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Sample records for a-induced liver failure

  1. Acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Slack, Andy; Wendon, Julia

    2011-06-01

    ALF is a multisystem disorder necessitating both predictive and reactive management strategies to support and protect organs from the initial and subsequent insults encountered. Early referral to a specialist liver centre with the option of liver transplantation is recommended. Furthermore, a good understanding of the poor prognostic variables is necessary to determine those most at risk of developing ALF in order to facilitate timely, safe transfer and listing for liver transplantation.

  2. Nonacetaminophen Drug-Induced Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Arul M; Lewis, James H

    2018-05-01

    Acute liver failure of all causes is diagnosed in between 2000 and 2500 patients annually in the United States. Drug-induced acute liver failure is the leading cause of acute liver failure, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Nonacetaminophen drug injury represents 11% of all cases in the latest registry from the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Although rare, acute liver failure is clinically dramatic when it occurs, and requires a multidisciplinary approach to management. In contrast with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure, non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure has a more ominous prognosis with a lower liver transplant-free survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Management in Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shalimar; Acharya, Subrat K.

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare, potentially fatal complication of severe hepatic illness resulting from various causes. In a clinical setting, severe hepatic injury is usually recognised by the appearance of jaundice, encephalopathy and coagulopathy. The central and most important clinical event in ALF is occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and cerebral edema which is responsible for most of the fatalities in this serious clinical syndrome. The pathogenesis of encephalopathy and cerebral edema in ALF is unique and multifactorial. Ammonia plays a central role in the pathogenesis. The role of newer ammonia lowering agents is still evolving. Liver transplant is the only effective therapy that has been identified to be of promise in those with poor prognostic factors, whereas in the others, aggressive intensive medical management has been documented to salvage a substantial proportion of patients. A small fraction of patients undergo liver transplant and the remaining are usually treated with medical therapy. Therefore, identification of the complications and causes of death in such patients, and use of appropriate prognostic models to identify those who need liver transplant and those who can be managed with medical treatment is a vital component of therapeutic strategy. In this review, we discuss the various pathogenetic mechanisms and treatment options available. PMID:26041950

  4. Propylthiouracil-Induced Acute Liver Failure: Role of Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Carrion, Andres F.; Czul, Frank; Arosemena, Leopoldo R.; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Garcia, Monica T.; Tekin, Akin; Tzakis, Andreas G.; Martin, Paul; Ghanta, Ravi K.

    2010-01-01

    Propylthiouracil- (PTU-) induced hepatotoxicity is rare but potentially lethal with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from asymptomatic elevation of transaminases to fulminant hepatic failure and death. We describe two cases of acute hepatic failure due to PTU that required liver transplantation. Differences in the clinical presentation, histological characteristics, and posttransplant management are described as well as alternative therapeutic options. Frequent monitoring for PTU-induced hepatic dysfunction is strongly advised because timely discontinuation of this drug and implementation of noninvasive therapeutic interventions may prevent progression to liver failure or even death. PMID:21234410

  5. Perioperative management of liver surgery-review on pathophysiology of liver disease and liver failure.

    PubMed

    Gasteiger, Lukas; Eschertzhuber, Stephan; Tiefenthaler, Werner

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of patients present for liver surgery. Given the complex pathophysiological changes in chronic liver disease (CLD), it is pivotal to understand the fundamentals of chronic and acute liver failure. This review will give an overview on related organ dysfunction as well as recommendations for perioperative management and treatment of liver failure-related symptoms.

  6. A bioartificial liver to treat severe acute liver failure.

    PubMed Central

    Rozga, J; Podesta, L; LePage, E; Morsiani, E; Moscioni, A D; Hoffman, A; Sher, L; Villamil, F; Woolf, G; McGrath, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the safety and efficacy of a bioartificial liver support system in patients with severe acute liver failure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The authors developed a bioartificial liver using porcine hepatocytes. The system was tested in vitro and shown to have differentiated liver functions (cytochrome P450 activity, synthesis of liver-specific proteins, bilirubin synthesis, and conjugation). When tested in vivo in experimental animals with liver failure, it gave substantial metabolic and hemodynamic support. METHODS: Seven patients with severe acute liver failure received a double lumen catheter in the saphenous vein; blood was removed, plasma was separated and perfused through a cartridge containing 4 to 6 x 10(9) porcine hepatocytes, and plasma and blood cells were reconstituted and reinfused. Each treatment lasted 6 to 7 hours. RESULTS: All patients tolerated the procedure(s) well, with neurologic improvement, decreased intracranial pressure (23.0 +/- 2.3 to 7.8 +/- 1.7 mm Hg; p < 0.005) associated with an increase in cerebral perfusion pressure, decreased plasma ammonia (163.3 +/- 21.3 to 112.2 +/- 9.8 microMoles/L; p < 0.01), and increased encephalopathy index (0.60 +/- 0.17 to 1.24 +/- 0.22; p < 0.03). All patients survived, had a liver transplant, and were discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: This bioartificial liver is safe and serves as an effective "bridge" to liver transplant in some patients. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8185403

  7. Acute liver failure and self-medication.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, André Vitorio Câmara; Rocha, Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; Abreu, Sílvio Romero de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Not responsible self-medication refers to drug use in high doses without rational indication and often associated with alcohol abuse. It can lead to liver damage and drug interactions, and may cause liver failure. To warn about how the practice of self-medication can be responsible for acute liver failure. Were used the Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Lilacs, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings acute liver failure [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; acute liver failure [tiab] AND dietary supplements [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND liver failure [tiab] and self-medication [tiab] AND green tea [tiab]. In Lilacs and SciELO used the descriptor self medication in Portuguese and Spanish. From total surveyed were selected 27 articles and five sites specifically related to the purpose of this review. Legislation and supervision disabled and information inaccessible to people, favors the emergence of cases of liver failure drug in many countries. In the list of released drugs that deserve more attention and care, are some herbal medicines used for the purpose of weight loss, and acetaminophen. It is recommended that institutes of health intensify supervision and better orient their populations on drug seemingly harmless, limiting the sale of products or requiring a prescription for release them.

  8. Liver failure in total artificial heart therapy.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Dapunt, Otto; Knez, Igor; Wasler, Andrae; Oberwalder, Peter; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero; Spiliopoulos, Sotirios

    2016-07-01

    Congestive hepatopathy (CH) and acute liver failure (ALF) are common among biventricular heart failure patients. We sought to evaluate the impact of total artificial heart (TAH) therapy on hepatic function and associated clinical outcomes. A total of 31 patients received a Syncardia Total Artificial Heart. Preoperatively 17 patients exhibited normal liver function or mild hepatic derangements that were clinically insignificant and did not qualify as acute or chronic liver failure, 5 patients exhibited ALF and 9 various hepatic derangements owing to CH. Liver associated mortality and postoperative course of liver values were prospectively documented and retrospectively analyzed. Liver associated mortality in normal liver function, ALF and CH cases was 0%, 20% (P=0.03) and 44.4% (P=0.0008) respectively. 1/17 (5.8%) patients with a normal liver function developed an ALF, 4/5 (80%) patients with an ALF experienced a markedly improvement of hepatic function and 6/9 (66.6%) patients with CH a significant deterioration. TAH therapy results in recovery of hepatic function in ALF cases. Patients with CH prior to surgery form a high risk group with increased liver associated mortality.

  9. Clinical heterogeneity in autoimmune acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Martinez-Salgado, Julio; Granados, Julio; Uribe, Misael; Tellez-Avila, Felix I

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To describe the outcome and prognosis in a cohort of patients with acute liver failure due to autoimmune hepatitis without liver transplantation. METHODS: A retrospective trial was conducted in 11 patients with acute liver failure due to autoimmune hepatitis who attended the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubiran. Demographic, biochemical and severity indexes, and treatment and outcome were assessed. RESULTS: Among the 11 patients, with a median age of 31 years, 72% had inflammatory response syndrome, and six patients received corticosteroids. The mortality rate within four weeks was 56%, and the one-year survival was 27%. In the survivors, severity indexes were lower and 83% received corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: We observed a relatively high survival rate in patients with acute liver failure due to autoimmune hepatitis. This survival rate could be influenced by severity of the disease and/or use of corticosteroids. PMID:17465474

  10. Fulminant liver failure: clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Slapak, M.

    1975-01-01

    Clinical experience of some newer methods of hepatic support is described. The results are unpredictable and far from satisfactory. The need for an animal model in which potential therapeutic methods can be studied is emphasized. Such a model based on carefully imposed ischaemic insult to the liver in the absence of portacaval shunting is described. It is suggested that bacterial presence in the bowel together with a depression of the liver reticuloendothelial function plays an important part in the early and rapid mortality of acute liver failure. Temporary auxiliary liver transplantation using an allograft or a closely related primate heterograft seem to be the 2 best available methods of hepatic support for potentially reversible acute liver failure. Images Fig. 8 PMID:812415

  11. Acute-on-chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Shiv Kumar; Choudhury, Ashok

    2016-12-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct entity that differs from acute liver failure and decompensated cirrhosis in timing, presence of treatable acute precipitant, and course of disease, with a potential for self-recovery. The core concept is acute deterioration of existing liver function in a patient of chronic liver disease with or without cirrhosis in response to an acute insult. The insult should be a hepatic one and presentation in the form of liver failure (jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy, ascites) with or without extrahepatic organ failure in a defined time frame. ACLF is characterized by a state of deregulated inflammation. Initial cytokine burst presenting as SIRS, progression to CARS and associated immunoparalysis leads to sepsis and multi-organ failure. Early identification of the acute insult and mitigation of the same, use of nucleoside analogue in HBV-ACLF, steroid in severe alcoholic hepatitis, steroid in severe autoimmune hepatitis and/or bridging therapy lead to recovery, with a 90-day transplant-free survival rate of up to 50 %. First-week presentation is crucial concerning SIRS/sepsis, development, multiorgan failure and consideration of transplant. A protocol-based multi-disciplinary approach including critical care hepatology, early liver transplant before multi-organ involvement, or priority for organ allocation may improve the outcome. Presentation with extrahepatic organ involvement or inclusion of sepsis as an acute insult in definition restricts the therapy, i.e., liver transplant or bridging therapy, and needs serious consideration. Augmentation of regeneration, cell-based therapy, immunotherapy, and gut microbiota modulation are the emerging areas and need further research.

  12. Mechanisms of fibrosis in acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    He, Yingli; Jin, Li; Wang, Jing; Yan, Zhi; Chen, Tianyan; Zhao, Yingren

    2015-07-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a condition with high mortality and morbidity. Fibrosis in chronic liver disease was extensively researched, whereas fibrosis and underlying mechanism in acute liver failure remains unclear. Hepatitis B virus related ALF patients were recruited to investigate if there was ongoing fibrosis by liver histology and liver stiffness measurement(LSM) analysis as well as fibrosis markers assay. Sera HMGB1 were kinetically detected in progression and remission stage of ALF. Hepatic stellate cell(HSC) activation by HMGB1 was explored by testing mRNA and protein level of α-SMA and collagen 1a1 by using qPCR and western blot. Autophagy induction by HMGB1 was explored by LC3-II conversion, autophagy flux and fluorescence. Firstly, ongoing fibrosis in progression stage of ALF was confirmed by histological analysis, LS measurement as well as fibrosis markers detection. HSC activation and autophagy induction in explanted liver tissue also revealed. Next, kinetic monitoring sera HMGB1 revealed elevated HMGB1 in progression stage of ALF vs HBsAg carrier, and drop back to base level in remission stage. Thirdly, rHMGB1 dose dependently activated HSCs, as indicated by increased mRNA and proteins level in α-SMA and collagen 1a1. Moreover, autophagy was induced in HSC treated with rHMGB1, as illustrated by increased LC3 lipidation, elevated autophagy flux and GFP-LC3 puncta. Acute liver failure is accompanied by ongoing fibrosis, HSC activation and autophagy induction. Increased HMGB1 activates HSC via autophagy induction. Those findings integrate HMGB1, HSCs activation, autophagy into a common framework that underlies the fibrosis in ALF. © 2014 The Authors. Liver International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Acute liver failure in Cuban children.

    PubMed

    Silverio, César E; Smithen-Romany, Chleo Y; Hondal, Norma I; Díaz, Hetzel O; Castellanos, Marlen I; Sosa, Oramis

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure is rare in pediatric patients and is one of the most challenging medical emergencies due to its prognostic and therapeutic implications. The best scientific evidence worldwide comes from multicenter studies in developed countries. In Cuba, there are no prior studies of this disorder in children. Describe the main clinical features of Cuban children treated at a national referral center for acute liver failure, as defined by recognized diagnostic criteria for pediatric patients. A case series study was conducted comprising patients diagnosed with acute liver failure treated from 2005 to 2011 in the hepatology and liver transplant service at Havana's William Soler University Children's Hospital. Variables were age group, etiology of acute liver failure, grade of hepatic encephalopathy, blood chemistry variables, and clinical outcome (whether or not spontaneous recovery of liver function occurred). Associations between variables were assessed using contingency tables, and case fatality was calculated, as well as relative risk with its 95% confidence interval. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare means of laboratory test results. Median age of the 31 patients studied (14 boys and 17 girls) was 24 months (range 1-180). Time between symptom onset and diagnosis of acute liver failure was 25.1 days (SD 16.8). Infection was the most common etiology, present in 61.3% of cases (19/31); nonhepatotropic viruses, especially cytomegalovirus, predominated in infants. Spontaneous recovery occurred in 15 patients (48.4%), 3 (9.7%) received transplants, and 13 died, for a case fatality of 41.9%. Outcome was not associated with etiology (p = 0.106), but was statistically associated with degree of hepatic encephalopathy (p <0.01): 77.8% of patients (7/9) with grades III-IV encephalopathy died, for a relative risk of 4.0 (95% CI 1.15-13.8), versus 11.1% (1/9) with grade II or less encephalopathy. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in patients who

  14. Acute liver failure with thyrotoxicosis treated with liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cascino, Matthew D; McNabb, Brian; Gardner, David G; Woeber, Kenneth A; Fox, Alyson N; Wang, Bruce; Fix, Oren K

    2013-01-01

    We describe a young woman with previously undiagnosed thyrotoxicosis who presented with acute liver failure (ALF). We present a case report and review the relevant literature. An extensive evaluation excluded possible causes of ALF other than thyrotoxicosis. The management of thyrotoxicosis posed several unique challenges in the setting of ALF, particularly because we did not want to use potentially hepatotoxic thionamides. The patient was treated with prednisone and propranolol and was started on potassium iodide when she was listed for liver transplantation. She underwent an uncomplicated liver transplant and subsequent thyroidectomy and is doing well. This well-characterized case describes thyrotoxicosis as a possible cause of ALF after thoroughly excluding other possible causes and illustrates the challenges of simultaneously managing both disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ALF possibly resulting from untreated thyrotoxicosis that was successfully treated with liver transplantation.

  15. [Brain oedema and acute liver failure].

    PubMed

    Spahr, L

    2003-04-01

    Brain oedema leading to intracranial hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of patients with acute liver failure in whom it is a leading cause of death. Although precise pathogenic mechanisms associated to this severe complication remain incompletely understood, increasing evidence points to gut-derived neurotoxins including ammonia as key mediators in cerebral osmotic and perfusion disturbances. The management of brain oedema and intracranial hypertension requires a multidisciplinar approach in a center where liver transplantation is available, as this option is the only treatment modality that provides improvement in outcome. This article reviews the most common causes of acute liver failure and the standard of supportive care management, and describes future potential therapeutic aspects of brain oedema and intracranial hypertension.

