. Labeling in suspension had no adverse effects on cell integrity or metabolic activity. We conclude that labeling of human hepatocytes in suspension is feasible and simple and may serve future large-scale processing of cells. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Heat-shock protein 90 alpha (HSP90α) modulates signaling pathways towards tolerance of oxidative stress and enhanced survival of hepatocytes of Mugil cephalus.

    PubMed

    Padmini, Ekambaram; Usha Rani, Munuswamy

    2011-07-01

    Oxidative stress causes damage at the cellular level and activates a number of signaling pathways. Earlier, we have demonstrated that pollutant-related oxidative stress upregulates heat-shock protein 90 alpha (HSP90α) against stress insult in hepatocytes of Mugil cephalus living in a polluted estuary. However, the impact of pollution-induced HSP90α upregulation on stress tolerance is not clear. Here we propose that the effect of stress resistance depends on the ability of HSP90α to modulate the signaling pathways involving proteins such as apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase 1/2, signal transducers and activators of transcription, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, protein kinase B, nuclear factor-kappa binding, Ets-like protein 1, and B cell lymphoma-2. In order to investigate this, the activation of HSP90α-associated signaling molecules was examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The relationship between the protein expression patterns was identified by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The signaling proteins exhibited differential modulation as revealed from their expression patterns in pollutant-exposed fish hepatocytes, in comparison with the control fish hepatocytes. The results suggested that in spite of the prevalence of oxidative stress in pollutant-exposed fish hepatocytes, the stress-mediated induction of HSP90α enabled the hepatocytes to become stress tolerant and to survive by modulating the actions of key proteins and kinases in the signal transduction pathways.

  17. Cytoprotective effects of silafibrate, a newly-synthesised siliconated derivative of clofibrate, against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nafisi, Sara; Heidari, Reza; Ghaffarzadeh, Mohammad; Ziaee, Mojtaba; Hamzeiy, Hossein; Garjani, Alireza; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2014-06-01

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl para amino phenol, APAP) is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic drug responsible for various drug-induced liver injuries. This study evaluated APAP-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes alongside the protective effects of silafibrate and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Hepatocytes were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats by collagenase enzyme perfusion via the portal vein. This technique is based on liver perfusion with collagenase after removing calcium ions (Ca2+) with a chelator. Cells were treated with different concentrations of APAP, silafibrate, and NAC. Cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarisation were measured as toxicity markers. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation occurred after APAP administration to rat hepatocytes. APAP caused mitochondrial depolarisation in isolated cells. Administration of silafibrate (200 μmol L-1) and/or NAC (200 μmol L-1) reduced the ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarisation caused by APAP. Cytotoxicity induced by APAP in rat hepatocytes was mediated by oxidative stress. In addition, APAP seemed to target cellular mitochondria during hepatocyte damage. The protective properties of silafibrate and/or NAC against APAP‑induced hepatic injury may have involved the induction of antioxidant enzymes, protection against oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, and alteration in cellular glutathione content.

  18. Engineering of human hepatocyte lines for cell therapies in humans: prospects and remaining hurdles.

    PubMed

    Kobayashit, Naoya; Tanaka, Noriaki

    2002-01-01

    Hepatocyte-based biological therapies are increasingly envisioned for temporary support in acute liver failure and provision of specific-liver functions in liver-based metabolic deficiency. One of the hurdles to develop such therapies is severe shortage of human livers for hepatocyte isolation. To address the issue, we have focused on reversible immortalization of human hepatocytes. Such technology can allow rapid preparation of functional and uniform human hepatocytes. Here we present our strategy to construct transplantable human hepatocyte cell lines.

  19. Engineering of Human Hepatocyte Lines for Cell Therapies in Humans: Prospects and Remaining Hurdles.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Tanaka, Noriaki

    2002-07-01

    Hepatocyte-based biological therapies are increasingly envisioned for temporary support in acute liver failure and provision of specific-liver functions in liver-based metabolic deficiency. One of the hurdles to develop such therapies is severe shortage of human livers for hepatocyte isolation. To address the issue, we have focused on reversible immortalization of human hepatocytes. Such technology can allow rapid preparation of functional and uniform human hepatocytes. Here we present our strategy to construct transplantable human hepatocyte cell lines.

  20. Toxicity of ethacrynic acid in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Masubuchi, Y; Narimatsu, S; Kobayashi, S; Horie, T

    2002-04-01

    Ethacrynic acid, a loop diuretic drug, caused lipid peroxidation in isolated rat hepatocytes. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation showed a good correlation with the leakage of glutamic-oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT) from the hepatocytes. The addition of antioxidants such as N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) and promethazine to the isolated rat hepatocyte suspension containing ethacrynic acid prevented the lipid peroxidation and decreased the GOT leakage to some extent. SKF-525A inhibited the oxidative metabolism of ethacrynic acid and decreased the TBARS formation, suggesting that the lipid peroxidation was caused by the oxidative metabolism. The intracellular reduced glutathione markedly decreased in the hepatocyte suspension containing ethacrynic acid and the hepatocellular protein sulfhydryls were decreased, which was negatively correlated with the GOT leakage. Thus the ethacrynic acid-induced hepatotoxicity was found to be related to the lipid peroxidation and the decrease of cellular protein sulfhydryls.

  1. Coculture and Long-Term Maintenance of Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Merav; Levy, Gahl; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the largest internal organ in mammals, serving a wide spectrum of vital functions. Loss of liver function due to drug toxicity, progressive fatty liver disease, or viral infection is a major cause of death in the United States of America. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic toxicity screening, basic research and the development of bioartificial liver devices require long-term hepatocyte culture techniques that sustain hepatocyte morphology and function. In recent years, several techniques have been developed that can support high levels of liver-specific gene expression, metabolic function, and synthetic activity for several weeks in culture. These include the collagen double gel configuration, hepatocyte spheroids, coculture with nonparenchymal cells, and micropatterned cocultures. This chapter will cover the current status of hepatocyte culture techniques, including media formulation, oxygen supply, and heterotypic cell-cell interactions.

  2. Mechanisms of Diabetes-Induced Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Jamaludin; Nazratun Nafizah, A. H.; Zariyantey, A. H.; Budin, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease that occurs in both developed and developing countries. This metabolic disease affects all systems in the body, including the liver. Hyperglycaemia, mainly caused by insulin resistance, affects the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and can lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can further progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and, finally, hepatocellular carcinomas. The underlying mechanism of diabetes that contributes to liver damage is the combination of increased oxidative stress and an aberrant inflammatory response; this activates the transcription of pro-apoptotic genes and damages hepatocytes. Significant involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines—including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α—exacerbates the accumulation of oxidative damage products in the liver, such as malondialdehyde, fluorescent pigments and conjugated dienes. This review summarises the biochemical, histological and macromolecular changes that contribute to oxidative liver damage among diabetic individuals. PMID:27226903

  3. Intracytoplasmic Crystalline Inclusions in the Hepatocytes of an Antelope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    hepatocytes of a 13-year-old female Thomson’s gazelle . Histologically, multifocal to coalescing areas of many hepatocytes contained large cytoplasmic...hepatocellular crystalline inclusions in a gazelle . 2. Case Description A 13-year-old female Thomson’s gazelle (Eudorcas thomsoni) from a zoo was presented to...dead and had a history of severe parasitism. Postmortem examination revealed sparse body fat store in the gazelle . There was bilateral enlargement of

  4. Detection of Dichlorvos Adducts in a Hepatocyte Cell Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    modified targets in lysed human hepatocyte- like cells (HepaRG) using a direct liquid chromatography−mass spectrometry (LC−MS) assay of cell lysates...parasympathetic autonomic nervous system5 and the neuromuscular systems.3 Recent studies also suggest that DDVP affects non-neuronal targets in human ... human hepatocyte-like cell line (HepaRG) with DDVP. Then, we identified DDVP-modified targets in these lysates either with shotgun proteomics or with a

  5. Comparison of primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cell line Hepg2 with regard to their biotransformation properties.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Stefan; Stahl, Frank; Bader, Augustinus

    2003-08-01

    Cultures of primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cell line HepG2 are frequently used in in vitro models for human biotransformation studies. In this study, we characterized and compared the capacity of these model systems to indicate the presence of different classes of promutagens. Genotoxic sensitivity, enzyme activity, and gene expression were monitored in response to treatment with food promutagens benzo[a]pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). DNA damage could be detected reliably with the comet assay in primary human hepatocytes, which were maintained in sandwich culture. All three promutagens caused DNA damage in primary cells, but in HepG2 no genotoxic effects of DMN and PhIP could be detected. We supposed that the lack of specific enzymes accounts for their inability to process these promutagens. Therefore, we quantified the expression of a broad range of genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The genes code for cytochromes p450 and, in addition, for a series of important phase II enzymes. The expression level of these genes in human hepatocytes was similar to those previously reported for human liver samples. On the other hand, expression levels in HepG2 differed significantly from that in human. Activity and expression, especially of phase I enzymes, were demonstrated to be extremely low in HepG2 cells. Up-regulation of specific genes by test substances was similar in both cell types. In conclusion, human hepatocytes are the preferred model for biotransformation in human liver, whereas HepG2 cells may be useful to study regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  6. Biomechanics and functionality of hepatocytes in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shan; Song, Zhenyuan; Cotler, Scott J; Cho, Michael

    2014-06-27

    Cirrhosis is a life-threatening condition that is generally attributed to overproduction of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix that mechanically stiffens the liver. Chronic liver injury due to causes including viral hepatitis, inherited and metabolic liver diseases and external factors such as alcohol abuse can result in the development of cirrhosis. Progression of cirrhosis leads to hepatocellular dysfunction. While extensive studies to understand the complexity underlying liver fibrosis have led to potential application of anti-fibrotic drugs, no such FDA-approved drugs are currently available. Additional studies of hepatic fibrogenesis and cirrhosis primarily have focused on the extracellular matrix, while hepatocyte biomechanics has received limited attention. The role of hepatocyte biomechanics in liver cirrhosis remains elusive, and how the cell stiffness is correlated with biological functions of hepatocytes is also unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the biomechanical properties of hepatocytes are correlated with their functions (e.g., glucose metabolism), and that hepatic dysfunction can be restored through modulation of the cellular biomechanics. Furthermore, our results indicate the hepatocyte functionality appears to be regulated through a crosstalk between the Rho and Akt signaling. These novel findings may lead to biomechanical intervention of hepatocytes and the development of innovative tissue engineering for clinical treatment to target liver cells rather than exclusively focusing on the extracellular matrix alone in liver cirrhosis.

  7. General review on in vitro hepatocyte models and their applications.

    PubMed

    Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Guillouzo, Andre

    2010-01-01

    In vitro hepatocyte models represent very useful systems in both fundamental research and various application areas. Primary hepatocytes appear as the closest model for the liver in vivo. However, they are phenotypically unstable, have a limited life span and in addition, exhibit large interdonor variability when of human origin. Hepatoma cell lines appear as an alternative but only the HepaRG cell line exhibits various functions, including major cytochrome P450 activities, at levels close to those found in primary hepatocytes. In vitro hepatocyte models have brought a substantial contribution to the understanding of the biochemistry, physiology, and cell biology of the normal and diseased liver and in various application domains such as xenobiotic metabolism and toxicity, virology, parasitology, and more generally cell therapies. In the future, new well-differentiated hepatocyte cell lines derived from tumors or from either embryonic or adult stem cells might be expected and although hepatocytes will continue to be used in various fields, these in vitro liver models should allow marked advances, especially in cell-based therapies and predictive and mechanistic hepatotoxicity of new drugs and other chemicals. All models will benefit from new developments in throughput screening based on cell chips coupled with high-content imaging and in toxicogenomics technologies.

  8. A Hedgehog Survival Pathway in ‘Undead’ Lipotoxic Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kakisaka, Keisuke; Cazanave, Sophie C.; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Razumilava, Nataliya; Mertens, Joachim C.; Bronk, Steve F.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Ballooned hepatocytes in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) generate sonic hedgehog (SHH). This observation is consistent with a cellular phenotype in which the cell death program has been initiated but cannot be executed. Our aim was to determine if ballooned hepatocytes have potentially disabled the cell death execution machinery, and if so, can their functional biology be modeled in vitro. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on human NASH specimens. In vitro studies were performed using Huh-7 cells with shRNA targeted knockdown of caspase 9 (shC9 cells) or primary hepatocytes from caspase 3−/− mice. Results Ballooned hepatocytes in NASH display diminished expression of the caspase 9. This phenotype was modeled using shC9 cells; these cells were resistant to lipoapoptosis by palmitate (PA) or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) despite lipid droplet formation. During lipid loading by either PA or LPC, shC9 cells activate JNK which via AP-1 induces SHH expression. An autocrine hedgehog survival signaling pathway was further delineated in both shC9 and caspase 3−/− cells during lipotoxic stress. Conclusion Ballooned hepatocytes in NASH downregulate caspase 9, a pivotal caspase executing the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Hepatocytes engineered to reduce caspase 9 expression are resistant to lipoapoptosis, in part, due to a hedgehog autocrine survival signaling pathway. PMID:22641094

  9. A hedgehog survival pathway in 'undead' lipotoxic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kakisaka, Keisuke; Cazanave, Sophie C; Werneburg, Nathan W; Razumilava, Nataliya; Mertens, Joachim C; Bronk, Steve F; Gores, Gregory J

    2012-10-01

    Ballooned hepatocytes in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) generate sonic hedgehog (SHH). This observation is consistent with a cellular phenotype in which the cell death program has been initiated but cannot be executed. Our aim was to determine whether ballooned hepatocytes have potentially disabled the cell death execution machinery, and if so, can their functional biology be modeled in vitro. Immunohistochemistry was performed on human NASH specimens. In vitro studies were performed using HuH-7 cells with shRNA targeted knockdown of caspase 9 (shC9 cells) or primary hepatocytes from caspase 3(-/-) mice. Ballooned hepatocytes in NASH display diminished expression of caspase 9. This phenotype was modeled using shC9 cells; these cells were resistant to lipoapoptosis by palmitate (PA) or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) despite lipid droplet formation. During lipid loading by either PA or LPC, shC9 cells activate JNK which induces SHH expression via AP-1. An autocrine hedgehog survival signaling pathway was further delineated in both shC9 and caspase 3(-/-) cells during lipotoxic stress. Ballooned hepatocytes in NASH downregulate caspase 9, a pivotal caspase executing the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Hepatocytes engineered to reduce caspase 9 expression are resistant to lipoapoptosis, in part, due to a hedgehog autocrine survival signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol induced genotoxicity in UROtsa cells and primary rat hepatocytes: relevance of metabolism and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kong, Weixi; Gu, Pengfei; Knudsen, Gabriel A; Sipes, I Glenn

    2013-10-09

    2,2-Bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol (BMP) is a brominated flame retardant used in urethane foams and polyester resins. In a two year dietary study, BMP caused neoplastic lesions at multiple sites including the urinary bladder of both rats and mice. However, liver was not a target tissue. We previously reported that BMP elicited oxidative DNA damage in a human uroepithelial cell line (UROtsa). The present in vitro study investigated the susceptibility of target (UROtsa cells) and non-target cells (primary rat hepatocytes) to BMP-induced genotoxicity. In contrast to hepatocytes, BMP exhibited greater genotoxic potential in UROtsa cells as evidenced by the concentration dependent increase in DNA strand breaks and DNA binding. Total content of intracellular GSH quantified in UROtsa cells (2.7±1.0nmol/mg protein) was 4 fold lower than that in hepatocytes (10.7±0.3nmol/mg protein). HPLC analysis indicated BMP was not metabolized and/or consumed in UROtsa cells at any of the concentrations tested (10-250μM) but was extensively converted to a mono-glucuronide in hepatocytes. These results demonstrate that a target cell line such as UROtsa cells are more susceptible to BMP-induced DNA damage when compared to non-target cells. This increased susceptibility may relate to the deficiency of antioxidant and/or metabolic capabilities in UROtsa cells.

  11. Turnover of cytokeratin polypeptides in mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Denk, H.; Lackinger, E.; Zatloukal, K. ); Franke, W.W. )

    1987-11-01

    The turnover of cytokeratin polypeptides A (equivalent to No. 8 of the human cytokeratin catalog) and D (equivalent to human cytokeratin No. 18) of mouse hepatocytes was studied by pulse-labeling of mouse liver proteins after intraperitoneal injection of L-(guanido{sup 14}C)arginine and ({sup 14}C)sodium bicarbonate. With L-(guanido-{sup 14}C)arginine a rapid increase in the specific radioactivity of both cytokeratins was observed which reached a plateau between 12 and 24 h. With ({sup 14}C)sodium bicarbonate maximal specific radioactivity was obtained at 6 h followed by a rapid decrease to half maximum values within the subsequent 6 h and then a slower decrease. Half-lives were determined from the decrease of specific radioactivities after pulse-labeling by least-squares plots and found to be 84 h (for cytokeratin component A) and 104 h (component D) for arginine labeling . Values obtained after bicarbonate labeling were similar (95 h for A and 98 h for D). These results show that liver cytokeratins are relatively stable proteins and suggest that components A and D are synthesized and degraded at similar rates, probably in a coordinate way.

  12. Nonalcoholic Lipid Accumulation and Hepatocyte Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Juanjuan; Yao, Min; Yao, Dengbing; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuli; Yao, Dengfu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is steadily increasing, highlighting its status as a public health concern, particularly due to its significant association with other comorbidities, such as diabetes. However, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a primary risk factor, with its own prevalence increasing in recent years, and it has gradually caught up with the historical primary etiological factors of infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, exposure to aflatoxin, or alcohol liver disease. The deeply worrisome aspects of all of these high risk factors, however, are their remarkable presence within populations. Systemic and genetic mechanisms involved in the malignant transformation of liver cells, as well as useful biomarkers of early stage HCC are being investigated. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the interrelation of NAFLD and HCC remain largely unknown. In this review, some of the recent advances in our understanding of liver lipid accumulation are summarized and discussed to provide insights into the relationship between NAFLD and hepatocyte malignant transformation. PMID:27350942

  13. HEMETβ: improvement of hepatocyte metabolism mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Orsi, G; De Maria, C; Guzzardi, M; Vozzi, F; Vozzi, G

    2011-10-01

    This article describes hepatocyte metabolism mathematical model (HEMETβ), which is an improved version of HEMET, an effective and versatile virtual cell model based on hepatic cell metabolism. HEMET is based on a set of non-linear differential equations, implemented in Simulink®, which describes the biochemical reactions and energetic cell state, and completely mimics the principal metabolic pathways in hepatic cells. The cell energy function and modular structure are the core of this model. HEMETβ as HEMET model describes hepatic cellular metabolism in standard conditions (cell culture in a plastic multi-well placed in an incubator at 37° C with 5% of CO2) and with excess substrates concentration. The main improvements in HEMETβ are the introductions of Michaelis-Menten models for reversible reactions and enzymatic inhibition. In addition, we eliminated hard non-linearities and modelled cell proliferation and every single aminoacid degradation pathway. All these innovations, combined with a user-friendly aspect, allow researchers to create new cell types and validate new experimental protocols just varying 'peripheral' pathways or model inputs.

  14. Low concentration of mercury induces autophagic cell death in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Ray, Atish; Mukherjee, Sandip; Agarwal, Soumik; Kundu, Rakesh; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the induction of autophagy in rat hepatocytes by a low concentration of mercury. Hepatocytes treated with different doses of mercuric chloride (HgCl2; 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 µM) and at different time intervals (0 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 4 h) show autophagic cell death only at 5 µM HgCl2 within 30 min of incubation. At 1 and 2.5 µM HgCl2, no cell death is recorded, while apoptosis is found at 10 µM HgCl2, as evidenced by the activation of caspase 3. Autophagic cell death is confirmed by the presence of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) positive hepatocytes which is found to be highest at 1 h. Atg5-Atg12 covalent-conjugation triggers the autophagic pathway within 30 min of 5 µM HgCl2 treatment and continues till 4 h of incubation. In addition, damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) expression gradually increases from 30 min to 4 h of treatment with mercury and a corresponding linear decrease in p53 has been observed. It is concluded that a low concentration (5 µM HgCl2) of mercury induces autophagy or nonapoptotic programmed cell death following an Atg5-Atg12 covalent-conjugation pathway, which is modulated by DRAM in a p53-dependent manner.

  15. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of D-tagatose in cultured murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Paterna, J C; Boess, F; Stäubli, A; Boelsterli, U A

    1998-01-01

    D-Tagatose is a zero-energy producing ketohexose that is a powerful cytoprotective agent against chemically induced cell injury. To further explore the underlying mechanisms of cytoprotection, we investigated the effects of D-tagatose on both the generation of superoxide anion radicals and the consequences of oxidative stress driven by prooxidant compounds in intact cells. Primary cultures of hepatocytes derived from male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the redox cycling drug nitrofurantoin (NFT). Lethal cell injury induced by 300 microM NFT was completely prevented by high concentrations (20 mM) of D-tagatose, whereas equimolar concentrations of glucose, mannitol, or xylose were ineffective. The extent of NFT-induced intracellular superoxide anion radical formation was not altered by D-tagatose, indicating that the ketohexose did not inhibit the reductive bioactivation of NFT. However, the NFT-induced decline of the intracellular GSH content was largely prevented by D-tagatose. The sugar also afforded complete protection against NFT toxicity in hepatocytes that had been chemically depleted of GSH. Furthermore, the ketohexose fully protected from increases in both membrane lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation. In addition, D-tagatose completely prevented oxidative cell injury inflicted by toxic iron overload with ferric nitrilotriacetate (100 microM). In contrast, D-tagatose did not protect against lethal cell injury induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide, a prooxidant which acts by hydroxyl radical-independent mechanisms and which is partitioned in the lipid bilayer. These results indicate that D-tagatose, which is a weak iron chelator, can antagonize the iron-dependent toxic consequences of intracellular oxidative stress in hepatocytes. The antioxidant properties of D-tagatose may result from sequestering the redox-active iron, thereby protecting more critical targets from the damaging potential of hydroxyl radical.

  16. Gene transfer into hepatocytes mediated by herpes simplex virus-Epstein-Barr virus hybrid amplicons.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lars; Saydam, Okay; Saeki, Yoshinaga; Heid, Irma; Fraefel, Cornel

    2005-01-01

    Gene transfer into hepatocytes is highly desirable for the long-term goal of replacing deficient proteins and correcting metabolic disorders. Vectors based on herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) have been demonstrated to mediate efficient gene transfer into hepatocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Large transgene capacity and extrachromosomal persistence make HSV-1/EBV hybrid amplicon vectors an attractive candidate for hepatic gene replacement therapy. To assess liver-directed gene transfer, we constructed (i) a conventional HSV-1 amplicon vector encoding a secreted reporter protein (secreted alkaline phosphatase, SEAP) under the control of the HSV-1 immediate-early 4/5 promoter; (ii) a HSV-1 amplicon encoding SEAP under the control of the artificial CAG promoter (the chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early enhancer); and (iii) a HSV-1/EBV hybrid amplicon, also encoding SEAP under the control of the CAG promoter. While all three vector constructs yielded high SEAP concentrations in vitro and in vivo, use of HSV-1/EBV hybrid amplicon vectors significantly prolonged the duration of gene expression. Using conventional amplicon vectors in cultured hepatocytes, SEAP was detected for two weeks, whereas SEAP was detected for at least six weeks when HSV-1/EBV amplicons were used. Intraparenchymal injection into the liver of SICD mice yielded high (up to 77 ng of SEAP per milliliter serum) and sustained (greater than three weeks) expression of SEAP. Serum transaminases (ALT/AST) were measured at different time points to monitor for hepatocellular damage. While initially elevated four times above baseline, the transaminase levels returned to normal after three to seven days. These results demonstrate the usefulness of HSV-1-based amplicons and SEAP for the evaluation of gene replacement strategies in the liver.

  17. In vitro culture of isolated primary hepatocytes and stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells for liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chenxia; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-08-01

    Various liver diseases result in terminal hepatic failure, and liver transplantation, cell transplantation and artificial liver support systems are emerging as effective therapies for severe hepatic disease. However, all of these treatments are limited by organ or cell resources, so developing a sufficient number of functional hepatocytes for liver regeneration is a priority. Liver regeneration is a complex process regulated by growth factors (GFs), cytokines, transcription factors (TFs), hormones, oxidative stress products, metabolic networks, and microRNA. It is well-known that the function of isolated primary hepatocytes is hard to maintain; when cultured in vitro, these cells readily undergo dedifferentiation, causing them to lose hepatocyte function. For this reason, most studies focus on inducing stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) in vitro. In this review, we mainly focus on the nature of the liver regeneration process and discuss how to maintain and enhance in vitro hepatic function of isolated primary hepatocytes or stem cell-derived HLCs for liver regeneration. In this way, hepatocytes or HLCs may be applied for clinical use for the treatment of terminal liver diseases and may prolong the survival time of patients in the near future.

  18. The effect of pomelo citrus (Citrus maxima var. Nambangan), vitamin C and lycopene towards the number reduction of mice (Mus musculus) apoptotic hepatocyte caused of ochratoxin A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badriyah, Hastuti, Utami Sri

    2017-06-01

    Foods can contaminated by some mycotoxin produced by molds. Ochratoxin A is a sort of mycotoxin that cause structural damage on hepatocytes. Pomelo citrus (Citrus maxima var. Nambangan) contain vitamin C and lycopene that have antioxidant character. This research is done to: 1)examine the effect of pomelo citrus juice, vitamin C, and lycopene treatment towards the number reduction of mice apoptotic hepatocytes caused by ochratoxin A exposure, 2)examine the effect of vitamin C mixed with lycopene treatment towards the number reduction of mice apoptotic hepatocytes caused by ochratoxin A exposure. The experimental group used male mice strain BALB-C in the age of three month and bodyweight 20-30 grams devided in 4 experiment group and control group. The experiment group I were administered pomelo citrus juice 0,5 ml/30 grams BW/day orally during 2 weeks and then administered with ochratoxin in the dose of 1 mg/kg BW during 1 week. The experiment group II were administered with vitamin C in the dose of 5,85 µg/30g BW with the same methods. The experiment group III were administered with lycopene in the dose of 0,1025 µg/30 g BW with the same methods. The experiment group IV were administered with vitamin C mixed with lycopene with the same methods. The control group were administered with ochratoxin A in the dose of 1 mg/kg BW per oral during 1 week. The apoptotic hepatocyte number were count by microscopic observation of hepatocyte slides from experiment group as well as control group with cytochemical staining. The research result shows that: 1) the pomelo citrus juice, vitamin C as well as lycopene administration could reduce the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure, compared with the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure only; 2) the vitamin C mixed with lycopene could reduce the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure compared with the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by

  19. Potential hepatoprotective effects of new Cuban natural products in rat hepatocytes culture.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, I; Donato, M T; Martínez, I; Hernández, I; Garrido, G; González-Lavaut, J A; Menéndez, R; Laguna, A; Castell, J V; Gómez-Lechón, M J

    2008-08-01

    The protective effects of five Cuban natural products (Mangifera indica L. (MSBE), Erythroxylum minutifolium, Erythroxylum confusum, Thalassia testudinum and Dictyota pinnatifida extracts and mangiferin) on the oxidative damage induced by model toxicants in rat hepatocyte cultures were studied. Cells were pre-incubated with the natural products (5-200 microg/mL) for 24 h. Then hepatotoxins (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, ethanol, carbon tetrachloride and lipopolysaccharide) were individually added and post-incubated for another 24 h. After treatments, cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Mangiferin and MSBE exhibited the highest cytoprotective potential (EC50 between 50 and 125 microg/mL), followed by T. testudinum and Erythroxylum extracts, whereas no significant protective effects was produced by Dictyota extract treatment. Antioxidant properties of the natural products against lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide were then investigated. The results show that at 36 h pre-treatment of cells with mangiferin or MSBE, concentrations of T. testudinum and Erythroxylum extracts ranging from 25 to 100 microg/mL significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (100 and 250 microM) and increased the GSH levels reduced by the toxicant. D. pinnatifida inhibited lipid peroxidation, but did not preserve GSH levels. In conclusion, MSBE, E. minutifolium, E. confusum and T. testudinum extracts and mangiferin showed hepatoprotective activity against induced damage in all the experimental series, where mangiferin and the extracts of MSBE and T. testudinum were the best candidates to inhibit "in vitro" damage to rat hepatocytes. This hepatoprotective effect found could be associated with the antioxidant properties observed for the products.

  20. Caffeine induces CYP1A2 expression in rat hepatocytes but not in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vaynshteyn, David; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2012-06-01

    Caffeine is the active constituent in coffee. Continual consumption of caffeine can lead to an attenuated response also known as tolerance. Results from rat studies have shown that caffeine is an inducer of CYP1A2, the enzyme responsible for caffeine's metabolism. This suggests that CYP1A2 induction by caffeine may be in part responsible for caffeine tolerance. However, whether caffeine induces CYP1A2 expression in humans remains unknown. Our results from luciferase assays performed in HepG2 cells showed that caffeine is not an activator of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a major transcription factor involved in upregulation of CYP1A2. Furthermore, caffeine did not induce CYP1A2 expression in primary human hepatocytes at a concentration attained by ordinary coffee drinking. On the other hand, caffeine enhanced CYP1A2 expression by 9-fold in rat hepatocytes. Our results suggest that caffeine from ordinary coffee drinking does not induce CYP1A2 expression in humans and that factors other than CYP1A2 induction by caffeine likely contribute to development of caffeine tolerance in humans.

  1. Water and nonelectrolyte permeability of isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Alpini, G.; Garrick, R.A.; Jones, M.J.; Nunes, R.; Tavoloni, N.

    1986-12-01

    We have measured the diffusive permeability coefficients of isolated rat hepatocytes to /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, (/sup 14/C)urea, (/sup 14/C)erythritol, (/sup 14/C)mannitol, (/sup 3/H)sucrose, and (/sup 3/H)inulin, employing a technique previously developed for erythrocytes (Redwood et al., J. Gen. Physiol 64:706-729, 1974). Diffusion coefficients for the tracer molecules were measured in packed hepatocytes, supernatant fluid, and intracellular medium (lysed hepatocytes) and were calculated assuming one-dimensional semi-infinite diffusion through a homogeneous medium. By applying the series-parallel pathway model, the following permeability coefficients (10(-5) cm/sec) for the hepatocyte plasma membrane were obtained. /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, 98.6 +/- 18.4; (/sup 14/C)urea, 18.2 +/- 5.3; (/sup 14/C)erythritol, 4.8 +/- 1.6; (/sup 14/C)mannitol, 3.1 +/- 1.4; (/sup 3/H)sucrose, 0; (/sup 3/H)inulin, 0. These results indicate that isolated rat hepatocytes are highly permeable to water and polar nonelectrolytes, when compared with other transporting epithelia. This relatively high cellular permeability is consistent with a model in which nonelectrolyte permeation is via an aqueous pathway of equivalent pore diameter of 8-12 A. The finding that (/sup 14/C)erythritol and (/sup 14/C)mannitol cross the hepatocyte plasma membrane indicates that these molecules enter the bile canaliculus through the transcellular route. Conversely, the failure of (/sup 3/H)sucrose and (/sup 3/H)inulin to permeate the hepatocyte in the isolated condition supports the concept that biliary entry of these large carbohydrates, at least that fraction which cannot be accounted for by a vesicular mechanism, must occur via the transjunctional shunt pathway.

