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Sample records for a-induced liver damage

  1. Acute liver damage in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Di Pascoli, Lorenza; Lion, Alessia; Milazzo, Daniela; Caregaro, Lorenza

    2004-07-01

    We report a case of a 26-year-old White woman with a history of anorexia nervosa who developed severe liver damage and multiorgan dysfunction. At admission to our medical unit, her body mass index (BMI) was 10.8. Biochemical evaluation showed a marked increase in serum levels of aspartate aminotransferases (AST = 9,980 IU/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT = 3,930 IU/L), amylase (1,002 IU/L), lipase (1,437 IU/L), creatine phosphokinase (CPK; 783 IU/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH = 6,830 IU/L). Glomerular filtration rate was reduced (35 ml/min), reflecting dehydration and prerenal azotemia. No other cause of acute liver damage except malnutrition was evidenced. Hydration and nutritional support were the unique medical treatment. A rapid recovery occurred in few days and all laboratory data were normal at discharge after a 37-day hospitalization. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Paeoniflorin exerts a nephroprotective effect on concanavalin A-induced damage through inhibition of macrophage infiltration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Cheng, Zhuoan; Wang, Yunman; Dai, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jie; Xue, Dongying

    2015-07-25

    It is well established that macrophage infiltration is involved in concanavalin A (conA)-induced liver injury. However, the role of macrophages in conA-induced renal injury remains unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate macrophage infiltration in conA-induced renal injury and determine whether paeoniflorin (PF) could inhibit macrophage infiltration into the kidney. BALB/C mice were pre-treated with or without PF 2 h (h) before conA injection. At 8 h after con A injection, all the mice were sacrificed; The liver and kidney histology were studied. The renal CD68 expression was detected by immunohistochemical and real-time PCR analysis. The level of expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 (CXCR3) was analyzed by western blot, immunohistochemical and real-time PCR. The pathophysiological involvement of CXCR3 in macrophage infiltration were investigated using dual-colour immunofluorescence microscopy. PF administration significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and the severity of liver and renal damage compared with that in the conA-vehicle group. PF administration inhibited the increase in renal IL1β mRNA expression and concentration. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis showed that macrophages secreted CXCR3 in the kidneys of the conA-vehicle mice. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated CXCR3 bound tightly to C-X-C motif ligand 11 (CXCL11) in the kidneys of the conA-vehicle mice and showed that PF treatment could suppress CXCR3/CXCL11 over-activation. Macrophage infiltration was a notable pathological change in the kidneys of conA-treated mice. PF administration attenuated conA-induced renal damage, at least in part, by inhibiting the over-activated CXCR3/CXCL11 signal axis.

  3. Clinical connection between rheumatoid arthritis and liver damage.

    PubMed

    Radovanović-Dinić, Biljana; Tešić-Rajković, Snežana; Zivkovic, Valentina; Grgov, Saša

    2018-04-07

    When liver damage is present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether it is a hepatic manifestation of RA, associated primary liver disease or hepatotoxic liver disease which developed during the treatment of RA. Liver damage during RA is most common in the form of asymptomatic abnormal liver tests. Occasionally, liver damage may progress to cirrhosis. Patients with RA are more susceptible to an associated autoimmune liver disease. Medications used in rheumatology are often hepatotoxic and it is difficult to differentiate between hepatic manifestations of the primary disease and potential hepatotoxicity of the administered medications. The significance of the paper is in the fact that it includes the most relevant and the latest information on this commonly present problem in clinical practice. The aim of the author is to provide comprehensive but at the same time concise data which will be useful to the doctors who come into contact with RA patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic liver disease. Timely diagnosis and treatment of liver disease in RA patients can significantly influence the course and outcome of rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. Early Detection of Liver Damage in Mexican Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Valadez, Rafael; Roman, Sonia; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Sepulveda-Villegas, Maricruz; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Rivera-Iñiguez, Ingrid; Panduro, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objective Liver cirrhosis is usually detected at the later stages of disease. This study is aimed to detect liver damage in patients with chronic liver disease using transitional elastography (TE) and to assess the biochemical parameters associated with liver damage. Methods In 578 patients, chronic liver disease based on etiology was diagnosed by clinical and laboratory tests. Liver damage was evaluated with TE (FibroScan®), while its association with biochemical parameters was performed using the logistic regression tests. Results Overall, the main etiologies of liver damage were hepatitis C virus (HCV) (37%), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (33%) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (26%). Patients were 40 to 50 years of age. ALD and hepatitis B prevailed in men, whereas HCV and NASH in women. The stages of fibrosis were F0 (n = 121, 21%), F1 (n = 122, 21%), F2 (n = 58, 10%), F3 (n = 46, 8%) and F4 (n = 87, 15%). In patients with liver cirrhosis, ALD (n = 96/217, 45%), HCV (n = 94/217, 43%) and NASH (n = 21/217, 10%) were the leading etiologies. Platelets count (OR=3.31, 95%CI 1.61-6.78), glucose (OR=3.07, 95%CI 1.50-6.26), gamma-glutamyl-transferase (OR=3.60, 95%CI 1.79-7.25), albumin (OR=3.89, 95%CI 1.61-9.36), and total bilirubin (OR=3.93, 95%CI 1.41-10.91) were associated to advanced stages of fibrosis (F3-F4) regardless of etiology. The concordance and positive predictive values of these parameters were higher as compared to other scores. Conclusion Asymptomatic liver disease due to HCV, ALD and NASH prevailed in young adults. Advanced liver damage assessed by TE was associated with five biochemical parameters. In conjunction, both methodologies may be useful for the early detection of fibrosis and cirrhosis in Latin America. PMID:28680839

  5. Using multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to characterize liver damage and fluorescein disposition in liver in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Studier, Hauke; Crawford, Darrell; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Liver disease is the fifth most common cause of death and unlike many other major causes of mortality, liver disease rates are increasing rather than decreasing. There is no ideal measurement of liver disease and although biopsies are the gold standard, this only allows for a spot examination and cannot follow dynamic processes of the liver. Intravital imaging has the potential to extract detailed information over a larger sampling area continuously. The aim of this project was to investigate whether multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy could detect early liver damage and to assess whether it could detect changes in metabolism of fluorescein in normal and diseased livers. Four experimental groups were used in this study: 1) control; 2) ischemia reperfusion injury; 3) steatosis and 4) steatosis with ischemia reperfusion injury. Results showed that multiphoton microscopy could visualize morphological changes such as decreased fluorescence of endogenous fluorophores and the presence of lipid droplets, characteristic of steatosis. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy showed increase in NADPH in steatosis with and without ischemia reperfusion injury and could detect changes in metabolism of fluorescein to fluorescein monoglurcuronide, which was impaired in steatosis with ischemia reperfusion injury. These results concluded that the combination of multiphoton microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging is a promising method of assessing early stage liver damage and that it can be used to study changes in drug metabolism in the liver as an indication of liver disease and has the potential to replace the traditional static liver biopsy currently used.

  6. Causal relationship of hepatic fat with liver damage and insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Dongiovanni, P; Stender, S; Pietrelli, A; Mancina, R M; Cespiati, A; Petta, S; Pelusi, S; Pingitore, P; Badiali, S; Maggioni, M; Mannisto, V; Grimaudo, S; Pipitone, R M; Pihlajamaki, J; Craxi, A; Taube, M; Carlsson, L M S; Fargion, S; Romeo, S; Kozlitina, J; Valenti, L

    2018-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is epidemiologically associated with hepatic and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether hepatic fat accumulation has a causal role in determining liver damage and insulin resistance. We performed a Mendelian randomization analysis using risk alleles in PNPLA3, TM6SF2, GCKR and MBOAT7, and a polygenic risk score for hepatic fat, as instruments. We evaluated complementary cohorts of at-risk individuals and individuals from the general population: 1515 from the liver biopsy cohort (LBC), 3329 from the Swedish Obese Subjects Study (SOS) and 4570 from the population-based Dallas Heart Study (DHS). Hepatic fat was epidemiologically associated with liver damage, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The impact of genetic variants on liver damage was proportional to their effect on hepatic fat accumulation. Genetically determined hepatic fat was associated with aminotransferases, and with inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis in the LBC. Furthermore, in the LBC, the causal association between hepatic fat and fibrosis was independent of disease activity, suggesting that a causal effect of long-term liver fat accumulation on liver disease is independent of inflammation. Genetically determined hepatic steatosis was associated with insulin resistance in the LBC and SOS. However, this association was dependent on liver damage severity. Genetically determined hepatic steatosis was associated with liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and with a small increase in risk of type 2 diabetes in publicly available databases. These data suggest that long-term hepatic fat accumulation plays a causal role in the development of chronic liver disease. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  7. Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin ... ingredient in many over-the-counter and prescription medicines that help relieve pain and reduce fever. More than 600 over-the- ...

  8. Liver damage and senescence increases in patients developing hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rey, Silvia; Quintavalle, Cristina; Burmeister, Katharina; Calabrese, Diego; Schlageter, Manuel; Quagliata, Luca; Cathomas, Gieri; Diebold, Joachim; Molinolo, Alfredo; Heim, Markus H; Terracciano, Luigi M; Matter, Matthias S

    2017-08-01

    Most patients with a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have an underlying chronic liver inflammation, which causes a continuous damage leading to liver cirrhosis and eventually HCC. However, only a minority of cirrhotic patients develop HCC. To assess a possible differential impact of liver inflammation in patients developing HCC versus patients remaining tumor-free, we designed a longitudinal study and analysed liver tissue of the same patients (n = 33) at two points in time: once when no HCC was present and once several years later when an HCC was present. As a control group, we followed cirrhotic patients (n = 37) remaining tumor-free over a similar time frame. We analysed cell damage and senescence of hepatocytes by measuring γ-H2AX positivity, p16 INK4 and p21 WAF/Cip1 expression, nuclear size, and telomere length. γ-H2AX positivity, p16 INK4 and p21 WAF/Cip1 expression, in the first liver biopsy was similar in patients developing HCC later on and cirrhotic patients remaining tumor free. In contrast, γ-H2AX positivity, p16 INK4 and p21 WAF/Cip1 expression, was significantly higher in the second non-tumoral liver biopsy of HCC patients than in the control patients. Consequently, the individual increase in γ-H2AX positivity, p16 INK4 and p21 WAF/Cip1 expression, from the first biopsy to the second biopsy was significantly higher in patients developing HCC than in patients remaining tumor free. In addition, changes in nuclear size and telomere length revealed a more pronounced cell aging in patients developing HCC than in patients remaining tumor free. Hepatocytes from patients developing HCC go through more pronounced cell damage and senescence in contrast to cirrhotic patients remaining tumor free. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. TRPM2 channels mediate acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Kheradpezhouh, Ehsan; Ma, Linlin; Morphett, Arthur; Barritt, Greg J; Rychkov, Grigori Y

    2014-02-25

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most frequently used analgesic and antipyretic drug available over the counter. At the same time, acetaminophen overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure and the leading cause of chronic liver damage requiring liver transplantation in developed countries. Acetaminophen overdose causes a multitude of interrelated biochemical reactions in hepatocytes including the formation of reactive oxygen species, deregulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis, covalent modification and oxidation of proteins, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation. Although an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in hepatocytes is a known consequence of acetaminophen overdose, its importance in acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity is not well understood, primarily due to lack of knowledge about the source of the Ca(2+) rise. Here we report that the channel responsible for Ca(2+) entry in hepatocytes in acetaminophen overdose is the Transient Receptor Potential Melanostatine 2 (TRPM2) cation channel. We show by whole-cell patch clamping that treatment of hepatocytes with acetaminophen results in activation of a cation current similar to that activated by H2O2 or the intracellular application of ADP ribose. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TRPM2 in hepatocytes inhibits activation of the current by either acetaminophen or H2O2. In TRPM2 knockout mice, acetaminophen-induced liver damage, assessed by the blood concentration of liver enzymes and liver histology, is significantly diminished compared with wild-type mice. The presented data strongly suggest that TRPM2 channels are essential in the mechanism of acetaminophen-induced hepatocellular death.

  10. TRPM2 channels mediate acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpezhouh, Ehsan; Ma, Linlin; Morphett, Arthur; Barritt, Greg J.; Rychkov, Grigori Y.

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most frequently used analgesic and antipyretic drug available over the counter. At the same time, acetaminophen overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure and the leading cause of chronic liver damage requiring liver transplantation in developed countries. Acetaminophen overdose causes a multitude of interrelated biochemical reactions in hepatocytes including the formation of reactive oxygen species, deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, covalent modification and oxidation of proteins, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation. Although an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in hepatocytes is a known consequence of acetaminophen overdose, its importance in acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity is not well understood, primarily due to lack of knowledge about the source of the Ca2+ rise. Here we report that the channel responsible for Ca2+ entry in hepatocytes in acetaminophen overdose is the Transient Receptor Potential Melanostatine 2 (TRPM2) cation channel. We show by whole-cell patch clamping that treatment of hepatocytes with acetaminophen results in activation of a cation current similar to that activated by H2O2 or the intracellular application of ADP ribose. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TRPM2 in hepatocytes inhibits activation of the current by either acetaminophen or H2O2. In TRPM2 knockout mice, acetaminophen-induced liver damage, assessed by the blood concentration of liver enzymes and liver histology, is significantly diminished compared with wild-type mice. The presented data strongly suggest that TRPM2 channels are essential in the mechanism of acetaminophen-induced hepatocellular death. PMID:24569808

  11. Liver manipulation during liver surgery in humans is associated with hepatocellular damage and hepatic inflammation.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Maartje A J; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Schreurs, Joris J W; Bloemen, Johanne G; Bieghs, Veerle; Rensen, Sander S; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Olde Damink, Steven W M

    2013-04-01

    Manipulation of the liver during liver surgery results in profound hepatocellular damage. Experimental data show that mobilization-induced hepatocellular damage is related to hepatic inflammation. To date, information on this link in humans is lacking. As it is possible to modulate inflammation, it is clinically relevant to unravel this relationship. This observational study aimed to establish the association between liver mobilization and hepatic inflammation in humans. Consecutive patients requiring mobilization of the right hemi-liver during liver surgery were studied. Plasma samples and liver biopsies were collected prior to and directly after mobilization and after transection of the liver. Hepatocellular damage was assayed by liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and aminotransferase levels. Hepatic inflammation was determined by (a) immunohistochemical identification of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and CD68- positive cells and (b) hepatic gene expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1). A total of 25 patients were included. L-FABP levels increased significantly during mobilization (301 ± 94 ng/ml to 1599 ± 362 ng/ml, P = 0.008), as did ALAT levels (36 ± 5 IU/L to 167 ± 21 IU/L, P < 0.001). A significant increase in MPO (P = 0.001) and CD68 (P = 0.002) positive cells was noticed in the liver after mobilization. The number of MPO-positive cells correlated with the duration of mobilization (Pearson correlation=0.505, P = 0.033). Hepatic gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, chemo-attractant IL-8 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 increased significantly during liver manipulation. Liver mobilization is associated with hepatocellular damage and liver inflammation, as shown by infiltration of inflammatory cells and upregulation of genes involved in acute inflammation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) knockdown protects mice from acute liver injury by reducing vascular endothelial cell damage

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, E; Atorrasagasti, C; Aquino, JB; Militello, R; Bayo, J; Fiore, E; Piccioni, F; Salvatierra, E; Alaniz, L; García, MG; Bataller, R; Corrales, F; Gidekel, M; Podhajcer, O; Colombo, MI; Mazzolini, G

    2015-01-01

    Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is involved in many biological process including liver fibrogenesis, but its role in acute liver damage is unknown. To examine the role of SPARC in acute liver injury, we used SPARC knock-out (SPARC−/−) mice. Two models of acute liver damage were used: concanavalin A (Con A) and the agonistic anti-CD95 antibody Jo2. SPARC expression levels were analyzed in liver samples from patients with acute-on-chronic alcoholic hepatitis (AH). SPARC expression is increased on acute-on-chronic AH patients. Knockdown of SPARC decreased hepatic damage in the two models of liver injury. SPARC−/− mice showed a marked reduction in Con A-induced necroinflammation. Infiltration by CD4+ T cells, expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 and apoptosis were attenuated in SPARC−/− mice. Sinusoidal endothelial cell monolayer was preserved and was less activated in Con A-treated SPARC−/− mice. SPARC knockdown reduced Con A-induced autophagy of cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Hepatic transcriptome analysis revealed several gene networks that may have a role in the attenuated liver damaged found in Con A-treated SPARC−/− mice. SPARC has a significant role in the development of Con A-induced severe liver injury. These results suggest that SPARC could represent a therapeutic target in acute liver injury. PMID:25410742

  13. Immune response involved in liver damage and the activation of hepatic progenitor cells during liver tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiao-Juan; Ye, Fei; Li, Xiao-Yong; Liu, Wen-Ting; Jing, Ying-Ying; Han, Zhi-Peng; Wei, Li-Xin

    2018-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical inflammation-related cancer. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are well-known leading causes of HCC. However, the mechanism of the induction of HCC by these virus is still being debated. This review will focus on the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-induced inflammation and the role of such immune activation in the tumorigenesis of HCC. It is well established that the recruitment of certain number and type of immune cells to liver is essential for the resolution of HBV and HCV infection and the prevention of subsequent chronic persistent infection. However, in case that the immune response do not completely clear virus, persistent chronic infection occurs, and the perpetual immune response may contribute to chronic damages of the liver. Such chronic inflammatory damages further harm hepatocytes, but not hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs). Thus, following chronic damages, HPCs are activated and their dysregulated proliferation ensures survival in the hostile environment, contributing to the tumorigenesis of HCC. Furthermore, accumulating evidence also provides a strong link between HPCs and human hepatocellular carcinoma. Collectively, these findings support a notion that immune response is involved in liver damage during hepatitis virus infection, and the activation and dysregulated differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells promote the tumorigenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Indomethacin increases liver damage in a murine model of liver injury from alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, David A; Shikapwashya, Olga; Blomenkamp, Keith; Teckman, Jeffrey H

    2006-10-01

    Homozygous (PIZZ) alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT) deficiency is associated with the development of liver damage in children as well as chronic liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma in adults. The alpha(1)-AT mutant Z gene encodes a mutant protein that accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes rather than being secreted appropriately into serum. Liver injury is caused by the accumulation of alpha(1)-AT mutant Z protein in hepatocytes, which triggers downstream intracellular injury pathways. However, development of clinical liver disease among PIZZ homozygotes is highly variable, suggesting other genetic or environmental factors contribute to liver injury. In this study, we tested whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) could be a comorbid factor in the development of liver injury in alpha(1)-AT deficiency using the PiZ mouse. This mouse model is transgenic for the mutant Z allele of the human alpha(1)-AT gene, in which alpha(1)-ATZ expression is regulated by the human promoter regulatory sequences. Our results showed that administration of indomethacin to PiZ mice resulted in increased hepatic injury, indicated by increased hepatocellular proliferation and increased activation of caspase 9. This indomethacin-induced injury was associated with activation of IL-6-STAT3 signaling, increased expression of alpha(1)-AT mRNA, and greater accumulation of mutant polymerized alpha(1)-ATZ protein in livers of indomethacin-treated PiZ mice compared to vehicle-treated PiZ animals. In conclusion, environmental factors, such as exogenous medication administration, can significantly potentiate the liver injury associated with alpha(1)-ATZ hepatic accumulation; NSAIDs may be especially injurious to patients with alpha(1)-AT deficiency, possibly by increasing the expression and accumulation of the hepatotoxic mutant protein.

  15. Efficacy of urine bile acid as a non-invasive indicator of liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi

    2009-02-01

    Estimation of liver damage is important in the pathophysiological and toxicological study of liver disease. As a novel, non-invasive marker of liver damage, we studied the efficacy of urine bile acids (UBA) in a rat model of liver disease. Thioacetamide (TAA)-treated rats were used in this study. Single intraperitoneal administration of high-dose TAA induces severe damage to the liver, and thus is used as a model of acute hepatitis. Continuous administration of low-dose TAA yields mild damage to the liver, and induces cirrhosis and hepatic tumors. In this study, it was found that both acute and chronic administration of TAA was associated with a dose-dependent elevation of UBA. The elevation of UBA content correlated with the alteration of blood biochemical indicators, and UBA screening showed a remarkable ability to distinguish liver-damaged rats from healthy rats. In particular, UBA analysis was found to have high sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for the screening of rats with abnormal serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity due to chronic liver damage, which was confirmed to include cholestasis and subsequent cirrhosis by liver histological analysis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that measurement of UBA is a simple, non-invasive and effective method for the screening of cholestasis in TAA-treated rats. We suggest that UBA analysis may have potent applicability for monitoring the progress of liver damage in animal models of chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy.

  16. Liver-specific microRNAs as biomarkers of nanomaterial-induced liver damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Takashi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Kunieda, Akiyoshi; Iwahara, Yuki; Tanaka, Kota; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2013-10-01

    Although nanomaterials are being used in various fields, their safety is not yet sufficiently understood. We have been attempting to establish a nanomaterials safety-assessment system by using biomarkers to predict nanomaterial-induced adverse biological effects. Here, we focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) because of their tissue-specific expression and high degree of stability in the blood. We previously showed that high intravenous doses of silica nanoparticles of 70 nm diameter (nSP70) induced liver damage in mice. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of serum levels of liver-specific or -enriched miRNAs (miR-122, miR-192, and miR-194) with that of conventional hepatic biomarkers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) as biomarkers for nSP70. After mice had been treated with nSP70, their serum miRNAs levels were measured by using quantitative RT-PCR. Serum levels of miR-122 in nSP70-treated mice were the highest among the three miRNAs. The sensitivity of miR-122 for liver damage was at least as good as those of ALT and AST. Like ALT and AST, miR-122 may be a useful biomarker of nSP70. We believe that these findings will help in the establishment of a nanomaterials safety-assessment system.

  17. Reversal of aflatoxin induced liver damage by turmeric and curcumin.

    PubMed

    Soni, K B; Rajan, A; Kuttan, R

    1992-09-30

    The effect of certain food additives on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus has been studied in vitro. Extracts of turmeric (Curcuma longa), garlic (Allium sativum) and asafoetida (Ferula asafoetida) inhibited the aflatoxin production considerably (more than 90%) at concentrations of 5-10 mg/ml. Similar results were also seen using butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole and ellagic acid at concentration 0.1 mM. Curcumin, the antioxidant principle from Curcuma longa did not have any effect on aflatoxin production. Turmeric and curcumin were also found to reverse the aflatoxin induced liver damage produced by feeding aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (5 micrograms/day per 14 days) to ducklings. Fatty changes, necrosis and biliary hyperplasia produced by AFB1 were considerably reversed by these food additives.

  18. Liver Damage Associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Ren, Jingtian; Li, Yan; Zhai, Jingbo; Mu, Wei; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Wenke; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To summarize the characteristics and analysis of relevant factors and to give references for prevention and further study of liver damage associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (HSW), we provide a systematic review of case reports and case series about liver damage associated with HSW. Methods. An extensive search of 6 medical databases was performed up to June 2014. Case reports and case series involving liver damage associated with HSW were included. Results. This review covers a total of 450 cases in 76 articles. HSW types included raw and processed HSW decoction pieces and many Chinese patent medicines that contain HSW. Symptoms of liver damage occur mostly a month or so after taking the medicine, mainly including jaundice, fatigue, anorexia, and yellow or tawny urine. Of the 450 patients, two cases who received liver transplantation and seven who died, the remaining 441 cases recovered or had liver function improvement after discontinuing HSW products and conservative care. Conclusion. HSW causes liver toxicity and may cause liver damage in different degrees and even lead to death; most of them are much related to long-term and overdose of drugs. Liver damage associated with HSW is reversible, and, after active treatment, the majority can be cured. People should be alert to liver damage when taking HSW preparations. PMID:25648693

  19. Radiation-Induced Liver Damage: Correlation of Histopathology with Hepatobiliary Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, Max, E-mail: max.seidensticker@med.ovgu.de; Burak, Miroslaw; Kalinski, Thomas

    2015-02-15

    PurposeRadiotherapy of liver malignancies shows promising results (radioembolization, stereotactic irradiation, interstitial brachytherapy). Regardless of the route of application, a certain amount of nontumorous liver parenchyma will be collaterally damaged by radiation. The functional reserve may be significantly reduced with an impact on further treatment planning. Monitoring of radiation-induced liver damage by imaging is neither established nor validated. We performed an analysis to correlate the histopathological presence of radiation-induced liver damage with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing hepatobiliary contrast media (Gd-BOPTA).MethodsPatients undergoing local high-dose-rate brachytherapy for whom a follow-up hepatobiliary MRI within 120 days after radiotherapy as well as an evaluablemore » liver biopsy from radiation-exposed liver tissue within 7 days before MRI were retrospectively identified. Planning computed tomography (CT)/dosimetry was merged to the CT-documentation of the liver biopsy and to the MRI. Presence/absence of radiation-induced liver damage (histopathology) and Gd-BOPTA uptake (MRI) as well as the dose applied during brachytherapy at the site of tissue sampling was determined.ResultsFourteen biopsies from eight patients were evaluated. In all cases with histopathological evidence of radiation-induced liver damage (n = 11), no uptake of Gd-BOPTA was seen. In the remaining three, cases no radiation-induced liver damage but Gd-BOPTA uptake was seen. Presence of radiation-induced liver damage and absence of Gd-BOPTA uptake was correlated with a former high-dose exposition.ConclusionsAbsence of hepatobiliary MRI contrast media uptake in radiation-exposed liver parenchyma may indicate radiation-induced liver damage. Confirmatory studies are warranted.« less

  20. PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAOUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    ABSTRACT

    Both dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) release iron from human liver ferritin (HLF) with or without the presence of ascorbic acid. ...

  1. PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasmid DNA damage caused by methylated arsenicals, ascorbic acid and human liver ferritin.

    Arsenic causes cancer in human skin, urinary bladder, lung, liver and kidney and is a significant world-wide public health problem. Although the metabolism of inorganic arsenic is ...

  2. Hepatic stellate cell-expressed endosialin balances fibrogenesis and hepatocyte proliferation during liver damage.

    PubMed

    Mogler, Carolin; Wieland, Matthias; König, Courtney; Hu, Junhao; Runge, Anja; Korn, Claudia; Besemfelder, Eva; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Komljenovic, Dorde; Dooley, Steven; Schirmacher, Peter; Longerich, Thomas; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-03-01

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to injury reflecting the critical balance between liver repair and scar formation. Chronic damage leads to progressive substitution of liver parenchyma by scar tissue and ultimately results in liver cirrhosis. Stromal cells (hepatic stellate cells [HSC] and endothelial cells) have been proposed to control the balance between liver fibrosis and regeneration. Here, we show that endosialin, a C-type lectin, expressed in the liver exclusively by HSC and portal fibroblasts, is upregulated in liver fibrosis in mouse and man. Chronic chemically induced liver damage resulted in reduced fibrosis and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation in endosialin-deficient (EN(KO)) mice. Correspondingly, acute-liver-damage-induced hepatocyte proliferation (partial hepatectomy) was increased in EN(KO) mice. A candidate-based screen of known regulators of hepatocyte proliferation identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as selectively endosialin-dependent hepatocyte mitogen. Collectively, the study establishes a critical role of HSC in the reciprocal regulation of fibrogenesis vs. hepatocyte proliferation and identifies endosialin as a therapeutic target in non-neoplastic settings. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  3. Hepatic stellate cell-expressed endosialin balances fibrogenesis and hepatocyte proliferation during liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Mogler, Carolin; Wieland, Matthias; König, Courtney; Hu, Junhao; Runge, Anja; Korn, Claudia; Besemfelder, Eva; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Komljenovic, Dorde; Dooley, Steven; Schirmacher, Peter; Longerich, Thomas; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to injury reflecting the critical balance between liver repair and scar formation. Chronic damage leads to progressive substitution of liver parenchyma by scar tissue and ultimately results in liver cirrhosis. Stromal cells (hepatic stellate cells [HSC] and endothelial cells) have been proposed to control the balance between liver fibrosis and regeneration. Here, we show that endosialin, a C-type lectin, expressed in the liver exclusively by HSC and portal fibroblasts, is upregulated in liver fibrosis in mouse and man. Chronic chemically induced liver damage resulted in reduced fibrosis and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation in endosialin-deficient (ENKO) mice. Correspondingly, acute-liver-damage-induced hepatocyte proliferation (partial hepatectomy) was increased in ENKO mice. A candidate-based screen of known regulators of hepatocyte proliferation identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as selectively endosialin-dependent hepatocyte mitogen. Collectively, the study establishes a critical role of HSC in the reciprocal regulation of fibrogenesis vs. hepatocyte proliferation and identifies endosialin as a therapeutic target in non-neoplastic settings. PMID:25680861

  4. Acrolein scavengers, cysteamine and N-benzylhydroxylamine, reduces the mouse liver damage after acetaminophen overdose.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Ryo; Mizuta, Ryushin

    2017-01-10

    Our previous study suggested that the highly toxic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a byproduct of oxidative stress, plays a major role in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. In this study, to determine the involvement of acrolein in the liver injury and to identify novel therapeutic options for the liver damage, we examined two putative acrolein scavengers, a thiol compound cysteamine and a hydroxylamine N-benzylhydroxylamine, in cell culture and in mice. Our results showed that cysteamine and N-benzylhydroxylamine effectively prevented the cell toxicity of acrolein in vitro and acetaminophen-induced liver injury in vivo, which suggested that acrolein is involved in the liver damage, and these two drugs can be potential therapeutic options for this condition.

  5. Biological effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone on liver damage in Bmi-1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YUANQING; CHEN, NING; MIAO, DENGSHUN

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been demonstrated to function as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and subsequently protecting the mitochondria from oxidative stress-induced damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PQQ is able to rescue premature senescence in the liver, induced by the deletion of B cell-specific Moloney MLV insertion site-1 (Bmi-1), by inhibiting oxidative stress. In vivo, the mice were allocated into three groups that underwent the following treatment protocols. WT mice received a normal diet, while BKO mice also received a normal diet. An additional group of BKO mice were fed a PQQ-supplemented diet (BKO + PQQ; 4 mg PQQ/kg in the normal diet). The results indicated that PQQ partially rescued the liver damage induced by the deletion of Bmi-1. PQQ was demonstrated to exhibit these therapeutic effects on liver damage through multiple aspects, including the promotion of proliferation, antiapoptotic effects, the inhibition of senescence, the upregulation of antioxidant ability, the downregulation of cell cycle protein expression, the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the reduction of DNA damage. The results of these experiments indicated that treatment of BKO mice with a moderate dose of PQQ significantly protected the liver from deleterious effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and participating in DNA damage repair. Therefore, PQQ has great potential as a therapeutic agent against oxidative stress during liver damage. PMID:26622336

  6. Liver Damage and Mortality in a Male Lewis Rat of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ghaffarinia, Ameneh; Jalili, Cyrus; Mostafaie, Ali; Parvaneh, Shahram; Pakravan, Nafiseh

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. This is due to migration of peripherally activated lymphocytes to central nervous system leading to inflammatory lesions. However, liver has an anti-inflammatory microenvironment. Myelin expression in the liver of transgenic mice suppresses inflammatory lesions within central nervous system. Considering the notion that the inflammatory events originate from periphery, we investigated if the liver was affected in an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in male Lewis rats using guinea pig spinal cord and complete Freund's adjuvant. Weight, clinical score, and survival rate were evaluated for 14 days post immunization. Liver sections were taken and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and examined with an Olympus microscope. Mortality was accompanied by liver damage. Sinusoidal congestion, pycnotic nuclei within hepatocytes, hepatocyte necrosis, and severe widespread congestion along with fat accumulation within hepatocytes (fatty degeneration) were observed in liver tissue sections. Liver damage occurs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The perpetuation of self antigen leading to continuous migration of extrahepatically activated T cells makes an inflammatory milieu in the liver. It follows migration and development of more inflammatory cells and may paralyses tolerance inducing mechanisms. Apart from central nervous system lesion, liver injury may act as synergistic factor for debilitation and mortality.

  7. Liver Damage and Mortality in a Male Lewis Rat of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffarinia, Ameneh; Jalili, Cyrus; Mostafaie, Ali; Parvaneh, Shahram; Pakravan, Nafiseh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. This is due to migration of peripherally activated lymphocytes to central nervous system leading to inflammatory lesions. However, liver has an anti-inflammatory microenvironment. Myelin expression in the liver of transgenic mice suppresses inflammatory lesions within central nervous system. Considering the notion that the inflammatory events originate from periphery, we investigated if the liver was affected in an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Methods: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in male Lewis rats using guinea pig spinal cord and complete Freund's adjuvant. Weight, clinical score, and survival rate were evaluated for 14 days post immunization. Liver sections were taken and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and examined with an Olympus microscope. Results: Mortality was accompanied by liver damage. Sinusoidal congestion, pycnotic nuclei within hepatocytes, hepatocyte necrosis, and severe widespread congestion along with fat accumulation within hepatocytes (fatty degeneration) were observed in liver tissue sections. Conclusion: Liver damage occurs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The perpetuation of self antigen leading to continuous migration of extrahepatically activated T cells makes an inflammatory milieu in the liver. It follows migration and development of more inflammatory cells and may paralyses tolerance inducing mechanisms. Apart from central nervous system lesion, liver injury may act as synergistic factor for debilitation and mortality. PMID:26516320

  8. Potency of andrographolide as an antitumor compound in BHC-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Neha P; Rawal, Upendra M; Patel, Beena P

    2009-06-01

    The present investigation relates to the influence of andrographolide, an active compound of Andrographis paniculata Nees. It reverses an experimental liver carcinogenic condition of mice to normal and might be a potential therapeutic/preventive agent for human liver cancer. A. paniculata (Kalmegh) is extensively used in the Indian traditional system of medicine as a hepatoprotective and hepatostimulative agent and has been reported to have protective effect against different hepatotoxins. Histomorphological, ultrastructural, and biochemical studies were performed for the effect of the andrographolide on control mice, mice treated with hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC) only and BHC + andrographolide. Enzymes for liver function tests were analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The BHC experimental model forms an irreversible liver tumor in male mice. The histological and ultrastructural changes observed in andrographolide supplementation emphasize the recovery of the damaged liver. This recovery was also reflected in the neoplastic nodule formation. The activity of phosphorylase and glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver of the andrographolide-supplemented group suggests improved glycogenolysis in liver. Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxalate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase showed a significant decrease in andrographolide-supplemented animals as compared with BHC-treated animals, suggesting regenerative effects elicited by andrographolide. The study indicates that the regenerative capability elicited by andrographolide is possibly due to its ability to reactivate liver function enzymes that catalyze the reaction of several biochemical and synthetic processes and that it may be useful for severe liver damage conditions.

  9. Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Ashley M; Herxheimer, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs) may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis. PMID:11914150

  10. Oxidative stress contributes to liver damage in a murine model of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Nancy Y; Blomenkamp, Keith; Ahmad, Muneeb; Teckman, Jeffrey H

    2012-10-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic disorder resulting in the expression of misfolded mutant protein that can polymerize and accumulate in hepatocytes, leading to liver disease in some individuals. Transgenic PiZ mice are a well-characterized model, which express human alpha-1-antitrypsin mutant Z protein (ATZ protein) and faithfully recapitulate the human liver disease. Liver tissue expressing alpha-1-antitrypsin mutant Z protein exhibits inflammation, injury and replacement of damaged cells. Fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develop in aging PiZ mice. In this study, microarray analysis was performed comparing young PiZ (ZY) mice to wild-type (WY), and indicated that there were alterations in gene expression levels that could influence a number of pathways leading to liver disease. Redox-regulating genes were up-regulated in ZY tissue, including carbonyl reductase 3 (CBR3), glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 + 2 (GSTA(1 + 2)) and glutathione S-transferase mu 3 (GSTM3). We hypothesized that oxidative stress could develop in Z mouse liver, contributing to tissue damage and disease progression with age. The results of biochemical analysis of PiZ mouse liver revealed that higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a more oxidized, cellular redox state occurred in liver tissue from ZY mice than WY. ZY mice showed little evidence of oxidative cellular damage as assessed by protein carbonylation levels, malondialdehyde levels and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8oxodG) staining. Aging liver tissue from PiZ older mice (ZO) had elevated ROS, generally lower levels of antioxidant enzymes than younger mice and evidence of cellular damage. These data indicate that oxidative stress is a contributing factor in the development of liver disease in this model of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

  11. Increased activity of rat liver N2-guanine tRNA methyltransferase II in response to liver damage.

    PubMed

    Wainfan, E; Dizik, M; Balis, M E

    1984-06-29

    Alterations in rat liver transfer RNA (tRNA) methyltransferase activities have been observed after liver damage by various chemicals or by partial hepatectomy. The qualitative and quantitative nature of these activity changes and the time course for their induction have been studied. Since homologous tRNAs are essentially fully modified in vivo, E. coli tRNAs were used as in vitro substrates for the rat liver enzymes in these studies. Each of the liver-damaging agents tested rapidly caused increases in activities of the enzyme(s) catalyzing methyl group transfer to tRNAs that have an unmodified guanine at position 26 from the 5' end of the molecule. This group of tRNAs includes E. coli tRNANfmet, tRNAAla1, tRNALeu1, or Leu2, and tRNASer3 (Group 1). In each case N2-methylguanine and N2,N2-dimethylguanine represented 90% or more of the products of these in vitro methylations. The product and substrate specificity observed are characteristic of N2-guanine methyltransferase II (S-adenosyl-L-methionine : tRNA (guanine-2)-methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.32). In crude and partially purified preparations derived from livers of both control and treated animals this enzyme activity was not diminished significantly by exposure to 50 degrees C for min. The same liver-damaging agents induced little or no change in the activities of enzymes that catalyze methyl group transfer to various other E. coli tRNAs that do not have guanine at position 26 (Group 2). The results of mixing experiments appear to rule out the likelihood that the observed enzyme activity changes are due to stimulatory or inhibitory materials present in the enzyme preparations from control or treated animals. Thus, our experiments indicate that liver damage by each of several different methods, including surgery or administration of chemicals that are strong carcinogens, hepatotoxins, or cancer-promoting substances, all produce changes in liver tRNA methyltransferase activity that represent a selective increase in

  12. The Effects of Thymoquinone Against Morphine-induced Damages on Male Mice Liver

    PubMed Central

    Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Vahabi, Arman; Roshankhah, Shiva; Darehdori, Ahmad Shabanizadeh; Jalili, Cyrus

    2018-01-01

    Background: Morphine is a pain medication. It is mostly processed in liver and reasons disturbing effects. It can increase the production of free radicals. Thymoquinone is a phytochemical compound found in the plant Nigella sativa. It has diverse pharmacological properties such as antioxidant and anticancer. This study was intended to assess the effects of thymoquinone against morphine damages on the liver of mice. Methods: In this study, various doses of thymoquinone (4.5, 9, and 18 mg/kg) and thymoquinone plus morphine was administered (once a day) intraperitoneally to 48 male mice for 20 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum nitric oxide (NO) levels, liver weight, and histology have been studied. Results: The results indicated that morphine administration significantly increased the mean diameter of central hepatic vein and hepatocyte, blood serum NO level, liver enzymes level, and decreased liver weight compared to saline group (P < 0.05). However, thymoquinone and thymoquinone plus morphine administration significantly enhanced liver weight and reduced the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes, and NO levels in all groups compared to morphine group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that antioxidant effect of thymoquinone could protect damage of liver parameters against morphine toxicity. PMID:29441185

  13. Reabsorption of iron into acutely damaged rat liver: A role for ferritins

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed; Wilting, Jörg; Ramadori, Giuliano; Naz, Naila

    2017-01-01

    AIM To studied iron metabolism in liver, spleen, and serum after acute liver-damage, in relation to surrogate markers for liver-damage and repair. METHODS Rats received intraperitoneal injection of the hepatotoxin thioacetamide (TAA), and were sacrificed regularly between 1 and 96 h thereafter. Serum levels of transaminases and iron were measured using conventional laboratory assays. Liver tissue was used for conventional histology, immunohistology, and iron staining. The expression of acute-phase cytokines, ferritin light chain (FTL), and ferritin heavy chain (FTH) was investigated in the liver by qRT-PCR. Western blotting was used to investigate FTL and FTH in liver tissue and serum. Liver and spleen tissue was also used to determine iron concentrations. RESULTS After a short initial decrease, iron serum concentrations increased in parallel with serum transaminase (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) levels, which reached a maximum at 48 h, and decreased thereafter. Similarly, after 48 h a significant increase in FTL, and after 72h in FTH was detected in serum. While earliest morphological signs of inflammation in liver were visible after 6 h, increased expression of the two acute-phase cytokines IFN-γ (1h) and IL-1β (3h) was detectable earlier, with maximum values after 12-24 h. Iron concentrations in liver tissue increased steadily between 1 h and 48 h, and remained high at 96 h. In contrast, spleen iron concentrations remained unchanged until 48 h, and increased mildly thereafter (96 h). Although tissue iron staining was negative, hepatic FTL and FTH protein levels were strongly elevated. Our results reveal effects on hepatic iron concentrations after direct liver injury by TAA. The increase of liver iron concentrations may be due to the uptake of a significant proportion of the metal by healthy hepatocytes, and only to a minor extent by macrophages, as spleen iron concentrations do not increase in parallel. The temporary increase of

  14. Accumulation of PiZ alpha 1-antitrypsin causes liver damage in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, J A; Rogers, B B; Sifers, R N; Finegold, M J; Clift, S M; DeMayo, F J; Bullock, D W; Woo, S L

    1989-01-01

    Circulating alpha 1-antitrypsin is synthesized primarily in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream, where it serves as the major protease inhibitor. The PiZ variant of alpha 1-antitrypsin is associated with decreased levels of the protein in sera as a result of its retention within hepatocytes. Homozygosity for the variant allele predisposes individuals to the development of pulmonary emphysema and an increased risk for liver disease. We and others have previously demonstrated that the normal PiM human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene can be properly expressed in the livers of transgenic mice. The PiZ variant of the human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene was introduced into the germline of mice to determine whether the mutant protein would accumulate in mouse hepatocytes and if such accumulation would result in the development of liver damage in an animal model. As expected, the mutant human protein was abundantly synthesized in the livers of the transgenic animals and accumulated within the rough endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes as it does in human patients. PiZ mice developed significantly more liver necrosis and inflammation than PiM transgenic mice or control littermates. The degree of liver damage was correlated with the amount of PiZ alpha 1-antitrypsin accumulated in the liver of the different pedigrees of mice. Although 40% of PiZ mice tested were seropositive for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), the degree of liver damage was not influenced by the MHV seropositivity; rather, it was related only to the presence of accumulated PiZ protein. Images PMID:2784798

  15. Accumulation of PiZ alpha 1-antitrypsin causes liver damage in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J A; Rogers, B B; Sifers, R N; Finegold, M J; Clift, S M; DeMayo, F J; Bullock, D W; Woo, S L

    1989-04-01

    Circulating alpha 1-antitrypsin is synthesized primarily in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream, where it serves as the major protease inhibitor. The PiZ variant of alpha 1-antitrypsin is associated with decreased levels of the protein in sera as a result of its retention within hepatocytes. Homozygosity for the variant allele predisposes individuals to the development of pulmonary emphysema and an increased risk for liver disease. We and others have previously demonstrated that the normal PiM human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene can be properly expressed in the livers of transgenic mice. The PiZ variant of the human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene was introduced into the germline of mice to determine whether the mutant protein would accumulate in mouse hepatocytes and if such accumulation would result in the development of liver damage in an animal model. As expected, the mutant human protein was abundantly synthesized in the livers of the transgenic animals and accumulated within the rough endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes as it does in human patients. PiZ mice developed significantly more liver necrosis and inflammation than PiM transgenic mice or control littermates. The degree of liver damage was correlated with the amount of PiZ alpha 1-antitrypsin accumulated in the liver of the different pedigrees of mice. Although 40% of PiZ mice tested were seropositive for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), the degree of liver damage was not influenced by the MHV seropositivity; rather, it was related only to the presence of accumulated PiZ protein.

  16. Tumor induced hepatic myeloid derived suppressor cells can cause moderate liver damage.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Tobias; Medina-Echeverz, José; Kapanadze, Tamar; Kruhlak, Michael J; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL), while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.

  17. [Prediction of histological liver damage in asymptomatic alcoholic patients by means of clinical and laboratory data].

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, H; Hirsch, S; Bunout, D; Díaz, M; Kelly, M; Silva, G; de la Maza, M P; Petermann, M; Ugarte, G

    1993-04-01

    Looking for a noninvasive method to predict liver histologic alterations in alcoholic patients without clinical signs of liver failure, we studied 187 chronic alcoholics recently abstinent, divided in 2 series. In the model series (n = 94) several clinical variables and results of common laboratory tests were confronted to the findings of liver biopsies. These were classified in 3 groups: 1. Normal liver; 2. Moderate alterations; 3. Marked alterations, including alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Multivariate methods used were logistic regression analysis and a classification and regression tree (CART). Both methods entered gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), weight and age as significant and independent variables. Univariate analysis with GGT and AST at different cutoffs were also performed. To predict the presence of any kind of damage (Groups 2 and 3), CART and AST > 30 IU showed the higher sensitivity, specificity and correct prediction, both in the model and validation series. For prediction of marked liver damage, a score based on logistic regression and GGT > 110 IU had the higher efficiencies. It is concluded that GGT and AST are good markers of alcoholic liver damage and that, using sample cutoffs, histologic diagnosis can be correctly predicted in 80% of recently abstinent asymptomatic alcoholics.

  18. Dandelion-enriched diet of mothers alleviates lead-induced damages in liver of newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, M; Magné, C; Ben Amara, I; Ben Saad, H; El Feki, A

    2017-02-28

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic metal present in the environment. It causes disturbances of several functions, including hematologic, renal, reproductive and nervous ones. Preventive or curative use of medicinal plants against these disorders may be a promising and safe therapeutic strategy. This study evaluated the hepatic toxic effects of prenatal exposure to lead in rats and the possible protective effect of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) added to the diet. Female rats were given a normal diet (control) or a diet enriched with dandelion (treated). In addition, lead acetate was administered to half of the rats through drinking water from the 5th day of gestation until the 14th day postpartum. Lead toxicity was evaluated in their offspring by measuring body and liver weights, plasma biochemical parameters, liver damage, as well as protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver tissues. Lead poisoning of mothers caused lead deposition in blood and stomach of their pups as well as hepatic tissue damages. Moreover, significant decreases in liver weight and protein content were found. Lead treatment caused oxidative stress and marked changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. However, no damages or biochemical changes were observed in puppies from the rats co-treated with lead and dandelion. These results indicate that supplementation of pregnant and lactating rats with dandelion protects their offspring against lead poisoning, likely through reduction of oxidative stress and liver damages.

  19. Fatal Liver Damage After Barium Enemas Containing Tannic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lucke, Hans H.; Hodge, Kenneth E.; Patt, Norman L.

    1963-01-01

    Tannic acid contained in the barium enema was found to have been the sole known potential hepatotoxin in four of the five cases of fulminating fatal liver failure that occurred in a 213-bed hospital over a period of 27 months. In the other case halothane anesthesia had also been administered. Autopsies (performed on four of the cases) did not suggest viral hepatitis but showed substantially indentical hepatic changes, not unlike those reported in the past following tannic acid exposure. Proof is not claimed that tannic acid was the cause of these deaths, but further investigation regarding the safety of its administration in barium enemas is advocated. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:14079135

  20. Mitigation of carbon tetrachloride-induced damage by Phyllanthus amarus in liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Krithika, Rajesh; Verma, Ramtej J

    2009-01-01

    Liver disease has become a global concern worldwide. In absence of reliable liver protective drugs in modem medicine, a large number of medicinal preparations are recommended for the treatment of liver disorders as they are believed to be harmless based on their natural origin. The aim of the present study was to determine the hepatoprotective activity of Phyllanthus amarus plant extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in female mice. Carbon tetrachloride administration caused a significant increase in liver and serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP), while total protein content significantly decreased as compared to vehicle control. The effect was dose-dependent. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus along with carbon tetrachloride caused significant mitigation of CCl4-induced changes.

  1. Ginger-derived nanoparticles protect against alcohol-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiaoying; Deng, Zhong-Bin; Mu, Jingyao; Zhang, Lifeng; Yan, Jun; Miller, Donald; Feng, Wenke; McClain, Craig J.; Zhang, Huang-Ge

    2015-01-01

    Daily exposure of humans to nanoparticles from edible plants is inevitable, but significant advances are required to determine whether edible plant nanoparticles are beneficial to our health. Additionally, strategies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying any beneficial effects. Here, as a proof of concept, we used a mouse model to show that orally given nanoparticles isolated from ginger extracts using a sucrose gradient centrifugation procedure resulted in protecting mice against alcohol-induced liver damage. The ginger-derived nanoparticle (GDN)–mediated activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) led to the expression of a group of liver detoxifying/antioxidant genes and inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, which partially contributes to the liver protection. Using lipid knock-out and knock-in strategies, we further identified that shogaol in the GDN plays a role in the induction of Nrf2 in a TLR4/TRIF-dependent manner. Given the critical role of Nrf2 in modulating numerous cellular processes, including hepatocyte homeostasis, drug metabolism, antioxidant defenses, and cell-cycle progression of liver, this finding not only opens up a new avenue for investigating GDN as a means to protect against the development of liver-related diseases such as alcohol-induced liver damage but sheds light on studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying interspecies communication in the liver via edible plant–derived nanoparticles. PMID:26610593

  2. A case of acetaminophen (paracetamol) causing renal failure without liver damage in a child and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ozan; Genc, Gurkan; Bek, Kenan; Sullu, Yurdanur

    2010-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used drug and known as a safety antipyretic and analgesic drug in childhood. Acetaminophen-associated liver damage is more recognized than kidney damage. Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity can be seen together after acetaminophen overdose, but renal damage without liver damage is a rarely seen entity in all age groups being reported more rarely in childhood. We present here a 16-year-old girl with renal failure without liver damage because of acetaminophen toxicity and a review of literature for pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical course, treatment, and outcome.

  3. Zonation of nitrogen and glucose metabolism gene expression upon acute liver damage in mouse.

    PubMed

    Ghafoory, Shahrouz; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Li, Qi; Scholl, Catharina; Dooley, Steven; Wölfl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Zonation of metabolic activities within specific structures and cell types is a phenomenon of liver organization and ensures complementarity of variant liver functions like protein production, glucose homeostasis and detoxification. To analyze damage and regeneration of liver tissue in response to a toxic agent, expression of liver specific enzymes was analyzed by in situ hybridization in mouse over a 6 days time course following carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injection. CCl4 mixed with mineral oil was administered to BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injection, and mice were sacrificed at different time points post injection. Changes in the expression of albumin (Alb), arginase (Arg1), glutaminase 2 (Gls2), Glutamine synthetase (Gs), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc), glycogen synthase 2 (Gys2), Glycerinaldehyd-3-phosphat-Dehydrogenase (Gapdh), Cytochrom p450 2E1 (Cyp2e1) and glucagon receptor (Gcgr) genes in the liver were studied by in situ hybridization and qPCR. We observed significant changes in gene expression of enzymes involved in nitrogen and glucose metabolism and their local distribution following CCl4 injury. We also found that Cyp2e1, the primary metabolizing enzyme for CCl4, was strongly expressed in the pericentral zone during recovery. Furthermore, cells in the damaged area displayed distinct gene expression profiles during the analyzed time course and showed complete recovery with strong albumin production 6 days after CCl4 injection. Our results indicate that despite severe damage, liver cells in the damaged area do not simply die but instead display locally adjusted gene expression supporting damage response and recovery.

  4. Zonation of Nitrogen and Glucose Metabolism Gene Expression upon Acute Liver Damage in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoory, Shahrouz; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Li, Qi; Scholl, Catharina; Dooley, Steven; Wölfl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Zonation of metabolic activities within specific structures and cell types is a phenomenon of liver organization and ensures complementarity of variant liver functions like protein production, glucose homeostasis and detoxification. To analyze damage and regeneration of liver tissue in response to a toxic agent, expression of liver specific enzymes was analyzed by in situ hybridization in mouse over a 6 days time course following carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injection. CCl4 mixed with mineral oil was administered to BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injection, and mice were sacrificed at different time points post injection. Changes in the expression of albumin (Alb), arginase (Arg1), glutaminase 2 (Gls2), Glutamine synthetase (Gs), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc), glycogen synthase 2 (Gys2), Glycerinaldehyd-3-phosphat-Dehydrogenase (Gapdh), Cytochrom p450 2E1 (Cyp2e1) and glucagon receptor (Gcgr) genes in the liver were studied by in situ hybridization and qPCR. We observed significant changes in gene expression of enzymes involved in nitrogen and glucose metabolism and their local distribution following CCl4 injury. We also found that Cyp2e1, the primary metabolizing enzyme for CCl4, was strongly expressed in the pericentral zone during recovery. Furthermore, cells in the damaged area displayed distinct gene expression profiles during the analyzed time course and showed complete recovery with strong albumin production 6 days after CCl4 injection. Our results indicate that despite severe damage, liver cells in the damaged area do not simply die but instead display locally adjusted gene expression supporting damage response and recovery. PMID:24147127

  5. Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT) Thickness Is Associated with Cardiovascular and Liver Damage in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Giuseppina; Consonni, Dario; Tiraboschi, Silvia; Baragetti, Andrea; Bertelli, Cristina; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Dongiovanni, Paola; Valenti, Luca; Grigore, Liliana; Tonella, Tatiana; Catapano, Alberico; Fargion, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been proposed as a cardiometabolic and hepatic fibrosis risk factor in patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of EAT in NAFLD by analyzing 1) the association between EAT, the other metabolic parameters and the severity of steatosis 2) the relationship between cardiovascular (cIMT, cplaques, E/A), liver (presence of NASH and significant fibrosis) damage and metabolic risk factors including EAT 3) the relationship between EAT and genetic factors strongly influencing liver steatosis. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we considered 512 consecutive patients with NAFLD (confirmed by biopsy in 100). EAT, severity of steatosis, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography and results analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression models. Variables independently associated with EAT (mm) were female gender (p = 0.003), age (p = 0.001), BMI (p = 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009), steatosis grade 2 (p = 0.01) and 3 (p = 0.04), fatty liver index (p = 0.001) and statin use (p = 0.03). Variables independently associated with carotid IMT were age (p = 0.0001), hypertension (p = 0.009), diabetes (p = 0.04), smoking habits (p = 0.04) and fatty liver index (p = 0.02), with carotid plaques age (p = 0.0001), BMI (p = 0.03), EAT (p = 0.02),) and hypertension (p = 0.02), and with E/A age (p = 0.0001), diabetes (p = 0.005), hypertension (p = 0.04) and fatty liver index (p = 0.004). In the 100 patients with available liver histology non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was independently associated with EAT (p = 0.04) and diabetes (p = 0.054) while significant fibrosis with EAT (p = 0.02), diabetes (p = 0.01) and waist circumference (p = 0.05). No association between EAT and PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 polymorphisms was found. Conclusion In patients with NAFLD, EAT is associated with the severity of liver and vascular damage

  6. Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT) Thickness Is Associated with Cardiovascular and Liver Damage in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Pisano, Giuseppina; Consonni, Dario; Tiraboschi, Silvia; Baragetti, Andrea; Bertelli, Cristina; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Dongiovanni, Paola; Valenti, Luca; Grigore, Liliana; Tonella, Tatiana; Catapano, Alberico; Fargion, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been proposed as a cardiometabolic and hepatic fibrosis risk factor in patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of EAT in NAFLD by analyzing 1) the association between EAT, the other metabolic parameters and the severity of steatosis 2) the relationship between cardiovascular (cIMT, cplaques, E/A), liver (presence of NASH and significant fibrosis) damage and metabolic risk factors including EAT 3) the relationship between EAT and genetic factors strongly influencing liver steatosis. In a cross-sectional study, we considered 512 consecutive patients with NAFLD (confirmed by biopsy in 100). EAT, severity of steatosis, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography and results analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression models. Variables independently associated with EAT (mm) were female gender (p = 0.003), age (p = 0.001), BMI (p = 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009), steatosis grade 2 (p = 0.01) and 3 (p = 0.04), fatty liver index (p = 0.001) and statin use (p = 0.03). Variables independently associated with carotid IMT were age (p = 0.0001), hypertension (p = 0.009), diabetes (p = 0.04), smoking habits (p = 0.04) and fatty liver index (p = 0.02), with carotid plaques age (p = 0.0001), BMI (p = 0.03), EAT (p = 0.02),) and hypertension (p = 0.02), and with E/A age (p = 0.0001), diabetes (p = 0.005), hypertension (p = 0.04) and fatty liver index (p = 0.004). In the 100 patients with available liver histology non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was independently associated with EAT (p = 0.04) and diabetes (p = 0.054) while significant fibrosis with EAT (p = 0.02), diabetes (p = 0.01) and waist circumference (p = 0.05). No association between EAT and PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 polymorphisms was found. In patients with NAFLD, EAT is associated with the severity of liver and vascular damage besides with the known metabolic risk

  7. Metabolically based liver damage pathophysiology in patients with urea cycle disorders - A new hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanovski, Ivan; Ješić, Miloš; Ivanovski, Ana; Garavelli, Livia; Ivanovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    The underlying pathophysiology of liver dysfunction in urea cycle disorders (UCDs) is still largely elusive. There is some evidence that the accumulation of urea cycle (UC) intermediates are toxic for hepatocyte mitochondria. It is possible that liver injury is directly caused by the toxicity of ammonia. The rarity of UCDs, the lack of checking of iron level in these patients, superficial knowledge of UC and an underestimation of the metabolic role of fumaric acid, are the main reasons that are responsible for the incomprehension of the mechanism of liver injury in patients suffering from UCDs. Owing to our routine clinical practice to screen for iron overload in severely ill neonates, with the focus on the newborns suffering from acute liver failure, we report a case of citrullinemia with neonatal liver failure and high blood parameters of iron overload. We hypothesize that the key is in the decreased-deficient fumaric acid production in the course of UC in UCDs that causes several sequentially intertwined metabolic disturbances with final result of liver iron overload. The presented hypothesis could be easily tested by examining the patients suffering from UCDs, for liver iron overload. This could be easily performed in countries with a high population and comprehensive national register for inborn errors of metabolism. Conclusion: Providing the hypothesis is correct, neonatal liver damage in patients having UCD can be prevented by the supplementation of pregnant women with fumaric or succinic acid, prepared in the form of iron supplementation pills. After birth, liver damage in patients having UCDs can be prevented by supplementation of these patients with zinc fumarate or zinc succinylate, as well. PMID:29209134

  8. Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 34 regulates liver regeneration in hepatic steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yuka; Furutani, Tomoko; Kimura, Kumi; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Haga, Sanae; Kido, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Harada, Kenichi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Ozaki, Michitaka; Kasuga, Masato; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The liver has robust regenerative potential in response to damage, but hepatic steatosis (HS) weakens this potential. We found that the enhanced integrated stress response (ISR) mediated by phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) impairs regeneration in HS and that growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 34 (Gadd34)-dependent suppression of ISR plays a crucial role in fatty liver regeneration. Although mice fed a high-fat diet for 2 weeks developed moderate fatty liver with no increase in eIF2α phosphorylation before 70% hepatectomy, they showed impaired liver regeneration as a result of reduced proliferation and increased death of hepatocytes with increased phosphorylation of eIF2α and ISR. An increased ISR through Gadd34 knockdown induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)-dependent apoptosis and receptor-interacting protein kinase 3-dependent necrosis, resulting in increased hepatocyte death during fatty liver regeneration. Furthermore, Gadd34 knockdown and increased phosphorylation of eIF2α decreased cyclin D1 protein and reduced hepatocyte proliferation. In contrast, enhancement of Gadd34 suppressed phosphorylation of eIF2α and reduced CHOP expression and hepatocyte apoptosis without affecting hepatocyte proliferation, clearly improving fatty liver regeneration. In more severe fatty liver of leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, forced expression of hepatic Gadd34 also promoted hepatic regeneration after hepatectomy. Gadd34-mediated regulation of ISR acts as a physiological defense mechanism against impaired liver regeneration resulting from steatosis and is thus a possible therapeutic target for impaired regeneration in HS. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Hepatoprotective Effect of Low Doses of Caffeine on CCl4-Induced Liver Damage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cachón, Andrés Uc; Quintal-Novelo, Carlos; Medina-Escobedo, Gilberto; Castro-Aguilar, Gaspar; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2017-03-04

    Several studies have shown the hepatoprotective effect of the consumption of coffee and tea, which is mainly attributed to caffeine. Many experimental studies have demonstrated this effect; however, these studies used high caffeine doses that are not related to human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of low doses of caffeine on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-treated rats. Low doses of caffeine (CAFF) 5 and 10 mg/kg (CAFF5 and CAFF10) were evaluated in chronic liver damage induced by CCl 4 (0.75 mL/kg) in rats. CAFF treatment was administered once a day and CCl 4 administration was twice weekly for 10 weeks. Liver function tests (biochemical markers) and functional (sleeping time) and histological (hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome stains) parameters were carried out at the end of damage treatment. Daily treatments of CAFF5 and CAFF10 exhibited a hepatoprotective effect supported by a decrease of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) serum activities and bilirubin serum levels compared with control and also restored serum albumin levels and liver glutathione (GSH). Moreover, CAFF prevented CCl 4 -induced prolongation in pentobarbital sleeping time and a decrease of liver fibrosis and cell death. Our results demonstrated that low doses of CAFF exert a hepatoprotective effect against CCl 4 -induced liver damage in rats.

  10. The effect of phytosterol protects rats against 4-nitrophenol-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaqin; Song, Meiyan; Li, Yansen; Zhang, Yonghui; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Li, ChunMei

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of phytosterol (PS) in regard to liver damage induced by 4-nitrophenol (PNP). Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups (Control, PS, PNP, and PNP+PS). The PS and PNP+PS groups were pretreated with PS for one week. The PNP and PNP+PS groups were injected subcutaneously with PNP for 28 days. The control group received a basal diet and was injected with vehicle alone. Treatment with PS prevented the elevation of the total bilirubin levels, as well as an increase in serum alkaline transaminase and aspartate transaminase, which are typically caused by PNP-induced liver damage. Histopathologically showed that liver damage was significantly mitigated by PS treatment. However, there was no significant change in antioxidant enzyme activities, and the Nrf2-antioxidant system was not activated after treatment with PS. These results suggest that PS could mitigate liver damage induced by PNP, but does not enhance antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective function of complement against alcohol-induced rat liver damage.