  16. Acute Liver Failure including Acetaminophen Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Acute liver failure (ALF) is a dramatic and highly unpredictable clinical syndrome defined by the sudden onset of coagulopathy and encephalopathy. Although many disease processes can cause ALF, acetaminophen overdose is the leading cause in the United States, and has a 66% chance of recovery with early N-acetylcysteine treatment and supportive care. Cerebral edema and infectious complications are notoriously difficult to detect and treat in ALF patients and may lead to irreversible brain damage and multi-organ failure. Emergency liver transplantation is associated with a 70% 1-year patient survival but 20% of listed patients die, highlighting the importance of early referral of ALF patients with a poor prognosis to a liver transplant center. PMID:18570942

  17. Acute Liver Failure: Summary of a Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Lee, William M.; Squires, Robert H.; Nyberg, Scott L.; Doo, Edward; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare but challenging clinical syndrome with multiple causes; a specific etiology cannot be identified in 15% of adult and 50% of pediatric cases. The course of ALF is variable and the mortality rate is high. Liver transplantation is the only therapy of proven benefit, but the rapidity of progression and the variable course of ALF limit its use. Currently in the United States, spontaneous survival occurs in approximately 45%, liver transplantation in 25%, and death without transplantation in 30% of adults with ALF. Higher rates of spontaneous recovery (56%) and transplantation (31%) with lower rates of death (13%) occur in children. The outcome of ALF varies by etiology, favorable prognoses being found with acetaminophen overdose, hepatitis A, and ischemia (≈60% spontaneous survival), and poor prognoses with drug-induced ALF, hepatitis B, and indeterminate cases (≈25% spontaneous survival). Excellent intensive care is critical in management of patients with ALF. Nonspecific therapies are of unproven benefit. Future possible therapeutic approaches include N-acetylcysteine, hypothermia, liver assist devices, and hepatocyte transplantation. Advances in stem cell research may allow provision of cells for bioartificial liver support. ALF presents many challenging opportunities in both clinical and basic research. PMID:18318440

  18. Plasma osteopontin in acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Srungaram, Praveen; Rule, Jody A; Yuan, He Jun; Reimold, Andreas; Dahl, Benny; Sanders, Corron; Lee, William M

    2015-06-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a novel phosphoglycoprotein expressed in Kupffer cells that plays a pivotal role in activating natural killer cells, neutrophils and macrophages. Measuring plasma OPN levels in patients with acute liver failure (ALF) might provide insights into OPN function in the setting of massive hepatocyte injury. OPN levels were measured using a Quantikine® ELISA assay on plasma from 105 consecutive ALF patients enrolled by the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group, as well as controls including 40 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 35 healthy subjects both before, and 1 and 3 days after undergoing spine fusion (SF) surgery as a model for acute inflammation. Median plasma OPN levels across all etiologies of ALF patients were elevated 10- to 30-fold: overall median 1055ng/mL; range: 33-19,127), when compared to healthy controls (median in pre-SF patients: 41ng/mL; range 2.6-86.4). RA and SF post op patients had elevated OPN levels (37ng/mL and 198ng/mL respectively), well below those of the ALF patients. Median OPN levels were highest in acetaminophen (3603ng/mL) and ischemia-related ALF (4102ng/mL) as opposed to viral hepatitis (706ng/mL), drug-induced liver injury (353ng/mL) or autoimmune hepatitis (436ng/mL), correlating with the degree of hepatocellular damage, as reflected by aminotransferase values (R value: 0.47 for AST, p<0.001). OPN levels appeared to correlate with degree of liver necrosis in ALF. Very high levels were associated with hyperacute injury and good outcomes. Whether OPN exerts a protective effect in limiting disease progression in this setting remains uncertain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Acute liver failure in a patient with hairy cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Valero, Beatriz; Picó Sala, M Dolores; Palazón, José María; Payá, Artemio

    2007-01-01

    Acute liver failure as a manifestation of primary non-Hodkin's lymphoma is a rare phenomenon with a fatal prognosis. Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is an uncommon chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, representing about 2 percent of all leukemies. We report a 78-year-old patient with a history of hairy cell leukemia since 10 years, presenting whith fulminant liver failure due to massive liver infiltration. He have reviewed several cases of infiltration of the liver by haematological malignancies, but we only have found after a review in MEDLINE between 1980 and 2006, one case of acute liver failure in a patient with hepatic invasion by hairy cell leukaemia.

  20. Steroid use in acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Karkhanis, Jamuna; Verna, Elizabeth C; Chang, Matthew S; Stravitz, R Todd; Schilsky, Michael; Lee, William M; Brown, Robert S

    2014-02-01

    Drug-induced and indeterminate acute liver failure (ALF) might be due to an autoimmune-like hepatitis that is responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether corticosteroids improve survival in fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced, or indeterminate ALF, and whether this benefit varies according to the severity of illness. We conducted a retrospective analysis of autoimmune, indeterminate, and drug-induced ALF patients in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from 1998-2007. The primary endpoints were overall and spontaneous survival (SS, survival without transplant). In all, 361 ALF patients were studied, 66 with autoimmune (25 steroids, 41 no steroids), 164 with indeterminate (21 steroids, 143 no steroids), and 131 with drug-induced (16 steroids, 115 no steroids) ALF. Steroid use was not associated with improved overall survival (61% versus 66%, P = 0.41), nor with improved survival in any diagnosis category. Steroid use was associated with diminished survival in certain subgroups of patients, including those with the highest quartile of the Model for Endstage Liver Disease (MELD) (>40, survival 30% versus 57%, P = 0.03). In multivariate analysis controlling for steroid use and diagnosis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.37 per decade), coma grade (OR 2.02 grade 2, 2.65 grade 3, 5.29 grade 4), MELD (OR 1.07), and pH < 7.4 (OR 3.09) were significantly associated with mortality. Although steroid use was associated with a marginal benefit in SS overall (35% versus 23%, P = 0.047), this benefit did not persistent in multivariate analysis; mechanical ventilation (OR 0.24), MELD (OR 0.93), and alanine aminotransferase (1.02) were the only significant predictors of SS. Corticosteroids did not improve overall survival or SS in drug-induced, indeterminate, or autoimmune ALF and were associated with lower survival in patients with the highest MELD scores. © 2013 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Liver Transplantation for Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Douglas G.; Anselmo, Dean M.; Ghobrial, R. Mark; Yersiz, Hasan; McDiarmid, Suzanne V.; Cao, Carlos; Weaver, Michael; Figueroa, Jesus; Khan, Khurram; Vargas, Jorge; Saab, Sammy; Han, Steven; Durazo, Francisco; Goldstein, Leonard; Holt, Curtis; Busuttil, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To analyze outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) with emphasis on pretransplant variables that can potentially help predict posttransplant outcome. Summary Background Data FHF is a formidable clinical problem associated with a high mortality rate. While LT is the treatment of choice for irreversible FHF, few investigations have examined pretransplant variables that can potentially predict outcome after LT. Methods A retrospective review was undertaken of all patients undergoing LT for FHF at a single transplant center. The median follow-up was 41 months. Thirty-five variables were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis to determine their impact on patient and graft survival. Results Two hundred four patients (60% female, median age 20.2 years) required urgent LT for FHF. Before LT, the majority of patients were comatose (76%), on hemodialysis (16%), and ICU-bound. The 1- and 5-year survival rates were 73% and 67% (patient) and 63% and 57% (graft). The primary cause of patient death was sepsis, and the primary cause of graft failure was primary graft nonfunction. Univariate analysis of pre-LT variables revealed that 19 variables predicted survival. From these results, multivariate analysis determined that the serum creatinine was the single most important prognosticator of patient survival. Conclusions This study, representing one of the largest published series on LT for FHF, demonstrates a long-term survival of nearly 70% and develops a clinically applicable and readily measurable set of pretransplant factors that determine posttransplant outcome. PMID:12724633

  2. Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Kesavarapu, Keerthana; Kang, Mitchell; Shin, Jaewook James; Rothstein, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of acute fulminant liver failure from a liver detoxification tea. We present a 60-year-old female with weakness, lethargy, scleral icterus, jaundice, and worsening mental status. She drank herbal tea three times a day for 14 days prior to symptom development. Liver tests were elevated. Remaining laboratory tests and imaging were negative for other etiologies. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy showed submassive necrosis. A literature search on the ingredients shows six ingredients as having hepatotoxic effects and remaining ingredients as having very sparse hepatoprotective data. Healthcare professionals should discuss herbal medication and tea use and report adverse effects.

  3. Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mitchell; Shin, Jaewook James; Rothstein, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of acute fulminant liver failure from a liver detoxification tea. We present a 60-year-old female with weakness, lethargy, scleral icterus, jaundice, and worsening mental status. She drank herbal tea three times a day for 14 days prior to symptom development. Liver tests were elevated. Remaining laboratory tests and imaging were negative for other etiologies. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy showed submassive necrosis. A literature search on the ingredients shows six ingredients as having hepatotoxic effects and remaining ingredients as having very sparse hepatoprotective data. Healthcare professionals should discuss herbal medication and tea use and report adverse effects. PMID:29204300

  4. Impact of liver volume and liver function on posthepatectomy liver failure after portal vein embolization- A multivariable cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Alizai, Patrick H; Haelsig, Annabel; Bruners, Philipp; Ulmer, Florian; Klink, Christian D; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Neumann, Ulf P; Schmeding, Maximilian

    2018-01-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening complication after liver resection, and is difficult to predict preoperatively. This retrospective cohort study evaluated different preoperative factors in regard to their impact on posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) after extended liver resection and previous portal vein embolization (PVE). Patient characteristics, liver function and liver volumes of patients undergoing PVE and subsequent liver resection were analyzed. Liver function was determined by the LiMAx test (enzymatic capacity of cytochrome P450 1A2). Factors associated with the primary end point PHLF (according to ISGLS definition) were identified through multivariable analysis. Secondary end points were 30-day mortality and morbidity. 95 patients received PVE, of which 64 patients underwent major liver resection. PHLF occurred in 7 patients (11%). Calculated postoperative liver function was significantly lower in patients with PHLF than in patients without PHLF (67 vs. 109 μg/kg/h; p = 0.01). Other factors associated with PHLF by univariable analysis were age, future liver remnant, MELD score, ASA score, renal insufficiency and heart insufficiency. By multivariable analysis, future liver remnant was the only factor significantly associated with PHLF (p = 0.03). Mortality and morbidity rates were 4.7% and 29.7% respectively. Future liver remnant is the only preoperative factor with a significant impact on PHLF. Assessment of preoperative liver function may additionally help identify patients at risk for PHLF.

  5. Point-shear wave elastography predicts liver hypertrophy after portal vein embolization and postoperative liver failure.

    PubMed

    Hocquelet, A; Frulio, N; Gallo, G; Laurent, C; Papadopoulos, P; Salut, C; Denys, A; Trillaud, H

    2018-06-01

    To correlate point-shear wave elastography (SWE) with liver hypertrophy after right portal vein embolization (RPVE) and to determine its usefulness in predicting postoperative liver failure in patients undergoing partial liver resection. Point-SWE was performed the day before RPVE in 56 patients (41 men) with a median age of 66 years. The percentage (%) of future remnant liver (FRL) volume increase was defined as: %FRL post -%FRL pre %FRL pre ×100 and assessed on computed tomography performed 4 weeks after RPVE. Median (range) %FRL pre and %FRL post was respectively, 31.5% (12-48%) and 41% (23-61%) (P<0.001), with a median %FRL volume increase of 25.6% (-8; 123%). SWE correlated with %FRL volume increase (P=-0.510; P<0.001). SWV (P=0.003) and %FRL pre (P<0.001) were associated with %FRL volume increase at multivariate regression analysis. Forty-three patients (77%) were operated. Postoperative liver failure occurred in 14 patients (32.5%). Median SWE was different between the group with (1.68m/s) and without liver failure (1.07m/s) (P=0.018). The AUROC of SWE predicting liver failure was 0.724 with a best cut-off of 1.31m/s, corresponding to a sensitivity of 21%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value 75% and negative predictive value of 72%. SWE was the single independent preoperative variable associated with liver failure. SWE assessed by point-SWE is a simple and useful tool to predict the FRL volume increase and postoperative liver failure in a population of patients with liver tumor. Copyright © 2018 Société française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure : Comparing Guidelines on the Prediction of Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Umeda, Yuzo; Takaki, Akinobu; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryuichi; Nobuoka, Daisuke; Kuise, Takashi; Takagi, Kosei; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Takahito; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Determining the indications for and timing of liver transplantation (LT) for acute liver failure (ALF) is essential. The King's College Hospital (KCH) guidelines and Japanese guidelines are used to predict the need for LT and the outcomes in ALF. These guidelines' accuracy when applied to ALF in different regional and etiological backgrounds may differ. Here we compared the accuracy of new (2010) Japanese guidelines that use a simple scoring system with the 1996 Japanese guidelines and the KCH criteria for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We retrospectively analyzed 24 adult ALF patients (18 acute type, 6 sub-acute type) who underwent LDLT in 1998-2009 at our institution. We assessed the accuracies of the 3 guidelines' criteria for ALF. The overall 1-year survival rate was 87.5%. The new and previous Japanese guidelines were superior to the KCH criteria for accurately predicting LT for acute-type ALF (72% vs. 17%). The new Japanese guidelines could identify 13 acute-type ALF patients for LT, based on the timing of encephalopathy onset. Using the previous Japanese guidelines, although the same 13 acute-type ALF patients (72%) had indications for LT, only 4 patients were indicated at the 1st step, and it took an additional 5 days to decide the indication at the 2nd step in the other 9 cases. Our findings showed that the new Japanese guidelines can predict the indications for LT and provide a reliable alternative to the previous Japanese and KCH guidelines.

  7. Liver failure posthepatectomy and biliary fistula: multidisciplinar treatment.

    PubMed

    Calleja Kempin, Javier; Colón Rodríguez, Arturo; Machado Liendo, Pedro; Acevedo, Agustín; Martín Gil, Jorge; Sánchez Rodríguez, Teresa; Zorrilla Matilla, Laura

    2016-05-01

    The main cause of morbimor-mortality after major liver surgery is the development of liver failure posthepatectomy(LFPH). Treatment must involve multiple options and will be aggressive from the beginning. We report a case of a patient with cholangiocarcinoma perihilar treated with surgery: right hepatectomy extended to sI + IVb with develop of LFPH and biliary fistula and being management successfully in a multidisciplinary way.

  8. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure

    SciTech Connect

    Maes, Michaël; Vinken, Mathieu, E-mail: mvinken@vub.ac.be; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    Acute liver failure can be the consequence of various etiologies, with most cases arising from drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Western countries. Despite advances in this field, the management of acute liver failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. The availability of adequate experimental models is of crucial importance to provide a better understanding of this condition and to allow identification of novel drug targets, testing the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions and acting as models for assessing mechanisms of toxicity. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure rely on surgical procedures, chemical exposuremore » or viral infection. Each of these models has a number of strengths and weaknesses. This paper specifically reviews commonly used chemical in vivo and in vitro models of hepatotoxicity associated with acute liver failure. - Highlights: • The murine APAP model is very close to what is observed in patients. • The Gal/ET model is useful to study TNFα-mediated apoptotic signaling mechanisms. • Fas receptor activation is an effective model of apoptosis and secondary necrosis. • The ConA model is a relevant model of auto-immune hepatitis and viral hepatitis. • Multiple time point evaluation needed in experimental models of acute liver injury.« less

  9. Acute-on-chronic liver failure: an update

    PubMed Central

    Solà, Elsa; Moreau, Richard; Ginès, Pere

    2017-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome characterised by acute decompensation of chronic liver disease associated with organ failures and high short-term mortality. Alcohol and chronic viral hepatitis are the most common underlying liver diseases. Up to 40%–50% of the cases of ACLF have no identifiable trigger; in the remaining patients, sepsis, active alcoholism and relapse of chronic viral hepatitis are the most common reported precipitating factors. An excessive systemic inflammatory response seems to play a crucial role in the development of ACLF. Using a liver-adapted sequential organ assessment failure score, it is possible to triage and prognosticate the outcome of patients with ACLF. The course of ACLF is dynamic and changes over the course of hospital admission. Most of the patients will have a clear prognosis between day 3 and 7 of hospital admission and clinical decisions such as evaluation for liver transplant or discussion over goals of care could be tailored using clinical scores. Bioartificial liver support systems, granulocyte-colony stimulating factors or stem-cell transplant are in the horizon of medical care of this patient population; however, data are too premature to implement them as standard of care. PMID:28053053

  10. Acute Liver Failure During Deferasirox Chelation: A Toxicity Worth Considering.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Nathan; Halligan, Katharine; Shur, Natasha; Paige, John; Hickling, Matthew; Nepo, Anne; Weintraub, Lauren

    2017-04-01

    This case report details a unique case of acute, reversible liver failure in a 12-year-old male with sickle cell anemia on chronic transfusion protocol and deferasirox chelation. There is substantial literature documenting deferasirox-induced renal injury, including Fanconi syndrome, but less documentation of hepatic toxicity and few reports of hepatic failure. The case highlights the importance of close monitoring of ferritin, bilirubin, and transaminases for patients on deferasirox.

  11. Elevated troponin I levels in acute liver failure: is myocardial injury an integral part of acute liver failure?

    PubMed

    Parekh, Nimisha K; Hynan, Linda S; De Lemos, James; Lee, William M

    2007-06-01

    Although rare instances of cardiac injury or arrhythmias have been reported in acute liver failure (ALF), overall, the heart is considered to be spared in this condition. Troponin I, a sensitive and specific marker of myocardial injury, may be elevated in patients with sepsis and acute stroke without underlying acute coronary syndrome, indicating unrecognized cardiac injury in these settings. We sought to determine whether subclinical cardiac injury might also occur in acute liver failure. Serum troponin I levels were measured in 187 patients enrolled in the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry, and correlated with clinical variables and outcomes. Diagnoses were representative of the larger group of >1000 patients thus far enrolled and included 80 with acetaminophen-related injury, 26 with viral hepatitis, 19 with ischemic injury, and 62 others. Overall, 74% of patients had elevated troponin I levels (>0.1 ng/ml). Patients with elevated troponin I levels were more likely to have advanced hepatic coma (grades III or IV) or to die (for troponin I levels >0.1 ng/ml, odds ratio 3.88 and 4.69 for advanced coma or death, respectively). In acute liver failure, subclinical myocardial injury appears to occur more commonly than has been recognized, and its pathogenesis in the context of acute liver failure is unclear. Elevated troponin levels are associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Measurement of troponin I levels may be helpful in patients with acute liver failure, to detect unrecognized myocardial damage and as a marker of unfavorable outcome.