  2. Role of macrophages in the immune response to hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgardner, G.L.; Chen, S.; Almond, S.P.; Ascher, N.L.; Payne, W.D.; Matas, A.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of host macrophages in the development of allospecific cytolytic T cells (allo-CTLs) in response to purified allogeneic MHC Class I+, Class II- hepatocytes in vivo in hepatocyte sponge matrix allografts (HC-SMA). Depletion of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from responder splenocytes in mixed lymphocyte hepatocyte culture (MLHC) inhibits the development of allo-CTLs in response to purified hepatocytes. First the ability of sponge macrophages to function as accessory cells in indirect presentation of hepatocyte Class I antigen was tested in MLHC. We found that addition of irradiated sponge cells (a source of sponge macrophages) restored the development of allo-CTLs in MLHC depleted of responder APCs. Therefore, radioresistant sponge macrophages can function as accessory cells in MLHC. We next employed silica as an immunotherapy targeted against host macrophages and assessed the effect on development of allo-CTLs in HC-SMA. We found that local (intrasponge) silica treatment completely inhibited the development of allo-CTLs in HC-SMA. Combined local and systemic silica treatment resulted in inhibition of allocytotoxicity comparable to local silica treatment alone in the doses tested. We conclude that host macrophages which infiltrate HC-SMA can function as accessory cells in vitro in MLHC and that both infiltrating host macrophages and lymphocytes participate in the development of an alloimmune response to purified hepatocytes in vivo. This interaction may involve indirect antigen presentation of hepatocyte Class I antigen by macrophages to host lymphocytes which accumulate in HC-SMA.

  3. Differentiated properties of hepatocytes induced from pancreatic cells.

    PubMed

    Tosh, David; Shen, Chia-Ning; Slack, Jonathan M W

    2002-09-01

    Transdifferentiation of pancreas to liver is a well-recognized phenomenon and has been described in animal experiments and human pathology. We recently produced an in vitro model for the transdifferentiation (or conversion) of the pancreatic cell line AR42J-B13 to hepatocytes based on culture with dexamethasone (Dex). To determine whether the hepatocytes express markers of hepatic intermediary metabolism and detoxification, we investigated the patterns of expression of glucokinase, cytochrome P450s CYP3A1 and CYP2B1/2, testosterone/4-nitrophenol uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT), and aryl sulfotransferase. All were expressed. We also determined the expression of 2 enzymes involved in ammonia detoxification: carbamoylphosphate synthetase I (CPS I) and glutamine synthetase (GS). These enzymes are normally strictly compartmentalized in liver in a wide periportal pattern and the last downstream perivenous hepatocytes, respectively. Following culture with Dex, CPS I and GS are expressed in 2 different cell populations, suggesting that both periportal and perivenous hepatocytes are induced. We also produced a reporter assay based on the activation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) by the transthyretin (TTR) promoter or glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) promoter. After culture with Dex, transfected cells begin to express GFP, showing that hepatic promoters are activated in concert with the induction of the hepatocyte phenotype. Lastly, we examined the stability of the hepatic phenotype and found that some cells still express liver markers (transferrin or albumin) up to 14 days after removal of Dex. In conclusion, these results suggest that pancreatic hepatocytes produced by this method may offer an alternative model to primary cultures of hepatocytes for the study of liver function.

  4. Rifampicin induction of lidocaine metabolism in cultured human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, A P; Rasmussen, A; Xu, L; Kaminski, D L

    1995-08-01

    In our laboratory, cultured human hepatocytes are being evaluated as an experimental system to study drug interactions. We report the effect of a known cytochrome P450 (CYP) inducer, rifampicin, on the metabolism of lidocaine by primary human hepatocytes. Rifampicin has been shown to induce CYP3A4, a major human hepatic CYP isozyme that is known to metabolize lidocaine to its primary metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide. Human hepatocytes were cultured on collagen-coated plates in serum-free, hormone-supplemented Waymouth medium for a 3-day period before they were treated with rifampicin at 50 microM for 1 to 3 days. Hepatocytes isolated from five individuals were studied, and, in all cases, lidocaine metabolism was found to be induced by rifampicin, as demonstrated by a higher rate of monoethylglycinexylidide formation than concurrent controls. For three of the hepatocyte cultures, lidocaine metabolism was evaluated at various times after treatment. Induction was observed at 1 day after treatment, and reached higher levels at day 2 or 3. The level of induction was found to be approximately 100% for two hepatocyte isolations and approximately 600% for one isolation. In a separate experiment, hepatocytes were treated with rifampicin for a 2-day period. Rate of lidocaine metabolism at multiple substrate concentrations (10-120 microM) were then studied. Rifampicin induction of lidocaine metabolism (approximately 100%) was observed at all the lidocaine concentrations studied. Lineweaver-Burk plot of the data showed an increase in Vmax and a less significant change in Km. Induction of lidocaine metabolism by rifampicin (concentrations of 0.1-50 microM) was found to be dose-dependent, with significant induction observed at 1 microM and higher concentrations. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Logging damage

    Treesearch

    Ralph D. Nyland

    1989-01-01

    The best commercial logging will damage at least some residual trees during all forms of partial cutting, no matter how carefully done. Yet recommendations at the end of this Note show there is much that you can do to limit damage by proper road and trail layout, proper training and supervision of crews, appropriate equipment, and diligence.

  6. In vitro vitellogenin production by carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes as a screening method for determining (anti)estrogenic activity of xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Smeets, J M; Rankouhi, T R; Nichols, K M; Komen, H; Kaminski, N E; Giesy, J P; van den Berg, M

    1999-05-15

    The yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (Vtg) is secreted by the liver of female as well as male fish, in response to estrogenic compounds. In this study, an in vitro assay was developed for measuring Vtg induction, using cultured primary hepatocytes from genetically uniform strains of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Vtg production was measured by indirect competitive ELISA, using a polyclonal antiserum against goldfish Vtg that cross-reacts with carp Vtg. Vtg was dose-dependently induced by 17beta-estradiol (E2) in hepatocytes of both sexes. E2 had a lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for Vtg induction of 2 nM, an EC50 between 50 and 150 nM, and a maximum response at 2 microM. The plasticizer and xenoestrogen bisphenol-A induced Vtg secretion by hepatocytes of both sexes at 50 and 100 microM. This carp hepatocyte (CARP-HEP) assay can also be used to detect antiestrogenic activity, which was measured as the reduction of E2-stimulated Vtg synthesis. Two well-known antiestrogenic compounds, tamoxifen and 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), were tested. TCDD caused a reduction in Vtg synthesis in female hepatocytes at concentrations <0.1 nM, making it approximately 10,000-fold more potent than tamoxifen. Carp hepatocytes were also sensitive to induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity, measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). Depending on the exposure time, 18 or 96 h, EROD EC50 values for TCDD were 27 or 6 pM, respectively. The CARP-HEP assay, using the 96-well plate format, offers good possibilities to screen large numbers of compounds for (anti)estrogenic properties. In addition, it can simultaneously determine aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist properties, measured as CYP1A induction.

  7. Protective effect of NAC against malathion-induced oxidative stress in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali; Saeedi Kouzehkonani, Nazli

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Induction of oxidative stress by Organophosphate compounds (OPs) has been previously reported. In the present work, the mechanism of protective effects of N-acetylcysteine as a glutathion (GSH) prodrug against malathion–induced cell toxicity was investigated. In this work, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were used to determine the effect of NAC on malathion-induced cytotoxicity, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods: Rat hepatocytes were isolated using collagenase perfusion and then cell viability, mitchondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ROS formation were determined using trypan blue exclusion, Rhodamine 123 fluorescence and fluorogenic probe, 2', 7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), respectively. Results: Despite the protective effect of NAC on malathion-induced cell toxicity and MMP dysfunction, its efficacy against ROS formation was not adequate to completely protect the cells. Conclusion: Cytotoxic effects of malathion regardless of its cholinergic feature, is started with gradual free radical production but, the main factor that causes cell death, is mitochondrial dysfunction, so that reduction of ROS formation alone is not sufficient for cell survival, and the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity through different mechanisms is the most ameliorative factor specially at high levels of cell damage, as NAC seemed to protect cells with various fashions apart from ROS scavenging in concentrations higher than malathion’s LC50. PMID:24312774

  8. The antioxidant action and mechanism of selenizing Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide in chicken embryo hepatocyte.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chanjuan; Chen, Jin; Hou, Ranran; Tian, Weijun; Liu, Kuanhui; Wang, Deyun; Lu, Yu; Liu, Jiaguo; Wu, Yi; Hu, Yuanliang

    2017-05-01

    The antioxidant action and mechanism of selenizing schisandra chinensis polysaccharide (sSCP) were investigated in chicken embryo hepatocyte (CEH) taking schisandra chinensis polysaccharide (SCP) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as control. The CEH was cultured and treated with sSCP, then exposed to H2O2. The CEHs' viability, apoptosis, ROS and antioxidase contents and the protein expression in MAPKs pathway and mitochondrion-dependence apoptotic signal pathway were assayed. The results showed that sSCP could significantly raise the cell viability and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px, decrease the cell apoptosis and the content of LDH, AST, ALT and MDA, down-regulate the protein expression of p-JNK1, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, Bax, Caspase 3 and cytochrome C, and up-regulate the protein expression of Bcl-2 in comparison with H2O2 control group. The action of sSCP were stronger than those of SCP and NAC. These results indicated that selenylation modification could significantly enhance the antioxidant activity of SCP, sSCP could significantly protect hepatocyte from oxidative damage induced by H2O2, and its mechanism was by regulating the protein expression in MAPKs and mitochondrion-dependence apoptotic signaling pathways.

  9. Exogenous phospholipase enzymes mimic effects of phenylephrine on Ca2+ transport in hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Barritt, G J; Whiting, J A

    1983-01-01

    Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens induced the release of 45Ca2+ from isolated rat hepatocytes incubated at 0.1 mM extracellular Ca2+ with a time course similar to that for the action of phenylephrine. Under the conditions of these experiments, no significant damage to the plasma membrane was detected in the presence of phospholipase C. Little 45Ca2+ release was induced by bee venom phospholipase A2. At 1.3 mM extracellular Ca2+, both phospholipase enzymes stimulated the initial rate of 45Ca2+ exchange. Concentrations of phospholipase C comparable with those that stimulated 45Ca2+ release increased the rates of glucose release and O2 utilization by 70 and 20% respectively. An increase in the rate of O2 utilization but not glucose release was observed after the addition of phospholipase A2 to hepatocytes. The possible role for a cellular phospholipase C in the mechanism by which phenylephrine stimulates glycogenolysis in the liver cell is briefly discussed. PMID:6847637

  10. In vitro study of lovastatin interactions with amiodarone and with carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Krasteva, AZ; Mitcheva, MK; Kondeva-Burdina, MS; Descatoire, VA

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the interactions at a metabolic level between lovastatin, amiodarone and carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes. METHODS: For cell isolation two-step collagenase liver perfusion was performed. Lovastatin was administered alone in increasing concentrations (1 μmol/L, 3 μmol/L, 5 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L) and in combination with CCl4 (86 μmol/L). The cells were also pretreated with 14 μmol/L amiodarone and then the other two compounds were added. RESULTS: Lovastatin promoted concentration-dependent significant toxicity estimated by decrease in cell viability and GSH level by 45% and 84%, respectively. LDH-activity increased by 114% and TBARS content by 90%. CCl4 induced the expected severe damage on the examined parameters. CCl4 induced toxicity was attenuated after lovastatin pretreatment, which was expressed in less increased values of LDH activity and TBARS levels, as well as in less decreased cell viability and GSH concentrations. However, the pretreatment of hepatocytes with amiodarone abolished the protective effect of lovastatin. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the observed cytopro-tective effect was due to interactions between lovastatin, CCl4 and amiodarone at a metabolic level. PMID:17465501

  11. Impact of the pectenotoxin C-43 oxidation degree on its cytotoxic effect on rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Espiña, Begoña; Louzao, M Carmen; Ares, Isabel R; Fonfría, Eva S; Vilariño, Natalia; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Botana, Luis M

    2010-03-15

    The metabolism of toxins that have accumulated in fish and shellfish is considered a detoxification process, as happens with pectenotoxins (PTXs) in the Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis. PTXs are macrolactones that display hepatotoxicity in mice, principally by capping or sequestering actin, their molecular target. PTX-2, which is considered to be the parental compound, oxidizes progressively to PTX-1, PTX-3, and PTX-6 in the Japanese scallop. In this study, we observed that PTX-1, PTX-6, and PTX-9 induce dose-dependent damage in the actin cytoskeleton and in the viability of primary cultured rat hepatocytes. In Clone 9 rat hepatocytes, PTX-1 and PTX-9 also affect the morphology of cells, but surprisingly, PTX-6 induced no effect. In accordance with this lack of activity, the actin cytoskeleton of CaCo-2 cells, another epithelial cell line, is not affected by PTX-6. In conclusion, the order of cytotoxicity of the analogues is PTX-2 > PTX-1 > PTX-6 >PTX-9. From a structure-activity perspective, the increase in the level of oxidation of the PTX molecule on C-43 decreases its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, PTX-6 is not able to induce effects on immortal cells while retaining its toxicity against primary cultured cells, whereas PTX-9, a 7-S-isomer, is active in both cellular models. The different cytotoxicities exerted by PTX-6 on cell lines and primary cells could be determined by the presence of a carboxylic acid group on C43 of the PTX molecule.

  12. Endocytic mechanisms of graphene oxide nanosheets in osteoblasts, hepatocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Linares, Javier; Matesanz, M Concepción; Vila, Mercedes; Feito, M José; Gonçalves, Gil; Vallet-Regí, María; Marques, Paula A A P; Portolés, M Teresa

    2014-08-27

    Nano-graphene oxide (GO) has attracted great interest in nanomedicine due to its own intrinsic properties and its possible biomedical applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering and hyperthermia cancer therapy. However, the toxicity of GO nanosheets is not yet well-known and it is necessary to understand its entry mechanisms into mammalian cells in order to avoid cell damage and human toxicity. In the present study, the cellular uptake of pegylated GO nanosheets of ca. 100 nm labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-PEG-GOs) has been evaluated in the presence of eight inhibitors (colchicine, wortmannin, amiloride, cytochalasin B, cytochalasin D, genistein, phenylarsine oxide and chlorpromazine) that specifically affect different endocytosis mechanisms. Three cell types were chosen for this study: human Saos-2 osteoblasts, human HepG2 hepatocytes and murine RAW-264.7 macrophages. The results show that different mechanisms take part in FITC-PEG-GOs uptake, depending on the characteristics of each cell type. However, macropinocytosis seems to be a general internalization process in the three cell lines analyzed. Besides macropinocytosis, FITC-PEG-GOs can enter through pathways dependent on microtubules in Saos-2 osteoblasts, and through clathrin-dependent mechanisms in HepG2 hepatocytes and RAW-264.7 macrophages. HepG2 cells can also phagocytize FITC-PEG-GOs. These findings help to understand the interactions at the interface of GO nanosheets and mammalian cells and must be considered in further studies focused on their use for biomedical applications.

  13. Liver-enriched transcription factors are critical for the expression of hepatocyte marker genes in mES-derived hepatocyte-lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Kheolamai, Pakpoom; Dickson, Alan J

    2009-04-23

    Induction of stem cell differentiation toward functional hepatocytes is hampered by lack of knowledge of the hepatocyte differentiation processes. The overall objective of this project is to characterize key stages in the hepatocyte differentiation process. We established a mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell culture system which exhibited changes in gene expression profiles similar to those observed in the development of endodermal and hepatocyte-lineage cells previously described in the normal mouse embryo. Transgenic mES cells were established that permitted isolation of enriched hepatocyte-lineage populations. This approach has isolated mES-derived hepatocyte-lineage cells that express several markers of mature hepatocytes including albumin, glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, cytochrome P450-3a, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. In addition, our results show that the up-regulation of the expression levels of hepatocyte nuclear factor-3alpha, -4alpha, -6, and CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-beta might be critical for passage into late-stage differentiation towards functional hepatocytes. These data present important steps for definition of regulatory phenomena that direct specific cell fate determination. The mES cell culture system generated in this study provides a model for studying transition between stages of the hepatocyte development and has significant potential value for studying the molecular basis of hepatocyte differentiation in vitro.

  14. The involvement of cytochrome P450 peroxidase in the metabolic bioactivation of cumene hydroperoxide by isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Anari, M R; Khan, S; O'Brien, P J

    1996-09-01

    Organic hydroperoxides are believed to be primarily detoxified in cells by the GSH peroxidase/GSSG reductase system and activated to cytotoxic radical species by non-heme iron. However, organic hydroperoxides seem to be bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (P450) in isolated hepatocytes as various P450 (particularly P450 2E1) inhibitors inhibited cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH) metabolism and attenuated subsequent cytotoxic effects including antimycin A-resistant respiration, lipid peroxidation, iron mobilization, ATP depletion, and cell membrane disruption. CumOOH metabolism was also faster in P450 1A-induced hepatocytes and was inhibited by the P450 1A inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone. The ferric chelator deferoxamine also prevented cytotoxicity even after CumOOH had been metabolized but had no effect on CumOOH metabolism. This emphasizes the toxicological significance of the iron released following hydroperoxide metabolic activation by cytochrome P450. The radical trap, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO), had no effect on CumOOH metabolism but prevented CumOOH-induced antimycin A-resistant respiration, lipid peroxidation, iron mobilization, and loss of membrane integrity. These results suggest that CumOOH is metabolically activated by some P450 enzymes (e.g., P450 2E1) in hepatocytes to form reactive radical metabolites or oxidants that cause lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity.

  15. Sustained blockade of ascorbic acid transport associated with marked SVCT1 loss in rat hepatocytes containing increased ascorbic acid levels after partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Mafalda; Inostroza, Eveling; Peña, Eduardo; Moncada, Natacha; Mardones, Lorena; Medina, José Luis; Muñoz, Alejandra; Gatica, Marcell; Villagrán, Marcelo; Escobar, Elizabeth; Mendoza, Pamela; Roa, Francisco J; González, Mauricio; Guzmán, Paula; Gutiérrez-Castro, Francisco A; Sweet, Karen; Muñoz-Montesino, Carola; Vera, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Coralia I

    2017-07-01

    The liver has an extraordinary regenerative capacity in response to partial hepatectomy (PHx), which develops with neither tissue inflammation response nor alterations in the whole organism. This process is highly coordinated and it has been associated with changes in glutathione (GSH) metabolism. However, there are no reports indicating ascorbic acid (AA) levels after partial hepatectomy. AA and GSH act integrally as an antioxidant system that protects cells and tissues from oxidative damage and imbalance observed in a variety of diseases that affect the liver. Although rat hepatocytes are able to synthesize AA and GSH, which are the providers of AA for the whole organism, they also acquire AA from extracellular sources through the sodium-coupled ascorbic acid transporter-1 (SVCT1). Here, we show that hepatocytes from rat livers subjected to PHx increase their GSH and AA levels from 1 to 7 days post hepatectomy, whose peaks precede the peak in cell proliferation observed at 3 days post-hepatectomy. The increase in both antioxidants was associated with higher expression of the enzymes involved in their synthesis, such as the modifier subunit of enzyme glutamine cysteine ligase (GCLM), glutathione synthetase (GS), gulonolactonase (GLN) and gulonolactone oxidase (GULO). Importantly, rat hepatocytes, that normally exhibit kinetic evidence indicating only SVCT1-mediated transport of AA, lost more than 90% of their capacity to transport it at day 1 after PHx without evidence of recovery at day 7. This observation was in agreement with loss of SVCT1 protein expression, which was undetectable in hepatocytes as early as 2h after PHx, with partial recovery at day 7, when the regenerated liver weight returns to normal. We conclude that after PHx, rat hepatocytes enhance their antioxidant capacity by increasing GSH and AA levels prior to the proliferative peak. GSH and AA are increased by de novo synthesis, however paradoxically hepatocytes from rat subjected to PHx also

  16. [Study on hepatocyte apoptosis of domestic pigs experimentally infected with Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata].

    PubMed

    Mou, Rong; Bao, Huai-En; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Jia-Hong; Lang, Shu-Yuan

    2012-10-30

    To investigate apoptosis in liver tissue of the domestic pigs infected with eggs of Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. The adult worms of T. asiatica and T. saginata were collected and identified from the taeniasis patients in Dunyun and Congjiang districts, Guizhou province. Eggs were collected from gravid proglottids and prepared by washing and centrifugation. Nineteen 20-day hybrid domestic pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace strain) were randomly divided into T. asiatica group (6 pigs), T. saginata group (8 pigs) and control group (5 pigs). Each animal of experimental groups was infected with 1.5 x 10(5) eggs by stomach injection. On day 15, 32, 46 and 74 after infection, animals were sacrificed and liver samples were collected for further experiments. The liver tissues were sliced for glass slides and prepared for ultrathin sections. The apoptosis of hepatocytes was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick and labeling. The morphological features of liver tissue were observed under transmission electron microscope. The infection rate of two experiment groups reached 100%. Better developed cysticerci were found in liver of T. asiatica group than that of T. saginata group, but the liver pathological changes caused by cysticerci were similar. On day 15 and 32 after infection, hydropic degeneration, obvious vacuolization and some balloon-like degeneration were found in hepatocytes, and focal hepatic necrosis was observed. On day 46, spotty necrosis occurred in some local liver tissues. On day 74, main damages were granulomatous reactions surrounding cysticercus and focal liver fibrosis. On day 46, apoptosis index in T. asiatica group [(15.07 +/- 3.42)6%] and T. saginata group [(17.13 +/- 1.62)5%] was considerably higher than that in the control [(9.53 +/- 1.06)%] (P < 0.05). On day 74, apoptosis index in T. asiatica group [(27.33 +/- 0.92)5%] and T. saginata group [(34.20 +/- 0.73)%] was higher than that in the control [(13.60 +/- 2

  17. Morphology and function of isolated hepatocytes transplanted into rat spleen.

    PubMed

    Mito, M; Ebata, H; Kusano, M; Onishi, T; Saito, T; Sakamoto, S

    1979-12-01

    Hepatocytes isolated by the collagenase digestive method were transplanted into the spleens of syngeneic rats. Morphology and function of the hepatocytes in the spleen were investigated for 12 to 17 months after transplantation. The transplanted hepatocytes proliferated and reconfigured in the spleen without direct perfusion of portal venous blood and with the presence of an intact host liver. Fourteen to 17 months after transplantation, the hepatocytes which had formed a demarcated nodule occupied approximately 40% of the area of the splenic parenchyma without undifferentiation on microscopic examination. However, the weight of the hepatized spleen did not increase beyond the weight of a normal spleen and the weight of the host liver that had normal morphology also did not differ from a normal liver. Light and electron microscopic studies demonstrated differentiated cord structure and normal architecture for each heptocyte. Furthermore, the hepatized spleen synthesized albumin and glycogen as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and histochemical studies. Ammonia tolerance and indocyanine green clearance tests revealed functioning hepatocytes in the spleen proper. These results indicate that our experimental model lends itself well to investigations in cell growth mechanism and that hepatocellular transplantation has potential clinical application to compensate for impaired hepatic function.

  18. Whole-body γ-irradiation decelerates rat hepatocyte polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Ikhtiar, Adnan M

    2015-07-01

    To characterize hepatocyte polyploidization induced by intermediate dose of γ-ray. Male Wistar strain rats were whole-body irradiated (WBI) with 2 Gy of γ-ray at the age of 1 month, and 5-6 rats were sacrificed monthly at 0-25 months after irradiation. The nuclear DNA content of individual hepatocytes was measured by flow cytometry, then hepatocytes were classified into various ploidy classes. Survival percentage, after exposure up to the end of the study, did not indicate any differences between the irradiated groups and controls. The degree of polyploidization in hepatocytes of irradiated rats, was significantly lower than that for the control after 1 month of exposure, and it continued to be lower after up to 8 months. Thereafter, the degree of polyploidization in the irradiated group slowly returned to the control level when the irradiated rats reached the age of 10 months. Intermediate dose of ionizing radiation, in contrast to high doses, decelerate hepatocyte polyploidization, which may coincides with the hypothesis of the beneficial effects of low doses of ionizing radiation.

  19. Molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of chlorpromazine in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    MacAllister, Stephanie L; Young, Cheryl; Guzdek, Anna; Zhidkov, Nickholas; O'Brien, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a member of the largest class of first-generation antipsychotic agents, is known to cause hepatotoxicity in the form of cholestasis and hepatocellular necrosis in some patients. The mechanism of CPZ hepatotoxicity is unclear, but is thought to result from reactive metabolite formation. The goal of this research was to assess potential cytotoxic mechanisms of CPZ using the accelerated cytotoxicity mechanism screening (ACMS) technique with freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. This study identified CPZ cytotoxicity and inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) to be concentration-dependent. Furthermore, inhibition of cytochrome P450s (CYPs), including CYP2D1 and 1A2, delayed CPZ cytotoxicity, suggesting a role for CYP activation of CPZ to a toxic metabolite(s) in this model. Metabolism studies also demonstrated glucuronide and glutathione (GSH) requirement for CPZ detoxification in hepatocytes. Inactivating the 2-electron reduction pathway, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), caused a significant increase in hepatocyte susceptibility to CPZ, indicating quinoneimine contribution to CPZ cytotoxicity. Nontoxic concentrations of peroxidase/H(2)O(2) (inflammatory model) increased cytotoxicity in CPZ-treated hepatocytes and caused additional mitochondrial toxicity. Inflammation further depleted GSH and increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels. Results suggest activation of CPZ to reactive metabolites by 2 pathways in hepatocytes: (i) a CYP-catalyzed quinoneimine pathway, and (ii) a peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of CPZ to CPZ radicals.

  20. Hepatitis B antigen in hepatocytes of chronic active liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, H

    1979-04-01

    To study the morphologic interrelation of hepatocytes with the replication of hepatitis B vius (HBV) and immunocompetent cells in chronic active liver disease(CALD), organ cultures were prepared from liver biopsy specimens. Replication of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) appears to occur in the nucleus of the hepatocyte in close association with intranuclear electron-dense strands and sometimes intranucleolar matrixes (likely HBcAg genomes), and cytoplasmic maturation of the HBcAg takes place in the preautolytic condition of host hepatocytes. Immunocompetent cells became progressively autolyzed in the early period of cultures. No difference in progression of hepatocyte injury in tissues from normal subjects and from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and HBsAg-negative patients with CALD may suggest that intracellular synthesis of HBV alone is not cytopathic to host hepatocytes. This model is promising for the study of HBV replication and development, and also for testing the efficacy of new antiviral agents against the virus.

  1. Hepatocytes in collagen sandwich: evidence for transcriptional and translational regulation

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The influence of extracellular matrix configuration on the tissue- specific function of cultured hepatocytes was investigated. Adult rat hepatocytes sandwiched between two layers of collagen gel were compared to cells cultured on a single layer of collagen gel for differences in the total RNA content, the level of albumin-specific mRNA, the rate of albumin gene transcription, and the rate of albumin mRNA translation. Adult hepatocytes in the sandwich system maintained the level of albumin mRNA similar to that found in the normal liver for at least six weeks, whereas the level of albumin mRNA declined rapidly in the single gel system. After one week of culture, hepatocytes in the single gel system could be induced to recover the high level of albumin mRNA and albumin production when a second layer of collagen gel was overlaid at that time. Furthermore, sandwiched hepatocytes maintained significantly higher transcriptional activity compared to cells in the single gel system. In addition to transcriptional control, the ultimate rate of albumin production was shown to depend on the rate of translation, which increased with culture time and reached a plateau in one to two weeks. This increase in translational activity over time in culture was observed in both the sandwich and the single gel systems and, thus, appeared to be independent of the configuration of extracellular matrix. PMID:1734019

  2. Screening for drug-induced hepatotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes using acetaminophen, amiodarone, and cyclosporin a as model compounds: an omics-guided approach.

    PubMed

    Van Summeren, Anke; Renes, Johan; Lizarraga, Daneida; Bouwman, Freek G; Noben, Jean-Paul; van Delft, Joost H M; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2013-02-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of attrition for candidate pharmaceuticals in development. New preclinical screening methods are crucial to predict drug toxicity prior to human studies. Of all in vitro hepatotoxicity models, primary human hepatocytes are considered as 'the gold standard.' However, their use is hindered by limited availability and inter-individual variation. These barriers may be overcome by using primary mouse hepatocytes. We used differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) to study large-scale protein expression of primary mouse hepatocytes. These hepatocytes were exposed to three well-defined hepatotoxicants: acetaminophen, amiodarone, and cyclosporin A. Each hepatotoxicant induces a different hepatotoxic phenotype. Based on the DIGE results, the mRNA expression levels of deregulated proteins from cyclosporin A-treated cells were also analyzed. We were able to distinguish cyclosporin A from controls, as well as acetaminophen and amiodarone-treated samples. Cyclosporin A induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and altered the ER-Golgi transport. Moreover, liver carboxylesterase and bile salt sulfotransferase were differentially expressed. These proteins were associated with a protective adaptive response against cyclosporin A-induced cholestasis. The results of this study are comparable with effects in HepG2 cells. Therefore, we suggest both models can be used to analyze the cholestatic properties of cyclosporin A. Furthermore, this study showed a conserved response between primary mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. These findings collectively lend support for use of omics strategies in preclinical toxicology, and might inform future efforts to better link preclinical and clinical research in rational drug development.