    PubMed

    Bykov, Igor L; Väkevä, Antti; Järveläinen, Harri A; Meri, Seppo; Lindros, Kai O

    2004-11-01

    The complement system can promote tissue damage or play a homeostatic role in the clearance and disposal of damaged tissue. We assessed the role of the terminal complement pathway in alcohol-induced liver damage in complement C6 (C6-/-) genetically deficient rats. C6-/- and corresponding C6+/+ rats were continuously exposed to ethanol by feeding ethanol-supplemented liquid diet for six weeks. Liver samples were analyzed for histopathology and complement component deposition by immunofluorescence microscopy. Prostaglandin E receptors and cytokine mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR and plasma cytokines by ELISA. Deposition of complement components C1, C3, C8 and C9 was observed in C6+/+ rats, but not in C6-/- animals. The histopathological changes, the liver weight increase and the elevation of the plasma pro-/anti-inflammatory TNF-alpha/IL-10 ratio were, on the other hand, more marked in C6-/- rats. Furthermore, ethanol enhanced the hepatic mRNA expression of the prostaglandin E receptors EP2R and EP4R exclusively in the C6-/- rats. Our results indicate that a deficient terminal complement pathway predisposes to tissue injury and promotes a pro-inflammatory cytokine response. This suggests that an intact complement system has a protective function in the development of alcoholic liver damage.

  12. Oxidative damage of rat liver induced by ligature-induced periodontitis and chronic ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Tomofuji, Takaaki; Sanbe, Toshihiro; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Irie, Koichiro; Maruyama, Takayuki; Tamaki, Naofumi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2008-12-01

    Oxidative stress plays a central role in the initiation and progression of liver disease. Chronic ethanol consumption induces oxidative damage of the liver. Using a rat model, we previously showed that chronic administration of lipopolysaccharide and proteases to gingival sulcus induced both periodontal inflammation and liver injury. Periodontitis and ethanol consumption may have an additional effect on hepatic oxidative damage. The present study investigated the effects of periodontitis on ethanol-induced oxidative damage of the liver using a rat model. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (six rats/group). During the experimental period of eight weeks, two groups were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet, and two groups were on a pair-fed control diet. Four weeks prior to the end of the experimental period, one group from each dietary treatment was ligated to induce periodontitis, while the other group was left unligated. In order to evaluate hepatic oxidative damage, the level of hexanoyl-lysine and the ratio of reduced form glutathione/oxidized form glutathione (GSH/GSSG) was determined. The concentration of blood hexanoyl-lysine was also measured as an index of circulating lipid peroxide. Ligature-induced periodontitis increased plasma levels of hexanoyl-lysine. In the liver, periodontitis decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio, and the combination of periodontitis and ethanol consumption induced a significant increase in hexanoyl-lysine level compared to ethanol consumption alone. In the rat model, ligature-induced periodontitis increased plasma lipid peroxide, decreased the hepatic GSH/GSSG ratio and augmented ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver.

  13. Effect of intestinal microbiota alteration on hepatic damage in rats with acute rejection after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yirui; Chen, Huazhong; Zhu, Biao; Qin, Nan; Chen, Yunbo; Li, Zhengfeng; Deng, Min; Jiang, Haiyin; Xu, Xiangfei; Yang, Jiezuan; Ruan, Bing; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-11-01

    The previous studies all focus on the effect of probiotics and antibiotics on infection after liver transplantation. Here, we focus on the effect of gut microbiota alteration caused by probiotics and antibiotics on hepatic damage after allograft liver transplantation. Brown-Norway rats received saline, probiotics, or antibiotics via daily gavage for 3 weeks. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) was carried out after 1 week of gavage. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota, liver function and histopathology, serum and liver cytokines, and T cells in peripheral blood and Peyer's patch were evaluated. Distinct segregation of fecal bacterial diversity was observed in the probiotic group and antibiotic group when compared with the allograft group. As for diversity of intestinal mucosal microbiota and pathology of intestine at 2 weeks after OLT, antibiotics and probiotics had a significant effect on ileum and colon. The population of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the probiotic group was significantly greater than the antibiotic group and the allograft group. The liver injury was significantly reduced in the antibiotic group and the probiotic group compared with the allograft group. The CD4/CD8 and Treg cells in Peyer's patch were decreased in the antibiotic group. The intestinal Treg cell and serum and liver TGF-β were increased markedly while CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly decreased in the probiotic group. It suggested that probiotics mediate their beneficial effects through increase of Treg cells and TGF-β and deduction of CD4/CD8 in rats with acute rejection (AR) after OLT.

  14. Experimental Protoporphyria: Effect of Bile Acids on Liver Damage Induced by Griseofulvin

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, María del Carmen; Ruspini, Silvina Fernanda; Afonso, Susana Graciela; Meiss, Roberto; Buzaleh, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris) was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA), dehydrocholic (DHA), chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO). The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris. PMID:25945334

  15. Experimental protoporphyria: effect of bile acids on liver damage induced by griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Martinez, María Del Carmen; Ruspini, Silvina Fernanda; Afonso, Susana Graciela; Meiss, Roberto; Buzaleh, Ana Maria; Batlle, Alcira

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris) was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA), dehydrocholic (DHA), chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO). The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris.

  16. [Liver damage associated with the combination drug amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Augmentin)].

    PubMed

    de Haan, F; Stricker, B H

    1997-06-28

    To describe the case histories of patients with liver damage associated with the antibacterial combination amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Descriptive. University Institute for General Practice, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. All reports (n = 40) of hepatic injury, attributed to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (causal relationship 'possible', 'probable' or 'certain') and received by the Drug Safety Unit of the Inspectorate for Health Care since the registration of the combination (1982) until August 1996 were described and evaluated. The reports concerned 28 men and 12 women with an average age of 61 years who had used the drug mostly for a respiratory tract infection. The latency period between first in-take and onset of the reaction was 3 weeks on average. The mean duration of hepatic injury was approximately 6 weeks. The liver injury resolved fully. Five patients had had the reaction on more than one occasion. The main symptoms were jaundice, nausea, pruritus and abdominal pain. The pattern of hepatic injury was mostly cholestatic or mixed hepatocellular-cholestatic. Since liver damage to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid appears to be infrequent, this adverse effect is probably not caused by amoxicillin alone. The risk of liver damage to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is highest in elderly patients treated with the combination on several occasions. Doctors should restrict the use of this combination to the treatment of infections with amoxicillin-resistant bacteria.

  17. [Alcohol and the liver: ethanol metabolism and the pathomechanism of alcoholic liver damage].

    PubMed

    Seitz, H K; Csomós, G

    1992-12-13

    Ethanol is oxidized in the liver by three different enzyme systems, namely by alcohol dehidrogenase (ADH), the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and catalase. Alcohol also undergoes a first pass metabolism in the gastric mucosa due to alcohol dehydrogenase. This first pass metabolism of ethanol is decreased in the alcoholic, in the fasted state, in the elderly and during cimetidine therapy leading to elevated alcohol blood-concentrations. Ethanol toxicity is closely related to its metabolism in the liver. Ethanol oxidation by ADH generates reducing equivalents (NADH) and acetaldehyde (AA). The elevated NADH/NAD ratio results in alterations of the intermediary metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, purines, hormones and porphyrins. Furthermore, NADH flavours free radical production. The ethanol-associated redox changes are pronounced in the perivenular zone, since this is the area of low oxygen tension and of high ADH activity. In addition to NADH, AA exerts striking toxic effects on the hepatocyte. AA binds to cellular proteins and membranes including the mitochondria, microtubules, glutathion and various enzymes. In addition, AA and lactate stimulate collagen production in fibroblasts. AA-adducts stimulate the production of antibodies against AA-epitopes and could thus aggravate the liver injury. Chronic ethanol consumption results also in the microsomal induction of a specific ethanol-inducible form of cytochrome P--450, the cytochrome P--450IIE1 with high affinity not only to ethanol but also to some drugs (acetaminophen), procarcinogens (nitrosamines) and industrial agents (carbon tetrachloride). The interaction between ethanol metabolism and the metabolism of these compounds including vitamin A may also contribute to hepatic toxicity, since the susceptibility of the alcoholic toward those compounds is enhanced.

  18. The Inhibition of Neutrophil Elastase Ameliorates Mouse Liver Damage Due to Ischemia and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Yoichiro; Freitas, Maria Cecilia S.; Zhao, Danyun; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils are considered crucial effector cells in the pathophysiology of organ ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Although neutrophil elastase (NE) accounts for a substantial portion of the neutrophil activity, the function of NE in liver IRI remains unclear. This study focuses on the role of NE in the mechanism of liver IRI. Partial warm ischemia was produced in the left and middle hepatic lobes of C57BL/6 mice for 90 min, followed by 6-24 h of reperfusion. Mice were treated with NE inhibitor (NEI; 2 mg/kg p.o.) at 60 min prior to the ischemia insult. NEI treatment significantly reduced serum ALT levels, as compared with controls. Histological examination of liver sections has revealed that unlike in controls, NEI treatment ameliorated hepatocellular damage and decreased local neutrophil infiltration, as assessed by MPO assay, naphtol AS-D chloroacetate esterase stains and immunohistochemistry (anti-Ly-6G). The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-6), and chemokines (CXCL-1, CXCL-2, CXCL-10) was significantly reduced in the NEI treatment group, along with diminished apoptosis by TUNEL staining and caspase-3 activity. In addition, TLR4 expression was diminished in NEI pretreated livers, which implies putative role of NE in the TLR4 signal transduction pathway. Thus, targeting NE represents a useful approach to prevent liver IRI, and hence to expand the organ donor pool and improve the overall success of liver transplantation. PMID:19642132

  19. Enhanced protective activity of nano formulated andrographolide against arsenic induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujata; Pradhan, Goutam Kumar; Das, Subhadip; Nath, Debjani; Das Saha, Krishna

    2015-12-05

    Chronic exposure to arsenic over a period of time induces toxicity, primarily in liver but gradually in all systems of the body. Andrographolide (AG), a major diterpene lactone of Andrographis paniculata, shows a wide array of physiological functions including hepatoprotection. Therapeutic applications of AG are however seriously constrained because of its insolubility, poor bioavailability, and short plasma half-life. Nanoparticulation of AG is a possible solution to these problems. In the present study we investigated the effectiveness of polylactide co-glycolide (PLGA) nanocapsulated andrographolide (NA) against arsenic induced liver damage in mice. NA of average diameter 65.8 nm and encapsulation efficiency of 64% were prepared. Sodium arsenite at a dose of 40 mg/L supplied via drinking water in mice significantly raised the serum level of liver function markers such as AST, ALT, and ALP, and caused arsenic deposition in liver and ROS generation, though it did not show any lethality up to 30 days of exposure. However, even liver toxicity was not observed when mice were given AG and NA orally at doses up to 100 mg/kg bwt and 20 mg/kg bwt respectively on alternate days for one month. Treatment of non-toxic doses of AG or NA on alternate days along with arsenic significantly decreased the arsenic induced elevation of the serum level of ALT, AST and ALP, and arsenic deposition in liver. AG and NA increased the level of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Also, the ROS level was lowered in mice exposed to arsenic but treated with AG or NA. Protective efficiency of NA is about five times more than that of AG. Administration of NA to arsenic-treated mice caused signs of improvement in liver tissue architecture. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that NA could be beneficial against arsenic-induced liver toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  20. Essential amino acid supplementation decreases liver damage induced by chronic ethanol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, Giovanni; Stacchiotti, A; Tedesco, L; D'Antona, G; Pasini, E; Dioguardi, F S; Nisoli, E; Rezzani, R

    2011-01-01

    The liver sustains the greatest damage from ethanol (EtOH) abuse. EtOH and its metabolites impair hepatocyte metabolism, causing intracellular accumulation of proteins and lipids and increasing radical oxygen species production. These processes are toxic to the mitochondrial respiratory chain and to mitochondrial DNA. We have recently shown that supplementating the diet of rodents with an essential amino acid-enriched mixture (EAAem) significantly increases mitochondrial mass and number in cardiac and skeletal muscles and improves mitochondrial function in aged animals. Thus, in this study we sought to test whether EAAem supplementation could reduce EtOH-induced liver damage. Groups of adult male Wistar rats were fed a standard diet and water ad libitum (the control group), drinking water with 20 percent EtOH (the EtOH group), or drinking water with 20 percent EtOH and EAAem supplementation (1.5 g/kg/day) (the EtOH+EAAem group) for 2 months. The blood EtOH concentration was measured, and markers for fat (Oil-Red-O), mitochondria (Grp75, Cyt-c-ox), endoplasmic reticulum (Grp78), and inflammation (Heme Oxigenase 1, iNOS, and peroxisomes) were analyzed in the liver of animals in the various experimental groups. EAAem supplementation in EtOH-drinking rats ameliorated EtOH-induced changes in liver structure by limiting steatosis, recruiting more mitochondria and peroxisomes mainly to perivenous hepatocytes, stimulating or restoring antioxidant markers, limiting the expression of inflammatory processes, and reducing ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that EAAem supplementation may represent a promising strategy to prevent and treat EtOH-induced liver damage.

  1. Effective protection of Terminalia catappa L. leaves from damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinhui; Gao, Jing; Wang, Yanping; Fan, Yi-Mei; Xu, Li-Zhi; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Qiang; Qian, Zhong Ming

    2006-03-01

    The protective effects of chloroform extracts of Terminalia catappa L. leaves (TCCE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage and the possible mechanisms involved in the protection were investigated in mice. We found that increases in the activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and the level of liver lipid peroxidation (2.0-fold, 5.7-fold and 2.8-fold) induced by CCl4 were significantly inhibited by oral pretreatment with 20, 50 or 100 mg/kg of TCCE. Morphological observation further confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of TCCE. In addition, the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (14.8%), intramitochondrial Ca2+ overload (2.1-fold) and suppression of mitochondrial Ca2+-ATPase activity (42.0%) in the liver of CCl4-insulted mice were effectively prevented by pretreatment with TCCE. It can be concluded that TCCE have protective activities against liver mitochondrial damage induced by CCl4, which suggests a new mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of TCCE.

  2. Integrated metabolic spatial-temporal model for the prediction of ammonia detoxification during liver damage and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schliess, Freimut; Hoehme, Stefan; Henkel, Sebastian G; Ghallab, Ahmed; Driesch, Dominik; Böttger, Jan; Guthke, Reinhard; Pfaff, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Gebhardt, Rolf; Häussinger, Dieter; Drasdo, Dirk; Zellmer, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    The impairment of hepatic metabolism due to liver injury has high systemic relevance. However, it is difficult to calculate the impairment of metabolic capacity from a specific pattern of liver damage with conventional techniques. We established an integrated metabolic spatial-temporal model (IM) using hepatic ammonia detoxification as a paradigm. First, a metabolic model (MM) based on mass balancing and mouse liver perfusion data was established to describe ammonia detoxification and its zonation. Next, the MM was combined with a spatial-temporal model simulating liver tissue damage and regeneration after CCl4 intoxication. The resulting IM simulated and visualized whether, where, and to what extent liver damage compromised ammonia detoxification. It allowed us to enter the extent and spatial patterns of liver damage and then calculate the outflow concentrations of ammonia, glutamine, and urea in the hepatic vein. The model was validated through comparisons with (1) published data for isolated, perfused livers with and without CCl4 intoxication and (2) a set of in vivo experiments. Using the experimentally determined portal concentrations of ammonia, the model adequately predicted metabolite concentrations over time in the hepatic vein during toxin-induced liver damage and regeneration in rodents. Further simulations, especially in combination with a simplified model of blood circulation with three ammonia-detoxifying compartments, indicated a yet unidentified process of ammonia consumption during liver regeneration and revealed unexpected concomitant changes in amino acid metabolism in the liver and at extrahepatic sites. The IM of hepatic ammonia detoxification considerably improves our understanding of the metabolic impact of liver disease and highlights the importance of integrated modeling approaches on the way toward virtual organisms. © 2014 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Agmatine protects rat liver from nicotine-induced hepatic damage via antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and antifibrotic pathways.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbeeny, Nagla A; Nader, Manar A; Attia, Ghalia M; Ateyya, Hayam

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco smoking with its various forms is a global problem with proved hazardous effects to human health. The present work was planned to study the defending role of agmatine (AGM) on hepatic oxidative stress and damage induced by nicotine in rats. Thirty-two rats divided into four groups were employed: control group, nicotine-only group, AGM group, and AGM-nicotine group. Measurements of serum hepatic biochemical markers, lipid profile, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were done. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activity, and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels were estimated in the liver homogenates. Immunohistochemistry for Bax and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) and histopathology of the liver were also included. Data of the study demonstrated that nicotine administration exhibited marked liver deterioration, an increase in liver enzymes, changes in lipid profile, and an elevation in MDA with a decline in levels of SOD, GSH, and NOx (nitrate/nitrite). Also, levels of proapoptotic Bax and profibrotic TGF-β1 showed marked elevation in the liver. AGM treatment to rats in nicotine-only group ameliorated all the previous changes. These findings indicate that AGM could successfully overcome the nicotine-evoked hepatic oxidative stress and tissue injury, apoptosis, and fibrosis.

  4. [Effects of dust storm fine particles instillation on oxidative damage in hearts, livers, lungs of rats].

    PubMed

    Meng, Zi-qiang; Zhang, Quan-xi

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the effects of dust storm PM2.5 on oxidative damage in three organs of rats were investigated. After Wistar rats were intratracheally instilled 24h, the activities of SOD, the levels of GSH and LPO in lungs, hearts and livers of rats were measured. (1) Dust storm and normal weather PM2. instillation caused decrease of SOD activities in livers and lungs, but SOD activities in hearts were statistically insignificant. (2) Dust storm and normal weather PM2.5 instillation caused decrease of contents of GSH in lungs, whereas PM2.5, instillation at low concentration caused an increase and at higher PM2.5 instillation caused a significant decrease in livers. And contents of GSH in hearts were statistically insignificant. (3) Dust storm and normal weather PM2.5, instillation caused decrease of levels of LPO in lungs, hearts and livers. (4) Though the effects made by normal weather PM2.5 heavier than dust storm PM2.5 on each examined index, no significant difference was found. However, the dust storm PM2.5 whose airborne concentrations were much higher than that of normal weather PM2.5, so the dust storm PM2.5 should be more harmful. Dust storm and normal weather PM2.5 instillation could lead to oxidative damage of different degrees in lungs,hearts and livers of rats. However, the dust storm PM2.5 whose airborne concentrations were much higher should be more harmful.

  5. Protective role of HO-1 for alcohol-dependent liver damage.

    PubMed

    Nussler, A K; Hao, L; Knobeloch, D; Yao, P; Nussler, N C; Wang, Z; Liu, L; Ehnert, S

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is continuously increasing in developed countries being a leading cause of death worldwide. Chronic ethanol consumption induces oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) while reducing the cellular antioxidant defense. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) may protect primary human hepatocytes (hHeps) from such damage. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of polyphenols to protect hHeps from ethanol-dependent oxidative damage. hHeps were isolated by collagenase perfusion. ROI and cellular glutathione (GSH) were measured by fluorescent-based assays. Cellular damage was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and staining for apoptosis and necrosis. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and HO-1 expression were analyzed by Western blot. Ethanol and TGF-β rapidly increase ROI and reduce GSH in hHeps, causing apoptosis with a release of approximately 40% total LDH after 72 h. Similar to incubation with hemin preincubation and co-incubation of cells with nifedipine, verapamil and quercetin significantly reduce oxidative stress and resulting cellular damage, in a dose-dependent manner, by initiating nuclear translocation of Nrf2 which in turn induces HO-1 under the control of p38 and ERK. Blocking of HO-1 activity with ZNPP9 reverses the protective effect of all three substances. Our results suggest that increasing HO-1 activity in hHeps protects them from oxidative stress-dependent damage. As polyphenols have great potential to induce HO-1 expression, they may play an important role for future therapeutic strategies to protect liver from oxidative stress-dependent damage observed during chronic alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Beneficial effect of honokiol on lipopolysaccharide induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Kumar, Parveen; Gurjar, Satendra S; Barua, Chandana C; Hazarika, Naba K

    2015-02-26

    Anxiety disorders are commonly occurring co-morbid neuropsychiatric disorders with chronic inflammatory conditions such as live damage. Numerous studies revealed that peripheral inflammation, oxidative stress and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play important roles in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Honokiol (HNK) is a polyphenol, possessing multiple biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant and hepatoprotection. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of HNK, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage in mice. Mice (n=6-10/group) were pre-treated with different doses of HNK (2.5 and 5mg/kg; i.p.) for two days, and challenged with saline or LPS (0.83mg/kg; i.p.) on third day. Anxiety-like behavior was monitored using elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT). Animals were sacrificed to evaluate various biochemical parameters in plasma and liver. HNK pre-treatment provided significant (P<0.01) protection against LPS-induced reduction in body weight, food and water intake in mice. HNK at higher dose significantly (P<0.05) attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behavior by increasing the number of entries and time spent in open arm in EPM test, and by increasing the frequency in central zone in OFT. HNK pre-treatment ameliorated LPS-induced peripheral inflammation by reducing plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α level, and also improved the plasma BDNF level, prevented liver damage via attenuating transaminases (AST, ALT), liver oxidative stress and TNF-α activity in LPS challenged mice. In conclusion, the current investigation suggests that HNK provided beneficial effect against LPS-induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage which may be governed by inhibition of cytokines production, oxidative stress and depletion of plasma BDNF level. Our result suggests that HNK could be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of anxiety and other

  7. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa on carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Lin, S C; Chung, T C; Lin, C C; Ueng, T H; Lin, Y H; Lin, S Y; Wang, L Y

    2000-01-01

    The root of Arctium lappa Linne (A. lappa) (Compositae), a perennial herb, has been cultivated for a long time as a popular vegetable. In order to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of A. lappa, male ICR mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 32 microl/kg, i.p.) or acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, i.p.). A. lappa suppressed the SGOT and SGPT elevations induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen in a dose-dependent manner and alleviated the severity of liver damage based on histopathological observations. In an attempt to elucidate the possible mechanism(s) of this hepatoprotective effect, glutathione (GSH), cytochrome P-450 (P-450) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were studied. A. lappa reversed the decrease in GSH and P-450 induced by CCl4 and acetaminophen. It was also found that A. lappa decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in CCl4 or acetaminophen-intoxicated mice. From these results, it was suggested that A. lappa could protect the liver cells from CCl4 or acetaminophen-induced liver damages, perhaps by its antioxidative effect on hepatocytes, hence eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from CCl4 or acetaminophen.

  8. Protective effect of curcumin against heavy metals-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2014-07-01

    Occupational or environmental exposures to heavy metals produce several adverse health effects. The common mechanism determining their toxicity and carcinogenicity is the generation of oxidative stress that leads to hepatic damage. In addition, oxidative stress induced by metal exposure leads to the activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1/antioxidant response elements (Nrf2/Keap1/ARE) pathway. Since antioxidant and chelating agents are generally used for the treatment of heavy metals poisoning, this review is focused on the protective role of curcumin against liver injury induced by heavy metals. Curcumin has shown, in clinical and preclinical studies, numerous biological activities including therapeutic efficacy against various human diseases and anti-hepatotoxic effects against environmental or occupational toxins. Curcumin reduces the hepatotoxicity induced by arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and mercury, prevents histological injury, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) depletion, maintains the liver antioxidant enzyme status and protects against mitochondrial dysfunction. The preventive effect of curcumin on the noxious effects induced by heavy metals has been attributed to its scavenging and chelating properties, and/or to the ability to induce the Nrf2/Keap1/ARE pathway. However, additional research is needed in order to propose curcumin as a potential protective agent against liver damage induced by heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Murine liver damage caused by exposure to nano-titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Due to its unique physiochemical properties, nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) is widely used in all aspects of people’s daily lives, bringing it into increasing contact with humans. Thus, this material’s security issues for humans have become a heavily researched subject. Nano-TiO2 can enter the body through the mouth, skin, respiratory tract or in other ways, after which it enters the blood circulation and is deposited in the liver, changing biochemical indicators and causing liver inflammation. Meanwhile, the light sensitivity of these nanoparticles allows them to become media-generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing an imbalance between oxidation and anti-oxidation that leads to oxidative stress and liver damage. Nano-TiO2 can be transported into cells via phagocytosis, where the nanoparticles bind to the mitochondrial membrane, resulting in the disintegration of the membrane and the electron transport chain within the mitochondria. Thus, more ROS are produced. Nano-TiO2 can also enter the nucleus, where it can directly embed into or indirectly affect DNA, thereby causing DNA breakage or affecting gene expression. These effects include increased mRNA and protein expression levels of inflammation-related factors and decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of IκB and IL-2, resulting in inflammation. Long-term inflammation of the liver causes HSC cell activation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition is promoted by multiple signalling pathways, resulting in liver fibrosis. In this paper, the latest progress on murine liver injury induced by environmental TiO2 is systematically described. The toxicity of nano-TiO2 also depends on size, exposure time, surface properties, dosage, administration route, and its surface modification. Therefore, its toxic effects in humans should be studied in greater depth. This paper also provides useful reference information regarding the safe use of nano-TiO2 in the future.

  10. Hepatocurative potential of Vitex doniana root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bolanle, James Dorcas; Adetoro, Kadejo Olubukola; Balarabe, Sallau Abdullahi; Adeyemi, Owolabi Olumuyiwa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hepatocurative effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves of Vitex doniana in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage albino rats. Methods A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weight) as a 1:1(v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weight per day) for 21 d, while the animals in the non induced groups were only treated with the daily oral administration of these extracts at the same dose. The administration of CCl4 was done once a week for a period of 3 weeks. Results There was significant (P<0.05) increase in concentration of all liver marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline aminotransferase (ALT, AST and ALP) and significant (P<0.05) decrease in albumin in the CCl4 induced liver damage control when compared to the normal control. The extracts caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the serum activities of liver marker enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) and a significant (P<0.05) increase in albumin of all the induced treated groups. Only stem bark extract and vitamin E significantly (P<0.05) increased total protein. All the extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum creatinine whereas only root bark extract significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum level of urea in the rats with CCl4 induced liver damage. Conclusion Hepatocurative study shows that all the plant parts (root bark, stem bark and leaves) possess significant hepatocurative properties among other therapeutic values justifying their use in folklore medicine. PMID:25182950

  11. The Effect of Calcium Dobesilate on Liver Damage in Experimental Obstructive Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Unal, Yilmaz; Tuncal, Salih; Kosmaz, Koray; Kucuk, Berkay; Kismet, Kemal; Cavusoglu, Turgut; Celepli, Pinar; Senes, Mehmet; Yildiz, Selin; Hucumenoglu, Sema

    2018-03-28

    Purpose/Aim of the study: Inflammation and oxidative stress are two significant factors affecting the degree of liver damage in obstructive jaundice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium dobesilate (CaDob), an effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug, on damage to liver caused by experimental obstructive jaundice. 30 rats in total were randomly placed into three groups, each group consisting of 10 rats. The sham group (Group 1) only received solely laparotomy. In the control group (Group 2), ligation was applied to the biliary tract and no treatment was implemented. In the CaDob group (Group 3), following ligation of the biliary tract, 100 mg/kg/day CaDob was implemented via an orogastric tube for a 10-day period. Liver tissue and blood samples were taken for histopathological and biochemical examination. The CaDob group had significantly lower test values for serum liver functions when compared to the control group. Statistically lower levels of tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and fluorescent oxidation products (FOP) were detected in the CaDob group, and the CaDob group had significantly higher levels of sulfydryl (SH) than the control group. Histopathological scores in the CaDob group were found out to be statistically less than the scores the control group received (p < 0.05). CaDob treatment repaired the histpatological changes induced by bile duct ligation. The hepatoprotective effects of CaDob can be associated with its antioxidant properties of the drug.

  12. The Effect of Montelukast on Liver Damage in an Experimental Obstructive Jaundice Model

    PubMed Central

    Kuru, Serdar; Kismet, Kemal; Barlas, Aziz M.; Tuncal, Salih; Celepli, Pinar; Surer, Hatice; Ogus, Elmas; Ertas, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Background Montelukast is a cysteinyl-leukotriene type 1 (CysLT1) selective receptor antagonist. In recent years, investigations have shown that montelukast possesses secondary anti-inflammatory activities and also antioxidant effects. For this reason, we aimed to determine the possible effects of montelukast on liver damage in experimental obstructive jaundice. Methods 30 Wistar-Albino male rats were randomized and divided into three groups of 10 animals each: group I, sham-operated; group II, ligation and division of the common bile duct (BDL) followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml of saline; group III, BDL followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg montelukast dissolved in saline. The animals were killed on postoperative day 7 by high-dose diethyl ether inhalation. Blood and liver samples were taken for examination. Results In this study, liver malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.001), myeloperoxidase (p = 0.003), and total sulfhydryl (SH) (p = 0.009) were found to be significantly different between the BDL + montelukast and the BDL groups. Plasma total SH (p = 0.002) and MDA (p = 0.027) values were also statistically different between these groups. Statistical analyses of histological activity index scores showed that the histopathological damage in the BDL + montelukast group was significantly less than the damage in the control group (p < 0.05 for all pathological parameters). Conclusion According to the results of this study, montelukast showed a significant hepatoprotective effect in this experimental obstructive jaundice model, which might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26989383

  13. Evaluation of liver tissue damage and grasp stability using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Hannaford, Blake

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing tissue damage and maintaining grasp stability are essential considerations in surgical grasper design. Most past and current research analyzing graspers used for tissue manipulation in minimally invasive surgery is based on in vitro experiments. Most previous work assessed tissue injury and grasp security by visual inspection; only a few studies have quantified it. The goal of the present work is to develop a methodology with which to compute tissue damage magnitude and grasp quality that is appropriate for a wide range of grasper-tissue interaction. Using finite element analysis (FEA), four graspers with varying radii of curvature and four graspers with different tooth sizes were analyzed while squeezing and pulling liver tissue. All graspers were treated as surgical steel with linear elastic material properties. Nonlinear material properties of tissue used in the FEA as well as damage evaluation were derived from previously reported in vivo experiments. Computed peak stress, integrated stress, and tissue damage were compared. Applied displacement is vertical and then horizontal to the tissue surface to represent grasp and retraction. A close examination of the contact status of each node within the grasper-tissue interaction surface was carried out to investigate grasp stability. The results indicate less tissue damage with increasing radius of curvature. A smooth wave pattern reduced tissue damage at the cost of inducing higher percentage of slipping area. This methodology may be useful for researchers to develop and test various designs of graspers. Also it could improve surgical simulator performance by reflecting more realistic tissue material properties and predicting tissue damage for the student.

  14. The association of liver enzymes with biomarkers of subclinical myocardial damage and structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Mariana; Rubin, Jonathan; Clark, Jeanne M; Coresh, Josef; Schneider, Andrea L C; Ndumele, Chiadi; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Ballantyne, Christie M; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are thought to be at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the relationships between NAFLD and subclinical myocardial injury or structural heart disease are unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 8668 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, who showed no clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease. We used levels of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT]), in the context of no history of elevated alcohol consumption as non-invasive surrogates of NAFLD. We used highly sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-Brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as biomarkers of myocardial damage and function. In this population-based study (mean age 63 years, 60% women, 78% white), higher levels of ALT, AST, and GGT, even within the normal range, were significantly and independently associated with detectable (hs-cTnT >3 ng/L) and elevated (hs-cTnT ⩾14 ng/L) concentrations of hs-cTnT. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for elevated liver enzymes (vs. normal levels) with elevated hs-cTnT were: 1.65 (1.28-2.14) for ALT, 1.90 (1.36-2.68) for AST, and 1.55 (1.13-2.12) for GGT. Furthermore, there was evidence for inverse associations of ALT and AST with NT-proBNP. Our results suggest that elevated liver enzyme levels in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption may be associated with subclinical myocardial injury. The inverse association between NT-proBNP and both ALT and AST supports the recently described metabolic role of natriuretic peptides. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preventative Effect of Vitamin E on Mast Cells in Carbon Tetrachlorideinduced Acute Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    Eralp, Ayhan; Menguc, Nur Yumusak; Polat, Elif; Yuncu, Mehmet; Koruk, Mehmet; Demir, Serap Sergul Inaloz; Sari, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Preventing liver damage that might lead to cirrhosis is very important in the early stages of injury to that organ. The role of mast cells (MCs) in liver injuries has been long debated, and vitamin E is a well-known antioxidant used to treat those injuries. This study aimed to determine the protective role of vitamin E on MCs in injury to the liver that is triggered by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). There is a correlation between MC deposits and improvement in fibrosis tissues. To further examine this, 68 male Albino Wistar rats were divided randomly into five groups: the control group, the vitamin E group, the CCl4 group, the CCl4 + vitamin E group, and the vitamin E + CCl4 group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) analysis, MC counts, histopathological investigation, and statistical analyses were used to evaluate the findings. The administration of CCl4 resulted in an increase in the accumulation of MCs, degenerative parenchyma cells, MDA level, steatosis and inflammation. Additionally, proliferation of the bile ducts in the portal area and porto-portal and porto-central fibrosis were observed in the CCl4 group. In contrast, in the vitamin E group and in the groups administered a combination of vitamin E and CCl4, vitamin E prevented these increases. It was concluded that the significant decrease in the MC counts, in the level of MDA and the number of degenerative cells, as well as a decrease in the steatosis and inflammation scores showed that vitamin E could prevent liver injuries by protecting the organ's histological architecture. Finally, the results indicate that vitamin E has positive effects on liver injuries. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Trans-Splenic Portal Vein Embolization: A Technique to Avoid Damage to the Future Liver Remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Sarwar, Ammar, E-mail: asarwar@bidmc.harvard.edu; Brook, Olga R.; Weinstein, Jeffrey L.

    2016-10-15

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) induces hypertrophy of the future liver remnant (FLR) in patients undergoing extensive hepatic resection. Portal vein access for PVE via the ipsilateral hepatic lobe (designated for resection) places veins targeted for embolization at acute angles to the access site requiring reverse curve catheters for access. This approach also involves access close to tumors in the ipsilateral lobe and requires care to avoid traversing tumor. Alternatively, a contralateral approach (through the FLR) risks damage to the FLR due to iatrogenic trauma or non-target embolization. Two patients successfully underwent PVE via trans-splenic portal vein access, allowing easy accessmore » to the ipsilateral portal veins and eliminating risk of damage to FLR. Technique and advantages of trans-splenic portal vein access to perform PVE are described.« less

  17. Caspase-3/7-mediated Cleavage of β2-spectrin is Required for Acetaminophen-induced Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hye Jung; Lee, Yong Min; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Eun Jung; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Mishra, Lopa; Kim, Sang Soo

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed β2-spectrin (β2SP, SPTBN1) is the most common non-erythrocytic member of the β-spectrin gene family. Loss of β2-spectrin leads to defects in liver development, and its haploinsufficiency spontaneously leads to chronic liver disease and the eventual development of hepatocellular cancer. However, the specific role of β2-spectrin in liver homeostasis remains to be elucidated. Here, we reported that β2-spectrin was cleaved by caspase-3/7 upon treatment with acetaminophen which is the main cause of acute liver injury. Blockage of β2-spectrin cleavage robustly attenuated β2-spectrin-specific functions, including regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and transcription. Cleaved fragments of β2-spectrin were physiologically active, and the N- and C-terminal fragments retained discrete interaction partners and activity in transcriptional regulation and apoptosis, respectively. Cleavage of β2-spectrin facilitated the redistribution of the resulting fragments under conditions of liver damage induced by acetaminophen. In contrast, downregulation of β2-spectrin led to resistance to acetaminophen-induced cytotoxicity, and its insufficiency in the liver promoted suppression of acetaminophen-induced liver damage and enhancement of liver regeneration. β2-Spectrin, a TGF-β mediator and signaling molecule, is cleaved and activated by caspase-3/7, consequently enhancing apoptosis and transcriptional control to determine cell fate upon liver damage. These findings have extended our knowledge on the spectrum of β2-spectrin functions from a scaffolding protein to a target and transmitter of TGF-β in liver damage.

  18. Caspase-3/7-mediated Cleavage of β2-spectrin is Required for Acetaminophen-induced Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Hye Jung; Lee, Yong Min; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Eun Jung; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Mishra, Lopa; Kim, Sang Soo

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed β2-spectrin (β2SP, SPTBN1) is the most common non-erythrocytic member of the β-spectrin gene family. Loss of β2-spectrin leads to defects in liver development, and its haploinsufficiency spontaneously leads to chronic liver disease and the eventual development of hepatocellular cancer. However, the specific role of β2-spectrin in liver homeostasis remains to be elucidated. Here, we reported that β2-spectrin was cleaved by caspase-3/7 upon treatment with acetaminophen which is the main cause of acute liver injury. Blockage of β2-spectrin cleavage robustly attenuated β2-spectrin-specific functions, including regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and transcription. Cleaved fragments of β2-spectrin were physiologically active, and the N- and C-terminal fragments retained discrete interaction partners and activity in transcriptional regulation and apoptosis, respectively. Cleavage of β2-spectrin facilitated the redistribution of the resulting fragments under conditions of liver damage induced by acetaminophen. In contrast, downregulation of β2-spectrin led to resistance to acetaminophen-induced cytotoxicity, and its insufficiency in the liver promoted suppression of acetaminophen-induced liver damage and enhancement of liver regeneration. Conclusions: β2-Spectrin, a TGF-β mediator and signaling molecule, is cleaved and activated by caspase-3/7, consequently enhancing apoptosis and transcriptional control to determine cell fate upon liver damage. These findings have extended our knowledge on the spectrum of β2-spectrin functions from a scaffolding protein to a target and transmitter of TGF-β in liver damage. PMID:26884715

  19. Derangements of liver tissue bioenergetics in Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A novel in vitro system was employed to investigate liver tissue respiration (mitochondrial O2 consumption) in mice treated with concanavalin A (Con A). This study aimed to investigate hepatocyte bioenergetics in this well-studied hepatitis model. Methods C57Bl/6 and C57Bl/6 IFN-γ−/− mice were injected intravenously with 12 mg ConA/kg. Liver specimens were collected at various timepoints after injection and analyzed for cellular respiration and caspase activation. Serum was analyzed for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and aminotransferases. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis was used to determine the phenotype of infiltrating cells, and light and electron microscopy were used to monitor morphological changes. Phosphorescence analyzer that measured dissolved O2 as function of time was used to evaluate respiration. Results In sealed vials, O2 concentrations in solutions containing liver specimen and glucose declined linearly with time, confirming zero-order kinetics of hepatocyte respiration. O2 consumption was inhibited by cyanide, confirming the oxidation occurred in the respiratory chain. Enhanced liver respiration (by ≈68%, p<0.02) was noted 3 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with limited cellular infiltrations around the blood vessels. Diminished respiration (by ≈30%, p=0.005) was noted 12 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with deranged mitochondria, areas of necrosis, and prominent infiltrations with immune cells, most significantly, CD3+NKT+ cells. Increases in intracellular caspase activity and serum IFN-γ and aminotransferase levels were noted 3 hr after ConA treatment and progressed with time. The above-noted changes were less pronounced in C57Bl/6 IFN-γ−/− mice treated with ConA. Conclusions Based on these results, liver tissue bioenergetics is increased 3 hr after ConA exposure. This effect is driven by the pathogenesis of the disease, in which IFN-γ and other cytokines contribute to

  20. Oxidative damage of dust storm fine particles instillation on lungs, hearts and livers of rats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ziqiang; Zhang, Quanxi

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dust storm fine particles (PM(2.5)) on oxidative damage in lungs, hearts and livers of rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into treated groups using PM(2.5) at different concentration (1.5, 7.5, 37.5mg/kg) and control groups using saline. After a single intratracheal instillation 24h, rats were sacrificed and activities of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), levels of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were investigated in these three organs of rats. Results show that dust storm PM(2.5) and normal weather PM(2.5) from both Baotou city and Wuwei city caused a dose-dependent decrease of SOD activities and GSH contents in lungs and livers, and a dose-dependent increase of TBARS levels in lungs, hearts and livers of rats as compared to their respective controls. Though the effects induced by normal weather PM(2.5) slightly heavier than dust storm PM(2.5) in both Baotou city and Wuwei city on each examined index, no significant difference was found. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the effects induced by dust storm PM(2.5) from Baotou city and that from Wuwei city, or between the effects induced by normal weather PM(2.5) from Baotou city and that from Wuwei city. These results lead to conclusions that both dust storm PM(2.5) and normal weather PM(2.5) could lead to oxidative damage of different disagrees in lungs, hearts and livers, suggesting that the dust storm PM(2.5) whose airborne mass concentrations were much higher should be more harmful. Its toxic effects might be attributed to oxidative damage mediated by pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalance or excess free radicals. Further work is required to understand the toxicological role of dust storm PM(2.5) on multiple or even all organs in mammals.

  1. Protective effect of Urtica dioica on liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Ibis, Cem

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Urtica dioica (UD) against liver damage in the common bile duct-ligated rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, bile duct ligation (BDL) and BDL + received UD groups, containing eight animals in each group. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg) once a day intraperitoneally for 2 weeks starting 3 days prior to BDL operation. The change demonstrating the bile duct proliferation and fibrosis in expanded portal tracts includes the extension of proliferated bile ducts into the lobules; inflammatory cell infiltration into the widened portal areas were observed in BDL group. Treatment of BDL with UD attenuated alterations in liver histology. The α-smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin-positive ductular proliferation and the activity of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling in the BDL were observed to be reduced with the UD treatment. The data indicate that UD attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation and fibrosis.

  2. Protective Effects of Pinus halepensis L. Essential Oil on Aspirin-induced Acute Liver and Kidney Damage in Female Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Samout, Noura; Amani, Etaya; Mbarki, Sakhria; Tlili, Zied; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants are sources of natural antioxidants thanks to their secondary metabolites. Administration of Pinus halepensis L. (Pinaceae family) in previous studies was found to alleviate deleterious effects of aspirin-induced damage on liver and kidney. The present study, carried out on female rats, evaluates the effects of P. halepensis L. essential oil (EOP) on aspirin (A)-induced damage to liver and kidney. The animals used in this study were rats (n=28) divided into 4 groups of 7 each: (1) a control group (C); (2) a group given NaCl for 56 days then treated with (A) (600 mg/kg) for 4 days (A); (3) a group fed with (EOP) for 56 days then (A) for 4 days; and a group fed with only (EOP) for 56 days and given NaCl for 4 days. Estimations of biochemical parameters in blood were determined using kit methods (Spinreact). Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were determined. Histopathological study was done by immersing pieces of both organs in a fixative solution followed by paraffin embeddeding and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Under our experimental conditions, Aspirin at dose 600 mg/kg body weight induced an increase of serum biochemical parameters as well as an oxidative stress in both organs. An increase occurred in TBARS by 108% and 55%, a decrease in SOD by 78% and 53%, CAT by 53% and 78%, and GPx by 78% and 51% in liver and kidney, respectively, compared to control. Administration of EOP given to rats enabled correction in these parameters. It could be concluded that the treatment with P. halepensis L. essential oil inhibited aspirin-induced liver and kidney damage.

  3. Crepidiastrum denticulatum extract protects the liver against chronic alcohol-induced damage and fat accumulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji-Hye; Kang, Kyungsu; Yun, Ji Ho; Kim, Mi Ae; Nho, Chu Won

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol is a severe hepatotoxicant that causes liver abnormalities such as steatosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinoma. Crepidiastrum denticulatum (CD) is a well-known, traditionally consumed vegetable in Korea, which was recently reported to have bioactive compounds with detoxification and antioxidant properties. In this study, we report the hepatoprotective effect of CD extract against chronic alcohol-induced liver damage in vivo. The rats that were given CD extract exhibited decreased alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities, which are liver damage markers that are typically elevated by alcohol consumption. The results were confirmed by histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Chronic alcohol consumption induced the formation of alcoholic fatty liver. However, treatment with CD extract dramatically decreased the hepatic lipid droplets. Treatment with CD extract also restored the antioxidative capacity and lipid peroxidation of the liver that had been changed by alcohol consumption. Furthermore, treatment with CD extract normalized the activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase, which had been decreased by alcohol consumption. The results indicate that CD extract has protective effects against chronic alcohol hepatotoxicity in rats by increasing the liver's antioxidant capacity, and has potential as a dietary supplement intervention for patients with alcohol-induced liver damage.

  4. Influence of alpha-lipoic acid on nicotine-induced lung and liver damage in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Ateyya, Hayam; Nader, Manar A; Attia, Ghalia M; El-Sherbeeny, Nagla A

    2017-05-01

    Nicotine mediates some of the injurious effects caused by consuming tobacco products. This work aimed at investigating the defensive role of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) with its known antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect in nicotine-induced lung and liver damage. Rats were arranged into 4 groups: control, nicotine, ALA, and ALA-nicotine groups. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status were determined by assessing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) levels in lung and liver. Liver enzymes and lipid profiles were measured and pulmonary and hepatic damage were assessed by histopathological examination. Also, serum levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were determined. The results revealed an increase in TBARS in tissues and a reduction in both SOD and GSH activity in the nicotine-treated rats. Nicotine induced high levels of liver enzymes, TGF-β1, VCAM-1, and dyslipidemia with histopathological changes in the lung and liver. ALA administration along with nicotine attenuated oxidative stress and normalized the SOD and GSH levels, ameliorated dyslipidemia, and improved TGF-β1 and VCAM-1 with better histopathology of the lung and liver. The study data revealed that ALA may be beneficial in alleviating nicotine-induced oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and both lung and liver damage.

  5. Protective Effect of Brazilian Propolis against Liver Damage with Cholestasis in Rats Treated with α-Naphthylisothiocyanate

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tadashi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Ohashi, Koji; Ikeno, Kumiko; Watanabe, Rie; Tokunaga, Kenji; Harada, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We examined the protective effect of Brazilian propolis against liver damage with cholestasis in rats treated with α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) in comparison with that of vitamin E (VE). Rats orally received Brazilian propolis ethanol extract (BPEE) (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg), VE (250 mg/kg) or vehicle at 12 h after intraperitoneal injection of ANIT (75 mg/kg) and were killed 24 h after the injection. Vehicle-treated rats showed liver cell damage and cholestasis, judging from the levels of serum marker enzymes and components. The vehicle group had increased serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, and lipid peroxide levels, increased hepatic lipid peroxide, reduced glutathione, and ascorbic acid levels and myeloperoxidase activity, and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase activity. BPEE (50 mg/kg) administered to ANIT-treated rats prevented liver cell damage and cholestasis and attenuated these serum and hepatic biochemical changes except hepatic ascorbic acid, although administered BPEE (25 or 100 mg/kg) was less effective. VE administered to ANIT-treated rats prevented liver cell damage, but not cholestasis, and attenuated increased serum lipid peroxide level, increased hepatic lipid peroxide level and myeloperoxidase activity, and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase activity. These results indicate that BPEE protects against ANIT-induced liver damage with cholestasis in rats more effectively than VE. PMID:23710219

  6. An Oxygenated and Transportable Machine Perfusion System Fully Rescues Liver Grafts Exposed to Lethal Ischemic Damage in a Pig Model of DCD Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Compagnon, Philippe; Levesque, Eric; Hentati, Hassen; Disabato, Mara; Calderaro, Julien; Feray, Cyrille; Corlu, Anne; Cohen, José Laurent; Ben Mosbah, Ismail; Azoulay, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Control of warm ischemia (WI) lesions that occur with donation after circulatory death (DCD) would significantly increase the donor pool for liver transplantation. We aimed to determine whether a novel, oxygenated and hypothermic machine perfusion device (HMP Airdrive system) improves the quality of livers derived from DCDs using a large animal model. Cardiac arrest was induced in female large white pigs by intravenous injection of potassium chloride. After 60 minutes of WI, livers were flushed in situ with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate and subsequently preserved either by simple cold storage (WI-SCS group) or HMP (WI-HMP group) using Belzer-MPS solution. Liver grafts procured from heart-beating donors and preserved by SCS served as controls. After 4 hours of preservation, all livers were transplanted. All recipients in WI-SCS group died within 6 hours after transplantation. In contrast, the HMP device fully protected the liver against lethal ischemia/reperfusion injury, allowing 100% survival rate. A postreperfusion syndrome was observed in all animals of the WI-SCS group but none of the control or WI-HMP groups. After reperfusion, HMP-preserved livers functioned better and showed less hepatocellular and endothelial cell injury, in agreement with better-preserved liver histology relative to WI-SCS group. In addition to improved energy metabolism, this protective effect was associated with an attenuation of inflammatory response, oxidative load, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis. This study demonstrates for the first time the efficacy of the HMP Airdrive system to protect liver grafts from lethal ischemic damage before transplantation in a clinically relevant DCD model.

  7. Mitigation of autophagy ameliorates hepatocellular damage following ischemia-reperfusion injury in murine steatotic liver

    PubMed Central

    Kolachala, Vasantha L.; Jiang, Rong; Abramowsky, Carlos; Shenoi, Asha; Kosters, Astrid; Pavuluri, Haritha; Anania, Frank; Kirk, Allan D.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common clinical consequence of hepatic surgery, cardiogenic shock, and liver transplantation. A steatotic liver is particularly vulnerable to IRI, responding with extensive hepatocellular injury. Autophagy, a lysosomal pathway balancing cell survival and cell death, is engaged in IRI, although its role in IRI of a steatotic liver is unclear. The role of autophagy was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice exposed to IRI in vivo and in steatotic hepatocytes exposed to hypoxic IRI (HIRI) in vitro. Two inhibitors of autophagy, 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1, protected the steatotic hepatocytes from HIRI. Exendin 4 (Ex4), a glucagon-like peptide 1 analog, also led to suppression of autophagy, as evidenced by decreased autophagy-associated proteins [microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) II, p62, high-mobility group protein B1, beclin-1, and autophagy-related protein 7], reduced hepatocellular damage, and improved mitochondrial structure and function in HFD-fed mice exposed to IRI. Decreased autophagy was further demonstrated by reversal of a punctate pattern of LC3 and decreased autophagic flux after IRI in HFD-fed mice. Under the same conditions, the effects of Ex4 were reversed by the competitive antagonist exendin 9-39. The present study suggests that, in IRI of hepatic steatosis, treatment of hepatocytes with Ex4 mitigates autophagy, ameliorates hepatocellular injury, and preserves mitochondrial integrity. These data suggest that therapies targeting autophagy, by Ex4 treatment in particular, may ameliorate the effects of IRI in highly prevalent steatotic liver. PMID:25258410

  8. Oxidative damage in gills and liver in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to diazinon.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Díaz Resendiz, K J G; Ventura-Ramón, G H; González-Jaime, F; Vega-López, A; Becerril-Villanueva, E; Pavón, L; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural activity demands the use of pesticides for plague control and extermination. In that matter, diazinon is one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Despite its benefits, the use of OPs in agricultural activities can also have negative effects since the excessive use of these substances can represent a major contamination problem for water bodies and organisms that inhabit them. The aim of this paper was to evaluate oxidative damage in lipids and proteins of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed acutely to diazinon (0.97, 1.95 and 3.95ppm) for 12 or 24h. The evaluation of oxidative damage was determined by quantifying lipid hydroperoxides (Fox method) and oxidized proteins (DNPH method). The data from this study suggest that diazinon induces a concentration-dependent oxidative damage in proteins, but not lipids, of the liver and gills of Nile tilapia. Furthermore, the treatment leads to a decrease in the concentration of total proteins, which can have serious consequences in cell physiology and fish development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Salvianolic acid A preconditioning confers protection against concanavalin A-induced liver injury through SIRT1-mediated repression of p66shc in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yan; Zhai, Xiaohan

    2013-11-15

    Salvianolic acid A (SalA) is a phenolic carboxylic acid derivative extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza. It has many biological and pharmaceutical activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SalA on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatic injury in Kunming mice and to explore the role of SIRT1 in such an effect. The results showed that in vivo pretreatment with SalA significantly reduced ConA-induced elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and decreased levels of the hepatotoxic cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, the SalA pretreatment ameliorated the increasesmore » in NF-κB and in cleaved caspase-3 caused by ConA exposure. Whereas, the pretreatment completely reversed expression of the B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL). More importantly, the SalA pretreatment significantly increased the expression of SIRT1, a NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylase, which was known to attenuate acute hypoxia damage and metabolic liver diseases. In our study, the increase in SIRT1 was closely associated with down-regulation of the p66 isoform (p66shc) of growth factor adapter Shc at both protein and mRNA levels. In HepG2 cell culture, SalA pretreatment increased SIRT1 expression in a time and dose-dependent manner and such an increase was abrogated by siRNA knockdown of SIRT1. Additionally, inhibition of SIRT1 significantly reversed the decreased expression of p66shc, and attenuated SalA-induced p66shc down-regulation. Collectively, the present study indicated that SalA may be a potent activator of SIRT and that SalA can alleviate ConA-induced hepatitis through SIRT1-mediated repression of the p66shc pathway. - Highlights: • We report for the first time that SalA protects against ConA-induced hepatitis. • We find that SalA is a potential activator of SIRT1. • SalA's protection against hepatitis involves SIRT1-mediated repression of

  10. Resveratrol mitigate structural changes and hepatic stellate cell activation in N'-nitrosodimethylamine-induced liver fibrosis via restraining oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Areeba; Ahmad, Riaz

    2014-09-25

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol, found in skin of red grapes, peanuts and berries possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and lipid modulation properties. Here, we demonstrate in vivo antifibrotic activity of resveratrol in a mammalian model, wherein hepatic fibrosis was induced by N'-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) administration. Apart from being a potent hepatotoxin, NDMA is a known mutagen and carcinogen, as well. To induce hepatic fibrosis, rats were administered NDMA (i.p.) in 10mg/kgb.wt thrice/week for 21 days. Another group of animals received resveratrol supplement (10mg/kgb.wt) subsequent to NDMA administration and were sacrificed weekly. The changes in selected biomarkers were monitored to compare profibrotic effects of NDMA and antifibrotic activity of resveratrol. The selected biomarkers were: sera transaminases, ALP, bilirubin, liver glycogen, LPO, SOD, protein carbonyl content, ATPases (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+)/K(+)) and hydroxyproline/collagen content. Alterations in liver architecture were assessed by H&E, Masson's trichrome and reticulin staining of liver biopsies. Immuno-histochemistry and immunoblotting were employed to examine expression of α-SMA. Our results demonstrate that during NDMA-induced liver fibrosis transaminases, ALP, bilirubin, hydroxyproline and liver collagen increases, while liver glycogen is depleted. The decline in SOD (>65%) and ATPases, which were concomitant with the elevation in MDA and protein carbonyls, strongly indicate oxidative damage. Fibrotic transformation of liver in NDMA-treated rats was verified by histopathology, immuno-histochemistry and immunoblotting data, with the higher expressivity of α-SMA-positive HSCs being most established diagnostic immuno-histochemical marker of HSCs. Resveratrol-supplement refurbished liver architecture by significantly restoring levels of biomarkers of oxidative damage (MDA, SOD, protein carbonyls and membrane-bound ATPases). Therefore, we conclude that antifibrotic effect of

  11. Protective effect of Cordyceps militaris extract against bisphenol A induced reproductive damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Zhihui; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) against reproductive damage induced by bisphenol A (BPA). Rats were administrated 200 mg/kg BPA for 4 weeks and treated with C. militaris (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight/day). By the end of the fourth week, the level of oxidative damage, sperm parameters, hormone levels, and histopathological changes were examined. In the group that only received BPA, there was a significant decrease in body weight compared with the normal control (NC) group. C. militaris significantly alleviated the BPA-induced reproductive damage by increasing testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and glutathione (GSH); as well as by reducing serum malondialdehyde (MDA). C. militaris not only obviously enhanced the levels of serum LH and T, but it also improved the sperm count and motility compared to the BPA-treated group. These results suggest that C. militaris could be used as a potential natural substance for preventing BPA induced reproductive damage. Abbreviations BPA: bisphenol A; SOD: superoxide dismutase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; ROS: reactive oxygen species; T: testosterone; LH: luteinizing hormone; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone; UPLC: ultra performance liquid chromatography; RIA: radioimmunoassay; q quantitative real time PCR; NC: normal control group; BPA: 200 mg/kg BPA administered group; H: 800 mg/kg C. militaris extract administered group; LB, MB, and HB: 200 mg/kg BPA + 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg C. militaris administered group, respectively; VeB: 200 mg/kg BPA + 300 mg/kg Vitamin E administered group; Star: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 3β-HSD: 3beta-hydroxyl-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase; CYP11A1: cytochrome P 450 family 11 subfamily A member 1; CYP17A1: cytochrome P 450 family 17 subfamily A member 1.

  12. Acrolein, a highly toxic aldehyde generated under oxidative stress in vivo, aggravates the mouse liver damage after acetaminophen overdose.

    PubMed

    Arai, Tomoya; Koyama, Ryo; Yuasa, Makoto; Kitamura, Daisuke; Mizuta, Ryushin

    2014-01-01

    Although acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice has been extensively studied as a model of human acute drug-induced hepatitis, the mechanism of liver injury remains unclear. Liver injury is believed to be initiated by metabolic conversion of acetaminophen to the highly reactive intermediate N-acetyl p-benzoquinoneimine, and is aggravated by subsequent oxidative stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the hydroxyl radical (•OH). In this study, we found that a highly toxic unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a byproduct of oxidative stress, has a major role in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Acetaminophen administration in mice resulted in liver damage and increased acrolein-protein adduct formation. However, both of them were decreased by treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA), two known acrolein scavengers. The specificity of NAC and MESNA was confirmed in cell culture, because acrolein toxicity, but not H2O2 or •OH toxicity, was inhibited by NAC and MESNA. These results suggest that acrolein may be more strongly correlated with acetaminophen-induced liver injury than ROS, and that acrolein produced by acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress can spread from dying cells at the primary injury site, causing damage to the adjacent cells and aggravating liver injury.

  13. Honey can repairing damage of liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition through induction of endogenous stem cells.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, R Heru; Hestianah, Eka Pramyrtha

    2017-06-01

    This study was to evaluate effect of honey in repairing damage of liver tissue due to energy protein malnutrition and in mobilization of endogenous stem cells. Male mice model of degenerative liver was obtained through food fasting but still have drinking water for 5 days. It caused energy protein malnutrition and damage of liver tissue. The administration of 50% (v/v) honey was performed for 10 consecutive days, while the positive control group was fasted and not given honey and the negative control not fasted and without honey. Observations of regeneration the liver tissue based on histologically examination, observation of Hsp70 expression, and homing signal based on vascular endothelial growth factor-1 (VEGF-1) expression using immunohistochemistry technique. Observation on expression of CD34 and CD45 as the marker of auto mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells using flow cytometry technique. There is regeneration of the liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition, decrease of Hsp70 expression, increase of VEGF-1 expression, and high expression of CD34 and CD45. Honey can improve the liver tissue based on: (1) Mobilization of endogenous stem cells (CD34 and CD45); (2) Hsp70 and VEGF-1 expressions as regeneration marker of improvement, and (3) regeneration histologically of liver tissue.

  14. Warm ischemia time-dependent variation in liver damage, inflammation, and function in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Olthof, Pim B; van Golen, Rowan F; Meijer, Ben; van Beek, Adriaan A; Bennink, Roelof J; Verheij, Joanne; van Gulik, Thomas M; Heger, Michal

    2017-02-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is characterized by hepatocellular damage, sterile inflammation, and compromised postoperative liver function. Generally used mouse I/R models are too severe and poorly reflect the clinical injury profile. The aim was to establish a mouse I/R model with better translatability using hepatocellular injury, liver function, and innate immune parameters as endpoints. Mice (C57Bl/6J) were subjected to sham surgery, 30min, or 60min of partial hepatic ischemia. Liver function was measured after 24h using intravital microscopy and spectroscopy. Innate immune activity was assessed at 6 and 24h of reperfusion using mRNA and cytokine arrays. Liver inflammation and function were profiled in two patient cohorts subjected to I/R during liver resection to validate the preclinical results. In mice, plasma ALT levels and the degree of hepatic necrosis were strongly correlated. Liver function was bound by a narrow damage threshold and was severely impaired following 60min of ischemia. Severe ischemia (60min) evoked a neutrophil-dominant immune response, whereas mild ischemia (30min) triggered a monocyte-driven response. Clinical liver I/R did not compromise liver function and displayed a cytokine profile similar to the mild I/R injury model. Mouse models using ≤30min of ischemia best reflect the clinical liver I/R injury profile in terms of liver function dynamics and type of immune response. This short duration of ischemia therefore has most translational value and should be used to increase the prospects of developing effective interventions for hepatic I/R. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Sambo, N; Garba, S H; Timothy, H

    2009-12-01

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six. Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100 mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days respectively. Rats in group III were administered 450 mg/kg body weight of Psidium guajava only for 7 days while rats in groups IV, V and VI were administered Psidium guajava extract for 7 days and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin for 14 days. Histopathological investigation of the liver tissues revealed striking oedema and mild periportal mononuclear cell infiltration of hepatic cords in the liver of rats administered 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. Pretreatment with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract showed a slight degree of protection against the induced hepatic injury caused by 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate. Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained revealed a significant increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes measured in the groups administered with 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract compared to the control groups and those pretreated with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. This study has shown that the aqueous extract of psidium guajava leaf possesses hepatoprotective property at lower dose and a hepatotoxic property at higher dose but further studies with prolonged duration is recommended.