  12. Hepatic encephalopathy in acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Guan-Huei

    2015-10-01

    The presence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) within 4 weeks is part of the criteria for defining acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The pathophysiology of HE is complex, and hyperammonemia and cerebral hemodynamic dysfunction appear to be central in the pathogenesis of encephalopathy. Recent data also suggest that inflammatory mediators may have a significant role in modulating the cerebral effect of ammonia. Multiple prospective and retrospective studies have shown that hepatic encephalopathy in ACLF patients is associated with higher mortality, especially in those with grade III-IV encephalopathy, similar to that of acute liver failure (ALF). Although significant cerebral edema detected by CT in ACLF patients appeared to be less common, specialized MRI imaging was able to detect cerebral edema even in low grade HE. Ammonia-focused therapy constitutes the basis of current therapy, as in the treatment of ALF. Emerging treatment strategies focusing on modulating the gut-liver-circulation-brain axis are discussed.

  13. Acute kidney injury in acute liver failure: a review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joanna K; Love, Eleanor; Craig, Darren G; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2013-11-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare and often devastating condition consequent on massive liver cell necrosis that frequently affects young, previously healthy individuals resulting in altered cognitive function, coagulopathy and peripheral vasodilation. These patients frequently develop concurrent acute kidney injury (AKI). This abrupt and sustained decline in renal function, through a number of pathogenic mechanisms such as renal hypoperfusion, direct drug-induced nephrotoxicity or sepsis/systemic inflammatory response contributes to increased morbidity and is strongly associated with a worse prognosis. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology AKI in the context of acute liver failure may be beneficial in a number of areas; the development of new and sensitive biomarkers of renal dysfunction, refining prognosis and organ allocation, and ultimately leading to the development of novel treatment strategies, these issues are discussed in more detail in this expert review.

  14. Albumin Dialysis for Liver Failure: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tsipotis, Evangelos; Shuja, Asim; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2015-09-01

    Albumin dialysis is the best-studied extracorporeal nonbiologic liver support system as a bridge or destination therapy for patients with liver failure awaiting liver transplantation or recovery of liver function. We performed a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of 3 albumin dialysis systems (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and hemodialysis [Prometheus system], and single-pass albumin dialysis) in randomized trials for supportive treatment of liver failure. PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. Two authors independently screened citations and extracted data on patient characteristics, quality of reports, efficacy, and safety end points. Ten trials (7 of MARS and 3 of Prometheus) were identified (620 patients). By meta-analysis, albumin dialysis achieved a net decrease in serum total bilirubin level relative to standard medical therapy of 8.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.6 to -5.4) but not in serum ammonia or bile acids. Albumin dialysis achieved an improvement in hepatic encephalopathy relative to standard medical therapy with a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.08) but had no effect survival with a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.84-1.07). Because of inconsistency in the reporting of adverse events, the safety analysis was limited but did not demonstrate major safety concerns. Use of albumin dialysis as supportive treatment for liver failure is successful at removing albumin-bound molecules, such as bilirubin and at improving hepatic encephalopathy. Additional experience is required to guide its optimal use and address safety concerns. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Machine-Learning Algorithms Predict Graft Failure After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Lawrence; Kankanige, Yamuna; Rubinstein, Benjamin; Jones, Robert; Christophi, Christopher; Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Bailey, James

    2017-04-01

    The ability to predict graft failure or primary nonfunction at liver transplant decision time assists utilization of scarce resource of donor livers, while ensuring that patients who are urgently requiring a liver transplant are prioritized. An index that is derived to predict graft failure using donor and recipient factors, based on local data sets, will be more beneficial in the Australian context. Liver transplant data from the Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, from 2010 to 2013 has been included in the study. The top 15 donor, recipient, and transplant factors influencing the outcome of graft failure within 30 days were selected using a machine learning methodology. An algorithm predicting the outcome of interest was developed using those factors. Donor Risk Index predicts the outcome with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) value of 0.680 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.669-0.690). The combination of the factors used in Donor Risk Index with the model for end-stage liver disease score yields an AUC-ROC of 0.764 (95% CI, 0.756-0.771), whereas survival outcomes after liver transplantation score obtains an AUC-ROC of 0.638 (95% CI, 0.632-0.645). The top 15 donor and recipient characteristics within random forests results in an AUC-ROC of 0.818 (95% CI, 0.812-0.824). Using donor, transplant, and recipient characteristics known at the decision time of a transplant, high accuracy in matching donors and recipients can be achieved, potentially providing assistance with clinical decision making.

  16. How to interpret liver function tests in heart failure patients?

    PubMed

    Çağlı, Kumral; Başar, Fatma Nurcan; Tok, Derya; Turak, Osman; Başar, Ömer

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac hepatopathy has generally been used to describe any liver damage caused by cardiac disorders in the absence of other possible causes of liver damage. Although there is no consensus on the terminology used, cardiac hepatopathy can be examined as congestive hepatopathy (CH) and acute cardiogenic liver injury (ACLI). CH is caused by passive venous congestion of the liver that generally occurs in the setting of chronic cardiac conditions such as chronic HF, constrictive pericarditis, tricuspid regurgitation, or right-sided heart failure (HF) of any cause, and ACLI is most commonly associated with acute cardiocirculatory failure resulting from acute myocardial infarction, acute decompensated HF, or myocarditis. Histologically, CH is characterized by sinusoidal dilation, replacement of hepatocytes with red blood cells extravasating from the sinusoids, and necrosis/apoptosis of zone 3 of the Rappaport acinus, and it could progress to cirrhosis in advanced cases. In ACLI, however, massive necrosis of zone 3 is the main histological finding. Primary laboratory findings of CH are elevated serum cholestasis markers including bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase levels, whereas those of ACLI are a striking elevation in transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Both CH and ACLI have a prognostic value for identifying cardiovascular events and mortality and have some special implications in the management of patients undergoing ventricular assist device implantation or cardiac transplantation. There is no specific treatment for CH or ACLI other than treatment of the underlying cardiac disorder.

  17. Role of the inflammasome in acetaminophen-induced liver injury and acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Woolbright, Benjamin L; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    Drug-induced acute liver failure carries a high morbidity and mortality rate. Acetaminophen overdose is the number one cause of acute liver failure and remains a major problem in Western medicine. Administration of N-acetyl cysteine is an effective antidote when given before the initial rise in toxicity; however, many patients present to the hospital after this stage occurs. As such, treatments which can alleviate late-stage acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure are imperative. While the initial mechanisms of toxicity are well described, a debate has recently occurred in the literature over whether there is a second phase of injury, mediated by inflammatory processes. Critical to this potential inflammatory process is the activation of caspase-1 and interleukin-1β by a molecular complex known as the inflammasome. Several different stimuli for the formation of multiple different inflammasome complexes have been identified. Formation of the NACHT, leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and pyrin (PYD) domains-containing protein 3 (Nalp3) inflammasome in particular, has directly been attributed to late-stage acetaminophen toxicity. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice and man with a particular focus on the role of inflammation and the inflammasome. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CRISPR/Cas9 Technology Targeting Fas Gene Protects Mice From Concanavalin-A Induced Fulminant Hepatic Failure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-Cheng; Liang, Pu-Ping; Wong, Cheuk-Wa; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Huang, Jun-Jiu; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Fu, Wei-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure is a life-threatening disease which occurs in patients without preexisting liver disease. Nowadays, there is no ideal therapeutic tool in the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. Recent studies suggested that a novel technology termed CRISPR/Cas9 may be a promising approach for the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. In this project, we have designed single chimeric guide RNAs specifically targeting the genomic regions of mouse Fas gene. The in vitro and in vivo effects of sgRNAs on the production of Fas protein were examined in cultured mouse cells and in a hydrodynamic injection-based mouse model, respectively. The in vivo delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 could maintain liver homeostasis and protect hepatocytes from Fas-mediated cell apoptosis in the fulminant hepatic failure model. Our study indicates the clinical potential of developing the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a novel therapeutic strategy to rescue Concanavalin-A-induced fulminant hepatic failure in the mouse model. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 530-536, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fulminant liver failure resulting from massive hepatic infarction associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Masato; Mayama, Michinori; Ukai, Mayu; Tano, Sho; Kishigami, Yasuyuki; Oguchi, Hidenori

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic infarction is an extremely rare and fatal complication associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. It can develop into fulminant liver failure, which increases both maternal and neonatal mortality rates. A 34-year-old woman with no remarkable past medical history developed eclampsia after delivery at 40 weeks of gestation. Imaging indicated massive hepatic infarction and rupture followed by cardiac arrest and fulminant liver failure. Despite liver replacement therapy with plasma exchange and continuous hemodiafiltration, the patient gradually deteriorated with persistent bacterial infection until death at 98 days after delivery. The management of fulminant liver failure complicated with HELLP syndrome should be multidisciplinary. Liver transplantation, the only radical treatment for fulminant liver failure, is worth attempting, if applicable. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Outcome of acute liver failure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Schiødt, Frank V; Chung, Raymond T; Schilsky, Michael L; Hay, J Eileen; Christensen, Erik; Lee, William M

    2009-11-01

    Older age is considered a poor prognostic factor in acute liver failure (ALF) and may still be considered a relative contraindication for liver transplantation for ALF. We aimed to evaluate the impact of older age, defined as age > or = 60 years, on outcomes in patients with ALF. One thousand one hundred twenty-six consecutive prospective patients from the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry were studied. The median age was 38 years (range, 15-81 years). One thousand sixteen patients (90.2%) were younger than 60 years (group 1), and 499 (49.1%) of these had acetaminophen-induced ALF; this rate of acetaminophen-induced ALF was significantly higher than that in patients > or = 60 years (group 2; n = 110; 23.6% with acetaminophen-induced ALF, P < 0.001). The overall survival rate was 72.7% in group 1 and 60.0% in group 2 (not significant) for acetaminophen patients and 67.9% in group 1 and 48.2% in group 2 for non-acetaminophen patients (P < 0.001). The spontaneous survival rate (ie, survival without liver transplantation) was 64.9% in group 1 and 60.0% in group 2 (not significant) for acetaminophen patients and 30.8% in group 1 and 24.7% in group 2 for non-acetaminophen patients (P = 0.27). Age was not a significant predictor of spontaneous survival in multiple logistic regression analyses. Group 2 patients were listed for liver transplantation significantly less than group 1 patients. Age was listed as a contraindication for transplantation in 5 patients. In conclusion, in contrast to previous studies, we have demonstrated a relatively good spontaneous survival rate for older patients with ALF when it is corrected for etiology. However, overall survival was better for younger non-acetaminophen patients. Fewer older patients were listed for transplantation.

  1. Outcome of Acute Liver Failure in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Schiødt, Frank V.; Chung, Raymond T.; Schilsky, Michael L.; Hay, J. Eileen; Christensen, Erik; Lee, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Older age is considered a poor prognostic factor in acute liver failure (ALF) and may still be considered a relative contraindication for liver transplantation for ALF. We aimed to evaluate the impact of older age, defined as age ≥ 60 years, on outcomes in patients with ALF. One thousand one hundred twenty-six consecutive prospective patients from the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry were studied. The median age was 38 years (range, 15–81 years). One thousand sixteen patients (90.2%) were younger than 60 years (group 1), and 499 (49.1%) of these had acetaminophen-induced ALF; this rate of acetaminophen-induced ALF was significantly higher than that in patients ≥ 60 years (group 2; n = 110; 23.6% with acetaminophen-induced ALF, P < 0.001). The overall survival rate was 72.7% in group 1 and 60.0% in group 2 (not significant) for acetaminophen patients and 67.9% in group 1 and 48.2% in group 2 for non-acetaminophen patients (P < 0.001). The spontaneous survival rate (ie, survival without liver transplantation) was 64.9% in group 1 and 60.0% in group 2 (not significant) for acetaminophen patients and 30.8% in group 1 and 24.7% in group 2 for non-acetaminophen patients (P = 0.27). Age was not a significant predictor of spontaneous survival in multiple logistic regression analyses. Group 2 patients were listed for liver transplantation significantly less than group 1 patients. Age was listed as a contraindication for transplantation in 5 patients. In conclusion, in contrast to previous studies, we have demonstrated a relatively good spontaneous survival rate for older patients with ALF when it is corrected for etiology. However, overall survival was better for younger non-acetaminophen patients. Fewer older patients were listed for transplantation. PMID:19877205

  2. [Liver Atrophy and Failure Associated with Paclitaxel and Bevacizumab Combination Therapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Mari; Ikeda, Masahiko; Kubo, Shinichiro; Tsukioki, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Shougo

    2016-07-01

    We managed 6 cases of severe liver atrophy and failure associated with paclitaxel and bevacizumab combination therapy (PB therapy)for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. In this case-controlstudy, we examined the records of these 6 patients to investigate past treatment, medication history, and degree of atrophy, and compared their data with that of 67 patients without liver atrophy. The degree of the liver atrophy used SYNAPSE VINCENT®of the image analysis software. The results showed that patients with liver atrophy had a longer pretreatment period than those without liver atrophy(33.5 months vs 15.5 months), and they also experienced a longer median time to treatment failure with PB therapy than other patients(11 months vs 6 months). The ratio of individuals presenting with diffuse liver metastasis among patients with liver metastasis was 80% with liver atrophy, compared to 8% without liver atrophy. The degree of liver atrophy was an average of 67%in terms of volume ratio before/after PB therapy(57-82%). The individualwith the greatest extent of liver atrophy died of liver failure, not as a result of breast cancer progression. The direct causal link between bevacizumab and liver atrophy and failure is unclear, but the individuals in this study had a long previous history of treatment, and diffuse liver metastases may develop in patients undergoing long periods of PB therapy, which may also cause liver atrophy; therefore, the possibility of liver failure should be considered in such cases.

  3. Exertional heat stroke and acute liver failure: a late dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Rodeia, Simão C; Silvestre, Joana; Póvoa, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is defined as a severe elevation of core body temperature along with central nervous system dysfunction. Exertional heat stroke (EHS) with acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare condition. The authors report the case of a 25-year-old man with a history of cognitive enhancers’ intake who developed hyperthermia and neurological impairment while running an outdoor marathon. The patient was cooled and returned to normal body temperature after 6 h. He subsequently developed ALF and was transferred to the intensive care unit. Over-the-counter drug intake may have been related to heat intolerance and contributed to the event. The patient was successfully treated with conservative measures. In the presence of EHS, it is crucial to act promptly with aggressive total body cooling, in order to prevent progression of the clinical syndrome. Liver function must also be monitored, since it can be a late organ dysfunction. PMID:26969359

  4. Epidemiology of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with liver failure: Clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Yang, Meifang; Hu, Jianhua; Zhao, Hong; Li, Lanjuan

    2018-02-01

    Objective Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a severe and often lethal infection. The possible risk factors, clinical presentation, and treatment of patients with simultaneous liver failure and IPA have received little attention in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of IPA in patients with liver failure in an effort to reduce patient mortality. Methods The patients with liver failure (including acute liver failure , sub-acute liver failure , acute-on-chronic liver failure and chronic liver failure) were recruited from 2011 to 2016. The clinical data of these patients were retrieved for the study. Results In total, 1077 patients with liver failure were included in this study. Of the 1077 patients, 53 (4.9%) had IPA. Forty-four (83%) patients with IPA died. Independent risk factors for IPA were male sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.542), hepatorenal syndrome (HR = 2.463), antibiotic use (HR = 4.631), and steroid exposure (HR = 18.615). Conclusions IPA is a fatal complication in patients with liver failure. Male sex, hepatorenal syndrome, antibiotic use, and steroid exposure were independent risk factors for IPA. When patients with liver failure have these risk factors and symptoms of pneumonia such as cough or hemoptysis, clinicians should be cautious about the possibility of IPA.

  5. Endothelial-astrocytic interactions in acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, A R; Norenberg, M D

    2013-06-01

    Brain edema and the subsequent increase in intracranial pressure are major neurological complications of acute liver failure (ALF), and swelling of astrocytes (cytotoxic brain edema) is the most prominent neuropathological abnormality in ALF. Recent studies, however, have suggested the co-existence of cytotoxic and vasogenic mechanisms in the brain edema associated with ALF. This review 1) summarizes the nature of the brain edema in humans and experimental animals with ALF; 2) reviews in vitro studies supporting the presence of cytotoxic brain edema (cell swelling in cultured astrocytes); and 3) documents the role of brain endothelial cells in the development of astrocyte swelling/brain edema in ALF.