  3. Screening for Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes Using Acetaminophen, Amiodarone, and Cyclosporin A as Model Compounds: An Omics-Guided Approach

    PubMed Central

    Van Summeren, Anke; Renes, Johan; Lizarraga, Daneida; Bouwman, Freek G.; Noben, Jean-Paul; van Delft, Joost H. M.; Kleinjans, Jos C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of attrition for candidate pharmaceuticals in development. New preclinical screening methods are crucial to predict drug toxicity prior to human studies. Of all in vitro hepatotoxicity models, primary human hepatocytes are considered as ‘the gold standard.’ However, their use is hindered by limited availability and inter-individual variation. These barriers may be overcome by using primary mouse hepatocytes. We used differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) to study large-scale protein expression of primary mouse hepatocytes. These hepatocytes were exposed to three well-defined hepatotoxicants: acetaminophen, amiodarone, and cyclosporin A. Each hepatotoxicant induces a different hepatotoxic phenotype. Based on the DIGE results, the mRNA expression levels of deregulated proteins from cyclosporin A-treated cells were also analyzed. We were able to distinguish cyclosporin A from controls, as well as acetaminophen and amiodarone-treated samples. Cyclosporin A induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and altered the ER-Golgi transport. Moreover, liver carboxylesterase and bile salt sulfotransferase were differentially expressed. These proteins were associated with a protective adaptive response against cyclosporin A-induced cholestasis. The results of this study are comparable with effects in HepG2 cells. Therefore, we suggest both models can be used to analyze the cholestatic properties of cyclosporin A. Furthermore, this study showed a conserved response between primary mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. These findings collectively lend support for use of omics strategies in preclinical toxicology, and might inform future efforts to better link preclinical and clinical research in rational drug development. PMID:23308384

  4. Bile canaliculi formation and biliary transport in 3D sandwich-cultured hepatocytes in dependence of the extracellular matrix composition.

    PubMed

    Deharde, Daniela; Schneider, Christin; Hiller, Thomas; Fischer, Nicolas; Kegel, Victoria; Lübberstedt, Marc; Freyer, Nora; Hengstler, Jan G; Andersson, Tommy B; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann; Zeilinger, Katrin; Damm, Georg

    2016-10-01

    CDF from the bile canaliculi into the culture supernatant with variations in dependence on the used matrix combination. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the choice of ECM has an impact on the morphology, cell assembly and bile canaliculi formation in PHH sandwich cultures. The morphology and the multicellular arrangement were essentially influenced by the underlaying matrix, while bile excretion and leakage of sandwich-cultured hepatocytes were mainly influenced by the overlay matrix. Leaking and damaged bile canaliculi could be a limitation of the investigated sandwich culture models in long-term excretion studies.

  5. Effects of Epigallocatechin Gallate on Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rat Liver Mitochondria and Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Endlicher, Rene; Sobotka, Ondrej; Drahota, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a green tea antioxidant with adverse effects on rat liver mitochondria and hepatocytes at high doses. Here, we assessed whether low doses of EGCG would protect these systems from damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP). Rat liver mitochondria or permeabilized rat hepatocytes were pretreated with EGCG and then exposed to tBHP. Oxygen consumption, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and mitochondrial retention capacity for calcium were measured. First, 50 μM EGCG or 0.25 mM tBHP alone increased State 4 Complex I-driven respiration, thus demonstrating uncoupling effects; tBHP also inhibited State 3 ADP-stimulated respiration. Then, the coexposure to 0.25 mM tBHP and 50 μM EGCG induced a trend of further decline in the respiratory control ratio beyond that observed upon tBHP exposure alone. EGCG had no effect on MMP and no effect, in concentrations up to 50 μM, on mitochondrial calcium retention capacity. tBHP led to a decline in both MMP and mitochondrial retention capacity for calcium; these effects were not changed by pretreatment with EGCG. In addition, EGCG dose-dependently enhanced hydrogen peroxide formation in a cell- and mitochondria-free medium. Conclusion. Moderate nontoxic doses of EGCG were not able to protect rat liver mitochondria and hepatocytes from tBHP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:28074116

  6. Hepatocyte Transfection in Small Pigs After Weaning by Hydrodynamic Intraportal Injection of Naked DNA/Minicircle Vectors.

    PubMed

    Stoller, Fabienne; Schlegel, Andrea; Viecelli, Hiu Man; Rüfenacht, Véronique; Cesarovic, Nikola; Viecelli, Claudio; Deplazes, Sereina; Bettschart, Regula; Hurter, Karin; Schmierer, Philipp; Sidler, Xaver; Kron, Philipp; Dutkowski, Philipp; Graf, Rolf; Thöny, Beat; Häberle, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Liver is an attractive organ for gene delivery in order to correct various genetic (metabolic) diseases. Hydrodynamic vein injection of naked DNA/minicircles devoid of viral or plasmid backbones was demonstrated in, for example, murine phenylketonuria to allow sustained therapeutic transduction of hepatocytes. Here we show successful hepatocyte transfusion in domestic small pigs immediately after weaning upon portal vein catheterization and hydrodynamic injection of naked DNA/minicircle vectors expressing the luciferase gene from the CMV or a liver-specific promoter. First, we established a surgical method allowing hydrodynamic portal vein pressurization up to 120 mmHg and infusion of naked DNA in pigs (n = 5) with long-term survival. No acute adverse effects such as changes in liver transaminases or signs of liver cell damage were observed. We then showed efficiency of stable hepatocyte transfection at 10 and 28 days in single experiments (n = 7) where we found that up to 60% of samples (45/75) were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for minicircle-DNA. Of these samples, 13% of the positive specimen (6/45) showed low but stable luciferase expression when driven by a liver-specific promoter, as well as appropriate copy numbers per diploid genome. In conclusion, we accomplished a safe procedure for stable transfection of liver cells upon hydrodynamic gene delivery using minicircle vectors in small pigs as a prerequisite to potentially treat infants with genetic liver diseases.

  7. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on age-related hepatocyte changes in old male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen; Salazar, Veronica; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2004-10-01

    Aging induces changes in several organs, such as the liver, and this process might be due to damage caused by free radicals and inflammatory mediators. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis shows a reduction with age, and this fact could be associated with some age-related changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GH administration on age-induced alterations in hepatocytes. Two and twenty two month-old male and female Wistar rats were used. Old rats were treated with human recombinant GH for 10 wk. At the end of the treatment, hepatocytes were isolated from the liver and cultured, and different parameters were measured in cells and medium. Plasma IGF-1 was also measured. Aging significantly decreased plasma IGF-1 in males. In females, plasma IGF-1 was also reduced, but not significantly. GH treatment restored plasma IGF-1 levels to values similar to young males. Aging was associated with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and cyclic guanosyl-monophosphate (cGMP), as well as a reduction in adenosyl triphosphate (ATP) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. GH administration partially prevented all these changes in males. In females, some of the parameters were significantly improved by GH (ATP, CO, cGMP), while others showed a tendency to improvement, although differences did not reach significance. In conclusion, GH administration could exert beneficial effects against age-related changes in hepatocytes, mainly in males.

  8. S-adenosylmethionine and methylthioadenosine are antiapoptotic in cultured rat hepatocytes but proapoptotic in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ansorena, Eduardo; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Martínez-Chantar, Maria L; Huang, Zong-Zhi; Chen, Lixin; Mato, José M; Iraburu, Maria; Lu, Shelly C; Avila, Matías A

    2002-02-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is an essential compound in cellular transmethylation reactions and a precursor of polyamine and glutathione synthesis in the liver. In liver injury, the synthesis of AdoMet is impaired and its availability limited. AdoMet administration attenuates experimental liver damage, improves survival of alcoholic patients with cirrhosis, and prevents experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Apoptosis contributes to different liver injuries, many of which are protected by AdoMet. The mechanism of AdoMet's hepatoprotective and chemopreventive effects are largely unknown. The effect of AdoMet on okadaic acid (OA)-induced apoptosis was evaluated using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell lines. AdoMet protected rat hepatocytes from OA-induced apoptosis dose dependently. It attenuated mitochondrial cytochrome c release, caspase 3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. These effects were independent from AdoMet-dependent glutathione synthesis, and mimicked by 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which is derived from AdoMet. Interestingly, AdoMet and MTA did not protect HuH7 cells from OA-induced apoptosis; conversely both compounds behaved as proapoptotic agents. AdoMet's proapoptotic effect was dose dependent and observed also in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, AdoMet exerts opposing effects on apoptosis in normal versus transformed hepatocytes that could be mediated through its conversion to MTA. These effects may participate in the hepatoprotective and chemopreventive properties of this safe and well-tolerated drug.

  9. Hepatocyte-secreted extracellular vesicles modify blood metabolome and endothelial function by an arginase-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Royo, Felix; Moreno, Laura; Mleczko, Justyna; Palomo, Laura; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Cabrera, Diana; Cogolludo, Angel; Vizcaino, Francisco Perez; van-Liempd, Sebastiaan; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocytes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) loaded with signaling molecules and enzymes into the bloodstream. Although the importance of EVs in the intercellular communication is already recognized, the metabolic impact of the enzymes carried by these vesicles is still unclear. We evaluated the global effect of the enzymatic activities of EVs by performing untargeted metabolomic profiling of serum samples after their exposure to EVs. This approach revealed a significant change in the abundance of 94 serum metabolic signals. Our study shows that these vesicles modify the concentration of metabolites of different chemical nature including metabolites related to arginine metabolism, which regulates vascular function. To assess the functional relevance of this finding, we examined the levels of arginase-1 protein and its activity in the hepatic EVs carrying the exosomal markers CD81 and CD63. Remarkably, the arginase activity was also detected in EVs isolated from the serum in vivo, and this vesicular activity significantly increased under liver-damaging conditions. Finally, we demonstrated that EVs secreted by hepatocytes inhibited the acetylcholine-induced relaxation in isolated pulmonary arteries, via an arginase-dependent mechanism. In summary, our study demonstrates that the hepatocyte-released EVs are metabolically active, affecting a number of serum metabolites involved in oxidative stress metabolism and the endothelial function. PMID:28211494

  10. Strategies for short-term storage of hepatocytes for repeated clinical infusions.

    PubMed

    Jorns, Carl; Gramignoli, Roberto; Saliem, Mohammed; Zemack, Helen; Mörk, Lisa-Mari; Isaksson, Bengt; Nowak, Greg; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Strom, Stephen; Ellis, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an upcoming treatment for patients with metabolic liver diseases. Repeated cell infusions over 1-2 days improve clinical outcome. Isolated hepatocytes are usually cold stored in preservation solutions between repeated infusions. However, during cold storage isolated hepatocytes undergo cell death. We investigated if tissue preservation and repeated isolations are better than storage of isolated hepatocytes when cold preserving human hepatocytes. Liver tissue obtained from liver surgery or organ donors was divided into two pieces. Hepatocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion. Hepatocytes were analyzed directly after isolation (fresh) or after storage for 48 h at 4°C in University of Wisconsin solution (UW cells). Liver tissue from the same donor was stored at 4°C in UW and hepatocytes were isolated after 48 h (UW tissue cells). Hepatocyte viability and function was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion, plating efficiency, ammonia metabolism, CYP 1A1/2, 2C9, 3A7, and 3A4 activities, phase II conjugation, and apoptosis evaluation by TUNEL assay and caspase-3/7 activities. Hepatocytes stored in UW showed a significantly lower viability compared to fresh cells or hepatocytes isolated from tissue stored for 48 h (54% vs. 71% vs. 79%). Plating efficiency was significantly decreased for cells stored in UW (40%) compared to fresh and UW tissue cells (63% vs. 55%). No significant differences between UW cells and UW tissue cells could be shown for CYP activities or ammonia metabolism. Hepatocytes stored in UW showed a strong increase in TUNEL-positive cells, whereas TUNEL staining in cold-stored liver tissue and hepatocytes isolated after 48 h was unchanged. This observation was confirmed by increased caspase-3/7 activities in UW cells. Although preservation of isolated hepatocytes in UW maintains function, cold storage of liver tissue and repeated hepatocyte isolations is superior to cold storage of isolated hepatocytes in preserving

  11. Chemokine Receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, Differentially Regulate Exosome Release in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nojima, Hiroyuki; Konishi, Takanori; Freeman, Christopher M.; Schuster, Rebecca M.; Japtok, Lukasz; Kleuser, Burkhard; Edwards, Michael J.; Gulbins, Erich; Lentsch, Alex B.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles released by different cell types, including hepatocytes, that play important roles in intercellular communication. We have previously demonstrated that hepatocyte-derived exosomes contain the synthetic machinery to form sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in target hepatocytes resulting in proliferation and liver regeneration after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We also demonstrated that the chemokine receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, regulate liver recovery and regeneration after I/R injury. In the current study, we sought to determine if the regulatory effects of CXCR1 and CXCR2 on liver recovery and regeneration might occur via altered release of hepatocyte exosomes. We found that hepatocyte release of exosomes was dependent upon CXCR1 and CXCR2. CXCR1-deficient hepatocytes produced fewer exosomes, whereas CXCR2-deficient hepatocytes produced more exosomes compared to their wild-type controls. In CXCR2-deficient hepatocytes, there was increased activity of neutral sphingomyelinase (Nsm) and intracellular ceramide. CXCR1-deficient hepatocytes had no alterations in Nsm activity or ceramide production. Interestingly, exosomes from CXCR1-deficient hepatocytes had no effect on hepatocyte proliferation, due to a lack of neutral ceramidase and sphingosine kinase. The data demonstrate that CXCR1 and CXCR2 regulate hepatocyte exosome release. The mechanism utilized by CXCR1 remains elusive, but CXCR2 appears to modulate Nsm activity and resultant production of ceramide to control exosome release. CXCR1 is required for packaging of enzymes into exosomes that mediate their hepatocyte proliferative effect. PMID:27551720

  12. Recent advances in 2D and 3D in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes, alternative hepatocyte sources and non-parenchymal liver cells and their use in investigating mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, cell signaling and ADME.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Patricio; Hewitt, Nicola J; Albrecht, Ute; Andersen, Melvin E; Ansari, Nariman; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Bode, Johannes Georg; Bolleyn, Jennifer; Borner, Christoph; Böttger, Jan; Braeuning, Albert; Budinsky, Robert A; Burkhardt, Britta; Cameron, Neil R; Camussi, Giovanni; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Craig Rowlands, J; Dahmen, Uta; Damm, Georg; Dirsch, Olaf; Donato, María Teresa; Dong, Jian; Dooley, Steven; Drasdo, Dirk; Eakins, Rowena; Ferreira, Karine Sá; Fonsato, Valentina; Fraczek, Joanna; Gebhardt, Rolf; Gibson, Andrew; Glanemann, Matthias; Goldring, Chris E P; Gómez-Lechón, María José; Groothuis, Geny M M; Gustavsson, Lena; Guyot, Christelle; Hallifax, David; Hammad, Seddik; Hayward, Adam; Häussinger, Dieter; Hellerbrand, Claus; Hewitt, Philip; Hoehme, Stefan; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Houston, J Brian; Hrach, Jens; Ito, Kiyomi; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Keitel, Verena; Kelm, Jens M; Kevin Park, B; Kordes, Claus; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; LeCluyse, Edward L; Lu, Peng; Luebke-Wheeler, Jennifer; Lutz, Anna; Maltman, Daniel J; Matz-Soja, Madlen; McMullen, Patrick; Merfort, Irmgard; Messner, Simon; Meyer, Christoph; Mwinyi, Jessica; Naisbitt, Dean J; Nussler, Andreas K; Olinga, Peter; Pampaloni, Francesco; Pi, Jingbo; Pluta, Linda; Przyborski, Stefan A; Ramachandran, Anup; Rogiers, Vera; Rowe, Cliff; Schelcher, Celine; Schmich, Kathrin; Schwarz, Michael; Singh, Bijay; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Stieger, Bruno; Stöber, Regina; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Tetta, Ciro; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Weiss, Thomas S; Widera, Agata; Woods, Courtney G; Xu, Jinghai James; Yarborough, Kathy M; Hengstler, Jan G

    2013-08-01

    This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically aggravate the initial damage. Hepatotoxicity, as well as hepatic metabolism, is controlled by a set of nuclear receptors (including PXR, CAR, HNF-4α, FXR, LXR, SHP, VDR and PPAR) and signaling pathways. When isolating liver cells, some pathways are activated, e.g., the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway, whereas others are silenced (e.g. HNF-4α), resulting in up- and downregulation of hundreds of genes. An understanding of these changes is crucial for a correct interpretation of in vitro data. The possibilities and limitations of the most useful liver in vitro systems are summarized, including three-dimensional culture techniques, co-cultures with non-parenchymal cells, hepatospheres, precision cut liver slices and the isolated perfused liver. Also discussed is how closely hepatoma, stem cell and iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like-cells resemble real hepatocytes. Finally, a summary is given of the state of the art of liver in vitro and mathematical modeling systems that are currently used in the pharmaceutical industry with an emphasis on drug metabolism, prediction of clearance, drug interaction, transporter studies and hepatotoxicity. One key message is that despite our enthusiasm for in vitro systems, we must never lose sight of the in vivo situation. Although hepatocytes have been isolated for decades, the hunt for relevant alternative systems has only just begun.

  13. Activation of Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase in rat hepatocytes does not contribute to their cell death by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Latour, I; Leunda-Casi, A; Denef, J F; Buc Calderon, P

    2000-01-10

    Oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes caused DNA damage and loss of membrane integrity. Such DNA lesions are likely to be single strand breaks since neither caryolysis nor chromatine condensation was seen in electron micrographs from tBOOH-treated cells. In addition, pulsed field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA from both control and tBOOH-treated hepatocytes showed similar profiles, indicating the absence of internucleosomal DNA cleavage, a classical reflection of apoptotic endonuclease activity. The activation of the repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) following DNA damage by tBOOH induced a dramatic drop in both NAD(+) and ATP. The inhibition of PARP by 3-aminobenzamide enhanced DNA damage by tBOOH, restored NAD(+) and ATP levels, but did not result in better survival against cell killing by tBOOH. The lack of the protective effect of PARP inhibitor, therefore, does not implicate PARP in the mechanism of tBOOH-induced cytotoxicity. Electron micrographs also show no mitochondrial swelling in cells under oxidative stress, but such organelles were mainly located around the nucleus, a picture already observed in autoschizis, a new suggested kind of cell death which shows both apoptotic and necrotic morphological characteristics.

  14. Metabolic danger signals, uric acid and ATP, mediate inflammatory cross-talk between hepatocytes and immune cells in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Petrasek, Jan; Iracheta-Vellve, Arvin; Saha, Banishree; Satishchandran, Abhishek; Kodys, Karen; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation defines the progression of ALD from reversible to advanced stages. Translocation of bacterial LPS to the liver from the gut is necessary for alcohol-induced liver inflammation. However, it is not known whether endogenous, metabolic danger signals are required for inflammation in ALD. Uric acid and ATP, 2 major proinflammatory danger signals, were evaluated in the serum of human volunteers exposed to a single dose of ethanol or in supernatants of primary human hepatocytes exposed to ethanol. In vitro studies were used to evaluate the role of uric acid and ATP in inflammatory cross-talk between hepatocytes and immune cells. The significance of signaling downstream of uric acid and ATP in the liver was evaluated in NLRP3-deficient mice fed a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet. Exposure of healthy human volunteers to a single dose of ethanol resulted in increased serum levels of uric acid and ATP. In vitro, we identified hepatocytes as a significant source of these endogenous inflammatory signals. Uric acid and ATP mediated a paracrine inflammatory cross-talk between damaged hepatocytes and immune cells and significantly increased the expression of LPS-inducible cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, by immune cells. Deficiency of NLRP3, a ligand-sensing component of the inflammasome recognizing uric acid and ATP, prevented the development of alcohol-induced liver inflammation in mice and significantly ameliorated liver damage and steatosis. Endogenous metabolic danger signals, uric acid, and ATP are involved in inflammatory cross-talk between hepatocytes and immune cells and play a crucial role in alcohol-induced liver inflammation.

  15. Acetaminophen metabolism, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity in rat primary hepatocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Milam, K.M.; Byard, J.L.

    1985-06-30

    Acetaminophen (APAP) metabolism, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity were measured in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Although 3 mM APAP caused a slight increase in cellular release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium, cellular glutathione concentration (an index of APAP metabolism) was reduced by 50%. APAP at 7 mM was significantly more toxic to these hepatocytes and had a similar but more marked effect on glutathione concentrations. In spite of its cytotoxicity, neither dose of APAP stimulated DNA repair synthesis when monitored by the rate of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA following exposure to APAP. Thus, although APAP has been shown to be both hepato- and nephrotoxic in several in vivo and in vitro systems, the reactive toxic metabolite of APAP is not genotoxic in rat primary hepatocyte cultures.

  16. Alternative Cell Sources to Adult Hepatocytes for Hepatic Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Gómez-Lechón, María José; Tolosa, Laia

    2017-01-01

    Adult hepatocyte transplantation is limited by scarce availability of suitable donor liver tissue for hepatocyte isolation. New cell-based therapies are being developed to supplement whole-organ liver transplantation, to reduce the waiting-list mortality rate, and to obtain more sustained and significant metabolic correction. Fetal livers and unsuitable neonatal livers for organ transplantation have been proposed as potential useful sources of hepatic cells for cell therapy. However, the major challenge is to use alternative cell sources for transplantation that can be derived from reproducible methods. Different types of stem cells with hepatic differentiation potential are eligible for generating large numbers of functional hepatocytes for liver cell therapy to treat degenerative disorders, inborn hepatic metabolic diseases, and organ failure. Clinical trials are designed to fully establish the safety profile of such therapies and to define target patient groups and standardized protocols.

  17. Ethanol-induced phosphorylation of cytokeratin in cultured hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Hiromu; Cadrin, M.; French, S.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of ethanol on the phosphorylation of cytokeratins (CKs) in cultured hepatocytes since CK filaments are resulted by phosphorylation and they are abnormal in alcoholic liver disease. Hepatocytes were obtained from 14-day-old rats and cultured for 48 hrs. The hepatocytes were exposed to ethanol for 30 min. The residual insoluble cytoskeletons were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. 2D gel electrophoresis showed CK 55 and CK 49 or 8 and 18 and actin. The CKs had several isoelectric variants. The most basic spot was the dominant protein which was not phosphorylated. The more acidic spots were phosphorylated. After ethanol treatment, the phosphorylation of CK 55 and CK 49 were markedly increased over controls. They compared these results, with the effect of vasopressin, TPA and db-cAMP on the phosphorylation of CKs. Vasopressin and TPA caused the phosphorylation of CK 55 and 49 but db-cAMP did not.

  18. Loofa sponge as a scaffold for culture of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Lin, Tsung-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The dried fruit from Luffa cylindrica (loofa sponge, LS), which represents a new chitinous source material, was used as a 3-D scaffold for the culture of rat hepatocytes. With the macroporous structure and large pore size (ca. 800 microm) of LS, cell loading to the scaffold should be carried out by dynamic seeding with continuous shaking throughout the seeding period. Hepatocytes attach well to the surface of loofa fibers after seeding and maintain their round shapes. The initial ammonia removal and urea-N synthesis rates of hepatocytes immobilized within LS slightly decreased with increasing cell densities, but their metabolic activities were comparable to or better than those in monolayer culture on tissue culture polystyrene control surfaces. Both urea-N synthesis and albumin secretion rates could be maintained up to 7 days for cells immobilized within LS and spheroid-like cell aggregates could be found after the second day.

  19. Early membrane depressions in hepatocytes cultured on Primaria supports.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, B J; Evans, P J

    2001-01-01

    The topography of spreading hepatocytes on positively charged Primaria plates was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The cells acquired a uniform morphology within 2 h. The spreading was rapid and the surface of the cells showed early prominent depressions or dips. The hepatocytes had either one or two of these structures which corresponded to the frequency of mononuclear and binuclear cells, respectively. The nuclear origin of the dips was strengthened after 6 h. They contained solid structures, whose number, size and shape were the same as nucleoli. The membrane dipping was independent of cell density and took place under conditions where phenotypic changes can occur. Kidney proximal tubule cells had no dips. Co-cultures of hepatocytes and kidney proximal tubule cells showed that the cell types behave differently.

  20. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment improves hepatocyte ultrastructure in rat liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Nuket; Tasci, Ilker; Comert, Bilgin; Ocal, Ramazan; Mas, Mehmet Refik

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the ultrastructural changes after ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment in hepatocytes from experimentally induced fibrotic livers. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with CCl4 for 12 wk, and the rats were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with saline and group II with UDCA (25 mg/kg per day) for 4 wk. All the rats were killed at wk 16. Mitochondria, nuclei, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) of hepatocytes were evaluated according to a scoring system. RESULTS: Mitochondria, nuclei, RER and SER injury scores in group II were significantly lower than those in groupI(P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: UDCA alleviates hepatocyte organelle injury in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. PMID:18286695

  1. Establishment of human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells with overexpressed human hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Cheng, Hongjing; Liu, Jinyu; Zhang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Chronic liver disease has become a major health problem that causes serious damage to human health. Since the existing treatment effect was not ideal, we need to seek new treatment methods. We utilized the gene recombination technology to obtain the human hair mesenchymal stem cells which overexpression of human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF). Furthermore, we verified the property of transfected cells through detecting surface marker by flow cytometry. We show here establishment of the hHGF-overexpressing lentivirus vector, and successfully transfection to human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells. The verified experiments could demonstrate the human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells which have been transfected still have the properties of stem cells. We successfully constructed human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells which overexpression hHGF, and maintain the same properties compared with pro-transfected cells.

  2. Conserved valproic-acid-induced lipid droplet formation in Dictyostelium and human hepatocytes identifies structurally active compounds.

    PubMed

    Elphick, Lucy M; Pawolleck, Nadine; Guschina, Irina A; Chaieb, Leila; Eikel, Daniel; Nau, Heinz; Harwood, John L; Plant, Nick J; Williams, Robin S B

    2012-03-01

    Lipid droplet formation and subsequent steatosis (the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell) has been reported to contribute to hepatotoxicity and is an adverse effect of many pharmacological agents including the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA). In this study, we have developed a simple model system (Dictyostelium discoideum) to investigate the effects of VPA and related compounds in lipid droplet formation. In mammalian hepatocytes, VPA increases lipid droplet accumulation over a 24-hour period, giving rise to liver cell damage, and we show a similar effect in Dictyostelium following 30 minutes of VPA treatment. Using (3)H-labelled polyunsaturated (arachidonic) or saturated (palmitic) fatty acids, we shown that VPA treatment of Dictyostelium gives rise to an increased accumulation of both types of fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and non-polar lipids in this time period, with a similar trend observed in human hepatocytes (Huh7 cells) labelled with [(3)H]arachidonic acid. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of β-oxidation in Dictyostelium phenocopies fatty acid accumulation, in agreement with data reported in mammalian systems. Using Dictyostelium, we then screened a range of VPA-related compounds to identify those with high and low lipid-accumulation potential, and validated these activities for effects on lipid droplet formation by using human hepatocytes. Structure-activity relationships for these VPA-related compounds suggest that lipid accumulation is independent of VPA-catalysed teratogenicity and inositol depletion. These results suggest that Dictyostelium could provide both a novel model system for the analysis of lipid droplet formation in human hepatocytes and a rapid method for identifying VPA-related compounds that show liver toxicology.

  3. Effect of plasma exchange on hepatocyte oxidative stress, mitochondria function, and apoptosis in patients with acute fatty liver of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wanxin; Huang, Zhongying; Wang, Yufang; Bo, Hong; Fu, Ping

    2012-03-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is an uncommon but clinically severe hepatopathy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis may be its key pathogenesis. Traditional therapy is inadequate for patients with severe conditions so the application of plasma exchange (PE) has been attempted. The present study aims to determine whether or not PE can lessen injuries to hepatocytes by ameliorating ROS and mitochondrial functions. Thirteen patients with AFLP were included in the experimental group, while fifteen patients made up the case-control group. PE was applied to patients in the PE group once a day for 1-3 days. Cultured hepatocytes were treated with serum or replacement fluid from patients and controls, respectively. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase-3, caspase-9, and apoptosis of hepatocytes were measured. The clinical details and prognoses were also assessed. Patients in the experimental group had shorter durations of hepatic function recovery, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and hospitalization than those in the case-control group, although both groups showed the same mortality. PE could induce the production of SOD, inhibit the production of malondialdehyde, and recover MMP. The upregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression, as well as increase in apoptosis rate in the AFLP group, could be inhibited by PE. Moreover, PE also appeared to have a dose-dependent effect. PE protects hepatocytes by reducing damage to the mitochondria caused by oxidative stress; thus, it could be beneficial in the treatment of patients with severe AFLP and induce liver function recovery.

  4. Cystamine induces toxicity in hepatocytes through the elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ and the stimulation of a nonlysosomal proteolytic system

    SciTech Connect

    Nicotera, P.; Hartzell, P.; Baldi, C.; Svensson, S.A.; Bellomo, G.; Orrenius, S.

    1986-11-05

    Infusion of cystamine into the isolated, perfused rat liver resulted in tissue damage preceded by the formation of cystamine-protein mixed disulfides which were mainly detected in the plasma membrane fraction. Hepatotoxicity was prevented when dithiothreitol was infused after cystamine or when the calcium antagonist, verapamil, was co-infused with the disulfide. In isolated hepatocytes, the formation of cystamine-protein mixed disulfides was associated with an inhibition of plasma membrane Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity and a decreased rate of Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux from the cells. This resulted in intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation which was followed by a stimulation of both phospholipid hydrolysis and proteolysis, as indicated by enhanced rates of release of radioactivity from hepatocytes prelabeled with (/sup 14/C)arachidonate and (/sup 14/C)valine, respectively. Preincubation of hepatocytes with the calmodulin inhibitor, calmidazolium, or with the phospholipase inhibitors, chlorpromazine and dibucaine, inhibited the stimulation of (/sup 14/C)arachidonate release by cystamine. However, none of these agents prevented the onset of cystamine toxicity in hepatocytes. In contrast, pretreatment of the cells with antipain or leupeptin, two inhibitors of Ca/sup 2 +/-activated proteases, abolished the stimulation of proteolysis by cystamine and also protected the cells from cystamine toxicity. Our results suggest that the perturbation of intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis by cystamine is caused by the inhibition of Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux associated with the formation of cystamine-protein mixed disulfides in the plasma membrane and that subsequent cytotoxicity results from Ca/sup 2 +/-activation of a nonlysosomal proteolytic system.