  16. Deletion of liver-specific STAT5 gene alters the expression of bile acid metabolism genes and reduces liver damage in lithogenic diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Baik, Myunggi; Kim, Jangseon; Piao, Min Yu; Kang, Hyeok Joong; Park, Seung Ju; Na, Sang Weon; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) mediates growth hormone signals, which may control hepatic cholesterol uptake and bile acid metabolism. Deregulation of liver cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid metabolism may cause liver damage and cholesterol gallstone development. The purpose of this study was to understand the role of local STAT5 signaling in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism using liver-specific STAT5 knock-out (STAT5 LKO) mice on a normal diet and a cholesterol- and bile acid-containing lithogenic diet. STAT5 LKO mice showed significant down-regulation of STAT5 and insulin-like growth factor-1 genes. STAT5 gene deletion had a minor effect on cholesterol metabolism, as evidenced by a minor change in circulating cholesterol levels and no changes in expression of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor and cholesterol synthesis genes in STAT5 LKO mice. In contrast, bile acid synthesis and uptake genes were profoundly down-regulated and bile acid detoxification genes were up-regulated in STAT5 LKO mice. In STAT5 fl/fl mice, a lithogenic diet induced liver damage, as evidenced by moderate increases in liver ballooning, inflammation and fibrosis. However, STAT5 deletion ameliorated the degree of liver damage induced by the lithogenic diet. In STAT5 LKO mice, a lithogenic diet did not alter the incidence or severity of cholesterol gallstones. In conclusion, local STAT5 signaling does not have a significant role in cholesterol metabolism. In contrast, hepatic STAT5 signaling has significant roles in regulating transcription of genes for synthesis, transport and detoxification of bile acids, but it has only a minor role in bile acid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Withaferin A Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis and DNA Damage in Oral Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Li, Ruei-Nian; Wang, Hui-Ru; Liu, Jing-Ru; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Chan, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is one of the most active steroidal lactones with reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulating effects against several types of cancer. ROS regulation involves selective killing. However, the anticancer and selective killing effects of WFA against oral cancer cells remain unclear. We evaluated whether the killing ability of WFA is selective, and we explored its mechanism against oral cancer cells. An MTS tetrazolium cell proliferation assay confirmed that WFA selectively killed two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) rather than normal oral cells (HGF-1). WFA also induced apoptosis of Ca9-22 cells, which was measured by flow cytometry for subG1 percentage, annexin V expression, and pan-caspase activity, as well as western blotting for caspases 1, 8, and 9 activations. Flow cytometry analysis shows that WFA-treated Ca9-22 oral cancer cells induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and phosphorylated histone H2A.X (γH2AX)-based DNA damage. Moreover, pretreating Ca9-22 cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) rescued WFA-induced selective killing, apoptosis, G2/M arrest, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. We conclude that WFA induced oxidative stress-mediated selective killing of oral cancer cells. PMID:28936177

  18. Deltamethrin-induced nuclear erythrocyte alteration and damage to the gills and liver of Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Fernanda Dos Santos; Sousa, Natalino da Costa; Santos, Rudã Fernandes Brandão; Meneses, Juliana Oliveira; do Couto, Márcia Valéria Silva; de Almeida, Fabrício Tavares Cunha; de Sena Filho, José Guedes; Carneiro, Paulo César Falanghe; Maria, Alexandre Nizio; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi

    2018-03-20

    Deltamethrin is one of the most commonly used pyrethroids in the world, and it has a high toxic potential, mainly on aquatic organism. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate LC 50 values of deltamethrin on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fingerlings and to investigate genotoxic effects and histopathological responses. Fish were exposed to different concentrations of deltamethrin (0, 6.16 × 10 -3 ; 6.44 × 10 -2 ; 1.34 × 10 -1 , and 1.93 × 10 -1  mg L -1 ) for 96 h. In addition, a genotoxicity analysis was carried out on peripheral blood erythrocytes and histopathological changes were classified by the severity degree of damage and organ functioning. The 96 h LC 50 value for tambaqui was estimated at 5.56 × 10 -2  mg L -1 using a static test system. Nuclear abnormalities in exposed fish included micronuclei, blebbed, notched, 8-shaped, and binucleated nuclei forms. Deltamethrin significantly induced a notched nucleus compared to other abnormalities. A histopathological examination showed hepatic lesions and gill damage. Deltamethrin was found to be highly toxic; it induced genotoxicity and caused liver and gill inflammation in tambaqui.

  19. Association of Heme Oxygenase 1 with the Restoration of Liver Function after Damage in Murine Malaria by Plasmodium yoelii

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sumanta; Mazumder, Somnath; Siddiqui, Asim Azhar; Iqbal, M. Shameel; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Sarkar, Souvik; De, Rudranil; Goyal, Manish; Bindu, Samik

    2014-01-01

    The liver efficiently restores function after damage induced during malarial infection once the parasites are cleared from the blood. However, the molecular events leading to the restoration of liver function after malaria are still obscure. To study this, we developed a suitable model wherein mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii (45% parasitemia) were treated with the antimalarial α/β-arteether to clear parasites from the blood and, subsequently, restoration of liver function was monitored. Liver function tests clearly indicated that complete recovery of liver function occurred after 25 days of parasite clearance. Analyses of proinflammatory gene expression and neutrophil infiltration further indicated that hepatic inflammation, which was induced immediately after parasite clearance from the blood, was gradually reduced. Moreover, the inflammation in the liver after parasite clearance was found to be correlated positively with oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis. We investigated the role of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the restoration of liver function after malaria because HO-1 normally renders protection against inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis under various pathological conditions. The expression and activity of HO-1 were found to be increased significantly after parasite clearance. We even found that chemical silencing of HO-1 by use of zinc protoporphyrin enhanced inflammation, oxidative stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, and liver injury. In contrast, stimulation of HO-1 by cobalt protoporphyrin alleviated liver inflammation and reduced oxidative stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, and associated tissue injury. Therefore, we propose that selective induction of HO-1 in the liver would be beneficial for the restoration of liver function after parasite clearance. PMID:24818663

  20. Concomitants of alcoholism: differential effects of thiamine deficiency, liver damage, and food deprivation on the rat brain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zahr, Natalie M; Sullivan, Edith V; Rohlfing, Torsten; Mayer, Dirk; Collins, Amy M; Luong, Richard; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2016-07-01

    Serious neurological concomitants of alcoholism include Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This study was conducted in animal models to determine neuroradiological signatures associated with liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thiamine deficiency caused by pyrithiamine treatment, and nonspecific nutritional deficiency caused by food deprivation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were used to evaluate brains of wild-type Wistar rats at baseline and following treatment. Similar to observations in ethanol (EtOH) exposure models, thiamine deficiency caused enlargement of the lateral ventricles. Liver damage was not associated with effects on cerebrospinal fluid volumes, whereas food deprivation caused modest enlargement of the cisterns. In contrast to what has repeatedly been shown in EtOH exposure models, in which levels of choline-containing compounds (Cho) measured by MRS are elevated, Cho levels in treated animals in all three experiments (i.e., liver damage, thiamine deficiency, and food deprivation) were lower than those in baseline or controls. These results add to the growing body of literature suggesting that MRS-detectable Cho is labile and can depend on a number of variables that are not often considered in human experiments. These results also suggest that reductions in Cho observed in humans with alcohol use disorder (AUD) may well be due to mild manifestations of concomitants of AUD such as liver damage or nutritional deficiencies and not necessarily to alcohol consumption per se.

  1. Concomitants of alcoholism: differential effects of thiamine deficiency, liver damage, and food deprivation on the rat brain in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M; Sullivan, Edith V; Rohlfing, Torsten; Mayer, Dirk; Collins, Amy M.; Luong, Richard; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Serious neurological concomitants of alcoholism include Wernicke's Encephalopathy (WE), Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Objectives This study was conducted in animal models to determine neuroradiological signatures associated with liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thiamine deficiency caused by pyrithiamine treatment, and nonspecific nutritional deficiency caused by food deprivation. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were used to evaluate brains of wild-type Wistar rats at baseline and following treatment. Results Similar to observations in ethanol (EtOH) exposure models, thiamine deficiency caused enlargement of the lateral ventricles. Liver damage was not associated with effects on cerebrospinal fluid volumes, whereas food deprivation caused modest enlargement of the cisterns. In contrast to what has repeatedly been shown in EtOH exposure models, in which levels of choline-containing compounds (Cho) measured by MRS are elevated, Cho levels in treated animals in all 3 experiments (i.e., liver damage, thiamine deficiency, food deprivation) were lower than baseline or controls. Conclusions These results add to the growing body of literature suggesting that MRS-detectable Cho is labile and can depend on a number of variables that are not often considered in human experiments. These results also suggest that reductions in Cho observed in humans with alcohol use disorder (AUD) may well be due to mild manifestations of concomitants of AUD such as liver damage or nutritional deficiencies and not necessarily to alcohol consumption per se. PMID:27129864

  2. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on high fat diet-induced obesity and liver damage in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Huang, To-Wei; Chang, Chia-Ling; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Lin, Jenq-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increase in adipogenesis and often accompanied with fatty liver disease. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract (HSE) in vivo. Eight-weeks-old male mice were divided into six groups (n=8 per group) and were fed either normal feed, a high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with different concentrations of HSE, or HFD supplemented with anthocyanin. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the blood and livers were collected for further analysis. Mesocricetus auratus hamster fed with a high-fat diet developed symptoms of obesity, as determined from their body weight change and from their plasma lipid levels. Meanwhile, HSE treatment reduced fat accumulation in the livers of hamsters fed with HFD in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of HSE reduced the levels of liver cholesterol and triglycerides, which were elevated by HFD. Analysis of the effect of HSE on paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant liver enzyme, revealed that HSE potentially regulates lipid peroxides and protects organs from oxidation-associated damage. The markers of liver damage such as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels that were elevated by HFD were also reduced on HSE treatment. The effects of HSE were as effective as treatment with anthocyanin; therefore the anthocyanins present in the HSE may play a crucial role in the protection established against HFD-induced obesity. In conclusion HSE administration constitutes an effective and viable treatment strategy against the development and consequences of obesity.

  3. Role of geraniol against lead acetate-mediated hepatic damage and their interaction with liver carboxylesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ahmet; Sahin, Zafer; Kuzu, Muslum; Saglam, Yavuz Selim; Ozkaraca, Mustafa; Uckun, Mirac; Yologlu, Ertan; Comakli, Veysel; Demirdag, Ramazan; Yologlu, Semra

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of geraniol (50 mg/kg for 30 d), a natural antioxidant and repellent/antifeedant monoterpene, in a rat model of lead acetate-induced (500 ppm for 30 d) liver damage was evaluated. Hepatic malondialdehyde increased in the lead acetate group. Reduced glutathione unchanged, but glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, as well as carboxylesterase activities decreased in geraniol, lead acetate and geraniol + lead acetate groups. 8-OhDG immunoreactivity, mononuclear cell infiltrations and hepatic lead concentration were lower in the geraniol + lead acetate group than the lead acetate group. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities increased in the Pb acetate group. In conclusion, lead acetate causes oxidative and toxic damage in the liver and this effect can reduce with geraniol treatment. However, we first observed that lead acetate, as well as geraniol, can affect liver carboxylesterase activity.

  4. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno; Lapshina, E.A.

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, pmore » < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  5. Time course and mechanism of oxidative stress and tissue damage in rat liver subjected to in vivo ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed Central

    González-Flecha, B; Cutrin, J C; Boveris, A

    1993-01-01

    The time course of oxidative stress and tissue damage in zonal liver ischemia-reperfusion in rat liver in vivo was evaluated. After 180 min of ischemia, surface chemiluminescence decreased to zero, state 3 mitochondrial respiration decreased by 70-80%, and xanthine oxidase activity increased by 26% without change in the water content and in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. After reperfusion, marked increases in oxyradical production and tissue damage were detected. Mitochondrial oxygen uptake in state 3 and respiratory control as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and the level of nonenzymatic antioxidants (evaluated by the hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence) were decreased. The severity of the post-reperfusion changes correlated with the time of ischemia. Morphologically, hepatocytes appeared swollen with zonal cord disarrangement which ranged from mild to severe for the tissue reperfused after 60-180 min of ischemia. Neutrophil infiltration was observed after 180 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. Mitochondria appear as the major source of hydrogen peroxide in control and in reperfused liver, as indicated by the almost complete inhibition of hydrogen peroxide production exerted by the uncoupler carbonylcyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone. Additionally, inhibition of mitochondrial electron transfer by antimycin in liver slices reproduced the inhibition of state 3 mitochondrial respiration and the increase in hydrogen peroxide steady-state concentration found in reperfused liver. Increased rates of oxyradical production by inhibited mitochondria appear as the initial cause of oxidative stress and liver damage during early reperfusion in rat liver. Images PMID:8432855

  6. Euphorbia dracunculoides L. abrogates carbon tetrachloride induced liver and DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Batool, Riffat; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Majid, Muhammad

    2017-04-20

    Evaluation of Euphorbia dracunculoides of family Euphorbiaceae during previous studies had established the in vitro antioxidant and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. The plant is used by the local communities of Pakistan for various disorders including rheumatism and edema. In this investigation we have evaluated the hepatoprotective effects against CCl 4 induced toxicity in rat. Dry powder of the aerial parts of E. dracunculoides was extracted with 95% methanol to get the extract (EDME). To investigate the hepatoprotective effects of EDME the Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided in to 8 groups with 6 rats in each. Group I and II were the normal and vehicle treated while the Groups III-VI were injected intraperitoneally with 1 ml of CCl 4 (30% in olive oil). Rats of Group IV were orally administered with silymarin (50 mg/kg) while the Group V and VI with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of EDME, respectively. Animals of Group VII (200 mg/kg) and VIII (400 mg/kg) were treated with EDME alone. The treatments were given thrice a week for 4 weeks. Effects of EDME were evaluated for the protective effects against oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced with CCl 4 in liver of rat. Analysis of serum indicated significant (p < 0.05) rise in the level of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and globulin whereas decrease was recorded for the total protein and albumin in CCl 4 treated rats. In liver tissues the activity level of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) was decreased while the level of lipid peroxides; thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS), nitrite and hydrogen peroxide increased in CCl 4 treated rats as compared to the control group. Histopathological injuries and DNA damages were recorded in liver of rat with CCl 4 treatment. However, co-administration of EDME, dose dependently, ameliorated the CCl 4 -induced hepatic

  7. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis.

  8. Association between serum platelet-derived growth factor BB and degree of liver damage, fibrosis and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status in CHB patients.

    PubMed

    Diang, Xiang-Chun; Ma, Li-Na; Li, Yu-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Jun-Ying; Sheng, Yun-Jian; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Hu, Huai-Dong; Ren, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of PDGF-BB with degree of liver damage, fibrosis and HBeAg status in CHB patients. A total of 740 patients with previously untreated chronic hepatitis B were included in the study. We conducted the correlations analysis of se-rum PDGF-BB with the age, gender, medical history, se-rum HBV-DNA, liver function parameters and serum fibrosis markers (HA, PCIII, CIV, LN), analyzed the cor-relations of degree of liver damage with liver fibrosis markers and the serum levels of PDGF-BB and compared serum liver fibrosis markers and levels of PDGF- BB between HbeAg-negative and HbeAg-positive CHB patients. Liver function parameters and se-rum liver fibrosis markers were significantly correlated with serum PDGF-BB (p<0.01). Liver fibrosis markers and serum levels of PDGF-BB in CHB were positive correlated with degree of liver damage. Serum levels of PDGF-BB in HBeAg-negative CHB was significantly higher than that in the HBeAg-positive CHB (p<0.05). Serum levels of PDGF-BB can reflect degree of liver damage and degree of liver fibrosis in CHB.Serum levels of PDGF-BB in HBeAg-negative CHB were higher than the HBeAg-positive CHB.

  9. Role of TRAIL and the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Bim in acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Badmann, A; Keough, A; Kaufmann, T; Bouillet, P; Brunner, T; Corazza, N

    2011-06-09

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP), paracetamol) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, accidental or intentional overdose causes acute liver failure characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis with high morbidity and mortality. Although many molecular aspects of APAP-induced cell death have been described, no conclusive mechanism has been proposed. We recently identified TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and c-Jun kinase (JNK)-dependent activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Bim as an important apoptosis amplification pathway in hepatocytes. In this study, we, thus, investigated the role of TRAIL, c-JNK and Bim in APAP-induced liver damage. Our results demonstrate that TRAIL strongly synergizes with APAP in inducing cell death in hepatocyte-like cells lines and primary hepatocyte. Furthermore, we found that APAP strongly induces the expression of Bim in a c-JNK-dependent manner. Consequently, TRAIL- or Bim-deficient mice were substantially protected from APAP-induced liver damage. This study identifies the TRAIL-JNK-Bim axis as a novel target in the treatment of APAP-induced liver damage and substantiates its general role in hepatocyte death.

  10. Evaluation of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Graptopetalum paraguayense, as a Therapeutic Treatment for Liver Damage in Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li-Jen; Yang, Chih-Hsueh; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Yuo, Ya-Ling; Hsieh, Hui-Chu; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Chen, Chang-Han; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Huang, Chi-Ying F.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cirrhosis is rising due to the widespread occurrence of chronic hepatitis, as well as the evident lack of an established therapy for hepatic fibrosis. In the search for hepatoprotective therapeutic agents, Graptopetalum paraguayense (GP) showed greater cytotoxicity toward hepatic stellate cells than other tested herbal medicines. Histopathological and biochemical analyses suggest that GP treatment significantly prevented DMN-induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in rats. Microarray profiling indicated that expression of most of metabolism- and cell growth and/or maintenance-related genes recovered to near normal levels following GP treatment as classified by gene ontology and LSM analysis, was observed. ANOVA showed that expression of 64% of 256 liver damage-related genes recovered significantly after GP treatment. By examining rat liver samples with Q-RT-PCR, five liver damage-related genes were identified. Among them, Egr1 and Nrg1 may serve as necroinflammatory markers, and Btg2 may serve as a fibrosis marker. Oldr1 and Hmgcs1 were up- and down-regulated markers, respectively. A publicly accessible website has been established to provide access to these data Identification of 44 necroinflammation-related and 62 fibrosis-related genes provides useful insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage and provides potential targets for the rational development of therapeutic drugs such as GP. PMID:22811744

  11. Cranberry flavonoids prevent toxic rat liver mitochondrial damage in vivo and scavenge free radicals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lapshina, Elena A; Zamaraeva, Maria; Cheshchevik, Vitali T; Olchowik-Grabarek, Ewa; Sekowski, Szymon; Zukowska, Izabela; Golovach, Nina G; Burd, Vasili N; Zavodnik, Ilya B

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid biological activity, focusing on the antioxidative and protective effects of cranberry flavonoids in free radical-generating systems and those on mitochondrial ultrastructure during carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication. Treatment of rats with cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) during chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication led to prevention of mitochondrial damage, including fragmentation, rupture and local loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane. In radical-generating systems, cranberry flavonoids effectively scavenged nitric oxide (IC50  = 4.4 ± 0.4 µg/ml), superoxide anion radicals (IC50  = 2.8 ± 0.3 µg/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (IC50  = 53 ± 4 µg/ml). The IC50 for reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) was 2.2 ± 0.3 µg/ml. Flavonoids prevented to some extent lipid peroxidation in liposomal membranes and glutathione oxidation in erythrocytes treated with UV irradiation or organic hydroperoxides as well as decreased the rigidity of the outer leaflet of the liposomal membranes. The hepatoprotective potential of cranberry flavonoids could be due to specific prevention of rat liver mitochondrial damage. The mitochondria-addressed effects of flavonoids might be related both to radical-scavenging properties and modulation of various mitochondrial events. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Effects of seaweed-restructured pork diets enriched or not with cholesterol on rat cholesterolaemia and liver damage.

    PubMed

    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Bocanegra, Aranzazu; Méndez, M Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Reus, M Isabel; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    Seaweed enriched-restructured pork (RP) is a potential functional food. However, indications of adverse effects associated with herbal medications, which include among others liver failure, toxic hepatitis, and death have been reported. Cholesterol feeding produces hepatomegalia and fat liver infiltration. The effect of seaweed-RP diet, cholesterol-enriched or not, on plasma cholesterol, liver damage markers, structure, and cytochrome CYP4A-1 were evaluated after 5 wk. Eight rat groups were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M rodent-diet plus 15% RP. The Cholesterol-control (CC), Cholesterol-Wakame (CW), Cholesterol-Nori (CN) and Cholesterol-Sea Spaghetti (CS) groups respectively consumed similar diets to control (C), Wakame (W), Nori (N), and Sea Spaghetti (S) but as part of hypercholesterolaemic diets. CN and CS significantly blocked the hypercholesterolaemic effect observed in CC group. After 5-wk, N and S diets increased the CYP4A-1 expression. However, seaweed-RPs were unable to reduce the histological liver alterations observed in CC group. Larger and more abundant hepatocellular alterations were found in CS and CN rats suggesting that the hypocholesterolaemic effects of these seaweed-RPs seem to be a two-edged sword as they increased liver damage. Future studies are needed to understand the involved mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aldosterone induces fibrosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage in livers of male rats independent of blood pressure changes

    SciTech Connect

    Queisser, Nina; Happ, Kathrin; Link, Samuel

    2014-11-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor blockers show antifibrotic potential in hepatic fibrosis. The mechanism of this protective effect is not known yet, although reactive oxygen species seem to play an important role. Here, we investigated the effects of elevated levels of aldosterone (Ald), the primary ligand of the mineralocorticoid receptor, on livers of rats in a hyperaldosteronism model: aldosterone-induced hypertension. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated for 4 weeks with aldosterone. To distinguish if damage caused in the liver depended on increased blood pressure or on increased Ald levels, the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone was given in a subtherapeutic dose, not normalizing blood pressure.more » To investigate the impact of oxidative stress, the antioxidant tempol was administered. Aldosterone induced fibrosis, detected histopathologically, and by expression analysis of the fibrosis marker, α-smooth muscle actin. Further, the mRNA amount of the profibrotic cytokine TGF-β was increased significantly. Fibrosis could be reduced by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and also by blocking the mineralocorticoid receptor. Furthermore, aldosterone treatment caused oxidative stress and DNA double strand breaks in livers, as well as the elevation of DNA repair activity. An increase of the transcription factor Nrf2, the main regulator of the antioxidative response could be observed, and of its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. All these effects of aldosterone were prevented by spironolactone and tempol. Already after 4 weeks of treatment, aldosteroneinfusion induced fibrosis in the liver. This effect was independent of elevated blood pressure. DNA damage caused by aldosterone might contribute to fibrosis progression when aldosterone is chronically increased. - Highlights: • Aldosterone has direct profibrotic effects on the liver independent of blood pressure. • Fibrosis is mediated by the mineralocorticoid

  14. Green banana pasta diet prevents oxidative damage in liver and kidney and improves biochemical parameters in type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Aline Rodrigues da; Cerdeira, Cláudio Daniel; Brito, Anelise Rigoni; Salles, Bruno Cesar Correa; Ravazi, Gabriela Franzin; Moraes, Gabriel de Oliveira Isac; Rufino, Luciana Rosa Alves; Oliveira, Rafaela Bergmann Strada de; Santos, Gérsika Bitencourt

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the effects of a green banana pasta diet on the oxidative damage from type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) were investigated. Formulations containing 25 (F25), 50 (F50), and 75% (F75) of green banana pasta were prepared and included in a 12-week diet of Wistar rats with alloxan-induced type 1 DM. The effects of these formulations in preventing oxidative damage in kidneys and liver homogenates of rats were evaluated using the TBARS assay (lipid peroxidation in liver) and the DNPH assay (protein oxidation in liver and kidneys). Furthermore, the effects of the formulations on the fasting glycemia, fructosamine levels, renal function (creatinine), liver function (enzymes aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), and lipid profile (total cholesterol and fractions) in the serum of rats were evaluated in addition to the evaluation of the centesimal composition and microbiological analysis of the produced green banana pasta. An F75 diet prevented hyperglycemia in diabetic rats (p < 0.05) compared to the diabetic rats fed a standard diet (commercial feed). Notably, the protein oxidation in both the liver and kidneys were prevented in diabetic rats on the F50 or F75 diets compared to the control group, whereas the lipid peroxidation was only prevented in the liver (p < 0.05). Moreover, all formulations prevented an increase in the amount of triglycerides in the serum of the rats. The F25 and F50 diet prevented the increase of cholesterol, and the F75-based diet of ALT and fructosamine (p < 0.05) supported the anti-hyperglycemic effects and the protection against oxidative damage. The green banana pasta (F75) diet showed great potential for preventing complications associated with diabetes.

  15. Damage to the protein synthesizing apparatus in mouse liver in vivo by magnetocytolysis in the presence of hepatospecific magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbreich, Avraham; Groman, Ernest V.; Raison, Danielle; Bouchaud, Claude; Paturance, Sébastien

    2002-07-01

    In the previous work, we incubated THP1 cells and macrophages in vitro with unsubstituted ferrofluid (FF) and placed them in an alternating magnetic field. This resulted in the destruction of the cells (magnetocytolysis). Cell-specific magnetocytolysis in vitro was achieved in MCF7 human breast cancer cells incubated with tamoxifen-bound FF and treated in an alternating magnetic field. In this work, in a search of a model for magnetocytolysis in vivo, we injected mice intravenously with hepatospecific magnetic nanoparticles (HS-USPIO) and subjected the mice to magnetocytolysis in an alternating magnetic field (1 h at 200 A/m). This treatment resulted in a prolongation of blood coagulation time due to depletion of protein coagulation factors that are synthesized exclusively in the liver. The attendant derangement of liver protein synthesis was characterized in cell-free preparations by an inhibition of the endogenously coded protein synthesis coupled with an enhancement of phenylalanine polymerization directed by polyuridylic acid (Poly U). This indication of polyribosome dispersion was confirmed by electron microscopy. Magnetocytolysis did not cause liver necrosis and was neither accompanied by any increase in body or liver temperature, nor damage to any other tissue. The effects of magnetocytolysis were proportional to the amount of injected HS-USPIO, field strength and its application time. Magnetocytolysis did not occur when non-magnetic PolyGalactoseGold particles were substituted for HS-USPIO. PolyGalactoseGold particles were employed to measure asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) activity in liver using neutron activation analysis. Injection of PolyGalactoseGold particles to mice, pre-treated by HS-USPIO driven magnetocytolysis, revealed a transient diminution of hepatic ASGP-R. Liver damage from magnetocytolysis was followed by liver regeneration, manifested by the appearance of thymidylate kinase activity, diminution of ASGP-R and return to normal blood

  16. Role of chemokines and their receptors in viral persistence and liver damage during chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Larrubia, Juan R; Benito-Martínez, Selma; Calvino, Miryam; Sanz-de-Villalobos, Eduardo; Parra-Cid, Trinidad

    2008-01-01

    Chemokines produced in the liver during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induce migration of activated T cells from the periphery to infected parenchyma. The milieu of chemokines secreted by infected hepatocytes is predominantly associated with the T-helper/T-cytotoxic type-1 cell (Th1/Tc1) response. These chemokines consist of CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α; MIP-1α), CCL4 (MIP-1β), CCL5 (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted; RANTES), CXCL10 (interferon-γ−inducible protein-10; IP-10), CXCL11 (interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant; I-TAC), and CXCL9 (monokine induced by interferon γ; Mig) and they recruit T cells expressing either CCR5 or CXCR3 chemokine receptors. Intrahepatic and peripheral blood levels of these chemokines are increased during chronic hepatitis C. The interaction between chemokines and their receptors is essential in recruiting HCV-specific T cells to control the infection. When the adaptive immune response fails in this task, non-specific T cells without the capacity to control the infection are also recruited to the liver, and these are ultimately responsible for the persistent hepatic damage. The modulation of chemokine receptor expression and chemokine secretion could be a viral escape mechanism to avoid specific T cell migration to the liver during the early phase of infection, and to maintain liver viability during the chronic phase, by impairing non-specific T cell migration. Some chemokines and their receptors correlate with liver damage, and CXCL10 (IP-10) and CXCR3 levels have shown a clinical utility as predictors of treatment response outcome. The regulation of chemokines and their receptors could be a future potential therapeutic target to decrease liver inflammation and to increase specific T cell migration to the infected liver. PMID:19084927

  17. Regression of fibrosis/cirrhosis by Glycine propionyl-l-carnitine treatment in d-Galactosamine induced chronic liver damage.

    PubMed

    Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad; Ganaie, Ishfaq Ahmad; Verma, Nishika; Farooqi, Humaira

    2016-12-25

    Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, with majority of preventable cases attributed to excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We previously reported the hepatoprotective effect of Glycine propionyl-l-carnitine (GPLC) against the fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) induced by d-Galactosamine (D-GalN). In this study we evaluated the protective effect of GPLC against D-GalN induced chronic liver damage. Animals received D-GalN twice a week for 12 weeks at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight (BW). GPLC was given daily for 12 weeks as co-treatment along with D-GalN at a dose of 35 mg/kg BW. D-GalN injection resulted in a considerable decrease in body weight, hepatocellular disintegration, necrosis and lipid peroxidation as evident from altered levels of SOD, CAT and MDA while GPLC significantly restored the reduced body weight and ameliorated hepatocellular damage and lipid peroxidation. D-GalN administration resulted in DNA damage as evident from TUNEL positive cells in disease control rats while; GPLC significantly alleviated the genotoxic effects of D-GalN. Further histopathological analysis revealed significant tissue and cellular damage, and increased collagen content in D-GalN challenged rats. GPLC however ameliorated the damage as evident from normal cellular and morphological architecture in GPLC co-treated rats. Hydroxyproline and nitrotyrosine (NTY) levels marked a significant decrease in GPLC co-treated rats relative to disease control. GPLC significantly blocked D-GalN induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6) production and at the same time inhibited the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen-I (COL-I) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) significantly. Our results demonstrate significant protective activity of GPLC in chronic liver damage and other complications related to it. This study is a novel study to demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect

  18. Coffee reduces liver damage in a rat model of steatohepatitis: the underlying mechanisms and the role of polyphenols and melanoidins.

    PubMed

    Vitaglione, Paola; Morisco, Filomena; Mazzone, Giovanna; Amoruso, Daniela Caterina; Ribecco, Maria Teresa; Romano, Antonietta; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Caporaso, Nicola; D'Argenio, Giuseppe

    2010-11-01

    Epidemiological data associate coffee consumption with a lower prevalence of chronic liver disease and a reduced risk of elevated liver enzyme levels (γ glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase), advanced liver disease and its complications, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these effects and the coffee components responsible for these properties is still lacking. In this study, 1.5 mL/day of decaffeinated coffee or its polyphenols or melanoidins (corresponding to approximately 2 cups of filtered coffee or 6 cups of espresso coffee for a 70-kg person) were added for 8 weeks to the drinking water of rats who were being fed a high-fat, high-calorie solid diet (HFD) for the previous 4 weeks. At week 12, HFD + water rats showed a clinical picture typical of advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis compared with control rats (normal diet + water). In comparison, HFD + coffee rats showed: (1) reduced hepatic fat and collagen, as well as reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides; (2) a two-fold reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio in both serum and liver; (3) reduced serum malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) and increased ferric reducing antioxidant power (reducing activity); (4) reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), tissue transglutaminase, and transforming growth factor β and increased expression of adiponectin receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in liver tissue; and (5) reduced hepatic concentrations of proinflammatory TNF-α and interferon-γ and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin-4 and interleukin-10. Our data demonstrate that coffee consumption protects the liver from damage caused by a high-fat diet. This effect was mediated by a reduction in hepatic fat accumulation (through increased fatty acid β-oxidation); systemic and liver oxidative stress (through the glutathione system); liver inflammation (through modulation of genes); and expression and

  19. Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) anthocyanins: preventive effect on acute and subacute alcoholic liver damage and dealcoholic effect.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongnan; Mu, Taihua; Liu, Xingli; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jingwang

    2014-03-19

    This study aimed to investigate the dealcoholic effect and preventive effect of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (PSPAs) on acute and subacute alcoholic liver damage (ALD). Seven-week-old male inbred mice were grouped into five groups: control group (without PSPAs and ethanol treatments), model group (with ethanol treatment only), low-dose group (50 mg PSPAs/kg body weight), middle-dose group (125 mg PSPAs/kg body weight), and high-dose group (375 mg PSPAs/kg body weight), and the mice in all groups were administered intragastrically. Biochemical parameters of serum and liver were determined, and the histopathological changes of liver tissue were also analyzed. Results showed that all tested parameters were ameliorated after consumption of PSPAs. Therefore, PSPAs have preventive effect on acute and subacute ALD. It is suggested that PSPAs could be used as a supplementary reagent during prophylactic and curative managements of ALD.

  20. [Diagnostic values of prealbumin and retinol-binding protein for liver damage caused by different degrees of neonatal asphyxia].

    PubMed

    Zou, Yun-Su; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Rui; Zhou, Xiao-Guang; Cao, Zhao-Lan

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the diagnostic values of prealbumin (PAB) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) for liver damage caused by mild or severe asphyxia. A retrospective analysis was performed on 185 neonates (including 84 premature infants and 101 full-term infants) with asphyxia. Based on the Apgar score, they were divided into two groups: mild asphyxia group (n=150) and severe asphyxia group (n=35). The levels of PAB, RBP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured and compared. Their diagnostic values for liver damage were evaluated by ROC curve analysis. The premature infants in the severe asphyxia group had significantly higher AST level and significantly lower levels of PAB and RBP than those in the mild asphyxia group (P<0.05). The full-term infants in the severe asphyxia group had a significantly lower PAB level than those in the mild asphyxia group (P<0.05). After treatment, the PAB level was significantly improved in the premature infants in the severe asphyxia group and in the full-term infants in both mild and severe asphyxia group (P<0.05). The full-term infants in the mild asphyxia groups also showed a significant improvement in AST level (P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that PAB had a good sensitivity and specificity for identifying liver damage caused by mild or severe asphyxia in full-term and preterm infants. PAB can be used as an indicator of liver damage caused by asphyxia in neonates, and can be used to assess the degree of asphyxia.

  1. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on high fat diet–induced obesity and liver damage in hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Huang, To-Wei; Chang, Chia-Ling; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Lin, Jenq-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increase in adipogenesis and often accompanied with fatty liver disease. Objective In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract (HSE) in vivo. Method Eight-weeks-old male mice were divided into six groups (n=8 per group) and were fed either normal feed, a high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with different concentrations of HSE, or HFD supplemented with anthocyanin. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the blood and livers were collected for further analysis. Results Mesocricetus auratus hamster fed with a high-fat diet developed symptoms of obesity, as determined from their body weight change and from their plasma lipid levels. Meanwhile, HSE treatment reduced fat accumulation in the livers of hamsters fed with HFD in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of HSE reduced the levels of liver cholesterol and triglycerides, which were elevated by HFD. Analysis of the effect of HSE on paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant liver enzyme, revealed that HSE potentially regulates lipid peroxides and protects organs from oxidation-associated damage. The markers of liver damage such as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels that were elevated by HFD were also reduced on HSE treatment. The effects of HSE were as effective as treatment with anthocyanin; therefore the anthocyanins present in the HSE may play a crucial role in the protection established against HFD-induced obesity. Conclusions In conclusion HSE administration constitutes an effective and viable treatment strategy against the development and consequences of obesity. PMID:26475512

  2. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract treatment improves triglyceridemia, liver cholesterol, liver steatosis, oxidative damage and corticosteronemia in rats rendered obese by high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Thamara C; Moura, Egberto G; de Oliveira, Elaine; Soares, Patrícia N; Guarda, Deysla S; Bernardino, Dayse N; Ai, Xu Xue; Rodrigues, Vanessa da S T; de Souza, Gabriela Rodrigues; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Figueiredo, Mariana S; Manhães, Alex C; Lisboa, Patrícia C

    2017-05-13

    Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. We hypothesize that cranberry extract (CE) can improve this dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in rats since it has an important antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of CE in food intake, adiposity, biochemical and hormonal parameters, lipogenic and adipogenic factors, hepatic morphology and oxidative balance in a HFD model. At postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44.5% (35.2% from lard) energy from fat. At PN150, 12 animals from SD and HFD groups were killed while the others were subdivided into four groups (n = 12/group): animals that received 200 mg/kg cranberry extract (SD CE, HFD CE) gavage/daily/30 days or water (SD, HFD). At PN180, animals were killed. HFD group showed higher body mass and visceral fat, hypercorticosteronemia, higher liver glucocorticoid sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride contents and microsteatosis. Also, HFD group had higher lipid peroxidation (plasma and tissues) and higher protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) compared to SD group. HFD CE group showed lower body mass gain, hypotrygliceridemia, hypocorticosteronemia, and lower hepatic cholesterol and fatty acid synthase contents. HFD CE group displayed lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) and accumulation of liver fat compared to HFD group. Although adiposity was not completely reversed, cranberry extract improved the metabolic profile and reduced oxidative damage and steatosis in HFD-fed rats, which suggests that it can help manage obesity-related disorders.

  3. ER stress-mediated cell damage contributes to the release of EDA+ fibronectin from hepatocytes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Yuan, Fa-Hu; Chen, Ting; Huang, Qiang; Wang, Yu; Liu, Zhi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    Fibronectin containing extra domain A (EDA + FN), a functional glycoprotein participating in several cellular processes, correlates with chronic liver disease. Herein, we aim to investigate the expression and secretion of EDA + FN from hepatocytes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the underlying mechanisms. Circulating levels of EDA + FN were determined by ELISA in clinical samples. Western blotting and flow cytometry were performed on L02 and HepG2 cell lines to analyze whether the levels of EDA + FN were associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related cell death. Circulating levels of EDA + FN in NAFLD patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects, and positively related with severity of ultrasonographic steatosis score. In cultured hepatocytes, palmitate up-regulated the expression of EDA + FN in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, when the cells were pretreated with 4-phenylbutyrate, a specific inhibitor of ER stress, up-regulation of EDA + FN could be abrogated. Moreover, silencing CHOP by shRNA enhanced the release of EDA + FN from hepatocytes following palmitate treatment, which was involved in ER stress-related cell damage. These findings suggest that the up-regulated level of EDA + FN is associated with liver damage in NAFLD, and ER stress-mediated cell damage contributes to the release of EDA + FN from hepatocytes.

  4. Curcumin ameliorates streptozotocin-induced liver damage through modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Afrin, R.; Arumugam, S.; Soetikno, V.; Thandavarayan, R. A.; Pitchaimani, V.; Karuppagounder, V.; Sreedhar, R.; Harima, M.; Suzuki, H.; Miyashita, S.; Nomoto, M.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of curcumin on liver injury in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ) through modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and unfolded protein response (UPR). Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg), and curcumin was given at 100 mg/kg by gavage for 56 days. We observed that curcumin improved the morphological and histopathological changes, significantly decreased hepatic ERS marker protein: glucose-regulated protein 78, and improved liver function in diabetic rats. Moreover, treatment with curcumin markedly decreased the sub-arm of the UPR signaling protein such as phospho–double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2, and inositol-requiring enzyme1α; and inhibited tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 in liver tissues of diabetic rats. Apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signaling proteins, such as cleaved caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma 2, were significantly increased and decreased, respectively in diabetic rats; curcumin treatment prevented all of these alterations. In summary, our results indicate that curcumin has the potential to protect the diabetic liver by modulating hepatic ERS-mediated apoptosis, and provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the diabetic liver damage. PMID:25536420

  5. A histopathological and stereological study of liver damage in female rats caused by mercury vapor.

    PubMed

    Yahyazedeh, A; Altunkaynak, B Z; Akgül, N; Akgül, H M

    2017-01-01

    We examined the possible effects of elemental mercury vapor on the liver of the female rats. We divided the animals into an untreated control group and an experimental group that was exposed to mercury vapor for 45 days. Liver samples were obtained for histological and stereological analysis. The total liver, parenchyma and sinusoid volumes were increased significantly in the mercury vapor treated group compared to controls. Also, the mean density, total number and mean nuclear diameter of hepatocytes, except for binucleated hepatocytes, was decreased in the experimental group compared to controls. Light and electron microscopy revealed alterations of liver structure of the experimental animals compared to controls.

  6. Genetic parameters for both a liver damage phenotype caused by and antibody response to phenotype in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Twomey, A J; Sayers, R G; Carroll, R I; Byrne, N; Brien, E O'; Doherty, M L; McClure, J C; Graham, D A; Berry, D P

    2016-10-01

    is a helminth parasite of economic importance to the global cattle industry, with documented high international herd prevalence. The objective of the present study was to generate the first published genetic parameter estimates for liver damage caused by as well as antibody response to in cattle. Abattoir data on the presence of live , or -damaged livers, were available between the years 2012 and 2015, inclusive. A second data set was available on cows from 68 selected dairy herds with a blood ELISA test for antibody response to in autumn 2015. Animals were identified as exposed by using herd mate phenotype, and only exposed animals were retained for analysis. The abattoir data set consisted of 20,481 dairy cows and 75,041 young dairy and beef animals, whereas the study herd data set consisted of 6,912 dairy cows. (Co)variance components for phenotypes in both data sets were estimated using animal linear mixed models. Fixed effects included in the model for both data sets were contemporary group, heterosis coefficient, recombination loss coefficient, parity, age relative to parity/age group, and stage of lactation. An additional fixed effect of abattoir by date of slaughter was included in the model for the analysis of the abattoir data. Direct additive genetic effects and a residual effect were included as random effects for all analyses. After data edits, the prevalence of liver damage caused by in cows and young cattle was 47% and 20%, respectively. The prevalence of a positive antibody response to in cows from the study herd data was 36% after data edits. The heritability of as a binary trait for dairy cows in abattoir data and study herd data was 0.03 ± 0.01 and 0.09 ± 0.02, respectively; heritability in young cattle was 0.01 ± 0.005. The additive genetic SD of as a binary trait was 0.069 and 0.050 for cows and young cattle from the abattoir data, respectively, and 0.112 from the study herd cows. The genetic correlation between liver damage caused by in

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Liver Damage and Atherosclerosis in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Petta, Salvatore; Marrone, Oreste; Torres, Daniele; Buttacavoli, Maria; Cammà, Calogero; Di Marco, Vito; Licata, Anna; Lo Bue, Anna; Parrinello, Gaspare; Pinto, Antonio; Salvaggio, Adriana; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Craxì, Antonio; Bonsignore, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nocturnal hypoxemia are associated with severity of liver fibrosis and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and low prevalence of morbid obesity. Secondary aim was to explore the association of OSA and hypoxemia with NASH and severity of liver pathological changes. Consecutive patients (n = 126) with chronically elevated ALT and NAFLD underwent STOP-BANG questionnaire to estimate OSA risk and ultrasonographic carotid assessment. In patients accepting to perform cardiorespiratory polygraphy (PG, n = 50), OSA was defined as an apnea/hypopnea index ≥5. A carotid atherosclerotic plaque was defined as a focal thickening >1.3 mm. Prevalence of high OSA risk was similar in patients refusing or accepting PG (76% vs 68%, p = 0.17). Among those accepting PG, overall OSA prevalence was significantly higher in patients with F2-F4 fibrosis compared to those without (72% vs 44%; p = 0.04). Significant fibrosis was independently associated with mean nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2)<95% (OR 3.21, 95%C.I. 1.02-7.34; p = 0.04). Prevalence of OSA tended to be higher in patients with, than in those without, carotid plaques (64% vs 40%; p = 0.08). Carotid plaques were independently associated with %time at SaO2<90% >1 (OR 6.30, 95%C.I. 1.02-12.3; p = 0.01). In NAFLD patients with chronically elevated ALT at low prevalence of morbid obesity, OSA was highly prevalent and indexes of SaO2 resulted independently associated with severity of liver fibrosis and carotid atherosclerosis. These data suggest to consider sleep disordered breathing as a potential additional therapeutic target in severe NAFLD patients.

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Liver Damage and Atherosclerosis in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petta, Salvatore; Marrone, Oreste; Torres, Daniele; Buttacavoli, Maria; Cammà, Calogero; Di Marco, Vito; Licata, Anna; Lo Bue, Anna; Parrinello, Gaspare; Pinto, Antonio; Salvaggio, Adriana; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Craxì, Antonio; Bonsignore, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims We assessed whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nocturnal hypoxemia are associated with severity of liver fibrosis and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and low prevalence of morbid obesity. Secondary aim was to explore the association of OSA and hypoxemia with NASH and severity of liver pathological changes. Methods Consecutive patients (n = 126) with chronically elevated ALT and NAFLD underwent STOP-BANG questionnaire to estimate OSA risk and ultrasonographic carotid assessment. In patients accepting to perform cardiorespiratory polygraphy (PG, n = 50), OSA was defined as an apnea/hypopnea index ≥5. A carotid atherosclerotic plaque was defined as a focal thickening >1.3 mm. Results Prevalence of high OSA risk was similar in patients refusing or accepting PG (76% vs 68%, p = 0.17). Among those accepting PG, overall OSA prevalence was significantly higher in patients with F2-F4 fibrosis compared to those without (72% vs 44%; p = 0.04). Significant fibrosis was independently associated with mean nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2)<95% (OR 3.21, 95%C.I. 1.02–7.34; p = 0.04). Prevalence of OSA tended to be higher in patients with, than in those without, carotid plaques (64% vs 40%; p = 0.08). Carotid plaques were independently associated with %time at SaO2<90% >1 (OR 6.30, 95%C.I. 1.02–12.3; p = 0.01). Conclusions In NAFLD patients with chronically elevated ALT at low prevalence of morbid obesity, OSA was highly prevalent and indexes of SaO2 resulted independently associated with severity of liver fibrosis and carotid atherosclerosis. These data suggest to consider sleep disordered breathing as a potential additional therapeutic target in severe NAFLD patients. PMID:26672595

  9. Interim assessment of liver damage in patients with sickle cell disease using new non-invasive techniques.

    PubMed

    Drasar, Emma; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Gardner, Kate; Awogbade, Moji; Dhawan, Anil; Bomford, Adrian; Suddle, Abid; Thein, Swee L

    2017-02-01

    We explored transient elastography (TE) and enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF ™ ) score with standard markers of liver function to assess liver damage in 193 well patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Patients with HbSS or HbSβ 0 thalassaemia (sickle cell anaemia, SCA; N = 134), had significantly higher TE results and ELF scores than those with HbSC (N = 49) disease (TE, 6·8 vs. 5·3, P < 0·0001 and ELF, 9·2 vs. 8·6 P < 0·0001). In SCA patients, TE and ELF correlated significantly with age and all serum liver function tests (LFTs). Additionally, (weak) positive correlation was found with lactate dehydrogenase (TE: r = 0·24, P = 0·004; ELF: r = 0·26 P = 0·002), and (weak) negative correlation with haemoglobin (TE: r = -0·25, P = 0·002; ELF: r = -0·25 P = 0·004). In HbSC patients, correlations were weaker or not significant between TE or ELF, and serum LFTs. All markers of iron loading correlated with TE values when corrected for sickle genotype (serum ferritin, β = 0·25, P < 0·0001, total blood transfusion units, β = 0·25, P < 0·0001 and LIC β = 0·32, P = 0·046). The exploratory study suggests that, while TE could have a role, the utility of ELF score in monitoring liver damage in SCD, needs further longitudinal studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dipeptidylpeptidase-IV Activity and Expression Reveal Decreased Damage to the Intrahepatic Biliary Tree in Fatty Livers Submitted to Subnormothermic Machine-Perfusion Respect to Conventional Cold Storage

    PubMed Central

    Tarantola, E.; Bertone, V.; Milanesi, G.; Gruppi, C.; Ferrigno, A.; Vairetti, M.; Barni, S.

    2014-01-01

    Graft steatosis is a risk factor for poor initial function after liver transplantation. Biliary complications are frequent even after normal liver transplantation. A subnormothermic machine perfusion (MP20) preservation procedure was developed by our group with high potential for reducing injury to hepatocytes and sinusoidal cells of lean and fatty livers respect to conventional cold storage (CS). We report the response of the biliary tree to CS or MP20, in lean and obese Zucker rat liver. Dipeptidylpeptidase-IV (DPP-IV), crucial for the inactivation of incretins and neuropeptides, was used as a marker. Liver morphology and canalicular network of lean livers were similar after CS/reperfusion or MP20/reperfusion. CS preservation of fatty livers induced serious damage to the parenchyma and to the canalicular activity/ expression of DPP-IV, whereas with MP20 the morphology and canalicular network were similar to those of untreated lean liver. CS and MP20 had similar effects on DPP-IV activity and expression in the upper segments of the intrahepatic biliary tree of fatty livers. DPP-IV expression was significantly increased after MP20 respect to CS or to the controls, both for lean and obese animals. Our data support the superiority of MP20 over CS for preserving fatty livers. Dipeptidylpeptidase-IV activity and expression reveal decreased damage to the intrahepatic biliary tree in fatty livers submitted to subnormothermic machine-perfusion respect to conventional cold storage. PMID:25308846

  11. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment of acetaminophen-induced rat liver damage.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Y I; Mahmoud, A A; Nassar, G

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a well-tolerated analgesic and antipyretic drug when used at therapeutic doses. Overdoses, however, cause oxidative stress, which leads to acute liver failure. Alpha lipoic acid is an antioxidant that has proven effective for ameliorating many pathological conditions caused by oxidative stress. We evaluated the effect of alpha lipoic acid on the histological and histochemical alterations of liver caused by an acute overdose of acetaminophen in rats. Livers of acetaminophen-intoxicated rats were congested and showed centrilobular necrosis, vacuolar degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Necrotic hepatocytes lost most of their carbohydrates, lipids and structural proteins. Liver sections from rats pre-treated with lipoic acid showed fewer pathological changes; the hepatocytes appeared moderately vacuolated with moderate staining of carbohydrates and proteins. Nevertheless, alpha lipoic acid at the dose we used did not protect the liver fully from acetaminophen-induced acute toxicity.

  12. The effect of laser power, blood perfusion, thermal and optical properties of human liver tissue on thermal damage in LITT.

    PubMed

    Shibib, Khalid Salem; Munshid, Mohammed A; Lateef, Hind Ali

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the finite-element method (FEM) was used to predict the temperature distribution, and the thermal damage volume in human liver tissue subjected to laser in laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). The effect of laser power, blood perfusion, and thermal and optical properties on maximum temperature and thermal damage volume were predicted using the finite-element method. A computer program was written in visual basic language, which was verified by comparing its result with data published elsewhere. The bio-heat equation together with the effect of linear laser source were used to simulate heat transfer through tissue from which the temperature distributions, and the subsequent thermal damage, were obtained based on Arrhenius equation. In this mathematical model for LITT, it was found that increasing laser power, absorption, and scattering coefficient increased the damage zone while increasing tissue water content, perfusion rate, and tissue anisotropy factor decreased the damage zone. These findings are important aspects for doctors in the pre-estimation of the damage zone before starting the therapy so as to kill only the desired zone.

  13. Unique features associated with hepatic oxidative DNA damage and DNA methylation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Naoshi; Yada, Norihisa; Hagiwara, Satoru; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Kitano, Masayuki; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previously, we reported that DNA oxidation induced epigenetic alteration of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and contributed to HCC emergence. Here, we examine the associations between clinicopathological characteristics of NAFLD and advanced oxidative DNA damage that is associated with TSG methylation in the NAFLD liver. Liver biopsies from 65 NAFLD patients were analyzed for clinicopathological features and oxidative DNA damage using immunohistochemistry of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Abnormal DNA methylation in the promoters of 6 TSGs, HIC1, GSTP1, SOCS1, RASSF1, CDKN2A, and APC, was examined using MethyLight. Associations between clinicopathological characteristics, methylation of TSGs, and accumulation of 8-OHdG were analyzed. We found that aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, the fibrosis-4 index, and serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) level were associated with degree of 8-OHdG, and AFP was an independent factor among them (P = 0.0271). Regarding pathological findings, hepatocellular ballooning and stage of fibrosis were also associated with oxidative DNA damage (P = 0.0021 and 0.0054); ballooning was an independent risk for detecting high degree of 8-OHdG in hepatocytes (odds ratio 7.38, 95% confidence interval 1.41-49.13, P = 0.0171). Accumulation of methylated TSGs was significantly associated with deposition of 8-OHdG (P = 0.0362). Patients with high serum AFP and high degree of ballooning showed accumulation of oxidative DNA damage that could be a seed of DNA methylation responsible for hepatocarcinogenesis. These characteristics could be risk of HCC; such patients require urgent intervention such as lifestyle modification. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Targeted metabolomic study indicating glycyrrhizin’s protection against acetaminophen-induced liver damage through reversing fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian; Jiang, Yang-Shen; Jiang, Yuan; Peng, Yan-Fang; Sun, Zhuang; Dai, Xiao-Nan; Cao, Qiu-Ting; Sun, Ying-Ming; Han, Jing-Chun; Gao, Ya-Jie

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to give a short report on a possible mechanism of glycyrrhizin to acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Seven-day intraperitoneal administration of glycyrrhizin (400 mg/kg/day) to 2- to 3-month-old male C57BL/6N mice (mean weight 27 g) significantly prevents acetaminophen-induced liver damage, as indicated by the activity of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase. Metabolomics analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to triple time-of-flight mass spectrometer were performed. PCA separated well the control, glycyrrhizin-treated, acetaminophen-treated, and glycyrrhizin+acetaminophen-treated groups. Long-chain acylcarnitines were listed as the top ions that contribute to this good separation, which include oleoylcarnitine, palmitoylcarnitine, palmitoleoylcarnitine, and myristoylcarnitine. The treatment of glycyrrhizin significantly reversed the increased levels of long-chain acylcarnitines induced by acetaminophen administration. In conclusion, this metabolomic study indicates a significant glycyrrhizin protection effect against acetaminophen-induced liver damage through reversing fatty acid metabolism. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of hepatic iron concentration reduction on hepatic fibrosis and damage in rats with cholestatic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Gil; Link, Gabriela; Pappo, Orit; Bruck, Rafael; Ackerman, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of iron reduction after phlebotomy in rats with “normal” hepatic iron concentration (HIC) on the progression of hepatic fibrosis, as a result of bile duct ligation (BDL). METHODS: Rats underwent phlebotomy before or after sham operation or BDL. Animals undergone only BDL or sham operation served as controls. Two weeks after surgery, indices of hepatic damage and fibrosis were evaluated. RESULTS: Phlebotomy lowered HIC. Phlebotomy after BDL was associated with body weight increase, lower hepatic weight, less portal hypertension, less periportal necrosis, less portal inflammation, lower hepatic activity index score and higher albumin levels. On the other hand, phlebotomy before BDL was associated with body weight decrease and hepatic activity index score increase. Phlebotomy after sham operation was not associated with any hepatic or systemic adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Reduction of HIC after induction of liver damage may have beneficial effects in BDL rats. However, iron deficiency could induce impairment of liver function and may make the liver more susceptible to insults like BDL. PMID:16482624

  16. Hepatoprotective Activity of the Total Saponins from Actinidia valvata Dunn Root against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Liping; Xin, Hailiang; Zheng, Guoyin; Su, Yonghua; Ling, Changquan

    2012-01-01

    The protective activity of the total saponins from Actinidia valvata Dunn root (TSAV) was studied against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were orally administered TSAV (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for five days and then given CCl4. TSAV pretreatment significantly prevented the CCl4-induced hepatic damage as indicated by the serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP). Parallel to these changes, TSAV also prevented CCl4-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA) and restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GR, and GPX), GSH and GSSG. In addition, TSAV attenuated the serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels and inhibited the serum iNOS and NO levels. Liver histopathology indicated that TSAV alleviated CCl4-induced inflammatory infiltration and focal necrosis. TSAV (200 mg/kg) also significantly decreased Bak, Bax mRNA and Fas, FasL, p53, and NF-κB p65 protein expressions and increased Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expressions. Meanwhile, TSAV significantly downregulated caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities and prevented CCl4-induced hepatic cell apoptosis. In addition, TSAV exhibited antioxidant activity through scavenging hydroxyl and DPPH free radicals in vitro. These results indicated that TSAV could protect mice against CCl4-induced acute liver damage possibly through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and regulating apoptotic-related genes. PMID:23243434

  17. Occludin deficiency promotes ethanol-induced disruption of colonic epithelial junctions, gut barrier dysfunction and liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Mir, Hina; Meena, Avtar S; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K; Shukla, Pradeep K; Gangwar, Ruchika; Manda, Bhargavi; Padala, Mythili K; Shen, Le; Turner, Jerrold R; Dietrich, Paula; Dragatsis, Ioannis; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2016-04-01

    Disruption of epithelial tight junctions (TJ), gut barrier dysfunction and endotoxemia play crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic tissue injury. Occludin, a transmembrane protein of TJ, is depleted in colon by alcohol. However, it is unknown whether occludin depletion influences alcoholic gut and liver injury. Wild type (WT) and occludin deficient (Ocln(-/-)) mice were fed 1-6% ethanol in Lieber-DeCarli diet. Gut permeability was measured by vascular-to-luminal flux of FITC-inulin. Junctional integrity was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Liver injury was assessed by plasma transaminase, histopathology and triglyceride analyses. The effect of occludin depletion on acetaldehyde-induced TJ disruption was confirmed in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Ethanol feeding significantly reduced body weight gain in Ocln(-/-) mice. Ethanol increased inulin permeability in colon of both WT and Ocln(-/-) mice, but the effect was 4-fold higher in Ocln(-/-) mice. The gross morphology of colonic mucosa was unaltered, but ethanol disrupted the actin cytoskeleton, induced redistribution of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-catenin from the junctions and elevated TLR4, which was more severe in Ocln(-/-) mice. Occludin knockdown significantly enhanced acetaldehyde-induced TJ disruption and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Ethanol significantly increased liver weight and plasma transaminase activity in Ocln(-/-) mice, but not in WT mice. Histological analysis indicated more severe lesions and fat deposition in the liver of ethanol-fed Ocln(-/-) mice. Ethanol-induced elevation of liver triglyceride was also higher in Ocln(-/-) mice. This study indicates that occludin deficiency increases susceptibility to ethanol-induced colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction and liver damage in mice. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Proanthocyanidins Attenuation of Chronic Lead-Induced Liver Oxidative Damage in Kunming Mice via the Nrf2/ARE Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Long, Miao; Liu, Yi; Cao, Yu; Wang, Nan; Dang, Meng; He, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    Lead is harmful for human health and animals. Proanthocyanidins (PCs), a natural antioxidant, possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against lead-induced liver damage have not been clarified. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of PCs on the hepatotoxicity of male Kunming mice induced by chronic lead exposure. A total of 70 healthy male Kunming mice were averagely divided into four groups: control group, i.e., the group exposed to lead, the group treated with PCs, and the group co-treated with lead and PCs. The mice exposed to lead were given water containing 0.2% lead acetate. Mice treated in the PCs and PCs lead co-treated groups were given PC (100 mg/kg) in 0.9% saline by oral gavage. Lead exposure caused a significant elevation in the liver function parameters, lead level, lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The induction of oxidative stress and histological alterations in the liver were minimized by co-treatment with PCs. Meanwhile, the number of Transferase-Mediated Deoxyuridine Triphosphate-Biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells was significantly reduced in the PCs/lead co-treated group compared to the lead group. In addition, the lead group showed an increase in the expression level of Bax, while the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased. Furthermore, the lead group showed an increase in the expression level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related genes and protein (GRP78 and CHOP). Co-treated with PCs significantly reversed these expressions in the liver. PCs were, therefore, demonstrated to have protective, antioxidant, and anti-ER stress and anti-apoptotic activities in liver damage caused by chronic lead exposure in the Kunming mouse. This may be due to the ability of PCs to enhance the ability of liver tissue to protect against oxidative stress via the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, resulting in decreasing ER stress and apoptosis of

  19. A case of amoxicillin-induced hepatocellular liver injury with bile-duct damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Seung; Jang, Young Rock; Lee, Ji Won; Kim, Jin Yong; Chung, Dong Hae; Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Yun Soo; Choi, Duck Joo; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Amoxicillin, an antibiotic that is widely prescribed for various infections, is associated with a very low rate of drug-induced liver injury; hepatitis and cholestasis are rare complications. Here we present a case of a 39-year-old woman who was diagnosed with abdominal actinomycosis and received amoxicillin treatment. The patient displayed hepatocellular and bile-duct injury, in addition to elevated levels of liver enzymes. The patient was diagnosed with amoxicillin-induced cholestatic hepatitis. When amoxicillin was discontinued, the patient's symptoms improved and her liver enzyme levels reduced to near to the normal range. PMID:22102391

  20. Liver and Cardiovascular Damage in Patients With Lean Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, and Association With Visceral Obesity.

    PubMed

    Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Petta, Salvatore; Lombardi, Rosa; Pisano, Giuseppina; Russello, Maurizio; Consonni, Dario; Di Marco, Vito; Cammà, Calogero; Mensi, Laura; Dongiovanni, Paola; Valenti, Luca; Craxì, Antonio; Fargion, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Lean nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as NAFLD that develops in patients with a body mass index (BMI) less than 25 kg/m 2 . We investigated the differences between lean NAFLD and NAFLD in overweight and obese persons, factors associated with the severity of liver and cardiovascular disease, and the effects of visceral obesity. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 669 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD seen at 3 liver centers in Italy. We collected anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical data, as well as information on carotid atherosclerosis (artery intima-media thickness and plaque), liver histology (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH] and fibrosis), insulin resistance, and diabetes. Overweight was defined as a BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m 2 , and obese was defined as a BMI of 30 kg/m 2 or greater. Patients were assigned to groups based on waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity (low: men, <94 cm, women <80 cm; medium: men, 94-102 cm, women 80-88 cm; or high: men >102 cm, women >88 cm). DNA samples were analyzed for the rs738409 C>G (I148M in PNPLA3), the rs58542926 C>T (E167K in TM6SF2), and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Variables in men and women were analyzed using chi-squared analysis and the Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Multiple linear or logistic regression analyses were adjusted for all the variables of clinical relevance or statistically significant at univariate analyses. The primary outcome was the difference in liver and cardiovascular disease between lean NAFLD and NAFLD in overweight and obese persons. Secondary outcomes were effects of visceral obesity, based on waist circumference, on hepatic, vascular, and metabolic features. Significantly lower proportions of patients with lean NAFLD (143 patients; 43 women; mean age, 46 ± 13 y) had hypertension (P = .001), diabetes (P = .0001), and metabolic syndrome (P = .0001) than overweight or obese patients with NAFLD (526 patients; 149 women; mean

  1. Influence of naringenin on oxytetracycline mediated oxidative damage in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Gnanasoundari, Muthurangam

    2006-05-01

    Naringenin is a naturally occurring citrus flavanone, which has been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. The present work was carried out to evaluate the effect of naringenin on antioxidant and lipid peroxidation status in liver of oxytetracycline-intoxicated rats. Intraperitonial administration of oxytetracycline 200 mg/kg for 15 days resulted a significant elevation in serum hepatospecific markers such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and bilirubin and the levels of lipid peroxidation markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxides) in liver. Oxytetracycline also caused a significant reduction in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in liver. Oral administration of naringenin (50 mg/kg b.w.t.) with oxytetracycline significantly decreased the activities of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and the levels of bilirubin along with significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation markers in the liver. In addition, naringenin significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and GSH peroxidase as well as the level of GSH, vitamin C and vitamin E in liver of the oxytetracycline-treated rats. Our results demonstrate that naringenin exhibited antioxidant property and decrease the lipid peroxidation against oxytetracycline-induced oxidative stress in liver.