  6. Heat stroke leading to acute liver injury & failure: A case series from the Acute Liver Failure Study Group.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian C; Tillman, Holly; Chung, Raymond T; Stravitz, Richard T; Reddy, Rajender; Fontana, Robert J; McGuire, Brendan; Davern, Timothy; Lee, William M

    2017-04-01

    In the United States, nearly 1000 annual cases of heat stroke are reported but the frequency and outcome of severe liver injury in such patients is not well described. The aim of this study was to describe cases of acute liver injury (ALI) or failure (ALF) caused by heat stroke in a large ALF registry. Amongst 2675 consecutive subjects enrolled in a prospective observational cohort of patients with ALI or ALF between January 1998 and April 2015, there were eight subjects with heat stroke. Five patients had ALF and three had ALI. Seven patients developed acute kidney injury, all eight had lactic acidosis and rhabdomyolysis. Six patients underwent cooling treatments, three received N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), three required mechanical ventilation, three required renal replacement therapy, two received vasopressors, one underwent liver transplantation, and two patients died-both within 48 hours of presentation. All cases occurred between May and August, mainly in healthy young men because of excessive exertion. Management of ALI and ALF secondary to heat stroke should focus on cooling protocols and supportive care, with consideration of liver transplantation in refractory patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Acute Liver Failure in Children: The First 348 Patients in The Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Robert H.; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Bucuvalas, John; Alonso, Estella; Sokol, Ronald J.; Narkewicz, Michael R.; Dhawan, Anil; Rosenthal, Philip; Rodriguez-Baez, Norberto; Murray, Karen F.; Horslen, Simon; Martin, Martin G.; Lopez, M. James; Soriano, Humberto; McGuire, Brendan M.; Jonas, Maureen M.; Yazigi, Nada; Shepherd, Ross W.; Schwarz, Kathleen; Lobritto, Steven; Thomas, Daniel W.; Lavine, Joel E.; Karpen, Saul; Ng, Vicky; Kelly, Deirdre; Simonds, Nancy; Hynan, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine short-term outcome for children with acute liver failure (ALF) as it relates to etiology, clinical status, patient demographics and to determine prognostic factors. Study design A prospective, multi-center case study collecting demographic, clinical, laboratory and short-term outcome data on children from birth to 18 years with ALF. Patients without encephalopathy were included if the prothrombin time and INR remained ≥ 20 seconds and/or >2, respectively, despite vitamin K. Primary outcome measures three weeks after study entry were death, death after transplant, alive with native liver, alive with transplanted organ. Results The etiology of ALF in 348 children included acute acetaminophen toxicity (14%), metabolic disease (10%), autoimmune liver disease (6%), non-APAP drug-related hepatotoxicity (5%), infections (6%), other diagnosed conditions (10%); 49% were indeterminate. Outcome varied between patient sub-groups; 20% with non-acetaminophen ALF died or underwent liver transplantation and never developed clinical encephalopathy. Conclusions Etiologies of ALF in children differ from adults. Clinical encephalopathy may not be present in children. The high percentage of indeterminate cases provides an opportunity for investigation. PMID:16737880

  8. Antithrombin III is associated with acute liver failure in patients with end-stage heart failure undergoing mechanical circulatory support.

    PubMed

    Hoefer, Judith; Ulmer, Hanno; Kilo, Juliane; Margreiter, Raimund; Grimm, Michael; Mair, Peter; Ruttmann, Elfriede

    2017-06-01

    There are few data on the role of liver dysfunction in patients with end-stage heart failure supported by mechanical circulatory support. The aim of our study was to investigate predictors for acute liver failure in patients with end-stage heart failure undergoing mechanical circulatory support. A consecutive 164 patients with heart failure with New York Heart Association class IV undergoing mechanical circulatory support were investigated for acute liver failure using the King's College criteria. Clinical characteristics of heart failure together with hemodynamic and laboratory values were analyzed by logistic regression. A total of 45 patients (27.4%) with heart failure developed subsequent acute liver failure with a hospital mortality of 88.9%. Duration of heart failure, cause, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, use of vasopressors, central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary pulsatility index, cardiac index, and transaminases were not significantly associated with acute liver failure. Repeated decompensation, atrial fibrillation (P < .001) and the use of inotropes (P = .007), mean arterial (P = .005) and pulmonary pressures (P = .042), cholinesterase, international normalized ratio, bilirubin, lactate, and pH (P < .001) were predictive of acute liver failure in univariate analysis only. In multivariable analysis, decreased antithrombin III was the strongest single measurement indicating acute liver failure (relative risk per %, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.93; P = .001) and remained an independent predictor when adjustment for the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was performed (relative risk per %, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.99; P = .031). Antithrombin III less than 59.5% was identified as a cutoff value to predict acute liver failure with a corresponding sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 87%. In addition to the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, decreased antithrombin III activity tends

  9. Stem Cells Transplantation in the Treatment of Patients with Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ya-Chao; Wang, Meng-Lan; Chen, En-Qiang; Tang, Hong

    2018-02-23

    Liver failure is a life-threatening liver disease encompassing severe acute deterioration of liver function. Emergency liver transplantation is the only curative treatment for liver failure, but is restricted by the severe shortage of organ donors. Stem cell, including embroyonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells and hepatic progenitor cells, have capacity to proliferate and differentiate and could be used in a variety of liver diseases including hereditary liver diseases, cirrhosis and liver failure. We summarized the basic experimental and clinical advances of stem cell transplantation in liver failure treatment, and also discussed the advantages and disadvantage of different stem cells subtype in this field, aiming to provide a perspective on the stem cell-based therapy for liver failure. Stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells (mainly low immunogenicity and paracrine characteristics) and induced pluripotent stem cells (generation of desired cell type from somatic cell), are feasible candidates for cell therapy in the treatment of liver failure, but there are some drawbacks remaining to be resolved, such as low engraftment, cryotpreservation methods and tumorigenesis. Stem cell transplantation is a promising but challenging strategy and paves a new way for curing liver failure. But more efforts need to be made to overcome problems before this new strategy could be safely and effectively applied to humans. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Bacterial Infections in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingling; Wu, Tianzhou; Li, Jiang; Li, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a newly recognized clinical syndrome characterized by preexisting chronic liver disease or cirrhosis with organ failure and high 28-day mortality (50-90%). Bacterial infections (BIs) play pivotal roles in the development and progression of ACLF either as a main precipitating event or a specific complication. The main organisms isolated as triggering ACLF are Gram-positive bacteria, followed by Gram-negative bacteria. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections are prevalent infections that trigger and complicate ACLF. Despite appropriate antibiotic treatment, BIs account for poor ACLF outcomes and lead to a worse clinical course and higher intensive care unit admission and short-term mortality. Early diagnosis and novel nonantibiotic methods are highly important for managing BIs. Thus, this review focuses on the epidemiology, prognosis, and diagnosis of and management strategies for BIs in ACLF patients as well as the relationship between BIs and ACLF. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Pathophysiology of cerebral oedema in acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Scott, Teresa R; Kronsten, Victoria T; Hughes, Robin D; Shawcross, Debbie L

    2013-12-28

    Cerebral oedema is a devastating consequence of acute liver failure (ALF) and may be associated with the development of intracranial hypertension and death. In ALF, some patients may develop cerebral oedema and increased intracranial pressure but progression to life-threatening intracranial hypertension is less frequent than previously described, complicating less than one third of cases who have proceeded to coma since the advent of improved clinical care. The rapid onset of encephalopathy may be dramatic with the development of asterixis, delirium, seizures and coma. Cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema mechanisms have been implicated with a preponderance of experimental data favouring a cytotoxic mechanism. Astrocyte swelling is the most consistent neuropathological finding in humans with ALF and ammonia plays a definitive role in the development of cytotoxic brain oedema. The mechanism(s) by which ammonia induces astrocyte swelling remains unclear but glutamine accumulation within astrocytes has led to the osmolyte hypothesis. Current evidence also supports an alternate 'Trojan horse' hypothesis, with glutamine as a carrier of ammonia into mitochondria, where its accumulation results in oxidative stress, energy failure and ultimately astrocyte swelling. Although a complete breakdown of the blood-brain barrier is not evident in human ALF, increased permeation to water and other small molecules such as ammonia has been demonstrated resulting from subtle alterations in the protein composition of paracellular tight junctions. At present, there is no fully efficacious therapy for cerebral oedema other than liver transplantation and this reflects our incomplete knowledge of the precise mechanisms underlying this process which remain largely unknown.

  12. Anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy underlying acute liver failure in a young bodybuilder.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Miguel; Valente, Ana; Maldonado, Rosário; Palma, Rui; Glória, Helena; Nóbrega, João; Alexandrino, Paula

    2009-06-21

    Heart failure may lead to subclinical circulatory disturbances and remain an unrecognized cause of ischemic liver injury. We present the case of a previously healthy 40-year-old bodybuilder, referred to our Intensive-Care Unit of Hepatology for treatment of severe acute liver failure, with the suspicion of toxic hepatitis associated with anabolic steroid abuse. Despite the absence of symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at admission, an anabolic steroid-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with a large thrombus in both ventricles was found to be the underlying cause of the liver injury. Treatment for the initially unrecognized heart failure rapidly restored liver function to normal. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of severe acute liver failure due to an unrecognized anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy. Awareness of this unique presentation will allow for prompt treatment of this potentially fatal cause of liver failure.

  13. Salidroside mediates apoptosis and autophagy inhibition in concanavalin A-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiao; Niu, Peiqin; Chen, Kan; Wu, Liwei; Liu, Tong; Xu, Shizan; Li, Jingjing; Li, Sainan; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Ning; Xu, Ling; Wang, Fan; Dai, Weiqi; Xia, Yujing; Fan, Xiaoming; Guo, Chuanyong

    2018-01-01

    Salidroside (Sal) is a glycoside extract from Rhodiola rosea L. with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and cardioprotective properties. The present study explored the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of Sal on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury in mice. Balb/C mice were divided into five groups: Normal control (injected with normal saline), ConA (25 mg/kg), Sal (10 mg/kg) +ConA, Sal (20 mg/kg) + ConA (Sal injected 2 h prior to ConA injection) and Sal (20 mg/kg) only. The serum levels of liver enzymes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis- and autophagy-associated marker proteins were determined at 2, 8 and 24 h after ConA injection. LY294002 was further used to verify whether the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway was activated. Primary hepatocytes were isolated to verify the effect of Sal in vitro. The results indicated that Sal was a safe agent to reduce pathological damage and serum liver enzymes in ConA-induced liver injury. Sal suppressed inflammatory reactions in serum and liver tissues, and activated the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to inhibit apoptosis and autophagy in vivo and in vitro, which could be reversed by LY294002. In conclusion, Sal attenuated ConA-induced liver injury by modulating PI3K/Akt pathway-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in mice.

  14. Autoimmune acute liver failure: proposed clinical and histological criteria.

    PubMed

    Stravitz, R Todd; Lefkowitch, Jay H; Fontana, Robert J; Gershwin, M Eric; Leung, Patrick S C; Sterling, Richard K; Manns, Michael P; Norman, Gary L; Lee, William M

    2011-02-01

    Identifying autoimmune hepatitis as the etiology of acute liver failure (ALF) is potentially important, because administering corticosteroids might avoid the need for liver transplantation. However, clinical and histological criteria of autoimmune ALF (AI-ALF) have not been defined. Liver sections (biopsies and explants) from a 72-patient subset of the ALF Study Group Registry with indeterminate ALF were reviewed by a pathologist blinded to all clinical data and were diagnosed with probable AI-ALF based on four features suggestive of an autoimmune pathogenesis: distinctive patterns of massive hepatic necrosis (present in 42% of sections), presence of lymphoid follicles (32%), a plasma cell-enriched inflammatory infiltrate (63%), and central perivenulitis (65%). Forty-two sections (58%) were considered probable for AI-ALF; this group demonstrated higher serum globulins (3.7 ± 0.2 g/dL versus 3.0 ± 0.2 g/dL; P = 0.037) and a higher prevalence of antinuclear and/or anti-smooth muscle antibodies (73% versus 48%; P = 0.034) compared to those without histology suggestive of probable AI-ALF. Thirty patients concordant for autoantibodies and probable AI-ALF upon histological analysis were more likely to have the classical autoimmune hepatitis phenotype (female predominance [72% versus 48%; P < 0.05], higher globulins [3.9 ± 0.2 g/dL versus 3.0 ± 0.2 g/dL; P < 0.005], and higher incidence of chronic hepatitis in long-term follow-up [67% versus 17%, P = 0.019]) compared to the population without concordant AI-ALF histology and autoantibodies. Patients with indeterminate ALF often have features of autoimmune disease by histological analysis, serological testing, and clinical recurrence during follow-up. In contrast to classical autoimmune hepatitis, histological features of AI-ALF predominate in the centrilobular zone. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Can Patients Who Develop Cerebral Death in Fulminant Liver Failure Despite Liver Transplantation Be Previously Forseen?

    PubMed

    Sarici, K B; Karakas, S; Otan, E; Ince, V; Koc, C; Koc, S; Bayraktar, H; Aydin, C; Kayaalp, C; Gungor, S; Kablan, Y; Yilmaz, S

    2017-04-01

    The outcome of medical treatment is worse in fulminant liver failure (FLF) developing on acute or chronic ground. Recently, liver transplantations with the use of living and cadaveric donors have been performed in these diseases and good results obtained. In this study, we aimed to present the factors affecting the recovery of cerebral functions after liver transplantation in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) developing in FLF, to identify irreversible patient groups and to prevent unnecessary liver transplantation. In Inonu University's Liver Transplant Institute, 69 patients who made an emergency notice to the National Coordination Center for liver transplantation owing to FLF from January 2012 to December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 52 patients who underwent liver transplantation and recovered normal brain function, and group 2 had 17 patients who underwent liver transplantation and did not recover normal brain function and had cerebral death. All patients were evaluated before surgery for clinical encephalopathy stage, light reflex, and convulsions. Groups were compared and assessed according to age (>40, 10-40 and <10 years), body mass index, etiologic factor, preoperative laboratory values, transplantation type, mortality, and encephalopathy level. Multivariate analysis was done for specific parameters. Prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), and total bilirubin values were significantly different between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding ammonia and lactate levels. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding sodium and potassium levels from serum electrolytes. However, the averages of both groups were within normal limits. pH and total bilirubin levels were meaningful for multivariate analysis. HE reversibility, mortality, and morbidity are important in patients with HE who undergo liver

  16. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and lactate dehydrogenase are targets for therapy of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Ferriero, Rosa; Nusco, Edoardo; De Cegli, Rossella; Carissimo, Annamaria; Manco, Giuseppe; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2018-03-24

    Acute liver failure is a rapidly progressive deterioration of hepatic function resulting in high mortality and morbidity. Metabolic enzymes can translocate to the nucleus to regulate histone acetylation and gene expression. Levels and activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in nuclear fractions of livers of mice exposed to various hepatotoxins including CD95-antibody, α-amanitin, and acetaminophen. Whole-genome gene expression profiling by RNA-seq was performed in livers of mice with acute liver failure and analyzed by gene ontology enrichment analysis. Cell viability was evaluated in cell lines knocked-down for PDHA1 or LDH-A and in cells incubated with the LDH inhibitor galloflavin after treatment with CD95-antibody. We evaluated whether the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol or galloflavin could reduce liver damage in mice with acute liver failure. Levels and activities of PDHC and LDH were increased in nuclear fractions of livers of mice with acute liver failure. The increase of nuclear PDHC and LDH was associated with increased concentrations of acetyl-CoA and lactate in nuclear fractions, and histone H3 hyper-acetylation. Gene expression in livers of mice with acute liver failure suggested that increased histone H3 acetylation induces the expression of genes related to damage response. Reduced histone acetylation by the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol decreased liver damage and improved survival in mice with acute liver failure. Knock-down of PDHC or LDH improved viability in cells exposed to a pro-apoptotic stimulus. Treatment with the LDH inhibitor galloflavin that was also found to inhibit PDHC, reduced hepatic necrosis, apoptosis, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice with acute liver failure. Mice treated with galloflavin also showed a dose-response increase in survival. PDHC and LDH translocate to the nucleus, leading to increased nuclear concentrations of

  17. Contribution of Transjugular Liver Biopsy in Patients with the Clinical Presentation of Acute Liver Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Luca, Angelo; Gruttadauria, Salvatore

    2006-12-15

    Purpose. Acute liver failure (ALF) treated with conservative therapy has a poor prognosis, although individual survival varies greatly. In these patients, the eligibility for liver transplantation must be quickly decided. The aim of this study was to assess the role of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) in the management of patients with the clinical presentation of ALF. Methods. Seventeen patients with the clinical presentation of ALF were referred to our institution during a 52 month period. A TJLB was performed using the Cook Quick-Core needle biopsy. Clinical data, procedural complications, and histologic findings were evaluated. Results. Causes of ALF were virusmore » hepatitis B infection in 7 patients, drug toxicity in 4, mushroom in 1, Wilson's disease in 1, and unknown origin in 4. TJLB was technically successful in all patients without procedure-related complications. Tissue specimens were satisfactory for diagnosis in all cases. In 14 of 17 patients the initial clinical diagnosis was confirmed by TJLB; in 3 patients the initial diagnosis was altered by the presence of unknown cirrhosis. Seven patients with necrosis <60% were successfully treated with medical therapy; 6 patients with submassive or massive necrosis ({>=}85%) were treated with liver transplantation. Four patients died, 3 had cirrhosis, and 1 had submassive necrosis. There was a strict statistical correlation (r = 0.972, p < 0.0001) between the amount of necrosis at the frozen section examination and the necrosis found at routine histologic examination. The average time for TJLB and frozen section examination was 80 min. Conclusion. In patients with the clinical presentation of ALF, submassive or massive liver necrosis and cirrhosis are predictors of poor prognosis. TLJB using an automated device and frozen section examination can be a quick and effective tool in clinical decision-making, especially in deciding patient selection and the best timing for liver transplantation.« less

  18. Liver congestion in heart failure contributes to inappropriately increased serum hepcidin despite anemia.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yukako; Hanawa, Haruo; Jiao, Shuang; Hayashi, Yuka; Yoshida, Kaori; Suzuki, Tomoyasu; Kashimura, Takeshi; Obata, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Komei; Watanabe, Tohru; Minamino, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin is a key regulator of mammalian iron metabolism and mainly produced by the liver. Hepcidin excess causes iron deficiency and anemia by inhibiting iron absorption from the intestine and iron release from macrophage stores. Anemia is frequently complicated with heart failure. In heart failure patients, the most frequent histologic appearance of liver is congestion. However, it remains unclear whether liver congestion associated with heart failure influences hepcidin production, thereby contributing to anemia and functional iron deficiency. In this study, we investigated this relationship in clinical and basic studies. In clinical studies of consecutive heart failure patients (n = 320), anemia was a common comorbidity (41%). In heart failure patients without active infection and ongoing cancer (n = 30), log-serum hepcidin concentration of patients with liver congestion was higher than those without liver congestion (p = 0.0316). Moreover, in heart failure patients with liver congestion (n = 19), the anemia was associated with the higher serum hepcidin concentrations, which is a type of anemia characterized by induction of hepcidin. Subsequently, we produced a rat model of heart failure with liver congestion by injecting monocrotaline that causes pulmonary hypertension. The monocrotaline-treated rats displayed liver congestion with increase of hepcidin expression at 4 weeks after monocrotaline injection, followed by anemia and functional iron deficiency observed at 5 weeks. We conclude that liver congestion induces hepcidin production, which may result in anemia and functional iron deficiency in some patients with heart failure.