  5. Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) protects hepatocytes against lipotoxicity via inducing autophagy independently of Nrf2 activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songtao; Li, Jiaxin; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Ximei; Sun, Shan; Cho, Michael; Sun, Changhao; Song, Zhenyuan

    2013-01-01

    Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) induce hepatocyte cell death, wherein oxidative stress is mechanistically involved. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcriptional regulator of cellular antioxidant defense enzymes. Therefore, Nrf2 activation is regarded as an effective strategy against oxidative stress-triggered cellular damage. In this study, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a widely used Nrf2 activator, was initially employed to investigate the potential protective role of Nrf2 activation in SFAs-induced hepatoxicity. As expected, SFAs-induced hepatocyte cell death was prevented by tBHQ in both AML-12 mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. However, the protective effect of tBHQ is Nrf2-independent, because the siRNA-mediated Nrf2 silencing did not abrogate tBHQ-conferred protection. Alternatively, our results revealed that autophagy activation was critically involved in the protective effect of tBHQ on lipotoxicity. tBHQ induced autophagy activation and autophagy inhibitors abolished tBHQ’s protection. The induction of autophagy by tBHQ exposure was demonstrated by the increased accumulation of LC3 puncta, LC3-II conversion, and autophagic flux (LC3-II conversion in the presence of proteolysis inhibitors). Subsequent mechanistic investigation discovered that tBHQ exposure activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and siRNA-mediated AMPK gene silencing abolished tBHQ-induced autophagy activation, indicating that AMPK is critically involved in tBHQ-triggered autophagy induction. Furthermore, our study provided evidence that tBHQ-induced autophagy activation is required for its Nrf2-activating property. Collectively, our data uncover a novel mechanism for tBHQ in protecting hepatocytes against SFAs-induced lipotoxicity. tBHQ-triggered autophagy induction contributes not only to its hepatoprotective effect, but also to its Nrf2-activating property. PMID:24055888

  6. tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) protects hepatocytes against lipotoxicity via inducing autophagy independently of Nrf2 activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Songtao; Li, Jiaxin; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Ximei; Sun, Shan; Cho, Michael; Sun, Changhao; Song, Zhenyuan

    2014-01-01

    Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) induce hepatocyte cell death, wherein oxidative stress is mechanistically involved. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcriptional regulator of cellular antioxidant defense enzymes. Therefore, Nrf2 activation is regarded as an effective strategy against oxidative stress-triggered cellular damage. In this study, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a widely used Nrf2 activator, was initially employed to investigate the potential protective role of Nrf2 activation in SFA-induced hepatoxicity. As expected, SFA-induced hepatocyte cell death was prevented by tBHQ in both AML-12 mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. However, the protective effect of tBHQ is Nrf2-independent, because the siRNA-mediated Nrf2 silencing did not abrogate tBHQ-conferred protection. Alternatively, our results revealed that autophagy activation was critically involved in the protective effect of tBHQ on lipotoxicity. tBHQ induced autophagy activation and autophagy inhibitors abolished tBHQ's protection. The induction of autophagy by tBHQ exposure was demonstrated by the increased accumulation of LC3 puncta, LC3-II conversion, and autophagic flux (LC3-II conversion in the presence of proteolysis inhibitors). Subsequent mechanistic investigation discovered that tBHQ exposure activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and siRNA-mediated AMPK gene silencing abolished tBHQ-induced autophagy activation, indicating that AMPK is critically involved in tBHQ-triggered autophagy induction. Furthermore, our study provided evidence that tBHQ-induced autophagy activation is required for its Nrf2-activating property. Collectively, our data uncover a novel mechanism for tBHQ in protecting hepatocytes against SFA-induced lipotoxicity. tBHQ-triggered autophagy induction contributes not only to its hepatoprotective effect, but also to its Nrf2-activating property. © 2013.

  7. Conserved valproic-acid-induced lipid droplet formation in Dictyostelium and human hepatocytes identifies structurally active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Elphick, Lucy M.; Pawolleck, Nadine; Guschina, Irina A.; Chaieb, Leila; Eikel, Daniel; Nau, Heinz; Harwood, John L.; Plant, Nick J.; Williams, Robin S. B.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Lipid droplet formation and subsequent steatosis (the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell) has been reported to contribute to hepatotoxicity and is an adverse effect of many pharmacological agents including the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA). In this study, we have developed a simple model system (Dictyostelium discoideum) to investigate the effects of VPA and related compounds in lipid droplet formation. In mammalian hepatocytes, VPA increases lipid droplet accumulation over a 24-hour period, giving rise to liver cell damage, and we show a similar effect in Dictyostelium following 30 minutes of VPA treatment. Using 3H-labelled polyunsaturated (arachidonic) or saturated (palmitic) fatty acids, we shown that VPA treatment of Dictyostelium gives rise to an increased accumulation of both types of fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and non-polar lipids in this time period, with a similar trend observed in human hepatocytes (Huh7 cells) labelled with [3H]arachidonic acid. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of β-oxidation in Dictyostelium phenocopies fatty acid accumulation, in agreement with data reported in mammalian systems. Using Dictyostelium, we then screened a range of VPA-related compounds to identify those with high and low lipid-accumulation potential, and validated these activities for effects on lipid droplet formation by using human hepatocytes. Structure-activity relationships for these VPA-related compounds suggest that lipid accumulation is independent of VPA-catalysed teratogenicity and inositol depletion. These results suggest that Dictyostelium could provide both a novel model system for the analysis of lipid droplet formation in human hepatocytes and a rapid method for identifying VPA-related compounds that show liver toxicology. PMID:22003123

  8. Cryopreservation of isolated human hepatocytes for transplantation: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Terry, Claire; Dhawan, Anil; Mitry, Ragai R; Hughes, Robin D

    2006-10-01

    Hepatocytes isolated from unused donor livers are being used for transplantation in patients with acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic defects. As large numbers of hepatocytes can be prepared from a single liver and hepatocytes need to be available for emergency and repeated treatment of patients it is essential to be able to cryopreserve and store cells with good thawed cell function. This review considers the current status of cryopreservation of human hepatocytes discussing the different stages involved in the process. These include pre-treatment of cells, freezing solution, cryoprotectants and freezing and thawing protocols. There are detrimental effects of cryopreservation on hepatocyte structure and metabolic function, including cell attachment, which is important to the engraftment of transplanted cells in the liver. Cryopreserved human hepatocytes have been successfully used in clinical transplantation, with evidence of replacement of missing function. Further optimisation of hepatocyte cryopreservation protocols is important for their use in hepatocyte transplantation.

  9. Determination of metabolic stability using cryopreserved hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard protocols for isolating, cryopreserving, and thawing rainbow trout hepatocytes are described, along with procedures for using fresh or cryopreserved hepatocytes to assess chemical metabolic stability in fish by means of a substrate depletion approach. Variations on thes...

  10. Determination of metabolic stability using cryopreserved hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard protocols for isolating, cryopreserving, and thawing rainbow trout hepatocytes are described, along with procedures for using fresh or cryopreserved hepatocytes to assess chemical metabolic stability in fish by means of a substrate depletion approach. Variations on thes...

  11. Berberine attenuates oxidative stress and hepatocytes apoptosis via protecting mitochondria in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kang-Le; Wang, Li-Na; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin; Xu, Wei-Na

    2017-02-01

    High-fat diets may have favorable effects on growth and cost, but high-fat diets often induce excessive fat deposition, resulting in liver damage. This study aimed to identify the hepatoprotective of a Chinese herb (berberine) for blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish were fed with a normal diet (LFD, 5 % fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 15 % fat) or berberine-supplemented diets (BSD, 15 % fat with berberine 50 or 100 mg/kg level) for 8 weeks. After the feeding, histology, oxidative status and mitochondrial function of liver were assessed. The results showed that HFD caused fat accumulation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in hepatocytes of fish. Hepatocytes in HFD group appeared to be hypertrophied, with larger liver cells diameter than these of LFD group. Berberine-supplemented diets could attenuate oxidative stress and hepatocytes apoptosis. HFD induced the decreasing mitochondrial complexes activities and bulk density and surface area density. Berberine improved function of mitochondrial respiratory chain via increasing the complex activities. Moreover, the histological results showed that berberine has the potential to repair mitochondrial ultrastructural damage and elevate the density in cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that berberine has attenuated liver damage induced by the high fat mainly via the protection for mitochondria.

  12. Intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolongs survival in anhepatic rats.

    PubMed

    Arkadopoulos, N; Lilja, H; Suh, K S; Demetriou, A A; Rozga, J

    1998-11-01

    To examine whether hepatocytes transplanted in the spleen can function as an ectopic liver, we performed hepatocyte transplantation in rats that were rendered anhepatic. Total hepatectomy was performed by using a novel single-stage technique. Following hepatectomy, Group 1 rats (n = 16) were monitored until death to determine survival time without prior intervention. Group 2 anhepatic rats (n = 20) were sacrificed at various times to measure blood hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) levels. Group 3 (n = 16) rats received intrasplenic injection of isolated hepatocytes (2.5 x 10(7) cells/rat) followed by total hepatectomy after 3 days. Group 4 (n = 12) sham-transplanted rats received intrasplenic saline infusion, and after 3 days they were rendered anhepatic. Group 2, 3, and 4 rats were maintained on daily Cyclosporine A (10 mg/kg; intramuscularly). Group 1 anhepatic rats survived for 22.4 +/- 5.2 hours (standard deviation). The anhepatic state was associated with a progressive and statistically significant rise in blood HGF and TGF-beta1 levels. Rats that received hepatocyte transplantation before total hepatectomy had a significantly longer survival time than sham-transplanted anhepatic controls (34.1 +/- 8.5 vs. 15.5 +/- 4.8 hrs, P < .01). Additionally, at 12 hours post-hepatectomy, transplanted rats had significantly lower blood ammonia, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, and TGF-beta1 levels when compared with sham-transplanted controls. In conclusion, intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolonged survival, improved blood chemistry, and lowered blood TGF-beta1 levels in rats rendered anhepatic.

  13. In vivo hepatocyte MR imaging using lactose functionalized magnetoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Ketkar-Atre, Ashwini; Struys, Tom; Dresselaers, Tom; Hodenius, Michael; Mannaerts, Inge; Ni, Yicheng; Lambrichts, Ivo; Van Grunsven, Leo A; De Cuyper, Marcel; Himmelreich, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a novel lactose functionalized magnetoliposomes (MLs) as an MR contrast agent to target hepatocytes as well as to evaluate the targeting ability of MLs for in vivo applications. In the present work, 17 nm sized iron oxide cores functionalized with anionic MLs bearing lactose moieties were used for targeting the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-r), which is highly expressed in hepatocytes. Non-functionalized anionic MLs were tested as negative controls. The size distribution of lactose and anionic MLs was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). After intravenous administration of both MLs, contrast enhancement in the liver was observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Label retention was monitored non-invasively by MRI and validated with Prussian blue staining and TEM for up to eight days post MLs administration. Although the MRI signal intensity did not show significant differences between functionalized and non-functionalized particles, iron-specific Prussian blue staining and TEM analysis confirmed the uptake of lactose MLs mainly in hepatocytes. In contrast, non-functionalized anionic MLs were mainly taken up by Kupffer and sinusoidal cells. Target specificity was further confirmed by high-resolution MR imaging of phantoms containing isolated hepatocytes, Kupffer cell (KCs) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) fractions. Hypointense signal was observed for hepatocytes isolated from animals which received lactose MLs but not from animals which received anionic MLs. These data demonstrate that galactose-functionalized MLs can be used as a hepatocyte targeting MR contrast agent to potentially aid in the diagnosis of hepatic diseases if the non-specific uptake by KCs is taken into account. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct transfer of hepatocyte growth factor gene into kidney suppresses cyclosporin A nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Koji; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Takahara, Shiro; Imai, Enyu; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Shi, Yi; Namba, Yukiomi; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2004-04-01

    The clinical utility of cyclosporin A (CsA) has been limited by its nephrotoxicity, which is characterized by tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and progressive renal impairment. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which plays diverse roles in the regeneration of the kidney following acute renal failure, has been reported to protect against and salvage renal injury by acting as a renotropic and anti-fibrotic factor. Here, we investigated protective effects of HGF gene therapy on CsA-induced nephrotoxicity by using an electroporation-mediated gene transfer method. CsA was orally administered as a daily dose of 30 mg/kg in male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving a low sodium diet (0.03% sodium). Plasmid vector encoding HGF (200 micro g) was transferred into the kidney by electroporation. HGF gene transfer resulted in significant increases in plasma HGF levels. Morphological assessment revealed that HGF gene transfer reduced CsA-induced initial tubular injury and inhibited interstitial infiltration of ED-1-positive macrophages. In addition, northern blot analysis demonstrated that cortical mRNA levels of TGF-beta and type I collagen were suppressed in the HGF group. Finally, HGF gene transfer significantly reduced striped interstitial phenotypic alterations and fibrosis in CsA-treated rats, as assessed by alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and Masson's trichrome staining. These results suggest that HGF may prevent CsA-induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis, indicating that HGF gene transfer may provide a potential strategy for preventing renal fibrosis.

  15. Interspecies differences in metabolism of arsenic by cultured primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Drobna, Zuzana; Walton, Felecia S.; Harmon, Anne W.; Thomas, David J.; Styblo, Miroslav

    2010-05-15

    Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in many mammalian species, including the human. However, significant interspecies differences have been reported in the rate of in vivo metabolism of iAs and in yields of iAs metabolites found in urine. Liver is considered the primary site for the methylation of iAs and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in this pathway. Thus, the As3mt-catalyzed methylation of iAs in the liver determines in part the rate and the pattern of iAs metabolism in various species. We examined kinetics and concentration-response patterns for iAs methylation by cultured primary hepatocytes derived from human, rat, mice, dog, rabbit, and rhesus monkey. Hepatocytes were exposed to [{sup 73}As]arsenite (iAs{sup III}; 0.3, 0.9, 3.0, 9.0 or 30 nmol As/mg protein) for 24 h and radiolabeled metabolites were analyzed in cells and culture media. Hepatocytes from all six species methylated iAs{sup III} to methylarsenic (MAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMAs). Notably, dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes were considerably more efficient methylators of iAs{sup III} than mouse, rabbit or human hepatocytes. The low efficiency of mouse, rabbit and human hepatocytes to methylate iAs{sup III} was associated with inhibition of DMAs production by moderate concentrations of iAs{sup III} and with retention of iAs and MAs in cells. No significant correlations were found between the rate of iAs methylation and the thioredoxin reductase activity or glutathione concentration, two factors that modulate the activity of recombinant As3mt. No associations between the rates of iAs methylation and As3mt protein structures were found for the six species examined. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the superior arsenic methylation capacities of dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes examined in this study may be associated with a higher As3mt expression. However, factors other than As3mt expression may also contribute to

  16. Homologous beta-adrenergic desensitization in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáinz, J A; Michel, B

    1987-01-01

    Hepatocytes from hypothyroid rats have a marked beta-adrenergic responsiveness. Preincubation of these hepatocytes with isoprenaline induced a time-dependent and concentration-dependent desensitization of the beta-adrenergic responsiveness without altering that to glucagon (homologous desensitization). The desensitization was evidenced both in the cyclic AMP accumulation and in the stimulation of ureagenesis induced by the beta-adrenergic agonists. Under the same conditions, preincubation with glucagon induced no desensitization. Propranolol was also unable to induce desensitization, but blocked that induced by isoprenaline. Pertussis-toxin treatment did not alter the homologous beta-adrenergic desensitization induced by isoprenaline. PMID:2825633

  17. Evidence for two Ca2(+)-mobilizing purinoceptors on rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, C J; Woods, N M; Cuthbertson, K S; Cobbold, P H

    1990-01-01

    Aequorin measurements of cytosolic free Ca2+ in single rat hepatocytes show that ADP and ATP, thought to act through the same P2Y purinoceptor, elicited very different responses in the majority of cells tested. ADP invariably induced transients of short duration (approx. 9 s), whereas ATP induced either similar transients or transients with a much longer duration (approx. 49 s). We explain this variability in terms of two separate purinoceptors on rat hepatocytes, one of which responds to either ATP or ADP to generate free-Ca2+ transients of short duration, and the other responds to ATP only, with transients of longer duration. PMID:2386488

  18. Epigenetic Modifications as Antidedifferentiation Strategy for Primary Hepatocytes in Culture.

    PubMed

    Bolleyn, Jennifer; Fraczek, Joanna; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    A well-known problem of cultured primary hepatocytes is their rapid dedifferentiation. During the last years, several strategies to counteract this phenomenon have been developed, of which changing the in vitro environment is the most popular one. However, mimicking the in vivo setting in vitro by adding soluble media additives or the restoration of both cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contacts is not sufficient and only delays the dedifferentiation process instead of counteracting it. In this chapter, new strategies to prevent the deterioration of the liver-specific phenotype of primary hepatocytes in culture by targeting the (epi)genetic mechanisms that drive hepatocellular gene expression are described.

  19. Coculture with mesenchymal stem cells results in improved viability and function of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Emer; Wu, Yue; Dhadda, Paramjeet; Hughes, Robin D; Mitry, Ragai R; Qin, Hong; Lehec, Sharon C; Heaton, Nigel D; Dhawan, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is becoming an accepted therapy for acute liver failure, either as a bridge to liver regeneration or to organ transplantation. Hepatocytes provide liver function in place of the failing organ. The maintenance of sufficient viability and function of the transplanted hepatocytes is a concern. There is a lot of recent interest in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the provision of structural and trophic support to hepatocytes, but few studies currently use primary human hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate if coculture of human MSCs with cryopreserved human hepatocytes may improve their function and viability, thus with potential for cellular therapy of liver disease. MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord or adipose tissue. Hepatocytes were isolated from donor organs unsuitable for transplantation. MSCs and hepatocytes were cocultured in both direct and indirect contact. Conditioned medium (CM) from cocultured MSCs and hepatocytes was also used on hepatocytes. Viability and liver-specific function were compared between test and controls. Human hepatocytes that were cocultured directly with MSCs demonstrated improved production of albumin from day 5 to day 25 of culture. This effect was most prominent at day 15. Likewise, urea production was improved in coculture from day 5 to 25. Indirect coculture demonstrated improved albumin production by day 4 (1,107 ng/ml) versus hepatocyte monoculture (940 ng/ml). Hepatocytes in CM demonstrated a nonsignificant improvement in function. The viability of cocultured hepatocytes was superior to that of monocultured cells with up to a 16% improvement. Thus, coculture of human hepatocytes with MSCs demonstrates both improved function and viability. The effect is seen mainly with direct coculture but can also be seen in indirect culture and with CM. Such coculture conditions may convey major advantages in hepatocyte survival and function for cell transplantation.

  20. Non-viral FoxM1 gene delivery to hepatocytes enhances liver repopulation.

    PubMed

    Xiang, D; Liu, C-C; Wang, M-J; Li, J-X; Chen, F; Yao, H; Yu, B; Lu, L; Borjigin, U; Chen, Y-X; Zhong, L; Wangensteen, K J; He, Z-Y; Wang, X; Hu, Y-P

    2014-05-22

    Hepatocyte transplantation as a substitute strategy of orthotopic liver transplantation is being studied for treating end-stage liver diseases. Several technical hurdles must be overcome in order to achieve the therapeutic liver repopulation, such as the problem of insufficient expansion of the transplanted hepatocytes in recipient livers. In this study, we analyzed the application of FoxM1, a cell-cycle regulator, to enhance the proliferation capacity of hepatocytes. The non-viral sleeping beauty (SB) transposon vector carrying FoxM1 gene was constructed for delivering FoxM1 into the hepatocytes. The proliferation capacities of hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression were examined both in vivo and in vitro. Results indicated that the hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression had a higher proliferation rate than wild-type (WT) hepatocytes in vitro. In comparison with WT hepatocytes, the hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression had an enhanced level of liver repopulation in the recipient livers at both sub-acute injury (fumaryl acetoacetate hydrolase (Fah)(-/-) mice model) and acute injury (2/3 partial hepatectomy mice model). Importantly, there was no increased risk of tumorigenicity with FoxM1 expression in recipients even after serial transplantation. In conclusion, expression of FoxM1 in hepatocytes enhanced the capacity of liver repopulation without inducing tumorigenesis. FoxM1 gene delivered by non-viral SB vector into hepatocytes may be a viable approach to promote therapeutic repopulation after hepatocyte transplantation.

  1. Fate tracing of mature hepatocytes in mouse liver homeostasis and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Malato, Yann; Naqvi, Syed; Schürmann, Nina; Ng, Raymond; Wang, Bruce; Zape, Joan; Kay, Mark A.; Grimm, Dirk; Willenbring, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence has contradicted the prevailing view that homeostasis and regeneration of the adult liver are mediated by self duplication of lineage-restricted hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. These new data suggest that liver progenitor cells do not function solely as a backup system in chronic liver injury; rather, they also produce hepatocytes after acute injury and are in fact the main source of new hepatocytes during normal hepatocyte turnover. In addition, other evidence suggests that hepatocytes are capable of lineage conversion, acting as precursors of biliary epithelial cells during biliary injury. To test these concepts, we generated a hepatocyte fate-tracing model based on timed and specific Cre recombinase expression and marker gene activation in all hepatocytes of adult Rosa26 reporter mice with an adenoassociated viral vector. We found that newly formed hepatocytes derived from preexisting hepatocytes in the normal liver and that liver progenitor cells contributed minimally to acute hepatocyte regeneration. Further, we found no evidence that biliary injury induced conversion of hepatocytes into biliary epithelial cells. These results therefore restore the previously prevailing paradigms of liver homeostasis and regeneration. In addition, our new vector system will be a valuable tool for timed, efficient, and specific loop out of floxed sequences in hepatocytes. PMID:22105172

  2. Gene expression analysis of a porcine hepatocyte/bile duct in vitro differentiaion model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A serum-free, feeder-cell-dependent, inductive differentiation culture system of porcine hepatocytes and bile ductules was analyzed for differential gene expression on a porcine genome microarray. Primary cultures of baby pig hepatocytes (BPH) were matured in culture as a monolayer of hepatocytes w...

  3. Hepatobiliary disposition of 17-OHPC and taurocholate in fetal human hepatocytes: a comparison with adult human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shringi; Ellis, Ewa C S; Gramignoli, Roberto; Dorko, Kenneth; Tahan, Veysel; Hansel, Marc; Mattison, Donald R; Caritis, Steve N; Hines, Ronald N; Venkataramanan, Raman; Strom, Stephen C

    2013-02-01

    Little information is available in the literature regarding the expression and activity of transporters in fetal human liver or cultured cells. A synthetic progesterone structural analog, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC), is used in the prevention of spontaneous abortion in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage (habitual abortion). 17-OHPC has been reported to traverse the placental barrier and gain access to fetal circulation. In this study, the role of transporters in the disposition of 17-OHPC in fetal and adult human hepatocytes was examined. Progesterone metabolites have been reported to induce trans-inhibition of bile acid transporter, ABCB11. Thus, we investigated the effect of 17-OHPC or its metabolites on [(3)H]taurocholic acid transport in sandwich-cultured human fetal and adult hepatocytes. 17-OHPC was taken up rapidly into the cells and transported out partially by an active efflux process that was significantly inhibited by cold temperature, cyclosporine, verapamil, and rifampin. The active efflux mechanism was observed in both adult and fetal hepatocyte cultures. 17-OHPC produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of taurocholate efflux into canaliculi in sandwich-cultured adult and fetal human hepatocytes. However, given the high concentrations required to cause inhibition of these transport processes, no adverse effects would be anticipated from therapeutic levels of 17-OHPC. We also evaluated the expression of various hepatic transporters (ABCB1, ABCB4, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, SLCO2B1, ABCB11, SLC10A1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, and ABCG2) in fetal and adult hepatocytes. With the exception of ABCB4, all transporters examined were expressed, albeit at lower mRNA levels in fetal hepatocytes compared with adults.

  4. Hepatobiliary Disposition of 17-OHPC and Taurocholate in Fetal Human Hepatocytes: A Comparison with Adult Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shringi; Ellis, Ewa C. S.; Gramignoli, Roberto; Dorko, Kenneth; Tahan, Veysel; Hansel, Marc; Mattison, Donald R.; Caritis, Steve N.; Hines, Ronald N.; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2013-01-01

    Little information is available in the literature regarding the expression and activity of transporters in fetal human liver or cultured cells. A synthetic progesterone structural analog, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC), is used in the prevention of spontaneous abortion in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage (habitual abortion). 17-OHPC has been reported to traverse the placental barrier and gain access to fetal circulation. In this study, the role of transporters in the disposition of 17-OHPC in fetal and adult human hepatocytes was examined. Progesterone metabolites have been reported to induce trans-inhibition of bile acid transporter, ABCB11. Thus, we investigated the effect of 17-OHPC or its metabolites on [3H]taurocholic acid transport in sandwich-cultured human fetal and adult hepatocytes. 17-OHPC was taken up rapidly into the cells and transported out partially by an active efflux process that was significantly inhibited by cold temperature, cyclosporine, verapamil, and rifampin. The active efflux mechanism was observed in both adult and fetal hepatocyte cultures. 17-OHPC produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of taurocholate efflux into canaliculi in sandwich-cultured adult and fetal human hepatocytes. However, given the high concentrations required to cause inhibition of these transport processes, no adverse effects would be anticipated from therapeutic levels of 17-OHPC. We also evaluated the expression of various hepatic transporters (ABCB1, ABCB4, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, SLCO2B1, ABCB11, SLC10A1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, and ABCG2) in fetal and adult hepatocytes. With the exception of ABCB4, all transporters examined were expressed, albeit at lower mRNA levels in fetal hepatocytes compared with adults. PMID:23129211

  5. Mitochondrial protein adducts formation and mitochondrial dysfunction during N-acetyl-m-aminophenol (AMAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuchao; McGill, Mitchell R.; Du, Kuo; Dorko, Kenneth; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Ding, Wen-Xing; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    3′-Hydroxyacetanilide or N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally regarded as a non-hepatotoxic analog of acetaminophen (APAP). Previous studies demonstrated absence of toxicity after AMAP in mice, hamsters, primary mouse hepatocytes and several cell lines. In contrast, experiments with liver slices suggested that it may be toxic to human hepatocytes; however, the mechanism of toxicity is unclear. To explore this, we treated primary human hepatocytes (PHH) with AMAP or APAP for up to 48 h and measured several parameters to assess metabolism and injury. Although less toxic than APAP, AMAP dose-dependently triggered cell death in PHH as indicated by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Similar to APAP, AMAP also significantly depleted glutathione (GSH) in PHH and caused mitochondrial damage as indicated by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) release and the JC-1 assay. However, unlike APAP, AMAP treatment did not cause relevant c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in the cytosol or phospho-JNK translocation to mitochondria. To compare, AMAP toxicity was assessed in primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH). No cytotoxicity was observed as indicated by the lack of lactate dehydrogenase release and no PI staining. Furthermore, there was no GSH depletion or mitochondrial dysfunction after AMAP treatment in PMH. Immunoblotting for arylated proteins suggested that AMAP treatment caused extensive mitochondrial protein adducts formation in PHH but not in PMH. In conclusion, AMAP is hepatotoxic in PHH and the mechanism involves formation of mitochondrial protein adducts and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26431796

  6. TRPM2 channels mediate acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpezhouh, Ehsan; Ma, Linlin; Morphett, Arthur; Barritt, Greg J.; Rychkov, Grigori Y.

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most frequently used analgesic and antipyretic drug available over the counter. At the same time, acetaminophen overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure and the leading cause of chronic liver damage requiring liver transplantation in developed countries. Acetaminophen overdose causes a multitude of interrelated biochemical reactions in hepatocytes including the formation of reactive oxygen species, deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, covalent modification and oxidation of proteins, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation. Although an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in hepatocytes is a known consequence of acetaminophen overdose, its importance in acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity is not well understood, primarily due to lack of knowledge about the source of the Ca2+ rise. Here we report that the channel responsible for Ca2+ entry in hepatocytes in acetaminophen overdose is the Transient Receptor Potential Melanostatine 2 (TRPM2) cation channel. We show by whole-cell patch clamping that treatment of hepatocytes with acetaminophen results in activation of a cation current similar to that activated by H2O2 or the intracellular application of ADP ribose. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TRPM2 in hepatocytes inhibits activation of the current by either acetaminophen or H2O2. In TRPM2 knockout mice, acetaminophen-induced liver damage, assessed by the blood concentration of liver enzymes and liver histology, is significantly diminished compared with wild-type mice. The presented data strongly suggest that TRPM2 channels are essential in the mechanism of acetaminophen-induced hepatocellular death. PMID:24569808

  7. INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN THE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The liver is the major site for the enzymatic methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in humans. Primary cultures of normal human hepatocytes isolated from tissue obtained at surgery or from donor livers have been used to study interindividual variation in the capacity of live...

  8. ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES.

    S. Lin1, L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo1, C. Wang2, W. R. Cullen2, and D.J. Thomas3. 1Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3National Health and En...

  9. TEMPORAL CHANGE IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    TEMPORAL CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY *

    The objective of this study was to examine the reduction in gap junction communication (GJC) in primary hepatocytes due to coincident melatonin and magnetic field treatments to determine if these conditions could prov...

  10. 3D Cultivation Techniques for Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anastasia; Moll, Matthias; Gottwald, Eric; Nies, Cordula; Zantl, Roman; Wagner, Helga; Burkhardt, Britta; Sánchez, Juan J. Martínez; Ladurner, Ruth; Thasler, Wolfgang; Damm, Georg; Nussler, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in drug development is the prediction of in vivo toxicity based on in vitro data. The standard cultivation system for primary human hepatocytes is based on monolayer cultures, even if it is known that these conditions result in a loss of hepatocyte morphology and of liver-specific functions, such as drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. As it has been demonstrated that hepatocytes embedded between two sheets of collagen maintain their function, various hydrogels and scaffolds for the 3D cultivation of hepatocytes have been developed. To further improve or maintain hepatic functions, 3D cultivation has been combined with perfusion. In this manuscript, we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different 3D microfluidic devices. For most systems that are currently available, the main issues are the requirement of large cell numbers, the low throughput, and expensive equipment, which render these devices unattractive for research and the drug-developing industry. A higher acceptance of these devices could be achieved by their simplification and their compatibility with high-throughput, as both aspects are of major importance for a user-friendly device. PMID:27600213

  11. Retinoic Acid-mediated Nuclear Receptor Activation and Hepatocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bushue, Nathan; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Due to their well-known differentiation and apoptosis-inducing abilities, retinoic acid (RA) and its analogs have strong anti-cancer efficacy in human cancers. However, in vivo RA is a liver mitogen. While speculation has persisted that RA-mediated signaling is likely involved in hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration, direct evidence is still required. Findings in support of this proposition include observations that a release of retinyl palmitate (the precursor of RA) occurs in liver stellate cells following liver injury. Nevertheless, the biological action of this released vitamin A is virtually unknown. More likely is that the released vitamin A is converted to RA, the biological form, and then bound to a specific receptor (retinoid x receptor; RXRα), which is most abundantly expressed in the liver. Considering the mitogenic effects of RA, the RA-activated RXRα would likely then influence hepatocyte proliferation and liver tissue repair. At present, the mechanism by which RA stimulates hepatocyte proliferation is largely unknown. This review summarizes the activation of nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, pregnane x receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and farnesoid x receptor) in an RXRα dependent manner to induce hepatocyte proliferation, providing a link between RA and its proliferative role. PMID:27635169

  12. Asialoglycoprotein receptor mediated hepatocyte targeting - strategies and applications.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Anisha A; Devarajan, Padma V

    2015-04-10

    Hepatocyte resident afflictions continue to affect the human population unabated. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is primarily expressed on hepatocytes and minimally on extra-hepatic cells. This makes it specifically attractive for receptor-mediated drug delivery with minimum concerns of toxicity. ASGPR facilitates internalization by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and exhibits high affinity for carbohydrates specifically galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and glucose. Isomeric forms of sugar, galactose density and branching, spatial geometry and galactose linkages are key factors influencing ligand-receptor binding. Popular ligands for ASGPR mediated targeting are carbohydrate polymers, arabinogalactan and pullulan. Other ligands include galactose-bearing glycoproteins, glycopeptides and galactose modified polymers and lipids. Drug-ligand conjugates provide a viable strategy; nevertheless ligand-anchored nanocarriers provide an attractive option for ASGPR targeted delivery and are widely explored. The present review details various ligands and nanocarriers exploited for ASGPR mediated delivery of drugs to hepatocytes. Nanocarrier properties affecting ASGPR mediated uptake are discussed at length. The review also highlights the clinical relevance of ASGPR mediated targeting and applications in diagnostics. ASGPR mediated hepatocyte targeting provides great promise for improved therapy of hepatic afflictions.