  2. Identification of microRNA biomarker candidates in urine and plasma from rats with kidney or liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pooja; Sano, Tomoya; Shinozawa, Tadahiro; Bernard, Hugues; Gallacher, Matt J.; Wyllie, Shylah D.; Varrone, Georgianna; Cicia, Lisa A.; Carsillo, Mary E.; Fisher, Craig D.; Ottinger, Sean E.; Koenig, Erik; Kirby, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short single‐stranded RNA sequences that have a role in the post‐transcriptional regulation of genes. The identification of tissue specific or enriched miRNAs has great potential as novel safety biomarkers. One longstanding goal is to associate the increase of miRNA in biofluids (e.g., plasma and urine) with tissue‐specific damage. Next‐generation sequencing (miR‐seq) was used to analyze changes in miRNA profiles of tissue, plasma and urine samples of rats treated with either a nephrotoxicant (cisplatin) or one of two hepatotoxicants (acetaminophen [APAP] or carbon tetrachloride [CCL4]). Analyses with traditional serum chemistry and histopathology confirmed that toxicant‐induced organ damage was specific. In animals treated with cisplatin, levels of five miRNAs were significantly altered in the kidney, 14 in plasma and six in urine. In APAP‐treated animals, five miRNAs were altered in the liver, 74 in plasma and six in urine; for CCL4 the changes were five, 20 and 6, respectively. Cisplatin treatment caused an elevation of miR‐378a in the urine, confirming the findings of other similar studies. There were 17 in common miRNAs elevated in the plasma after treatment with either APAP or CCL4. Four of these (miR‐122, −802, −31a and −365) are known to be enriched in the livers of rats. Interestingly, the increase of serum miR‐802 in both hepatotoxicant treatments was comparable to that of the well‐known liver damage marker miR‐122. Taken together, comparative analysis of urine and plasma miRNAs demonstrated their utility as biomarkers of organ injury. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27397436

  3. Methanol exposure does not produce oxidatively damaged DNA in lung, liver or kidney of adult mice, rabbits or primates

    SciTech Connect

    McCallum, Gordon P.; Siu, Michelle; Sweeting, J. Nicole

    2011-01-15

    In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests indicate methanol (MeOH) is not mutagenic, but carcinogenic potential has been claimed in one controversial long-term rodent cancer bioassay that has not been replicated. To determine whether MeOH could indirectly damage DNA via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mechanisms, we treated male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys with MeOH (2.0 g/kg ip) and 6 h later assessed oxidative damage to DNA, measured as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) by HPLC with electrochemical detection. We found no MeOH-dependent increases in 8-oxodG in lung, liver or kidney of any species. Chronic treatment of CD-1 micemore » with MeOH (2.0 g/kg ip) daily for 15 days also did not increase 8-oxodG levels in these organs. These results were corroborated in DNA repair-deficient oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) knockout (KO) mice, which accumulated 8-oxodG in lung, kidney and liver with age, but exhibited no increase following MeOH, despite a 2-fold increase in renal 8-oxodG in Ogg1 KO mice following treatment with a ROS-initiating positive control, the renal carcinogen potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}; 100 mg/kg ip). These observations suggest that MeOH exposure does not promote the accumulation of oxidatively damaged DNA in lung, kidney or liver, and that environmental exposure to MeOH is unlikely to initiate carcinogenesis in these organs by DNA oxidation.« less

  4. Effects of combined treatment with ochratoxin A and citrinin on oxidative damage in kidneys and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Rašić, Dubravka; Mladinić, Marin; Želježić, Davor; Pizent, Alica; Stefanović, Srđan; Milićević, Dragan; Konjevoda, Paško; Peraica, Maja

    2018-03-08

    A multimycotoxin analysis approach in grains results in frequent simultaneous findings of nephrotoxic mycotoxins ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CTN). The mechanism of CTN and OTA toxicities in biological systems is not fully understood but it is known that oxidative stress is involved. In this study, oxidative damage of DNA, lipids, and the concentration of glutathione (GSH), as well as possible antioxidative effects of resveratrol (RSV) were studied in vivo. Male adult Wistar rats were treated orally with OTA (0.125 and 0.250 mg kg -1  b.w.), RSV (20 mg kg -1  b.w.) for 21 days, CTN (20 mg kg -1  b.w.) for two days or with their combinations. The hOGG1 modified comet assay revealed kidneys and liver oxidative DNA damage in OTA + CTN treated animals, which was not reversed by RSV. CTN did not reduce glutathione (GSH) or increase malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in any tissue, while OTA reduced kidneys GSH and increased kidneys and liver MDA. RSV increased GSH concentrations in all tissues and decreased MDA concentration in the liver only. Oxidative stress is involved in the toxicity of OTA and CTN but it seems that it differs significantly in organs. Most of the effects on GSH and MDA in combined toxicity may be attributed to the toxic effects of OTA. RSV was effective in restoring the depleted GSH in all tissues but had no effect on the MDA concentration and DNA damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of FDA's new over-the-counter acetaminophen warning label in improving consumer risk perception of liver damage.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R K; Rajan, S S; Essien, E J; Sansgiry, S S

    2012-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued new organ-specific warning label requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic products in order to make consumers aware of the risk of liver damage when using acetaminophen. However, awareness of a health risk alone cannot ensure consumers' engagement in safe and preventive behaviour. In this study, we attempted to: (i) measure consumer risk perception of liver damage due to the OTC acetaminophen products and (ii) analyse the effectiveness of the new organ-specific warning label in improving consumer risk perception of liver damage and intention to perform protective behaviours while using OTC acetaminophen products. This within-subject experimental study used a convenience sample of English-speaking adults visiting OTC segments of selected pharmacy stores in Houston. Participants were randomly exposed to the old and new warning labels and their respective risk perception (measured on a visual analogue scale, 0%, no risk, to 100%, extreme risk) and behavioural intention (measured on a 7-point Likert scale) were recorded using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed using sas statistical software (v 9.2) at a priori significance level of 0.05. Majority of participants (74.4%) were not aware of the new warnings; however, majority (67.8%) had prior knowledge of the risk. The mean risk perception score for the new warning label was found to be significantly higher (72.2% vs. 65.9%, P < 0.0001) than the old warning label. Similarly, the average intention score for the new warning label was significantly higher (5.06 vs. 4.86, P < 0.0001) than the old warning label. The new warning label mandated by FDA is effective in improving consumer risk perception of potential liver damage and may encourage protective behaviour. However, future studies are essential to assess the impact of the new label on actual changes in consumer behaviour

  6. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis. PMID:27035150

  7. Oral Administration of CardioAid and Lunasin Alleviates Liver Damage in a High-Fat Diet Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Model.

    PubMed

    Drori, Ariel; Rotnemer-Golinkin, Dvorah; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron

    2017-01-01

    Several of the drugs in development for treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) target liver fibrosis or have side effects that prohibit their long-term use in patients with mild to moderate disease. Lunasin is a soy-derived peptide with anti-inflammatory properties. ADM's CardioAid™ is a plant sterol extract that exerts cholesterol- and triacylglycerol-lowering effects. To determine the immunomodulatory effects of CardioAid and lunasin in a high-fat diet (HFD) animal model of NASH. C57BL/6 mice on an HFD were orally administered CardioAid or lunasin for 25 weeks. The effects on the immune system, liver function, insulin resistance and lipid profile were studied. Treatment with CardioAid and lunasin was associated with a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio and an increase in CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes. A decrease in interleukin 1-alpha serum levels and an increase in transforming growth factor beta serum levels were noted. These were associated with alleviation of liver damage as indicated by a significant decrease in liver enzymes and improvement in the histological nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS). Decreases in both serum triglyceride and serum glucose levels were observed in treated mice. A decrease in total body fat measured by EchoMRI was also observed in treated mice. CardioAid and lunasin exerted hepatoprotective and glucose-protective effects in an HFD NASH model. These data and the high-safety profiles of CardioAid and Lunasin support their use in patients in the early stages of NASH to prevent deterioration due to the disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and tissue damage released by muscle and liver after a single bout of swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Dionizio; Martins, Eduarda Gabrielle; Viana-Gomes, Diego; Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; Salerno, Verônica P

    2013-05-01

    Both acute exercise and excessive training can cause oxidative stress. The resulting increase in free radicals and the inadequate response from antioxidant systems can lead to a framework of cellular damage. An association between affected tissue and the biomarkers of oxidative stress that appear in plasma has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the source of oxidative stress biomarkers found in the plasma of untrained rats after a single bout of swimming exercise at 2 different intensities: low intensity (SBLIE) or high intensity (SBHIE). Immediately after the exercise, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma to characterize cell damage. Oxidative stress was assessed using protein carbonylation (PC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) quantified by malondialdehyde concentration. SBHIE raised levels of plasma AST (93%) and ALT (17%), and both exercise regimens produced an increase in GGT (7%) and LDH (∼55%). Plasma levels of PC and TBARS were greater in the SBHIE group; there were no changes in TAC. SBLIE caused only a modest increase in TBARS. In muscle, there were no changes in TAC, PC, or TBARS, regardless of exercise intensity, In the liver, TAC and TBARS increased significantly in both the SBLIE and SBHIE groups. This indicates that the oxidative stress biomarkers measured in the plasma immediately after a single bout of swimming exercise were generated primarily in the liver, not in muscle.

  9. TPhP exposure disturbs carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhongkun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Guowei; Peng, Jianbiao; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-02-01

    Triphenyl phosphate is a high production volume organophosphate flame retardant that has been detected in multiple environmental media at increasing concentrations. The environmental and health risks of triphenyl phosphate have drawn attention because of the multiplex toxicity of this chemical compound. However, few studies have paid close attention to the impacts of triphenyl phosphate on liver metabolism. We investigated hepatic histopathological, metabolomic and transcriptomic responses of zebrafish after exposure to 0.050 mg/L and 0.300 mg/L triphenyl phosphate for 7 days. Metabolomic analysis revealed significant changes in the contents of glucose, UDP-glucose, lactate, succinate, fumarate, choline, acetylcarnitine, and several fatty acids. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that related pathways, such as the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, PPAR signaling pathway and fatty acid elongation, were significantly affected. These results suggest that triphenyl phosphate exposure markedly disturbs hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in zebrafish. Moreover, DNA replication, the cell cycle, and non-homologous end-joining and base excision repair were strongly affected, thus indicating that triphenyl phosphate hinders the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver cells. The present study provides a systematic analysis of the triphenyl phosphate-induced toxic effects in zebrafish liver and demonstrates that low concentrations of triphenyl phosphate affect normal metabolism and cell cycle.

  10. Hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-4-sulphate treatment reduces damage in carbon tetrachloride-induced acute rat liver injury.

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe M; Avenoso, Angela; Campo, Salvatore; Ferlazzo, Alida M; Micali, Carmelo; Zanghí, Laura; Calatroni, Alberto

    2004-01-23

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of chemically mediated liver injury. Since glycosaminoglycans possess antioxidant activity, the aim of this work was to assess the protective effects of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-4-sulphate treatment in a model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. Liver damage was induced in male rats by an intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (1 ml/kg in vegetal oil). Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, hepatic malondialdehyde, plasma TNF-alpha, hepatic reduced glutathione and catalase, and myeloperoxidase, an index of polymorphonuclear infiltration in the jeopardised hepatic tissue, were evaluated 24 h after carbon tetrachloride administration. Carbon tetrachloride produced a marked increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, primed lipid peroxidation, enhanced plasma TNF-alpha levels, induced a severe depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase, and promoted neutrophil accumulation. Intraperitoneal treatment of rats with hyaluronic acid (25 mg/kg) or chondroitin-4-sulphate (25 mg/kg) failed to exert any effect in the considered parameter, while the combination treatment with both glycosaminoglycans (12,5 + 12,5 mg/kg) decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, inhibited lipid peroxidation by reducing hepatic malondialdehyde, reduced plasma TNF-alpha, restored the endogenous antioxidants, and finally decreased myeloperoxidase activity. These results suggest that hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-4-sulphate possess a different antioxidant mechanism and consequently the combined administration of both glycosaminoglycans exerts a synergistic effect with respect to the single treatment.

  11. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    González-Ponce, Herson Antonio; Martínez-Saldaña, María Consolación; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800 mg/kg/day, orally) were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20 mmol/L APAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF. PMID:27782042

  12. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

    PubMed

    Bjursell, Mikael; Wedin, Marianne; Admyre, Therése; Hermansson, Majlis; Böttcher, Gerhard; Göransson, Melker; Lindén, Daniel; Bamberg, Krister; Oscarsson, Jan; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR) is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  13. [Changes in amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in white rats with experimentally damaged kidneys and liver].

    PubMed

    Lashev, L; Fink-Gremels, J

    1987-01-01

    The blood level and the basic pharmacokinetic parameters (kel, Cop, T 1/2, AUC) of amoxicillin trihydrate were studied following its oral application to albino rats with experimentally injured kidneys (potassium chromate) and liver (tetrachloromethane). It was found that the impairment of these organs changed the extent of absorption, distribution, and excretion of the antibiotic.

  14. RIPK1 protects from TNF-α-mediated liver damage during hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Filliol, Aveline; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Le Seyec, Jacques; Farooq, Muhammad; Genet, Valentine; Lucas-Clerc, Catherine; Bertin, John; Gough, Peter J; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Vandenabeele, Peter; Bertrand, Mathieu JM; Samson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Cell death of hepatocytes is a prominent characteristic in the pathogenesis of liver disease, while hepatolysis is a starting point of inflammation in hepatitis and loss of hepatic function. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of hepatocyte cell death, the role of the cytokines of hepatic microenvironment and the involvement of intracellular kinases, remain unclear. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a key cytokine involved in cell death or survival pathways and the role of RIPK1 has been associated to the TNF-α-dependent signaling pathway. We took advantage of two different deficient mouse lines, the RIPK1 kinase dead knock-in mice (Ripk1K45A) and the conditional knockout mice lacking RIPK1 only in liver parenchymal cells (Ripk1LPC-KO), to characterize the role of RIPK1 and TNF-α in hepatitis induced by concanavalin A (ConA). Our results show that RIPK1 is dispensable for liver homeostasis under steady-state conditions but in contrast, RIPK1 kinase activity contributes to caspase-independent cell death induction following ConA injection and RIPK1 also serves as a scaffold, protecting hepatocytes from massive apoptotic cell death in this model. In the Ripk1LPC-KO mice challenged with ConA, TNF-α triggers apoptosis, responsible for the observed severe hepatitis. Mechanism potentially involves both TNF-independent canonical NF-κB activation, as well as TNF-dependent, but canonical NF-κB-independent mechanisms. In conclusion, our results suggest that RIPK1 kinase activity is a pertinent therapeutic target to protect liver against excessive cell death in liver diseases. PMID:27831558

  15. Effects of instant coffee consumption on oxidative DNA damage, DNA repair, and redox system in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Morii, H; Kuboyama, A; Nakashima, T; Kawai, K; Kasai, H; Tamae, K; Hirano, T

    2009-08-01

    To examine the effects of instant coffee consumption on cancer risk, we analyzed the oxidative DNA damage levels and the DNA repair and redox systems in the livers of coffee-fed mice. Three-week-old male ICR mice were fed with/without 0.1% (w/v) instant coffee solution. At 2, 4, and 8 mo, the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a major form of oxidative DNA damage, and the expression of mouse 8-OH-dG repair-associated genes and redox system-associated genes, the SOD activity, and the LPO level were analyzed. Simultaneously, half of the mice were fed a low vitamin (LV) diet (autoclaved diet) to disturb the defense system against oxidative stresses. As a result, the 8-OH-dG level was increased in the livers of LV diet (+ water)-fed mice for 8 mo, in comparison to those of the 0 M control mice and normal diet (+ water)-fed mice. However, no significant differences between water drinking and coffee drinking were observed, in terms of the 8-OH-dG level. In addition, the 8-OH-dG repair-associated gene expression, the SOD activity, and the LPO level also showed no significant differences between water drinking and coffee drinking in all mouse groups. On the other hand, among the redox system-associated genes, only the expression of GPx1 was changed. These results suggest that instant coffee consumption has little, if any, effect on the risk of liver cancer due to oxidative stresses.

  16. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  17. Liver transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A liver transplant may be recommended for: liver damage due to alcoholism (Alcoholic cirrhosis) primary biliary cirrhosis long-term (chronic) active infection (hepatitis) liver (hepatic) vein clot (thrombosis) birth defects of the liver ...

  18. Anti-hepatotoxic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in animal model of streptozotocin diabetes-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, David O; Ukwenya, Victor O; Obuotor, Efere M; Adewole, Stephen O

    2014-07-30

    Flavonoid-rich aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx was evaluated for its anti-hepatotoxic activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetes Mellitus was induced in Wistar rats by a single i.p injection of 80 mg/kg b.w. streptozotocin (STZ) dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer (pH 6.3). The ameliorative effects of the extract on STZ-diabetes induced liver damage was evident from the histopathological analysis and the biochemical parameters evaluated in the serum and liver homogenates. Reduced levels of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (3.76 ± 0.38 μM, 0.42 ± 0.04 U/L, 41.08 ± 3.04 U/ml, 0.82 ± 0.04 U/L respectively) in the liver of diabetic rats were restored to a near normal level in the Hibiscus sabdariffa-treated rats (6.87 ± 0.51 μM, 0.72 ± 0.06 U/L, 87.92 ± 5.26 U/ml, 1.37 ± 0.06 U/L respectively). Elevated levels of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the serum of diabetic rats were also restored in Hibiscus sabdariffa -treated rats. Examination of stained liver sections revealed hepatic fibrosis and excessive glycogen deposition in the diabetic rats. These pathological changes were ameliorated in the extract-treated rats. The anti-hepatotoxic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in STZ diabetic rats could be partly related to its antioxidant activity and the presence of flavonnoids.

  19. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Results in Greater Damage to the Pancreas Than to the Liver in the Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Su; Hong, Oak-Kee; Ju, Anes; Kim, Myung-Jun; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Sung-Rae; Kim, Won-Ho; Cho, Nam-Han; Kang, Moo-Il; Kang, Sung-Koo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Yoo, Soon-Jib

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol consumption increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, its effects on prediabetes or early diabetes have not been studied. We investigated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pancreas and liver resulting from chronic alcohol consumption in the prediabetes and early stages of diabetes. We separated Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a type-2 diabetic animal model, into two groups based on diabetic stage: prediabetes and early diabetes were defined as occurrence between the ages of 11 to 16 weeks and 17 to 22 weeks, respectively. The experimental group received an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 6 weeks. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was conducted after 16 and 22 weeks for the prediabetic and early diabetes groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in body weight between the control and ethanol groups. Fasting and 120-min glucose levels were lower and higher, respectively, in the ethanol group than in the control group. In prediabetes rats, alcohol induced significant expression of ER stress markers in the pancreas; however, alcohol did not affect the liver. In early diabetes rats, alcohol significantly increased most ER stress-marker levels in both the pancreas and liver. These results indicate that chronic alcohol consumption increased the risk of diabetes in prediabetic and early diabetic OLETF rats; the pancreas was more susceptible to damage than was the liver in the early diabetic stages, and the adaptive and proapoptotic pathway of ER stress may play key roles in the development and progression of diabetes affected by chronic alcohol ingestion.

  20. Evaluation of the liver protective potential of Cichorium intybus seed extract on Acetaminophen and CCl(4)-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Gilani, A H; Janbaz, K H

    1994-12-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of aqueous-methanolic extract of Cichorium intybus seeds was investigated against acetaminophen and CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage. Acetaminophen produced 100% mortality at the dose of 1 g/kg in mice while pretreatment of animals with plant extract (500mg/kg) reduced the death rate to 30%. Acetaminophen at the dose of 640 mg/kg produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the significant (P < 0.01) rise in serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), GOT and GPT to 393 ± 28, 767 ± 215 and 692 ± 191 IU/L (n = 10) respectively, compared to respective control values of 198 ± 15, 76 ± 07 and 39 ± 09. Pretreatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg/kg) significantly lowered (P < 0.01), the respective serum ALP, GOT and GPT levels to 228 ± 16, 68 ± 10 and 41 ± 08. Similarly, a hepatotoxic dose of CCl(4) (1.5 mL/kg; orally) significantly raised (P < 0.01), the serum ALP, GOT and GPT levels to 312 ± 20, 503 ± 98 and 407 ± 109 IU/L (n = 10) respectively, compared to respective control values of 215 ± 16, 79 ± 18 and 49 ± 10. The same dose of plant extract (500 mg/kg) was able to prevent significantly (P < 0.05) the CCl(4)-induced rise in serum enzymes and the estimated values of ALP, GOT and GPT were 222 ± 27, 114 ± 23 and 68 ± 14 respectively. Moreover, it prevented CCl(4)-induced prolongation in pentobarbital sleeping time confirming hepatoprotectivity and validates the folkloric uses of this plant in liver damage. Copyright © 1994 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effects of hypertonic sodium saline resuscitation on the liver damage of rats at early stage of severe scald].

    PubMed

    Zhou, J P; Gao, Z; Sun, Y X; Chen, X L; Wu, X S; Wang, F

    2017-01-20

    Objective: To explore the effects of hypertonic sodium saline (HSS) resuscitation on the liver damage of rats at early stage of severe scald. Methods: Fifty-six SD rats were divided into sham injury group (SI, n =8), lactated Ringer's solution group (LRS, n =24), and group HSS ( n =24) according to the random number table. Rats in group SI were sham injured without resuscitation, while rats in the other two groups were reproduced deep partial-thickness to full-thickness scald model with 30% total body surface area on the back. Rats in group LRS were resuscitated with LRS, while rats in group HSS were resuscitated with 300 mmol/L sodium ion solution according to the Parkland formula. Blood of abdominal aorta and liver of 8 rats in group SI immediately post injury and in the other two groups at post injury hour (PIH) 2, 8, and 24 respectively were collected. Then liver water content was determined by dry-wet weight method. Serum content of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) was detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. Serum content of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Liver content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Pathologic changes of liver were observed by HE staining. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and SNK test. Results: (1) At PIH 2, 8, and 24, liver water content of rats in group LRS was higher than that in group SI and group HSS ( P <0.05 or P <0.01). (2) At PIH 2, serum ALT content of rats in the three groups was similar (with P values above 0.05). At PIH 8 and 24, serum ALT content of rats in group HSS and group LRS was higher than that in group SI ( P <0.05 or P <0.01), and serum ALT content of rats in group HSS was lower than that in group LRS (with P values below 0.01). At PIH 2, 8, and 24, serum AST content of rats in

  2. Immune neutralization of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts reduce liver oxidative damage induced by an acute systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Tiefensee Ribeiro, Camila; Gasparotto, Juciano; Teixeira, Alexsander Alves; Portela, Luis Valmor Cruz; Flores, Viviane Noll Louzada; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2018-01-22

    The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a multi-ligand receptor, which activation amplifies and perpetuates inflammatory reactions. RAGE activation also strongly stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, leading an imbalance of redox cellular state. The extent of liver damage caused by inflammation is crucial to the systemic response during proinflammatory episodes. To investigate the role of RAGE in liver damage caused by systemic inflammation, we evaluated the effect of RAGE blocking in oxidative stress parameters induced by systemic LPS injection. Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection of RAGE antibody (50 mg/kg), 1 h prior intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours later, the liver was isolated for analysis. The LPS-induced effect in protein oxidative damage, mitochondrial complex II activity, catalase activity, STAT3 phosphorylation and caspase 3 activation was prevented by prior treatment with RAGE antibody. However, RAGE blocking was not able to inhibit reactive oxygen species production and the impairment in non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity induced by LPS. The present results indicate that RAGE is an important mediator of liver oxidative damage induced by an acute systemic injection of LPS, although other mechanisms may also be responsible for liver function impairment during inflammation. © The Authors 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA): An Indication of Liver Damage in Women with Pre-Eclamsia.

    PubMed

    Atiba, Adeniran S; Abbiyesuku, Fayeofori M; Oparinde, Dolapo P; 'Niran-Atiba, Temitope A; Akindele, Rasaq A

    2016-09-01

    One of the features associated with pre-eclampsia is elevated liver transaminases. The reason this happens has not been fully described. However, the hepatocytes are not known to be spared by free radical injury. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between product of free radical injury (malondialdehyde) and transaminases in pre-eclamptic women. A total of 98 and 115 pre-eclamptic and apparently normal pregnant women were selected from the booking clinic of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo. Non-pregnant women were selected from volunteered members of staff. Malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) analyses were determined on collected venous blood sample. Statistical analyses of variables were done using SPSS 17 taking level of significance to be p<0.05. Subjects with plasma AST between 10 and 20U/L had mean plasma MDA of 0.92µmol/l whereas those with plasma levels greater than 41U/L had mean plasma MDA of 4.72µmol/l. Similarly, Subjects with plasma ALT between 10 and 20U/L had mean plasma MDA of 0.86µmol/l, and subjects with plasma ALT greater than 51 U/L had mean plasma MDA of 4.71µmol/l. Positive correlation was observed between AST and ALT(r=0.79; p=0.047), between AST and MDA(r=0.690; p=0.061) as well as between ALT and MDA(r=0.571; p=0.049). The elevated liver enzymes seen in women with pre-eclampsia may be due to free radical injury to the liver. Pre-eclamptic women without free radical injury did not have elevated transaminases.

  4. Impact of portal venous pressure on regeneration and graft damage after living-donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shintaro; Iida, Taku; Taniguchi, Kentaro; Hori, Tomohide; Hamada, Takashi; Fujii, Koji; Mizuno, Shugo; Uemoto, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    Several reports claim that portal hypertension after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) adversely affects graft function, but few have assessed the impact of portal venous pressure (PVP) on graft regeneration. We divided 32 adult LDLT recipients based on mean PVP during the 1st 3 days after LDLT into a group with a PVP > or = 20 mm of Hg (H Group; n = 17), and a group with a PVP < 20 mm of Hg (L Group; n = 15). Outcome in the H Group was poorer than in the L Group (58.8 vs. 92.9% at 1 year). Peak peripheral hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) during the 1st 2 weeks was higher in the H Group (L: 1,730 pg/mL, H: 3,696 pg/mL; P < .01), whereas peak portal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level during the 1st week was higher in the L Group (L: 433 pg/mL, H: 92 pg/mL; P < .05). Graft volume (GV) / standard liver volume (SLV) was higher in the H Group (L / H, at 2, 3, and 4 weeks, and at 3 months: 1.02 / 1.24, .916 / 1.16, .98 / 1.27, and .94 / 1.29, respectively; P < .05). Peak serum aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin levels, and international normalized ratio after LDLT were significantly higher in the H Group, as was mean ascitic fluid volume. In conclusion, early postoperative PVP elevation to 20 mm of Hg or more was associated with rapid graft hypertrophy, higher peripheral blood HGF levels, and lower portal VEGF levels; and with a poor outcome, graft dysfunction with hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy, and severe ascites. Adequate liver regeneration requires an adequate increase in portal venous pressure and flow reflected by clearance of HGF and elevated VEGF levels.

  5. Antifibrotic activity of Taraxacum officinale root in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Domitrović, Robert; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Romić, Zeljko; Rahelić, Dario; Tadić, Zarko

    2010-08-09

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) has been traditionally used in the treatment of various liver disorders. The present study was aimed to assess the efficacy of dandelion root water-ethanol extract (DWE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatic fibrosis. The mice were treated with CCl(4) dissolved in olive oil (20%, v/v, 2 ml/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.), twice a week for 4 weeks. DWE was administered i.p. once daily for next 10 days, in doses of 200 and 600 mg/kg of body weight. The degree of hepatic fibrosis was determined by hydroxyproline content and Mallory trichrome staining. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring hepatic superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) activity. The expression and specific tissue distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), and metallothionein (MT) I/II in the liver were determined by immunohistochemistry. Hepatic Cu/Zn SOD activity has been decreased in intoxicated mice and normalized in DWE treated groups. MT I/II immunopositivity was strongly reduced in the CCl(4) group. DWE treatment successfully decreased hepatic fibrinous deposits, restored histological architecture, and modulate the expression of GFAP and alpha-SMA. Concomitantly, MT I/II expression increased in the DWE treated groups. Our results suggest the therapeutic effect of DWE on CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis by the inactivation of hepatic stellate cells and the enhancement of hepatic regenerative capabilities. The present results provide scientific evidence to substantiate the traditional use of Taraxacum officinale root in hepatic disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation-induced damage in different segments of the rat intestine after external beam irradiation of the liver.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Silke; Schwartz, Antonia; Sultan, Sadaf; Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Hermann, Robert; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens F; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2012-04-01

    The out-of-field effects on the intestine, caused by radiation treatment of a parenchymatous organ, have not previously been studied. A single dose of 25Gy was administered percutaneously to the liver of male Wistar rats after a planning CT-scan. Sham-irradiated animals served as controls. At 1, 6, 24, 96h, 1.5 and 3months the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and distal colon were removed, washed and deep-frozen or prepared for paraffin staining. All animals survived the treatment. Epithelial cell damage occurred in all small-intestinal segments. However, prolonged denudation of the villi together with destruction of the crypt lining was only observed in the ileum, resulting in deficient regeneration. In the colon, changes were minor. Radiation mucositis with granulocyte (MP0+) infiltration was seen from 1 to 24h in the duodenum and jejunum, when ED1+ macrophages, CD3+ T-lymphocytes, and CD34+ hematopoietic precursor cells were recruited, accompanied by an increase in the chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP3α and Il-8. In the ileum, early granulocyte infiltration was delayed but continuous. Recruitment of macrophages and lymphocytes was deficient and induction of chemokines as of the adhesion molecules PECAM-1, ICAM-1 was lacking. Post-irradiation damage to the ileum was delayed and followed by an altered repair process with structural changes of the villi. The observed changes might result from a higher sensitivity to oxidative stress mechanisms with subsequent damage of the regenerative capacity of the crypt-villus axis, accompanied by a sustained "inflammatory response" and vascular damage with a lack of regeneratory cell recruitment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatoprotective properties of oleanolic and ursolic acids in antitubercular drug-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel A; Siordia-Reyes, A Georgina; Meckes-Fischer, Mariana; Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina

    2016-07-01

    To estimate to what extent the mixture of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, in addition to the antitubercular standard regime, affects the hepatotoxicity profile. Liver injury was induced in male BALB/c mice by administering, per os and daily for 11 weeks, a combination of anti-Tubercular (anti-TB) agents Rifampicin (10 mg/kg), Isoniazid (10 mg/kg), and Pyrazinamide (30 mg/kg). The ursolic acid and oleanolic acid mixture at doses of 100 or 200 μg/mouse/day was subcutaneously injected throughout the entire study period (11 weeks). Biochemical and hematological analysis was supplemented by liver histological examination. Animals treated with the mixture of triterpenic acids exhibited significantly decreased aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase levels and amelioration of the histopathological alterations produced by the anti-TB drugs. The triterpene mixture was able to prevent the steatosis induced by the anti-TB drugs. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice is associated with gender-specific adduction of peroxiredoxin-6.

    PubMed

    Mohar, Isaac; Stamper, Brendan D; Rademacher, Peter M; White, Collin C; Nelson, Sidney D; Kavanagh, Terrance J

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism by which acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver damage evokes many aspects drug metabolism, oxidative chemistry, and genetic-predisposition. In this study, we leverage the relative resistance of female C57BL/6 mice to APAP-induced liver damage (AILD) compared to male C57BL/6 mice in order to identify the cause(s) of sensitivity. Furthermore, we use mice that are either heterozygous (HZ) or null (KO) for glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (Gclm), in order to titrate the toxicity relative to wild-type (WT) mice. Gclm is important for efficient de novo synthesis of glutathione (GSH). APAP (300 mg/kg, ip) or saline was administered and mice were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Male mice showed marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase by 6 h. In contrast, female WT and HZ mice showed minimal toxicity at all time points. Female KO mice, however, showed AILD comparable to male mice. Genotype-matched male and female mice showed comparable APAP-protein adducts, with Gclm KO mice sustaining significantly greater adducts. ATP was depleted in mice showing toxicity, suggesting impaired mitochondria function. Indeed, peroxiredoxin-6, a GSH-dependent peroxiredoxin, was preferentially adducted by APAP in mitochondria of male mice but rarely adducted in female mice. These results support parallel mechanisms of toxicity where APAP adduction of peroxiredoxin-6 and sustained GSH depletion results in the collapse of mitochondria function and hepatocyte death. We conclude that adduction of peroxiredoxin-6 sensitizes male C57BL/6 mice to toxicity by acetaminophen.

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et Thonn. on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Naaz, Farah; Javed, Saleem; Abdin, M Z

    2007-09-25

    Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et Thonn. (Bhuia amla; Euphorbiacae) is a herb common to central and southern India. It is an ayurvedic herb and has a wide range of traditional uses in different diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus (Phyllanthus amarus) on aflatoxin B(1)-induced liver damage in mice using different biochemical parameters and histopathological studies. Aflatoxin was administered orally (66.6 microg kg(-1)BW 0.2 ml(-1)day(-1)) to the mice of each group except control to which normal saline and ascorbic acid (0.1g kg(-1)BW 0.2 ml(-1)day(-1)) were given, respectively. Ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus (0.3g kg(-1)BW 0.2 ml(-1)day(-1)) was given to all groups except control groups (gp. I and gp. V) after 30 min of aflatoxin administration. The entire study was carried out for 3 months and animals were sacrificed after an interval of 30 days till the completion of study. Phyllanthus amarus extract was found to show hepatoprotective effect by lowering down the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and enhancing the reduced glutathione level and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Histopathological analyses of liver samples also confirmed the hepatoprotective value and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of the herb, which was comparable to the standard antioxidant, ascorbic acid. The overall data indicated that Phyllanthus amarus possesses a potent protective effect against aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatic damage, and the main mechanism involved in the protection could be associated with its strong capability to reduce the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species by enhancing the level of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.

  10. Cytochrome P450 2E1 is responsible for the initiation of 1,2-dichloropropane-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Yanagiba, Yukie; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Suda, Megumi; Hojo, Rieko; Gonzalez, Frank J; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), a solvent, which is the main component of the cleaner used in the offset printing companies in Japan, is suspected to be the causative agent of bile duct cancer, which has been recently reported at high incidence in those offset printing workplaces. While there are some reports about the acute toxicity of 1,2-DCP, no information about its metabolism related to toxicity in animals is available. As part of our efforts toward clarifying the role of 1,2-DCP in the development of cancer, we studied the metabolic pathways and the hepatotoxic effect of 1,2-DCP in mice with or without cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity. In an in vitro reaction system containing liver homogenate, 1,2-DCP was only metabolized by liver tissue of wild-type mice but not by that of cyp2e1-null mice. Furthermore, the kinetics of the solvent in mice revealed a great difference between the two genotypes; 1,2-DCP administration resulted in dose-dependent hepatic damage, as shown biochemically and pathologically, but this effect was only observed in wild-type mice. The nuclear factor κB p52 pathway was involved in the liver response to 1,2-DCP. Our results clearly indicate that the oxidative metabolism of 1,2-DCP in mice is exclusively catalyzed by CYP2E1, and this step is indispensable for the manifestation of the hepatotoxic effect of the solvent. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Duration-dependent hepatoprotective effects of propolis extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, Monika; Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2007-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product produced by bees that was discovered through the study of traditional cures and knowledge of indigenous people throughout the world. It is rich in vitamins A, B, C, and E, and in amino acids, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. The investigators studied the duration-dependent hepatoprotective effects of propolis extract (200 mg/kg, orally) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4; 1.5 mL/kg, intraperitoneally)-induced liver damage in rats. Administration of CCl 4 caused a sharp elevation in the activity of serum transaminases and serum alkaline phosphatase. A significant depletion in hepatically reduced glutathione was observed with significantly enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. After CCl 4 administration, glycogen contents and activities of alkaline phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase, and succinic dehydrogenase were significantly decreased, whereas total protein contents and activity of acid phosphatase were increased in the liver and kidney. Propolis extract reversed alterations in all parameters when administered within 6, 12, and 24 h of toxicant exposure. Propolis therapy produced duration-dependent protection, with maximal protection achieved at 24 h after CCl 4 exposure. It is believed that propolis in its natural form has general pharmacologic value and marked hepatoprotective potential because of its composition of minerals, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds.

  12. Protective effects of rosuvastatin and vitamin E against fipronil-mediated oxidative damage and apoptosis in rat liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdeen, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Fipronil (FPN) is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is extensively used in agriculture and veterinary applications. However, FPN is also a potent environmental toxicant to animals and humans. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the protective role of rosuvastatin (ROSU) and vitamin E (Vit E) against FPN-induced hepatorenal toxicity in albino rats. Seven groups with eight rats each were used for this purpose; these groups included the control vehicle group that received corn oil, the Vit E group (1000 mg/kg, orally), the ROSU group (10 mg/kg, orally), the FPN group (20 mg/kg, orally), the FPN-ROSU group, the FPN-Vit E group, and the FPN-Vit E-ROSU group. The results revealed that FPN significantly increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine. In addition, there were substantial increases in the liver and kidney contents of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, along with significant decreases in glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. FPN also caused histological changes and increased the expression of caspase-3 in the liver and kidney tissues. However, administration of ROSU and Vit E alone or in combination ameliorated the FPN-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis, possibly through their antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Cross-Sectional Investigation of Chronic Exposure to Microcystin in Relationship to Childhood Liver Damage in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Chen, Ji-an; Zhao, Qing; Pu, Chaowen; Qiu, Zhiqun; Zhang, Renping

    2011-01-01

    Background: Microcystin-producing Microcystis bloom is a severe water problem in the world. Some reports indicate that chronic exposure to microcystin may result in liver damage in adults, but information on effects in children is limited. Objective: We investigated the relationship between microcystin exposure and liver damage in children. Methods: We measured microcystin concentrations in drinking water and aquatic food (carp and duck) from two lakes and four wells. Participants were 1,322 children 7–15 years of age who obtained drinking water from one of the tested sources, completed questionnaires, and provided blood samples for serum liver enzymes [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT)] and serum microcystin analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with liver damage (two or more abnormal serum enzyme levels in ALT, AST, ALP, or GGT). Results: Microcystin was detected in most samples of water and aquatic food from two lakes. Children who drank water from the lake with the highest microcystin concentrations had a total estimated daily microcystin intake of 2.03 μg, a value much higher than the tolerable daily intake (0.40 μg) proposed by the World Health Organization for children. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, use of hepatotoxic medicines, and microcystin exposure were associated with liver damage. AST and ALP levels were significantly higher in high-microcystin-exposed children than in low-exposed children and unexposed children when participants who were HBV-positive or hepatotoxic medicine users were excluded from the analysis. Conclusion: These results suggest that chronic exposure to microcystin may be associated with liver damage in children in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. PMID:21561830

  14. Systemic agonistic anti-CD40 treatment of tumor bearing mice modulates hepatic myeloid suppressive cells and causes immune-mediated liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Echeverz, José; Ma, Chi; Duffy, Austin; Eggert, Tobias; Hawk, Nga; Kleiner, David E.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immune stimulatory monoclonal antibodies are currently evaluated as anti tumor agents. Although overall toxicity appears to be moderate, liver toxicities have been reported and are not completely understood. We studied the effect of systemic CD40 antibody treatment on myeloid cells in spleen and liver. Naïve and tumor-bearing mice were treated systemically with agonistic anti-CD40 antibody. Immune cell subsets in liver and spleen, serum transaminases and liver histologies were analyzed after antibody administration. Nox2−/−, Cd40−/− as well as bone marrow chimeric mice were used to study the mechanism by which agonistic anti-CD40 mediates its effects in vivo. Suppressor function of murine and human tumor-induced myeloid derived suppressive cells was studied upon CD40 ligation. Agonistic CD40 antibody caused liver damage within 24 hours after injection in two unrelated tumor models and mice strains. Using bone marrow chimeras we demonstrated that CD40 antibody-induced hepatitis in tumor-bearing mice was dependent on the presence of CD40-expressing hematopoietic cells. Agonistic CD40 ligation-dependent liver damage was induced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, agonistic CD40 antibody resulted in increased CD80 and CD40 positive liver CD11b+Gr-1+ immature myeloid cells. CD40 ligation on tumor-induced murine and human CD14+HLA-DRlow PBMC from cancer patients reduced their immune suppressor function. Collectively, agonistic CD40 antibody treatment activated tumor-induced, myeloid cells, caused myeloid dependent hepatotoxicity and ameliorated the suppressor function of murine and human MDSC. Collectively, our data suggests that CD40 may mature immunosuppressive myeloid cells and thereby cause liver damage in mice with an accumulation of tumor-induced hepatic MDSC. PMID:25637366

  15. Hepatoprotective activity of Peganum harmala against ethanol-induced liver damages in rats.

    PubMed

    Bourogaa, Ezzeddine; Jarraya, Raoudha Mezghani; Damak, Mohamed; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Peganum harmala seeds extract (CPH) against chronic ethanol treatment. Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by administrating ethanol 35% (4 g/kg/day) for 6 weeks. CPH was co-administered with ethanol, by intraperitonial (IP) injection, at a dose of 10 mg/kg bw/day. Control rats were injected by saline solution (NaCl 9‰). Chronic ethanol administration intensified lipid peroxidation monitored by an increase of TBARS level in liver. Ethanol treatment caused also a drastic alteration in antioxidant defence system; hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. A co-administration of CPH during ethanol treatment inhibited lipid peroxidation and improved antioxidants activities. However, treatment with P. harmala extract protects efficiently the hepatic function of alcoholic rats by the considerable decrease of aminotransferase contents in serum of ethanol-treated rats.

  16. NADPH oxidase 4 regulates homocysteine metabolism and protects against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Thomas V.A.; Dong, Xuebin; Sawyer, Greta J.; Caldwell, Anna; Halket, John; Sherwood, Roy; Quaglia, Alberto; Dew, Tracy; Anilkumar, Narayana; Burr, Simon; Mistry, Rajesh K.; Martin, Daniel; Schröder, Katrin; Brandes, Ralf P.; Hughes, Robin D.; Shah, Ajay M.; Brewer, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione is the major intracellular redox buffer in the liver and is critical for hepatic detoxification of xenobiotics and other environmental toxins. Hepatic glutathione is also a major systemic store for other organs and thus impacts on pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Sickle Cell Anaemia and chronic diseases associated with aging. Glutathione levels are determined in part by the availability of cysteine, generated from homocysteine through the transsulfuration pathway. The partitioning of homocysteine between remethylation and transsulfuration pathways is known to be subject to redox-dependent regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. An association between plasma Hcy and a single nucleotide polymorphism within the NADPH oxidase 4 locus led us to investigate the involvement of this reactive oxygen species- generating enzyme in homocysteine metabolism. Here we demonstrate that NADPH oxidase 4 ablation in mice results in increased flux of homocysteine through the betaine-dependent remethylation pathway to methionine, catalysed by betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase within the liver. As a consequence NADPH oxidase 4-null mice display significantly lowered plasma homocysteine and the flux of homocysteine through the transsulfuration pathway is reduced, resulting in lower hepatic cysteine and glutathione levels. Mice deficient in NADPH oxidase 4 had markedly increased susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury which could be corrected by administration of N-acetyl cysteine. We thus conclude that under physiological conditions, NADPH oxidase 4-derived reactive oxygen species is a regulator of the partitioning of the metabolic flux of homocysteine, which impacts upon hepatic cysteine and glutathione levels and thereby upon defence against environmental toxins. PMID:26472193

  17. Prophylactic effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on sodium fluoride induced oxidative damage in liver and erythrocytes of rats.

    PubMed

    Bouasla, Asma; Bouasla, Ihcène; Boumendjel, Amel; Abdennour, Cherif; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Messarah, Mahfoud

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice (PGJ) on oxidative damages in liver tissue and erythrocytes of rats intoxicated by sodium fluoride (NaF). Rats were randomly divided into two groups: group I received standard diet and group II received orally 1 mL of PGJ. After 5 weeks of pretreatment, each group was divided again into two subgroups and treated for another 3 weeks as follows: group I was subdivided into a control group and a group that was treated with 100 ppm of NaF (in drinking water); group II was subdivided into one group that was treated daily with both 100 ppm NaF and PGJ (1 mL orally) and one that received daily 1 mL of pomegranate juice. Exposure to NaF decreased hematological parameters, changed the total protein, albumin, bilirubin levels, and increased the activities of hepatic marker enzymes. We also noted an increase in lipid peroxidation contents, accompanied by a decrease of reduced glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzyme activities in both tissues were modified in the NaF group compared with the control group. However, the administration of PGJ juice caused an amelioration of the previous parameters. Our results indicated the potential effects of NaF to induce oxidative damage in tissues and the ability of PGJ to attenuate NaF-induced oxidative injury.

  18. Effect of betaine on the hepatic damage from orotic acid-induced fatty liver development in rats.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Kim, Hyeong-Soo; Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Young-Su

    2011-12-13

    Betaine prevents hepatic damage caused by ethanol and carbone tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Present study was to investigate the effect of betaine on the hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression in orotic acid (OA)-induced fatty liver in rats. OA feeding was attributed to the significant increase in the hepatic levels of triglyceride and the serum levels of ALT and AST and resulted in typical histology of fatty liver contained numerous largely fat droplets. While concomitant supplementation of betaine to OA diet was slightly reduced the hepatic triglyceride concentrations and was significantly decreased ALT activity. Hepatic MTP mRNA expression by OA treatment increased by 14% despite triglyceride accumulation in the liver in OA treatment rats relative to rats fed a normal diet without OA supplemented, but MTP expression by simultaneous supplementation of OA and betaine was slightly decreased by 7.9% as compared to the OA-feeding rats. A significant elevation of TBARS contents in the liver homogenate, microsome, and mitochondrial fractions of the OA-feeding rats compared with the normal rats, however, these increases were significantly or slightly decreased by simultaneous addition of OA and betaine. The increases of hepatic OA and betaine levels in OA feeding rats was also found when compared to the normal rats, but these increases were significantly lowered in the concomitant supplementation OA and betaine. The content of Fe was significantly increased in the OA feeding rats, but this elevation showed significantly recovered as low as the normal level by concomitant with OA and betaine. Zinc content was also significantly decreased in the OA feeding rats compared with the normal rats, but this reduction was more significantly elevated by concomitant with OA and betaine. Hepatic glutathione content in the OA feeding rats was similar to that of the normal rats, but this content was slightly reduced without statistically significant

  19. Hepatocellular necrosis, fibrosis and microsomal activity determine the hepatic pharmacokinetics of basic drugs in right-heart-failure-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Robertson, Thomas A; Zhang, Qian; Fletcher, Linda M; Crawford, Darrell H G; Weiss, Michael; Roberts, Michael S

    2012-06-01

    To explore how liver damage arising from cardio-hepatic syndromes in RHF affect the hepatic pharmacokinetics of basic drugs. The hepatic pharmacokinetics of five selected basic drugs with different physicochemical properties were studied in IPRL from control rats and rats with RHF. Hepatic pharmacokinetic modelling was performed with a two-phase physiologically-based organ pharmacokinetic model with the vascular space and dispersion evaluated with the MID technique. The liver damage arising from RHF was assessed by changes in liver biochemistry and histopathology. The expression of various CYP isoforms was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Four of the five basic drugs had a significantly lower E in RHF rat livers compared to the control rat livers. Hepatic pharmacokinetic analysis showed that both the CL int and PS were significantly decreased in the RHF rat livers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the alterations in the pharmacokinetic parameters (E, CL int and PS) can be correlated to the observed histopathological changes (NI, CYP concentration and FI) as well as to the lipophilicity of the basic drugs (logP app). Serious hepatocellular necrosis and fibrosis induced by RHF affects both hepatic microsomal activity and hepatocyte wall permeability, leading to significant impairment in the hepatic pharmacokinetics of basic drugs.

  20. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roversi, Katiane; Benvegnú, Dalila M.; Roversi, Karine; Trevizol, Fabíola; Vey, Luciana T.; Elias, Fabiana; Fracasso, Rafael; Motta, Mariana H.; Ribeiro, Roseane F.; dos S. Hausen, Bruna; Moresco, Rafael N.; Garcia, Solange C.; da Silva, Cristiane B.; Burger, Marilise E.

    2015-04-01

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups ( n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  1. Transcriptome signatures of p,p´-DDE-induced liver damage in Mus spretus mice.

    PubMed

    Morales-Prieto, Noelia; Ruiz-Laguna, Julia; Sheehan, David; Abril, Nieves

    2018-03-16

    The use of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane) in some countries, although regulated, is contributing to an increased worldwide risk of exposure to this organochlorine pesticide or its derivative p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene]. Many studies have associated p,p'-DDE exposure to type 2 diabetes, obesity and alterations of the reproductive system, but their molecular mechanisms of toxicity remain poorly understood. We have addressed this issue by using commercial microarrays based on probes for the entire Mus musculus genome to determine the hepatic transcriptional signatures of p,p'-DDE in the phylogenetically close mouse species Mus spretus. High-stringency hybridization conditions and analysis assured reliable results, which were also verified, in part, by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and/or enzymatic activity. Our data linked 198 deregulated genes to mitochondrial dysfunction and perturbations of central signaling pathways (kinases, lipids, and retinoic acid) leading to enhanced lipogenesis and aerobic glycolysis, inflammation, cell proliferation and testosterone catabolism and excretion. Alterations of transcript levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in testosterone catabolism and excretion would explain the relationships established between p,p´-DDE exposure and reproductive disorders, obesity and diabetes. Further studies will help to fully understand the molecular basis of p,p´-DDE molecular toxicity in liver and reproductive organs, to identify effective exposure biomarkers and perhaps to design efficient p,p'-DDE exposure counteractive strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms of hepatoprotection of Terminalia catappa L. extract on D-Galactosamine-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin-Hui; Gao, Ling; Gao, Jing; Fan, Yi-Mei; Xu, Li-Zhi; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of the extract of Terminalia catappa L. leaves (TCE) against D-Galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced liver injury and the mechanisms underlying its protection were studied. In acute hepatic injury test, it was found that serum ALT activity was remarkably increased (3.35-fold) after injection of D-GalN in mice. But with oral pretreatment of TCE (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg/d) for 7days, change in serum ALT was notably reversed. In primary cultured hepatocytes from fetal mice, it was found that cell viability was decreased by 45.0% after addition of D-GalN, while incubation with TCE (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) for 36 hours could prevent the decrease in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, D-GalN-induced both the increase of AST level (1.9-fold) and the decrease of SOD activity (48.0%) in supernatant of primary cultured hepatocytes could also be inhibited by pretreatment with TCE. In order to study the possible mechanisms underlying its hepatoprotective effects, one effective component separated from TCE, 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyursane-12-en-28-oic acid (DHUA), was used to determine anti-mitochondrial swelling activity and superoxide radicals scavenging activity in vitro. It was found that at the concentration range of 50-500 micromol/L DHUA, Ca2+ -induced mitochondrial swelling was dose-dependently inhibited, and superoxide radicals scavenging activity was also shown in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that TCE has hepatoprotective activity and the mechanisms underlying its protective effects may be related to the direct mitochondrion protection and strong scavenging activity on reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  3. IL-23 prevents IL-13-dependent tissue repair associated with Ly6C(lo) monocytes in Entamoeba histolytica-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Noll, Jill; Helk, Elena; Fehling, Helena; Bernin, Hannah; Marggraff, Claudia; Jacobs, Thomas; Huber, Samuel; Pelczar, Penelope; Ernst, Thomas; Ittrich, Harald; Otto, Benjamin; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi; Hölscher, Christoph; Tacke, Frank; Bruchhaus, Iris; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore

    2016-05-01

    The IL-23/IL-17 axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the pathological consequences of infection. We previously showed that immunopathologic mechanisms mediated by inflammatory monocytes underlie the severe focal liver damage induced by the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we analyze the contribution of the IL-23/IL-17 axis to the induction and subsequent recovery from parasite-induced liver damage. IL-23p19(-/-), IL-17A/F(-/-), CCR2(-/-), and wild-type (WT) mice were intra-hepatically infected with E. histolytica trophozoites and disease onset and recovery were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging. Liver-specific gene and protein expression during infection was examined by qPCR, microarray, FACS analysis and immunohistochemistry. Immuno-depletion and substitution experiments were performed in IL-23p19(-/-) and WT mice to investigate the role of IL-13 in disease outcome. Liver damage in infected IL-23p19(-/-), IL-17A/F(-/-), and CCR2(-/-) mice was strongly attenuated compared with that in WT mice. IL-23p19(-/-) mice showed reduced accumulation of IL-17 and CCL2 mRNA and proteins. Increased numbers of IL-13-producing CD11b(+)Ly6C(lo) monocytes were associated with disease attenuation in IL-23p19(-/-) mice. Immuno-depletion of IL-13 in IL-23p19(-/-) mice reversed this attenuation and treatment of infected WT mice with an IL-13/anti-IL-13-mAb complex supported liver recovery. The IL-23/IL-17 axis plays a critical role in the immunopathology of hepatic amebiasis. IL-13 secreted by CD11b(+)Ly6C(lo) monocytes may be associated with recovery from liver damage. An IL-13/anti-IL13-mAb complex mimics this function, suggesting a novel therapeutic option to support tissue healing after liver damage. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeong Ok; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Baek, Jang-Mi; Kang, Keon-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Roh, Seong-Soo; Park, Chan Hum; Jeong, Kap-Seop; Noh, Jeong-Sook

    2017-06-15

    The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the CS and CSE groups were increased relative to those in the LPS group. In LPS-insulted hepatic tissue, inflammatory factors were augmented relative to those in the NC group, but were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with CS or CSE. Moreover, CS and CSE alleviated the LPS-induced apoptotic factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CS and CSE effectively decreased the serum lipid concentrations and downregulated hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins expression. In conclusion, the skate CSE could protect against LPS-induced hepatic dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, probably through the regulation of MAPK signaling.

  5. Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yeong Ok; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Baek, Jang-Mi; Kang, Keon-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Roh, Seong-Soo; Park, Chan Hum; Jeong, Kap-Seop; Noh, Jeong-Sook

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the CS and CSE groups were increased relative to those in the LPS group. In LPS-insulted hepatic tissue, inflammatory factors were augmented relative to those in the NC group, but were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with CS or CSE. Moreover, CS and CSE alleviated the LPS-induced apoptotic factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CS and CSE effectively decreased the serum lipid concentrations and downregulated hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins expression. In conclusion, the skate CSE could protect against LPS-induced hepatic dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, probably through the regulation of MAPK signaling. PMID:28617322

  6. The inflammatory profile and liver damage of a sucrose-rich diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Liliane Soares C; Santos, Daiane A; Barbosa-da-Silva, Sandra; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Aguila, Marcia B

    2014-02-01

    It is still unclear if an isoenergetic, sucrose-rich diet leads to health consequences. To investigate the effects of excessive sucrose within an isoenergetic diet on metabolic parameters in male C57BL/6 mice. Animals were fed a control diet (10% fat, 8% sucrose - SC group), a high-sucrose diet (10% fat, 32% sucrose - HSu group), a high-fat diet (42% fat, 8% sucrose - HF group) or a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (42% fat, 32% sucrose - HF/HSu group) for 8 weeks. Mice fed HF and HF/HSu diets gained more body mass (BM) and more body adiposity than SC- or Hsu-fed mice. Despite the unchanged BM and adiposity indices, HSu mice presented adipocyte hypertrophy, which was also observed in the HF and HF/HSu groups (P<.0001). The HF, HSu and HF/HSu mice were glucose intolerant and had elevated serum insulin levels (P<.05). The levels of leptin, resistin and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 increased, while the serum adiponectin decreased in the HF, HSu and HF/HSu groups (P<.05). In the adipose tissue, the HF, HSu and HF/HSu groups showed higher levels of leptin expression and lower levels of adiponectin expression in comparison with the SC group (P<.05). Liver steatosis was higher in the HF, HSu and HF/HSu groups than in the SC group (P<.0001). Hepatic cholesterol was higher in the HF and HF/HSu groups, while hepatic TG was higher in the HSu and HF/HSu groups (P<.05). In hepatic tissue, the sterol receptor element-binding protein-1c expression was increased in the HF, HSu and HF/HSu groups, unlike the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha expression that decreased in the HF, HSu and HF/HSu groups in comparison with the SC group (P<.05). A sucrose-rich diet does not lead to a state of obesity but has the potential to cause changes in the adipocytes (hypertrophy) as well as glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis and increases in the number of inflammatory cytokines. The deleterious effects of a sucrose-rich diet in an animal model, even

  7. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in protein energy malnutrition induced liver and kidney damage.

    PubMed

    Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Odetola, Adebimpe A

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative and hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf meal (CALM) on hepatic injury and kidney injury associated with protein energy malnutrition (PEM). In this study, PEM was induced in weaning male Wistar albino rats by feeding them with low protein diet for 2 weeks. The effects of several recovery diets containing 20% soya protein or 20% C. aconitifolius in place of soya protein or 10% soya proteins with 10% C. aconitifolius or commercial rat feed were assessed in PEM rats. Plasma biochemical parameters were assessed as well. After the induction of PEM, results obtained showed significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total proteins (T.P), total bilirubin (T.Bil), triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine with significant reduction in plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), albumin, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), bicarbonate (HC03(-)), and phosphate (P04(2-)) in PEM rats. Upon introduction of recovery diets containing 20% soya protein or 20% C. aconitifolius in place of soya protein or 10% soya proteins with 10% C. aconitifolius or commercial rat feed for 4 weeks caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in plasma values of ALP, ALT, AST, T.bil, T.P., LDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, BUN, creatinine, and significant increase in HDL and complete restoration of plasma electrolytes. C. aconitifolius in protein deficient diets has a protective role against hepatic injury and renal damage associated with PEM.

  8. Cyclosporine A-induced apoptosis in renal tubular cells is related to oxidative damage and mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    de Arriba, Gabriel; Calvino, Miryam; Benito, Selma; Parra, Trinidad

    2013-03-27

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) nephrotoxicity has been linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in renal cells. We have demonstrated that the antioxidant Vitamin E (Vit E) abolished renal toxicity in vivo and in vitro models. As one of the main sources of intracellular ROS are mitochondria, we studied the effects of CsA on several mitochondrial functions in LLC-PK1 cells. CsA induced ROS synthesis and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH). The drug decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and induced physiological modifications in both the inner (IMM) and the outer mitochondrial membranes (OMM). In the IMM, CsA provoked mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTP) and cytochrome c was liberated into the intermembrane space. CsA also induced pore formation in the OMM, allowing that intermembrane space contents can reach cytosol. Furthermore, CsA altered the mitochondrial dynamics, inducing an increase in mitochondrial fission; CsA increased the expression of dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) that contributes to mitochondrial fission, and decreased the expression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy protein 1 (Opa1), proteins involved in the fusion process. All these phenomena were related to apoptosis. These effects were inhibited when cells were treated with the antioxidant Vit E suggesting that they were mediated by the synthesis of ROS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus protects against alcohol-induced liver damage by modulating inflammatory mediators in mice and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung Dae; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Taeseong; Jang, Seon-A; Kang, Se Chan; Koo, Hyun Jung; Sohn, Eunsoo; Bak, Jong Phil; Namkoong, Seung; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Song, In Sung; Kim, Nari; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Han, Jin

    2015-02-16

    Fucoidan is an l-fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on alcohol-induced murine liver damage. Liver injury was induced by oral administration of 25% alcohol with or without fucoidan (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg) for seven days. Alcohol administration increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, but these increases were suppressed by the treatment of fucoidan. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a liver fibrosis-inducing factor, was highly expressed in the alcohol-fed group and human hepatoma HepG2 cell; however, the increase in TGF-β1 expression was reduced following fucoidan administration. Treatment with fucoidan was also found to significantly reduce the production of inflammation-promoting cyclooygenase-2 and nitric oxide, while markedly increasing the expression of the hepatoprotective enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1, on murine liver and HepG2 cells. Taken together, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan on alcohol-induced liver damage may provide valuable insights into developing new therapeutics or interventions.

  10. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protects against Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage by Modulating Inflammatory Mediators in Mice and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung Dae; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Taeseong; Jang, Seon-A; Kang, Se Chan; Koo, Hyun Jung; Sohn, Eunsoo; Bak, Jong Phil; Namkoong, Seung; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Song, In Sung; Kim, Nari; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Han, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan is an l-fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on alcohol-induced murine liver damage. Liver injury was induced by oral administration of 25% alcohol with or without fucoidan (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg) for seven days. Alcohol administration increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, but these increases were suppressed by the treatment of fucoidan. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a liver fibrosis-inducing factor, was highly expressed in the alcohol-fed group and human hepatoma HepG2 cell; however, the increase in TGF-β1 expression was reduced following fucoidan administration. Treatment with fucoidan was also found to significantly reduce the production of inflammation-promoting cyclooygenase-2 and nitric oxide, while markedly increasing the expression of the hepatoprotective enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1, on murine liver and HepG2 cells. Taken together, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan on alcohol-induced liver damage may provide valuable insights into developing new therapeutics or interventions. PMID:25690093

  11. The role of zinc supplementation in the inhibition of tissue damage caused by exposure to electromagnetic field in rat lung and liver tissues.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R; Salbacak, A; Celik, I; Sivrikaya, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of zinc supplementation on the oxidant damage in lung and liver tissues in rats exposed to a 50-Hz frequency magnetic field for 5 minutes every other day over a period of 6 months. The study included 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into the three groups in equal numbers: Group 1, the control group (G1); Group 2, the group exposed to an electromagnetic field (G2); and Group 3, the group, which was exposed to an EMF and supplemented with zinc (G3). At the end of the 6-month procedures, the animals were decapitated to collect lung and liver tissue samples, in which MDA was analyzed using the "TBARS method (nmol/g/protein)", GSH by the "biuret method (mg/g/protein)" and zinc levels by atomic emission (µg/dl). MDA levels in lung and liver tissues in G2 were higher than those in G1 and G3, and the levels in G3 were higher than those in G1 (p<0.01). As for GSH levels, G3 had GSH levels higher than G1 and G2, and G2 had GSH levels higher than G1 (p<0.01). Zinc values in the liver and lung tissues were the highest in the Group 3 and the lowest in the Group 2 (p<0.01). Results of the study indicated that exposure to an electromagnetic field caused cellular damage in lung and liver tissues and zinc supplementation inhibited the inflicted cellular damage. Another important result of this study that needs emphasis was that exposure to an electromagnetic field led to a significant decrease in zinc levels in lung and liver tissues (Tab. 3, Ref. 23).

  12. Arctigenin protects against ultraviolet-A-induced damage to stemness through inhibition of the NF-κB/MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, See-Hyoung; Cho, Jae Youl; Oh, Sae Woong; Kang, Mingyeong; Lee, Seung Eun; Yoo, Ju Ah; Jung, Kwangseon; Lee, Jienny; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Jongsung

    2018-02-25

    The stemness of stem cells is negatively affected by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation. This study was performed to examine the effects of arctigenin on UVA-irradiation-induced damage to the stemness of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from adipose tissue. The mechanisms of action of arctigenin were also investigated. A BrdU-incorporation assay demonstrated that arctigenin attenuated the UVA-induced reduction of the cellular proliferative potential. Arctigenin also increased the UVA-induced reduction in stemness of hMSCs by upregulating stemness-related genes such as SOX2, OCT4, and NANOG. In addition, the UVA-induced reduction in the mRNA expression level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly recovered by arctigenin. The antagonizing effect of arctigenin on UVA irradiation was mediated by reduced PGE 2 production through the inhibition of MAPKs (p42/44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and JNK) and NF-κB. Overall, these findings suggest that arctigenin can ameliorate the reduced stemness of hMSCs induced by UVA irradiation. The effects of arctigenin are mediated by PGE 2 -cAMP signaling-dependent upregulation of HIF-1α. Therefore, arctigenin could be used as an antagonist to attenuate the effects of UVA irradiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lophirones B and C Attenuate Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Mice: Studies on Hepatic, Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O

    2016-10-01

    Lophirones B and C are chalcone dimers with proven chemopreventive activity. This study evaluates the hepatoprotective effect lophirones B and C in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in mice using biomarkers of hepatocellular indices, oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and lipid peroxidation. Oral administrations of lophirones B and C significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated acetaminophen-mediated alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin and total bilirubin. Similarly, acetaminophen-mediated decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6- phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly attenuated in the liver of mice. Increased levels of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and fragmented DNA were significantly lowered by lophirones B and C. Levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and 8 were significantly lowered in serum of acetaminophen treated mice by the chalcone dimers. Overall, results of this study show that lophirones B and C halted acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of germinated and fermented mung bean on ethanol-mediated liver damage.

