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Sample records for a-induced hepatocyte damage

  1. Monitoring liver damage using hepatocyte-specific methylation markers in cell-free circulating DNA.

    PubMed

    Lehmann-Werman, Roni; Magenheim, Judith; Moss, Joshua; Neiman, Daniel; Abraham, Ofri; Piyanzin, Sheina; Zemmour, Hai; Fox, Ilana; Dor, Talya; Grompe, Markus; Landesberg, Giora; Loza, Bao-Li; Shaked, Abraham; Olthoff, Kim; Glaser, Benjamin; Shemer, Ruth; Dor, Yuval

    2018-06-21

    Liver damage is typically inferred from serum measurements of cytoplasmic liver enzymes. DNA molecules released from dying hepatocytes are an alternative biomarker, unexplored so far, potentially allowing for quantitative assessment of liver cell death. Here we describe a method for detecting acute hepatocyte death, based on quantification of circulating, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments carrying hepatocyte-specific methylation patterns. We identified 3 genomic loci that are unmethylated specifically in hepatocytes, and used bisulfite conversion, PCR, and massively parallel sequencing to quantify the concentration of hepatocyte-derived DNA in mixed samples. Healthy donors had, on average, 30 hepatocyte genomes/ml plasma, reflective of basal cell turnover in the liver. We identified elevations of hepatocyte cfDNA in patients shortly after liver transplantation, during acute rejection of an established liver transplant, and also in healthy individuals after partial hepatectomy. Furthermore, patients with sepsis had high levels of hepatocyte cfDNA, which correlated with levels of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients, in which elevated AST and ALT derive from damaged muscle rather than liver, did not have elevated hepatocyte cfDNA. We conclude that measurements of hepatocyte-derived cfDNA can provide specific and sensitive information on hepatocyte death, for monitoring human liver dynamics, disease, and toxicity.

  2. DNA damage in lead-exposed hepatocytes: coexistence of apoptosis and necrosis?

    PubMed

    Narayana, Kilarkaje; Raghupathy, Raj

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the coexistence of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis- and necrosis-related DNA damage, and to correlate with ultrastructural changes in hepatocyte nuclei in the lead-nitrate-exposed liver. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 0.5, and 1% lead nitrate for 60 days, and the livers were sampled the next day. Ultrastructurally, hepatocyte nuclei showed no apoptosis-related morphological changes, but showed necrotic changes. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed no change in 8-oxo-dG activity (P > 0.05), but immunohistochemistry showed its localization in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, endothelium, and bile ductule epithelium. TUNEL-labeled DNA breaks presenting 3'-OH ends increased in hepatocytes in all functional zones of the portal acini and bile ductule epithelium (zones I>III>II). In situ oligo ligation revealed the existence of DNA breaks bearing duplex 3' overhangs and 5' P-blunt ends in hepatocytes of all functional zones and bile ductule epithelium. In conclusion, both apoptosis- and necrosis-related DNA damage coexist without significant oxidative DNA damage. Hepatocytes display changes related to necrosis, but not those related to apoptosis.

  3. Effects of chromium picolinate on oxidative damage in primary piglet hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Bi, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Min-Hong; Feng, Jing-Hai; Xie, Peng; Zheng, Shan-Shan

    2008-12-01

    Chromium picolinate is a popular nutritional supplement whose safety has been questioned because of the potential risk of oxidative DNA damage. To investigate this possibility, a dose-dependent study was performed in piglet hepatocyte cultures in which low (8 microM), medium (200 microM), and high (400 microM) doses of chromium picolinate were tested and compared to untreated controls. After 48 h incubation, there were no significant differences in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, medium lactate dehydrogenase activity, and comet indicators between the three experimental groups and controls (p > 0.05). In the 8 microM-treated group, the intracellular malondialdehyde content was significantly decreased relative to controls (p < 0.05). All of the studied parameters showed a dose-dependent increase that was statistically significant between the low and high doses (p < 0.05). These results suggest that: (1) chromium picolinate may affect the oxidative status of piglet hepatocytes; (2) the appropriate dose (approximately physiological concentration) of chromium picolinate can inhibit lipid peroxidation, and (3) high doses of chromium picolinate have no significant effects on oxidative damage in piglet hepatocytes, but the existing evidence also imply that exposure to a higher dose appears to be unwarranted.

  4. ER stress-mediated cell damage contributes to the release of EDA+ fibronectin from hepatocytes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Yuan, Fa-Hu; Chen, Ting; Huang, Qiang; Wang, Yu; Liu, Zhi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    Fibronectin containing extra domain A (EDA + FN), a functional glycoprotein participating in several cellular processes, correlates with chronic liver disease. Herein, we aim to investigate the expression and secretion of EDA + FN from hepatocytes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the underlying mechanisms. Circulating levels of EDA + FN were determined by ELISA in clinical samples. Western blotting and flow cytometry were performed on L02 and HepG2 cell lines to analyze whether the levels of EDA + FN were associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related cell death. Circulating levels of EDA + FN in NAFLD patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects, and positively related with severity of ultrasonographic steatosis score. In cultured hepatocytes, palmitate up-regulated the expression of EDA + FN in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, when the cells were pretreated with 4-phenylbutyrate, a specific inhibitor of ER stress, up-regulation of EDA + FN could be abrogated. Moreover, silencing CHOP by shRNA enhanced the release of EDA + FN from hepatocytes following palmitate treatment, which was involved in ER stress-related cell damage. These findings suggest that the up-regulated level of EDA + FN is associated with liver damage in NAFLD, and ER stress-mediated cell damage contributes to the release of EDA + FN from hepatocytes.

  5. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    SciTech Connect

    Vesterdal, Lise K.; Danielsen, Pernille H.; Folkmann, Janne K.

    Exposure to particles has been suggested to generate hepatosteatosis by oxidative stress mechanisms. We investigated lipid accumulation in cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2) and rat liver after exposure to four different carbon-based particles. HepG2 cells were exposed to particles for 3 h and subsequently incubated for another 18 h to manifest lipid accumulation. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome we investigated the association between intake of carbon black (CB, 14 nm) particles and hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and gene expression of Srebp-1, Fasn and Scd-1 involved in lipid synthesis. There was a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular lipid content after exposuremore » to CB in HepG2 cells, which was only observed after co-exposure to oleic/palmitic acid. Similar results were observed in HepG2 cells after exposure to diesel exhaust particles, fullerenes C{sub 60} or pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes. All four types of particles also generated oxidatively damaged DNA, assessed as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, in HepG2 cells after 3 h exposure. The animal model of metabolic syndrome showed increased lipid load in the liver after one oral exposure to 6.4 mg/kg of CB in lean Zucker rats. This was not associated with increased iNOS staining in the liver, indicating that the oral CB exposure was associated with hepatic steatosis rather than steatohepatitis. The lipid accumulation did not seem to be related to increased lipogenesis because there were unaltered gene expression levels in both the HepG2 cells and rat livers. Collectively, exposure to particles is associated with oxidative stress and steatosis in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to nanosized carbon black was associated with hepatosteatosis in rats. • In vitro studies included carbon black, C{sub 60}, diesel exhaust particles and SWCNTs. • Exposure to particles and free fatty acids increased lipid load in HepG2 cells.

  6. Melatonin attenuates oxidative stress, liver damage and hepatocyte apoptosis after bile-duct ligation in rats.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Cevat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Mete, Rafet; Oran, Mustafa

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of melatonin against cholestatic oxidative stress, liver damage and hepatocyte apoptosis in the common rats with bile duct ligation (BDL). A total of 24 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: control, BDL and BDL + received melatonin; each group contains eight animals. Melatonin-treated BDL rats received daily melatonin 100 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal injection. The application of BDL clearly increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activities. Melatonin treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue MDA levels and increased the reduced SOD and GSH enzyme levels in the tissues. The changes demonstrate that the bile duct proliferation and fibrosis in expanded portal tracts include the extension of proliferated bile ducts into lobules, mononuclear cells and neutrophil infiltration into the widened portal areas as observed in the BDL group. The data indicate that melatonin attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation and fibrosis. The α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the BDL were observed to be reduced with the melatonin treatment. These results suggest that administration of melatonin is a potentially beneficial agent to reduce liver damage in BDL by decreasing oxidative stress. © The Author(s) 2012.

  7. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-dependent bioactivation of clofibric acid to a DNA-damaging intermediate in mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ghaoui, Roula; Sallustio, Benedetta C; Burcham, Philip C; Fontaine, Frank R

    2003-05-06

    Glucuronidation of a number of carboxyl-containing drugs generates reactive acyl glucuronide metabolites. These electrophilic species alkylate cell proteins and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of toxic syndromes seen in patients receiving the parent aglycones. Whether acyl glucuronides also attack nuclear DNA is unknown, although the acyl glucuronide formed from clofibric acid was recently found to decrease the transfection efficiency of phage DNA and generate strand breaks in plasmid DNA in vitro. To determine if such a DNA damage occurs within a cellular environment, the comet assay (i.e. single-cell gel electrophoresis) was used to detect DNA lesions in the nuclear genome of isolated mouse hepatocytes cultured with clofibric acid. Overnight exposure to 50 microM and higher concentrations of clofibric acid produced concentration-dependent increases in the comet areas of hepatocyte nuclei, with 1 mM clofibrate producing a 3.6-fold elevation over controls. These effects closely coincided with culture medium concentrations of the glucuronide metabolite formed from clofibric acid, 1-O-beta-clofibryl glucuronide. Consistent with a role for glucuronidation in the DNA damage observed, the glucuronidation inhibitor borneol diminished glucuronide formation from 100 microM clofibrate by 98% and returned comet areas to baseline levels. Collectively, these results suggest that the acyl glucuronide formed from clofibric acid is capable of migrating from its site of formation within the endoplasmic reticulum to generate strand nicks in nuclear DNA.

  8. Hepatoprotective effects of Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] on alcohol-damaged primary rat hepatocyte culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenhua; Bian, Yuzhu; Wang, Zhenghui; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2017-02-01

    We have prepared a novel nanobiotherapeutic, Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase], which not only transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide but also a therapeutic antioxidant. Our previous study in a severe sustained 90 min hemorrhagic shock rat model shows that it has a hepatoprotective effect. We investigate its hepatoprotective effect further in this present report using an alcohol-damaged primary hepatocyte culture model. Results show that it significantly reduced ethanol-induced AST release, lipid peroxidation, and ROS production in rat primary hepatocytes culture. It also significantly enhanced the viability of ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Thus, the result shows that Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] also has some hepatoprotective effects against alcohol-induced injury in in vitro rat primary hepatocytes cell culture. This collaborate our previous observation of its hepatoprotective effect in a severe sustained 90-min hemorrhagic shock rat model.

  9. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury: roles of Ca2+ and other intracellular mediators of impaired bile flow and hepatocyte damage.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; De Bruijn, Menno T; Padbury, Robert T A; Barritt, Gregory J

    2006-06-01

    Liver resection and liver transplantation have been successful in the treatment of liver tumors and end-stage liver disease. This success has led to an expansion in the pool of patients potentially treatable by liver surgery and, in the case of transplantation, to a shortage of liver donors. At present, there are significant numbers of potential candidates for liver resection and liver donation who have fatty livers, are aged, or have livers damaged by chemotherapy. All of these are at high risk for ischemic reperfusion (IR) injury. The aims of this review are to assess current knowledge of the clinical effectiveness of ischemic preconditioning and intermittent ischemia in reducing IR damage in liver surgery; to evaluate the use of bile flow as a sensitive indicator of IR liver damage; and to analyze the molecular mechanisms, especially intracellular Ca2+, involved in IR injury and ischemic preconditioning. It is concluded that bile flow is a sensitive indicator of IR injury. Together with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other extracellular and intracellular signaling molecules, intracellular Ca2+ in hepatocytes plays a key role in the normal regulation of bile flow and in IR-induced injury and cell death. Ischemic preconditioning is an effective strategy to reduce IR injury but there is considerable scope for improvement, especially in patients with fatty and aged livers. The development of effective new strategies to reduce IR injury will depend on improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, especially by gaining a better perspective of the relative importance of the various intrahepatocyte signaling pathways involved.

  10. The Protective Effect of Intrasplenic Transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 Gene-Modified Fetal Hepatocytes on ConA-Induced Hepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenhuai; Hong, Bo; Xu, Wanhong; Shen, Ling; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Zhigang; Tong, Xiangmin; Yao, Hangping

    2013-01-01

    Background Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis is an experimental murine model mirroring the pathology of human autoimmune hepatitis. Aim To investigate the effects of intrasplenically transplanted fetal hepatocytes (BNL.CL2) transfected with recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) and IL-4 fusion protein on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Methods Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was used to infect BNL.CL2 cells. IL-4 and IL-18BP fusion protein expression were detected by ELISA and Western blotting. BNL.CL2 cells infected with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 were intrasplenically transplanted into mice. After 10 days, mice were injected with ConA (15 mg/kg), and sacrificed 18 hours later. Liver injury was assessed by serum transaminase and liver histology. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and monocyte-chemoattracting protein (MCP)-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates were detected by ELISA. Signaling molecules in liver homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting. Results Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 effectively expressed the IL-18BP/IL-4 fusion protein for more than 14 days in BNL.CL12 cells. Treatment of mice with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 before ConA injection significantly reduced the elevated plasma levels of transaminases compared with ConA control groups. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12p70 and MCP-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates from mice transplanted with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 were lower and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher than control groups. Phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65, AKT, p38 and JNK1/2 in liver homogenates were markedly suppressed by Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4. Conclusions Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was effectively transfected into mouse BNL.CL2 cells. Intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL12 cells alleviated the severity of inflammation in ConA-induced experimental hepatitis and provides a useful basis for the targeted gene therapy of liver disease. PMID:23516562

  11. The protective effect of intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 gene-modified fetal hepatocytes on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xueting; Qian, Yun; Xu, Chenhuai; Hong, Bo; Xu, Wanhong; Shen, Ling; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Zhigang; Tong, Xiangmin; Yao, Hangping

    2013-01-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis is an experimental murine model mirroring the pathology of human autoimmune hepatitis. To investigate the effects of intrasplenically transplanted fetal hepatocytes (BNL.CL2) transfected with recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) and IL-4 fusion protein on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was used to infect BNL.CL2 cells. IL-4 and IL-18BP fusion protein expression were detected by ELISA and Western blotting. BNL.CL2 cells infected with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 were intrasplenically transplanted into mice. After 10 days, mice were injected with ConA (15 mg/kg), and sacrificed 18 hours later. Liver injury was assessed by serum transaminase and liver histology. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and monocyte-chemoattracting protein (MCP)-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates were detected by ELISA. Signaling molecules in liver homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 effectively expressed the IL-18BP/IL-4 fusion protein for more than 14 days in BNL.CL12 cells. Treatment of mice with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 before ConA injection significantly reduced the elevated plasma levels of transaminases compared with ConA control groups. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12p70 and MCP-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates from mice transplanted with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 were lower and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher than control groups. Phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65, AKT, p38 and JNK1/2 in liver homogenates were markedly suppressed by Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was effectively transfected into mouse BNL.CL2 cells. Intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL12 cells alleviated the severity of inflammation in ConA-induced experimental hepatitis and provides a useful basis for the targeted gene therapy of liver disease.

  12. Resveratrol protects primary rat hepatocytes against oxidative stress damage: activation of the Nrf2 transcription factor and augmented activities of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rubiolo, Juan Andrés; Mithieux, Gilles; Vega, Félix Victor

    2008-09-04

    Oxidative stress is recognized as an important factor in the development of liver pathologies. The reactive oxygen species endogenously generated or as a consequence of xenobiotic metabolism are eliminated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic cellular systems. Besides endogen defences, the antioxidant consumption in the diet has an important role in the protection against the development of diseases product of oxidative damage. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound which is part of the human diet. This molecule has been shown to have many biological properties, including antioxidant activity. We decided to test if resveratrol could protect primary hepatocytes in culture from oxidative stress damage and if so, to determine if this compound affects the cellular detoxifying systems and their regulation through the Nrf2 transcription factor that regulates the expression of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Cell death by necrosis was detected by measuring the activity of lactate dehydrogenase liberated to the medium. The activities of antioxidant and phase II enzymes were measured using previously described methods. Activation of the Nrf2 transcription factor was studied by confocal microscopy and the Nrf2 and its coding mRNA levels were determined by western blot and quantitative PCR respectively. Resveratrol pre-treatment effectively protected hepatocytes in culture exposed to oxidative stress, increasing the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH quinone oxidoreductase and glutathione-S-transferase. Resveratrol increases the level of Nrf2 and induces its translocation to the nucleus. Also, it increases the concentration of the coding mRNA for Nrf2. In this work we show that resveratrol could be a useful drug for the protection of liver cells from oxidative stress induced damage.

  13. In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles on acetaminophen - induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Kunjiappan, Selvaraj; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Chowdhury, Ranjana

    2015-06-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of gold nanoparticles (GNaP) biosynthesized through the mediation of Azolla microphylla and A. microphylla extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.). The gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 μg/ml) and A. microphylla extract powder (100, 200, 400 μg/ml) were added to the primary hepatocytes in different conditions: treatment I (before 12 mM acetaminophen), treatment II (after 12 mM acetaminophen), and treatment III (both before and after 12 mM acetaminophen), and incubated. Among these, control group treated with 12 mM acetaminophen produced significantly elevated levels (50-80%) of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), catalase (CAT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and significantly decreased the levels (60-75%) of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Treatment with methanol extract of A. microphylla phytochemically biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 μg/ml) and A. microphylla methanol extract powder (100, 200, 400 μg/ml) significantly improved the viability of cells in a culture medium. It also significantly reduced the levels of LDH, CAT, GOT, GPT, and MDA, and significantly increased the levels of SOD and GSH-Px. In conclusion, gold nanoparticles biosynthesized through A. microphylla demonstrated effective hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects than methanol extract of A. microphylla.

  14. Hepatocyte Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Treyer, Aleksandr; Müsch, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocytes, like other epithelia, are situated at the interface between the organism’s exterior and the underlying internal milieu and organize the vectorial exchange of macromolecules between these two spaces. To mediate this function, epithelial cells, including hepatocytes, are polarized with distinct luminal domains that are separated by tight junctions from lateral domains engaged in cell-cell adhesion and from basal domains that interact with the underlying extracellular matrix. Despite these universal principles, hepatocytes distinguish themselves from other nonstriated epithelia by their multipolar organization. Each hepatocyte participates in multiple, narrow lumina, the bile canaliculi, and has multiple basal surfaces that face the endothelial lining. Hepatocytes also differ in the mechanism of luminal protein trafficking from other epithelia studied. They lack polarized protein secretion to the luminal domain and target single-spanning and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored bile canalicular membrane proteins via transcytosis from the basolateral domain. We compare this unique hepatic polarity phenotype with that of the more common columnar epithelial organization and review our current knowledge of the signaling mechanisms and the organization of polarized protein trafficking that govern the establishment and maintenance of hepatic polarity. The serine/threonine kinase LKB1, which is activated by the bile acid taurocholate and, in turn, activates adenosine monophosphate kinase-related kinases including AMPK1/2 and Par1 paralogues has emerged as a key determinant of hepatic polarity. We propose that the absence of a hepatocyte basal lamina and differences in cell-cell adhesion signaling that determine the positioning of tight junctions are two crucial determinants for the distinct hepatic and columnar polarity phenotypes. PMID:23720287

  15. Strategies for immortalization of primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eva, Ramboer; Bram, De Craene; Joery, De Kock; Tamara, Vanhaecke; Geert, Berx; Vera, Rogiers; Mathieu, Vinken

    2014-01-01

    The liver has the unique capacity to regenerate in response to a damaging event. Liver regeneration is hereby largely driven by hepatocyte proliferation, which in turn relies on cell cycling. The hepatocyte cell cycle is a complex process that is tightly regulated by several well-established mechanisms. In vitro, isolated hepatocytes do not longer retain this proliferative capacity. However, in vitro cell growth can be boosted by immortalization of hepatocytes. Well-defined immortalization genes can be artificially overexpressed in hepatocytes or the cells can be conditionally immortalized leading to controlled cell proliferation. This paper discusses the current immortalization techniques and provides a state-of-the-art overview of the actually available immortalized hepatocyte-derived cell lines and their applications. PMID:24911463

  16. Extensive conversion of hepatic biliary epithelial cells to hepatocytes after near total loss of hepatocytes in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae-Young; Ninov, Nikolay; Stainier, Didier Y R; Shin, Donghun

    2014-03-01

    Biliary epithelial cells (BECs) are considered to be a source of regenerating hepatocytes when hepatocyte proliferation is compromised. However, there is still controversy about the extent to which BECs can contribute to the regenerating hepatocyte population, and thereby to liver recovery. To investigate this issue, we established a zebrafish model of liver regeneration in which the extent of hepatocyte ablation can be controlled. Hepatocytes were depleted by administration of metronidazole to Tg(fabp10a:CFP-NTR) animals. We traced the origin of regenerating hepatocytes using short-term lineage-tracing experiments, as well as the inducible Cre/loxP system; specifically, we utilized both a BEC tracer line Tg(Tp1:CreER(T2)) and a hepatocyte tracer line Tg(fabp10a:CreER(T2)). We also examined BEC and hepatocyte proliferation and liver marker gene expression during liver regeneration. BECs gave rise to most of the regenerating hepatocytes in larval and adult zebrafish after severe hepatocyte depletion. After hepatocyte loss, BECs proliferated as they dedifferentiated into hepatoblast-like cells; they subsequently differentiated into highly proliferative hepatocytes that restored the liver mass. This process was impaired in zebrafish wnt2bb mutants; in these animals, hepatocytes regenerated but their proliferation was greatly reduced. BECs contribute to regenerating hepatocytes after substantial hepatocyte depletion in zebrafish, thereby leading to recovery from severe liver damage. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A simple and economical route to generate functional hepatocyte-like cells from hESCs and their application in evaluating alcohol induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Pal, Rajarshi; Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Das, Anjan Kumar; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro derived hepatocytes from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a promising tool to acquire improved knowledge of the cellular and molecular events underlying early human liver development under physiological and pathological conditions. Here we report a simple two-step protocol employing conditioned medium (CM) from human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2 to generate functional hepatocyte-like cells from hESC. Immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, quantitative RT-PCR, and biochemical analyses revealed that the endodermal progenitors appeared as pockets in culture, and the cascade of genes associated with the formation of definitive endoderm (HNF-3β, SOX-17, DLX-5, CXCR4) was consistent and in concurrence with the up-regulation of the markers for hepatic progenitors [alpha-feto protein (AFP), HNF-4α, CK-19, albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT)], followed by maturation into functional hepatocytes [tyrosine transferase (TAT), tryptophan-2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO), glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), CYP3A4, CYP7A1]. We witnessed that the gene expression profile during this differentiation process recapitulated in vivo liver development demonstrating a gradual down-regulation of extra embryonic endodermal markers (SOX-7, HNF-1β, SNAIL-1, LAMININ-1, CDX2), and the generated hepatic cells performed multiple liver functions. Since prenatal alcohol exposure is known to provoke irreversible abnormalities in the fetal cells and developing tissues, we exposed in vitro generated hepatocytes to ethanol (EtOH) and found that EtOH treatment not only impairs the survival and proliferation, but also induces apoptosis and perturbs differentiation of progenitor cells into hepatocytes. This disruption was accompanied by alterations in the expression of genes and proteins involved in hepatogenesis. Our results provide new insights into the wider range of destruction caused by alcohol on the dynamic process of liver organogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Isolated hepatocytes--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Berry, M N; Grivell, A R; Grivell, M B; Phillips, J W

    1997-07-01

    The first technique for large-scale preparation of isolated hepatocytes was described in 1953 and involved perfusion of rat liver under pressure with a Ca(2+)-free solution containing a chelating agent. Various modifications of this technique were in use over the next ten years, until it was demonstrated that cells prepared in this manner were grossly damaged, losing most of their cytoplasmic enzymes during the preparative procedure. The successful preparation of intact isolated hepatocytes by collagenase-treatment of liver was achieved in 1967, and the widespread use of intact hepatocyte suspensions was accelerated by the development soon after of high-yield preparative techniques involving perfusion of the liver with a medium containing collagenase. The introduction of the isolated hepatocyte preparation has enabled experimental studies that otherwise would not be feasible. Important advances have been the use of cultured hepatocytes, frequently of human origin, for the investigation of the metabolism and toxicology of potential therapeutic agents. Success in this field has been achieved through the steady improvement in techniques for the maintenance in culture of differentiated hepatocytes, and in particular their cytochrome P450 complexes. Another area showing considerable promise is the employment of hepatocytes, generally from a porcine source, in temporary support systems for patients with acute liver failure. Our own studies have concentrated on the demonstration of long-range interactions between hepatocyte compartments which suggest that energy transfer between cell compartments can take place without ATP turnover.

  19. Reversal of hepatocyte senescence after continuous in vivo cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Jun; Chen, Fei; Li, Jian-Xiu; Liu, Chang-Cheng; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Xia, Yong; Yu, Bing; You, Pu; Xiang, Dao; Lu, Lian; Yao, Hao; Borjigin, Uyunbilig; Yang, Guang-Shun; Wangensteen, Kirk J; He, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yi-Ping

    2014-07-01

    A better understanding of hepatocyte senescence could be used to treat age-dependent disease processes of the liver. Whether continuously proliferating hepatocytes could avoid or reverse senescence has not yet been fully elucidated. We confirmed that the livers of aged mice accumulated senescent and polyploid hepatocytes, which is associated with accumulation of DNA damage and activation of p53-p21 and p16(ink4a)-pRB pathways. Induction of multiple rounds continuous cell division is hard to apply in any animal model. Taking advantage of serial hepatocyte transplantation assays in the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase-deficient (Fah(-/-)) mouse, we studied the senescence of hepatocytes that had undergone continuous cell proliferation over a long time period, up to 12 rounds of serial transplantations. We demonstrated that the continuously proliferating hepatocytes avoided senescence and always maintained a youthful state. The reactivation of telomerase in hepatocytes after serial transplantation correlated with reversal of senescence. Moreover, senescent hepatocytes harvested from aged mice became rejuvenated upon serial transplantation, with full restoration of proliferative capacity. The same findings were also true for human hepatocytes. After serial transplantation, the high initial proportion of octoploid hepatocytes decreased to match the low level of youthful liver. These findings suggest that the hepatocyte "ploidy conveyer" is regulated differently during aging and regeneration. The findings of reversal of hepatocyte senescence could enable future studies on liver aging and cell therapy. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. Withaferin A Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis and DNA Damage in Oral Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Li, Ruei-Nian; Wang, Hui-Ru; Liu, Jing-Ru; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Chan, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is one of the most active steroidal lactones with reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulating effects against several types of cancer. ROS regulation involves selective killing. However, the anticancer and selective killing effects of WFA against oral cancer cells remain unclear. We evaluated whether the killing ability of WFA is selective, and we explored its mechanism against oral cancer cells. An MTS tetrazolium cell proliferation assay confirmed that WFA selectively killed two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) rather than normal oral cells (HGF-1). WFA also induced apoptosis of Ca9-22 cells, which was measured by flow cytometry for subG1 percentage, annexin V expression, and pan-caspase activity, as well as western blotting for caspases 1, 8, and 9 activations. Flow cytometry analysis shows that WFA-treated Ca9-22 oral cancer cells induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and phosphorylated histone H2A.X (γH2AX)-based DNA damage. Moreover, pretreating Ca9-22 cells with N -acetylcysteine (NAC) rescued WFA-induced selective killing, apoptosis, G2/M arrest, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. We conclude that WFA induced oxidative stress-mediated selective killing of oral cancer cells.

  1. Withaferin A Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis and DNA Damage in Oral Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Li, Ruei-Nian; Wang, Hui-Ru; Liu, Jing-Ru; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Chan, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is one of the most active steroidal lactones with reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulating effects against several types of cancer. ROS regulation involves selective killing. However, the anticancer and selective killing effects of WFA against oral cancer cells remain unclear. We evaluated whether the killing ability of WFA is selective, and we explored its mechanism against oral cancer cells. An MTS tetrazolium cell proliferation assay confirmed that WFA selectively killed two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) rather than normal oral cells (HGF-1). WFA also induced apoptosis of Ca9-22 cells, which was measured by flow cytometry for subG1 percentage, annexin V expression, and pan-caspase activity, as well as western blotting for caspases 1, 8, and 9 activations. Flow cytometry analysis shows that WFA-treated Ca9-22 oral cancer cells induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and phosphorylated histone H2A.X (γH2AX)-based DNA damage. Moreover, pretreating Ca9-22 cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) rescued WFA-induced selective killing, apoptosis, G2/M arrest, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. We conclude that WFA induced oxidative stress-mediated selective killing of oral cancer cells. PMID:28936177

  2. Active chemical fractions of stem bark extract of Khaya grandifoliola C.DC and Entada africana Guill. et Perr. synergistically protect primary rat hepatocytes against paracetamol-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Njayou, Frédéric Nico; Kouam, Arnaud Fondjo; Simo, Brice Fredy Nemg; Tchana, Angèle Nkouatchoua; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

    2016-07-07

    Khaya grandifoliola (Meliaceae) and Entada africana (Fabaceae) are traditionally used in Bamun (a western tribe of Cameroon) traditional medicine for the treatment of liver related diseases. In this study, the synergistic hepatoprotective effect of respective active fractions of the plants were investigated against paracetamol-induced toxicity in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Paracetamol conferred hepatocyte toxicity, as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) content assays. The crude extracts were fractionated by flash chromatography and fractions were tested for hepato-(protective and curative) activities. The most active fractions of both plants were tested individually, and in combination based on their respective half effective concentration (EC50). The methylene chloride/methanol fractions of K. grandifoliola (75:25 v/v) (KgF25) and E. africana (90:10 v/v) (EaF10) were found to be the most hepato-protective with EC50 values of 10.30 ± 1.66 μg/ml and 13.47 ± 2.06 μg/ml respectively, comparable with that of silymarin (13.71 ± 3.87 μg/ml). These fractions and their combination significantly (P <0.05) improved cell viability, inhibited ALT leakage and MDA formation, and restored cellular CAT, SOD activities and GSH content. The combination was more effective in restoring biochemical parameters with coefficients of drugs interaction (CDI) less than 1. These findings demonstrate that the active fractions have synergistic action in the protection of rat hepatocytes against paracetamol-induced damage and suggest that their hepatoprotective properties may be maximized by using them in combination.

  3. Long-Term Selenium-Deficient Diet Induces Liver Damage by Altering Hepatocyte Ultrastructure and MMP1/3 and TIMP1/3 Expression in Growing Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Liang, Hua; Yi, Jianhua; Tan, Wuhong; He, Shulan; Wang, Sen; Li, Feng; Wu, Xiaofang; Ma, Jing; Shi, Xiaowei; Guo, Xiong; Bai, Chuanyi

    2017-02-01

    The effects of selenium (Se)-deficient diet on the liver were evaluated by using growing rats which were fed with normal and Se-deficient diets, respectively, for 109 days. The results showed that rats fed with Se-deficient diet led to a decrease in Se concentration in the liver, particularly among male rats from the low-Se group. This causes alterations to the ultrastructure of hepatocytes with condensed chromatin and swelling mitochondria observed after low Se intake. Meanwhile, pathological changes and increased fibrosis in hepatic periportal were detected by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining in low-Se group. Furthermore, through immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, higher expressions of metalloproteinases (MMP1/3) and their tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP1/3) were observed in the hepatic periportal of rats from the low-Se group. However, higher expressions of MMP1/3 and lower expressions of TIMP1/3 were detected in hepatic central vein and hepatic sinusoid. In addition, upregulated expressions of MMP1/3 and downregulated expressions of TIMP1/3 at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels also appeared to be relevant to low Se intake. In conclusion, Se-deficient diet could cause low Se concentration in the liver, alterations of hepatocyte ultrastructure, differential expressions of MMP1/3 and TIMP1/3 as well as fibrosis in the liver hepatic periportal.

  4. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid prevents ultraviolet A-induced damage and matrix metalloproteinases expression in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinfen; Lai, Wei; Zhu, Guoxing; Wan, Miaojian; Chen, Jian; Tai, Yan; Lu, Chun

    2013-10-01

    10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) is a major fatty acid component of royal jelly, which has been reported to have a variety of beneficial pharmacological characteristics. However, the effects of 10-HDA on skin photoageing and its potential mechanism of action are unclear. We investigated the protective effects of 10-HDA on ultraviolet (UV) A-induced damage in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). We then explored the inhibitory effects of 10-HDA on UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression and elucidated the signalling pathways controlling MMPs inhibition. Primary human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to UVA. Cell proliferation, cellular senescent state and collagen content were analysed using CCK-8, senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining and Sircol collagen assay, respectively. Fluorometric assays were performed to detect the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells. The mRNA levels of MMP-1, MMP-3 and type I (α1) collagen were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot was applied to detect the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, JNK and p38 MAPK. HDFs treated with 10-HDA were significantly protected from UVA-induced cytotoxicity, ROS, cellular senescence and stimulated collagen production. Moreover, 10-HDA suppressed the UVA-induced expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 at both the transcriptional and protein levels. Treatment with 10-HDA also reduced the UVA-induced activation of the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. The data obtained in this study provide evidence that 10-HDA could prevent UVA-induced damage and inhibit MMP-1 and MMP-3 expressions. Therefore, 10-HDA may be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skin photoageing. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Hypothermic maintenance of hepatocyte spheroids.

    PubMed

    Lai, Pamela H; Meng, Qin; Sielaff, Timothy D; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2005-01-01

    Primary hepatocytes form spheroids under some culture conditions. These spheroids exhibit many tissue-like ultrastructures and retain many liver-specific functions over a long period of time. They are attractive for many applications employing liver cells. The ability to maintain their viability and functions at a reduced temperature to allow for transportation to the site of their application will facilitate their use. Furthermore, with their structural and functional similarity, they could possibly be used as a model system for studying various liver ischemias. The effect of hypothermic treatment was assessed by oxygen consumption rate, ATP, H2O2, and caspase 8 content, as well as albumin and urea synthesis, during and posttreatment. No single outcome variable gives a superlative quantification of hypothermic damage. Taken together, the hypothermic treatment can be seen as increasingly damaging as the temperature decreases from 21 degrees C to 15 degrees C and 4 degrees C. The addition of the chemical protectants glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cystein (NAC), and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) decreased the damaging effect of hypothermic treatment. This protection effect was even more profound when spheroids were preincubated with the protectant for 24 h, and was most prominent at 4 degrees C. The viability of the hypothermically treated hepatocyte spheroids was confirmed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The method reported provides a means of maintaining spheroids' viability and may allow for their distribution to application sites at a distance.

  6. Failure of hepatocyte marker-expressing hematopoietic progenitor cells to efficiently convert into hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lian, Gewei; Wang, Chengyan; Teng, Chunbo; Zhang, Cong; Du, Liying; Zhong, Qian; Miao, Chenglin; Ding, Mingxiao; Deng, Hongkui

    2006-03-01

    Whether bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells can directly differentiate into nonhematopoietic cells remains controversial. The aim of this study is to further investigate the potentiality of BM hematopoietic progenitor cells to convert into hepatocytes in vitro. Different subsets of BM cells from C57/BL6 mice were isolated using markers of hematopoietic stem cells by magnetic cell sorting and by flow cytometry. These cells were induced to transdifferentiate to hepatocytes in vitro in the presence of various cytokines or of hepatocytes (or tissue) from damaged liver, which have been reported to stimulate the conversion. Hepatic gene markers in freshly isolated or cultured BM cells were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. Freshly isolated hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) expressed a low level of messenger RNAs of hepatic cell-specific markers including albumin and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), but did not significantly upregulate expression of these markers, even in the presence of cytokines or cocultured hepatocytes (or tissue). HPCs induced in vitro did not express the message of alpha-anti-trypsin-a mature hepatocyte marker. At protein level, the specific staining of AFP was not detected in the HPCs, either freshly isolated or in vitro induced. Albumin protein was detected in freshly isolated albumin mRNA-positive and -negative BM cell subpopulations. Albumin-stained BM cells disappeared after being induced for 5 days, but restained if mouse serum was supplemented in medium for a 24-hour extended culture, suggesting that albumin was absorbed by BM cells instead of de novo expression. HPCs expressed mRNAs of hepatic cell markers, but could not efficiently convert into hepatocytes in vitro under our experimental conditions. Our observation raises a cautionary note in determining whether in vitro transdifferentiation of BM cells to hepatocytes can actually take place.

  7. Targeted transplantation of mitochondria to hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wu, Catherine H; Wu, George Y

    2016-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial defects in hepatocytes can result in liver dysfunction and death. Hepatocytes have cell-surface asialoglycoprotein receptors (AsGRs) which internalize AsGs within endosomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether mitochondria could be targeted to hepatocytes by AsGR-mediated endocytosis. Materials and methods An AsG, AsOR, was linked to polylysine to create a conjugate, AsOR-PL, and complexed with healthy and functional mitochondria (defined by normal morphology, cytochrome c assays, and oxygen-consumption rates). Huh7 (AsGR+) and SK Hep1 (AsGR−) cells were treated with a mitochondrial toxin to form Huh7-Mito− and SK Hep1-Mito− cells, lacking detectable mitochondrial DNA. An endosomolytic peptide, LLO, was coupled to AsOR to form AsOR-LLO. A lysosomal inhibitor, amantadine, was used in mitochondria-uptake studies as a control for nonspecific endosomal release. Results Coincubation of complexed mitochondria and AsOR-LLO with Huh7-Mito− cells increased mitochondrial DNA to >9,700-fold over control at 7 days (P<0.001), and increased mitochondrial oxygen-consumption rates to >90% of control by 10 days. Conclusion Rescue of mitochondria-damaged hepatocytes can be achieved by targeted uptake of normal mitochondria through receptor-mediated endocytosis. PMID:27942238

  8. Genetic abolishment of hepatocyte proliferation activates hepatic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yoko; Zhang, Mingjun; Yamaji, Sachie; Cang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Quiescent hepatic stem cells (HSCs) can be activated when hepatocyte proliferation is compromised. Chemical injury rodent models have been widely used to study the localization, biomarkers, and signaling pathways in HSCs, but these models usually exhibit severe promiscuous toxicity and fail to distinguish damaged and non-damaged cells. Our goal is to establish new animal models to overcome these limitations, thereby providing new insights into HSC biology and application. We generated mutant mice with constitutive or inducible deletion of Damaged DNA Binding protein 1 (DDB1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, in hepatocytes. We characterized the molecular mechanism underlying the compensatory activation and the properties of oval cells (OCs) by methods of mouse genetics, immuno-staining, cell transplantation and gene expression profiling. We show that deletion of DDB1 abolishes self-renewal capacity of mouse hepatocytes in vivo, leading to compensatory activation and proliferation of DDB1-expressing OCs. Partially restoring proliferation of DDB1-deficient hepatocytes by ablation of p21, a substrate of DDB1 E3 ligase, alleviates OC proliferation. Purified OCs express both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte markers, form colonies in vitro, and differentiate to hepatocytes after transplantation. Importantly, the DDB1 mutant mice exhibit very minor liver damage, compared to a chemical injury model. Microarray analysis reveals several previously unrecognized markers, including Reelin, enriched in oval cells. Here we report a genetic model in which irreversible inhibition of hepatocyte duplication results in HSC-driven liver regeneration. The DDB1 mutant mice can be broadly applied to studies of HSC differentiation, HSC niche and HSCs as origin of liver cancer.

  9. Genetic Abolishment of Hepatocyte Proliferation Activates Hepatic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Yoko; Zhang, Mingjun; Yamaji, Sachie; Cang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Quiescent hepatic stem cells (HSCs) can be activated when hepatocyte proliferation is compromised. Chemical injury rodent models have been widely used to study the localization, biomarkers, and signaling pathways in HSCs, but these models usually exhibit severe promiscuous toxicity and fail to distinguish damaged and non-damaged cells. Our goal is to establish new animal models to overcome these limitations, thereby providing new insights into HSC biology and application. We generated mutant mice with constitutive or inducible deletion of Damaged DNA Binding protein 1 (DDB1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, in hepatocytes. We characterized the molecular mechanism underlying the compensatory activation and the properties of oval cells (OCs) by methods of mouse genetics, immuno-staining, cell transplantation and gene expression profiling. We show that deletion of DDB1 abolishes self-renewal capacity of mouse hepatocytes in vivo, leading to compensatory activation and proliferation of DDB1-expressing OCs. Partially restoring proliferation of DDB1-deficient hepatocytes by ablation of p21, a substrate of DDB1 E3 ligase, alleviates OC proliferation. Purified OCs express both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte markers, form colonies in vitro, and differentiate to hepatocytes after transplantation. Importantly, the DDB1 mutant mice exhibit very minor liver damage, compared to a chemical injury model. Microarray analysis reveals several previously unrecognized markers, including Reelin, enriched in oval cells. Here we report a genetic model in which irreversible inhibition of hepatocyte duplication results in HSC-driven liver regeneration. The DDB1 mutant mice can be broadly applied to studies of HSC differentiation, HSC niche and HSCs as origin of liver cancer. PMID:22384083

  10. Lipopolysaccharide potentiates the effect of hepatocyte growth factor on hepatocyte replication in rats by augmenting AP-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; Jokerst, R; Gondipalli, P; Cai, S R; Kennedy, S; Flye, M W; Ponder, K P

    1999-12-01

    The liver regenerates by replication of differentiated hepatocytes after damage or removal of part of the liver. Although several growth factors and signaling pathways are activated during regeneration, it is unclear as to which of these are essential for hepatocyte replication. We show here that low- (1 mg/kg) and high- (10 mg/kg) dose hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced replication of 2.1% and 11.1% of hepatocytes in rats, respectively. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an inducer of the acute phase response, augmented hepatocyte replication in response to low- and high-dose HGF by 4- and 2-fold, respectively. HGF alone induced moderate levels of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), resulting in moderate levels of AP-1-DNA binding activity. The combination of LPS + HGF increased JNK and AP-1-DNA binding activity more than levels seen with LPS or HGF alone. The activation of Stat3 that was observed after administration of LPS + HGF, but not HGF alone, could contribute to increased transcription of AP-1 components. Because phosphorylation of the c-Jun component of AP-1 by JNK increases its ability to activate transcription, the AP-1 in hepatocytes from animals treated with LPS + HGF may be more active than in rats treated with LPS or HGF alone. LPS may contribute to hepatocyte replication by potentiating the effect of HGF on the activation of both AP-1-DNA binding and transcriptional activity.

  11. Protective effect of chromene isolated from Sargassum horneri against UV-A-induced damage in skin dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ae; Ahn, Byul-Nim; Kong, Chang-Suk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2012-08-01

    Skin homoeostasis is interrupted during UV-A irradiation. How the UV-A-altered skin components influences photoageing of skin should be investigated using human in vitro models that are important for understanding skin ageing. In this study, chromene compound, sargachromenol, was isolated from Sargassum horneri, and its potency on inhibition of photoageing was investigated in UV-A-irradiated dermal fibroblasts. Effects of sargachromenol on the prevention of photoageing were evaluated by measuring ROS production, membrane protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and ageing-related gene expression in UV-A-irradiated human skin dermal fibroblasts. The results indicated that treatment with sargachromenol suppressed the collagenase matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression without any cytotoxicity and phototoxicity. It was further found that these inhibitions were because of increase in the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 genes. Furthermore, we confirmed that the UV-A-induced transcriptions of AP-1 signalling pathway were regulated by sargachromenol treatment in UV-A-irradiated dermal fibroblasts. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Arctigenin protects against ultraviolet-A-induced damage to stemness through inhibition of the NF-κB/MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, See-Hyoung; Cho, Jae Youl; Oh, Sae Woong; Kang, Mingyeong; Lee, Seung Eun; Yoo, Ju Ah; Jung, Kwangseon; Lee, Jienny; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Jongsung

    2018-02-25

    The stemness of stem cells is negatively affected by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation. This study was performed to examine the effects of arctigenin on UVA-irradiation-induced damage to the stemness of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from adipose tissue. The mechanisms of action of arctigenin were also investigated. A BrdU-incorporation assay demonstrated that arctigenin attenuated the UVA-induced reduction of the cellular proliferative potential. Arctigenin also increased the UVA-induced reduction in stemness of hMSCs by upregulating stemness-related genes such as SOX2, OCT4, and NANOG. In addition, the UVA-induced reduction in the mRNA expression level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly recovered by arctigenin. The antagonizing effect of arctigenin on UVA irradiation was mediated by reduced PGE 2 production through the inhibition of MAPKs (p42/44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and JNK) and NF-κB. Overall, these findings suggest that arctigenin can ameliorate the reduced stemness of hMSCs induced by UVA irradiation. The effects of arctigenin are mediated by PGE 2 -cAMP signaling-dependent upregulation of HIF-1α. Therefore, arctigenin could be used as an antagonist to attenuate the effects of UVA irradiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolism of para-aminophenol by rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Z; Nikelly, J G; Killmer, L; Tarloff, J B

    2000-08-01

    Autoxidation of para-aminophenol (PAP) has been proposed to account for the selective nephrotoxicity of this compound. However, other studies suggest that hepatic metabolites of PAP rather than the parent compound may be responsible for renal damage. These studies were designed to investigate PAP metabolism in isolated hepatocytes. We synthesized several proposed metabolites for analysis by HPLC/mass spectrometry and compared those results with HPLC/mass spectrometric analyses of metabolites found after incubating hepatocytes with PAP. Hepatocytes prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C for 5 h with 2.3 mM PAP under an atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% O2. Aliquots were withdrawn at 0.1 h of incubation and then hourly through 5 h of incubation. Reactions were terminated by the addition of acetonitrile. Hepatocyte viability was unaltered with PAP present in the incubation medium. We found that hepatocytes converted PAP to two major metabolites (PAP-GSH conjugates and PAP-N-acetylcysteine conjugates) and several minor metabolites [PAP-O-glucuronide, acetaminophen (APAP), APAP-O-glucuronide, APAP-GSH conjugates, and 4-hydroxyformanilide]. Preincubating hepatoyctes with 1-aminobenzotriazole, an inhibitor of cytochromes P450, did not alter the pattern of PAP metabolism. In conclusion, we found that PAP was metabolized in hepatocytes predominantly to PAP-GSH conjugates and PAP-N-acetylcysteine conjugates in sufficient quantities to account for the nephrotoxicity of PAP.

  14. Functional assessment of hepatocytes after transplantation into rat spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.J.; Fuller, B.J.; Attenburrow, V.D.

    1982-02-01

    The retention of structural integrity and metabolic function by isolated hepatocytes after ectopic transplantation has been investigated in autografted rats. Rats were partially hepatectomized and isolated hepatocytes prepared from the excised liver lobes were implanted into their spleens. Histological examination of the spleens 7 or more weeks after implantation revealed aggregates of hepatocytes in the red pulp. Two tests of biochemical function were applied to the hepatocytes after tranplantation. In the first the hepatobiliary imaging agent technetium-99m N-(N'-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99//sup m/Tc HIDA), which was shown to be avidly taken up by isolated hepatocytes in vitro, was infused into themore » tail veins of autograft and control rats. Radioactivity accumulating in the spleens of autografted rats was markedly greater than that in controls implanted with lethally damaged cells or in nontransplanted rats. In the second the presence of bilirubin metabolites was sought in autograft spleens after intravenous infusion of bilirubin. Both mono- and diglucuronides of bilirubin were recovered from the spleens of autograft rats but no conjugates were recovered from the spleens of unoperated controls. We conclude that after autotransplantation isolated hepatocytes retain their morphology and at least some of their functional activities.« less

  15. Functional assessment of hepatocytes after transplantation into rat spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.J.; Fuller, B.J.; Attenburrow, V.D.

    1982-02-01

    The retention of structural integrity and metabolic function by isolated hepatocytes after ectopic transplantation has been investigated in autografted rats. Rats were partially hepatectomized and isolated hepatocytes prepared from the excised liver lobes were implanted into their spleens. Histological examination of the spleens 7 or more weeks after implantation revealed aggregates of hepatocytes in the red pulp. Two tests of biochemical function were applied to the hepatocytes after transplantation. In the first the hepatobiliary imaging agent technetium-99m N-(N'-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (99mTc HIDA), which was shown to be avidly taken up by isolated hepatocytes in vitro, was infused into the tailmore » veins of autograft and control rats. Radioactivity accumulating in the spleens of autografted rats was markedly greater than that in controls implanted with lethally damaged cells or in nontransplanted rats. In the second the presence of bilirubin metabolites was sought in autograft spleens after intravenous infusion of bilirubin. Both mono- and diglucuronides of bilirubin were recovered from the spleens of autograft rats but no conjugates were recovered from the spleens of unoperated controls. We conclude that after autotransplantation isolated hepatocytes retain their morphology and at least some of their functional activities.« less

  16. Hepatocyte polyploidization and its association with pathophysiological processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Jun; Chen, Fei; Lau, Joseph T Y; Hu, Yi-Ping

    2017-05-18

    A characteristic cellular feature of the mammalian liver is the progressive polyploidization of the hepatocytes, where individual cells acquire more than two sets of chromosomes. Polyploidization results from cytokinesis failure that takes place progressively during the course of postnatal development. The proportion of polyploidy also increases with the aging process or with cellular stress such as surgical resection, toxic stimulation, metabolic overload, or oxidative damage, to involve as much as 90% of the hepatocytes in mice and 40% in humans. Hepatocyte polyploidization is generally considered an indicator of terminal differentiation and cellular senescence, and related to the dysfunction of insulin and p53/p21 signaling pathways. Interestingly, the high prevalence of hepatocyte polyploidization in the aged mouse liver can be reversed when the senescent hepatocytes are serially transplanted into young mouse livers. Here we review the current knowledge on the mechanism of hepatocytes polyploidization during postnatal growth, aging, and liver diseases. The biologic significance of polyploidization in senescent reversal, within the context of new ways to think of liver aging and liver diseases is considered.

  17. Hepatocyte polyploidization and its association with pathophysiological processes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min-Jun; Chen, Fei; Lau, Joseph T Y; Hu, Yi-Ping

    2017-01-01

    A characteristic cellular feature of the mammalian liver is the progressive polyploidization of the hepatocytes, where individual cells acquire more than two sets of chromosomes. Polyploidization results from cytokinesis failure that takes place progressively during the course of postnatal development. The proportion of polyploidy also increases with the aging process or with cellular stress such as surgical resection, toxic stimulation, metabolic overload, or oxidative damage, to involve as much as 90% of the hepatocytes in mice and 40% in humans. Hepatocyte polyploidization is generally considered an indicator of terminal differentiation and cellular senescence, and related to the dysfunction of insulin and p53/p21 signaling pathways. Interestingly, the high prevalence of hepatocyte polyploidization in the aged mouse liver can be reversed when the senescent hepatocytes are serially transplanted into young mouse livers. Here we review the current knowledge on the mechanism of hepatocytes polyploidization during postnatal growth, aging, and liver diseases. The biologic significance of polyploidization in senescent reversal, within the context of new ways to think of liver aging and liver diseases is considered. PMID:28518148

  18. Repolarization of hepatocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Talamini, M A; Kappus, B; Hubbard, A

    1997-01-01

    We have evaluated the biochemical, morphological, and functional redevelopment of polarity in freshly isolated hepatocytes cultured using a double layer collagen gel sandwich technique. Western blot analysis showed increased cellular levels of the cell adhesion protein uvomorulin as cultured hepatocytes repolarized. Immunofluorescence studies using antibodies against domain-specific membrane proteins showed polarity as early as 48 hours, although the pattern of the polymeric Immunoglobulin-A receptor (pIgA-R) differed from in vivo liver. Electron microscopy showed developing bile canaliculi at 1 day. However, the functional presence of tight junctions was absent at 1 day, but present at 5 days. We further showed functional polarity to be present at 4 days by documenting the ability of cultured hepatocytes to metabolize and excrete fluorescein diacetate into visible bile canaliculi. We conclude that hepatocytes cultured appropriately develop morphological and functional polarity. Hepatocyte culture is therefore a useful tool for the study of mechanisms responsible for the development of polarized function.

  19. Aniline Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Hong; Na, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Shu-Ying; Dong, Hong-Wei; Yu, Jia; Jia, Li; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N -acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected. Levels of ROS and MDA were significantly increased and levels of GSH and CAT, activity of SOD, and mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocytes were significantly decreased by aniline compared with the negative control group. The tail moment and DNA content of the tail in exposed groups were significantly higher than those in the negative control group. Cell viability was reduced and apoptotic death was induced by aniline in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of ROS generation, oxidative damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage and apoptosis could be prevented if ROS inhibitor NAC was added. ROS generation is involved in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA injury, which may play a role in aniline-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of aniline-induced toxicity and apoptosis of hepatocytes.

  20. Aniline Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Hong; Na, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Shu-Ying; Dong, Hong-Wei; Yu, Jia; Jia, Li; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected. Levels of ROS and MDA were significantly increased and levels of GSH and CAT, activity of SOD, and mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocytes were significantly decreased by aniline compared with the negative control group. The tail moment and DNA content of the tail in exposed groups were significantly higher than those in the negative control group. Cell viability was reduced and apoptotic death was induced by aniline in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of ROS generation, oxidative damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage and apoptosis could be prevented if ROS inhibitor NAC was added. ROS generation is involved in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA injury, which may play a role in aniline-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of aniline-induced toxicity and apoptosis of hepatocytes. PMID:27916916

  1. Effective Hepatocyte Transplantation Using Rat Hepatocytes with Low Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ise, Hirohiko; Nikaido, Toshio; Negishi, Naoki; Sugihara, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Akaike, Toshihiro; Ikeda, Uichi

    2004-01-01

    Development of a reliable method of isolating highly proliferative potential hepatocytes provides information crucial to progress in the field of hepatocyte transplantation. The aim of this study was to develop reliable hepatocyte transplantation using highly proliferative, eg, progenitor-like hepatocytes, based on asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) expression levels for hepatocyte transplantation. We have previously reported that mouse hepatocytes with low ASGPR expression levels have highly proliferative potential and can be used as progenitor-like hepatocytes. We therefore fractionated F344 male rat hepatocytes expressing low and high levels of ASGPR and determined the liver repopulation capacity of hepatocytes according to low and high ASGPR expression in the liver. Next, 2 × 105 cells of each type were transplanted into female liver regenerative model dipeptidyl peptidase-deficient rats, and we estimated the rate of liver repopulation by the transplanted hepatocytes in the host liver, as determined by recognition of the Sry gene on the Y-chromosome. At 60 days after hepatocyte transplantation, the transplanted hepatocytes occupied ∼76% of the total hepatocyte mass in the case of the transplantation of hepatocytes with low ASGPR expression, but accounted for ∼12% and 17% of the mass in the case of the transplantation of hepatocytes with high ASGPR expression and unfractionated hepatocytes, respectively. In conclusion, these findings suggest that hepatocytes with low ASGPR expression can result in normal liver function and a high repopulation capacity in vivo. These results provide insight into development of a strategy for effective liver repopulation using transplanted hepatocytes. PMID:15277224

  2. Effective hepatocyte transplantation using rat hepatocytes with low asialoglycoprotein receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Ise, Hirohiko; Nikaido, Toshio; Negishi, Naoki; Sugihara, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Akaike, Toshihiro; Ikeda, Uichi

    2004-08-01

    Development of a reliable method of isolating highly proliferative potential hepatocytes provides information crucial to progress in the field of hepatocyte transplantation. The aim of this study was to develop reliable hepatocyte transplantation using highly proliferative, eg, progenitor-like hepatocytes, based on asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) expression levels for hepatocyte transplantation. We have previously reported that mouse hepatocytes with low ASGPR expression levels have highly proliferative potential and can be used as progenitor-like hepatocytes. We therefore fractionated F344 male rat hepatocytes expressing low and high levels of ASGPR and determined the liver repopulation capacity of hepatocytes according to low and high ASGPR expression in the liver. Next, 2 x 10(5) cells of each type were transplanted into female liver regenerative model dipeptidyl peptidase-deficient rats, and we estimated the rate of liver repopulation by the transplanted hepatocytes in the host liver, as determined by recognition of the Sry gene on the Y-chromosome. At 60 days after hepatocyte transplantation, the transplanted hepatocytes occupied approximately 76% of the total hepatocyte mass in the case of the transplantation of hepatocytes with low ASGPR expression, but accounted for approximately 12% and 17% of the mass in the case of the transplantation of hepatocytes with high ASGPR expression and unfractionated hepatocytes, respectively. In conclusion, these findings suggest that hepatocytes with low ASGPR expression can result in normal liver function and a high repopulation capacity in vivo. These results provide insight into development of a strategy for effective liver repopulation using transplanted hepatocytes.

  3. Reactive oxygen species mediate human hepatocyte injury during hypoxia/reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, Ricky Harminder; Curbishley, Stuart M; Weston, Christopher J; Adams, David H; Afford, Simon C

    2010-11-01

    Increasing evidence shows that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be critical mediators of liver damage during the relative hypoxia of ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) associated with transplant surgery or of the tissue microenvironment created as a result of chronic hepatic inflammation or infection. Much work has been focused on Kupffer cells or liver resident macrophages with respect to the generation of ROS during IRI. However, little is known about the contribution of endogenous hepatocyte ROS production or its potential impact on the parenchymal cell death associated with IRI and chronic hepatic inflammation. For the first time, we show that human hepatocytes isolated from nondiseased liver tissue and human hepatocytes isolated from diseased liver tissue exhibit marked differences in ROS production in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H-R). Furthermore, several different antioxidants are able to abrogate hepatocyte ROS-induced cell death during hypoxia and H-R. These data provide clear evidence that endogenous ROS production by mitochondria and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase drives human hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis during hypoxia and H-R and may therefore play an important role in any hepatic diseases characterized by a relatively hypoxic liver microenvironment. In conclusion, these data strongly suggest that hepatocytes and hepatocyte-derived ROS are active participants driving hepatic inflammation. These novel findings highlight important functional/metabolic differences between hepatocytes isolated from normal donor livers, hepatocytes isolated from normal resected tissue obtained during surgery for malignant neoplasms, and hepatocytes isolated from livers with end-stage disease. Furthermore, the targeting of hepatocyte ROS generation with antioxidants may offer therapeutic potential for the adjunctive treatment of IRI and chronic inflammatory liver diseases. © 2010 AASLD.

  4. Three Dimensional Primary Hepatocyte Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoffe, Boris

    1998-01-01

    Our results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of culturing PHH in microgravity bioreactors that exceeded the longest period obtained using other methods. Within the first week of culture, isolated hepatocytes started to form aggregates, which continuously increased in size (up to 1 cm) and macroscopically appeared as a multidimensional tissue-like assembly. To improve oxygenation and nutrition within the spheroids we performed experiments with the biodegradable nonwoven fiber-based polymers made from PolyGlycolic Acid (PGA). It has been shown that PGA scaffolds stimulate isolated cells to regenerate tissue with defined sizes and shapes and are currently being studied for various tissue-engineering applications. Our data demonstrated that culturing hepatocytes in the presence of PGA scaffolds resulted in more efficient cell assembly and formations of larger cell spheroids (up to 3 cm in length, see figure). The histology of cell aggregates cultured with PGA showed polymer fibers with attached hepatocytes. We initiated experiments to co-culture primary human hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells in the bioreactor. The presence of endothelial cells in co-cultures were established by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 monoclonal Ab. Our preliminary data demonstrated that cultures of purified hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells exhibited better growth and expressed higher levels of albumin MRNA for a longer period of time than cultures of ppfified, primary human hepatocytes cultured alone. We also evaluated microsomal deethylation activity of hepatocytes cultured in the presence of endothelial cells.In summary, we have established liver cell culture, which mimicked the structure and function of the parent tissue.

  5. Comparison of para-aminophenol cytotoxicity in rat renal epithelial cells and hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Bentzley, Catherine M; Tarloff, Joan B

    2005-04-01

    Several chemicals, including para-aminophenol (PAP), produce kidney damage in the absence of hepatic damage. Selective nephrotoxicity may be related to the ability of the kidney to reabsorb filtered water, thereby raising the intraluminal concentration of toxicants and exposing tubular epithelial cells to higher concentrations than would be present in other tissues. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that hepatocytes and renal epithelial cells exposed to equivalent concentrations of PAP would be equally susceptible to toxicity. Hepatocytes and renal epithelial cells were prepared by collagenase digestion of tissues obtained from female Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicity was monitored using trypan blue exclusion, oxygen consumption and ATP content. We measured the rate of PAP clearance and formation of PAP-glutathione conjugate by HPLC. We found that renal epithelial cells accumulated trypan blue and showed declines in oxygen consumption and ATP content at significantly lower concentrations of PAP and at earlier time points than hepatocytes. The half-life of PAP in hepatocyte incubations was significantly shorter (0.71+/-0.07 h) than in renal epithelial cell incubations (1.33+/-0.23 h), suggesting that renal epithelial cells were exposed to PAP for longer time periods than hepatocytes. Renal epithelial cells formed significantly less glutathione conjugates of PAP (PAP-SG) than did hepatocytes, consistent with less efficient detoxification of reactive PAP intermediates by renal epithelial cells. Finally, hepatocytes contained significant more reduced glutathione (NPSH) than did renal epithelial cells, possibly explaining the enhanced formation of PAP-SG by this cell population. In conclusion, our data indicates that renal epithelial cells are intrinsically more susceptible to PAP cytotoxicity than are hepatocytes. This enhanced cytotoxicity may be due to longer exposure to PAP and/or reduced detoxification of reactive intermediates due to lower concentrations

  6. Resveratrol Inhibited Hydroquinone-Induced Cytotoxicity in Mouse Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Hong; Ootsuki, Yoshie; Fujita, Hirofumi; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Yie, Qinxia; Tsutsui, Ken; Sano, Kuniaki; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Ogino, Keiki

    2012-01-01

    Hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol) has been widely used in clinical situations and the cosmetic industry because of its depigmenting effects. Most skin-lightening hydroquinone creams contain 4%–5% hydroquinone. We have investigated the role of resveratrol in prevention of hydroquinone induced cytotoxicity in mouse primary hepatocytes. We found that 400 µM hydroquinone exposure alone induced apoptosis of the cells and also resulted in a significant drop of cell viability compared with the control, and pretreatment of resveratrol to a final concentration of 0.5 mM 1 h before hydroquinone exposure did not show a significant improvement in the survival rate of the hepatocytes, however, relatively higher concentrations of resveratrol (≥1 mM) inhibited apoptosis of the mouse primary hepatocytes and increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and in particular the survival rate of the hepatocytes was recovered from 28% to near 100% by 5 mM resveratrol. Interestingly, pretreatment with resveratrol for longer time (24 h), even in very low concentrations (50 µM, 100 µM), blocked the damage of hydroquinone to the cells. We also observed that resveratrol pretreatment suppressed hydroquinone-induced expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA dose-dependently. The present study suggests that resveratrol protected the cells against hydroquinone-induced toxicity through its antioxidant function and possibly suppressive effect on the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1. PMID:23202692

  7. Resveratrol inhibited hydroquinone-induced cytotoxicity in mouse primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Hong; Ootsuki, Yoshie; Fujita, Hirofumi; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Yie, Qinxia; Tsutsui, Ken; Sano, Kuniaki; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Ogino, Keiki

    2012-09-19

    Hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol) has been widely used in clinical situations and the cosmetic industry because of its depigmenting effects. Most skin-lightening hydroquinone creams contain 4%-5% hydroquinone. We have investigated the role of resveratrol in prevention of hydroquinone induced cytotoxicity in mouse primary hepatocytes. We found that 400 µM hydroquinone exposure alone induced apoptosis of the cells and also resulted in a significant drop of cell viability compared with the control, and pretreatment of resveratrol to a final concentration of 0.5 mM 1 h before hydroquinone exposure did not show a significant improvement in the survival rate of the hepatocytes, however, relatively higher concentrations of resveratrol (≥1 mM) inhibited apoptosis of the mouse primary hepatocytes and increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and in particular the survival rate of the hepatocytes was recovered from 28% to near 100% by 5 mM resveratrol. Interestingly, pretreatment with resveratrol for longer time (24 h), even in very low concentrations (50 µM, 100 µM), blocked the damage of hydroquinone to the cells. We also observed that resveratrol pretreatment suppressed hydroquinone-induced expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA dose-dependently. The present study suggests that resveratrol protected the cells against hydroquinone-induced toxicity through its antioxidant function and possibly suppressive effect on the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1.

  8. Cell therapy from bench to bedside: Hepatocytes from fibroblasts - the truth and myth of transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2015-06-07

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an alternative to liver transplantation in certain disorders such as inherited liver diseases and liver failure. It is a relatively less complicated surgical procedure, and has the advantage that it can be repeated several times if unsuccessful. Another advantage is that hepatocytes can be isolated from partly damaged livers which are not suitable for liver transplantation. Despite these advantages hepatocyte transplantation is less popular. Important issues are poor engraftment of the transplanted cells and the scarcity of donor hepatocytes. Generation of "hepatocyte like cells"/iHeps from embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by directed differentiation is an emerging solution to the latter issue. Direct conversation or trans-differentiation of fibroblasts to "hepatocyte like cells" is another way which is, being explored. However this method has several inherent and technical disadvantages compared to the directed differentiation from ES or iPSC. There are several methods claiming to be "highly efficient" for generating "highly functional" "hepatocyte like cells". Currently different groups are working independently and coming up with differentiation protocols and each group claiming an advantage for their protocol. Directed differentiation protocols need to be designed, compared, analyzed and tweaked systematically and logically than empirically. There is a need for a well-coordinated global initiative comparable to the Human Genome Project to achieve this goal in the near future.

  9. Development of scaffold architectures and heterotypic cell systems for hepatocyte transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzebdeh, Dalia Abdelrahim

    In vitro assembly of functional liver tissue is needed to enable the transplantation of tissue-engineered livers. In addition, there is an increasing demand for in vitro models that replicate complex events occurring in the liver. However, tissue engineering of sizable implantable liver systems is currently limited by the difficulty of assembling three dimensional hepatocyte cultures of a useful size, while maintaining full cell viability, an issue which is closely related to the high metabolic rate of hepatocytes. In this study, we first compared two designs of highly porous chitosan-heparin scaffolds seeded with hepatocytes in dynamic perfusion bioreactor systems. The aim was to promote cell seeding efficiency by effectively entrapping 100 million hepatocytes at high density. We found that scaffolds with radially tapering pore architecture had highly efficient cell entrapment that maximized donor hepatocyte utilization, compared to alternate pore structures. Hepatocytes showed higher seeding efficiency and metabolic function when seeded as single cell suspensions as opposed to pre-formed, 100microm aggregates. Seeding efficiency was found to increase with flow rate, with single cell and aggregate suspension exhibiting different optimal flow rates. However, metabolic performance results indicated significant shear damage to cells at high efficiency flow rates. To better maintain hepatocyte basement membrane and cell polarity, spheroid co-cultures with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were investigated. Hepatocytes and MSCs were seeded in three different architectures in an effort to optimize the spatial arrangement of the two cell types. MSC co-culture greatly enhanced hepatocyte metabolic function in agitated cultures. Interestingly, the effects of diffusion limitations in spheroid culture, coupled with shear damage and subsequent removal of outer hepatocyte layers produced a defined oscillation of urea production rates in certain co-culture arrangements. A

  10. Soluble asialoglycoprotein receptors reflect the apoptosis of hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kakegawa, Tetsuji; Ise, Hirohiko; Sugihara, Nobuhiro; Nikaido, Toshio; Negishi, Naoki; Akaike, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Eiji

    2002-01-01

    Cell death is thought to take place through at least two distinct processes: apoptosis and necrosis. There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of the apoptotic program is involved in liver diseases. However, there is no method to simply evaluate apoptosis in the liver tissue at present. It has been reported that the expression of asialoglycoprotein receptors (AGPRs) increases with apoptosis, but there is no report until now that investigates the influence of soluble AGPRs on apoptosis of hepatocytes. Soluble AGPRs have been reported to be present in human serum under physiological conditions. In the present study, in order to investigate the correlation between apoptosis of hepatocytes and soluble AGPR, mouse soluble AGPRs were detected using SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis was conducted using anti-extracellular mouse hepatic lectin-1 (Ex-MHL-1) antiserum (polyclonal rabbit serum). The mouse soluble AGPRs were present in culture medium and mouse serum when hepatocytes were damaged. The soluble AGPRs increased proportionately, as the number of dead hepatocytes increased. In addition, soluble AGPRs existed more when apoptotic cell death was observed in in vitro and in vivo than when necrotic cell death was observed. The extracellular moiety of MHL-1 exists in the culture medium and mouse serum as a soluble AGPR, but the detailed mechanism of releasing soluble AGPR from hepatocytes has not been revealed yet. We described the first evidence for the relation between quantity of soluble AGPRs with two kinds of cell death: necrosis and apoptosis. Based on the results of our study, soluble AGPRs might become a new marker of apoptosis in the liver tissue and be useful for clinical diagnosis and treatment for liver diseases.

  11. [Ischemic brain injury and hepatocyte growth factor].

    PubMed

    Takeo, Satoshi; Takagi, Norio; Takagi, Keiko

    2007-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia causes an irreversible and neurodegenerative disorder that may lead to progressive dementia and global cognitive deterioration. Since the overall process of ischemic brain injuries is extremely complex, treatment with endogenous multifunctional factors would be better choices for preventing complicated ischemic brain injuries. Hepatocyte growth factor, HGF, is a multifunctional cytokine originally identified and purified as a potent mitogen for hepatocyte. The activation of the c-Met/HGF receptor evokes diverse cellular responses, including mitogenic, morphogenic, angiogenic and anti-apoptotic activities in various types of cell. Previous studies showed that HGF and c-Met were expressed in various brain regions under normal conditions and that HGF enhanced the survival of hippocampal and cortical neurons during the aging of cells in culture. The protective effects of HGF on in vivo ischemic brain injuries and their mechanisms have not fully understood. To elucidate therapeutic potencies of HGF for ischemic brain injuries, we examined effects of HGF on ischemia-induced learning and memory dysfunction, neuronal cell death and endothelial cell damage by using the 4-vessel occlusion model and the microsphere embolism model in rats. Our findings suggested that treatment with HGF was capable of protecting hippocampal neurons against ischemia-induced cell death through the prevention of apoptosis-inducing factor translocation to the nucleus. Furthermore, we demonstrated that HGF had the ability to prevent tissue degeneration and improved learning and memory function after cerebral embolism, possibly through prevention of cerebral vessel injuries. As HGF has a potent cerebroprotective effect, it could be a prospective agent for the therapy against complicated ischemic brain diseases.

  12. Increased reprogramming of human fetal hepatocytes compared with adult hepatocytes in feeder-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Marc C; Gramignoli, Roberto; Blake, William; Davila, Julio; Skvorak, Kristen; Dorko, Kenneth; Tahan, Veysel; Lee, Brian R; Tafaleng, Edgar; Guzman-Lepe, Jorge; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Fox, Ira J; Strom, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been used to treat liver disease. The availability of cells for these procedures is quite limited. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) may be a useful source of hepatocytes for basic research and transplantation if efficient and effective differentiation protocols were developed and problems with tumorigenicity could be overcome. Recent evidence suggests that the cell of origin may affect hiPSC differentiation. Thus, hiPSCs generated from hepatocytes may differentiate back to hepatocytes more efficiently than hiPSCs from other cell types. We examined the efficiency of reprogramming adult and fetal human hepatocytes. The present studies report the generation of 40 hiPSC lines from primary human hepatocytes under feeder-free conditions. Of these, 37 hiPSC lines were generated from fetal hepatocytes, 2 hiPSC lines from normal hepatocytes, and 1 hiPSC line from hepatocytes of a patient with Crigler-Najjar syndrome, type 1. All lines were confirmed reprogrammed and expressed markers of pluripotency by gene expression, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and teratoma formation. Fetal hepatocytes were reprogrammed at a frequency over 50-fold higher than adult hepatocytes. Adult hepatocytes were only reprogrammed with six factors, while fetal hepatocytes could be reprogrammed with three (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG) or four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28 or OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, C-MYC). The increased reprogramming efficiency of fetal cells was not due to increased transduction efficiency or vector toxicity. These studies confirm that hiPSCs can be generated from adult and fetal hepatocytes including those with genetic diseases. Fetal hepatocytes reprogram much more efficiently than adult hepatocytes, although both could serve as useful sources of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes for basic research or transplantation.