  19. Acute-on-chronic and Decompensated Chronic Liver Failure: Definitions, Epidemiology, and Prognostication.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jody C

    2016-07-01

    Chronic liver disease is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and represents a major burden for the health care community. Cirrhosis is a progressive disease resulting in end-stage liver failure, which in the absence of liver transplantation is fatal. Acute-on-chronic liver failure carries high short-term mortality but is potentially reversible. Viral hepatitis, alcohol, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease remain the principal causes of liver disease. Though treatments exist for hepatitis B and C, they remain unavailable to many with these diseases. This article reviews the epidemiology of advanced liver disease and the concept of acute-on-chronic liver failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Character and temporal evolution of apoptosis in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure*.

    PubMed

    Possamai, Lucia A; McPhail, Mark J W; Quaglia, Alberto; Zingarelli, Valentina; Abeles, R Daniel; Tidswell, Robert; Puthucheary, Zudin; Rawal, Jakirty; Karvellas, Constantine J; Leslie, Elaine M; Hughes, Robin D; Ma, Yun; Jassem, Wayel; Shawcross, Debbie L; Bernal, William; Dharwan, Anil; Heaton, Nigel D; Thursz, Mark; Wendon, Julia A; Mitry, Ragai R; Antoniades, Charalambos G

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the role of hepatocellular and extrahepatic apoptosis during the evolution of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. A prospective observational study in two tertiary liver transplant units. Eighty-eight patients with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure were recruited. Control groups included patients with nonacetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (n = 13), nonhepatic multiple organ failure (n = 28), chronic liver disease (n = 19), and healthy controls (n = 11). Total and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 (M65 and M30) measured at admission and sequentially on days 3, 7, and 10 following admission. Levels were also determined from hepatic vein, portal vein, and systemic arterial blood in seven patients undergoing transplantation. Protein arrays of liver homogenates from patients with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure were assessed for apoptosis-associated proteins, and histological assessment of liver tissue was performed. Admission M30 levels were significantly elevated in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure and non-acetaminophen induced acute liver failure patients compared with multiple organ failure, chronic liver disease, and healthy controls. Admission M30 levels correlated with outcome with area under receiver operating characteristic of 0.755 (0.639-0.885, p < 0.001). Peak levels in patients with acute liver failure were seen at admission then fell significantly but did not normalize over 10 days. A negative gradient of M30 from the portal to hepatic vein was demonstrated in patients with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (p = 0.042) at the time of liver transplant. Analysis of protein array data demonstrated lower apoptosis-associated protein and higher catalase concentrations in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure compared with controls (p < 0.05). Explant histological analysis revealed evidence of cellular proliferation with an absence of histological evidence of apoptosis. Hepatocellular apoptosis occurs

  1. Pathophysiology of cerebral oedema in acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Teresa R; Kronsten, Victoria T; Hughes, Robin D; Shawcross, Debbie L

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral oedema is a devastating consequence of acute liver failure (ALF) and may be associated with the development of intracranial hypertension and death. In ALF, some patients may develop cerebral oedema and increased intracranial pressure but progression to life-threatening intracranial hypertension is less frequent than previously described, complicating less than one third of cases who have proceeded to coma since the advent of improved clinical care. The rapid onset of encephalopathy may be dramatic with the development of asterixis, delirium, seizures and coma. Cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema mechanisms have been implicated with a preponderance of experimental data favouring a cytotoxic mechanism. Astrocyte swelling is the most consistent neuropathological finding in humans with ALF and ammonia plays a definitive role in the development of cytotoxic brain oedema. The mechanism(s) by which ammonia induces astrocyte swelling remains unclear but glutamine accumulation within astrocytes has led to the osmolyte hypothesis. Current evidence also supports an alternate ‘Trojan horse’ hypothesis, with glutamine as a carrier of ammonia into mitochondria, where its accumulation results in oxidative stress, energy failure and ultimately astrocyte swelling. Although a complete breakdown of the blood-brain barrier is not evident in human ALF, increased permeation to water and other small molecules such as ammonia has been demonstrated resulting from subtle alterations in the protein composition of paracellular tight junctions. At present, there is no fully efficacious therapy for cerebral oedema other than liver transplantation and this reflects our incomplete knowledge of the precise mechanisms underlying this process which remain largely unknown. PMID:24409052

  2. Liver Failure due to Acute Viral Hepatitis (A-E).

    PubMed

    Manka, Paul; Verheyen, Jens; Gerken, Guido; Canbay, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Viral hepatitis is still one of the key causes of acute liver failure (ALF) in the world. A selective literature search of the PubMed database was conducted, including current studies, reviews, meta-analyses, and guidelines. We obtained an overview of ALF due to viral hepatitis in terms of epidemiology, course, and treatment options. Most fulminant viral courses are reported after infection with hepatitis A, B, and B/D, but not with hepatitis C. Hepatitis E is also known to cause ALF but has not gained much attention in recent years. However, more and more autochthonous hepatitis E virus infections have been recently observed in Europe. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) under immunosuppressive conditions, such as after intensive chemotherapy, is also an increasing problem. For most viral-induced cases of ALF, liver transplantation represented the only therapeutic option in the past. Today, immediate treatment of HBV-induced ALF with nucleotide or nucleoside analogs is well tolerated and beneficially affects the course of the disease. Although numbers in Western European countries are decreasing rapidly, reliable diagnostic screening for hepatitis A-E is necessary to identify the etiology and to determine those most at risk of developing ALF.

  3. Wernicke encephalopathy in a patient with liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pan; Zhao, Yanling; Wei, Zhenman; Chen, Jing; Yan, Lilong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early recognition and diagnosis of Wernicke encephalopathy is pivotal for the prognosis of this medical emergency, especially in patients with liver failure which predisposes individuals to develop hepatic encephalopathy. For these patients, distinguishing between hepatic encephalopathy and Wernicke encephalopathy is a challenge in real-world clinical practice. A male patient with 21-year medical history of liver cirrhosis presented diarrhea and ascites. One month before this visit, he was noted to have poor appetite and progressive fatigue. After admission, although several major symptoms, including diarrhea, ascites, hyponatremia, and hypoproteinemia, were greatly improved through appropriate treatments, his laboratory indicators were not changed much. His appetite was not reversed at discharge. On the 5th day after discharge, the patient suddenly became reluctant to speak and did not remember the recent happenings. Simultaneously, unsteady gait and strabismus occurred. On the basis of clinical manifestations and brain magnetic resonance imaging scan results, the patient was diagnosed as Wernicke encephalopathy and these relative symptoms were resolved after intravenous vitamin B1. To our knowledge, this is the second case report of Wernicke encephalopathy developing in a critically ill cirrhotic patient without hepatocellular carcinoma or operative intervention. Wernicke encephalopathy may be underdiagnosed in these patients and this case raises physicians’ awareness of its possible onset. PMID:27399058

  4. Risk factors for postoperative liver failure after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yoshitaka; Nishida, Minekatsu; Takao, Takashi; Mori, Naohide; Tamesa, Takao; Tangoku, Akira; Oka, Masaaki

    2004-01-01

    Selection of patients for hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma conventionally has been based upon Child-Pugh grading. However, postoperative liver failure after hepatectomy is a major cause of hospital mortality. A new predictor of postoperative liver failure is required. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for postoperative liver failure after hepatectomy. Perioperative risk factors for liver failure after hepatectomy were analyzed in 112 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma Eight of these patients died of liver failure. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate significant independent factors among 17 variables, including the serum alkaline phosphatase ratio (ALPR) on the first day after hepatectomy. ALPR was calculated as the postoperative ALP level divided by the ALP level before surgery. Significant risk factors of postoperative liver failure were ALPR on postoperative day 1 (ALPR1), sex, operative blood loss, and operative procedure. As an indicator of liver failure, the diagnostic accuracy of the ALPR1 was 93.7% when the ALPR was less than 0.4 on the first postoperative day. The ALPR and the serum total bilirubin concentration after hepatectomy were uncorrelated. ALPR1 is a useful predictor of liver failure after hepatectomy.

  5. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MICE LIVER IN DYNAMICS OF CONCANAVALIN A - INDUCED HEPATITIS.

    PubMed

    Pavlovych, S I; Makogon, N V; Grushka, N G; Bryzgina, T M; Janchiy, R I

    The injure of the liver tissue and its infiltration by cells of the innate and adaptive immunity in dynamics of Con A-induced hepatitis in mice was studied. The semiquantitative method of damage rate of microcirculation channel and liver parenchyma was used, leukocyte liver infiltration and cellular composition of infiltrates were investigated also. Primary liver reaction to the Con-A was the inflammatory changes in the vascular bed, followed by disturbances in the parenchyma.The sufficient increasing of leukocyte migration to the liver was revealed. Besides, the neutrophile infiltration was increased first with a maximum at 6 hours of the experiment (63,9 ±4,6%, p<0,001 to the control level) ,and then the lymphocyte infiltration was increased with creation of manycellular lymphocytemacrophage infiltrates (62% at 48 hours comparing to 6 hours of experiment) and sufficient quantity of plasma cells population (4,9%, p<0,05 comparing to 6 hours of experiment). The obtained data gives the base to suggest that the elevated infiltration of liver tissue by leukocytes, particularly by lymphocytes and monocytes, together with necrotic death increasing creats the conditions for effective intracellular interaction and immune response to autoantigenes. This can be the essential pathogenic mechanism of development of autoimmune liver deseases.

  6. [Renal failure in patients with liver transplant: incidence and predisposing factors].

    PubMed

    Gerona, S; Laudano, O; Macías, S; San Román, E; Galdame, O; Torres, O; Sorkin, E; Ciardullo, M; de Santibañes, E; Mastai, R

    1997-01-01

    Renal failure is a common finding in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic value of pre, intra and postoperative factors and severity of renal dysfunction in patients who undergo liver transplantation. Therefore, the records of 38 consecutive adult patients were reviewed. Renal failure was defined arbitrarily as an increase in creatinine (> 1.5 mg/dl) and/or blood urea (> 80 mg/dl). Three patients were excluded of the final analysis (1 acute liver failure and 2 with a survival lower than 72 hs.) Twenty one of the 35 patients has renal failure after orthotopic liver transplantation. Six of these episodes developed early, having occurred within the first 6 days. Late renal impairment occurred in 15 patients within the hospitalization (40 +/- 10 days) (Mean +/- SD). In he overall series, liver function, evaluated by Child-Pugh classification, a higher blood-related requirements and cyclosporine levels were observed more in those who experienced renal failure than those who did not (p < 0.05). Early renal failure was related with preoperative (liver function) and intraoperative (blood requirements) factors and several causes (nephrotoxic drugs and graft failure) other than cyclosporine were present in patients who developed late renal impairment. No mortality. No mortality was associated with renal failure. We conclude that renal failure a) is a common finding after liver transplantation, b) the pathogenesis of this complication is multifactorial and, c) in not related with a poor outcome.

  7. What factors determine the severity of hepatitis A-related acute liver failure?

    PubMed

    Ajmera, V; Xia, G; Vaughan, G; Forbi, J C; Ganova-Raeva, L M; Khudyakov, Y; Opio, C K; Taylor, R; Restrepo, R; Munoz, S; Fontana, R J; Lee, W M

    2011-07-01

    The reason(s) that hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection may progress infrequently to acute liver failure are poorly understood. We examined host and viral factors in 29 consecutive adult patients with HAV-associated acute liver failure enrolled at 10 sites participating in the US ALF Study Group. Eighteen of twenty-four acute liver failure sera were PCR positive while six had no detectable virus. HAV genotype was determined using phylogenetic analysis and the full-length genome sequences of the HAV from a cute liver failure sera were compared to those from self-limited acute HAV cases selected from the CDC database. We found that rates of nucleotide substitution did not vary significantly between the liver failure and non-liver failure cases and there was no significant variation in amino acid sequences between the two groups. Four of 18 HAV isolates were sub-genotype IB, acquired from the same study site over a 3.5-year period. Sub-genotype IB was found more frequently among acute liver failure cases compared to the non-liver failure cases (chi-square test, P < 0.01). At another centre, a mother and her son presented with HAV and liver failure within 1 month of each other. Predictors of spontaneous survival included detectable serum HAV RNA, while age, gender, HAV genotype and nucleotide substitutions were not associated with outcome. The more frequent appearance of rapid viral clearance and its association with poor outcomes in acute liver failure as well as the finding of familial cases imply a possible host genetic predisposition that contributes to a fulminant course. Recurrent cases of the rare sub-genotype IB over several years at a single centre imply a community reservoir of infection and possible increased pathogenicity of certain infrequent viral genotypes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. What factors determine the severity of hepatitis A-related acute liver failure?

    PubMed Central

    Ajmera, V.; Xia, G.; Vaughan, G.; Forbi, J. C.; Ganova-Raeva, L. M.; Khudyakov, Y.; Opio, C. K.; Taylor, R.; Restrepo, R.; Munoz, S.; Fontana, R. J.; Lee, W. M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The reason(s) that hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection may progress infrequently to acute liver failure are poorly understood. We examined host and viral factors in 29 consecutive adult patients with HAV-associated acute liver failure enrolled at 10 sites participating in the US ALF Study Group. Eighteen of twenty-four acute liver failure sera were PCR positive while six had no detectable virus. HAV genotype was determined using phylogenetic analysis and the full-length genome sequences of the HAV from a cute liver failure sera were compared to those from self-limited acute HAV cases selected from the CDC database. We found that rates of nucleotide substitution did not vary significantly between the liver failure and non-liver failure cases and there was no significant variation in amino acid sequences between the two groups. Four of 18 HAV isolates were subgenotype IB, acquired from the same study site over a 3.5-year period. Sub-genotype IB was found more frequently among acute liver failure cases compared to the non-liver failure cases (chi-square test, P < 0.01). At another centre, a mother and her son presented with HAV and liver failure within 1 month of each other. Predictors of spontaneous survival included detectable serum HAV RNA, while age, gender, HAV genotype and nucleotide substitutions were not associated with outcome. The more frequent appearance of rapid viral clearance and its association with poor outcomes in acute liver failure as well as the finding of familial cases imply a possible host genetic predisposition that contributes to a fulminant course. Recurrent cases of the rare subgenotype IB over several years at a single centre imply a community reservoir of infection and possible increased pathogenicity of certain infrequent viral genotypes. PMID:21143345

  9. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  10. Parvovirus B19 induced hepatic failure in an adult requiring liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Krygier, Darin S; Steinbrecher, Urs P; Petric, Martin; Erb, Siegfried R; Chung, Stephen W; Scudamore, Charles H; Buczkowski, Andrzej K; Yoshida, Eric M

    2009-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 induced acute hepatitis and hepatic failure have been previously reported, mainly in children. Very few cases of parvovirus induced hepatic failure have been reported in adults and fewer still have required liver transplantation. We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman who developed fulminant hepatic failure after acute infection with Parvovirus B19 who subsequently underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. This is believed to be the first reported case in the literature in which an adult patient with fulminant hepatic failure associated with acute parvovirus B19 infection and without hematologic abnormalities has been identified prior to undergoing liver transplantation. This case suggests that Parvovirus B19 induced liver disease can affect adults, can occur in the absence of hematologic abnormalities and can be severe enough to require liver transplantation. PMID:19705505

  11. N-Acetylcysteine Use in Non-Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    McPheeters, Chelsey M; VanArsdale, Vanessa M; Weant, Kyle A

    2016-01-01

    This article will review the available evidence related to the management of non-acetaminophen induced acute liver failure with N-acetylcysteine. Randomized controlled trials and a meta-analysis were included in this review. The efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of acute liver failure from causes other than acetaminophen toxicity was evaluated. The efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure is limited to specific patient populations. Patients classified as Coma Grade I or II are more likely to benefit from the use of this agent. The use of N-acetylcysteine is associated with improved transplant-free survival, not overall survival, in adults. N-Acetylcysteine does not improve the overall survival of patients with non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure but may be beneficial in those patients with Coma Grades I-II. Liver transplantation remains the only definitive therapy in advanced disease.