  13. Application of multivariate analysis to optimize function of cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christina; Hwang, Daehee; Stephanopoulos, Gregory N; Yarmush, Martin L; Stephanopoulos, George

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the metabolic and regulatory pathways of hepatocytes is important for biotechnological applications involving liver cells, including the development of bioartificial liver (BAL) devices. To characterize intermediary metabolism in the hepatocytes, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was applied to elucidate the changes in intracellular pathway fluxes of primary rat hepatocytes exposed to human plasma and to provide a comprehensive snapshot of the hepatic metabolic profile. In the current study, the combination of preconditioning and plasma supplementation produced distinct metabolic states. Combining the metabolic flux distribution obtained by MFA with methodologies such as Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) and partial least squares or projection to latent structures (PLS) provided insights into the underlying structure and causal relationship within the data. With the aid of these analyses, patterns in the cellular response of the hepatocytes that contributed to the separation of the different hepatic states were identified. Of particular interest was the recognition of distal pathways that strongly correlated with a particular hepatic function. The hepatic functions investigated were intracellular triglyceride accumulation and urea production. This study illustrates a framework for optimizing hepatic function and a possibility of identifying potential targets for improving hepatic functions.

  14. Octylphenol induces vitellogenin production and cell death in fish hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, B.H.; Monteverdi, G.H.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    1999-04-01

    The effects of octylphenol (OP) on vitellogenin production and cell death in hepatocytes from brown bullhead catfish (Americurus nebulosus) were studied. Production of vitellogenin was induced in hepatocytes exposed to 10 to 50 {micro}M OP, whereas a higher concentration of OP (100 {micro}M) induced apoptotic cell death. By 3 h after the addition of 100 {micro}M OP, dying cells showed chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation as determined by fluorescence microscopy and gel electrophoresis. Later stages of cell death (nuclear membrane breakdown and cell fragmentation into apoptotic bodies) were identified in cells exposed to OP for at least 6 h. Hepatocytes exposed to 100 {micro}M OP also produced less vitellogenin than cells exposed to 50 {micro}M OP. An estrogen receptor antagonist, tamoxifen, greatly decreased vitellogenin production in OP-exposed hepatocytes from male fish but did not decrease cell death in these cells. Thus, although the ability of OP to induce vitellogenin production is likely mediated through interactions with the estrogen receptor, the induction of apoptotic cell death by OP does not appear to be dependent on its estrogenic activity but may be a more general toxic effect.

  15. ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES.

    S. Lin1, L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo1, C. Wang2, W. R. Cullen2, and D.J. Thomas3. 1Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3National Health and En...

  16. INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN THE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The liver is the major site for the enzymatic methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in humans. Primary cultures of normal human hepatocytes isolated from tissue obtained at surgery or from donor livers have been used to study interindividual variation in the capacity of live...

  17. A Microfabricated Platform for Generating Physiologically-Relevant Hepatocyte Zonation

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, William J.; Usta, O. Berk; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro liver models have been important tools for more than 40 years for academic research and preclinical toxicity screening by the pharmaceutical industry. Hepatocytes, the highly metabolic parenchymal cells of the liver, are efficient at different metabolic chemistries depending on their relative spatial location along the sinusoid from the portal triad to the central vein. Although replicating hepatocyte metabolic zonation is vitally important for physiologically-relevant in vitro liver tissue and organ models, it is most often completely overlooked. Here, we demonstrate the creation of spatially-controlled zonation across multiple hepatocyte metabolism levels through the application of precise concentration gradients of exogenous hormone (insulin and glucagon) and chemical (3-methylcholanthrene) induction agents in a microfluidic device. Observed gradients in glycogen storage via periodic acid-Schiff staining, urea production via carbamoyl phosphatase synthetase I staining, and cell viability after exposure to allyl alcohol and acetaminophen demonstrated the in vitro creation of hepatocyte carbohydrate, nitrogen, alcohol degradation, and drug conjugation metabolic zonation. This type of advanced control system will be crucial for studies evaluating drug metabolism and toxicology using in vitro constructs. PMID:27240736

  18. Cryopreservation of rat hepatocytes with disaccharides for cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Liana Monteiro da Fonseca; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Henriques Pons, Andrea; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2017-10-01

    Cryopreservation of hepatocytes is a crucial step in the implementation of cell therapy for treating certain liver diseases. In the present study we investigated the effect of the some disaccharides on the cryopreservation of rat hepatocytes. Liver cells were frozen in media in the presence or absence of low concentrations of Me2SO (5% Me2SO) supplemented with varying concentrations of disaccharides (sucrose, glucose and trehalose). After 7 days of cryopreservation, the hepatocytes were thawed and viability was measure by exclusion of trypan blue and by the MTT technique, as well as by determining albumin production. Among the investigated disaccharides and concentrations, 0.2 M trehalose showed the best overall outcome. Compared to the use of Me2SO alone, significant improvement in post-thaw cell viability was observed. The new solution may reduce Me2SO side effects on patients and improve the viability and quality of cryopreserved hepatocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. DIFFERENTIATING MECHANISMS OF REACTIVE CHEMICAL TOXICITY IN ISOLATED TROUT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of four quinones, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMONQ), 2-methyl 1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ ),1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), and 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), which redox cycle or arlyate in mammalian cells, was determined in isolated trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Mor...

  20. Preservation of hepatocyte suspensions at 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Lund, P; Wiggins, D

    1988-10-01

    Suspensions of rat hepatocytes are resistant to hypoxia for at least 24 hr at 4 degrees C. After storage for 24 hr with xylitol, sorbitol, or glycerol, their subsequent capacity for glucogenesis from these substrates is increased. Even storage under N2/CO2 as the gas phase has little deleterious effect.

  1. DIFFERENTIATING MECHANISMS OF REACTIVE CHEMICAL TOXICITY IN ISOLATED TROUT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of four quinones, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMONQ), 2-methyl 1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ ),1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), and 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), which redox cycle or arlyate in mammalian cells, was determined in isolated trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Mor...

  2. [Action of a herbicide (paraquat) on hepatocytes in histiotypic culture].

    PubMed

    Verne, J; Fournier, E; Hebert, S; Richshoffer, N

    1975-01-01

    The toxicant action on hepatocytes of "paraquat" introduced at very low concentrations in an in vitro culture of such cells is here established. Mitoses are slowed down and moreover, the lysosomial system is impaired, thus inducing a decrease in its enzymic reactions and the proliferation of very large vesicles.

  3. Cellular toxicity of hydrazine in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saber M; Frazier, John M

    2002-10-01

    Hydrazine (HzN) is an aircraft fuel and propellant used by the U.S. Air Force. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the acute toxicity of HzN in primary rat hepatocytes in vitro with reference to oxidative stress. The effects of short-term exposure (4 h) of hepatocytes to HzN were investigated with reference to viability, mitochondrial function, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. The viability data showed an increase in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and a decrease in mitochondrial activity with increasing concentration of HzN. The results of studies of oxidative stress biomarkers showed a depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and an increase in oxidized GSH, increased reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation, and reduced catalase activity. Furthermore, depletion of GSH and catalase activity in hepatocytes by buthionine sulfoximine and 3-amino triazole, respectively, prior to exposure to HzN, increased its toxicity. The results suggest that acute HzN-induced cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes is likely to be mediated through oxidative stress.

  4. Liver glycogen bodies: ground-glass hepatocytes in transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Pablo A; Garcia, Monica T; Rodriguez, Maria M; Ruiz, Phillip; Tzakis, Andreas G

    2006-11-01

    Ground-glass hepatocytes have been described in Lafora's disease, fibrinogen deposition, hepatitis B, type IV glycogenosis, and alcohol aversion (cyanamide) therapy. We encountered ground-glass hepatocytes with intracytoplasmic inclusions in four liver biopsies from three transplanted patients who had none of the above-mentioned underlying diseases. One patient was a 4-year-old boy who had a kidney transplant for severe ureterovesical reflux. Patient 2 was a 52-year-old man who had two liver transplants because of hepatitis C. The third patient was a 7-month-old girl who underwent a multivisceral transplant because of necrotizing enterocolitis and liver failure induced by total parenteral nutrition. The patients developed liver abnormalities from 45 days to 4 years after their transplants. The livers showed conspicuous ground-glass hepatocytes in 90% of the children's samples and 30% of the adult liver cells. The cytoplasmic bodies stained strongly for Gomori methenamine-silver; they were positive for periodic acid-Schiff without diastase, but negative after diastase digestion. They were negative for colloidal iron and hepatitis B core and surface antigens. Electron microscopy revealed non-membrane bound aggregates of glycogen. Idiopathic ground-glass hepatocytes occur in transplanted patients and represent accumulation of altered glycogen. However, their clinical significance and cause are not entirely elucidated.

  5. A Microfabricated Platform for Generating Physiologically-Relevant Hepatocyte Zonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, William J.; Usta, O. Berk; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2016-05-01

    In vitro liver models have been important tools for more than 40 years for academic research and preclinical toxicity screening by the pharmaceutical industry. Hepatocytes, the highly metabolic parenchymal cells of the liver, are efficient at different metabolic chemistries depending on their relative spatial location along the sinusoid from the portal triad to the central vein. Although replicating hepatocyte metabolic zonation is vitally important for physiologically-relevant in vitro liver tissue and organ models, it is most often completely overlooked. Here, we demonstrate the creation of spatially-controlled zonation across multiple hepatocyte metabolism levels through the application of precise concentration gradients of exogenous hormone (insulin and glucagon) and chemical (3-methylcholanthrene) induction agents in a microfluidic device. Observed gradients in glycogen storage via periodic acid-Schiff staining, urea production via carbamoyl phosphatase synthetase I staining, and cell viability after exposure to allyl alcohol and acetaminophen demonstrated the in vitro creation of hepatocyte carbohydrate, nitrogen, alcohol degradation, and drug conjugation metabolic zonation. This type of advanced control system will be crucial for studies evaluating drug metabolism and toxicology using in vitro constructs.

  6. Hepatocytes: a key cell type for innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhou; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Gao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes, the major parenchymal cells in the liver, play pivotal roles in metabolism, detoxification, and protein synthesis. Hepatocytes also activate innate immunity against invading microorganisms by secreting innate immunity proteins. These proteins include bactericidal proteins that directly kill bacteria, opsonins that assist in the phagocytosis of foreign bacteria, iron-sequestering proteins that block iron uptake by bacteria, several soluble factors that regulate lipopolysaccharide signaling, and the coagulation factor fibrinogen that activates innate immunity. In this review, we summarize the wide variety of innate immunity proteins produced by hepatocytes and discuss liver-enriched transcription factors (e.g. hepatocyte nuclear factors and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins), pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. interleukin (IL)-6, IL-22, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α), and downstream signaling pathways (e.g. signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 and nuclear factor-κB) that regulate the expression of these innate immunity proteins. We also briefly discuss the dysregulation of these innate immunity proteins in chronic liver disease, which may contribute to an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:26685902

  7. TEMPORAL CHANGE IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    TEMPORAL CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY *

    The objective of this study was to examine the reduction in gap junction communication (GJC) in primary hepatocytes due to coincident melatonin and magnetic field treatments to determine if these conditions could prov...

  8. Cytotoxic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-alkylamphetamines, MDMA and its analogues, on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshio; Suzuki, Toshinari; Tayama, Sumiko; Ishii, Hidemi; Ogata, Akio

    2009-01-01

    The amphetamine-derived designer drugs have been illegally used worldwide as recreational drugs, some of which are known to be hepatotoxic in humans. To compare their cytotoxic effects, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) and its related analogues, N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB), 3,4-(methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (BDB) and 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-propane-1-one (methylone) were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. MBDB caused not only concentration (0-4.0 mM)- and time (0-2 h)-dependent cell death accompanied by the formation of cell blebs, and the loss of cellular ATP and adenine nucleotide pools, and reduced glutathione levels, but also the accumulation of oxidized glutathione. Of the other analogues examined, the cytotoxicity of MBDB and BDB was greater than that of MDMA and methylone, suggesting that hepatotoxicity is generally induced by these drugs. In addition, DNA damage and the induction of reactive oxygen species were greater after the incubation of hepatocytes with MBDB (2 and 4 mM) than after that with MDMA. In isolated liver mitochondria, MBDB/BDB resulted in a greater increase in the rate of state 4 oxygen consumption than did MDMA/methylone, indicating an uncoupling effect and a decrease in the rate of state 3 oxygen consumption in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, MBDB resulted in mitochondrial swelling dependent on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT); the effect of MDMA was less than that of MBDB. Taken collectively, these results suggest that (1) the onset of cytotoxicity caused by designer drugs such as MBDB and MDMA is linked to mitochondrial failure dependent upon the induction of the MPT accompanied by mitochondrial depolarization and depletion of ATP through uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes, and (2) MBDB and MDMA elicit DNA damage, suggesting that nuclei as well as mitochondria are target sites of these compounds.

  9. [Use of xenogenic lyophilized hepatocytes in the treatment of acute and chronic liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Musselius, S G; Vasina, N V; Gladskikh, L V

    1998-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of lyophilized xenogenic hepatocytes was demonstrated on 30 dogs with acute hepatic failure and on white mice. The major biochemical values were corrected and the yeast fermentation test showed biological activity of isolated hepatocytes. Clinically, lyophilized hepatocytes were used in the treatment of patients with acute hepatic failure: orally in 47 and for extracorporeal dialysis in 8. The therapeutic effect of lyophilized hepatocytes is based on active detoxication and hemostasis correction. Clinical, laboratory, and instrumental studies showed improvement of the clinical status, decreased encephalopathy, and accelerated repair processes in the liver. Addition of lyophilized hepatocytes to combined therapy decreased the mortality by 2.5 times.

  10. Epidermal growth factor-stimulated protein phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, P.A.; Sisk, R.B.; Johnson, R.M.; Garrison, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a 6-fold increase in the phosphorylation state of a cytosolic protein (pp36, M/sub r/ = 36,000, pI = 5.5) in hepatocytes isolated from fasted, male, Wistar rats. Stimulation of /sup 32/P incorporation is observed as early as 1 min following treatment of hepatocytes with EGF and is still present at 30 min after exposure to the growth factor. The phosphate incorporated into pp36 in response to EGF is located predominantly in serine but not tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of pp36 does not occur in response to insulin or to agents which specifically activate the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (S/sub p/ -cAMPS), protein kinase C (PMA) or Ca/sup 2 +//calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (A23187) in these cells. Prior treatment of hepatocytes with the cAMP analog, S/sub p/-cAMPS, or ADP-ribosylation of N/sub i/, the inhibitory GTP-binding protein of the adenylate cyclase complex, does not prevent EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of pp36. However, as seen in other cell types, pretreatment of hepatocytes with PMA abolishes all EGF-mediated responses including phosphorylation of pp36. These results suggest that EGP specifically activates an uncharacterized, serine protein kinase in hepatocytes that is distal to the intrinsic EGF receptor tyrosine protein kinase. The rapid activation of this kinase suggests that it may play an important role in the early response of the cell to EGF.

  11. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shan-Bo; Zhang, Rui; Miao, Shan; Gao, Bin; Lu, Yang; Hui, Sen; Li, Long; Shi, Xiao-Peng; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2017-04-07

    Hyperglycemia is a typical pathogenic factor in a series of complications among patients with type II diabetes. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol extracted from green tea and is reported to be an antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of EGCG on insulin resistance in human HepG2 cells pretreated with high concentrations of glucose. The protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) pathways were analyzed using western blot analysis in HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes treated with high glucose and/or EGCG. Cellular glycogen content was determined using a glycogen assay kit. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined using dihydroethidium staining and flow cytometry. c‑JUN N‑terminal kinase (JNK)/insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1)/AKT/GSK signaling was explored using western blot analysis in HepG2 cells treated with high glucose and/or EGCG or N-acetyl-cysteine. High glucose significantly decreased the levels of phosphorylated AKT and GSK in HepG2 cells and mouse primary hepatocytes. Pretreatment with EGCG significantly restored the activation of AKT and GSK in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes exposed to high glucose. In HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes, glycogen synthesis was improved by EGCG treatment in a dose‑dependent manner. High glucose significantly stimulated the production of ROS while EGCG protected high glucose‑induced ROS production. ROS is known to serve a major role in high glucose induced‑insulin resistance by increasing JNK and IRS1 serine phosphorylation. In the present study, EGCG was observed to enhance the insulin‑signaling pathway. EGCG ameliorated high glucose‑induced insulin resistance in the hepatocytes by potentially decreasing ROS‑induced JNK/IRS1/AKT/GSK signaling.

  12. Phosphatidylinositol metabolism in rat hepatocytes stimulated by vasopressin.

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, C J; Michell, R H; Hems, D A

    1981-01-01

    In isolated rat hepatocytes, vasopressin evoked a large increase in the incorporation of [32P]Pi into phosphatidylinositol, accompanied by smaller increases in the incorporation of [1-14C]oleate and [U-14C]glycerol. Incorporation of these precursors into the other major phospholipids was unchanged during vasopressin treatment. Vasopressin also promoted phosphatidylinositol breakdown in hepatocytes. Half-maximum effects on phosphatidylinositol breakdown and on phosphatidylinositol labelling occurred at about 5 nM-vasopressin, a concentration at which approximately half of the hepatic vasopressin receptors are occupied but which is much greater than is needed to produce half-maximal activation of glycogen phosphorylase. Insulin did not change the incorporation of [32P]Pi into the phospholipids of hepatocytes and it had no effect on the response to vasopressin. Although the incorporation of [32P]Pi into hepatocyte lipids was decreased when cells were incubated in a Ca2+-free medium, vasopressin still provoked a substantial stimulation of phosphatidylinositol labelling under these conditions. Studies with the antagonist [1-(beta-mercapto-beta, beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionic acid),8-arginine]vasopressin indicated that the hepatic vasopressin receptors that control phosphatidylinositol metabolism are similar to those that mediate the vasopressor response in vivo. When prelabelled hepatocytes were stimulated for 5 min and then subjected to subcellular fractionation. The decrease in [3H]phosphatidylinositol content in each cell fraction with approximately in proportion to its original phosphatidylinositol content. This may be a consequence of phosphatidylinositol breakdown at a single site, followed by rapid phosphatidylinositol exchange between membranes leading to re-establishment of an equilibrium distribution. PMID:7030316

  13. Enzymatic antioxidant defense in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Skrzycki, M; Czeczot, H; Majewska, M; Podsiad, M; Karlik, W; Grono, D; Wiechetek, M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of cadmium effects on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat hepatocytes. The studies were conducted with isolated rat hepatocytes incubated for 1 or 2 hours in a modified (deprived of carbonates with phosphates) Williams' E medium (MWE) in the presence of cadmium chloride (25, 50 and 200 microM). Hepatocytes incubated in the MWE medium without cadmium chloride were used as a control. The application of the modified Williams' E medium allowed for the appearance of cadmium compounds in a soluble form that is indispensable for suitable estimation of its toxic action. There were evaluated markers of the oxidative stress such as: concentration of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS)--proportional to the level of lipid peroxidation, concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2), catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), selenium--dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSHR). Alterations of antioxidant enzymes activity, the level of TBARS and GSH in isolated rat hepatocytes caused by cadmium in vitro, were shown to depend on the concentration and time of exposure of cells to this metal. The increased level of TBARS and GSH was observed as well as changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The activity of SOD isoenzymes and CAT was increased, whereas GSHPx and GST were decreased. These results indicate that cadmium induces oxidative stress followed by alterations in the cellular antioxidant enzyme system in isolated rat hepatocytes.

  14. Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) protects human hepatocytes against apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ilowski, Maren; Kleespies, Axel; Toni, Enrico N. de; Donabauer, Barbara; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Hengstler, Jan G.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ALR decreases cytochrome c release from mitochondria. {yields} ALR protects hepatocytes against apoptosis induction by ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-{beta} and actinomycin D. {yields} ALR exerts a liver-specific anti-apoptotic effect. {yields} A possible medical usage of ALR regarding protection of liver cells during apoptosis inducing therapies. -- Abstract: Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is known to support liver regeneration and to stimulate proliferation of hepatocytes. However, it is not known if ALR exerts anti-apoptotic effects in human hepatocytes and whether this protective effect is cell type specific. This is relevant, because compounds that protect the liver against apoptosis without undesired effects, such as protection of metastatic tumour cells, would be appreciated in several clinical settings. Primary human hepatocytes (phH) and organotypic cancer cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of apoptosis inducers (ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-{beta}, actinomycin D) and cultured with or without recombinant human ALR (rhALR). Apoptosis was evaluated by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and by FACS with propidium iodide (PI) staining. ALR significantly decreased apoptosis induced by ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-{beta} and actinomycin D. Further, the anti-apoptotic effect of ALR was observed in primary human hepatocytes and in HepG2 cells but not in bronchial (BC1), colonic (SW480), gastric (GC1) and pancreatic (L3.6PL) cell lines. Therefore, the hepatotrophic growth factor ALR acts in a liver specific manner with regards to both its mitogenic and its anti-apoptotic effect. Unlike the growth factors HGF and EGF, rhALR acts in a liver specific manner. Therefore, ALR is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a possible hepatoprotective factor in clinical settings.

  15. Characterization of aldehyde oxidase enzyme activity in cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, J Matthew; Yang, Young-Sun; Albaugh, Daniel; Fullenwider, Cody L; Schmenk, Jennifer; Fisher, Michael B

    2012-02-01

    Substrates of aldehyde oxidase (AO), for which human clinical pharmacokinetics are reported, were selected and evaluated in pooled mixed-gender cryopreserved human hepatocytes in an effort to quantitatively characterize AO activity. Estimated hepatic clearance (Cl(h)) for BIBX1382, carbazeran, O⁶-benzylguanine, zaleplon, and XK-469 using cryopreserved hepatocytes was 18, 17, 12, <4.3, and <4.3 ml · min⁻¹ · kg⁻¹, respectively. The observed metabolic clearance in cryopreserved hepatocytes was confirmed to be a result of AO-mediated metabolism via two approaches. Metabolite identification after incubations in the presence of H₂¹⁸O confirmed that the predominant oxidative metabolite was generated by AO, as expected isotope patterns in mass spectra were observed after analysis by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Second, clearance values were efficiently attenuated upon coincubation with hydralazine, an inhibitor of AO. The low exposure after oral doses of BIBX1382 and carbazeran (∼5% F) would have been fairly well predicted using simple hepatic extraction (f(h)) values derived from cryopreserved hepatocytes. In addition, the estimated hepatic clearance value for O⁶-benzylguanine was within ∼80% of the observed total clearance in humans after intravenous administration (15 ml · min⁻¹ · kg⁻¹), indicating a reasonable level of quantitative activity from this in vitro system. However, a 3.5-fold underprediction of total clearance was observed for zaleplon, despite the 5-oxo metabolite being clearly observed. These data taken together suggest that the use of cryopreserved hepatocytes may be a practical approach for assessing AO-mediated metabolism in discovery and potentially useful for predicting hepatic clearance of AO substrates.

  16. Suppression in PHLPP2 induction by morin promotes Nrf2-regulated cellular defenses against oxidative injury to primary rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Fatima; Mathur, Alpana; Krishna, Shagun; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Kakkar, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances indicate a possible role of phytochemicals as modulatory factors in signaling pathways. We have previously demonstrated PHLPP2-mediated suppression of Nrf2 responses during oxidant attack. The present study was designed to explore Nrf2-potentiating mechanism of morin, a flavonol, via its possible role in intervening PHLPP2-regulated Akt/GSK3β/Fyn kinase axis. Efficacy of morin was evaluated against oxidative stress-mediated damage to primary hepatocytes by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) and acetaminophen. The anti-cytotoxic effects of morin were found to be a consequence of fortification of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant defenses since morin failed to sustain activities of redox enzyme in Nrf2 silenced hepatocytes. Morin promoted Nrf2 stability and its nuclear retention by possibly modulating PHLPP2 activity which subdues cellular Nrf2 responses by activating Fyn kinase. Pull-down assay using morin-conjugated beads indicated the binding affinity of morin towards PHLPP2. Molecular docking also revealed the propensity of morin to occupy the active site of PHLPP2 enzyme. Thus, dietary phytochemical morin was observed to counteract oxidant-induced hepatocellular damage by promoting Nrf2-regulated transcriptional induction. The findings support the novel role of morin in potentiating Nrf2 responses by limiting PHLPP2 and hence Fyn kinase activation. Therefore, morin may be exploited in developing novel therapeutic strategy aimed at enhancing Nrf2 responses. PMID:26513344

  17. Suppression in PHLPP2 induction by morin promotes Nrf2-regulated cellular defenses against oxidative injury to primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Fatima; Mathur, Alpana; Krishna, Shagun; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Kakkar, Poonam

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances indicate a possible role of phytochemicals as modulatory factors in signaling pathways. We have previously demonstrated PHLPP2-mediated suppression of Nrf2 responses during oxidant attack. The present study was designed to explore Nrf2-potentiating mechanism of morin, a flavonol, via its possible role in intervening PHLPP2-regulated Akt/GSK3β/Fyn kinase axis. Efficacy of morin was evaluated against oxidative stress-mediated damage to primary hepatocytes by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) and acetaminophen. The anti-cytotoxic effects of morin were found to be a consequence of fortification of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant defenses since morin failed to sustain activities of redox enzyme in Nrf2 silenced hepatocytes. Morin promoted Nrf2 stability and its nuclear retention by possibly modulating PHLPP2 activity which subdues cellular Nrf2 responses by activating Fyn kinase. Pull-down assay using morin-conjugated beads indicated the binding affinity of morin towards PHLPP2. Molecular docking also revealed the propensity of morin to occupy the active site of PHLPP2 enzyme. Thus, dietary phytochemical morin was observed to counteract oxidant-induced hepatocellular damage by promoting Nrf2-regulated transcriptional induction. The findings support the novel role of morin in potentiating Nrf2 responses by limiting PHLPP2 and hence Fyn kinase activation. Therefore, morin may be exploited in developing novel therapeutic strategy aimed at enhancing Nrf2 responses. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, James; Bourgeois, Marie; Harbison, Raymond

    2014-04-01

    Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity is a persistent allergic contact dermatitides documented in floral workers exposed to Alstroemeria and its cultivars.[1] The causative allergen is tulipalin A, a toxic glycoside named for the tulip bulbs from which it was first isolated.[2] The condition is characterized by fissured acropulpitis, often accompanied by hyperpigmentation, onychorrhexis, and paronychia. More of the volar surface may be affected in sensitized florists. Dermatitis and paronychia are extremely common conditions and diagnostic errors may occur. A thorough patient history, in conjunction with confirmatory patch testing with a bulb sliver and tuliposide A exposure, can prevent misdiagnosis. We report a case of Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity misdiagnosed as an unresolved tinea manuum infection in a patient evaluated for occupational exposure.

  19. Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, James; Bourgeois, Marie; Harbison, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity is a persistent allergic contact dermatitides documented in floral workers exposed to Alstroemeria and its cultivars.[1] The causative allergen is tulipalin A, a toxic glycoside named for the tulip bulbs from which it was first isolated.[2] The condition is characterized by fissured acropulpitis, often accompanied by hyperpigmentation, onychorrhexis, and paronychia. More of the volar surface may be affected in sensitized florists. Dermatitis and paronychia are extremely common conditions and diagnostic errors may occur. A thorough patient history, in conjunction with confirmatory patch testing with a bulb sliver and tuliposide A exposure, can prevent misdiagnosis. We report a case of Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity misdiagnosed as an unresolved tinea manuum infection in a patient evaluated for occupational exposure. PMID:25024947

  20. Comparison of rat and hamster hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair assays

    SciTech Connect

    Kornbrust, D.J.; Barfknect, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated marked differences in the capacity of hepatocytes from rats or hamsters to mediate the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens to genotoxic (i.e., mutagenic) products. Thus far, very few investigations of species differences in DNA repair have been performed. Therefore, a comparison of the relative extent of DNA repair elicited by various genotoxic chemicals in rat and hamster hepatocyes was conducted, using the hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair (HPC/DR) assay. Of the ll chemicals tested, eight were more potent in inducing DNA repair in hamster hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. Dimethylnitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, 2-acetylaminofluorene, 9-aminoacridine, pararosaniline hydrochloride, 1-naphthylamine, benzidine and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane were all active in hamster hepatocytes at a concentration at least ten times less than the lowest effective concentration in rat hepatocytes. The direct-acting alkylating agent, methylmethane sulfonate, was equipotent inducing DNA repair in both rat and hamster hepatocytes, indicating that the differences in DNA repair observed for the other chemicals were probably not a result of species differences in DNA repair capacities. In contrast, 1-nitropyrene produced a greater DNA repair response in rat hepatocyes than hamster hepatocytes, while the bacterial mutagen 3-(chloromethyl)pyridine hydrochloride was inactive in both hepatocyte systems. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using hamster hepatocytes in the HPC/DR assay and illustrate the utility of performing the assay with hepatocytes from more than one species.

  1. Blood-Compatible Polymer for Hepatocyte Culture with High Hepatocyte-Specific Functions toward Bioartificial Liver Development.

    PubMed

    Hoshiba, Takashi; Otaki, Takayuki; Nemoto, Eri; Maruyama, Hiroka; Tanaka, Masaru

    2015-08-19

    The development of bioartificial liver (BAL) is expected because of the shortage of donor liver for transplantation. The substrates for BAL require the following criteria: (a) blood compatibility, (b) hepatocyte adhesiveness, and (c) the ability to maintain hepatocyte-specific functions. Here, we examined blood-compatible poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate) (PTHFA) (PTHFA) as the substrates for BAL. HepG2, a human hepatocyte model, could adhere on PMEA and PTHFA substrates. The spreading of HepG2 cells was suppressed on PMEA substrates because integrin contribution to cell adhesion on PMEA substrate was low and integrin signaling was not sufficiently activated. Hepatocyte-specific gene expression in HepG2 cells increased on PMEA substrate, whereas the expression decreased on PTHFA substrates due to the nuclear localization of Yes-associated protein (YAP). These results indicate that blood-compatible PMEA is suitable for BAL substrate. Also, PMEA is expected to be used to regulate cell functions for blood-contacting tissue engineering.