    PubMed

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Long, Kamariah; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Koh, Soo Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean.

  15. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Germinated and Fermented Mung Bean on Ethanol-Mediated Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Long, Kamariah; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Koh, Soo Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean. PMID:23484140

  16. Metabolic profile of liver damage in non-cirrhotic virus C and autoimmune hepatitis: A proton decoupled 31P-MRS study.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Antti; Puustinen, Lauri; Kivisaari, Reetta; Boyd, Sonja; Nieminen, Urpo; Arkkila, Perttu; Lundbom, Nina

    2017-05-01

    To study liver 31 P MRS, histology, transient elastography, and liver function tests in patients with virus C hepatitis (HCV) or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) to test the hypothesis that 31 P MR metabolic profile of these diseases differ. 25 patients with HCV (n=12) or AIH (n=13) underwent proton decoupled 31 P MRS spectroscopy performed on a 3.0T MR imager. Intensities of phosphomonoesters (PME) of phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC), phosphodiesters (PDE) of glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), and γ, α and β resonances of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) were determined. Liver stiffness was measured by transient elastography. Inflammation and fibrosis were staged according to METAVIR from biopsy samples. Activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALT) and thromboplastin time (TT) were determined from serum samples. PME had a stronger correlation with AST (z=1.73, p=0.04) and ALT (z=1.77, p=0.04) in HCV than in AIH patients. PME, PME/PDE, PE/GPE correlated positively and PDE negatively with inflammatory activity. PE, PC and PME correlated positively with liver function tests. 31 P-MRS suggests a more serious liver damage in HCV than in AIH with similar histopathological findings. 31 P-MRS is more sensitive in detecting inflammation than fibrosis in the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Dual Role of Caspase-8 in Triggering and Sensing Proliferation-Associated DNA Damage, a Key Determinant of Liver Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Boege, Yannick; Malehmir, Mohsen; Healy, Marc E; Bettermann, Kira; Lorentzen, Anna; Vucur, Mihael; Ahuja, Akshay K; Böhm, Friederike; Mertens, Joachim C; Shimizu, Yutaka; Frick, Lukas; Remouchamps, Caroline; Mutreja, Karun; Kähne, Thilo; Sundaravinayagam, Devakumar; Wolf, Monika J; Rehrauer, Hubert; Koppe, Christiane; Speicher, Tobias; Padrissa-Altés, Susagna; Maire, Renaud; Schattenberg, Jörn M; Jeong, Ju-Seong; Liu, Lei; Zwirner, Stefan; Boger, Regina; Hüser, Norbert; Davis, Roger J; Müllhaupt, Beat; Moch, Holger; Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Werner, Sabine; Borsig, Lubor; Luther, Sanjiv A; Jost, Philipp J; Weinlich, Ricardo; Unger, Kristian; Behrens, Axel; Hillert, Laura; Dillon, Christopher; Di Virgilio, Michela; Wallach, David; Dejardin, Emmanuel; Zender, Lars; Naumann, Michael; Walczak, Henning; Green, Douglas R; Lopes, Massimo; Lavrik, Inna; Luedde, Tom; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Weber, Achim

    2017-09-11

    Concomitant hepatocyte apoptosis and regeneration is a hallmark of chronic liver diseases (CLDs) predisposing to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we mechanistically link caspase-8-dependent apoptosis to HCC development via proliferation- and replication-associated DNA damage. Proliferation-associated replication stress, DNA damage, and genetic instability are detectable in CLDs before any neoplastic changes occur. Accumulated levels of hepatocyte apoptosis determine and predict subsequent hepatocarcinogenesis. Proliferation-associated DNA damage is sensed by a complex comprising caspase-8, FADD, c-FLIP, and a kinase-dependent function of RIPK1. This platform requires a non-apoptotic function of caspase-8, but no caspase-3 or caspase-8 cleavage. It may represent a DNA damage-sensing mechanism in hepatocytes that can act via JNK and subsequent phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against cadmium-induced damage in cultured rat normal liver cells.

    PubMed

    Odewumi, Caroline O; Badisa, Veera L D; Le, Uyen T; Latinwo, Lekan M; Ikediobi, Christopher O; Badisa, Ramesh B; Darling-Reed, Selina F

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of reduced glutathione, were studied by measuring the viability, the levels of antioxidant enzymes, and by analyzing the cell cycle in cadmium (Cd)-treated rat liver cells. The cells were treated with 150 µM CdCl2 alone or co-treated with 150 µM CdCl2 and 5 mM NAC (2 h pre-, simultaneous or 2 h post-treatment) for 24 h. The viability of the cells treated with 150 µM CdCl2 alone decreased to 40.1%, while that of the cells co-treated with 5 mM NAC (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment) significantly increased to 83.7, 86.2 and 83.7%, respectively in comparison to the control cells (100%). The catalase enzyme level decreased to undetectable level in the cells treated with CdCl2 alone, while it significantly increased in the co-treated cells (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment) to 40.1, 34.3 and 13.2%, respectively. In the cells treated with CdCl2 alone, the glutathione peroxidase enzyme level decreased to 78.3%, while it increased in the co-treated cells (pre-, simultaneous, and post-treatment) to 84.5, 83.3 and 87.9%, respectively. The glutathione reductase enzyme level decreased to 56.1% in the cells treated with cadmium alone, but significantly increased in the cells co treated with NAC (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment) to 79.5, 78.5 and 78.2%, respectively. Cd caused cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases. The co-treatment with NAC inhibited cell cycle arrest by shifting the cells to the G1 phase. These results clearly show the protective effects of NAC against Cd-induced damage in rat liver cells.

  19. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against cadmium-induced damage in cultured rat normal liver cells

    PubMed Central

    ODEWUMI, CAROLINE O.; BADISA, VEERA L.D.; LE, UYEN T.; LATINWO, LEKAN M.; IKEDIOBI, CHRISTOPHER O.; BADISA, RAMESH B.; DARLING-REED, SELINA F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of reduced glutathione, were studied by measuring the viability, the levels of antioxidant enzymes, and by analyzing the cell cycle in cadmium (Cd)-treated rat liver cells. The cells were treated with 150 μM CdCl2 alone or co-treated with 150 μM CdCl2 and 5 mM NAC (2 h pre-, simultaneous or 2 h post-treatment) for 24 h. The viability of the cells treated with 150 μM CdCl2 alone decreased to 40.1%, while that of the cells co-treated with 5 mM NAC (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment) significantly increased to 83.7, 86.2 and 83.7%, respectively in comparison to the control cells (100%). The catalase enzyme level decreased to undetectable level in the cells treated with CdCl2 alone, while it significantly increased in the co-treated cells (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment) to 40.1, 34.3 and 13.2%, respectively. In the cells treated with CdCl2 alone, the glutathione peroxidase enzyme level decreased to 78.3%, while it increased in the co-treated cells (pre-, simultaneous, and post-treatment) to 84.5, 83.3 and 87.9%, respectively. The glutathione reductase enzyme level decreased to 56.1% in the cells treated with cadmium alone, but significantly increased in the cells co treated with NAC (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment) to 79.5, 78.5 and 78.2%, respectively. Cd caused cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases. The co-treatment with NAC inhibited cell cycle arrest by shifting the cells to the G1 phase. These results clearly show the protective effects of NAC against Cd-induced damage in rat liver cells. PMID:21125209

  20. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DAN damage in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes inmore » the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. - Highlights: • DPAA, an environmental neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis in rats. • DPAA is an activator of AhR signaling pathway. • DPAA promoted oxidative DNA damage in rat livers. • AhR target gene CYP 1B1 might be involved in the metabolism of DPAA.« less

  1. Protective Effects of Co-Enzyme Q10 on Thioacetamide-Induced Acute Liver Damage and Its Correlation With Behavioral, Biochemical, and Pathological Factors.

    PubMed

    Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil; Bagheri, Fereshteh; Emami, Yasaman; Esmaeilzadeh, Elmira; Azarpira, Negar; Hassanabadi, Nazila; Keshtkar, Marzieh; Farjam, Mojtaba; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Noorafshan, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Acute liver damage may be followed by biochemical, behavioral, and pathological alterations, which can result in serious complications and even death. In this experimental study we determined whether coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a common supplementary medicine known to have protective, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects in cells, has any protective effect against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver damage and its related neurobehavioral alterations in rats. In this experimental study forty-eight Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12): C1 was the control group; C2 received a single-dose of TAA (350mg/kg; intraperitoneally) without any other treatment; E1 received TAA + 5 mg/kg CoQ10 (intraperitoneally); and E2 received TAA + 10 mg/kg CoQ10. After sacrificing the rats, liver enzymes and plasma-ammonia (NH4) were measured and histopathological analyses of the livers were carried out. Elevated-plus-maze, open-field, and forced-swimming tests were also performed to investigate behavioral correlations. The serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), and NH4 show significant increases (P < 0.05). The groups treated with CoQ10 were shown to have significantly lower clinical grade of encephalopathy (P = 0.001), higher locomotor activity (P = 0.000), and lower levels of depression (P = 0.000). Furthermore, it was also shown that CoQ10 treatment may lead to significant decreases in scores of centrilobular necrosis, apoptosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, vacuolization, and liver necrosis (P < 0.05). Overall, CoQ10 was determined to have positive effects on liver injury and its related behavioral and biochemical changes.

  2. Protective Effects of Co-Enzyme Q10 on Thioacetamide-Induced Acute Liver Damage and Its Correlation With Behavioral, Biochemical, and Pathological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil; Bagheri, Fereshteh; Emami, Yasaman; Esmaeilzadeh, Elmira; Azarpira, Negar; Hassanabadi, Nazila; Keshtkar, Marzieh; Farjam, Mojtaba; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Noorafshan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute liver damage may be followed by biochemical, behavioral, and pathological alterations, which can result in serious complications and even death. Objectives In this experimental study we determined whether coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a common supplementary medicine known to have protective, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects in cells, has any protective effect against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver damage and its related neurobehavioral alterations in rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study forty-eight Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12): C1 was the control group; C2 received a single-dose of TAA (350mg/kg; intraperitoneally) without any other treatment; E1 received TAA + 5 mg/kg CoQ10 (intraperitoneally); and E2 received TAA + 10 mg/kg CoQ10. After sacrificing the rats, liver enzymes and plasma-ammonia (NH4) were measured and histopathological analyses of the livers were carried out. Elevated-plus-maze, open-field, and forced-swimming tests were also performed to investigate behavioral correlations. Results The serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), and NH4 show significant increases (P < 0.05). The groups treated with CoQ10 were shown to have significantly lower clinical grade of encephalopathy (P = 0.001), higher locomotor activity (P = 0.000), and lower levels of depression (P = 0.000). Furthermore, it was also shown that CoQ10 treatment may lead to significant decreases in scores of centrilobular necrosis, apoptosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, vacuolization, and liver necrosis (P < 0.05). Conclusions Overall, CoQ10 was determined to have positive effects on liver injury and its related behavioral and biochemical changes. PMID:28058114

  3. Polydatin attenuates d-galactose-induced liver and brain damage through its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lie-Qiang; Xie, You-Liang; Gui, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Xie; Mo, Zhi-Zhun; Sun, Chao-Yue; Li, Cai-Lan; Luo, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Su, Zi-Ren; Xie, Jian-Hui

    2016-11-09

    Accumulating evidence has shown that chronic injection of d-galactose (d-gal) can mimic natural aging, with accompanying liver and brain injury. Oxidative stress and apoptosis play a vital role in the aging process. In this study, the antioxidant ability of polydatin (PD) was investigated using four established in vitro systems. An in vivo study was also conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of PD on d-gal-induced liver and brain damage. The results showed that PD had remarkable in vitro free radical scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH˙), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS + ˙) radical ions, and hydroxyl and superoxide anions. Results in vivo indicated that, in a group treated with d-gal plus PD, PD remarkably decreased the depression of body weight and organ indexes, reduced the levels of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alleviated alterations in liver and brain histopathology. PD also significantly decreased the level of MDA and elevated SOD, GSH-Px, CAT activity and T-AOC levels in the liver and brain. In addition, the levels of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum were markedly reduced after PD treatment. Western blotting results revealed that PD treatment noticeably attenuated the d-gal-induced elevation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and caspase-3 protein expression in liver and brain. Overall, our findings indicate that PD treatment could effectively attenuate d-gal-induced liver and brain damage, and the mechanism might be associated with decreasing the oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis caused by d-gal. PD holds good potential for further development into a promising pharmaceutical candidate for the treatment of age-associated diseases.

  4. Application of proteomic and bioinformatic techniques for studying the hepatoprotective effect of dioscin against CCl₄-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Binan; Yin, Lianhong; Xu, Lina; Peng, Jinyong

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the significant hepatoprotective effect of dioscin against CCl₄-induced acute liver damage in mice was first discovered, and the effect produced by dioscin at the dose of 100 mg/kg was equal to the action produced by silymarin at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Then, 1-dimension gel electrophoresis was used to separate the liver proteins, and five differentially expressed bands were selected. After in-gel digestion, 71 proteins were identified by nano-RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS. Further network analysis suggested that the identified proteins formed a connected protein interaction subnetwork. Ten functional categories were selected to demonstrate the distribution of the proteins by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. Six of the proteins, heat shock protein 5 (HSPA5), annexin 6 (ANXA6), isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD), ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6), cytoglobin (Cygb), and nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (NDPK-A), were validated by Western blotting assay. They might be involved in the hepatoprotective effect of dioscin, and their investigation could be useful, together with the determination of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, as well as the liver histopathologic study, for the elucidation of the action mechanisms of dioscin against CCl₄-induced liver injury. Our work shows that the validated proteins should be considered as biomarkers for the investigation of acute liver injury, and its results should contribute to the therapy of liver damage by dioscin in the future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Disruption of erythrocyte antioxidant defense system, hematological parameters, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and DNA damage in liver of co-exposed rats to aluminium and acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Kallel, Choumous; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-07-05

    The individual toxic effects of aluminium and acrylamide are well known but there are no data on their combined effects. The present study was undertaken to determine (i) hematological parameters during individual and combined chronic exposure to aluminium and acrylamide (ii) correlation of oxidative stress in erythrocytes with pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage and histopathological changes in the liver. Rats were exposed to aluminium (50 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage, either individually or in combination for 3 weeks. Exposure rats to AlCl3 or/and ACR provoked an increase in MDA, AOPP, H2O2 and a decrease in GSH and NPSH levels in erythrocytes. Activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were decreased in all treated rats. Our results showed that all treatments induced an increase in WBC, erythrocyte osmotic fragility and a decrease in RBC, Hb and Ht. While MCV, MCH, MCHC remained unchanged. Hepatic pro-inflammatory cytokines expression including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β was increased suggesting leucocytes infiltration in the liver. A random DNA degradation was observed on agarose gel only in the liver of co-exposed rats to AlCl3 and ACR treatment. Interestingly, co-exposure to these toxicants exhibited synergism based on physical and biochemical variables in erythrocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and DNA damage in liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A New Intelligent Medical Decision Support System Based on Enhanced Hierarchical Clustering and Random Decision Forest for the Classification of Alcoholic Liver Damage, Primary Hepatoma, Liver Cirrhosis, and Cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aman; Pandey, Babita

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosis of liver disease principally depends on physician's subjective knowledge. Automatic prediction of the disease is a critical real-world medical problem. This work presents an EHC-ERF-based intelligence-integrated model purposive to predict different types of liver disease including alcoholic liver damage, primary hepatoma, liver cirrhosis, and cholelithiasis. These diseases cause many clinical complications, and their accurate assessment is the only way for providing efficient treatment facilities to patients. EHC is deployed to divide the data into a hierarchy structure that is more informative for the disease predictions carried out by ERF. The occurrence of ERF error rate was dependent on correlation and strength of each individual tree where correlation is directly proportional to forest error rate and strength is inversely proportional to the forest rate. In total, two individual and three integrated classification models are developed to achieve enhanced predictions for the liver disease types. Analysis of results showed that the proposed framework achieved better outcomes in terms of accuracy, true positive rate, precision, F -measure, kappa statistic, mean absolute error, and root mean squared error. Furthermore, it achieved the highest accuracy rates when compared with the state-of-the-art techniques. Results also indicated that the weighted distance function employed in EHC has improved the efficiency of proposed system and has shown the capability to be used by physicians for diagnostic advice.

  7. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of Olea europaea leaves against Diclofenac-induced liver damages in mice.

    PubMed

    Soussi, Rawya; Hfaiedh, Najla; Guesmi, Fatma; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2018-04-20

    Historically, olive tree "Olea europaea" is one of the most important fruit trees in Mediterranean countries. Several studies suggest that olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds compared to olive oil and fruits. This study was undertaken to investigate, the protective effect of the aqueous extract of « Chemlali » olive leaves against diclofenac-induced damages in liver and haematological alterations in swiss albinos mice. For this, twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups: a control group, a diclofenac-treated group (2.37 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days, a group orally gavaged with aqueous extract of olive leaves, (3.3g/kg) during 28 days, and a group pre-treated with aqueous extract of olive leaves during 23 days then injected with diclofenac for 5 days. Results obtained from this study revealed that administration of diclofenac alone led to disturbance of some haematological parameters including red and white blood cells (RBC), (WBC) haemoglobin (Hb) and platelets content (PLT). However, diclofenac-treated mice group showed a increasing in the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, creatinine, urea, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). Additionally we noted a state of oxidative stress in hepatic tissue indicated by the increasing of lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Interstingly, pre-treatment with olive leaves extract improved the haematological parameters and minimised the adverse effect on the hepatic function markers induced by diclofenac. The beneficial effect of olive leaves could be attributed to its antioxidant components as confirmed by phytochemical analysis.

  8. [Analysis of liver damage and reactivation of hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B surface antigen positive patients after extremely severe burn injury].

    PubMed

    Bian, Huining; Lai, Wen; Zheng, Shaoyi; Liu, Zu'an; Huang, Zhifeng; Sun, Chuanwei; Ma, Lianghua; Li, Hanhua; Chen, Huade

    2015-08-01

    To analyze the development of liver damage and reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) during the treatment of extremely severe burn injury in HBsAg positive patients, in order to provide reference for prevention and treatment of liver damage in patients with HBV infection after extremely severe burn. Medical records of 54 HBsAg positive patients after extremely severe burn injury admitted from January 2004 to December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Development of liver damage and HBV reactivation of these patients during the treatment were analyzed according to the classification of their gender, results of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA examinations on admission, and development of sepsis in the process of treatment. Data were processed with chi-square test. (1) The incidence of liver damage in the process of treatment of these patients was 85.2% (46/54). Among all the patients, the proportion of liver damage was 35/38 in male, which was significantly higher than that in female (11/16, χ² = 4.867, P<0.05). Liver damage was found in all of 26 patients who were HBeAg positive on admission, 34 patients who were HBV DNA positive on admission, and 36 patients who developed sepsis in the process of treatment; the proportions were significantly higher than those in patients who were HBeAg negative on admission (20/28), patients who were HBV DNA negative on admission (12/20), and patients who did not develop sepsis in the process of treatment (10/18), with χ² values respectively 11.801, 18.384, and 20.574, P values below 0.01. (2) The incidence of HBV reactivation in these patients was 29.6% (16/54). Among all the patients, the proportion of HBV reactivation was 13/38 in male and 3/16 in female, with no statistically significant difference between them (χ² = 0.656, P>0.05). The proportions of HBV reactivation in patients who were HBeAg positive on admission, patients who were HBV DNA positive on admission, and patients who developed sepsis in the

  9. Phytochemical profile of a microalgae Euglena tuba and its hepatoprotective effect against iron-induced liver damage in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Panja, S; Chaudhuri, D; Ghate, N B; Mandal, N

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate different phytochemical constituents and the ameliorating effect of 70% methanol extract of Euglena tuba (ETME) on iron overload-induced liver injury, along with its in vitro iron-chelating and DNA protection effects. Phytochemicals of ETME were identified by GC-MS analysis. Iron chelation and protection of Fenton reaction-induced DNA damage was conducted in vitro. Post oral administration of ETME to iron-overloaded mice, the levels of serum parameters, antioxidant enzymes, liver iron, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline contents were measured. ETME showed inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and liver fibrosis. The serum markers and liver iron were lessened, whereas enhanced levels of liver antioxidant enzymes were detected in ETME-treated group. Furthermore, the histopathological observations also substantiated the protective effects of the extract. Several bioactive compounds identified by GC-MS may be the basis of hepatoprotective as well as antioxidant and iron-chelating effect of ETME. Currently available iron-chelating agents show several side effects and limitations which may be overcome by ETME, which suggest its benefit against pathology of iron overload-linked diseases. Hence, ETME can be used as a promising hepatoprotective agent. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Surgical management and outcome of blunt major liver injuries: experience of damage control laparotomy with perihepatic packing in one trauma centre.

    PubMed

    Lin, Being-Chuan; Fang, Jen-Feng; Chen, Ray-Jade; Wong, Yon-Cheong; Hsu, Yu-Pao

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to assess the clinical experience and outcome of damage control laparotomy with perihepatic packing in the management of blunt major liver injuries. From January 1998 to December 2006, 58 patients of blunt major liver injury, American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-Organ Injury Scale (AAST-OIS) equal or greater than III, were operated with perihepatic packing at our institute. Demographic data, intra-operative findings, operative procedures, adjunctive managements and outcome were reviewed. To determine whether there was statistical difference between the survivor and non-survivor groups, data were compared by using Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, either Pearson's chi-square test or with Yates continuity correction for contingency tables, and results were considered statistically significant if p<0.05. Of the 58 patients, 20 (35%) were classified as AAST-OIS grade III, 24 (41%) as grade IV, and 14 (24%) as grade V. At laparotomy, depending on the severity of injuries, all 58 patients underwent various liver-related procedures and perihepatic packing. The more frequent liver-related procedures included debridement hepatectomy (n=21), hepatorrhaphy (n=19), selective hepatic artery ligation (n=11) and 7 patients required post-laparotomy hepatic transarterial embolization. Of the 58 patients, 28 survived and 30 died with a 52% mortality rate. Of the 30 deaths, uncontrolled liver bleeding in 24-h caused 25 deaths and delayed sepsis caused residual 5 deaths. The mortality rate versus OIS was grade III: 30% (6/20), grade IV: 54% (13/24), and grade V: 79% (11/14), respectively. On univariate analysis, the significant predictors of mortality were OIS grade (p=0.019), prolonged initial prothrombin time (PT) (p=0.004), active partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (p<0.0001) and decreased platelet count (p=0.005). The mortality rate of surgical blunt major liver injuries remains high even with perihepatic packing. Since

  11. Delayed hepatic signal recovery on ferucarbotran-enhanced magnetic resonance images: an experimental study in rat livers with gadolinium chloride-induced Kupffer cell damage.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Nakagami, Ryutaro; Akahane, Masaaki; Minami, Manabu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Fujii, Hirofumi

    2013-06-01

    Hepatic signal recovery, rather than reduction, in ferucarbotran-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a potential diagnostic marker of liver damage. We investigated hepatic signal recovery in rats with gadolinium chloride (GdCl3)-induced Kupffer cell (KC) damage. Twelve rats received 8 μmol iron/kg of ferucarbotran 1 day after 0-7.5 mg/kg GdCl3 injection (experiment A). Another 12 rats received ferucarbotran followed by GdCl3 injection 6 h later (experiment B). In each experiment, three rats without GdCl3 ("no injury group") served as control. Another six rats received GdCl3 alone without ferucarbotran. Hepatic signals were assessed on T 2 (*) -weighted images for up to 29 days. Iron deposits were histologically examined on day 29. Hepatic signal recovery was delayed in a GdCl3 dose-dependent manner in experiment A. Gadolinium chloride alone reduced hepatic signal 15 % during this experiment. Hepatic signal recovery was delayed only in rats that received 7.5 mg/kg GdCl3 in experiment B. Hepatic signals negatively correlated with iron deposits in KCs and hepatocytes. Hepatic signal recovery on ferucarbotran-enhanced MRI was delayed in the context of GdCl3-induced KC damage due to increased hepatic iron deposits. Hepatic signal recovery may be used as a clinical marker of KC damage in liver disorders, including radiation-induced hepatitis.

  12. Hepatoprotective potential of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed against CCl4 -induced liver damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kasote, D. M.; Badhe, Y. S.; Zanwar, A. A.; Hegde, M. V.; Deshmukh, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the hepatoprotective potential of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed against CCl4 -induced liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced to Wistar rats by administration of 0.2% CCl4 in olive oil (8 mL/kg, i.p.) on the seventh day of treatment. Hepatoprotective potential of EPC-BF at doses, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. was assessed through biochemical and histological parameters. Results: EPC-BF and silymarin pretreated animal groups showed significantly decreased activities of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and level of total bilirubin, elevated by CCl4 intoxication. Hepatic lipid peroxidation elevated by CCl4 intoxication were also found to be alleviated at almost normal level in the EPC-BF and silymarin pretreated groups. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and treatment of EPC-BF at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. was found to be effective in restoring CCl4 -induced hepatic damage. However, EPC-BF did not show dose-dependent hepatoprotective potential. EPC-BF depicted maximum protection against CCl4 -induced hepatic damage at lower dose 250 mg/kg than higher dose (500 mg/ kg). Conclusion: EPC-BF possesses the significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced liver damage, which could be mediated through increase in antioxidant defenses. PMID:22923966

  13. Hepatoprotective potential of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed against CCl(4) -induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kasote, D M; Badhe, Y S; Zanwar, A A; Hegde, M V; Deshmukh, K K

    2012-07-01

    to investigate the hepatoprotective potential of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed against CCl(4) -induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced to Wistar rats by administration of 0.2% CCl(4) in olive oil (8 mL/kg, i.p.) on the seventh day of treatment. Hepatoprotective potential of EPC-BF at doses, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. was assessed through biochemical and histological parameters. EPC-BF and silymarin pretreated animal groups showed significantly decreased activities of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and level of total bilirubin, elevated by CCl(4) intoxication. Hepatic lipid peroxidation elevated by CCl(4) intoxication were also found to be alleviated at almost normal level in the EPC-BF and silymarin pretreated groups. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and treatment of EPC-BF at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. was found to be effective in restoring CCl(4) -induced hepatic damage. However, EPC-BF did not show dose-dependent hepatoprotective potential. EPC-BF depicted maximum protection against CCl(4) -induced hepatic damage at lower dose 250 mg/kg than higher dose (500 mg/ kg). EPC-BF possesses the significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl(4) induced liver damage, which could be mediated through increase in antioxidant defenses.

  14. Enlarged Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... of liver damage. Medicinal herbs. Certain herbs, including comfrey, ma huang and mistletoe, can increase your risk ... herbs to avoid include germander, chaparral, senna, mistletoe, comfrey, ma huang, valerian root, kava, celandine and green ...

  15. Prophylactic role of B vitamins against bulk and zinc oxide nano-particles toxicity induced oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in rat livers.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Jehad Mustafa; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the protective of B vitamins (B(3), B(6) and B(12)) against the hepatotoxic potency of either bulk zinc oxide (ZnO-bulk) or its nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs)-induced liver damage in rats. ZnO- bulk or its NPs were administered orally (500 mg/kg b.w.) for 10 successive days. The results revealed that oral co-administration of combination of B vitamins (250 mg B(3), 60 mg B(6) and 0.6 mg B(12)/Kg body weight) daily for 3 weeks to rats intoxicated by either ZnO- bulk or its NPs markedly ameliorated increases in serum of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehdrogenase (LDH). The B vitamins also down-regulated increases in serum glucose level as well as increases in immuno-inflammatory biomarkers, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein compared with intoxicated, untreated rats. Beside, the used agent successfully modulated the alterations in serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), attenuated liver oxidative DNA damage compared with ZnO intoxicated groups. We showed that the used B complex mitigated increased malondialdehyde (MDA), decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and increase in the apoptosis marker caspase 3 of liver tissue in response to either ZnO-bulk or its NP toxicity. In conclusion, early treatment with vitamin B complex may protect liver tissue from deleterious damage induced by the toxic effects of ZnO-bulk or its NPs.

  16. Impact of the Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Administration on Trace Element and Mineral Levels in Relation of Kidney and Liver Damage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Duygu; Karabulut, Gözde; Şimşek, Gülsu; Gok, Muslum; Barlas, Nurhayat; Ulusu, Nuriye Nuray

    2018-04-13

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used synthetic polymer in the industry. DEHP may induce reproductive and developmental toxicity, obesity, carcinogenesis and cause abnormal endocrine function in both human and wildlife. The aim of this study was to investigate trace element and mineral levels in relation of kidney and liver damage in DEHP-administered rats. Therefore, prepubertal male rats were dosed with 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day of DEHP. At the end of the experiment, trace element and mineral levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activities were evaluated in the serum, liver, and kidney samples of rats. Furthermore, serum clinical biochemistry parameters, organ/body weight ratios and histological changes were investigated to evaluate impact of DEHP more detailed. Our data indicated that sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), lithium (Li), rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs) levels significantly decreased, however iron (Fe) and selenium (Se) concentrations significantly increased in DEHP-administered groups compared to the control in the serum samples. On the other hand, upon DEHP administration, selenium concentration, G6PD and GR activities were significantly elevated, however 6-PGD activity significantly decreased compared to the control group in the kidney samples. Decreased G6PD activity was the only significant change between anti-oxidant enzyme activities in the liver samples. Upon DEHP administration, aberrant serum biochemical parameters have arisen and abnormal histological changes were observed in the kidney and liver tissue. In conclusion, DEHP may induce liver and kidney damage, also result abnormalities in the trace element and mineral levels.

  17. Curcumin ameliorates liver damage and progression of NASH in NASH-HCC mouse model possibly by modulating HMGB1-NF-κB translocation.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Rejina; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Rahman, Azizur; Wahed, Mir Imam Ibne; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Suzuki, Kenji; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin, a phenolic compound, has a wide spectrum of therapeutic effects such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and so on. The study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of curcumin to protect liver damage and progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a novel NASH-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mouse model. To induce this model neonatal C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to low-dose streptozotocin and were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) from the age of 4weeks to 14weeks. Curcumin was given at 100mg/kg dose daily by oral gavage started at the age of 10weeks and continued until 14weeks along with HFD feeding. We found that curcumin improved the histopathological changes of the NASH liver via reducing the level of steatosis, fibrosis associated with decreasing serum aminotransferases. In addition, curcumin treatment markedly reduced the hepatic protein expression of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines including interferon (IFN) γ, interleukin-1β and IFNγ-inducible protein 10, in NASH mice. Furthermore, curcumin treatment significantly reduced the cytoplasmic translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and the protein expression of toll like receptor 4. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was also dramatically attenuated by the curcumin in NASH liver. Curcumin treatment effectively reduced the progression of NASH to HCC by suppressing the protein expression of glypican-3, vascular endothelial growth factor, and prothrombin in the NASH liver. Our data suggest that curcumin reduces the progression of NASH and liver damage, which may act via inhibiting HMGB1-NF-κB translocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Liver-Specific Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 Significantly Ameliorates Chronic EtOH-Induced Increases in Hepatocellular Damage.

    PubMed

    Shearn, Colin T; Orlicky, David J; McCullough, Rebecca L; Jiang, Hua; Maclean, Kenneth N; Mercer, Kelly E; Stiles, Bangyan L; Saba, Laura M; Ronis, Martin J; Petersen, Dennis R

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a significant contributor to global liver failure. In murine models, chronic ethanol consumption dysregulates PTEN/Akt signaling. Hepatospecific deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTENLKO) mice possess constitutive activation of Akt(s) and increased de novo lipogenesis resulting in increased hepatocellular steatosis. This makes PTENLKO a viable model to examine the effects of ethanol in an environment of preexisting steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic ethanol consumption and the absence of PTEN (PTENLKO) compared to Alb-Cre control mice (PTENf/f) on hepatocellular damage as evidenced by changes in lipid accumulation, protein carbonylation and alanine amino transferase (ALT). In the control PTENf/f animals, ethanol significantly increased ALT, liver triglycerides and steatosis. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in PTENLKO mice decreased hepatocellular damage when compared to PTENLKO pair-fed controls. Consumption of ethanol elevated protein carbonylation in PTENf/f animals but had no effect in PTENLKO animals. In PTENLKO mice, overall hepatic mRNA expression of genes that contribute to GSH homeostasis as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations were significantly elevated compared to respective PTENf/f counterparts. These data indicate that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and steatosis, increased GSH homeostasis assists in mitigation of ethanol-dependent induction of oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, data herein suggest a divergence in EtOH-induced hepatocellular damage and increases in steatosis due to polyunsaturated fatty acids downstream of PTEN.

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of chrysin is mediated through TNF-α in chemically-induced acute liver damage: An in vivo study and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Hermenean, Anca; Mariasiu, Teodora; Navarro-González, Inmaculada; Vegara-Meseguer, Josefina; Miuțescu, Eftimie; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio

    2017-05-01

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a naturally occurring flavonoid present at high levels in honey, propolis and numerous plant extracts. Chrysin is known to have hepatoprotective activity, however, the mechanisms by which it exerts this effect remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of chrysin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced acute liver damage were investigated and the results used to infer a possible mechanism behind chrysin's hepatoprotective activity. Prior to an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (1 ml/kg) to induce acute liver damage, chrysin (50 mg/kg) was administered orally to mice for 7 days. The positive control group was given 50 mg/kg standardized silymarin, a well-studied hepatoprotective flavonoid. Twenty-four h following CCl4 administration, an increase in the activity levels of serum aspartate-amino-transferase and alanine-amino-transferase was found. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis and an altered hepatocyte ultrastructure. In addition, CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity was associated with an increase in hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein expression, which was significantly decreased in the livers of mice pre-treated with chrysin (P<0.001), similar to the results of the silymarin pre-treated group (P<0.001). Treatment with chrysin prior to CCl4 exposure significantly reduced the activity of enzymes used as biochemical markers of poor liver function compared with the group which did not receive pre-treatment (P<0.001). In addition, the results of histopathological and electron microscopy liver examination showed chrysin pre-treatment reduced the effects of CCl4 treatment. Molecular modeling results demonstrated that the hepatoprotective activity of chrysin is mediated through TNF-α, as it reduces soluble TNF-α generation via blocking TNF-α-converting enzyme activity. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that inflammatory

  20. 6-Gingerol-Rich Fraction from Zingiber officinale Prevents Hematotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Kidney and Liver of Rats Exposed to Carbendazim.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Mariama; Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a globally marketed flavoring agent and cooking spice with a long history of human health benefits. The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) is often detected in fruits and vegetables for human nutrition and has been reported to elicit toxic effects in different experimental animal models. The present study investigated the protective effects of 6-Gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from ginger on hematotoxicity and hepatorenal damage in rats exposed to CBZ. CBZ was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg alone or simultaneously administered with 6-GRF at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, whereas control rats received corn oil alone at 2 mL/kg for 14 days. Hematological examination showed that CBZ-mediated toxicity to the total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets counts were normalized to the control values in rats cotreated with 6-GRF. Moreover, administration of CBZ significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase as well as glutathione level in the livers and kidneys of rats compared with control. However, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde were markedly elevated in kidneys and livers of CBZ-treated rats compared with control. The significant elevation in the plasma indices of renal and hepatic dysfunction in CBZ-treated rats was confirmed by light microscopy. Coadministration of 6-GRF exhibited chemoprotection against CBZ-mediated hematotoxicity, augmented antioxidant status, and prevented oxidative damage in the kidney and liver of rats.

  1. Choline supplementation protects against liver damage by normalizing cholesterol metabolism in Pemt/Ldlr knockout mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Al Rajabi, Ala; Castro, Gabriela S F; da Silva, Robin P; Nelson, Randy C; Thiesen, Aducio; Vannucchi, Helio; Vine, Donna F; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J; Curtis, Jonathan M; Jacobs, René L

    2014-03-01

    Dietary choline is required for proper structure and dynamics of cell membranes, lipoprotein synthesis, and methyl-group metabolism. In mammals, choline is synthesized via phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt), which converts phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. Pemt(-/-) mice have impaired VLDL secretion and developed fatty liver when fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Because of the reduction in plasma lipids, Pemt(-/-)/low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice are protected from atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of dietary choline in the metabolic phenotype of Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) male mice. At 10-12 wk of age, Pemt(+/+)/Ldlr(-/-) (HF(+/+)) and half of the Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) (HF(-/-)) mice were fed an HF diet with normal (1.3 g/kg) choline. The remaining Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) mice were fed an HF diet supplemented (5 g/kg) with choline (HFCS(-/-) mice). The HF diet contained 60% of calories from fat and 1% cholesterol, and the mice were fed for 16 d. HF(-/-) mice lost weight and developed hepatomegaly, steatohepatitis, and liver damage. Hepatic concentrations of free cholesterol, cholesterol-esters, and triglyceride (TG) were elevated by 30%, 1.1-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, in HF(-/-) compared with HF(+/+) mice. Choline supplementation normalized hepatic cholesterol, but not TG, and dramatically improved liver function. The expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport and esterification increased by 50% to 5.6-fold in HF(-/-) mice when compared with HF(+/+) mice. Markers of macrophages, oxidative stress, and fibrosis were elevated in the HF(-/-) mice. Choline supplementation normalized the expression of these genes. In conclusion, HF(-/-) mice develop liver failure associated with altered cholesterol metabolism when fed an HF/normal choline diet. Choline supplementation normalized cholesterol metabolism, which was sufficient to prevent nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development

  2. Protective activity of Panduratin A against Thioacetamide-induced oxidative damage: demonstration with in vitro experiments using WRL-68 liver cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chalcone Panduratin A (PA) has been known for its antioxidant property, but its merits against oxidative damage in liver cells has yet to be investigated. Hence, the paper aimed at accomplishing this task with normal embryonic cell line WRL-68. Methods PA was isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda rhizomes and its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) activities were measured in comparison with that of the standard reference drug Silymarin (SI). Oxidative damage was induced by treating the cells with 0.04 g/ml of toxic thioacetamide for 60 minutes followed by treatment with 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml concentrations of either PA or SI. The severities of oxidative stress in the control and experimental groups of cells were measured by Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Results PA exhibited an acceptable DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities close to that of Silymarin. Treating the injured cells with PA significantly reduced the MDA level and increased the cell viability, comparable to SI. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly elevated in the PA-treated cells in a dose dependent manner and again similar to SI. Conclusion Collectively, data suggested that PA has capacity to protect normal liver cells from oxidative damage, most likely via its antioxidant scavenging ability. PMID:24156366

  3. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Related Liver Damage in Adolescents by Reshaping Cellular Interactions and Hepatic Adipocytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Carpino, Guido; De Peppo, Francesco; Caccamo, Romina; Mosca, Antonella; Romito, Ilaria; Overi, Diletta; Franchitto, Antonio; Onori, Paolo; Alisi, Anna; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2018-03-01

    To investigate whether the modulation of local cellular cross-talks and the modification of hepatic adipocytokine expression could mechanistically explain the improvement of liver histopathology after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Twenty obese (body mass index of ≥35 kg/m 2 ) adolescents who underwent LSG and with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included. At baseline (T0) and 1 year after treatment, patients underwent clinical evaluation, blood tests, and liver biopsy. Hepatic progenitor cells, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), macrophages, and adipocytokines were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Liver biopsy samples after LSG demonstrated a significant improvement of NAFLD Activity Score and fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry indicated a significant reduction of hepatocyte cell cycle arrest, ductular reaction, activated HSC, and macrophage number after LSG compared with T0. The activation state of HSC was accompanied by modification in the expression of the autophagy marker LC3. Hepatocyte expression of adiponectin was significant higher after LSG than into T0. Moreover, LSG caused decreased resistin expression in Sox9 + hepatic progenitor cells compared with T0. The number of S100A9 + macrophages was also reduced by LSG correlating with resistin expression. Finally, serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines significantly correlated with macrophages and activated HSC numbers. The histologic improvement induced by LSG is associated with the reduced activation of local cellular compartments (hepatic progenitor cells, HSCs, and macrophages), thus, strengthening the role of cellular interactions and hepatic adipocytokine production in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrodynamic rupture of liver in combat patient: a case of successful application of "damage control" tactic in area of the hybrid war in East Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Khomenko, Igor; Shapovalov, Vitalii; Tsema, Ievgen; Makarov, Georgii; Palytsia, Roman; Zavodovskyi, Ievgen; Ishchenko, Ivan; Dinets, Andrii; Mishalov, Vladimir

    2017-08-15

    The hybrid war of Russia against Ukraine has been started in certain districts of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts within the Donbas area in 2014. We report a clinical case of a combat patient who was injured after the multiple launcher rocket system "Grad" shelling, diagnosed with hydrodynamic liver rupture followed by medical management with application of damage control (DC) tactic in conditions of hybrid war. The patient underwent relaparatomy, liver resection, endoscopic papillosphincterotomy, endoscopic retrograde cholecystopancreatography, stenting of the common bile duct, and VAC-therapy. Applied treatment modalities were effective; the patient was discharged on the 49th day after injury. To our best knowledge, this is the first report describing a successful application of DC tactic in the hybrid war in East Ukraine. From this case, we suggest that application of DC tactic at all levels of combat medical care could save more lives.

  5. Kupffer Cells Undergo Fundamental Changes during the Development of Experimental NASH and Are Critical in Initiating Liver Damage and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Reid, D. T.; Reyes, J. L.; McDonald, B. A.; Vo, T.; Reimer, R. A.; Eksteen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become the leading liver disease in North America and is associated with the progressive inflammatory liver disease non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Considerable effort has been made to understand the role of resident and recruited macrophage populations in NASH however numerous questions remain. Our goal was to characterize the dynamic changes in liver macrophages during the initiation of NASH in a murine model. Using the methionine-choline deficient diet we found that liver-resident macrophages, Kupffer cells were lost early in disease onset followed by a robust infiltration of Ly-6C+ monocyte-derived macrophages that retained a dynamic phenotype. Genetic profiling revealed distinct patterns of inflammatory gene expression between macrophage subsets. Only early depletion of liver macrophages using liposomal clodronate prevented the development of NASH in mice suggesting that Kupffer cells are critical for the orchestration of inflammation during experimental NASH. Increased understanding of these dynamics may allow us to target potentially harmful populations whilst promoting anti-inflammatory or restorative populations to ultimately guide the development of effective treatment strategies. PMID:27454866

  6. Kupffer Cells Undergo Fundamental Changes during the Development of Experimental NASH and Are Critical in Initiating Liver Damage and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Reid, D T; Reyes, J L; McDonald, B A; Vo, T; Reimer, R A; Eksteen, B

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become the leading liver disease in North America and is associated with the progressive inflammatory liver disease non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Considerable effort has been made to understand the role of resident and recruited macrophage populations in NASH however numerous questions remain. Our goal was to characterize the dynamic changes in liver macrophages during the initiation of NASH in a murine model. Using the methionine-choline deficient diet we found that liver-resident macrophages, Kupffer cells were lost early in disease onset followed by a robust infiltration of Ly-6C+ monocyte-derived macrophages that retained a dynamic phenotype. Genetic profiling revealed distinct patterns of inflammatory gene expression between macrophage subsets. Only early depletion of liver macrophages using liposomal clodronate prevented the development of NASH in mice suggesting that Kupffer cells are critical for the orchestration of inflammation during experimental NASH. Increased understanding of these dynamics may allow us to target potentially harmful populations whilst promoting anti-inflammatory or restorative populations to ultimately guide the development of effective treatment strategies.

  7. The parallel universe: microRNAs and their role in chronic hepatitis, liver tissue damage and hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Haybaeck, Johannes; Zeller, Nicolas; Heikenwalder, Mathias

    2011-10-24

    In recent years, enormous progress has been made in identifying microRNAs (miRNAs) as important regulators of gene expression and their association with or control of various liver diseases such as fibrosis, hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Indeed, many genes encoding miRNAs as well as their targets have been described and their direct or indirect link to the respective liver diseases has been investigated in various experimental systems as well as in human tissue. Here we discuss current knowledge of miRNAs and their involvement in liver diseases, elaborating in particular on the contribution of miRNAs to hepatitis, fibrosis and HCC formation. We also debate possible prognostic, predictive and therapeutic values of respective miRNAs in liver diseases. The discovery of liver disease related miRNAs has constituted a major breakthrough in liver research and will most likely be of high relevance for future therapeutic strategies, especially when dealing with hepatitis, fibrosis and HCC.

  8. Patients with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure have increased concentrations of extracellular histones aggravating cellular damage and systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Gou, C; Yao, L; Lei, Z; Gu, T; Ren, F; Wen, T

    2017-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is the most common type of liver failure and associated with grave consequences. Systemic inflammation has been linked to its pathogenesis and outcome, but the identifiable triggers are absent. Recently, extracellular histones, especially H4, have been recognized as important mediators of cell damage in various inflammatory conditions. This study aimed to investigate whether extracellular histones have clinical implications in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related ACLF. One hundred and twelve patients with HBV-related ACLF, 90 patients with chronic hepatitis B, 88 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis and 40 healthy volunteers were entered into this study. Plasma histone H4 levels, cytokine profile and clinical data were obtained. Besides, patient's sera were incubated overnight with human L02 hepatocytes or monocytic U937 cells in the presence or absence of antihistone H4 antibody, and cellular damage and cytokine production were evaluated. We found that plasma histone H4 levels were greatly increased in patients with ACLF as compared with chronic hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis and healthy control subjects and were significantly associated with disease severity, systemic inflammation and outcome. Notably, ACLF patients' sera incubation decreased cultured L02 cell integrity and induced profound cytokine production in the supernatant of U937 cells. Antihistone H4 antibody treatment abrogated these adverse effects, thus confirming a cause-effect relationship between extracellular histones and organ injury/dysfunction. The data support the hypothesis that the increased extracellular histone levels in ACLF patients may aggravate disease severity by inducing cellular injury and systemic inflammation. Histone-targeted therapies may have potentially interventional value in clinical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of 950 MHz UHF electromagnetic radiation on biomarkers of oxidative damage, metabolism of UFA and antioxidants in the livers of young rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Furtado-Filho, Orlando V; Borba, Juliana B; Dallegrave, Alexsandro; Pizzolato, Tânia M; Henriques, João A P; Moreira, José C F; Saffi, Jenifer

    2014-02-01

    To assess the effect of 950 MHz ultra-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (UHF EMR) on biomarkers of oxidative damage, as well as to verify the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and the expression of the catalase in the livers of rats of different ages. Twelve rats were equally divided into two groups as controls (CR) and exposed (ER), for each age (0, 6, 15 and 30 days). Radiation exposure lasted half an hour per day for up to 51 days (21 days of gestation and 6, 15 or 30 days of life outside the womb). The specific absorption rate (SAR) ranged from 1.3-1.0 W/kg. The damage to lipids, proteins and DNA was verified by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls and comets, respectively. UFA were determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The expression of catalase was by Western blotting. The neonates had low levels of TBARS and concentrations of UFA after exposure. There was no age difference in the accumulation of protein carbonyls for any age. The DNA damage of ER 15 or 30 days was different. The exposed neonates exhibited lower expression of catalase. 950 MHz UHF EMR does not cause oxidative stress (OS), and it is not genotoxic to the livers of neonates or those of 6 and 15 day old rats, but it changes the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in neonates. For rats of 30 days, no OS, but it is genotoxic to the livers of ER to total body irradiation.

  10. High-fat-fed obese glutathione peroxidase 1-deficient mice exhibit defective insulin secretion but protection from hepatic steatosis and liver damage.

    PubMed

    Merry, Troy L; Tran, Melanie; Stathopoulos, Maria; Wiede, Florian; Fam, Barbara Christianne; Dodd, Garron T; Clarke, Iain; Watt, Matthew J; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Tiganis, Tony

    2014-05-10

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2 can promote signaling through the inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). However, in obesity, the generation of ROS exceeds the antioxidant reserve and can contribute to the promotion of insulin resistance. Glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) is an antioxidant enzyme that eliminates H2O2. Here, we have used Gpx1(-/-) mice to assess the impact of oxidative stress on glucose homeostasis in the context of obesity. Gpx1(-/-) mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet for 12 weeks exhibited systemic oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, but had unaltered whole-body insulin sensitivity, improved hepatic insulin signaling, and decreased whole-body glucose production. High-fat-fed Gpx1(-/-) mice also exhibited decreased hepatic steatosis and liver damage accompanied by decreased plasma insulin and decreased glucose-induced insulin secretion. The decreased insulin secretion was associated with reduced islet β cell pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1) and insulin content, elevated pancreatic PTP oxidation (including PTPN2 oxidation), and elevated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) Y701 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results are consistent with H2O2 inactivating pancreatic PTPs (such as the STAT1 phosphatase PTPN2) for the promotion of STAT-1 signaling to suppress Pdx1 expression and differentiation and, consequently, reduce β cell insulin secretion. We propose that the decreased insulin secretion, in turn, results in decreased hepatic lipogenesis and steatosis, attenuates liver damage, and improves hepatic insulin signaling to suppress hepatic glucose production. Limiting insulin secretion may help combat the development of hepatic steatosis and liver damage in diet-induced obesity.

  11. Protective effects of various ratios of DHA/EPA supplementation on high-fat diet-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Shang, Tingting; Liu, Liang; Zhou, Jia; Zhang, Mingzhen; Hu, Qinling; Fang, Min; Wu, Yongning; Yao, Ping; Gong, Zhiyong

    2017-03-29

    A sedentary lifestyle and poor diet are risk factors for the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic lipid accumulation is not completely understood. Therefore, the present study explored the effects of dietary supplementation of various ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on a high-fat diet-induced lipid metabolism disorder and the concurrent liver damage. Using high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 J mice as the animal model, diets of various ratios of DHA/EPA (2:1, 1:1, and 1:2) with an n-6/n-3 ratio of 4:1 were prepared using fish and algae oils enriched in DHA and/or EPA and sunflower seed oils to a small extent instead of the high-fat diet. Significantly decreased hepatic lipid deposition, body weight, serum lipid profile, inflammatory reactions, lipid peroxidation, and expression of adipogenesis-related proteins and inflammatory factors were observed for mice that were on a diet supplemented with DHA/EPA compared to those in the high-fat control group. The DHA/EPA 1:2 group showed lower serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, lower SREBP-1C, FAS, and ACC-1 relative mRNA expression, and higher Fra1 mRNA expression, with higher relative mRNA expression of enzymes such as AMPK, PPARα, and HSL observed in the DHA/EPA 1:1 group. Lower liver TC and TG levels and higher superoxide dismutase levels were found in the DHA/EPA 2:1 group. Nonetheless, no other notable effects were observed on the biomarkers mentioned above in the groups treated with DHA/EPA compared with the DHA group. The results showed that supplementation with a lower DHA/EPA ratio seems to be more effective at alleviating high-fat diet-induced liver damage in mice, and a DHA/EPA ratio of 1:2 mitigated inflammatory risk factors. These effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on lipid metabolism may be linked to the upregulation of Fra1 and attenuated activity of c

  12. Preventive effect of D-002, a mixture of long-chain alcohols from beeswax, on the liver damage induced with CCl4 in rats.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Sarahí; Noa, Miriam; Pérez, Yohani; Mas, Rosa

    2007-06-01

    D-002 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols purified from beeswax with antioxidant effects. Acute hepatotoxicity induced with CCl4 in rats has been related to increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and prevented with some antioxidants. This study investigated whether D-002 could prevent the acute CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Animals were randomly distributed into four groups: a negative control treated orally with the vehicle and three groups injected with CCl4 (1 mL/kg) and treated orally either with the vehicle (positive control) or with D-002 (25 and 100 mg/kg). Eighteen hours after CCl4 dosing, rats were anesthetized, and livers were removed for histopathological studies. Some portions were taken and homogenized for assessing malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Positive, but not negative, controls showed ballooned cells, swollen hepatocytes, and lipid-included hepatocytes, as well as necrotic areas and inflammatory infiltrates. D-002 (25 and 100 mg/kg) dose-dependently and significantly (P < .01) decreased the frequency of all abnormal liver cell types and increased that of normal hepatocytes compared with the positive controls, not showing necrotic areas or inflammatory infiltrates. D-002 dose-dependently decreased hepatic MDA levels, but only in the highest dose group were these levels significantly lower than in the positive control. In conclusion, D-002 effectively prevented the histological liver disturbances and lowered MDA levels, a marker of cellular lipid peroxidation, in rats treated with CCl4. Since increased liver lipid peroxidation has been postulated as a cause of CCl4-induced liver damage in rats, the preventive effects of D-002 could be due to its antioxidant action, but such a proposal still requires further research.

  13. Type I Interferon Supports Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Murine Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes and during Experimental Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Malte; Waibler, Zoe; Pleli, Thomas; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Cytokine regulation of high-output nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is critically involved in inflammation biology and host defense. Herein, we set out to characterize the role of type I interferon (IFN) as potential regulator of hepatic iNOS in vitro and in vivo. In this regard, we identified in murine Hepa1-6 hepatoma cells a potent synergism between pro-inflammatory interleukin-β/tumor necrosis factor-α and immunoregulatory IFNβ as detected by analysis of iNOS expression and nitrite release. Upregulation of iNOS by IFNβ coincided with enhanced binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 to a regulatory region at the murine iNOS promoter known to support target gene expression in response to this signaling pathway. Synergistic iNOS induction under the influence of IFNβ was confirmed in alternate murine Hepa56.1D hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes. To assess iNOS regulation by type I IFN in vivo, murine acetaminophen (APAP)-induced sterile liver inflammation was investigated. In this model of acute liver injury, excessive necroinflammation drives iNOS expression in diverse liver cell types, among others hepatocytes. Herein, we demonstrate impaired iNOS expression in type I IFN receptor-deficient mice which associated with diminished APAP-induced liver damage. Data presented indicate a vital role of type I IFN within the inflamed liver for fine-tuning pathological processes such as overt iNOS expression. PMID:28824623

  14. Altered hepatic mRNA expression of immune response-associated DNA damage in mice liver induced by potassium bromate: Protective role of vanillin.

    PubMed

    Ben Saad, Hajer; Driss, Dorra; Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Boudawara, Ons; Boudawara, Tahia; Ellouz Chaabouni, Samia; Mounir Zeghal, Khaled; Hakim, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Chronic exposure to potassium bromate (KBrO 3 ), a toxic halogen existing widely in the environment, environment through contaminated drinking water, has become a global problem of public health. The present study investigates the protective role of vanillin against KBrO 3 induced oxidative stress, distruption in inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage, and histopathological changes. Adult mice were exposed orally to KBrO 3 (2g/L of drinking water) for 2 weeks The co-administration of vanillin to the KBrO 3 -treated mice significantly prevented the plasma transaminases increase in. Furthermore, it inhibited hepatic lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) and protein carbonyl (PCO) formation and attenuated the KBrO 3 -mediated depletion of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione level in the liver. In addition, vanillin markedly attenuated the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and COX2 and prevented KBrO 3 -induced hepatic cell alteration and necrosis, as indicated by histopathological data. DNA damage, as assessed by the alkaline comet assay, was also found to be low in the co-treated group. Thus, these findings show that vanillin acts as potent chemopreventive agent against KBrO 3 -mediated liver oxidative stress and genotoxicity through its antioxidant properties. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1796-1807, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Capparis spinosa L. fractions and Quercetin on tert-butyl hydroperoxide- induced acute liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Foruozandeh, Hossein; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Siahpoosh, Amir; Saki, Najmaldin; Kheradmand, Parvin

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Capparis spinosa L. and Quercetin in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced acute liver damage. Different fractions of C. spinosa were examined for total phenolic content and antioxidant property. Among these fractions, hydroalcoholic extract was used to assess the hepatoprotective effect in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced hepatotoxicity model by determining serum biochemical markers, sleeping time and antioxidant assay such as reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as histopathological examination of liver tissues. The total phenolic and Quercetin contents of hydroalcoholic fraction were significantly higher than other fractions. It also showed high antioxidant activity. Pretreatment with hydroalcoholic fraction at the dose of 400 mg/kg and Quercetin at the dose of 20 mg/kg showed liver protection against t-BHP induced hepatic injury, as it was evident by a significant decrease in serum enzymes marker, sleeping time and MDA and an increase in the GSH, SOD and CAT activities confirmed by pathology tests. The final results ascertained the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of C. spinosa and Quercetin in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, this study suggests that possible mechanism of this protection may be associated with its property of scavenging free radicals which may be due to the presence of phenolic compounds.

  16. [Possible use of the growing liver biological set for hepatic recovery after toxic damage (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Gal Perin, E I; Ataullakhanov, R I; Dyuzheva, T G; Platonova, L V; Melnikova, T M; Monakov, M Yu; Dudchenko, A M; Lyundup, A V; Klabukov, I D

    2017-10-01

    The lack of acceptable pharmacological approaches for restoration of the injured liver is associated with complex of mechanisms involved in hepatic regeneration and with difficulty of the target selection. The aim of this research was to study the hepatoprotective function of the extract from both the growing and regenerating liver containing a natural set of factors crucial for the hepatic restoration. Extracts from both regenerating liver of rats after 70% hepatic resection and the growing liver of neonatal pigs were obtained using own original technique. The set of resultant extracts was named as the hepatic regeneration set (HRS). HRS fractionation was carried out using the Toyopearl HW-50S sorbent. The efficiency of HRS and its fractions was estimated using a model of the mouse liver thioacetamide injury and monitoring hepatic enzyme activity in blood serum. The activities of AST and ALT in intact animals were 50 U/l and 80 U/l, respectively; after thioacetamide administration they increased to 2059±212 U/l and 4280±440 E/l, respectively (p<0.05). Treatment of injured animals with HRS from the rat regenerating liver resulted in a significant decrease of transaminase activities to 924±148 U/l (AST; p<0.05) and 1633±308 U/l (ALT; p<0.05). A similar effect was observed after treatment with HRS from the neonatal pig liver: the AST decreased to 937±138 U/l (p<0.05), while ALT activity decreased to 1710±237 U/l (p<0.05). HRs fractionation resulted in identification two active fractions characterized by much higher (8-29) hepatotropic effect that that of the whole extract. These fractions contained peptide/protein components with the range of molecular mass of 3-60 kDa (fraction 1) and 3-25 kDa (fraction 2a). Fraction 1 also contained some polynucleotides in fraction 1. Subsequent studies of these fractions exceeding the hepatotropic effect of original HRS is clearly needed to identify their individual components by immunochromatography methods, ELISA, MRM mass

  17. Metabolically active extracellular vesicles released from hepatocytes under drug-induced liver-damaging conditions modify serum metabolome and might affect different pathophysiological processes.

    PubMed

    Royo, Felix; Palomo, Laura; Mleczko, Justyna; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Alonso, Cristina; Martínez, Ibon; Pérez-Cormenzana, Miriam; Castro, Azucena; Falcon-Perez, Juan M

    2017-02-15

    Hepatocytes are involved in the endogenous and drug metabolism; many of the enzymes involved in those processes are incorporated into extracellular vesicles and secreted into the bloodstream. Liver-damaging conditions modify the molecular cargo of those vesicles significantly. However, no information about the effect of these hepatic vesicles on the extracellular environment is available. Drug-induced liver damage increases the number of circulating extracellular vesicles and affects the release and content of hepatocyte-derived vesicles. In this work, we evaluated the metabolic effect of these vesicles on the composition of the serum. We performed a targeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) metabolomics analysis of serum samples. The samples had been first incubated with hepatic extracellular vesicles from hepatocytes challenged with acetaminophen or diclofenac. The incubation affected the serum levels of 67 metabolites, such as amino acids and different species of lipids. The metabolites included various species of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines. These compounds are the components of biological membranes; our observations suggest that the vesicles might take part in remodelling and maintenance of the membranes. Alterations in the levels of some other serum metabolites might have deleterious consequences, for example, the tetracosanoic acid with its cardiovascular effects. However, some of the metabolites whose levels were increased, including alpha-linoleic and tauroursodeoxycholic acids, have been reported to have a protective effect. Our targeted metabolomics analysis indicated that the hepatic extracellular vesicles act as nano-metabolic machines supplying the extracellular environment with the means to integrate diverse tissue responses. In conclusion, we show that the hepatic extracellular vesicles are metabolically active and might play a role in the physiopathological response to hepatic insults

  18. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. © 2013.

  19. Effects of Freeze-Thaw and Storage on Enzymatic Activities, Protein Oxidative Damage, and Immunocontent of the Blood, Liver, and Brain of Rats.

    PubMed

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Gasparotto, Juciano; Vargas, Amanda Rodrigues; da Silva Morrone, Maurilio; Kunzler, Alice; Henkin, Bernardo Saldanha; Chaves, Paloma Rodrigues; Roncato, Sabrina; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2017-06-01

    Most scientific studies are too long to be conducted in a single day or even in a few days. Thus, there is a need to store samples for subsequent investigations. There is sparse information about specific sample storage protocols that minimize analytical error and variability in evaluations of redox parameters. Therefore, the effects of storage temperature and freezing time on enzymatic activities, protein oxidative damage, and CAT (catalase) and SOD1 (superoxide dismutase) immunocontent of blood, liver, and brain from rats were determined for two different sample forms (frozen homogenized tissue or frozen intact tissue). Superoxide dismutase activity was drastically decreased in blood and liver with an increase in freezing time, but not in brain. Catalase activity showed a decrease only in intact liver at -20 and -80°C. In contrast, in blood it showed an increase in intact tissue at -20 and -80°C. Reduced thiol groups generally decreased with freezing time, but showed an increase in intact blood at -20 and -80°C, probably because of color interference. Carbonyl groups in homogenized liver and brain, and in intact blood (except at 80°C) drastically increased with freezing time. Freezing time did not modulate the immunocontent of CAT and SOD1 levels in any tissue. In conclusion, our results indicate that storage at -20°C affects redox parameters more than storage at -80°C. Storage for a long time may compromise the samples, leading to changing parameters due to oxidative stress. Thus, we suggest processing the samples as soon as possible. However, if this is not possible, then material can be aliquoted into different tubes to prevent the effect of refreezing of samples.