  13. The Ron Receptor Regulates Kupffer Cell-Dependent Cytokine Production and Hepatocyte Survival Following Endotoxin Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, William D.; Kulkarni, Rishikesh M.; Gray, Jerilyn K.; Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Leonis, Mike A.; Waltz, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that targeted deletion of the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) domain in mice leads to marked hepatocyte protection in a well-characterized model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure in D-galactosamine (GalN)-sensitized mice. Hepatocyte protection in TK−/− mice was observed despite paradoxically elevated serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). To understand the role of Ron in the liver, purified populations of Kupffer cells and hepatocytes from wild-type (TK+/+) and TK−/− mice were studied. Utilizing quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrated that Ron is expressed in these cell-types. Moreover, we also recapitulated the protected hepatocyte phenotype and exaggerated cytokine production observed in the TK−/− mice in vivo through the use of purified cultured cells ex vivo. We show that isolated TK−/− Kupffer cells produce increased levels of TNFα and select cytokines compared to TK+/+ cells following LPS stimulation. We also show that conditioned media from LPS-treated TK−/− Kupffer cells was more toxic to hepatocytes than control media, suggesting the exaggerated levels of cytokines produced from the TK−/− Kupffer cells are detrimental to wild type hepatocytes. In addition, we observed that TK−/− hepatocytes were more resistant to cell death compared to TK+/+ hepatocytes, suggesting that Ron functions in both the epithelial and inflammatory cell compartments to regulate acute liver injury. These findings were confirmed in vivo in mice with hepatocyte and macrophage cell-type-specific conditional Ron deletions. Mice with Ron loss selectively in hepatocytes exhibited less liver damage and increased survival compared to mice with Ron loss in macrophages. In conclusion, we have dissected cell-type-specific roles for Ron such that this receptor modulates cytokine production from Kupffer cells and inhibits hepatocyte survival in response to injury. PMID:21520175

  14. The ultrastructural characteristics of porcine hepatocytes donated after cardiac death and preserved with warm machine perfusion preservation.

    PubMed

    Bochimoto, Hiroki; Matsuno, Naoto; Ishihara, Yo; Shonaka, Tatsuya; Koga, Daisuke; Hira, Yoshiki; Nishikawa, Yuji; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of warm machine perfusion preservation of liver grafts donated after cardiac death on the intracellular three-dimensional ultrastructure of the organelles in hepatocytes remain unclear. Here we analyzed comparatively the ultrastructure of the endomembrane systems in porcine hepatocytes under warm ischemia and successive hypothermic and midthermic machine perfusion preservation, a type of the warm machine perfusion. Porcine liver grafts which had a warm ischemia time of 60 minutes were perfused for 4 hours with modified University of Wisconsin gluconate solution. Group A grafts were preserved with hypothermic machine perfusion preservation at 8°C constantly for 4 hours. Group B grafts were preserved with rewarming up to 22°C by warm machine perfusion preservation for 4 hours. An analysis of hepatocytes after 60 minutes of warm ischemia by scanning electron microscope revealed the appearance of abnormal vacuoles and invagination of mitochondria. In the hepatocytes preserved by subsequent hypothermic machine perfusion preservation, strongly swollen mitochondria were observed. In contrast, the warm machine perfusion preservation could preserve the functional appearance of mitochondria in hepatocytes. Furthermore, abundant vacuoles and membranous structures sequestrating cellular organelles like autophagic vacuoles were frequently observed in hepatocytes after warm machine perfusion preservation. In conclusion, the ultrastructure of the endomembrane systems in the hepatocytes of liver grafts changed in accordance with the temperature conditions of machine perfusion preservation. In addition, temperature condition of the machine perfusion preservation may also affect the condition of the hepatic graft attributed to autophagy systems, and consequently alleviate the damage of the hepatocytes.

  15. Ectopic expression of H2AX protein promotes TrkA-induced cell death via modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Deok Ryong, E-mail: drkim@gnu.ac.kr

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We established TrkA-inducible U2OS cells stably expressing GFP-H2AX proteins. {yields} GFP-H2AX was colocalized with TrkA in the cytoplasm. {yields} {gamma}H2AX production was significantly increased upon activation of TrkA and suppressed by TrkA inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. {yields} Ectopic expression of H2AX promoted TrkA-mediated cell death through the modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage. -- Abstract: We previously reported that TrkA overexpression causes accumulation of {gamma}H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, subsequently leading to massive cell death in U2OS cells. To further investigate how cytoplasmic H2AX is associated with TrkA-induced cell death, we establishedmore » TrkA-inducible cells stably expressing GFP-tagged H2AX. We found that TrkA co-localizes with ectopically expressed GFP-H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, especially at the juxta-nuclear membranes, which supports our previous results about a functional connection between TrkA and {gamma}H2AX in TrkA-induced cell death. {gamma}H2AX production from GFP-H2AX proteins was significantly increased when TrkA was overexpressed. Moreover, ectopic expression of H2AX activated TrkA-mediated signal pathways via up-regulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation. In addition, suppression of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation under a certain condition was removed by ectopic expression of H2AX, indicating a functional role of H2AX in the maintenance of TrkA activity. Indeed, TrkA-induced cell death was highly elevated by ectopic H2AX expression, and it was further accelerated by DNA damage via JNK activation. These all results suggest that cytoplasmic H2AX could play an important role in TrkA-mediated cell death by modulating TrkA upon DNA damage.« less

  16. Curcumin attenuates insulin resistance in hepatocytes by inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu-Guang; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhen-Xiong; Wang, Jing-Jie; Wang, Xv-Xia; Qin, Ming; Wen, Qin-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    NF-E2-Related Factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the cellular protection against oxidative stress. Curcumin has been reported to induce Nrf2 nuclear translocation and upregulate the expression of numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying and antioxidant genes in hepatocytes. This study was designed to investigate whether curcumin-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation could reduce ROS-mediated insulin resistance in cultured LO2 hepatocytes. Human LO2 hepatocytes were incubated with curcumine and glucose oxidase (GO) in the presence/absence of wortmannin (a phosphatidyinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor), oxidative stress, cellular damage, Nrf2 nuclear translocation and insulin resistance were measured. GO exposure significantly increased intracellular ROS, glutathione (GSH) depletion, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and increased activities of cellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as causing insulin resistance. Curcumin pretreatment significantly attenuated these disturbances in intracellular ROS, liver enzyme activity and significantly antagonized the lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion and insulin resistance induced by GO in LO2 hepatocytes. These effects paralleled Nrf2 nuclear translocation induced by curcumin. Wortmannin partially blocked curcumin-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation. In addition, wortmannin prevented curcumin-induced improvements in intracellular ROS, MDA formation, GSH depletion, liver enzyme activity and insulin resistance in cultured LO2 hepatocytes. These findings suggest that curcumin could reduce ROS-mediated insulin resistance in hepatocytes, at least in part through nuclear translocation of Nrf2.

  17. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α in adult mice results in increased hepatocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Walesky, Chad; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Edwards, Genea; Borude, Prachi; Apte, Udayan

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF4α) is known as the master regulator of hepatocyte differentiation. Recent studies indicate that HNF4α may inhibit hepatocyte proliferation via mechanisms that have yet to be identified. Using a HNF4α knockdown mouse model based on delivery of inducible Cre recombinase via an adeno-associated virus 8 viral vector, we investigated the role of HNF4α in the regulation of hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of HNF4α resulted in increased hepatocyte proliferation. Global gene expression analysis showed that a majority of the downregulated genes were previously known HNF4α target genes involved in hepatic differentiation. Interestingly, ≥500 upregulated genes were associated with cell proliferation and cancer. Furthermore, we identified potential negative target genes of HNF4α, many of which are involved in the stimulation of proliferation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we confirmed binding of HNF4α at three of these genes. Furthermore, overexpression of HNF4α in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cells resulted in a decrease in promitogenic gene expression and cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these data indicate that, apart from its role in hepatocyte differentiation, HNF4α actively inhibits hepatocyte proliferation by repression of specific promitogenic genes.

  18. Merging bioreactor technology with 3D hepatocyte-fibroblast culturing approaches: Improved in vitro models for toxicological applications.

    PubMed

    Leite, Sofia B; Teixeira, Ana P; Miranda, Joana P; Tostões, Rui M; Clemente, João J; Sousa, Marcos F; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2011-06-01

    During the last years an increasing number of in vitro models have been developed for drug screening and toxicity testing. Primary cultures of hepatocytes are, by far, the model of choice for those high-throughput studies but their spontaneous dedifferentiation after some time in culture hinders long-term studies. Thus, novel cell culture systems allowing extended hepatocyte maintenance and more predictive long term in vitro studies are required. It has been shown that hepatocytes functionality can be improved and extended in time when cultured as 3D-cell aggregates in environmental controlled stirred bioreactors. In this work, aiming at further improving hepatocytes functionality in such 3D cellular structures, co-cultures with fibroblasts were performed. An inoculum concentration of 1.2×10(5) cell/mL and a 1:2 hepatocyte:mouse embryonic fibroblast ratio allowed to improve significantly the albumin secretion rate and both ECOD (phase I) and UGT (phase II) enzymatic activities in 3D co-cultures, as compared to the routinely used 2D hepatocyte monocultures. Significant improvements were also observed in relation to 3D monocultures of hepatocytes. Furthermore, hepatocytes were able to respond to the addition of beta-Naphtoflavone by increasing ECOD activity showing CYP1A inducibility. The dependence of CYP activity on oxygen concentration was also observed. In summary, the improved hepatocyte specific functions during long term incubation of 3D co-cultures of hepatocytes with fibroblasts indicate that this system is a promising in vitro model for long term toxicological studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Hepatocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver].

    PubMed

    Kang, Min; Li, Sen; Zhong, Dejun; Yang, Zhimin; Li, Peng

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the role of hepatocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thirty male SD rats were randomized into normal diet group and high-fat diet group. At 4, 8 and 12 week of feeding. The hepatocyte apoptosis index (AI) was measured using flow cytometry, and MPTP opening was evaluated with ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect hepatic expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax, and Western blotting was used to detect Bax protein expression changes. High-fat feeding resulted in significantly increased hepatocyte AI at 4-12 weeks and gradually increased MPTP opening. In the high-fat diet group, hepatic Bcl-2 expression was detected but the positive cell number remained stable, whereas Bax-positive cell number increased steadily with time with progressively increased intensity of Bax protein expression, resulting in gradually decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Hepatocyte apoptosis occurs in the rat model of NAFLD in close correlation with mitochondrial damage. Increased MPTP opening as the result of increased Bax expression and aberrant Bcl-2/Bax ratio is an important mechanism of hepatocyte mitochondrial damage in NAFLD.

  20. Cryopreservation of Hepatocyte Microbeads for Clinical Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jitraruch, Suttiruk; Hughes, Robin D.; Filippi, Celine; Lehec, Sharon C.; Glover, Leanne; Mitry, Ragai R.

    2017-01-01

    Intraperitoneal transplantation of hepatocyte microbeads is an attractive option for the management of acute liver failure. Encapsulation of hepatocytes in alginate microbeads supports their function and prevents immune attack of the cells. Establishment of banked cryopreserved hepatocyte microbeads is important for emergency use. The aim of this study was to develop an optimized protocol for cryopreservation of hepatocyte microbeads for clinical transplantation using modified freezing solutions. Four freezing solutions with potential for clinical application were investigated. Human and rat hepatocytes cryopreserved with University of Wisconsin (UW)/10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/5% (300 mM) glucose and CryoStor CS10 showed better postthawing cell viability, attachment, and hepatocyte functions than with histidine–tryptophan–ketoglutarate/10% DMSO/5% glucose and Bambanker. The 2 freezing solutions that gave better results were studied with human and rat hepatocytes microbeads. Similar effects on cryopreserved microbead morphology (external and ultrastructural), viability, and hepatocyte-functions post thawing were observed over 7 d in culture. UW/DMSO/glucose, as a basal freezing medium, was used to investigate the additional effects of cytoprotectants: a pan-caspase inhibitor (benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-dl-Asp-fluoromethylketone [ZVAD]), an antioxidant (desferoxamine [DFO]), and a buffering and mechanical protectant (human serum albumin [HSA]) on RMBs. ZVAD (60 µM) had a beneficial effect on cell viability that was greater than with DFO (1 mM), HSA (2%), and basal freezing medium alone. Improvements in the ultrastructure of encapsulated hepatocytes and a lower degree of cell apoptosis were observed with all 3 cytoprotectants, with ZVAD tending to provide the greatest effect. Cytochrome P450 activity was significantly higher in the 3 cytoprotectant groups than with fresh microbeads. In conclusion, developing an optimized cryopreservation protocol by adding

  1. [Antagonistic effect of N-acetylcysteine on apoptosis of L-02 hepatocyte induced by Cr(VI) with or without caspase inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Zhong, Caigao; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Xinmin; Deng, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Fang

    2010-11-01

    To explore the antagonistic effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on hexevalent chromium (Cr(VI))-induced apoptosis in L-02 hepatocytes with or without caspase inhibitors. L-02 hepatocytes were randomly divided into a control group, and Cr( VI), Z-VAD-fmk + Cr(VI), NAC + Cr(VI), Z-VAD-fmk + NAC + Cr (VI) four treatment groups, in which L-02 hepatocytes were cultured with Cr (VI) at the dose of 20 micromol/L for 6h. The rates of apoptosis in all groups were detected by flow cytometry (FC) after staining with propidium iodide (PI). The changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (deltapsim) and permeability transition pore (PTP) were determined by fluorescent spectrometer. The DNA damages in hepatocytes were observed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Cr(VI) significantly induced apoptosis of L-02 hepatocytes at the dose of 20 micromol/L for 6 hours (P < 0.05). However, NAC significantly decreased the rates of apoptosis of L-02 hepatocytes and alleviated the damages to mitochondria and DNA caused by Cr(VI) in L-02 hepatocytes with or without caspase (P < 0.05). However, in comparition with the non caspase-inhibited group, the protective effects of NAC decreased in the caspase-inhibited group (P < 0.05). NAC could protect the apoptosis of L-02 hepatocyte induced with Cr(VI) with or without caspase inhibitor, and caspase could not play a decisive role in this process.

  2. Macrophage activation by factors released from acetaminophen-injured hepatocytes: Potential role of HMGB1

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu

    2011-06-15

    Toxic doses of acetaminophen (AA) cause hepatocellular necrosis. Evidence suggests that activated macrophages contribute to the pathogenic process; however, the factors that activate these cells are unknown. In these studies, we assessed the role of mediators released from AA-injured hepatocytes in macrophage activation. Treatment of macrophages with conditioned medium (CM) collected 24 hr after treatment of mouse hepatocytes with 5 mM AA (CM-AA) resulted in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Macrophage expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and catalase mRNA was also upregulated by CM-AA, as well as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and 12/15-lipoxygenase (LOX). CM-AA also upregulated expression of themore » proinflammatory chemokines, MIP-1{alpha} and MIP-2. The effects of CM-AA on expression of COX-2, MIP-1{alpha} and MIP-2 were inhibited by blockade of p44/42 MAP kinase, suggesting a biochemical mechanism mediating macrophage activation. Hepatocytes injured by AA were found to release HMGB1, a potent macrophage activator. This was inhibited by pretreatment of hepatocytes with ethyl pyruvate (EP), which blocks HMGB1 release. EP also blocked CM-AA induced ROS production and antioxidant expression, and reduced expression of COX-2, but not MIP-1{alpha} or MIP-2. These findings suggest that HMGB1 released by AA-injured hepatocytes contributes to macrophage activation. This is supported by our observation that expression of the HMGB1 receptor RAGE is upregulated in macrophages in response to CM-AA. These data indicate that AA-injured hepatocytes contribute to the inflammatory environment in the liver through the release of mediators such as HMGB1. Blocking HMGB1/RAGE may be a useful approach to limiting classical macrophage activation and AA-induced hepatotoxicity. - Research Highlights: > These studies analyze macrophage activation by mediators released from acetaminophen-damaged hepatocytes. > Factors released from acetaminophen-injured hepatocytes induce

  3. Nature and mechanisms of hepatocyte apoptosis induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Hang; Hu, Shao-Qing; Liu, Jun; Cao, Hong-Cui; Xu, Wei; Li, Yong-Jun; Li, Lan-Juan

    2014-06-01

    Apoptosis plays a role in the normal development of liver. However, overactivation thereof may lead to hepatocellular damage. The aim of this study was to assess D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatocyte apoptotic changes in mice and clarify the mechanisms involved in this process. DNA ladder detection was employed to determine the induction condition of hepatic apoptosis. An initial test indicated that typical hepatocyte apoptosis was observed at 6-10 h after the intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN (700 mg/kg) and LPS (10 µg/kg). Subsequently, we evaluated hepatocyte apoptosis at 8 h after administering D-GalN/LPS by histopathological analysis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end‑labeling (TUNEL) detection, flow cytometry and electron microscopy analysis. To clarify the apoptosis-related gene expression, the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), caspase-3, and Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) were determined by serum enzyme immunoassay, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Strong apoptotic positive signals following D-GalN/LPS injection were observed from the results of the serum analysis, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses, DNA ladder detection, TUNEL detection, flow cytometry and electron microscopy analysis. Additionally, apoptotic hepatocytes were mainly at the late stage of cell apoptosis. The expression of TNF-α, TGF-β1, caspase-3 and Fas/FasL was significantly increased. In conclusion, this study evaluated the D-GalN/LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptotic changes and clarified the apoptosis-related gene expression in mice. The hepatocyte apoptosis induced by D-GalN/LPS may be mainly regulated by the death receptor pathway. TGF-β signaling pathway may also play a vital role in this process of hepatocyte apoptosis.

  4. Wheat extracts as an efficient cryoprotective agent for primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Francine; Grondin, Mélanie; Denizeau, Francine; Averill-Bates, Diana A; Sarhan, Fathey

    2006-11-05

    Hepatocytes are an important physiological model for evaluation of metabolic and biological effects of xenobiotics. They do not proliferate in culture and are extremely sensitive to damage during freezing and thawing, even after the addition of classical cryoprotectants. Thus improved cryopreservation techniques are needed to reduce cell injury and functional impairment. Here, we describe a new and efficient cryopreservation method, which permits long-term storage and recovery of large quantities of healthy cells that maintain high hepatospecific functions. In culture, the morphology of hepatocytes cryopreserved with wheat protein extracts (WPE) was similar to that of fresh cells. Furthermore, hepatospecific functions such as albumin secretion and biotransformation of ammonium to urea were well maintained during 4 days in culture. Inductions of CYP1A1 and CYP2B in hepatocytes cryopreserved with WPEs were similar to those in fresh hepatocytes. These findings clearly show that WPEs are an excellent cryopreservant for primary hepatocytes. The extract was also found to cryopreserve other human and animal cell types such as lung carcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, Chinese hamster ovary transfected with TGF-b1 cDNA, cervical cancer taken from Henrietta Lacks, intestinal epithelium, and T cell leukemia. WPEs have potential as a universal cryopreservant agent of mammalian cells. It is an economic, efficient and non-toxic agent. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of drug-metabolizing and functional competence of human hepatocytes incubated under hypothermia in different media for clinical infusion.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lechón, María José; Lahoz, Agustín; Jiménez, Nuria; Bonora, Ana; Castell, José V; Donato, María Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been proposed as a method to support patients with liver insufficiency. Key factors for clinical cell transplantation to progress is to prevent hepatocyte damage, loss of viability and cell functionality, factors that depend on the nature of the tissue used for isolation to a large extent. The main sources of tissue for hepatocyte isolation are marginal livers that are unsuitable for transplantation, and segments from reduced cadaveric grafts. Hepatocellular transplantation requires infusing human hepatocytes in suspension over a period of minutes to hours. The beneficial effect of hypothermic preservation of hepatocytes in infusion medium has been reported, but how critical issues towards the success of cell transplantation, such as the composition of infusion medium and duration of hepatocyte storage will affect hepatocyte quality for clinical cell infusion has not been systematically investigated. Infusion media composition is phosphate-buffered saline containing anticoagulants and human serum albumin. The supplementation of infusion media with glucose or N-acetyl-cystein, or with both components at the same time, has been investigated. After isolation, hepatocytes were suspended in each infusion medium and a sample at the 0 time point was harvested for cell viability and functional assessment. Thereafter, cells were incubated in different infusion media agitated on a rocker platform to simulate the clinical infusion technique. The time course of hepatocyte viability, funtionality (drug-metabolizing enzymes, ureogenic capability, ATP, glycogen, and GSH levels), apoptosis (caspase-3 activation), and attachment and monolayer formation were analyzed. The optimal preservation of cell viability, attaching capacity, and functionality, particularly GSH and glycogen levels, as well as drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes, was found in infusion media supplemented with 2 mM N-acetyl-cystein and 15 mM glucose.

  6. Metabolism of tilmicosin by rabbit liver microsomes and hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Montesissa, C; Capolongo, F; Santi, A; Biancotto, G; Dacasto, M

    2004-01-01

    We investigated tilmicosin (TIM) metabolism, at 25, 50 or 100 microM, in cultures of primary hepatocytes from rabbits bred commercially for food and in liver microsomes prepared from both untreated and rifampicin (RIF)-treated rabbits. RIF is a well-known cytochrome P4503A (CYP 3A) inducer in rabbits and most macrolides are known to be substrates of CYP 3A. No peaks in addition to those of the cis and trans forms of TIM were observed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in extracts of microsomes from untreated rabbits. When TIM was incubated with induced microsomes, at least two peaks were found by HPLC and an additional peak, eluting at shorter retention time was isolated from hepatocytes incubated for 24h with the macrolide. The structures of the metabolites were then estimated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in concentrated extracts from induced microsomes. Five metabolites were separated and putatively identified: cis and trans demethylated tilmicosin, tilmicosin N-oxide and cis and trans tilmicosin epoxide. The overall amount of metabolites produced in vitro using livers of untreated and RIF treated rabbits was very low, has also been observed in vivo and in vitro in cattle, chickens and pigs.

  7. Accumulation of iron by primary rat hepatocytes in long-term culture: changes in nuclear shape mediated by non-transferrin-bound forms of iron.

    PubMed Central

    Cable, E. E.; Connor, J. R.; Isom, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    the total amount of ferritin. The deviation from circularity was the largest in FeSO4-treated hepatocytes, indicating that iron not properly incorporated into ferritin caused more cellular damage. We conclude that iron-loaded hepatocytes in long-term DMSO culture represent a flexible system for studying the effects of chronic iron loading on hepatocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:9502420

  8. Protective effects of melittin on transforming growth factor-{beta}1 injury to hepatocytes via anti-apoptotic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyun

    Melittin is a cationic, hemolytic peptide that is the main toxic component in the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Melittin has multiple effects, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory, in various cell types. However, the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of melittin have not been fully elucidated in hepatocytes. Apoptosis contributes to liver inflammation and fibrosis. Knowledge of the apoptotic mechanisms is important to develop new and effective therapies for treatment of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, liver cancer, and other liver diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. TGF-{beta}1-treated hepatocytesmore » were exposed to low doses (0.5 and 1 {mu}g/mL) and high dose (2 {mu}g/mL) of melittin. The low doses significantly protected these cells from DNA damage in TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptosis compared to the high dose. Also, melittin suppressed TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptotic activation of the Bcl-2 family and caspase family of proteins, which resulted in the inhibition of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These results demonstrate that TGF-{beta}1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis and that an optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects against TGF-{beta}1-induced injury to hepatocytes via the mitochondrial pathway. These results suggest that an optimal dose of melittin can serve to protect cells against TGF-{beta}1-mediated injury. - Highlights: > We investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on TGF-{beta}1-induced hepatocyte. > TGF-{beta}1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis. > TGF-{beta}1-treated hepatocytes were exposed to low doses and high dose of melittin. > Optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects to hepatocytes.« less

  9. Salidroside mediates apoptosis and autophagy inhibition in concanavalin A-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiao; Niu, Peiqin; Chen, Kan; Wu, Liwei; Liu, Tong; Xu, Shizan; Li, Jingjing; Li, Sainan; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Ning; Xu, Ling; Wang, Fan; Dai, Weiqi; Xia, Yujing; Fan, Xiaoming; Guo, Chuanyong

    2018-01-01

    Salidroside (Sal) is a glycoside extract from Rhodiola rosea L. with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and cardioprotective properties. The present study explored the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of Sal on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury in mice. Balb/C mice were divided into five groups: Normal control (injected with normal saline), ConA (25 mg/kg), Sal (10 mg/kg) +ConA, Sal (20 mg/kg) + ConA (Sal injected 2 h prior to ConA injection) and Sal (20 mg/kg) only. The serum levels of liver enzymes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis- and autophagy-associated marker proteins were determined at 2, 8 and 24 h after ConA injection. LY294002 was further used to verify whether the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway was activated. Primary hepatocytes were isolated to verify the effect of Sal in vitro. The results indicated that Sal was a safe agent to reduce pathological damage and serum liver enzymes in ConA-induced liver injury. Sal suppressed inflammatory reactions in serum and liver tissues, and activated the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to inhibit apoptosis and autophagy in vivo and in vitro, which could be reversed by LY294002. In conclusion, Sal attenuated ConA-induced liver injury by modulating PI3K/Akt pathway-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in mice.

  10. NLRP3 inflammasome activation results in hepatocyte pyroptosis, liver inflammation, and fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wree, Alexander; Eguchi, Akiko; McGeough, Matthew D; Pena, Carla A; Johnson, Casey D; Canbay, Ali; Hoffman, Hal M; Feldstein, Ariel E

    2014-03-01

    Inflammasome activation plays a central role in the development of drug-induced and obesity-associated liver disease. However, the sources and mechanisms of inflammasome-mediated liver damage remain poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome activation on the liver using novel mouse models. We generated global and myeloid cell-specific conditional mutant Nlrp3 knock-in mice expressing the D301N Nlrp3 mutation (ortholog of D303N in human NLRP3), resulting in a hyperactive NLRP3. To study the presence and significance of NLRP3-initiated pyroptotic cell death, we separated hepatocytes from nonparenchymal cells and developed a novel flow-cytometry-based (fluorescence-activated cell sorting; FACS) strategy to detect and quantify pyroptosis in vivo based on detection of active caspase 1 (Casp1)- and propidium iodide (PI)-positive cells. Liver inflammation was quantified histologically by FACS and gene expression analysis. Liver fibrosis was assessed by Sirius Red staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for markers of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. NLRP3 activation resulted in shortened survival, poor growth, and severe liver inflammation; characterized by neutrophilic infiltration and HSC activation with collagen deposition in the liver. These changes were partially attenuated by treatment with anakinra, an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Notably, hepatocytes from global Nlrp3-mutant mice showed marked hepatocyte pyroptotic cell death, with more than a 5-fold increase in active Casp1/PI double-positive cells. Myeloid cell-restricted mutant NLRP3 activation resulted in a less-severe liver phenotype in the absence of detectable pyroptotic hepatocyte cell death. Our data demonstrate that global and, to a lesser extent, myeloid-specific NLRP3 inflammasome activation results in severe liver inflammation and fibrosis while identifying hepatocyte pyroptotic cell death as a novel mechanism of NLRP3-mediated liver damage

  11. Selective insulin resistance in hepatocyte senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Aravinthan, Aloysious; Challis, Benjamin; Shannon, Nicholas

    Insulin resistance has been described in association with chronic liver disease for decades. Hepatocyte senescence has been demonstrated in chronic liver disease and as many as 80% of hepatocytes show a senescent phenotype in advanced liver disease. The aim of this study was to understand the role of hepatocyte senescence in the development of insulin resistance. Senescence was induced in HepG2 cells via oxidative stress. The insulin metabolic pathway was studied in control and senescent cells following insulin stimulation. GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied in HepG2 cells and human liver tissue. Further, GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied inmore » three independent chronic liver disease cohorts. Signalling impairment distal to Akt in phosphorylation of AS160 and FoxO1 was evident in senescent HepG2 cells. Persistent nuclear localisation of FoxO1 was demonstrated in senescent cells despite insulin stimulation. Increased GLUT4 and decreased GLUT2 expressions were evident in senescent cells, human cirrhotic liver tissue and publically available liver disease datasets. Changes in GLUT expressions were associated with a poor clinical prognosis. In conclusion, selective insulin resistance is evident in senescent HepG2 cells and changes in GLUT expressions can be used as surrogate markers of hepatocyte senescence. - Highlights: • Senescent hepatocytes demonstrate selective insulin resistance. • GLUT changes act as markers of hepatocyte senescence and have prognostic value. • Study offers insight into long noticed intimacy of cirrhosis and insulin resistance.« less

  12. Activation-dependent mitochondrial translocation of Foxp3 in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Joselyn; Teran-Angel, Guillermo; Barbosa, Luisa; Peterson, Darrell L; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham

    2016-05-01

    Foxp3 is considered to be the master regulator for the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg). Recently Foxp3, has been detected in extra lymphoid tissue, and in hepatocytes and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although its role has not been defined. Since it is expected that there is a relationship between protein localization, activity and cellular function, the aim of this study was to explore the subcellular localization of Foxp3 in resting and stimulated human hepatocytes. Foxp3 expression was measured by flow cytometry, subcellular fractioning, and immunofluorescence, and this data was used to track the shuttling of Foxp3 in different subcellular compartments in hepatocytes (HepG2 cell line), stimulated by using the PKC activators (PMA), core and preS1/2 antigen from hepatitis B virus (HBV). Our data shows that besides the nuclear location, mitochondrial translocation was detected after stimulation with PMA and at to a lesser extent, with preS1/2. In addition, Foxp3 is localizes at outer mitochondrial membrane. These results suggest a non-canonical role of Foxp3 in the mitochondrial compartment in human hepatocytes, and opens a new field about their role in liver damages during HBV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and host defense mechanisms in the alcohol-injured liver.

    PubMed

    McVicker, Benita L; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Tuma, Dean J; Casey, Carol A

    2014-09-01

    The consumption of alcohol is associated with many health issues including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The natural history of ALD involves the development of steatosis, inflammation (steatohepatitis), fibrosis and cirrhosis. During the stage of steatohepatitis, the combination of inflammation and cellular damage can progress to a severe condition termed alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of AH remains uncharacterized. Some modulations have been identified in host defense and liver immunity mechanisms during AH that highlight the role of intrahepatic lymphocyte accumulation and associated inflammatory cytokine responses. Also, it is hypothesized that alcohol-induced injury to liver cells may significantly contribute to the aberrant lymphocytic distribution that is seen in AH. In particular, the regulation of lymphocytes by hepatocytes may be disrupted in the alcoholic liver resulting in altered immunologic homeostasis and perpetuation of disease. In recent studies, it was demonstrated that the direct killing of activated T lymphocytes by hepatocytes is facilitated by the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). The ASGPR is a well-characterized glycoprotein receptor that is exclusively expressed by hepatocytes. This hepatic receptor is known for its role in the clearance of desialylated glycoproteins or cells, yet neither its physiological function nor its role in disease states has been determined. Interestingly, alcohol markedly impairs ASGPR function; however, the effect alcohol has on ASGPR-mediated cytotoxicity of lymphocytes remains to be elucidated. This review discusses the contribution of hepatocytes in immunological regulation and, importantly, how pathological effects of ethanol disrupt hepatocellular-mediated defense mechanisms.

  14. Effect of uric acid on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhou, Y; Cheng, S; Sun, J L; Yao, H; Ma, L

    2016-06-24

    Here, we investigated the effect of uric acid (UA) on hepatocyte mitochondria. Hepatocytes cultured in vitro were treated with varying concentrations of UA. The change in apoptotic activity was detected by flow cytometry. The DNA damage index 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) and mitochondrial function indices succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were detected by enzyme assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was confirmed by a dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay. We observed an increase in apoptotic activity, ROS accumulation, and 8-OHdG activity in hepatocytes treated with UA for extended periods, indicating DNA damage; specifically, we observed a significant increase in these activities 48, 72, and 96 h after UA addition, compared to those observed at 24 h (P < 0.05). Cells treated with 30 mg/dL UA for 96 h showed a peak in apoptotic activity. We also observed a significant decrease in ATP, SDH, and CCO activities with the increase in uric acid concentration over time. Cells treated with 30 mg/dL UA for 96 h showed the highest ATP levels, while SDH and CCO activities at 48, 72, and 96 h post-UA treatment were significantly lower than those at 24 h (P < 0.01). Moreover, cells treated with 30 mg/dL UA showed a 0.02 ± 0.02 and 0.15 ± 0.01 mmol/ mg/min decrease in SDH and CCO levels after 72 h. Therefore, we concluded that high concentrations of UA may induce oxidative stress in hepatocyte mitochondria, increasing ROS production and ultimately resulting in mitochondrial damage.

  15. Oxidative stress triggers cytokinesis failure in hepatocytes upon isolation.

    PubMed

    Tormos, A M; Taléns-Visconti, R; Bonora-Centelles, A; Pérez, S; Sastre, J

    2015-01-01

    Primary hepatocytes are highly differentiated cells and proliferatively quiescent. However, the stress produced during liver digestion seems to activate cell cycle entry by proliferative/dedifferentiation programs that still remain unclear. The aim of this work was to assess whether the oxidative stress associated with hepatocyte isolation affects cell cycle and particularly cytokinesis, the final step of mitosis. Hepatocytes were isolated from C57BL/6 mice by collagenase perfusion in the absence and presence of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Polyploidy, cell cycle, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were studied by flow cytometry (DNA, phospho-histone 3, and CellROX(®) Deep Red) and Western blotting (cyclins B1 and D1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen). mRNA expression of cyclins A1, B1, B2, D1, and F by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was also assessed. Glutathione levels were measured by mass spectrometry. Here we show that hepatocyte isolation enhanced cell cycle entry, increased hepatocyte binucleation, and caused marked glutathione oxidation. Addition of 5 mM NAC to the hepatocyte isolation media prevented glutathione depletion, partially blocked ROS production and cell cycle entry of hepatocytes, and avoided the blockade of mitosis progression, abrogating defective cytokinesis and diminishing the formation of binucleated hepatocytes during isolation. Therefore, addition of NAC to the isolation media decreased the generation of polyploid hepatocytes confirming that oxidative stress occurs during hepatocyte isolation and it is responsible, at least in part, for cytokinesis failure and hepatocyte binucleation.

  16. Protective effect of black garlic extracts on tert-Butyl hydroperoxide-induced injury in hepatocytes via a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ko-Chao; Teng, Chih-Chuan; Shen, Chien-Heng; Huang, Wen-Shih; Lu, Chien-Chang; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Tung, Shui-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Black garlic has been reported to show multiple bioactivities against the development of different diseases. In the present study, the hepatoprotective effect of black garlic on injured liver cells was investigated. Rat clone-9 hepatocytes were used for all experiments; tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) was used to induce injury of rat clone-9 hepatocytes. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH); anti-oxidative enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx); and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in rat clone-9 hepatocytes were determined to evaluate the level of cell damage. Black garlic extracts were demonstrated to significantly attenuate tBHP-induced cell death of rat clone-9 hepatocytes (P<0.05). Pretreatment with black garlic extracts antagonized GSH depletion, tBHP-increased MDA accumulation and the mRNA expression level of IL-6/IL-8, and tBHP-decreased antioxidative enzyme activities (all P<0.05). Moreover, the present study revealed that c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling regulated black garlic-inhibited tBHP effects in rat clone-9 hepatocytes. Our findings demonstrate that black garlic has the hepatoprotective potential to block tBHP-damaged effects on cell death, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and inflammation in rat clone-9 hepatocytes. Thus, the present study indicates that black garlic may be an excellent natural candidate in the development of adjuvant therapy and healthy foods for liver protection. PMID:29456651

  17. [Proliferation of hepatocytes after delivery of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor gene].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong; Xie, Wei fen; Chen, Wei-zhong; Zhang, Xin; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Yue-xiang; Yang, Xiu-jiang; Zhang, Zhong-bing

    2003-06-01

    To explore the proliferation of primary cultured rats hepatocytes after delivery of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene which was inserted into the genome of replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus vector. The recombinant adenovirus-AdHGF which could express HGF was generated by homologous recombination. After the HGF gene was delivered into the hepatocytes, the expression of both HGF and c-met/HGF receptor mRNA in the cells was detected by RT-PCR and the level of HGF in the culture supernatant was also assayed by ELISA. On the other hand, cell proliferation was compared between before and after delivery of the HGF gene by MTS assay and the percentages of cell cycles were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was determined by immunocytofluorescent stain. 4 x 10(10) efu/ml titer of AdHGF was obtained after recombination, RT-PCR indicated that the expression of HGF mRNA in hepatocytes increased on the third day after infected by the viruses and c-met/HGF receptor mRNA was also up-regulated. The HGF level in the culture supernatant assayed by ELISA was (5,939.0+/-414.39) pg/ml, which was much higher than that in the control (208.1pg/ml+/-37.20pg/ml, F=13.661, P<0.01). In addition, the proliferation of hepatocytes infected with AdHGF increased significantly according to MTS method (F>or=15.158, P<0.01) and more hepatocytes in G0/G1 stages changed into S stage (chi2=41.616, P<0.01), accordingly, PCNA index increased from 6.42+/- 1.88 to 14.56+/-2.85 (F=42.122, P<0.01). show that HGF gene delivered into hepatocytes by AdHGF can be expressed with high efficiency in the cells, which can stimulate hepatocytes proliferation. It may be an effective tool for hepatocyte transplantation by gene modified donor hepatocytes.

  18. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A protects hepatocytes against acetaminophen-induced toxicity via regulation of thioredoxin reductase 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2017-06-03

    Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) is associated with susceptibility to acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an antioxidant and protein repair enzyme that specifically catalyzes the reduction of methionine S-sulfoxide residues. We have previously shown that MsrA deficiency exacerbates acute liver injury induced by APAP. In this study, we used primary hepatocytes to investigate the underlying mechanism of the protective effect of MsrA against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. MsrA gene-deleted (MsrA -/- ) hepatocytes showed higher susceptibility to APAP-induced cytotoxicity than wild-type (MsrA +/+ ) cells, consistent with our previous in vivo results. MsrA deficiency increased APAP-induced glutathione depletion and reactive oxygen species production. APAP treatment increased Nrf2 activation more profoundly in MsrA -/- than in MsrA +/+ hepatocytes. Basal TXNRD1 levels were significantly higher in MsrA -/- than in MsrA +/+ hepatocytes, while TXNRD1 depletion in both MsrA -/- and MsrA +/+ cells resulted in increased resistance to APAP-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, APAP treatment significantly increased TXNRD1 expression in MsrA -/- hepatocytes, while no significant change was observed in MsrA +/+ cells. Overexpression of MsrA reduced APAP-induced cytotoxicity and TXNRD1 expression levels in APAP-treated MsrA -/- hepatocytes. Collectively, our results suggest that MsrA protects hepatocytes from APAP-induced cytotoxicity through the modulation of TXNRD1 expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lipid-induced toxicity stimulates hepatocytes to release angiogenic microparticles that require Vanin-1 for uptake by endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Povero, Davide; Eguchi, Akiko; Niesman, Ingrid R.; Andronikou, Nektaria; de Mollerat du Jeu, Xavier; Mulya, Anny; Berk, Michael; Lazic, Milos; Thapaliya, Samjana; Parola, Maurizio; Patel, Hemal H.; Feldstein, Ariel E.

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a key pathological feature of experimental and human steatohepatitis, a common chronic liver disease that is associated with obesity. We demonstrated that hepatocytes generated a type of membrane-bound vesicle, microparticles, in response to conditions that mimicked the lipid accumulation that occurs in the liver in some forms of steatohepatitis and that these microparticles promoted angiogenesis. When applied to an endothelial cell line, medium conditioned by murine hepatocytes or a human hepatocyte cell line exposed to saturated free fatty acids induced migration and tube formation, two processes required for angiogenesis. Medium from hepatocytes in which caspase 3 was inhibited or medium in which the microparticles were removed by ultracentrifugation lacked proangiogenic activity. Isolated hepatocyte-derived microparticles induced migration and tube formation of an endothelial cell line in vitro and angiogenesis in mice, processes that depended on internalization of microparticles. Microparticle internalization required the interaction of the ectoenzyme Vanin-1 (VNN1), an abundant surface protein on the microparticles, with lipid raft domains of endothelial cells. Large quantities of hepatocyte-derived microparticles were detected in the blood of mice with diet-induced steatohepatitis, and microparticle quantity correlated with disease severity. Genetic ablation of caspase 3 or RNA interference directed against VNN1 protected mice from steatohepatitis-induced pathological angiogenesis in the liver and resulted in a loss of the proangiogenic effects of microparticles. Our data identify hepatocyte-derived microparticles as critical signals that contribute to angiogenesis and liver damage in steatohepatitis and suggest a therapeutic target for this condition. PMID:24106341

  20. Lack of gp130 expression in hepatocytes attenuates tumor progression in the DEN model.

    PubMed

    Hatting, M; Spannbauer, M; Peng, J; Al Masaoudi, M; Sellge, G; Nevzorova, Y A; Gassler, N; Liedtke, C; Cubero, F J; Trautwein, C

    2015-03-05

    Chronic liver inflammation is a crucial event in the development and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Compelling evidence has shown that interleukin-6 (IL-6)/gp130-dependent signaling has a fundamental role in liver carcinogenesis. Thus, in the present study we aimed to investigate the role of gp130 in hepatocytes for the initiation and progression of HCC. Hepatocyte-specific gp130 knockout mice (gp130(Δhepa)) and control animals (gp130(f/f)) were treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The role of gp130 for acute injury (0-144 h post treatment), tumor initiation (24 weeks) and progression (40 weeks) was analyzed. After acute DEN-induced liver injury we observed a reduction in the inflammatory response in gp130(Δhepa) animals as reflected by decreased levels of IL-6 and oncostatin M. The loss of gp130 slightly attenuated the initiation of HCC 24 weeks after DEN treatment. In contrast, 40 weeks after DEN treatment, male and female gp130(Δhepa) mice showed smaller tumors and reduced tumor burden, indicating a role for hepatocyte-specific gp130 expression during HCC progression. Oxidative stress and DNA damage were substantially and similarly increased by DEN in both gp130(f/f) and gp130(Δhepa) animals. However, gp130(Δhepa) livers revealed aberrant STAT5 activation and decreased levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), pSMAD2/3 and SMAD2, whereas phosphorylation of STAT3 at Tyr705 and Ser727 was absent. Our results indicate that gp130 deletion in hepatocytes reduces progression, but not HCC initiation in the DEN model. Gp130 deletion resulted in STAT3 inhibition but increased STAT5 activation and diminished TGF-dependent signaling. Hence, blocking gp130 in hepatocytes might be an interesting therapeutic target to inhibit the growth of HCC.

  1. Menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells*

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Xiao-zhou; Lin, Jian; Chen, Jin-yang; Li, Yi-fei; Wu, Xiao-xing; Xiang, Bing-yu; Li, Cai-yun; Ma, Ju-ming; Xiang, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only proven effective treatment for both end-stage and metabolic liver diseases. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising alternative for OLT, but the lack of available donor livers has hampered its clinical application. Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) differentiated from many multi-potential stem cells can help repair damaged liver tissue. Yet almost suitable cells currently identified for human use are difficult to harvest and involve invasive procedures. Recently, a novel mesenchymal stem cell derived from human menstrual blood (MenSC) has been discovered and obtained easily and repeatedly. In this study, we examined whether the MenSCs are able to differentiate into functional HLCs in vitro. After three weeks of incubation in hepatogenic differentiation medium containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4), and oncostain M (OSM), cuboidal HLCs were observed, and cells also expressed hepatocyte-specific marker genes including albumin (ALB), α-fetoprotein (AFP), cytokeratin 18/19 (CK18/19), and cytochrome P450 1A1/3A4 (CYP1A1/3A4). Differentiated cells further demonstrated in vitro mature hepatocyte functions such as urea synthesis, glycogen storage, and indocyanine green (ICG) uptake. After intrasplenic transplantation into mice with 2/3 partial hepatectomy, the MenSC-derived HLCs were detected in recipient livers and expressed human ALB protein. We also showed that MenSC-derived HLC transplantation could restore the serum ALB level and significantly suppressed transaminase activity of liver injury animals. In conclusion, MenSCs may serve as an ideal, easily accessible source of material for tissue engineering and cell therapy of liver tissues. PMID:24190442

  2. Generation of functional hepatocytes from human spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Sun, Min; Yuan, Qingqing; Niu, Minghui; Yao, Chencheng; Hou, Jingmei; Wang, Hong; Wen, Liping; Liu, Yun; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

    2016-02-23

    To generate functional human hepatocytes from stem cells and/or extra-hepatic tissues could provide an important source of cells for treating liver diseases. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have an unlimited plasticity since they can dedifferentiate and transdifferentiate to other cell lineages. However, generation of mature and functional hepatocytes from human SSCs has not yet been achieved. Here we have for the first time reported direct transdifferentiation of human SSCs to mature and functional hepatocytes by three-step induction using the defined condition medium. Human SSCs were first transdifferentiated to hepatic stem cells, as evidenced by their morphology and biopotential nature of co-expressing hepatocyte and cholangiocyte markers but not hallmarks for embryonic stem cells. Hepatic stem cells were further induced to differentiate into mature hepatocytes identified by their morphological traits and strong expression of CK8, CK18, ALB, AAT, TF, TAT, and cytochrome enzymes rather than CK7 or CK19. Significantly, mature hepatocytes derived from human SSCs assumed functional attributes of human hepatocytes, because they could produce albumin, remove ammonia, and uptake and release indocyanine green. Moreover, expression of β-CATENIN, HNF4A, FOXA1 and GATA4 was upregulated during the transdifferentiation of human SSCs to mature hepatocytes. Collectively, human SSCs could directly transdifferentiate to mature and functional hepatocytes. This study could offer an invaluable source of human hepatocytes for curing liver disorders and drug toxicology screening and provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying human liver regeneration.

  3. Generation of functional hepatocytes from human spermatogonial stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zheng; Sun, Min; Yuan, Qingqing; Niu, Minghui; Yao, Chencheng; Hou, Jingmei; Wang, Hong; Wen, Liping; Liu, Yun; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

    2016-01-01

    To generate functional human hepatocytes from stem cells and/or extra-hepatic tissues could provide an important source of cells for treating liver diseases. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have an unlimited plasticity since they can dedifferentiate and transdifferentiate to other cell lineages. However, generation of mature and functional hepatocytes from human SSCs has not yet been achieved. Here we have for the first time reported direct transdifferentiation of human SSCs to mature and functional hepatocytes by three-step induction using the defined condition medium. Human SSCs were first transdifferentiated to hepatic stem cells, as evidenced by their morphology and biopotential nature of co-expressing hepatocyte and cholangiocyte markers but not hallmarks for embryonic stem cells. Hepatic stem cells were further induced to differentiate into mature hepatocytes identified by their morphological traits and strong expression of CK8, CK18, ALB, AAT, TF, TAT, and cytochrome enzymes rather than CK7 or CK19. Significantly, mature hepatocytes derived from human SSCs assumed functional attributes of human hepatocytes, because they could produce albumin, remove ammonia, and uptake and release indocyanine green. Moreover, expression of β-CATENIN, HNF4A, FOXA1 and GATA4 was upregulated during the transdifferentiation of human SSCs to mature hepatocytes. Collectively, human SSCs could directly transdifferentiate to mature and functional hepatocytes. This study could offer an invaluable source of human hepatocytes for curing liver disorders and drug toxicology screening and provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying human liver regeneration. PMID:26840458

  4. Two-signal requirement for growth-promoting function of Yap in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tian; Bondar, Tanya; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Cuiling; He, Hang; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein (Yap) promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, suggesting that Yap functions as an oncogene. Most oncogenes, however, require a combination of at least two signals to promote proliferation. In this study, we present evidence that Yap activation is insufficient to promote growth in the otherwise normal tissue. Using a mosaic mouse model, we demonstrate that Yap overexpression in a fraction of hepatocytes does not lead to their clonal expansion, as proliferation is counterbalanced by increased apoptosis. To shift the activity of Yap towards growth, a second signal provided by tissue damage or inflammation is required. In response to liver injury, Yap drives clonal expansion, suppresses hepatocyte differentiation, and promotes a progenitor phenotype. These results suggest that Yap activation is insufficient to promote growth in the absence of a second signal thus coordinating tissue homeostasis and repair. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02948.001 PMID:25667983

  5. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 targets CYP2D6 on hepatocyte plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Muratori, L; Parola, M; Ripalti, A; Robino, G; Muratori, P; Bellomo, G; Carini, R; Lenzi, M; Landini, M P; Albano, E; Bianchi, F B

    2000-04-01

    Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) is the marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and is detected in up to 6% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. It recognises linear and conformational epitopes of cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and may have liver damaging activity, provided that CYP2D6 is accessible to effector mechanisms of autoimmune attack. The presence of LKM1 in the plasma membrane was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy of isolated rat hepatocytes probed with 10 LKM1 positive sera (five from patients with AIH and five from patients with chronic HCV infection) and a rabbit polyclonal anti-CYP2D6 serum. Serum from both types of patient stained the plasma membrane of non-permeabilised cells, where the fluorescent signal could be visualised as discrete clumps. Conversely, permeabilised hepatocytes showed diffuse submembranous/cytoplasmic staining. Adsorption with recombinant CYP2D6 substantially reduced plasma membrane staining and LKM1 immunoblot reactivity. Plasma membrane staining of LKM1 colocalised with that of anti-CYP2D6. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that a single 50 kDa protein recognised by anti-CYP2D6 can be isolated from the plasma membrane of intact hepatocytes. AIH and HCV related LKM1 recognise CYP2D6 exposed on the plasma membrane of isolated hepatocytes. This observation supports the notion that anti-CYP2D6 autoreactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage.

  6. Parvovirus B19-Induced Apoptosis of Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Brian D.; Karetnyi, Yuory V.; Naides, Stanley J.

    2004-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19 virus) can persist in multiple tissues and has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including acute fulminant liver failure. The mechanism by which B19 virus induces liver failure remains unknown. Hepatocytes are nonpermissive for B19 virus replication. We previously reported that acute fulminant liver failure associated with B19 virus infection was characterized by hepatocellular dropout. We inoculated both primary hepatocytes and the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep G2 with B19 virus and assayed for apoptosis by using annexin V staining. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis and immunofluorescence demonstrated that B19 virus was able to infect the cells and produce its nonstructural protein but little or no structural capsid protein. Infection with B19 virus induced means of 28% of Hep G2 cells and 10% of primary hepatocytes to undergo apoptosis, which were four- and threefold increases, respectively, over background levels. Analysis of caspase involvement showed that B19 virus-inoculated cultures had a significant increase in the number of cells with active caspase 3. Inhibition studies demonstrated that caspases 3 and 9, but not caspase 8, are required for B19 virus-induced apoptosis. PMID:15220451

  7. Investigation of metabolic objectives in cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Uygun, Korkut; Matthew, Howard W T; Huang, Yinlun

    2007-06-15

    Using optimization based methods to predict fluxes in metabolic flux balance models has been a successful approach for some microorganisms, enabling construction of in silico models and even inference of some regulatory motifs. However, this success has not been translated to mammalian cells. The lack of knowledge about metabolic objectives in mammalian cells is a major obstacle that prevents utilization of various metabolic engineering tools and methods for tissue engineering and biomedical purposes. In this work, we investigate and identify possible metabolic objectives for hepatocytes cultured in vitro. To achieve this goal, we present a special data-mining procedure for identifying metabolic objective functions in mammalian cells. This multi-level optimization based algorithm enables identifying the major fluxes in the metabolic objective from MFA data in the absence of information about critical active constraints of the system. Further, once the objective is determined, active flux constraints can also be identified and analyzed. This information can be potentially used in a predictive manner to improve cell culture results or clinical metabolic outcomes. As a result of the application of this method, it was found that in vitro cultured hepatocytes maximize oxygen uptake, coupling of urea and TCA cycles, and synthesis of serine and urea. Selection of these fluxes as the metabolic objective enables accurate prediction of the flux distribution in the system given a limited amount of flux data; thus presenting a workable in silico model for cultured hepatocytes. It is observed that an overall homeostasis picture is also emergent in the findings.

  8. Hepatocyte heterogeneity in the metabolism of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Jungermann, K; Thurman, R G

    1992-01-01

    Periportal and perivenous hepatocytes possess different amounts and activities of the rate-generating enzymes of carbohydrate and oxidative energy metabolism and thus different metabolic capacities. This is the basis of the model of metabolic zonation, according to which periportal cells catalyze predominantly the oxidative catabolism of fatty and amino acids as well as glucose release and glycogen formation via gluconeogenesis, and perivenous cells carry out preferentially glucose uptake for glycogen synthesis and glycolysis coupled to liponeogenesis. The input of humoral and nervous signals into the periportal and perivenous zones is different; gradients of oxygen, substrates and products, hormones and mediators and nerve densities exist which are important not only for the short-term regulation of carbohydrate metabolism but also for the long-term regulation of zonal gene expression. The specialization of periportal and perivenous hepatocytes in carbohydrate metabolism has been well characterized. In vivo evidence is provided by the complex metabolic situation termed the 'glucose paradox' and by zonal flux differences calculated on the basis of the distribution of enzymes and metabolites. In vitro evidence is given by the different flux rates determined with classical invasive techniques, e.g. in periportal-like and perivenous-like hepatocytes in cell culture, in periportal- and perivenous-enriched hepatocyte populations and in perfused livers during orthograde and retrograde flow, as well as with noninvasive techniques using miniature oxygen electrodes, e.g. in livers perfused in either direction. Differences of opinion in the interpretation of studies with invasive and noninvasive techniques by the authors are discussed. The declining gradient in oxygen concentrations, the decreasing glucagon/insulin ratio and the different innervation could be important factors in the zonal expression of the genes of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. While it is clear that

  9. Disruption of Redox Homeostasis in Tumor Necrosis Factor-Induced Apoptosis in a Murine Hepatocyte Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Robert H.; Campbell, Jean S.; Stephenson, Alyssa B.; Franklin, Christopher C.; Chaisson, Michelle; Poot, Martin; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Rabinovitch, Peter S.; Fausto, Nelson

    2000-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a mediator of the acute phase response in the liver and can initiate proliferation and cause cell death in hepatocytes. We investigated the mechanisms by which TNF causes apoptosis in hepatocytes focusing on the role of oxidative stress, antioxidant defenses, and mitochondrial damage. The studies were conducted in cultured AML12 cells, a line of differentiated murine hepatocytes. As is the case for hepatocytes in vivo, AML12 cells were not sensitive to cell death by TNF alone, but died by apoptosis when exposed to TNF and a small dose of actinomycin D (Act D). Morphological signs of apoptosis were not detected until 6 hours after the treatment and by 18 hours ∼50% of the cells had died. Exposure of the cells to TNF+Act D did not block NFκB nuclear translocation, DNA binding, or its overall transactivation capacity. Induction of apoptosis was characterized by oxidative stress indicated by the loss of NAD(P)H and glutathione followed by mitochondrial damage that included loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, inner membrane structural damage, and mitochondrial condensation. These changes coincided with cytochrome C release and the activation of caspases-8, -9, and -3. TNF-induced apoptosis was dependent on glutathione levels. In cells with decreased levels of glutathione, TNF by itself in the absence of transcriptional blocking acted as an apoptotic agent. Conversely, the antioxidant α-lipoic acid, that protected against the loss of glutathione in cells exposed to TNF+Act D completely prevented mitochondrial damage, caspase activation, cytochrome C release, and apoptosis. The results demonstrate that apoptosis induced by TNF+Act D in AML12 cells involves oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage. As injury was regulated to a larger extent by the glutathione content of the cells, we suggest that the combination of TNF+Act D causes apoptosis because Act D blocks the transcription of genes required for antioxidant defenses. PMID

  10. Cytotoxicity of mequindox and its metabolites in HepG2 cells in vitro and murine hepatocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingchun; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Yongjun; Liu, Yanyan; Zeng, Peng; Xue, Feiqun; Wang, Quan

    2016-02-01

    Mequindox, a quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide, is widely used as a feed additive in the Chinese livestock industry because of its effective antibacterial properties. Many recent studies have found that mequindox is rapidly metabolized to numerous metabolites following administration to animals. There have, however, been few reports describing the cytotoxicity of mequindox metabolites. In this study, HepG2 cells were treated with mequindox (0, 2, 10, 50 or 100 μg/ml) or its major metabolites (0, 40, 100, 250 or 500 μg/ml) for 24h. Mice were administrated with mequindox (0, 50, 200 or 500 mg/kg.bw) for five days. DNA damage in the HepG2 cells and mouse hepatocytes was then assessed using an SCGE assay. The cell cycle of the HepG2 cells was also determined by flow cytometry. Mequindox was found to induce cell cycle arrest to the G2/M phase and cause dose-dependent DNA damage in HepG2 cells in vitro and in murine hepatocytes in vivo. Compared with mequindox, the major metabolites had much smaller effects on the cell cycle and caused much less DNA damage in HepG2 cells. And the results indicated that the process of metabolites formed by reduction of the MEQ acetyl group or reduction of the N → O groups could contribute to DNA damage in murine hepatocytes in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-molecular-weight lignin-rich fraction in the extract of cultured Lentinula edodes mycelia attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yasuko; Kojima, H; Tamura, A; Tsuji, K; Tamesada, M; Yagi, K; Murakami, N

    2012-01-01

    The extract of cultured Lentinula edodes mycelia (LEM) is a medicinal food ingredient that has hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we fractionated the LEM extract to explore novel active compounds related to hepatoprotection by using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes exposed to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). The LEM extract and the fractions markedly inhibited the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from hepatocytes damaged by CCl(4) into the culture medium. The strongest hepatocyte-protective activity was seen in a fraction (Fr. 2) in which a 50% ethanol extract was further eluted with 50% methanol and separated using reverse-phase HPLC. Fr. 2 had an average molecular weight of 2753, and the main components are lignin (49%) and saccharides (36%, of which xylose comprises 41%). Therefore, Fr. 2 was presumed to be a low-molecular-weight compound consisting mainly of lignin and xylan-like polysaccharides. The hepatocyte-protective activity was observed even after digestion of xylan-like polysaccharides in Fr.2 and confirmed with low-molecular-weight lignin (LM-lignin) alone. In addition, Fr. 2, the xylan-digested Fr. 2 and LM-lignin showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity than the LEM extract. These results suggested that the effective fraction in the LEM extract related to hepatocyte protection consisted mainly of LM-lignin, and its antioxidant activity partially contributes to the hepatocyte-protective activity of the LEM extract.

  12. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha induces transdifferentiation of hematopoietic cells into hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Satish; Jaiswal, Amit K; Mukhopadhyay, Asok

    2010-02-12

    Hematopoietic stem cells can directly transdifferentiate into hepatocytes because of cellular plasticity, but the molecular basis of transdifferentiation is not known. Here, we show the molecular basis using lineage-depleted oncostatin M receptor beta-expressing (Lin(-)OSMRbeta(+)) mouse bone marrow cells in a hepatic differentiation culture system. Differentiation of the cells was marked by the expression of albumin. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha was expressed and translocated into the nuclei of the differentiating cells. Suppression of its activation in OSM-neutralized culture medium inhibited cellular differentiation. Ectopic expression of full-length HNF4alpha in 32D myeloid cells resulted in decreased myeloid colony-forming potential and increased expression of hepatocyte-specific genes and proteins. Nevertheless, the neohepatocytes produced in culture expressed active P450 enzyme. The obligatory role of HNF4alpha in hepatic differentiation was confirmed by transfecting Lin(-)OSMRbeta(+) cells with dominant negative HNF4alpha in the differentiation culture because its expression inhibited the transcription of the albumin and tyrosine aminotransferase genes. The loss and gain of functional activities strongly suggested that HNF4alpha plays a central role in the transdifferentiation process. For the first time, this report demonstrates the mechanism of transdifferentiation of hematopoietic cells into hepatocytes, in which HNF4alpha serves as a molecular switch.

  13. Glycyrrhetinic acid suppressed NF-κB activation in TNF-α-induced hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Jhang; Kang, Shih-Pei; Lee, I-Jung; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2014-01-22

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a crucial inflammatory cytokine when hepatocytes are damaged. Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (Chinese licorice) has been widely used in Chinese herbal prescriptions for the treatment of liver diseases and as a food additive. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) reporter gene assay in TNF-α-induced HepG2 was used as a screening platform. IκBα phosphorylation and p65 translocation were measured by Western blotting, and nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression were further confirmed in rat primary hepatocytes. Results showed that TNF-α enhanced NF-κB activity was significantly attenuated by glycyrrhetinic acid in a concentration-dependent manner in the NF-κB reporter gene assay. Glycyrrhetinic acid decreased the gene expression of iNOS through inhibited IκBα phosphorylation and p65 translocation in protein level. Furthermore, NO production and iNOS expression were reduced by glycyrrhetinic acid in TNF-α-induced rat primary hepatocytes. These results suggest that glycyrrhetinic acid may provide hepatoprotection against chronic liver inflammation through attenuating NF-κB activation to alleviate the inflammation.

  14. Protective effects of Sesamum indicum extract against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Shahraki, Jafar; Tafreshian, Saman; Salimi, Ahmad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium toxicity is a challenging problem to human and animal health with no entirely understanding cytotoxic mechanisms. Previous studies in vanadium toxicity showed involvement of oxidative stress in isolated liver hepatocytes and mitochondria via increasing of ROS formation, release of cytochrome c and ATP depletion after incubation with different concentrations (25-200 µM). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Sesamum indicum seed extract (100-300 μg/mL) against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that quite similar to Alpha-tocopherol (100 µM), different concentrations of extract (100-300 μg/mL) protected the isolated hepatocyte against all oxidative stress/cytotoxicity markers induced by vanadium in including cell lysis, ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease and lysosomal membrane damage. Besides, vanadium induced mitochondrial/lysosomal toxic interaction and vanadium reductive activation mediated by glutathione in vanadium toxicity was significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by Sesamum indicum extracts. These findings suggested a hepato-protective role for extracts against liver injury resulted from vanadium toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 979-985, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Epidermal growth factor- and hepatocyte growth factor-receptor activity in serum-free cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Runge, D M; Runge, D; Dorko, K; Pisarov, L A; Leckel, K; Kostrubsky, V E; Thomas, D; Strom, S C; Michalopoulos, G K

    1999-02-01

    Serum-free primary cultures of hepatocytes are a useful tool to study factors triggering hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration. We have developed a chemically defined serum-free system that allows human hepatocyte proliferation in the presence of epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor. DNA synthesis and accumulation were determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation and fluorometry, respectively. Western blot analyses and co-immunoprecipitations were used to investigate the association of proteins involved in epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor activation and signaling: epidermal growth factor receptor, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor, and a member of the signal transducer and activator of transcription family, STAT-3. Primary human hepatocytes proliferated under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined medium for up to 12 days. Epidermal growth factor-receptor and MET were present and functional, decreasing over time. MET, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor co-precipitated to varying degrees during the culture period. STAT-3 co-precipitated with epidermal growth factor-receptor and MET to varying degrees. Proliferation of human hepatocytes can improve by modification of a chemically defined medium originally used for rat hepatocyte cultures. In these long-term cultures of human hepatocytes, hepatocyte growth factor and epidermal growth factor can stimulate growth and differentiation by interacting with their receptors and initiating downstream signaling. This involves complex formation of the receptors with other plasma membrane components for MET (urokinase-type plasminogen activator in context of its receptor) and activation of STAT-3 for both receptors.

  16. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    PubMed

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-11-15

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The potential of induced pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hannoun, Zara; Steichen, Clara; Dianat, Noushin; Weber, Anne; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation remains the only curative treatment for liver disease. However, the number of patients who die while on the waiting list (15%) has increased in recent years as a result of severe organ shortages; furthermore the incidence of liver disease is increasing worldwide. Clinical trials involving hepatocyte transplantation have provided encouraging results. However, transplanted cell function appears to often decline after several months, necessitating liver transplantation. The precise aetiology of the loss of cell function is not clear, but poor engraftment and immune-mediated loss appear to be important factors. Also, primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are not readily available, de-differentiate, and die rapidly in culture. Hepatocytes are available from other sources, such as tumour-derived human hepatocyte cell lines and immortalised human hepatocyte cell lines or porcine hepatocytes. However, all these cells suffer from various limitations such as reduced or differences in functions or risk of zoonotic infections. Due to their significant potential, one possible inexhaustible source of hepatocytes is through the directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This review will discuss the potential applications and existing limitations of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes in regenerative medicine, drug screening, in vitro disease modelling and bioartificial livers. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatocyte transplantation for liver-based metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Anil; Mitry, Ragai R; Hughes, Robin D

    2006-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is being investigated as an alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with liver-based metabolic disorders. The progress made in this field to date is reviewed. Protocols have been developed using collagenase perfusion to isolate human hepatocytes from unused donor liver tissue. Hepatocytes with a high viability can often be obtained and can be cryopreserved for later use, though with loss of function on thawing. For clinical use, hepatocytes must be prepared in clean GMP conditions with cells meeting criteria of function and lack of microbial contamination before patient use. Hepatocytes are infused intraportally into the patient's liver, where a proportion of cells will engraft and replace the deficient metabolic function without the need for major surgery. Twenty patients have now received hepatocyte transplantation, including eight children at King's College Hospital. There was a range of aetiologies of liver disease: familial hypercholesterolaemia, Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1, urea cycle defects, infantile Refsum disease, glycogen storage disease type Ia, inherited factor VII deficiency and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2. Clinical improvement and partial correction of the metabolic abnormality was observed in most cases. Considerable progress has been made in developing the technique, but hepatocyte transplantation is limited by the available supply of liver tissue. Hepatocytes derived from stem cells could provide alternative sources of cells in the future.

  19. [State of hepatocyte transplantation: a risk or a chance?].

    PubMed

    Leckel, K; Blaheta, R A; Markus, B H

    2003-04-01

    Over the past few years, hepatocyte transplantation has been considered as an alternative method for orthotopic liver transplantation for the treatment of various liver diseases. Beside curative approach for genetic metabolic deficiencies (familial hypercholesterolemia, hemophilia, etc.), it could be a useful tool for bridging the waiting period until an appropriate donor organ is obtained. In preclinical animal studies, hepatocytes injected intraperitoneally, intraportally or into the spleen settle down in the diseased liver. This enables genetic modification to correct inborn metabolic deficiencies and improves survival in acute liver failure. In 1992, the first clinical transplantation of isolated hepatocytes in 10 patients was performed. In 1998, Fox and coworkers described the successful transplantation of allogeneic liver cells in a child with Crigler-Najjar syndrome. Accomplished studies of Strom et al. resp. Bilir et al. of the same year proved the effectiveness of liver cell transplantation for transient treatment of acute liver failure. Prerequisite of this cell-based therapeutic strategy is a sufficient amount of highly differentiated hepatocytes, hence, a well established in-vitro cell-culture technique is necessary to yield a reproducible number of proliferating hepatocytes and to preserve the physiological cell function. This review discusses the different experimental approaches regarding the cultivation of human hepatocytes and also the use of alternative cell sources (like animal hepatocytes, immortalized cells of human origin, progenitor cells from fetal human liver/liver stem cells) for hepatocyte transplantation.

  20. LIVER REGENERATION STUDIES WITH RAT HEPATOCYTES IN PRIMARY CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult rat parenchymal hepatocytes in primary culture can be induced to enter into DNA synthesis and mitosis. The optimal conditions for hepatocyte replication are low plating density (less than 10,000 cells/sq cm) and 50% serum from two-thirds partially hepatectomized rats (48 hr...

  1. The extracellular redox state modulates mitochondrial function, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen synthesis in murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nocito, Laura; Kleckner, Amber S; Yoo, Elsia J; Jones Iv, Albert R; Liesa, Marc; Corkey, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Circulating redox state changes, determined by the ratio of reduced/oxidized pairs of different metabolites, have been associated with metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenic contribution of these changes and whether they modulate normal tissue function is unclear. As alterations in hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism are hallmarks that characterize insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we tested whether imposed changes in the extracellular redox state could modulate these processes. Thus, primary hepatocytes were treated with different ratios of the following physiological extracellular redox couples: β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB)/acetoacetate (Acoc), reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and cysteine/cystine. Exposure to a more oxidized ratio via extracellular βOHB/Acoc, GSH/GSSG, and cysteine/cystine in hepatocytes from fed mice increased intracellular hydrogen peroxide without causing oxidative damage. On the other hand, addition of more reduced ratios of extracellular βOHB/Acoc led to increased NAD(P)H and maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity in hepatocytes. Greater βOHB/Acoc ratios were also associated with decreased β-oxidation, as expected with enhanced lipogenesis. In hepatocytes from fasted mice, a more extracellular reduced state of βOHB/Acoc led to increased alanine-stimulated gluconeogenesis and enhanced glycogen synthesis capacity from added glucose. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that the extracellular redox state regulates the major metabolic functions of the liver and involves changes in intracellular NADH, hydrogen peroxide, and mitochondrial respiration. Because redox state in the blood can be communicated to all metabolically sensitive tissues, this work confirms the hypothesis that circulating redox state may be an important regulator of whole body metabolism and contribute to alterations associated with metabolic diseases.

  2. The Extracellular Redox State Modulates Mitochondrial Function, Gluconeogenesis, and Glycogen Synthesis in Murine Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nocito, Laura; Kleckner, Amber S.; Yoo, Elsia J.; Jones IV, Albert R.; Liesa, Marc; Corkey, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating redox state changes, determined by the ratio of reduced/oxidized pairs of different metabolites, have been associated with metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenic contribution of these changes and whether they modulate normal tissue function is unclear. As alterations in hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism are hallmarks that characterize insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we tested whether imposed changes in the extracellular redox state could modulate these processes. Thus, primary hepatocytes were treated with different ratios of the following physiological extracellular redox couples: β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB)/acetoacetate (Acoc), reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and cysteine/cystine. Exposure to a more oxidized ratio via extracellular βOHB/Acoc, GSH/GSSG, and cysteine/cystine in hepatocytes from fed mice increased intracellular hydrogen peroxide without causing oxidative damage. On the other hand, addition of more reduced ratios of extracellular βOHB/Acoc led to increased NAD(P)H and maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity in hepatocytes. Greater βOHB/Acoc ratios were also associated with decreased β-oxidation, as expected with enhanced lipogenesis. In hepatocytes from fasted mice, a more extracellular reduced state of βOHB/Acoc led to increased alanine-stimulated gluconeogenesis and enhanced glycogen synthesis capacity from added glucose. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that the extracellular redox state regulates the major metabolic functions of the liver and involves changes in intracellular NADH, hydrogen peroxide, and mitochondrial respiration. Because redox state in the blood can be communicated to all metabolically sensitive tissues, this work confirms the hypothesis that circulating redox state may be an important regulator of whole body metabolism and contribute to alterations associated with metabolic diseases. PMID:25816337

  3. Mir-24 regulates hepatocyte apoptosis via BIM during acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhiwen; Li, Zhi; Zhu, Deming; Ling, Wei; Zheng, Lei; Pu, Liyong; Kong, Lianbao

    2017-01-01

    Acuteliver failure (ALF) has a high mortality rate and is characterized by massive hepatocyte destruction. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in manyliver diseases, the role of miRNAs in ALF development is unknown. In this study, the murine ALF model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS). Compared with saline-treated mice, miR-24 was distinctly down-regulated post D-GalN/LPS challenge in vivo and D-galactosamine/tumor necrosis factor (D-GalN/TNF) challenge in vitro , which was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein levels of the BH3-only-domain-containing protein BIM were upregulated after challenge both in vivo and in vitro . Previous studies have demonstrated that hepatocyte apoptosis is a distinguishing feature of D-GalN/LPS-associated liver failure. In this study, D-GalN/LPS-challenged mice showed higher alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, more severe liver damage, increased numbers of apoptotic hepatocytes and higher levels of caspase-3 compared with saline-treated mice. In D-GalN/TNF-treated BNLCL2 cells, miR-24 overexpression attenuated apoptosis.Furthermore, miR-24 overexpression reduced BIM mRNA and protein levels in vitro . Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-24 regulates hepatocyte apoptosis via BIM during ALF development, suggesting that miR-24 is a novel onco-miRNA that may provide potential therapeutic targets for ALF.