  2. A Dual Role of Caspase-8 in Triggering and Sensing Proliferation-Associated DNA Damage, a Key Determinant of Liver Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Boege, Yannick; Malehmir, Mohsen; Healy, Marc E; Bettermann, Kira; Lorentzen, Anna; Vucur, Mihael; Ahuja, Akshay K; Böhm, Friederike; Mertens, Joachim C; Shimizu, Yutaka; Frick, Lukas; Remouchamps, Caroline; Mutreja, Karun; Kähne, Thilo; Sundaravinayagam, Devakumar; Wolf, Monika J; Rehrauer, Hubert; Koppe, Christiane; Speicher, Tobias; Padrissa-Altés, Susagna; Maire, Renaud; Schattenberg, Jörn M; Jeong, Ju-Seong; Liu, Lei; Zwirner, Stefan; Boger, Regina; Hüser, Norbert; Davis, Roger J; Müllhaupt, Beat; Moch, Holger; Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Werner, Sabine; Borsig, Lubor; Luther, Sanjiv A; Jost, Philipp J; Weinlich, Ricardo; Unger, Kristian; Behrens, Axel; Hillert, Laura; Dillon, Christopher; Di Virgilio, Michela; Wallach, David; Dejardin, Emmanuel; Zender, Lars; Naumann, Michael; Walczak, Henning; Green, Douglas R; Lopes, Massimo; Lavrik, Inna; Luedde, Tom; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Weber, Achim

    2017-09-11

    Concomitant hepatocyte apoptosis and regeneration is a hallmark of chronic liver diseases (CLDs) predisposing to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we mechanistically link caspase-8-dependent apoptosis to HCC development via proliferation- and replication-associated DNA damage. Proliferation-associated replication stress, DNA damage, and genetic instability are detectable in CLDs before any neoplastic changes occur. Accumulated levels of hepatocyte apoptosis determine and predict subsequent hepatocarcinogenesis. Proliferation-associated DNA damage is sensed by a complex comprising caspase-8, FADD, c-FLIP, and a kinase-dependent function of RIPK1. This platform requires a non-apoptotic function of caspase-8, but no caspase-3 or caspase-8 cleavage. It may represent a DNA damage-sensing mechanism in hepatocytes that can act via JNK and subsequent phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of prostaglandin D2 clearance in rat hepatocytes by the thromboxane receptor antagonists daltroban and ifetroban and the thromboxane synthase inhibitor furegrelate.

    PubMed

    Pestel, Sabine; Nath, Annegret; Jungermann, Kurt; Schieferdecker, Henrike L

    2003-08-15

    Prostanoids, i.e. prostaglandins and thromboxane, regulate liver-specific functions both in homeostasis and during defense reactions. For example, prostanoids are released from Kupffer cells, the resident liver macrophages, in response to the inflammatory mediator anaphylatoxin C5a, and mediate an enhanced glucose output from hepatocytes as energy supply. In perfused rat livers, the thromboxane receptor antagonist daltroban enhanced C5a-induced prostanoid overflow and reduced glucose output. It was the aim of this study to elucidate whether daltroban interfered with prostanoid release from Kupffer cells or prostanoid clearance by hepatocytes, and/or whether it directly influenced prostanoid-dependent glucose metabolism in these cells. In perfused rat livers, daltroban enhanced prostaglandin (PG)D(2) overflow not only after infusion of C5a (15-fold), but also after PGD(2) (10-fold). Neither daltroban nor another receptor antagonist, ifetroban, or the thromboxane synthase inhibitor furegrelate enhanced prostanoid release from Kupffer cells. In contrast, all inhibitors reduced clearance, i.e. uptake and degradation, of PGD(2) by hepatocytes: within 5 min uptake of 1 nmol/L PGD(2) was reduced from 43+/-5 fmol (controls) to 22+/-6 fmol (daltroban), 24+/-6 fmol (ifetroban) and 21+/-6 fmol (furegrelate). PGD(2) in the medium was reduced to 39+/-7% in the controls, but remained at 93+/-9%, 93+/-11% and 60+/-3% in the presence of the inhibitors. PGD(2)-dependent glucose output in the perfused liver or activation of glycogen phosphorylase in isolated hepatocytes remained unaffected by daltroban. These data clearly demonstrate that the thromboxane-inhibitors reduced PGD(2) clearance by hepatocytes, presumably by inhibition of prostanoid transport into the cells. In contrast, they did not interfere with PGD(2)-dependent glucose metabolism, suggesting an independent mechanism for the inhibition of glucose output from the liver.

  4. Excretory/secretory products of Fasciola hepatica but not recombinant phosphoglycerate kinase induce death of human hepatocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Bąska, Piotr; Norbury, Luke J; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-06-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica infects a wide range of hosts, and has a considerable impact on the agriculture industry, mainly through infections of sheep and cattle. Further, human infection is now considered of public health importance and is hyperendemic in some regions. The fluke infection causes considerable damage to the hosts' liver. However, the mechanisms of liver destruction have not yet been completely elucidated. In the present report we incubated a human liver cell line in the presence of either F. hepatica excretory/secretory material (FhES) or recombinant phosphoglycerate kinase (FhPGK). Dosedependent cytotoxicity in the presence of FhES was observed, indicating that FhES is capable of killing human hepatocytes, supporting a role for FhES in damaging host liver cells during infection; while treatment with a recombinant intracellular protein - FhPGK, had no impact on cell survival.

  5. Absence of oncogenic transformation despite acquisition of cytogenetic aberrations in long-term cultured telomerase-immortalized human fetal hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Haker, Björn; Fuchs, Sigrid; Dierlamm, Judith; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Wege, Henning

    2007-10-18

    As a culture model to study hepatocarcinogenesis, telomerase-immortalized human fetal hepatocytes were monitored for karyotype changes evolving in long-term culture and development of functional defects in DNA damage response. G-banding revealed acquisition of characteristic karyotype abnormalities, e.g., trisomy 7 and monosomy X, in two independently immortalized and cultured populations after 80-100 population doublings. Interestingly, the detected aneuploidies resemble some of the genetic events observed in hepatocellular cancer. However, these genetic changes were not sufficient to induce oncogenic transformation reflected by absence of anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, long-term cultured telomerase-immortalized cells preserved p53 expression levels and effective p53-mediated damage response.

  6. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2009-05-01

    L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 {sup o}C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

  7. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: potential roles in toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dever, Joseph T; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2009-05-01

    L-methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 degrees C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-d-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-dl-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

  8. Chemically induced hepatotoxicity in human stem cell-induced hepatocytes compared with primary hepatocytes and HepG2.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok-Jin; Lee, Hyuk-Mi; Park, Young-Il; Yi, Hee; Lee, Hunjoo; So, ByungJae; Song, Jae-Young; Kang, Hwan-Goo

    2016-10-01

    Stem cell-induced hepatocytes (SC-iHeps) have been suggested as a valuable model for evaluating drug toxicology. Here, human-induced pluripotent stem cells (QIA7) and embryonic stem cells (WA01) were differentiated into hepatocytes, and the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen (AAP) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were compared with primary hepatocytes (p-Heps) and HepG2. In a cytotoxicity assay, the IC50 of SC-iHeps was similar to that in p-Heps and HepG2 in the AAP groups but different from that in p-Heps of the AFB1 groups. In a multi-parameter assay, phenotypic changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium influx and oxidative stress were similar between QIA7-iHeps and p-Heps following AAP and AFB1 treatment but relatively low in WA01-iHeps and HepG2. Most hepatic functional markers (hepatocyte-specific genes, albumin/urea secretion, and the CYP450 enzyme activity) were decreased in a dose-dependent manner following AAP and AFB1 treatment in SC-iHeps and p-Heps but not in HepG2. Regarding CYP450 inhibition, the cell viability of SC-iHeps and p-Heps was increased by ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Collectively, SC-iHeps and p-Heps showed similar cytotoxicity and hepatocyte functional effects for AAP and AFB1 compared with HepG2. Therefore, SC-iHeps have phenotypic characteristics and sensitivity to cytotoxic chemicals that are more similar to p-Heps than to HepG2 cells.

  9. Hepatocyte responses to in vitro freezing and β-adrenergic stimulation: Insights into the extreme freeze tolerance of subarctic Rana sylvatica.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, M Clara F; Lee, Richard E; Costanzo, Jon P

    2015-02-01

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica LeConte 1825, is a freeze-tolerant amphibian widely distributed in North America. Subarctic populations of this species can survive experimental freezing to temperatures below -16 °C, whereas temperate populations tolerate freezing only at temperatures above -6 °C. We investigated whether hepatocytes isolated from frogs indigenous to Interior Alaska (subarctic) or southern Ohio (temperate) had distinct characteristics that could contribute to this variation in freeze tolerance capacity. Following in vitro freezing, cell damage, as assessed from lactate dehydrogenase leakage, was similar between samples from Alaskan and Ohioan frogs. Preincubation of cells in media containing glucose or urea, the two primary cryoprotectants used by R. sylvatica, markedly reduced freezing damage to hepatocytes; however, results suggested that cells of the northern phenotype were comparatively more amenable to cryoprotection by urea. Stimulation of isolated hepatocytes with β-adrenergic agonists, which simulates the freezing-induced cryoprotectant mobilization response, gave rates of glucose production from endogenous glycogen reserves that were similar between the populations. Our findings suggest that extreme freeze tolerance in subarctic R. sylvatica does not require an enhanced ability of the liver to resist freezing stress or rapidly mobilize cryoprotectant. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. An evaluation of the CYP1A induction potential of pantoprazole in primary rat hepatocytes: a comparison with other proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Masubuchi, N; Okazaki, O

    1997-11-06

    The ability of pantoprazole to affect the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A subfamily was evaluated and compared with two other proton pump inhibitors, omeprazole and lansoprazole, in primary cultured hepatocytes from female Sprague-Dawley rats. The hepatocytes were cultured for 2 days, followed by treatment for 2 days with the proton pump inhibitors at 2, 5 and 10 microM, concentrations that are similar to plasma concentrations found in rats in vivo. The CYP1A inducer 3-methylcholanthrene (at 1 microM) was also evaluated as a positive control. Induction potentials of these chemicals for CYP1A were determined by 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity and isozyme contents. The results showed that for CYP1A induction, the rank ordering in induction potential was consistently lansoprazole > omeprazole > pantoprazole. The results are consistent with the existing rat in vivo data, i.e. pantoprazole has lower CYP1A induction potential than omeprazole and lansoprazole.

  11. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  12. Reduced ATM kinase activity and an attenuated p53 response to DNA damage in carcinogen-induced preneoplastic hepatic lesions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Silins, I; Finnberg, N; Ståhl, A; Högberg, J; Stenius, U

    2001-12-01

    In previous studies we have demonstrated that the p53 response to DNA damage in preneoplastic liver lesions, referred to as enzyme-altered foci (EAF), is attenuated. In the present investigation comparative quantitative RT-PCR revealed no major difference in the p53 mRNA levels in EAF and non-EAF tissue. When CoCl(2) was employed to induce hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1alpha), both non-EAF and EAF hepatocytes readily accumulated p53, whereas EAF hepatocytes did not accumulate p53 upon treatment with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The p53 response was also induced in EAF hepatocytes by the inhibitor of nuclear export, leptomycin B. An inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), wortmannin, blocked the DEN-induced p53 response in non-EAF hepatocytes. Assay of kinase activity in immunoprecipitated material from EAF and non-EAF tissue revealed attenuated ATM activity in EAF. Immunohistological and western blot analysis of the level of ATM protein was in agreement with the activity measurements and no phosphorylation of Ser15 in p53 was detected in EAF tissue 24 h after a challenging dose of DEN. Taken together with previously published data, these data indicate selective attenuation of the DNA damage pathway in EAF hepatocytes. Down-regulation of DNA damage-induced and ATM-mediated phosphorylation of p53 may confer a growth advantage on EAF hepatocytes.

  13. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA sequences in infected hepatocytes by in situ cytohybridisation

    SciTech Connect

    Gowans, E.J.; Burrell, C.J.; Jilbert, A.R.; Marmion, B.P.

    1981-01-01

    Plasmid pHBV 114 DNA, which contains 73% of the genome of hepatitis B virus (HBV), was radiolabelled with tritium to 1-2 X 10(8) dpm/microgram by nick translation and used as a radioactive probe to detect HBV DNA present in sections of infected liver tissue by in situ hybridisation followed by autoradiography. Factors affecting the sensitivity of the reaction were examined, including different methods of fixation, hybridisation time, temperature, and buffers. The specificity of the reaction for detecting viral DNA was carefully established by the use of unrelated DNA probes, pretreatment of sections with DNAase, and comparing the stability of the binding of DNA probe at different temperatures, with the melting curve of double-stranded DNA in solution. In the one liver studied in detail, cells containing large amounts of viral DNA were distributed in foci corresponding to areas containing morphologically damaged hepatocytes. This observation suggested a relationship between active viral replication and cell damage. Viral DNA was found mainly in the cytoplasm, although a minority of nuclei in these foci were also positive.

  14. Arsenic trioxide induced indirect and direct inhibition of glutathione reductase leads to apoptosis in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ray, Atish; Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Mukherjee, Sandip; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-06-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR) is an essential enzyme which maintains the reduced state of a cell. Therefore GR malfunction is closely associated with several disorders related to oxidative damage. The present study reports toxic manifestation of arsenic trioxide in respect of GR leading to apoptosis. Isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to arsenic trioxide were analyzed for GR expression and activity. Arsenic resulted in a time dependent inhibition of GR mediated by the superoxide anion. The cellular demand of functional enzyme is achieved by concomitant rise in gene expression. However, direct inhibition of GR by arsenic trioxide was also evident. Furthermore, arsenic induced free radical mediated inhibition of GR was found to be partially uncompetitive and associated with time dependent decrease in the substrate binding rate. Externalization of phosphatidylserine, nuclear degradation, apoptosis inducing factor leakage, apoptosome formation, caspase activation, DNA damage and break down of PARP suggest consequential induction of apoptosis due to inhibition of GR. The implication of GR was further established from the reduced rate of caspase activation in the arsenic trioxide treated cell, supplemented with complete and incomplete enzyme systems.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA from hepatocytes as a ligand for TLR9: Drivers of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Priya; Vemulakonda, Akhila; Kowdley, Kris V; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, affecting approximately one third of the Western world. It consists of a wide spectrum of liver disorders, ranging from fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which consists of steatosis, ballooning injury and inflammation. Despite an alarming growth in the statistics surrounding NAFLD, there are as yet no effective therapies for its treatment. Innate immune signaling has been thought to play a significant role in initiating and augmenting hepatic inflammation, contributing to the transition from nonalcoholic fatty liver to NASH. An immune response is triggered by countless signals called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) elicited by lipid-laden and damaged hepatocytes, which are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on hepatic immune cells to initiate inflammatory signaling. In this editorial, in addition to summarizing innate immune signaling in NAFLD and discussing potential therapies that target innate immune pathways, we have described a recent study that demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA serves as a DAMP activating a hepatic PRR, TLR9, in mice and in the plasma of NASH patients. In addition to identifying a new ligand for TLR9 during NASH progression, the study shows that blocking TLR9 reverses NASH, paving the way for the development of future NASH therapy. PMID:27610009

  16. Transplantation of human stem cell-derived hepatocytes in an animal model of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Pettinato, Giuseppe; Beeston, John T; Lee, David D; Wen, Xuejun; Mangino, Martin J; Fisher, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    Hepatocyte cell transplantation can be life-saving in patients with acute liver failure (ALF); however, primary human hepatocyte transplantation is limited by the scarcity of donor hepatocytes. We investigated the effect of stem cell-derived, hepatocyte-like cells in an animal xenotransplant model of ALF. Intraperitoneal d-galactosamine was used to develop a lethal model of ALF in the rat. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), human mesenchymal stem cells, and human iPSC combined with human endothelial cells (iPSC + EC) were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells and transplanted into the spleens of athymic nude rats with ALF. A reproducible lethal model of ALF was achieved with nearly 90% death within 3 days. Compared with negative controls, rats transplanted with stem cell-derived, hepatocyte-like cells were associated with increased survival. Human albumin was detected in the rat serum 3 days after transplantation in more than one-half the animals transplanted with hepatocyte-like cells. Only animals transplanted with iPSC + EC-derived hepatocytes had serum human albumin at 14 days posttransplant. Transplanted hepatocyte-like cells homed to the injured rat liver, whereas the ECs were only detected in the spleen. Transplantation of stem cell-derived, hepatocyte-like cells improved survival with evidence of in vivo human albumin production. Combining ECs may prolong cell function after transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Liver tissue engineering utilizing hepatocytes propagated in mouse livers in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kazuo; Tatsumi, Kohei; Tateno, Chise; Kataoka, Miho; Utoh, Rie; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Okano, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in tissue engineering technologies have highlighted the ability to create functional liver systems using isolated hepatocytes in vivo. Considering the serious shortage of donor livers that can be used for hepatocyte isolation, it has remained imperative to establish a hepatocyte propagation protocol to provide highly efficient cell recovery allowing for subsequent tissue engineering procedures. Donor primary hepatocytes were isolated from human α-1 antitrypsin (hA1AT) transgenic mice and were transplanted into the recipient liver of urokinase-type plasminogen activator-severe combined immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) mice. Transplanted donor hepatocytes actively proliferated within the recipient liver of the uPA/SCID mice. At week 8 or later, full repopulation of the uPA/SCID livers with the transplanted hA1AT hepatocytes were confirmed by blood examination and histological assessment. Proliferated hA1AT hepatocytes were recovered from the recipient uPA/SCID mice, and we generated hepatocyte sheets using these recovered hepatocytes for subsequent transplantation into the subcutaneous space of mice. Stable persistency of the subcutaneously engineered liver tissues was confirmed for up to 90 days, which was the length of our present study. These new data demonstrate the feasibility in propagating murine hepatocytes prior to the development of hepatic cells and bioengineered liver systems. The ability to regenerate and expand hepatocytes has potential clinical value whereby procurement of small amounts of tissue could be expanded to sufficient quantities prior to their use in hepatocyte transplantation or other hepatocyte-based therapies.

  18. [Current status and future perspectives of hepatocyte transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Maupoey, Javier; San Juan, Fernando; López, Rafael; Mir, Jose

    2014-02-01

    The imbalance between the number of potential beneficiaries and available organs, originates the search for new therapeutic alternatives, such as Hepatocyte transplantation (HT).Even though this is a treatment option for these patients, the lack of unanimity of criteria regarding indications and technique, different cryopreservation protocols, as well as the different methodology to assess the response to this therapy, highlights the need of a Consensus Conference to standardize criteria and consider future strategies to improve the technique and optimize the results.Our aim is to review and update the current state of hepatocyte transplantation, emphasizing the future research attempting to solve the problems and improve the results of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Fiskum, G; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staining material from the cytosol by digitonin treatment of the cells greatly enhances the visualization of the cytoskeleton. The use of this technique, together with immunofluorescent light microscopy, has verified the presence of an actin-containing filamentous network at the hepatocyte cortex as well as intermediate filaments distributed throughout the cell. Digitonin is thus useful both for selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane and for intensifying the appearance of intracellular structures such as microfilaments that are normally difficult to observe in cells such as hepatocytes. Images PMID:6997878

  20. Bioactivation of fluorotelomer alcohols in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jonathan W; Chan, Katie; Mabury, Scott A; O'Brien, Peter J

    2009-02-12

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs; C(x)F(2x+1)C(2)H(4)OH) are intermediates in the production of specialty surfactants and stain-repellent polymers. The magnitude and pathways of human exposure to FTOHs are not understood, but FTOHs are present in ambient air and house dust, and FTOH-derivatives are used in food-contact applications. Previously, electrophilic FTOH biotransformation products were detected in rat hepatocytes, and liver lesions were found in FTOH exposed rodents. To begin elucidating the mechanism(s) of action, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated with FTOHs, or FTOH biotransformation products, and toxicity was followed in the presence or absence of carbonyl scavengers and metabolic enzyme modulators. The LC(50) depended on perfluorinated chain length, with the shortest (4:2 FTOH; x=4) and longest (8:2 FTOH; x=8) FTOHs tested being more toxic than the medium chain length FTOH (6:2 FTOH; x=6); a structure-toxicity relationship that is consistent with that for 2-alkenals. For hepatocytes treated with 8:2 FTOH, cytotoxicity corresponded to depletion of glutathione (GSH), increased protein carbonylation, and lipid peroxidation. Aminobenzotriazole, a P450 inhibitor, diminished cytotoxicity for all FTOHs tested, and decreased protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation for 8:2 FTOH, indicating that a biotransformation product was responsible for FTOH cytotoxicity. Preincubation of hepatocytes with hydralazine or aminoguanidine decreased the cytotoxicity of 8:2 FTOH, suggesting that reactive aldehyde intermediates contributed to the cytotoxicity. A GSH-reactive alpha/beta-unsaturated acid metabolite was also more toxic than the corresponding FTOH, and may have contributed to the observed effects. Overall, these results suggested that FTOH toxicity was related to electrophilic aldehydes or acids through GSH depletion and protein carbonylation. Further research into the nature of protein modification is warranted for these current-use fluorochemicals.

  1. Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeom, Chul-gon; Kim, Dong-il; Park, Min-jung; Choi, Joo-hee; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, Anjin; Park, Whoashig; Han, Ho-jae; Park, Soo-hyun

    2015-06-05

    Previously, we reported that CARM1 undergoes ubiquitination-dependent degradation in renal podocytes. It was also reported that CARM1 is necessary for fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that treatment with insulin, a hormone typically present under the ‘fed’ condition, would inhibit gluconeogenesis via CARM1 degradation. HepG2 cells, AML-12 cells, and rat primary hepatocytes were treated with insulin to confirm CARM1 downregulation. Surprisingly, insulin treatment increased CARM1 expression in all cell types examined. Furthermore, treatment with insulin increased histone 3 methylation at arginine 17 and 26 in HepG2 cells. To elucidate the role of insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation, the HA-CARM1 plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells. CARM1 overexpression did not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins generally increased by insulin signaling. Moreover, CARM1 knockdown did not influence insulin sensitivity. Insulin is known to facilitate hepatic proliferation. Like insulin, CARM1 overexpression increased CDK2 and CDK4 expression. In addition, CARM1 knockdown reduced the number of insulin-induced G2/M phase cells. Moreover, GFP-CARM1 overexpression increased the number of G2/M phase cells. Based on these results, we concluded that insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation. These observations indicate that CARM1 plays an important role in liver pathophysiology. - Highlights: • Insulin treatment increases CARM1 expression in hepatocytes. • CARM1 overexpression does not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins. • CARM1 knockdown does not influence insulin sensitivity. • Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation.

  2. Oncostatin M gene therapy attenuates liver damage induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Tetsuhiro; Sato, Ayuko; Hirano, Tadamichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Son, Gakuhei; Onodera, Masayuki; Torii, Ikuko; Nishigami, Takashi; Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Fujimoto, Jiro; Tsujimura, Tohru

    2007-09-01

    To assess the usefulness of oncostatin M (osm) gene therapy in liver regeneration, we examined whether the introduction of OSM cDNA enhances the regeneration of livers damaged by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Repeated injection of OSM cDNA enclosed in hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope into the spleen resulted in the exclusive expression of OSM protein in Kupffer cells of the liver, which was accompanied by increases in body weight, liver weight, and serum albumin levels and the reduction of serum liver injury parameters (bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase) and a serum fibrosis parameter (hyaluronic acid). Histological examination showed that osm gene therapy reduced centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration and augmented hepatocyte proliferation. The apoptosis of hepatocytes and fibrosis were suppressed by osm gene therapy. Time-course studies on osm gene therapy before or after DMN treatment showed that this therapy was effective not only in enhancing regeneration of hepatocytes damaged by DMN but in preventing hepatic cytotoxicity caused by subsequent treatment with DMN. These results indicate that OSM is a key mediator for proliferation and anti-apoptosis of hepatocytes and suggest that osm gene therapy is useful, as preventive and curative means, for the treatment of patients with liver damage.

  3. Hepatocyte and Sertoli Cell Aquaporins, Recent Advances and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Bernardino, Raquel L.; Marinelli, Raul A.; Maggio, Anna; Gena, Patrizia; Cataldo, Ilaria; Alves, Marco G.; Svelto, Maria; Oliveira, Pedro F.; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are proteinaceous channels widespread in nature where they allow facilitated permeation of water and uncharged through cellular membranes. AQPs play a number of important roles in both health and disease. This review focuses on the most recent advances and research trends regarding the expression and modulation, as well as physiological and pathophysiological functions of AQPs in hepatocytes and Sertoli cells (SCs). Besides their involvement in bile formation, hepatocyte AQPs are involved in maintaining energy balance acting in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism, and in critical processes such as ammonia detoxification and mitochondrial output of hydrogen peroxide. Roles are played in clinical disorders including fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, cholestasis, hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. In the seminiferous tubules, particularly in SCs, AQPs are also widely expressed and seem to be implicated in the various stages of spermatogenesis. Like in hepatocytes, AQPs may be involved in maintaining energy homeostasis in these cells and have a major role in the metabolic cooperation established in the testicular tissue. Altogether, this information represents the mainstay of current and future investigation in an expanding field. PMID:27409609

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Infects Rhesus Macaque Hepatocytes and Simianized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Scull, Margaret A.; Shi, Chao; de Jong, Ype P.; Gerold, Gisa; Ries, Moritz; von Schaewen, Markus; Donovan, Bridget M.; Labitt, Rachael N.; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Gaska, Jenna M.; Hrebikova, Gabriela; Xiao, Jing W.; Flatley, Brenna; Fung, Canny; Chiriboga, Luis; Walker, Christopher M.; Evans, David T.; Rice, Charles M.; Ploss, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    At least 170 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Due to the narrow host range of HCV and restricted use of chimpanzees, there is currently no suitable animal model for HCV pathogenesis studies or the development of a HCV vaccine. To identify cellular determinants of interspecies transmission and establish a novel immunocompetent model system, we examined the ability of HCV to infect hepatocytes from a small non-human primate, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). We show that the rhesus orthologs of critical HCV entry factors support viral glycoprotein-dependent virion uptake. Primary hepatocytes from rhesus macaques are also permissive for HCV RNA replication and particle production, which is enhanced when antiviral signaling is suppressed. We demonstrate that this may be due to the diminished capacity of HCV to antagonize MAVS-dependent innate cellular defenses. To test the ability of HCV to establish persistent replication in vivo, we engrafted primary rhesus macaque hepatocytes into immunocompromised xenorecipients. Inoculation of resulting simian liver chimeric mice with either HCV genotype 1a or 2a resulted in HCV serum viremia for up to 10 weeks. Conclusion: Together, these data indicate that rhesus macaques may be a viable model for HCV and implicate host immunity as a potential species-specific barrier to HCV infection. We conclude that suppression of host immunity or further viral adaptation may allow robust HCV infection in rhesus macaques and creation of a new animal model for studies of HCV pathogenesis, lentivirus coinfection and vaccine development. PMID:25820364

  5. Adropin induction of lipoprotein lipase expression in tilapia hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lian, Anji; Wu, Keqiang; Liu, Tianqiang; Jiang, Nan; Jiang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    The peptide hormone adropin plays a role in energy homeostasis. However, biological actions of adropin in non-mammalian species are still lacking. Using tilapia as a model, we examined the role of adropin in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) regulation in hepatocytes. To this end, the structural identity of tilapia adropin was established by 5'/3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The transcripts of tilapia adropin were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues with the highest levels in the liver and hypothalamus. The prolonged fasting could elevate tilapia hepatic adropin gene expression, whereas no effect of fasting was observed on hypothalamic adropin gene levels. In primary cultures of tilapia hepatocytes, synthetic adropin was effective in stimulating LPL release, cellular LPL content, and total LPL production. The increase in LPL production also occurred with parallel rises in LPL gene levels. In parallel experiments, adropin could elevate cAMP production and up-regulate protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC activities. Using a pharmacological approach, cAMP/PKA and PLC/inositol trisphosphate (IP3)/PKC cascades were shown to be involved in adropin-stimulated LPL gene expression. Parallel inhibition of p38MAPK and Erk1/2, however, were not effective in these regards. Our findings provide, for the first time, evidence that adropin could stimulate LPL gene expression via direct actions in tilapia hepatocytes through the activation of multiple signaling mechanisms. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. NAADP-sensitive Ca2+ stores in permeabilized rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bychkova, S V; Chorna, T I

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a nucleotide that is potent to release calcium from intracellular stores in different cell types. NAADP was shown to target specific type of intracellular store namely endolysosomal system or acidic store. Despite intense studies, its effect on endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) still remains to be elucidated. The main aim of our work was to investigate NAADP-sensitive store in permeabilized rat hepatocytes monitoring the level of Ca2+ inside intracellular organelles using chlorotetracycline (CTC). We have shown that NAADP triggered changes of stored Ca2+ in rat hepatocytes are dependent on concentration of EGTA-Ca2+-buffer in cell incubation medium, i.e. the higher is the EGTA concentration in incubation medium the smaller or absent is the effect of NAADP. Besides, the effect of NAADP was more pronounced upon cells pretreatment with the inhibitory concentration of ryanodine (100 μM). This might suggest that the effect of NAADP is dependent on ER luminal calcium. We have also found that NAADP-evoked Ca2+ release in permeabilized hepatocytes is sensitive to nigericin, bafilomycin A and thapsigargin. Additionally, NAADP triggered changes in stored Ca2+ were completely abolished by NED-19 as antagonist of NAADP.

  7. [Astaxanthin inhibits sodium azide-induced cytotoxicity in hepatocyte L-02 cells probably by H+ transferring function].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Chen, Hai-min; Yan, Xiao-jun; Wang, Feng; Xu, Wei-feng

    2011-05-01

    This study is to investigate the protective effect of astaxanthin against injured hepatocyte L-02 cells induced by sodium azide (NaN3) and reveal the possible mechanisms. Hepatocyte L-02 cells were exposed to 100 mmol.L-1 NaN3 with various concentrations of astaxanthin pre-incubated, then the cell viability was measured by MTT method; The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by DCFH-DA method; The changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and apoptosis ratio were detected by JC-1 method and Annexin V-FITC/PI double stain method, respectively. Results showed that after cells were exposed to 100 mmol.L-1 NaN3 for 3 hours, the cell viability significantly decreased; ROS level and the percentage of late phase apoptosis increased obviously; MMP was also declined. When cells were pretreated with astaxanthin, the cell damage and late phase apoptosis ratio reduced and MMP was maintained. However, the level of ROS showed insignificant decrease (P>0.05). The beneficial concentration of astaxanthin in improving cell viability and MMP was not in a dose dependent manner and the most effective of which was 0.10 nmol.L-1 (P<0.01). In order to reveal its possible non-antioxidant mechanism, mitochondrial membrane was imitated and H+ transferring function of astaxanthin was also detected by bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) method. Results showed that 2.0% astaxanthin could transfer H+ efficiently. These suggested the mechanisms of astaxanthin in protection of hepatocyte L-02 cells not via its ROS quenching capability but via its H+ transferring function, which improved the mitochondrial function and had the sequence biology effects.