  20. The effect of combination therapy of allicin and fenofibrate on high fat diet-induced vascular endothelium dysfunction and liver damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is designed to investigate the effects of combination therapy of allicin and fenofibrate on the endothelial and liver functions in rats with hyperlipidemia. Methods The healthy male Wistar rats fed high fat diet were treated with fenofibrate (80 mg/kg per day) alone, allicin (60 mg/kg per day) alone and a lower dasage of combined therapy (allicin 20 mg/kg per day and fenofibrate 30 mg/kg per day) respectively for 8 weeks. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, nitrogen oxidative, alanine transferase (ALT) and aspartate transferase (AST) were determined. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation (EDVR) of aorta rings was tested, and the morphologic changes of liver tissue were observed. Results Compared with high fat diet control, fenofibrate alone or the combined therapy increased remarkably the levels of high density lipoprotein respectively (P < 0.05). Both single and combined therapy of fenofibrate and allicin significantly enhanced the levels of NO (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), but the combined therapy had greatest high EDVR responses (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the reduced levels of ALT and AST were significantly obvious in the combined therapy groups (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). In addition, the lower dosage of combined therapy significantly ameliorated severe fatty degeneration of liver cells occurred in the high fat diet fed rat although the single fenofibrate treatment showed spotty necrosis of liver cells and bile duct expansion. Conclusion Combination therapy with allicin and fenofibrate can effectively enhance the protective effects on endothelial function and reduce the hepatic damage in rats with hyperlipidemia. PMID:21073749

  1. Impact of treatment with praziquantel, silymarin and/or beta-glucan on pathophysiological markers of liver damage and fibrosis in mice infected with Mesocestoides vogae (Cestoda) tetrathyridia.

    PubMed

    Velebný, S; Hrckova, G; Kogan, G

    2008-09-01

    Mesocestoides vogae tetrathyridia infection in mice causes hepatocyte injury, hepatic granulomatous inflammmation, liver fibrosis and chronic peritonitis manifested with portal hypertension. To reduce the detrimental effect of parasites on the host liver, the effect of the anthelmintic drug praziquantel (PZQ) in combination with natural products silymarin (an antioxidant) and beta-glucan (an immunomodulator) was investigated. The therapeutic effect of drugs was assessed by means of aminotransferase (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) activities, content of albumin, total proteins and hyaluronic acid (HA) in sera of ICR mice infected with M. vogae larvae. Animals were treated with PZQ suspended in oil emulsion (Group 1), PZQ combined with silymarin incorporated into lipid microspheres (LMS) (Group 2), PZQ combined with beta-glucan incorporated into liposomes (LG) (Group 3), PZQ co-administered with LMS and LG (Group 4). Untreated animals (Group 5) served as the control. Treatment of animals started at the early chronic phase of infection (day 14 p.i.) and lasted 10 days; serum samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 25, 28, 31, 35 and 45 p.i. ALT and AST activities were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in Groups 2, 3 and 4. HA content was significantly (P < 0.05 and 0.01) lower in Groups 2 and 4. Albumin levels were decreased in Groups 2 and 4, total protein concentration decreased in Groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.05 and 0.01). These results showed that combined treatment of PZQ with silymarin and/or beta-glucan was able to ameliorate or suppress fibrogenesis in the liver, protect liver cells from oxidative damage and, possibly, stimulate regeneration of the parenchyma.

  2. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid peroxidation and enhancing of antioxidant defense systems.

  3. Modulation of no synthesis by plaferon LB in liver.

    PubMed

    Sirbiladze, G; Kikodze, N; Iobadze, M; Chikovani, T; Datunashvili, I

    2006-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical involved in the regulation of many physiological processes. NO exerts important effects on liver in health and diseases. In the present study, we attempted to evaluate the influence of plaferon LB on the liver injury in two experimental models: immune-mediated and mechanical (traumatic shock) liver damage models. The results of our study demonstrated that plaferon LB decreased levels of NO in traumatic shock, but enhanced NO expression on con-A induced hepatitis. Furthermore, plaferon LB inhibited development of metabolic changes in liver tissue and facilitated restoration of hepatocyte function and structure of the tissue. Thus, our data revealed that plaferon LB was a powerful regulator of NO levels in experimental liver injury. Further investigations are needed to determine pro- and anti-apoptotic properties of plaferon LB in the liver.

  4. New therapeutic aspect for carvedilol: Antifibrotic effects of carvedilol in chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdy, Nadia; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com

    2012-06-15

    Portal hypertension is a common complication of chronic liver diseases associated with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. At present, beta-blockers such as carvedilol remain the medical treatment of choice for protection against variceal bleeding and other complications. Since carvedilol has powerful antioxidant properties we assessed the potential antifibrotic effects of carvedilol and the underlying mechanisms that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness using a chronic model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Two weeks after CCl4 induction of chronic hepatotoxicity, rats were co-treated with carvedilol (10 mg/kg, orally) daily for 6 weeks. It was found that treatment of animals withmore » carvedilol significantly counteracted the changes in liver function and histopathological lesions induced by CCl4. Also, carvedilol significantly counteracted lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities; glutathione-S-transferase and catalase that was induced by CCl4. In addition, carvedilol ameliorated the inflammation induced by CCl4 as indicated by reducing the serum level of acute phase protein marker; alpha-2-macroglobulin and the liver expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Finally, carvedilol significantly reduced liver fibrosis markers including hydroxyproline, collagen accumulation, and the expression of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker; alpha smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, the present study provides evidences for the promising antifibrotic effects of carvedilol that can be explained by amelioration of oxidative stress through mainly, replenishment of GSH, restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxides as well as amelioration of inflammation and fibrosis by decreasing collagen accumulation, acute phase protein level, NF-κB expression and finally HSC activation. -- Highlights: ► Carvedilol is a beta blocker with antioxidant and antifibrotic

  5. Saengshik, a formulated health food, prevents liver damage in CCl4-induced mice and increases antioxidant activity in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwa-young; Kim, Joong-Hark; Lee, Seong-Ae; Chang, Hey-eun; Park, Mi-hyoun; Hwang, Sung-joo; Lee, Ju-yeon; Mok, Chulkyoon; Hong, Seong-gil

    2008-06-01

    Saengshik is a Korean noncooked food made with of more than 30 different whole gains, vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, and seaweeds. All of these ingredients are frozen and dried to minimize the loss of nutrients. Saengshik has become popular among health-conscious people in the Republic of Korea. The study aims to investigate antioxidant effects of Saengshik by in vivo and human experiments. In in vivo tests, mice were fed Saengshik for 4 weeks, and oxidative damage was induced by CCl(4). Then the effects of Saengshik on oxidative damage were examined. It was found that plasma lipid hydroperoxide and protein oxidative damages were significantly suppressed and antioxidants, glutathione, and thiol groups were increased. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was increased, and the level of glutamate pyruvate transaminase was decreased. In a human study, elderly people were given Saengshik for 24 weeks, and changes in antioxidant defense of the body were examined. Antioxidant activities in plasma were enhanced, although the difference was not significant. Therefore, it is expected that Saengshik is effective at removing oxidants from body tissues, preventing oxidative damage, and eventually boosting the antioxidant capacity of the body.

  6. Chronic aspartame intake causes changes in the trans-sulphuration pathway, glutathione depletion and liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Finamor, Isabela; Pérez, Salvador; Bressan, Caroline A; Brenner, Carlos E; Rius-Pérez, Sergio; Brittes, Patricia C; Cheiran, Gabriele; Rocha, Maria I; da Veiga, Marcelo; Sastre, Juan; Pavanato, Maria A

    2017-04-01

    No-caloric sweeteners, such as aspartame, are widely used in various food and beverages to prevent the increasing rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus, acting as tools in helping control caloric intake. Aspartame is metabolized to phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol. Our aim was to study the effect of chronic administration of aspartame on glutathione redox status and on the trans-sulphuration pathway in mouse liver. Mice were divided into three groups: control; treated daily with aspartame for 90 days; and treated with aspartame plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Chronic administration of aspartame increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase activities and caused liver injury as well as marked decreased hepatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), γ-glutamylcysteine ​​(γ-GC), and most metabolites of the trans-sulphuration pathway, such as cysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine ​​(SAH). Aspartame also triggered a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc) and cystathionine γ-lyase, and in protein levels of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A and 2A. N-acetylcysteine prevented the aspartame-induced liver injury and the increase in plasma ALT activity as well as the decrease in GSH, γ-GC, cysteine, SAM and SAH levels and GCLc protein levels. In conclusion, chronic administration of aspartame caused marked hepatic GSH depletion, which should be ascribed to GCLc down-regulation and decreased cysteine levels. Aspartame triggered blockade of the trans-sulphuration pathway at two steps, cystathionine γ-lyase and methionine adenosyltransferases. NAC restored glutathione levels as well as the impairment of the trans-sulphuration pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Saponarin, Isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend. on Paracetamol-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vitcheva, Vessela; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Krasteva, Ilina; Manov, Vassil; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma, was evaluated in vitro/in vivo using a hepatotoxicity model of paracetamol-induced liver injury. In freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, paracetamol (100 μmol) led to a significant decrease in cell viability, increased LDH leakage, decreased levels of cellular GSH, and elevated MDA quantity. Saponarin (60–0.006 μg/mL) preincubation, however, significantly ameliorated paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. The beneficial effect of saponarin was also observed in vivo. Rats were challenged with paracetamol alone (600 mg/kg, i.p.) and after 7-day pretreatment with saponarin (80 mg/kg, oral gavage). Paracetamol toxicity was evidenced by increase in MDA quantity and decrease in cell GSH levels and antioxidant defence system. No changes in phase I enzyme activities of AH and EMND and cytochrome P 450 quantity were detected. Saponarin pretreatment resulted in significant increase in cell antioxidant defence system and GSH levels and decrease in lipid peroxidation. The biochemical changes are in good correlation with the histopathological data. Protective activity of saponarin was similar to the activity of positive control silymarin. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that saponarin exerts antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol liver injury in vitro/in vivo. PMID:23878818

  8. Nuclear receptor FXR, bile acids and liver damage: Introducing the progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis with FXR mutations.

    PubMed

    Cariello, Marica; Piccinin, Elena; Garcia-Irigoyen, Oihane; Sabbà, Carlo; Moschetta, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    The nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is the master regulator of bile acids (BAs) homeostasis since it transcriptionally drives modulation of BA synthesis, influx, efflux, and detoxification along the enterohepatic axis. Due to its crucial role, FXR alterations are involved in the progression of a plethora of BAs associated inflammatory disorders in the liver and in the gut. The involvement of the FXR pathway in cholestasis development and management has been elucidated so far with a direct role of FXR activating therapy in this condition. However, the recent identification of a new type of genetic progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) linked to FXR mutations has strengthen also the bona fide beneficial effects of target therapies that by-pass FXR activation, directly promoting the action of its target, namely the enterokine FGF19, in the repression of hepatic BAs synthesis with reduction of total BA levels in the liver and serum, accomplishing one of the major goals in cholestasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Diseaseedited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni and Peter Jansen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce oxidative DNA damage and ROS-triggered mitochondria mediated apoptosis in human liver cells (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vyom; Anderson, Diana; Dhawan, Alok

    2012-08-01

    The wide scale use of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in the world consumer market makes human beings more prone to the exposure to ZnO nanoparticles and its adverse effects. The liver, which is the primary organ of metabolism, might act as a major target organ for ZnO nanoparticles after they gain entry into the body through any of the possible routes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the apoptotic and genotoxic potential of ZnO nanoparticles in human liver cells (HepG2) and the underlying molecular mechanism of its cellular toxicity. The role of dissolution in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles was also investigated. Our results demonstrate that HepG2 cells exposed to 14-20 μg/ml ZnO nanoparticles for 12 h showed a decrease in cell viability and the mode of cell death induced by ZnO nanoparticles was apoptosis. They also induced DNA damage which was mediated by oxidative stress as evidenced by an increase in Fpg sensitive sites. Reactive oxygen species triggered a decrease in mitochondria membrane potential and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 leading to mitochondria mediated pathway involved in apoptosis. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles activated JNK, p38 and induced p53(Ser15) phosphorylation. However, apoptosis was found to be independent of JNK and p38 pathways. This study investigating the effects of ZnO nanoparticles in human liver cells has provided valuable insights into the mechanism of toxicity induced by ZnO nanoparticles.

  10. Effects of anti-cocaine vaccine and viral gene transfer of cocaine hydrolase in mice on cocaine toxicity including motor strength and liver damage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Orson, Frank; Kinsey, Berma; Kosten, Thomas R; Shen, Xiaoyun; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2013-03-25

    In developing an vivo drug-interception therapy to treat cocaine abuse and hinder relapse into drug seeking provoked by re-encounter with cocaine, two promising agents are: (1) a cocaine hydrolase enzyme (CocH) derived from human butyrylcholinesterase and delivered by gene transfer; (2) an anti-cocaine antibody elicited by vaccination. Recent behavioral experiments showed that antibody and enzyme work in a complementary fashion to reduce cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity in rats and mice. Our present goal was to test protection against liver damage and muscle weakness in mice challenged with massive doses of cocaine at or near the LD50 level (100-120 mg/kg, i.p.). We found that, when the interceptor proteins were combined at doses that were only modestly protective in isolation (enzyme, 1mg/kg; antibody, 8 mg/kg), they provided complete protection of liver tissue and motor function. When the enzyme levels were ~400-fold higher, after in vivo transduction by adeno-associated viral vector, similar protection was observed from CocH alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carotid Catheterization and Automated Blood Sampling Induce Systemic IL-6 Secretion and Local Tissue Damage and Inflammation in the Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Salivary Glands in NMRI Mice.

    PubMed

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Rozell, Björn; Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-01-01

    Automated blood sampling through a vascular catheter is a frequently utilized technique in laboratory mice. The potential immunological and physiological implications associated with this technique have, however, not been investigated in detail. The present study compared plasma levels of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α in male NMRI mice that had been subjected to carotid artery catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling with age-matched control mice. Body weight and histopathological changes in the surgical area, including the salivary glands, the heart, brain, spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs were compared. Catheterized mice had higher levels of IL-6 than did control mice, but other cytokine levels did not differ between the groups. No significant difference in body weight was found. The histology revealed inflammatory and regenerative (healing) changes at surgical sites of all catheterized mice, with mild inflammatory changes extending into the salivary glands. Several catheterized mice had multifocal degenerative to necrotic changes with inflammation in the heart, kidneys and livers, suggesting that thrombi had detached from the catheter tip and embolized to distant sites. Thus, catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling may have physiological impact. Possible confounding effects of visceral damage should be assessed and considered, when using catheterized mouse models.

  12. Evaluation of the potential protective effects of ad libitum black grape juice against liver oxidative damage in whole-body acute X-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, E R; Cruz, I B M; Andrade, V V R; Piccoli, J C E; González-Gallego, J; Barrio, J P; González, P

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effects of ad libitum black grape (Vitis labrusca) juice against liver oxidative damage in whole-body acute X-irradiated rats. Animals were fed ad libitum and drank voluntarily black grape juice or placebo (isocaloric glucose and fructose solution) for 6 days before and 15 days following a 6 Gy X-irradiation from a 200 kV machine. Irradiated animals receiving placebo showed a significant increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of lipid peroxidation, as well as a significant decrease in both Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and reduced glutathione concentration (GSH). Black grape juice supplementation resulted in a reversal of lipid peroxidation, Cu/ZnSOD activity, and GSH concentration, towards values not significantly differing from those in non-irradiated, placebo-supplemented rats. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) and Cu/ZnSOD changes in protein expression were observed for irradiated rats. No change in p53 expression or DNA fragmentation was found. Ad libitum black grape juice intake is able to restore the liver primary antioxidant system against adverse effects due to whole-body acute X-irradiation in rats after 15 days post-irradiation. The results support using antioxidant supplements as a preventive tool against radiation-induced harm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [First experience of a polyurethane foam composition "Locus" use to stop intra-abdominal hemorrhage as a result of liver damage of V degree. (An experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Reva, V A; Litinskii, M A; Denisov, A V; Sokhranov, M V; Telitskii, S Yu; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-04-01

    Today self-expanding polymers are considered as the most promising as means for intracavitary hemostasis in case of continuing bleeding after trauma. Testing of domestic open-cell polyurethane foam composition "Locus" was carried out on the developed experimental model simulating liver trauma of V degree. After damaging 6 experimental rabbits were injected intraperitoneally with 80 ml of the composition. 5 experimental rabbits were included into to control group (haemostatic agent was not given). Estimated blood loss was 111-124 ml. The two-hour survival rate didn't differ significantly: 3 animals survived in the experimental group; 2 animal survived in the control. Despite the 3-4-fold widening of the foam, due to open cells it absorbed 72.6 +/- 8.3 g of blood. Thus, open-cell polyurethane foam intraperitoneal administration of the composition didn't provide a temporary intra-abdominal hemostasis in liver. In order to enhance the hemostatic effect it requires changing the formulation of the polyurethane composition. For a more accurate assessment of the results it is neccessary to perform additional researches on larger animals.

  14. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, liver damage and dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rat are prevented by Spirulina supplementation.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Manel; Magné, Christian; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2016-11-01

    Medicinal plants have long been used against life-threatening diseases including diabetes, with more or less success. Some of these plants have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, which could help improving diabetes inconveniences. In that context, we investigated the effects of spirulina supplementation on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, hypothesizing that co-administration of spirulina with rat diet could ameliorate diabetes complications and provide as benefits as the common antidiabetic insulin. Following alloxan treatment, male Wistar rats were fed daily with 5% spirulina-enriched diet or treated with insulin (0.5 IU/rat) for 21 days. Both spirulina and insulin treatments of diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and an increase of glycogen level. Spirulina supplementation also impeded loss of body weight and ameliorated hepatic toxicity indices, i.e. alkaline phosphatases and transaminases activities, bilirubin levels and lipid peroxidation. Besides, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in the serum. Moreover, diabetic rats fed with spirulina exhibited sig changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver (ie, decrease in superoxide dismutase and increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). The beneficial effects of spirulina or insulin were confirmed by histological study of the liver of diabetic rats. Overall, this study indicates that treatment with spirulina decreased hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats, this amelioration being even more pronounced than that provided by insulin injection. Therefore, administration of this alga would be very helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Methanol extract from the stem of Cotinus coggygria Scop., and its major bioactive phytochemical constituent myricetin modulate pyrogallol-induced DNA damage and liver injury.

    PubMed

    Matić, Sanja; Stanić, Snežana; Bogojević, Desanka; Vidaković, Melita; Grdović, Nevena; Dinić, Svetlana; Solujić, Slavica; Mladenović, Milan; Stanković, Nevena; Mihailović, Mirjana

    2013-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the methanol extract of Cotinus coggygria Scop. in rats exposed to the hepatotoxic compound pyrogallol. Assessed with the alkaline version of the comet assay, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight (bw) of the extract showed a low level of genotoxicity, while 500mg/kg bw of the extract showed no genotoxic potential. Quantitative HPLC analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the methanol extract of C. coggygria showed that myricetin was a major component. To test the hepatoprotective effect, a non-genotoxic dose of the C. coggygria extract and an equivalent amount of synthetic myricetin, as present in the extract, were applied either 2 or 12h prior to administration of 100mg/kg bw of pyrogallol. The extract and myricetin promoted restoration of hepatic function by significantly reducing pyrogallol-induced elevation in the serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and in total bilirubin. As measured by the decrease in total score and tail moment, the DNA damage in liver was also reduced by the extract and by myricetin. Our results suggest that pro-surviving Akt activity and STAT3 protein expression play important roles in decreasing DNA damage and in mediating hepatic protection by the extract. These results suggest that myricetin, as a major component in the extract, is responsible for the antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties of the methanol extract of C. coggygria against pyrogallol-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Absence of DNA damage in multiple organs (blood, liver, kidney, thyroid gland and urinary bladder) after acute fluoride exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Aline de Lima; Santiago, Joel Ferreira; Levy, Flavia Mauad; Maria, Andrea Gutierrez; Fernandes, Mileni da Silva; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Favero; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Buzalaf, Marilia Afonso Rabelo

    2007-05-01

    Fluoride has been widely used in dentistry as a caries prophylactic agent. However, there has been some speculation that excess fluoride could cause an impact on genome integrity. In the current study, the potential DNA damage associated with exposure to fluoride was assessed in cells of blood, liver, kidney, thyroid gland and urinary bladder by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Male Wistar rats aging 75 days were distributed into seven groups: Groups 1 (control), 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 received 0 (deionized water), 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mgF/Kg body weight from sodium fluoride (NaF), respectively, by gastrogavage. These groups were killed at 2 h after the administration of the fluoride doses. The level of DNA strand breaks did not increase in all organs evaluated and at all doses of NaF tested, as depicted by the mean tail moment. Taken together, our results suggest that oral exposure to NaF did not result in systemic genotoxic effect in multiple organs related to fluoride toxicity. Since DNA damage is an important step in events leading to carcinogenesis, this study represents a relevant contribution to the correct evaluation of the potential health risk associated with chemical exposure.

  17. Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract prevents fat diet induced oxidative stress in mice and protects liver cell-nuclei from hydroxyl radical mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Debdutta; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronic disorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedy against this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. In this study, we explored if (i) Moringa oleifera seed extract (MoSE) can neutralize ROS generated in HFD fed mice; (ii) protect cell-nuclei damage developed by Fenton reaction in vitro. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group). Other groups were control, seed extract alone treated, and MoSE simultaneously (HS) treated. Treatment period was of 15 days. Antioxidant enzymes with tissue nitrite content (TNC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated from liver homogenate. HS group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to only HFD fed group. Further, TNC and LPO decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in HS group compared to HFD fed group. MoSE also protected hepatocytes nuclei from the hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction. MoSE was found to be polyphenol rich with potent reducing power, free radicals and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity. Thus, MoSE exhibited robust antioxidant prospective to neutralize ROS developed in HFD fed mice and also protected the nuclei damage from hydroxyl radicals. Hence, it can be used as herbal medication against HFD induced ROS mediated disorders.

  18. Subchronic treatment with acai frozen pulp prevents the brain oxidative damage in rats with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    de Souza Machado, Fernanda; Kuo, Jonnsin; Wohlenberg, Mariane Farias; da Rocha Frusciante, Marina; Freitas, Márcia; Oliveira, Alice S; Andrade, Rodrigo B; Wannmacher, Clovis M D; Dani, Caroline; Funchal, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Acai has been used by the population due to its high nutritional value and its benefits to health, such as its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acai frozen pulp on oxidative stress parameters in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of Wistar rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). Thirty male Wistar rats (90-day-old) were orally treated with water or acai frozen pulp for 14 days (7 μL/g). On the 15th day, half of the animals received treatment with mineral oil and the other half with CCl 4 (3.0 mL/kg). The cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected and used for analysis of creatine kinase activity (CK), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonyl, sulfhydryl, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-test. CCl 4 was able to inhibit CK activity in all tissues tested and to provoke lipid damage in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and protein damage in the three tissues tested. CCl 4 enhanced CAT activity in the cerebral cortex, and inhibited CAT activity in the hippocampus and cerebellum and reduced SOD activity in all tissues studied. Acai frozen pulp prevented the inhibition of CK, TBARS, carbonyl and CAT activity in all brain structures and only in hippocampus for SOD activity. Therefore, acai frozen pulp has antioxidant properties and maybe could be useful in the treatment of some diseases that affect the central nervous system that are associated with oxidative damage.

  19. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  20. Expression of Amoebapores Is Required for Full Expression of Entamoeba histolytica Virulence in Amebic Liver Abscess but Is Not Necessary for the Induction of Inflammation or Tissue Damage in Amebic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Zhang, Zhi; Alexander, Diane; Bracha, Rivka; Mirelman, David; Stanley, Samuel L.

    2004-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites produce amoebapores, a family of small amphipathic peptides capable of insertion into bacterial or eukaryotic membranes and causing cellular lysis. Recently, E. histolytica trophozoites that are totally deficient in the production of amoebapore-A were created through a gene silencing mechanism (R. Bracha, Y. Nuchamowitz, and D. Mirelman, Eukaryot. Cell 2:295-305, 2003). Here we tested the virulence of amoebapore A(−) trophozoites in models of the two major forms of amebic disease: amebic liver abscess and amebic colitis. We demonstrate that amoebapore expression is required for full virulence in the SCID mouse model of amebic liver abscess, but E. histolytica trophozoites that do not express amoebapore-A can still cause inflammation and tissue damage in infected human colonic xenografts. These data are consistent with the concept that tissue damage may proceed by different mechanisms in amebic liver abscess compared to amebic colitis. PMID:14742508

  1. Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit attenuates cadmium-induced liver and kidney damage through modulation of oxidative stress and glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, C H; Subastri, A; Suyavaran, A; Subbaiah, K C V; Valluru, L; Thirunavukkarasu, C

    2016-04-01

    Increased levels of environmental pollutants are linked to almost all human disorders; the efficient method to manage the human health is through naturally available dietary molecule. Solanum torvum (ST) Swartz (Solanaceae) commonly called Turkey Berry is found in Africa, Asia, and South America. Its fruit, part of traditional Indian cuisine, is a widely consumed nutritious herb, acclaimed for its medicinal value. ST aqueous extract (STAe) (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg b.w., 6 days; oral) against acute Cadmium (Cd) (6.3 mg/kg b.w., single dose; oral) toxicity was evaluated in rats. Protective effect was assessed using serum markers, tissue antioxidants, oxidant derivatives, glycoprotein, and histopathological studies. The activities of serum marker enzymes were increased (40-60 %); antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and CAT, GSH, and its metabolic enzyme activities were decreased (50-80 %) in the liver and kidney upon Cd intoxication. During STAe pre-treatment, at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w., the above changes were brought to near normal (25-63 %). Tissue 4-hydroxynonenal, 3-nitrotyrosine, and protein carbonyls were increased (8-15 fold) in Cd-alone-treated rats, whereas pre-supplementation of STAe significantly decreased their levels and inhibited the protein glycosylation effectively. The pharmacological effect of STAe was confirmed by histopathological observations. Based on previous literature and present investigation, we conclude that ST may serve as a potential functional food against environmental contaminant such as heavy metal-induced oxidative stress.

  2. Protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in precision-cut carp liver slices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjuan; Zhang, Chunyun; Du, Jinliang; Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Jeney, Galina; Teraoka, Hiroki; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guojun

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro in common carp. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs), which closely resemble the organ from which they are derived, were employed as an in vitro model system. GLPS (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/ml) was added to PCLS culture system before the exposure to 12 mM CCl 4 . The supernatants and slices were collected to detect molecular and biochemical responses to CCl 4 and PCLS treatments. The levels of CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1 were measured by ELISA; the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS were determined by RT-PCR; and the relative protein expressions of c-Rel and p65 were analyzed by western blotting. Results showed that GLPS inhibited the elevations of the marker enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH) and MDA induced by CCl 4 ; it also enhanced the suppressed activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, T-AOC). The treatment with GLPS resulted in significant downregulation of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels and significant decreases in the hepatic protein levels of CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1. These results suggest that GLPS can protect CCl 4 -induced PCLS injury through inhibiting lipid peroxidation, elevating antioxidant enzyme activity, and suppressing immune inflammatory response.

  3. Virgin coconut oil protects against liver damage in albino rats challenged with the anti-folate combination, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Madarikan, Gbemisola; Simisola, Tinuala; Bankole, Olubukola; Osho, Adeleke

    2014-05-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. However, its use is associated with toxic reactions. Virgin coconut oil (VCO), derived from coconut, has been widely used throughout history for its medicinal value. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial actions of VCO against TMP-SMX-induced alterations in serum biochemical end points. Twenty rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 (control) received no drug, whereas group 2 received TMP-SMX (8/40 mg/kg) twice daily for 7 days. Group 3 was administered coconut oil at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight per day. The last group was treated with TMP-SMX (8/40 mg/kg) and coconut oil (600 mg/kg) simultaneously. Blood samples were collected from all groups on the 8th day of the experiment for measurement of serum biochemical parameters. Organ weights and coefficients were also evaluated. TMP-SMX caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of serum total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase by 192%, 67%, and 41%, respectively, relative to controls. This was followed by a significant reduction in triglyceride and relative kidney weight by 40% and 7%, respectively. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the activities of serum aminotransferases, total acid phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, uric acid, cholesterol, albumin, and urea levels. Supplementation of VCO ameliorated TMP-SMX-induced effects by restoring the levels of total bilirubin, alkaline phospahatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. The results of this study demonstrate that the active components of coconut oil had protective effects against the toxic effects induced by TMP-SMX administration, especially in the liver of rats.

  4. 1,25-(OH)₂-vitamin D₃ prevents activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro and ameliorates inflammatory liver damage but not fibrosis in the Abcb4(-/-) model.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Florian P; Hohenester, Simon; Nagel, Jutta M; Wimmer, Ralf; Artmann, Renate; Wottke, Lena; Makeschin, Marie-Christine; Mayr, Doris; Rust, Christian; Trauner, Michael; Denk, Gerald U

    2015-04-03

    Vitamin D3-deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver-disease and may promote disease progression. Vitamin D3-administration has thus been proposed as a therapeutic approach. Vitamin D3 has immunomodulatory effects and may modulate autoimmune liver-disease such as primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although various mechanisms of action have been proposed, experimental evidence is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that active 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro and modulates liver-injury in vivo. Proliferation and activation of primary murine HSC were assessed by BrdU- and PicoGreen(®)-assays, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence-microscopy, quantitative-PCR, and zymography following calcitriol-treatment. Wild-type and ATP-binding cassette transporter b4(-/-) (Abcb4(-/-))-mice received calcitriol for 4 weeks. Liver-damage, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed by serum liver-tests, Sirius-red staining, quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and hydroxyproline quantification. In vitro, calcitriol inhibited activation and proliferation of murine HSC as shown by reduced α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-β-protein-levels, BrdU and PicoGreen®-assays. Furthermore, mRNA-levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13 were profoundly increased. In vivo, calcitriol ameliorated inflammatory liver-injury reflected by reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase in Abcb4(-/-)-mice. In accordance, their livers had lower mRNA-levels of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 and a lower count of portal CD11b positive cells. In contrast, no effect on overall fibrosis was observed. Calcitriol inhibits activation and proliferation of HSCs in vitro. In Abcb4(-/-)-mice, administration of calcitriol ameliorates inflammatory liver-damage but has no effect on biliary fibrosis after 4 weeks of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ectopic expression of H2AX protein promotes TrkA-induced cell death via modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Deok Ryong, E-mail: drkim@gnu.ac.kr

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We established TrkA-inducible U2OS cells stably expressing GFP-H2AX proteins. {yields} GFP-H2AX was colocalized with TrkA in the cytoplasm. {yields} {gamma}H2AX production was significantly increased upon activation of TrkA and suppressed by TrkA inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. {yields} Ectopic expression of H2AX promoted TrkA-mediated cell death through the modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage. -- Abstract: We previously reported that TrkA overexpression causes accumulation of {gamma}H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, subsequently leading to massive cell death in U2OS cells. To further investigate how cytoplasmic H2AX is associated with TrkA-induced cell death, we establishedmore » TrkA-inducible cells stably expressing GFP-tagged H2AX. We found that TrkA co-localizes with ectopically expressed GFP-H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, especially at the juxta-nuclear membranes, which supports our previous results about a functional connection between TrkA and {gamma}H2AX in TrkA-induced cell death. {gamma}H2AX production from GFP-H2AX proteins was significantly increased when TrkA was overexpressed. Moreover, ectopic expression of H2AX activated TrkA-mediated signal pathways via up-regulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation. In addition, suppression of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation under a certain condition was removed by ectopic expression of H2AX, indicating a functional role of H2AX in the maintenance of TrkA activity. Indeed, TrkA-induced cell death was highly elevated by ectopic H2AX expression, and it was further accelerated by DNA damage via JNK activation. These all results suggest that cytoplasmic H2AX could play an important role in TrkA-mediated cell death by modulating TrkA upon DNA damage.« less

  6. Tripartite Motif-containing 33 (TRIM33) Protein Functions in the Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP)-dependent DNA Damage Response through Interaction with Amplified in Liver Cancer 1 (ALC1) Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Atul; Oza, Jay; Yao, Ming; Sohail, Honeah; Ginjala, Vasudeva; Tomas-Loba, Antonia; Horejsi, Zuzana; Tan, Antoinette R.; Boulton, Simon J.; Ganesan, Shridar

    2013-01-01

    Activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) near sites of DNA breaks facilitates recruitment of DNA repair proteins and promotes chromatin relaxation in part through the action of chromatin-remodeling enzyme Amplified in Liver Cancer 1 (ALC1). Through proteomic analysis we find that ALC1 interacts after DNA damage with Tripartite Motif-containing 33 (TRIM33), a multifunctional protein implicated in transcriptional regulation, TGF-β signaling, and tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that TRIM33 is dynamically recruited to DNA damage sites in a PARP1- and ALC1-dependent manner. TRIM33-deficient cells show enhanced sensitivity to DNA damage and prolonged retention of ALC1 at sites of DNA breaks. Conversely, overexpression of TRIM33 alleviates the DNA repair defects conferred by ALC1 overexpression. Thus, TRIM33 plays a role in PARP-dependent DNA damage response and regulates ALC1 activity by promoting its timely removal from sites of DNA damage. PMID:23926104

  7. PD-1 expression on CTL may be related to more severe liver damage in CHB patients with HBV genotype C than in those with genotype B infection.

    PubMed

    Xibing, G; Xiaojuan, Y; Juanhua, W

    2013-04-01

    Compared with Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients infected with genotype B, those infected with genotype C have higher hepatic histopathological activity and higher level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Our previous studies suggest that this phenomenon is related to lower level of HBV specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) of patients infected with genotype C than those infected with genotype B, but its mechanism was not clear. The aim of present study was to explain the possible mechanism of lower level of HBV specific CTL and more serious liver function damage of patients infected with genotype C than those infected with genotype B through study on relationship between expression of HBV specific CTL surface programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) and viral genotypes of CHB patients. A total of 100 CHB patients were studied, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 positive, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA>10(3) copies/ml, of which 48 cases were genotype C (48%) positive, and 52 cases were genotype B positive (52%). Expression of Peripheral blood HBV specific CTL surface PD-1, levels of HBV specific CTL, HBV DNA, ALT and total bilirubin (TBil) of patients infected with genotype C and B were compared. Expression of HBV specific CTL surface PD-1 of CHB patients infected with genotype C was significantly higher than that of patients infected with genotype B, t = 17.57, P < 0.001, level of HBV specific CTL was significantly lower than that of patients infected with genotype B, t = 23.64, P < 0.001, level of HBV DNA was significantly higher than that of patients infected with genotype B, t = 9.43, P < 0.001, level of ALT was significantly higher than that of patients infected with genotype B, t = 13.42, P < 0.001. Expression of peripheral blood HBV specific CTL surface PD-1 of CHB patients infected with genotype C was significantly higher than that of patients infected with genotype B, resulting in lower level of HBV specific CTL and higher level of HBV DNA of patients infected with

  8. Glucomannan or Glucomannan Plus Spirulina-Enriched Squid-Surimi Diets Reduce Histological Damage to Liver and Heart in Zucker fa/fa Rats Fed a Cholesterol-Enriched and Non-Cholesterol-Enriched Atherogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, María José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2017-06-01

    Glucomannan-enriched squid surimi improves cholesterolemia and liver antioxidant status. The effect of squid surimi enriched with glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina on liver and heart structures and cell damage markers was tested in fa/fa rats fed highly saturated-hyper-energetic diets. Animals were fed 70% AIN-93M rodent diet plus six versions of 30% squid surimi for 7 weeks: control (C), glucomannan (G), and glucomannan plus spirulina (GS). The cholesterol-control (HC), cholesterol-glucomannan (HG), and cholesterol-glucomannan plus spirulina (HGS) groups were given similar diets that were enriched with 2% cholesterol and 0.4% cholic acid. G and GS diets versus C diet significantly inhibited weight gain and lowered plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, liver steatosis, lipogranulomas, and total inflammation and alteration scores. The hypercholesterolemic agent significantly increased the harmful effects of the C diet. Liver weight, the hepatosomatic index, all damage markers, and total histological scoring rose for HC versus C (at least P < .05). The addition of glucomannan (HG vs. HC) improved these biomarkers, and non-additional effects from spirulina were observed except for the total liver alteration score. In conclusion, glucomannan and glucomannan plus spirulina blocked the highly saturated-hyper-energetic diet negative effects both with and without added cholesterol. Results suggest the usefulness of including these functional ingredients in fish products.

  9. The American Cockroach Peptide Periplanetasin-2 BlocksClostridium DifficileToxin A-Induced Cell Damage and Inflammation in the Gut.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Yoon, I Na; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kang, Jin Ku; Kim, Ho

    2017-04-28

    Clostridium difficile , which causes pseudomembranous colitis, releases toxin A and toxin B. These toxins are considered to be the main causative agents for the disease pathogenesis, and their expression is associated with a marked increase of apoptosis in mucosal epithelial cells. Colonic epithelial cells are believed to form a physical barrier between the lumen and the submucosa, and abnormally increased mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis is considered to be an initial step in gut inflammation responses. Therefore, one approach to treating pseudomembranous colitis would be to develop agents that block the mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis caused by toxin A, thus restoring barrier function and curing inflammatory responses in the gut. We recently isolated an antimicrobial peptide, Periplanetasin-2 (Peri-2, YPCKLNLKLGKVPFH) from the American cockroach, whose extracts have shown great potential for clinical use. Here, we assessed whether Peri-2 could inhibit the cell toxicity and inflammation caused by C. difficile toxin A. Indeed, in human colonocyte HT29 cells, Peri-2 inhibited the toxin A-induced decrease in cell proliferation and ameliorated the cell apoptosis induced by this toxin. Moreover, in the toxin A-induced mouse enteritis model, Peri-2 blocked the mucosal disruption and inflammatory response caused by toxin A. These results suggest that the American cockroach peptide Peri-2 could be a possible drug candidate for addressing the pseudomembranous colitis caused by C. difficile toxin A.

  10. Oxidative DNA damage estimated by oxo8dG in the liver of guinea-pigs supplemented with graded dietary doses of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Cadenas, S; Barja, G; Poulsen, H E; Loft, S

    1997-12-01

    Dietary antioxidants may influence cancer risk and aging by modifying oxidative damage. The effect of graded dietary doses of the antioxidant vitamins C and E on oxidative DNA damage was studied in the liver of guinea-pigs under normal conditions. Like human beings, guinea-pigs cannot synthesize ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol. In one experiment, three groups of 6-8 guinea-pigs were fed diets containing 15 mg of vitamin E/kg chow and three different amounts of vitamin C (33,660 or 13,200 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. In a second experiment, three groups of seven guinea-pigs were fed diets containing 660 mg of vitamin C/kg and three different amounts of vitamin E (15, 150 or 1500 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. The three graded levels of each vitamin respectively represent marginal deficiency, an optimum supplementation and a megadose. Oxidative damage to liver DNA was estimated by measuring 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (oxo8dG) referred to deoxyguanosine (dG) by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with simultaneous electrochemical-coulometric and ultraviolet detection. The level of ascorbate in the liver was 0.034 +/- 0.051, 1.63 +/- 1.06 and 1.99 +/- 0.44 micromol/g in the low, medium and high dose ascorbate groups (59-fold variation). The liver concentration of alpha-tocopherol was 28 +/- 11, 63 +/- 18 and 187 +/- 34 nmol/g in the low, medium and high dose alpha-tocopherol groups (7-fold variation). The level of oxo8dG in the liver DNA was 1.89 +/- 0.32, 1.94 +/- 0.78 and 1.93 +/- 0.65 per 10(5) dG in the low, medium and high dose ascorbate groups (no effect: P > 0.05). In the low, medium and high dose alpha-tocopherol groups oxo8dG level in the liver DNA was 2.85 +/- 0.70, 2.74 +/- 0.66 and 2.61 +/- 0.92 per 10(5) dG (no effect: P > 0.05). It is concluded that even very large variations in the content of the antioxidant vitamins C and E in the diet and liver have no influence on the steady-state level of oxidative damage to guanine in the liver DNA of normal

  11. Roundup® exposure promotes gills and liver impairments, DNA damage and inhibition of brain cholinergic activity in the Amazon teleost fish Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Braz-Mota, Susana; Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Duarte, Rafael M; Val, Adalberto L; Almeida-Val, Vera M F

    2015-09-01

    Roundup Original® (RD) is a glyphosate-based herbicide used to control weeds in agriculture. Contamination of Amazon waters has increased as a consequence of anthropogenic pressure, including the use of herbicides as RD. The central goal of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of RD on juveniles of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Our findings show that biomarkers in tambaqui are organ specific and dependent on RD concentration. Alterations in gills structural and respiratory epithelium were followed by changes in hematological parameters such as concentration of hemoglobin, particularly in fish exposed to the higher concentration tested (75% of RD LC50 96 h). In addition, both RD concentrations affected the biotransformation process in gills of tambaqui negatively. Instead, liver responses suggest that a production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurred in fish exposed to RD, particularly in the animals exposed to 75% RD, as seen by imbalances in biotransformation and antioxidant systems. The increased DNA damage observed in red blood cells of tambaqui exposed to RD is in agreement with this hypothesis. Finally, both tested sub-lethal concentrations of RD markedly inhibited the cholinesterase activity in fish brain. Thus, we can suggest that RD is potentially toxic to tambaqui and possibly to other tropical fish species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury in rats using an empirical mathematical model and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Yuki; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuichiro; Ogihara, Ryota; Koto, Daichi; Kitamura, Akihiro; Matsushita, Taro; Nishiura, Motoko; Murase, Kenya

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated concanavalin A (Con A)-induced acute hepatic injury in rats using an empirical mathematical model (EMM) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA). We allocated 18 rats into 3 groups of six each and intravenously injected them with either 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) of Con A (Con A [10] group), 20 mg/kg BW of Con A (Con A [20] group), or a single dose of of saline (4 mL/kg BW, normal control group). We performed the DCE-MRI studies using Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.025 mmol Gd/kg; 0.1 mL/kg BW) as the contrast agent 24 hours after injection of Con A or saline. We then sampled blood, measured serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and calculated the rate of contrast uptake (α), rate of contrast washout (β), area under the curve (AUC), time to maximum relative enhancement (RE) (T(max)), and elimination half-life of RE (T(1/2)) from the time-signal intensity curves using the EMM. β values were significantly smaller in the Con A (10) and Con A (20) groups than the control group, but α did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. The AUC value was significantly greater in the Con A (10) group than controls, and the T(max) and T(1/2) values were significantly greater in the Con A (20) group than controls. The β, T(max), and T(1/2) values correlated significantly with AST and ALT. In conclusion, the EMM is useful for evaluating Con A-induced acute hepatic injury using DCE-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA.

  13. Cynanchum wilfordii Radix attenuates liver fat accumulation and damage by suppressing hepatic cyclooxygenase-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase in mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seon-A; Lee, SungRyul; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Yang, Jaehyuk; Park, Dae Won; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kim, Inhye; Kwon, Jung Eun; Song, Hae Seong; Cho, Young Mi; Meng, Xue; Koo, Hyun Jung; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-09-01

    Excessive consumption of fat and fructose augments the pathological progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and hepatic de novo lipogenesis. We hypothesized that supplementation with Cynanchum wilfordii extract (CWE) decreases fat accumulation in the liver by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The beneficial effect of CWE was evaluated in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Mice were fed either a normal diet or an atherogenic diet with fructose (ATHFR) in the presence or absence of CWE (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg; n=6/group). Treatment with ATHFR induced a hepatosplenomegaly-like condition (increased liver and spleen weight); this pathological change was attenuated in the presence of CWE. The ATHFR group exhibited impaired liver function, as evidenced by increased blood levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, fat accumulation in the liver, and lipid profiles. Supplementation of CWE (100 and 200 mg/kg, P<.05) ameliorated these impaired liver functions. Atherogenic diet with fructose increased the protein levels of COX-2 and p38 MAPK, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These signaling pathways, which are associated with the inflammatory response, were markedly suppressed after CWE treatment (100 and 200 mg/kg). In summary, CWE supplementation reduced high-fat and high-fructose diet-induced fat accumulation and damage in the liver by suppressing COX-2, NF-κB, and p38 MAPK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 'Ashvagandharishta' prepared using yeast consortium from Woodfordia fruticosa flowers exhibit hepatoprotective effect on CCl4 induced liver damage in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bhondave, Prashant D; Devarshi, Prasad P; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Harsulkar, Abhay M

    2014-01-01

    [corrected] Consortium of yeasts sourced from traditionally used Woodfordia fruticosa flowers proved to be beneficial for fermenting Ashvagandharishta. It resulted in faster fermentation, acceptable organoleptic properties and demonstrable hepatoprotective potential in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. To formulate Ashvagandharishta using consortium of yeasts and to investigate its physiochemical parameters. Standardize the formulation with the help of standard withaferin-A and withanolide-A and to evaluate its hepatoprotective potential in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in the rat model. Ashvagandharishta was prepared using a 5% consortium of yeasts and ascertained its quality through physiochemical and phytochemical investigation. Withaferin-A and withanolide-A was simultaneously estimated by HPLC for standardization. Hepatoprotective potential was evaluated by administering 2.31 and 1.15 ml/kg doses while considering biochemical parameters like serum AST, ALT, ALP and lipid profile. Gene expression study was carried out for the expression of antioxidant and inflammatory genes such as CAT, GPx and proinflammatory gene IL-6. Histopathology of liver was also studied with the help of H&E staining. Ashvagandharishta was found organolepticaly acceptable with optimized physiochemical parameters. Withaferin-A and withanolide-A in Ashvagandharishta estimated as 0.3711, 0.7426 (%w/v), respectively. In the CCl4 induced hepato-toxicity model, Ashvagandharishta-2.31ml/kg dose showed significant decrease in elevated hepatic level of AST(p<0.001), ALT(p<0.01) and ALP(p<0.001). Both doses of Ashvagandharishta showed significant reduction of TG, Cholesterol, VLDL and LDL in serum, with corresponding reduction of (p<0.001) serum-HDL. Ashvagandharishta also showed increased serum protein (p<0.05) and albumin (p<0.01) with decrease in bilirubin (p<0.01). Additionally, Ashvagandharishta administration revealed up-regulation in antioxidant genes such as CAT and GPx in liver with concomitant

  15. Catechins: natural free-radical scavengers against ochratoxin A-induced cell damage in a pig kidney cell line (LLC-PK1).

    PubMed

    Costa, S; Utan, A; Cervellati, R; Speroni, E; Guerra, M C

    2007-10-01

    Besides aflatoxin B1, recent findings suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the toxicity of an other mycotoxin: ochratoxin A (OTA). The protective effect of two catechins (epigallocatechin gallate, EGCG, and epicatechin gallate, ECG) against OTA-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in a pig kidney cell line (LLC-PK1). The ability of the catechins to reduce ROS production and DNA fragmentation induced by OTA was also investigated. Our experiments proved the significant cytoprotective effects of the molecules in vitro from OTA-induced cell damage. In particular a 24h pre-treatment with EGCG or ECG restored cell viability with respect to OTA alone. Pre-treatment with EGCG at low concentration for 8 days protected cells from OTA-induced cell death. Moreover both catechins reduced OTA-induced ROS production. A reduction of OTA-induced DNA fragmentation was found for LLC-PK1 cells pre-treated with EGCG and ECG. The free-radical scavenging capacity of both catechins was tested with the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating method (pH approximately 2) and the TEAC assay (pH 7.4). The results show a good scavenging power according with inhibition of ROS production. Catechins could be useful to develop alimentary strategies for both humans and animals to prevent OTA-induced cytotoxicity.

  16. Different DNA damage response of cis and trans isomers of commonly used UV filter after the exposure on adult human liver stem cells and human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anežka; Bányiová, Katarína; Babica, Pavel; El Yamani, Naouale; Collins, Andrew Richard; Čupr, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), used in many categories of personal care products (PCPs), is one of the most discussed ultraviolet filters because of its endocrine-disrupting effects. EHMC is unstable in sunlight and can be transformed from trans-EHMC to emergent cis-EHMC. Toxicological studies are focusing only on trans-EHMC; thus the toxicological data for cis-EHMC are missing. In this study, the in vitro genotoxic effects of trans- and cis-EHMC on adult human liver stem cells HL1-hT1 and human-derived lymphoblastoid cells TK-6 using a high-throughput comet assay were studied. TK-6 cells treated with cis-EHMC showed a high level of DNA damage when compared to untreated cells in concentrations 1.56 to 25μgmL -1 . trans-EHMC showed genotoxicity after exposure to the two highest concentrations 12.5 and 25μgmL -1 . The increase in DNA damage on HL1-hT1 cells induced by cis-EHMC and trans-EHMC was detected at the concentration 25μgmL -1 . The No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL, mg kg -1 bwday -1 ) was determined using a Quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE) approach: NOAEL trans-EHMC =3.07, NOAEL cis-EHMC =0.30 for TK-6 and NOAEL trans-EHMC =26.46, NOAEL cis-EHMC =20.36 for HL1-hT1. The hazard index (HI) was evaluated by comparing the reference dose (RfD, mgkg -1 bwday -1 ) obtained from our experimental data with the chronic daily intake (CDI) of the female population. Using comet assay experimental data with the more sensitive TK-6 cells, HI cis-EHMC was 7 times higher than HI trans-EHMC . In terms of CDI, relative contributions were; dermal exposure route>oral>inhalation. According to our results we recommend the RfD trans-EHMC =0.20 and RfD cis-EHMC =0.02 for trans-EHMC and cis-EHMC, respectively, to use for human health risk assessment. The significant difference in trans-EHMC and cis-EHMC response points to the need for toxicological reevaluation and application reassessment of both isomers in PCPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  17. Graft-derived cell-free DNA, a noninvasive early rejection and graft damage marker in liver transplantation: A prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Ekkehard; Fischer, Anna; Beck, Julia; Harden, Markus; Koch, Martina; Wuensch, Tilo; Stockmann, Martin; Nashan, Björn; Kollmar, Otto; Matthaei, Johannes; Kanzow, Philipp; Walson, Philip D; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Oellerich, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Graft-derived cell-free DNA (GcfDNA), which is released into the blood stream by necrotic and apoptotic cells, is a promising noninvasive organ integrity biomarker. In liver transplantation (LTx), neither conventional liver function tests (LTFs) nor immunosuppressive drug monitoring are very effective for rejection monitoring. We therefore hypothesized that the quantitative measurement of donor-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) would have independent value for the assessment of graft integrity, including damage from acute rejection. Traditional LFTs were performed and plasma GcfDNA was monitored in 115 adults post-LTx at three German transplant centers as part of a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort trial. GcfDNA percentage (graft cfDNA/total cfDNA) was measured using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), based on a limited number of predefined single nucleotide polymorphisms, enabling same-day turn-around. The same method was used to quantify blood microchimerism. GcfDNA was increased >50% on day 1 post-LTx, presumably from ischemia/reperfusion damage, but rapidly declined in patients without graft injury within 7 to 10 d to a median <10%, where it remained for the 1-y observation period. Of 115 patients, 107 provided samples that met preestablished criteria. In 31 samples taken from 17 patients during biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes, the percentage of GcfDNA was elevated substantially (median 29.6%, 95% CI 23.6%-41.0%) compared with that in 282 samples from 88 patients during stable periods (median 3.3%, 95% CI 2.9%-3.7%; p < 0.001). Only slightly higher values (median 5.9%, 95% CI 4.4%-10.3%) were found in 68 samples from 17 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive, rejection-free patients. LFTs had low overall correlations (r = 0.28-0.62) with GcfDNA and showed greater overlap between patient subgroups, especially between acute rejection and HCV+ patients. Multivariable logistic regression modeling demonstrated that GcfDNA provided additional LFT

  18. 1,25-(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} prevents activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro and ameliorates inflammatory liver damage but not fibrosis in the Abcb4{sup −/−} model

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, Florian P., E-mail: florian.reiter@med.uni-muenchen.de; Hohenester, Simon; Nagel, Jutta M.

    2015-04-03

    Background/Purpose of the study: Vitamin D{sub 3}-deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver-disease and may promote disease progression. Vitamin D{sub 3}-administration has thus been proposed as a therapeutic approach. Vitamin D{sub 3} has immunomodulatory effects and may modulate autoimmune liver-disease such as primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although various mechanisms of action have been proposed, experimental evidence is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that active 1,25-(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro and modulates liver-injury in vivo. Methods: Proliferation and activation of primary murine HSC were assessed by BrdU- and PicoGreen{sup ®}-assays, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence-microscopy, quantitative-PCR, andmore » zymography following calcitriol-treatment. Wild-type and ATP-binding cassette transporter b4{sup −/−} (Abcb4{sup −/−})-mice received calcitriol for 4 weeks. Liver-damage, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed by serum liver-tests, Sirius-red staining, quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and hydroxyproline quantification. Results: In vitro, calcitriol inhibited activation and proliferation of murine HSC as shown by reduced α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-β-protein-levels, BrdU and PicoGreen®-assays. Furthermore, mRNA-levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13 were profoundly increased. In vivo, calcitriol ameliorated inflammatory liver-injury reflected by reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase in Abcb4{sup −/−}-mice. In accordance, their livers had lower mRNA-levels of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 and a lower count of portal CD11b positive cells. In contrast, no effect on overall fibrosis was observed. Conclusion: Calcitriol inhibits activation and proliferation of HSCs in vitro. In Abcb4{sup −/−}-mice, administration of calcitriol ameliorates inflammatory liver-damage

  19. Anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of glycyrrhetinic acid on CCl4-induced damage in precision-cut liver slices from Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian) through inhibition of the nf-kƁ pathway.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liping; Ding, Weidong; Jia, Rui; Du, Jingliang; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Chunyun; Gu, Zhengyan; Yin, Guojun

    2017-05-01

    In order to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced damage in precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) from Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio. Jian), an acute liver damage model was established in this study. The viability of PCLS, levels of anti-oxidases in liver homogenates, expression of inflammation-related genes including nuclear factor-κB (nf-κB)/c-rel, inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos), interleukin-1β (il-1β), interleukin-6 (il-6) and interleukin-8 (il-8), and protein levels of (nf-κB)/c-rel in liver tissues were measured. The results showed that pretreatment of PCLS with GA at 5 and 10 μg/mL for 6 h significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of CCl 4 . GA attenuated CCl 4 -induced oxidative stress in PCLS through promoting the recovery of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels, and inhibiting malondialdehyde (MDA) synthesis. In inflammatory response, GA at both 5 and 10 μg/mL significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines including nf-kƁ/c-rel, inos, il-1β, il-6 and il-8, and the protein level of Nf-kƁ/C-rel induced by CCl 4 . Furthermore, treatment with pyrrolyl dithiocarbamate (PDTC, 4 μg/mL), an inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor nf-kB, significantly inhibited nf-kB levels, and transcription of downstream cytokines inos, il-1β, il-6 and il-8, also the viability of PCLS was significantly increased. These results indicated that GA suppressed inflammation and reduced cytotoxicity by inhibiting the nf-kƁ signaling pathway, and plays a role in liver protection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The effects of sulforaphane on the liver and remote organ damage in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion model formed with pringle maneuver in rats.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Abdullah; Kapan, Murat; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Alabalik, Ulas; Ulger, Burak Veli; Uslukaya, Omer; Turkoglu, Ahmet; Polat, Yilmaz

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Sulforaphane on ischemia/ reperfusion (IR) injury of the liver and distant organs resulting from liver blood flow arrest. Fourty Wistar rats were assigned into four groups, each included 10 rats were used. Group I as only laparatomy, Group II laparatomy and Sulforaphane application, Group III hepatic IR; and Group IV as hepatic IR and Sulforaphane application group. Animals were subjected to liver ischemia for 30 min and then reperfusion is started. 5 mg/kg Sulforaphane was applied via oral lavage 15 minutes before initiating the experimental study. Blood samples were taken from the animals for biochemical analysis at 60th minutes of the experiment in the first and second groups; 30 minutes after beginning reperfusion in the third and forth groups. Simultaneously, liver, lung and kidney tissues were sampled for biochemical and histopathological examinations. The administration of sulforaphane significantly reduced the serum TOA and liver TOA levels, increased the serum TAC and liver TAC levels and also decreased The OSI and liver OSI levels. In the histopathologic examination, the injury was reduced by the administration of sulforaphane. Administration of sulforaphane did not lead to any significant changes in any parameter including histopathological parameters in both the kidney and the lung. Sulforaphane reduced the liver oxidative stress from I/R injury. A histological injury in liver was reduced by sulforaphane administration. However, there were no significant effects of sulforaphane on the remote organ injuries induced by IR. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Immune mediated liver failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of "immune coagulation", which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  2. Addition of Berberine to Preservation Solution in an Animal Model of Ex Vivo Liver Transplant Preserves Mitochondrial Function and Bioenergetics from the Damage Induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Rui Miguel; Pinto Rolo, Anabela; Furtado, Emanuel; Caetano Oliveira, Rui; Tralhão, José Guilherme; Marques Palmeira, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Liver transplantation is a therapeutic regimen to treat patients with non-malignant end-stage liver diseases and malignant tumors of hepatic origin. The ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in liver transplantation is associated with disruption of mitochondrial function in the hepatic parenchyma. Several studies have been conducted in animal models to identify pharmacological therapeutic strategies to minimize the injury induced by the cold/warm I/R in liver transplantation. Most of these studies were conducted in unrealistic conditions without the potential to be translated to clinical usage. Berberine (BBR) is a pharmacological compound with a potential protective effect of the mitochondrial function in the context of I/R. For the future clinical application of these pharmacological strategies, it is essential that a close resemblance exists between the methodology used in the animals models and real life. In this study, we have demonstrated that the addition of BBR to the preservation solution in an I/R setting preserves mitochondrial function and bioenergetics, protecting the liver from the deleterious effects caused by I/R. As such, BBR has the potential to be used as a pharmacological therapeutic strategy. PMID:29351246

  3. Wilson disease - liver pathology.

    PubMed

    Pronicki, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    The liver in Wilson disease may demonstrate a wide range of damage patterns. Some patients may present almost no detectable microscopic pathology, while others display lesions consistent with fulminant hepatitis or acute liver failure. Most liver biopsy specimens show moderate to severe steatosis, variable degree of portal and/or lobular inflammation, and fibrosis eventually progressing to cirrhosis. Additional findings include liver cell degeneration and ballooning, Mallory hyaline bodies, liver cell necrosis, and glycogenation of periportal hepatocytic nuclei. None of the above lesions are specific for Wilson disease and should be interpreted in a wider medical context and particular clinical setting. The main message concerning liver pathology is that Wilson disease may be microscopically misinterpreted as many other liver diseases, including viral or autoimmune hepatitis, alcoholic/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, toxic liver injury, cryptogenic cirrhosis, metabolic liver disease, and many others. The possibility of Wilson disease should be considered in all patients, especially young ones presenting unexplained liver diseases with many variable patterns of microscopic liver involvement. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Liver ultrastructural morphology and mitochondrial DNA levels in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection: no evidence of mitochondrial damage with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Matsukura, Motoi; Chu, Fanny F S; Au, May; Lu, Helen; Chen, Jennifer; Rietkerk, Sonja; Barrios, Rolando; Farley, John D; Montaner, Julio S; Montessori, Valentina C; Walker, David C; Côté, Hélène C F

    2008-06-19

    Liver mitochondrial toxicity is a concern, particularly in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. Liver biopsies from HIV/HCV co-infected patients, 14 ON-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and nine OFF-HAART, were assessed by electron microscopy quantitative morphometric analyses. Hepatocytes tended to be larger ON-HAART than OFF-HAART (P = 0.05), but mitochondrial volume, cristae density, lipid volume, mitochondrial DNA and RNA levels were similar. We found no evidence of increased mitochondrial toxicity in individuals currently on HAART, suggesting that concomitant HAART should not delay HCV therapy.

  5. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may be performed for: Alcoholic liver disease (fatty liver, hepatitis, or cirrhosis) Amebic liver abscess Autoimmune hepatitis ... Hepatitis D Hepatocellular carcinoma Hodgkin lymphoma Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Primary biliary cirrhosis Primary ...

  6. Ruscogenin glycoside (Lm-3) isolated from Liriope muscari improves liver injury by dysfunctioning liver-infiltrating lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Cao, J; Jiang, J; Yu, B; Xu, Q

    2001-05-01

    The effects of ruscogenin 1-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 2)] [beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 --> 3)]-beta-D-fucopyranoside (Lm-3) and its aglycone, ruscogenin, on liver injury induced in mice by delayed-type hypersensitivity to picryl chloride have been investigated. Lm-3 and ruscogenin significantly decreased liver injury when given during the effector phase of the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. The pretreatment of nonparenchymal cells, but not hepatocytes, with Lm-3 or ruscogenin in-vitro caused a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition against the damage. Lm-3 showed a stronger inhibition against the damage than ruscogenin (IC50: Lm-3 6.3 x 10(-10) M, ruscogenin 3.9 x 10(-7) M). However, neither Lm-3 nor ruscogenin blocked the hepatotoxic potential of CCl4, when used to pretreat hepatocytes. Moreover, Lm-3 and ruscogenin inhibited concanavalin A-induced lymphocyte proliferation only at high concentrations. These results suggested that Lm-3 and ruscogenin improved the immunological liver injury by selectively causing dysfunction of the liver-infiltrating cells rather than by protecting hepatocyte membranes. Such characteristics would be significant for treating immunologically related liver diseases as well as for developing new drugs.