  4. Nicotinamide N‐methyltransferase expression decreases in iron overload, exacerbating toxicity in mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Koppe, Tiago; Patchen, Bonnie; Cheng, Aaron; Bhasin, Manoj; Vulpe, Chris; Schwartz, Robert E.; Moreno‐Navarrete, Jose Maria; Fernandez‐Real, Jose Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload causes the generation of reactive oxygen species that can lead to lasting damage to the liver and other organs. The goal of this study was to identify genes that modify the toxicity of iron overload. We studied the effect of iron overload on the hepatic transcriptional and metabolomic profile in mouse models using a dietary model of iron overload and a genetic model, the hemojuvelin knockout mouse. We then evaluated the correlation of nicotinamide N‐methyltransferase (NNMT) expression with body iron stores in human patients and the effect of NNMT knockdown on gene expression and viability in primary mouse hepatocytes. We found that iron overload induced significant changes in the expression of genes and metabolites involved in glucose and nicotinamide metabolism and that NNMT, an enzyme that methylates nicotinamide and regulates hepatic glucose and cholesterol metabolism, is one of the most strongly down‐regulated genes in the liver in both genetic and dietary iron overload. We found that hepatic NNMT expression is inversely correlated with serum ferritin levels and serum transferrin saturation in patients who are obese, suggesting that body iron stores regulate human liver NNMT expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that adenoviral knockdown of NNMT in primary mouse hepatocytes exacerbates iron‐induced hepatocyte toxicity and increases expression of transcriptional markers of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, while overexpression of NNMT partially reversed these effects. Conclusion: Iron overload alters glucose and nicotinamide transcriptional and metabolic pathways in mouse hepatocytes and decreases NNMT expression, while NNMT deficiency worsens the toxic effect of iron overload. For these reasons, NNMT may be a drug target for the prevention of iron‐induced hepatotoxicity. (Hepatology Communications 2017;1:803–815) PMID:29404495

  5. Ketose induced respiratory inhibition in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, P; Carrascosa, J M; Núñez de Castro, I

    1987-06-01

    The addition of 10 mM fructose or 10 mM tagatose to a suspension of hepatocytes caused respiratory inhibition, whereas no change in oxygen uptake was observed following the addition of glucose. However, incubations in the presence of fructose showed a high, aerobic glycolytic activity. Tagatose is phosphorylated to tagatose 1-phosphate but is not further metabolized by cell free liver extract. Moreover, the addition of fructose to glucagon treated cells also caused the Crabtree-like effect. The concentration of adenine nucleotides and inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments during incubation (time 30 min) was determined by the digitonin fractionation procedure. In the presence of 10 mM fructose or tagatose, the total adenine nucleotide pools decreased by 40%; however, glucose produced no change. The addition of ketoses diminished the asymmetric distribution of extramitochondrial (ATP/ADP)e ratio and intramitochondrial (ATP/ADP)i ratio. At the same time the total mitochondrial Pi fell from 17 mM to 6-7 mM. The mitochondrial membrane potential (-161 mV) in the presence of fructose showed no changes during the 30 min experimental period. An increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio was observed. These results suggest that in hepatocytes the inhibition of respiration is not necessarily linked with the enhanced aerobic glycolysis, by competition for common substrates.

  6. R-spondin3-LGR4 signaling protects hepatocytes against DMOG-induced hypoxia/reoxygenation injury through activating β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiying; Yin, Yue; Yu, Ruili; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

    2018-04-30

    Leucine-rich repeat G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) and its ligands R-spondin1-4 (Rspos) have been vastly investigated in embryonic development. The biological functions of Rspos-LGR4 system in liver remains largely unknown. Here, we explored whether it protects hepatocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) induced damage. H/R injury was induced by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) in AML12 cells and the effects of Rspo3 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed. Specific shRNAs were used to interfere LGR4 or β-catenin. DMOG caused hepatocytes damage evidenced by increase in HIF-1α, cell death and apoptosis genes p27 and Bax, with concurrent decrease of cell proliferation genes PCNA and CyclinD1. Of all the Rspos, Rspo3 is predominantly expressed in AML12 hepatocytes. Importantly, Rspo3 demonstrated an alteration in a manner similar to proliferation-related genes during H/R injury. Rspo3 pretreatment rendered hepatocytes less vulnerable to DMOG induced H/R injury. Ablation of LGR4 using shRNA attenuated the protective effects of Rspo3. Wnt3a also protected AML12 cells from damages caused by H/R, showing enhanced proliferation activity. Notably, knockdown of β-catenin in hepatocytes completely abolished the effect of Rspo3 pretreatment on the expression levels of PCNA and CyclinD1. Rspo3-LGR4 axis protects hepatocytes from H/R injury via activating β-catenin. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Physiological ranges of matrix rigidity modulate primary mouse hepatocyte function in part through hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha.

    PubMed

    Desai, Seema S; Tung, Jason C; Zhou, Vivian X; Grenert, James P; Malato, Yann; Rezvani, Milad; Español-Suñer, Regina; Willenbring, Holger; Weaver, Valerie M; Chang, Tammy T

    2016-07-01

    Matrix rigidity has important effects on cell behavior and is increased during liver fibrosis; however, its effect on primary hepatocyte function is unknown. We hypothesized that increased matrix rigidity in fibrotic livers would activate mechanotransduction in hepatocytes and lead to inhibition of liver-specific functions. To determine the physiologically relevant ranges of matrix stiffness at the cellular level, we performed detailed atomic force microscopy analysis across liver lobules from normal and fibrotic livers. We determined that normal liver matrix stiffness was around 150 Pa and increased to 1-6 kPa in areas near fibrillar collagen deposition in fibrotic livers. In vitro culture of primary hepatocytes on collagen matrix of tunable rigidity demonstrated that fibrotic levels of matrix stiffness had profound effects on cytoskeletal tension and significantly inhibited hepatocyte-specific functions. Normal liver stiffness maintained functional gene regulation by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α), whereas fibrotic matrix stiffness inhibited the HNF4α transcriptional network. Fibrotic levels of matrix stiffness activated mechanotransduction in primary hepatocytes through focal adhesion kinase. In addition, blockade of the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase pathway rescued HNF4α expression from hepatocytes cultured on stiff matrix. Fibrotic levels of matrix stiffness significantly inhibit hepatocyte-specific functions in part by inhibiting the HNF4α transcriptional network mediated through the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase pathway. Increased appreciation of the role of matrix rigidity in modulating hepatocyte function will advance our understanding of the mechanisms of hepatocyte dysfunction in liver cirrhosis and spur development of novel treatments for chronic liver disease. (Hepatology 2016;64:261-275). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Physiological Ranges of Matrix Rigidity Modulate Primary Mouse Hepatocyte Function In Part Through Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Seema S.; Tung, Jason C.; Zhou, Vivian X.; Grenert, James P.; Malato, Yann; Rezvani, Milad; Español-Suñer, Regina; Willenbring, Holger; Weaver, Valerie M.; Chang, Tammy T.

    2016-01-01

    Matrix rigidity has important effects on cell behavior and is increased during liver fibrosis; however, its effect on primary hepatocyte function is unknown. We hypothesized that increased matrix rigidity in fibrotic livers would activate mechanotransduction in hepatocytes and lead to inhibition of hepatic-specific functions. To determine the physiologically relevant ranges of matrix stiffness at the cellular level, we performed detailed atomic force microscopy analysis across liver lobules from normal and fibrotic livers. We determined that normal liver matrix stiffness was around 150Pa and increased to 1–6kPa in areas near fibrillar collagen deposition in fibrotic livers. In vitro culture of primary hepatocytes on collagen matrix of tunable rigidity demonstrated that fibrotic levels of matrix stiffness had profound effects on cytoskeletal tension and significantly inhibited hepatocyte-specific functions. Normal liver stiffness maintained functional gene regulation by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) whereas fibrotic matrix stiffness inhibited the HNF4α transcriptional network. Fibrotic levels of matrix stiffness activated mechanotransduction in primary hepatocytes through focal adhesion kinase (FAK). In addition, blockade of the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway rescued HNF4α expression from hepatocytes cultured on stiff matrix. Conclusion Fibrotic levels of matrix stiffness significantly inhibit hepatocyte-specific functions in part by inhibiting the HNF4α transcriptional network mediated through the Rho/ROCK pathway. Increased appreciation of the role of matrix rigidity in modulating hepatocyte function will advance our understanding of the mechanisms of hepatocyte dysfunction in liver cirrhosis and spur development of novel treatments for chronic liver disease. PMID:26755329

  9. Hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor beta regulate 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene expression in rat hepatocyte primary cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Joaquin, M; Rosa, J L; Salvadó, C; López, S; Nakamura, T; Bartrons, R; Gil, J; Tauler, A

    1996-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) are believed to be of major importance for hepatic regeneration after liver damage. We have studied the effect of these growth factors on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) levels and the expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase) in rat hepatocyte primary cultures. Our results demonstrate that HGF activates the expression of the 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene by increasing the levels of its mRNA. As a consequence of this activation, the amount of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase protein and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity increased, which was reflected by a rise in Fru-2,6-P2 levels. In contrast, TGF-beta decreased the levels of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase mRNA, which led to a decrease in the amount of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase protein and Fru-2,6-P2. The different actions of HGF and TGF-beta on 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression are concomitant with their effect on cell proliferation. Here we show that, in the absence of hormones, primary cultures of hepatocytes express the F-type isoenzyme. In addition, HGF increases the expression of this isoenzyme, and dexamethasone activates the L-type isoform. HGF and TGF-beta were able to inhibit this activation. PMID:8660288

  10. Experience of microbiological screening of human hepatocytes for clinical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lehec, Sharon C; Hughes, Robin D; Mitry, Ragai R; Graver, Michelle A; Verma, Anita; Wade, Jim J; Dhawan, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is being used in patients with liver-based metabolic disorders and acute liver failure. Hepatocytes are isolated from unused donor liver tissue under GMP conditions. Cells must be free of microbiological contamination to be safe for human use. The experience of microbiological screening during 72 hepatocyte isolation procedures at one center is reported. Samples were taken at different stages of the process and tested using a blood culture bottle system and Gram stain. Bacterial contamination was detected in 37.5% of the UW organ preservative solutions used to transport the liver tissue to the Cell Isolation Unit. After tissue processing the contamination was reduced to 7% overall in the final hepatocyte product, irrespective of the presence of initial contamination of the transport solution. The most common organisms recovered were coagulase-negative staphylococci, a skin commensal. A total of 41 preparations of fresh or cryopreserved hepatocytes were used for cell transplantation in children with liver-based metabolic disorders without any evidence of sepsis due to infusion of hepatocytes. In conclusion, the incidence of bacterial contamination of the final product was low, confirming the suitability of the organs used, hepatocyte isolation procedure, and the environmental conditions of the clean room.

  11. Cryopreservation and gel collagen culture of porcine hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Ling; Wang, Ying-Jie; Guo, Hai-Tao; Wang, Yu-Ming; Liu, Jun; Yu, Yue-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the method of cryopreserving porcine hepatocytes and gel collagen culture measure after its cryopreservation. METHODS: Hepatocytes, isolated from Chinese experimental suckling mini-pigs by two-step perfusion with collagenase using an extra corporeal perfusion apparatus, were cryopreserved with 50 mL/L to 200 mL/L DMSO in liquid nitrogen for 4 mo, then thawed and seeded in 1 or between 2 layers of gel collagen. The expression of porcine albumin message RNA, cellular morphology and content of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea nitrogen (UN) were examined during culture in gel. RESULTS: Viability of 150 mL/L DMSO group thawed hepatocytes was (83 ± 4)%, but after purification, its viability was (90 ± 5)%, attachment efficiency was (86 ± 7)%, the viability of thawed hepatocytes was near to fresh cells. When the thawed hepatocytes were cultivated in gel collagen with culture medium adding epidermal growth factor, the hepatocytes grew in various administrative levels in mixed collagen gel, and bunchy in the sandwich configuration cultures. For up to 10 days’ culture, the typical cellular morphological characteristics of cultivated hepatocytes could be observed. The leakage of AST was lower during culture in gel than that in common culture. At the same time, the UN synthesized by cells cultivated in mixed gel collagen was higher than that in other groups. CONCLUSION: Storage in liquid nitrogen can long keep hepatocytes’ activities, the concentration of 150 mL/L DMSO is fit for porcine hepatocytes’ cryopreservation. Thawed hepatocytes can be cultivated with collagenous matrix, which provides an environment that more closely resembles that in vivo and maintain the expression of certain liver-specific function of hepatocytes. PMID:15052684

  12. Galactosylated electrospun membranes for hepatocyte sandwich culture.

    PubMed

    Chien, Hsiu-Wen; Lai, Juin-Yih; Tsai, Wei-Bor

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we developed a galactocylated electrospun polyurethane membrane for sandwich culture of hepatocyte sandwich culture. The electrospun fibrous membranes were bio-functionalized with galactose molecules by a UV-crosslinked layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte multilayer deposition technique. The galactosylated electrospun membranes were employed as a top support membrane for the sandwich culture of HepG2/C3A cells on a collagen substrate. Our results demonstrate that HepG2/C3A cells covered by the galactosylated PU membranes form multi-cellular aggregates and lead to improved albumin secretion ability compared to the control membranes (unmodified PU or poly(ethylene imine)-modified PU). Our study reveals the potential of galactosylated electrospun membranes in the application of liver tissue engineering and the regeneration of liver-tissue substitutes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Highly Dynamic Host Actin Reorganization around Developing Plasmodium Inside Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Santos, Carina S. S.; Itoe, Maurice A.; Afonso, Cristina; Henriques, Ricardo; Gardner, Rui; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Simões, Pedro D.; Raquel, Helena; Almeida, António Paulo; Moita, Luis F.; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Mota, Maria M.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes and infect hepatocytes, where a single sporozoite replicates into thousands of merozoites inside a parasitophorous vacuole. The nature of the Plasmodium-host cell interface, as well as the interactions occurring between these two organisms, remains largely unknown. Here we show that highly dynamic hepatocyte actin reorganization events occur around developing Plasmodium berghei parasites inside human hepatoma cells. Actin reorganization is most prominent between 10 to 16 hours post infection and depends on the actin severing and capping protein, gelsolin. Live cell imaging studies also suggest that the hepatocyte cytoskeleton may contribute to parasite elimination during Plasmodium development in the liver. PMID:22238609

  14. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. Objective: To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). Materials and Methods: The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Results: Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. Conclusions: OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. SUMMARY Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). PMID:28839374

  15. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n -butanol. The n -butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol- n -butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P x ) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3- O -methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3- O -β- d -glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n -butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-P x . OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).

  16. The Fungal Metabolite, Pyrrocidine A, induces Apoptosis in HEPG2 Hepatocytes and PK15 Renal Cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyrrocidines are polyketide-amino acid-derived antibiotics produced by Acremonium zeae, a prevalent seed-borne endophyte of corn. Pyrrocidines exhibit potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including drug resistant strains, and display significant activity against Candida albicans, as well...

  17. Phenotypic and functional analyses show stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells better mimic fetal rather than adult hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Melissa; Withey, Sarah; Harrison, Sean; Segeritz, Charis-Patricia; Zhang, Fang; Atkinson-Dell, Rebecca; Rowe, Cliff; Gerrard, Dave T; Sison-Young, Rowena; Jenkins, Roz; Henry, Joanne; Berry, Andrew A; Mohamet, Lisa; Best, Marie; Fenwick, Stephen W; Malik, Hassan; Kitteringham, Neil R; Goldring, Chris E; Piper Hanley, Karen; Vallier, Ludovic; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-03-01

    Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs), differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by the use of soluble factors, can model human liver function and toxicity. However, at present HLC maturity and whether any deficit represents a true fetal state or aberrant differentiation is unclear and compounded by comparison to potentially deteriorated adult hepatocytes. Therefore, we generated HLCs from multiple lineages, using two different protocols, for direct comparison with fresh fetal and adult hepatocytes. Protocols were developed for robust differentiation. Multiple transcript, protein and functional analyses compared HLCs to fresh human fetal and adult hepatocytes. HLCs were comparable to those of other laboratories by multiple parameters. Transcriptional changes during differentiation mimicked human embryogenesis and showed more similarity to pericentral than periportal hepatocytes. Unbiased proteomics demonstrated greater proximity to liver than 30 other human organs or tissues. However, by comparison to fresh material, HLC maturity was proven by transcript, protein and function to be fetal-like and short of the adult phenotype. The expression of 81% phase 1 enzymes in HLCs was significantly upregulated and half were statistically not different from fetal hepatocytes. HLCs secreted albumin and metabolized testosterone (CYP3A) and dextrorphan (CYP2D6) like fetal hepatocytes. In seven bespoke tests, devised by principal components analysis to distinguish fetal from adult hepatocytes, HLCs from two different source laboratories consistently demonstrated fetal characteristics. HLCs from different sources are broadly comparable with unbiased proteomic evidence for faithful differentiation down the liver lineage. This current phenotype mimics human fetal rather than adult hepatocytes. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phenotypic and functional analyses show stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells better mimic fetal rather than adult hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Melissa; Withey, Sarah; Harrison, Sean; Segeritz, Charis-Patricia; Zhang, Fang; Atkinson-Dell, Rebecca; Rowe, Cliff; Gerrard, Dave T.; Sison-Young, Rowena; Jenkins, Roz; Henry, Joanne; Berry, Andrew A.; Mohamet, Lisa; Best, Marie; Fenwick, Stephen W.; Malik, Hassan; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Goldring, Chris E.; Piper Hanley, Karen; Vallier, Ludovic; Hanley, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs), differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by the use of soluble factors, can model human liver function and toxicity. However, at present HLC maturity and whether any deficit represents a true fetal state or aberrant differentiation is unclear and compounded by comparison to potentially deteriorated adult hepatocytes. Therefore, we generated HLCs from multiple lineages, using two different protocols, for direct comparison with fresh fetal and adult hepatocytes. Methods Protocols were developed for robust differentiation. Multiple transcript, protein and functional analyses compared HLCs to fresh human fetal and adult hepatocytes. Results HLCs were comparable to those of other laboratories by multiple parameters. Transcriptional changes during differentiation mimicked human embryogenesis and showed more similarity to pericentral than periportal hepatocytes. Unbiased proteomics demonstrated greater proximity to liver than 30 other human organs or tissues. However, by comparison to fresh material, HLC maturity was proven by transcript, protein and function to be fetal-like and short of the adult phenotype. The expression of 81% phase 1 enzymes in HLCs was significantly upregulated and half were statistically not different from fetal hepatocytes. HLCs secreted albumin and metabolized testosterone (CYP3A) and dextrorphan (CYP2D6) like fetal hepatocytes. In seven bespoke tests, devised by principal components analysis to distinguish fetal from adult hepatocytes, HLCs from two different source laboratories consistently demonstrated fetal characteristics. Conclusions HLCs from different sources are broadly comparable with unbiased proteomic evidence for faithful differentiation down the liver lineage. This current phenotype mimics human fetal rather than adult hepatocytes. PMID:25457200

  19. Repopulation of the fibrotic/cirrhotic rat liver by transplanted hepatic stem/progenitor cells and mature hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yovchev, Mladen I.; Xue, Yuhua; Shafritz, David A.; Locker, Joseph; Oertel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aim Considerable progress has been made in developing anti-fibrotic agents and other strategies to treat liver fibrosis; however, significant long-term restoration of functional liver mass has not yet been achieved. Therefore, we investigated whether transplanted hepatic stem/progenitor cells can effectively repopulate the liver with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Methods Stem/progenitor cells derived from fetal livers or mature hepatocytes from DPPIV+ F344 rats were transplanted into DPPIV− rats with thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis/cirrhosis; rats were sacrificed 1, 2, or 4 months later. Liver tissues were analyzed by histochemistry, hydroxyproline determination, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Results After chronic TAA administration, DPPIV− F344 rats exhibited progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis and severe hepatocyte damage. Besides stellate cell activation, increased numbers of stem/progenitor cells (Dlk-1+, AFP+, CD133+, Sox-9+, FoxJ1+) were observed. In conjunction with partial hepatectomy (PH), transplanted stem/progenitor cells engrafted, proliferated competitively compared to host hepatocytes, differentiated into hepatocytic and biliary epithelial cells, and generated new liver mass with extensive long-term liver repopulation (40.8 ± 10.3%). Remarkably, more than 20% liver repopulation was achieved in the absence of PH, associated with reduced fibrogenic activity (e.g., expression of α-SMA, PDGFRβ, desmin, vimentin, TIMP1) and fibrosis (reduced collagen). Furthermore, hepatocytes can also replace liver mass with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis, but to a lesser extent than FLSPCs. Conclusions This study is a Proof of Principle demonstration that transplanted epithelial stem/progenitor cells can restore injured parenchyma in a liver environment with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis and exhibit anti-fibrotic effects. PMID:23840008

  20. Hepatocyte-specific PPARA expression exclusively promotes agonist-induced cell proliferation without influence from nonparenchymal cells

    PubMed Central

    Brocker, Chad N.; Yue, Jiang; Kim, Donghwan; Qu, Aijuan; Bonzo, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARA) is a nuclear transcription factor and key mediator of systemic lipid metabolism. Prolonged activation in rodents causes hepatocyte proliferation and hepatocellular carcinoma. Little is known about the contribution of nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) to PPARA-mediated cell proliferation. NPC contribution to PPARA agonist-induced hepatomegaly was assessed in hepatocyte (Ppara△Hep)- and macrophage (Ppara△Mac)-specific Ppara null mice. Mice were treated with the agonist Wy-14643 for 14 days, and response of conditional null mice was compared with conventional knockout mice (Ppara−/−). Wy-14643 treatment caused weight loss and severe hepatomegaly in wild-type and Ppara△Mac mice, and histological analysis revealed characteristic hepatocyte swelling; Ppara△Hep and Ppara−/− mice were protected from these effects. Ppara△Mac serum chemistries, as well as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, matched wild-type mice. Agonist-treated Ppara△Hep mice had elevated serum cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides when compared with Ppara−/− mice, indicating a possible role for extrahepatic PPARA in regulating circulating lipid levels. BrdU labeling confirmed increased cell proliferation only in wild-type and Ppara△Mac mice. Macrophage PPARA disruption did not impact agonist-induced upregulation of lipid metabolism, cell proliferation, or DNA damage and repair-related gene expression, whereas gene expression was repressed in Ppara△Hep mice. Interestingly, downregulation of inflammatory cytokines IL-15 and IL-18 was dependent on macrophage PPARA. Cell type-specific regulation of target genes was confirmed in primary hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. These studies conclusively show that cell proliferation is mediated exclusively by PPARA activation in hepatocytes and that Kupffer cell PPARA has an important role in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of PPARA agonists. PMID

  1. Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on ConA-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK Pathway-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Junshan; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Huawei; Yin, Qin; Wang, Chengfen; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, atherosclerosis and antitumor activities. However, its effect on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation. Materials and Methods Autoimmune hepatitis was induced in in Balb/C mice using ConA (25 mg/kg), and astaxanthin was orally administered daily at two doses (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) for 14 days before ConA injection. Levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of inflammatory cytokines and other maker proteins were determined at three time points (2, 8 and 24 h). Primary hepatocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin (80 μM) in vitro 24 h before stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). The apoptosis rate and related protein expression were determined 24 h after the administration of TNF-α. Results Astaxanthin attenuated serum liver enzymes and pathological damage by reducing the release of inflammatory factors. It performed anti-apoptotic effects via the descending phosphorylation of Bcl-2 through the down-regulation of the JNK/p-JNK pathway. Conclusion This research firstly expounded that astaxanthin reduced immune liver injury in ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The mode of action appears to be downregulation of JNK/p-JNK-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25761053

  2. Cell Fusion Reprogramming Leads to a Specific Hepatic Expression Pattern during Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Hepatocyte Formation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Arza, Elvira; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fabregat, Isabel; Garcia-Bravo, Maria; Meza, Nestor W.; Segovia, Jose C.

    2012-01-01

    The fusion of bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic cells with hepatocytes to generate BM derived hepatocytes (BMDH) is a natural process, which is enhanced in damaged tissues. However, the reprogramming needed to generate BMDH and the identity of the resultant cells is essentially unknown. In a mouse model of chronic liver damage, here we identify a modification in the chromatin structure of the hematopoietic nucleus during BMDH formation, accompanied by the loss of the key hematopoietic transcription factor PU.1/Sfpi1 (SFFV proviral integration 1) and gain of the key hepatic transcriptional regulator HNF-1A homeobox A (HNF-1A/Hnf1a). Through genome-wide expression analysis of laser captured BMDH, a differential gene expression pattern was detected and the chromatin changes observed were confirmed at the level of chromatin regulator genes. Similarly, Tranforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and neurotransmitter (e.g. Prostaglandin E Receptor 4 [Ptger4]) pathway genes were over-expressed. In summary, in vivo BMDH generation is a process in which the hematopoietic cell nucleus changes its identity and acquires hepatic features. These BMDHs have their own cell identity characterized by an expression pattern different from hematopoietic cells or hepatocytes. The role of these BMDHs in the liver requires further investigation. PMID:22457803

  3. Insulin protects against hepatic damage postburn.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G; Kraft, Robert; Song, Juquan; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Cox, Robert A; Brooks, Natasha C; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Burn injury causes hepatic dysfunction associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress/UPR leads to hepatic apoptosis and activation of the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, leading to vast metabolic alterations. Insulin has been shown to attenuate hepatic damage and to improve liver function. We therefore hypothesized that insulin administration exerts its effects by attenuating postburn hepatic ER stress and subsequent apoptosis. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a 60% total body surface area (TBSA) burn injury. Animals were randomized to receive saline (controls) or insulin (2.5 IU/kg q. 24 h) and euthanized at 24 and 48 h postburn. Burn injury induced dramatic changes in liver structure and function, including induction of the ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, hepatocyte apoptosis, and up-regulation of inflammatory mediators. Insulin decreased hepatocyte caspase-3 activation and apoptosis significantly at 24 and 48 h postburn. Furthermore, insulin administration decreased ER stress significantly and reversed structural and functional changes in hepatocyte mitochondria. Finally, insulin attenuated the expression of inflammatory mediators IL-6, MCP-1, and CINC-1. Insulin alleviates burn-induced ER stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial abnormalities, and inflammation leading to improved hepatic structure and function significantly. These results support the use of insulin therapy after traumatic injury to improve patient outcomes.

  4. Insulin Protects against Hepatic Damage Postburn

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G; Kraft, Robert; Song, Juquan; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Cox, Robert A; Brooks, Natasha C; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Burn injury causes hepatic dysfunction associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress/UPR leads to hepatic apoptosis and activation of the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, leading to vast metabolic alterations. Insulin has been shown to attenuate hepatic damage and to improve liver function. We therefore hypothesized that insulin administration exerts its effects by attenuating postburn hepatic ER stress and subsequent apoptosis. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a 60% total body surface area (TBSA) burn injury. Animals were randomized to receive saline (controls) or insulin (2.5 IU/kg q. 24 h) and euthanized at 24 and 48 h postburn. Burn injury induced dramatic changes in liver structure and function, including induction of the ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, hepatocyte apoptosis, and up-regulation of inflammatory mediators. Insulin decreased hepatocyte caspase-3 activation and apoptosis significantly at 24 and 48 h postburn. Furthermore, insulin administration decreased ER stress significantly and reversed structural and functional changes in hepatocyte mitochondria. Finally, insulin attenuated the expression of inflammatory mediators IL-6, MCP-1, and CINC-1. Insulin alleviates burn-induced ER stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial abnormalities, and inflammation leading to improved hepatic structure and function significantly. These results support the use of insulin therapy after traumatic injury to improve patient outcomes. PMID:21267509

  5. Sry HMG Box Protein 9-positive (Sox9+) Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-negative (EpCAM−) Biphenotypic Cells Derived from Hepatocytes Are Involved in Mouse Liver Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Nishikawa, Yuji; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that mature hepatocytes compensate tissue damages not only by proliferation and/or hypertrophy but also by conversion into cholangiocyte-like cells. We found that Sry HMG box protein 9-positive (Sox9+) epithelial cell adhesion molecule-negative (EpCAM−) hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α-positive (HNF4α+) biphenotypic cells showing hepatocytic morphology appeared near EpCAM+ ductular structures in the livers of mice fed 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-containing diet. When Mx1-Cre:ROSA mice, which were injected with poly(I:C) to label mature hepatocytes, were fed with the DDC diet, we found LacZ+Sox9+ cells near ductular structures. Although Sox9+EpCAM− cells adjacent to expanding ducts likely further converted into ductular cells, the incidence was rare. To know the cellular characteristics of Sox9+EpCAM− cells, we isolated them as GFP+EpCAM− cells from DDC-injured livers of Sox9-EGFP mice. Sox9+EpCAM− cells proliferated and could differentiate to functional hepatocytes in vitro. In addition, Sox9+EpCAM− cells formed cysts with a small central lumen in collagen gels containing Matrigel® without expressing EpCAM. These results suggest that Sox9+EpCAM− cells maintaining biphenotypic status can establish cholangiocyte-type polarity. Interestingly, we found that some of the Sox9+ cells surrounded luminal spaces in DDC-injured liver while they expressed HNF4α. Taken together, we consider that in addition to converting to cholangiocyte-like cells, Sox9+EpCAM− cells provide luminal space near expanded ductular structures to prevent deterioration of the injuries and potentially supply new hepatocytes to repair damaged tissues. PMID:24482234

  6. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    PubMed Central

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  7. Nor-ursodeoxycholic acid reverses hepatocyte-specific nemo-dependent steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Beraza, Naiara; Ofner-Ziegenfuss, Lisa; Ehedego, Haksier; Boekschoten, Mark; Bischoff, Stephan C; Mueller, Michael; Trauner, Michael; Trautwein, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Hepatocyte-specific NEMO/NF-κB deleted mice (NEMO(Δhepa)) develop spontaneous non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Free fatty acids and bile acids promote DR5 expression. TRAIL/NK cell-mediated activation of TRAIL-R2/DR5 plays an important role during acute injury in NEMO(Δhepa) mice. To inhibit the progression of NASH in the absence of hepatocyte-NEMO/NF-kB signaling. NEMOf/f and NEMO(Δhepa) mice were fed with a low-fat diet, and with two anticholestatic diets; UDCA and NorUDCA. The impact of these treatments on the progression of NASH was evaluated. We show that high expression of DR5 in livers from NEMO(Δhepa) mice is accompanied by an abundant presence of bile acids (BAs), misregulation of BA transporters and significant alteration of lipid metabolism-related genes. Additionally, mice lacking NEMO in hepatocytes spontaneously showed ductular response at young age. Unexpectedly, feeding of NEMO(Δhepa) mice with low-fat diet failed to improve chronic liver injury. Conversely, anti-cholestatic treatment with nor-ursodeoxycholic acid (NorUDCA), but not with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), led to a significant attenuation of liver damage in NEMO(Δhepa) mice. The strong therapeutic effect of NorUDCA relied on a significant downregulation of LXR-dependent lipogenesis and the normalisation of BA metabolism through mechanisms involving cross-talk between Cyp7a1 and SHP. This was associated with the significant improvement of liver histology, NEMO(Δhepa)/NorUDCA-treated mice showed lower apoptosis and reduced CyclinD1 expression, indicating attenuation of the compensatory proliferative response to hepatocellular damage. Finally, fibrosis and ductular reaction markers were significantly reduced in NorUDCA-treated NEMO(Δhepa) mice. Overall, our work demonstrates the contribution of bile acids metabolism to the progression of NASH in the absence of hepatocyte-NF-kB through mechanisms involving DR5-apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Our work suggests a potential

  8. GROWTH INHIBITORY ACTIONS OF PROTHROMBIN ON NORMAL HEPATOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Brian I.; Kar, Siddhartha; Wang, Meifang; Wang, Ziqiu

    2007-01-01

    Most hepatomas have a defect in prothrombin carboxylation, and can secrete under-carboxylated prothrombin or des-γ-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP), the function of which is unknown. We considered that prothrombin-DCP axis might also be involved in growth control. Hepatocytes and hepatoma cells were treated with prothrombin, and DNA synthesis and cytoskeleton were studied. Prothrombin inhibited DNA synthesis in hepatocytes on fibronectin, but not collagen matrix. Hepatoma cell lines were not inhibited. We found that hepatoma cell matrix conferred resistance to hepatocytes. Prothrombin decreased fibronectin but not collagen amounts, but only in the presence of hepatocytes and not hepatoma cells, indicating that it has a differential action on matrix proteins. It also caused changes in cell shape and actin depolymerization. In vivo, there was a decrease in plasma prothrombin activity after a partial hepatectomy (PH) concomitant with a peak of DNA synthesis by the hepatocyte at 24 h after PH. Injection of warfarin at the time of PH, further inhibited PT activity and enhanced this 24 h peak of DNA synthesis. Furthermore, repeated injection of prothrombin lowered the peak DNA synthesis after PH. The data support the hypothesis that prothrombin can act as a hepatocyte growth inhibitor, likely at the level of fibronectin loss and result in cytoskeletal changes. Hepatomas resist this action, possibly due to their different matrix proteins. This represents a novel mechanism for growth regulation and provides a possible biological significance for the tumor marker DCP. PMID:17490900

  9. MicroRNAs control hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Song, Guisheng; Sharma, Amar Deep; Roll, Garrett R; Ng, Raymond; Lee, Andrew Y; Blelloch, Robert H; Frandsen, Niels M; Willenbring, Holger

    2010-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a new class of regulators of gene expression. Among other actions, miRNAs have been shown to control cell proliferation in development and cancer. However, whether miRNAs regulate hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration is unknown. We addressed this question by performing 2/3 partial hepatectomy (2/3 PH) on mice with hepatocyte-specific inactivation of DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8), an essential component of the miRNA processing pathway. Hepatocytes of these mice were miRNA-deficient and exhibited a delay in cell cycle progression involving the G(1) to S phase transition. Examination of livers of wildtype mice after 2/3 PH revealed differential expression of a subset of miRNAs, notably an induction of miR-21 and repression of miR-378. We further discovered that miR-21 directly inhibits Btg2, a cell cycle inhibitor that prevents activation of forkhead box M1 (FoxM1), which is essential for DNA synthesis in hepatocytes after 2/3 PH. In addition, we found that miR-378 directly inhibits ornithine decarboxylase (Odc1), which is known to promote DNA synthesis in hepatocytes after 2/3 PH. Our results show that miRNAs are critical regulators of hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. Because these miRNAs and target gene interactions are conserved, our findings may also be relevant to human liver regeneration.

  10. Renoprotective effects of hepatocyte growth factor in the stenotic kidney

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Renal microvascular (MV) damage and loss contribute to the progression of renal injury in renal artery stenosis (RAS). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a powerful angiogenic and antifibrotic cytokine that we showed to be decreased in the stenotic kidney. We hypothesized that renal HGF therapy will improve renal function mainly by protecting the renal microcirculation. Unilateral RAS was induced in 15 pigs. Six weeks later, single-kidney RBF and GFR were quantified in vivo using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Then, intrarenal rh-HGF or vehicle was randomly administered into the stenotic kidney (RAS, n = 8; RAS+HGF, n = 7). Pigs were observed for 4 additional weeks before CT studies were repeated. Renal MV density was quantified by 3D micro-CT ex vivo and histology, and expression of angiogenic and inflammatory factors, apoptosis, and fibrosis was determined. HGF therapy improved RBF and GFR compared with vehicle-treated pigs. This was accompanied by improved renal expression of angiogenic cytokines (VEGF, p-Akt) and tissue-healing promoters (SDF-1, CXCR4, MMP-9), reduced MV remodeling, apoptosis, and fibrosis, and attenuated renal inflammation. However, HGF therapy did not improve renal MV density, which was similarly reduced in RAS and RAS+HGF compared with controls. Using a clinically relevant animal model of RAS, we showed novel therapeutic effects of a targeted renal intervention. Our results show distinct actions on the existing renal microcirculation and promising renoprotective effects of HGF therapy in RAS. Furthermore, these effects imply plasticity of the stenotic kidney to recuperate its function and underscore the importance of MV integrity in the progression of renal injury in RAS. PMID:23269649

  11. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 targets CYP2D6 on hepatocyte plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Muratori, L; Parola, M; Ripalti, A; Robino, G; Muratori, P; Bellomo, G; Carini, R; Lenzi, M; Landini, M; Albano, E; Bianchi, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) is the marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and is detected in up to 6% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. It recognises linear and conformational epitopes of cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and may have liver damaging activity, provided that CYP2D6 is accessible to effector mechanisms of autoimmune attack.
METHODS—The presence of LKM1 in the plasma membrane was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy of isolated rat hepatocytes probed with 10 LKM1 positive sera (five from patients with AIH and five from patients with chronic HCV infection) and a rabbit polyclonal anti-CYP2D6 serum.
RESULTS—Serum from both types of patient stained the plasma membrane of non-permeabilised cells, where the fluorescent signal could be visualised as discrete clumps. Conversely, permeabilised hepatocytes showed diffuse submembranous/cytoplasmic staining. Adsorption with recombinant CYP2D6 substantially reduced plasma membrane staining and LKM1 immunoblot reactivity. Plasma membrane staining of LKM1 colocalised with that of anti-CYP2D6. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that a single 50 kDa protein recognised by anti-CYP2D6 can be isolated from the plasma membrane of intact hepatocytes.
CONCLUSIONS—AIH and HCV related LKM1 recognise CYP2D6 exposed on the plasma membrane of isolated hepatocytes. This observation supports the notion that anti-CYP2D6 autoreactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage.


Keywords: liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1; autoimmunity; autoimmune hepatitis; hepatitis C virus infection; confocal microscopy PMID:10716687

  12. Caspase 1 activation is protective against hepatocyte cell death by up-regulating beclin 1 protein and mitochondrial autophagy in the setting of redox stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Gao, Wentao; Loughran, Patricia; Shapiro, Rick; Fan, Jie; Billiar, Timothy R; Scott, Melanie J

    2013-05-31

    Caspase 1 activation can be induced by oxidative stress, which leads to the release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL1β and IL18 in myeloid cells and a potentially damaging inflammatory response. However, little is known about the role of caspase 1 in non-immune cells, such as hepatocytes, that express and activate the inflammasome but do not produce a significant amount of IL1β/IL18. Here we demonstrate that caspase 1 activation protects against cell death after redox stress induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation in hepatocytes. Mechanistically, we show that caspase 1 reduces mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species by increasing mitochondrial autophagy and subsequent clearance of mitochondria in hepatocytes after hypoxia/reoxygenation. Caspase 1 increases autophagic flux through up-regulating autophagy initiator beclin 1 during redox stress and is an important cell survival factor in hepatocytes. We find that during hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation, an in vivo mouse model associated with severe hepatic redox stress, caspase 1 activation is also protective against liver injury and excessive oxidative stress through the up-regulation of beclin 1. Our findings suggest an alternative role for caspase 1 activation in promoting adaptive responses to oxidative stress and, more specifically, in limiting reactive oxygen species production and damage in cells and tissues where IL1β/IL18 are not highly expressed.

  13. Caspase 1 Activation Is Protective against Hepatocyte Cell Death by Up-regulating Beclin 1 Protein and Mitochondrial Autophagy in the Setting of Redox Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qian; Gao, Wentao; Loughran, Patricia; Shapiro, Rick; Fan, Jie; Billiar, Timothy R.; Scott, Melanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Caspase 1 activation can be induced by oxidative stress, which leads to the release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL1β and IL18 in myeloid cells and a potentially damaging inflammatory response. However, little is known about the role of caspase 1 in non-immune cells, such as hepatocytes, that express and activate the inflammasome but do not produce a significant amount of IL1β/IL18. Here we demonstrate that caspase 1 activation protects against cell death after redox stress induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation in hepatocytes. Mechanistically, we show that caspase 1 reduces mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species by increasing mitochondrial autophagy and subsequent clearance of mitochondria in hepatocytes after hypoxia/reoxygenation. Caspase 1 increases autophagic flux through up-regulating autophagy initiator beclin 1 during redox stress and is an important cell survival factor in hepatocytes. We find that during hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation, an in vivo mouse model associated with severe hepatic redox stress, caspase 1 activation is also protective against liver injury and excessive oxidative stress through the up-regulation of beclin 1. Our findings suggest an alternative role for caspase 1 activation in promoting adaptive responses to oxidative stress and, more specifically, in limiting reactive oxygen species production and damage in cells and tissues where IL1β/IL18 are not highly expressed. PMID:23589298

  14. The effect of pomelo citrus (Citrus maxima var. Nambangan), vitamin C and lycopene towards the number reduction of mice (Mus musculus) apoptotic hepatocyte caused of ochratoxin A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badriyah, Hastuti, Utami Sri

    2017-06-01

    Foods can contaminated by some mycotoxin produced by molds. Ochratoxin A is a sort of mycotoxin that cause structural damage on hepatocytes. Pomelo citrus (Citrus maxima var. Nambangan) contain vitamin C and lycopene that have antioxidant character. This research is done to: 1)examine the effect of pomelo citrus juice, vitamin C, and lycopene treatment towards the number reduction of mice apoptotic hepatocytes caused by ochratoxin A exposure, 2)examine the effect of vitamin C mixed with lycopene treatment towards the number reduction of mice apoptotic hepatocytes caused by ochratoxin A exposure. The experimental group used male mice strain BALB-C in the age of three month and bodyweight 20-30 grams devided in 4 experiment group and control group. The experiment group I were administered pomelo citrus juice 0,5 ml/30 grams BW/day orally during 2 weeks and then administered with ochratoxin in the dose of 1 mg/kg BW during 1 week. The experiment group II were administered with vitamin C in the dose of 5,85 µg/30g BW with the same methods. The experiment group III were administered with lycopene in the dose of 0,1025 µg/30 g BW with the same methods. The experiment group IV were administered with vitamin C mixed with lycopene with the same methods. The control group were administered with ochratoxin A in the dose of 1 mg/kg BW per oral during 1 week. The apoptotic hepatocyte number were count by microscopic observation of hepatocyte slides from experiment group as well as control group with cytochemical staining. The research result shows that: 1) the pomelo citrus juice, vitamin C as well as lycopene administration could reduce the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure, compared with the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure only; 2) the vitamin C mixed with lycopene could reduce the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure compared with the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by

  15. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of D-tagatose in cultured murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Paterna, J C; Boess, F; Stäubli, A; Boelsterli, U A

    1998-01-01

    D-Tagatose is a zero-energy producing ketohexose that is a powerful cytoprotective agent against chemically induced cell injury. To further explore the underlying mechanisms of cytoprotection, we investigated the effects of D-tagatose on both the generation of superoxide anion radicals and the consequences of oxidative stress driven by prooxidant compounds in intact cells. Primary cultures of hepatocytes derived from male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the redox cycling drug nitrofurantoin (NFT). Lethal cell injury induced by 300 microM NFT was completely prevented by high concentrations (20 mM) of D-tagatose, whereas equimolar concentrations of glucose, mannitol, or xylose were ineffective. The extent of NFT-induced intracellular superoxide anion radical formation was not altered by D-tagatose, indicating that the ketohexose did not inhibit the reductive bioactivation of NFT. However, the NFT-induced decline of the intracellular GSH content was largely prevented by D-tagatose. The sugar also afforded complete protection against NFT toxicity in hepatocytes that had been chemically depleted of GSH. Furthermore, the ketohexose fully protected from increases in both membrane lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation. In addition, D-tagatose completely prevented oxidative cell injury inflicted by toxic iron overload with ferric nitrilotriacetate (100 microM). In contrast, D-tagatose did not protect against lethal cell injury induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide, a prooxidant which acts by hydroxyl radical-independent mechanisms and which is partitioned in the lipid bilayer. These results indicate that D-tagatose, which is a weak iron chelator, can antagonize the iron-dependent toxic consequences of intracellular oxidative stress in hepatocytes. The antioxidant properties of D-tagatose may result from sequestering the redox-active iron, thereby protecting more critical targets from the damaging potential of hydroxyl radical.

  16. Effects of edaravone, a radical scavenger, on hepatocyte transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chihiro; Ito, Masahiro; Ito, Ryoutaro; Murakumo, Akiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hiramatsu, Noriko; Fox, Ira J; Horiguchi, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation (HTx) has yielded significant improvements in liver function and survival in experimentally induced acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic disease. However, transplantation is inefficient, and it is thought that transplanted hepatocytes have a shortened lifespan because of inflammation involving excess nitric oxide (NO). The present study aimed to clarify whether edaravone, a free radical scavenger used to treat ischemic stroke, could reduce ischemic changes in hepatocyte-transplanted livers. Edaravone (3 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 24 h before HTx to Nagase analbuminemic rats (NARs). Hepatocytes were isolated, and 30 × 10(6) cells were injected in a 1.0-ml volume directly into the spleens of NARs. All experimental groups studied received FK506 to control rejection. Animals in Group A received medium-only; Group B received HTx only; and Group C received HTx and edaravone. Forty-eight hours after transplantation, the hepatocytes from animals were isolated and analyzed for staining with propidium iodide- and annexin-V using flow cytometry. Liver sections were also studied by immunostaining for albumin, and TUNEL. Peripheral blood serum albumin levels were measured on post-transplant days 0, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 using ELISA. The edaravone-treated animals demonstrated an increased number of engrafted donor hepatocytes in the liver. The edaravone-treated liver sections also contained fewer TUNEL-positive cells and animals that received edaravone had higher serum albumin levels post-transplantation. Hepatocytes were also found to have increased in numbers 2 weeks following treatment with edaravone. Edaravone administration during HTx can suppress apoptosis near the transplanted cells, increasing engraftment. These studies indicate its potential usefulness for future clinical application. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  17. [Effect of inducible nitric oxide on intracellular homeostasis of hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xi-Feng; Zhou, Dong-Yao; Kang, Ge-Fei

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the effects of inducible nitric oxide (NO) and exogenous NO on the intracellular homeostasis of the hepatocytes. Endogenous NO was induced by combined action of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokines in cultured rat hepatocytes, and exogenous NO was supplied by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to stimulate the hepatocytes. The changes in intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione(GSH) and free calcium ([Ca2+]i) were observed. substantial increase by 7.97 times in intracellular MDA level and a decrease by 57.9% in GSH occurred in the hepatocytes after the cells had been incubated with LPS and cytokines for 24 h, which were reversed by 43.5% and 98.4% respectively by treatment with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), a competitive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Verapamil significantly reduced both endogenous NO production and oxidative stress, while the effect of A23187 was not conspicuous. Incubation with chlorpromazine and Vitamine E (VitE), however, did not result in decreased release of NO by LPS- and cytokines-induced hepatocytes. After SNP exposure of the hepatocytes, the oxidative status was reversibly enhanced in a time-dependent manner. Short exposure to SNP led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of the rapid and transient increase in free calcium induced by K(+) depolarization and hepatopoietin-coupled calcium mobilization. Inducible NO may initiate and play a key role in the latter stages of metabolic and functional stress responses of hepatocytes against endotoxin and cytokines, when the reduction occurs in the capacity of NO to independently mediate lipid peroxidation and counteract oxidation. The inhibitory effect of NO on [Ca2+]i mobilization may be an important autoregulatory mechanism by means of negative feedback on protein kinase C-associated NOS induction.

  18. Potential hepatoprotective effects of new Cuban natural products in rat hepatocytes culture.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, I; Donato, M T; Martínez, I; Hernández, I; Garrido, G; González-Lavaut, J A; Menéndez, R; Laguna, A; Castell, J V; Gómez-Lechón, M J

    2008-08-01

    The protective effects of five Cuban natural products (Mangifera indica L. (MSBE), Erythroxylum minutifolium, Erythroxylum confusum, Thalassia testudinum and Dictyota pinnatifida extracts and mangiferin) on the oxidative damage induced by model toxicants in rat hepatocyte cultures were studied. Cells were pre-incubated with the natural products (5-200 microg/mL) for 24 h. Then hepatotoxins (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, ethanol, carbon tetrachloride and lipopolysaccharide) were individually added and post-incubated for another 24 h. After treatments, cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Mangiferin and MSBE exhibited the highest cytoprotective potential (EC50 between 50 and 125 microg/mL), followed by T. testudinum and Erythroxylum extracts, whereas no significant protective effects was produced by Dictyota extract treatment. Antioxidant properties of the natural products against lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide were then investigated. The results show that at 36 h pre-treatment of cells with mangiferin or MSBE, concentrations of T. testudinum and Erythroxylum extracts ranging from 25 to 100 microg/mL significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (100 and 250 microM) and increased the GSH levels reduced by the toxicant. D. pinnatifida inhibited lipid peroxidation, but did not preserve GSH levels. In conclusion, MSBE, E. minutifolium, E. confusum and T. testudinum extracts and mangiferin showed hepatoprotective activity against induced damage in all the experimental series, where mangiferin and the extracts of MSBE and T. testudinum were the best candidates to inhibit "in vitro" damage to rat hepatocytes. This hepatoprotective effect found could be associated with the antioxidant properties observed for the products.

  19. Protection against ultraviolet A-induced oxidative damage in normal human epidermal keratinocytes under post-menopausal conditions by an ultraviolet A-activated caged-iron chelator: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pelle, Edward; Jian, Jinlong; Declercq, Lieve; Dong, Kelly; Yang, Qing; Pourzand, Charareh; Maes, Daniel; Pernodet, Nadine; Yarosh, Daniel B; Huang, Xi

    2011-10-01

    Human skin is constantly exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA), which can generate reactive oxygen species and cause iron release from ferritin, leading to oxidative damage in biomolecules. This is particularly true in post-menopausal skin due to an increase in iron as a result of menopause. As iron is generally released through desquamation, the skin becomes a main portal for the release of excess iron in this age group. In the present study, we examined a strategy for controlling UVA- and iron-induced oxidative stress in skin using a keratinocyte post-menopausal cellular model system. Keratinocytes that had been cultured under normal or high-iron, low-estrogen conditions were treated with (2-nitrophenyl) ethyl pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (2-PNE-PIH). 2-PNE-PIH is a caged-iron chelator that does not normally bind iron but can be activated by UVA radiation to bind iron. Following incubation with 2-PNE-PIH, the cells were exposed to 5 J/cm² UVA and then measured for changes in lipid peroxidation and ferritin levels. 2-PNE-PIH protected keratinocytes against UVA-induced lipid peroxidation and ferritin depletion. Further, 2-PNE-PIH was neither cytotoxic nor did it alter iron metabolism. 2-PNE-PIH may be a useful deterrent against UVA-induced oxidative stress in post-menopausal women. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Long non-coding RNA Gm2199 rescues liver injury and promotes hepatocyte proliferation through the upregulation of ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiang; Gu, Yunyan; Jiang, Yanan; Fan, Li; Wei, Zixiang; Jin, Haobin; Yang, Xirui; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Xuguang; Tai, Sheng; Yang, Baofeng; Liu, Yan

    2018-05-22

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of regulators of various human diseases. This study was designed to explore the potential role of lncRNAs in experimental hepatic damage. In vivo hepatic damage in mice and in vitro hepatocyte damage in AML12 and NCTC1469 cells were induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) treatments. Expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs were analyzed by microarray. Bioinformatics analyses were conducted to predict the potential functions of differentially expressed lncRNAs with respect to hepatic damage. Overexpression of lncRNA Gm2199 was achieved by transfection of the pEGFP-N1-Gm2199 plasmid in vitro and adeno-associated virus-Gm2199 in vivo. Cell proliferation and viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assay. Protein and mRNA expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) were detected by western blot and quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Microarray analysis identified 190 and 148 significantly differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs, respectively. The analyses of lncRNA-mRNA co-expression and lncRNA-biological process networks unraveled potential roles of the differentially expressed lncRNAs including Gm2199 in the pathophysiological processes leading to hepatic damage. Gm2199 was downregulated in both damaged livers and hepatocyte lines. Overexpression of Gm2199 restored the reduced proliferation of damaged hepatocyte lines and increased the expression of ERK1/2. Overexpression of Gm2199 also promoted the proliferation and viability of normal hepatocyte lines and increased the level of p-ERK1/2. Overexpression of Gm2199 in vivo also protected mouse liver injury induced by CCl 4 , evidenced by more proliferating hepatocytes, less serum alanine aminotransferase, less serum aspartate aminotransferase, and decreased hepatic hydroxyproline. The ability of Gm2199 to maintain hepatic proliferation capacity indicates it as a novel anti-liver damage

  1. Liver-enriched transcription factors are critical for the expression of hepatocyte marker genes in mES-derived hepatocyte-lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Kheolamai, Pakpoom; Dickson, Alan J

    2009-04-23

    Induction of stem cell differentiation toward functional hepatocytes is hampered by lack of knowledge of the hepatocyte differentiation processes. The overall objective of this project is to characterize key stages in the hepatocyte differentiation process. We established a mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell culture system which exhibited changes in gene expression profiles similar to those observed in the development of endodermal and hepatocyte-lineage cells previously described in the normal mouse embryo. Transgenic mES cells were established that permitted isolation of enriched hepatocyte-lineage populations. This approach has isolated mES-derived hepatocyte-lineage cells that express several markers of mature hepatocytes including albumin, glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, cytochrome P450-3a, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. In addition, our results show that the up-regulation of the expression levels of hepatocyte nuclear factor-3alpha, -4alpha, -6, and CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-beta might be critical for passage into late-stage differentiation towards functional hepatocytes. These data present important steps for definition of regulatory phenomena that direct specific cell fate determination. The mES cell culture system generated in this study provides a model for studying transition between stages of the hepatocyte development and has significant potential value for studying the molecular basis of hepatocyte differentiation in vitro.

  2. TRANSPLANTATION OF HEPATOCYTES FROM GENETICALLY-ENGINEERED PIGS IN BABOONS

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Hayato; Liu, Hong; Schmelzer, Eva; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Wijkstrom, Martin; Hara, Hidetaka; Lee, Whayoung; Singh, Jagjit; Long, Cassandra; Lagasse, Eric; Gerlach, Jörg C.; Cooper, David K.C.; Gridelli, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Background Some patients with acute or acute-on-chronic hepatic failure die before a suitable human liver allograft becomes available. Encouraging results have been achieved in such patients by the transplantation of human hepatocyte progenitor cells from fetal liver tissue. The aim of the study was to explore survival of hepatocytes from genetically-engineered pigs after direct injection into the spleen and other selected sites in immunosuppressed baboons to monitor the immune response and the metabolic function and survival of the transplanted hepatocytes. Methods Baboons (n=3) were recipients of GTKO/hCD46 pig hepatocytes. All three baboons received anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) induction and tapering methylprednisolone. Baboon 1 received maintenance immunosuppressive therapy with tacrolimus and rapamycin. Baboons 2 and 3 received an anti-CD40mAb/rapamycin-based regimen that prevents sensitization to pig solid organ grafts. The baboons were euthanized 4 or 5 weeks after hepatocyte transplantation. The baboon immune response was monitored by measurement of anti-nonGal IgM and IgG antibodies (by flow cytometry) and CFSE-mixed lymphocyte reaction. Monitoring for hepatocyte survival and function was by (i) real-time PCR detection of porcine DNA, (ii) real-time PCR for porcine gene expression, and (iii) pig serum albumin levels (by ELISA). The sites of hepatocyte injection were examined microscopically. Results Detection of porcine DNA and porcine gene expression was minimal at all sites of hepatocyte injection. Serum levels of porcine albumen were very low – 500–1,000-fold lower than in baboons with orthotopic pig liver grafts, and approximately 5,000-fold lower than in healthy pigs. No hepatocytes or infiltrating immune cells were seen at any of the injection sites. Two baboons (Baboons 1 and 3) demonstrated a significant increase in anti-pig IgM and an even greater increase in IgG, indicating sensitization to pig antigens. Discussion and Conclusions As a

  3. Transplantation of hepatocytes from genetically engineered pigs into baboons.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Hayato; Liu, Hong; Schmelzer, Eva; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Wijkstrom, Martin; Hara, Hidetaka; Lee, Whayoung; Singh, Jagjit; Long, Cassandra; Lagasse, Eric; Gerlach, Jörg C; Cooper, David K C; Gridelli, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    Some patients with acute or acute-on-chronic hepatic failure die before a suitable human liver allograft becomes available. Encouraging results have been achieved in such patients by the transplantation of human hepatocyte progenitor cells from fetal liver tissue. The aim of the study was to explore survival of hepatocytes from genetically engineered pigs after direct injection into the spleen and other selected sites in immunosuppressed baboons to monitor the immune response and the metabolic function and survival of the transplanted hepatocytes. Baboons (n=3) were recipients of GTKO/hCD46 pig hepatocytes. All three baboons received anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) induction and tapering methylprednisolone. Baboon 1 received maintenance immunosuppressive therapy with tacrolimus and rapamycin. Baboons 2 and 3 received an anti-CD40mAb/rapamycin-based regimen that prevents sensitization to pig solid organ grafts. The baboons were euthanized 4 or 5 weeks after hepatocyte transplantation. The baboon immune response was monitored by the measurement of anti-non-Gal IgM and IgG antibodies (by flow cytometry) and CFSE-mixed lymphocyte reaction. Monitoring for hepatocyte survival and function was by (i) real-time PCR detection of porcine DNA, (ii) real-time PCR for porcine gene expression, and (iii) pig serum albumin levels (by ELISA). The sites of hepatocyte injection were examined microscopically. Detection of porcine DNA and porcine gene expression was minimal at all sites of hepatocyte injection. Serum levels of porcine albumen were very low-500-1000-fold lower than in baboons with orthotopic pig liver grafts, and approximately 5000-fold lower than in healthy pigs. No hepatocytes or infiltrating immune cells were seen at any of the injection sites. Two baboons (Baboons 1 and 3) demonstrated a significant increase in anti-pig IgM and an even greater increase in IgG, indicating sensitization to pig antigens. As a result of this disappointing experience, the following points

  4. Protective effects of hesperidin against oxidative stress of tert-butyl hydroperoxide in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingcang; Gu, Honggang; Ye, Yiyi; Lin, Bing; Sun, Lijuan; Deng, Weiping; Zhang, Jingzhe; Liu, Jianwen

    2010-10-01

    Increasing evidence regarding free radical generating agents and the inflammatory process suggest that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could involve hepatotoxicity. Hesperidin, a naturally occurring flavonoid presents in fruits and vegetables, has been reported to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects that include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemic, and anticarcinogenic actions. However, the cytoprotection and mechanism of hesperidin to neutralize oxidative stress in human hepatic L02 cells remain unclear. In this work, we assessed the capability of hesperidin to prevent tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-induced cell damage by augmenting cellular antioxidant defense. Hesperidin significantly protected hepatocytes against t-BuOOH-induced cell cytotoxicity, such as mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) deplete and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Hesperidin also remarkably prevented indicators of oxidative stress, such as the ROS and lipid peroxidation level in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot showed that hesperidin facilitated ERK/MAPK phosphorylation which appeared to be responsible for nuclear translocation of Nrf2, thereby inducing cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Based on the results described above, it suggested that hesperidin has potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of oxidative stress-related hepatocytes injury and liver dysfunctions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Accessibility of hepatocyte protein thiols to monobromobimane.

    PubMed

    Weis, M; Cotgreave, I C; Moore, G A; Norbeck, K; Moldéus, P

    1993-03-10

    The amino-acid residue specificity of monobromobimane (mBBr) and its accessibility to cellular protein cysteine residues were investigated. mBBr reacted selectively with the sulfhydryl group of both the free amino acid cysteine and bovine serum albumin. Incubation of isolated hepatocytes with mBBr resulted in a concentration-dependent formation of protein-bound mBBr fluorescence in the cytosolic, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, which was not fully saturated with up to 16 mM mBBr. SDS-PAGE resolution of the proteins revealed that the major portion of increased protein-bound mBBr fluorescence that occurred at high mBBr concentrations was due to covalent binding to proteins. A minor portion (10-16% in the microsomal fraction) of protein-bound mBBr fluorescence was removed by SDS-PAGE and is therefore concluded to be due to physical entrapment of fluorescent mBBr reaction products. The accessibility of mBBr, assayed as the degree of depletion of total protein cysteine residues, was similar to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) in isolated microsomes. By contrast, in the cytosol a markedly lower amount of protein cysteine residues were labelled by mBBr as compared to NEM. In both organelle fractions p-BQ was the most efficient thiol-depleting reagent. It is concluded that mBBr is a suitable reagent for the analysis of the cellular protein thiol status and of its xenobiotic-induced alterations when used at high concentrations; however, it should be considered that, (i) the relative accessibility of mBBr and a particular xenobiotic to cellular protein thiol residues may be different, and (ii) physically entrapped fluorescent reaction products of mBBr should be removed when quantitating protein thiol levels.

  6. PNPLA3 mediates hepatocyte triacylglycerol remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ruhanen, Hanna; Perttilä, Julia; Hölttä-Vuori, Maarit; Zhou, You; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Ikonen, Elina; Käkelä, Reijo; Olkkonen, Vesa M

    2014-04-01

    The I148M substitution in patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3(I148M)) determines a genetic form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. To elucidate the mode of PNPLA3 action in human hepatocytes, we studied effects of WT PNPLA3 (PNPLA3(WT)) and PNPLA3(I148M) on HuH7 cell lipidome after [(13)C]glycerol labeling, cellular turnover of oleic acid labeled with 17 deuterium atoms ([D17]oleic acid) in triacylglycerols (TAGs), and subcellular distribution of the protein variants. PNPLA3(I148M) induced a net accumulation of unlabeled TAGs, but not newly synthesized total [(13)C]TAGs. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that both PNPLA3(WT) and PNPLA3(I148M) induced a relative enrichment of TAGs with saturated FAs or MUFAs, with concurrent enrichment of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines. PNPLA3(WT) associated in PCA with newly synthesized [(13)C]TAGs, particularly 52:1 and 50:1, while PNPLA3(I148M) associated with similar preexisting TAGs. PNPLA3(WT) overexpression resulted in increased [D17]oleic acid labeling of TAGs during 24 h, and after longer incubations their turnover was accelerated, effects not detected with PNPLA3(I148M). PNPLA3(I148M) localized more extensively to lipid droplets (LDs) than PNPLA3(WT), suggesting that the substitution alters distribution of PNPLA3 between LDs and endoplasmic reticulum/cytosol. This study reveals a function of PNPLA3 in FA-selective TAG remodeling, resulting in increased TAG saturation. A defect in TAG remodeling activity likely contributes to the TAG accumulation observed in cells expressing PNPLA3(I148M).

  7. In vitro culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes isolated by using a simplified manual perfusion method.

    PubMed

    Panda, Santanu; Bisht, Sonu; Malakar, Dhruba; Mohanty, Ashok K; Kaushik, Jai K

    2015-01-01

    In farm animals, there is no suitable cell line available to understand liver-specific functions. This has limited our understanding of liver function and metabolism in farm animals. Culturing and maintenance of functionally active hepatocytes is difficult, since they survive no more than few days. Establishing primary culture of hepatocytes can help in studying cellular metabolism, drug toxicity, hepatocyte specific gene function and regulation. Here we provide a simple in vitro method for isolation and short-term culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes. Buffalo hepatocytes were isolated from caudate lobes by using manual enzymatic perfusion and mechanical disruption of liver tissue. Hepatocyte yield was (5.3 ± 0.66)×107 cells per gram of liver tissue with a viability of 82.3 ± 3.5%. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were spherical with well contrasted border. After 24 hours of seeding onto fibroblast feeder layer and different extracellular matrices like dry collagen, matrigel and sandwich collagen coated plates, hepatocytes formed confluent monolayer with frequent clusters. Cultured hepatocytes exhibited typical cuboidal and polygonal shape with restored cellular polarity. Cells expressed hepatocyte-specific marker genes or proteins like albumin, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, cytochromes, cytokeratin and α1-antitrypsin. Hepatocytes could be immunostained with anti-cytokeratins, anti-albumin and anti α1-antitrypsin antibodies. Abundant lipid droplets were detected in the cytosol of hepatocytes using oil red stain. In vitro cultured hepatocytes could be grown for five days and maintained for up to nine days on buffalo skin fibroblast feeder layer. Cultured hepatocytes were viable for functional studies. We developed a convenient and cost effective technique for hepatocytes isolation for short-term culture that exhibited morphological and functional characteristics of active hepatocytes for studying gene

  8. Hepatocyte Ploidy Is a Diversity Factor for Liver Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kreutz, Clemens; MacNelly, Sabine; Follo, Marie; Wäldin, Astrid; Binninger-Lacour, Petra; Timmer, Jens; Bartolomé-Rodríguez, María M.

    2017-01-01

    Polyploidy, the existence of cells containing more than one pair of chromosomes, is a well-known feature of mammalian hepatocytes. Polyploid hepatocytes are found either as cells with a single polyploid nucleus or as multinucleated cells with diploid or even polyploid nuclei. In this study, we evaluate the degree of polyploidy in the murine liver by accounting both DNA content and number of nuclei per cell. We demonstrate that mouse hepatocytes with diploid nuclei have distinct metabolic characteristics compared to cells with polyploid nuclei. In addition to strong differential gene expression, comprising metabolic as well as signaling compounds, we found a strongly decreased insulin binding of nuclear polyploid cells. Our observations were associated with nuclear ploidy but not with total ploidy within a cell. We therefore suggest ploidy of the nuclei as an new diversity factor of hepatocytes and hypothesize that hepatocytes with polyploid nuclei may have distinct biological functions than mono-nuclear ones. This diversity is independent from the well-known heterogeneity related to the cells' position along the porto-central liver-axis. PMID:29163206

  9. Whole-body γ-irradiation decelerates rat hepatocyte polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Ikhtiar, Adnan M

    2015-07-01

    To characterize hepatocyte polyploidization induced by intermediate dose of γ-ray. Male Wistar strain rats were whole-body irradiated (WBI) with 2 Gy of γ-ray at the age of 1 month, and 5-6 rats were sacrificed monthly at 0-25 months after irradiation. The nuclear DNA content of individual hepatocytes was measured by flow cytometry, then hepatocytes were classified into various ploidy classes. Survival percentage, after exposure up to the end of the study, did not indicate any differences between the irradiated groups and controls. The degree of polyploidization in hepatocytes of irradiated rats, was significantly lower than that for the control after 1 month of exposure, and it continued to be lower after up to 8 months. Thereafter, the degree of polyploidization in the irradiated group slowly returned to the control level when the irradiated rats reached the age of 10 months. Intermediate dose of ionizing radiation, in contrast to high doses, decelerate hepatocyte polyploidization, which may coincides with the hypothesis of the beneficial effects of low doses of ionizing radiation.

  10. [Study on the hepatocytic cell targetability of liposomes].

    PubMed

    Hou, Xin-pu; Wang, Li; Wang, Xiang-tao; Li, Sha

    2003-02-01

    To target for hepatocytic cell, liposomes was modified by special ligand. Sterically stabilized liposomes (SSL) was conjugated with asialofeticin (AF), the ligand of asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) of hepatocyte. ASGP-R-BLM is the ASGP-R reconstructed on bilayer lipid membrane (BLM). The recognition reaction between AF-SSL and ASGP-R-BLM can be monitored by the varieties of membrane electrical parameters. The targetability of AF-SSL mediated to hepatocyte was detected by radioisotopic labeled in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic effect of antihepatocarcinoma was observed also. The lifetime of ASGP-R-BLM decreased with the added amount of AF-SSL. It was demonstrated that there was recognition reaction between AF-SSL and ASGP-R-BLM. The combination of AF-SSL with hepatocyte was significantly higher than that of SSL without AF-modified in vitro and in vivo. The survival time of rat for AF-SSL carriered ADM (adriamycin) group was much longer and the toxicities on heart, kidney and lung were lower than those SSL carried ADM group. It is possible to actively target the cell with specific receptor by ligand modified liposomes. The result prvide scientific basis of hepatocyte targeted liposomes.

  11. Hepatocyte or serum albumin protein carbonylation by oxidized fructose metabolites: Glyceraldehyde or glycolaldehyde as endogenous toxins?

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiang; Yang, Kai; Wong, Stephanie M; O'Brien, Peter J

    2010-10-06

    Excessive sugar intake in animal models may cause tissue damage associated with oxidative and carbonyl stress cytotoxicity as well as inflammation. Fructose became a 100-fold more cytotoxic if hepatocytes were exposed to a non-toxic infusion of H(2)O(2) so as to simulate H(2)O(2) released by Kupffer cells or infiltrating immune cells. In order to determine the molecular mechanisms involved, protein carbonylation of fructose and its metabolites were determined using the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method. In a cell-free system, fructose was found to carbonylate bovine serum albumin (BSA) only if low concentrations of FeII/H(2)O(2) were added. Protein carbonylation by the fructose metabolites glyceraldehyde or glycolaldehyde was also markedly increased by FeII/H(2)O(2). The protein carbonylation may be attributed to glyoxal formation by hydroxyl radicals as the glyoxal trapping agent aminoguanidine or hydroxyl radical scavengers prevented protein carbonylation. Glyoxal was also much more effective than other carbonyls at causing protein carbonylation. When BSA was replaced by isolated rat hepatocytes, fructose metabolite glyceraldehyde in the presence of non-toxic 2 microM FeII:8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) and a H(2)O(2) generating system (glucose/glucose oxidase) markedly increased cytotoxicity, protein carbonylation and reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H(2)O(2) formation. Furthermore this was prevented by hydroxyl radical scavengers or aminoguanidine, a glyoxal scavenger. CuII: 8-hydroxyquinoline increased H(2)O(2) induced hepatocyte protein carbonylation less but was prevented by aminoguanidine. However, cytotoxicity and protein carbonylation induced by glyceraldehyde/CuII:HQ/H(2)O(2) were not affected by hydroxyl radical scavengers. Although fatty liver induced by an excessive sugar diet in animal models has been proposed as the first hit for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) we propose that oxidative stress induced by the oxidation of fructose or fructose metabolites

  12. Bile canaliculi formation and biliary transport in 3D sandwich-cultured hepatocytes in dependence of the extracellular matrix composition.

    PubMed

    Deharde, Daniela; Schneider, Christin; Hiller, Thomas; Fischer, Nicolas; Kegel, Victoria; Lübberstedt, Marc; Freyer, Nora; Hengstler, Jan G; Andersson, Tommy B; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann; Zeilinger, Katrin; Damm, Georg

    2016-10-01

    CDF from the bile canaliculi into the culture supernatant with variations in dependence on the used matrix combination. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the choice of ECM has an impact on the morphology, cell assembly and bile canaliculi formation in PHH sandwich cultures. The morphology and the multicellular arrangement were essentially influenced by the underlaying matrix, while bile excretion and leakage of sandwich-cultured hepatocytes were mainly influenced by the overlay matrix. Leaking and damaged bile canaliculi could be a limitation of the investigated sandwich culture models in long-term excretion studies.