  8. Ferritin-stimulated lipid peroxidation, lysosomal leak, and macroautophagy promote lysosomal "metastability" in primary hepatocytes determining in vitro cell survival.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Margit A; Schürz, Melanie; Teufl, Bernhard; Uchida, Koji; Eckl, Peter M; Bresgen, Nikolaus

    2015-03-01

    Several pathologies are associated with elevated levels of serum ferritin, for which growth inhibitory properties have been reported; however, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly defined. Previously we have described cytotoxic properties of isoferritins released from primary hepatocytes in vitro, which induce apoptosis in an iron and oxidative stress-dependent mode. Here we show that this ferritin species stimulates endosome clustering and giant endosome formation in primary hepatocytes accompanied by enhanced lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP). In parallel, protein modification by lipid peroxidation-derived 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) is strongly promoted by ferritin, the HNE-modified proteins (HNE-P) showing remarkable aggregation. Emphasizing the prooxidant context, GSH is rapidly depleted and the GSH/GSSG ratio is substantially declining in ferritin-treated cells. Furthermore, ferritin triggers a transient upregulation of macroautophagy which is abolished by iron chelation and apparently supports HNE-P clearance. Macroautophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine strongly amplifies ferritin cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent mode, suggesting an important role of macroautophagy on cellular responses to ferritin endocytosis. Moreover, pointing at an involvement of lysosomal proteolysis, ferritin cytotoxicity and lysosome fragility are aggravated by the protease inhibitor leupeptin. In contrast, EGF which suppresses ferritin-induced cell death attenuates ferritin-mediated LMP. In conclusion, we propose that HNE-P accumulation, lysosome dysfunction, and macroautophagy stimulated by ferritin endocytosis provoke lysosomal "metastability" in primary hepatocytes which permits cell survival as long as in- and extrinsic determinants (e.g., antioxidant availability, damage repair, EGF signaling) keep the degree of lysosomal destabilization below cell death-inducing thresholds.

  9. ATP-consuming processes in hepatocytes of river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis on the course of prespawning starvation.

    PubMed

    Agalakova, Natalia I; Brailovskaya, Irina V; Konovalova, Svetlana A; Korotkov, Sergei M; Lavrova, Elena A; Nikiforov, Anatolii A

    2016-11-01

    The work was performed to establish which of the major ATP-consuming processes is the most important for surviving of hepatocytes of female lampreys on the course of prespawning starvation. The requirements of protein synthesis and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase for ATP in the cells were monitored by the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in the presence of corresponding inhibitors from the peak of metabolic depression (January-February) to the time of recovery from it (March-April) and spawning (May). Integrity of lamprey liver cells was estimated by catalytic activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in blood plasma. In January-February, the share of ATP necessary for protein synthesis was 20-22%, whereas before spawning it decreased to 8-11%. Functioning of Na(+)-K(+)-pump required 22% of cellular ATP at the peak of metabolic depression, but 38% and 62% of ATP in March-April and May, respectively. Progression of prespawning period was accompanied by 3.75- and 1.6-fold rise of ALT and AST activities in blood plasma, respectively, whereas de Ritis coefficient decreased from 2.51±0.34 to 0.81±0.08, what indicates severe damage of hepatocyte membranes. Thus, the adaptive strategy of lamprey hepatocytes to develop metabolic depression under conditions of energy limitation is the selective production of proteins necessary for spawning, most probably vitellogenins. As spawning approaches, the maintenance of transmembrane ion gradients, membrane potential and cell volume to prevent premature cell death becomes the priority cell function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Posttranscriptional inhibition of class I major histocompatibility complex presentation on hepatocytes and lymphoid cells in chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Michalak, T I; Hodgson, P D; Churchill, N D

    2000-05-01

    Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), similar to human hepatitis B virus, causes acute liver inflammation that can progress to chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. WHV also invades cells of the host lymphatic system, where it persists for life. We report here that acute and chronic hepadnavirus hepatitis is characterized by a profound difference in the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of infected hepatocytes and, notably, lymphoid cells. While acute WHV infection is accompanied by the enhanced hepatocyte surface presentation of class I MHC antigen and upregulated transcription of the relevant hepatic genes, inhibition of class I antigen display on liver cells is a uniform hallmark of chronic WHV infection. This inhibition in chronic hepatitis occurs despite augmented (as in acute infection) expression of hepatic genes for class I MHC heavy chain, beta(2)-microglobulin, and transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2). Further, the class I antigen inhibition is not related to the histological severity of hepatocellular injury, the extent of lymphocytic infiltrations, the level of intrahepatic gamma interferon induction, or the hepatic WHV load. Importantly, the antigen expression is also inhibited on organ lymphoid cells of chronically infected hosts. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the defective presentation of class I MHC molecules on cells supporting persistent WHV replication is due to viral posttranscriptional interference. This event may diminish the susceptibility of infected hepatocytes to virus-specific T-cell-mediated elimination, hinder virus clearance, and deregulate the class I MHC-dependent functions of the host immune system. This multifarious effect could be critical for perpetuation of liver damage and evasion of the antiviral immunological surveillance in chronic infection and therefore could be supportive of hepadnavirus persistence.

  11. Ground glass hepatocytes contain pre-S mutants and represent preneoplastic lesions in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Su, Ih-Jen; Wang, Hui-Ching; Wu, Han-Chieh; Huang, Wen-Ya

    2008-08-01

    The discovery of "ground glass" hepatocytes (GGH) that contain hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigens by Hadziyannis and Popper in 1973 represents a historical landmark in the pathology of chronic HBV infection. Different types of GGH have been correlated to the expression patterns of surface/core antigens and the stages of virus replication. The original two types (designated types I & II) of GGH were found to contain specific pre-S mutants with deletions over either pre-S1 or pre-S2 regions, respectively. Type II GGH consistently harbor pre-S2 deletion mutants, which can escape from immune attack and grow preferentially to form clusters. Both types of pre-S mutants can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative DNA damage. The pre-S2 mutants, albeit inducing a weaker level of ER stress signals, could additionally initiate ER stress-independent retinoblastoma/adenovirus E2 promoter binding factor/cyclin A signaling through their interaction with c-Jun activation domain binding protein 1 to degrade p27, illustrating the growth advantage of type II GGH. The combined effects of genomic instability and the proliferation of hepatocytes harboring pre-S mutants could potentially lead to hepatocarcinogenesis over the decades of chronic HBV infection. The presence of pre-S mutants in sera was reported to carry a high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Furthermore, transgenic mice harboring pre-S2 mutant plasmids have been shown to develop a dysplastic change of hepatocytes and HCC. Therefore, in addition to being a histological marker of chronic HBV infection, GGH, particularly type II GGH, may represent the preneoplastic lesions of HBV-related HCC.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Exacerbates Concanavalin A-Induced Liver Injury via Suppressing the Translocation of NF-κB into the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Yuji; Yoneda, Masato; Tomeno, Wataru; Imajo, Kento; Shinohara, Yoshiyasu; Fujita, Koji; Shibata, Wataru; Kirikoshi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Satoru; Wada, Koichiro; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) has been reported to reduce inflammation and attenuate fibrosis in the liver. In this study, we investigated the effects of PPARγ on the liver injury induced by 20 mg/kg Concanavalin A (Con A). The mice were administered one of the three types of PPARγ ligands (pioglitazone, ciglitazone, and troglitazone) for 1 week, and the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at 20 h after Con A injection were significantly elevated in the PPARγ ligand-treated mice. Furthermore, the serum ALT levels after Con A injection in the PPARγ hetero-knock-out mice (PPARγ+/− mice) were lower than those in the wild-type mice (WT mice). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) revealed extensive liver damage induced by Con A in the pioglitazone-treated mice. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that activation of translocation of nuclear factor- (NF-) κB, which is a suppressor of apoptosis, in the nucleus of the hepatocytes was suppressed in the pioglitazone-treated mice after Con A injection. In this study, we showed that PPARγ exacerbated Con A-induced liver injury via suppressing the translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus, thereby inhibiting the suppression of liver cell apoptosis. PMID:23251143

  13. Effect of Concentrated Fibroblast-Conditioned Media on In Vitro Maintenance of Rat Primary Hepatocyte.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Dayeong; Han, Chungmin; Kang, Inhye; Park, Hyun Taek; Kim, Jiyoon; Ryu, Hayoung; Gho, Yong Song; Park, Jaesung

    2016-01-01

    The effects of concentrated fibroblast-conditioned media were tested to determine whether hepatocyte function can be maintained without direct contact between hepatocytes and fibroblasts. Primary rat hepatocytes cultured with a concentrated conditioned media of NIH-3T3 J2 cell line (final concentration of 55 mg/ml) showed significantly improved survival and functions (albumin and urea) compared to those of control groups. They also showed higher expression levels of mRNA, albumin and tyrosine aminotransferase compared to hepatocyte monoculture. The results suggest that culture with concentrated fibroblast-conditioned media could be an easy method for in vitro maintenance of primary hepatocytes. They also could be contribute to understand and analyze co-culture condition of hepatocyte with stroma cells.

  14. Apical membrane rupture and backward bile flooding in acetaminophen-induced hepatocyte necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, F-C; Huang, G-T; Lin, C-J; Wang, S-S; Sun, T-L; Lo, S-Y; Lo, W; Chiou, L-L; Dong, C-Y; Lee, H-S

    2011-01-01

    Morphological changes of hepatocyte death have so far only been described on cells in culture or in tissue sections. Using a high-resolution and high-magnification multiphoton microscopic system, we recorded in living mice serial changes of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatocyte necrosis in relevance to metabolism of a fluorogenic bile solute. Initial changes of hepatocyte injury included basal membrane disruption and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. An overwhelming event of rupture at adjacent apical membrane resulting in flooding of bile into these hepatocytes might ensue. Belbs formed on basal membrane and then dislodged into the sinusoid circulation. Transmission electron microscopy disclosed a necrotic hepatocyte depicting well the changes after apical membrane rupture and bile flooding. Administration of the antidote N-acetylcysteine dramatically reduced the occurrence of apical membrane rupture. The present results demonstrated a hidden but critical step of apical membrane rupture leading to irreversible APAP-induced hepatocyte injury. PMID:21776021

  15. Clonal Expansion of Normal-Appearing Human Hepatocytes during Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mason, William S.; Liu, Chen; Aldrich, Carol E.; Litwin, Samuel; Yeh, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are associated with persistent immune killing of infected hepatocytes. Hepatocytes constitute a largely self-renewing population. Thus, immune killing may exert selective pressure on the population, leading it to evolve in order to survive. A gradual course of hepatocyte evolution toward an HBV-resistant state is suggested by the substantial decline in the fraction of infected hepatocytes that occurs during the course of chronic infections. Consistent with hepatocyte evolution, clones of >1,000 hepatocytes develop postinfection in the noncirrhotic livers of chimpanzees chronically infected with HBV and of woodchucks infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (W. S. Mason, A. R. Jilbert, and J. Summers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102:1139-1144, 2005; W. S. Mason et al., J. Virol. 83:8396-8408, 2009). The present study was carried out to determine (i) if extensive clonal expansion of hepatocytes also occurred in human HBV carriers, particularly in the noncirrhotic liver, and (ii) if clonal expansion included normal-appearing hepatocytes, not just hepatocytes that appear premalignant. Host DNA extracted from fragments of noncancerous liver, collected during surgical resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was analyzed by inverse PCR for randomly integrated HBV DNA as a marker of expanding hepatocyte lineages. This analysis detected extensive clonal expansion of hepatocytes, as previously found in chronically infected chimpanzees and woodchucks. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), and DNA was extracted from the adjacent section for inverse PCR to detect integrated HBV DNA. This analysis revealed that clonal expansion can occur among normal-appearing human hepatocytes. PMID:20519397

  16. Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Interleukin-6 in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0159 TITLE: Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Interleukin - 6 in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Interleukin - 6 in Prostate DAMD17-02-1-0159 Cancer Bone Metastasis 6 . AUTHOR(S...DAMD17-02-1-0159 "Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Interleukin - 6 in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis" INTRODUCTION: The hypothesis of this grant proposal

  17. Histological Damage in Chronic Hepatitis C Is Not Related to the Extent of Infection in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; Bartolomé, Javier; de Lucas, Susana; Manzarbeitia, Felix; Pardo, Margarita; Arocena, Carlos; Gosálvez, Jaime; Oliva, Horacio; Carreño, Vicente

    1999-01-01

    It has not been completely elucidated whether the liver injury induced by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is due to direct cytopathic damage or to an immune-mediated response against HCV-infected hepatocytes. In this work, we have determined the percentage of HCV-infected hepatocytes, the histological activity index, and the viremia levels in chronically HCV-infected patients with different grades of liver injury to investigate any possible correlation between them. For that purpose, liver biopsies from 27 patients with HCV chronic hepatitis were analyzed by in situ hybridization. This technique revealed that the percentage of infected hepatocytes ranged from 0.04% to 83.6%. Regarding the viremia levels, HCV RNA concentration ranged from 1.8 × 103 to 1.4 × 106 genome copies/ml. A significant correlation (r = 0.54; P = 0.003) between the percentage of infected hepatocytes and the viremia levels was found. In contrast, no correlation was observed between the percentage of HCV-infected hepatocytes or the viremia levels and the histological activity index. In conclusion, we have shown that the HCV viremia reflects the extent of the infection in the liver and that the liver injury in chronic HCV infection is not directly related to either the number of infected hepatocytes or the serum HCV RNA concentration. PMID:10362814

  18. DNA synthesis in periportal and perivenous hepatocytes of intact and hepatectomized young mice.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Blanco, A; Inda, A M; Errecalde, A L

    2015-01-01

    DNA synthesis of hepatocytes in two areas of Intact and Hepatectomized young mice liver along a circadian period was studied. DNA synthesis was significantly different at all analyzed time points in Intact and Hepatectomized animals. Differences between periportal and perivenous hepatocytes were found in hepatectomized animals at 04/42 and 08/46 hr of day/hour post-hepatectomy. DNAs peak in periportal hepatocytes regenerating liver occurs 4 hr earlier than in perivenous hepatocytes, probably reflecting their shorter G1 phase. Besides, daily mean values of regenerating livers were higher than those observed in Intact animals, as a consequence of surgical removal.

  19. Toxicity of microcystins in the isolated hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Jie; Liang, Jun-Bo; Liu, Yong-Ding

    2007-07-01

    The toxicity of hepatotoxic microcystins produced mainly by Microcystis aeruginosa in mammals and fishes was well studied in recent years. However, there were scarcely reports in toxic effects of microcystins on isolated hepatocytes of fishes, especially investigation of microcystin-induced apoptosis and/or necrosis in carp hepatocytes. In the present study, the isolated hepatocytes of common carp were exposed to various concentrations of microcystins (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000 microg L(-1)) for 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24h, respectively, and cytotoxicity of microcystins in the toxin-treated cells was determined. Results of this study showed that cytotoxicity of microcystins on carp hepatocytes was time and dose-dependent, and the approximate LC(50) of microcystins in carp hepatocytes was 169.2 microg L(-1). The morphological changes typical of apoptosis, such as blebbing of cell membrane, condensation and fragmentation of cell nucleus were observed in the hepatocytes exposed to microcystins (1, 10 and 100 microg L(-1)) using fluorescence and differential interference contrast microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA demonstrated a typical apoptotic "ladder pattern" in microcystin-treated hepatocytes after 16 h of exposure. Results of the present study indicated that the form of cell death in microcystin-treated hepatocytes depend on the exposure dose of toxin. When lower concentration of microcystins (10 and 100 microg L(-1)) was used for exposure, carp hepatocytes died in apoptosis while, when higher one used (1000 microg L(-1)), they died in the form of necrosis.

  20. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun; Choi, Dongho

    2017-02-01

    The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6-8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 10(7) hepatocytes with 80%-90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin, HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers.

  1. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. Methods To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6–8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 107 hepatocytes with 80%–90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Results Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin, HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Conclusion Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers. PMID:28203553

  2. HGF Secreted by Activated Kupffer Cells Induces Apoptosis of Plasmodium-Infected Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Lígia Antunes; Rodo, Joana; Rodrigues-Duarte, Lurdes; de Moraes, Luciana Vieira; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Malaria liver stage infection is an obligatory parasite development step and represents a population bottleneck in Plasmodium infections, providing an advantageous target for blocking parasite cycle progression. Parasite development inside hepatocytes implies a gross cellular insult evoking innate host responses to counteract intra-hepatocytic infection. Using primary hepatocyte cultures, we investigated the role of Kupffer cell-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in malaria liver stage infection. We found that Kupffer cells from Plasmodium-infected livers produced high levels of HGF, which trigger apoptosis of infected hepatocytes through a mitochondrial-independent apoptosis pathway. HGF action in infected hepatocyte primary cultures results in a potent reduction of parasite yield by specifically sensitizing hepatocytes carrying established parasite exo-erythrocytic forms to undergo apoptosis. This apoptosis mechanism is distinct from cell death that is spontaneously induced in infected cultures and is governed by Fas signaling modulation through a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway. This work indicates that HGF and Fas signaling pathways are part of an orchestrated host apoptosis response that occurs during malaria liver stage infection, decreasing the success of infection of individual hepatocytes. Our results raise the hypothesis that paracrine signals derived from Kupffer cell activation are implicated in directing death of hepatocytes infected with the malaria parasite. PMID:28220125

  3. Magnetic Cell Labeling of Primary and Stem Cell-Derived Pig Hepatocytes for MRI-Based Cell Tracking of Hepatocyte Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Dwayne R.; Garrett, Wesley M.; Welch, Glenn; Caperna, Thomas J.; Talbot, Neil C.; Shapiro, Erik M.

    2015-01-01

    Pig hepatocytes are an important investigational tool for optimizing hepatocyte transplantation schemes in both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplant scenarios. MRI can be used to serially monitor the transplanted cells, but only if the hepatocytes can be labeled with a magnetic particle. In this work, we describe culture conditions for magnetic cell labeling of cells from two different pig hepatocyte cell sources; primary pig hepatocytes (ppHEP) and stem cell-derived hepatocytes (PICM-19FF). The magnetic particle is a micron-sized iron oxide particle (MPIO) that has been extensively studied for magnetic cell labeling for MRI-based cell tracking. ppHEP could endocytose MPIO with labeling percentages as high as 70%, achieving iron content as high as ~55 pg/cell, with >75% viability. PICM-19FF had labeling >97%, achieving iron content ~38 pg/cell, with viability >99%. Extensive morphological and functional assays indicated that magnetic cell labeling was benign to the cells. The results encourage the use of MRI-based cell tracking for the development and clinical use of hepatocyte transplantation methodologies. Further, these results generally highlight the importance of functional cell assays in the evaluation of contrast agent biocompatibility. PMID:25856627

  4. Magnetic cell labeling of primary and stem cell-derived pig hepatocytes for MRI-based cell tracking of hepatocyte transplantation.

    PubMed

    Roach, Dwayne R; Garrett, Wesley M; Welch, Glenn; Caperna, Thomas J; Talbot, Neil C; Shapiro, Erik M

    2015-01-01

    Pig hepatocytes are an important investigational tool for optimizing hepatocyte transplantation schemes in both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplant scenarios. MRI can be used to serially monitor the transplanted cells, but only if the hepatocytes can be labeled with a magnetic particle. In this work, we describe culture conditions for magnetic cell labeling of cells from two different pig hepatocyte cell sources; primary pig hepatocytes (ppHEP) and stem cell-derived hepatocytes (PICM-19FF). The magnetic particle is a micron-sized iron oxide particle (MPIO) that has been extensively studied for magnetic cell labeling for MRI-based cell tracking. ppHEP could endocytose MPIO with labeling percentages as high as 70%, achieving iron content as high as ~55 pg/cell, with >75% viability. PICM-19FF had labeling >97%, achieving iron content ~38 pg/cell, with viability >99%. Extensive morphological and functional assays indicated that magnetic cell labeling was benign to the cells. The results encourage the use of MRI-based cell tracking for the development and clinical use of hepatocyte transplantation methodologies. Further, these results generally highlight the importance of functional cell assays in the evaluation of contrast agent biocompatibility.

  5. Copper induces hepatocyte injury due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured cells and patients with Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Oe, Shinji; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2016-09-10

    Copper is an essential trace element, however, excess copper is harmful to human health. Excess copper-derived oxidants contribute to the progression of Wilson disease, and oxidative stress induces accumulation of abnormal proteins. It is known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in proper protein folding, and that accumulation of misfolded proteins disturbs ER homeostasis resulting in ER stress. However, copper-induced ER homeostasis disturbance has not been fully clarified. We treated human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) and immortalized-human hepatocyte cell line (OUMS29) with copper and chemical chaperones, including 4-phenylbutyrate and ursodeoxycholic acid. We examined copper-induced oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, we examined the effects of copper on carcinogenesis. Excess copper induced not only oxidative stress but also ER stress. Furthermore, excess copper induced DNA damage and reduced cell proliferation. Chemical chaperones reduced this copper-induced hepatotoxicity. Excess copper induced hepatotoxicity via ER stress. We also confirmed the abnormality of ultra-structure of the ER of hepatocytes in patients with Wilson disease. These findings show that ER stress plays a pivotal role in Wilson disease, and suggests that chemical chaperones may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Wilson disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nucleation and growth of ice crystals inside cultured hepatocytes during freezing in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, J O; Cravalho, E G; Borel Rinkes, I H; Tompkins, R G; Yarmush, M L; Toner, M

    1993-01-01

    A three-part, coupled model of cell dehydration, nucleation, and crystal growth was used to study intracellular ice formation (IIF) in cultured hepatocytes frozen in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Heterogeneous nucleation temperatures were predicted as a function of DMSO concentration and were in good agreement with experimental data. Simulated freezing protocols correctly predicted and explained experimentally observed effects of cooling rate, warming rate, and storage temperature on hepatocyte function. For cells cooled to -40 degrees C, no IIF occurred for cooling rates less than 10 degrees C/min. IIF did occur at faster cooling rates, and the predicted volume of intracellular ice increased with increasing cooling rate. Cells cooled at 5 degrees C/min to -80 degrees C were shown to undergo nucleation at -46.8 degrees C, with the consequence that storage temperatures above this value resulted in high viability independent of warming rate, whereas colder storage temperatures resulted in cell injury for slow warming rates. Cell damage correlated positively with predicted intracellular ice volume, and an upper limit for the critical ice content was estimated to be 3.7% of the isotonic water content. The power of the model was limited by difficulties in estimating the cytosol viscosity and membrane permeability as functions of DMSO concentration at low temperatures. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8312489

  7. A mutation of MET, encoding hepatocyte growth factor receptor, is associated with human DFNB97 hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Mujtaba, Ghulam; Schultz, Julie M; Imtiaz, Ayesha; Morell, Robert J; Friedman, Thomas B; Naz, Sadaf

    2015-01-01

    Background Hearing loss is a heterogeneous neurosensory disorder. Mutations of 56 genes are reported to cause recessively inherited nonsyndromic deafness. Objective We sought to identify the genetic lesion causing hearing loss segregating in a large consanguineous Pakistani family. Methods and Results Mutations of GJB2 and all other genes reported to underlie recessive deafness were ruled out as the cause of the phenotype in the affected members of the participating family. Homozygosity mapping with a dense array of one million SNP markers allowed us to map the gene for recessively inherited severe hearing loss to chromosome 7q31.2, defining a new deafness locus designated DFNB97 (maximum LOD score of 4.8). Whole-exome sequencing revealed a novel missense mutation c.2521T>G (p.F841V) in MET, which encodes the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor. The mutation co-segregated with the hearing loss phenotype in the family and was absent from 800 chromosomes of ethnically matched control individuals as well as from 136,602 chromosomes in public databases of nucleotide variants. Analyses by multiple prediction programs indicated that p.F841V is likely damaging to MET function. Conclusion We identified a missense mutation of MET, encoding the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, as a likely cause of hearing loss in humans. PMID:25941349

  8. Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Extracts of Pistacia vera against Oxidative Versus Carbonyl Stress in Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Jafar; Zareh, Mona; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytoprotection of various extracts and bioactive compounds found in Pistacia vera againts cytotoxicity, ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane damages in cell toxicity models of diabetes related carbonyl (glyoxal) and oxidative stress (hydroperoxide). Methanol, water and ethyl acetate were used to prepare crude pistachios extracts, which were then used to screen for in-vitro cytoprotection of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes against these toxins. The order of protection by Pistacia vera extracts against both hydroperoxide induced oxidative stress (ROS formation) and glyoxal induced protein carbonylation was: pistachio methanolic extract >pistachio water extract, gallic acid, catechin> α-tochoferol and pistachio ethyl acetate extract. Finally due to higher protection achieved by methanolic extract even compared to sole pretreatment of gallic acid, catechin or α-tochoferol, we suggest that cytoprotection depends on the variety of polar and non-polar compounds found in methanolic extract, it is likely that multiple cytoprotective mechanisms are acting against oxidative and carbonyl induced cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the cytoprotective activity of Pistacia vera extracts against oxidative and carbonyl stress seen in type 2 diabetes hepatocytes model. PMID:25587316

  9. Constitutive gp130 activation rapidly accelerates the transformation of human hepatocytes via an impaired oxidative stress response

    PubMed Central

    Herden, Johannes; Parplys, Ann Christin; Borgmann, Kerstin; Schmidt-Arras, Dirk; Lohse, Ansgar W.; Rose-John, Stefan; Wege, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, especially interleukin 6 (IL-6), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote carcinogenesis in the liver. In order to elucidate the underlying oncogenic mechanism, we activated the IL-6 signal transducer glycoprotein 130 (gp130) via stable expression of a constitutively active gp130 construct (L-gp130) in untransformed telomerase-immortalized human fetal hepatocytes (FH-hTERT). As known from hepatocellular adenomas, forced gp130 activation alone was not sufficient to induce malignant transformation. However, additional challenge of FH-hTERT L-gp130 clones with oxidative stress resulted in 2- to 3-fold higher ROS levels and up to 6-fold more DNA-double strand breaks (DSB). Despite increased DNA damage, ROS-challenged FH-hTERT L-gp130 clones displayed an enhanced proliferation and rapidly developed colony growth capabilities in soft agar. As driving gp130-mediated oncogenic mechanism, we detected a decreased expression of antioxidant genes, in particular glutathione peroxidase 3 and apolipoprotein E, and an absence of P21 upregulation following ROS-conferred induction of DSB. In summary, an impaired oxidative stress response in hepatocytes with gp130 gain-of-function mutations, as detected in dysplastic intrahepatic nodules and hepatocellular adenomas, is one of the central oncogenic mechanisms in chronic liver inflammation. PMID:27489351

  10. Three-dimensional bio-printing of hepatic structures with direct-converted hepatocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyojin; Kim, Yohan; Lee, Seung Bum; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Sua; Kim, Wan-Doo; Yang, Heung-Mo; Kim, Sung-Joo; Jeong, Jaemin; Choi, Dongho

    2017-07-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) bio-printing technology is a promising new technology in the field of bio-artificial organ generation with regard to overcoming the limitations of organ supply. The cell source for bio-printing is very important. Here, we generated 3D hepatic scaffold with mouse induced hepatocyte-like cells (miHeps), and investigated whether their function was improved after transplantation in vivo. To generate miHeps, mouse embryonic fibroblasts were transformed with pMX retroviruses individually expressing hepatic transcription factors Hnf4a and Foxa3. After 8-10 days, MEFs formed rapidly-growing hepatocyte-like colonies. For 3D bio-printing, miHeps were mixed with a 3% alginate hydrogel and extruded by nozzle pressure. After seven days, they were transplanted into the omentum of Jo2-treated NSG mice as a liver damage model. Real-time PCR and immunofluorescence analyses were conducted to evaluate hepatic function. The 3D bio-printed hepatic scaffold (25 x 25 mm) expressed albumin, and ASGR1 and HNF4a expression gradually increased for 28 days in vitro. When transplanted in vivo, the cells in the hepatic scaffold grew more and exhibited higher albumin expression than in vitro scaffold. Therefore, combining 3D bio-printing with direct conversion technology appears to be an effective option for liver therapy.

  11. Determination of the Mutagenicity Potential of Supermint Herbal Medicine by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis in Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Rezaei, Mohsen; Mahdavinia, Masoud; Kalantar, Mojtaba; Amanpour, Zivar; varnaseri, golnaz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The increasing use of herbal drugs and their easy availability have necessitated the use of mutagenicity test to analyze their toxicity and safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of Supermint herbal medicine in DNA breakage of rat hepatocytes in comparison with sodium dichromate by single cell gel electrophoresis technique or comet assay. Methods: Hepatocytes were prepared from male wistar rats and were counted and kept in a bioreactor for 30 minutes. Then cells were exposed to the Supermint herbal medicine at doses of 125, 250 and 500 µl/ml. Buffer 4 (incubation buffer) and sodium dichromate were used as negative and positive control for one hour respectively. Then cell suspension with low melting point agarose were put on precoated slides and covered with agarose gel. Then lysing, electrophoresis, neutralization and staining were carried out. Finally the slides were analyzed with fluorescence microscope. The parameter under this analysis was the type of migration which was determined according to Kobayashi pattern. Results: With increased dose of Supermint herbal medicine the DNA damage was slightly increased (P<0001). Conlusion: In overall compared to the positive control significant differences is observed which convinced that the crude extract of Supermint in vitro did not have mutagenic effect. Conlusion: In overall compared to the positive control significant differences is observed which convinced that the crude extract of Supermint in vitro did not have mutagenic effect. PMID:24312800

  12. Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miccadei, Stefania; Di Venere, Donato; Cardinali, Angela; Romano, Ferdinando; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Fraioli, Rocco; Mobarhan, Sohrab; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (AE). The hepatocytes were exposed to H2O2generated in situ by glucose oxidase and were treated with either AE, or pure chlorogenic acid (ChA) or with the well known antioxidant, N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenilenediamine (DPPD). Addition of glucose oxidase to the culture medium caused depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cultures, as a lipid peroxidation indicator, and cell death. These results demonstrated that AE protected cells from the oxidative stress caused by glucose oxidase, comparable to DPPD. Furthermore, AE, as well as ChA, prevented the loss of total GSH and the accumulation of MDA. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with AE reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, however, ChA had no prominent effects on the cell death rate. Similarly, AE rather than ChA induced apoptosis, measured by flow cytometric analysis of annexin and by activation of caspase-3, in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that AE had a marked antioxidative potential that protects hepatocytes from an oxidative stress. Furthermore, AE reduced cell viability and had an apoptotic activity on a human liver cancer cell line.