  7. γδ T cells are indispensable for interleukin-23-mediated protection against Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ziyu; Wang, Jingya; Yuan, Yifang; Cao, Guangchao; Fan, Shuobing; Gao, Chao; Wang, Li; Li, Zheng; Wu, Xiaoli; Wu, Zhenzhou; Zhao, Liqing; Yin, Zhinan

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers are highly susceptible to liver injury triggered by environmental biochemical stimulation. Previously, we have reported an inverse correlation between γδ T cells and liver damage in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, whether γδ T cells play a role in regulating the hypersensitivity of HBsAg carriers to biochemical stimulation-induced hepatitis is unknown. In this study, using HBV transgenic (HBs-Tg) and HBs-Tg T-cell receptor-δ-deficient (TCR-δ -/- ) mice, we found that mice genetically deficient in γδ T cells exhibited more severe liver damage upon Concanavalin A (Con A) treatment, as indicated by substantially higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels, further elevated interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels and more extensive necrosis. γδ T-cell deficiency resulted in elevated IFN-γ in CD4 + T cells but not in natural killer or natural killer T cells. The depletion of CD4 + T cells and neutralization of IFN-γ reduced liver damage in HBs-Tg and HBs-Tg-TCR-δ -/- mice to a similar extent. Further investigation revealed that HBs-Tg mice showed an enhanced interleukin-17 (IL-17) signature. The administration of exogenous IL-23 enhanced IL-17A production from Vγ4 γδ T cells and ameliorated liver damage in HBs-Tg mice, but not in HBs-Tg-TCR-δ -/- mice. In summary, our results demonstrated that γδ T cells played a protective role in restraining Con A-induced hepatitis by inhibiting IFN-γ production from CD4 + T cells and are indispensable for IL-23-mediated protection against Con A-induced hepatitis in HBs-Tg mice. These results provided a potential therapeutic approach for treating the hypersensitivity of HBV carriers to biochemical stimulation-induced liver damage. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Protective effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Lawsonia inermis fruits extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Hsouna, Anis Ben; Mongi, Saoudi; Culioli, Gérald; Blache, Yves; Ghlissi, Zohra; Chaabane, Rim; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Jaoua, Samir; Trigui, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties of different fractions obtained from the fruits of Lawsonia inermis, a widely used medicinal plant, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. The results show that several fractions obtained from L. inermis fruits possessed important antioxidant activity. Among them, the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity. Then, EA fraction was selected for the purification of potential antioxidant compounds. The hepatoprotective effects of EA fraction and its most active constituent, gallic acid (GA), were evaluated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. CCl4 induced oxidative stress by a significant rise in serum marker enzymes. However, pretreatment of rats with EA fraction of fruits of L. inermis at a dose of 250 mg kg(-1)body weight and GA significantly lowered some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in treated rats. A significant reduction in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and an increase in antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase by treatment with plant extract and GA, against CCl4-treated rats, were observed. Histopathological examinations showed extensive liver injuries, characterized by extensive hepatocellular necrosis, vacuolization, and inflammatory cell infiltration. This potential antioxidant activity is comparable to those of the major purified antioxidant compound, GA. Based on these results, it was observed that fruits of L. inermis protect liver from oxidative stress induced by CCl4 and thus help in evaluation of traditional claim on this plant. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Radio protective effect of black mulberry extract on radiation-induced damage in bone marrow cells and liver in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemnezhad Targhi, Reza; Homayoun, Mansour; Mansouri, Somaieh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation by producing free radicals induces tissue oxidative stress and has clastogenic and cytotoxic effects. The radio protective effect of black mulberry extract (BME) has been investigated on liver tissue and bone marrow cells in the rat. Intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 200 mg/kg BME three days before and three days after 3 Gy and 6 Gy gamma irradiation significantly reduced the frequencies of micro nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and micro nucleated norm chromatic erythrocyte (MnNCEs) and increased PCE/PCE+NCE ratio in rat bone marrow compared to the non-treated irradiated groups. Moreover, this concentration of BME extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as enhanced the total thiol content and catalase activity in rat's liver compared to the non-treated irradiated groups. It seems that BME extract with antioxidant activity reduced the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by gamma irradiation in bone marrow cells and liver in the rat.

  10. Obesity and Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Schlesinger, Sabrina

    Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure. Accumulating evidence has established an association between higher body mass index as an indicator of general obesity and higher risk of primary liver cancer. The associations are stronger in men, in patients with underlying liver disease and in white ethnic groups. Abdominal obesity, weight gain in adult life and metabolic factors related to visceral fat accumulation were also suggested as important risk factors for liver cancer; however, more studies are needed to evaluate these associations. The association of obesity and metabolic parameters with liver cancer survival remains controversial. It is unclear which exact mechanisms could provide links between obesity and liver cancer risk. Recent evidence has implicated several molecular pathways in obesity-associated liver cancer. These include insulin resistance leading to increased levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factors, chronic inflammation, adipose tissue remodeling, pro-inflammatory cytokine and adipokine secretion, and altered gut microbiota. These mechanisms coincide with inflammatory and metabolic processes occurring in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease predisposing cancer development and progression. In the context of the current evidence, better understanding of the role of obesity and related metabolic factors may help in

  11. Short term feeding of a high fat diet exerts an additive effect on hepatocellular damage and steatosis in liver-specific PTEN knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hepatospecific deletion of PTEN results in constitutive activation of Akt and increased lipogenesis. In mice, the addition of a high fat diet (HFD) downregulates lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a HFD on hepatocellular damage induced by deletion of PTEN. Twelve-week...

  12. Therapeutic dose of green tea extract provokes liver damage and exacerbates paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats through oxidative stress and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    El-Bakry, Hanan A; El-Sherif, G; Rostom, Rehab M

    2017-12-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is considered to be endowed with countless healthful properties. Nevertheless, data concerning the hepatoprotective activities of GTE and its utilization as a therapeutic intervention for paracetamol (APAP) overdose are conflicting and intriguing. The present study was undertaken to address the effect of therapeutic dose of GTE on the liver, evaluate the potential hepatoprotection of GTE against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, asses the regenerative capacity of the liver after discontinuation of treatments, and explore the mechanisms underlying these effects. Adult male albino rats were divided into six groups (n=9 each): (1) control, (2) APAP (2g/kg, orally for one week), (3) GTE (8.5mg/kg, orally for one month), (4) APAP/GTE (APAP followed by GTE), (5) APAP recovery (for one month) and (6) APAP/GTE recovery (for one month). Administration of APAP or GTE resulted in well-documented biochemical and histopathological alterations indicating hepatotoxicity, manifested as augmented concentrations of liver enzymes, hepatocellular necrosis and degeneration, congestion, hemorrhage, inflammation, and fibrosis. The APAP group showed glycogen depletion. Consistent with these changes apoptosis (as detected by caspase-3 immunoreactivity) and oxidative stress (MDA) were greatly increased, whereas antioxidant activities (catalase and GSH) were markedly decreased. These changes were more pronounced in APAP/GTE group, and were not recovered upon cessation of treatments for one month. These results highlight that administration of therapeutic doses of GTE induces hepatotoxicity, and imply that in a situation of clinical paracetamol overdose, administration of GTE is likely to potentiate APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Further studies are warranted given the increasing use of green tea extract as a dietary supplement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 producing pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) ameliorates 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative damage in colon and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sumeet; Singh, Ashish; Kumar, Prasant; Chaudhari, Archana; Nareshkumar, G

    2014-06-01

    Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) genesis. Alleviation of oxidative stress is achieved by using antioxidants and probiotics. Present study investigates a synergistic effect of the probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 containing Vitreoscilla haemoglobin gene (vgb), green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene and pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq) gene cluster on oxidative stress induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Adult virgin Charles foster male rats (3-4 months) weighing 200-250 g were administered with DMH (25 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) twice a week for eight consecutive weeks. Rats receiving only DMH dose showed increased lipid peroxidation in liver and intestinal tissues with reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Oral dose of E. coli CFR 16::vgb-gfp harbouring pqq gene cluster increased rat faecal PQQ concentration by twofold, reduced lipid peroxidation and retained SOD, CAT and GPx activities close to normal levels in liver and colonic tissues following DMH treatment. In addition, significant protection was found in colonic histological sections of these rat groups. This study demonstrates a protective efficacy in the following order: E. coli CFR 16 < E. coli CFR 16::vgb-gfp < vitamin C = PQQ < E. coli CFR 16::vgb-gfp (pqq).

  14. Plasmodium-Salmonella Co-Infection Induces Intense Inflammatory Responsanirban Pal, Phd, Cisr-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh Indiae, Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage: A Mice Model Study for Therapeutic Strategy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Mittal, Sandeep; Tiwari, Nimisha; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Singh, Dhirendra; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Pal, Anirban

    2018-02-01

    Impairment of host immune response in malaria favours bacteraemia caused by typhoidal or non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica. Ofloxacin and Artesunate are the drugs that are clinically proven for treating typhoid and malaria respectively. The study evaluates the host responses upon treatment with antibiotic (Ofloxacin) and anti-malarial (Artesunate) in a standardized mice model harbouring co-infection. BALB/c mice (18-22 gm) were simultaneously co-infected with Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (Pyn) and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (STm) and then treated with Ofloxacin or/and Artesunate from day 4 to day 7. The bacterial burden, Liver function enzymes, oxidative stress, m-RNA expression of Toll Like Receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4), Th1/Th2 cytokines, Heme Oxygenase -1 and NFкB were assessed. Ofloxacin treatment failed to counter the bacterial proliferation in Pyn-STm co-infected mice. However, upon controlling parasitemia with anti-malarial, the efficacy of Ofloxacin could be regained. Elevated bacterial burden with malaria induces the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 triggering intense inflammatory response (NFκB, Th1/Th2 cytokines) in co-infected mice. This results in critical liver damage (ALT, AST and ALP), oxidative stress (Lipid peroxidation, Total GSH, Catalase and Super oxide dismutase) and Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The study concludes that malaria infection aggravates the secondary infection of Salmonella serovars and the control of septicaemia is critical in recovery of the co-infected subject.

  15. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis A, ... poisons, or too much alcohol. Examples include fatty liver disease and cirrhosis. Liver cancer Inherited diseases, such as ...

  16. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Delta agent (hepatitis D) Drug-induced cholestasis Fatty liver disease Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C ... abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Images Fatty liver, CT scan Liver with disproportional fattening, CT scan ...

  17. Slam haplotype 2 promotes NKT but suppresses Vγ4+ T-cell activation in coxsackievirus B3 infection leading to increased liver damage but reduced myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Huber, Sally Ann; Roberts, Brian; Moussawi, Mohamad; Boyson, Jonathan E

    2013-02-01

    There are two major haplotypes of signal lymphocytic activation molecule (Slam) in inbred mouse strains, with the Slam haplotype 1 expressed in C57Bl/6 mice and the Slam haplotype 2 expressed in most other commonly used inbred strains, including 129 mice. Because signaling through Slam family receptors can affect innate immunity [natural killer T cell (NKT) and γ-δ T-cell receptor], and innate immunity can determine susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection, the present study evaluated the response of C57Bl/6 and congenic B6.129c1 mice (expressing the 129-derived Slam locus) to CVB3. CVB3-infected C57Bl/6 male mice developed increased myocarditis but reduced hepatic injury compared with infected B6.129c1 mice. C57Bl/6 mice also had increased γδ(+) and CD8(+)interferon-γ(+) cells but decreased numbers of NKT (T-cell receptor β chain + mCD1d tetramer(+)) and CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells compared with B6.129c1 mice. C57Bl/6 mice were infected with CVB3 and treated with either α-galactosylceramide, an NKT cell-specific ligand, or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide/PBS). Mice treated with α-galactosylceramide showed significantly reduced myocarditis. Liver injuries, as determined by alanine aminotransferase levels in plasma, were increased significantly, confirming that NKT cells are protective for myocarditis but pathogenic in the liver. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chicken Fetal Liver DNA Damage and Adduct Formation by Activation-Dependent DNA-Reactive Carcinogens and Related Compounds of Several Structural Classes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gary M.; Duan, Jian-Dong; Brunnemann, Klaus D.; Iatropoulos, Michael J.; Vock, Esther; Deschl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The chicken egg genotoxicity assay (CEGA), which utilizes the liver of an intact and aseptic embryo-fetal test organism, was evaluated using four activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and four structurally related less potent carcinogens or non-carcinogens. In the assay, three daily doses of test substances were administered to eggs containing 9–11-day-old fetuses and the fetal livers were assessed for two endpoints, DNA breaks using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and DNA adducts using the 32P-nucleotide postlabeling (NPL) assay. The effects of four carcinogens of different structures requiring distinct pathways of bioactivation, i.e., 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), were compared with structurally related non-carcinogens fluorene (FLU) and benzo[e]pyrene (B[e]P) or weak carcinogens, aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA). The four carcinogens all produced DNA breaks at microgram or low milligram total doses, whereas less potent carcinogens and non-carcinogens yielded borderline or negative results, respectively, at higher doses. AAF and B[a]P produced DNA adducts, whereas none was found with the related comparators FLU or B[e]P, consistent with comet results. DEN and NDELA were also negative for adducts, as expected in the case of DEN for an alkylating agent in the standard NPL assay. Also, AFB1 and AFB2 were negative in NPL, as expected, due to the nature of ring opened aflatoxin adducts, which are resistant to enzymatic digestion. Thus, the CEGA, using comet and NPL, is capable of detection of the genotoxicity of diverse DNA-reactive carcinogens, while not yielding false positives for non-carcinogens. PMID:24973097

  19. Chicken fetal liver DNA damage and adduct formation by activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and related compounds of several structural classes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Duan, Jian-Dong; Brunnemann, Klaus D; Iatropoulos, Michael J; Vock, Esther; Deschl, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    The chicken egg genotoxicity assay (CEGA), which utilizes the liver of an intact and aseptic embryo-fetal test organism, was evaluated using four activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and four structurally related less potent carcinogens or non-carcinogens. In the assay, three daily doses of test substances were administered to eggs containing 9-11-day-old fetuses and the fetal livers were assessed for two endpoints, DNA breaks using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and DNA adducts using the (32)P-nucleotide postlabeling (NPL) assay. The effects of four carcinogens of different structures requiring distinct pathways of bioactivation, i.e., 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), were compared with structurally related non-carcinogens fluorene (FLU) and benzo[e]pyrene (B[e]P) or weak carcinogens, aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA). The four carcinogens all produced DNA breaks at microgram or low milligram total doses, whereas less potent carcinogens and non-carcinogens yielded borderline or negative results, respectively, at higher doses. AAF and B[a]P produced DNA adducts, whereas none was found with the related comparators FLU or B[e]P, consistent with comet results. DEN and NDELA were also negative for adducts, as expected in the case of DEN for an alkylating agent in the standard NPL assay. Also, AFB1 and AFB2 were negative in NPL, as expected, due to the nature of ring opened aflatoxin adducts, which are resistant to enzymatic digestion. Thus, the CEGA, using comet and NPL, is capable of detection of the genotoxicity of diverse DNA-reactive carcinogens, while not yielding false positives for non-carcinogens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Chronic free-choice drinking in crossed high alcohol preferring mice leads to sustained blood ethanol levels and metabolic tolerance without evidence of liver damage.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David; Buckingham, Amy; Ross, Ruth Ann; Halcomb, Meredith; Grahame, Nicholas

    2013-02-01

    Crossed high alcohol preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1 × HAP2 replicate lines, and we demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking that are reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. Therefore, this line may provide an unprecedented opportunity to learn about the consequences of excessive voluntary ethanol (EtOH) consumption, including metabolic tolerance and liver pathology. Cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction plays a prominent role in driving both metabolic tolerance and EtOH-induced liver injury. In this report, we sought to characterize cHAP drinking by assessing whether pharmacologically relevant BEC levels are sustained throughout the active portion of the light-dark cycle. Given that cHAP intakes and BECs are similar to those observed in mice given an EtOH liquid diet, we assessed whether free-choice exposure results in metabolic tolerance, hepatic enzyme induction, and hepatic steatosis. In experiment 1, blood samples were taken across the dark portion of a 12:12 light-dark cycle to examine the pattern of EtOH accumulation in these mice. In experiments 1 and 2, mice were injected with EtOH following 3 to 4 weeks of access to water or 10% EtOH and water, and blood samples were taken to assess metabolic tolerance. In experiment 3, 24 mice had 4 weeks of access to 10% EtOH and water or water alone, followed by necropsy and hepatological assessment. In experiment 1, cHAP mice mean BEC values exceeded 80 mg/dl at all sampling points and approached 200 mg/dl during the middle of the dark cycle. In experiments 1 and 2, EtOH-exposed mice metabolized EtOH faster than EtOH-naïve mice, demonstrating metabolic tolerance (p < 0.05). In experiment 3, EtOH-drinking mice showed greater expression of hepatic CYP2E1 than water controls, consistent with the development of metabolic tolerance (p < 0.05). EtOH access altered neither hepatic histology nor levels of alcohol

  1. Assessment of the hepatoprotective activity of the seeds of Hunteria umbellata (Hallier F.) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunlana, Olubanke Olujoke; Ogunlana, Oluseyi Ebenezer; Adelani, Isaacson Bababode; Adebayo, Angie Osariem Igbinoba; David, Opetoritse Laju; Adeleye, Oluwaseye Joseph; Udeogu, Stephanie Adaora; Adeyemi, Alaba Oladipupo; Akinyele, Julie Oluranti

    2018-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the seeds of Hunteria umbellata (HU) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced rats. Rats of groups 1 (normal control), 3 and 5 were not treated with CCl4 while rats of groups 2 (negative control), 4 and 6 rats were treated with single dose of CCl4 (2 ml/kg) by intraperitoneal administration. Normal control group 1 rats were given distilled water, groups 3 and 4 rats were given 50 mg/kg of silymarin while groups 5 and 6 rats were given 500 mg/kg of HU. Treatment was administered orally for 28 days and sacrificed on the 29th day after an overnight fast. The weights of the rats were taken before and after the treatment. Blood samples were collected in heparinized tubes and biochemical analysis of liver functions and lipid profile tests were carried out on plasma. There was a significant change (p<0.05) in the levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high density lipoprotein and triglycerides of the CCl4 induced group treated with HU compared to the CCl4 untreated group 2 animals. The results obtained showed that the ethanolic extract of HU has hepatoprotective property.

  2. l-Theanine prevents ETEC-induced liver damage by reducing intrinsic apoptotic response and inhibiting ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihua; Liu, Qiuling; Lin, Ling; Deng, Yanli; Cai, Shuxian; Liu, Zunying; Zhang, Sheng; Xiao, Wenjun; Xiong, Shuo; Chen, Dong

    2018-01-05

    l-Theanine (LTA; γ-glutamylethylamide), a peculiar non-protein-derived amino acid isolated from tea, is widely used as a functional ingredient and dietary supplement. l-Theanine has been confirmed to have hepatoprotective effects, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This study investigated the protective effect of l-Theanine-in vivo, using an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-infected mouse model. l-Theanine significantly decreased the elevated serum activities of both aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), two biomarkers of hepatic impairment. This was consistent with histopathological images from the microscopic observation of liver tissue. In addition, l-theanine significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax, anti- and pro-apoptotic molecules, respectively, compared with levels in the ETEC control group. The expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein in the group pre-treated with l-theanine was significantly lower than that in the ETEC group. Additionally, decreases in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase(JNK1/2) MAPK phosphorylation were observed in the l-theanine pre-treated group. Our study demonstrates that l-theanine possesses anti-apoptotic activity, which can be attributed to suppression of the intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and MAPK phosphorylation signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gut microbiome composition in lean patients with NASH is associated with liver damage independent of caloric intake: A prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Duarte, S M B; Stefano, J T; Miele, L; Ponziani, F R; Souza-Basqueira, M; Okada, L S R R; de Barros Costa, F G; Toda, K; Mazo, D F C; Sabino, E C; Carrilho, F J; Gasbarrini, A; Oliveira, C P

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the gut microbiomes from obese and lean patients with or without NASH to outline phenotypic differences. We performed a cross-sectional pilot study comprising biopsy-proven NASH patients grouped according to BMI. Microbiome DNA was extracted from stool samples, and PCR amplification was performed using primers for the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The amplicons were sequenced using the Ion PGM Torrent platform, and data were analyzed using QIIME software. Macronutrient consumption was analyzed by a 7-day food record. Liver fibrosis ≥ F2 was associated with increased abundance of Lactobacilli (p = 0.0007). NASH patients showed differences in Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium abundance compared with the control group. Lean NASH patients had a 3-fold lower abundance of Faecalibacterium and Ruminococcus (p = 0.004), obese NASH patients were enriched in Lactobacilli (p = 0.002), and overweight NASH patients had reduced Bifidobacterium (p = 0.018). Moreover, lean NASH patients showed a deficiency in Lactobacillus compared with overweight and obese NASH patients. This group also appeared similar to the control group with regard to gut microbiome alpha diversity. Although there were qualitative differences between lean NASH and overweight/obese NASH, they were not statistically significant (p = 0.618). The study limitations included a small sample size, a food questionnaire that collected only qualitative and semi-quantitative data, and variations in group gender composition that may influence differences in FXR signaling, bile acids metabolism and the composition of gut microbiota. Our preliminary finding of a different pathogenetic process in lean NASH patients needs to be confirmed by larger studies, including those with patient populations stratified by sex and dietary habits. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the

  4. Organ reengineering through development of a transplantable recellularized liver graft using decellularized liver matrix

    PubMed Central

    Uygun, Basak E; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Yagi, Hiroshi; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Guzzardi, Maria A; Shulman, Carley; Milwid, Jack; Kobayashi, Naoya; Tilles, Arno; Berthiaume, Francois; Hertl, Martin; Nahmias, Yaakov; Yarmush, Martin L; Uygun, Korkut

    2010-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation is the only available treatment for severe liver failure, but it is currently limited by organ shortage. One technical challenge that has thus far limited the development of a tissue-engineered liver graft is oxygen and nutrient transport. Here we demonstrate a novel approach to generate transplantable liver grafts using decellularized liver matrix. The decellularization process preserves the structural and functional characteristics of the native microvascular network, allowing efficient recellularization of the liver matrix with adult hepatocytes and subsequent perfusion for in vitro culture. The recellularized graft supports liver-specific function including albumin secretion, urea synthesis and cytochrome P450 expression at comparable levels to normal liver in vitro. The recellularized liver grafts can be transplanted into rats, supporting hepatocyte survival and function with minimal ischemic damage. These results provide a proof of principle for the generation of a transplantable liver graft as a potential treatment for liver disease. PMID:20543851

  5. Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil enhances the non-specific immune system and prevents oxidative damage in Rhamdia quelen experimentally infected by Aeromonas hydrophila: Effects on cholinergic and purinergic systems in liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Júnior, Guerino B; de Vargas, Agueda C; Boligon, Aline A; de Campos, Marli M A; Stefani, Lenita M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of M. alternifolia essential oil used to treat silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) experimentally infected by Aeromonas hydrophila on oxidative stress variables, and for the first time, on hepatic enzymes of the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems. For that, fish were divided into six groups (A-F), each containing seven animals. Groups A, B and C were composed of uninfected animals, while animals in groups D, E and F were intramuscularly inoculated with A. hydrophila. Groups B and E received a prophylactic bath with M. alternifolia essential oil (50 μL/L, diluted in ethanol) for seven days, while groups C and F were exposed to ethanol. After the prophylactic baths, groups D, E and F were inoculated with 100 μL of A. hydrophila solution (2.1 × 10 9  colony-forming unit). Two days after inoculation, the animals were euthanized and liver samples were collected. Infected animals (the group D) showed increased TBARS and protein carbonylation levels, while CAT, AChE and ADA activities decreased compared to uninfected animals (the group A). The prophylactic treatment with M. alternifolia essential oil (the group E) prevented the alterations caused by A. hydrophila, but it did not change AChE activity. Thus, the prophylactic treatment prevents damage caused by lipids and proteins, as well as alterations of the adenosinergic system, demonstrating that the anti-inflammatory effect of TTO is mediated by the adenosinergic pathway. In addition, TTO prophylactic treatment might be considered an important approach to prevent the hepatic damage caused by A. hydrophila. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  7. Autoimmune liver disease 2007.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Georgios; Muratori, Luigi; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of diseases which comprises both cholestatic and hepatitic forms: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and the so called "overlap" syndromes where hepatitic and cholestatic damage coexists. All these diseases are characterized by an extremely high heterogeneity of presentation, varying from asymptomatic, acute (as in a subset of AIH) or chronic (with aspecific symptoms such as fatigue and myalgia in AIH or fatigue and pruritus in PBC and PSC). The detection and characterization of non organ specific autoantibodies plays a major role in the diagnostic approach of autoimmune liver disease; anti nuclear reactivities (ANA) and anti smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) mark type 1 AIH, liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 AIH; antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are associated with PBC, while no specific marker is found in PSC, since anticytoplasmic neutrophil antibodies with perinuclear pattern (atypical p-ANCA or p-ANNA) are also detected in a substantial proportion of type 1 AIH cases. Treatment options rely on immunosoppressive therapy (steroids and azathioprine) in AIH and on ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic conditions; in all these diseases liver transplantation remains the only therapeutical approach for the end stage of liver disease.

  8. Salidroside Attenuates Concanavalin A-Induced Hepatitis via Modulating Cytokines Secretion and Lymphocyte Migration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yun; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jiali; Li, Jinbao

    2014-01-01

    Salidroside, isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola, was reported to serve as an “adaptogen.” This study was designed to explore the protective effect of salidroside on concanavalin A- (Con A-) induced hepatitis in mice and investigate potential mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, Con A group, and salidroside group. Salidroside (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously followed by Con A administration. The levels of ALT, AST, inflammatory cytokines and CXCL-10 were examined. The pathological damage of livers was assessed, the amounts of phosphorylated IκBα and p65 were measured, and the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the blood, spleen and infiltrated in the liver were calculated. Our results showed that salidroside pretreatment reduced the levels of ALT, AST dramatically and suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines through downregulating the activity of NF-κB partly. Salidroside altered the distribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte in the liver and spleen through regulating CXCL-10 and decreased the severity of liver injuries. In conclusion, these results confirm the efficacy of salidroside in the prevention of immune mediated hepatitis in mice. PMID:24808635

  9. Bisphenol A-Induced Ovotoxicity Involves DNA Damage Induction to Which the Ovary Mounts a Protective Response Indicated by Increased Expression of Proteins Involved in DNA Repair and Xenobiotic Biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Shanthi; Keating, Aileen F

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical with ubiquitous human exposure. BPA causes primordial follicle loss and DNA damage in germ cells, thus we hypothesized that BPA induces ovarian DNA damage, thereby precipitating follicle loss. We also anticipated that the ovary activates DNA repair and xenobiotic biotransformation to minimize oocyte damage and/or, activate cell death signaling to deplete follicles. Postnatal day 4 F344 rat ovaries were cultured in medium containing vehicle control (1% dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]) ± BPA (440 µM) for 2-8 days. BPA reduced (P < 0.05) small primary, large primary and secondary follicle numbers after 2 days, followed by a reduction (P < .05) in primordial follicle numbers after 4 days. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) and Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), markers of DNA double-strand breaks, were increased (P < .05) in abundance prior to observed follicle loss. DNA repair genes (Atm, Prkdc, Xrcc6, Brca1, Mre11a, Rad50, and Smc1a) were increased (P < .05) after 1 day of BPA exposure. mRNA encoding Meh, Gstm, c-kit, Kitlg, and Akt were increased (P < .05), as was MEH, AKT, pAKT, Jun N-terminal kinase, and P53 protein abundance, while GST isoforms pi and Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 proteins were decreased (P < .05) by BPA exposure. These data demonstrate the dynamic ovarian response to BPA exposure, which indicates that BPA, via biotransformation, may be converted to a DNA alkylating agent, causing ovarian DNA damage, to which the ovary mounts a protective response and further our knowledge on the biological impacts of BPA on the female germline. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: one entity, multiple impacts on liver health.

    PubMed

    Fierbinteanu-Braticevici, Carmen; Sinescu, Crina; Moldoveanu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Ana; Diaconu, Sorina; Cretoiu, Dragos; Braticevici, Bogdan

    2017-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is very prevalent and now considered the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Staging the severity of liver damage is very important because the prognosis of NAFLD is highly variable. The long-term prognosis of patients with NAFLD remains incompletely elucidated. Even though the annual fibrosis progression rate is significantly higher in patients with nonalcoholic hepatitis (NASH), both types of NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis) can lead to fibrosis. The risk for progressive liver damage and poor outcomes is assessed by staging the severity of liver injury and liver fibrosis. Algorithms (scores) that incorporate various standard clinical and laboratory parameters alongside imaging-based approaches that assess liver stiffness are helpful in predicting advanced fibrosis.

  11. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ...

  12. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ...

  13. Iron homeostasis in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

  14. [Liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Lepagnot, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The liver transplant procedure has advanced significantly since the 1960s. It is the only curative treatment for severe chronic liver disease including cirrhosis. In collaboration with the French Biomedicine Agency, a complex protocol is put in place by a multi-disciplinary team. The patient's commitment to the treatment project is essential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Alcoholic liver disease].

    PubMed

    Waluga, Marek; Hartleb, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol toxicity on liver is a function of duration of alcoholism, amount of daily intake of alcohol and patient's nutrition. The threshold of alcohol toxicity on the liver is about 40 g of ethanol daily in men and 20-30 g in women, however liver cirrhosis develops in no more than 8-20% of patients exceeding this values. Ethanol is oxidized in the liver to acetaldehyde--a compound considerably more toxic than ethanol itself. Despite small amount of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) found in gastric mucosa, the metabolism of ethanol in this site may have an important hepatoprotective effect. The oxidation of ethanol is associated with a change of hepatocyte redox homeostasis, which leads to a number of metabolic disorders such as lactic acidosis, hyperlipidaemia and hyperuricaemia. Chronic ethanol consumption does not influence ADH activity, but has a profound stimulatory effect on microsomal enzymes, in particular cytochrome CYP2E1. This fact is responsible for development in alcoholic liver associated with rise of oxygen consumption, excessive production of free radicals and increased metabolism of ethanol, vitamin A and testosterone. Ethanol and acetaldehyde have a deleterious effect, both the direct and indirect, on hepatocytes e.g., generating radical oxygen species and damaging intestinal mucosal barrier. Cellular oxidative stress that is caused by both an excess of free radicals and the antioxidatives' deficiency (glutathion, vitamin E, phosphatidylcholine), may be the principal factor responsible for progression of alcoholic liver disease. Among other factors accelerating alcohol-related liver lesion there are certain drugs, high fat diet, infection with HCV and genetic factors (female sex, enzymatic polymorphic forms of ADH and ALDH, hemochromatosis). Great importance in pathogenesis of necrotic and inflammatory hepatic events is being attributed to portal endotoxaemia and cytokines induced within the liver, in particular TNF-alpha and interleukin 8. These

  16. Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on ConA-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK Pathway-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Junshan; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Huawei; Yin, Qin; Wang, Chengfen; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, atherosclerosis and antitumor activities. However, its effect on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation. Materials and Methods Autoimmune hepatitis was induced in in Balb/C mice using ConA (25 mg/kg), and astaxanthin was orally administered daily at two doses (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) for 14 days before ConA injection. Levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of inflammatory cytokines and other maker proteins were determined at three time points (2, 8 and 24 h). Primary hepatocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin (80 μM) in vitro 24 h before stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). The apoptosis rate and related protein expression were determined 24 h after the administration of TNF-α. Results Astaxanthin attenuated serum liver enzymes and pathological damage by reducing the release of inflammatory factors. It performed anti-apoptotic effects via the descending phosphorylation of Bcl-2 through the down-regulation of the JNK/p-JNK pathway. Conclusion This research firstly expounded that astaxanthin reduced immune liver injury in ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The mode of action appears to be downregulation of JNK/p-JNK-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25761053

  17. Galectin-9 ameliorates Con A-induced hepatitis by inducing CD4(+)CD25(low/int) effector T-Cell apoptosis and increasing regulatory T cell number.

    PubMed

    Lv, Kun; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Mengying; Zhong, Min; Suo, Qifeng

    2012-01-01

    T cell-mediated liver damage is a key event in the pathogenesis of many chronic human liver diseases, such as liver transplant rejection, primary biliary cirrhosis, and sclerosing cholangitis. We and other groups have previously reported that galectin-9, one of the β-galactoside binding animal lectins, might be potentially useful in the treatment of T cell-mediated diseases. To evaluate the direct effect of galectin-9 on hepatitis induced by concanavalin A (Con A) administration in mice and to clarify the mechanisms involved, we administered galectin-9 into mice, and evaluated its therapeutic effect on Con A-induced hepatitis. Galectin-9 was administrated i.v. to Balb/c mice 30 min before Con A injection. Compared with no treatment, galectin-9 pretreatment significantly reduced serum ALT and AST levels and improved liver histopathology, suggesting an ameliorated hepatitis. This therapeutic effect was not only attributable to a blunted Th1 immune response, but also to an increased number in regulatory T cells, as reflected in a significantly increased apoptosis of CD4(+)CD25(low/int) effector T cells and in reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels. Our findings constitute the first preclinical data indicating that interfering with TIM-3/galectin-9 signaling in vivo could ameliorate Con A-induced hepatitis. This strategy may represent a new therapeutic approach in treating human diseases involving T cell activation.

  18. Liver scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider will inject a radioactive material called a radioisotope into one of your veins. After the liver ... look normal in size, shape, and location. The radioisotope is absorbed evenly. What Abnormal Results Mean Abnormal ...

  19. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Workshops Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  20. Liver Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... life. The liver helps process carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and stores vitamins. It processes nutrients absorbed from ... directive, writing a will, and sharing access to bank accounts, e-mail, or blogs with a trusted ...

  1. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... various vessels multiple blood tests to determine your blood type, kidney function and liver function, and check for ... psychological testing to evaluate their appropriateness for donation. Blood type and body size are critical factors in determining ...

  2. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is often associated with a cluster of increased health risks collectively known as "Metabolic Syndrome" (MS). MS is often accompanied by development of fatty liver. Sometimes fatty liver results in damage leading to reduced liver function, and need for a transplant. This condition is known...

  3. Extracellular Matrix and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arriazu, Elena; Ruiz de Galarreta, Marina; Cubero, Francisco Javier; Varela-Rey, Marta; Pérez de Obanos, María Pilar; Leung, Tung Ming; Lopategi, Aritz; Benedicto, Aitor; Abraham-Enachescu, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic microenvironment that undergoes continuous remodeling, particularly during injury and wound healing. Chronic liver injury of many different etiologies such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, drug-induced liver injury, obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune disease is characterized by excessive deposition of ECM proteins in response to persistent liver damage. Critical Issues: This review describes the main collagenous and noncollagenous components from the ECM that play a significant role in pathological matrix deposition during liver disease. We define how increased myofibroblasts (MF) from different origins are at the forefront of liver fibrosis and how liver cell-specific regulation of the complex scarring process occurs. Recent Advances: Particular attention is paid to the role of cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and newly identified matricellular proteins in the regulation of fibrillar type I collagen, a field to which our laboratory has significantly contributed over the years. We compile data from recent literature on the potential mechanisms driving fibrosis resolution such as MF’ apoptosis, senescence, and reversal to quiescence. Future Directions: We conclude with a brief description of how epigenetics, an evolving field, can regulate the behavior of MF and of how new “omics” tools may advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which the fibrogenic response to liver injury occurs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1078–1097. PMID:24219114

  4. Wilson disease: symptomatic liver therapy.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffenberger, Jan; Weiss, Karl-Heinz; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Wilson disease leads to symptomatic impairment of liver function or liver cirrhosis. Strict adherence to decoppering agents is essential in these patients. Secondary prevention of additional hepatic damage by avoidance of other toxic substances (e.g., alcohol, drugs) and sufficient calorie intake is recommended. Routine examinations in cirrhotic patients include screening for signs of portal hypertension (esophagus varices), development of ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Where varices are present, primary or secondary preventive interventions may include treatment with nonselective beta-blockers or variceal ligation, similar to the approach in patients with liver cirrhosis due to other etiologies. For patients presenting with ascites, diuretics are the treatment of choice. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis can be diagnosed by paracentesis and should be treated with antibiotics. Liver cirrhosis can also lead to accumulation of neurotoxins causing hepatic encephalopathy. It is characterized by unspecific neuropsychiatric impairment and is treated with laxatives and nonresorbable antibiotics. The best prophylaxis is regular defecation. Patients with liver cirrhosis are susceptible for bacterial infections of any cause and sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in these patients. In advanced stages of cirrhosis renal function impairment is a common feature. The hepatorenal syndrome shows a high mortality. Where Wilson disease patients have decompensated liver cirrhosis, liver transplantation should be evaluated. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Logging damage

    Treesearch

    Ralph D. Nyland

    1989-01-01

    The best commercial logging will damage at least some residual trees during all forms of partial cutting, no matter how carefully done. Yet recommendations at the end of this Note show there is much that you can do to limit damage by proper road and trail layout, proper training and supervision of crews, appropriate equipment, and diligence.

  6. Platelets: No longer bystanders in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David H.; Watson, Steve P.; Lalor, Patricia F.

    2016-01-01

    Growing lines of evidence recognize that platelets play a central role in liver homeostasis and pathobiology. Platelets have important roles at every stage during the continuum of liver injury and healing. These cells contribute to the initiation of liver inflammation by promoting leukocyte recruitment through sinusoidal endothelium. They can activate effector cells, thus amplifying liver damage, and by modifying the hepatic cellular and cytokine milieu drive both hepatoprotective and hepatotoxic processes. Conclusion: In this review we summarize how platelets drive such pleiotropic actions and attempt to reconcile the paradox of platelets being both deleterious and beneficial to liver function; with increasingly novel methods of manipulating platelet function at our disposal, we highlight avenues for future therapeutic intervention in liver disease. (Hepatology 2016;64:1774‐1784) PMID:26934463

  7. A review on laboratory liver function tests

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Shivaraj; Desai, Prakash B.; Hull, Vinayak V.; Math, Avinash A K.; Vernekar, Sonal N.; Kulkarni, Shruthi S.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory liver tests are broadly defined as tests useful in the evaluation and treatment of patients with hepatic dysfunction. The liver carries out metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fats. Some of the enzymes and the end products of the metabolic pathway which are very sensitive for the abnormality occurred may be considered as biochemical marker of liver dysfunction. Some of the biochemical markers such as serum bilirubin, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, ratio of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, 5′ nucleotidase, ceruloplasmin, α-fetoprotein are considered in this article. An isolated or conjugated alteration of biochemical markers of liver damage in patients can challenge the clinicians during the diagnosis of disease related to liver directly or with some other organs. The term “liver chemistry tests” is a frequently used but poorly defined phrase that encompasses the numerous serum chemistries that can be assayed to assess hepatic function and/or injury. PMID:21532726

  8. Liver Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... person who does not have symptoms or identifiable risk factors, abnormal liver test results may indicate a temporary ... vitamin K deficiency , use of drugs to reduce risk of clotting (warfarin), and with coagulation factor deficiencies. Is there anything else I should know? ...

  9. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services (C.L.A.S.S.) -- www. ...

  10. [Pathological changes of liver in infection of Fasciola hepatica].

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Agnieszka; Smaga-Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Pathological changes of liver in infection of Fasciola hepatica. Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is a hepatic parasitic infection that affects numerous mammal species, mainly ruminants, in several countries of Europe, Asia and America. The economic significance of fasciolosis is mainly due to direct losses caused by a decrease of weight rate, milking capacity and the confiscation of altered livers in slaughterhouse. In this review we present mechanisms of damaging of host liver during invasion of Fasciola hepatica. Parasites digest hepatic tissue and cause extensive parenchymal destruction with intensive haemorrhagic lesions and immunological reactions. Mechanical liver damage is due to migrating juvenile fluke. Macerated hepatic cells have been observed inside the oral sucker and pharynx. Moreover, the process of ulceration of liver tissue was observed in regions adjacent to the spiny body of fluke tegument. On the other hand, the injury of the liver can be induced chemically by factors produced or induced by the fluke. Probably, fluke proteases and other tissue-degrading enzymes can be responsible for negative effect on liver parenchyma. There is no evidence to link fluke-enzymes with tissue penetration. The consequences of liver damage resulting from the migrating flukes compromises liver function which is reflected in changes of plasma protein concentration (albumin, globulin). Additianally, changes of levels of hepatic enzymes released into the blood as a result of damage of liver tissue are used to monitor the progress of the infection in a variety of Fasciola hepatica hosts and as a sensitive diagnostic aid in field infection.

  11. Liver Graft Susceptibility during Static Cold Storage and Dynamic Machine Perfusion: DCD versus Fatty Livers

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasqua, Laura G.; Berardo, Clarissa; Siciliano, Veronica; Rizzo, Vittoria; Mannucci, Barbara; Richelmi, Plinio; Croce, Anna Cleta; Vairetti, Mariapia

    2017-01-01

    We compared static preservation (cold storage, CS, 4 °C) with dynamic preservation (machine perfusion, MP, 20 °C) followed by reperfusion using marginal livers: a model of donation after cardiac death (DCD) livers and two models of fatty livers, the methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet model, and obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. CS injury in DCD livers was reversed by an oxygenated washout (OW): hepatic damage, bile flow, and the ATP/ADP ratio in the OW + CS group was comparable with the ratio obtained with MP. Using fatty livers, CS preservation induced a marked release in hepatic and biliary enzymes in obese Zucker rats when compared with the MCD group. The same trend occurred for bile flow. No difference was found when comparing MP in MCD and obese Zucker rats. Fatty acid analysis demonstrated that the total saturated (SFA)/polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio was, respectively, 1.5 and 0.71 in obese Zucker and MCD rats. While preservation damage in DCD livers is associated with the ATP/ADP recovered with OW, injury in fatty livers is linked to fatty acid constituents: livers from obese. Zucker rats, with greater content in saturated FA, might be more prone to CS injury. On the contrary, MCD livers with elevated PUFA content might be less susceptible to hypothermia. PMID:29301219

  12. MicroRNAs in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Gyongyi; Bala, Shashi

    2014-01-01

    Small, noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate diverse biological functions in the liver and increasing evidence suggests that they have a role in liver pathology. This Review summarizes advances in the field of miRNAs in liver diseases, inflammation and cirrhosis. MicroRNA-122, the most abundant miRNA in hepatocytes, has well-defined roles in HCV replication, and data indicate that it also serves as a viable therapeutic target. The role of miR-122 is also emerging in other liver diseases. Ample evidence exists for the important regulatory potential of other miRNAs in conditions associated with liver inflammation related to alcohol use, the metabolic syndrome or autoimmune processes. In addition, a broad array of miRNAs have been associated with the development of liver fibrosis both in animal models and human studies. The significance of the function and cellular distribution of miRNAs in the liver and the potential of miRNAs as a means of communication between cells and organs is discussed as well as the emerging utility of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of different forms of liver damage and as early markers of disease and progression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Importantly, miRNA modulation in the liver represents a new therapeutic approach in the treatment armamentarium of hepatologists in the future. PMID:23689081

  13. Liver regenerative medicine: advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the standard care for many end-stage liver diseases. However, donor organs are scarce and some people succumb to liver failure before a donor is found. Liver regenerative medicine is a special interdisciplinary field of medicine focused on the development of new therapies incorporating stem cells, gene therapy and engineered tissues in order to repair or replace the damaged organ. In this review we consider the emerging progress achieved in the hepatic regenerative medicine within the last decade. The review starts with the characterization of liver organogenesis, fetal and adult stem/progenitor cells. Then, applications of primary hepatocytes, embryonic and adult (mesenchymal, hematopoietic and induced pluripotent) stem cells in cell therapy of liver diseases are considered. Current advances and challenges in producing mature hepatocytes from stem/progenitor cells are discussed. A section about hepatic tissue engineering includes consideration of synthetic and natural biomaterials in engineering scaffolds, strategies and achievements in the development of 3D bioactive matrices and 3D hepatocyte cultures, liver microengineering, generating bioartificial liver and prospects for fabrication of the bioengineered liver. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Helping prometheus: liver protection in acute hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Veith, Nils T; Histing, Tina; Menger, Michael D; Pohlemann, Tim; Tschernig, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Acute hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock is caused by a significant high blood loss and leads to hemodynamic instability. The decrease in intravascular volume results in cellular hypoxia and finally in damage to organs such as the liver and the kidney. The liver plays a decisive role in the development or prevention of multiple organ failure after hemorrhagic shock. Despite the large number of experimental studies, the knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms in the liver after hemorrhagic shock is incomplete. The aim of this mini review was to provide an overview of the pathophysiological changes in liver function after acute hemorrhagic shock and to address treatment options to improve liver perfusion.

  15. Genetics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dongiovanni, Paola; Valenti, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological, familial, and twin studies indicate that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, now the leading cause of liver damage in developed countries, has a strong heritability. The common I148M variant of PNPLA3 impairing hepatocellular lipid droplets remodeling is the major genetic determinant of hepatic fat content. The I148M variant has a strong impact on the full spectrum of liver damage related to fatty liver, encompassing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and influences the response to therapeutic approaches. Common variants in GCKR enhance de novo hepatic lipogenesis in response to glucose and liver inflammation. Furthermore, the low-frequency E167K variant of TM6SF2 and rare mutations in APOB, which impair very low-density lipoproteins secretion, predispose to progressive fatty liver. These and other recent findings reviewed here indicate that impaired lipid handling by hepatocytes has a major role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by triggering inflammation, fibrogenesis, and carcinogenesis. These discoveries have provided potential novel biomarkers for clinical use and have revealed intriguing therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  17. Fatty Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    What is fatty liver disease? Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds up ...

  18. Liver transplantation for acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Hessheimer, Amelia J; Nacif, Lucas; Flores Villalba, Eduardo; Fondevila, Constantino

    2017-04-01

    Before liver transplantation became widely applicable as a treatment option, the mortality rate for acute liver failure was as high as 85%. Today, acute liver failure is a relatively common transplant indication in some settings, but the results of liver transplantation in this context appear to be worse than those for chronic forms of liver disease. In this review, we discuss the indications and contraindications for urgent liver transplantation. In particular, we consider the roles of auxiliary, ABO-incompatible, and urgent living donor liver transplantation and address the management of a «status 1» patient with total hepatectomy and portocaval shunt for toxic liver syndrome. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Getting a New Liver: Facts about Liver Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... 22, 2002 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Liver Facts About Liver Transplants American Society of ... the views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ 1 Getting a New Liver Facts About Liver Transplants A liver transplant ...

  20. Hypervitaminosis A induced teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Geelen, J A

    1979-11-01

    In the past decade, the toxicology of reproduction has become increasingly important. This branch of toxicology focuses on mutagenic and embryotoxic effects. The study of embryotoxicity requires an extensive knowledge of the interaction of drugs and embryonic tissues, normal and abnormal developmental processes, and the susceptible stages during prenatal development. Hypervitaminosis A is one of the most extensively studied teratogens. It produces defects in almost all organ systems. Therefore, this article will first of all review the vitamin A-induced malformations in several organ systems. Moreover, it will discuss their morphogenesis and the susceptible developmental stages. Thus, the first ten chapters will cover the following subjects: malformations of the nervous system, ocular malformations, malformations of the ear, craniofacial malformations, cleft palate, defects of the circulatory system, defects of the respiratory systems, defects of the digestive tract, urogenital defects, skeletal malformations, and abnormal postnatal development. Since in general little is known about the mechanisms involved in the induction of congenital defects, we think it is of great value to review the knowledge and experience that have been gathered by the experimental work with hypervitaminosis A. Therefore, the next chapters will discuss the following subjects: teratogenic effects in different species, minimum effective dose, interaction with other agents, influence of chemical form, solvent, and route of administration, pathophysiology of vitamin A embryotoxicity, and hypervitaminosis A and human pregnancy.

  1. Engineering Liver

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2014-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (including available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness) are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches towards these same problems – particularly, in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of “engineering liver” – experimental and computational – are beginning to interplay towards greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. PMID:24668880

  2. Liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marino, I R; Tzakis, A G; Fung, J J; Todo, S; Doyle, H R; Manez, R; Starzl, T E

    1993-10-01

    During the past 30 years orthotopic liver transplantation has become a highly successful form of surgical treatments. The significant advances achieved in this field have led to an increased demand for organs and created a wide gap between organ availability and organ supply. A wider availability of organs for transplantation would allow an expansions rather than a contraction of the indications for transplantation, and, at the same time a relaxation of the patient selection criteria. All these facts clearly justify the renewed interest observed in the last decade in xenotransplantation. The original concept of xenografting, meaning the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, is so ancient that it is easily recognizable in Greek and Roman mythology. The centaur Chiron, the teacher of Esculapius, and the Chimera are legendary examples of discordant xenogeneic creatures. However, it is only during this century that scientists have been able to bring this idea into the clinical arena. The early efforts were prompted by the shortage of humans organs at a time when there were few alternatives for treating end-stage organ failure.

  3. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression after Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand any effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments.

  4. Transient elastography identifies liver recipients with nonviral graft disease after transplantation: a guide for liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Cristina; Fraquelli, Mirella; Bastiampillai, Anan Judina; Caccamo, Lucio; Reggiani, Paolo; Rossi, Giorgio; Colombo, Massimo; Donato, Maria Francesca

    2012-05-01

    Transient elastography (TE) reliably predicts the severity of recurrent hepatitis C virus after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT); however, its accuracy in evaluating nonviral liver graft damage is unknown. Between 2006 and 2009, 69 OLT recipients [37 for hepatitis B virus/hepatitis D virus (recurrence-free), 20 for autoimmune/cholestatic liver disease, 6 for alcoholic liver disease, and 6 for mixed etiologies] underwent protocol/on-demand liver biopsy (LB) and concomitant TE. A histological diagnosis of graft disease was made according to criteria defined by the Banff working group. Sixty-five patients (94%) had reliable TE examinations during a median post-OLT follow-up of 18 months (range = 7-251 months). LB samples (median length = 35 mm) showed graft damage in 28 patients (43%): idiopathic chronic hepatitis (11), steatohepatitis (3), rejection (3), cholangitis (2), and autoimmune/cholestatic recurrence (9). Patients with graft damage had significantly higher serum liver enzyme levels and TE results (median = 7.8 kPa, range = 5.4-27.4 kPa) than the 37 patients without graft damage (median = 5.3 kPa, range = 3.1-7.4 kPa, P < 0.001). By a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 2 TE cutoffs for the diagnosis of graft damage were identified: 5.3 kPa with 100% sensitivity and 7.4 kPa with 100% specificity. The pretest probability of graft damage was 43%; in patients with TE values ≤5.3 kPa, the posttest probability of graft damage fell to 0%, but in patients with TE results >7.4 kPa, the posttest probability increased to 100%. In conclusion, the dual TE cutoff allows accurate discrimination between the absence and presence of nonviral liver graft damage and improves the clinical management of OLT recipients in terms of the selection of patients most in need of LB. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Primer for Teachers: Quick and Easy Liver Wellness, Hepatitis B and Substance Abuse Prevention Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Thelma King

    This guide provides information for teachers to use in teaching about liver wellness, hepatitis B, and substance abuse. The guide includes effective motivational techniques to help students understand how valuable their liver is to their health and well being. It also provides basic information to help students avoid liver damaging behaviors, such…

  6. Liver immunology and its role in inflammation and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark W; Harmon, Cathal; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2016-01-01

    The human liver is usually perceived as a non-immunological organ engaged primarily in metabolic, nutrient storage and detoxification activities. However, we now know that the healthy liver is also a site of complex immunological activity mediated by a diverse immune cell repertoire as well as non-hematopoietic cell populations. In the non-diseased liver, metabolic and tissue remodeling functions require elements of inflammation. This inflammation, in combination with regular exposure to dietary and microbial products, creates the potential for excessive immune activation. In this complex microenvironment, the hepatic immune system tolerates harmless molecules while at the same time remaining alert to possible infectious agents, malignant cells or tissue damage. Upon appropriate immune activation to challenge by pathogens or tissue damage, mechanisms to resolve inflammation are essential to maintain liver homeostasis. Failure to clear ‘dangerous' stimuli or regulate appropriately activated immune mechanisms leads to pathological inflammation and disrupted tissue homeostasis characterized by the progressive development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventual liver failure. Hepatic inflammatory mechanisms therefore have a spectrum of roles in the healthy adult liver; they are essential to maintain tissue and organ homeostasis and, when dysregulated, are key drivers of the liver pathology associated with chronic infection, autoimmunity and malignancy. In this review, we explore the changing perception of inflammation and inflammatory mediators in normal liver homeostasis and propose targeting of liver-specific immune regulation pathways as a therapeutic approach to treat liver disease. PMID:27063467

  7. Liver immunology and its role in inflammation and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mark W; Harmon, Cathal; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2016-05-01

    The human liver is usually perceived as a non-immunological organ engaged primarily in metabolic, nutrient storage and detoxification activities. However, we now know that the healthy liver is also a site of complex immunological activity mediated by a diverse immune cell repertoire as well as non-hematopoietic cell populations. In the non-diseased liver, metabolic and tissue remodeling functions require elements of inflammation. This inflammation, in combination with regular exposure to dietary and microbial products, creates the potential for excessive immune activation. In this complex microenvironment, the hepatic immune system tolerates harmless molecules while at the same time remaining alert to possible infectious agents, malignant cells or tissue damage. Upon appropriate immune activation to challenge by pathogens or tissue damage, mechanisms to resolve inflammation are essential to maintain liver homeostasis. Failure to clear 'dangerous' stimuli or regulate appropriately activated immune mechanisms leads to pathological inflammation and disrupted tissue homeostasis characterized by the progressive development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventual liver failure. Hepatic inflammatory mechanisms therefore have a spectrum of roles in the healthy adult liver; they are essential to maintain tissue and organ homeostasis and, when dysregulated, are key drivers of the liver pathology associated with chronic infection, autoimmunity and malignancy. In this review, we explore the changing perception of inflammation and inflammatory mediators in normal liver homeostasis and propose targeting of liver-specific immune regulation pathways as a therapeutic approach to treat liver disease.

  8. Liver disease in menopause.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carla W

    2015-07-07

    There are numerous physiologic and biochemical changes in menopause that can affect the function of the liver and mediate the development of liver disease. Menopause represents a state of growing estrogen deficiency, and this loss of estrogen in the setting of physiologic aging increases the likelihood of mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, declining immune responses to injury, and disarray in the balance between antioxidant formation and oxidative stress. The sum effect of these changes can contribute to increased susceptibility to development of significant liver pathology, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as accelerated progression of fibrosis in liver diseases, as has been particularly demonstrated in hepatitis C virus liver disease. Recognition of the unique nature of these mediating factors should raise suspicion for liver disease in perimenopausal and menopausal women and offer an opportunity for implementation of aggressive treatment measures so as to avoid progression of liver disease to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure.

  9. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of liver tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reistad, Nina; Nilsson, Jan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Sturesson, Christian; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) with a fiber-optic contact probe is a cost-effective, rapid, and non-invasive optical method used to extract diagnosis information of tissue. By combining commercially available VIS- and NIR-spectrometers with various fiber-optic contact-probes, we have access to the full wavelength range from around 400 to 1600 nm. Using this flexible and portable spectroscopy system, we have acquired ex-vivo DRS-spectra from murine, porcine, and human liver tissue. For extracting the tissue optical properties from the measured spectra, we have employed and compared predictions from two models for light propagation in tissue, diffusion theory model (DT) and Monte Carlo simulations (MC). The focus in this work is on the capacity of this DRS-technique in discriminating metastatic tumor tissue from normal liver tissue as well as in assessing and characterizing damage to non-malignant liver tissue induced by preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases.

  10. Acetaldehyde adducts in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Setshedi, Mashiko; Wands, Jack R

    2010-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse causes liver disease that progresses from simple steatosis through stages of steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatic failure. In addition, chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD), with or without cirrhosis, increases risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Acetaldehyde, a major toxic metabolite, is one of the principal culprits mediating fibrogenic and mutagenic effects of alcohol in the liver. Mechanistically, acetaldehyde promotes adduct formation, leading to functional impairments of key proteins, including enzymes, as well as DNA damage, which promotes mutagenesis. Why certain individuals who heavily abuse alcohol, develop HCC (7.2–15%) versus cirrhosis (15–20%) is not known, but genetics and co-existing viral infection are considered pathogenic factors. Moreover, adverse effects of acetaldehyde on the cardiovascular and hematologic systems leading to ischemia, heart failure, and coagulation disorders, can exacerbate hepatic injury and increase risk for liver failure. Herein, we review the role of acetaldehyde adducts in the pathogenesis of chronic ALD and HCC. PMID:20716942

  11. Acute liver failure and self-medication.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, André Vitorio Câmara; Rocha, Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; Abreu, Sílvio Romero de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Not responsible self-medication refers to drug use in high doses without rational indication and often associated with alcohol abuse. It can lead to liver damage and drug interactions, and may cause liver failure. To warn about how the practice of self-medication can be responsible for acute liver failure. Were used the Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Lilacs, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings acute liver failure [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; acute liver failure [tiab] AND dietary supplements [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND liver failure [tiab] and self-medication [tiab] AND green tea [tiab]. In Lilacs and SciELO used the descriptor self medication in Portuguese and Spanish. From total surveyed were selected 27 articles and five sites specifically related to the purpose of this review. Legislation and supervision disabled and information inaccessible to people, favors the emergence of cases of liver failure drug in many countries. In the list of released drugs that deserve more attention and care, are some herbal medicines used for the purpose of weight loss, and acetaminophen. It is recommended that institutes of health intensify supervision and better orient their populations on drug seemingly harmless, limiting the sale of products or requiring a prescription for release them.

  12. Damaged Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  13. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Liver Transplant Clinical Trials Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & ...

  14. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2017-05-16

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  15. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  16. Platelets Orchestrate Remote Tissue Damage After Mesenteric Ischemia-Reperfusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-02

    FEB 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Platelets orchestrate remote tissue damage after mesenteric ischemia...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Platelets orchestrate remote tissue damage after mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion...Tsokos GC. Platelets orchestrate remote tissue damage after mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 302: G888–G897, 2012

  17. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

  18. Oral delivery of Bacillus subtilis spores expressing cysteine protease of Clonorchis sinensis to grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus): Induces immune responses and has no damage on liver and intestine function.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zeli; Sun, Hengchang; Chen, TingJin; Lin, Zhipeng; Jiang, Hongye; Zhou, Xinyi; Shi, Cunbin; Pan, Houjun; Chang, Ouqin; Ren, Pengli; Yu, Jinyun; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2017-05-01

    Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is a fish-borne trematode. Human can be infected by ingestion of C. sinensis metacercariae parasitized in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For induction of effective oral immune responses, spores of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) WB600 were utilized as vehicle to delivery CsCP (cysteine protease of C. sinensis) cooperated with CotC (B.s-CotC-CP), one of coat proteins, to the gastrointestinal tract. After routine culture of 8-12 h in LB medium, B. subtilis containing CotC-CsCP was transferred into the sporulation culture medium. SDS-PAGE, western blotting and the growth curve indicated that the best sporulation time of recombinant WB600 was 24-30 h at 37 °C with continuous shaking (250 rpm). Grass carp were fed with three levels of B.s-CotC-CP (1 × 10 6 , 1 × 10 7 , and 1 × 10 8  CFU g -1 ) incorporated in the basal pellets diet. The commercial pellets or supplemented with spores just expressing CotC (1 × 10 7  CFU g -1 ) were served as control diet. Our results showed that grass carp orally immunized with the feed-based B.s-CotC-CP developed a strong specific immune response with significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of IgM in samples of serum, bile, mucus of surface and intestinal compared to the control groups. Abundant colonization spores expressing CsCP were found in hindgut that is conducive to absorption and presentation of antigen. Moreover, B. subtilis spores appeared to show no sign of toxicity or damage in grass carp. Our cercariae challenge experiments suggested that oral administration of spores expressing CsCP could develop an effective protection against C. sinensis in fish body. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the feed-based recombinant spores could trigger high levels of mucosal and humoral immunity, and would be a promising candidate vaccine against C. sinensis metacercariae formation in freshwater fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anything that keeps your liver from doing its job may put your life in danger. There are ... Anything that keeps your liver from doing its job – or from growing back after injury – may put ...

  20. American Liver Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... tool from Amino. ALF Position on the OPTN/UNOS Proposal to Enhance Organ Distribution The American Liver ... allocation process, including implementation of the proposed OPTN/UNOS policy to enhance liver distribution practices. Click HERE ...

  1. Research Areas: Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be triggered by autoimmune reactions or drug toxicity. The rise in obesity in the United States ... induced liver disease Improved outcomes and survival following acute liver failure in recent years Story of Discovery: ...

  2. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests helps ...

  3. Antioxidants in liver health

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Grajales, Sael; Muriel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals (FR). However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leads to deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases. PMID:26261734

  4. Liver dysfunction among workers handling 5-nitro-o-toluidine.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Kumada, T; Nakano, S; Kiriyama, S; Sone, Y; Honda, T; Watanabe, K; Nakano, I; Fukuda, Y; Hayakawa, T

    2002-02-01

    5-Nitro-o-toluidine is an aromatic nitro amino compound. While other aromatic compounds are known to damage the human liver and are registered as toxic substances, toxicity information concerning 5-nitro-o-toluidine is lacking. To investigate the hepatotoxicity of 5-nitro-o-toluidine. Of 15 workers in the same factory who handled 5-nitro-o-toluidine, three were hospitalised with symptoms of acute liver dysfunction. Suspecting a link between liver dysfunction and working conditions, we correlated workplace factors with clinical findings in all 15 workers. Blood biochemistry tests indicated liver damage in seven of 15 study subjects. Workers who handled 5-nitro-o-toluidine and nitrosyl sulphuric acid often loosened their respiratory protective equipment shortly after 5-nitro-o-toluidine powder had been dispersed into the air of the room. No potential hepatotoxins were present except for 5-nitro-o-toluidine. Six of the affected workers had handled 5-nitro-o-toluidine 12 to 20 times; the seventh worker had handled the powder three times; and the other eight workers without liver dysfunction had handled the material once or twice. No other significant differences in background were evident between the affected and unaffected workers, such as age, sex, or protective measures. Histological findings during recovery from liver damage were similar to those of acute viral hepatitis. None of the 15 subjects has demonstrated liver damage since the factory was closed. A link between liver dysfunction and 5-nitro-o-toluidine exposure is suggested by greater severity of liver dysfunction associated with more episodes of handling.

  5. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  6. Systematic review of bariatric surgery liver biopsies clarifies the natural history of liver disease in patients with severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Bedossa, Pierre; Tordjman, Joan; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Torcivia, Adriana; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Paradis, Valerie; Ratziu, Vlad; Clément, Karine

    2017-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent complication of morbid obesity, but its severity varies greatly and thus there is a strong need to better define its natural history in these patients. Liver biopsies were systematically performed in 798 consecutive patients with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. Histology was compared with clinical, biological, anthropometrical and body composition characteristics. Patients with presumably normal liver (n=179, 22%) were significantly younger at bariatric surgery than patients with NAFLD (37.0 vs 44.4 years, p<0.0001). However, both groups showed quite similar obesity duration, since patients with presumably normal liver reported the onset of obesity at a significantly younger age than those with NAFLD (14.8 vs 20.0 year, p<0.0001). The trunk/limb fat mass ratio increased according to liver disease severity (presumably normal liver: 1.00, steatosis: 1.21, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH): 1.34, p<0.0001), although the total body fat mass decreased (presumably normal liver: 50%, steatosis: 49.1%, NASH: 47.4%, p<0.0001). The volume of subcutaneous adipocytes increased according to severity of liver disease but only in female patients (presumably normal liver: 8543 picolitres, steatosis: 9156 picolitres, NASH: 9996 picolitres). These results suggest that young adults are more prone to store fat in subcutaneous tissue and reach the threshold of bariatric surgery indication before their liver is damaged. A shift of fat storage from subcutaneous to visceral adipose tissue compartment is associated with liver damages. Liver might also be targeted by subcutaneous hypertrophic adipocytes in females since hypertrophic adipocytes are more exposed to lipolysis and to the production of inflammatory mediators. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Tan, Hor-Yue; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Lao, Lixing; Wong, Chi-Woon; Feng, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed. PMID:26540040

  8. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Tan, Hor-Yue; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Lao, Lixing; Wong, Chi-Woon; Feng, Yibin

    2015-11-02

    A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed.