  13. Antioxidant Effects of Lycopene and Ubiquinol-10 on the Oxidative Stress in Rat Hepatocytes Induced by Tert-Buthyl Hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Safari, Mohammad-Reza

    2010-03-01

    Free radicals especially reactive oxygen metabolites can damage DNA, protein, enzymes, and membrane lipids. Lipid peroxidation in hepatocyte membrane may be involved in hepatic diseases. Antioxidants may inhibit this reaction. Due to oxidant-antioxidant imbalance, free radicals may cause destructive effects. For several years, scientists tried to find antioxidant compounds. In this study, the effects of lycopene and ubiquinol-10 on the oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes induced by t-buthyl hydroperoxide was determined. First, rat hepatocytes were isolated and then incubated in the presence of tert-buthyl hydroperoxide and the amount of malondialdehyde, as a marker of lipid peroxidation, was determined. Then, this reaction was performed in the presence of various concentrations of each lycopene and ubiquinol-10, and the malondialdehyde level was determined. The results of this study showed that in the presence of various concentrations of lycopene and ubiquinol-10 the levels of lipid peroxidation products significantly decreased (P<0.05). Thus, lycopene and ubiquinol-10 have inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation reaction. This study showed the potential utility of lycopene and ubiquinol-10 in prevention of hepatic dysfunction.

  14. Antioxidant Effects of Lycopene and Ubiquinol-10 on the Oxidative Stress in Rat Hepatocytes Induced by Tert-Buthyl Hydroperoxide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Free radicals especially reactive oxygen metabolites can damage DNA, protein, enzymes, and membrane lipids. Lipid peroxidation in hepatocyte membrane may be involved in hepatic diseases. Antioxidants may inhibit this reaction. Due to oxidant-antioxidant imbalance, free radicals may cause destructive effects. For several years, scientists tried to find antioxidant compounds. In this study, the effects of lycopene and ubiquinol-10 on the oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes induced by t-buthyl hydroperoxide was determined. First, rat hepatocytes were isolated and then incubated in the presence of tert-buthyl hydroperoxide and the amount of malondialdehyde, as a marker of lipid peroxidation, was determined. Then, this reaction was performed in the presence of various concentrations of each lycopene and ubiquinol-10, and the malondialdehyde level was determined. The results of this study showed that in the presence of various concentrations of lycopene and ubiquinol-10 the levels of lipid peroxidation products significantly decreased (P<0.05). Thus, lycopene and ubiquinol-10 have inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation reaction. This study showed the potential utility of lycopene and ubiquinol-10 in prevention of hepatic dysfunction. PMID:27683352

  15. Recent advances in 2D and 3D in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes, alternative hepatocyte sources and non-parenchymal liver cells and their use in investigating mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, cell signaling and ADME.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Patricio; Hewitt, Nicola J; Albrecht, Ute; Andersen, Melvin E; Ansari, Nariman; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Bode, Johannes Georg; Bolleyn, Jennifer; Borner, Christoph; Böttger, Jan; Braeuning, Albert; Budinsky, Robert A; Burkhardt, Britta; Cameron, Neil R; Camussi, Giovanni; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Craig Rowlands, J; Dahmen, Uta; Damm, Georg; Dirsch, Olaf; Donato, María Teresa; Dong, Jian; Dooley, Steven; Drasdo, Dirk; Eakins, Rowena; Ferreira, Karine Sá; Fonsato, Valentina; Fraczek, Joanna; Gebhardt, Rolf; Gibson, Andrew; Glanemann, Matthias; Goldring, Chris E P; Gómez-Lechón, María José; Groothuis, Geny M M; Gustavsson, Lena; Guyot, Christelle; Hallifax, David; Hammad, Seddik; Hayward, Adam; Häussinger, Dieter; Hellerbrand, Claus; Hewitt, Philip; Hoehme, Stefan; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Houston, J Brian; Hrach, Jens; Ito, Kiyomi; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Keitel, Verena; Kelm, Jens M; Kevin Park, B; Kordes, Claus; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; LeCluyse, Edward L; Lu, Peng; Luebke-Wheeler, Jennifer; Lutz, Anna; Maltman, Daniel J; Matz-Soja, Madlen; McMullen, Patrick; Merfort, Irmgard; Messner, Simon; Meyer, Christoph; Mwinyi, Jessica; Naisbitt, Dean J; Nussler, Andreas K; Olinga, Peter; Pampaloni, Francesco; Pi, Jingbo; Pluta, Linda; Przyborski, Stefan A; Ramachandran, Anup; Rogiers, Vera; Rowe, Cliff; Schelcher, Celine; Schmich, Kathrin; Schwarz, Michael; Singh, Bijay; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Stieger, Bruno; Stöber, Regina; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Tetta, Ciro; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Weiss, Thomas S; Widera, Agata; Woods, Courtney G; Xu, Jinghai James; Yarborough, Kathy M; Hengstler, Jan G

    2013-08-01

    This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically aggravate the initial damage. Hepatotoxicity, as well as hepatic metabolism, is controlled by a set of nuclear receptors (including PXR, CAR, HNF-4α, FXR, LXR, SHP, VDR and PPAR) and signaling pathways. When isolating liver cells, some pathways are activated, e.g., the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway, whereas others are silenced (e.g. HNF-4α), resulting in up- and downregulation of hundreds of genes. An understanding of these changes is crucial for a correct interpretation of in vitro data. The possibilities and limitations of the most useful liver in vitro systems are summarized, including three-dimensional culture techniques, co-cultures with non-parenchymal cells, hepatospheres, precision cut liver slices and the isolated perfused liver. Also discussed is how closely hepatoma, stem cell and iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like-cells resemble real hepatocytes. Finally, a summary is given of the state of the art of liver in vitro and mathematical modeling systems that are currently used in the pharmaceutical industry with an emphasis on drug metabolism, prediction of clearance, drug interaction, transporter studies and hepatotoxicity. One key message is that despite our enthusiasm for in vitro systems, we must never lose sight of the in vivo situation. Although hepatocytes have been isolated for decades, the hunt for relevant alternative systems has only just begun.

  16. Bipotential adult liver progenitors are derived from chronically injured mature hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tarlow, Branden D.; Pelz, Carl; Naugler, Willscott E.; Wakefield, Leslie; Wilson, Elizabeth M.; Finegold, Milton J.; Grompe, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adult liver progenitor cells are biliary-like epithelial cells that emerge only under injury conditions in the periportal region of the liver. They exhibit phenotypes of both hepatocytes and bile ducts. However, their origin and their significance to injury repair remain unclear. Here, we used a chimeric lineage tracing system to demonstrate that hepatocytes contribute to the progenitor pool. RNA-sequencing, ultrastructural analysis, and in vitro progenitor assays revealed that hepatocyte-derived progenitors were distinct from their biliary-derived counterparts. In vivo lineage tracing and serial transplantation assays showed that hepatocyte-derived proliferative ducts retained a memory of their origin and differentiated back into hepatocytes upon cessation of injury. Similarly, human hepatocytes in chimeric mice also gave rise to biliary progenitors in vivo. We conclude that human and mouse hepatocytes can undergo reversible ductal metaplasia in response to injury, expand as ducts and subsequently contribute to restoration of the hepatocyte mass. PMID:25312494

  17. Determination of metabolic stability using cryopreserved hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard protocols for isolating, cryopreserving, and thawing rainbow trout hepatocytes are described, along with procedures for using fresh or cryopreserved hepatocytes to assess chemical metabolic stability in fish by means of a substrate depletion approach. Variations on thes...

  18. A refined characterisation of the NeoHepatocyte phenotype necessitates a reappraisal of the transdifferentiation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Paloma; Wundt, Judith; Hutchinson, James A; Brulport, Marc; Jun, Yu; Sotnikova, Anna; Girreser, Ulrich; Braun, Felix; Gövert, Felix; Soria, Bernat; Nüssler, Andreas; Clement, Bernd; Hengstler, Jan G; Fändrich, Fred

    2009-03-01

    Under certain culture conditions human peripheral blood monocytes may be induced to express phenotypic markers of non-haematopoietic lineages, including hepatocyte-defining traits. One such example, the NeoHepatocyte, was previously shown to express a broad panel of hepatocyte-like marker antigens and metabolic activities, both in vitro and following engraftment in the liver of immunodeficient mice. In this report, a refined description of NeoHepatocytes, with regard to their expression of xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes, morphology, hepatocyte marker expression and cell surface phenotype, is presented in comparison with human macrophages in defined states of activation. Contrary to prior assertions, it would seem more likely that NeoHepatocytes express particular hepatocyte-defining genes during a normal programme of macrophage differentiation rather than undergoing a process of transdifferentiation to become hepatocyte-like cells.

  19. Primary hepatocytes and their cultures in liver apoptosis research

    PubMed Central

    Vinken, Mathieu; Maes, Michaël; Oliveira, André G.; Cogliati, Bruno; Marques, Pedro E.; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis not only plays a key role in physiological demise of defunct hepatocytes, but is also associated with a plethora of acute and chronic liver diseases as well as with hepatotoxicity. The present paper focuses on the modelling of this mode of programmed cell death in primary hepatocyte cultures. Particular attention is paid to the activation of spontaneous apoptosis during the isolation of hepatocytes from the liver, its progressive manifestation upon the subsequent establishment of cell cultures and simultaneously to strategies to counteract this deleterious process. In addition, currently applied approaches to experimentally induce controlled apoptosis in this in vitro setting for mechanistic research purposes and thereby its detection using relevant biomarkers are reviewed. PMID:24013573

  20. Alternative Cell Sources to Adult Hepatocytes for Hepatic Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Gómez-Lechón, María José; Tolosa, Laia

    2017-01-01

    Adult hepatocyte transplantation is limited by scarce availability of suitable donor liver tissue for hepatocyte isolation. New cell-based therapies are being developed to supplement whole-organ liver transplantation, to reduce the waiting-list mortality rate, and to obtain more sustained and significant metabolic correction. Fetal livers and unsuitable neonatal livers for organ transplantation have been proposed as potential useful sources of hepatic cells for cell therapy. However, the major challenge is to use alternative cell sources for transplantation that can be derived from reproducible methods. Different types of stem cells with hepatic differentiation potential are eligible for generating large numbers of functional hepatocytes for liver cell therapy to treat degenerative disorders, inborn hepatic metabolic diseases, and organ failure. Clinical trials are designed to fully establish the safety profile of such therapies and to define target patient groups and standardized protocols.

  1. Activation of Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase in rat hepatocytes does not contribute to their cell death by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Latour, I; Leunda-Casi, A; Denef, J F; Buc Calderon, P

    2000-01-10

    Oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes caused DNA damage and loss of membrane integrity. Such DNA lesions are likely to be single strand breaks since neither caryolysis nor chromatine condensation was seen in electron micrographs from tBOOH-treated cells. In addition, pulsed field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA from both control and tBOOH-treated hepatocytes showed similar profiles, indicating the absence of internucleosomal DNA cleavage, a classical reflection of apoptotic endonuclease activity. The activation of the repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) following DNA damage by tBOOH induced a dramatic drop in both NAD(+) and ATP. The inhibition of PARP by 3-aminobenzamide enhanced DNA damage by tBOOH, restored NAD(+) and ATP levels, but did not result in better survival against cell killing by tBOOH. The lack of the protective effect of PARP inhibitor, therefore, does not implicate PARP in the mechanism of tBOOH-induced cytotoxicity. Electron micrographs also show no mitochondrial swelling in cells under oxidative stress, but such organelles were mainly located around the nucleus, a picture already observed in autoschizis, a new suggested kind of cell death which shows both apoptotic and necrotic morphological characteristics. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Hepatocyte transplantation for enzyme deficiency disease in congenic rats.

    PubMed

    Vroemen, J P; Buurman, W A; Heirwegh, K P; van der Linden, C J; Kootstra, G

    1986-08-01

    Long-term effects of hepatocyte transplantation (HTX) in the treatment of enzyme deficiency disease were studied. Congenic enzyme-deficient (R/APfd-j/j) and non-enzyme-deficient (R/APfd) rats were used as recipients and donors, respectively. The R/APfd-j/j rat strain is congenitally deficient of bilirubin uridyldiphosphate (UDP)-glucuronyl transferase. R/APfd-j/j rats underwent HTX by intrasplenic injection of 10(7) isolated R/APfd hepatocytes (group 1A). Another group of R/APfd-j/j rats was treated similarly, but underwent splenectomy after 11 weeks (group 1B). Controls consisted of R/APfd-j/j rats grafted with 10(7) R/APfd-j/j hepatocytes (group 2), and R/APfd-j/j rats that underwent a sham operation (group 3). Total plasma bilirubin (TB) levels were significantly reduced in groups 1A and 1B during the experiment (both P less than 0.01). In the control groups TB reduction was not observed. Bile analyses at 30 weeks after HTX showed that in group 1A 13.7 +/- 2.7% of total biliary bilirubin was conjugated. In group 1B a significantly lower fraction was conjugated: 6.6 +/- 1.1% (P less than 0.05). Conjugated bilirubin was not found in bile of groups 2 and 3. Histology showed survival of hepatocytes in all spleens of rats of groups 1A, 1B and 2. It is concluded that congenic hepatocytes from R/APfd donors are not rejected after transplantation into the R/APfd-j/j rat, and maintain long-term function. Splenectomy does not abolish, but does reduce, the therapeutic effect significantly, indicating that part of the transplanted hepatocytes maintains function in the enzyme-deficient host liver. The congenic R/APfd-j/j and R/APfd rat strains represent a new animal model for research in metabolic deficiency disease.

  3. Property of hepatitis B virus replication in Tupaia belangeri hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Takahiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Benjelloun, Soumaya; Murakami, Shuko; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Tateno, Chise; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-01-08

    The northern treeshrew (Tupaia belangeri) has been reported to be an effective candidate for animal infection model with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The objective of our study was to analyze the growth characteristics of HBV in tupaia hepatocytes and the host response to HBV infection. We established primary tupaia hepatocytes (3-6-week old tupaia) and infected them with HBV genotypes A, B and C, and all the genotypes proliferated as well as those in human primary hepatocytes (>10(5) copies/ml in culture supernatant). We next generated a chimeric mouse with tupaia liver by transplantation of tupaia primary hepatocytes to urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA (cDNA-uPA)/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and the replacement ratio with tupaia hepatocytes was found to be more than 95%. Infection of chimeric mice with HBV (genotypes B, C, and D) resulted in HBV-DNA level of 10(4)-10(6) copies/ml after 8 weeks of infection, which were almost similar to that in humanized chimeric mouse. In contrast, serum HBV level in adult tupaia (1-year-old tupaia) was quite low (<10(3) copies/ml). Understanding the differences in the response to HBV infection in primary tupaia hepatocytes, chimeric mouse, and adult tupaia will contribute to elucidating the mechanism of persistent HBV infection and viral eradication. Thus, T. belangeri was found to be efficient for studying the host response to HBV infection, thereby providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of HBV. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maximising the use of freshly isolated human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Freshly isolated human hepatocytes are the best model for predicting adverse drug reactions. However, their preparation and use present the investigator with many variables that are beyond their control. These include operation continuity and timing, size and number of cut surfaces on liver tissue and the prior history of the patient. To exploit the potential of freshly isolated human hepatocytes a method is required to preserve the cells in their initial in vivo like state. This experimental pausing allows experiments to be prioritised at convenient times of the day. A novel approach for selecting viable human hepatocytes by functional attachment to a gelatin gel is described rather than relying on their physical characteristics. The cells are preserved as a monolayer on the semi-solid support at 10°C as single spherical entities. The hepatocytes can be released into suspension, when required, by a temperature transition to 37°C for 20min. The cells can be used in suspension or as a monolayer. The length of preservation depends upon the source tissue. Hepatocytes from normal liver can be maintained for at least 4days and demonstrated to have the same level of CYP3A4 and the enzymes involved in glucuronidation and sulphation as freshly isolated cells. Cells from fatty liver, attached to gelatin, vary in their preservation time but it is at least 24h and so confluent monolayers, that survive at 37°C can be generated the following day. The technique enables freshly isolated human hepatocytes to be used more effectively. They can be preserved in times of plenty so more experimentation is possible. Alternatively, with poorer fatty cells the initial attachment on gelatin enables confluent monolayers of lipid rich cells to be studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An in vitro examination of selenium-cadmium antagonism using primary cultures of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Ankur; Naderi, Mohammad; Niyogi, Som

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated the ameliorative properties of selenium (Se) against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress, using isolated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes in primary culture as the model experimental system. Cadmium (Cd) is known to induce cytotoxic effects by disrupting cellular oxidative homeostasis. On the other hand, selenium (Se) is an essential component of biological antioxidative machinery, and thus may provide protection against the toxic insults of Cd by augmenting the cellular antioxidant response. However, Se, when present above the threshold concentration, can also induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cause oxidative damage. In this experiment, trout hepatocytes in primary culture were exposed to 100 µM Cd, alone or in combination with different concentrations (25-500 µM) of selenite (SeO3(2-)) or selenomethionine (SeMet) for 48 h. Our findings indicated that both chemical forms of Se, at the lowest concentration used (25 µM), significantly reduced Cd-induced cytotoxicity (measured as cell viability). In contrast, Se at higher concentrations (≥ 50 µM) did not offer any protection against a Cd induced decrease in cell viability. The reduced cytotoxicity of Cd in the presence of 25 µM selenite or SeMet was associated with reduced intracellular ROS production, recovery of the cellular thiol status (ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione), and amelioration in the activities of major enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). Co-treatment of hepatocytes with Cd and pharmacological antioxidants (TEMPO and NAC) also reduced Cd-induced oxidative stress in trout hepatocytes. This provided further evidence that Se likely ameliorates Cd toxicity via different antioxidative mechanisms.

  6. Transcription factors ETF, E2F, and SP-1 are involved in cytokine-independent proliferation of murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, Sebastian; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Godoy, Patricio; Weng, Honglei; Meyer, Christoph; Lehmann, Thomas; Sparna, Titus; Schormann, Wiebke; Hammad, Seddik; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; von Weizsäcker, Fritz; Thürmann, Petra A; Merfort, Irmgard; Guthke, Reinhard; Dooley, Steven; Hengstler, Jan G; Gebhardt, Rolf

    2010-12-01

    The cellular basis of liver regeneration has been intensely investigated for many years. However, the mechanisms initiating hepatocyte "plasticity" and priming for proliferation are not yet fully clear. We investigated alterations in gene expression patterns during the first 72 hours of C57BL/6N mouse hepatocyte culture on collagen monolayers (CM), which display a high basal frequency of proliferation in the absence of cytokines. Although many metabolic genes were down-regulated, genes related to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and cell cycle were up-regulated. The latter genes showed an overrepresentation of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) for ETF (TEA domain family member 2), E2F1 (E2F transcription factor 1), and SP-1 (Sp1 transcription factor) (P < 0.001), all depending on MAPK signaling. Time-dependent increase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation occurred during the first 48 hours (and beyond) in the absence of cytokines, accompanied by an enhanced bromodeoxyuridine labeling index of 20%. The MEK inhibitor PD98059 blunted these effects indicating MAPK signaling as major trigger for this cytokine-independent proliferative response. In line with these in vitro findings, liver tissue of mice challenged with CCl(4) displayed hepatocytes with intense p-ERK1/2 staining and nuclear SP-1 and E2F1 expression. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes in mice after partial hepatectomy contained overrepresented TFBS for ETF, E2F1, and SP-1 and displayed increased expression of E2F1. Cultivation of murine hepatocytes on CM primes cells for proliferation through cytokine-independent activation of MAPK signaling. The transcription factors ETF, E2F1, and SP-1 seem to play a pronounced role in mediating proliferation-dependent differential gene expression. Similar events, but on a shorter time-scale, occur very early after liver damage in vivo. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Hepatocyte attachment to laminin is mediated through multiple receptors

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of hepatocytes with the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin was studied using synthetic peptides derived from laminin sequences. Rat hepatocytes bind to laminin and three different sites within the A and B1 chains of laminin were identified. Active laminin peptides include the PA22-2 peptide (close to the carboxyl end of the long arm in the A chain), the RGD-containing peptide, PA21 (in the short arm of the A chain) and the pentapeptide YIGSR (in the short arm of the B1 chain). PA22-2 was the most potent peptide, whereas the other two peptides had somewhat lower activity. Furthermore, hepatocyte attachment to laminin was inhibited by the three peptides, with PA22-2 being the most active. Various proteins from isolated membranes of cell- surface iodinated hepatocytes bound to a laminin affinity column including three immunologically related binding proteins : Mr = 67,000, 45,000, and 32,000. Several proteins--Mr = 80,000, 55,000, and 38,000- 36,000--with a lower affinity for laminin were also identified. Affinity chromatography on peptide columns revealed that the PA22-2 peptide specifically bound the Mr = 80,000, 67,000, 45,000, and 32,000 proteins, the PA21 peptide bound the Mr = 45,000 and 38,000-36,000 proteins and the YIGSR peptide column bound the 38,000-36,000 protein. Antisera to a bacterial fusion protein of the 32-kD laminin-binding protein (LBP-32) reacted strongly with the three laminin-binding proteins, Mr = 67,000, 45,000, and 32,000, showing that they are immunologically related. Immunoperoxidase microscopy studies confirmed that these proteins are present within the plasma membrane of the hepatocyte. The antisera inhibited the adhesion of hepatocytes to hepatocytes to laminin by 30%, supporting the finding that these receptors and others mediate the attachment of hepatocytes to several regions of laminin. PMID:2136861

  8. Microencapsulation of Hepatocytes and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Therapeutic Applications.

    PubMed

    Meier, Raphael P H; Montanari, Elisa; Morel, Philippe; Pimenta, Joël; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Wandrey, Christine; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Mahou, Redouan; Bühler, Leo H

    2017-01-01

    Encapsulated hepatocyte transplantation and encapsulated mesenchymal stem cell transplantation are newly developed potential treatments for acute and chronic liver diseases, respectively. Cells are microencapsulated in biocompatible semipermeable alginate-based hydrogels. Microspheres protect cells against antibodies and immune cells, while allowing nutrients, small/medium size proteins and drugs to diffuse inside and outside the polymer matrix. Microencapsulated cells are assessed in vitro and designed for experimental transplantation and for future clinical applications.Here, we describe the protocol for microencapsulation of hepatocytes and mesenchymal stem cells within hybrid poly(ethylene glycol)-alginate hydrogels.

  9. Interspecies differences in metabolism of arsenic by cultured primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Drobna, Zuzana; Walton, Felecia S.; Harmon, Anne W.

    2010-05-15

    Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in many mammalian species, including the human. However, significant interspecies differences have been reported in the rate of in vivo metabolism of iAs and in yields of iAs metabolites found in urine. Liver is considered the primary site for the methylation of iAs and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in this pathway. Thus, the As3mt-catalyzed methylation of iAs in the liver determines in part the rate and the pattern of iAs metabolism in various species. We examined kinetics and concentration-response patterns for iAsmore » methylation by cultured primary hepatocytes derived from human, rat, mice, dog, rabbit, and rhesus monkey. Hepatocytes were exposed to [{sup 73}As]arsenite (iAs{sup III}; 0.3, 0.9, 3.0, 9.0 or 30 nmol As/mg protein) for 24 h and radiolabeled metabolites were analyzed in cells and culture media. Hepatocytes from all six species methylated iAs{sup III} to methylarsenic (MAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMAs). Notably, dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes were considerably more efficient methylators of iAs{sup III} than mouse, rabbit or human hepatocytes. The low efficiency of mouse, rabbit and human hepatocytes to methylate iAs{sup III} was associated with inhibition of DMAs production by moderate concentrations of iAs{sup III} and with retention of iAs and MAs in cells. No significant correlations were found between the rate of iAs methylation and the thioredoxin reductase activity or glutathione concentration, two factors that modulate the activity of recombinant As3mt. No associations between the rates of iAs methylation and As3mt protein structures were found for the six species examined. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the superior arsenic methylation capacities of dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes examined in this study may be associated with a higher As3mt expression. However, factors other than As3mt expression may also

  10. Human Hepatocyte Isolation: Does Portal Vein Embolization Affect the Outcome?

    PubMed

    Kluge, Martin; Reutzel-Selke, Anja; Napierala, Hendrik; Hillebrandt, Karl Herbert; Major, Rebeka Dalma; Struecker, Benjamin; Leder, Annekatrin; Siefert, Jeffrey; Tang, Peter; Lippert, Steffen; Sallmon, Hannes; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann; Sauer, Igor M; Raschzok, Nathanael

    2016-01-01

    Primary human hepatocytes are widely used for basic research, pharmaceutical testing, and therapeutic concepts in regenerative medicine. Human hepatocytes can be isolated from resected liver tissue. Preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) is increasingly used to decrease the risk of delayed postoperative liver regeneration by induction of selective hypertrophy of the future remnant liver tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PVE on the outcome of hepatocyte isolation. Primary human hepatocytes were isolated from liver tissue obtained from partial hepatectomies (n = 190) using the two-step collagenase perfusion technique followed by Percoll purification. Of these hepatectomies, 27 isolations (14.2%) were performed using liver tissue obtained from patients undergoing PVE before surgery. All isolations were characterized using parameters that had been described in the literature as relevant for the outcome of hepatocyte isolation. The isolation outcomes of the PVE and the non-PVE groups were then compared before and after Percoll purification. Metabolic parameters (transaminases, urea, albumin, and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion) were measured in the supernatant of cultured hepatocytes for more than 6 days (PVE: n = 4 and non-PVE: n = 3). The PVE and non-PVE groups were similar in regard to donor parameters (sex, age, and indication for surgery), isolation parameters (liver weight and cold ischemia time), and the quality of the liver tissue. The mean initial viable cell yield did not differ between the PVE and non-PVE groups (10.16 ± 2.03 × 10(6) cells/g vs. 9.70 ± 0.73 × 10(6) cells/g, p = 0.499). The initial viability was slightly better in the PVE group (77.8% ± 2.03% vs. 74.4% ± 1.06%). The mean viable cell yield (p = 0.819) and the mean viability (p = 0.141) after Percoll purification did not differ between the groups. PVE had no effect on enzyme leakage and metabolic

  11. Establishment of human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells with overexpressed human hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Cheng, Hongjing; Liu, Jinyu; Zhang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Chronic liver disease has become a major health problem that causes serious damage to human health. Since the existing treatment effect was not ideal, we need to seek new treatment methods. We utilized the gene recombination technology to obtain the human hair mesenchymal stem cells which overexpression of human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF). Furthermore, we verified the property of transfected cells through detecting surface marker by flow cytometry. We show here establishment of the hHGF-overexpressing lentivirus vector, and successfully transfection to human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells. The verified experiments could demonstrate the human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells which have been transfected still have the properties of stem cells. We successfully constructed human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells which overexpression hHGF, and maintain the same properties compared with pro-transfected cells.

  12. Berberine attenuates oxidative stress and hepatocytes apoptosis via protecting mitochondria in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kang-Le; Wang, Li-Na; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin; Xu, Wei-Na

    2017-02-01

    High-fat diets may have favorable effects on growth and cost, but high-fat diets often induce excessive fat deposition, resulting in liver damage. This study aimed to identify the hepatoprotective of a Chinese herb (berberine) for blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish were fed with a normal diet (LFD, 5 % fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 15 % fat) or berberine-supplemented diets (BSD, 15 % fat with berberine 50 or 100 mg/kg level) for 8 weeks. After the feeding, histology, oxidative status and mitochondrial function of liver were assessed. The results showed that HFD caused fat accumulation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in hepatocytes of fish. Hepatocytes in HFD group appeared to be hypertrophied, with larger liver cells diameter than these of LFD group. Berberine-supplemented diets could attenuate oxidative stress and hepatocytes apoptosis. HFD induced the decreasing mitochondrial complexes activities and bulk density and surface area density. Berberine improved function of mitochondrial respiratory chain via increasing the complex activities. Moreover, the histological results showed that berberine has the potential to repair mitochondrial ultrastructural damage and elevate the density in cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that berberine has attenuated liver damage induced by the high fat mainly via the protection for mitochondria.

  13. Billion-scale production of hepatocyte-like cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Takayama, Kazuo; Sakurai, Fuminori; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-19

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells are expected to be utilized in drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hepatocyte-like cells have not been fully used in such applications because it is difficult to produce such cells on a large scale. In this study, we tried to establish a method to mass produce hepatocyte-like cells using a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture bioreactor called the Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS). RCCS enabled us to obtain homogenous hepatocyte-like cells on a billion scale (>10 9  cells). The gene expression levels of some hepatocyte markers (alpha-1 antitrypsin, cytochrome (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) were higher in 3D-cultured hepatocyte-like cells than in 2D-cultured hepatocyte-like cells. This result suggests that RCCS could provide more suitable conditions for hepatocyte maturation than the conventional 2D cell culture conditions. In addition, more than 90% of hepatocyte-like cells were positive for albumin and could uptake low-density lipoprotein in the culture medium. We succeeded in the large-scale production of homogenous and functional hepatocyte-like cells from human iPS cells. This technology will be useful in drug screening and regenerative medicine, which require enormous numbers of hepatocyte-like cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene expression analysis of a porcine hepatocyte/bile duct in vitro differentiaion model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A serum-free, feeder-cell-dependent, inductive differentiation culture system of porcine hepatocytes and bile ductules was analyzed for differential gene expression on a porcine genome microarray. Primary cultures of baby pig hepatocytes (BPH) were matured in culture as a monolayer of hepatocytes w...

  15. Human hepatocyte growth factor promotes functional recovery in primates after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-Ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI.

  16. Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Promotes Functional Recovery in Primates after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

  17. Comparative Metabolism of Furan in Rodent and Human Cryopreserved Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Leah A.; Phillips, Martin B.; Matter, Brock A.

    2014-01-01

    Furan is a liver toxicant and carcinogen in rodents. Although humans are most likely exposed to furan through a variety of sources, the effect of furan exposure on human health is still unknown. In rodents, furan requires metabolism to exert its toxic effects. The initial product of the cytochrome P450 2E1-catalyzed oxidation is a reactive α,β-unsaturated dialdehyde, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA). BDA is toxic and mutagenic and consequently is considered responsible for the toxic effects of furan. The urinary metabolites of furan in rats are derived from the reaction of BDA with cellular nucleophiles, and precursors to these metabolites are detected in furan-exposed hepatocytes. Many of these precursors are 2-(S-glutathionyl)butanedial-amine cross-links in which the amines are amino acids and polyamines. Because these metabolites are derived from the reaction of BDA with cellular nucleophiles, their levels are a measure of the internal dose of this reactive metabolite. To compare the ability of human hepatocytes to convert furan to the same metabolites as rodent hepatocytes, furan was incubated with cryopreserved human and rodent hepatocytes. A semiquantitative liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed for a number of the previously characterized furan metabolites. Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of the metabolites demonstrated that furan is metabolized in a similar manner in all three species. These results indicate that humans may be susceptible to the toxic effects of furan. PMID:24751574

  18. DIFFERENTIATING MECHANISMS OF REACTIVE CHEMICAL TOXICITY IN ISOLATED TROUT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of four quinones, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMONQ), 2-methyl 1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ ),1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), and 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), which redox cycle or arlyate in mammalian cells, was determined in isolated trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Mor...

  19. INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN THE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The liver is the major site for the enzymatic methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in humans. Primary cultures of normal human hepatocytes isolated from tissue obtained at surgery or from donor livers have been used to study interindividual variation in the capacity of live...

  20. Regeneration of hepatocyte 'buds' in cirrhosis from intrabiliary stem cells.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Olga; An, Hee Jung; Ianus, I Andreea; Chiriboga, Luis; Yee, Herman; West, A Brian; Theise, Neil D

    2003-09-01

    In massive hepatic necrosis, hepatic stem cells constitute a canal of Hering derived, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) positive 'ductular reaction' (DR). Whether DRs in cirrhosis are activated stem cells (so called 'buds') or biliary metaplasia of cholestatic, injured hepatocytes is still debated. We investigate derivation of intraseptal hepatocytes (ISHs) from DRs and from the biliary tree in cirrhosis. Explants of hepatitis B and C, alcohol, primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis-related cirrhosis were examined. ISHs were quantified and their associations with DRs and cholestasis recorded. 3D-reconstruction of ISHs and nearby bile ducts was performed in blocks from hepatitis C and primary sclerosing cholangitis cirrhosis. Seven hundred seventy five/830 (94%) ISHs were associated with CK19 positive DRs. ISHs without ductular reactions were more likely to show cholestatic features (P<0.0001). In 3D, ISHs were seen to bud directly from the biliary tree. In summary: ISHs: (1) are usually associated with stem cell-like DRs; (2) are rarely cholestatic, leaving the associated DRs unexplained; and (3) are linked to the biliary tree in 3D. Dynamic proliferation rates in hepatitis C over time suggest that hepatocyte replication diminishes in late stages, with an associated activation of the biliary stem cell compartment. We therefore suggest that the biliary tree, from at least its smaller branches up to the canals of Hering, are composed of or at least harbor facultative hepatic stem cells, and that ISH largely represent 'buds' of newly formed hepatocytes.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells support hepatocyte function in engineered liver grafts.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yoshie; Yagi, Hiroshi; Inomata, Kenta; Matsubara, Kentaro; Hibi, Taizo; Abe, Yuta; Kitago, Minoru; Shinoda, Masahiro; Obara, Hideaki; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that organ decellularization is a promising approach to facilitate the clinical application of regenerative therapy by providing a platform for organ engineering. This unique strategy uses native matrices to act as a reservoir for the functional cells which may show therapeutic potential when implanted into the body. Appropriate cell sources for artificial livers have been debated for some time. The desired cell type in artificial livers is primary hepatocytes, but in addition, other supportive cells may facilitate this stem cell technology. In this context, the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is an option meeting the criteria for therapeutic organ engineering. Ideally, supportive cells are required to (1) reduce the hepatic cell mass needed in an engineered liver by enhancing hepatocyte function, (2) modulate hepatic regeneration in a paracrine fashion or by direct contact, and (3) enhance the preservability of parenchymal cells during storage. Here, we describe enhanced hepatic function achieved using a strategy of sequential infusion of cells and illustrate the advantages of co-cultivating bone marrow-derived MSCs with primary hepatocytes in the engineered whole-liver scaffold. These co-recellularized liver scaffolds colonized by MSCs and hepatocytes were transplanted into live animals. After blood flow was established, we show that expression of adhesion molecules and proangiogenic factors was upregulated in the graft.

  2. A Microfabricated Platform for Generating Physiologically-Relevant Hepatocyte Zonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, William J.; Usta, O. Berk; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2016-05-01

    In vitro liver models have been important tools for more than 40 years for academic research and preclinical toxicity screening by the pharmaceutical industry. Hepatocytes, the highly metabolic parenchymal cells of the liver, are efficient at different metabolic chemistries depending on their relative spatial location along the sinusoid from the portal triad to the central vein. Although replicating hepatocyte metabolic zonation is vitally important for physiologically-relevant in vitro liver tissue and organ models, it is most often completely overlooked. Here, we demonstrate the creation of spatially-controlled zonation across multiple hepatocyte metabolism levels through the application of precise concentration gradients of exogenous hormone (insulin and glucagon) and chemical (3-methylcholanthrene) induction agents in a microfluidic device. Observed gradients in glycogen storage via periodic acid-Schiff staining, urea production via carbamoyl phosphatase synthetase I staining, and cell viability after exposure to allyl alcohol and acetaminophen demonstrated the in vitro creation of hepatocyte carbohydrate, nitrogen, alcohol degradation, and drug conjugation metabolic zonation. This type of advanced control system will be crucial for studies evaluating drug metabolism and toxicology using in vitro constructs.

  3. TEMPORAL CHANGE IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    TEMPORAL CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY *

    The objective of this study was to examine the reduction in gap junction communication (GJC) in primary hepatocytes due to coincident melatonin and magnetic field treatments to determine if these conditions could prov...

  4. 3D Cultivation Techniques for Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anastasia; Moll, Matthias; Gottwald, Eric; Nies, Cordula; Zantl, Roman; Wagner, Helga; Burkhardt, Britta; Sánchez, Juan J. Martínez; Ladurner, Ruth; Thasler, Wolfgang; Damm, Georg; Nussler, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in drug development is the prediction of in vivo toxicity based on in vitro data. The standard cultivation system for primary human hepatocytes is based on monolayer cultures, even if it is known that these conditions result in a loss of hepatocyte morphology and of liver-specific functions, such as drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. As it has been demonstrated that hepatocytes embedded between two sheets of collagen maintain their function, various hydrogels and scaffolds for the 3D cultivation of hepatocytes have been developed. To further improve or maintain hepatic functions, 3D cultivation has been combined with perfusion. In this manuscript, we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different 3D microfluidic devices. For most systems that are currently available, the main issues are the requirement of large cell numbers, the low throughput, and expensive equipment, which render these devices unattractive for research and the drug-developing industry. A higher acceptance of these devices could be achieved by their simplification and their compatibility with high-throughput, as both aspects are of major importance for a user-friendly device. PMID:27600213

  5. ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES.

    S. Lin1, L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo1, C. Wang2, W. R. Cullen2, and D.J. Thomas3. 1Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3National Health and En...

  6. CD40 activation induces apoptosis in cultured human hepatocytes via induction of cell surface fas ligand expression and amplifies fas-mediated hepatocyte death during allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Afford, S C; Randhawa, S; Eliopoulos, A G; Hubscher, S G; Young, L S; Adams, D H

    1999-01-18

    We propose that a novel mechanism of hepatocyte apoptosis, involving a cooperative interaction between CD40 and Fas, is involved in the hepatocyte loss of chronic liver allograft rejection. We detected increased hepatocyte expression of Fas, Fas ligand (FasL), and CD40 associated with dropout of centrilobular (acinar zone 3) hepatocytes in chronic allograft rejection. Expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) was also increased but was largely restricted to CD68(+) macrophages. A functional role for CD40 and Fas in hepatocyte apoptosis was demonstrated in vitro using primary human hepatocytes and the HepG2 cell line in both of which apoptosis was induced, not only by cross-linking Fas directly but also via CD40 activation. Our data suggest that CD40 activation induces apoptosis via Fas because (a) ligation of CD40 upregulated hepatocyte FasL expression, and (b) apoptosis induced via activation of CD40 was prevented by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to FasL. Thus, CD40 engagement triggers apoptosis of human hepatocytes and might amplify Fas-dependent hepatocyte apoptosis in chronic rejection and other inflammatory liver diseases in which Fas-mediated apoptosis is involved.

  7. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shan-Bo; Zhang, Rui; Miao, Shan; Gao, Bin; Lu, Yang; Hui, Sen; Li, Long; Shi, Xiao-Peng; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2017-06-01

    Hyperglycemia is a typical pathogenic factor in a series of complications among patients with type II diabetes. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol extracted from green tea and is reported to be an antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of EGCG on insulin resistance in human HepG2 cells pretreated with high concentrations of glucose. The protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) pathways were analyzed using western blot analysis in HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes treated with high glucose and/or EGCG. Cellular glycogen content was determined using a glycogen assay kit. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined using dihydroethidium staining and flow cytometry. c‑JUN N‑terminal kinase (JNK)/insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1)/AKT/GSK signaling was explored using western blot analysis in HepG2 cells treated with high glucose and/or EGCG or N-acetyl-cysteine. High glucose significantly decreased the levels of phosphorylated AKT and GSK in HepG2 cells and mouse primary hepatocytes. Pretreatment with EGCG significantly restored the activation of AKT and GSK in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes exposed to high glucose. In HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes, glycogen synthesis was improved by EGCG treatment in a dose‑dependent manner. High glucose significantly stimulated the production of ROS while EGCG protected high glucose‑induced ROS production. ROS is known to serve a major role in high glucose induced‑insulin resistance by increasing JNK and IRS1 serine phosphorylation. In the present study, EGCG was observed to enhance the insulin‑signaling pathway. EGCG ameliorated high glucose‑induced insulin resistance in the hepatocytes by potentially decreasing ROS‑induced JNK/IRS1/AKT/GSK signaling.

  8. Characterization and Comprehensive Proteome Profiling of Exosomes Secreted by Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Conde-Vancells, Javier; Rodriguez-Suarez, Eva; Embade, Nieves; Gil, David; Matthiesen, Rune; Valle, Mikel; Elortza, Felix; Lu, Shelly C.; Mato, Jose M.; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Exosomes constitute a discrete population of nanometer-sized (30-150 nm) vesicles formed in endocytic compartments and released to the extracellular environment by different cell types. In this work we demonstrated by electron microscopic, western blotting and proteomic analyses that primary hepatocytes secrete exosome-like vesicles containing proteins involved in metabolizing lipoproteins, endogenous compounds as well as xenobiotics. These new findings contribute to improve our knowledge about biology's hepatocyte and may have important diagnostic, prognosis and therapeutic implications in liver diseases Exosomes represent a discrete population of vesicles that are secreted from various cell types to the extracellular media. Their protein and lipid composition are a consequence of sorting events at the level of the multivesicular body, a central organelle which integrates endocytic and secretory pathways. Characterization of exosomes from different biological samples has shown the presence of common as well as cell-type specific proteins. Remarkably, the protein content of the exosomes is modified upon pathological or stress conditions. Hepatocytes play a central role in the body response to stress metabolizing potentially harmful endogenous substances as well as xenobiotics. In the present study we described and characterized for first time exosome secretion in non-tumoral hepatocytes, and using a systematic proteomic approach, we establish the first extensive proteome of a hepatocyte-derived exosome population which should be useful in furthering our understanding of the hepatic function and in the identification of components that may serve as biomarkers for hepatic alterations. Our analysis identifies a significant number of proteins previously described among exosomes derived from others cell types as well as proteins involved in metabolizing lipoproteins, endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, not previously described in exosomes. Furthermore, we

  9. Epidermal growth factor-stimulated protein phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, P.A.; Sisk, R.B.; Johnson, R.M.

    1987-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a 6-fold increase in the phosphorylation state of a cytosolic protein (pp36, M/sub r/ = 36,000, pI = 5.5) in hepatocytes isolated from fasted, male, Wistar rats. Stimulation of /sup 32/P incorporation is observed as early as 1 min following treatment of hepatocytes with EGF and is still present at 30 min after exposure to the growth factor. The phosphate incorporated into pp36 in response to EGF is located predominantly in serine but not tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of pp36 does not occur in response to insulin or to agents which specifically activate the cAMP-dependent proteinmore » kinase (S/sub p/ -cAMPS), protein kinase C (PMA) or Ca/sup 2 +//calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (A23187) in these cells. Prior treatment of hepatocytes with the cAMP analog, S/sub p/-cAMPS, or ADP-ribosylation of N/sub i/, the inhibitory GTP-binding protein of the adenylate cyclase complex, does not prevent EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of pp36. However, as seen in other cell types, pretreatment of hepatocytes with PMA abolishes all EGF-mediated responses including phosphorylation of pp36. These results suggest that EGP specifically activates an uncharacterized, serine protein kinase in hepatocytes that is distal to the intrinsic EGF receptor tyrosine protein kinase. The rapid activation of this kinase suggests that it may play an important role in the early response of the cell to EGF.« less

  10. Increased activity of CYP3A enzyme in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes treated with docetaxel: comparative evaluation with paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Nallani, S C; Genter, M B; Desai, P B

    2001-08-01

    Docetaxel, a potent antimicrotubule agent widely used in the treatment of ovarian, breast and lung cancer, is extensively metabolized in various animal species, including humans. The metabolism of docetaxel to its primary metabolite, hydroxydocetaxel, is mediated by cytochrome P450 isozymes CYP3A2 and CYP3A4 in rats and humans, respectively. Several substrates of enzymes belonging to the CYP3A subfamily are known to induce different CYP isozymes, including CYP3A enzymes. Recently, paclitaxel, a compound structurally related to docetaxel, has been shown to significantly elevate the expression of CYP3A in rat and human hepatocytes. In this study we investigated the influence of docetaxel, employed at clinically relevant concentrations, on the level and the activity of cytochrome P450 3A in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes were treated with different concentrations of docetaxel, paclitaxel and other CYP3A inducers. Testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity of intact hepatocytes was used as a marker for CYP3A. The immunoreactive CYP3A levels in the S-9 fractions were determined by Western blot analysis. We observed that by day 3 of drug treatment, docetaxel at concentration in the range of 2.5-10 microM increased the CYP3A enzymatic activity and the immunoreactive CYP3A levels in a concentration-dependent manner. At the 10 microM level, docetaxel caused a twofold increase in the CYP3A activity and a threefold increase in the immunoreactive CYP3A levels. However, the docetaxel-mediated CYP3A activity and enzyme level increase were significantly lower than those mediated by paclitaxel and dexamethasone. A comparison of the testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation activity in hepatocytes treated with these agents at a concentration of 5 microM each yielded the following rank order of induction capacity: dexamethasone > paclitaxel > docetaxel (15-fold, 5-fold, 2.2-fold, respectively). Taken together, our findings raise the possibility that docetaxel at clinically

  11. Differentiation and Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Basma, Hesham; Soto-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Yannam, Govardhana Rao; Liu, Liping; Ito, Ryotaro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Ellis, Ewa; Carson, Steven D.; Sato, Shintaro; Chen, Yong; Muirhead, David; Navarro-Álvarez, Nalu; Wong, Ron; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta; Platt, Jeffrey L.; Mercer, David F.; Miller, John D.; Strom, Stephen C.; Kobayashi, Noaya; Fox, Ira J.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims The ability to obtain unlimited numbers of human hepatocytes would improve development of cell-based therapies for liver diseases, facilitate the study of liver biology and improve the early stages of drug discovery. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, can potentially differentiate into any cell type and could therefore be developed as a source of human hepatocytes. Methods To generate human hepatocytes, human embryonic stem cells were differentiated by sequential culture in fibroblast growth factor 2 and human Activin-A, hepatocyte growth factor, and dexamethasone. Functional hepatocytes were isolated by sorting for surface asialoglycoprotein receptor expression. Characterization was performed by real-time PCR, imunohistochemistry, immunoblot, functional assays and transplantation. Results Embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes expressed liver-specific genes but not genes representing other lineages, secreted functional human liver-specific proteins similar to those of primary human hepatocytes and demonstrated human hepatocyte cytochrome P450 metabolic activity. Serum from rodents given injections of embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes contained significant amounts of human albumin and alpha-1-antitrypsin. Colonies of cytokeratin-18 and human albumin-expressing cells were present in the livers of recipient animals. Conclusion Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into cells with many characteristics of primary human hepatocytes. Hepatocyte-like cells can be enriched and recovered based on asialoglycoprotein receptor expression and could potentially be used in drug discovery research and developed as therapeutics. PMID:19026649

  12. Inhibition of prostaglandin D2 clearance in rat hepatocytes by the thromboxane receptor antagonists daltroban and ifetroban and the thromboxane synthase inhibitor furegrelate.

    PubMed

    Pestel, Sabine; Nath, Annegret; Jungermann, Kurt; Schieferdecker, Henrike L

    2003-08-15

    Prostanoids, i.e. prostaglandins and thromboxane, regulate liver-specific functions both in homeostasis and during defense reactions. For example, prostanoids are released from Kupffer cells, the resident liver macrophages, in response to the inflammatory mediator anaphylatoxin C5a, and mediate an enhanced glucose output from hepatocytes as energy supply. In perfused rat livers, the thromboxane receptor antagonist daltroban enhanced C5a-induced prostanoid overflow and reduced glucose output. It was the aim of this study to elucidate whether daltroban interfered with prostanoid release from Kupffer cells or prostanoid clearance by hepatocytes, and/or whether it directly influenced prostanoid-dependent glucose metabolism in these cells. In perfused rat livers, daltroban enhanced prostaglandin (PG)D(2) overflow not only after infusion of C5a (15-fold), but also after PGD(2) (10-fold). Neither daltroban nor another receptor antagonist, ifetroban, or the thromboxane synthase inhibitor furegrelate enhanced prostanoid release from Kupffer cells. In contrast, all inhibitors reduced clearance, i.e. uptake and degradation, of PGD(2) by hepatocytes: within 5 min uptake of 1 nmol/L PGD(2) was reduced from 43+/-5 fmol (controls) to 22+/-6 fmol (daltroban), 24+/-6 fmol (ifetroban) and 21+/-6 fmol (furegrelate). PGD(2) in the medium was reduced to 39+/-7% in the controls, but remained at 93+/-9%, 93+/-11% and 60+/-3% in the presence of the inhibitors. PGD(2)-dependent glucose output in the perfused liver or activation of glycogen phosphorylase in isolated hepatocytes remained unaffected by daltroban. These data clearly demonstrate that the thromboxane-inhibitors reduced PGD(2) clearance by hepatocytes, presumably by inhibition of prostanoid transport into the cells. In contrast, they did not interfere with PGD(2)-dependent glucose metabolism, suggesting an independent mechanism for the inhibition of glucose output from the liver.

  13. Logging damage

    Treesearch

    Ralph D. Nyland

    1989-01-01

    The best commercial logging will damage at least some residual trees during all forms of partial cutting, no matter how carefully done. Yet recommendations at the end of this Note show there is much that you can do to limit damage by proper road and trail layout, proper training and supervision of crews, appropriate equipment, and diligence.

  14. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 {sup o}C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increasesmore » in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.« less

  15. Revisiting the liver in human yellow fever: virus-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes associated with TGF-beta, TNF-alpha and NK cells activity.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, Juarez A S; Barros, Vera L R S; Pagliari, Carla; Fernandes, Elaine R; Guedes, Fernanda; Takakura, Cleusa F H; Andrade, Heitor F; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Duarte, Maria I S

    2006-02-05

    Flavivirus infection as dengue and yellow fever persists as a terrible menace to pandemics, due to Aedes prevalence in the Americas. Yellow fever is characterized by hepatocyte damage, with steatosis, apoptosis and necrosis, mainly in the midzonal region of the liver, but the injury mechanism has not been studied at the light of recent knowledge, such as the advances in cell death mechanisms, inflammatory response and cytokine cell expression tools. We studied 53 human liver paraffin embedded blocks from patients who died with yellow fever, all with histological demonstration of higher prevalence of apoptosis over necrosis and mild disproportionate inflammatory response. Viral antigens were found most frequently in hepatocytes from the midzonal area than other lobule areas, as detected by specific immunohistochemistry. Infiltrating cell subpopulations showed mainly CD4+ T lymphocytes, with small numbers of CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes, CD20+ B lymphocytes, NKT+ cells and S100+ dendritic cells in the sites of inflammation, as compared to normal and leptospirosis liver blocks. Some cells expressed TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, but a much more intense proportion of TGF-beta expressing cells were found, suggesting both a Th1 and Th3 patterns of immune response in yellow fever. Most affected hepatocyte presented apoptosis markers that appear at the cell death main pathway in this infection. Viral antigens, which production could interfere in hepatocyte biology, could induce the activation of apoptosis cascade, but TGF-beta was also an apoptosis promoter. Our finding supports the key effect of the yellow fever virus in hepatocyte injury, resulting in prevalence of apoptosis over necrosis, aside from a TGF-beta action induced by the inflammatory response.

  16. Hepatocyte-induced CD4+ T cell alloresponse is associated with major histocompatibility complex class II up-regulation on hepatocytes and suppressible by regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    DeTemple, Daphne E; Oldhafer, Felix; Falk, Christine S; Chen-Wacker, Chen; Figueiredo, Constanca; Kleine, Moritz; Ramackers, Wolf; Timrott, Kai; Lehner, Frank; Klempnauer, Juergen; Bock, Michael; Vondran, Florian W R

    2018-03-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach for various liver diseases. Despite the liver's tolerogenic potential, early immune-mediated loss of transplanted cells is observed, and longterm acceptance has not been achieved yet. Patients deemed tolerant after liver transplantation presented an increased frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which therefore also might enable reduction of posttransplant cell loss and enhance longterm allograft acceptance. We hence characterized hepatocyte-induced immune reactions and evaluated the immunomodulatory potential of Tregs applying mixed lymphocyte cultures and mixed lymphocyte hepatocyte cultures. These were set up using peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary human hepatocytes, respectively. Polyclonally expanded CD4 + CD25 high CD127 low Tregs were added to cocultures in single-/trans-well setups with/without supplementation of anti-interferon γ (IFNγ) antibodies. Hepatocyte-induced alloresponses were then analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry. Measurements indicated that T cell response upon stimulation was associated with IFNγ-induced major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II up-regulation on hepatocytes and mediated by CD4 + T cells. An indirect route of antigen presentation could be ruled out by use of fragmented hepatocytes and culture supernatants of hepatocytes. Allospecific proliferation was accompanied by inflammatory cytokine secretion. CD8 + T cells showed early up-regulation of CD69 despite lack of cell proliferation in the course of coculture. Supplementation of Tregs effectively abrogated hepatocyte-induced alloresponses and was primarily cell contact dependent. In conclusion, human hepatocytes induce a CD4 + T cell alloresponse in vitro, which is associated with MHC class II up-regulation on hepatocytes and is susceptible to suppression by Tregs. Liver Transplantation 24 407-419 2018 AASLD. © 2018 The Authors. Liver Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  17. TRPM2 channels mediate acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpezhouh, Ehsan; Ma, Linlin; Morphett, Arthur; Barritt, Greg J.; Rychkov, Grigori Y.

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most frequently used analgesic and antipyretic drug available over the counter. At the same time, acetaminophen overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure and the leading cause of chronic liver damage requiring liver transplantation in developed countries. Acetaminophen overdose causes a multitude of interrelated biochemical reactions in hepatocytes including the formation of reactive oxygen species, deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, covalent modification and oxidation of proteins, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation. Although an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in hepatocytes is a known consequence of acetaminophen overdose, its importance in acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity is not well understood, primarily due to lack of knowledge about the source of the Ca2+ rise. Here we report that the channel responsible for Ca2+ entry in hepatocytes in acetaminophen overdose is the Transient Receptor Potential Melanostatine 2 (TRPM2) cation channel. We show by whole-cell patch clamping that treatment of hepatocytes with acetaminophen results in activation of a cation current similar to that activated by H2O2 or the intracellular application of ADP ribose. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TRPM2 in hepatocytes inhibits activation of the current by either acetaminophen or H2O2. In TRPM2 knockout mice, acetaminophen-induced liver damage, assessed by the blood concentration of liver enzymes and liver histology, is significantly diminished compared with wild-type mice. The presented data strongly suggest that TRPM2 channels are essential in the mechanism of acetaminophen-induced hepatocellular death. PMID:24569808

  18. Absence of oncogenic transformation despite acquisition of cytogenetic aberrations in long-term cultured telomerase-immortalized human fetal hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Haker, Björn; Fuchs, Sigrid; Dierlamm, Judith; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Wege, Henning

    2007-10-18

    As a culture model to study hepatocarcinogenesis, telomerase-immortalized human fetal hepatocytes were monitored for karyotype changes evolving in long-term culture and development of functional defects in DNA damage response. G-banding revealed acquisition of characteristic karyotype abnormalities, e.g., trisomy 7 and monosomy X, in two independently immortalized and cultured populations after 80-100 population doublings. Interestingly, the detected aneuploidies resemble some of the genetic events observed in hepatocellular cancer. However, these genetic changes were not sufficient to induce oncogenic transformation reflected by absence of anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, long-term cultured telomerase-immortalized cells preserved p53 expression levels and effective p53-mediated damage response.

  19. Oxidative and ER stress-dependent ASK1 activation in steatotic hepatocytes and Kupffer cells sensitizes mice fatty liver to ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Imarisio, Chiara; Alchera, Elisa; Bangalore Revanna, Chandrashekar; Valente, Guido; Follenzi, Antonia; Trisolini, Elena; Boldorini, Renzo; Carini, Rita

    2017-11-01

    Steatosis intensifies hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury increasing hepatocyte damage and hepatic inflammation. This study evaluates if this process is associated to a differential response of steatotic hepatocytes (HP) and Kupffer cells (KC) to I/R injury and investigates the molecular mechanisms involved. Control or steatotic (treated with 50 μmol palmitic acid, PA) mouse HP or KC were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). C57BL/6 mice fed 9 week with control or High Fat diet underwent to partial hepatic IR. PA increased H/R damage of HP and further activated the ASK1-JNK axis stimulated by ER stress during H/R. PA also induced the production of oxidant species (OS), and OS prevention nullified the capacity of PA to increase H/R damage and ASK1/JNK stimulation. ASK1 inhibition prevented JNK activation and entirely protected HP damage. In KC, PA directly activated ER stress, ASK1 and p38 MAPK and increased H/R damage. However, in contrast to HP, ASK1 inhibition further increased H/R damage by preventing p38 MAPK activation. In mice liver, steatosis induced the expression of activated ASK1 in only KC, whereas I/R exposure of steatotic liver activated ASK1 expression also in HP. "In vivo", ASK1 inhibition prevented ASK1, JNK and p38 MAPK activation and protected I/R damage and expression of inflammatory markers. Lipids-induced ASK1 stimulation differentially affects HP and KC by promoting cytotoxic or protective signals. ASK1 increases H/R damage of HP by stimulating JNK and protects KC activating p38MAPK. These data support the potentiality of the therapeutic employment of ASK1 inhibitors that can antagonize the damaging effects of I/R upon fatty liver surgery by the contextual reduction of HP death and of KC-mediated reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The establishment and characterization of immortal hepatocyte cell lines from a mouse liver injury model.

    PubMed

    Risal, Prabodh; Cho, Baik Hwan; Sylvester, Karl G; Kim, Jae-Chun; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Jeong, Yeon Jun

    2011-09-01

    Hepatocytes are an important research tool used for numerous applications. However, a short life span and a limited capacity to replicate in vitro limit the usefulness of primary hepatocyte cultures. We have hypothesized that in vivo priming of hepatocyte could make them more susceptible to growth factors in the medium for continuous proliferation in vitro. Here, a novel approach used to establish hepatocyte cell lines that included hepatocyte priming in vivo prior to culture with a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine diet was attempted. The cell line grew in a monolayer while maintaining a granular cytoplasm and a round nucleus. Electron microscopy displayed hepatocyte-like features including mitochondria, glycogen granules, and the presence of bile canaliculi. This cell line expressed many mature hepatocyte-specific genes including albumin, alpha1-antitrypsin, glucose 6-phosphatase, and tyrosine aminotransferase. Functional characteristic of hepatocytes like the ability to store glycogen, lipid, and synthesis of urea is well demonstrated by this cell line. These cells demonstrated anchorage dependent growth properties in soft agar and did not form tumors after transplantation into nude mice. This cell line can be sustained in culture for more than 100 passages (>1.5 years) without undergoing noticeable morphological changes or transformation. This novel method resulted in the establishment of an immortal, non-transformed hepatocyte cell line with functional characteristics that may aid research of cell metabolism, toxicology, and hepatocyte transplantation.

  1. Low asialoglycoprotein receptor expression as markers for highly proliferative potential hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ise, H; Sugihara, N; Negishi, N; Nikaido, T; Akaike, T

    2001-07-13

    Development of a reliable method to isolate highly proliferative potential hepatocytes will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration, as well as proving crucial for the development of a biohybrid artificial liver. The aim of this study is to isolate highly proliferative, e.g., progenitor-like, hepatocytes. To this end, we fractionated hepatocytes expressing low and high levels of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) based on the difference in their adhesion to poly[N-p-vinylbenzyl-O-beta-d-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-d-gluconamide] (PVLA), and examined the proliferative activity and gene expression of these fractionated hepatocytes. The results showed that approximately 0.5 to 1% of the total number of hepatocytes, which showed low adhesion to PVLA, expressed low levels of the ASGP-R, while the rest of hepatocyte population with high adhesion to PVLA expressed high levels of the ASGP-R. Interestingly hepatocytes with low ASGP-R expression levels had much higher DNA synthesizing activity (i.e., are much more proliferative) than those with high ASGP-R expression levels. Moreover, hepatocytes with low ASGP-R expression levels expressed higher levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), CD29 (beta1 integrin) and CD49f (alpha6 integrin) and lower levels of glutamine synthetase than those with high ASGP-R expression. These findings suggested that hepatocytes with low adhesion to PVLA due to their low ASGP-R expression could be potential candidates for progenitor-like hepatocytes due to their high proliferative capacity; hence, the low expression of the ASGP-R could be a unique marker for progenitor hepatocytes. The isolation of hepatocytes with different functional phenotypes using PVLA may provide a new research tool for a better understanding of the biology of hepatocytes and the mechanisms regulating their proliferation and differentiation in health and disease. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. [Current status and future perspectives of hepatocyte transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Maupoey, Javier; San Juan, Fernando; López, Rafael; Mir, Jose

    2014-02-01

    The imbalance between the number of potential beneficiaries and available organs, originates the search for new therapeutic alternatives, such as Hepatocyte transplantation (HT).Even though this is a treatment option for these patients, the lack of unanimity of criteria regarding indications and technique, different cryopreservation protocols, as well as the different methodology to assess the response to this therapy, highlights the need of a Consensus Conference to standardize criteria and consider future strategies to improve the technique and optimize the results.Our aim is to review and update the current state of hepatocyte transplantation, emphasizing the future research attempting to solve the problems and improve the results of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation Exposure Enhances Hepatocyte Proliferation in Neonatal Mice but not in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yi; Sawa, Yurika; Blyth, Benjamin J; Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Nogawa, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Yoshiya; Kakinuma, Shizuko

    2017-08-01

    There is a natural tendency to expect that irradiation of an infant organ prior to development-related expansion will result in a higher risk of developing cancer than that of fully-developed adult tissue, and this has generally been observed. However, if tissues also vary in their initial responses to radiation depending on age, the interplay between tissue- and age-dependent risk would potentially be quite complex. We have previously shown opposing age-dependent induction of apoptosis for the intestinal epithelium and hematopoietic cells in mice, but such data are not yet available for the liver. Here, we have examined markers of DNA damage, initiation of DNA damage responses, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and proliferation, as well as gene expression, in the B6C3F1 mouse liver over the hours and days after irradiation of mice at 1 or 7 weeks of age. We found that induction and resolution of radiation-induced DNA damage is not accompanied by significant changes in these cellular end points in the adult liver, while in infant hepatocytes modest induction of p53 accumulation and p21-mediated cell cycle arrest in a small fraction of damaged cells was overshadowed by a further stimulation of proliferation over the relatively high levels already found in the neonatal liver. We observed distinct expression of genes that regulate cell division between the ages, which may contribute to the differential responses. These data suggest that the growth factor signaling environment of the infant liver may mediate radiation-induced proliferation and increased liver cancer risk after irradiation during early life.

  4. A Dual Role of Caspase-8 in Triggering and Sensing Proliferation-Associated DNA Damage, a Key Determinant of Liver Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Boege, Yannick; Malehmir, Mohsen; Healy, Marc E; Bettermann, Kira; Lorentzen, Anna; Vucur, Mihael; Ahuja, Akshay K; Böhm, Friederike; Mertens, Joachim C; Shimizu, Yutaka; Frick, Lukas; Remouchamps, Caroline; Mutreja, Karun; Kähne, Thilo; Sundaravinayagam, Devakumar; Wolf, Monika J; Rehrauer, Hubert; Koppe, Christiane; Speicher, Tobias; Padrissa-Altés, Susagna; Maire, Renaud; Schattenberg, Jörn M; Jeong, Ju-Seong; Liu, Lei; Zwirner, Stefan; Boger, Regina; Hüser, Norbert; Davis, Roger J; Müllhaupt, Beat; Moch, Holger; Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Werner, Sabine; Borsig, Lubor; Luther, Sanjiv A; Jost, Philipp J; Weinlich, Ricardo; Unger, Kristian; Behrens, Axel; Hillert, Laura; Dillon, Christopher; Di Virgilio, Michela; Wallach, David; Dejardin, Emmanuel; Zender, Lars; Naumann, Michael; Walczak, Henning; Green, Douglas R; Lopes, Massimo; Lavrik, Inna; Luedde, Tom; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Weber, Achim

    2017-09-11

    Concomitant hepatocyte apoptosis and regeneration is a hallmark of chronic liver diseases (CLDs) predisposing to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we mechanistically link caspase-8-dependent apoptosis to HCC development via proliferation- and replication-associated DNA damage. Proliferation-associated replication stress, DNA damage, and genetic instability are detectable in CLDs before any neoplastic changes occur. Accumulated levels of hepatocyte apoptosis determine and predict subsequent hepatocarcinogenesis. Proliferation-associated DNA damage is sensed by a complex comprising caspase-8, FADD, c-FLIP, and a kinase-dependent function of RIPK1. This platform requires a non-apoptotic function of caspase-8, but no caspase-3 or caspase-8 cleavage. It may represent a DNA damage-sensing mechanism in hepatocytes that can act via JNK and subsequent phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transformation of primary human hepatocytes in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Mauro; Rastellini, Cristiana; Wang, Xiaofu; Corsello, Tiziana; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Vento, Renza; Cicalese, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer. Currently, there is limited knowledge of neoplastic transformation of hepatocytes in HCC. In clinical practice, the high rate of HCC local recurrence suggests the presence of different hepatocyte populations within the liver and particularly in the tumor proximity. The present study investigated primary human hepatocyte cultures obtained from liver specimens of patients affected by cirrhosis and HCC, their proliferation and transformation. Liver samples were obtained from seven HCC cirrhotic patients and from three patients with normal liver (NL). Immediately after surgery, cell outgrowth and primary cultures were obtained from the HCC lesion, the cirrhotic tissue proximal (CP, 1-3 cm) and distal (CD, >5 cm) to the margin of the neoplastic lesion, or from NL. Cells were kept in culture for 16 weeks. Morphologic analyses were performed and proliferation rate of the different cell populations compared over time. Glypican-3, Heppar1, Arginase1 and CD-44 positivity were tested. The degree of invasiveness of cells acquiring neoplastic characteristics was studied with a transwell migration assay. We observed that HCC cells maintained their morphology and unmodified neoplastic characteristics when cultured. Cells isolated from CP, showed a progressive morphologic transformation in HCC-like cells accompanied by modification of markers expression with signs of invasiveness. Absence of HCC contamination in the CP isolates was confirmed. In CD samples some of these characteristics were present and at significantly lower levels. With the present study, we are the first to have identified and describe the existence of human hepatocytes near the cancerous lesion that can transform in HCC in vitro.

  6. Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeom, Chul-gon; Kim, Dong-il; Park, Min-jung

    Previously, we reported that CARM1 undergoes ubiquitination-dependent degradation in renal podocytes. It was also reported that CARM1 is necessary for fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that treatment with insulin, a hormone typically present under the ‘fed’ condition, would inhibit gluconeogenesis via CARM1 degradation. HepG2 cells, AML-12 cells, and rat primary hepatocytes were treated with insulin to confirm CARM1 downregulation. Surprisingly, insulin treatment increased CARM1 expression in all cell types examined. Furthermore, treatment with insulin increased histone 3 methylation at arginine 17 and 26 in HepG2 cells. To elucidate the role of insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation, the HA-CARM1more » plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells. CARM1 overexpression did not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins generally increased by insulin signaling. Moreover, CARM1 knockdown did not influence insulin sensitivity. Insulin is known to facilitate hepatic proliferation. Like insulin, CARM1 overexpression increased CDK2 and CDK4 expression. In addition, CARM1 knockdown reduced the number of insulin-induced G2/M phase cells. Moreover, GFP-CARM1 overexpression increased the number of G2/M phase cells. Based on these results, we concluded that insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation. These observations indicate that CARM1 plays an important role in liver pathophysiology. - Highlights: • Insulin treatment increases CARM1 expression in hepatocytes. • CARM1 overexpression does not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins. • CARM1 knockdown does not influence insulin sensitivity. • Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation.« less

  7. [Crabtree effect caused by ketoses in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Martínez, P; Carrascosa, J M; Núñez de Castro, I

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen uptake and glycolytic activity were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. The addition of fructose or tagatose resulted in a 38% and 31% inhibition of cellular respiration respectively. The addition of 10 mM D-glyceraldehyde caused a slight Crabtree effect. Glucose, L-sorbose, or glycerol failed to modify oxygen consumption. Only incubation in the presence of fructose showed a high aerobic glycolysis measured by lactate production.

  8. Adropin induction of lipoprotein lipase expression in tilapia hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lian, Anji; Wu, Keqiang; Liu, Tianqiang; Jiang, Nan; Jiang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    The peptide hormone adropin plays a role in energy homeostasis. However, biological actions of adropin in non-mammalian species are still lacking. Using tilapia as a model, we examined the role of adropin in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) regulation in hepatocytes. To this end, the structural identity of tilapia adropin was established by 5'/3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The transcripts of tilapia adropin were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues with the highest levels in the liver and hypothalamus. The prolonged fasting could elevate tilapia hepatic adropin gene expression, whereas no effect of fasting was observed on hypothalamic adropin gene levels. In primary cultures of tilapia hepatocytes, synthetic adropin was effective in stimulating LPL release, cellular LPL content, and total LPL production. The increase in LPL production also occurred with parallel rises in LPL gene levels. In parallel experiments, adropin could elevate cAMP production and up-regulate protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC activities. Using a pharmacological approach, cAMP/PKA and PLC/inositol trisphosphate (IP3)/PKC cascades were shown to be involved in adropin-stimulated LPL gene expression. Parallel inhibition of p38MAPK and Erk1/2, however, were not effective in these regards. Our findings provide, for the first time, evidence that adropin could stimulate LPL gene expression via direct actions in tilapia hepatocytes through the activation of multiple signaling mechanisms. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Hepatocyte spheroid arrays inside microwells connected with microchannels

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Junji; Nakazawa, Kohji

    2011-01-01

    Spheroid culture is a preferable cell culture approach for some cell types, including hepatocytes, as this type of culture often allows maintenance of organ-specific functions. In this study, we describe a spheroid microarray chip (SM chip) that allows stable immobilization of hepatocyte spheroids in microwells and that can be used to evaluate drug metabolism with high efficiency. The SM chip consists of 300-μm-diameter cylindrical wells with chemically modified bottom faces that form a 100-μm-diameter cell adhesion region surrounded by a nonadhesion region. Primary hepatocytes seeded onto this chip spontaneously formed spheroids of uniform diameter on the cell adhesion region in each microwell and these could be used for cytochrome P-450 fluorescence assays. A row of microwells could also be connected to a microchannel for simultaneous detection of different cytochrome P-450 enzyme activities on a single chip. The miniaturized features of this SM chip reduce the numbers of cells and the amounts of reagents required for assays. The detection of four cytochrome P-450 enzyme activities was demonstrated following induction by 3-methylcholantlene, with a sensitivity significantly higher than that in conventional monolayer culture. This microfabricated chip could therefore serve as a novel culture platform for various cell-based assays, including those used in drug screening, basic biological studies, and tissue engineering applications. PMID:21799712

  10. [Effect of hemosorption on the ultrastructure of hepatocytes in toxic liver damage].

    PubMed

    Kasymov, A Kh; Kasymov, Sh Z; Vorozheĭkin, V M; Kirichenko, I P

    1985-03-01

    Extracorporeal perfusion of toxic blood via carbonic sorbents is an effective method for correcting severe disturbances of hemostasis. Ultrastructural alterations in hepatic cells were studied in experimental toxic liver injury before and after hemosorption. It was established that after hemosorption the processes of intracellular regeneration were significantly activated in the liver parenchyma. The number of crysts in the mitochondria increased as did the electronic density of the matrix. At the same time the number of lysosomes rose as well. However, in persistent unresolved cholestasis, destructive alterations in the hepatic tissue progressed despite the performance of hemosorption.