  13. Damaged Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  14. Identification of early target genes of aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes, inter-individual variability and comparison with other genotoxic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Josse, Rozenn; Dumont, Julie; Fautrel, Alain; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André

    2012-01-15

    Gene expression profiling has recently emerged as a promising approach to identify early target genes and discriminate genotoxic carcinogens from non-genotoxic carcinogens and non-carcinogens. However, early gene changes induced by genotoxic compounds in human liver remain largely unknown. Primary human hepatocytes and differentiated HepaRG cells were exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that induces DNA damage following enzyme-mediated bioactivation. Gene expression profile changes induced by a 24 h exposure of these hepatocyte models to 0.05 and 0.25 μM AFB1 were analyzed by using oligonucleotide pangenomic microarrays. The main altered signaling pathway was the p53 pathway and related functions such as cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. Direct involvement of the p53 protein in response to AFB1 was verified by using siRNA directed against p53. Among the 83 well-annotated genes commonly modulated in two pools of three human hepatocyte populations and HepaRG cells, several genes were identified as altered by AFB1 for the first time. In addition, a subset of 10 AFB1-altered genes, selected upon basis of their function or tumor suppressor role, was tested in four human hepatocyte populations and in response to other chemicals. Although they exhibited large variable inter-donor fold-changes, several of these genes, particularly FHIT, BCAS3 and SMYD3, were found to be altered by various direct and other indirect genotoxic compounds and unaffected by non-genotoxic compounds. Overall, this comprehensive analysis of early gene expression changes induced by AFB1 in human hepatocytes identified a gene subset that included several genes representing potential biomarkers of genotoxic compounds. -- Highlights: ► Gene expression profile changes induced by aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes. ► AFB1 modulates various genes including tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. ► Important inter-individual variations in the response to AFB1. ► Some genes also altered by other

  15. A study of the mechanism of in vitro cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles using catfish primary hepatocytes and human HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Aker, Winfred G.; Hwang, Huey-min; Yedjou, Clement G.; Yu, Hongtao; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), including nano metal oxides, are being used in diverse applications such as medicine, clothing, cosmetics and food. In order to promote the safe development of nanotechnology, it is essential to assess the potential adverse health consequences associated with human exposure. The liver is a target site for NP toxicity, due to NP accumulation within it after ingestion, inhalation or absorption. The toxicity of nano-ZnO, TiO2, CuO and Co3O4 was investigated using a primary culture of channel catfish hepatocytes and human HepG2 cells as in vitro model systems for assessing the impact of metal oxide NPs on human and environmental health. Some mechanisms of nanotoxicity were determined by using phase contrast inverted microscopy, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and flow cytometric assays. Nano-CuO and ZnO showed significant toxicity in both HepG2 cells and catfish primary hepatocytes. The results demonstrate that HepG2 cells are more sensitive than catfish primary hepatocytes to the toxicity of metal oxide NPs. The overall ranking of the toxicity of metal oxides to the test cells is as follows: TiO2 < Co3O4< ZnO < CuO. The toxicity is due not only to ROS-induced cell death, but also damages to cell and mitochondrial membranes. PMID:21851965

  16. A bcl-2 transgene expressed in hepatocytes protects mice from fulminant liver destruction but not from rapid death induced by anti-Fas antibody injection

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Stimulation of the Fas (APO-1, CD95) receptor, which is present on a variety of cells, usually triggers a process of programmed cell death. Systemic injection of anti-Fas antibody into mice leads to fulminant liver destruction resulting from massive hepatocyte apoptosis, and to rapid death. Hepatocytes bear Fas but do not express Bcl-2, a protein that plays, in a number of conditions, a protective role against apoptosis. We have generated mice whose liver expresses Bcl-2 as the result of bcl-2 transgene placed under the control of the hepatocyte- specific alpha1-anti-trypsin gene promoter, but is otherwise not distinguishable from that of normal mice. These mice display a marked to almost total resistance to liver damage induced by anti-Fas antibody injection. This protective effect of Bcl-2 occurs in the absence of significant variations, in the stimulated livers, in the level of expression of other proteins also involved in resistance or sensitivity to apoptosis, namely Bcl-x, Bax, Bad, Bak, and p53. Mice with protected livers, however, die almost as rapidly as normal mice, which indicates that acute lethality results from stimulation of Fas receptors present on other target organs or cells. PMID:8642244

  17. Effect of varying the exposure and /sup 3/H-thymidine labeling period upon the outcome of the primary hepatocyte DNA repair assay

    SciTech Connect

    Barfknecht, T.R.; Mecca, D.J.; Naismith, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    The results presented in this report demonstrate that an 18-20 hour exposure//sup 3/H-thymidine DNA labeling period is superior to a 4 hour incubation interval for general genotoxicity screening studies in the rat primary hepatocyte DNA repair assay. When DNA damaging agents which give rise to bulky-type DNA base adducts such as 2-acetylaminofluorene, aflatoxin B1 and benzidine were evaluated, little or no difference was observed between the 4 hour or an 18-20-hour exposure/labeling period. Similar results were also noted for the DNA ethylating agent diethylnitrosamine. However, when DNA damaging chemicals which produce a broader spectrum of DNA lesions were studied, differences in the amount of DNA repair as determined by autoradiographic analysis did occur. Methyl methanesulfonate and dimethylnitrosamine induced repairable DNA damage that was detected at lower dose levels with the 18-20 hour exposure/labeling period. Similar results were also observed for the DNA cross-linking agents, mitomycin C and nitrogen mustard. Ethyl methanesulfonate produced only a marginal amount of DNA repair in primary hepatocytes up to a dose level of 10(-3) M during the 4 hour incubation period, whereas a substantial amount of DNA repair was detectable at a dose level of 2.5 X 10(-4) M when the 18-20 hour exposure/labeling period was employed. The DNA alkylating agent 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, which creates DNA base adducts that are slowly removed from mammalian cell DNA, induced no detectable DNA repair in hepatocytes up to a toxic dose level of 2 X 10(-5) M with the 4 hour exposure period, whereas a marked DNA repair response was observed at 10(-5) M when the 18-20 hour exposure/labeling period was used.

  18. Allicin modulates the antioxidation and detoxification capabilities of primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-10-01

    The effect of allicin, an active ingredient of garlic, on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content, and GSH-related enzyme activity was investigated in primary hepatocytes. In this study, allicin was synthesized in our laboratory as an experimental material, and primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were used as an experimental model. According to the results, hepatocytes treated with 10 μM allicin did not differ from the control on LDH leakage during various incubation times. When the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin, their levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive-substances (TBARS) did not differ significantly from that of the control within the 8-h incubation. However, the TBARS values of hepatocytes treated with 30 and 50 μM allicin were higher compared to the control after incubation for 4 h and 8 h, respectively. The hepatocyte intracellular GSH content was significantly higher than that of the control after 30 μM allicin treatment, but treatment with 50 μM allicin caused a significant GSH depletion after incubation for 4 h or longer. In addition, when hepatocytes were treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly increased compared to that of the control, whereas 50 μM allicin treatment for 24 h or longer significantly decreased the GPx activity. Glutathione reductase (GRd) activity was significantly increased when the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin for 24 h, but GRd activity significantly decreased when the hepatocytes were treated with 50 μM allicin. However, hepatocytes treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin showed significantly increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity compared to the control. These results suggest that 10 μM allicin potentially enhances the antioxidation and detoxification capabilities of primary rat hepatocytes.

  19. Effect of carbohydrates attached to polystyrene on hepatocyte morphology on sugar-derivatized polystyrene matrices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Heon; Hoshiba, Takashi; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2003-12-15

    Sugar-carrying polymers have been utilized as artificial matrices for cell adhesion in tissue engineering. We have developed sugar-derivatized polystyrenes (PV-sugars) as artificial matrices, which control hepatocyte adhesion and hepatic function. Hepatocytes adhere to PV-sugar matrices in a receptor-mediated manner. In this study, we designed a new galactose-derivatized PV-sugar, poly-(6-O-p-vinylbenzyl-alpha-D-galactose) (PV6Gal) and evaluated the role of carbohydrate attached to polystyrene (PS) backbone in the morphological difference of hepatocyte cultured on PV-sugar matrices. Hepatocytes spread on monosaccharide-derivatized PV-sugars but not on disaccharide-derivatized PV-sugars. The actin filament remained aggregated in the central area of the cell body on disaccharide-derivatized PV-sugars. Hepatocyte cell bodies fully were spread on collagen, and the actin filament was almost completely reorganized. Hepatocyte spreading on monosaccharide-derivatized PV-sugars, however, was caused by protrusive cell-matrix contact like lamellipodia and the actin filament was not completely reorganized. This indicated that hepatocyte spreading on PV-sugar matrices was restricted compared with ECM-mediated cell spreading. In addition, typical spheroid formation of hepatocytes was promoted on disaccharide-derivatized PV-sugars compared with monosaccharide-derivatized PV-sugars. Although hepatocytes adhered with different affinities to PV-sugar matrices, hepatocyte morphology was not affected by the adhesion affinity. We suggest that the type of carbohydrate attached to the PS backbone governs the morphology of hepatocyte cultured on PV-sugar matrices.

  20. Activation of Kupffer cells and caspase-3 involved in rat hepatocyte apoptosis induced by endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Hamada, E; Nishida, T; Uchiyama, Y; Nakamura, J; Isahara, K; Kazuo, H; Huang, T P; Momoi, T; Ito, T; Matsuda, H

    1999-05-01

    Sepsis and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) cause mild to severe hepatic dysfunction. In this study, Kupffer cell activation, involvement of TNFalpha and caspases downstream of the TNFalpha receptor were examined in hepatocyte apoptosis induced by LPS. In in vivo experiments, male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenously with LPS, and small amounts of the blood and liver were sampled to evaluate apoptosis. Kupffer cells were inactivated by pretreatment with gadolinium chloride for 2 days. In in vitro experiments, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells were separately isolated from rat livers using collagenase perfusion. LPS induced time-dependent and dose-dependent increases in the number of TUNEL-positive cells, which coincided with the apoptotic features of hepatocytes demonstrated by electron microscopy and DNA ladder. Activation of caspase-3-like proteases was observed with an increase in the number of apoptotic hepatocytes. Immunostaining with activated caspase-3-specific antibody showed that caspase-3 was activated only in the cytoplasm of TUNEL-positive hepatocytes. Inactivation of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride was concomitantly accompanied by the prevention of caspase-3 activation, hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury induced by LPS. The co-culture system of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, but neither cell culture system, individually, showed LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Kupffer cell-conditioned medium induced hepatocyte apoptosis, whereas addition of anti-TNFalpha antibody to Kupffer cell-conditioned medium did not. Additions of acetyl-DEVD-CHO, acetyl-YVAD-CHO, and acetyl-IETD-CHO to Kupffer cell-conditioned medium decreased the number of apoptotic hepatocytes. These results suggest that the activation of Kupffer cells, TNFalpha and caspases downstream of TNFR1 were involved in hepatocyte apoptosis induced by LPS.

  1. Allicin Modulates the Antioxidation and Detoxification Capabilities of Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of allicin, an active ingredient of garlic, on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content, and GSH-related enzyme activity was investigated in primary hepatocytes. In this study, allicin was synthesized in our laboratory as an experimental material, and primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were used as an experimental model. According to the results, hepatocytes treated with 10 μM allicin did not differ from the control on LDH leakage during various incubation times. When the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin, their levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive-substances (TBARS) did not differ significantly from that of the control within the 8-h incubation. However, the TBARS values of hepatocytes treated with 30 and 50 μM allicin were higher compared to the control after incubation for 4 h and 8 h, respectively. The hepatocyte intracellular GSH content was significantly higher than that of the control after 30 μM allicin treatment, but treatment with 50 μM allicin caused a significant GSH depletion after incubation for 4 h or longer. In addition, when hepatocytes were treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly increased compared to that of the control, whereas 50 μM allicin treatment for 24 h or longer significantly decreased the GPx activity. Glutathione reductase (GRd) activity was significantly increased when the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin for 24 h, but GRd activity significantly decreased when the hepatocytes were treated with 50 μM allicin. However, hepatocytes treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin showed significantly increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity compared to the control. These results suggest that 10 μM allicin potentially enhances the antioxidation and detoxification capabilities of primary rat hepatocytes. PMID:24716147

  2. Hepatic Hyperplasia Associated with Discordant Xenogeneic Parenchymal-Nonparenchymal Interactions in Human Hepatocyte-Repopulated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Utoh, Rie; Tateno, Chise; Kataoka, Miho; Tachibana, Asato; Masumoto, Norio; Yamasaki, Chihiro; Shimada, Takashi; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2010-01-01

    Liver mass is optimized in relation to body mass. Rat (r) and human (h) hepatocytes were transplanted into liver-injured immunodeficient mice and allowed to proliferate for 3 or 11 weeks, respectively, when the transplants stopped proliferating. Liver/body weight ratio was normal throughout in r-hepatocyte-bearing mice (r-hep-mice), but increased continuously in h-hepatocyte-bearing mice (h-hep-mice), until reaching approximately three times the normal m-liver size, which was considered to be hyperplasia of h-hepatocytes because there were no significant differences in cell size among host (mouse [m-]) and donor (r- and h-) hepatocytes. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type I receptor, TGF-β type II receptor, and activin A type IIA receptor mRNAs in proliferating r-hepatocytes of r-hep-mice were lower than in resting r-hepatocytes (normal levels) and increased to normal levels during the termination phase. Concomitantly, m-hepatic stellate cells began to express TGF-β proteins. In stark contrast, TGF-β type II receptor and activin A type IIA receptor mRNAs in h-hepatocytes remained low throughout and m-hepatic stellate cells did not express TGF-β in h-hep-mice. As expected, Smad2 and 3 translocated into nuclei in r-hep-mice but not in h-hep-mice. Histological analysis showed a paucity of m-stellate cells in h-hepatocyte colonies of h-hep-mouse liver. We conclude that m-stellate cells are able to normally interact with concordant r-hepatocytes but not with discordant h-hepatocytes, which seems to be at least partly responsible for the failure of the liver size optimization in h-hep-mice. PMID:20522646

  3. Proliferation of rat small hepatocytes requires follistatin expression.

    PubMed

    Ooe, Hidekazu; Chen, Qijie; Kon, Junko; Sasaki, Kazunori; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Tanimizu, Naoki; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2012-06-01

    Small hepatocytes (SHs) are a subpopulation of hepatocytes that have high growth potential in culture and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes (MHs). The activin (Act)/follistatin (Fst) system critically contributes to homeostasis of cell growth in the normal liver. ActA and ActB consist of two disulfide-linked Inhibin (Inh)β subunits, InhβA and InhβB, respectively. Fst binds to Act and blocks its bioactivity. In the present study we carried out the experiments to clarify how Fst regulates the proliferation of SHs. The gene expression was analyzed using DNA microarray analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR, and protein expression was examined by western blots, immunocytochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RT-PCR showed that Fst expression was high in SHs and low in MHs. Although the ActA expression was opposite to that of Fst, ActB expression was high in SHs and low in MHs and increased with time in culture. Fst protein was detected in the cytoplasm of SHs and secreted into the culture medium. ActB protein was also secreted into the medium. Although the exogenous administration of ActA and ActB apparently suppressed the proliferation of SHs, apoptosis of SHs was not induced by treatment with ActA or ActB. On the other hand, Fst treatment did not affect the colony formation of SHs but prevented the inhibitory effect of ActA. Neutralization by the anti-Fst antibody resulted in the suppression of DNA synthesis in SHs, and small hairpin RNA against Fst suppressed the expansion of SH colonies. In conclusion, Fst expression is necessary for the proliferation of SHs.

  4. Human hepatocyte functions in a crossed hollow fiber membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    De Bartolo, Loredana; Salerno, Simona; Curcio, Efrem; Piscioneri, Antonella; Rende, Maria; Morelli, Sabrina; Tasselli, Franco; Bader, Augustinus; Drioli, Enrico

    2009-05-01

    An important challenge in liver tissue engineering is the development of bioartificial systems that are able to favour the liver reconstruction and to modulate liver cell behaviour. A crossed hollow fiber membrane bioreactor was developed to support the long-term maintenance and differentiation of human hepatocytes. The bioreactor consists of two types of hollow fiber (HF) membranes with different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and physico-chemical properties cross-assembled in alternating manner: modified polyetheretherketone (PEEK-WC) and polyethersulfone (PES), used for the medium inflow and outflow, respectively. The combination of these two fiber set produces an extracapillary network for the adhesion of cells and a high mass exchange through the cross-flow of culture medium. The transport of liver specific products such as albumin and urea together with the transport of drug such as diazepam was modelled and compared with the experimental metabolic data. The theoretical metabolite concentration differed 7.5% for albumin and 5% for urea with respect to experimental data. The optimised perfusion conditions of the bioreactor allowed the maintenance of liver functions in terms of urea synthesis, albumin secretion and diazepam biotransformation up to 18 days of culture. In particular the good performance of the bioreactor was confirmed by the high rate of urea synthesis (28.7 microg/h 10(6) cells) and diazepam biotransformation. In the bioreactor human hepatocytes expressed at high levels the individual cytochrome P450 isoenzymes involved in the diazepam metabolism. The results demonstrated that crossed HF membrane bioreactor is able to support the maintenance of primary human hepatocytes preserving their liver specific functions for all investigated period. This device may be a potential tool in the liver tissue engineering for drug metabolism/toxicity testing and study of disease pathogenesis alternatively to animal experimentation.

  5. Protective effects of Salvia plebeia compound homoplantaginin on hepatocyte injury.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xian-Jun; Xia, Xue; Wang, Yuan-Shu; Song, Mei-Juan; Liu, Li-Li; Xie, Yan-Ying; Cheng, Yan-Na; Liu, Xiang-Juan; Qiu, Lu-Lu; Xiang, Lan; Gao, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Fan; Cui, Shu-Xiang

    2009-07-01

    Salvia plebeia R. Br is a traditional Chinese herb which has been considered as an inflammatory mediator used for treatment of many infectious diseases including hepatitis. Previously, the compound homoplantaginin was isolated in our group. Hence, we evaluated the protective effects of homoplantaginin on hepatocyte injury. Homoplantaginin displayed an antioxidant property in a cell-free system and showed IC(50) of reduction level of DPPH radical at 0.35 microg/ml. In human hepatocyte HL-7702 cells exposed to H(2)O(2), the addition of 0.1-100 microg/ml of homoplantaginin, which did not have a toxic effect on cell viability, significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and increased glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in supernatant. In vivo assay, we employed the model of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury mice to evaluate efficacy of homoplantaginin. Homoplantaginin (25-100mg/kg) significantly reduced the increase in serum alanine aminotranseferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). The same treatment also reduced the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), elevated the levels of GSH, GSH-Px and SOD in hepatic homogenate. The histopathological analysis showed that the grade of liver injury was ameliorated with reduction of inflammatory cells and necrosis of liver cells in homoplantaginin treatment mice. These results suggest that homoplantaginin has a protective and therapeutic effect on hepatocyte injury, which might be associated with its antioxidant properties.

  6. Contextualizing Hepatocyte Functionality of Cryopreserved HepaRG Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jonathan P.; Li, Linhou; Chamberlain, Erica D.; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade HepaRG cells have emerged as a promising alternative to primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and have been featured in over 300 research publications. Most of these reports employed freshly differentiated HepaRG cells that require time-consuming culture (∼28 days) for full differentiation. Recently, a cryopreserved, predifferentiated format of HepaRG cells (termed here “cryo-HepaRG”) has emerged as a new model that improves global availability and experimental flexibility; however, it is largely unknown whether HepaRG cells in this format fully retain their hepatic characteristics. Therefore, we systematically investigated the hepatocyte functionality of cryo-HepaRG cultures in context with the range of interindividual variation observed with PHH in both sandwich-culture and suspension formats. These evaluations uncovered a novel adaptation period for the cryo-HepaRG format and demonstrated the impact of extracellular matrix on cryo-HepaRG functionality. Pharmacologically important drug-metabolizing alleles were genotyped in HepaRG cells and poor metabolizer alleles for CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A5 were identified and consistent with higher frequency alleles found in individuals of Caucasian decent. We observed liver enzyme inducibility with aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and pregnane X receptor activators comparable to that of sandwich-cultured PHH. Finally, we show for the first time that cryo-HepaRG supports proper CAR cytosolic sequestration and translocation to hepatocyte nuclei in response to phenobarbital treatment. Taken together, these data reveal important considerations for the use of this cell model and demonstrate that cryo-HepaRG are suitable for metabolism and toxicology screening. PMID:27338863

  7. Effects of ethanol on antioxidant capacity in isolated rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sien-Sing; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Jiun-Rong; Chiu, Che-Lin; Shieh, Ming-Jer; Lin, Su-Jiun; Yang, Suh-Ching

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate dose-response and time-course of the effects of ethanol on the cell viability and antioxidant capacity in isolated rat hepatocytes. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from male adult Wistar rats and seeded into 100-mm dishes. Hepatocytes were treated with ethanol at concentrations between 0 (C), 10 (E10), 50 (E50), and 100 (E100) mmol/L (dose response) for 12, 24, and 36 h (time course). Then, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, glutathione (GSH) level, and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were measured. RESULTS: Our data revealed that LDH leakage was significantly increased by about 30% in group E100 over those in groups C and E10 at 24 and 36 h, The MDA concentration in groups C, E10 and E50 were significantly lower than that in group E100 at 36 h. Furthermore, the concentration of MDA in group E100 at 36 h was significantly higher by 4.5- and 1.7-fold, respectively, than that at 12 and 24 h. On the other hand, the GSH level in group E100 at 24 and 36 h was significantly decreased, by 32% and 28%, respectively, compared to that at 12 h. The activities of GRD and CAT in group E100 at 36 h were significantly less than those in groups C and E10. However, The GPX and SOD activities showed no significant change in each group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that long-time incubation with higher concentration of ethanol (100 mmol/L) decreased the cell viability by means of reducing GRD and CAT activities and increasing lipid peroxidation. PMID:16437627

  8. Isolated rat hepatocytes acquire iron from lactoferrin by endocytosis.

    PubMed

    McAbee, D D

    1995-10-15

    The iron-binding protein lactoferrin (Lf) present in blood is metabolized by the liver. Isolated rat hepatocytes vigorously endocytose bovine Lf via recycling Ca2(+)-dependent binding sites, but the uptake of iron from Lf by hepatocytes has not been examined. In this study, isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated with radiolabelled bovine Lf (125I-Lf, 59Fe-Lf or 125I-59Fe-Lf) at 37 degrees C, then washed at 4 degrees C in the presence of dextran sulphate with either Ca2+ or EGTA to distinguish between total bound and internal radioactivity respectively. Cells internalized 125I-Lf protein and Lf-bound 59Fe at maximal endocytic rates of 1700 and 480 mol.cell-1.s-1 respectively. When Lf was normalized for 59Fe content, these endocytic rates were equivalent and reflected an uptake potential of at least 3400 mol of iron.cell-1.s-1. Cells prebound with 125I-59Fe-Lf to Ca2+(-)dependent sites at 4 degrees C internalized more than 80% of both 125I-Lf protein and Lf-bound 59Fe approx. 6 min after warming to 37 degrees C at similar rates (125I-Lf: k(in) = 0.276 min-1, 59Fe: k(in) = 0.303 min-1). Within 4 h at 37 degrees C, cells had released 25% or less internalized Lf protein in the form of acid-soluble 125I-by-products but retained all the Lf-delivered 59Fe. Hyperosmotic disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked the uptake of 125I-Lf and Lf-bound 59Fe. Incubation of cells with 125I-59Fe-Lf and a 100 molar excess of diferric transferrin reduced slightly the endocytosis of 125I-Lf protein and 59Fe accumulation. Treatment of cells with the ferric chelator desferrioxamine did not alter uptake of 125I-Lf protein or Lf-bound 59Fe, but the ferrous chelator bathophenanthroline disulphonate slightly elevated endocytosis of 125I-Lf protein and Lf-bound 59Fe. These findings indicate that Lf does not release its bound iron before endocytosis. It was concluded from this study that hepatocytes take up iron from Lf at high rates by a process that requires endocytosis of Lf

  9. Amodiaquine-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes and the cytoprotective effects of taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, R.; Babaei, H.; Eghbal, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Amodiaquine is an antimalarial drug used in the prophylaxis and treatment of this disease. However, hepatotoxicity as a life-threatening adverse effect is associated with its clinical use. We evaluated amodiaquine-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes as an in vitro model for studying drug-induced hepatotoxicity. This study attempts to investigate the protective effects of taurine and N-acetyl cysteine against the cytotoxicity induced by amodiaquine. Hepatocytes were prepared by the method of collagenase enzyme perfusion via portal vein. This technique is based on liver perfusion with collagenase after removal of calcium ion (Ca2+) with a chelator (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) 0.5 mM). Cells were treated with different concentrations of amodiaquine, taurine and N-acetyl cysteine. Cell death, protein carbonylation, reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarization were assessed as toxicity markers. Amodiaquine cytotoxic mechanism involved protein carbonylation as well as reactive oxygen species formation and lipid peroxidation. In addition, mitochondria seem to be a target for amodiaquine to induce cellular damage. Administration of taurine (200 μM) and/or N-acetyl cysteine (200 μM) reduced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation caused by amodiaquine. Furthermore, amodiaquine-induced mitochondrial injury was significantly mitigated by taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine. In glutathione-depleted cells, only N-acetyl cysteine protected hepatocytes against amodiaquine, and taurine showed no protective properties in this situation. Taurine and N-acetyl cysteine protect hepatocytes against amodiaquine probably via their antioxidant properties and counteracting oxidative stress. PMID:25657778

  10. Effects of methylmercury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes: Cell injury and inhibition of growth factor stimulated DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tanno, Keiichi; Fukazawa, Toshiyuki; Tajima, Shizuko; Fujiki, Motoo )

    1992-08-01

    Many more studies deal with the toxicity of methylmercury on nervous tissue than on its toxicity to the liver. Methylmercury accumulates in the liver in higher concentrations than brain and the liver has the primary function of detoxifying methylmercury. According to recent studies, hepatocyte mitochondrial membranes are destroyed by methylmercury and DNA synthesis is inhibited by methylmercury during hepatocyte regeneration. Methylmercury alters the membrane ion permeability of isolate skate hepatocytes, and inhibits the metal-sensitive alcohol dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase of primary cultured rat hepatocytes. However, little is known about the effect of methylmercury on hepatocyte proliferation in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. We therefore used the primary cultured rat hepatocytes to investigate the effects of methylmercury on cell injury and growth factor stimulate DNA synthesis. The primary effect of methylmercury is to inhibit hepatocyte proliferation rather than to cause direct cell injury. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Enantioselective metabolism and toxic effects of metalaxyl on primary hepatocytes from rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinru; Zhu, Wentao; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-01

    Enantiomers of chiral compounds often exhibit enantioselective adverse effects and biochemical processes in non-target organisms. In this study, enantioselective metabolism and toxic effects of metalaxyl enantiomers on primary rat hepatocytes were investigated. Stereoselectivity was observed on both degradation of metalaxyl and formation of metabolites. (-)-R-metalaxyl eliminated faster than (+)-S-metalaxyl, while the hydroxylmetalaxyl, demethylmetalaxyl, and didemethylmetalaxyl metabolites derived from 50-μM (+)-S-metalaxyl after 24 h of incubation were approximately 1.57, 1.43, and 1.86 times more than that of (-)-R-metalaxyl, respectively. According to the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, the EC50 values (24 h) for rac-, (+)-S-, and (-)-R-metalaxyl were 1788.22, 2066.73, and 2263.71 μM, respectively. An accordant enantioselective effect on oxidative stress suggested that the enantioselective cytotoxicity induced by metalaxyl enantiomers may partly contribute to enantioselective oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. Such results could be of great importance for credible environmental and toxicological risk assessment of metalaxyl.

  12. Hepatocyte pathway alterations in response to in vitro Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection.

    PubMed

    Fraisier, Christophe; Rodrigues, Raquel; Vu Hai, Vinh; Belghazi, Maya; Bourdon, Stéphanie; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia; Camoin, Luc; Almeras, Lionel; Peyrefitte, Christophe Nicolas

    2014-01-22

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus responsible for hemorrhagic manifestations and multiple organ failure, with a high mortality rate. In infected humans, damage to endothelial cells and vascular leakage may be a direct result of virus infection or an immune response-mediated indirect effect. The main target cells are mononuclear phagocytes, endothelial cells and hepatocytes; the liver being a key target for the virus, which was described as susceptible to interferon host response and to induce apoptosis. To better understand the early liver cell alterations due to virus infection, the protein profile of in vitro CCHFV-infected HepG2 cells was analyzed using two quantitative proteomic approaches, 2D-DIGE and iTRAQ. A set of 243 differentially expressed proteins was identified. Bioinformatics analysis (Ingenuity Pathways Analysis) revealed multiple host cell pathways and functions altered after CCHFV infection, with notably 106 proteins related to cell death, including 79 associated with apoptosis. Different protein networks emerged with associated pathways involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, ubiquitination/sumoylation, regulation of the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, and virus entry. Collectively, this study revealed host liver protein abundances that were modified at the early stages of CCHFV infection, offering an unparalleled opportunity of the description of the potential pathogenesis processes and of possible targets for antiviral research.

  13. Glycyrrhizin conjugated chitosan nanoparticles for hepatocyte-targeted delivery of lamivudine.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Deepak; Jain, Nivrati; Rajoriya, Vaibhav; Jain, Ashish K

    2014-08-01

    The present study was focused to prepare controlled release glycyrrhizin (GL) conjugated low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) for liver targeting. The hydrophilic antiretroviral drug lamivudine was chosen as a model drug and encapsulated within glycyrrhizin conjugated low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles (GL-CS-NPs) for liver specificity. First, the low molecular weight chitosan (CS) was synthesized through depolymerization method. The low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by inotropic gelation method. Then glycyrrhizin was conjugated with previously prepared low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) and conjugation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The prepared GL-CS-NPs were characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and FT-IR. The encapsulation efficiency and in-vitro drug release behaviour of drug-loaded GL-CS-NPs were studied using ultra violet spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatographic methods. Release of lamivudine from the nanoparticles exhibited a biphasic pattern, initial burst release and consequently sustained release. In-vivo biodistribution study suggested the target ability of GL-CS-NPs is better and haematological study shows decline of the tissue damage in comparison with plain drug solution. The experimental results show that the glycyrrhizin conjugated LMWC nanoparticles may be used as a potential drug delivery system with hepatocyte-targeting characteristics. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kanbe, Takamasa |; Murai, Rie; Mukoyama, Tomoyuki; Murawaki, Yoshiyuki |; Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo; Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Kawasaki, Hironaka; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Shiota, Goshi . E-mail: gshiota@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp

    2006-07-14

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SR{alpha} promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increas