  9. Protective Effects of Guava Pulp on Cholestatic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jian; Yue, Chunyan; Qiu, Kai; Chen, Jie; Aller, Maria-Angeles; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cholestatic liver injury is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases involved with oxidative stress changes and inflammation; thus, antioxidant and anti-inflammation compound-rich guava may play a pivotal role in protecting against the cholestatic liver damages. Our aims for this study are to determine whether guava pulp (GP) has protective effects on cholestatic liver injury-induced mouse model and on interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated proliferation of QBC939 cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Methods. Mice were induced to cholestatic liver damage by left and median bile duct ligation (LMBDL) surgery and then treated with GP. Plasma and liver samples were collected for biochemical and pathological assays. 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and Western blots were used to detect proliferation and gene expression in QBC939 cells, respectively. Results. Compared with LMBDL only group, in GP-treated mice, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin decreased, biliary epithelial cell proliferation and liver fibrogenesis were suppressed, Src/MEK/ERK1/2/c-Myc pathway and expressions of transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases TIMP), and procollagen 1α1(COL1α1) were downregulated significantly. Moreover, the GP extract reduced IL-6-enhanced QBC939 cell proliferation, p-ERK, and c-Myc expression as well. Conclusions. GP may provide a new perspective for the treatment of cholestatic liver injury. PMID:27335829

  10. Mathematical modelling of chronic acetaminophen metabolism and liver injury.

    PubMed

    Remien, Christopher H; Sussman, Norman L; Adler, Frederick R

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of acute liver injury in the USA and the UK. Increasingly, liver injury is caused by sustained overuse rather than a single-time overdose. We have recently developed a mathematical model, the Model of APAP-induced Liver Damage (MALD), to predict the outcome of patients with APAP-induced liver damage. The model is based on a single-time overdose and uses measurable markers of liver injury to estimate time since overdose and overdose amount, two variables critical for survival. Here, we extend the model to study liver injury from chronic APAP use. We find that there is a threshold in the model, such that liver injury occurs rapidly or not at all, even with chronic use. Fits of synthetic data derived from chronic use overdose scenarios to MALD lead to accurate predictions of outcome, even when liver injury is the result of sustained overuse. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  11. Coffee and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C.

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality. PMID:27194895

  12. The protective function of galectin-9 in liver ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Hirofumi; Uchida, Yoichiro; Kadono, Kentaro; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Niki, Toshiro; Yamauchi, Akira; Hata, Koichiro; Watanabe, Takeshi; Terajima, Hiroaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-07-01

    Galectin-9 (Gal-9) has gained attention as a multifaceted player in adaptive and innate immunity. To elucidate the role of Gal-9, we used a mouse model of partial liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) with wild type (WT) and Gal-9 knockout (KO) mice as well as a recombinant galectin-9 (reGal-9) protein. We found that the expression of Gal-9 was enhanced endogenously in the liver especially by hepatocytes and Kupffer cells during warm IRI for a mouse liver, which causes massive destruction of liver tissue. Gal-9 was released into the extracellular space in the liver and the highest levels in the plasma at 1 hour after reperfusion. The present study elucidates a novel role of Gal-9 signaling in mouse liver IRI, by using Gal-9-deficient mice and a stable form of reGal-9 protein. In the circumstance of Gal-9 absence, liver damage due to ischemia/reperfusion (IR) exacerbated the severity as compared with WT. On the other hand, exogenously administered reGal-9 significantly ameliorated hepatocellular damage. It decreased the local infiltration of the inflammatory cells such as T cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, and it reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines; then, it strongly suppressed the apoptosis of the liver cells. Interestingly, severe liver damage due to IR in Gal-9 KO mice was improved by the administration of reGal-9. In conclusion, Gal-9 engagement ameliorated local inflammation and liver damage induced by IR, and the present study suggests a significant role of Gal-9 in the maintenance of hepatic homeostasis. In conclusion, targeting Gal-9 represents a novel approach to protect from inflammation such as liver IRI. Exogenous Gal-9 treatment will be a new therapeutic strategy against innate immunity-dominated liver tissue damage. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. [Ultrasound in gastroenterology--liver and spleen].

    PubMed

    Nuernberg, D; Ignee, A; Dietrich, C F

    2006-09-01

    Conventional B-mode and colour duplex imaging is the first choice imaging technique after history taking and physical examination and for the interpretation of laboratory parameters. In the hands of a gastroenterologist ultrasound has become an equally important diagnostic tool as endoscopy. The constantly evolving technique with its possibility of higher resolution by use of "harmonic imaging" and signal enhancement with contrast medium is the reason for a practically relevant review of the situation. Practical references will be given for diagnostics of the liver and portal system including the spleen. The significance of the sonographic diagnosis of "fatty liver" is critically discussed. The overall importance of ultrasound to distinguish different aetiologies of diffuse liver diseases is relatively low. Nevertheless, it is a very sensitive means to detect complications of liver cirrhosis. Portosystemic shunts and typical changes in blood vessel morphology can be diagnosed by colour duplex sonography and used as indirect signs of advanced damage to liver parenchyma. In addition, ultrasound has its value in the confirmation or exclusion of dilated bile ducts as well as in the detection and differentiation of circumscribed liver lesions. The characterisation of focal liver lesions by ultrasound is sufficient in typical cases. The use of ultrasound contrast media (signal enhancers) raises the rate of differentiation and can avoid the uncritical and sequential application of radiological imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). If in doubt about the nature of a lesion, a histological diagnosis remains indispensable. The examination of the spleen and its feeding vessels is regularly done in cases of diffuse parenchymal liver disease when searching for its complications, e. g., portal hypertension. Focal spleen lesions can be observed especially in the context of lymphoma (infiltration) and other bone marrow diseases. Through the

  14. Acute Liver Failure including Acetaminophen Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Acute liver failure (ALF) is a dramatic and highly unpredictable clinical syndrome defined by the sudden onset of coagulopathy and encephalopathy. Although many disease processes can cause ALF, acetaminophen overdose is the leading cause in the United States, and has a 66% chance of recovery with early N-acetylcysteine treatment and supportive care. Cerebral edema and infectious complications are notoriously difficult to detect and treat in ALF patients and may lead to irreversible brain damage and multi-organ failure. Emergency liver transplantation is associated with a 70% 1-year patient survival but 20% of listed patients die, highlighting the importance of early referral of ALF patients with a poor prognosis to a liver transplant center. PMID:18570942

  15. Hepatic stem cells and liver development.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Kobayashi, Naoya

    2010-01-01

    The liver consists of many cell types with specialized functions. Hepatocytes are one of the main players in the organ and therefore are the most vulnerable cells to damage. Since they are not everlasting cells, they need to be replenished throughout life. Although the capacity of hepatocytes to contribute to their own maintenance has long been recognized, recent studies have indicated the presence of both intrahepatic and extrahepatic stem/progenitor cell populations that serve to maintain the normal organ and to regenerate damaged parenchyma in response to a variety of insults.The intrahepatic compartment most likely derives primarily from the biliary tree, particularly the most proximal branches, i.e. the canals of Hering and smallest ductules. The extrahepatic compartment is at least in part derived from diverse populations of cells from the bone marrow. Embryonic stem cells (ES's) are considered as a part of the extrahepatic compartment. Due to their pluripotent capabilities, ES cell-derived cells form a potential future source of hepatocytes, to replace or restore hepatic tissues that have been damaged by disease or injury. Progressing knowledge about stem cells in the liver would allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of hepatic homeostasis and regeneration. Although a human stem cell-derived cell type equivalent to primary hepatocytes does not yet exist, the promising results obtained with extrahepatic stem cells would open the way to cell-based therapy for liver diseases.

  16. Oligofructose protects against arsenic-induced liver injury in a model of environment/obesity interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, Veronica L.; Stocke, Kendall S.; Schmidt, Robin H.

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic (As) tops the ATSDR list of hazardous environmental chemicals and is known to cause liver injury. Although the concentrations of As found in the US water supply are generally too low to directly damage the liver, subhepatotoxic doses of As sensitize the liver to experimental NAFLD. It is now suspected that GI microbiome dysbiosis plays an important role in development of NALFD. Importantly, arsenic has also been shown to alter the microbiome. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the prebiotic oligofructose (OFC) protects against enhanced liver injury caused by As in experimental NAFLD.more » Male C57Bl6/J mice were fed low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD), or HFD containing oligofructose (OFC) during concomitant exposure to either tap water or As-containing water (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for 10 weeks. HFD significantly increased body mass and caused fatty liver injury, as characterized by an increased liver weight-to-body weight ratio, histologic changes and transaminases. As observed previously, As enhanced HFD-induced liver damage, which was characterized by enhanced inflammation. OFC supplementation protected against the enhanced liver damage caused by As in the presence of HFD. Interestingly, arsenic, HFD and OFC all caused unique changes to the gut flora. These data support previous findings that low concentrations of As enhance liver damage caused by high fat diet. Furthermore, these results indicate that these effects of arsenic may be mediated, at least in part, by GI tract dysbiosis and that prebiotic supplementation may confer significant protective effects. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) enhances liver damage caused by a high-fat (HFD) diet in mice. • Oligofructose protects against As-enhanced liver damage caused by HFD. • As causes dysbiosis in the GI tract and exacerbates the dysbiosis caused by HFD. • OFC prevents the dysbiosis caused by HFD and As, increasing commensal bacteria.« less

  17. Orchestrating liver development

    PubMed Central

    Gordillo, Miriam; Evans, Todd; Gouon-Evans, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a central regulator of metabolism, and liver failure thus constitutes a major health burden. Understanding how this complex organ develops during embryogenesis will yield insights into how liver regeneration can be promoted and how functional liver replacement tissue can be engineered. Recent studies of animal models have identified key signaling pathways and complex tissue interactions that progressively generate liver progenitor cells, differentiated lineages and functional tissues. In addition, progress in understanding how these cells interact, and how transcriptional and signaling programs precisely coordinate liver development, has begun to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this complexity. Here, we review the lineage relationships, signaling pathways and transcriptional programs that orchestrate hepatogenesis. PMID:26081571

  18. Main features of the oxidative metabolism in gills and liver of Odontesthes nigricans Richardson (Pisces, Atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Lattuca, M E; Malanga, G; Aguilar Hurtado, C; Pérez, A F; Calvo, J; Puntarulo, S

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study comparatively the oxidative metabolism in gills and liver of a silverside, Odontesthes nigricans, in their natural environment, the Beagle Channel. Oxidative damage to lipids was evaluated by assessing TBARS and lipid radical content, in gills and liver. Gills showed a significantly higher degree of damage than liver. The content of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and catalase activity showed significantly higher values in the liver than in the gills. The ascorbyl radical (A(*)) content showed no significant differences between gills and liver. The ascorbate (AH(-)) content was 12+/-2 and 159+/-28 nmol/mg FW in gills and liver, respectively. Oxidative metabolism at the hydrophilic level was assessed as the ratio A(*)/AH(-). The ratio A(*)/AH(-) was significantly different between organs, (6+/-2)10(-5) and (5+/-2)10(-6), for the gills and the liver, respectively. Both, lipid radical content/alpha-tocopherol content and lipid radical content/beta-carotene content ratios were significantly higher in gills as compared to the values recorded for the liver, suggesting an increased situation of oxidative stress condition in the lipid phase of the gills. Taken as a whole, the O. nigricans liver exhibited a better control of oxidative damage than the gills, allowing minimization of intracellular damage when exposed to environmental stressing conditions.

  19. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  20. Dietary sugar intake increases liver tumor incidence in female mice.

    PubMed

    Healy, Marin E; Lahiri, Sujoy; Hargett, Stefan R; Chow, Jenny D Y; Byrne, Frances L; Breen, David S; Kenwood, Brandon M; Taddeo, Evan P; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H; Hoehn, Kyle L

    2016-02-29

    Overnutrition can promote liver cancer in mice and humans that have liver damage caused by alcohol, viruses, or carcinogens. However, the mechanism linking diet to increased liver tumorigenesis remains unclear in the context of whether tumorigenesis is secondary to obesity, or whether nutrients like sugar or fat drive tumorigenesis independent of obesity. In male mice, liver tumor burden was recently found to correlate with sugar intake, independent of dietary fat intake and obesity. However, females are less susceptible to developing liver cancer than males, and it remains unclear how nutrition affects tumorigenesis in females. Herein, female mice were exposed to the liver carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed diets with well-defined sugar and fat content. Mice fed diets with high sugar content had the greatest liver tumor incidence while dietary fat intake was not associated with tumorigenesis. Diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemia and fasting hyperinsulinemia significantly correlated with tumor incidence, while tumor incidence was not associated with obesity and obesity-related disorders including liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, or elevated serum levels of estrogen, ALT, and lipids. These results simplify the pathophysiology of diet-induced liver tumorigenesis by focusing attention on the role of sugar metabolism and reducing emphasis on the complex milieu associated with obesity.

  1. Spaceflight Activates Lipotoxic Pathways in Mouse Liver.

    PubMed

    Jonscher, Karen R; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Suhalim, Jeffrey L; Orlicky, David J; Potma, Eric O; Ferguson, Virginia L; Bouxsein, Mary L; Bateman, Ted A; Stodieck, Louis S; Levi, Moshe; Friedman, Jacob E; Gridley, Daila S; Pecaut, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Spaceflight affects numerous organ systems in the body, leading to metabolic dysfunction that may have long-term consequences. Microgravity-induced alterations in liver metabolism, particularly with respect to lipids, remain largely unexplored. Here we utilize a novel systems biology approach, combining metabolomics and transcriptomics with advanced Raman microscopy, to investigate altered hepatic lipid metabolism in mice following short duration spaceflight. Mice flown aboard Space Transportation System -135, the last Shuttle mission, lose weight but redistribute lipids, particularly to the liver. Intriguingly, spaceflight mice lose retinol from lipid droplets. Both mRNA and metabolite changes suggest the retinol loss is linked to activation of PPARα-mediated pathways and potentially to hepatic stellate cell activation, both of which may be coincident with increased bile acids and early signs of liver injury. Although the 13-day flight duration is too short for frank fibrosis to develop, the retinol loss plus changes in markers of extracellular matrix remodeling raise the concern that longer duration exposure to the space environment may result in progressive liver damage, increasing the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  2. Spaceflight Activates Lipotoxic Pathways in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Jonscher, Karen R.; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Suhalim, Jeffrey L.; Orlicky, David J.; Potma, Eric O.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Bateman, Ted A.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Levi, Moshe; Friedman, Jacob E.; Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Spaceflight affects numerous organ systems in the body, leading to metabolic dysfunction that may have long-term consequences. Microgravity-induced alterations in liver metabolism, particularly with respect to lipids, remain largely unexplored. Here we utilize a novel systems biology approach, combining metabolomics and transcriptomics with advanced Raman microscopy, to investigate altered hepatic lipid metabolism in mice following short duration spaceflight. Mice flown aboard Space Transportation System -135, the last Shuttle mission, lose weight but redistribute lipids, particularly to the liver. Intriguingly, spaceflight mice lose retinol from lipid droplets. Both mRNA and metabolite changes suggest the retinol loss is linked to activation of PPARα-mediated pathways and potentially to hepatic stellate cell activation, both of which may be coincident with increased bile acids and early signs of liver injury. Although the 13-day flight duration is too short for frank fibrosis to develop, the retinol loss plus changes in markers of extracellular matrix remodeling raise the concern that longer duration exposure to the space environment may result in progressive liver damage, increasing the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27097220

  3. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Buechler, Christa; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-06-29

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively.

  4. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Elisabeth M.; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-01-01

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively. PMID:28661458

  5. Laboratory Tests for Diagnosis of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Peta, Valentina; Elaribi, Djamel; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is considered one of the most common hepatotoxin, and chronic alcoholic liver disease is affecting millions of subjects worldwide. The three most frequently manifestations of alcoholic liver disease are steatosis, acute alcoholic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. The diagnosis of Alcoholic Liver Diseases (ALD) is made by clinical and laboratory analysis. Actually do not exist a single laboratory test able to confirm the diagnosis of ALD, but in the last years several serum markers and laboratory abnormalities have been discovered in these patients. In particular the combination of tests and markers can increase the diagnostic accuracy, for this reason the last studies are focusing on the development of serum biomarkers panel able to diagnose alcohol-related liver damage.

  6. A Case of Wilson's Disease in Patient with Mildly Elevated Liver Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Hye; Lee, Sang-Yeoup; Park, Son-Ki; Yoon, Ki-Tae; Kim, Yun-Jin; Lee, Jeong-Ku; Lee, Yu-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting copper transport; it results in the accumulation of copper in the liver, brain, and other organs. Wilson's disease is the most common inherited liver disease with more than 500 cases reported in Korea. An impairment in biliary excretion process leads to copper accumulation in the liver, which progressively damages the liver, leading to cirrhosis. Since effective treatment is available for this disease, early and correct diagnosis is very important. Here, we report a case of Wilson's disease with mildly elevated liver enzyme levels in a 29-year-old breast-feeding woman with weight loss. PMID:22745856

  7. Liver ergothioneine accumulation in a guinea pig model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A possible mechanism of defence?

    PubMed

    Cheah, Irwin K; Tang, Richard; Ye, Peng; Yew, Terry S Z; Lim, Keith H S; Halliwell, Barry

    2016-01-01

    L-ergothioneine (ET), a putative antioxidant compound acquired by animals through dietary sources, has been suggested to accumulate in certain cells and tissues in the body that are predisposed to high oxidative stress. In the present study, we identified an elevation of ET in the liver of a guinea pig model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), elucidated a possible mechanism for the increased uptake and investigated the possible role for this accumulation. This increase in liver ET levels correlated with cholesterol accumulation and disease severity. We identified an increase in the transcriptional factor, RUNX1, which has been shown to upregulate the expression of the ET-specific transporter OCTN1, and could consequently lead to the observable elevation in ET. An increase was also seen in heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) which seemingly corresponds to ET elevation. No significant increase was observed in oxidative damage markers, F2-isoprostanes, and protein carbonyls, which could possibly be attributed to the increase in liver ET through direct antioxidant action, induction of HSP70, or by chelation of Fe(2+), preventing redox chemistry. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which the guinea pig fatty liver accumulates ET via upregulation of its transporter, as a possible stress response by the damaged liver to further suppress oxidative damage and delay tissue injury. Similar events may happen in other animal models of disease, and researchers should be aware of the possibility.

  8. [Liver injury induced by "natural remedies": an analysis of cases submitted to the Spanish Liver Toxicity Registry].

    PubMed

    García-Cortés, M; Borraz, Y; Lucena, M I; Peláez, G; Salmerón, J; Diago, M; Martínez-Sierra, M C; Navarro, J M; Planas, R; Soria, M J; Bruguera, M; Andrade, R J

    2008-11-01

    toxic liver damage associated with the use of natural remedies is a growing health problem. to analyze the demographics, and clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients developing liver injury related to these remedies. all DILI cases associated with the use of herbal remedies (HR) or dietary supplements (DS) submitted to the Spanish Registry were analyzed. Type of liver damage, severity, and outcome were specifically evaluated. thirteen cases out of 521 DILI cases (2%) submitted to the Spanish Liver Toxicity Registry between 1994 and 2006 were related to HR/DS, which ranked as the 10th therapeutic group with a greater number of cases and above pain killers, anxiolytics, and antipsychotic drugs. Nine patients (69%) were female (mean age 45 years). Nine cases (69%) had jaundice at presentation. The predominating type of liver damage was hepatocellular (12; 92%), and 31% of cases exhibited the common features of hypersensitivity. Camellia sinensis (3, 23%) was the main causative herb, followed by Rhamnus purshianus and isoflavones (Fitosoja(R), Biosoja(R)) (2 cases each, 15%). Three cases (23%) were rechallenged with the offending product. the incidence of hepatic damage related to HR/DS is not so rare, the most common profile of affected patients being a woman with acute hepatocellular hepatitis. Low suspicion regarding the putative role of herbs in hepatotoxicity makes diagnosis more difficult, and probably increases the incidence of inadvertent rechallenge in these patients.

  9. Fatty liver change as a result of hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zeiss, J; Merrick, H W; Savolaine, E R; Woldenberg, L S; Kim, K; Schlembach, P J

    1990-04-01

    Direct hepatic arterial infusion of floxuridine (FUDR) (Roche Laboratories, Division of Hoffman-LaRoche Inc., Nutley, NJ, U.S.A.) has been used extensively in the treatment of metastases of colorectal tumors to the liver. The effectiveness of infusion and tolerance of the chemotherapy has been improved utilizing a totally implantable infusion pump delivery system. However, unequal distribution of drug infusion may occur to different parts of the liver parenchyma as demonstrated by hepatic arterial infusion scintigraphy (HAPS). We present a case of such unequal perfusion in which fatty metamorphosis of the liver occurred in the overperfused liver segment after FUDR therapy. The liver parenchymal changes were followed by serial computerized tomography scans and proven by biopsy during a minilaparotomy. Serial HAPS examinations show redirection of subsequent infusion to the opposite liver lobe due to parenchymal damage and vascular sclerosis. The importance of uniform liver perfusion and a rare dose-related effect of FUDR on liver parenchyma are thereby demonstrated.

  10. Multiphoton microscopy can visualize zonal damage and decreased cellular metabolic activity in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Liu, Xin; Burczynski, Frank J.; Fletcher, Linda M.; Gobe, Glenda C.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-11-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common occurrence in liver surgery. In orthotopic transplantation, the donor liver is exposed to periods of ischemia and when oxygenated blood is reintroduced to the liver, oxidative stress may develop and lead to graft failure. The aim of this project was to investigate whether noninvasive multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, without external markers, were useful in detecting early liver damage caused by I/R injury. Localized hepatic ischemia was induced in rats for 1 h followed by 4 h reperfusion. Multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy was conducted prior to ischemia and up to 4 h of reperfusion and compared to morphological and biochemical assessment of liver damage. Liver function was significantly impaired at 2 and 4 h of reperfusion. Multiphoton microscopy detected liver damage at 1 h of reperfusion, manifested by vacuolated cells and heterogeneous spread of damage over the liver. The damage was mainly localized in the midzonal region of the liver acinus. In addition, fluorescence lifetime imaging showed a decrease in cellular metabolic activity. Multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy detected evidence of early I/R injury both structurally and functionally. This provides a simple noninvasive technique useful for following progressive liver injury without external markers.

  11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, association with cardiovascular disease and treatment (II). The treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Brea, Ángel; Pintó, Xavier; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Mantilla, Teresa; Millán, Jesús; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Disease nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a series of histologically similar to those induced by alcohol consumption in people with very little or no liver damage same. The importance of NAFLD is its high prevalence in our Western societies, from the point of view liver in its progressive evolution from steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. During the last decade it has been observed that NAFLD leads to an increased cardiovascular risk with accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This updated January 2016 revision consists of two parts. In this second part, the treatment of NAFLD and its influence on cardiovascular disease and drugs used in the control of cardiovascular risk factors showing a beneficial effect on the liver disease will be reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary broccoli protects against fatty liver development but not against progression of liver cancer in mice pretreated with diethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Ju; Myracle, Angela D; Wallig, Matthew A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2016-06-01

    Western-style high fat, high sugar diets are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased liver cancer risk. Sulforaphane from broccoli may protect against these. Previously we initiated broccoli feeding to mice prior to exposure to the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and saw protection against NAFLD and liver cancer. Here we administered DEN to unweaned mice, initiating broccoli feeding two weeks later, to determine if broccoli protects against cancer progression. Specifically, male 15-day-old C57BL/6J mice were given DEN and placed on a Western or Western+10%Broccoli diet from the age of 4 weeks through 7 months. Dietary broccoli decreased hepatic triacylglycerols, NAFLD, liver damage and tumour necrosis factor by month 5 without changing body weight or relative liver weight, but did not slow carcinogenesis, seen in 100% of mice. We conclude that broccoli, a good source of sulforaphane, slows progression of hepatic lipidosis, but not tumourigenesis in this robust model.

  13. The roles of transforming growth factor-β, Wnt, Notch and hypoxia on liver progenitor cells in primary liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    BOGAERTS, ELIENE; HEINDRYCKX, FEMKE; VANDEWYNCKEL, YVES-PAUL; VAN GRUNSVEN, LEO A.; VAN VLIERBERGHE, HANS

    2014-01-01

    Primary liver tumours have a high incidence and mortality. The most important forms are hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, both can occur together in the mixed phenotype hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma. Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are bipotential stem cells activated in case of severe liver damage and are capable of forming both cholangiocytes and hepatocytes. Possibly, alterations in Wnt, transforming growth factor-β, Notch and hypoxia pathways in these LPCs can cause them to give rise to cancer stem cells, capable of driving tumourigenesis. In this review, we summarize and discuss current knowledge on the role of these pathways in LPC activation and differentiation during hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:24504124

  14. Human liver nucleolar antigens.

    PubMed

    Busch, R K; Busch, H

    1981-10-01

    In an extension of previous studies on the antigens in rat liver nucleoli (R. K. Busch, R. C. Reddy, D. H. Henning, and H. Busch, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 160, 185 (1979); R. K. Busch and H. Busch, Tumori 63, 347 (1977); F. M. Davis, R. K. Busch, L. C. Yeoman, and H. Busch, Cancer Res. 38, 1906 (1978), rabbit antibodies were elicited to human liver nucleoli isolated by the sucrose--Mg2+ method (10). Fluorescent nucleoli were found in liver cryostat sections treated with rabbit anti-human liver nucleolar antibodies followed by fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibodies. In HeLa cells, fluorescence was distributed throughout the nucleus and in a nuclear network but was not localized to the nucleolus. In placental cryostat sections, an overall nuclear fluorescence was observed with some localization to nucleoli. Immunodiffusion analysis revealed two immunoprecipitin bands which appeared to be liver specific. Other immunoprecipitin bands were common to liver, placenta, and HeLa nuclear extracts. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis revealed two liver-specific antigens, one migrating to the cathode and the other to the anode Other rockets exhibited identity to antigens of other nuclear extracts. These results demonstrate the presence of human liver nucleolar-specific antigens which were not found in the HeLa and placental cells.

  15. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    PubMed Central

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver regeneration) and as in vitro screening systems in the early stages of the drug development process, like assessing hepatotoxicity, hepatic drug metabolism, and induction/inhibition studies. Relevant literature is summarized about artificial human liver cell culture systems by scrutinizing PubMed from 2003 to 2009. Existing devices are divided in 2D configurations (e.g., static monolayer, sandwich, perfused cells, and flat plate) and 3D configurations (e.g., liver slices, spheroids, and different types of bioreactors). The essential features of an ideal liver cell culture system are discussed: different types of scaffolds, oxygenation systems, extracellular matrixes (natural and artificial), cocultures with nonparenchymal cells, and the role of shear stress problems. Finally, miniaturization and high-throughput systems are discussed. All these factors contribute in their own way to the viability and functionality of liver cells in culture. Depending on the aim for which they are designed, several good systems are available for predicting hepatotoxicity and hepatic metabolism within the general population. To predict hepatotoxicity in individual cases genomic analysis might be essential as well. PMID:26998397

  16. Analysis of Secreted Proteins as an in vitro Model for Discovery of Liver Toxicity Markers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    liver is the principal organ of detoxification and is at risk of injury from both new drug candidates and environmental chemicals,2 an in vitro model that...well-studied hepatotoxicant, ethanol. The liver is the primary site of ethanol detoxification and is the organ most susceptible to damage. The injury...Bachem, M. G. Cellular sources of noncollagenous matrix proteins: role of fat -storing cells in fibrogenesis. Semin. Liver Dis. 1990, 10, 30–46. (32

  17. Acetaminophen-induced Acute Liver Injury in HCV Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U.; Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Boorman, Gary A.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 hrs after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. PMID:23200774

  18. Alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes in adult liver disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Alempijevic, Tamara; Milutinovic, Aleksandra Sokic; Kovacevic, Nada

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is an important serine protease inhibitor in humans. Hereditary alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) affects lungs and liver. Liver disease caused by AATD in paediatric patients has been previously well documented. However, the association of liver disease with alpha-1-antitrypsin gene polymorphisms in adults is less clear. Therefore, we aimed to study AAT polymorphisms in adults with liver disease. We performed a case-control study. AAT polymorphisms were investigated by isoelectric focusing in 61 patients with liver cirrhosis and 9 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 218 healthy blood donors. A significant deviation of observed and expected frequency of AAT phenotypes from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (chi-square = 34.77, df 11, P = 0.000) in the patient group was caused by a higher than expected frequency of Pi ZZ homozygotes (f = 0.0143 and f = 0.0005, respectively, P = 0.000). In addition, Pi M homozygotes were more frequent in patients than in controls (63% and 46%, respectively, P = 0.025). Our study results show that Pi ZZ homozygosity in adults could be associated with severe liver disease. Presence of Pi M homozygosity could be associated with liver disease via some mechanism different from Z allele-induced liver damage through accumulation of AAT polymers. PMID:19961268

  19. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, Federico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Titta, Lucilla; Puzzo, Lidia; Barbagallo, Ignazio; La Delia, Francesco; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Malaguarnera, Michele; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Giorgio, Marco; Galvano, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish if the juice of Moro, an anthocyanin-rich orange, may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk. Liver morphology, gene expression of lipid transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes were assessed. RESULTS: Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Moro juice administration limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol. Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning. Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase, a key enzyme of lipid oxidation. Consistently, Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-α and its target gene fatty acid synthase, and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity. CONCLUSION: Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver. PMID:22876038

  20. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Federico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Titta, Lucilla; Puzzo, Lidia; Barbagallo, Ignazio; La Delia, Francesco; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Malaguarnera, Michele; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Giorgio, Marco; Galvano, Fabio

    2012-08-07

    To establish if the juice of Moro, an anthocyanin-rich orange, may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity. Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk. Liver morphology, gene expression of lipid transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes were assessed. Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Moro juice administration limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol. Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning. Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase, a key enzyme of lipid oxidation. Consistently, Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-α and its target gene fatty acid synthase, and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity. Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

  1. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPARα ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determinedmore » by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-κB is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-α, IL1-β, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-κB target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.« less

  2. Acute fatal acetaminophen overdose without liver necrosis.

    PubMed

    Singer, Peter P; Jones, Graham R; Bannach, Bernard G; Denmark, Lloyd

    2007-07-01

    Two unusual cases of suicidal overdose of acetaminophen (paracetamol) without the usual extensive centrilobular necrosis of the liver are reported. Both cases were subjected to comprehensive drug screening by immunoassay, and a combination of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, nitrogen detection, and electron capture detection. Acetaminophen was detected in both cases. No other drugs were detected in case #1, and only a small amount of olanzapine (<0.1 mg/L) was detected in case #2. No anatomical cause of death was identified in either case. If untreated, the normal outcome of a large acetaminophen overdose would be massive hepatic necrosis with delayed death and low blood and tissue acetaminophen concentrations. In contrast, particularly high postmortem acetaminophen concentrations were measured in both our cases with little hepatic tissue damage. For case #1, femoral blood acetaminophen 1280 mg/L, vitreous 878 mg/L, and liver 729 mg/kg; in case #2, cardiac blood 1220 mg/L, vitreous 779 mg/L, liver 3260 mg/kg, and gastric 11,500 mg/500 g. Acetaminophen was measured using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (254 nm) using 3-hydroxyacetanilide as the internal standard. The very high concentrations of acetaminophen is these cases but relatively little hepatic damage suggests an alternative, possibly cardiac, mechanism of death.

  3. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wildmore » type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.« less

  4. Challenges in transplantation for alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Berlakovich, Gabriela A

    2014-07-07

    Transplantation for the treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis is more controversially discussed than it is for any other indication. The crucial aspect in this setting is abstinence before and after liver transplantation. We established pre-transplant selection criteria for potential transplant candidates. Provided that the underlying disease can be treated, there is no reason to withhold liver transplantation in a patient suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Evaluation of the patient by a multidisciplinary team, including an addiction specialist, is considered to be the gold standard. However, several centers demand a specified period of abstinence - usually 6 mo- irrespective of the specialist's assessment. The 6-mo rule is viewed critically because liver transplantation was found to clearly benefit selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis; the benefit was similar to that achieved for other acute indications. However, the discussion may well be an academic one because the waiting time for liver transplantation exceeds six months at the majority of centers. The actual challenge in liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis may well be the need for lifelong post-transplant follow-up rather than the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. A small number of recipients experience a relapse of alcoholism; these patients are at risk for organ damage and graft-related death. Post-transplant surveillance protocols should demonstrate alcohol relapse at an early stage, thus permitting the initiation of adequate treatment. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis are at high risk of developing head and neck, esophageal, or lung cancer. The higher risk of malignancies should be considered in the routine assessment of patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Tumor surveillance protocols for liver transplant recipients, currently being developed, should become a part of standard care; these will improve survival by permitting diagnosis at an early stage. In conclusion, the key

  5. Challenges in transplantation for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Berlakovich, Gabriela A

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation for the treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis is more controversially discussed than it is for any other indication. The crucial aspect in this setting is abstinence before and after liver transplantation. We established pre-transplant selection criteria for potential transplant candidates. Provided that the underlying disease can be treated, there is no reason to withhold liver transplantation in a patient suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Evaluation of the patient by a multidisciplinary team, including an addiction specialist, is considered to be the gold standard. However, several centers demand a specified period of abstinence - usually 6 mo- irrespective of the specialist’s assessment. The 6-mo rule is viewed critically because liver transplantation was found to clearly benefit selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis; the benefit was similar to that achieved for other acute indications. However, the discussion may well be an academic one because the waiting time for liver transplantation exceeds six months at the majority of centers. The actual challenge in liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis may well be the need for lifelong post-transplant follow-up rather than the patient’s pre-transplant evaluation. A small number of recipients experience a relapse of alcoholism; these patients are at risk for organ damage and graft-related death. Post-transplant surveillance protocols should demonstrate alcohol relapse at an early stage, thus permitting the initiation of adequate treatment. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis are at high risk of developing head and neck, esophageal, or lung cancer. The higher risk of malignancies should be considered in the routine assessment of patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Tumor surveillance protocols for liver transplant recipients, currently being developed, should become a part of standard care; these will improve survival by permitting diagnosis at an early stage. In conclusion, the

  6. Laparoscopic transthoracic liver resection

    PubMed Central

    KRÜGER, Jaime Arthur Pirola; COELHO, Fabrício Ferreira; PERINI, Marcos Vinícius; HERMAN, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive laparoscopic liver surgery is being performed with increased frequency. Lesions located on the anterior and lateral liver segments are easier to approach through laparoscopy. On the other hand, laparoscopic access to posterior and superior segments is less frequent and technically demanding. Aim Technical description for laparoscopic transthoracic access employed on hepatic wedge resection. Technique Laparoscopic transthoracic hepatic wedge resection on segment 8. Conclusion Transthoracic approach allows access to the posterior and superior segments of the liver, and should be considered for oddly located tumors and in patients with numerous previous abdominal interventions. PMID:25626941

  7. Liver Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Handouts Liver transplant (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Liver Transplantation updates ... ENCYCLOPEDIA Liver transplant Liver transplant - slideshow Related Health Topics Cirrhosis Hepatitis Liver Diseases Organ Transplantation National Institutes ...

  8. Fault damage zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Seog; Peacock, David C. P.; Sanderson, David J.

    2004-03-01

    Damage zones show very similar geometries across a wide range of scales and fault types, including strike-slip, normal and thrust faults. We use a geometric classification of damage zones into tip-, wall-, and linking-damage zones, based on their location around faults. These classes can be sub-divided in terms of fault and fracture patterns within the damage zone. A variety of damage zone structures can occur at mode II tips of strike-slip faults, including wing cracks, horsetail fractures, antithetic faults, and synthetic branch faults. Wall damage zones result from the propagation of mode II and mode III fault tips through a rock, or from damage associated with the increase in slip on a fault. Wall damage zone structures include extension fractures, antithetic faults, synthetic faults, and rotated blocks with associated triangular openings. The damage formed at the mode III tips of strike-slip faults (e.g. observed in cliff sections) are classified as wall damage zones, because the damage zone structures are distributed along a fault trace in map view. Mixed-mode tips are likely to show characteristics of both mode II and mode III tips. Linking damage zones are developed at steps between two sub-parallel faults, and the structures developed depend on whether the step is extensional or contractional. Extension fractures and pull-aparts typically develop in extensional steps, whilst solution seams, antithetic faults and synthetic faults commonly develop in contractional steps. Rotated blocks, isolated lenses or strike-slip duplexes may occur in both extensional and contractional steps. Damage zone geometries and structures are strongly controlled by the location around a fault, the slip mode at a fault tip, and by the evolutionary stage of the fault. Although other factors control the nature of damage zones (e.g. lithology, rheology and stress system), the three-dimensional fault geometry and slip mode at each tip must be considered to gain an understanding of

  9. Crosstalk of liver immune cells and cell death mechanisms in different murine models of liver injury and its clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hilal Ahmad; Ahmad, Muhammad Zishan; Khan, Junaid Ali; Arshad, Muhammad Imran

    2017-06-01

    Liver inflammation or hepatitis is a result of pluripotent interactions of cell death molecules, cytokines, chemokines and the resident immune cells collectively called as microenvironment. The interplay of these inflammatory mediators and switching of immune responses during hepatotoxic, viral, drug-induced and immune cell-mediated hepatitis decide the fate of liver pathology. The present review aimed to describe the mechanisms of liver injury, its relevance to human liver pathology and insights for the future therapeutic interventions. The data of mouse hepatic models and relevant human liver diseases presented in this review are systematically collected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and the Web of Science databases published in English. The hepatotoxic liver injury in mice induced by the metabolites of CCl 4 , acetaminophen or alcohol represent necrotic cell death with activation of cytochrome pathway, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial damage. The Fas or TNF-alpha induced apoptotic liver injury was dependent on activation of caspases, release of cytochrome c and apoptosome formation. The ConA-hepatitis demonstrated the involvement of TRAIL-dependent necrotic/necroptotic cell death with activation of RIPK1/3. The alpha-GalCer-induced liver injury was mediated by TNF-alpha. The LPS-induced hepatitis involved TNF-alpha, Fas/FasL, and perforin/granzyme cell death pathways. The MHV3 or Poly(I:C) induced liver injury was mediated by natural killer cells and TNF-alpha signaling. The necrotic ischemia-reperfusion liver injury was mediated by hypoxia, ROS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines; however, necroptotic cell death was found in partial hepatectomy. The crucial role of immune cells and cell death mediators in viral hepatitis (HBV, HCV), drug-induced liver injury, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease in human were discussed. The mouse animal models of hepatitis provide a parallel approach for the study of human liver

  10. Cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, a natural free-radical scavenger against aflatoxin B1- and ochratoxin A-induced cell damage in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) and a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line (CaCo-2).

    PubMed

    Guerra, M C; Galvano, F; Bonsi, L; Speroni, E; Costa, S; Renzulli, C; Cervellati, R

    2005-08-01

    Recent findings have suggested that oxidative damage might contribute to the cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Induction of oxidative stress also plays an important role in the toxicity of another mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA). In the present study, the protective effect of cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (C-3-G; an anthocyanin contained in oranges, blackberries, strawberries and cranberries) against AFB1- and OTA-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in a human hepatoma-derived cell line (Hep G2) and a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line (CaCo-2). The ability of C-3-G to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the inhibition of protein and DNA synthesis and the apoptosis caused by the two mycotoxins was also investigated in both cell lines. Our experiments proved the significant cytoprotective effect of C-3-G in vitro against OTA- and AFB1-induced cell damage. In particular, 24 h of pretreatment with 50 microm-C-3-G inhibited the cytotoxicity of 10 microm-AFB1 (by 35 %) and of 10 microm-OTA (by 25 %) in Hep G2 cells (P < 0.001) and of 10 microm-AFB1 (by 10 %, P < 0.01) and of 10 microm-OTA (by 14 %, P < 0.05) in CaCo-2 cells. Moreover, 50 microm-C-3-G attenuated ROS production induced by the two toxins in both cell lines (P < 0.05). Inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis induced by the mycotoxins was counteracted by pretreatment with the antioxidant at 50 microm. Similarly, apoptotic cell death was prevented as demonstrated by a reduction of DNA fragmentation and inhibition of caspase-3 activation. The in vitro free-radical scavenging capacity of the anthocyanin was tested with the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction. This system works at pH approximately 2. The results showed good scavenging power, in accordance with the observed inhibition of ROS production.

  11. Celiac disease in autoimmune cholestatic liver disorders.

    PubMed

    Volta, Umberto; Rodrigo, Luis; Granito, Alessandro; Petrolini, Nunzio; Muratori, Paolo; Muratori, Luigi; Linares, Antonio; Veronesi, Lorenza; Fuentes, Dolores; Zauli, Daniela; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2002-10-01

    In this study, serological screening for celiac disease (CD) was performed in patients with autoimmune cholestasis to define the prevalence of such an association and to evaluate the impact of gluten withdrawal on liver disease associated with gluten sensitive enteropathy. Immunoglobulin A endomysial, human and guinea pig tissue transglutaminase antibodies, and immunoglobulin A and G gliadin antibodies were sought in 255 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune cholangitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Immunoglobulin A endomysial and human tissue transglutaminase antibodies were positive in nine patients (seven primary biliary cirrhosis, one autoimmune cholangitis, and one primary sclerosing cholangitis), whose duodenal biopsy results showed villous atrophy consistent with CD. Two of these patients had a malabsorption syndrome, and one had iron-deficiency anemia. Clinical and biochemical signs of cholestasis did not improve after gluten withdrawal in the three patients with severe liver disease. A longer follow-up of the six celiac patients with mild liver damage is needed to clarify whether gluten restriction can contribute to slow down the progression of liver disease. The high prevalence of CD (3.5%) in autoimmune cholestasis suggests that serological screening for CD should be routinely performed in such patients by immunoglobulin A endomysial or human tissue transglutaminase antibodies.

  12. Report on Liver Cell Transplantation Using Human Fetal Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Pietrosi, Giada; Chinnici, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    In an era of organ shortage, human fetuses donated after medically indicated abortion could be considered a potential liver donor for hepatic cell isolation. We investigated transplantation of fetal liver cells as a strategy to support liver functionality in end-stage liver disease. Here, we report our protocol of human fetal liver cells (hFLC) isolation in fetuses from 17 to 22 gestational weeks, and our clinical procedure of hFLC transplantation through the splenic artery.

  13. Progression of liver disease in children and adults with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Burton, Barbara K; Silliman, Nancy; Marulkar, Sachin

    2017-07-01

    Manifestations of the autosomal recessive disorder lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) include hepatomegaly, elevated serum liver enzymes, and progressive liver disease. We report an analysis of time to progression from first clinical manifestation to first documentation of hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, or liver transplantation from an observational study of pediatric and adult patients with LAL-D (clinical trial registration: NCT01528917). Data were analyzed from 31 patients with available biopsy data and 1 patient without biopsy data who had undergone liver transplantation. Time to first documentation of fibrosis, cirrhosis, or liver transplantation following the first LAL-D clinical manifestation was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The median time to an event was 3.1 years. These findings illustrate the progression of liver damage in LAL-D and the elevated risk for liver transplantation among children and adults with LAL-D.

  14. Quantification of Liver Iron with MRI: State of the Art and Remaining Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, Diego; Levin, Yakir S; Sirlin, Claude B; Reeder, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    Liver iron overload is the histological hallmark of hereditary hemochromatosis and transfusional hemosiderosis, and can also occur in chronic hepatopathies. Iron overload can result in liver damage, with the eventual development of cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Assessment of liver iron levels is necessary for detection and quantitative staging of iron overload, and monitoring of iron-reducing treatments. This article discusses the need for non-invasive assessment of liver iron, and reviews qualitative and quantitative methods with a particular emphasis on MRI. Specific MRI methods for liver iron quantification include signal intensity ratio as well as R2 and R2* relaxometry techniques. Methods that are in clinical use, as well as their limitations, are described. Remaining challenges, unsolved problems, and emerging techniques to provide improved characterization of liver iron deposition are discussed. PMID:24585403

  15. [Wilson disease: liver form].

    PubMed

    Guerra Montero, Luis; Ortega Álvarez, Félix; Sumire Umeres, Julia; Cok García, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is a disorder of copper metabolism that is inherited as an autosomal recessive, which produces toxic copper accumulation mainly in the liver and brain, in general has two ways presentation, liver at early ages and neurological in later ages. We present the case of a female patient of 21 years diagnosed of WD in liver cirrhosis that started with an edematous ascites without any neurological symptoms despite the age. Their laboratory studies showed decrease in serum ceruloplasmin and high cupruria within 24 hours of the disease , characteristic data of WD. Although WD is not a common disease should be suspected in all chronic liver disease of unknown etiology with negative viral markers and autoimmunity with or without neurological manifestations as soon as posible and starting treatment with copper chelating mainly leads to a substantial improvement the prognosis of these patients.

  16. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of toxic waste products. Increasing your intake of carbohydrates to be in proportion with the amount of ... severe liver disease include: Eat large amounts of carbohydrate foods. Carbohydrates should be the major source of ...

  17. Pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Spada, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Maggiore, Giuseppe; Cintorino, Davide; Gridelli, Bruno

    2009-02-14

    In previous decades, pediatric liver transplantation has become a state-of-the-art operation with excellent success and limited mortality. Graft and patient survival have continued to improve as a result of improvements in medical, surgical and anesthetic management, organ availability, immunosuppression, and identification and treatment of postoperative complications. The utilization of split-liver grafts and living-related donors has provided more organs for pediatric patients. Newer immunosuppression regimens, including induction therapy, have had a significant impact on graft and patient survival. Future developments of pediatric liver transplantation will deal with long-term follow-up, with prevention of immunosuppression-related complications and promotion of as normal growth as possible. This review describes the state-of-the-art in pediatric liver transplantation.

  18. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States than in other parts of the world. Liver cancer is uncommon in the United States, ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American ...

  19. Liver Disease and IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... colon in IBD patients who have sclerosing cholangitis. GALLSTONES The gallbladder is a sac attached below the liver to the common bile duct. Gallstones form when bile (the liquid stored in the ...

  20. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... also used to prevent respiratory infections, and an age-related eye condition called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, burns, and rashes.

  1. [Diabetes in liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    García-Compeán, Diego; Jáquez-Quintana, Joel O; González-González, José A; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Z; Maldonado-Garza, Hector J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in liver cirrhosis is about 30%. However, DM or impaired glucose tolerance can be observed in 90% after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with normal fasting plasma glucose. Type 2 DM may produce cirrhosis, whereas DM may be a complication of cirrhosis. The latter is known as «hepatogenous diabetes». Overt and subclinical DM is associated with liver complications and death in cirrhotic patients. Treating diabetes is difficult in cirrhotic patients because of the metabolic impairments due to liver disease and because the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment has not been defined. It is also unknown if glycemic control with hypoglycemic agents has any impact on the course of the liver disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Hepatic Fibrosis with the Stiffness of Liver and the Dynamic of Blood in Liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Ye, Lihong; Li, Zhenyan; Jiang, Yi

    Cirrhosis affects liver functions, and is a significant public health problem. Early stages of liver fibrosis are difficult to diagnose. The mechanism of fibrosis changing the mechanical properties of the liver tissue and altering the dynamic of blood flow is still unclear. In collaboration with clinicians specialized in hepatic fibrosis, we have developed a mechanical model to integrate our empirical understanding of fibrosis development and connect the fibrosis stage to mechanical properties of tissue and the consequential blood flow pattern changes. We modeled toxin distribution in the liver that leads to tissue damage and collagen deposition. We showed that the excessive collagen forms polygonal patterns, resembling those found in pathology images. Treating the collagen bundles as elastic spring networks, we also showed a nonlinear relationship between liver stiffness and fibrosis stage, which is consistent with experimental observations. We further modeled the stiffness affecting the mechanical properties of the portal veins, resulting in altered blood flow pattern. These results are supported by ultrasound Doppler measurements from hepatic fibrosis patients. These results promise a new noninvasive diagnostic tool for early fibrosis.

  3. Alcohol consumption and oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takeshi

    2011-07-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol consumption on cancer risk, we measured oxidative DNA damage and its repair activity in the livers and esophagi of rats fed with ethanol. Using our previously designed protocol for feeding rats with a high concentration of ethanol, we examined the effects of ethanol consumption on 8-oxo-Gua generation and repair activity in the livers and esophagi of rats. We found that a high concentration of ethanol accompanied with a vitamin-depleted diet increased 8-oxo-Gua and its repair activity. 8-Oxo-Gua is known to induce point mutations, leading to carcinogenesis. Therefore, these results suggested that a high concentration of ethanol and an irregular diet increased liver and esophageal cancer risk. On the other hand, we showed that a low concentration of ethanol decreased 8-oxo-Gua and its repair activity in the livers of mice treated with a carcinogen. Taken together, the effects of ethanol consumption on cancer risk depend on the ethanol concentration and the diet pattern.

  4. [Complications of liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Bratović, Ismet; Jazić, Altaira

    2003-01-01

    Increase in portal venous pressure after anatomical or functional obstruction of portal venous system represents the most important complication of liver cirrhosis. Important sequels of portal hypertension are not dependable of etiology of liver disease. They are: increased collateral circulation in portal system and low pressure venous system (esophageal and gastric varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy and colopathy, hemorrhoids, collateral circulation through anterior abdominal wall, increased lymphatic flow, ascites, splenomegaly with occasional hypersplenismus, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome.

  5. Is Liver Enzyme Release Really Associated with Cell Necrosis Induced by Oxidant Stress?

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Zentella, Martha Lucinda; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic diseases are a major concern worldwide. Increased specific plasma enzyme activities are considered diagnostic features for liver diseases, since enzymes are released into the blood compartment following the deterioration of the organ. Release of liver mitochondrial enzymes is considered strong evidence for hepatic necrosis, which is associated with an increased production of ROS, often leading to greater hepatic lipid peroxidation. Lipotoxic mediators and intracellular signals activated Kupffer cells, which provides evidence strongly suggesting the participation of oxidant stress in acute liver damage, inducing the progression of liver injury to chronic liver damage. Elevated transaminase activities are considered as an index marker of hepatotoxicity, linked to oxidant stress. However, a drastic increase of serum activities of liver enzyme markers ought not necessarily to reflect liver cell death. In fact, increased serum levels of cytoplasmic enzymes have readily been observed after partial hepatectomy (PH) in the regenerating liver of rats. In this regard, we are now showing that in vitro modifications of the oxidant status affect differentially the release of liver enzymes, indicating that this release is a strictly controlled event and not directly related to the onset of oxidant stress of the liver. PMID:26798419

  6. Small for Size and Flow (SFSF) syndrome: An alternative description for posthepatectomy liver failure.

    PubMed

    Golriz, Mohammad; Majlesara, Ali; El Sakka, Saroa; Ashrafi, Maryam; Arwin, Jalal; Fard, Nassim; Raisi, Hanna; Edalatpour, Arman; Mehrabi, Arianeb

    2016-06-01

    Small for Size Syndrome (SFSS) syndrome is a recognizable clinical syndrome occurring in the presence of a reduced mass of liver, which is insufficient to maintain normal liver function. A definition has yet to be fully clarified, but it is a common clinical syndrome following partial liver transplantation and extended hepatectomy, which is characterized by postoperative liver dysfunction with prolonged cholestasis and coagulopathy, portal hypertension, and ascites. So far, this syndrome has been discussed with focus on the remnant size of the liver after partial liver transplantation or extended hepatectomy. However, the current viewpoints believe that the excessive flow of portal vein for the volume of the liver parenchyma leads to over-pressure, sinusoidal endothelial damages and haemorrhage. The new hypothesis declares that in both extended hepatectomy and partial liver transplantation, progression of Small for Size Syndrome is not determined only by the "size" of the liver graft or remnant, but by the hemodynamic parameters of the hepatic circulation, especially portal vein flow. Therefore, we suggest the term "Small for Size and Flow (SFSF)" for this syndrome. We believe that it is important for liver surgeons to know the pathogenesis and manifestation of this syndrome to react early enough preventing non-reversible tissue damages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and lactate dehydrogenase as targets for therapy of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Ferriero, Rosa; Nusco, Edoardo; De Cegli, Rossella; Carissimo, Annamaria; Manco, Giuseppe; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2018-03-23

    Acute liver failure is a rapidly progressive deterioration of hepatic function resulting in high mortality and morbidity. Metabolic enzymes can translocate in the nucleus to regulate histone acetylation and gene expression. Levels and activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in nuclear fractions of livers of mice exposed to various hepatotoxins including CD95-Ab, α-amanitin, and acetaminophen. Whole-genome gene expression profiling by RNA-seq was performed in livers of mice with acute liver failure and analyzed by Gene Ontology Enrichment Analysis. Efficacy of histone acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol and LDH inhibitor galloflavin at reducing liver damage was evaluated in mice with induced hepatotoxicity. Levels and activities of PDHC and LDH were increased in cytoplasmatic and nuclear fractions of livers of mice with acute liver failure. The increase of nuclear PDHC and LDH was associated with increased concentrations of acetyl-coA and lactate in nuclear fractions, and histone H3 hyper-acetylation. Gene expression in livers of mice with acute liver failure suggested that increased histone H3 acetylation induces the expression of genes related to response to damage. Reduced histone acetylation by the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol decreased liver damage and improved survival in mice with acute liver failure. Knock-down of PDHC or LDH improved viability in cells exposed to a pro-apoptotic stimulus. Treatment with the LDH inhibitor galloflavin that was also found to inhibit PDHC, reduced hepatic necrosis, apoptosis, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice with acute liver failure. Mice treated with galloflavin also showed a dose-response increase in survival. PDHC and LDH translocate to the nucleus and are targets for therapy of acute liver failure. Acute liver failure is a rapidly progressive and life-threatening deterioration of liver function resulting in high mortality and

  8. Liver disease and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Purnak, Tugrul; Yilmaz, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    Patients with hepatic disorders are exceptionally vulnerable to developing malnutrition because of the key role played by the liver in regulating the nutritional state and the energy balance. Moreover, the presence of chronic liver disorders could reduce the appetite and thus influence the nutrient intake. Poor nutritional status has been shown in various patient groups with hepatic disorders, and particularly in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis who are at high nutritional risk. It is well established that malnourished patients with liver diseases generally have a higher risk of developing adverse clinical outcomes and increased healthcare costs. Nutrition screening with the Subjective Global Assessment and anthropometric measurements are an important first step in the early identification of malnutrition and initiates the whole nutrition care process. It is therefore important for appropriate nutrition policies and protocols to be implemented so that all patients with chronic liver diseases are monitored closely from a nutritional standpoint. Early and evidence-based nutritional interventions are eagerly needed to minimize the nutritional decline associated with chronic liver disorders and ultimately improve the prognosis of such patients. This review includes a comprehensive analysis of methods to identify malnutrition in patients with chronic liver diseases as well as the extent and impact of the malnutrition problem in selected patient populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cyclopamine attenuates acute warm ischemia reperfusion injury in cholestatic rat liver: Hope for marginal livers

    PubMed Central

    Pratap, Akshay; Pannakanti, Ravi; Yang, Ningning; Lakshmi, Ramasubramanian; Modanlou, Kian A; Eason, James D; Mahato, Ram I

    2011-01-01

    Cholestasis is a significant risk factor for immediate hepatic failure due to ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury in patients undergoing liver surgery or transplantation. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling with cyclopamine (CYA) before I/R prevents liver injury. In this study we hypothesized that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling may modulate I/R injury in cholestatic rat liver. Cholestasis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Seven days after BDL, rats were exposed to either CYA or vehicle for 7 d daily before subjecting them to 30 min of ischemia and 4 h of reperfusion. Expression of Hh ligands (sonic hedgehog, Patched-1 and Glioblastoma-1), assessment of liver injury, neutrophil infiltration, cytokines, lipid peroxidation, cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined. Significant upregulation of Hh ligands was seen in vehicle treated BDL rats. I/R injury superimposed on these animals resulted in markedly elevated serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total bilirubin accompanied with increased neutrophil recruitment and lipid peroxidation. Preconditioning with CYA reduced the histological damage and serum liver injury markers. CYA also reduced neutrophil infiltration, proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β expression of α-smooth muscle actin and Type 1 collagen resulting in reduced fibrosis. Furthermore CYA treated animals showed reduced cholangiocyte proliferation, and apoptosis. Hepatoprotection by CYA was conferred by reduced activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). Endogenous Hh signaling in cholestasis exacerbates inflammatory injury during liver I/R. Blockade of Hh pathway represents a clinically relevant novel approach to limit I/R injury in cholestatic marginal liver. PMID:21491930

  10. Nerve Damage (Diabetic Neuropathies)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Workshops Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  11. Limited therapeutic efficacy of thrombopoietin on the regeneration of steatotic livers

    PubMed Central

    Abshagen, Kerstin; Mertens, Franziska; Eipel, Christian; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is impaired in steatotic livers of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Previous studies have shown that thrombopoietin (TPO) promotes liver regeneration and improves liver cirrhosis by an increase of platelet counts and the expansion of hepatic progenitor cells. Herein we studied whether TPO exerts pro-proliferative and hepatoprotective effects and thereby improves the regenerative capacity of steatotic livers. For this purpose, we studied hepatic regeneration at day 2, 3, 7 and 10 in a model of 55% hepatectomy in obese (ob/ob) and non-obese (C57BL/6J) mice. Liver function and injury, platelet counts, weight of the regenerated liver, proliferating liver cells as well as the number of hepatic (CK19-positive) oval cells were quantified by biochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. As expected, obese mice had a markedly decreased regenerative capacity of livers compared with lean animals. Pretreatment of mice with recombinant TPO (12.5 μg/kg) had no evident effect on regeneration of fatty livers, but ameliorated acute liver damage in obese mice, as indicated by decreased liver enzyme release early after resection. TPO was unable to enhance hepatocyte proliferation, but increased proliferation of non-parenchymal cells, including CK19-positive oval cells, at later observation time points after resection. Interestingly, TPO completely inhibited the resection-induced increase of plasma triglycerides immediately after resection in non-obese mice. In conclusion, TPO slightly prevents acute liver damage after resection in obese mice, but fails to significantly enhance regeneration of fatty livers. PMID:24040440

  12. [Citrullinemia type I with recurrent liver failure in a child].

    PubMed

    Bindi, Verónica; Eiroa, Hernán

    2017-02-01

    Citrullinemia type I is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation of the gene expressing ASS1 argininosuccinate synthetase, limiting enzyme of the urea cycle. The classic variants are associated with neonatal/infantile forms that cause hyperammonemia leading to death if treatment is not established. Initial symptoms of disorders of the urea cycle include neurological impairment with mild or moderate liver damage. We report a case of recurrent liver failure in an infant diagnosed with type I citrullinemia without severe neurological involvement that was referred to our center for liver transplantation. Acute liver failure can be caused by a wide range of disorders in which inborn errors of metabolism are included. Appropriate treatment of disorders of the urea cycle and in particular citrullinemia I can avoid the need for a transplant. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  13. Fern spore extracts can damage DNA

    PubMed Central

    Simán, S E; Povey, A C; Ward, T H; Margison, G P; Sheffield, E

    2000-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of the vegetative tissues of bracken fern (Pteridium) has long been established. More recently, the carcinogenic effects of the spores of bracken have also been recognized. Both vegetative tissues and spores of bracken can induce adducts in DNA in animal tissues, but the possible genotoxic or carcinogenic effects of spores from fern species other than bracken are unknown. The single-cell gel electrophoresis (‘comet’) assay was used to investigate whether fern spores can cause DNA damage in vitro. Extracts of spores from six fern species were administered to cultured human premyeloid leukaemia (K562) cells. Spore extracts of five fern species: Anemia phyllitidis, Dicksonia antarctica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pteris vittata and Sadleria pallida, induced significantly more DNA strand breaks than those in the control groups. Only in one species, Osmunda regalis, was the effect no different from that in the control groups. Using extracts from A. phyllitidis and P. vittata, the extent of DNA damage was increased by increasing the original dose 10 times, whereas an experiment in which exposure times were varied suggested that the highest levels of strand breaks appear after 2 h exposure. Simultaneous incubation with human S9 liver enzyme mix ablated the damaging effect of the extracts. Our data show that fern spore extracts can cause DNA damage in human cells in vitro. Considering the strong correlation between DNA damage and carcinogenic events, the observations made in this report may well have some implications for human health. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10883670

  14. HYPERVASCULAR LIVER LESIONS IN RADIOLOGICALLY NORMAL LIVER.

    PubMed

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, José Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; João, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araújo Lima

    2017-01-01

    The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Eighty-eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine aminotransaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. As lesões hepáticas hipervasculares representam um desafio diagnóstico. Identificar fatores de risco para câncer em pacientes portadores de lesão hepática hipervascular não-hemangiomatosa em fígado radiologicamente normal. Estudo prospectivo que incluiu pacientes com lesões hepáticas hipervasculares em que o diagnóstico final foi obtido por exame anatomopatológico ou, presumido a partir de seguimento mínimo de um ano. Diagnóstico prévio de cirrose ou radiológico de hemangioma foram considerados critérios de exclusão. Oitenta e oito pacientes foram incluídos. A relação mulher/homem foi de 5,3/1. A idade média foi de 42,4 anos. Na

  15. Liver cirrhosis induces renal and liver phospholipase A2 activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, B S; Frey, F J; Escher, G; Reichen, J; Frey, B M

    1996-07-15

    Maintenance of renal function in liver cirrhosis requires increased synthesis of arachidonic acid derived prostaglandin metabolites. Arachidonate metabolites have been reported to be involved in modulation of liver damage. The purpose of the present study was to establish whether the first enzyme of the prostaglandin cascade synthesis, the phospholipase A2(PLA2) is altered in liver cirrhosis induced by bile duct excision. The mRNA of PLA2(group I and II) and annexin-I a presumptive inhibitor of PLA2 enzyme was measured by PCR using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as an internal standard. The mean mRNA ratio of group II PLA2/GAPDH was increased in liver tissue by 126% (P < 0.001) and in kidney tissue by 263% (P < 0.006) following induction of liver cirrhosis. The increase in group II PLA2 mRNA in cirrhotic animals was reflected by an increase in PLA2 protein and enzyme activity in both liver and kidney tissues. Since the mRNA of group I PLA2 was not detectable and Group IV PLA2 activity measured in liver and kidney tissue samples was very low and not changed following induction of cirrhosis, it is likely that the major PLA2 activity measured in liver and kidney corresponds to group II PLA2 enzyme. The mean mRNA ratio of annexin-I/GAPDH was increased in liver tissue by 115% (P < 0.05) but unchanged in kidney tissue following induction of cirrhosis. The protein content of annexin-I and -V were not affected by bile duct excision in liver and kidney tissue indicating that upregulation of group II PLA2 activity was not due to downregulation of annexin-I or -V. Group II PLA2 activity of glomerular mesangial cells stimulated by interleukin-1 beta was enhanced by bile juice and various bile salts. In conclusion, activity of group II PLA2 is upregulated partly due to e