  11. Quantitative structure toxicity relationships for phenols in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Moridani, Majid Y; Siraki, Arno; O'Brien, Peter J

    2003-05-06

    Quantitative structure toxicity relationship (QSTR) equations were obtained to predict and describe the cytotoxicity of 31 phenols using logLD(50) as a concentration to induce 50% cytotoxicity of isolated rat hepatocytes in 2 h and logP as octanol/water partitioning: logLD(50) (microM)=-0.588(+/-0.059)logP+4.652(+/-0.153) (n=27, r(2)=0.801, s=0.261, P<1 x 10(-9)). Hydroquinone, catechol, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol were outliers for this equation. When the ionization constant pK(a) was considered as a contributing factor a two-parameter QSTR equation was derived: logLD(50) (microM)=-0.595(+/-0.051)logP+0.197(+/-0.029)pK(a)+2.665(+/-0.281) (n=28, r(2)=0.859, s=0.218, P<1 x 10(-6)). Using sigma+, the Brown variation of the Hammet electronic constant, as a contributing parameter, the cytotoxicity of phenols towards hepatocytes were defined by logLD(50) (microM)=-0.594(+/-0.052)logP-0.552(+/-0.085)sigma+ +4.540(+/-0.132) (n=28, r(2)=0.853, s=0.223, P<1 x 10(-6)). Replacing sigma+ with the homolytic bond dissociation energy (BDE) for (X-PhOH+PhO.-->X-PhO.+PhOH) led to logLD(50) (microM)=-0.601(+/-0.066)logP-0.040(+/-0.018)BDE+4.611(+/-0.166) (n=23, r(2)=0.827, s=0.223, P<0.05). Hydroquinone, catechol and 2-nitrophenol were outliers for the above equations. Using redox potential and logP led to a new correlation: logLD(50) (microM)=-0.529(+/-0.135)logP+2.077(+/-0.892)E(p/2)+2.806(+/-0.592) (n=15, r(2)=0.561, s=0.383, P<0.05) with 4-nitrophenol as an outlier. Our findings indicate that phenols with higher lipophilicity, BDE, or sigma+ values or with lower pK(a) and redox potential were more toxic towards hepatocytes. We also showed that a collapse of hepatocyte mitochondrial membrane potential preceded the cytotoxicity of most phenols. Our study indicates that one or a combination of mechanisms; i.e. mitochondrial uncoupling, phenoxy radicals, or phenol metabolism to quinone methides and quinones, contribute to phenol cytotoxicity towards hepatocytes depending on

  12. The role of damage associated molecular pattern molecules in acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Martin-Murphy, Brittany V; Holt, Michael P; Ju, Cynthia

    2010-02-15

    The idiosyncratic nature, severity and poor diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) make these reactions a major safety issue during drug development, as well as the most common cause for the withdrawal of drugs from the pharmaceutical market. Elucidation of the underlying mechanism(s) is necessary for identifying predisposing factors and developing strategies in the treatment and prevention of DILI. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used over the counter therapeutic that is known to be effective and safe at therapeutic doses. However, in overdose situations fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis can result. Evidence suggests that the chemically reactive metabolite of the drug initiates hepatocyte damage and that inflammatory innate immune responses also occur within the liver, leading to the exacerbation and progression of tissue injury. Here we investigate whether following APAP-induced liver injury (AILI) damaged hepatocytes release "danger" signals or damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules, which induce pro-inflammatory activation of hepatic macrophages, further contributing to the progression of liver injury. Our study demonstrated a clear activation of Kupffer cells following early exposure to APAP (1h). Activation of a murine macrophage cell line, RAW cells, was also observed following treatment with liver perfusate from APAP-treated mice, or with culture supernatant of APAP-challenged hepatocytes. Moreover, in these media, the DAMP molecules, heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) were detected. Overall, these findings reveal that DAMP molecules released from damaged and necrotic hepatocytes may serve as a crucial link between the initial hepatocyte damage and the activation of innate immune cells following APAP-exposure, and that DAMPs may represent a potential therapeutic target for AILI. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Toxicological Profiling of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Liver Context Reveals Pyroptosis in Kupffer Cells and Macrophages versus Apoptosis in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Sun, Bingbing; Chang, Chong Hyun; Liao, Yu-Pei; Jiang, Wen; Jiang, Jinhong; Liu, Xiangsheng; Wang, Xiang; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2018-04-24

    The liver and the mononuclear phagocyte system are a frequent target for engineered nanomaterials, either as a result of particle uptake and spread from primary exposure sites or systemic administration of therapeutic and imaging nanoparticles. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the toxicological impact of 29 metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), some commonly used in consumer products, in transformed or primary Kupffer cells (KCs) and hepatocytes. We not only observed differences between KCs and hepatocytes, but also differences in the toxicological profiles of transition-metal oxides (TMOs, e. g., Co 3 O 4 ) versus rare-earth oxide (REO) NPs ( e. g., Gd 2 O 3 ). While pro-oxidative TMOs induced the activation of caspases 3 and 7, resulting in apoptotic cell death in both cell types, REOs induced lysosomal damage, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, caspase 1 activation, and pyroptosis in KCs. Pyroptosis was accompanied by cell swelling, membrane blebbing, IL-1β release, and increased membrane permeability, which could be reversed by knockdown of the pore forming protein, gasdermin D. Though similar features were not seen in hepatocytes, the investigation of the cytotoxic effects of REO NPs could also be seen to affect macrophage cell lines such as J774A.1 and RAW 264.7 cells as well as bone marrow-derived macrophages. These phagocytic cell types also demonstrated features of pyroptosis and increased IL-1β production. Collectively, these findings demonstrate important mechanistic considerations that can be used for safety evaluation of metal oxides, including commercial products that are developed from these materials.

  14. The Linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex acts as a liver tumor suppressor and inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Peltzer, Nieves; Sevko, Alexandra; Lafont, Elodie; Sarr, Aida; Draberova, Helena; Walczak, Henning

    2017-06-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a key posttranslational modification that regulates immune signaling and cell death pathways, notably tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) signaling. The only known enzyme complex capable of forming linear ubiquitin chains under native conditions to date is the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex, of which the catalytic core component is heme-oxidized iron regulatory protein 2 ubiquitin ligase-1-interacting protein (HOIP). To understand the underlying mechanisms of maintenance of liver homeostasis and the role of linear ubiquitination specifically in liver parenchymal cells, we investigated the physiological role of HOIP in the liver parenchyma. To do so, we created mice harboring liver parenchymal cell-specific deletion of HOIP (Hoip Δhep mice) by crossing Hoip-floxed mice with albumin-Cre mice. HOIP deficiency in liver parenchymal cells triggered tumorigenesis at 18 months of age preceded by spontaneous hepatocyte apoptosis and liver inflammation within the first month of life. In line with the emergence of inflammation, Hoip Δhep mice displayed enhanced liver regeneration and DNA damage. In addition, consistent with increased apoptosis, HOIP-deficient hepatocytes showed enhanced caspase activation and endogenous formation of a death-inducing signaling complex which activated caspase-8. Unexpectedly, exacerbated caspase activation and apoptosis were not dependent on TNFR1, whereas ensuing liver inflammation and tumorigenesis were promoted by TNFR1 signaling. The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex serves as a previously undescribed tumor suppressor in the liver, restraining TNFR1-independent apoptosis in hepatocytes which, in its absence, is causative of TNFR1-mediated inflammation, resulting in hepatocarcinogenesis. (Hepatology 2017;65:1963-1978). © 2017 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Non-viral FoxM1 gene delivery to hepatocytes enhances liver repopulation

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, D; Liu, C-C; Wang, M-J; Li, J-X; Chen, F; Yao, H; Yu, B; Lu, L; Borjigin, U; Chen, Y-X; Zhong, L; Wangensteen, K J; He, Z-Y; Wang, X; Hu, Y-P

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation as a substitute strategy of orthotopic liver transplantation is being studied for treating end-stage liver diseases. Several technical hurdles must be overcome in order to achieve the therapeutic liver repopulation, such as the problem of insufficient expansion of the transplanted hepatocytes in recipient livers. In this study, we analyzed the application of FoxM1, a cell-cycle regulator, to enhance the proliferation capacity of hepatocytes. The non-viral sleeping beauty (SB) transposon vector carrying FoxM1 gene was constructed for delivering FoxM1 into the hepatocytes. The proliferation capacities of hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression were examined both in vivo and in vitro. Results indicated that the hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression had a higher proliferation rate than wild-type (WT) hepatocytes in vitro. In comparison with WT hepatocytes, the hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression had an enhanced level of liver repopulation in the recipient livers at both sub-acute injury (fumaryl acetoacetate hydrolase (Fah)–/– mice model) and acute injury (2/3 partial hepatectomy mice model). Importantly, there was no increased risk of tumorigenicity with FoxM1 expression in recipients even after serial transplantation. In conclusion, expression of FoxM1 in hepatocytes enhanced the capacity of liver repopulation without inducing tumorigenesis. FoxM1 gene delivered by non-viral SB vector into hepatocytes may be a viable approach to promote therapeutic repopulation after hepatocyte transplantation. PMID:24853430

  16. Mature Hepatocytes Exhibit Unexpected Plasticity by Direct Dedifferentiation into Liver Progenitor Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yixin; Wong, Philip P.; Sjeklocha, Lucas; Steer, Clifford J.; Sahin, M. Behnan

    2011-01-01

    Although there have been numerous reports describing the isolation of liver progenitor cells from adult liver, their exact origin has not been clearly defined; and the role played by mature hepatocytes as direct contributors to the hepatic progenitor cell pool has remained largely unknown. Here we report strong evidence that mature hepatocytes in culture have the capacity to dedifferentiate into a population of adult liver progenitors without genetic or epigenetic manipulations. By using highly-purified mature hepatocytes, which were obtained from untreated, healthy rat liver and labeled with fluorescent dye PKH2, we found that hepatocytes in culture gave rise to a population of PKH2-positive liver progenitor cells. These cells, Liver Derived Progenitor Cells or LDPCS, which share phenotypic similarities with oval cells, were previously reported to be capable of forming mature hepatocytes both in culture and in animals. Studies done at various time points during the course of dedifferentiation cultures revealed that hepatocytes rapidly transformed into liver progenitors within one week through a transient oval cell-like stage. This finding was supported by lineage-tracing studies involving double-transgenic AlbuminCreXRosa26 mice expressing β-galactosidase exclusively in hepatocytes. Cultures set up with hepatocytes obtained from these mice resulted in generation of β-galactosidase-positive liver progenitor cells demonstrating that they were a direct dedifferentiation product of mature hepatocytes. Additionally, these progenitors differentiated into hepatocytes in vivo when transplanted into rats that had undergone retrorsine pretreatment and partial hepatectomy. Conclusion Our studies provide strong evidence for the unexpected plasticity of mature hepatocytes to dedifferentiate into progenitor cells in culture; and this may potentially have a significant impact on the treatment of liver diseases requiring liver or hepatocyte transplantation. PMID:21953633

  17. HGF Secreted by Activated Kupffer Cells Induces Apoptosis of Plasmodium-Infected Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Lígia Antunes; Rodo, Joana; Rodrigues-Duarte, Lurdes; de Moraes, Luciana Vieira; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Malaria liver stage infection is an obligatory parasite development step and represents a population bottleneck in Plasmodium infections, providing an advantageous target for blocking parasite cycle progression. Parasite development inside hepatocytes implies a gross cellular insult evoking innate host responses to counteract intra-hepatocytic infection. Using primary hepatocyte cultures, we investigated the role of Kupffer cell-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in malaria liver stage infection. We found that Kupffer cells from Plasmodium-infected livers produced high levels of HGF, which trigger apoptosis of infected hepatocytes through a mitochondrial-independent apoptosis pathway. HGF action in infected hepatocyte primary cultures results in a potent reduction of parasite yield by specifically sensitizing hepatocytes carrying established parasite exo-erythrocytic forms to undergo apoptosis. This apoptosis mechanism is distinct from cell death that is spontaneously induced in infected cultures and is governed by Fas signaling modulation through a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway. This work indicates that HGF and Fas signaling pathways are part of an orchestrated host apoptosis response that occurs during malaria liver stage infection, decreasing the success of infection of individual hepatocytes. Our results raise the hypothesis that paracrine signals derived from Kupffer cell activation are implicated in directing death of hepatocytes infected with the malaria parasite. PMID:28220125

  18. HGF Secreted by Activated Kupffer Cells Induces Apoptosis of Plasmodium-Infected Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Lígia Antunes; Rodo, Joana; Rodrigues-Duarte, Lurdes; de Moraes, Luciana Vieira; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Malaria liver stage infection is an obligatory parasite development step and represents a population bottleneck in Plasmodium infections, providing an advantageous target for blocking parasite cycle progression. Parasite development inside hepatocytes implies a gross cellular insult evoking innate host responses to counteract intra-hepatocytic infection. Using primary hepatocyte cultures, we investigated the role of Kupffer cell-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in malaria liver stage infection. We found that Kupffer cells from Plasmodium -infected livers produced high levels of HGF, which trigger apoptosis of infected hepatocytes through a mitochondrial-independent apoptosis pathway. HGF action in infected hepatocyte primary cultures results in a potent reduction of parasite yield by specifically sensitizing hepatocytes carrying established parasite exo-erythrocytic forms to undergo apoptosis. This apoptosis mechanism is distinct from cell death that is spontaneously induced in infected cultures and is governed by Fas signaling modulation through a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway. This work indicates that HGF and Fas signaling pathways are part of an orchestrated host apoptosis response that occurs during malaria liver stage infection, decreasing the success of infection of individual hepatocytes. Our results raise the hypothesis that paracrine signals derived from Kupffer cell activation are implicated in directing death of hepatocytes infected with the malaria parasite.

  19. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun; Choi, Dongho

    2017-02-01

    The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6-8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 10 7 hepatocytes with 80%-90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin , HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers.

  20. Isolation of GMP Grade Human Hepatocytes from Remnant Liver Tissue of Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Enosawa, Shin

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of clinical research of hepatocyte transplantation, procedures for isolation, cryopreservation, thawing, and functional assessment of hepatocytes are described. Although demands for human hepatocytes are increasing in not only cell therapy but also drug development, it is highly difficult to obtain good lots of hepatocytes from human liver tissue. This chapter describes essential issues such as alleviation of warm ischemia, prevention of shear stress, optimization of cryopreservation, and functional assessment, along with securement of quality. All procedures described here are compliant with good manufacturing procedure (GMP) in cell processing facility, approved by the act on measures to ensure safety of regenerative medicine and ethical regulations in Japan.

  1. Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miccadei, Stefania; Di Venere, Donato; Cardinali, Angela; Romano, Ferdinando; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Fraioli, Rocco; Mobarhan, Sohrab; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (AE). The hepatocytes were exposed to H2O2generated in situ by glucose oxidase and were treated with either AE, or pure chlorogenic acid (ChA) or with the well known antioxidant, N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenilenediamine (DPPD). Addition of glucose oxidase to the culture medium caused depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cultures, as a lipid peroxidation indicator, and cell death. These results demonstrated that AE protected cells from the oxidative stress caused by glucose oxidase, comparable to DPPD. Furthermore, AE, as well as ChA, prevented the loss of total GSH and the accumulation of MDA. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with AE reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, however, ChA had no prominent effects on the cell death rate. Similarly, AE rather than ChA induced apoptosis, measured by flow cytometric analysis of annexin and by activation of caspase-3, in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that AE had a marked antioxidative potential that protects hepatocytes from an oxidative stress. Furthermore, AE reduced cell viability and had an apoptotic activity on a human liver cancer cell line.

  2. CYP isoform induction screening in 96-well plates: use of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin as a substrate for studies with rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Price, R J; Surry, D; Renwick, A B; Meneses-Lorente, G; Lake, B G; Evans, D C

    2000-08-01

    1. In this study, 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC) was evaluated as a substrate to assess the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform enzyme activities in rat hepatocytes using a 96-well plate format. 2. BFC was metabolized by both untreated and sodium phenobarbitone (NaPB)-treated rat hepatocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner to the highly fluorescent product 7-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (HFC). 3. HFC was extensively conjugated with D-glucuronic acid and/or sulphate in both untreated and NaPB-treated rat hepatocytes, thus necessitating the inclusion of an enzymatic deconjugation step in the assay procedure. 4. The time-course of induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin metabolism by the CYP1A inducer beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), 7-benzyloxyresorufin metabolism by the CYP2B inducer NaPB and BFC metabolism b both BNF and NaPB was studied in rat hepatocytes treated for 24-96 h. The optimal time for induction of metabolism of all three substrates was 72 h, with no medium changes being necessary during this period. 5. The effect of treatment with 0.5-20 microM BNF, 50-2000 microM NaPB, 2-20 microM dexamethasone (DEX), 20-100 microM methylclofenapate (MCP), and 50 and 200 microM isoniazid (ISN) for 72 h on BFC metabolism in cultured rat hepatocytes was studied. BFC metabolism was induced by treatment with BNF, NaPB and MCP, but not with either DEX or ISN. 6. The metabolism of BFC in liver microsomes from the control rat and rat treated with CYP isoform inducers was also studied. BFC metabolism was induced by treatment with NaPB, BNF and DEX. 7. The metabolism of BFC was also studied using microsomes from baculovirus-infected insect cells containing rat cDNA-expressed CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP2C and CYP3A isoforms. Whereas BFC was metabolized to some extent by all the rat cDNA-expressed CYP isoforms examined, at a substrate concentration of 2.5 microM the greatest rates of BFC metabolism were observed with the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B1 preparations. 8

  3. Oncostatin M Gene Therapy Attenuates Liver Damage Induced by Dimethylnitrosamine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Tetsuhiro; Sato, Ayuko; Hirano, Tadamichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Son, Gakuhei; Onodera, Masayuki; Torii, Ikuko; Nishigami, Takashi; Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Fujimoto, Jiro; Tsujimura, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of oncostatin M (osm) gene therapy in liver regeneration, we examined whether the introduction of OSM cDNA enhances the regeneration of livers damaged by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Repeated injection of OSM cDNA enclosed in hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope into the spleen resulted in the exclusive expression of OSM protein in Kupffer cells of the liver, which was accompanied by increases in body weight, liver weight, and serum albumin levels and the reduction of serum liver injury parameters (bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase) and a serum fibrosis parameter (hyaluronic acid). Histological examination showed that osm gene therapy reduced centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration and augmented hepatocyte proliferation. The apoptosis of hepatocytes and fibrosis were suppressed by osm gene therapy. Time-course studies on osm gene therapy before or after DMN treatment showed that this therapy was effective not only in enhancing regeneration of hepatocytes damaged by DMN but in preventing hepatic cytotoxicity caused by subsequent treatment with DMN. These results indicate that OSM is a key mediator for proliferation and anti-apoptosis of hepatocytes and suggest that osm gene therapy is useful, as preventive and curative means, for the treatment of patients with liver damage. PMID:17640959

  4. Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Extracts of Pistacia vera against Oxidative Versus Carbonyl Stress in Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Jafar; Zareh, Mona; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytoprotection of various extracts and bioactive compounds found in Pistacia vera againts cytotoxicity, ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane damages in cell toxicity models of diabetes related carbonyl (glyoxal) and oxidative stress (hydroperoxide). Methanol, water and ethyl acetate were used to prepare crude pistachios extracts, which were then used to screen for in-vitro cytoprotection of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes against these toxins. The order of protection by Pistacia vera extracts against both hydroperoxide induced oxidative stress (ROS formation) and glyoxal induced protein carbonylation was: pistachio methanolic extract >pistachio water extract, gallic acid, catechin> α-tochoferol and pistachio ethyl acetate extract. Finally due to higher protection achieved by methanolic extract even compared to sole pretreatment of gallic acid, catechin or α-tochoferol, we suggest that cytoprotection depends on the variety of polar and non-polar compounds found in methanolic extract, it is likely that multiple cytoprotective mechanisms are acting against oxidative and carbonyl induced cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the cytoprotective activity of Pistacia vera extracts against oxidative and carbonyl stress seen in type 2 diabetes hepatocytes model. PMID:25587316

  5. Copper induces hepatocyte injury due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured cells and patients with Wilson disease

    SciTech Connect

    Oe, Shinji, E-mail: ooes@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Miyagawa, Koichiro, E-mail: koichiro@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Honma, Yuichi, E-mail: y-homma@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    Copper is an essential trace element, however, excess copper is harmful to human health. Excess copper-derived oxidants contribute to the progression of Wilson disease, and oxidative stress induces accumulation of abnormal proteins. It is known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in proper protein folding, and that accumulation of misfolded proteins disturbs ER homeostasis resulting in ER stress. However, copper-induced ER homeostasis disturbance has not been fully clarified. We treated human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) and immortalized-human hepatocyte cell line (OUMS29) with copper and chemical chaperones, including 4-phenylbutyrate and ursodeoxycholic acid. We examined copper-induced oxidative stress, ERmore » stress and apoptosis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, we examined the effects of copper on carcinogenesis. Excess copper induced not only oxidative stress but also ER stress. Furthermore, excess copper induced DNA damage and reduced cell proliferation. Chemical chaperones reduced this copper-induced hepatotoxicity. Excess copper induced hepatotoxicity via ER stress. We also confirmed the abnormality of ultra-structure of the ER of hepatocytes in patients with Wilson disease. These findings show that ER stress plays a pivotal role in Wilson disease, and suggests that chemical chaperones may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Wilson disease.« less

  6. Identification of early target genes of aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes, inter-individual variability and comparison with other genotoxic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Josse, Rozenn; Dumont, Julie; Fautrel, Alain

    Gene expression profiling has recently emerged as a promising approach to identify early target genes and discriminate genotoxic carcinogens from non-genotoxic carcinogens and non-carcinogens. However, early gene changes induced by genotoxic compounds in human liver remain largely unknown. Primary human hepatocytes and differentiated HepaRG cells were exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that induces DNA damage following enzyme-mediated bioactivation. Gene expression profile changes induced by a 24 h exposure of these hepatocyte models to 0.05 and 0.25 μM AFB1 were analyzed by using oligonucleotide pangenomic microarrays. The main altered signaling pathway was the p53 pathway and related functions such as cellmore » cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. Direct involvement of the p53 protein in response to AFB1 was verified by using siRNA directed against p53. Among the 83 well-annotated genes commonly modulated in two pools of three human hepatocyte populations and HepaRG cells, several genes were identified as altered by AFB1 for the first time. In addition, a subset of 10 AFB1-altered genes, selected upon basis of their function or tumor suppressor role, was tested in four human hepatocyte populations and in response to other chemicals. Although they exhibited large variable inter-donor fold-changes, several of these genes, particularly FHIT, BCAS3 and SMYD3, were found to be altered by various direct and other indirect genotoxic compounds and unaffected by non-genotoxic compounds. Overall, this comprehensive analysis of early gene expression changes induced by AFB1 in human hepatocytes identified a gene subset that included several genes representing potential biomarkers of genotoxic compounds. -- Highlights: ► Gene expression profile changes induced by aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes. ► AFB1 modulates various genes including tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. ► Important inter-individual variations in the response to AFB1. ► Some genes also altered

  7. A study of the mechanism of in vitro cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles using catfish primary hepatocytes and human HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Aker, Winfred G.; Hwang, Huey-min; Yedjou, Clement G.; Yu, Hongtao; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), including nano metal oxides, are being used in diverse applications such as medicine, clothing, cosmetics and food. In order to promote the safe development of nanotechnology, it is essential to assess the potential adverse health consequences associated with human exposure. The liver is a target site for NP toxicity, due to NP accumulation within it after ingestion, inhalation or absorption. The toxicity of nano-ZnO, TiO2, CuO and Co3O4 was investigated using a primary culture of channel catfish hepatocytes and human HepG2 cells as in vitro model systems for assessing the impact of metal oxide NPs on human and environmental health. Some mechanisms of nanotoxicity were determined by using phase contrast inverted microscopy, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and flow cytometric assays. Nano-CuO and ZnO showed significant toxicity in both HepG2 cells and catfish primary hepatocytes. The results demonstrate that HepG2 cells are more sensitive than catfish primary hepatocytes to the toxicity of metal oxide NPs. The overall ranking of the toxicity of metal oxides to the test cells is as follows: TiO2 < Co3O4< ZnO < CuO. The toxicity is due not only to ROS-induced cell death, but also damages to cell and mitochondrial membranes. PMID:21851965

  8. Ice formation in isolated human hepatocytes and human liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Bischof, J C; Ryan, C M; Tompkins, R G; Yarmush, M L; Toner, M

    1997-01-01

    Cryopreservation of isolated cells and tissue slices of human liver is required to furnish extracorporeal bioartificial liver devices with a ready supply of hepatocytes, and to create in vitro drug metabolism and toxicity models. Although both the bioartificial liver and many current biotoxicity models are based on reconstructing organ functions from single isolated hepatocytes, tissue slices offer an in vitro system that may more closely resemble the in vivo situation of the cells because of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. However, successful cryopreservation of both cellular and tissue level systems requires an increased understanding of the fundamental mechanisms involved in the response of the liver and its cells to freezing stress. This study investigates the biophysical mechanisms of water transport and intracellular ice formation during freezing in both isolated human hepatocytes and whole liver tissue. The effects of cooling rate on individual cells were measured using a cryomicroscope. Biophysical parameters governing water transport (Lpg = 2.8 microns/min-atm and ELp = 79 kcal/mole) and intracellular heterogeneous ice nucleation (omega het = 1.08 x 10(9) m-2s-1 and kappa het = 1.04 x 10(9) K5) were determined. These parameters were then incorporated into a theoretical Krogh cylinder model developed to simulate water transport and ice formation in intact liver tissue. Model simulations indicated that the cellular compartment of the Krogh model maintained more water than isolated cells under the same freezing conditions. As a result, intracellular ice nucleation occurred at lower cooling rates in the Krogh model than in isolated cells. Furthermore, very rapid cooling rates (1000 degrees C/min) showed a depression of heterogeneous nucleation and a shift toward homogeneous nucleation. The results of this study are in qualitative agreement with the findings of a previous experimental study of the response to freezing of intact human liver.

  9. Manganese Transport and Toxicity in Polarized WIF-B Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Khristy J; Hein, Jennifer; Baez, Andrew; Sosa, Jose Carlo; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2018-05-24

    Mn toxicity arises from nutritional problems, community and occupational exposures, and genetic risks. Mn blood levels are controlled by hepatobiliary clearance. The goals of this study were to determine the cellular distribution of Mn transporters in polarized hepatocytes, to establish an in vitro assay for hepatocyte Mn efflux, and to examine possible roles the Mn transporters would play in metal import and export. For these experiments, hepatocytoma WIF-B cells were grown for 12-14 days to achieve maximal polarity. Immunoblots showed that Mn transporters ZIP8, ZnT10, ferroportin (Fpn), and ZIP14 were present. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy localized Fpn and ZIP14 to WIF-B cell basolateral domains while ZnT10 and ZIP8 associated with intracellular vesicular compartments. ZIP8-positive structures were distributed uniformly throughout the cytoplasm, but ZnT10-positive vesicles were adjacent to apical bile compartments. WIF-B cells were sensitive to Mn toxicity, showing decreased viability after 16 h exposure to > 250 M MnCl2. However, the hepatocytes were resistant to 4 h exposures of up to 500 M MnCl2 despite 50-fold increased Mn content. Washout experiments showed time-dependent efflux with 80% Mn released after a 4 h chase period. Hepcidin reduced levels of Fpn in WIF-B cells, clearing Fpn from the cell surface, but Mn efflux was unaffected. The secretory inhibitor brefeldin A did block release of Mn from WIF-B cells, suggesting vesicle fusion may be involved in export. These results point to a possible role of ZnT10 to import Mn into vesicles that subsequently fuse with the apical membrane and empty their contents into bile.

  10. Contextualizing Hepatocyte Functionality of Cryopreserved HepaRG Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jonathan P.; Li, Linhou; Chamberlain, Erica D.; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade HepaRG cells have emerged as a promising alternative to primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and have been featured in over 300 research publications. Most of these reports employed freshly differentiated HepaRG cells that require time-consuming culture (∼28 days) for full differentiation. Recently, a cryopreserved, predifferentiated format of HepaRG cells (termed here “cryo-HepaRG”) has emerged as a new model that improves global availability and experimental flexibility; however, it is largely unknown whether HepaRG cells in this format fully retain their hepatic characteristics. Therefore, we systematically investigated the hepatocyte functionality of cryo-HepaRG cultures in context with the range of interindividual variation observed with PHH in both sandwich-culture and suspension formats. These evaluations uncovered a novel adaptation period for the cryo-HepaRG format and demonstrated the impact of extracellular matrix on cryo-HepaRG functionality. Pharmacologically important drug-metabolizing alleles were genotyped in HepaRG cells and poor metabolizer alleles for CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A5 were identified and consistent with higher frequency alleles found in individuals of Caucasian decent. We observed liver enzyme inducibility with aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and pregnane X receptor activators comparable to that of sandwich-cultured PHH. Finally, we show for the first time that cryo-HepaRG supports proper CAR cytosolic sequestration and translocation to hepatocyte nuclei in response to phenobarbital treatment. Taken together, these data reveal important considerations for the use of this cell model and demonstrate that cryo-HepaRG are suitable for metabolism and toxicology screening. PMID:27338863

  11. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates maturation of lysosomes in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Brech, Andreas; Berg, Trond; Kjeken, Rune

    2003-01-01

    To obtain information about the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in the endocytic pathway in hepatocytes, the uptake and intracellular transport of asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR) was followed in cells treated with wortmannin or LY294002. The two inhibitors, at concentrations known to inhibit the enzyme, did not affect internalization or the number of surface asialoglycoprotein receptors, but they caused a paradoxical increase (approx. 50% above control values) in the degradation of ASOR labelled with [(125)I]tyramine cellobiose ([(125)I]TC). Wortmannin or LY204002 inhibited the autophagic sequestration of lactate dehydrogenase very effectively, and the enhanced degradation of [(125)I]TC-ASOR could be an indirect effect of reduced autophagy, as an amino acid mixture known to inhibit autophagy also caused increased degradation of [(125)I]TC-ASOR, and its effect was not additive to that of wortmannin or LY294002. Wortmannin or LY294002 had pronounced effects on the late parts of the endocytic pathway in the hepatocytes: first, dense lysosomes disappeared and were replaced by swollen vesicles; secondly, degradation of [(125)I]TC-ASOR took place in an organelle of lower buoyant density (in a sucrose gradient) than the bulk of lysosomes (identified in the gradient by lysosomal marker enzymes). With increasing length of incubation with wortmannin or LY294002, the density distributions of the lysosomal markers also shifted to lower density and gradually approached that of the labelled degradation products. The labelled degradation products formed from [(125)I]TC-labelled proteins were trapped at the site of formation, because they did not penetrate the vesicle membranes. The results obtained indicate that internalization and intracellular transport of ASOR to lysomes may take place in the absence of PI3K activity in rat hepatocytes. On the other hand, fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes seems to produce 'hybrid organelles' (active lysosomes) that are unable to

  12. Metabolic activation of 3-hydroxyanisole by isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Moridani, Majid Y; Cheon, Sophia S; Khan, Sumsullah; O'Brien, Peter J

    2003-01-06

    A tyrosinase-directed therapeutic approach for malignant melanoma therapy uses the depigmenting phenolic agents such as 4-hydroxyanisole (4-HA) to form cytotoxic o-quinones. However, renal and hepatic toxicity was reported as side effects in a recent 4-HA clinical trial. In search of novel therapeutics, the cytotoxicity of the isomers 4-HA, 3-HA and 2-HA were investigated. In the following, the order of the HAs induced hepatotoxicity in mice, as measured by increased in vivo plasma transaminase activity, or in isolated rat hepatocytes, as measured by trypan blue exclusion, was 3-HA > 2-HA > 4-HA. Hepatocyte GSH depletion preceded HA induced cytotoxicity and a 4-MC-SG conjugate was identified by LC/MS/MS mass spectrometry analysis when 3-HA was incubated with NADPH/microsomes/GSH. 3-HA induced hepatocyte GSH depletion or GSH depletion when 3-HA was incubated with NADPH/microsomes was prevented by CYP 2E1 inhibitors. Dicumarol (an NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase inhibitor) potentiated 3-HA- or 4-methoxycatechol (4-MC) induced toxicity whereas sorbitol (an NADH generating nutrient) greatly prevented cytotoxicity indicating a quinone-mediated cytotoxic mechanism. Ethylendiamine (an o-quinone trap) largely prevented 3-HA and 4-MC-induced cytotoxicity indicating that o-quinone was involved in cytotoxicity. Dithiothreitol (DTT) greatly reduced 3-HA and 4-MC induced toxicity. The ferric chelator deferoxamine slightly decreased 3-HA and 4-MC induced cytotoxicity whereas the antioxidants pyrogallol or TEMPOL greatly prevented the toxicity suggesting that oxidative stress contributed to 3-HA induced cytotoxicity. In summary, ring hydroxylation but not O-demethylation/epoxidation seems to be the bioactivation pathway for 3-HA in rat liver. The cytotoxic mechanism for 3-HA and its metabolite 4-MC likely consists cellular protein alkylation and oxidative stress. These results suggest that 3-HA is not suitable for treatment of melanoma. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) modulates GABAergic inhibition and seizure susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Mihyun H.; Bissonette, Gregory B.; Mars, Wendy M.; Michalopoulos, George K.; Achim, Cristian L.; Depireux, Didier A.; Powell, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    Disrupted ontogeny of forebrain inhibitory interneurons leads to neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Adult mice lacking the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (Plaur) have decreased numbers of neocortical GABAergic interneurons and spontaneous seizures, attributed to a reduction of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). We report that by increasing endogenous HGF/SF concentration in the postnatal Plaur null mouse brain maintains the interneuron populations in the adult, reverses the seizure behavior and stabilizes the spontaneous electroencephalogram activity. The perinatal intervention provides a pathway to reverse potential birth defects and ameliorate seizures in the adult. PMID:19853606

  14. Study of hepatocyte plasma membrane mechanical properties using optical trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedyaykin, A. D.; Morozova, N. E.; Pobegalov, G. E.; Arseniev, A. N.; Khodorkoskii, M. A.; Sabantsev, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we describe the use of membrane tether formation technique which is widely used to study mechanical properties of plasma membranes. This method was successfully used for the direct measurement of parameters characterizing membranes mechanical properties (static tether tension force and effective membrane viscosity) of human hepatocytes (HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma line). These results allow using this method in future for diagnostics of the cell membrane, evaluating the influence on the mechanical parameters of various factors, including toxins and drugs.

  15. Collateral Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    stated, they are, in reality , indexed to a single aspect of the weapon phenomena, e.g., damage levels for airblast-sensitive objects are indexed to...of Burst Propagation Related Airblast Representation Target Altitude Wheather (snow/rain) Terrain Temperature Air Pressure Around Structures 1. d) 3-38...with opaque material. Simply closing a shutter can be quite effective in virtually eliminating all possibility of interior fire starts from a single

  16. Mfsd2a+ hepatocytes repopulate the liver during injury and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Xiuzhen; Tian, Xueying; He, Lingjuan; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Libo; Liu, Qiaozhen; Li, Yan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Kuo; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Huang, Pengyu; Nie, Yu; Yan, Yan; Hui, Lijian; Lui, Kathy O.; Zhou, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes are functionally heterogeneous and are divided into two distinct populations based on their metabolic zonation: the periportal and pericentral hepatocytes. During liver injury and regeneration, the cellular dynamics of these two distinct populations remain largely elusive. Here we show that major facilitator super family domain containing 2a (Mfsd2a), previously known to maintain blood–brain barrier function, is a periportal zonation marker. By genetic lineage tracing of Mfsd2a+ periportal hepatocytes, we show that Mfsd2a+ population decreases during liver homeostasis. Nevertheless, liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy significantly stimulates expansion of the Mfsd2a+ periportal hepatocytes. Similarly, during chronic liver injury, the Mfsd2a+ hepatocyte population expands and completely replaces the pericentral hepatocyte population throughout the whole liver. After injury recovery, the adult liver re-establishes the metabolic zonation by reprogramming the Mfsd2a+-derived hepatocytes into pericentral hepatocytes. The evidence of entire zonation replacement during injury increases our understanding of liver biology and disease. PMID:27857132

  17. Hepatocytes traffic and export hepatitis B virus basolaterally by polarity-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Purnima; Snooks, Michelle J; Anderson, David A

    2011-12-01

    Viruses commonly utilize the cellular trafficking machinery of polarized cells to effect viral export. Hepatocytes are polarized in vivo, but most in vitro hepatocyte models are either nonpolarized or have morphology unsuitable for the study of viral export. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of trafficking and export for the hepadnaviruses hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in polarized hepatocyte-derived cell lines and primary duck hepatocytes. DHBV export, but not replication, was dependent on the development of hepatocyte polarity, with export significantly abrogated over time as primary hepatocytes lost polarity. Using Transwell cultures of polarized N6 cells and adenovirus-based transduction, we observed that export of both HBV and DHBV was vectorially regulated and predominantly basolateral. Monitoring of polarized N6 cells and nonpolarized C11 cells during persistent, long-term DHBV infection demonstrated that newly synthesized sphingolipid and virus displayed significant colocalization and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, implying cotransportation from the Golgi complex to the plasma membrane. Notably, 15% of virus was released apically from polarized cells, corresponding to secretion into the bile duct in vivo, also in association with sphingolipids. We conclude that DHBV and, probably, HBV are reliant upon hepatocyte polarity to be efficiently exported and this export is in association with sphingolipid structures, possibly lipid rafts. This study provides novel insights regarding the mechanisms of hepadnavirus trafficking in hepatocytes, with potential relevance to pathogenesis and immune tolerance.

  18. Interactions between macrophage/Kupffer cells and hepatocytes in surgical sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    West, M.A.

    Experiments were performed to investigate the role of Kupffer cell/macrophage interactions with hepatocytes in modulating liver function during infections using direct in vitro cocultivation of rat macrophages or Kupffer cells with rat hepatocytes. Protein synthesis was assayed as a sensitive indicator of integrated hepatocellular function by measuring {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into hepatocyte protein. Septic stimuli such as lipoploysaccharide and killed bacteria were added to cocultures of hepatocytes and macrophages or Kupffer cells and the responses compared to hepatocytes alone. Information about the types of proteins synthesized by hepatocytes under various culture conditions was determined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography.more » These experiments showed that septic stimuli alter the amount and type of protein synthesized by hepatocytes and had no direct effect on hepatocytes in the absence of macrophages or Kupffer cells. The mediator(s) appears to be a heat labile, soluble monokine(s) which is distinct from interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor. The important role of Kupffer cells/macrophages in mediating alterations in hepatocellular function in sepsis may ultimately improve patient care.« less

  19. V1-receptor mediated GSH efflux by vasopressin from rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sato, C; Liu, J H; Uchihara, M; Izumi, N; Yauchi, T; Sakaj, Y; Asahina, Y; Fukuma, T; Takano, T; Marumo, F

    1992-01-01

    Vasopression increases sinusoidal efflux of GSH in the perfused rat liver. The mechanism of this effect was studied in the perfused rat liver and in isolated rat hepatocytes. Vasopressin stimulated GSH efflux in both systems and a V1-receptor antagonist (OPC-21268) significantly inhibited the effect of vasopressin suggesting that vasopressin stimulates GSH efflux from rat hepatocytes via V1-receptor.

  20. High Efficient Differentiation of Functional Hepatocytes from Porcine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Ying; Mich-Basso, Jocelyn Danielle; Lin, Bo; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is considered to be a promising therapy for patients with liver diseases. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide an unlimited source for the generation of functional hepatocytes. In this study, we generated iPSCs from porcine ear fibroblasts (PEFs) by overexpressing Sox2, Klf4, Oct4, and c-Myc (SKOM), and developed a novel strategy for the efficient differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells from porcine iPSCs by following the processes of early liver development. The differentiated cells displayed the phenotypes of hepatocytes, exhibited classic hepatocyte-associated bio-functions, such as LDL uptake, glycogen storage and urea secretion, as well as possessed the metabolic activities of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A and 2C. Furthermore, we compared the hepatocyte differentiation efficacy of our protocol with another published method, and the results demonstrated that our differentiation strategy could significantly improve the generation of morphological and functional hepatocyte-like cells from porcine iPSCs. In conclusion, this study establishes an efficient method for in vitro generation of functional hepatocytes from porcine iPSCs, which could represent a promising cell source for preclinical testing of cell-based therapeutics for liver failure and for pharmacological applications. PMID:24949734

  1. Carbon Tetrachloride Increases Intracellular Calcium in Rat Liver and Hepatocyte Cultures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-12

    to Phenyl- ephrine Figure 21 . Quin2-loaded Hepatocyte& Exposed to Carbon Tetrachloride or Phenylephrine Figure 22. Quin2-loaded Hepatocyte...HEPATOTOXIN Carbon tetrachloride (CC14 ) is an historically important hepato- toxin that has been investigated since before the turn of the century ...through phosphory- lation by phosphorylase kinase. Phosphorylase kinase can be st ~mulated by increased intracellular Ca++ via calmodulin, or by

  2. Activation of the Nrf2-ARE Pathway in Hepatocytes Protects Against Steatosis in Nutritionally Induced Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lung-Yi; Köhler, Ulrike A.; Zhang, Li; Roenneburg, Drew; Werner, Sabine; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Foley, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway protects cells from oxidative stress. Studies have shown that global Nrf2 deficiency hastens the progression of NASH. The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term hepatocyte-specific activation of Nrf2 mitigates NASH progression. Transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active Nrf2 construct in hepatocytes (AlbCre+/caNrf2+) and littermate controls were generated. These mice were fed standard or methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet, a diet used to induce NASH development in rodents. After 28 days of MCD dietary feeding, mice developed significant increases in steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and HSC activation compared with those mice on standard diet. AlbCre+/caNrf2+ animals had significantly decreased serum transaminases and reduced steatosis when compared with the AlbCre+/caNrf2− animals. This significant reduction in steatosis was associated with increased expression of genes involved in triglyceride export (MTTP) and β-oxidation (CPT2). However, there were no differences in the increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and HSC activation from MCD diet administration between the AlbCre+/caNrf2− and AlbCre+/caNrf2+ animals. We conclude that hepatocyte-specific activation of Nrf2-mediated gene expression decreased hepatocellular damage and steatosis in a dietary model of NASH. However, hepatocyte-specific induction of Nrf2-mediated gene expression alone is insufficient to mitigate inflammation, oxidative stress, and HSC activation in this nutritional NASH model. PMID:25294219

  3. Measurement of Blood Coagulation Factor Synthesis in Cultures of Human Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Stefan; Braspenning, Joris

    2015-01-01

    An important function of the liver is the synthesis and secretion of blood coagulation factors. Within the liver, hepatocytes are involved in the synthesis of most blood coagulation factors, such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, as well as protein C and S, and antithrombin, whereas liver sinusoidal endothelial cells produce factor VIII and von Willebrand factor. Here, we describe methods for the detection and quantification of most blood coagulation factors in hepatocytes in vitro. Hepatocyte cultures indeed provide a valuable tool to study blood coagulation factors. In addition, the generation and expansion of hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cells may be used in future for cell-based therapies of liver diseases, including blood coagulation factor deficiencies.

  4. Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kanbe, Takamasa; Murai, Rie; Mukoyama, Tomoyuki

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SR{alpha} promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells thanmore » in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes.« less

  5. Cellular and molecular etiology of hepatocyte injury in a murine model of environmentally induced liver abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Al-Griw, M.A.; Alghazeer, R.O.; Al-Azreg, S.A.; Bennour, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposures to a wide variety of environmental substances are negatively associated with many biological cell systems both in humans and rodents. Trichloroethane (TCE), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, is used in large quantities as a dissolvent, metal degreaser, chemical intermediate, and component of consumer products. This increases the likelihood of human exposure to these compounds through dermal, inhalation and oral routes. The present in vivo study was aimed to investigate the possible cellular and molecular etiology of liver abnormality induced by early exposure to TCE using a murine model. The results showed a significant increase in liver weight. Histopathological examination revealed a TCE-induced hepatotoxicity which appeared as heavily congested central vein and blood sinusoids as well as leukocytic infiltration. Mitotic figures and apoptotic changes such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragments were also identified. Cell death analysis demonstrates hepatocellular apoptosis was evident in the treated mice compared to control. TCE was also found to induce oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation, an oxidative stress marker. There was also a significant decrease in the DNA content of the hepatocytes of the treated groups compared to control. Agarose gel electrophoresis also provided further biochemical evidence of apoptosis by showing internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the liver cells, indicating oxidative stress as the cause of DNA damage. These results suggest the need for a complete risk assessment of any new chemical prior to its arrival into the consumer market. PMID:27800299

  6. Chitooligosaccharides protect human embryonic hepatocytes against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingsong; Ma, Pan; Yu, Weiting; Tan, Chengyu; Liu, Hongtao; Xiong, Chuannan; Qiao, Ying; Du, Yuguang

    2010-06-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (COS) has many biological activities, such as antitumor activity and hepatoprotective effect. Herein, we investigated the protective effect of COS against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress on human embryonic hepatocytes (L02 cells) and its scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. The results showed that the lost cell viability induced by H2O2 was markedly restored after 24 h pre-incubation with COS (0.1-0.4 mg/ml). This rescue effect could be related to the antioxidant property of COS, in which we showed that the radical scavenging activity of COS reached 80% at concentration of 2 mg/ml. In addition, COS could prevent cell apoptosis induced by H2O2, as shown by the inhibition of the cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase and increased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL. Furthermore, we have utilized confocal laser microscopy to observe cellular uptake of COS, an important step for COS to exert its effects on target cells. Taken together, our findings suggested that COS could effectively protect L02 cells against oxidative stress, which might be useful in clinical setting during the treatment of oxidative stress-related liver damages.

  7. Zea mays, Stigma maydis prevents and extenuates acetaminophen-perturbed oxidative onslaughts in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Saheed, Sabiu; Frans Hendrik, O'Neill; Tom, Ashafa Anofi Omotayo

    2016-11-01

    Zea mays L. (Poaceae) Stigma maydis is an underutilized product of corn cultivation finding therapeutic applications in oxidative stress-related disorders. This study investigated its aqueous extract against acetaminophen (APAP)-perturbed oxidative insults in rat hepatocytes. Hepatotoxic rats were orally pre- and post-treated with the extract (at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) and vitamin C (200 mg/kg body weight), respectively, for 14 days. Liver function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The APAP-induced marked (p < 0.05) increases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase and the concentrations of bilirubin, oxidized glutathione, protein carbonyls, malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently extenuated in the extract-treated animals. The extract also significantly (p < 0.05) improved the reduced activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase as well as total protein, albumin and glutathione concentrations in the hepatotoxic rats. These improvements may be attributed to the bioactive constituents as revealed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometric chromatogram of the extract. The observed effects compared favourably with vitamin C and are informative of hepatoprotective and antioxidative attributes of the extract and were further supported by the histological analysis. The data from the present findings suggest that Stigma maydis aqueous extract is capable of preventing and ameliorating APAP-mediated oxidative hepatic damage via enhancement of antioxidant defence systems.

  8. Demonstration of nuclear compartmentalization of glutathione in hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bellomo, G; Vairetti, M; Stivala, L; Mirabelli, F; Richelmi, P; Orrenius, S

    1992-01-01

    The intracellular distribution of glutathione (GSH) in cultured hepatocytes has been investigated by using the compound monochlorobimane (BmCl), which interacts specifically with GSH to form a highly fluorescent adduct. Image analysis of BmCl-labeled hepatocytes predominantly localized the fluorescence in the nucleus; the nuclear/cytoplasmic concentration gradient was approximately three. This concentration gradient was collapsed by treatment of the cells with ATP-depleting agents. The uneven distribution of BmCl fluorescence was not attributable to (i) nonspecific interaction of BmCl with protein sulfhydryl groups, (ii) any selective nuclear localization of the GSH transferase(s) catalyzing formation of the GSH-BmCl conjugate, or (iii) any apparent alterations in cell morphology from culture conditions, suggesting that this distribution did, indeed, reflect a nuclear compartmentalization of GSH. That the nuclear pool of GSH was found more resistant to depletion by several agents than the cytoplasmic pool supports the assumption that GSH is essential in protecting DNA and other nuclear structures from chemical injury. Images PMID:1584774

  9. The novel protein C3orf43 accelerates hepatocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyan; Chang, Cuifang; Li, Deming; Zhang, Fuchun; Xu, Cunshuan

    2017-01-01

    Our previous study found that single-pass membrane protein with coiled-coil domains 1 (C3orf43; XM_006248472.3) was significantly upregulated in the proliferative phase during liver regeneration. This indicates that C3orf43 plays a vital role in liver cell proliferation. However, its physiological functions remains unclear. The expressions of C3orf43 in BRL-3A cells transfected with C3orf43-siRNA (C3-siRNA) or overexpressing the vector plasmid pCDH-C3orf43 (pCDH-C3) were measured via RT-qPCR and western blot. Cell growth and proliferation were determined using MTT and flow cytometry. Cell proliferation-related gene expression was measured using RT-qPCR and western blot. It was found that upregulation of C3orf43 by pCDH-C3 promoted hepatocyte proliferation, and inhibition of C3orf43 by C3-siRNA led to the reduction of cell proliferation. The results of qRT-PCR and western blot assay showed that the C3-siRNA group downregulated the expression of cell proliferation-related genes like JUN, MYC, CCND1 and CCNA2, and the pCDH-C3 group upregulated the expression of those genes. These findings reveal that C3orf43 may contribute to hepatocyte proliferation and may have the potential to promote liver repair and regeneration.

  10. Methamphetamine enhances Hepatitis C virus replication in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, L.; Peng, J. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. J.; Luo, G. X.; Ho, W. Z.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Very little is known about the interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and methamphetamine, which is a highly abused psychostimulant and a known risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV infection. This study examined whether methamphetamine has the ability to inhibit innate immunity in the host cells, facilitating HCV replication in human hepatocytes. Methamphetamine inhibited intracellular interferon alpha expression in human hepatocytes, which was associated with the increase in HCV replication. In addition, methamphetamine also compromised the anti-HCV effect of recombinant interferon alpha. Further investigation of mechanism(s) responsible for the methamphetamine action revealed that methamphetamine was able to inhibit the expression of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, a key modulator in interferon-mediated immune and biological responses. Methamphetamine also down-regulated the expression of interferon regulatory factor-5, a crucial transcriptional factor that activates the interferon pathway. These in vitro findings that methamphetamine compromises interferon alpha-mediated innate immunity against HCV infection indicate that methamphetamine may have a cofactor role in the immunopathogenesis of HCV disease. PMID:18307590

  11. Identification and quantification of the rat hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, A L; Marshak-Rothstein, A; Rup, D; Lodish, H F

    1981-01-01

    The asialoglycoprotein receptor from rat liver was purified by solubilization and affinity chromatography on asialoorosomucoid-Sepharose. The preparation yielded four distinct polypeptides of Mr 40,000-120,000. We prepared a monoclonal antibody that both immunoprecipitates solubilized receptor activity and blocks the binding of galactose-terminal glycoproteins to immobilized receptor. The monoclonal antibody and a rabbit antireceptor antiserum immunoprecipitated all four polypeptide species. Peptide analysis by two-dimensional chromatography of the individual 125I-labeled species showed nearly identical patterns, which also suggested that the four polypeptides have a similar primary structure. To identify and quantitate the asialoglycoprotein receptor on the hepatocyte cell surface, intact cells were iodinated with lactoperoxidase, and the solubilized membranes were treated with antireceptor antibody. The Mr 55,000 and Mr 65,000 species were the major species found. Our results suggest that the Mr of the surface receptor is at least 55,000 and that it comprises between 1-2% of the iodinated hepatocyte surface protein. Images PMID:6267585

  12. Hepatocytes Polyploidization and Cell Cycle Control in Liver Physiopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gentric, Géraldine; Desdouets, Chantal; Celton-Morizur, Séverine

    2012-01-01

    Most cells in mammalian tissues usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, numerous studies have demonstrated a major role of “diploid-polyploid conversion” during physiopathological processes in several tissues. In the liver parenchyma, progressive polyploidization of hepatocytes takes place during postnatal growth. Indeed, at the suckling-weaning transition, cytokinesis failure events induce the genesis of binucleated tetraploid liver cells. Insulin signalling, through regulation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, is essential in the establishment of liver tetraploidization by controlling cytoskeletal organisation and consequently mitosis progression. Liver cell polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence, and both lead to a progressive loss of cell pluripotency associated to a markedly decreased replication capacity. Although adult liver is a quiescent organ, it retains a capacity to proliferate and to modulate its ploidy in response to various stimuli or aggression (partial hepatectomy, metabolic overload (i.e., high copper and iron hepatic levels), oxidative stress, toxic insult, and chronic hepatitis etc.). Here we review the mechanisms and functional consequences of hepatocytes polyploidization during normal and pathological liver growth. PMID:23150829

  13. Hepatocytes polyploidization and cell cycle control in liver physiopathology.

    PubMed

    Gentric, Géraldine; Desdouets, Chantal; Celton-Morizur, Séverine

    2012-01-01

    Most cells in mammalian tissues usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, numerous studies have demonstrated a major role of "diploid-polyploid conversion" during physiopathological processes in several tissues. In the liver parenchyma, progressive polyploidization of hepatocytes takes place during postnatal growth. Indeed, at the suckling-weaning transition, cytokinesis failure events induce the genesis of binucleated tetraploid liver cells. Insulin signalling, through regulation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, is essential in the establishment of liver tetraploidization by controlling cytoskeletal organisation and consequently mitosis progression. Liver cell polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence, and both lead to a progressive loss of cell pluripotency associated to a markedly decreased replication capacity. Although adult liver is a quiescent organ, it retains a capacity to proliferate and to modulate its ploidy in response to various stimuli or aggression (partial hepatectomy, metabolic overload (i.e., high copper and iron hepatic levels), oxidative stress, toxic insult, and chronic hepatitis etc.). Here we review the mechanisms and functional consequences of hepatocytes polyploidization during normal and pathological liver growth.

  14. Myosin Vb mediates Cu+ export in polarized hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arnab; Schell, Michael J.; Bhattacharjee, Ashima; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Hubbard, Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cellular machinery responsible for Cu+-stimulated delivery of the Wilson-disease-associated protein ATP7B to the apical domain of hepatocytes is poorly understood. We demonstrate that myosin Vb regulates the Cu+-stimulated delivery of ATP7B to the apical domain of polarized hepatic cells, and that disruption of the ATP7B-myosin Vb interaction reduces the apical surface expression of ATP7B. Overexpression of the myosin Vb tail, which competes for binding of subapical cargos to myosin Vb bound to subapical actin, disrupted the surface expression of ATP7B, leading to reduced cellular Cu+ export. The myosin-Vb-dependent targeting step occurred in parallel with hepatocyte-like polarity. If the myosin Vb tail was expressed acutely in cells just prior to the establishment of polarity, it appeared as part of an intracellular apical compartment, centered on γ-tubulin. ATP7B became selectively arrested in this compartment at high [Cu+] in the presence of myosin Vb tail, suggesting that these compartments are precursors of donor–acceptor transfer stations for apically targeted cargos of myosin Vb. Our data suggest that reduced hepatic Cu+ clearance in idiopathic non-Wilsonian types of disease might be associated with the loss of function of myosin Vb. PMID:26823605

  15. Stimulation of glucose phosphorylation by fructose in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Van Schaftingen, E; Vandercammen, A

    1989-01-15

    The phosphorylation of glucose was measured by the formation of [3H]H2O from [2-3H]glucose in suspensions of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Fructose (0.2 mM) stimulated 2-4-fold the rate of phosphorylation of 5 mM glucose although not of 40 mM glucose, thus increasing the apparent affinity of the glucose phosphorylating system. A half-maximal stimulatory effect was observed at about 50 microM fructose. Stimulation was maximal 5 min after addition of the ketose and was stable for at least 40 min, during which period 60% of the fructose was consumed. The effect of fructose was reversible upon removal of the ketose. Sorbitol and tagatose were as potent as fructose in stimulating the phosphorylation of 5 mM glucose. D-Glyceraldehyde also had a stimulatory effect but at tenfold higher concentrations. In contrast, dihydroxyacetone had no significant effect and glycerol inhibited the detritiation of glucose. Oleate did not affect the phosphorylation of glucose, even in the presence of fructose, although it stimulated the formation of ketone bodies severalfold, indicating that it was converted to its acyl-CoA derivative. These results allow the conclusion that fructose stimulates glucokinase in the intact hepatocyte. They also suggest that this effect is mediated through the formation of fructose 1-phosphate, which presumably interacts with a competitive inhibitor of glucokinase other than long-chain acyl-CoAs.

  16. Pioglitazone inhibits mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism and glucose production in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Christopher E.; Daniele, Giuseppe; Galindo, Cynthia; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A.; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Norton, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Pioglitazone is used globally for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is one of the most effective therapies for improving glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in T2DM patients. However, its mechanism of action in the tissues and pathways that regulate glucose metabolism are incompletely defined. Here we investigated the direct effects of pioglitazone on hepatocellular pyruvate metabolism and the dependency of these observations on the purported regulators of mitochondrial pyruvate transport, MPC1 and MPC2. In cultured H4IIE hepatocytes, pioglitazone inhibited [2-14C]-pyruvate oxidation and pyruvate-driven oxygen consumption and, in mitochondria isolated from both hepatocytes and human skeletal muscle, pioglitazone selectively and dose-dependently inhibited pyruvate-driven ATP synthesis. Pioglitazone also suppressed hepatocellular glucose production (HGP), without influencing the mRNA expression of key HGP regulatory genes. Targeted siRNA silencing of MPC1 and 2 caused a modest inhibition of pyruvate oxidation and pyruvate-driven ATP synthesis, but did not alter pyruvate-driven HGP and, importantly, it did not influence the actions of pioglitazone on either pathway. In summary, these findings outline a novel mode of action of pioglitazone relevant to the pathogenesis of T2DM and suggest that targeting pyruvate metabolism may lead to the development of effective new T2DM therapies. PMID:27987376

  17. Galactosylated DNA lipid nanocapsules for efficient hepatocyte targeting.

    PubMed

    Morille, M; Passirani, C; Letrou-Bonneval, E; Benoit, J-P; Pitard, B

    2009-09-11

    The main objective of gene therapy via a systemic pathway is the development of a stable and non-toxic gene vector that can encapsulate and deliver foreign genetic materials into specific cell types with the transfection efficiency of viral vectors. With this objective, DNA complexed with cationic lipids of DOTAP/DOPE was encapsulated into lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) forming nanocarriers (DNA LNCs) with a size suitable for systemic injection (109+/-6 nm). With the goal of increasing systemic delivery, LNCs were stabilised with long chains of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), either from a PEG lipid derivative (DSPE-mPEG(2000)) or from an amphiphilic block copolymer (F108). In order to overcome internalisation difficulties encountered with PEG shield, a specific ligand (galactose) was covalently added at the distal end of the PEG chains, in order to provide active targeting of the asialoglycoprotein-receptor present on hepatocytes. This study showed that DNA LNCs were as efficient as positively charged DOTAP/DOPE lipoplexes for transfection. In primary hepatocytes, when non-galactosylated, the two polymers significantly decreased the transfection, probably by creating a barrier around the DNA LNCs. Interestingly, galactosylated F108 coated DNA LNCs led to a 18-fold increase in luciferase expression compared to non-galactosylated ones.

  18. Study of Valproic Acid-Enhanced Hepatocyte Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Renin; Chou, Mei-Chia; Hung, Li-Ying; Wang, Mu-En; Hsu, Meng-Chieh; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the most widely used antiepilepsy drugs. However, several side effects, including weight gain and fatty liver, have been reported in patients following VPA treatment. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatic steatosis using FL83B cell line-based in vitro model. Using fluorescent lipid staining technique, we found that VPA enhanced oleic acid- (OLA-) induced lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes; this may be due to upregulated lipid uptake, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, and lipid droplet formation. Real-time PCR results showed that, following VPA treatment, the expression levels of genes encoding cluster of differentiation 36 (Cd36), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (Lrp1), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2), and perilipin 2 (Plin2) were increased, that of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I a (Cpt1a) was not affected, and those of acetyl-Co A carboxylase α (Acca) and fatty acid synthase (Fasn) were decreased. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry analyses, we found that VPA also induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) nuclear translocation and increased levels of cell-surface CD36. Based on these results, we propose that VPA may enhance OLA-induced hepatocyte steatosis through the upregulation of PPARγ- and CD36-dependent lipid uptake, TAG synthesis, and lipid droplet formation. PMID:27034954

  19. Phosphorylation of hepatocyte growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor of human hepatocytes can be maintained in a (3D) collagen sandwich culture system.

    PubMed

    Engl, Tobias; Boost, Kim A; Leckel, Kerstin; Beecken, Wolf-Dietrich; Jonas, Dietger; Oppermann, Elsie; Auth, Marcus K H; Schaudt, André; Bechstein, Wolf-Otto; Blaheta, Roman A

    2004-08-01

    In vitro culture models that employ human liver cells could be potent tools for predictive studies on drug toxicity and metabolism in the pharmaceutical industry. However, an adequate receptor responsiveness is necessary to allow intracellular signalling and metabolic activity. We tested the ability of three-dimensionally arranged human hepatocytes to respond to the growth factors hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF). Isolated adult human hepatocytes were cultivated within a three-dimensional collagen gel (sandwich) or on a two-dimensional collagen matrix. Cells were treated with HGF or EGF and expression and phosphorylative activity of HGF receptors (HGFr, c-met) or EGF receptors (EGFr) were measured by flow cytometry and Western blot. Increasing HGFr and EGFr levels were detected in hepatocytes growing two-dimensionally. However, both receptors were not activated in presence of growth factors. In contrast, when hepatocytes were plated within a three-dimensional matrix, HGFr and EGFr levels remained constantly low. However, both receptors became strongly phosphorylated by soluble HGF or EGF. We conclude that cultivation of human hepatocytes in a three-dimensionally arranged in vitro system allows the maintenance of specific functional activities. The necessity of cell dimensionality for HGFr and EGFr function should be considered when an adequate in vitro system has to be introduced for drug testing.

  20. Dexamethasone treatment induces the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells to hepatocytes and ductal cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Adsani, Amani; Burke, Zoë D; Eberhard, Daniel; Lawrence, Katherine L; Shen, Chia-Ning; Rustgi, Anil K; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Farrant, J Mark; Tosh, David

    2010-10-27

    The pancreatic exocrine cell line AR42J-B13 can be reprogrammed to hepatocytes following treatment with dexamethasone. The question arises whether dexamethasone also has the capacity to induce ductal cells as well as hepatocytes. AR42J-B13 cells were treated with and without dexamethasone and analyzed for the expression of pancreatic exocrine, hepatocyte and ductal markers. Addition of dexamethasone inhibited pancreatic amylase expression, induced expression of the hepatocyte marker transferrin as well as markers typical of ductal cells: cytokeratin 7 and 19 and the lectin peanut agglutinin. However, the number of ductal cells was low compared to hepatocytes. The proportion of ductal cells was enhanced by culture with dexamethasone and epidermal growth factor (EGF). We established several features of the mechanism underlying the transdifferentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells to ductal cells. Using a CK19 promoter reporter, we show that a proportion of the ductal cells arise from differentiated pancreatic exocrine-like cells. We also examined whether C/EBPβ (a transcription factor important in the conversion of pancreatic cells to hepatocytes) could alter the conversion from acinar cells to a ductal phenotype. Overexpression of an activated form of C/EBPβ in dexamethasone/EGF-treated cells provoked the expression of hepatocyte markers and inhibited the expression of ductal markers. Conversely, ectopic expression of a dominant-negative form of C/EBPβ, liver inhibitory protein, inhibited hepatocyte formation in dexamethasone-treated cultures and enhanced the ductal phenotype. These results indicate that hepatocytes and ductal cells may be induced from pancreatic exocrine AR42J-B13 cells following treatment with dexamethasone. The conversion from pancreatic to hepatocyte or ductal cells is dependent upon the expression of C/EBPβ.

  1. TGFbeta Induces Binucleation/Polyploidization in Hepatocytes through a Src-Dependent Cytokinesis Failure

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Germana; Bisceglia, Francesca; Strippoli, Raffaele; Guarguaglini, Giulia; Citarella, Franca; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Tripodi, Marco; Amicone, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In all mammals, the adult liver shows binucleated as well as mononucleated polyploid hepatocytes. The hepatic polyploidization starts after birth with an extensive hepatocyte binucleation and generates hepatocytes of several ploidy classes. While the functional significance of hepatocyte polyploidy is becoming clearer, how it is triggered and maintained needs to be clarified. Aim of this study was to identify a major inducer of hepatocyte binucleation/polyploidization and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. We found that, among several cytokines analyzed, known to be involved in early liver development and/or mass control, TGFbeta1 was capable to induce, together with the expected morphological changes, binucleation in hepatocytes in culture. Most importantly, the pharmacological inhibition of TGFbeta signaling in healthy mice during weaning, when the physiological binucleation occurs, induced a significant decrease of hepatocyte binucleation rate, without affecting cell proliferation and hepatic index. The TGFbeta-induced hepatocyte binucleation resulted from a cytokinesis failure, as assessed by video microscopy, and is associated with a delocalization of the cytokinesis regulator RhoA-GTPase from the mid-body of dividing cells. The use of specific chemical inhibitors demonstrated that the observed events are Src-dependent. Finally, the restoration of a fully epithelial phenotype by TGFbeta withdrawal gave rise to a cell progeny capable to maintain the polyploid state. In conclusion, we identified TGFbeta as a major inducer of hepatocyte binucleation both in vitro and in vivo, thus ascribing a novel role to this pleiotropic cytokine. The production of binucleated/tetraploid hepatocytes is due to a cytokinesis failure controlled by the molecular axis TGFbeta/Src/RhoA. PMID:27893804

  2. Increased hepatocyte fas expression and apoptosis in HIV and hepatitis C virus coinfection.

    PubMed

    Macias, Juan; Japón, Miguel A; Sáez, Carmen; Palacios, Rosa B; Mira, José A; García-García, José A; Merchante, Nicolás; Vergara, Salvador; Lozano, Fernando; Gómez-Mateos, Jesús; Pineda, Juan A

    2005-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis C disease (CHC) follows an accelerated course in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The reasons for this are unclear. Fas-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We sought to compare the expression of Fas on hepatocytes and irreversible apoptosis of hepatocytes among patients with CHC with and without HCV/HIV coinfection. Fas-immunostained hepatocytes were semiquantified, and apoptotic hepatocytes were detected by staining caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18 filaments and counted across the entire section of liver-biopsy specimens from HCV-infected patients with and without HCV/HIV coinfection. One hundred thirty-four HCV/HIV-coinfected and 100 HCV-infected patients were included. HCV/HIV coinfection was associated with both diffuse distribution of Fas-stained hepatocytes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 7.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.8-14.4]) and with apoptotic hepatocyte counts greater than the median (AOR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.5-4.5]). In HCV/HIV-coinfected patients, CD4+ cell nadir<200 cells/mL was associated with both Fas expression (AOR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.3-6.8]) and hepatocyte apoptosis (AOR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1-4.9]). HCV/HIV-coinfected patients show higher levels of hepatocytes expressing Fas and undergoing irreversible apoptosis than do HCV-infected patients. However, low CD4+ cell nadirs in coinfected patients are associated with hepatocyte Fas expression and apoptosis.

  3. TGFbeta Induces Binucleation/Polyploidization in Hepatocytes through a Src-Dependent Cytokinesis Failure.

    PubMed

    De Santis Puzzonia, Marco; Cozzolino, Angela Maria; Grassi, Germana; Bisceglia, Francesca; Strippoli, Raffaele; Guarguaglini, Giulia; Citarella, Franca; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Tripodi, Marco; Marchetti, Alessandra; Amicone, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In all mammals, the adult liver shows binucleated as well as mononucleated polyploid hepatocytes. The hepatic polyploidization starts after birth with an extensive hepatocyte binucleation and generates hepatocytes of several ploidy classes. While the functional significance of hepatocyte polyploidy is becoming clearer, how it is triggered and maintained needs to be clarified. Aim of this study was to identify a major inducer of hepatocyte binucleation/polyploidization and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. We found that, among several cytokines analyzed, known to be involved in early liver development and/or mass control, TGFbeta1 was capable to induce, together with the expected morphological changes, binucleation in hepatocytes in culture. Most importantly, the pharmacological inhibition of TGFbeta signaling in healthy mice during weaning, when the physiological binucleation occurs, induced a significant decrease of hepatocyte binucleation rate, without affecting cell proliferation and hepatic index. The TGFbeta-induced hepatocyte binucleation resulted from a cytokinesis failure, as assessed by video microscopy, and is associated with a delocalization of the cytokinesis regulator RhoA-GTPase from the mid-body of dividing cells. The use of specific chemical inhibitors demonstrated that the observed events are Src-dependent. Finally, the restoration of a fully epithelial phenotype by TGFbeta withdrawal gave rise to a cell progeny capable to maintain the polyploid state. In conclusion, we identified TGFbeta as a major inducer of hepatocyte binucleation both in vitro and in vivo, thus ascribing a novel role to this pleiotropic cytokine. The production of binucleated/tetraploid hepatocytes is due to a cytokinesis failure controlled by the molecular axis TGFbeta/Src/RhoA.