  12. Brain Aquaporin-4 in Experimental Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rama Rao, Kakulavarapu V.; Jayakumar, Arumugam R.; Tong, Xiaoying; Curtis, Kevin M.; Norenberg, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension due to brain edema and associated astrocyte swelling is a potentially lethal complication of acute liver failure (ALF). Mechanisms of edema formation are not well understood but elevated levels of blood and brain ammonia and its byproduct glutamine have been implicated in this process. We examined mRNA and protein expression of the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in cerebral cortex in a rat model of ALF induced by the hepatotoxin thioacetamide. Rats with ALF showed increased AQP4 protein in the plasma membrane (PM). Total tissue levels of AQP4 protein and mRNA levels were not altered indicating that increased AQP4 is not transcriptionally mediated but is likely due to a conformational change in the protein, i.e. a more stable anchoring of AQP4 to the PM and/or interference with its degradation. By immunohistochemistry there was an increase in AQP4 immunoreactivity in the PM of perivascular astrocytes in ALF. Rats with ALF showed increased levels of α-syntrophin, a protein involved in the anchoring of AQP4 to perivascular astrocytic end-feet. Increased AQP4 and α-syntrophin levels were inhibited by L-histidine, an inhibitor of glutamine transport into mitochondria, suggesting a role for glutamine in the increase of PM levels of AQP4. These results indicate that increased AQP4 PM levels in perivascular astrocytic end-feet are likely critical to the development of brain edema in ALF. PMID:20720509

  13. ACTION OF VITAMIN E ON EXPERIMENTAL SEVERE ACUTE LIVER FAILURE.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Fabiano Moraes; Schemitt, Elizângela Gonçalves; Colares, Josieli Raskopf; Hartmann, Renata Minuzzo; Morgan-Martins, Maria Isabel; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2017-01-01

    Severe Acute Liver Failure (ALF) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by hepatocyte necrosis, loss of hepatic architecture, and impairment of liver functions. One of the main causes of ALF is hepatotoxicity from chemical agents, which damage hepatocytes and result in increase of reactive oxygen species. The vitamin E isoform is the one with the strongest biological antioxidant activity. To evaluate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E in this ALF model. We used 56 rats (mean weight of 300 g) divided into eight groups, four groups assessed at 24 hours and 4 assessed at 48 hours after induction: control group (CO); Vitamin E (Vit. E); Thioacetamide (TAA) and Thioacetamide + Vitamina E (TAA+Vit.E). Rats were submitted to injections of thioacetamide (400 mg/kg i.p.) at baseline and 8 hours later. Vitamin E (100 mg/kg ip) was administered 30 minutes after the second dose of thioacetamide. The 48-hour group rats received two additional doses of vitamin E (24h and 36h). At 24h or 48 hours after the administration of the first dose of TAA, rats were weighed and anesthetized and their blood sampled for evaluation of liver integrity through enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Liver tissue was sampled for assessment of lipid peroxidation (LPO) by the technique TBARS, antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPx and GST activity, levels of the NO 2 /NO 3 and histology by H&E in two times. The results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and statistically analyzed by ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls, with P <0.05 considered as significant. After treatment with vitamin E, we observed a reduction in liver enzymes AST (U/L) (101.32±19.45 in 24 hours and 97.85±29.65 in 48 hours) related to the TAA group (469.56± 0.69 in 24 hours and 598.23±55.45 in 48 hours) and ALT (U/L) (76.59±8.56 in 24 hours and 68.47±6.49 in 48 hours) compared to the TAA group (312.21±10.23 in 24 hours and 359.15±17.58 in 48 hours). There was

  14. Evaluation of Encapsulated Liver Cell Spheroids in a Fluidised-Bed Bioartificial Liver for Treatment of Ischaemic Acute Liver Failure in Pigs in a Translational Setting

    PubMed Central

    Selden, Clare; Spearman, Catherine Wendy; Kahn, Delawir; Miller, Malcolm; Figaji, Anthony; Erro, Eloy; Bundy, James; Massie, Isobel; Chalmers, Sherri-Ann; Arendse, Hiram; Gautier, Aude; Sharratt, Peter; Fuller, Barry; Hodgson, Humphrey

    2013-01-01

    Liver failure is an increasing problem. Donor-organ shortage results in patients dying before receiving a transplant. Since the liver can regenerate, alternative therapies providing temporary liver-support are sought. A bioartificial-liver would temporarily substitute function in liver failure buying time for liver regeneration/organ-procurement. Our aim: to develop a prototype bioartificial-liver-machine (BAL) comprising a human liver-derived cell-line, cultured to phenotypic competence and deliverable in a clinical setting to sites distant from its preparation. The objective of this study was to determine whether its use would improve functional parameters of liver failure in pigs with acute liver failure, to provide proof-of-principle. HepG2cells encapsulated in alginate-beads, proliferated in a fluidised-bed-bioreactor providing a biomass of 4–6×1010cells, were transported from preparation-laboratory to point-of-use operating theatre (6000miles) under perfluorodecalin at ambient temperature. Irreversible ischaemic liver failure was induced in anaesthetised pigs, after portal-systemic-shunt, by hepatic-artery-ligation. Biochemical parameters, intracranial pressure, and functional-clotting were measured in animals connected in an extracorporeal bioartificial-liver circuit. Efficacy was demonstrated comparing outcomes between animals connected to a circuit containing alginate-encapsulated cells (Cell-bead BAL), and those connected to circuit containing alginate capsules without cells (Empty-bead BAL). Cells of the biomass met regulatory standards for sterility and provenance. All animals developed progressive liver-failure after ischaemia induction. Efficacy of BAL was demonstrated since animals connected to a functional biomass (+ cells) had significantly smaller rises in intracranial pressure, lower ammonia levels, more bilirubin conjugation, improved acidosis and clotting restoration compared to animals connected to the circuit without cells. In the +cell

  15. Antifibrotic mechanism of deferoxamine in concanavalin A induced-liver fibrosis: Impact on interferon therapy.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Samar F; El-Bakly, Wesam M; El-Naga, Reem N; Awad, Azza S; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2015-11-01

    Iron-overload is a well-known factor of hepatotoxicity and liver fibrosis, which found to be a common finding among hepatitis C virus patients and related to interferon resistance. We aimed to elucidate the potential antifibrotic effect of deferoxamine; the main iron chelator, and its additional usefulness to interferon-based therapy in concanavalin A-induced immunological model of liver fibrosis. Rats were treated with deferoxamine and/or pegylated interferon-α for 6 weeks. Hepatotoxicity indices, oxidative stress, inflammatory and liver fibrosis markers were assessed. Concanavalin A induced a significant increase in hepatotoxicity indices and lipid peroxidation accompanied with a significant depletion of total antioxidant capacity, glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity. Besides, it increased CD4(+) T-cells content and the downstream inflammatory cascades, including NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, α-SMA, TGF-β1 and hydroxyproline were increased markedly, which confirmed by histopathology. Treatment with either deferoxamine or pegylated interferon-α alone reduced liver fibrosis markers significantly and improved liver histology. However, some of the hepatotoxicity indices and oxidative stress markers did not improve upon pegylated interferon-α treatment alone, besides the remarkable increase in IL-6. Combination therapy of deferoxamine with pegylated interferon-α further improved all previous markers, ameliorated IL-6 elevation, as well as increased hepcidin expression. In conclusion, our study provides evidences for the potent antifibrotic effects of deferoxamine and the underlying mechanisms that involved attenuating oxidative stress and subsequent inflammatory cascade, as well as the production of profibrogenic factors. Addition of deferoxamine to interferon regimen for HCV patients may offer a promising adjuvant modality to enhance therapeutic response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Imatinib-induced fulminant liver failure in chronic myeloid leukemia: role of liver transplant and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nacif, Lucas Souto; Waisberg, Daniel R; Pinheiro, Rafael Soares; Lima, Fabiana Roberto; Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Andraus, Wellington; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Carneiro

    2018-03-10

    There is a worldwide problem of acute liver failure and mortality associated with remaining on the waiting for a liver transplant. In this study, we highlight results published in recent years by leading transplant centers in evaluating imatinib-induced acute liver failure in chronic myeloid leukemia and follow-up in liver transplantation. A 36-year-old brown-skinned woman (mixed Brazilian race) diagnosed 1 year earlier with chronic myeloid leukemia was started after delivery of a baby and continued for 6 months with imatinib mesylate (selective inhibitor of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase), which induced liver failure. We conducted a literature review using the PubMed database for articles published through September 2017, and we demonstrate a role of liver transplant in this situation for imatinib-induced liver failure. We report previously published results and a successful liver transplant after acute liver failure due to imatinib-induced in chronic myeloid leukemia treatment. We report a case of a successful liver transplant after acute liver failure resulting from imatinib-induced chronic myeloid leukemia treatment. The literature reveals the importance of prompt acute liver failure diagnosis and treatment with liver transplant in selected cases.

  17. Liver transplantation in a patient with rapid onset parkinsonism-dementia complex induced by manganism secondary to liver failure.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, Giorgio; Rogacheski, Enio; Wiederkehr, Júlio César; Khouri, Jussara; Cianfarano, Andréa

    2007-09-01

    Bilateral and symmetric globus-pallidus hyperintensities are observed on T1-weighted MRI in most of the patients with chronic liver failure, due to manganese accumulation. We report a 53-year-old man, with rapid onset parkinsonism-dementia complex associated with accumulation of manganese in the brain, secondary to liver failure. A brain MRI was performed and a high signal on T1-weighted images was seen on globus-pallidus, as well as on T2-weighted images on the hemispheric white-matter. He was referred to a liver-transplantation. The patient passed away on the seventh postoperative day. Our findings support the concept of the toxic effects of manganese on the globus-pallidus. The treatment of this form of parkinsonism is controversial and liver-transplantation should not be considered as first line treatment but as an alternative one.

  18. Serum Procalcitonin in Patients with Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, Takaaki; Koda, Masahiko; Okamoto, Toshiaki; Miyoshi, Kenichi; Matono, Tomomitsu; Oyama, Kenji; Hosho, Keiko; Okano, Jun-ichi; Isomoto, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Background Procalcitonin (PCT) is a known diagnostic marker of bacterial infection. There are no previous reports of PCT concerning acute liver failure (ALF). We evaluated the clinical value of serum PCT levels in patients with ALF. Methods Forty-four patients with acute hepatitis (19 men and 25 women; median age, 40 years; range, 20–79 years) were retrospectively enrolled from January 2001 and June 2015. PCT levels were measured by saved serum samples obtained within 3 days after admission. ALF was defined as prothrombin time (PT) < 40% regardless of hepatic encephalopathy. Results Serum PCT levels were significantly higher in the patients with ALF (n = 16) than in those with non-ALF (n = 28) [0.25 (0.13–2.66) ng/mL vs. 0.165 (0.03–1.08), P = 0.00967]. Creatinine, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin were positively correlated, and PT was negatively correlated with PCT. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.74 for detecting ALF. With a PCT cut-off value of 0.5 ng/mL, the presence of ALF could be demonstrated with low sensitivity (37.5%) and high specificity (96.5%) with high positive (85.7%) and negative (72.9%) predictive value. Multivariate analysis showed that PCT was an independent factor associated with the presence of ALF. The cumulative survival rate was also significantly lower in patients with PCT ≥ 0.5 ng/mL (P = 0.0314), but it was not an independent prognostic factor. Conclusion Serum PCT level was significantly higher in patients with ALF. PMID:28331420

  19. Preoperative Cholangitis and Future Liver Remnant Volume Determine the Risk of Liver Failure in Patients Undergoing Resection for Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Dario; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Aloia, Thomas A; Shindoh, Junichi; Fabio, Forchino; Amisano, Marco; Passot, Guillaume; Ferrero, Alessandro; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The highest mortality rates after liver surgery are reported in patients who undergo resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). In these patients, postoperative death usually follows the development of hepatic insufficiency. We sought to determine the factors associated with postoperative hepatic insufficiency and death due to liver failure in patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCCA. This study included all consecutive patients who underwent hepatectomy with curative intent for HCCA at 2 centers, from 1996 through 2013. Preoperative clinical and operative data were analyzed to identify independent determinants of hepatic insufficiency and liver failure-related death. The study included 133 patients with right or left major (n = 67) or extended (n = 66) hepatectomy. Preoperative biliary drainage was performed in 98 patients and was complicated by cholangitis in 40 cases. In all these patients, cholangitis was controlled before surgery. Major (Dindo III to IV) postoperative complications occurred in 73 patients (55%), with 29 suffering from hepatic insufficiency. Fifteen patients (11%) died within 90 days after surgery, 10 of them from liver failure. On multivariate analysis, predictors of postoperative hepatic insufficiency (all p < 0.05) were preoperative cholangitis (odds ratio [OR] 3.2), future liver remnant (FLR) volume < 30% (OR 3.5), preoperative total bilirubin level >3 mg/dL (OR 4), and albumin level < 3.5 mg/dL (OR 3.3). Only preoperative cholangitis (OR 7.5, p = 0.016) and FLR volume < 30% (OR 7.2, p = 0.019) predicted postoperative liver failure-related death. Preoperative cholangitis and insufficient FLR volume are major determinants of hepatic insufficiency and postoperative liver failure-related death. Given the association between biliary drainage and cholangitis, the preoperative approach to patients with HCCA should be optimized to minimize the risk of cholangitis. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  20. Anesthetic management in pediatric orthotopic liver transplant for fulminant hepatic failure and end-stage liver disease.

    PubMed

    Camkıran, Aynur; Araz, Coşkun; Seyhan Ballı, Sevgi; Torgay, Adnan; Moray, Gökhan; Pirat, Arash; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    We assessed the anesthetic management and short-term morbidity and mortality in pediatrics patients who underwent an orthotopic liver transplant for fulminant hepatic failure or end-stage liver disease in a university hospital. We retrospectively analyzed the records of children who underwent orthotopic liver transplant from May 2002 to May 2012. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: group fulminant hepatic failure (n=22) and group end-stage liver disease (n=19). Perioperative data related to anesthetic management and intraoperative events were collected along with information related to postoperative course and survival to hospital discharge. Mean age and weight for groups fulminant hepatic failure and end-stage liver disease were 8.6 ± 2.7 years and 10.8 ± 3.8 years (P = .04) and 29.2 ± 11.9 kg and 33.7 ± 16.9 kg (P = .46). There were no differences between the groups regarding length of anhepatic phase (65 ± 21 min vs 73 ± 18 min, P = .13) and operation time (9.1 ± 1.6 h vs 9.5 ± 1.8 h, P = .23). When compared with the patients in group fulminant hepatic failure, those in group end-stage liver disease more commonly had a Glasgow Coma score of 7 or less (32% vs 6%, P = .04). Compared with patients in group fulminant hepatic failure, those in group end-stage liver disease were more frequently extubated in the operating room (31.8% versus 89.5% P < .001). Postoperative duration of mechanical ventilation (2.78 ± 4.02 d vs 2.85 ± 10.21 d, P = .05), and the mortality rates at 1 year after orthotopic liver transplant (7.3% vs 0%, P = .09) were similar between the groups. During pediatric orthotopic liver transplant, those children with fulminant hepatic failure require more intraoperative fluids and more frequent perioperative mechanical ventilation than those with end-stage liver disease.

  1. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transfusion Is Safe and Improves Liver Function in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Ruonan; Lin, Hu; Fu, Junliang; Zou, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Aimin; Shi, Jianfei; Chen, Liming; Lv, Sa; He, Weiping; Geng, Hua; Jin, Lei; Liu, Zhenwen

    2012-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe, life-threatening complication, and new and efficient therapeutic strategies for liver failure are urgently needed. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transfusions have been shown to reverse fulminant hepatic failure in mice and to improve liver function in patients with end-stage liver diseases. We assessed the safety and initial efficacy of umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) transfusions for ACLF patients associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A total of 43 ACLF patients were enrolled for this open-labeled and controlled study; 24 patients were treated with UC-MSCs, and 19 patients were treated with saline as controls. UC-MSC therapy was given three times at 4-week intervals. The liver function, adverse events, and survival rates were evaluated during the 48-week or 72-week follow-up period. No significant side effects were observed during the trial. The UC-MSC transfusions significantly increased the survival rates in ACLF patients; reduced the model for end-stage liver disease scores; increased serum albumin, cholinesterase, and prothrombin activity; and increased platelet counts. Serum total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly decreased after the UC-MSC transfusions. UC-MSC transfusions are safe in the clinic and may serve as a novel therapeutic approach for HBV-associated ACLF patients. PMID:23197664

  2. Hepatoprotective Effect of Wedelolactone against Concanavalin A-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingqiong; Ding, Jieying; Zhu, Liping; Chen, Fuxiang; Xu, Lili

    2018-05-08

    Eclipta prostrata L. is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. However, its biological mechanisms remain elusive. The current study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of wedelolactone, a major coumarin ingredient of Eclipta prostrata L., on immune-mediated liver injury. Using the well-established animal model of Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis (CIH), we found that pretreatment of mice with wedelolactone markedly reduced both the serum levels of transaminases and the severity of liver damage. We further investigated the mechanisms of the protective effect of wedelolactone. In mice treated with wedelolactone prior to the induction of CIH, increases of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], interferon (IFN)-[Formula: see text], and interleukin (IL)-6 were dramatically attenuated. Additionally, expressions of the interferon-inducible chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 gene CXCL10 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene ICAM1 were lower in livers of the treated mice. Moreover, wedelolactone-treated CIH mice exhibited reduced leukocyte infiltration and T-cell activation in liver. Furthermore, wedelolactone suppressed the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-[Formula: see text]B), a critical transcriptional factor of the above-mentioned inflammatory cytokines by limiting the phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha (I[Formula: see text]B[Formula: see text] and p65. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the inhibitory potential of wedelolactone in immune-mediated liver injury in vivo, and show that this protection is associated with modulation of the NF-[Formula: see text]B signaling pathway.