  4. Hepatocyte-protective effect of nectandrin B, a nutmeg lignan, against oxidative stress: Role of Nrf2 activation through ERK phosphorylation and AMPK-dependent inhibition of GSK-3β

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jae-Sook; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Yong-Won

    Oxidative stress can contribute to the development and progression of liver diseases, such as drug-induced or alcoholic liver injury, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Nectandrin B is a bioactive lignan isolated from nutmeg extract. To date, little information is available about its pharmacological activities in the liver. This study investigated the hepatocyte-protective effect of nectandrin B against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative injury and the underlying molecular mechanism. The cell viability assay revealed that nectandrin B prevents apoptosis stimulated by tert-butylhydroperoxide in both HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes. Nectandrin B also attenuated ROS production and restored the depleted glutathione level.more » Real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses showed that the expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase, an enzyme responsible for the glutathione biosynthesis, was induced by nectandrin B, indicating its indirect antioxidative effect. The NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) regulates gene expression of an array of antioxidant enzymes in hepatocytes. Nectandrin B stimulated Nrf2 activation as evidenced by its enhanced nuclear accumulation and increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity. Intriguingly, the hepatocyte-protective effect of nectandrin B against oxidative damage was completely abrogated by Nrf2 knockdown using Nrf2 specific siRNA. Nectandrin B promoted ERK activation, but inactivated GSK-3β through the AMPK-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation. The enforced overexpression of dominant-negative mutant of MEK1 or AMPKα, or wild-type GSK-3β inhibited the increase in the NQO1-ARE-luciferase activity stimulated by nectandrin B, suggesting that both ERK and AMPK-GSK-3β signalings are involved in the activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway by nectandrin B. Consistent with this, cytoprotection and restoration of glutathione level by nectandrin B was also blocked by the overexpression of

  5. Fuzheng Huayu recipe alleviates hepatic fibrosis via inhibiting TNF-α induced hepatocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yan-yan; Yan, Xiu-chuan; Zhou, Tao; Shen, Li; Liu, Zu-long; Liu, Cheng-hai

    2014-11-18

    What was the relationship of Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and HSC activation at different stage of liver fibrosis? In order to answer this question, the study was carried out to dynamically observe FZHY's effect on hepatocyte apoptosis and HSC activation and further explored underling mechanism of FZHY against hepatocyte apoptosis. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal, model, FZHY, and N-acetylcystein (NAC) groups. Acute hepatic injury and liver fibrosis in mice were induced by CCl4. Three days before the first CCl4 injection, treatment with FZHY powder or NAC respectively was started. In vitro, primary hepatocytes were pretreated with FZHY medicated serum or Z-VAD-FMK and then incubated with ActD and TNF-α. Primary HSCs were treated with DNA from apoptotic hepatocytes incubated by Act D/TNF-α or FZHY medicated. Liver sections were analyzed for HE staining and immunohistochemical evaluation of apoptosis. Serum ALT and AST, Alb content and TNF-α expression in liver tissue were detected. Hyp content was assayed and collagen deposition was visualized. Expressions of α-SMA and type I collagen were analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and DNA ladder for hepatocyte apoptosis and immunoblotting for TNF-R1, Bcl-2 and Bax were also analyzed. Mice showed characteristic features of massive hepatocytes apoptosis in early stage of liver injury and developed severe hepatic fibrosis in later phase. FZHY treatment significantly alleviated acute liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis, and inhibited liver fibrosis by decreasing α-SMA expression and hepatic Hyp content. In vitro, primary hepatocytes were induced by TNF-α and Act D. The anti-apoptotic effect of FZHY was generated by reducing TNFR1 expression and balancing the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax. Meanwhile, the nuclear DNA from apoptotic hepatocytes stimulated HSC activation in a dose dependent manner, and the DNA from

  6. Controlled cell morphology and liver-specific function of engineered primary hepatocytes by fibroblast layer cell densities.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yusuke; Koike, Makiko; Kawahara, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Hideko; Murai, Tomomi; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Fujita, Fumihiko; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2018-03-05

    Engineered primary hepatocytes, including co-cultured hepatocyte sheets, are an attractive to basic scientific and clinical researchers because they maintain liver-specific functions, have reconstructed cell polarity, and have high transplantation efficiency. However, co-culture conditions regarding engineered primary hepatocytes were suboptimal in promoting these advantages. Here we report that the hepatocyte morphology and liver-specific function levels are controlled by the normal human diploid fibroblast (TIG-118 cell) layer cell density. Primary rat hepatocytes were plated onto TIG-118 cells, previously plated 3 days before at 1.04, 5.21, and 26.1×10 3  cells/cm 2 . Hepatocytes plated onto lower TIG-118 cell densities expanded better during the early culture period. The hepatocytes gathered as colonies and only exhibited small adhesion areas because of the pushing force from proliferating TIG-118 cells. The smaller areas of each hepatocyte result in the development of bile canaliculi. The highest density of TIG-118 cells downregulated albumin synthesis activity of hepatocytes. The hepatocytes may have undergone apoptosis associated with high TGF-β1 concentration and necrosis due to a lack of oxygen. These occurrences were supported by apoptotic chromatin condensation and high expression of both proteins HIF-1a and HIF-1b. Three types of engineered hepatocyte/fibroblast sheets comprising different TIG-118 cell densities were harvested after 4 days of hepatocyte culture and showed a complete cell sheet format without any holes. Hepatocyte morphology and liver-specific function levels are controlled by TIG-118 cell density, which helps to design better engineered hepatocytes for future applications such as in vitro cell-based assays and transplantable hepatocyte tissues. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transplant of Hepatocytes, Undifferentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells, and In Vitro Hepatocyte-Differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Chronic Liver Failure Experimental Model: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    El Baz, Hanan; Demerdash, Zeinab; Kamel, Manal; Atta, Shimaa; Salah, Faten; Hassan, Salwa; Hammam, Olfat; Khalil, Heba; Meshaal, Safa; Raafat, Inas

    2018-02-01

    Liver transplant is the cornerstone line of treatment for chronic liver diseases; however, the long list of complications and obstacles stand against this operation. Searching for new modalities for treatment of chronic liver illness is a must. In the present research, we aimed to compare the effects of transplant of undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cells, in vitro differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, and adult hepatocytes in an experimental model of chronic liver failure. Undifferentiated human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, pro-pagated, and characterized by morphology, gene expression analysis, and flow cytometry of surface markers and in vitro differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells. Rat hepatocytes were isolated by double perfusion technique. An animal model of chronic liver failure was developed, and undifferentiated human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells, in vitro hepato-genically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, or freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were transplanted into a CCL4 cirrhotic experimental model. Animals were killed 3 months after transplant, and liver functions and histopathology were assessed. Compared with the cirrhotic control group, the 3 cell-treated groups showed improved alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, and bilirubin levels, with best results shown in the hepatocyte-treated group. Histopathologic examination of the treated groups showed improved fibrosis, with best results obtained in the undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell-treated group. Both adult hepatocytes and cord blood mesenchymal stem cells proved to be promising candidates for cell-based therapy in liver regeneration on an experimental level. Improved liver function was evident in the hepatocyte-treated group, and fibrosis control was more evident in the undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell-treated group.

  8. Miniature enzyme-based electrodes for detection of hydrogen peroxide release from alcohol-injured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Matharu, Zimple; Enomoto, James; Revzin, Alexander

    2013-01-15

    Alcohol insult to the liver sets off a complex sequence of inflammatory and fibrogenic responses. There is increasing evidence that hepatocytes play a key role in triggering these responses by producing inflammatory signals such as cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we employed a cell culture/biosensor platform consisting of electrode arrays integrated with microfluidics to monitor extracellular H(2)O(2), one of the major ROS types, produced by primary rat hepatocytes during alcohol injury. The biosensor consisted of hydrogel microstructures with entrapped horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized on an array of miniature gold electrodes. These arrays of sensing electrodes were integrated into microfluidic devices and modified with collagen (I) to promote hepatocyte adhesion. Once seeded into the microfluidic devices, hepatocytes were exposed to 100 mM ethanol and the signal at the working electrode was monitored by cyclic voltammetry (CV) over the course of 4 h. The CV experiments revealed that hepatocytes secreted up to 1.16 μM H(2)O(2) after 3 h of stimulation. Importantly, when hepatocytes were incubated with antioxidants or alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor prior to alcohol exposure, the H(2)O(2) signal was decreased by ~5-fold. These experiments further confirmed that the biosensor was indeed monitoring oxidative stress generated by the hepatocytes and also pointed to one future use of this technology for screening hepatoprotective effects of antioxidants.

  9. Superior In vivo Transduction of Human Hepatocytes Using Engineered AAV3 Capsid.

    PubMed

    Vercauteren, Koen; Hoffman, Brad E; Zolotukhin, Irene; Keeler, Geoffrey D; Xiao, Jing W; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; High, Katherine A; Ertl, Hildegund Cj; Rice, Charles M; Srivastava, Arun; de Jong, Ype P; Herzog, Roland W

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are currently being tested in multiple clinical trials for liver-directed gene transfer to treat the bleeding disorders hemophilia A and B and metabolic disorders. The optimal viral capsid for transduction of human hepatocytes has been under active investigation, but results across various models are inconsistent. We tested in vivo transduction in "humanized" mice. Methods to quantitate percent AAV transduced human and murine hepatocytes in chimeric livers were optimized using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy with image analysis. Distinct transduction efficiencies were noted following peripheral vein administration of a self-complementary vector expressing a gfp reporter gene. An engineered AAV3 capsid with two amino acid changes, S663V+T492V (AAV3-ST), showed best efficiency for human hepatocytes (~3-times, ~8-times, and ~80-times higher than for AAV9, AAV8, and AAV5, respectively). AAV5, 8, and 9 were more efficient in transducing murine than human hepatocytes. AAV8 yielded the highest transduction rate of murine hepatocytes, which was 19-times higher than that for human hepatocytes. In summary, our data show substantial differences among AAV serotypes in transduction of human and mouse hepatocytes, are the first to report on AAV5 in humanized mice, and support the use of AAV3-based vectors for human liver gene transfer.

  10. Susceptibility to Plasmodium liver stage infection is altered by hepatocyte polyploidy.

    PubMed

    Austin, Laura S; Kaushansky, Alexis; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2014-05-01

    Plasmodium parasites infect hepatocytes of their mammalian hosts and undergo obligate liver stage development. The specific host cell attributes that are important for liver infection remain largely unknown. Several host signalling pathways are perturbed in infected hepatocytes, some of which are important in the generation of hepatocyte polyploidy. To test the functional consequence of polyploidy on liver infection, we infected hepatocytes with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii both in vitro and in vivo and examined the ploidy of infected and uninfected hepatocytes by flow cytometry. In both hepatoma cell lines and in the mouse liver, the fraction of polyploid cells was higher in the infected cell population than in the uninfected cell population. When the data were reanalysed by comparing the extent of Plasmodium infection within each ploidy subset, we found that infection rates were elevated in more highly polyploid cells and lower in diploid cells. Furthermore, we found that the parasite's preference for host cells with high ploidy is conserved among rodent malaria species and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This parasite preference for host cells of high ploidy cannot be explained by differences in hepatocyte size or DNA replication. We conclude that Plasmodium preferentially infects and develops in polyploid hepatocytes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Tim2 is expressed in mouse fetal hepatocytes and regulates their differentiation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Natsumi; Tanaka, Minoru; Suzuki, Kaori; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2007-05-01

    Liver development is regulated by various extracellular molecules such as cytokines and cell surface proteins. Although several such regulators have been identified, additional molecules are likely to be involved in liver development. To identify such molecules, we employed the signal sequence trap (SST) method to screen cDNAs encoding a secreted or membrane protein from fetal liver and obtained a number of clones. Among them, we found that T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 2 (Tim2) was expressed specifically on immature hepatocytes in the fetal liver. Tim2 has been shown to regulate immune responses, but its role in liver development had not been studied. We have examined the possible role of Tim2 in hepatocyte differentiation. At first, we prepared a soluble Tim2 fusion protein consisting of its extracellular domain and the Fc domain of human IgG (Tim2-hFc) and found that it bound to fetal and adult hepatocytes, suggesting that there are Tim2-binding molecules on hepatocytes. Second, Tim2-hFc inhibited the differentiation of hepatocytes in fetal liver primary culture, i.e., the expression of mature hepatic enzymes and accumulation of glycogen were severely reduced. Third, Tim2-hFc also inhibited proliferation of fetal hepatocytes. Fourth, down-regulation of Tim2 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced the expression of liver differentiation marker genes. It is strongly suggested that Tim2 is involved in the differentiation of fetal hepatocytes.

  12. Susceptibility to Plasmodium liver stage infection is altered by hepatocyte polyploidy

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Laura S.; Kaushansky, Alexis; Kappe, Stefan H.I.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Plasmodium parasites infect hepatocytes of their mammalian hosts and within undergo obligate liver stage development. The specific host cell attributes that are important for liver infection remain largely unknown. Several host signaling pathways are perturbed in infected hepatocytes, some of which are important in the generation of hepatocyte polyploidy. To test the functional consequence of polyploidy in liver infection, we infected hepatocytes with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii both in vitro and in vivo and examined the ploidy of infected and uninfected hepatocytes by flow cytometry. In both hepatoma cell lines and in the mouse liver, the fraction of polyploid cells was higher in the infected cell population than in the uninfected cell population. When the data were reanalyzed by comparing the extent of Plasmodium infection within each ploidy subset, we found that infection rates were elevated in more highly polyploid cells and lower in diploid cells. Furthermore, we found that the parasite’s preference for host cells with high ploidy is conserved among rodent malaria species and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This parasite preference for host cells of high ploidy cannot be explained by differences in hepatocyte size or DNA replication. We conclude that Plasmodium preferentially infects and develops in polyploid hepatocytes. PMID:24612025

  13. Spontaneous hepatic repopulation in transgenic mice expressing mutant human α1-antitrypsin by wild-type donor hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jianqiang; Yannam, Govardhana R.; Roy-Chowdhury, Namita; Hidvegi, Tunda; Basma, Hesham; Rennard, Stephen I.; Wong, Ronald J.; Avsar, Yesim; Guha, Chandan; Perlmutter, David H.; Fox, Ira J.; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta

    2011-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency is an inherited condition that causes liver disease and emphysema. The normal function of this protein, which is synthesized by the liver, is to inhibit neutrophil elastase, a protease that degrades connective tissue of the lung. In the classical form of the disease, inefficient secretion of a mutant α1-antitrypsin protein (AAT-Z) results in its accumulation within hepatocytes and reduced protease inhibitor activity, resulting in liver injury and pulmonary emphysema. Because mutant protein accumulation increases hepatocyte cell stress, we investigated whether transplanted hepatocytes expressing wild-type AAT might have a competitive advantage relative to AAT-Z–expressing hepatocytes, using transgenic mice expressing human AAT-Z. Wild-type donor hepatocytes replaced 20%–98% of mutant host hepatocytes, and repopulation was accelerated by injection of an adenovector expressing hepatocyte growth factor. Spontaneous hepatic repopulation with engrafted hepatocytes occurred in the AAT-Z–expressing mice even in the absence of severe liver injury. Donor cells replaced both globule-containing and globule-devoid cells, indicating that both types of host hepatocytes display impaired proliferation relative to wild-type hepatocytes. These results suggest that wild-type hepatocyte transplantation may be therapeutic for AAT-Z liver disease and may provide an alternative to protein replacement for treating emphysema in AAT-ZZ individuals. PMID:21505264

  14. Spontaneous hepatic repopulation in transgenic mice expressing mutant human α1-antitrypsin by wild-type donor hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianqiang; Yannam, Govardhana R; Roy-Chowdhury, Namita; Hidvegi, Tunda; Basma, Hesham; Rennard, Stephen I; Wong, Ronald J; Avsar, Yesim; Guha, Chandan; Perlmutter, David H; Fox, Ira J; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta

    2011-05-01

    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency is an inherited condition that causes liver disease and emphysema. The normal function of this protein, which is synthesized by the liver, is to inhibit neutrophil elastase, a protease that degrades connective tissue of the lung. In the classical form of the disease, inefficient secretion of a mutant α1-antitrypsin protein (AAT-Z) results in its accumulation within hepatocytes and reduced protease inhibitor activity, resulting in liver injury and pulmonary emphysema. Because mutant protein accumulation increases hepatocyte cell stress, we investigated whether transplanted hepatocytes expressing wild-type AAT might have a competitive advantage relative to AAT-Z-expressing hepatocytes, using transgenic mice expressing human AAT-Z. Wild-type donor hepatocytes replaced 20%-98% of mutant host hepatocytes, and repopulation was accelerated by injection of an adenovector expressing hepatocyte growth factor. Spontaneous hepatic repopulation with engrafted hepatocytes occurred in the AAT-Z-expressing mice even in the absence of severe liver injury. Donor cells replaced both globule-containing and globule-devoid cells, indicating that both types of host hepatocytes display impaired proliferation relative to wild-type hepatocytes. These results suggest that wild-type hepatocyte transplantation may be therapeutic for AAT-Z liver disease and may provide an alternative to protein replacement for treating emphysema in AAT-ZZ individuals.

  15. Functional expression and regulation of drug transporters in monolayer- and sandwich-cultured mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Noel, Gregory; Le Vee, Marc; Moreau, Amélie; Stieger, Bruno; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2013-04-11

    Primary hepatocyte cultures are now considered as convenient models for in vitro analyzing liver drug transport. However, if primary human and rat hepatocytes have been well-characterized with respect to drug transporter expression and regulation, much less is known for primary mouse hepatocytes. The present study was therefore designed to gain insights about this point. The profile of sinusoidal and canalicular drug transporter mRNA expression in short time (4h)-cultured mouse hepatocytes was found to be highly correlated with that of freshly isolated hepatocytes; by contrast, those of counterparts cultured for a longer time (until 4 days) either in monolayer configurations on plastic or collagen or in sandwich configuration with matrigel were profoundly altered: uptake drug transporters such as Oct1, Oatps and Oat2 were thus down-regulated, whereas most of efflux transporters such as Mdr1a/b, Mrp3, Mrp4 and Bcrp were induced. Moreover, short time-cultured hepatocytes exhibited the highest levels of sinusoidal influx transporter activities. Transporter-mediated drug secretion into canalicular networks was however only observed in sandwich-cultured hepatocytes. Mouse hepatocytes cultured either in monolayer or sandwich configurations were finally shown to exhibit up-regulation of referent transporters in response to exposure to prototypical activators of the drug sensing receptors pregnane X receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor or constitutive androstane receptor. Taken together, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using primary mouse hepatocytes for investigating potential interactions of xenobiotics with hepatic transporter activity or regulation, provided that adequate culture conditions are retained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Free Fatty Acids Shift Insulin-induced Hepatocyte Proliferation towards CD95-dependent Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeld, Annika; Reinehr, Roland; Häussinger, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Insulin is known to induce hepatocyte swelling, which triggers via integrins and c-Src kinase an activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and subsequent cell proliferation (1). Free fatty acids (FFAs) are known to induce lipoapoptosis in liver cells in a c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent, but death receptor-independent way (2). As non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with hyperinsulinemia and increased FFA-blood levels, the interplay between insulin and FFA was studied with regard to hepatocyte proliferation and apoptosis in isolated rat and mouse hepatocytes. Saturated long chain FFAs induced apoptosis and JNK activation in primary rat hepatocytes, but did not activate the CD95 (Fas, APO-1) system, whereas insulin triggered EGFR activation and hepatocyte proliferation. Coadministration of insulin and FFAs, however, abolished hepatocyte proliferation and triggered CD95-dependent apoptosis due to a JNK-dependent association of the activated EGFR with CD95, subsequent CD95 tyrosine phosphorylation and formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). JNK inhibition restored the proliferative insulin effect in presence of FFAs and prevented EGFR/CD95 association, CD95 tyrosine phosphorylation and DISC formation. Likewise, in presence of FFAs insulin increased apoptosis in hepatocytes from wild type but not from Alb-Cre-FASfl/fl mice, which lack functional CD95. It is concluded that FFAs can shift insulin-induced hepatocyte proliferation toward hepatocyte apoptosis by triggering a JNK signal, which allows activated EGFR to associate with CD95 and to trigger CD95-dependent apoptosis. Such phenomena may contribute to the pathogenesis of NASH. PMID:25548285

  17. Caveolin-1 is enriched in the peroxisomal membrane of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Woudenberg, Jannes; Rembacz, Krzysztof P; van den Heuvel, Fiona A J; Woudenberg-Vrenken, Titia E; Buist-Homan, Manon; Geuken, Mariska; Hoekstra, Mark; Deelman, Leo E; Enrich, Carlos; Henning, Rob H; Moshage, Han; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2010-05-01

    Caveolae are a subtype of cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains/rafts that are routinely detected as vesicles pinching off from the plasma membrane. Caveolin-1 is an essential component of caveolae. Hepatic caveolin-1 plays an important role in liver regeneration and lipid metabolism. Expression of caveolin-1 in hepatocytes is relatively low, and it has been suggested to also reside at other subcellular locations than the plasma membrane. Recently, we found that the peroxisomal membrane contains lipid microdomains. Like caveolin-1, hepatic peroxisomes are involved in lipid metabolism. Here, we analyzed the subcellular location of caveolin-1 in rat hepatocytes. The subcellular location of rat hepatocyte caveolin-1 was analyzed by cell fractionation procedures, immunofluorescence, and immuno-electron microscopy. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged caveolin-1 was expressed in rat hepatocytes. Lipid rafts were characterized after Triton X-100 or Lubrol WX extraction of purified peroxisomes. Fenofibric acid-dependent regulation of caveolin-1 was analyzed. Peroxisome biogenesis was studied in rat hepatocytes after RNA interference-mediated silencing of caveolin-1 and caveolin-1 knockout mice. Cell fractionation and microscopic analyses reveal that caveolin-1 colocalizes with peroxisomal marker proteins (catalase, the 70 kDa peroxisomal membrane protein PMP70, the adrenoleukodystrophy protein ALDP, Pex14p, and the bile acid-coenzyme A:amino acid N-acyltransferase BAAT) in rat hepatocytes. Artificially expressed GFP-caveolin-1 accumulated in catalase-positive organelles. Peroxisomal caveolin-1 is associated with detergent-resistant microdomains. Caveolin-1 expression is strongly repressed by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist fenofibric acid. Targeting of peroxisomal matrix proteins and peroxisome number and shape were not altered in rat hepatocytes with 70%-80% reduced caveolin-1 levels and in livers of caveolin-1 knockout mice. Caveolin-1

  18. Comparative cytotoxicity of alachlor, acetochlor, and metolachlor herbicides in isolated rat and cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kale, Vijay M; Miranda, Sonia R; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Meyer, Sharon A

    2008-02-01

    Noncancerous adverse effects observed at the lowest dose for chloroacetanilide herbicides alachlor [2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide] and acetochlor [2-chloro-2'-methyl-6'-ethyl-N-(ethoxymethyl)acetanilide], but not metolachlor [2-chloro-2'-ethyl-6'-methyl-N-(1-methyl-2-methoxymethyl)acetanilide], are hepatotoxicity in rats and dogs. Liver microsomal N-dealkylation, a step in the putative activating pathway, of acetochlor exceeds that of alachlor and is negligible for metolachlor. In the present investigation, cytotoxicity of the three chloroacetanilides was ranked using isolated rat and cryopreserved human hepatocytes to correlate this endpoint with CYP3A-dependent metabolism. Chloroacetanilide cytotoxicity in rat hepatocyte suspensions was time dependent (e.g., LC(50 - alachlor/2 h) vs. LC(50 - alachlor/4 h) = 765 vs. 325 muM). Alachlor and acetochlor were more potent than metolachlor after 2 and 4 h, times when N-dealkylated alachlor product 2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)acetamide (CDEPA) formation was readily detectable. Alachlor and acetochlor potencies with cryopreserved human hepatocytes at 2 h were comparable to freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, and alachlor metabolism to CDEPA was likewise detectable. Unlike rat hepatocytes, metolachlor potency was equivalent to acetochlor and alachlor in human hepatocytes. Furthermore, chloroacetanilide cytotoxicity from two sources of human hepatocytes varied inversely with CYP3A4 activity. Collectively, while cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes was consistent with chloroacetanilide activation by CYP3A, an activating role for CYP3A4 was not supported with human hepatocytes. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Vectorial Entry and Release of Hepatitis A Virus in Polarized Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Snooks, Michelle J.; Bhat, Purnima; Mackenzie, Jason; Counihan, Natalie A.; Vaughan, Nicola; Anderson, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an enterically transmitted virus that replicates predominantly in hepatocytes within the liver before excretion via bile through feces. Hepatocytes are polarized epithelial cells, and it has been assumed that the virus load in bile results from direct export of HAV via the apical domain of polarized hepatocytes. We have developed a subclone of hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells (clone N6) that maintains functional characteristics of polarized hepatocytes but displays morphology typical of columnar epithelial cells, rather than the complex morphology that is typical of hepatocytes. N6 cells form microcolonies of polarized cells when grown on glass and confluent monolayers of polarized cells on semipermeable membranes. When N6 microcolonies were exposed to HAV, infection was restricted to peripheral cells of polarized colonies, whereas all cells could be infected in colonies of nonpolarized HepG2 cells (clone C11) or following disruption of tight junctions in N6 colonies with EGTA. This suggests that viral entry occurs predominantly via the basolateral plasma membrane, consistent with uptake of virus from the bloodstream after enteric exposure, as expected. Viral export was also found to be markedly vectorial in N6 but not C11 cells. However, rather than being exported from the apical domain as expected, more than 95% of HAV was exported via the basolateral domain of N6 cells, suggesting that virus is first excreted from infected hepatocytes into the bloodstream rather than to the biliary tree. Enteric excretion of HAV may therefore rely on reuptake and transcytosis of progeny HAV across hepatocytes into the bile. These studies provide the first example of the interactions between viruses and polarized hepatocytes. PMID:18579610

  20. Variable responses of small and large human hepatocytes to hypoxia and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H-R).

    PubMed

    Bhogal, Ricky H; Weston, Christopher J; Curbishley, Stuart M; Bhatt, Anand N; Adams, David H; Afford, Simon C

    2011-03-23

    Hypoxia and hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R) regulate human hepatocyte cell death by mediating the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hepatocytes within the liver are organised into peri-portal (PP) and peri-venous (PV) subpopulations. PP and PV hepatocytes differ in size and function. We investigated whether PP and PV human hepatocytes exhibit differential susceptibility to hypoxic stress. Isolated hepatocytes were used in an in vitro model of hypoxia and H-R. ROS production and cell death were assessed using flow cytometry. PV, and not PP hepatocytes, accumulate intracellular ROS in a mitochondrial dependent manner during hypoxia and H-R. This increased ROS regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis via a mitochondrial pathway. These findings have implications on the understanding of liver injury and application of potential therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Variable responses of small and large human hepatocytes to hypoxia and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H–R)

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, Ricky H.; Weston, Christopher J.; Curbishley, Stuart M.; Bhatt, Anand N.; Adams, David H.; Afford, Simon C.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia and hypoxia–reoxygenation (H–R) regulate human hepatocyte cell death by mediating the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hepatocytes within the liver are organised into peri-portal (PP) and peri-venous (PV) subpopulations. PP and PV hepatocytes differ in size and function. We investigated whether PP and PV human hepatocytes exhibit differential susceptibility to hypoxic stress. Isolated hepatocytes were used in an in vitro model of hypoxia and H–R. ROS production and cell death were assessed using flow cytometry. PV, and not PP hepatocytes, accumulate intracellular ROS in a mitochondrial dependent manner during hypoxia and H–R. This increased ROS regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis via a mitochondrial pathway. These findings have implications on the understanding of liver injury and application of potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:21356211

  2. Peroxisomal abnormalities in the immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line.

    PubMed

    Klouwer, Femke C C; Koster, Janet; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R

    2017-04-01

    The immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line is increasingly used for studies related to liver metabolism, including hepatic glucose, lipid, lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism, and the effect of therapeutic interventions. To determine whether the IHH cell line is a good model to investigate hepatic peroxisomal metabolism, we measured several peroxisomal parameters in IHH cells and, for comparison, HepG2 cells and primary skin fibroblasts. This revealed a marked plasmalogen deficiency and a deficient fatty acid α-oxidation in the IHH cells, due to a defect of PEX7, a cytosolic receptor protein required for peroxisomal import of a subset of peroxisomal proteins. These abnormalities have consequences for the lipid homeostasis of these cells and thus should be taken into account for the interpretation of data previously generated by using this cell line and when considering using this cell line for future research.

  3. Effect of spaceflight on rat hepatocytes - A morphometric study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racine, Richard N.; Cormier, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    Hepatic tissue from flight, synchronous, vivarium, and tail-suspended rats was examined by light microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis. Glycogen levels in flight rats were found to be significantly elevated over those in controls. Lipid was also higher but not significantly different. Hepatocytes appeared larger in flight animals because of area attributed to increased glycogen. Sinusoids were less prominent in flight animals than in controls. The total Kupffer cell population appeared to be reduced in flight animals and may represent changes in defensive capacity of the liver. Alterations in the storage of glycogen and number of Kupffer cells suggest an important effect of spacefligtht on the function of the liver that may have important implications for long-term spaceflight.

  4. Effects of Aronia melanocarpa Fruit Juice on Isolated Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka; Markova, Tsvetelina; Mitcheva, Mitka; Belcheva, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot fruits are very rich in polyphenols - procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. On rat hepatocytes, isolated by two-stepped collagenase perfusion, we investigated the effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) in two models of liver toxicity caused by (i) metabolic bioactivation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and (ii) tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-induced oxidative stress. Isolated rat hepatocytes are a suitable model for hepatotoxicity studies. We determined the main parameters of the functional and metabolic status of rat hepatocytes: Cell viability (measured by trypan blue exclusion) and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA). These parameters were used to investigate the protective effects of AMFJ in the two toxicity models. The effects of AMFJ were compared with those of silymarin. The cells were treated either with AMFJ or silymarin at increasing concentrations of 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml which were used for measuring of IC50. In both toxicity models - CCl4 and t-BuOOH, AMFJ showed statistically significant cytoprotective and antioxidant activities. AMFJ prevented the loss of cell viability and GSH depletion, decreased LDH leakage and MDA production. The effects of AMFJ at the concentrations of 5, 10, 30, and 50 μg/ml were similar to those of the same concentrations of silymarin, while the effect of the highest AMFJ concentration of 100 μg/ml was higher than that of the same silymarin concentration. The effects were concentration-dependent and more prominent in the t-BuOOH model, compared to those in the CCl4 model. The cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of AMFJ established in this study might be due to its polyphenolic ingredients, which could influence the cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of the experimental hepatotoxic substances (CCl4 and t-BuOOH) and could act as free radical scavengers. The stronger effects of

  5. Effects of Aronia melanocarpa Fruit Juice on Isolated Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka; Markova, Tsvetelina; Mitcheva, Mitka; Belcheva, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot fruits are very rich in polyphenols – procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Objective: On rat hepatocytes, isolated by two-stepped collagenase perfusion, we investigated the effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) in two models of liver toxicity caused by (i) metabolic bioactivation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and (ii) tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Isolated rat hepatocytes are a suitable model for hepatotoxicity studies. We determined the main parameters of the functional and metabolic status of rat hepatocytes: Cell viability (measured by trypan blue exclusion) and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA). These parameters were used to investigate the protective effects of AMFJ in the two toxicity models. The effects of AMFJ were compared with those of silymarin. The cells were treated either with AMFJ or silymarin at increasing concentrations of 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml which were used for measuring of IC50. Results: In both toxicity models – CCl4 and t-BuOOH, AMFJ showed statistically significant cytoprotective and antioxidant activities. AMFJ prevented the loss of cell viability and GSH depletion, decreased LDH leakage and MDA production. The effects of AMFJ at the concentrations of 5, 10, 30, and 50 μg/ml were similar to those of the same concentrations of silymarin, while the effect of the highest AMFJ concentration of 100 μg/ml was higher than that of the same silymarin concentration. The effects were concentration-dependent and more prominent in the t-BuOOH model, compared to those in the CCl4 model. Conclusion: The cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of AMFJ established in this study might be due to its polyphenolic ingredients, which could influence the cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of the experimental hepatotoxic substances (CCl4 and t

  6. Glycogen synthase activation by sugars in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, C J; Carabaza, A; Bosch, F; Gòmez I Foix, A M; Guinovart, J J

    1988-07-01

    We have investigated the activation by sugars of glycogen synthase in relation to (i) phosphorylase a activity and (ii) changes in the intracellular concentration of glucose 6-phosphate and adenine nucleotides. All the sugars tested in this work present the common denominator of activating glycogen synthase. On the other hand, phosphorylase a activity is decreased by mannose and glucose, unchanged by galactose and xylitol, and increased by tagatose, glyceraldehyde, and fructose. Dihydroxyacetone exerts a biphasic effect on phosphorylase. These findings provide additional evidence proving that glycogen synthase can be activated regardless of the levels of phosphorylase a, clearly establishing that a nonsequential mechanism for the activation of glycogen synthase occurs in liver cells. The glycogen synthase activation state is related to the concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and adenine nucleotides. In this respect, tagatose, glyceraldehyde, and fructose deplete ATP and increase AMP contents, whereas glucose, mannose, galactose, xylitol, and dihydroxyacetone do not alter the concentration of these nucleotides. In addition, all these sugars, except glyceraldehyde, increase the intracellular content of glucose 6-phosphate. The activation of glycogen synthase by sugars is reflected in decreases on both kinetic constants of the enzyme, M0.5 (for glucose 6-phosphate) and S0.5 (for UDP-glucose). We propose that hepatocyte glycogen synthase is activated by monosaccharides by a mechanism triggered by changes in glucose 6-phosphate and adenine nucleotide concentrations which have been described to modify glycogen synthase phosphatase activity. This mechanism represents a metabolite control of the sugar-induced activation of hepatocyte glycogen synthase.

  7. Metabolic activation of 4-hydroxyanisole by isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Moridani, M Y; Cheon, S S; Khan, S; O'Brien, P J

    2002-10-01

    A tyrosinase-directed therapeutic approach for treating malignant melanoma uses depigmenting phenolic prodrugs such as 4-hydroxyanisole (4-HA) for oxidation by melanoma tyrosinase to form cytotoxic o-quinones. However, in a recent clinical trial, both renal and hepatic toxicity were reported as side effects of 4-HA therapy. In the following, 4-HA (200 mg/kg i.p.) administered to mice caused a 7-fold increase in plasma transaminase toxicity, an indication of liver toxicity. Furthermore, 4-HA induced-cytotoxicity toward isolated hepatocytes was preceded by glutathione (GSH) depletion, which was prevented by cytochrome p450 inhibitors that also partly prevented cytotoxicity. The 4-HA metabolite formed by NADPH/microsomes and GSH was identified as a hydroquinone mono-glutathione conjugate. GSH-depleted hepatocytes were much more prone to cytotoxicity induced by 4-HA or its reactive metabolite hydroquinone (HQ). Dicumarol (an NAD(P)H/quinone oxidoreductase inhibitor) also potentiated 4-HA- or HQ-induced toxicity whereas sorbitol, an NADH-generating nutrient, prevented the cytotoxicity. Ethylenediamine (an o-quinone trap) did not prevent 4-HA-induced cytotoxicity, which suggests that the cytotoxicity was not caused by o-quinone as a result of 4-HA ring hydroxylation. Deferoxamine and the antioxidant pyrogallol/4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidene-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) did not prevent 4-HA-induced cytotoxicity, therefore excluding oxidative stress as a cytotoxic mechanism for 4-HA. A negligible amount of formaldehyde was formed when 4-HA was incubated with rat microsomal/NADPH. These results suggest that the 4-HA cytotoxic mechanism involves alkylation of cellular proteins by 4-HA epoxide or p-quinone rather than involving oxidative stress.

  8. Nanofabricated Collagen-Inspired Synthetic Elastomers for Primary Rat Hepatocyte Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bettinger, Christopher J.; Kulig, Katherine M.; Vacanti, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic substrates that mimic the properties of extracellular matrix proteins hold significant promise for use in systems designed for tissue engineering applications. In this report, we designed a synthetic polymeric substrate that is intended to mimic chemical, mechanical, and topological characteristics of collagen. We found that elastomeric poly(ester amide) substrates modified with replica-molded nanotopographic features enhanced initial attachment, spreading, and adhesion of primary rat hepatocytes. Further, hepatocytes cultured on nanotopographic substrates also demonstrated reduced albumin secretion and urea synthesis, which is indicative of strongly adherent hepatocytes. These results suggest that these engineered substrates can function as synthetic collagen analogs for in vitro cell culture. PMID:18847357

  9. Inflammation-induced synthesis of proteoheparan sulfate: a novel acute-phase reactant in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Djovkar, A.; Gressner, A.M.

    1987-03-01

    The synthesis of proteoheparan sulfate in hepatocytes is positively regulated under acute-phase conditions produced either by turpentine or deep back incision. In both cases the incorporation of (/sup 35/S)sulfate and (/sup 14/C)glucosamine is doubled during a 4-h incubation period if compared with control rat hepatocytes. Neither the fractional secretion rate of heparan sulfate into the medium (less than 0.1 of cell-associated glycosaminoglycans) nor the composition of newly formed proteoglycans in hepatocytes are affected during acute phase reaction.

  10. Disappearance of GFP-Positive Hepatocytes Transplanted into the Liver of Syngeneic Wild-Type Rats Pretreated with Retrorsine

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Shigoka, Masatoshi; Wang, Yongchun; Fu, Yingxin; Wesson, Russell N.; Lin, Qing; Montgomery, Robert A.; Enzan, Hideaki; Sun, Zhaoli

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a widely used molecular tag to trace transplanted cells in rodent liver injury models. The differing results from various previously reported studies using GFP could be attributed to the immunogenicity of GFP. Methods Hepatocytes were obtained from GFP-expressing transgenic (Tg) Lewis rats and were transplanted into the livers of wild-type Lewis rats after they had undergone a partial hepatectomy. The proliferation of endogenous hepatocytes in recipient rats was inhibited by pretreatment with retrorsine to enhance the proliferation of the transplanted hepatocytes. Transplantation of wild-type hepatocytes into GFP-Tg rat liver was also performed for comparison. Results All biopsy specimens taken seven days after transplantation showed engraftment of transplanted hepatocytes, with the numbers of transplanted hepatocytes increasing until day 14. GFP-positive hepatocytes in wild-type rat livers were decreased by day 28 and could not be detected on day 42, whereas the number of wild-type hepatocytes steadily increased in GFP-Tg rat liver. Histological examination showed degenerative change of GFP-positive hepatocytes and the accumulation of infiltrating cells on day 28. PCR analysis for the GFP transgene suggested that transplanted hepatocytes were eliminated rather than being retained along with the loss of GFP expression. Both modification of the immunological response using tacrolimus and bone marrow transplantation prolonged the survival of GFP-positive hepatocytes. In contrast, host immunization with GFP-positive hepatocytes led to complete loss of GFP-positive hepatocytes by day 14. Conclusion GFP-positive hepatocytes isolated from GFP-Tg Lewis rats did not survive long term in the livers of retrorsine-pretreated wild-type Lewis rats. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon most likely involves an immunological reaction against GFP. The influence of GFP immunogenicity on cell transplantation models should be

  11. Hepatocyte-specific ablation of spermine/spermidine-N1-acetyltransferase gene reduces the severity of CCl4-induced acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Sharon L.; Xu, Jie; Steinbergs, Nora; Schuster, Rebecca; Lentsch, Alex B.; Amlal, Hassane; Wang, Jiang; Casero, Robert A.; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2012-01-01

    Activation of spermine/spermidine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) leads to DNA damage and growth arrest in mammalian cells, and its ablation reduces the severity of ischemic and endotoxic injuries. Here we have examined the role of SSAT in the pathogenesis of toxic liver injury caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The expression and activity of SSAT increase in the liver subsequent to CCl4 administration. Furthermore, the early liver injury after CCl4 treatment was significantly attenuated in hepatocyte-specific SSAT knockout mice (Hep-SSAT-Cko) compared with wild-type (WT) mice as determined by the reduced serum alanine aminotransferase levels, decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation, and less severe liver damage. Cytochrome P450 2e1 levels remained comparable in both genotypes, suggesting that SSAT deficiency does not affect the metabolism of CCl4. Hepatocyte-specific deficiency of SSAT also modulated the induction of cytokines involved in inflammation and repair as well as leukocyte infiltration. In addition, Noxa and activated caspase 3 levels were elevated in the livers of WT compared with Hep-SSAT-Cko mice. Interestingly, the onset of cell proliferation was significantly more robust in the WT compared with Hep-SSAT Cko mice. The inhibition of polyamine oxidases protected the animals against CCl4-induced liver injury. Our studies suggest that while the abrogation of polyamine back conversion or inhibition of polyamine oxidation attenuate the early injury, they may delay the onset of hepatic regeneration. PMID:22723264

  12. Hepatocyte-specific ablation of spermine/spermidine-N1-acetyltransferase gene reduces the severity of CCl4-induced acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Kamyar; Barone, Sharon L; Xu, Jie; Steinbergs, Nora; Schuster, Rebecca; Lentsch, Alex B; Amlal, Hassane; Wang, Jiang; Casero, Robert A; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2012-09-01

    Activation of spermine/spermidine-N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) leads to DNA damage and growth arrest in mammalian cells, and its ablation reduces the severity of ischemic and endotoxic injuries. Here we have examined the role of SSAT in the pathogenesis of toxic liver injury caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). The expression and activity of SSAT increase in the liver subsequent to CCl(4) administration. Furthermore, the early liver injury after CCl(4) treatment was significantly attenuated in hepatocyte-specific SSAT knockout mice (Hep-SSAT-Cko) compared with wild-type (WT) mice as determined by the reduced serum alanine aminotransferase levels, decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation, and less severe liver damage. Cytochrome P450 2e1 levels remained comparable in both genotypes, suggesting that SSAT deficiency does not affect the metabolism of CCl(4). Hepatocyte-specific deficiency of SSAT also modulated the induction of cytokines involved in inflammation and repair as well as leukocyte infiltration. In addition, Noxa and activated caspase 3 levels were elevated in the livers of WT compared with Hep-SSAT-Cko mice. Interestingly, the onset of cell proliferation was significantly more robust in the WT compared with Hep-SSAT Cko mice. The inhibition of polyamine oxidases protected the animals against CCl(4)-induced liver injury. Our studies suggest that while the abrogation of polyamine back conversion or inhibition of polyamine oxidation attenuate the early injury, they may delay the onset of hepatic regeneration.

  13. Role of TRAIL and the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Bim in acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Badmann, A; Keough, A; Kaufmann, T; Bouillet, P; Brunner, T; Corazza, N

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP), paracetamol) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, accidental or intentional overdose causes acute liver failure characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis with high morbidity and mortality. Although many molecular aspects of APAP-induced cell death have been described, no conclusive mechanism has been proposed. We recently identified TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and c-Jun kinase (JNK)-dependent activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Bim as an important apoptosis amplification pathway in hepatocytes. In this study, we, thus, investigated the role of TRAIL, c-JNK and Bim in APAP-induced liver damage. Our results demonstrate that TRAIL strongly synergizes with APAP in inducing cell death in hepatocyte-like cells lines and primary hepatocyte. Furthermore, we found that APAP strongly induces the expression of Bim in a c-JNK-dependent manner. Consequently, TRAIL- or Bim-deficient mice were substantially protected from APAP-induced liver damage. This study identifies the TRAIL-JNK-Bim axis as a novel target in the treatment of APAP-induced liver damage and substantiates its general role in hepatocyte death. PMID:21654829

  14. MRI-based assessment of liver perfusion and hepatocyte injury in the murine model of acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Byk, Katarzyna; Jasinski, Krzysztof; Bartel, Zaneta; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Sitek, Barbara; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Chlopicki, Stefan; Skorka, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    To assess alterations in perfusion and liver function in the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mouse model of acute liver failure (ALF) using two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based methods: dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with Gd-EOB-DTPA contrast agent and arterial spin labelling (ASL). BALB/c mice were studied using a 9.4 T MRI system. The IntraGateFLASH TM and FAIR-EPI pulse sequences were used for optimum mouse abdomen imaging. The average perfusion values for the liver of the control and ConA group were equal to 245 ± 20 and 200 ± 32 ml/min/100 g (p = 0.008, respectively). DCE-MRI showed that the time to the peak of the image enhancement was 6.14 ± 1.07 min and 9.72 ± 1.69 min in the control and ConA group (p < 0.001, respectively), while the rate of the contrast wash-out in the control and ConA group was 0.037 ± 0.008 and 0.021 ± 0.008 min -1 (p = 0.004, respectively). These results were consistent with hepatocyte injury in the ConA-treated mice as confirmed by histopathological staining. Both the ASL and DCE-MRI techniques represent a reliable methodology to assess alterations in liver perfusion and hepatocyte integrity in murine hepatitis.

  15. An Inducible Transgenic Mouse Model for Immune Mediated Hepatitis Showing Clearance of Antigen Expressing Hepatocytes by CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cebula, Marcin; Ochel, Aaron; Hillebrand, Upneet; Pils, Marina C.; Schirmbeck, Reinhold; Hauser, Hansjörg; Wirth, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    The liver has the ability to prime immune responses against neo antigens provided upon infections. However, T cell immunity in liver is uniquely modulated by the complex tolerogenic property of this organ that has to also cope with foreign agents such as endotoxins or food antigens. In this respect, the nature of intrahepatic T cell responses remains to be fully characterized. To gain deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate the CD8+ T cell responses in the liver, we established a novel OVA_X_CreERT2 mouse model. Upon tamoxifen administration OVA antigen expression is observed in a fraction of hepatocytes, resulting in a mosaic expression pattern. To elucidate the cross-talk of CD8+ T cells with antigen-expressing hepatocytes, we adoptively transferred Kb/OVA257-264-specific OT-I T cells to OVA_X_CreERT2 mice or generated triple transgenic OVA_X CreERT2_X_OT-I mice. OT-I T cells become activated in OVA_X_CreERT2 mice and induce an acute and transient hepatitis accompanied by liver damage. In OVA_X_CreERT2_X_OT-I mice, OVA induction triggers an OT-I T cell mediated, fulminant hepatitis resulting in 50% mortality. Surviving mice manifest a long lasting hepatitis, and recover after 9 weeks. In these experimental settings, recovery from hepatitis correlates with a complete loss of OVA expression indicating efficient clearance of the antigen-expressing hepatocytes. Moreover, a relapse of hepatitis can be induced upon re-induction of cured OVA_X_CreERT2_X_OT-I mice indicating absence of tolerogenic mechanisms. This pathogen-free, conditional mouse model has the advantage of tamoxifen inducible tissue specific antigen expression that reflects the heterogeneity of viral antigen expression and enables the study of intrahepatic immune responses to both de novo and persistent antigen. It allows following the course of intrahepatic immune responses: initiation, the acute phase and antigen clearance. PMID:23869228

  16. Identification of transcriptional networks involved in peroxisome proliferator chemical-induced hepatocyte proliferation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemical (PPC) exposure leads to increases in rodent liver tumors through a non-genotoxic mode of action (MOA). The PPC MOA includes increased oxidative stress, hepatocyte proliferation and decreased apoptosis. We investigated the putative genetic regulato...

  17. Differential Lectin Agglutination of Fetal, Dividing-Postnatal, and Malignant Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Becker, F. F.

    1974-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the capacity of the lectin, concanavalin A, to agglutinate selected cell-types. The finding that cells transformed in culture, embryonic cells, and malignant cells are all agglutinated by this substance, may contribute to our understanding of the oncogenic process. The present study compared the response to concanavalin A of rat hepatocytes derived from livers of differing developmental and mitotic-status as well as those derived from malignant liver tumors (hepatomas). Fetal hepatocytes and hepatoma cells were highly susceptible to agglutination while hepatocytes from post-natal livers, whether dividing or quiescent, were not. Treatment with protease(s) did not make the interphase hepatocyte agglutinable. These data emphasize the importance of examining a wide variety of cells in attempting to understand the interaction of lectins on cell surfaces, and further, demonstrate the value of obtaining cells directly from tissue(s) during differing physiologic and pathologic states. Images PMID:4373708

  18. Entrapment of hepatocyte spheroids in a hollow fiber bioreactor as a potential bioartificial liver.

    PubMed

    Wu, F J; Peshwa, M V; Cerra, F B; Hu, W S

    1995-01-01

    A bioartificial liver (BAL) employing xenogeneic hepatocytes has been developed as a potential interim support for patients in hepatic failure. For application in human therapy, the BAL requires a substantial increase in liver-specific functions. Cultivation of hepatocytes as spheroids leads to enhanced liver specific functions. We explored the possibility of entrapping spheroids into the BAL in order to improve device performance. Rat hepatocyte spheroids were entrapped in collagen gel within the lumen fibers of the BAL. The morphology and ultrastructure of collagen-entrapped spheroids resembled those of suspended spheroids formed on petri dishes. Albumin synthesis and P-450 enzyme activity were measured as markers of liver specific functions of spheroids entrapped in the BAL. At least a 4-fold improvement in these functions was observed compared to BAL devices entrapped with dispersed hepatocytes in collagen gels.

  19. Cadmium exposure exacerbates hyperlipidemia in cholesterol-overloaded hepatocytes via autophagy dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Cruz, Patricia; Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Reyes-Zárate, Elizabeth; Bello-Monroy, Oscar; Enríquez-Cortina, Cristina; Miranda-Labra, Roxana; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Rojas-Del Castillo, Emilio; Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción; Souza-Arroyo, Verónica

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic factors are the major risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, although other factors may contribute steatosis. Cadmium exposure produces histopathological and molecular changes in liver, which are consistent with steatosis. In the present study, we describe the effect of low cadmium acute treatment on hepatocytes obtained from mice fed with a high cholesterol diet. Our data suggest that hepatocytes with cholesterol overload promote an adaptive response against cadmium-induced acute toxicity by up-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins, managing ROS overproduction, increasing GSH synthesis and MT-II content to avoid protein oxidation. Cadmium treatment increases lipid content in cholesterol-fed mice hepatocytes because of an impaired autophagy process. Our data suggest an essential function of macroautophagy in the regulation of lipid storage induced by Cd on hepatocytes, that implies that alterations in this pathway may be a mechanism that aggravates hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Optimizing the use of rainbow trout hepatocytes for bioaccumulation assessments with fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measured rates of biotransformation by cryopreserved trout hepatocytes can be extrapolated to the whole animal as a means of predicting metabolism impacts on chemical bioaccumulation. Future use of these methods within a regulatory context requires, however, that they be standar...

  1. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis pathogenesis: sublethal hepatocyte injury as a driver of liver inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Samar H; Hirsova, Petra; Gores, Gregory J

    2018-01-01

    A subset of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease develop an inflammatory condition, termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterised by hepatocellular injury, innate immune cell-mediated inflammation and progressive liver fibrosis. The mechanisms whereby hepatic inflammation occurs in NASH remain incompletely understood, but appear to be linked to the proinflammatory microenvironment created by toxic lipid-induced hepatocyte injury, termed lipotoxicity. In this review, we discuss the signalling pathways induced by sublethal hepatocyte lipid overload that contribute to the pathogenesis of NASH. Furthermore, we will review the role of proinflammatory, proangiogenic and profibrotic hepatocyte-derived extracellular vesicles as disease biomarkers and pathogenic mediators during lipotoxicity. We also review the potential therapeutic strategies to block the feed-forward loop between sublethal hepatocyte injury and liver inflammation. PMID:29367207

  2. A fat option for the pig: Hepatocytic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells for translational research

    SciTech Connect

    Brückner, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.brueckner@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael, E-mail: hans-michael.tautenhahn@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; TRM, Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, Leipzig D-04103

    Study background: Extended liver resection is the only curative treatment option of liver cancer. Yet, the residual liver may not accomplish the high metabolic and regenerative capacity needed, which frequently leads to acute liver failure. Because of their anti-inflammatory and -apoptotic as well as pro-proliferative features, mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells might provide functional and regenerative compensation. Clinical translation of basic research requires pre-clinical approval in large animals. Therefore, we characterized porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from adipose tissue and bone marrow and their hepatocyte differentiation potential for future assessment of functional liver support after surgical intervention inmore » the pig model. Methods: Mesenchymal surface antigens and multi-lineage differentiation potential of porcine MSC isolated by collagenase digestion either from bone marrow or adipose tissue (subcutaneous/visceral) were assessed by flow cytometry. Morphology and functional properties (urea-, glycogen synthesis and cytochrome P450 activity) were determined during culture under differentiation conditions and compared with primary porcine hepatocytes. Results: MSC from porcine adipose tissue and from bone marrow express the typical mesenchymal markers CD44, CD29, CD90 and CD105 but not haematopoietic markers. MSC from both sources displayed differentiation into the osteogenic as well as adipogenic lineage. After hepatocyte differentiation, expression of CD105 decreased significantly and cells adopted the typical polygonal morphology of hepatocytes. Glycogen storage was comparable in adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived cells. Urea synthesis was about 35% lower in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived MSC. Cytochrome P450 activity increased significantly during differentiation and was twice as high in hepatocyte-like cells generated from bone marrow as from adipose tissue. Conclusion: The

  3. Hepatocyte Produced Matrix Metalloproteinases Are Regulated by CD147 in Liver Fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Alison J.; Tu, Thomas; Wen, Victoria W.; Yee, Christine; Mridha, Auvro; Lee, Maggie; d'Avigdor, William; Locarnini, Stephen A.; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; Warner, Fiona J.; McLennan, Susan V.; Shackel, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The classical paradigm of liver injury asserts that hepatic stellate cells (HSC) produce, remodel and turnover the abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) of fibrosis via matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In extrahepatic tissues MMP production is regulated by a number of mechanisms including expression of the glycoprotein CD147. Previously, we have shown that CD147 is expressed on hepatocytes but not within the fibrotic septa in cirrhosis [1]. Therefore, we investigated if hepatocytes produce MMPs, regulated by CD147, which are capable of remodelling fibrotic ECM independent of the HSC. Methods Non-diseased, fibrotic and cirrhotic livers were examined for MMP activity and markers of fibrosis in humans and mice. CD147 expression and MMP activity were co-localised by in-situ zymography. The role of CD147 was studied in-vitro with siRNA to CD147 in hepatocytes and in-vivo in mice with CCl4 induced liver injury using ãCD147 antibody intervention. Results In liver fibrosis in both human and mouse tissue MMP expression and activity (MMP-2, -9, -13 and -14) increased with progressive injury and localised to hepatocytes. Additionally, as expected, MMPs were abundantly expressed by activated HSC. Further, with progressive fibrosis there was expression of CD147, which localised to hepatocytes but not to HSC. Functionally significant in-vitro regulation of hepatocyte MMP production by CD147 was demonstrated using siRNA to CD147 that decreased hepatocyte MMP-2 and -9 expression/activity. Further, in-vivo α-CD147 antibody intervention decreased liver MMP-2, -9, -13, -14, TGF-β and α-SMA expression in CCl4 treated mice compared to controls. Conclusion We have shown that hepatocytes produce active MMPs and that the glycoprotein CD147 regulates hepatocyte MMP expression. Targeting CD147 regulates hepatocyte MMP production both in-vitro and in-vivo, with the net result being reduced fibrotic matrix turnover in-vivo. Therefore, CD147 regulation of hepatocyte MMP is a

  4. Hepatocyte produced matrix metalloproteinases are regulated by CD147 in liver fibrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Calabro, Sarah R; Maczurek, Annette E; Morgan, Alison J; Tu, Thomas; Wen, Victoria W; Yee, Christine; Mridha, Auvro; Lee, Maggie; d'Avigdor, William; Locarnini, Stephen A; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Warner, Fiona J; McLennan, Susan V; Shackel, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    The classical paradigm of liver injury asserts that hepatic stellate cells (HSC) produce, remodel and turnover the abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) of fibrosis via matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In extrahepatic tissues MMP production is regulated by a number of mechanisms including expression of the glycoprotein CD147. Previously, we have shown that CD147 is expressed on hepatocytes but not within the fibrotic septa in cirrhosis [1]. Therefore, we investigated if hepatocytes produce MMPs, regulated by CD147, which are capable of remodelling fibrotic ECM independent of the HSC. Non-diseased, fibrotic and cirrhotic livers were examined for MMP activity and markers of fibrosis in humans and mice. CD147 expression and MMP activity were co-localised by in-situ zymography. The role of CD147 was studied in-vitro with siRNA to CD147 in hepatocytes and in-vivo in mice with CCl4 induced liver injury using ãCD147 antibody intervention. In liver fibrosis in both human and mouse tissue MMP expression and activity (MMP-2, -9, -13 and -14) increased with progressive injury and localised to hepatocytes. Additionally, as expected, MMPs were abundantly expressed by activated HSC. Further, with progressive fibrosis there was expression of CD147, which localised to hepatocytes but not to HSC. Functionally significant in-vitro regulation of hepatocyte MMP production by CD147 was demonstrated using siRNA to CD147 that decreased hepatocyte MMP-2 and -9 expression/activity. Further, in-vivo α-CD147 antibody intervention decreased liver MMP-2, -9, -13, -14, TGF-β and α-SMA expression in CCl4 treated mice compared to controls. We have shown that hepatocytes produce active MMPs and that the glycoprotein CD147 regulates hepatocyte MMP expression. Targeting CD147 regulates hepatocyte MMP production both in-vitro and in-vivo, with the net result being reduced fibrotic matrix turnover in-vivo. Therefore, CD147 regulation of hepatocyte MMP is a novel pathway that could be targeted by

  5. Rat hepatocytes transport water mainly via a non-channel-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Yano, M; Marinelli, R A; Roberts, S K; Balan, V; Pham, L; Tarara, J E; de Groen, P C; LaRusso, N F

    1996-03-22

    During bile formation by the liver, large volumes of water are transported across two epithelial barriers consisting of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes (i.e. intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells). We recently reported that a water channel, aquaporin-channel-forming integral protein of 28 kDa, is present in cholangiocytes and suggested that it plays a major role in water transport by these cells. Since the mechanisms of water transport across hepatocytes remain obscure, we performed physiological, molecular, and biochemical studies on hepatocytes to determine if they also contain water channels. Water permeability was studied by exposing isolated rat hepatocytes to buffers of different osmolarity and measuring cell volume by quantitative phase contrast, fluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Using this method, hepatocytes exposed to hypotonic buffers at 23 degrees C increased their cell volume in a time and osmolarity-dependent manner with an osmotic water permeability coefficient of 66.4 x 10(-4) cm/s. In studies done at 10 degrees C, the osmotic water permeability coefficient decreased by 55% (p < 0.001, at 23 degrees C; t test). The derived activation energy from these studies was 12.8 kcal/mol. After incubation of hepatocytes with amphotericin B at 10 degrees C, the osmotic water permeability coefficient increased by 198% (p < 0.001) and the activation energy value decreased to 3.6 kcal/mol, consistent with the insertion of artificial water channels into the hepatocyte plasma membrane. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with hepatocyte RNA as template did not produce cDNAs for three of the known water channels. Both the cholesterol content and the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio of hepatocyte plasma membranes were significantly (p < 0.005) less than those of cholangiocytes; membrane fluidity of hepatocytes estimated by measuring steady-state anisotropy was higher than that of cholangiocytes. Our data suggests that the osmotic flow of

  6. Comparative gene expression profiles induced by PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Universite de Rennes 1, 35065 Rennes Cedex; Biologie Servier, 45520 Gidy

    2011-07-01

    Species-differential toxic effects have been described with PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists between rodent and human liver. PPAR{alpha} agonists (fibrates) are potent hypocholesterolemic agents in humans while they induce peroxisome proliferation and tumors in rodent liver. By contrast, PPAR{gamma} agonists (glitazones) and even dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists (glitazars) have caused idiosyncratic hepatic and nonhepatic toxicities in human without evidence of any damage in rodent during preclinical studies. The mechanisms involved in such differences remain largely unknown. Several studies have identified the major target genes of PPAR{alpha} agonists in rodent liver while no comprehensive analysis has been performed on gene expression changes inducedmore » by PPAR{gamma} and dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists. Here, we investigated transcriptomes of rat hepatocytes after 24 h treatment with two PPAR{gamma} (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists. Although, hierarchical clustering revealed a gene expression profile characteristic of each PPAR agonist class, only a limited number of genes was specifically deregulated by glitazars. Functional analyses showed that many genes known as PPAR{alpha} targets were also modulated by both PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists and quantitative differences in gene expression profiles were observed between these two classes. Moreover, most major genes modulated in rat hepatocytes were also found to be deregulated in rat liver after tesaglitazar treatment. Taken altogether, these results support the conclusion that differential toxic effects of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists in rodent liver do not result from transcriptional deregulation of major PPAR target genes but rather from qualitative and/or quantitative differential responses of a small subset of genes.« less

  7. The enhancement of differentiating adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells toward hepatocyte like cells using gelatin cryogel scaffold.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi Gandomani, Maryam; Sahebghadam Lotfi, Abbas; Kordi Tamandani, Dormohammad; Arjmand, Sareh; Alizadeh, Shaban

    2017-09-30

    Liver tissue engineering creates a promising methodology for developing functional tissue to restore or improve the function of lost or damaged liver by using appropriate cells and biologically compatible scaffolds. The present paper aims to study the hepatogenic potential of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) on a 3D gelatin scaffold in vitro. For this purpose, mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from human adipose tissue and characterized by flowcytometry analysis and mesodermal lineage differentiation capacity. Then, porous cryogel scaffolds were fabricated by cryogelating the gelatin using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking agent. The structure of the scaffolds as well as the adhesion and proliferation of the cells were then determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis and MTT assay, respectively. The efficiency of hepatic differentiation of hADSCs on 2D and 3D culture systems has been assessed by means of morphological, cytological, molecular and biochemical approaches. Based on the results of flowcytometry, the isolated cells were positive for hMSC specific markers and negative for hematopoietic markers. Further, the multipotency of these cells was confirmed by adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation and the highly porous structure of scaffolds was characterized by SEM images. Biocompatibility was observed in the fabricated gelatin scaffolds and the adhesion and proliferation of hADSCs were promoted without any cytotoxicity effects. In addition, compared to 2D TCPS, the fabricated scaffolds provided more appropriate microenvironment resulting in promoting the differentiation of hADSCs toward hepatocyte-like cells with higher expression of hepatocyte-specific markers and appropriate functional characteristics such as increased levels of urea biosynthesis and glycogen storage. Finally, the created 3D gelatin scaffold could provide an appropriate matrix for hepatogenic differentiation of hADSCs, which could be considered for

  8. Hepatocytes express functional NOD1 and NOD2 receptors: A role for NOD1 in hepatocyte CC and CXC chemokine production

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Melanie J.; Chen, Christine; Sun, Qian; Billiar, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims NOD-like receptors are recently described cytosolic pattern recognition receptors. NOD1 and NOD2 are members of this family that recognize bacterial cell wall components, diaminopimelic acid and muramyl dipeptide, respectively. Both NOD1 and NOD2 have been associated with many inflammatory diseases, although their role in liver inflammation and infection has not been well studied. Materials and Methods We investigated the role of NOD receptors in mouse liver by assessing expression and activation of NOD1 and NOD2 in liver and primary isolated hepatocytes from C57BL/6 mice. Results Both NOD1 and NOD2 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in hepatocytes and liver. RIP2, the main signaling partner for NODs, was also expressed. Stimulation of hepatocytes with NOD1 ligand (C12-iEDAP) induced NFκB activation, activation of MAP kinases and expression of chemokines CCL5 (RANTES) and CXCL1 (KC). C12-iEDAP also synergized with interferon (IFN)γ to increase iNOS expression and production of nitric oxide. Despite activating NFκB, NOD1 ligand did not upregulate hepatocyte production of the acute phase proteins lipopolysaccharide binding protein, serum amyloid A, or soluble CD14 in cell culture supernatants, or upregulate mRNA expression of lipopolysaccharide binding protein, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, or serum amyloid P. NOD2 ligand (MDP) did not activate hepatocytes when given alone, but did synergize with Toll-like receptor ligands, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and polyI:C to activate NFκB and MAPK. Conclusions All together these data suggest an important role for hepatocyte NOD1 in attracting leukocytes to the liver during infection and for hepatic NLRs to augment innate immune responses to pathogens. PMID:20615568

  9. The differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells from monkey embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaocui; Duan, Yuyou; Jung, Christine J; Wu, Jian; VandeVoort, Catherine A; Zern, Mark A

    2008-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) hold great potential for the treatment of liver diseases. Here, we report the differentiation of rhesus macaque ESC along a hepatocyte lineage. The undifferentiated monkey ESC line, ORMES-6, was cultured in an optimal culture condition in an effort to differentiate them into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. The functional efficacy of the differentiated hepatic cells was evaluated using RT-PCR for the expression of hepatocyte specific genes, and Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry for hepatic proteins such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin and alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT). Functional assays were performed using the periodic acid schiff (PAS) reaction and ELISA. The final yield of ESC-derived hepatocyte-like cells was measured by flow cytometry for cells that were transduced with a liver-specific lentivirus vector containing the alpha1-AT promoter driving the expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP). The treatment of monkey ESC with an optimal culture condition yielded hepatocyte-like cells that expressed albumin, alpha1-AT, AFP, hepatocyte nuclear factor 3beta, glucose-6-phophatase, and cytochrome P450 genes and proteins as determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunofluorescent staining showed the cells positive for albumin, AFP, and alpha1-AT. PAS staining demonstrated that the differentiated cells showed hepatocyte functional activity. Albumin could be detected in the medium after 20 days of differentiation. Flow cytometry data showed that 6.5 +/- 1.0% of the total differentiated cells were positive for GFP. These results suggest that by using a specific, empirically determined, culture condition, we were able to direct monkey ESC toward a hepatocyte lineage.

  10. Human but Not Mouse Hepatocytes Respond to Interferon-Lambda In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hermant, Pascale; Demarez, Céline; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Staeheli, Peter; Meuleman, Philip; Michiels, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The type III interferon (IFN) receptor is preferentially expressed by epithelial cells. It is made of two subunits: IFNLR1, which is specific to IFN-lambda (IFN-λ) and IL10RB, which is shared by other cytokine receptors. Human hepatocytes express IFNLR1 and respond to IFN-λ. In contrast, the IFN-λ response of the mouse liver is very weak and IFNLR1 expression is hardly detectable in this organ. Here we investigated the IFN-λ response at the cellular level in the mouse liver and we tested whether human and mouse hepatocytes truly differ in responsiveness to IFN-λ. When monitoring expression of the IFN-responsive Mx genes by immunohistofluorescence, we observed that the IFN-λ response in mouse livers was restricted to cholangiocytes, which form the bile ducts, and that mouse hepatocytes were indeed not responsive to IFN-λ. The lack of mouse hepatocyte response to IFN-λ was observed in different experimental settings, including the infection with a hepatotropic strain of influenza A virus which triggered a strong local production of IFN-λ. With the help of chimeric mice containing transplanted human hepatocytes, we show that hepatocytes of human origin readily responded to IFN-λ in a murine environment. Thus, our data suggest that human but not mouse hepatocytes are responsive to IFN-λ in vivo. The non-responsiveness is an intrinsic property of mouse hepatocytes and is not due to the mouse liver micro-environment. PMID:24498220

  11. Role of CYP2B in Phenobarbital-Induced Hepatocyte Proliferation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Bao, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Negishi, Masahiko; Ding, Xinxin

    2017-08-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) promotes liver tumorigenesis in rodents, in part through activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the consequent changes in hepatic gene expression and increases in hepatocyte proliferation. A typical effect of CAR activation by PB is a marked induction of Cyp2b10 expression in the liver; the latter has been suspected to be vital for PB-induced hepatocellular proliferation. This hypothesis was tested here by using a Cyp2a(4/5)bgs -null (null) mouse model in which all Cyp2b genes are deleted. Adult male and female wild-type (WT) and null mice were treated intraperitoneally with PB at 50 mg/kg once daily for 5 successive days and tested on day 6. The liver-to-body weight ratio, an indicator of liver hypertrophy, was increased by 47% in male WT mice, but by only 22% in male Cyp2a(4/5)bgs -null mice, by the PB treatment. The fractions of bromodeoxyuridine-positive hepatocyte nuclei, assessed as a measure of the rate of hepatocyte proliferation, were also significantly lower in PB-treated male null mice compared with PB-treated male WT mice. However, whereas few proliferating hepatocytes were detected in saline-treated mice, many proliferating hepatocytes were still detected in PB-treated male null mice. In contrast, female WT mice were much less sensitive than male WT mice to PB-induced hepatocyte proliferation, and PB-treated female WT and PB-treated female null mice did not show significant difference in rates of hepatocyte proliferation. These results indicate that CYP2B induction plays a significant, but partial, role in PB-induced hepatocyte proliferation in male mice. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  12. Deficiency of angiotensinogen in hepatocytes markedly decreases blood pressure in lean and obese male mice.

    PubMed

    Yiannikouris, Frederique; Wang, Yu; Shoemaker, Robin; Larian, Nika; Thompson, Joel; English, Victoria L; Charnigo, Richard; Su, Wen; Gong, Ming; Cassis, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    We recently demonstrated that adipocyte deficiency of angiotensinogen (AGT) ablated high-fat diet-induced elevations in plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) concentrations and obesity-hypertension in male mice. Hepatocytes are the predominant source of systemic AGT. Therefore, in this study, we defined the contribution of hepatocyte-derived AGT to obesity-induced elevations in plasma AGT concentrations and hypertension. Male Agt(fl/fl) mice expressing albumin-driven Cre recombinase were bred to female Agt(fl/fl) mice to generate Agt(fl/fl) or hepatocyte AGT-deficient male mice (Agt(Alb)). Mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Hepatocyte AGT deficiency had no significant effect on body weight. Plasma AGT concentrations were increased in obese Agt(fl/fl) mice. Hepatocyte AGT deficiency markedly reduced plasma AGT and Ang II concentrations in lean and obese mice. Moreover, hepatocyte AGT deficiency reduced the content and release of AGT from adipose explants. Systolic blood pressure was markedly decreased in lean (by 18 mm Hg) and obese Agt(Alb) mice (by 54 mm Hg) compared with Agt(fl/fl) controls. To define mechanisms, we quantified effects of Ang II on mRNA abundance of megalin, an AGT uptake transporter, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ang II stimulated adipocyte megalin mRNA abundance and decreased media AGT concentrations. These results demonstrate that hepatocytes are the predominant source of systemic AGT in both lean and obese mice. Moreover, reductions in plasma angiotensin concentrations in obese hepatocyte AGT-deficient mice may have limited megalin-dependent uptake of AGT into adipocytes for the production of Ang II in the development of obesity-hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Lipid-induced Signaling Causes Release of Inflammatory Extracellular Vesicles from Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hirsova, Petra; Ibrahim, Samar H.; Krishnan, Anuradha; Verma, Vikas K.; Bronk, Steven F.; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Charlton, Michael R.; Shah, Vijay H.; Malhi, Harmeet; Gores, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatocyte cellular dysfunction and death induced by lipids, and macrophage-associated inflammation are characteristics of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The fatty acid palmitate can activate death receptor 5 (DR5) on hepatocytes, leading to their death, but little is known about how this process contributes to macrophage-associated inflammation. We investigated whether lipid-induced DR5 signaling results in release of extracellular vesicles (EV) from hepatocytes, and whether these can induce an inflammatory macrophage phenotype. METHODS Primary mouse and human hepatocytes and Huh7 cells were incubated with palmitate, its metabolite lysophosphatidylcholine, or diluent (control). The released EV were isolated, characterized, quantified, and applied to macrophages. C57BL/6 mice were placed on chow or a diet high in fat, fructose, and cholesterol to induce NASH. Some mice were also given the ROCK1 inhibitor fasudil; 2 weeks later, serum EVs were isolated and characterized by immunoblot and nanoparticle-tracking analyses. Livers were collected and analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative PCR. RESULTS Incubation of primary hepatocytes and Huh7 cells with palmitate or lysophosphatidylcholine increased their release of EV, compared with control cells. This release was reduced by inactivating mediators of the DR5 signaling pathway or ROCK1 inhibition. Hepatocyte-derived EV contained TRAIL and induced expression of interleukin-1, beta (Il1b) and Il6 mRNAs in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Activation of macrophages required DR5 and RIP1. Administration of the ROCK1 inhibitor fasudil to mice with NASH reduced serum levels of EV; this reduction was associated with decreased liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS Lipids, which stimulate DR5, induce release of hepatocyte EV, which activate an inflammatory phenotype in macrophages. Strategies to inhibit ROCK1-dependent release of EV by hepatocytes might be

  14. Comparative studies on fatty acid synthesis, glycogen metabolism, and gluconeogenesis by hepatocytes isolated from lean and obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    McCune, S A; Durant, P J; Jenkins, P A; Harris, R A

    1981-12-01

    Hepatocytes isolated from genetically obese female Zucker rats and lean female Zucker rats were compared. Hepatocytes from fed obese rats exhibited greater rates of fatty acid synthesis, more extensive accumulation of lactate and pyruvate from their glycogen stores, increased rates of net glucose utilization but produced less ketone bodies from exogenous fatty acids and had lower citrate levels than hepatocytes from lean rats. Lipogenesis was not as sensitive to dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) inhibition in hepatocytes from obese rats but glycogenolysis was stimulated to the same extent by this nucleotide in both preparations. Ketogenesis was less sensitive to stimulation by DBcAMP in hepatocytes from obese rats. A difference in sensitivity of lipogenesis to DBcAMP was not found when lactate plus pyruvate was added to the incubation medium, suggesting that a greater rate of glycolysis by hepatocytes from obese rats accounts for their relative insensitivity to DBcAMP. Citrate levels were elevated by DBcAMP to a greater extent in hepatocytes from obese rats. Hepatocytes prepared from lean rats starved for 48 hr were glycogen depleted and lacked significant capacity for lipogenesis and glycogen synthesis. In contrast, hepatocytes isolated from starved obese rats retained considerable amounts of liver glycogen and exhibited detectable rates of lipogenesis and glycogen synthesis. Hepatocytes prepared from starved lean rats gave faster apparent rates of lactate gluconeogenesis than hepatocytes prepared from starved obese rats. Thus, hepatocytes prepared from obese Zucker rats are more glycogenic, glycolytic, and lipogenic but less ketogenic and glucogenic than hepatocytes prepared from lean rats.

  15. Rifampicin exacerbates isoniazid-induced toxicity in human but not in rat hepatocytes in tissue-like cultures

    PubMed Central

    Shen, C; Meng, Q; Zhang, G; Hu, W

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Rifampicin has been extensively reported to exacerbate the hepatotoxicity of isoniazid in patients with tuberculosis. However, this was controversially claimed by previous reports using rat models. This study evaluated the effect of rifampicin on isoniazid-induced hepatocyte toxicity by using human and rat hepatocytes in tissue-like culture. Experimental approach: Hepatocytes in tissue-like gel entrapment were used to examine isoniazid toxicity, as shown by cell viability, intracellular glutathione content and albumin secretion. For demonstration of the differential effects of rifampicin on human and rat hepatocytes, induction by rifampicin of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1, a major enzyme associated with isoniazid hepatotoxicity, was detected by 4-nitrocatechol formation and RT-PCR analysis. Key results: Rifampicin (12 μM) enhanced isoniazid-induced toxicity in human hepatocytes but not in rat hepatocytes. Enhanced CYP 2E1 enzymic activity and mRNA expression were similarly detected in human hepatocytes but not in rat hepatocytes. Both rat and human hepatocytes in gel entrapment were more sensitive to isoniazid treatment compared with the corresponding hepatocytes in a monolayer culture. Conclusions and implications: The difference in induction of CYP 2E1 by rifampicin between rat and human hepatocytes accounted for the difference in exacerbation of isoniazid hepatocyte toxicity by rifampicin, with more significant toxicity in gel entrapment than in monolayer cultures. Thus, human hepatocytes in tissue-like cultures (gel entrapment) could be an effective model for hepatotoxicity research in vitro, closer to the in vivo situation. PMID:18071298

  16. Ultrastructural and DNA damaging effects of lead nitrate in the liver.

    PubMed

    Narayana, K; Al-Bader, Maie

    2011-01-01

    A ubiquitous environmental toxicant - lead is known to affect several organ systems. This study was designed to investigate the effects of lead nitrate exposure on liver structure and DNA fragmentation. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with lead nitrate at the dose levels of 0%, 0.5% and 1% for 60 days and sacrificed on the next day. The liver was processed for thick sections and evaluated after toludine blue staining and by electron microscopy after staining with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The DNA damage was assessed by DNA fragmentation assay. The liver weight was not significantly affected in the experimental groups. Hepatocyte nuclei were not shrunk, instead lead was mitogenic to hepatocytes as indicated by an increase in the number of binucleated hepatocytes (P<0.05). The number of mitochondria per hepatocyte decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Qualitatively, the necrotic changes such as small to large-sized cytoplasmic vacuoles often displacing the organelles, decrease in hepatocyte microvilli, degeneration of mitochondria, and vacuolar encroachment of nuclei and dilatation of sinusoids were observed. The qualitative changes were induced in a dose-dependent manner. Kupffer cells or Ito cells did not present any notable structural changes. Although the electrophoretic flow of DNA fragments was observed in lead-treated groups, these changes were not significantly different from that in control as evaluated by optical density. In conclusion, lead induces necrotic changes with simultaneous mitogenic activity; however, it does not induce significant DNA damage in the liver. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Kupffer cells induce Notch-mediated hepatocyte conversion in a common mouse model of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Maiko; Horisawa, Kenichi; Miura, Shizuka; Takashima, Yasuo; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Sekiya, Sayaka; Matsuda-Ito, Kanae; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of cells resembling cholangiocytes that line the intrahepatic bile ducts in portal areas of the hepatic lobule. Although ICC has been defined as a tumor arising from cholangiocyte transformation, recent evidence from genetic lineage-tracing experiments has indicated that hepatocytes can be a cellular origin of ICC by directly changing their fate to that of biliary lineage cells. Notch signaling has been identified as an essential factor for hepatocyte conversion into biliary lineage cells at the onset of ICC. However, the mechanisms underlying Notch signal activation in hepatocytes remain unclear. Here, using a mouse model of ICC, we found that hepatic macrophages called Kupffer cells transiently congregate around the central veins in the liver and express the Notch ligand Jagged-1 coincident with Notch activation in pericentral hepatocytes. Depletion of Kupffer cells prevents the Notch-mediated cell-fate conversion of hepatocytes to biliary lineage cells, inducing hepatocyte apoptosis and increasing mortality in mice. These findings will be useful for uncovering the pathogenic mechanism of ICC and developing prevenient and therapeutic strategies for this refractory disease. PMID:27698452

  18. [The polyploidization characteristics of the hepatocytes of the mouse-like hamster Calomyscus mystax].

    PubMed

    Anatskaia, O V; Malikov, V G; Meĭer, M N; Kudriavtsev, B N

    1995-01-01

    A cytophotometric measurement of DNA content in hepatocytes of maturing mouse-like hamsters was made. Cells belonging to ordinary mammalian ploidy classes 2c, 2c x 2, 4c, and 4c x 2 made about 90% of the hepatocyte population. The share of binucleated cells wa high (about 80%), the majority of these cells being 2c X 2 hepatocytes. Binucleated cells with tetraploid and diploid nuclei occur in almost every animal. An average hepatocyte ploidy level in mouse-like hamster is 4.6c. The main peculiarity of parenchymal liver cell populations is that up 5% of hepatocytes contain 3--11 nuclei of different ploidy classes. Multinucleated cells increase in number from 1.5% to 4% within the period from one year (the age of maturation) to two years. Later on their percentage does not change. It is found that in binucleated and multinucleated hepatocytes DNA synthesis can proceed asynchronously. Asynchrony in DNA synthesis elevates as the number of nuclei increases. Among the 2c x 2 and 2c x 3 cells an uneven distribution of 3H-thymidine label can occur, respectively, in 5 and in 50% cases, whereas all the cells with more than 3 nuclei display an uneven an uneven 3H-thymidin label distribution. The formation of multinucleated cells is supposed to be associated with asynchrony in DNA-synthesis in binucleated cells and with the restitution of mitosis.

  19. Assessment of cell concentration and viability of isolated hepatocytes using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Wigg, Alan J; Phillips, John W; Wheatland, Loretta; Berry, Michael N

    2003-06-01

    The assessment of cell concentration and viability of freshly isolated hepatocyte preparations has been traditionally performed using manual counting with a Neubauer counting chamber and staining for trypan blue exclusion. Despite the simple and rapid nature of this assessment, concerns about the accuracy of these methods exist. Simple flow cytometry techniques which determine cell concentration and viability are available yet surprisingly have not been extensively used or validated with isolated hepatocyte preparations. We therefore investigated the use of flow cytometry using TRUCOUNT Tubes and propidium iodide staining to measure cell concentration and viability of isolated rat hepatocytes in suspension. Analysis using TRUCOUNT Tubes provided more accurate and reproducible measurement of cell concentration than manual cell counting. Hepatocyte viability, assessed using propidium iodide, correlated more closely than did trypan blue exclusion with all indicators of hepatocyte integrity and function measured (lactate dehydrogenase leakage, cytochrome p450 content, cellular ATP concentration, ammonia and lactate removal, urea and albumin synthesis). We conclude that flow cytometry techniques can be used to measure cell concentration and viability of isolated hepatocyte preparations. The techniques are simple, rapid, and more accurate than manual cell counting and trypan blue staining and the results are not affected by protein-containing media.

  20. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocyte].

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying-Lei; Yan, Jun; Wang, Yan-Sha; Liu, Yi-Chang; Gu, Zhen-Yong

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Cells of the rat hepatocyte line BRL were cultured. The hepatocytes were treated with LPS, ERS inducer thapsigargin (TG), and ERS inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), respectively or in their different combination. The cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The cyto-nuclear morphological changes of apoptosis cells were detected by the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33258. The apoptosis rate was assessed by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining. Expressions of GRP78 as ERS marker protein, CHOP, caspase-12 and cleaved-caspase-3 as ERS related protein were detected by Western blotting. LPS could cause a decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis rate in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of GRP78, CHOP, caspase-12 and cleaved-caspase-3 proteins were significantly increased with LPS treatment. TG led to a marked decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis rate, which aggravated the hepatocyte injury induced by LPS; whereas 4-PBA alleviated LPS-induced apoptosis. ERS mediates LPS-induced hepatocyte injuries, indicating that ERS may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced hepatocyte injuries.

  1. In vitro differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhihui; Li, Changying; Jiao, Shuxian; Hu, Bin; Zhao, Lin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism and regulation of differentiation from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into hepatocytes and to find a new source for therapies of hepatic diseases. We isolated BMSCs for subsequent differentiation in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF). Cell morphology was observed and cell surface phenotypings were detected by flow cytometry. a1-antitrypsin (AAT) expression of the hepatocytes was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and albumin expression was validated by real time PCR and western blotting. The expression of high-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (TrkA) and the activation of Erk pathway were detected by western blotting. Hepatocyte functional activity was confirmed by uptake of indocyanine green (ICG) assay. Small round cells appeared in the presence of HGF on day 10 or beta-NGF on day 12. Differentiated cells expressed albumin and had functional characteristics of hepatocytes, such as uptake of ICG. BMSCs were positive for TrkA. HGF and beta-NGF significantly upregulated the protein levels of phospho-Erk. BMSCs could differentiate into hepatocytes in the differentiation media including HGF or beta-NGF. Combination of HGF and beta-NGF significantly increased the efficiency of hepatic differentiation.

  2. The instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction characterized in hepatocyte transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Elisabet K; Elgue, Graciela; Hughes, Robin D; Mitry, Ragai R; Sanchez, Javier; Haglund, Ulf; Meurling, Staffan; Dhawan, Anil; Korsgren, Olle; Nilsson, Bo

    2011-03-27

    Hepatocyte transplantation (HcTx) has proven to be a safe procedure, although the functional results have been unsatisfactory, probably due to insufficient engraftment or a loss of transplanted mass or function. In this study, we investigate whether hepatocytes in contact with blood induce an inflammatory reaction leading to, similar to what happens in clinical islet transplantation, an instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) resulting in an early loss of transplanted cells. By using an experimental model that mimics the portal vein blood flow, we could study different parameters reflecting the effects on the innate immunity elicited by hepatocytes in contact with ABO-matched human blood. We report that all aspects of the IBMIR such as platelet and granulocyte consumption, coagulation, and complement activation were demonstrated. Addition of various specific inhibitors of coagulation allowed us to clearly delineate the various stages of the hepatocyte-triggered IBMIR and show that the reaction was triggered by tissue factor. Analysis of a case of clinical HcTx showed that hepatocyte-induced IBMIR also occurs in vivo. Both the inflammatory and the coagulation aspects were controlled by low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate. Isolated hepatocytes in contact with blood induce the IBMIR in vitro, and there are indications that these events are also relevant in vivo. According to these findings, HcTx would benefit from controlling a wider range of signals from the innate immune system.

  3. Spectroscopic signature of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes using synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumanu, Kanjana; Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Ye, Danna; Sangmalee, Anawat; Lorthongpanich, Chanchao; Parnpai, Rangsun; Heraud, Philip

    2011-05-01

    Stem cell-based therapy for liver regeneration has been proposed to overcome the persistent shortage in the supply of suitable donor organs. A requirement for this to succeed is to find a rapid method to detect functional hepatocytes, differentiated from embryonic stem cells. We propose Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy as a versatile method to identify the early and last stages of the differentiation process leading to the formation of hepatocytes. Using synchrotron-FTIR microspectroscopy, the means of identifying hepatocytes at the single-cell level is possible and explored. Principal component analysis and subsequent partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis is applied to distinguish endoderm induction from hepatic progenitor cells and matured hepatocyte-like cells. The data are well modeled by PLS with endoderm induction, hepatic progenitor cells, and mature hepatocyte-like cells able to be discriminated with very high sensitivity and specificity. This method provides a practical tool to monitor endoderm induction and has the potential to be applied for quality control of cell differentiation leading to hepatocyte formation.

  4. Solubilized liver extracellular matrix maintains primary rat hepatocyte phenotype in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Loneker, Abigail E; Faulk, Denver M; Hussey, George S; D'Amore, Antonio; Badylak, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Whole organ engineering and cell-based regenerative medicine approaches are being investigated as potential therapeutic options for end-stage liver failure. However, a major challenge of these strategies is the loss of hepatic specific function after hepatocytes are removed from their native microenvironment. The objective of the present study was to determine if solubilized liver extracellular matrix (ECM), when used as a media supplement, can better maintain hepatocyte phenotype compared to type I collagen alone or solubilized ECM harvested from a non-liver tissue source. Liver extracellular matrix (LECM) from four different species was isolated via liver tissue decellularization, solubilized, and then used as a media supplement for primary rat hepatocytes (PRH). The four species of LECM investigated were human, porcine, canine and rat. Cell morphology, albumin secretion, and ammonia metabolism were used to assess maintenance of hepatocyte phenotype. Biochemical and mechanical characterization of each LECM were also conducted. Results showed that PRH's supplemented with canine and porcine LECM maintained their phenotype to a greater extent compared to all other groups. PRH's supplemented with canine and porcine LECM showed increased bile production, increased albumin production, and the formation of multinucleate cells. The findings of the present study suggest that solubilized liver ECM can support in-vitro hepatocyte culture and should be considered for therapeutic and diagnostic techniques that utilize hepatocytes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hepatocyte transplantation and advancements in alternative cell sources for liver-based regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charlotte A; Sinha, Siddharth; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Dhawan, Anil

    2018-06-01

    Human hepatocyte transplantation has been actively perused as an alternative to liver replacement for acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic defects. Current challenges in this field include a limited cell source, reduced cell viability following cryopreservation and poor engraftment of cells into the recipient liver with consequent limited life span. As a result, alternative stem cell sources such as pluripotent stem cells, fibroblasts, hepatic progenitor cells, amniotic epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) can be used to generate induced hepatocyte like cells (HLC) with each technique exhibiting advantages and disadvantages. HLCs may have comparable function to primary human hepatocytes and could offer patient-specific treatment. However, long-term functionality of transplanted HLCs and the potential oncogenic risks of using stem cells have yet to be established. The immunomodulatory effects of MSCs are promising, and multiple clinical trials are investigating their effect in cirrhosis and acute liver failure. Here, we review the current status of hepatocyte transplantation, alternative cell sources to primary human hepatocytes and their potential in liver regeneration. We also describe recent clinical trials using hepatocytes derived from stem cells and their role in improving the phenotype of several liver diseases.

  6. Pro-apoptotic effect of fly ash leachates in hepatocytes of freshwater fish (Channa punctata Bloch).

    PubMed

    Ali, Mehboob; Rahman, Shakilur; Rehman, Hasibur; Bhatia, Kanchan; Ansari, Rizwan A; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2007-02-01

    The pro-apoptotic effect of fly ash leachates (FAL) was studied in the hepatocytes of an Indian freshwater fish, Channa punctata Bloch. Hepatocytes were exposed to different concentrations of '7-day' FAL for 24 and 48h and various parameters of apoptosis were studied using standardized procedures. FAL-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes was indicated by cytological examination, DNA fragmentation and DNA laddering. The induction in cytochrome-c release, caspases 3, 7, 10 and 9 activities and lactate dehydrogenase level provide mechanistic platform for FAL-induced apoptosis. Cytological examination showed an unambiguous apoptotic effect of ash leachates in fish hepatocytes. Exposed hepatocytes also showed increased production of H(2)O(2), superoxide ions and an increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO). The present study suggests a possible role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in FAL-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Lactate dehydrogenase, LPO and apoptosis as biomarkers of cytotoxicity have recently been used for assessment of ecotoxicological impact of environmental chemicals. Our findings show that these biomarkers may also be used for evaluation of ecotoxicological impact of complex chemical mixture such as fly ash and its leachates.

  7. The differentiation and isolation of mouse embryonic stem cells toward hepatocytes using galactose-carrying substrata.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyuan; Haque, Amranul; Hexig, Bayar; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2012-02-01

    A simple culture system to achieve the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells toward hepatocytes with high efficiency is crucial in providing a cell source for the medical application. In this study, we report the effect of a matrix-dependent enrichment of ES cell-derived hepatocytes using immobilized poly(N-p-vinylbenzyl-4-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-gluconamide) (PVLA) with E-cadherin-IgG Fc (E-cad-Fc) as a galactose-carrying substratum. PVLA and E-cad-Fc were confirmed to be stably co-adsorbed onto polystyrene surface by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). We showed that the E-cad-Fc/PVLA hybrid substratum was efficient in culturing primary hepatocytes and maintaining liver functions, on which the undifferentiated ES cells also maintained high proliferative capability. Furthermore, ES cell-derived hepatocytes on this hybrid matrix expressed elevated level of liver specific genes and functions together with early expression of definitive hepatocyte marker, asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). Finally, we isolated a high percentage of cells (about 60%) with ASGPR expression after re-seeding onto PVLA-coated surface, and observed the elimination of the poorly differentiated cells (Gata6(+) and Sox17(+)) and the ones toward another cell lineage (brachyury(+) and Pdx1(+)). The system uses a glycopolymer as an extracellular substratum for isolation and enrichment of ES cell-derived hepatocytes with adequate homogeneity and functionality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy determinants GAPDH and NDPK act as genetic modifiers for hepatocyte inclusion formation

    PubMed Central

    Weerasinghe, Sujith V.W.; Singla, Amika; Leonard, Jessica M.; Hanada, Shinichiro; Andrews, Philip C.; Lok, Anna S.; Omary, M. Bishr

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors impact liver injury susceptibility and disease progression. Prominent histological features of some chronic human liver diseases are hepatocyte ballooning and Mallory-Denk bodies. In mice, these features are induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) in a strain-dependent manner, with the C57BL and C3H strains showing high and low susceptibility, respectively. To identify modifiers of DDC-induced liver injury, we compared C57BL and C3H mice using proteomic, biochemical, and cell biological tools. DDC elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress enzymes preferentially in C57BL livers and isolated hepatocytes. C57BL livers and hepatocytes also manifested significant down-regulation, aggregation, and nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). GAPDH knockdown depleted bioenergetic and antioxidant enzymes and elevated hepatocyte ROS, whereas GAPDH overexpression decreased hepatocyte ROS. On the other hand, C3H livers had higher expression and activity of the energy-generating nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDPK), and knockdown of hepatocyte NDPK augmented DDC-induced ROS formation. Consistent with these findings, cirrhotic, but not normal, human livers contained GAPDH aggregates and NDPK complexes. We propose that GAPDH and NDPK are genetic modifiers of murine DDC-induced liver injury and potentially human liver disease. PMID:22006949

  9. YAP Inhibition Restores Hepatocyte Differentiation in Advanced HCC, Leading to Tumor Regression.

    PubMed

    Fitamant, Julien; Kottakis, Filippos; Benhamouche, Samira; Tian, Helen S; Chuvin, Nicolas; Parachoniak, Christine A; Nagle, Julia M; Perera, Rushika M; Lapouge, Marjorie; Deshpande, Vikram; Zhu, Andrew X; Lai, Albert; Min, Bosun; Hoshida, Yujin; Avruch, Joseph; Sia, Daniela; Campreciós, Genís; McClatchey, Andrea I; Llovet, Josep M; Morrissey, David; Raj, Lakshmi; Bardeesy, Nabeel

    2015-03-10

    Defective Hippo/YAP signaling in the liver results in tissue overgrowth and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we uncover mechanisms of YAP-mediated hepatocyte reprogramming and HCC pathogenesis. YAP functions as a rheostat in maintaining metabolic specialization, differentiation, and quiescence within the hepatocyte compartment. Increased or decreased YAP activity reprograms subsets of hepatocytes to different fates associated with deregulation of the HNF4A, CTNNB1, and E2F transcriptional programs that control hepatocyte quiescence and differentiation. Importantly, treatment with small interfering RNA-lipid nanoparticles (siRNA-LNPs) targeting YAP restores hepatocyte differentiation and causes pronounced tumor regression in a genetically engineered mouse HCC model. Furthermore, YAP targets are enriched in an aggressive human HCC subtype characterized by a proliferative signature and absence of CTNNB1 mutations. Thus, our work reveals Hippo signaling as a key regulator of the positional identity of hepatocytes, supports targeting of YAP using siRNA-LNPs as a paradigm of differentiation-based therapy, and identifies an HCC subtype that is potentially responsive to this approach. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. LKB1/AMPK and PKA control ABCB11 trafficking and polarization in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Homolya, László; Fu, Dong; Sengupta, Prabuddha; Jarnik, Michal; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Vitale-Cross, Lynn; Gutkind, J Silvio; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Arias, Irwin M

    2014-01-01

    Polarization of hepatocytes is manifested by bile canalicular network formation and activation of LKB1 and AMPK, which control cellular energy metabolism. The bile acid, taurocholate, also regulates development of the canalicular network through activation of AMPK. In the present study, we used collagen sandwich hepatocyte cultures from control and liver-specific LKB1 knockout mice to examine the role of LKB1 in trafficking of ABCB11, the canalicular bile acid transporter. In polarized hepatocytes, ABCB11 traffics from Golgi to the apical plasma membrane and endogenously cycles through the rab 11a-myosin Vb recycling endosomal system. LKB1 knockout mice were jaundiced, lost weight and manifested impaired bile canalicular formation and intracellular trafficking of ABCB11, and died within three weeks. Using live cell imaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), particle tracking, and biochemistry, we found that LKB1 activity is required for microtubule-dependent trafficking of ABCB11 to the canalicular membrane. In control hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking was accelerated by taurocholate and cAMP; however, in LKB1 knockout hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking to the apical membrane was greatly reduced and restored only by cAMP, but not taurocholate. cAMP acted through a PKA-mediated pathway which did not activate AMPK. Our studies establish a regulatory role for LKB1 in ABCB11 trafficking to the canalicular membrane, hepatocyte polarization, and canalicular network formation.

  11. Cadmium supplement triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress response and cytotoxicity in primary chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Cheng-Cheng; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Su, Jian; Li, Shu; Li, Jin-Long; Xu, Shi-Wen

    2014-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a potent hepatotoxin, has been reported to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in various cell types. However, whether such effect exists in bird is still unclear. To delineate the effects of Cd exposure on ER stress response, we examined the expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and alteration in calcium homeostasis in primary chicken hepatocytes treated with 2-22 µM Cd for 24 h. A significant decrease of cell viability was observed in chicken hepatocytes following Cd administration. In cells treated with Cd, GRP78 protein levels increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GRP78 and GRP94mRNA levels were elevated in response to Cd exposure. The increase of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in chicken hepatocytes was found during Cd exposure. Cd significantly decreased the CaM mRNA levels in hepatocytes. These results show that Cd regulates the expression of GRP78 and calcium homeostasis in chicken hepatocytes, suggesting that ER stress induced by Cd plays an important role in the mechanisms of Cd cytotoxicity to the bird hepatocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. AMPKα1 controls hepatocyte proliferation independently of energy balance by regulating Cyclin A2 expression.

    PubMed

    Merlen, Grégory; Gentric, Géraldine; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Foretz, Marc; Guidotti, Jacques-Emmanuel; Fauveau, Véronique; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Viollet, Benoit; Desdouets, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved sensor of cellular energy status that contributes to restoration of energy homeostasis by slowing down ATP-consuming pathways and activating ATP-producing pathways. Unexpectedly, in different systems, AMPK is also required for proper cell division. In the current study, we evaluated the potential effect of the AMPK catalytic subunit, AMPKα1, on hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocyte proliferation was determined in AMPKα1 knockout and wild-type mice in vivo after two thirds partial hepatectomy, and in vitro in primary hepatocyte cultures. The activities of metabolic and cell cycle-related signaling pathways were measured. After partial hepatectomy, hepatocytes proliferated rapidly, correlating with increased AMPK phosphorylation. Deletion of AMPKα1 delayed liver regeneration by impacting on G1/S transition phase. The proliferative defect of AMPKα1-deficient hepatocytes was cell autonomous, and independent of energy balance. The priming phase, lipid droplet accumulation, protein anabolic responses and growth factor activation after partial hepatectomy occurred normally in the absence of AMPKα1 activity. By contrast, mRNA and protein expression of cyclin A2, a key driver of S phase progression, were compromised in the absence of AMPK activity. Importantly, AMPKα1 controlled cyclin A2 transcription mainly through the ATF/CREB element. Our study highlights a novel role for AMPKα1 as a positive regulator of hepatocyte division occurring independently of energy balance. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatocyte growth factor demonstrates racial heterogeneity as a biomarker for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bielinski, Suzette J; Berardi, Cecilia; Decker, Paul A; Larson, Nicholas B; Bell, Elizabeth J; Pankow, James S; Sale, Michele M; Tang, Weihong; Hanson, Naomi Q; Wassel, Christina L; de Andrade, Mariza; Budoff, Matthew J; Polak, Joseph F; Sicotte, Hugues; Tsai, Michael Y

    2017-08-01

    To determine if hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a promising biomarker of coronary heart disease (CHD) given its release into circulation in response to endothelial damage, is associated with subclinical and clinical CHD in a racial/ethnic diverse population. HGF was measured in 6738 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Highest mean HGF values (pg/mL) were observed in Hispanic, followed by African, non-Hispanic white, then Chinese Americans. In all races/ethnicities, HGF levels were associated with older age, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and body mass index, lower high-density lipoprotein, diabetes and current smoking. In fully adjusted models, each SD higher HGF was associated with an average increase in coronary artery calcium (CAC) of 55 Agatston units for non-Hispanic whites (p<0.001) and 51 Agatston units for African-Americans (p=0.007) but was not in the other race/ethnic groups (interaction p=0.02). There were 529 incident CHD events, and CHD risk was 41% higher in African (p<0.001), 17% in non-Hispanic white (p=0.026) and Chinese (p=0.36), and 6% in Hispanic Americans (p=0.56) per SD increase in HGF. In a large and diverse population-based cohort, we report that HGF is associated with subclinical and incident CHD. We demonstrate evidence of racial/ethnic heterogeneity within these associations, as the results are most compelling in African-Americans and non-Hispanic white Americans. We provide evidence that HGF is a biomarker of atherosclerotic disease that is independent of traditional risk factors. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. MicroRNA-375 Is Induced in Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity to Repress Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-β*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jielu; Lou, Qiang; Wei, Qingqing; Mei, Shuqin; Li, Lin; Wu, Guangyu; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Mei, Changlin; Dong, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of cisplatin-mediated chemotherapy in cancer patients. The pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remains largely unclear, making it difficult to design effective renoprotective approaches. Here, we have examined the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We show that cisplatin nephrotoxicity was not affected by overall depletion of both beneficial and detrimental miRNAs from kidney proximal tubular cells in mice in which the miRNA-generating enzyme Dicer had been conditionally knocked out. To identify miRNAs involved in cisplatin nephrotoxicity, we used microarray analysis to profile miRNA expression and identified 47 up-regulated microRNAs and 20 down-regulated microRNAs in kidney cortical tissues. One up-regulated miRNA was miR-375, whose expression was also induced in cisplatin-treated renal tubular cells. Interestingly, inhibition of miR-375 decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that miR-375 is a cell-damaging or pro-apoptotic agent. Blockade of P53 or NF-κB attenuated cisplatin-induced miR-375 expression, supporting a role of P53 and NF-κB in miR-375 induction. We also identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF-1β) as a key downstream target of miR-375. Of note, we further demonstrated that HNF-1β protected renal cells against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that upon cisplatin exposure, P53 and NF-κB collaboratively induce miR-375 expression, which, in turn, represses HNF-1β activity, resulting in renal tubular cell apoptosis and nephrotoxicity. PMID:28119452

  15. Accessing 3D microtissue metabolism: Lactate and oxygen monitoring in hepatocyte spheroids.

    PubMed

    Weltin, Andreas; Hammer, Steffen; Noor, Fozia; Kaminski, Yeda; Kieninger, Jochen; Urban, Gerald A

    2017-01-15

    3D hepatic microtissues, unlike 2D cell cultures, retain many of the in-vivo-like functionalities even after long-term cultivation. Such 3D cultures are increasingly applied to investigate liver damage due to drug exposure in toxicology. However, there is a need for thorough metabolic characterization of these microtissues for mechanistic understanding of effects on culture behaviour. We measured metabolic parameters from single human HepaRG hepatocyte spheroids online and continuously with electrochemical microsensors. A microsensor platform for lactate and oxygen was integrated in a standard 96-well plate. Electrochemical microsensors for lactate and oxygen allow fast, precise and continuous long-term measurement of metabolic parameters directly in the microwell. The demonstrated capability to precisely detect small concentration changes by single spheroids is the key to access their metabolism. Lactate levels in the culture medium starting from 50µM with production rates of 5µMh -1 were monitored and precisely quantified over three days. Parallel long-term oxygen measurements showed no oxygen depletion or hypoxic conditions in the microwell. Increased lactate production by spheroids upon suppression of the aerobic metabolism was observed. The dose-dependent decrease in lactate production caused by the addition of the hepatotoxic drug Bosentan was determined. We showed that in a toxicological application, metabolic monitoring yields quantitative, online information on cell viability, which complements and supports other methods such as microscopy. The demonstrated continuous access to 3D cell culture metabolism within a standard setup improves in vitro toxicology models in replacement strategies of animal experiments. Controlling the microenvironment of such organotypic cultures has impact in tissue engineering, cancer therapy and personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat-Irrigate Effect' of Radiofrequency Ablation on Relevant Regional Hepatocyte in Living Swine Liver-Initial Study on Pathology.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Chen, Jiye; Liu, Yang; Liu, Jiang; Liu, Aijun; Dong, Jiahong; Huang, Zhiqiang

    2015-05-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is one of the effective methods for HCC treatment. However, because of the "heat-sink effect" (HSE), it is very difficult to achieve a complete ablation in intrahepatic tumors. This study establishes the animal model of RFA on living swine liver and observes the 'heat-irrigate effect' on relevant regional hepatocytes. Three liver segments of 6 Guangxi Bama mini-pigs were selected to be ablated closed to segmental outflow vessel under surveillance of sonography for 6 min, and pathological changes of relevant downstream region were observed. We observed an elliptic shape of ablated area with diameter of 2.2 ± 1.1 cm on gross liver. Thermal damage was seen in downstream regional of relevant portal vein under microscope. However, adjacent area around the vessel was remained intact. In conclusion, the 'heat-irrigate effect' in RFA could cause thermal damage along the downstream region of relevant portal vein and this influence decreased gradually toward the surface.

  17. Helicobacter hepaticus induces an inflammatory response in primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Moritz; Worbs, Tim; Schrem, Harald; Vondran, Florian W R; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Förster, Reinhold; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Bektas, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus can lead to chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in certain strains of mice. Until now the pathogenic role of Helicobacter species on human liver tissue is still not clarified though Helicobacter species identification in human liver cancer was successful in case controlled studies. Therefore we established an in vitro model to investigate the interaction of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) with Helicobacter hepaticus. Successful co-culturing of PHH with Helicobacter hepaticus was confirmed by visualization of motile bacteria by two-photon-microscopy. Isolated human monocytes were stimulated with PHH conditioned media. Changes in mRNA expression of acute phase cytokines and proteins in PHH and stimulated monocytes were determined by Real-time PCR. Furthermore, cytokines and proteins were analyzed in PHH culture supernatants by ELISA. Co-cultivation with Helicobacter hepaticus induced mRNA expression of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in PHH (p<0.05) resulting in a corresponding increase of IL-8 and MCP-1 concentrations in PHH supernatants (p<0.05). IL-8 and IL-1β mRNA expression was induced in monocytes stimulated with Helicobacter hepaticus infected PHH conditioned media (p<0.05). An increase of Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was observed, with a concomitant increase of prostaglandin E2 concentration in PHH supernatants at 24 and 48 h (p<0.05). In contrast, at day 7 of co-culture, no persistent elevation of cytokine mRNA could be detected. High expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on PHH cell membranes after co-culture was shown by two-photon-microscopy and confirmed by flow-cytometry. Finally, expression of Cytochrome P450 3A4 and albumin mRNA were downregulated, indicating an impairment of hepatocyte synthesis function by Helicobacter hepaticus presence. This is the first in vitro model demonstrating a pathogenic effect of a

  18. Chronic Ethanol Consumption in Mice Alters Hepatocyte Lipid Droplet Properties

    PubMed Central

    Orlicky, David J.; Roede, James R.; Bales, Elise; Greenwood, Carrie; Greenberg, Andrew; Petersen, Dennis; McManaman, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatosteatosis is a common pathological feature of impaired hepatic metabolism following chronic alcohol consumption. Although often benign and reversible, it is widely believed that steatosis is a risk factor for development of advanced liver pathologies, including steatohepatitis and fibrosis. The hepatocyte alterations accompanying the initiation of steatosis are not yet clearly defined. Methods Induction of hepatosteatosis by chronic ethanol consumption was investigated using the Lieber-DeCarli (LD) high fat diet model. Effects were assessed by immunohistochemistry and blood and tissue enzymatic assays. Cell culture models were employed for mechanistic studies. Results Pair feeding mice ethanol (LD-Et) or isocaloric control (LD-Co) diets for 6 weeks progressively increased hepatocyte triglyceride accumulation in morphological, biochemical, and zonally distinct cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLD). The LD-Et diet induced zone 2-specific triglyceride accumulation in large CLD coated with perilipin, adipophilin (ADPH), and TIP47. In LD-Co- fed mice, CLD were significantly smaller than those in LD-Et-fed mice and lacked perilipin. A direct role of perilipin in formation of large CLD was further suggested by cell culture studies showing that perilipin-coated CLD were significantly larger than those coated with ADPH or TIP47. LD-Co- and LD-Et-fed animals also differed in hepatic metabolic stress responses. In LD-Et but not LD-Co-fed mice, inductions were observed in the following: microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system [cytochrome P-4502E1 (CYP2E1)], hypoxia response pathway (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, HIF1α), endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway (calreticulin), and synthesis of lipid peroxidation products [4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)]. CYP2E1 and HIF1 α immunostaining localized to zone 3 and did not correlate with accumulation of large CLD. In contrast, calreticulin and 4-HNE immunostaining closely correlated with large CLD accumulation. Importantly, 4

  19. Protopine and allocryptopine increase mRNA levels of cytochromes P450 1A in human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells independently of AhR.

    PubMed

    Vrba, Jiri; Vrublova, Eva; Modriansky, Martin; Ulrichova, Jitka

    2011-06-10

    The isoquinoline alkaloids protopine and allocryptopine are present in phytopreparations from medicinal plants, such as Fumaria officinalis. Since nothing is known about effects of the alkaloids on the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, we examined whether protopine or allocryptopine affect the expression of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 1A1 and 1A2 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In HepG2 cells, protopine and allocryptopine significantly increased CYP1A1 mRNA levels after 24h exposure at concentrations from 25 and 10 μM, respectively, as shown by real-time PCR. Both protopine and allocryptopine also dose-dependently increased CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA levels in human hepatocytes. However, the effects of the tested alkaloids on both cell models were much lower than the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a prototypical CYP1A inducer. Using gene reporter assays performed in transiently transfected HepG2 cells, we demonstrated that the induction of CYP1A1 expression by either protopine or allocryptopine was associated with mild or negligible activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. In contrast to TCDD, CYP1A mRNA levels induced by protopine or allocryptopine in both HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes did not result in elevated CYP1A protein or activity levels as shown by western blotting and EROD assays, respectively. We conclude that the use of products containing protopine and/or allocryptopine may be considered safe in terms of possible induction of CYP1A enzymes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid generation of functional hepatocyte-like cells from human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanli; Deng, Jie; Jiang, Qingyuan; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Yujing; Yao, Yunqi; Cheng, Fuyi; Chen, Xiaolei; Xu, Fen; Huang, Meijuan; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Shuang; Yu, Dechao; Zhao, Robert Chunhua; Wei, Yuquan; Deng, Hongxin

    2016-08-05

    Liver disease is a major cause of death worldwide. Orthotropic liver transplantation (OLT) represents the only effective treatment for patients with liver failure, but the increasing demand for organs is unfortunately so great that its application is limited. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising alternative to OLT for the treatment of some liver-based metabolic disorders or acute liver failure. Unfortunately, the lack of donor livers also makes it difficult to obtain enough viable hepatocytes for hepatocyte-based therapies. Currently, a fundamental solution to this key problem is still lacking. Here we show a novel non-transgenic protocol that facilitates the rapid generation of functional induced hepatocytes (iHeps) from human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), providing a source of available cells for autologous hepatocytes to treat liver disease. We used collagenase digestion to isolate hADSCs. The surface marker was detected by flow cytometry. The multipotential differentiation potency was detected by induction into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Passage 3-7 hADSCs were induced into iHeps using an induction culture system composed of small molecule compounds and cell factors. Primary cultured hADSCs presented a fusiform or polygon appearance that became fibroblast-like after passage 3. More than 95 % of the cells expressed the mesenchymal cell markers CD29, CD44, CD166, CD105, and CD90. hADSCs possessed multipotential differentiation towards adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. We rapidly induced hADSCs into iHeps within 10 days in vitro; the cellular morphology changed from fusiform to close-connected cubiform, which was similar to hepatocytes. After induction, most of the iHeps co-expressed albumin and alpha-1 antitrypsin; they also expressed mature hepatocyte special genes and achieved the basic functions of hepatocyte. Moreover, iHep transplantation could improve the liver function of acute liver-injured NPG mice and prolong life. We

  1. Hepatocyte growth factor, a biomarker of macroangiopathy in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Konya, Hiroyuki; Miuchi, Masayuki; Satani, Kahori; Matsutani, Satoshi; Tsunoda, Taku; Yano, Yuzo; Katsuno, Tomoyuki; Hamaguchi, Tomoya; Miyagawa, Jun-Ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic involvements are an essential causal element of prospect in diabetes mellitus (DM), with carotid atherosclerosis (CA) being a common risk-factor for prospective crisis of coronary artery diseases (CAD) and/or cerebral infarction (CI) in DM subjects. From another point of view, several reports have supplied augmenting proof that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has a physiopathological part in DM involvements. HGF has been a mesenchymal-derived polyphenic factor which modulates development, motion, and morphosis of diverse cells, and has been regarded as a humor intermediator of epithelial-mesenchymal interplays. The serum concentrations of HGF have been elevated in subjects with CAD and CI, especially during the acute phase of both disturbances. In our study with 89 type 2 DM patients, the association between serum concentrations of HGF and risk-factors for macrovascular complications inclusive of CA were examined. The average of serum HGF levels in the subjects was more elevated than the reference interval. The serum HGF concentrations associated positively with both intimal-media thickness (IMT) (r = 0.24, P = 0.0248) and plaque score (r = 0.27, P = 0.0126), indicating a relationship between the elevated HGF concentrations and advancement of CA involvements. Multivariate statistical analysis accentuated that serum concentrations of HGF would be associated independently with IMT (standardized = 0.28, P = 0.0499). The review indicates what is presently known regarding serum HGF might be a new and meaningful biomarker of macroangiopathy in DM subjects. PMID:25317245

  2. Protein phosphorylation in isolated hepatocytes of septic and endotoxemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Deaciuc, I.V.; Spitzer, J.A.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible alterations induced by sepsis and endotoxicosis in the late phase of Ca2+-dependent signaling in rat liver. Hepatocytes isolated from septic or chronically endotoxin (ET)-treated rats were labeled with (32P)H3PO4 and stimulated with various agents. Proteins were resolved by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiographed. Vasopressin (VP)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced responses were attenuated in both septic and ET-treated rats for cytosolic and membrane proteins compared with their respective controls. Glucagon and 12-O-myristate phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) affected only the phosphorylation of membrane proteins. Glucagon-induced changes in the phosphorylation of membrane proteins were affected bymore » both sepsis and endotoxicosis, whereas TPA-stimulated phosphorylation was lowered only in endotoxicosis. Response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was depressed in septic rats for cytosolic proteins. The phosphorylation of two cytosolic proteins, i.e., 93 and 61 kDa (previously identified as glycogen phosphorylase and pyruvate kinase, respectively), in response to VP, PE, and A23187 was severely impaired by endotoxicosis and sepsis. TPA did not affect the phosphorylation state of these two proteins. The results show that sepsis and endotoxicosis produce perturbations of the phosphorylation step in Ca2+ transmembrane signaling. Such changes can explain alterations of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis associated with sepsis and endotoxicosis.« less

  3. Stabilization of glucocorticoid receptors in isolated rat hepatocytes by radioprotectants

    SciTech Connect

    Karle, J.M.; Ridder, W.E.; Wright, N.

    1986-05-01

    Previous work has shown that glucocorticoid receptors in rat liver homogenate can be stabilized by the addition of MoO/sub 4/ plus the sulfhydryl-containing compounds dithiothreitol and WR 1065. The latter is the dephosphorylated, principal metabolite of the radioprotectant WR 2721 (or S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethanesphosphorothioic acid). The current work results from applying this knowledge to intact rat hepatocytes. Cells were isolated by collagenase perfusion and incubated in supplemented minimum essential medium at 37/sup 0/C with various concentrations of WR 2721, WR 1065, or vehicle. Samples of these cell suspensions were analyzed at various times for steroid binding capacity by incubating homogenates (27,000 xmore » g supernates) with 50 nM /sup 3/H-triamcinolone acetonide in the presence or absence of excess unlabelled dexamethasone. Concentrations of 10 mM WR 2721 provided marked preservation of the binding capacity (>85% of the initial value at 5 hours) compared to control at <20% by 2 hours. WR 2721 at 1 mM preserved >60% of the binding capacity. WR 1065 at 10 mM provided no such protection. This is consistent with the observation that WR 1065 does not pass cell membranes. The authors propose that supplying reducing equivalents to intracellular components such as the glucocorticoid receptor may be one mechanism of the radioprotection afforded by WR 2721.« less

  4. A Hepatocyte-Mimicking Antidote for Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Xu, Duo; Han, Hui; He, Yuxin; Lee, Harrison; Wu, Di; Liu, Fang; Liu, Xiangsheng; Liu, Yang; Lu, Yunfeng; Ji, Cheng

    2018-04-11

    Alcohol intoxication causes serious diseases, whereas current treatments are mostly supportive and unable to remove alcohol efficiently. Upon alcohol consumption, alcohol is sequentially oxidized to acetaldehyde and acetate by the endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively. Inspired by the metabolism of alcohol, a hepatocyte-mimicking antidote for alcohol intoxication through the codelivery of the nanocapsules of alcohol oxidase (AOx), catalase (CAT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) to the liver, where AOx and CAT catalyze the oxidation of alcohol to acetaldehyde, while ALDH catalyzes the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate. Administered to alcohol-intoxicated mice, the antidote rapidly accumulates in the liver and enables a significant reduction of the blood alcohol concentration. Moreover, blood acetaldehyde concentration is maintained at an extremely low level, significantly contributing to liver protection. Such an antidote, which can eliminate alcohol and acetaldehyde simultaneously, holds great promise for the treatment of alcohol intoxication and poisoning and can provide therapeutic benefits. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Differential entry of ricin into malignant and normal rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Decastel, M.; Haentjens, G.; Aubery, M.

    1989-02-01

    The authors have compared the mechanisms of ricin binding to and entry into Zajdela hepatoma cells (ZHC) and normal rat hepatocytes (HyC). Lactose but not mannan was found to inhibit ricin binding to and toxicity on ZHC and HyC. This finding suggests that ricin binding, entry, and toxicity are expressed only through the galactose binding sites on ZHC and HyC. Nevertheless, the characteristics of ricin binding and its entry pathway appeared to be different in several respects in ZHC and HyC. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium data determined over a wide range of {sup 125}I-labeled ricin concentrations yielded a curvilinear plotmore » for ZHC, while a straight line was obtained for HyC. These results indicate that only ZHC possess high-affinity receptors for ricin. Analysis of ricin toxicity of ZHC and HyC, in the presence of ammonium chloride or after K{sup +}-depletion in both cell types, suggests that the ricin bound to galactose receptors entered through neutral vesicles in ZHC, and through both neutral and acidic vesicles in HyC. The qualitative and quantitative differences found between the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis of ricin in ZHC and HyC might explain the differential sensitivity of the two cell types toward the toxin.« less

  6. [Cadmium citotoxicity in mice hepatocytes and implications on tropical environments].

    PubMed

    Marcano, Letty; Faría, Clarisa de R; Carruyo, Ingrid; Montiel, Xiomara

    2006-06-01

    We analyzed phenotypic, structural and ultrastructural alterations induced by Cd+2 in hepatocytes extracted from Swiss Albino mice. Cadmium was given orally in watery solution of CdCl2 during 100 days at concentrations of 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 150 ppm. In controls, distilled water alone was used. The samples were processed with the paraffin inclusion and hematoxilin-eosin coloration techniques for light microscopy. For transmission electron microscopy we used the conventional technique. We found phenotypic (size and weight differences) and physiologic changes (muscular weakness, unrest); at the structural level we noticed loss of trabecular disposition and of lobulillar architecture, lymphocyte agglomeration, vacuolization, dilatation of sinusoid and central vein, among others. The ultrastructural study evidenced alterations coincident with those seen with light microscopy, which were accentuated with the increase of metal concentration: nucleolus with a high number of fibrillar centers (50 ppm); voluminous lipidic drops in the cytoplasm, loose endoplasmic rough reticulum, citoplasmatic vacuolization, altered lisosomes and peroxisomes (100 ppm); contracted nuclei with condensed cromatine, dilatation of intracellular space and mitochondria, and loss of fibrillar areas (150 ppm). Cadmium produces a toxic effect in the hepatic cells; the effect is more severe at higher concentration, leading to cellular necrosis.

  7. Mechanisms of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activation in Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Makiko; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) plays critical roles in cancer progression through its specific receptor, MET. HGF/SF is usually synthesized and secreted as an inactive proform (pro-HGF/SF) by stromal cells, such as fibroblasts. Several serine proteases are reported to convert pro-HGF/SF to mature HGF/SF and among these, HGF activator (HGFA) and matriptase are the most potent activators. Increased activities of both proteases have been observed in various cancers. HGFA is synthesized mainly by the liver and secreted as an inactive pro-form. In cancer tissues, pro-HGFA is likely activated by thrombin and/or human kallikrein 1-related peptidase (KLK)-4 and KLK-5. Matriptase is a type II transmembrane serine protease that is expressed by most epithelial cells and is also synthesized as an inactive zymogen. Matriptase activation is likely to be mediated by autoactivation or by other trypsin-like proteases. Recent studies revealed that matriptase autoactivation is promoted by an acidic environment. Given the mildly acidic extracellular environment of solid tumors, matriptase activation may, thus, be accelerated in the tumor microenvironment. HGFA and matriptase activities are regulated by HGFA inhibitor (HAI)-1 (HAI-1) and/or HAI-2 in the pericellular microenvironment. HAIs may have an important role in cancer cell biology by regulating HGF/SF-activating proteases. PMID:25268161

  8. Nuclear lactate dehydrogenase modulates histone modification in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Castonguay, Zachary; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C.

    Highlights: • Nuclear LDH is up-regulated under oxidative stress. • SIRT1 is co-immunoprecipitated bound to nuclear LDH. • Nuclear LDH is involved in histone deacetylation and epigenetics. - Abstract: It is becoming increasingly apparent that the nucleus harbors metabolic enzymes that affect genetic transforming events. Here, we describe a nuclear isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (nLDH) and its ability to orchestrate histone deacetylation by controlling the availability of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), a key ingredient of the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) deacetylase system. There was an increase in the expression of nLDH concomitant with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})more » in the culture medium. Under oxidative stress, the NAD{sup +} generated by nLDH resulted in the enhanced deacetylation of histones compared to the control hepatocytes despite no discernable change in the levels of SIRT1. There appeared to be an intimate association between nLDH and SIRT1 as these two enzymes co-immunoprecipitated. The ability of nLDH to regulate epigenetic modifications by manipulating NAD{sup +} reveals an intricate link between metabolism and the processing of genetic information.« less

  9. Hepatocyte growth factor in renal failure: promise and reality.

    PubMed

    Vargas, G A; Hoeflich, A; Jehle, P M

    2000-04-01

    Can science discover some secrets of Greek mythology? In the case of Prometheus, we can now suppose that his amazing hepatic regeneration was caused by a peptide growth factor called hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Increasing evidence indicates that HGF acts as a multifunctional cytokine on different cell types. This review addresses the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the pleiotropic effects of HGF. HGF binds with high affinity to its specific tyrosine kinase receptor c-met, thereby stimulating not only cell proliferation and differentiation, but also cell migration and tumorigenesis. The three fundamental principles of medicine-prevention, diagnosis, and therapy-may be benefited by the rational use of HGF. In renal tubular cells, HGF induces mitogenic and morphogenetic responses. In animal models of toxic or ischemic acute renal failure, HGF acts in a renotropic and nephroprotective manner. HGF expression is rapidly up-regulated in the remnant kidney of nephrectomized rats, inducing compensatory growth. In a mouse model of chronic renal disease, HGF inhibits the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis and kidney dysfunction. Increased HGF mRNA transcripts were detected in mesenchymal and tubular epithelial cells of rejecting kidney. In transplanted patients, elevated HGF levels may indicate renal rejection. When HGF is considered as a therapeutic agent in human medicine, for example, to stimulate kidney regeneration after acute injury, strategies need to be developed to stimulate cell regeneration and differentiation without an induction of tumorigenesis.

  10. Synergy between sulforaphane and selenium in the up-regulation of thioredoxin reductase and protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Wei; Shan, Yujuan; Barrera, Lawrence N; Howie, Alexander F; Beckett, Geoffrey J; Wu, Kun; Bao, Yongping

    2012-07-15

    Dietary isothiocyanates and selenium are chemopreventive agents and potent inducers of antioxidant enzymes. It has been previously shown that sulforaphane and selenium have a synergistic effect on the upregulation of thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In this paper, further evidence is presented to show that sulforaphane and selenium synergistically induce TrxR-1 expression in immortalised human hepatocytes. Sulforaphane was found to be more toxic toward hepatocytes than HepG2 cells with IC50=25.1 and 56.4 μM, respectively. Sulforaphane can protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and this protection was enhanced by co-treatment with selenium. Using siRNA to knock down TrxR-1 or Nrf2, sulforaphane (5 μM)-protected cell viability was reduced from 73% to 46% and 34%, respectively, suggesting that TrxR-1 is an important enzyme in protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Sulforaphane-induced TrxR-1 expression was positively associated with significant levels of Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus, but co-treatment with selenium showed no significant increase in Nrf2 translocation. Moreover, MAPK (ERK, JNK and p38) and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways were found to play no significant role in sulforaphane-induced Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus. However, blocking ERK and JNK signalling pathways decreased sulforaphane-induced TrxR-1 mRNA by about 20%; whereas blocking p38 and PI3K/AKT increased TrxR-1 transcription. In summary, a combination of sulforaphane and selenium resulted in a synergistic upregulation of TrxR-1 that contributed to the enhanced protection against free radical-mediated oxidative damage in human hepatocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional properties of hepatocytes in vitro are correlated with cell polarity maintenance.

    PubMed

    Zeigerer, Anja; Wuttke, Anne; Marsico, Giovanni; Seifert, Sarah; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Zerial, Marino

    2017-01-01

    Exploring the cell biology of hepatocytes in vitro could be a powerful strategy to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the structure and function of the liver in vivo. However, this approach relies on appropriate in vitro cell culture systems that can recapitulate the cell biological and metabolic features of the hepatocytes in the liver whilst being accessible to experimental manipulations. Here, we adapted protocols for high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and quantitative image analysis to compare two primary hepatocyte culture systems, monolayer and collagen sandwich, with respect to the distribution of two distinct populations of early endosomes (APPL1 and EEA1-positive), endocytic capacity, metabolic and signaling activities. In addition to the re-acquisition of hepatocellular polarity, primary hepatocytes grown in collagen sandwich but not in monolayer culture recapitulated the apico-basal distribution of EEA1 endosomes observed in liver tissue. We found that such distribution correlated with the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in vitro and, surprisingly, was dependent on the nutritional state in vivo. Hepatocytes in collagen sandwich also exhibited faster kinetics of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) internalization, showed improved insulin sensitivity and preserved their ability for glucose production, compared to hepatocytes in monolayer cultures. Although no in vitro culture system can reproduce the exquisite structural features of liver tissue, our data nevertheless highlight the ability of the collagen sandwich system to recapitulate key structural and functional properties of the hepatocytes in the liver and, therefore, support the usage of this system to study aspects of hepatocellular biology in vitro. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxidative stress is involved in Dasatinib-induced apoptosis in rat primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Tao; Luo, Peihua; Zhu, Hong

    2012-06-15

    Dasatinib, a multitargeted inhibitor of BCR–ABL and SRC kinases, exhibits antitumor activity and extends the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, some patients suffer from hepatotoxicity, which occurs through an unknown mechanism. In the present study, we found that Dasatinib could induce hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Dasatinib reduced the cell viability of rat primary hepatocytes, induced the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in vitro, and triggered the ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes in Sprague–Dawley rats in vivo. Apoptotic markers (chromatin condensation, cleaved caspase-3 andmore » cleaved PARP) were detected to indicate that the injury induced by Dasatinib in hepatocytes in vitro was mediated by apoptosis. This result was further validated in vivo using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Here we found that Dasatinib dramatically increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes, reduced the intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, attenuated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), generated malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) related to oxidative stress and survival. These results confirm that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in Dasatinib-mediated hepatotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a typical antioxidant, can scavenge free radicals, attenuate oxidative stress, and protect hepatocytes against Dasatinib-induced injury. Thus, relieving oxidative stress is a viable strategy for reducing Dasatinib-induced hepatotoxicity. -- Highlights: ►Dasatinib shows potential hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. ►Apoptosis plays a vital role in

  13. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into hepatocytes that coexpress coagulation factors VIII and IX.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Shang, Chang-zhen; Lü, Li-hong; Qiu, De-chuan; Ren, Meng; Chen, Ya-jin; Min, Jun

    2010-11-01

    To establish an efficient culture system to support embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation into hepatocytes that coexpress F-VIII and F-IX. Mouse E14 ES cells were cultured in differentiation medium containing sodium butyrate (SB), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and/or bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) to induce the differentiation of endoderm cells and hepatic progenitor cells. Hepatocyte growth factor, oncostatin M, and dexamethasone were then used to induce the maturation of ES cell-derived hepatocytes. The mRNA expression levels of endoderm-specific genes and hepatocyte-specific genes, including the levels of F-VIII and F-IX, were detected by RT-PCR and real-time PCR during various stages of differentiation. Protein expression was examined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. At the final stage of differentiation, flow cytometry was performed to determine the percentage of cells coexpressing F-VIII and F-IX, and ELISA was used to detect the levels of F-VIII and F-IX protein secreted into the culture medium. The expression of endoderm-specific and hepatocyte-specific markers was upregulated to highest level in response to the combination of SB, bFGF, and BMP4. Treatment with the three inducers during hepatic progenitor differentiation significantly enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of F-VIII and F-IX in ES cell-derived hepatocytes. More importantly, F-VIII and F-IX were coexpressed with high efficiency at the final stage of differentiation, and they were also secreted into the culture medium. We have established a novel in vitro differentiation protocol for ES-derived hepatocytes that coexpress F-VIII and F-IX that may provide a foundation for stem cell replacement therapy for hemophilia.

  14. DISTINCT FUNCTIONS OF JNK AND C-JUN IN OXIDANT-INDUCED HEPATOCYTE DEATH

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Muhammad; Liu, Kun; Zhao, Enpeng; Czaja, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Overactivation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun signaling is a central mechanism of hepatocyte injury and death including that from oxidative stress. However, the functions of JNK and c-Jun are still unclear, and this pathway also inhibits hepatocyte death. Previous studies of menadione-induced oxidant stress demonstrated that toxicity resulted from sustained JNK/c-Jun activation as death was blocked by the c-Jun dominant negative TAM67. To further delineate the function of JNK/c-Jun signaling in hepatocyte injury from oxidant stress, the effects of direct JNK inhibition on menadione-induced death were examined. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of TAM67, pharmacological JNK inhibition by SP600125 sensitized the rat hepatocyte cell line RALA255-10G to death from menadione. SP600125 similarly sensitized mouse primary hepatocytes to menadione toxicity. Death from SP600125/menadione was c-Jun dependent as it was blocked by TAM67, but independent of c-Jun phosphorylation. Death occurred by apoptosis and necrosis and activation of the mitochondrial death pathway. Short hairpin RNA knockdowns of total JNK or JNK2 sensitized to death from menadione, whereas a jnk1 knockdown was protective. Jnk2 null mouse primary hepatocytes were also sensitized to menadione death. JNK inhibition magnified decreases in cellular ATP content and β-oxidation induced by menadione. This effect mediated cell death as chemical inhibition of β-oxidation also sensitized cells to death from menadione, and supplementation with the β-oxidation substrate oleate blocked death. Components of the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway have opposing functions in hepatocyte oxidant stress with JNK2 mediating resistance to cell death and c-Jun promoting death. PMID:22644775

  15. HBV life cycle is restricted in mouse hepatocytes expressing human NTCP.

    PubMed

    Li, Hanjie; Zhuang, Qiuyu; Wang, Yuze; Zhang, Tianying; Zhao, Jinghua; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Junfang; Lin, Yi; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ningshao; Han, Jiahuai

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed that human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (SLC10A1 or NTCP) is a functional cellular receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, whether human NTCP can support HBV infection in mouse hepatocyte cell lines has not been clarified. Because an HBV-permissible mouse model would be helpful for the study of HBV pathogenesis, it is necessary to investigate whether human NTCP supports the susceptibility of mouse hepatocyte cell lines to HBV. The results show that exogenous human NTCP expression can render non-susceptible HepG2 (human), Huh7 (human), Hepa1-6 (mouse), AML-12 (mouse) cell lines and primary mouse hepatocyte (PMH) cells susceptible to hepatitis D virus (HDV) which employs HBV envelope proteins. However, human NTCP could only introduce HBV susceptibility in human-derived HepG2 and Huh7 cells, but not in mouse-derived Hepa1-6, AML-12 or PMH cells. These data suggest that although human NTCP is a functional receptor that mediates HBV infection in human cells, it cannot support HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Our study indicated that the restriction of HBV in mouse hepatocytes likely occurs after viral entry but prior to viral transcription. We have excluded the role of mouse hepatocyte nuclear factors in the restriction of the HBV life cycle and showed that knockdown or inhibition of Sting, TBK1, IRF3 or IRF7, the components of the anti-viral signaling pathways, had no effect on HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Therefore, murine restriction factors that limit HBV infection need to be identified before a HBV-permissible mouse line can be created.

  16. β-Adrenergic induction of lipolysis in hepatocytes is inhibited by ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Schott, Micah B; Rasineni, Karuna; Weller, Shaun G; Schulze, Ryan J; Sletten, Arthur C; Casey, Carol A; McNiven, Mark A

    2017-07-14

    In liver steatosis ( i.e. fatty liver), hepatocytes accumulate many large neutral lipid storage organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs). LDs are important in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, but the signaling mechanisms that stimulate LD metabolism in hepatocytes are poorly defined. In adipocytes, catecholamines target the β-adrenergic (β-AR)/cAMP pathway to activate cytosolic lipases and induce their recruitment to the LD surface. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether hepatocytes, like adipocytes, also undergo cAMP-mediated lipolysis in response to β-AR stimulation. Using primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cells, we found that treatment with the β-AR agent isoproterenol caused substantial LD loss via activation of cytosolic lipases adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). β-Adrenergic stimulation rapidly activated PKA, which led to the phosphorylation of ATGL and HSL and their recruitment to the LD surface. To test whether this β-AR-dependent lipolysis pathway was altered in a model of alcoholic fatty liver, primary hepatocytes from rats fed a 6-week EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli diet were treated with cAMP agonists. Compared with controls, EtOH-exposed hepatocytes showed a drastic inhibition in β-AR/cAMP-induced LD breakdown and the phosphorylation of PKA substrates, including HSL. This observation was supported in VA-13 cells, an EtOH-metabolizing human hepatoma cell line, which displayed marked defects in both PKA activation and isoproterenol-induced ATGL translocation to the LD periphery. In summary, these findings suggest that β-AR stimulation mobilizes cytosolic lipases for LD breakdown in hepatocytes, and perturbation of this pathway could be a major consequence of chronic EtOH insult leading to fatty liver.

  17. Hepatitis B virus modulates store-operated calcium entry to enhance viral replication in primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Casciano, Jessica C.; Duchemin, Nicholas J.; Lamontagne, R. Jason; Steel, Laura F.; Bouchard, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Many viruses modulate calcium (Ca2+) signaling to create a cellular environment that is more permissive to viral replication, but for most viruses that regulate Ca2+ signaling, the mechanism underlying this regulation is not well understood. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBx protein modulates cytosolic Ca2+ levels to stimulate HBV replication in some liver cell lines. A chronic HBV infection is associated with life-threatening liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and HBx modulation of cytosolic Ca2+ levels could have an important role in HBV pathogenesis. Whether HBx affects cytosolic Ca2+ in a normal hepatocyte, the natural site of an HBV infection, has not been addressed. Here, we report that HBx alters cytosolic Ca2+ signaling in cultured primary hepatocytes. We used single cell Ca2+ imaging of cultured primary rat hepatocytes to demonstrate that HBx elevates the cytosolic Ca2+ level in hepatocytes following an IP3-linked Ca2+ response; HBx effects were similar when expressed alone or in the context of replicating HBV. HBx elevation of the cytosolic Ca2+ level required extracellular Ca2+ influx and store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) entry and stimulated HBV replication in hepatocytes. We used both targeted RT-qPCR and transcriptome-wide RNAseq analyses to compare levels of SOC channel components and other Ca2+ signaling regulators in HBV-expressing and control hepatocytes and show that the transcript levels of these various proteins are not affected by HBV. We also show that HBx regulation of SOC-regulated Ca2+ accumulation is likely the consequence of HBV modulation of a SOC channel regulatory mechanism. In support of this, we link HBx enhancement of SOC-regulated Ca2+ accumulation to Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria and demonstrate that HBx stimulates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in primary hepatocytes. The results of our study may provide insights into viral mechanisms that affect Ca2+ signaling to regulate viral replication and virus-associated diseases

  18. Ductular reaction in hereditary hemochromatosis: the link between hepatocyte senescence and fibrosis progression.

    PubMed

    Wood, Marnie J; Gadd, Victoria L; Powell, Lawrie W; Ramm, Grant A; Clouston, Andrew D

    2014-03-01

    The development of portal fibrosis following the iron loading of hepatocytes is the first stage of fibrogenesis in hereditary hemochromatosis. In other chronic liver diseases it has been shown that a ductular reaction (DR) appears early, correlates with fibrosis progression, and is a consequence of activation of an alternative pathway of hepatocyte replication. This study was designed to investigate the presence of the DR in hemochromatosis and describe its associations. Liver biopsies from 63 C282Y homozygous patients were assessed for hepatic iron concentration (HIC) and graded for iron loading, fibrosis stage, steatosis, and inflammation. Immunostaining allowed quantification of the DR, hepatocyte senescence and proliferation, and analysis incorporated clinical data. Hepatocyte senescence was positively correlated with HIC, serum ferritin, and oxidative stress. A DR was demonstrated and occurred prior to histological fibrosis. HIC, age, hepatocyte senescence and proliferation, portal inflammation, and excessive alcohol consumption all had significant associations with the extent of the DR. In multivariate analysis, iron loading, hepatocyte replicative arrest, and portal inflammation remained independently and significantly associated with the DR. Of factors associated with fibrosis progression, the DR (odds ratio [OR] 10.86 P<0.0001) and the presence of portal inflammation (OR 4.31, P=0.028) remained significant after adjustment for cofactors. The extent of the DR regressed following therapeutic venesection. Iron loading of hepatocytes leads to impaired replication, stimulating the development of the DR in hemochromatosis and this correlates strongly with hepatic fibrosis. Portal inflammation occurs in hemochromatosis and is independently associated with the DR and fibrosis, and thus its role in this disease should be evaluated further. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Comparative Gene Expression Profiles Induced by PPARγ and PPARα/γ Agonists in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rogue, Alexandra; Lambert, Carine; Jossé, Rozenn; Antherieu, Sebastien; Spire, Catherine; Claude, Nancy; Guillouzo, André

    2011-01-01

    Background Several glitazones (PPARγ agonists) and glitazars (dual PPARα/γ agonists) have been developed to treat hyperglycemia and, simultaneously, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, respectively. However, most have caused idiosyncratic hepatic or extrahepatic toxicities through mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Since the liver plays a key role in lipid metabolism, we analyzed changes in gene expression profiles induced by these two types of PPAR agonists in human hepatocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Primary human hepatocytes and the well-differentiated human hepatoma HepaRG cells were exposed to different concentrations of two PPARγ (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPARα/γ (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists for 24 h and their transcriptomes were analyzed using human pangenomic Agilent microarrays. Principal Component Analysis, hierarchical clustering and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® revealed large inter-individual variability in the response of the human hepatocyte populations to the different compounds. Many genes involved in lipid, carbohydrate, xenobiotic and cholesterol metabolism, as well as inflammation and immunity, were regulated by both PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists in at least a number of human hepatocyte populations and/or HepaRG cells. Only a few genes were selectively deregulated by glitazars when compared to glitazones, indicating that PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists share most of their target genes. Moreover, some target genes thought to be regulated only in mouse or to be expressed in Kupffer cells were also found to be responsive in human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells. Conclusions/Significance This first comprehensive analysis of gene regulation by PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists favor the conclusion that glitazones and glitazars share most of their target genes and induce large differential changes in gene profiles in human hepatocytes depending on hepatocyte donor, the compound class and/or individual compound, thereby

  20. Effect of Immunosuppressive Agents on Hepatocyte Apoptosis Post-Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eu Jin; Chin, Ruth; Nachbur, Ueli; Silke, John; Jia, Zhiyuan; Angus, Peter W.; Torresi, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Immunosuppressants are used ubiquitously post-liver transplantation to prevent allograft rejection. However their effects on hepatocytes are unknown. Experimental data from non-liver cells indicate that immunosuppressants may promote cell death thereby driving an inflammatory response that promotes fibrosis and raises concerns that a similar effect may occur within the liver. We evaluated apoptosis within the liver tissue of post-liver transplant patients and correlated these findings with in vitro experiments investigating the effects of immunosuppressants on apoptosis in primary hepatocytes. Methods Hepatocyte apoptosis was assessed using immunohistochemistry for M30 CytoDEATH and cleaved PARP in human liver tissue. Primary mouse hepatocytes were treated with various combinations of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus, or MMF. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using crystal violet assays and Western immunoblots probed for cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase 3. Results Post-liver transplant patients had a 4.9-fold and 1.7-fold increase in M30 CytoDEATH and cleaved PARP compared to normal subjects. Cyclosporine and tacrolimus at therapeutic concentrations did not affect hepatocyte apoptosis, however when they were combined with MMF, cell death was significantly enhanced. Cell viability was reduced by 46% and 41%, cleaved PARP was increased 2.6-fold and 2.2-fold, and cleaved caspase 3 increased 2.2-fold and 1.8-fold following treatment with Cyclosporine/MMF and Tacrolimus/MMF respectively. By contrast, the sirolimus/MMF combination did not significantly reduce hepatocyte viability or promote apoptosis. Conclusion Commonly used immunosuppressive drug regimens employed after liver transplantation enhance hepatocyte cell death and may thus contribute to the increased liver fibrosis that occurs in a proportion of liver transplant recipients. PMID:26390404

  1. Three-dimensional hepatocyte culture system for the study of Echinococcus multilocularis larval development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bing; Yan, Hongbin; Zhao, Yannan; Lou, Zhongzi; Li, Jianqiu; Fu, Baoquan; Zhu, Xingquan; McManus, Donald P.; Dai, Jianwu; Jia, Wanzhong

    2018-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte-based metacestode culture is an attractive method to study alveolar echinococcosis (AE), but it is limited by the relatively short lifespan of cultured hepatocytes in maintaining their normal function. Methodology/principal findings We describe a three-dimensional (3D) hepatic culture system developed from co-cultured hepatocytes and mesenchymal stem cells using a collagen scaffold to study the development of Echinococcus multilocularis larvae. This 3D culture system preserved the function of hepatocytes for a longer period of time than their monolayer counterparts, with albumin secretion, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity, urea synthesis, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 activity being highly preserved for 21–28 days. The expression levels of hepatocyte-specific genes including CLDN-3, Bsep, AFP, G6P, A1AT, CYP3A4 and NR1I3 were significantly higher in the 3D cultured system compared with their monolayer counterparts after 14-days in culture. Additionally, in the presence of 3D cultured hepatocytes, 81.2% of E. multilocularis protoscoleces rapidly de-differentiated into infective vesicles within eight weeks. Transcriptomic analyses revealed 807 differentially expressed genes between cultured vesicles and protoscoleces, including 119 genes uniquely expressed in protoscoleces, and 242 genes uniquely expressed in vesicles. These differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in parasite growth relating to the G-protein coupled receptor activity pathway, substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity, cell-cell adhesion process, and potentially with neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. Conclusions/significance This culture system provides a valuable advance in prolonging hepatocyte functionality, a foundation for future in-depth analysis of the host-parasite interaction in AE, and a useful model to evaluate potential therapeutic strategies to treat AE. PMID:29538424

  2. Role of YAP activation in nuclear receptor CAR-mediated proliferation of mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Abe, Taiki; Amaike, Yuto; Shizu, Ryota; Takahashi, Miki; Kano, Makoto; Hosaka, Takuomi; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Kodama, Susumu; Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2018-06-08

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a xenobiotic-responsive nuclear receptor that is highly expressed in the liver. CAR activation induces hepatocyte proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the association of CAR-dependent cell proliferation with Yes-associated protein (YAP), which is a transcriptional cofactor controlling organ size and cell growth through the interaction with various transcriptional factors including TEAD. In mouse livers, TCPOBOP (a mouse CAR activator) treatment increased the nuclear YAP accumulation and mRNA levels of YAP target genes as well as cell-cycle related genes along with liver hypertrophy and verteporfin (an inhibitor of YAP/TEAD interaction) cotreatment tended to attenuate them. Furthermore, in cell-based reporter gene assays, CAR activation enhanced the YAP/TEAD-dependent transcription. To investigate the role of YAP/TEAD activation in the CAR-dependent hepatocyte proliferation, we sought to establish an in vitro system completely reproducing CAR-dependent cell proliferation. Since CAR was only slightly expressed in cultured mouse primary hepatocytes compared to mouse livers and no proliferation was observed after treatment with TCPOBOP, we overexpressed CAR using mouse CAR expressing adenovirus (Ad-mCAR-V5) in mouse primary hepatocytes. Ad-mCAR-V5 infection and TCPOBOP treatment induced hepatocyte proliferation. Similar results were obtained with immortalized normal mouse hepatocytes as well. In the established in vitro system, CAR-dependent proliferation was strongly inhibited by Yap knockdown and completely abolished by verteporfin treatment. Our present results obtained in in vivo and in vitro experiments suggest that YAP/TEAD activation plays key roles in CAR-dependent proliferation of murine hepatocytes.