  3. Parvovirus B19 Infection in a Fatal Case of Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Alves, Arthur Daniel Rocha; Garcia, Rita de Cássia Nasser Cubel; Melgaço, Juliana Gil; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2017-12-01

    B19V has been proposed as an etiologic agent for hepatitis, mainly in children, but this is a rare clinical occurrence. In this article, we report a case of non-A-E acute liver failure in an immunocompetent child with B19 infection. The clinical findings of severe anemia and pancytopenia combined with the detection of anti-B19 Immunoglobulin G (IgG), B19 DNA and B19 mRNA in liver indicate a persistent infection and suggest a diagnosis of parvovirus B19-associated acute liver failure.

  4. Fulminant Liver Failure in a Child With β-Thalassemia on Deferasirox: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Archie; Rosen, Danya J; Chu, Jaime; Wistinghausen, Birte; Arnon, Ronen

    2017-04-01

    Deferesirox (DFX), an oral chelating agent, is used to treat chronic iron overload in several hematological diseases such as β-thalassemia, sickle cell disease, and myelodysplastic anemia. DFX is generally well tolerated with the exception of gastrointestinal disturbances and rash, although cases of renal toxicity, as well as acute and chronic liver failure, have been reported in adults and children. Here we describe a 3-year-old girl with β-thalassemia undergoing treatment with DFX who presented with acute liver failure and Fanconi's syndrome. It is important for pediatric gastroenterologists, hepatologists, and hematologists to be aware that the commonly used drug DFX can lead to acute liver failure in children, and liver function should be monitored closely in all patients taking DFX.

  5. Artificial and bioartificial liver support: A review of perfusion treatment for hepatic failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Katsutoshi; Tang, Wei; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Liver transplantation and blood purification therapy, including plasmapheresis, hemodiafiltration, and bioartificial liver support, are the available treatments for patients with severe hepatic failure. Bioartificial liver support, in which living liver tissue is used to support hepatic function, has been anticipated as an effective treatment for hepatic failure. The two mainstream systems developed for bioartificial liver support are extracorporeal whole liver perfusion (ECLP) and bioreactor systems. Comparing various types of bioartificial liver in view of function, safety, and operability, we concluded that the best efficacy can be provided by the ECLP system. Moreover, in our subsequent experiments comparing ECLP and apheresis therapy, ECLP offers more ammonia metabolism than HD and HF. In addition, ECLP can compensate amino acid imbalance and can secret bile. A controversial point with ECLP is the procedure is labor intensive, resulting in high costs. However, ECLP has the potential to reduce elevated serum ammonia levels of hepatic coma patients in a short duration. When these problems are solved, bioartificial liver support, especially ECLP, can be adopted as an option in ordinary clinical therapy to treat patients with hepatic failure. PMID:17461442

  6. Porcine model characterizing various parameters assessing the outcome after acetaminophen intoxication induced acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Karolin; Klingert, Wilfried; Klingert, Kathrin; Morgalla, Matthias H; Schuhmann, Martin U; Leckie, Pamela; Sharifi, Yalda; Davies, Nathan A; Jalan, Rajiv; Peter, Andreas; Grasshoff, Christian; Königsrainer, Alfred; Schenk, Martin; Thiel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the changes of hemodynamic and laboratory parameters during the course of acute liver failure following acetaminophen overdose. METHODS Eight pigs underwent a midline laparotomy following jejunal catheter placement for further acetaminophen intoxication and positioning of a portal vein Doppler flow-probe. Acute liver failure was realized by intrajejunal acetaminophen administration in six animals, two animals were sham operated. All animals were invasively monitored and received standardized intensive care support throughout the study. Portal blood flow, hemodynamic and ventilation parameters were continuously recorded. Laboratory parameters were analysed every eight hours. Liver biopsies were sampled every 24 h following intoxication and upon autopsy. RESULTS Acute liver failure (ALF) occurred after 28 ± 5 h resulted in multiple organ failure and death despite maximal support after further 21 ± 1 h (study end). Portal blood flow (baseline 1100 ± 156 mL/min) increased to a maximum flow of 1873 ± 175 mL/min at manifestation of ALF, which was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Immediately after peaking, portal flow declined rapidly to 283 ± 135 mL/min at study end. Thrombocyte values (baseline 307 × 103/µL ± 34 × 103/µL) of intoxicated animals declined slowly to values of 145 × 103/µL ± 46 × 103/µL when liver failure occurred. Subsequent appearance of severe thrombocytopenia in liver failure resulted in values of 11 × 103/µL ± 3 × 103/µL preceding fatality within few hours which was significant (P > 0.01). CONCLUSION Declining portal blood flow and subsequent severe thrombocytopenia after acetaminophen intoxication precede fatality in a porcine acute liver failure model. PMID:28321158

  7. Deficiency of PDK1 in liver results in glucose intolerance, impairment of insulin-regulated gene expression and liver failure

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The liver plays an important role in insulin-regulated glucose homoeostasis. To study the function of the PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1) signalling pathway in mediating insulin's actions in the liver, we employed CRE recombinase/loxP technology to generate L(liver)-PDK1−/− mice, which lack expression of PDK1 in hepatocytes and in which insulin failed to induce activation of PKB in liver. The L-PDK1−/− mice were not insulin-intolerant, possessed normal levels of blood glucose and insulin under normal feeding conditions, but were markedly glucose-intolerant when injected with glucose. The L-PDK1−/− mice also possessed 10-fold lower levels of hepatic glycogen compared with control littermates, and were unable to normalize their blood glucose levels within 2 h after injection of insulin. The glucose intolerance of the L-PDK1−/− mice may be due to an inability of glucose to suppress hepatic glucose output through the gluconeogenic pathway, since the mRNA encoding hepatic PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), G6Pase (glucose-6-phosphatase) and SREBP1 (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein 1), which regulate gluconeogenesis, are no longer controlled by feeding. Furthermore, three other insulin-controlled genes, namely IGFBP1 (insulin-like-growth-factor-binding protein-1), IRS2 (insulin receptor substrate 2) and glucokinase, were regulated abnormally by feeding in the liver of PDK1-deficient mice. Finally, the L-PDK1−/− mice died between 4–16 weeks of age due to liver failure. These results establish that the PDK1 signalling pathway plays an important role in regulating glucose homoeostasis and controlling expression of insulin-regulated genes. They suggest that a deficiency of the PDK1 pathway in the liver could contribute to development of diabetes, as well as to liver failure. PMID:15554902

  8. Recurrent Acute Liver Failure Because of Acute Hepatitis Induced by Organic Solvents: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Ito, Kyoji; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Fujinaga, Hidetaka; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a case of recurrent acute liver failure because of occupational exposure to organic solvents. A 35-year-old man with a 3-week history of worsening jaundice and flu-like symptoms was admitted to our hospital. Viral hepatitis serology and autoimmune factors were negative. The authors considered liver transplantation, but the patient's liver function spontaneously recovered. Liver biopsy revealed massive infiltration of neutrophils, but the cause of the acute hepatitis was not identified. Four months after discharge, the patient's liver function worsened again. The authors considered the possibility of antinuclear antibody-negative autoimmune hepatitis and initiated steroid treatment, which was effective. Four months after discharge, the patient was admitted for repeated liver injury. The authors started him on steroid pulse therapy, but this time it was not effective. Just before the first admission, he had started his own construction company where he was highly exposed to organic solvents, and thus the authors considered organic solvent-induced hepatitis. Although urine test results for organic solvents were negative, a second liver biopsy revealed severe infiltration of neutrophils, compatible with toxic hepatitis. Again, his liver function spontaneously improved. Based on the pathology and detailed clinical course, including the patient's high exposure to organic solvents since just before the first admission, and the spontaneous recovery of his liver damage in the absence of the exposure, he was diagnosed with toxic hepatitis. The authors strongly advised him to avoid organic solvents. Since then, he has been in good health without recurrence. This is the first report of recurrent acute liver failure because of exposure to organic solvents, which was eventually diagnosed through a meticulous medical history and successfully recovered by avoiding the causative agents. In acute liver failure with an undetermined etiology, clinicians should rule

  9. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... fully working livers after a successful transplant. The donor liver is transported in a cooled salt-water (saline) ... Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant Images Donor liver attachment Liver transplant - series References Carrion AF, Martin ...

  10. Acute-on-chronic liver failure: Pathogenesis, prognostic factors and management

    PubMed Central

    Blasco-Algora, Sara; Masegosa-Ataz, José; Gutiérrez-García, María Luisa; Alonso-López, Sonia; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is increasingly recognized as a complex syndrome that is reversible in many cases. It is characterized by an acute deterioration of liver function in the background of a pre-existing chronic liver disease often associated with a high short-term mortality rate. Organ failure (OF) is always associated, and plays a key role in determining the course, and the outcome of the disease. The definition of ACLF remains controversial due to its overall ambiguity, with several disparate criteria among various associations dedicated to the study of liver diseases. Although the precise pathogenesis needs to be clarified, it appears that an altered host response to injury might be a contributing factor caused by immune dysfunction, ultimately leading to a pro-inflammatory status, and eventually to OF. The PIRO concept (Predisposition, Insult, Response and Organ Failure) has been proposed to better approach the underlying mechanisms. It is accepted that ACLF is a different and specific form of liver failure, where a precipitating event is always involved, even though it cannot always be ascertained. According to several studies, infections and active alcoholism often trigger ACLF. Viral hepatitis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, or drug induced liver injury, which can also provoke the syndrome. This review mainly focuses on the physiopathology and prognostic aspects. We believe these features are essential to further understanding and providing the rationale for improveddisease management strategies. PMID:26576097

  11. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called “second pathway of liver regeneration.” The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin. PMID:26136687

  12. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called "second pathway of liver regeneration." The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin.

  13. Drug-induced acute liver failure: results of a U.S. multicenter, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Reuben, Adrian; Koch, David G; Lee, William M

    2010-12-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) due to drug-induced liver injury (DILI), though uncommon, is a concern for both clinicians and patients. The Acute Liver Failure Study Group has prospectively collected cases of all forms of acute liver failure since 1998. We describe here cases of idiosyncratic DILI ALF enrolled during a 10.5-year period. Data were collected prospectively, using detailed case report forms, from 1198 subjects enrolled at 23 sites in the United States, all of which had transplant services. A total of 133 (11.1%) ALF subjects were deemed by expert opinion to have DILI; 81.1% were considered highly likely, 15.0% probable, and 3.8% possible. Subjects were mostly women (70.7%) and there was overrepresentation of minorities for unclear reasons. Over 60 individual agents were implicated, the most common were antimicrobials (46%). Transplant-free (3-week) survival was poor (27.1%), but with highly successful transplantation in 42.1%, overall survival was 66.2%. Transplant-free survival in DILI ALF is determined by the degree of liver dysfunction, specifically baseline levels of bilirubin, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. DILI is an uncommon cause of ALF that evolves slowly, affects a disproportionate number of women and minorities, and shows infrequent spontaneous recovery, but transplantation affords excellent survival. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Molecular adsorbent recirculating system dialysis in patients with acute liver failure who are assessed for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Camus, Christophe; Lavoué, Sylvain; Gacouin, Arnaud; Le Tulzo, Yves; Lorho, Richard; Boudjéma, Karim; Jacquelinet, Christian; Thomas, Rémi

    2006-11-01

    To assess the usefulness of dialysis with the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) in patients with acute liver failure who fulfil criteria for liver transplantation. Observational cohort study. ICU at a liver transplantation centre. Twenty-two patients (23 episodes) received MARS dialysis. They were either listed for LT (n=14), delayed (n=1), or not listed (contra-indication, n=7). A total of 56 MARS treatments (median per patient 2; mean duration 7.6+/-2.6h) were performed on haemodialysis. Clinical and biological variables were assessed before and 24[Symbol: see text]h after MARS therapy. The rate of recovery of liver function without transplantation was compared with an expected rate and survival was analysed. Following MARS dialysis, we observed an improvement in the grade of hepatic encephalopathy (P=0.02) and the Glasgow coma score (P=0.02), a decrease in conjugated bilirubin (P=0.05) and INR (P=0.006), and an increase in prothrombin index (P=0.005). Overall, liver function improved in seven patients (32%): four listed patients in whom transplantation could be avoided and three patients among those not listed due to contra-indications. The transplant-free recovery rate in listed patients was 29% (vs. expected 9%, P=0.036). Listed patients (n=14) had a higher 30-day survival rate [86% (12/14) vs 38% (3/8), P=0.05] and a higher long-term survival rate (P=0.02). A statistically significant improvement of liver function was observed after MARS therapy. Transplant-free recovery was more frequent than expected. The apparent benefit of MARS dialysis to treat acute liver failure needs to be confirmed by a controlled study.

  15. Preoperative Cholangitis and Future Liver Remnant Volume Determine the Risk of Liver Failure in Patients Undergoing Resection for Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, Thomas A; Shindoh, Junichi; Fabio, Forchino; Amisano, Marco; Passot, Guillaume; Ferrero, Alessandro; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest mortality rates after liver surgery are reported in patients who undergo resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). In these patients, postoperative death usually follows the development of hepatic insufficiency. We sought to determine the factors associated with postoperative hepatic insufficiency and death due to liver failure in patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCCA. Study Design This study included all consecutive patients who underwent hepatectomy with curative intent for HCCA at two centers from 1996 through 2013. Preoperative clinical and operative data were analyzed to identify independent determinants of i) hepatic insufficiency and ii) liver failure–related death. Results The study included 133 patients with right or left major (n=67) or extended (n=66) hepatectomy. Preoperative biliary drainage was performed in 98 patients and was complicated by cholangitis in 40 cases. In all these patients, cholangitis was controlled before surgery. Major (Dindo III-IV) postoperative complications occurred in 73 patients (55%), with 29 suffering from hepatic insufficiency. Fifteen patients (11%) died within 90 days after surgery, 10 of them of liver failure. On multivariate analysis, predictors of postoperative hepatic insufficiency (all p<0.05) were preoperative cholangitis (odds ratio [OR]=3.2), future liver remnant (FLR) volume <30% (OR=3.5), preoperative total bilirubin level >3 mg/dl (OR=4), and albumin level <3.5 mg/dl (OR=3.3). Only preoperative cholangitis (OR=7.5, p=.016) and FLR volume <30% (OR=7.2, p=.019) predicted postoperative liver failure–related death. Conclusions Preoperative cholangitis and insufficient FLR volume are major determinants of hepatic insufficiency and postoperative liver failure–related death. Given the association between biliary drainage and cholangitis, the preoperative approach to patients with HCCA should be optimized to minimize the risk of cholangitis. PMID:27049784

  16. Extracorporeal liver assist device to exchange albumin and remove endotoxin in acute liver failure: Results of a pivotal pre-clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Karla C L; Baker, Luisa A; Stanzani, Giacomo; Alibhai, Hatim; Chang, Yu Mei; Jimenez Palacios, Carolina; Leckie, Pamela J; Giordano, Paola; Priestnall, Simon L; Antoine, Daniel J; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Goldring, Christopher E; Park, B Kevin; Andreola, Fausto; Agarwal, Banwari; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P; Davies, Nathan A; Jalan, Rajiv

    2015-09-01

    In acute liver failure, severity of liver injury and clinical progression of disease are in part consequent upon activation of the innate immune system. Endotoxaemia contributes to innate immune system activation and the detoxifying function of albumin, critical to recovery from liver injury, is irreversibly destroyed in acute liver failure. University College London-Liver Dialysis Device is a novel artificial extracorporeal liver assist device, which is used with albumin infusion, to achieve removal and replacement of dysfunctional albumin and reduction in endotoxaemia. We aimed to test the effect of this device on survival in a pig model of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Pigs were randomised to three groups: Acetaminophen plus University College London-Liver Dialysis Device (n=9); Acetaminophen plus Control Device (n=7); and Control plus Control Device (n=4). Device treatment was initiated two h after onset of irreversible acute liver failure. The Liver Dialysis Device resulted in 67% reduced risk of death in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure compared to Control Device (hazard ratio=0.33, p=0.0439). This was associated with 27% decrease in circulating irreversibly oxidised human non-mercaptalbumin-2 throughout treatment (p=0.046); 54% reduction in overall severity of endotoxaemia (p=0.024); delay in development of vasoplegia and acute lung injury; and delay in systemic activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway. Liver Dialysis Device-associated adverse clinical effects were not seen. The survival benefit and lack of adverse effects would support clinical trials of University College London-Liver Dialysis Device in acute liver failure patients. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute Liver Failure from Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonists: Report of Four Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kok, Beverley; Lester, Erica L W; Lee, William M; Hanje, A James; Stravitz, R Todd; Girgis, Safwat; Patel, Vaishali; Peck, Joshua R; Esber, Christopher; Karvellas, Constantine J

    2018-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF-α) have been associated with drug-induced liver injury. However, cases of anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure have only been rarely reported. To identify cases of anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure and evaluate patterns of liver injury and common characteristics to the cases. The United States Acute Liver Failure Study Group database was searched from 1998 to 2014. Four subjects were identified. A PubMed search for articles that reported anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure identified five additional cases. The majority of individuals affected were female (eight of nine cases). Age of individual ranged from 20 to 53 years. The most common anti-TNF-α agent associated with acute liver failure was infliximab (n = 8). The latency between initial drug exposure and acute liver failure ranged from 3 days to over a year. Of the nine cases, six required emergency LT. Liver biopsy was obtained in seven cases with a preponderance toward cholestatic-hepatitic features; none showed clear autoimmune features. Anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure displays somewhat different characteristics compared with anti-TNF-α-induced drug-induced liver injury. Infliximab was implicated in the majority of cases. Cholestatic-hepatitic features were frequently found on pre-transplant and explant histology.