  3. Nrf2 Knockdown Disrupts the Protective Effect of Curcumin on Alcohol-Induced Hepatocyte Necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunfeng; Xu, Wenxuan; Zhang, Feng; Shao, Jiangjuan; Zheng, Shizhong

    2016-12-05

    It has emerged that hepatocyte necroptosis plays a critical role in chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Our previous study has identified that the beneficial therapeutic effect of curcumin on alcohol-caused liver injury might be attributed to activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), whereas the role of curcumin in regulating necroptosis and the underlying mechanism remain to be determined. We first found that chronic alcohol consumption triggered obvious hepatocyte necroptosis, leading to increased expression of receptor-interacting protein 1, receptor-interacting protein 3, high-mobility group box 1, and phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase domain-like in murine livers. Curcumin dose-dependently ameliorated hepatocyte necroptosis and alleviated alcohol-caused decrease in hepatic Nrf2 expression in alcoholic mice. Then Nrf2 shRNA lentivirus was introduced to generate Nrf2-knockdown mice. Our results indicated that Nrf2 knockdown aggravated the effects of alcohol on liver injury and necroptosis and even abrogated the inhibitory effect of curcumin on necroptosis. Further, activated Nrf2 by curcumin inhibited p53 expression in both livers and cultured hepatocytes under alcohol stimulation. The next in vitro experiments, similar to in vivo ones, revealed that although Nrf2 knockdown abolished the suppression of curcumin on necroptosis of hepatocytes exposed to ethanol, p53 siRNA could clearly rescued the relative effect of curcumin. In summary, for the first time, we concluded that curcumin attenuated alcohol-induced hepatocyte necroptosis in a Nrf2/p53-dependent mechanism. These findings make curcumin an excellent candidate for ALD treatment and advance the understanding of ALD mechanisms associated with hepatocyte necroptosis.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates p62-Dependent Autophagy-Like Aggregate Clearance in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Meihong; Sun, Qian; Loughran, Patricia; Billiar, Timothy R.; Scott, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of autophagy has been associated with liver injury. TLR4-stimulation by LPS upregulates autophagy in hepatocytes, although the signaling pathways involved remain elusive. The objective of this study was to determine the signaling pathway leading to LPS-stimulated autophagy in hepatocytes. Cell lysates from livers of wild type (WT; C57BL/6) mice given LPS (5 mg/kg-IP) and hepatocytes from WT, TLR4ko, and MyD88ko mice treated with LPS (100 ng/mL) up to 24 h were collected. LC3II, p62/SQSTM1, Nrf2, and beclin1 levels were determined by immunoblot, immunofluorescence, and qPCR. Autophagy-like activation was measured by GFP-LC3-puncta formation and LC3II-expression. Beclin1, Nrf2, p62, MyD88, and TIRAP were knocked-down using siRNA. LC3II-expression increased in both liver and hepatocytes after LPS and was dependent on TLR4. Beclin1 expression did not increase after LPS in hepatocytes and beclin1-knockdown did not affect LC3II levels. In hepatocytes given LPS, expression of p62 increased and p62 colocalized with LC3. p62-knockdown prevented LC3II puncta formation. LPS-induced LC3II/p62-puncta also required MyD88/TIRAP signaling and localization of both Nrf2 and NFκB transcription factors to the nucleus to upregulate p62-expression. Therefore, TLR4-activation by LPS in hepatocytes induces a p62-mediated, not beclin1-mediated, autophagy-like clearance pathway that is hepatoprotective by clearing aggregate-prone or misfolded proteins from the cytosol and preserving energy homeostasis under stress. PMID:24683544

  5. Hypoxia promotes liver-stage malaria infection in primary human hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shengyong; March, Sandra; Galstian, Ani; Hanson, Kirsten; Carvalho, Tânia; Mota, Maria M; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2014-02-01

    Homeostasis of mammalian cell function strictly depends on balancing oxygen exposure to maintain energy metabolism without producing excessive reactive oxygen species. In vivo, cells in different tissues are exposed to a wide range of oxygen concentrations, and yet in vitro models almost exclusively expose cultured cells to higher, atmospheric oxygen levels. Existing models of liver-stage malaria that utilize primary human hepatocytes typically exhibit low in vitro infection efficiencies, possibly due to missing microenvironmental support signals. One cue that could influence the infection capacity of cultured human hepatocytes is the dissolved oxygen concentration. We developed a microscale human liver platform comprised of precisely patterned primary human hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells to model liver-stage malaria, but the oxygen concentrations are typically higher in the in vitro liver platform than anywhere along the hepatic sinusoid. Indeed, we observed that liver-stage Plasmodium parasite development in vivo correlates with hepatic sinusoidal oxygen gradients. Therefore, we hypothesized that in vitro liver-stage malaria infection efficiencies might improve under hypoxia. Using the infection of micropatterned co-cultures with Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium yoelii or Plasmodium falciparum as a model, we observed that ambient hypoxia resulted in increased survival of exo-erythrocytic forms (EEFs) in hepatocytes and improved parasite development in a subset of surviving EEFs, based on EEF size. Further, the effective cell surface oxygen tensions (pO2) experienced by the hepatocytes, as predicted by a mathematical model, were systematically perturbed by varying culture parameters such as hepatocyte density and height of the medium, uncovering an optimal cell surface pO2 to maximize the number of mature EEFs. Initial mechanistic experiments revealed that treatment of primary human hepatocytes with the hypoxia mimetic, cobalt(II) chloride, as well as a HIF-1

  6. Lipopolysaccharide stimulates p62-dependent autophagy-like aggregate clearance in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christine; Deng, Meihong; Sun, Qian; Loughran, Patricia; Billiar, Timothy R; Scott, Melanie J

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of autophagy has been associated with liver injury. TLR4-stimulation by LPS upregulates autophagy in hepatocytes, although the signaling pathways involved remain elusive. The objective of this study was to determine the signaling pathway leading to LPS-stimulated autophagy in hepatocytes. Cell lysates from livers of wild type (WT; C57BL/6) mice given LPS (5 mg/kg-IP) and hepatocytes from WT, TLR4ko, and MyD88ko mice treated with LPS (100 ng/mL) up to 24 h were collected. LC3II, p62/SQSTM1, Nrf2, and beclin1 levels were determined by immunoblot, immunofluorescence, and qPCR. Autophagy-like activation was measured by GFP-LC3-puncta formation and LC3II-expression. Beclin1, Nrf2, p62, MyD88, and TIRAP were knocked-down using siRNA. LC3II-expression increased in both liver and hepatocytes after LPS and was dependent on TLR4. Beclin1 expression did not increase after LPS in hepatocytes and beclin1-knockdown did not affect LC3II levels. In hepatocytes given LPS, expression of p62 increased and p62 colocalized with LC3. p62-knockdown prevented LC3II puncta formation. LPS-induced LC3II/p62-puncta also required MyD88/TIRAP signaling and localization of both Nrf2 and NF κ B transcription factors to the nucleus to upregulate p62-expression. Therefore, TLR4-activation by LPS in hepatocytes induces a p62-mediated, not beclin1-mediated, autophagy-like clearance pathway that is hepatoprotective by clearing aggregate-prone or misfolded proteins from the cytosol and preserving energy homeostasis under stress.

  7. Depot-dependent effects of adipose tissue explants on co-cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Tao; Lock, Erik-Jan; Hao, Qin; Kristiansen, Karsten; Frøyland, Livar; Madsen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro hepatocyte-adipose tissue explant (ATE) co-culture model enabling examination of the effect of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues on primary rat hepatocytes. Initial analyses of inflammatory marker genes were performed in fractionated epididymal or inguinal adipose tissues. Expressions of inflammation related genes (IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2) were higher in the inguinal than the epididymal ATE. Similarly, expressions of marker genes of macrophage and monocyte (MPEG-1, CD68, F4/80, CD64) were higher in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) isolated from inguinal ATE than that from epididymal ATE. However, expressions of lipolysis related genes (ATGL, HSL, perilipin-1) were higher in the epididymal adipocytes than inguinal adipocytes. Moreover, secretion of IL-6 and PGE(2) was higher from inguinal ATEs than from epididymal ATEs. There was a trend that the total levels of IL-6, TNF-α and PGE(2) in the media from inguinal ATEs co-cultured with primary rat hepatocytes were higher than that in the media from epididymal ATEs co-cultured with hepatocytes, although the significant difference was only seen in PGE(2). Lipolysis, measured as glycerol release, was similar in the ATEs isolated from inguinal and epididymal adipose tissues when cultured alone, but the glycerol release was higher in the ATEs isolated from epididymal than from inguinal adipose tissue when co-cultured with hepatocytes. Compared to epididymal ATEs, the ATEs from inguinal adipose tissue elicited a stronger cytotoxic response and higher level of insulin resistance in the co-cultured hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results reveal depot-dependent effects of ATEs on co-cultured primary hepatocytes, which in part may be related to a more pronounced infiltration of stromal vascular cells (SVCs), particularly macrophages, in inguinal adipose tissue resulting in stronger responses in terms of hepatotoxicity and insulin-resistance.

  8. Serum-Free Medium and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Enhance Functionality and Stabilize Integrity of Rat Hepatocyte Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ji; Fisher, James E.; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Wang, William; Amiot, Bruce; Yu, Yue; Dietz, Allan B.; Nahmias, Yaakov; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term culture of hepatocyte spheroids with high ammonia clearance is valuable for therapeutic applications, especially the bioartificial liver. However, the optimal conditions are not well studied. We hypothesized that liver urea cycle enzymes can be induced by high protein diet and maintain on a higher expression level in rat hepatocyte spheroids by serum-free medium (SFM) culture and coculture with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Rats were feed normal protein diet (NPD) or high protein diet (HPD) for 7 days before liver digestion and isolation of hepatocytes. Hepatocyte spheroids were formed and maintained in a rocked suspension culture with or without MSCs in SFM or 10% serum-containing medium (SCM). Spheroid viability, kinetics of spheroid formation, hepatic functions, gene expression, and biochemical activities of rat hepatocyte spheroids were tested over 14 days of culture. We observed that urea cycle enzymes of hepatocyte spheroids can be induced by high protein diet. SFM and MSCs enhanced ammonia clearance and ureagenesis and stabilized integrity of hepatocyte spheroids compared to control conditions over 14 days. Hepatocytes from high protein diet-fed rats formed spheroids and maintained a high level of ammonia detoxification for over 14 days in a novel SFM. Hepatic functionality and spheroid integrity were further stabilized by coculture of hepatocytes with MSCs in the spheroid microenvironment. These findings have direct application to development of the spheroid reservoir bioartificial liver. PMID:23006214

  9. Upregulation of CYP 450s expression of immortalized hepatocyte-like cells derived from mesenchymal stem cells by enzyme inducers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The strenuous procurement of cultured human hepatocytes and their short lives have constrained the cell culture model of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) induction, xenobiotic biotransformation, and hepatotoxicity. The development of continuous non-tumorous cell line steadily containing hepatocyte phenotypes would substitute the primary hepatocytes for these studies. Results The hepatocyte-like cells have been developed from hTERT plus Bmi-1-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells to substitute the primary hepatocytes. The hepatocyte-like cells had polygonal morphology and steadily produced albumin, glycogen, urea and UGT1A1 beyond 6 months while maintaining proliferative capacity. Although these hepatocyte-like cells had low basal expression of CYP450 isotypes, their expressions could be extensively up regulated to 80 folds upon the exposure to enzyme inducers. Their inducibility outperformed the classical HepG2 cells. Conclusion The hepatocyte-like cells contained the markers of hepatocytes including CYP450 isotypes. The high inducibility of CYP450 transcripts could serve as a sensitive model for profiling xenobiotic-induced expression of CYP450. PMID:21961524

  10. Oncostatin M induces upregulation of claudin-2 in rodent hepatocytes coinciding with changes in morphology and function of tight junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, Masafumi; Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, S1. W17. Sapporo 060-8556; Kojima, Takashi

    2007-05-15

    In rodent livers, integral tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-1, -2, -3, -5 and -14 are detected and play crucial roles in the barrier to keep bile in bile canaculi away from the blood circulation. Claudin-2 shows a lobular gradient increasing from periportal to pericentral hepatocytes, whereas claudin-1 and -3 are expressed in the whole liver lobule. Although claudin-2 expression induces cation-selective channels in tight junctions of epithelial cells, the physiological functions and regulation of claudin-2 in hepatocytes remain unclear. Oncostatin M (OSM) is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in the differentiation of hepatocytes that induces formation of E-cadherin-based adherens junctions inmore » fetal hepatocytes. In this study, we examined whether OSM could induce expression and function of claudin-2 in rodent hepatocytes, immortalized mouse and primary cultured proliferative rat hepatocytes. In the immortalized mouse and primary cultured proliferative rat hepatocytes, treatment with OSM markedly increased mRNA and protein of claudin-2 together with formation of developed networks of TJ strands. The increase of claudin-2 enhanced the paracellular barrier function which depended on molecular size. The increase of claudin-2 expression induced by OSM in rodent hepatocytes was regulated through distinct signaling pathways including PKC. These results suggest that expression of claudin-2 in rodent hepatocytes may play a specific role as controlling the size of paracellular permeability in the barrier to keep bile in bile canaculi.« less

  11. Disruption of the Smad7 gene enhances CCI4-dependent liver damage and fibrogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hamzavi, Jafar; Ehnert, Sabrina; Godoy, Patricio; Ciuclan, Loredana; Weng, Honglei; Mertens, Peter R; Heuchel, Rainer; Dooley, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling is induced in liver as a consequence of damage and contributes to wound healing with transient activation, whereas it mediates fibrogenesis with long-term up-regulation in chronic disease. Smad-dependent TGF-β effects are blunted by antagonistic Smad7, which is transcriptionally activated as an immediate early response upon initiation of TGF-β signalling in most cell types, thereby providing negative feedback regulation. Smad7 can be induced by other cytokines, e.g. IFN-γ, leading to a crosstalk of these signalling pathways. Here we report on a novel mouse strain, denoted S7ΔE1, with a deletion of exon I from the endogenous smad7 gene. The mice were viable and exhibited normal adult liver architecture. To obtain insight into Smad7-depend-ent protective effects, chronic liver damage was induced in mice by carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) administration. Subsequent treatment, elevated serum liver enzymes indicated enhanced liver damage in mice lacking functional Smad7. CCI4-dependent Smad2 phosphoryla-tion was pronounced in S7ΔE1 mice and accompanied by increased numbers of α-smooth muscle actin positive ‘activated’ HSCs. There was evidence for matrix accumulation, with elevated collagen deposition as assessed morphometrically in Sirius red stained tissue and confirmed with higher levels of hydroxyproline in S7ΔE1 mice. In addition, the number of CD43 positive infiltrating lymphocytes as well as of apoptotic hepatocytes was increased. Studies with primary hepatocytes from S7ΔE1 and wild-type mice indicate that in the absence of functional Smad7 protein, hepatocytes are more sensitive for TGF-β effects resulting in enhanced cell death. Furthermore, S7ΔE1 hepatocytes display increased oxidative stress and cell damage in response to CCI4, as measured by reactive oxygen species production, glutathione depletion, lactate dehydrogenase release and lipid peroxidation. Using an ALK-5 inhibitor all investigated CCI4

  12. Cytotoxicity evaluation using cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes in various culture formats.

    PubMed

    Richert, Lysiane; Baze, Audrey; Parmentier, Céline; Gerets, Helga H J; Sison-Young, Rowena; Dorau, Martina; Lovatt, Cerys; Czich, Andreas; Goldring, Christopher; Park, B Kevin; Juhila, Satu; Foster, Alison J; Williams, Dominic P

    2016-09-06

    Sixteen training compounds selected in the IMI MIP-DILI consortium, 12 drug-induced liver injury (DILI) positive compounds and 4 non-DILI compounds, were assessed in cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes. When a ten-fold safety margin threshold was applied, the non-DILI-compounds were correctly identified 2h following a single exposure to pooled human hepatocytes (n=13 donors) in suspension and 14-days following repeat dose exposure (3 treatments) to an established 3D-microtissue co-culture (3D-MT co-culture, n=1 donor) consisting of human hepatocytes co-cultured with non-parenchymal cells (NPC). In contrast, only 5/12 DILI-compounds were correctly identified 2h following a single exposure to pooled human hepatocytes in suspension. Exposure of the 2D-sandwich culture human hepatocyte monocultures (2D-sw) for 3days resulted in the correct identification of 11/12 DILI-positive compounds, whereas exposure of the human 3D-MT co-cultures for 14days resulted in identification of 9/12 DILI-compounds; in addition to ximelagatran (also not identified by 2D-sw monocultures, Sison-Young et al., 2016), the 3D-MT co-cultures failed to detect amiodarone and bosentan. The sensitivity of the 2D human hepatocytes co-cultured with NPC to ximelagatran was increased in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but only at high concentrations, therefore preventing its classification as a DILI positive compound. In conclusion (1) despite suspension human hepatocytes having the greatest metabolic capacity in the short term, they are the least predictive of clinical DILI across the MIP-DILI test compounds, (2) longer exposure periods than 72h of human hepatocytes do not allow to increase DILI-prediction rate, (3) co-cultures of human hepatocytes with NPC, in the presence of LPS during the 72h exposure period allow the assessment of innate immune system involvement of a given drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Live cell imaging of cytosolic NADH/NAD+ ratio in hepatocytes and liver slices.

    PubMed

    Masia, Ricard; McCarty, William J; Lahmann, Carolina; Luther, Jay; Chung, Raymond T; Yarmush, Martin L; Yellen, Gary

    2018-01-01

    Fatty liver disease (FLD), the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, may be caused by alcohol or the metabolic syndrome. Alcohol is oxidized in the cytosol of hepatocytes by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which generates NADH and increases cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio. The increased ratio may be important for development of FLD, but our ability to examine this question is hindered by methodological limitations. To address this, we used the genetically encoded fluorescent sensor Peredox to obtain dynamic, real-time measurements of cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio in living hepatocytes. Peredox was expressed in dissociated rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells by transfection, and in mouse liver slices by tail-vein injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-encoded sensor. Under control conditions, hepatocytes and liver slices exhibit a relatively low (oxidized) cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio as reported by Peredox. The ratio responds rapidly and reversibly to substrates of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). Ethanol causes a robust dose-dependent increase in cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio, and this increase is mitigated by the presence of NAD + -generating substrates of LDH or SDH. In contrast to hepatocytes and slices, HepG2 cells exhibit a relatively high (reduced) ratio and show minimal responses to substrates of ADH and SDH. In slices, we show that comparable results are obtained with epifluorescence imaging and two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2p-FLIM). Live cell imaging with Peredox is a promising new approach to investigate cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio in hepatocytes. Imaging in liver slices is particularly attractive because it allows preservation of liver microanatomy and metabolic zonation of hepatocytes. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We describe and validate a new approach for measuring free cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio in hepatocytes and liver slices: live cell imaging with the fluorescent biosensor Peredox. This approach yields dynamic, real

  14. Green tea polyphenols and tannic acid act as potent inhibitors of phorbol ester-induced nitric oxide generation in rat hepatocytes independent of their antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R C; Husain, M M; Hasan, S K; Athar, M

    2000-05-29

    The deleterious effects of excessive release of nitric oxide (NO) have been implicated in the tissue damage and inflammation. In this study, the effect of various flavonoids and other oxidant scavenging chemical agents have been studied for their ability to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced NO generation in rat hepatocyte. Hepatocytes activated with TPA (25-200 nM) released NO in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Green tea polyphenols (GTP) and tannic acid (TA) were most effective in inhibiting TPA-induced NO generation (90%). These agents were also effective in inhibiting NO formation when added 2 h following TPA addition. The other oxidant scavengers, such as L-histidine, sodium azide, vitamin E and sodium benzoate, were not found to be effective even up to 1.0 mM concentration. These results suggest that TA and GTP are potent inhibitors of NOS activity and the inhibition of TPA-induced NO generation by these polyphenols is independent of their antioxidant activity. It is tempting to speculate that these agents could be utilized in the pharmacological manipulations of NO-dependent pathophysiological responses.

  15. Improved human endometrial stem cells differentiation into functional hepatocyte-like cells on a glycosaminoglycan/collagen-grafted polyethersulfone nanofibrous scaffold.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Farzaneh; Ai, Jafar; Soleimani, Masoud; Verdi, Javad; Mohammad Tavangar, Seyed; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil; Massumi, Mohammad; Mahmoud Hashemi, Seyed

    2017-11-01

    Liver tissue engineering (TE) is rapidly emerging as an effective technique which combines engineering and biological processes to compensate for the shortage of damaged or destroyed liver tissues. We examined the viability, differentiation, and integration of hepatocyte-like cells on an electrospun polyethersulfone (PES) scaffold, derived from human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs). Natural polymers were separately grafted on plasma-treated PES nanofibers, that is, collagen, heparan sulfate (HS) and collagen-HS. Galactosilated PES (PES-Gal) nanofibrous were created. The engineering and cell growth parameters were considered and compared with each sample. The cellular studies revealed increased cell survival, attachment, and normal morphology on the bioactive natural polymer-grafted scaffolds after 30 days of hepatic differentiation. The chemical and molecular assays displayed hepatocyte differentiation. These cells were also functional, showing glycogen storage, α-fetoprotein, and albumin secretion. The HS nanoparticle-grafted PES nanofibers demonstrated a high rate of cell proliferation, differentiation, and integration. Based on the observations mentioned above, engineered tissue is a good option in the future, for the commercial production of three-dimensional liver tissues for clinical purposes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2516-2529, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. LPS induces direct death of IFN-gamma primed murine embryonic hepatocyte, BNL CL2 cells in a TNF-alpha independent manner.

    PubMed

    So, H S; Jung, B H; Yeum, S S; Park, J S; Kim, M S; Lee, J H; Chung, S Y; Choi, S; Chae, H J; Kim, H R; Ko, C B; Chung, H T; Park, R

    2000-11-01

    Although it has been well known that the role of LPS on liver damage is mediated through TNF-alpha, the mechanism by which LPS modulates the cytotoxicity of IFN-gamma on hepatocytes has not yet been clearly demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-gamma mediated apoptosis in murine embryonic hepatocyte BNL CL2 cells is potentiated by the addition of LPS (0.5 microg/ml). Consistently, LPS markedly increases the catalytic activity of caspase 3-like protease but not caspase 1-like protease in IFN-gamma treated cells. In addition, TNF-alpha alone does not affect cell viability but rather it potentiates the cytotoxic effect of IFN-gamma on BNL CL2 cells. However, the cell viability of IFN-gamma/LPS treated cells is affected by the addition of polymyxin B but not by TNF binding protein I (TNF-BPI). These data suggest that the lipid moiety of LPS may mediate direct cytotoxicity of BNL CL2 cells in a TNF-alpha independent manner.

  17. Liver function and DNA integrity in hepatocytes of rats evaluated after treatments with strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) water leaf extract and arbutin.

    PubMed

    Jurica, Karlo; Benković, Vesna; Sikirić, Sunčana; Kopjar, Nevenka; Brčić Karačonji, Irena

    2018-06-07

    Due to their beneficial health effects, strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) leaves have for decades been used as herbal remedy in countries of the Mediterranean region. This pilot study is the first to investigate the liver function and DNA integrity in rat hepatocytes evaluated after 14 and 28 day treatments with strawberry tree water leaf extract and arbutin, administered per os to Lewis rats of both genders at a daily dose 200 mg/kg b.w. We focused on two types of biomarkers: enzyme serum markers of liver function (AST, ALT, and LDH), and primary DNA damage in the liver cells, which was estimated using the alkaline comet assay. At the tested dose, strawberry tree water leaf extract showed acceptable biocompatibility with liver tissue both in male and female rats, especially after shorter exposure. Our results also suggest that oral administration of single arbutin to rats was not associated with significant impairments either in the liver function or DNA integrity in hepatocytes. Considering that prolonged exposure to the tested compounds revealed minor changes in the studied biomarkers, future in vivo studies have to further clarify the biological and physiological relevance of these findings.

  18. Comparative Study of Light Scattering from Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wang, Rongrong; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao; Guo, Xiaoen

    2012-11-01

    Primary liver cancer is one of the highest mortality malignant tumors in the world. China is a high occurrence area of primary liver cancer. Diagnosis of liver cancer, especially early diagnosis, is essential for improving patients' survival. Light scattering and measuring method is an emerging technology developed in recent decades, which has attracted a large number of biomedical researchers due to its advantages, such as fast, simple, high accuracy, good repeatability, and non-destructive. The hypothesis of this project is that there may be some different light scattering information between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte. Combined with the advantages of the dynamic light scattering method and the biological cytology, an experimental scheme to measure the light scattering information of cells was formulated. Hepatoma cells and hepatic cells were irradiated by a semiconductor laser (532 nm). And the Brookhaven BI-200SM wide-angle light scattering device and temperature control apparatus were adopted. The light scattering information of hepatoma cells and hepatic cells in vitro within the 15°C to 30°C temperature range was processed by a BI-9000AT digital autocorrelator. The following points were found: (a) the scattering intensities of human hepatic cells and hepatoma cells are nearly not affected by the temperature factor, and the former is always greater than the latter and (b) the relaxation time of hepatoma cells is longer than that of hepatic cells, and both the relaxation time are shortened with increasing temperature from 15°C to 25°C. It can be concluded that hepatoma cells could absorb more incident light than hepatic cells. The reason may be that there exists more protein and nucleic acid in cancerous cells than normal cells. Furthermore, based on the length relaxation time, a conclusion can be inferred that the Brownian movement of cancer cells is greater.

  19. [The expression of serum hepatocyte growth factor in OSAHS].

    PubMed

    Zhou, S L; Meng, B; Ding, J H

    2017-05-05

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of detecting peripheral blood hepatocyte growth factor(HGF) in OSAHS patients. Method: Ninety-six cases of OSAHS patients in our hospital were selected as OSAHS group,and were divided into 3 subgroups according to the PSG results:mild,medium and severe. Each group included 32 cases,Thirty-five cases of healthy persons were selected as control group. ELISA method was utilized to detect the HGF level of peripheral blood. HGF concentration was measured in 32 patients with severe OSAHS after 3 months of comprehensive treatment. The relationship between serum HGF and sleep respiration events was further analyzed. Result: The HGF concentration of peripheral blood increased with the severity of OSAHS.The serum levels of HGF in the control,mild,medium and severe group were(487.75±46.74)pg/ml,(519.44±50.77)pg/ml,(753.52±58.91) pg/ml and(829.49±61.74)pg/ml,respectively. There were significant differences among groups( F =117.733, P <0.01). HGF concentration in peripheral blood of OSAHS patients was unrelated to sex,age,and BMI( P >0.05),and positively correlated with AHI,negatively correlated with LSaO₂( P <0.01). After comprehensive treatment,the serum HGF concentration and AHI in severe OSAHS group were significantly decreased,while LSaO₂ was significantly increased. Conclusion: The level of HGF was increased in OSAHS patients and was positively correlated with the severity of OSAHS. Determining the level of HGF in peripheral blood is important for evaluating the severity of OSAHS and the degree of vascular endothelial dysfunction,and assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  20. Dynamic regulation of EZH2 from HPSc to hepatocyte-like cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Helsen, Nicky; Vanhove, Jolien; Boon, Ruben; Xu, Zhuofei; Ordovas, Laura; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, drug metabolization and toxicity studies rely on the use of primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines, which both have conceivable limitations. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)—derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) are an alternative and valuable source of hepatocytes that can overcome these limitations. EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), a transcriptional repressor of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), may play an important role in hepatocyte development, but its role during in vitro hPSC-HLC differentiation has not yet been assessed. We here demonstrate dynamic regulation of EZH2 during hepatic differentiation of hPSC. To enhance EZH2 expression, we inducibly overexpressed EZH2 between d0 and d8, demonstrating a significant improvement in definitive endoderm formation, and improved generation of HLCs. Despite induction of EZH2 overexpression until d8, EZH2 transcript and protein levels decreased from d4 onwards, which might be caused by expression of microRNAs predicted to inhibit EZH2 expression. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that EZH2 plays a role in endoderm formation and hepatocyte differentiation, but its expression is tightly post-transcriptionally regulated during this process. PMID:29091973

  1. Kukoamine B promotes TLR4-independent lipopolysaccharide uptake in murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Zheng, Xinchuan; Wang, Ning; Fan, Shijun; Yang, Yongjun; Lu, Yongling; Chen, Qian; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-09-06

    Free bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is generally removed from the bloodstream through hepatic uptake via TLR4, the LPS pattern recognition receptor, but mechanisms for internalization and clearance of conjugated LPS are less clear. Kukoamine B (KB) is a novel cationic alkaloid that interferes with LPS binding to TLR4. In this study, KB accelerated blood clearance of LPS. KB also enhanced LPS distribution in the hepatic tissues of C57 BL/6 mice, along with LPS uptake in primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. By contrast, KB inhibited LPS internalization in Kupffer and RAW 264.7 cells. Loss of TLR4 did not affect LPS uptake into KB-treated hepatocytes. We also detected selective upregulation of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) upon KB treatment, and ASGPR colocalized with KB in cultured hepatocytes. Molecular docking showed that KB bound to ASGPR in a manner similar to GalNAc, a known ASGPR agonist. GalNAc dose-dependently reduced KB internalization, suggesting it competes with KB for ASGPR binding, and ASGPR knockdown also impaired LPS uptake into hepatocytes. Finally, while KB enhanced LPS uptake, it was protective against LPS-induced inflammation and hepatocyte injury. Our study provides a new mechanism for conjugated LPS hepatic uptake induced by the LPS neutralizer KB and mediated by membrane ASGPR binding.

  2. Glutamic Acid as Enhancer of Protein Synthesis Kinetics in Hepatocytes from Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, V Y; Malchenko, L A; Butorina, N N; Lazarev Konchenko, D S; Zvezdina, N D; Dubovaya, T K

    2017-08-01

    Dense cultures of hepatocytes from old rats (~2 years old, body weight 530-610 g) are different from similar cultures of hepatocytes from young rats by the low amplitude of protein synthesis rhythm. Addition of glutamic acid (0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/ml) into the culture medium with hepatocytes of old rats resulted in increase in the oscillation amplitudes of the protein synthesis rhythm to the level of young rats. A similar action of glutamic acid on the protein synthesis kinetics was observed in vivo after feeding old rats with glutamic acid. Inhibition of metabotropic receptors of glutamic acid with α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (0.01 mg/ml) abolished the effect of glutamic acid. The amplitude of oscillation of the protein synthesis rhythm in a cell population characterizes synchronization of individual oscillations caused by direct cell-cell communications. Hence, glutamic acid, acting as a receptor-dependent transmitter, enhanced direct cell-cell communications of hepatocytes that were decreased with aging. As differentiated from other known membrane signaling factors (gangliosides, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine), glutamic acid can penetrate into the brain and thus influence the communications and protein synthesis kinetics that are disturbed with aging not only in hepatocytes, but also in neurons.

  3. Effect of endogenous nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiration of rat hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, J.; Curran, R.D.; Ochoa, J.B.

    1991-02-01

    Nitric oxide, a highly reactive radical, was recently identified as an intermediate of L-arginine metabolism in mammalian cells. We have shown that nitric oxide synthesis is induced in vitro in cultured hepatocytes by supernatants from activated Kupffer cells or in vivo by injecting rats with nonviable Corynebacterium parvum. In both cases, nitric oxide biosynthesis in hepatocytes was associated with suppression of total protein synthesis. This study attempts to determine the effect of nitric oxide biosynthesis on the activity of specific hepatocytic mitochondrial enzymes and to determine whether inhibition of protein synthesis is caused by suppression of energy metabolism. Exposure ofmore » hepatocytes to supernatants from activated Kupffer cells led to a 30% decrease of aconitase (Krebs cycle) and complex I (mitochondrial electron transport chain) activity. Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity was due, in part, to the action of nitric oxide. In contrast, in vivo nitric oxide synthesis of hepatocytes from Corynebacterium parvum-treated animals had no effect on mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that inhibition of protein synthesis by nitric oxide is not likely to be mediated by inhibition of energy metabolism.« less

  4. Human hepatocytes derived from pluripotent stem cells: a promising cell model for drug hepatotoxicity screening.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lechón, María José; Tolosa, Laia

    2016-09-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a frequent cause of failure in both clinical and post-approval stages of drug development, and poses a key challenge to the pharmaceutical industry. Current animal models offer poor prediction of human DILI. Although several human cell-based models have been proposed for the detection of human DILI, human primary hepatocytes remain the gold standard for preclinical toxicological screening. However, their use is hindered by their limited availability, variability and phenotypic instability. In contrast, pluripotent stem cells, which include embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), proliferate extensively in vitro and can be differentiated into hepatocytes by the addition of soluble factors. This provides a stable source of hepatocytes for multiple applications, including early preclinical hepatotoxicity screening. In addition, iPSCs also have the potential to establish genotype-specific cells from different individuals, which would increase the predictivity of toxicity assays allowing more successful clinical trials. Therefore, the generation of human hepatocyte-like cells derived from pluripotent stem cells seems to be promising for overcoming limitations of hepatocyte preparations, and it is expected to have a substantial repercussion in preclinical hepatotoxicity risk assessment in early drug development stages.

  5. Differentiation of hepatocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xu; Lv, Shuang; He, Xia; Liu, Xiaomei; Sun, Meiyu; Li, Meiying; Chi, Guangfan; Li, Yulin

    2016-10-01

    Due to the limitations of organ donors and immune rejection in severe liver diseases, stem cell-based therapy presents a promising application for tissue repair and regeneration. As a novel cell source, mesenchymal stem cells separated from human hair follicles (HF-MSCs) are convenient to obtain and have no age limit. To date, the differentiation of HF-MSCs into hepatocytes has not been reported. In this study, we explored whether HF-MSCs and HF-MSC-derived-induced pluripotent stem cells (HF-iPS) could differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. Flow cytometry, Oil Red O stain and Alizarin Red stain were used to identify the characteristics of HF-MSCs. The expression of liver-specific gene was detected by immunofluorescence and Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Periodic Acid-Schiff stain, Indocyanine Green stain and Low-Density Lipoprotein stain were performed to evaluate the functions of induced hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). HF-MSCs were unable to differentiate into HLCs using previously reported procedures for MSCs from other tissues. However, HF-iPS efficiently induced the generation of HLCs that expressed hepatocyte markers and drug metabolism-related genes. HF-iPS can be used as novel and alternative cellular tools for inducing hepatocytes in vitro, simultaneously benefiting from utilizing HF-MSCs as a noninvasive and convenient cell source for reprogramming.

  6. Generation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells for drug toxicity screening.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kazuo; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Because drug-induced liver injury is one of the main reasons for drug development failures, it is important to perform drug toxicity screening in the early phase of pharmaceutical development. Currently, primary human hepatocytes are most widely used for the prediction of drug-induced liver injury. However, the sources of primary human hepatocytes are limited, making it difficult to supply the abundant quantities required for large-scale drug toxicity screening. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a novel unlimited, efficient, inexpensive, and predictive model which can be applied for large-scale drug toxicity screening. Human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are able to replicate indefinitely and differentiate into most of the body's cell types, including hepatocytes. It is expected that hepatocyte-like cells generated from human ES/iPS cells (human ES/iPS-HLCs) will be a useful tool for drug toxicity screening. To apply human ES/iPS-HLCs to various applications including drug toxicity screening, homogenous and functional HLCs must be differentiated from human ES/iPS cells. In this review, we will introduce the current status of hepatocyte differentiation technology from human ES/iPS cells and a novel method to predict drug-induced liver injury using human ES/iPS-HLCs. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in cocultures with fetal liver cells.

    PubMed

    Lange, Claudia; Bruns, Helge; Kluth, Dietrich; Zander, Axel-R; Fiegel, Henning-C

    2006-04-21

    To investigate the hepatocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in co-cultures with fetal liver cells (FLC) and the possibility to expand differentiated hepatocytic cells. MSCs were marked with green fluorescent protein (GFP) by retroviral gene transduction. Clonal marked MSCs were either cultured under liver stimulating conditions using fibronectin-coated culture dishes and medium supplemented with stem cell factor (SCF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF-4) alone, or in presence of freshly isolated FLC. Cells in co-cultures were harvested, and GFP+ or GFP- cells were separated using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the liver specific markers cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), albumin, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was performed in different cell populations. Under the specified culture conditions, rat MSCs co-cultured with FLC expressed albumin, CK-18, and AFP-RNA over two weeks. At wk 3, MSCs lost hepatocytic gene expression, probably due to overgrowth of the cocultured FLC. FLC also showed a stable liver specific gene expression in the co-cultures and a very high growth potential. The rat MSCs from bone marrow can differentiate hepatocytic cells in the presence of FLC in vitro and the presence of MSCs in co-cultures also provides a beneficial environment for expansion and differentiation of FLC.

  8. Alterations of hepatocyte function with free radical generators and reparation or prevention with coffee polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Saidi Merzouk, Amel; Hafida, Merzouk; Medjdoub, Amel; Loukidi, Bouchra; Cherrak, Sabri; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2017-03-01

    Liver diseases are linked in the majority of cases to oxidative stress that antioxidants could neutralize with reducing liver injury. Chlorogenic acid, a coffee polyphenol, possesses antioxidant prosperities. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro preventive and corrective effects of cholorogenic acid in hepatocyte toxicity induced by free radicals. Hepatocytes were isolated from adult male Wistar rats. To determine corrective effects and reparation, cells were first exposed to two free radical generators (hydrogen peroxide/iron sulfate for hydroxyl radical formation, and phenazine methosulfate/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for superoxide anion formation) for 12H and thereafter treated by chlorogenic acid (1 and 10 μM final concentration) for another 12H. To show preventive effects, cells were pretreated by chlorogenic acid and thereafter exposed to free radical generators. Hepatocyte proliferation, glucose uptake, ATP contents, membrane fluidity and integrity, and intracellular redox status were investigated after 24H culture. The results showed that chlorogenic acid reversed the decrease in cell proliferation, glucose uptake and ATP levels, the increased LDH release and the reduced membrane fluidity and restored the oxidant/antioxidant status under oxidative stress. When pre-treated with chlorogenic acid, hepatocytes became very resistant to oxidative conditions and cellular homeostasis was maintained. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid displayed not only corrective but also preventive effects in hepatocytes exposed to oxidative stress and could be beneficial in patients with or at risk of liver diseases.

  9. Stimulation of fibrinogen synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes by fibrinogen degradation product fragment D

    SciTech Connect

    LaDuca, F.M.; Tinsley, L.A.; Dang, C.V.

    The direct stimulation of fibrinogen biosynthesis by fibrinogen degradation produces (FDPs) was studied in rat hepatocyte cultures. Pure rat FDP fragment D (FDP-D) (Mr 90,000) and FDP fragment E (FDP-E) (Mr 40,000) and mixtures of the two (FDP-DE) were added to rat hepatocytes cultured in serum-free hormonally defined medium. Hydrocortisone (20 microM) significantly increased synthesis of fibrinogen, as determined by incorporation of (35S)methionine. FDP-D and FDP-E did not increase fibrinogen synthesis in the presence of hydrocortisone. However, hepatocytes cultured without hydrocortisone displayed increased fibrinogen synthesis (2.0- to 2.8-fold) with FDP-D (2.6-6.7 microM) but not with FDP-E (5.7 microM). At thesemore » FDP concentrations the synthesis of albumin, haptoglobin, and transferrin was not increased. FDP-D-induced fibrinogen synthesis was inhibited (greater than 90%) by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating that the increase in (35S)methionine incorporation was from de novo protein synthesis. The role of FDP-D was further substantiated by showing that FDP-D, but not FDP-E, bound to the hepatocytes. These data indicate that FDP-D, but not FDP-E, directly and specifically stimulates fibrinogen synthesis in rat hepatocytes; this stimulation does not require any additional serum or protein cofactors.« less

  10. Regulation of ketogenesis during the suckling-weanling transition in the rat. Studies with isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Benito, M; Whitelaw, E; Williamson, D H

    1979-01-01

    The rates of ketogenesis from endogenous substrates, butyrate or oleate, have been measured in isolated hepatocytes from suckling and weanling rats. Ketogenesis from endogenous substrate and from oleate decreased on weaning, whereas the rate from butyrate remained unchanged. It is concluded that the major site of regulation of ketogenesis during this period of development involves the disposal of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA between the esterification and beta-oxidation pathways. Modulators of lipogenesis [dihydroxyacetone and 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid] did not alter the rate of ketogenesis in hepatocytes from suckling rats, and it is suggested that this is due to the low rate of lipogenesis in these cells. Hepatocytes from fed weanling rats have a high rate of lipogenesis and evidence is presented for a reciprocal relationship between ketogenesis and lipogenesis, and ketogenesis, and esterification in these cells. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP stimulated ketogenesis from oleate in hepatocytes from fed weanling rats, even in the presence of an inhibitor of lipogenesis [5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid], but not in cells from suckling rats. It is suggested that cyclic AMP may act via inhibition of esterification and that in hepatocytes from suckling rats ketogenesis is already maximally stimulated by the high basal concentrations of cyclic AMP [Beaudry, Chiasson & Exton (1977) Am. J. Physiol. 233, E175--E180]. PMID:226064

  11. Optimization of the isolation and cultivation of Cyprinus carpio primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yanhong, Fan; Chenghua, He; Guofang, Liu; Haibin, Zhang

    2008-10-01

    The aquatic environment is affected by numerous chemical contaminants. There is an increasing need to identify these chemicals and to evaluate their potential toxicity towards aquatic life. In this research we optimized techniques for primary cell culture of Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes as one adjunct model for ecotoxicological evaluation of the potential hazards of xenobiotics in the aquatic environment. In this study, Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes were isolated by mechanical separation, two-step collagenase perfusion, and pancreatin digestion. The hepatocytes or parenchymal cells could be separated from cell debris and from non-parenchymal cells by low-speed centrifugation (Percoll gradient centrifugation). The harvested hepatocytes were suspended in DMEM, M199 (cultured in 5% CO(2)), or L-15 (cultured without 5% CO(2)) medium then cultured at 17, 27, or 37 degrees C. Cell yield was counted by use of a hemocytometer, and the viability of the cells was assessed by use of the Trypan blue exclusion test. Results from these studies showed that the best method of isolation was pancreatin digestion (the cell yield was 2.7 x 10(8) per g (liver weight) and the viability was 98.4%) and the best medium was M199 (cultured in 5% CO(2)) or L-15 (cultured without 5% CO(2)). The optimum culture temperature was 27 degrees C. The primary hepatocytes culture of Cyprimus carpio grew well and satisfied requirements for most toxicological experiments in this condition.

  12. Prolongation of liver-specific function for primary hepatocytes maintenance in 3D printed architectures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Yoon, Sangtae; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Lee, Seung Bum; Ryu, Ki-Young; Jeong, Jaemin; Choi, Dongho

    2018-01-02

    Isolated primary hepatocytes from the liver are very similar to in vivo native liver hepatocytes, but they have the disadvantage of a limited lifespan in 2D culture. Although a sandwich culture and 3D organoids with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an attractive assistant cell source to extend lifespan can be used, it cannot fully reproduce the in vivo architecture. Moreover, long-term 3D culture leads to cell death because of hypoxic stress. Therefore, to overcome the drawback of 2D and 3D organoids, we try to use a 3D printing technique using alginate hydrogels with primary hepatocytes and MSCs. The viability of isolated hepatocytes was more than 90%, and the cells remained alive for 7 days without morphological changes in the 3D hepatic architecture with MSCs. Compared to a 2D system, the expression level of functional hepatic genes and proteins was higher for up to 7 days in the 3D hepatic architecture. These results suggest that both the 3D bio-printing technique and paracrine molecules secreted by MSCs supported long-term culture of hepatocytes without morphological changes. Thus, this technique allows for widespread expansion of cells while forming multicellular aggregates, may be applied to drug screening and could be an efficient method for developing an artificial liver.

  13. Ultrastructure of the hepatocytes in a vertebrate liver without bile ducts.

    PubMed Central

    Youson, J H; Sidon, E W; Peek, W D; Shivers, R R

    1985-01-01

    Thin sections and freeze fracture replicas were used to study the structure of the hepatocytes of the parasitic adult lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.). Despite the absence of bile ducts and bile canaliculi, the hepatocytes have some features which resemble those of cells in the livers of other vertebrates. Hepatocytes are characterised by large gap junctions, many cytoplasmic inclusions, and large deposits of iron. The latter is present throughout the cytoplasmic matrix and within large inclusion bodies which may arise through sequestration of parts of the cytoplasm by membrane isolation. There is no evidence for the involvement of hepatocytes in glucose metabolism but their fine structure reflects the production of bile products and the processing of lipoproteins. The accumulation of bile products within cytoplasmic inclusions resembles the situation resulting from biliary atresia or other cholestatic conditions in higher organisms. There is little folding of the plasma membrane facing the perivascular space (of Dissé), perhaps indicating limited involvement of this surface in the transport of bile products. Nerve endings in close apposition to hepatocytes suggest possible nervous control or metabolic function or the presence of sensory receptors in lamprey liver. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:2999046

  14. Evaluation and optimization of hepatocyte culture media factors by design of experiments (DoE) methodology

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jia; Lübberstedt, Marc; Urbaniak, Thomas; Nüssler, Andreas K.N.; Knobeloch, Daniel; Gerlach, Jörg C.; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of cell culture media based on statistical experimental design methodology is a widely used approach for improving cultivation conditions. We applied this methodology to refine the composition of an established culture medium for growth of a human hepatoma cell line, C3A. A selection of growth factors and nutrient supplements were systematically screened according to standard design of experiments (DoE) procedures. The results of the screening indicated that the medium additives hepatocyte growth factor, oncostatin M, and fibroblast growth factor 4 significantly influenced the metabolic activities of the C3A cell line. Surface response methodology revealed that the optimum levels for these factors were 30 ng/ml for hepatocyte growth factor and 35 ng/ml for oncostatin M. Additional experiments on primary human hepatocyte cultures showed high variance in metabolic activities between cells from different individuals, making determination of optimal levels of factors more difficult. Still, it was possible to conclude that hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and oncostatin M had decisive effects on the metabolic functions of primary human hepatocytes. PMID:19003182

  15. Evaluation and optimization of hepatocyte culture media factors by design of experiments (DoE) methodology.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Lübberstedt, Marc; Urbaniak, Thomas; Nüssler, Andreas K N; Knobeloch, Daniel; Gerlach, Jörg C; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2008-07-01

    Optimization of cell culture media based on statistical experimental design methodology is a widely used approach for improving cultivation conditions. We applied this methodology to refine the composition of an established culture medium for growth of a human hepatoma cell line, C3A. A selection of growth factors and nutrient supplements were systematically screened according to standard design of experiments (DoE) procedures. The results of the screening indicated that the medium additives hepatocyte growth factor, oncostatin M, and fibroblast growth factor 4 significantly influenced the metabolic activities of the C3A cell line. Surface response methodology revealed that the optimum levels for these factors were 30 ng/ml for hepatocyte growth factor and 35 ng/ml for oncostatin M. Additional experiments on primary human hepatocyte cultures showed high variance in metabolic activities between cells from different individuals, making determination of optimal levels of factors more difficult. Still, it was possible to conclude that hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and oncostatin M had decisive effects on the metabolic functions of primary human hepatocytes.

  16. Parent Perspectives on Decisions to Participate in a Phase I Hepatocyte Transplant Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dreyzin, Alexandra; Barnato, Amber; Soltys, Kyle; Farris, Coreen; Sada, Rachel; Haberman, Kimberly; Fox, Ira

    2013-01-01

    We examined factors that affect decision-making for families presented with a phase I clinical trial of hepatocyte transplant as a potential alternative to liver transplant for their children among two groups: 1) families who were actually offered enrollment in the hepatocyte trial and; 2) families whose children had liver transplants before the trial was available. We conducted semi-structured interviews about actual and hypothetical decision-making regarding trial participation and used grounded theory analysis to identify common themes. The most common motivator for participation was decline in the child's health. The most common deterrent was lack of data from prior hepatocyte transplants, particularly compared to data available about liver transplant. Interviewees' point of comparison for evaluating relative benefits and risks of hepatocyte transplant oscillated between the alternative of doing nothing while waiting for a liver (the relevant alternative) versus the alternative of getting a liver. These results suggest that families' reluctance to participate may result from misconceptions about severity of the child's disease, underestimating risks of liver transplant, or confusion about the role of hepatocyte transplant in the treatment pathway. Clarification of available treatment alternatives and associated risks as part of informed consent may improve the quality of decision-making regarding trial enrollment. PMID:24251638

  17. Generation, characterization and potential therapeutic applications of mature and functional hepatocytes from stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Jianfang; Liu, Yang; Li, Zheng; Gao, Wei-Qiang; He, Zuping

    2013-02-01

    Liver cancer is the sixth most common tumor in the world and the majority of patients with this disease usually die within 1 year. The effective treatment for end-stage liver disease (also known as liver failure), including liver cancer or cirrhosis, is liver transplantation. However, there is a severe shortage of liver donors worldwide, which is the major handicap for the treatment of patients with liver failure. Scarcity of liver donors underscores the urgent need of using stem cell therapy to the end-stage liver disease. Notably, hepatocytes have recently been generated from hepatic and extra-hepatic stem cells. We have obtained mature and functional hepatocytes from rat hepatic stem cells. Here, we review the advancements on hepatic differentiation from various stem cells, including hepatic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, the induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and probably spermatogonial stem cells. The advantages, disadvantages, and concerns on differentiation of these stem cells into hepatic cells are highlighted. We further address the methodologies, phenotypes, and functional characterization on the differentiation of numerous stem cells into hepatic cells. Differentiation of stem cells into mature and functional hepatocytes, especially from an extra-hepatic stem cell source, would circumvent the scarcity of liver donors and human hepatocytes, and most importantly it would offer an ideal and promising source of hepatocytes for cell therapy and tissue engineering in treating liver disease. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. SPONTANEOUS REPOPULATION OF β-CATENIN NULL LIVERS WITH β-CATENIN POSITIVE HEPATOCYTES AFTER CHRONIC MURINE LIVER INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michael D.; Wickline, Emily D.; Bowen, William B.; Lu, Amy; Singh, Sucha; Misse, Amalea; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of mice to diet containing 0.1% 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) results in hepatobiliary injury, atypical ductular proliferation, oval cell appearance and limited fibrosis. Previously, we reported that short-term ingestion of DDC diet by hepatocyte-specific β-catenin conditional knockout (KO) mice, led to fewer A6-positive oval cells than wild-type (WT) littermates. To examine the role of β-catenin in chronic hepatic injury and repair, we exposed WT and KO mice to DDC for 80 and 150 days. Paradoxically, long-term DDC exposure led to significantly more A6-positive cells indicating greater atypical ductular proliferation in KO, which coincided with increased fibrosis and cholestasis. Surprisingly, at 80 and 150 days in KO, we observed a significant amelioration of hepatocyte injury. This coincided with extensive repopulation of β-catenin null livers with β-catenin-positive hepatocytes at 150 days, which was preceded by appearance of β-catenin-positive hepatocyte clusters at 80 days and a few β-catenin-positive hepatocytes at earlier times. Intriguingly, occasional β-catenin-positive hepatocytes that were negative for progenitor markers were also observed at baseline in the KO livers suggesting spontaneous escape from cre-mediated recombination. These cells with hepatocyte morphology expressed mature hepatocyte markers but lacked markers of hepatic progenitors. The gradual repopulation of KO livers with β-catenin-positive hepatocytes occurred only following DDC injury and coincided with a progressive loss of hepatic cre-recombinase expression. A few β-catenin-positive cholangiocytes were observed albeit only after long-term DDC-exposure and trailed the appearance of β-catenin-positive hepatocytes. In conclusion, in a chronic liver injury model, β-catenin-positive hepatocytes exhibit growth and survival advantages and repopulate KO livers eventually limiting hepatic injury and dysfunction despite increased fibrosis and

  19. Micropatterned coculture of primary human hepatocytes and supportive cells for the study of hepatotropic pathogens.

    PubMed

    March, Sandra; Ramanan, Vyas; Trehan, Kartik; Ng, Shengyong; Galstian, Ani; Gural, Nil; Scull, Margaret A; Shlomai, Amir; Mota, Maria M; Fleming, Heather E; Khetani, Salman R; Rice, Charles M; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-12-01

    The development of therapies and vaccines for human hepatropic pathogens requires robust model systems that enable the study of host-pathogen interactions. However, in vitro liver models of infection typically use either hepatoma cell lines that exhibit aberrant physiology or primary human hepatocytes in culture conditions in which they rapidly lose their hepatic phenotype. To achieve stable and robust in vitro primary human hepatocyte models, we developed micropatterned cocultures (MPCCs), which consist of primary human hepatocytes organized into 2D islands that are surrounded by supportive fibroblast cells. By using this system, which can be established over a period of days, and maintained over multiple weeks, we demonstrate how to recapitulate in vitro hepatic life cycles for the hepatitis B and C viruses and the Plasmodium pathogens P. falciparum and P. vivax. The MPCC platform can be used to uncover aspects of host-pathogen interactions, and it has the potential to be used for drug and vaccine development.

  20. Generation of Hepatocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Drug Screening and Developmental Modeling.

    PubMed

    Gieseck, Richard L; Vallier, Ludovic; Hannan, Nicholas R F

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocytes produced from the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells can be used to study human development and liver disease, to investigate the toxicological response of novel drug candidates, and as an alternative source of primary cells for transplantation therapies. Here, we describe a method to produce hepatocytes by differentiating human pluripotent stem cells into definitive endoderm, patterning definitive endoderm into anterior definitive endoderm, specifying anterior definitive endoderm into hepatic endoderm, and differentiating hepatic endoderm into immature hepatocytes. These cells are further matured in either two-dimensional or three-dimensional culture conditions to produce cells capable of metabolizing xenobiotics and generating liver-specific proteins, such as albumin and alpha 1 antitrypsin.

  1. Malaria parasites target the hepatocyte receptor EphA2 for successful host infection.

    PubMed

    Kaushansky, Alexis; Douglass, Alyse N; Arang, Nadia; Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Dambrauskas, Nicholas; Kain, Heather S; Austin, Laura S; Sather, D Noah; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2015-11-27

    The invasion of a suitable host hepatocyte by mosquito-transmitted Plasmodium sporozoites is an essential early step in successful malaria parasite infection. Yet precisely how sporozoites target their host cell and facilitate productive infection remains largely unknown. We found that the hepatocyte EphA2 receptor was critical for establishing a permissive intracellular replication compartment, the parasitophorous vacuole. Sporozoites productively infected hepatocytes with high EphA2 expression, and the deletion of EphA2 protected mice from liver infection. Lack of host EphA2 phenocopied the lack of the sporozoite proteins P52 and P36. Our data suggest that P36 engages EphA2, which is likely to be a key step in establishing the permissive replication compartment. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Parasite-induced ER stress response in hepatocytes facilitates Plasmodium liver stage infection.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Patricia; Zuzarte-Luís, Vanessa; Ruivo, Margarida T G; Falkard, Brie; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Rooijers, Koos; Mann, Matthias; Mair, Gunnar; Fidock, David A; Mota, Maria M

    2015-08-01

    Upon infection of a mammalian host, Plasmodium parasites first replicate inside hepatocytes, generating thousands of new parasites. Although Plasmodium intra-hepatic development represents a substantial metabolic challenge to the host hepatocyte, how infected cells respond to and integrate this stress remains poorly understood. Here, we present proteomic and transcriptomic analyses, revealing that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in host hepatocytes upon Plasmodium berghei infection. The expression of XBP1s--the active form of the UPR mediator XBP1--and the liver-specific UPR mediator CREBH is induced by P. berghei infection in vivo. Furthermore, this UPR induction increases parasite liver burden. Altogether, our data suggest that ER stress is a central feature of P. berghei intra-hepatic development, contributing to the success of infection. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Parasite-induced ER stress response in hepatocytes facilitates Plasmodium liver stage infection

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Patricia; Zuzarte-Luís, Vanessa; Ruivo, Margarida TG; Falkard, Brie; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Rooijers, Koos; Mann, Matthias; Mair, Gunnar; Fidock, David A; Mota, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Upon infection of a mammalian host, Plasmodium parasites first replicate inside hepatocytes, generating thousands of new parasites. Although Plasmodium intra-hepatic development represents a substantial metabolic challenge to the host hepatocyte, how infected cells respond to and integrate this stress remains poorly understood. Here, we present proteomic and transcriptomic analyses, revealing that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in host hepatocytes upon Plasmodium berghei infection. The expression of XBP1s—the active form of the UPR mediator XBP1—and the liver-specific UPR mediator CREBH is induced by P. berghei infection in vivo. Furthermore, this UPR induction increases parasite liver burden. Altogether, our data suggest that ER stress is a central feature of P. berghei intra-hepatic development, contributing to the success of infection. PMID:26113366

  4. Micropatterned coculture of primary human hepatocytes and supportive cells for the study of hepatotropic pathogens

    PubMed Central

    March, Sandra; Ramanan, Vyas; Trehan, Kartik; Ng, Shengyong; Galstian, Ani; Gural, Nil; Scull, Margaret A.; Shlomai, Amir; Mota, Maria; Fleming, Heather E.; Khetani, Salman R.; Rice, Charles M.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2018-01-01

    Studying human hepatotropic pathogens such as hepatitis B and C viruses and malaria will be necessary for understanding host-pathogen interactions, and developing therapy and prophylaxis. Unfortunately, existing in vitro liver models typically employ either cell lines that exhibit aberrant physiology, or primary human hepatocytes in culture configurations wherein they rapidly lose their hepatic functional phenotype. Stable, robust, and reliable in vitro primary human hepatocyte models are needed as platforms for infectious disease applications. For this purpose, we describe the application of micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs), which consist of primary human hepatocytes organized into 2D islands that are surrounded by supportive cells. Using this system, we demonstrate how to recapitulate in vitro liver infection by the hepatitis B and C viruses and Plasmodium pathogens. In turn, the MPCC platform can be used to uncover aspects of host-pathogen interactions, and has the potential to be used for medium-throughput drug screening and vaccine development. PMID:26584444

  5. Superoxide dismutase and catalase protect cultured hepatocytes from the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Kyle, M E; Miccadei, S; Nakae, D; Farber, J L

    1987-12-31

    Superoxide dismutase, catalase and mannitol prevent the killing of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen in the presence of an inhibitor of glutathione reductase, BCNU. Under these conditions, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen depends upon its metabolism, since beta-naphthoflavone, an inhibitor of mixed function oxidation, prevents the cell killing. In hepatocytes made resistant to acetaminophen by pretreatment with the ferric iron chelator, deferoxamine, addition of ferric or ferrous iron restores the sensitivity to acetaminophen. In such a situation, both superoxide dismutase and catalase prevent the killing by acetaminophen in the presence of ferric iron. By contrast, catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, prevents the cell killing dependent upon addition of ferrous iron. These results document the participation of both superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in the killing of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen and suggest that hydroxyl radicals generated by an iron catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction mediate the cell injury.

  6. Preventing hepatocyte oxidative stress cytotoxicity with Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    PubMed

    Remirez, Diadelis; Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Delgado, Rene; Harandi, Asghar A; O'Brien, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases. In the present study we evaluated the effects of Vimang at preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation in intact isolated rat hepatocytes. Vimang at 20, 50 and 100 microg/ml inhibited hepatocyte ROS formation induced by glucose-glucose oxidase. Hepatocyte cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide was also inhibited by Vimang in a dose and time dependent manner at the same concentration. Vimang also inhibited superoxide radical formation by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine. The superoxide radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of the Vimang extract was likely related to its gallates, catechins and mangiferin content. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cytoprotective antioxidant effects of Vimang in cellular oxidative stress models.

  7. T lymphocytes from mice immunized with irradiated sporozoites eliminated malaria from hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, S.L.; Isenbarger, D.; Long, G.W.

    When mice are immunized with radiation-attenuated sporozoites they are solidly protected against sporozoite challenge by an immune response that has been shown to require CD8+ lymphocytes in several strains of mice. The target of this CD8+ T-cell-dependent immunity has not been established. Immune BALB/c mice were shown to develop malaria-specific. CD8+ T-cell-dependent inflammatory infiltrates in their livers after challenge with Plasmodium berghei sporozoites. Spleen cells from immune BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice eliminated hepatocytes infected with the liver stage of P. berghei in vitro. The activity against infected hepatocytes is not inhibited by antibodies to interferon-y and is not present inmore » culture supernatants. It is generally restricted, an indication that malaria antigens on the hepatocyte surface are recognized by immune T-effector cells.« less

  8. IL-6 modulates hepatocyte proliferation via induction of HGF/p21{sup cip1}: Regulation by SOCS3

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Rui; Jaruga, Barbara; Kulkarni, Shailin

    2005-12-30

    The precise role of IL-6 in liver regeneration and hepatocyte proliferation is controversial and the role of SOCS3 in liver regeneration remains unknown. Here we show that in vitro treatment with IL-6 inhibited primary mouse hepatocyte proliferation. IL-6 induced p21{sup cip1} protein expression in primary mouse hepatocytes. Disruption of the p21{sup cip1} gene abolished the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on cell proliferation. Co-culture with nonparenchymal liver cells diminished IL-6 inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation, which was likely due to IL-6 stimulation of nonparenchymal cells to produce HGF. Finally, IL-6 induced higher levels of p21{sup cip1} protein expression and a slightly strongermore » inhibition of cell proliferation in SOCS3{sup +/-} mouse hepatocytes compared to wild-type hepatocytes, while liver regeneration was enhanced and prolonged in SOCS3{sup +/-} mice. Our findings suggest that IL-6 directly inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via a p21{sup cip1}-dependent mechanism and indirectly enhances hepatocyte proliferation via stimulating nonparenchymal cells to produce HGF. SOCS3 negatively regulates liver regeneration.« less

  9. 3D spheroid culture of hESC/hiPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells for drug toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kazuo; Kawabata, Kenji; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Kishimoto, Keisuke; Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Kanda, Katsuhiro; Hayakawa, Takao; Furue, Miho Kusuda; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    Although it is expected that hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human embryonic stem (ES) cells or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells will be utilized in drug toxicity testing, the actual applicability of hepatocyte-like cells in this context has not been well examined so far. To generate mature hepatocyte-like cells that would be applicable for drug toxicity testing, we established a hepatocyte differentiation method that employs not only stage-specific transient overexpression of hepatocyte-related transcription factors but also a three-dimensional spheroid culture system using a Nanopillar Plate. We succeeded in establishing protocol that could generate more matured hepatocyte-like cells than our previous protocol. In addition, our hepatocyte-like cells could sensitively predict drug-induced hepatotoxicity, including reactive metabolite-mediated toxicity. In conclusion, our hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human ES cells or iPS cells have potential to be applied in drug toxicity testing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Susceptibility to Plasmodium yoelii Preerythrocytic Infection in BALB/c Substrains Is Determined at the Point of Hepatocyte Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kaushansky, Alexis; Austin, Laura S.; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A.; Lo, Fang Y.; Miller, Jessica L.; Douglass, Alyse N.; Arang, Nadia; Vaughan, Ashley M.; Gardner, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    After transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes, Plasmodium sporozoites travel to the liver, infect hepatocytes, and rapidly develop as intrahepatocytic liver stages (LS). Rodent models of malaria exhibit large differences in the magnitude of liver infection, both between parasite species and between strains of mice. This has been mainly attributed to differences in innate immune responses and parasite infectivity. Here, we report that BALB/cByJ mice are more susceptible to Plasmodium yoelii preerythrocytic infection than BALB/cJ mice. This difference occurs at the level of early hepatocyte infection, but expression levels of reported host factors that are involved in infection do not correlate with susceptibility. Interestingly, BALB/cByJ hepatocytes are more frequently polyploid; thus, their susceptibility converges on the previously observed preference of sporozoites to infect polyploid hepatocytes. Gene expression analysis demonstrates hepatocyte-specific differences in mRNA abundance for numerous genes between BALB/cByJ and BALB/cJ mice, some of which encode hepatocyte surface molecules. These data suggest that a yet-unknown receptor for sporozoite infection, present at elevated levels on BALB/cByJ hepatocytes and also polyploid hepatocytes, might facilitate Plasmodium liver infection. PMID:25312960

  11. Susceptibility to Plasmodium yoelii preerythrocytic infection in BALB/c substrains is determined at the point of hepatocyte invasion.

    PubMed

    Kaushansky, Alexis; Austin, Laura S; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Lo, Fang Y; Miller, Jessica L; Douglass, Alyse N; Arang, Nadia; Vaughan, Ashley M; Gardner, Malcolm J; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2015-01-01

    After transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes, Plasmodium sporozoites travel to the liver, infect hepatocytes, and rapidly develop as intrahepatocytic liver stages (LS). Rodent models of malaria exhibit large differences in the magnitude of liver infection, both between parasite species and between strains of mice. This has been mainly attributed to differences in innate immune responses and parasite infectivity. Here, we report that BALB/cByJ mice are more susceptible to Plasmodium yoelii preerythrocytic infection than BALB/cJ mice. This difference occurs at the level of early hepatocyte infection, but expression levels of reported host factors that are involved in infection do not correlate with susceptibility. Interestingly, BALB/cByJ hepatocytes are more frequently polyploid; thus, their susceptibility converges on the previously observed preference of sporozoites to infect polyploid hepatocytes. Gene expression analysis demonstrates hepatocyte-specific differences in mRNA abundance for numerous genes between BALB/cByJ and BALB/cJ mice, some of which encode hepatocyte surface molecules. These data suggest that a yet-unknown receptor for sporozoite infection, present at elevated levels on BALB/cByJ hepatocytes and also polyploid hepatocytes, might facilitate Plasmodium liver infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Induced Mitogenic Activity in AML-12 Mouse Hepatocytes Exposed to Low-dose Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, W. C.; Ford, B. D.; Roane, L.; Haynie, D. T.; Tchounwou, P. B.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra–wideband (UWB) technology has increased with the use of various civilian and military applications. In the present study, we hypothesized that low-dose UWB electromagnetic radiation (UWBR) could elicit a mitogenic effect in AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, in vitro. To test this hypothesis, we exposed AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, to UWBR in a specially constructed gigahertz transverse electromagnetic mode (GTEM) cell. Cells were exposed to UWBR for 2 h at a temperature of 23°C, a pulse width of 10 ns, a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and field strength of 5–20 kV/m. UWB pulses were triggered by an external pulse generator for UWBR exposure but were not triggered for the sham exposure. We performed an MTT Assay to assess cell viability for UWBR-treated and sham-exposed hepatocytes. Data from viability studies indicated a time-related increase in hepatocytes at time intervals from 8–24 h post exposure. UWBR exerted a statistically significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent response in cell viability in both serum-treated and serum free medium (SFM) -treated hepatocytes. Western blot analysis of hepatocyte lysates demonstrated that cyclin A protein was induced in hepatocytes, suggesting that increased MTT activity after UWBR exposure was due to cell proliferation. This study indicates that UWBR has a mitogenic effect on AML-12 mouse hepatocytes and implicates a possible role for UWBR in hepatocarcinoma. PMID:16705798

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Human Liver Tissue and Isolated Hepatocytes with a Focus on Proteins Determining Drug Exposure.

    PubMed

    Vildhede, Anna; Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Norén, Agneta; Karlgren, Maria; Artursson, Per

    2015-08-07

    Freshly isolated human hepatocytes are considered the gold standard for in vitro studies of liver functions, including drug transport, metabolism, and toxicity. For accurate predictions of the in vivo outcome, the isolated hepatocytes should reflect the phenotype of their in vivo counterpart, i.e., hepatocytes in human liver tissue. Here, we quantified and compared the membrane proteomes of freshly isolated hepatocytes and human liver tissue using a label-free shotgun proteomics approach. A total of 5144 unique proteins were identified, spanning over 6 orders of magnitude in abundance. There was a good global correlation in protein abundance. However, the expression of many plasma membrane proteins was lower in the isolated hepatocytes than in the liver tissue. This included transport proteins that determine hepatocyte exposure to many drugs and endogenous compounds. Pathway analysis of the differentially expressed proteins confirmed that hepatocytes are exposed to oxidative stress during isolation and suggested that plasma membrane proteins were degraded via the protein ubiquitination pathway. Finally, using pitavastatin as an example, we show how protein quantifications can improve in vitro predictions of in vivo liver clearance. We tentatively conclude that our data set will be a useful resource for improved hepatocyte predictions of the in vivo outcome.

  14. Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes Modulated by Toxcast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary human hepatocyte cultures are useful in vitro model systems of human liver because when cultured under appropriate conditions the hepatocytes retain liver-like functionality such as metabolism, transport, and cell signaling. This model system was used to characterize the ...

  15. Construction of the Database of Rat Repeated-dose Toxicity Tests of Pesticides for the Toxicological Characterization of Hepatocyte Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akane; Masuda, Miyabi; Kawano, Takuya; Kitsunai, Yoko; Nakayama, Haruka; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Uramaru, Naoto; Hosaka, Takuomi; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2017-01-01

    Liver and hepatocyte hypertrophy can be induced by exposure to chemical compounds, but the mechanisms and toxicological characteristics of these phenomena have not yet been investigated extensively. In particular, it remains unclear whether the hepatocyte hypertrophy induced by chemical compounds should be judged as an adaptive response or an adverse effect. Thus, understanding of the toxicological characteristics of hepatocyte hypertrophy is of great importance to the safety evaluation of pesticides and other chemical compounds. To this end, we have constructed a database of potentially toxic pesticides. Using risk assessment reports of pesticides that are publicly available from the Food Safety Commission of Japan, we extracted all observations/findings that were based on 90-day subacute toxicity tests and 2-year chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity tests in rats. Analysis of the database revealed that hepatocyte hypertrophy was observed for 37-47% of the pesticides investigated (varying depending on sex and testing period), and that centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy was the most frequent among the various types of hepatocyte hypertrophy in both the 90-day and 2-year studies. The database constructed in this study enables us to investigate the relationships between hepatocyte hypertrophy and other toxicological observations/findings, and thus will be useful for characterizing hepatocyte hypertrophy.

  16. Optimization of upcyte® human hepatocytes for the in vitro micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Nörenberg, Astrid; Heinz, Stefan; Scheller, Katharina; Hewitt, Nicola J; Braspenning, Joris; Ott, Michael

    2013-12-12

    "Upcyte(®) human hepatocytes" have the unique property of combining proliferation with the expression of drug metabolising activities. In our current study, we evaluated whether these cells would be suitable for early in vitro micronucleus (MN) tests. A treatment period of 96 h without a recovery period was most reliable for detecting MN formation in upcyte(®) hepatocytes from Donor 740. The basal MN rate in upcyte(®) hepatocytes varied considerably between donors (7-28%); therefore, modifications to the assay medium were tested to determine whether they could decrease inherent MN formation. Optimal medium supplements were 10 ng/ml oncostatin M for the pre-culture and recovery periods and 25 ng/ml epidermal growth factor and 10 ng/ml oncostatin M for the treatment period. Using the optimised conditions and outcome criteria, the upcyte(®) hepatocyte MN assay could correctly identify directly acting (e.g. mitomycin C, etoposide) and metabolically activated genotoxins (e.g. benzo[a]pyrene, cyclophosphamide). "True negative" and "false positive" compounds were also correctly identified as negative. The basal %MN in upcyte(®) hepatocytes from Donor 740 treated with DMSO, cyclophosphamide or MMC, was essentially unaffected by the growth stage ranging from population doublings of 14-61, suggesting that billions of cells could be produced from a single donor for standardised drug toxicity testing. In conclusion, we have established and optimised an in vitro MN test by using upcyte(®) hepatocytes to correctly identify known direct and metabolically activated genotoxicants as well as "false positives" and true negative compounds. The almost unlimited supply of cells from a single donor and optimised test conditions increase reproducibility in early and more predictive in vitro MN tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancement of DMNQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity by cytochrome P450 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Shiba, Dai; Shimamoto, Norio

    2006-07-15

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain quinone cytotoxicity: oxidative stress via the redox cycle and the arylation of intracellular nucleophiles. As the redox cycle is catalyzed by NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome P450 systems are expected to be related to the cytotoxicity induced by redox-cycling quinones. Thus, we investigated the relationship between cytochrome P450 systems and quinone toxicity for rat primary hepatocytes using an arylator, 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), and a redox cycler, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). The hepatocyte toxicity of both BQ and DMNQ increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with cytochrome P450 inhibitors, such as SKF-525A (SKF), ketoconazole and 2-methy-1,2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone, enhanced the hepatocyte toxicity induced by DMNQ but did not affect BQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity. The production of superoxide anion and the levels of glutathione disulfide and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances were increased by treatment with DMNQ, and SKF pretreatment further enhanced their increases. In addition, NADPH oxidation in microsomes was increased by treatment with DMNQ and further augmented by pretreatment with SKF, and a NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride completely suppressed NADPH oxidations increased by treatment with either DMNQ- or DMNQ + SKF. Pretreatment with antioxidants, such as alpha-tocopherol, reduced glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine or an iron ion chelator deferoxamine, totally suppressed DMNQ- and DMNQ + SKF-induced hepatocyte toxicity. These results indicate that the hepatocyte toxicity of redox-cycling quinones is enhanced under cytochrome P450 inhibition, and that this enhancement is caused by the potentiation of oxidative stress.

  18. Generation of functional hepatocyte-like cells from human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells.

    PubMed

    Vasanthan, Punitha; Jayaraman, Pukana; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Lawrence, Anthony; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu

    2016-08-01

    Human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells have been introduced for as an easily accessible source of stem cells from dental origin. Although recent studies have revealed the ability of these stem cells in multipotential attribute, their efficiency of hepatic lineage differentiation has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study is to investigate hepatic lineage fate competence of periodontal ligame