  18. Biallelic Mutations in NBAS Cause Recurrent Acute Liver Failure with Onset in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Haack, Tobias B; Staufner, Christian; Köpke, Marlies G; Straub, Beate K; Kölker, Stefan; Thiel, Christian; Freisinger, Peter; Baric, Ivo; McKiernan, Patrick J; Dikow, Nicola; Harting, Inga; Beisse, Flemming; Burgard, Peter; Kotzaeridou, Urania; Kühr, Joachim; Himbert, Urban; Taylor, Robert W; Distelmaier, Felix; Vockley, Jerry; Ghaloul-Gonzalez, Lina; Zschocke, Johannes; Kremer, Laura S; Graf, Elisabeth; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Bader, Daniel M; Gagneur, Julien; Wieland, Thomas; Terrile, Caterina; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Hoffmann, Georg F; Prokisch, Holger

    2015-07-02

    Acute liver failure (ALF) in infancy and childhood is a life-threatening emergency. Few conditions are known to cause recurrent acute liver failure (RALF), and in about 50% of cases, the underlying molecular cause remains unresolved. Exome sequencing in five unrelated individuals with fever-dependent RALF revealed biallelic mutations in NBAS. Subsequent Sanger sequencing of NBAS in 15 additional unrelated individuals with RALF or ALF identified compound heterozygous mutations in an additional six individuals from five families. Immunoblot analysis of mutant fibroblasts showed reduced protein levels of NBAS and its proposed interaction partner p31, both involved in retrograde transport between endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. We recommend NBAS analysis in individuals with acute infantile liver failure, especially if triggered by fever. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Temporary metabolic support by extracorporeal blood therapy for liver failure after surgery.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, S; Okabe, K; Ouchi, K; Sato, T; Matsuno, S

    1988-01-01

    With the aim of temporarily assisting deterioration of liver function developing after surgery, extracorporeal blood purification therapy (EBPT) (plasma exchange and/or hemofiltration) was carried out in 26 postoperative patients. Initiation of EBPT was instituted according to the criteria of either a serum bilirubin greater than 15 mg/dl or Grade 2 or more coma. Plasma exchange was carried out 235 times in 23 patients and hemofiltration was performed 28 times for seven patients. In addition, hemodialysis and CAPD were linked in eight cases. Plasma exchange was found to control the progression of DIC and endotoxemia. Nine patients (35%) were weaned from EBPT. In the survivors the levels of blood ammonia and number of major complications were significantly lower compared to the nonsurvivors. Three patients treated only with hemofiltration were all lost. Among co-morbid factors present, incidences of renal failure, respiratory failure, and associated liver cirrhosis significantly increased poor clinical outcome on EBPT for postoperative liver failure.

  20. Plumbagin protects liver against fulminant hepatic failure and chronic liver fibrosis via inhibiting inflammation and collagen production

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xixi; Yang, Fengrui; Zhang, Qi; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lijuan; Yang, Luhong; Miao, Guolin; Li, Daiqing; Guan, Zhiyu; Da, Yurong; Yao, Zhi; Gao, Fei; Qiao, Liang; Kong, Li; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-01-01

    Plumbagin is a quinonoid constituent extracted from Plumbago genus, and it exhibits diverse pharmacological effects. This study thoroughly investigated the effects of plumbagin on thioacetamide-induced acute and chronic liver injury. Results shown that plumbagin increased survival rate, reduced liver congestion and inflammation, and decreased macrophages and neutrophils in the fulminant hepatic failure model, and remarkably diminished liver fibrosis and inflammation in the chronic liver injury model. Furthermore, plumbagin significantly suppress the HSCs/myofibroblasts activation by reduced expression of markers α-SMA and COL-1/3, and reduced macrophage in liver. In the in vitro study, plumbagin induced apoptosis and suppressed the proliferation of LX-2 cells (human HSCs). Plumbagin treatment increased AMPK phosphorylation and attenuated NF-κB, STAT3, and Akt/mTOR signals in LX-2 cells, while SMAD2 phosphorylation was not changed. Noticeably, plumbagin promoted AMPK binding to p300 which is a cofactor of SMAD complex, this may further competitively decreases the p300/SMAD complex initiated transcription of COL-1/3 and α-SMA. Additionally, plumbagin hampered inflammation related NF-κB signal in RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, these findings indicate that plumbagin may be a powerful drug candidate to protect the liver from acute and chronic damage by inhibiting inflammation and collagen production. PMID:27756878

  1. Japanese-style intensive medical care improves prognosis for acute liver failure and the perioperative management of liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Watanabe, T; Maruoka, N; Kuroki, Y; Takahashi, H; Yoshiba, M

    2010-12-01

    The Japanese style of intensive medical care for acute liver failure has yielded high survival rates. The care system comprises artificial liver support (ALS) together with treatment for the underlying disease. Plasma exchange in combination with high-volume hemodiafiltration using an high performance membrane has become the standard ALS system. It is safe, efficiently removing more low and middle molecular weight toxic substances than other methods because of the large volumes of buffer (more than 200 L per session), resulting in recovery from coma in patients with severe fulminant hepatitis, a status comparable with the ahepatic state. This ALS is therefore an effective tool to sustain patients with fulminant hepatitis in a favorable condition until liver function recovers or liver transplantation becomes available. The accompanying treatment for underlying disease serves to limit the liver destruction that hampers regeneration. The treatment has remarkably improved the prognosis for patients with subacute types of fulminant hepatitis, which generally carry a less favorable prognosis than the acute type. This treatment system thus provides more time for physicians to assess the indications for liver transplantation as well as giving the patient a greater chance of undergoing transplantation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Pilot study of levosimendan : Effect on liver blood flow and liver function in acute decompensated heart failure].

    PubMed

    Lenz, K; Gegenhuber, A; Firlinger, F; Lohr, G; Piringer, P

    2014-05-01

    In a pilot study, 9 patients (39-48 years) with acute decompensated heart failure and a cardiac index (CI) of 1.9 ± 0.3 l/min/m(2) were included after exclusion of an underlying hepatic disease. The effect of levosimendan on liver blood flow and liver function was measured with the LiMON(®) system using the indocyane green plasma disappearance rate (ICG PDR). Levosimendan (Simdax(®)) infusion resulted in a significant increase of the CI, thus, achieving normal ranges of 2.9 ± 0.9 l/min/m(2) after 4 h and 3.3 ± 1 l/min/m(2) (p = 0.003) after 24 h. ICG PDR increased from 8.2 ± 0.8 % to 10.2 + 1.8 % after 4 h and to 11.9 ± 2.9 % after 24 h (p = 0.04). The reason for the early increase in systemic blood flow with no concomitant change in ICG PDR is not clear. A primary increase in liver blood flow with sustained low liver function might be one explanation; a low flow-mediated increased release of cytokines from liver cells with consequent deterioration of liver function is another possible explanation.

  3. Fatal subacute liver failure after repeated administration of sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Zizek, David; Ribnikar, Marija; Zizek, Bogomir; Ferlan-Marolt, Vera

    2010-01-01

    Sevoflurane is a widely used halogenated inhalation anaesthetic. In comparison with other similar anaesthetics, it is not metabolized to potentially hepatotoxic trifluoroacetylated proteins. In this case report, we present a 66-year-old woman with breast carcinoma, who underwent sevoflurane general anaesthesia twice in 25 days. Soon after the second elective surgical procedure, jaundice and marked elevations in serum transaminases developed. The patient died 66 days thereafter. Autopsy results denied evidence of major cardiovascular abnormality, and histological examination confirmed massive liver cell necrosis with no feature of chronic liver injury. Sevoflurane anaesthesia was imputed as the cause after exclusion of other possible aetiological agents. Besides, coexistent malignant tumours found in the patient could have modulated the immunological response to the applied anaesthetic followed by fatal consequences.

  4. Acute Rejection Increases Risk of Graft Failure and Death in Recent Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Levitsky, Josh; Goldberg, David; Smith, Abigail R; Mansfield, Sarah A; Gillespie, Brenda W; Merion, Robert M; Lok, Anna S F; Levy, Gary; Kulik, Laura; Abecassis, Michael; Shaked, Abraham

    2017-04-01

    Acute rejection is detrimental to most transplanted solid organs, but is considered to be less of a consequence for transplanted livers. We evaluated risk factors for and outcomes after biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) based on an analysis of a more recent national sample of recipients of liver transplants from living and deceased donors. We analyzed data from the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) from 2003 through 2014 as the exploratory cohort and the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) from 2005 through 2013 as the validation cohort. We examined factors associated with time to first BPAR using multivariable Cox regression or discrete-survival analysis. Competing risks methods were used to compare causes of death and graft failure between recipients of living and deceased donors. At least 1 BPAR episode occurred in 239 of 890 recipients in A2ALL (26.9%) and 7066 of 45,423 recipients in SRTR (15.6%). In each database, risk of rejection was significantly lower when livers came from biologically related living donors (A2ALL hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.76; and SRTR HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.91) and higher in liver transplant recipients with primary biliary cirrhosis, of younger age, or with hepatitis C. In each database, BPAR was associated with significantly higher risks of graft failure and death. The risks were highest in the 12 month post-BPAR period in patients whose first episode occurred more than 1 year after liver transplantation: HRs for graft failure were 6.79 in A2ALL (95% CI, 2.64-17.45) and 4.41 in SRTR (95% CI, 3.71-5.23); HRs for death were 8.81 in A2ALL (95% CI, 3.37-23.04) and 3.94 in SRTR (95% CI, 3.22-4.83). In analyses of cause-specific mortality, associations were observed for liver-related (graft failure) causes of death but not for other causes. Contrary to previous data, acute rejection after liver transplant is associated with significantly increased

  5. Outcomes and complications of intracranial pressure monitoring in acute liver failure: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Fix, Oren K; Battenhouse, Holly; Durkalski, Valerie; Sanders, Corron; Lee, William M

    2014-05-01

    To determine if intracranial pressure monitor placement in patients with acute liver failure is associated with significant clinical outcomes. Retrospective multicenter cohort study. Academic liver transplant centers comprising the U.S. Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Adult critically ill patients with acute liver failure presenting with grade III/IV hepatic encephalopathy (n = 629) prospectively enrolled between March 2004 and August 2011. Intracranial pressure monitored (n = 140) versus nonmonitored controls (n = 489). Intracranial pressure monitored patients were younger than controls (35 vs 43 yr, p < 0.001) and more likely to be on renal replacement therapy (52% vs 38%, p = 0.003). Of 87 intracranial pressure monitored patients with detailed information, 44 (51%) had evidence of intracranial hypertension (intracranial pressure > 25 mm Hg) and overall 21-day mortality was higher in patients with intracranial hypertension (43% vs 23%, p = 0.05). During the first 7 days, intracranial pressure monitored patients received more intracranial hypertension-directed therapies (mannitol, 56% vs 21%; hypertonic saline, 14% vs 7%; hypothermia, 24% vs 10%; p < 0.03 for each). Forty-one percent of intracranial pressure monitored patients received liver transplant (vs 18% controls; p < 0.001). Overall 21-day mortality was similar (intracranial pressure monitored 33% vs controls 38%, p = 0.24). Where data were available, hemorrhagic complications were rare in intracranial pressure monitored patients (4 of 56 [7%]; three died). When stratifying by acetaminophen status and adjusting for confounders, intracranial pressure monitor placement did not impact 21-day mortality in acetaminophen patients (p = 0.89). However, intracranial pressure monitor was associated with increased 21-day mortality in nonacetaminophen patients (odds ratio, ~ 3.04; p = 0.014). In intracranial pressure monitored patients with acute liver failure, intracranial hypertension is commonly observed. The use

  6. Hepatitis A related acute liver failure by consumption of contaminated food.

    PubMed

    Chi, Heng; Haagsma, Elizabeth B; Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; van den Berg, Arie P; Metselaar, Herold J; de Knegt, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    We present a patient with no medical history admitted for jaundice and dark coloured urine. Further investigations revealed hepatitis A related acute liver failure while the patient had no travel history, nor contact with infected individuals. After admission, the patient deteriorated fulfilling the King's College criteria for acute liver failure. Two days after admission, he underwent liver transplantation and recovered. Careful investigation identified imported semi-dried tomatoes as the source of the hepatitis A infection. This patient was part of a foodborne hepatitis A outbreak in the Netherlands in 2010 affecting 13 patients. Virus sequence analysis of our patient's virus showed a strain commonly found in Turkey. Hepatitis A related acute liver failure is rare, but is associated with a poor prognosis. In developed countries, the incidence of hepatitis A is low, but foodborne outbreaks are emerging. Further, we review the literature on recent foodborne hepatitis A outbreaks in developed countries, hepatitis A related acute liver failure, and hepatitis A vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A study on risk factors and diagnostic efficiency of posthepatectomy liver failure in the nonobstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Lu, Shi-Chun; He, Lei; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2018-02-01

    Liver failure remains as the most common complication and cause of death after hepatectomy, and continues to be a challenge for doctors.t test and χ test were used for single factor analysis of data-related variables, then results were introduced into the model to undergo the multiple factors logistic regression analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was performed for related postoperative indexes, and a diagnostic evaluation was performed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of postoperative indexes.Differences in age, body mass index (BMI), portal vein hypertension, bile duct cancer, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), operation time, cumulative portal vein occlusion time, intraoperative blood volume, residual liver volume (RLV)/entire live rvolume, ascites volume at postoperative day (POD)3, supplemental albumin amount at POD3, hospitalization time after operation, and the prothrombin activity (PTA) were statistically significant. Furthermore, there were significant differences in total bilirubin and the supplemental albumin amount at POD3. ROC analysis of the average PTA, albumin amounts, ascites volume at POD3, and their combined diagnosis were performed, which had diagnostic value for postoperative liver failure (area under the curve (AUC): 0.895, AUC: 0.798, AUC: 0.775, and AUC: 0.903).Preoperative total bilirubin level and the supplemental albumin amount at POD3 were independent risk factors. PTA can be used as the index of postoperative liver failure, and the combined diagnosis of the indexes can improve the early prediction of postoperative liver failure.

  8. Scrub typhus causing neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure-A case series.

    PubMed

    Vajpayee, Shailja; Gupta, R K; Gupta, M L

    2017-05-01

    Neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure due to varied etiology including various infections is reported in the past. Scrub typhus as a cause of neonatal hepatitis has rarely been reported in literature. A high index of clinical suspicion is required for early diagnosis and timely treatment. Severity and prognosis of the disease varies widely because several different strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi exist with different virulence. Delayed diagnosis can result in complication and significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we report three cases of neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure caused by scrub typhus to increase awareness.

  9. Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure: Causes, Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of Mortality.

    PubMed

    Tasneem, Abbas Ali; Luck, Nasir Hassan

    2017-01-01

    To determine the causes, characteristics and predictors of mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Cross-sectional study. Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, from July 2014 to June 2016. All patients with acute-on-chronic liver disease (ACLD) with ages > 12 were included. Patients with ACLF, as defined by the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of Liver (APASL, 2014) were identified. Predictors of mortality were identified using chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Included in the study were 72 patients with mean age of 36.71 years, 46 (63.9%) being males. Among them, 61 developed ACLF. Commonest causes of chronic liver disease (CLD) were chronic viral hepatitis (37, 51.4%) and autoimmune hepatitis (14, 19.4%). Commonest causes of acute liver injury (ALI) were acute viral hepatitis (24, 33.3%) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) (17, 23.6%). Among those with ACLF, 24 (39.3%) patients died with median survival of 17.1 ±13.5 days. Mortality was significantly associated with Child Turcotte Pugh (CTP) score ≥13 (p=0.010), model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score ≥30 (p=0.001), age >40 years (p=0.036), organ failures (OF) ≥3 (p <0.0001), portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE) (p <0.0001), renal failure (p <0.0001) and urosepsis (p <0.0001). Acute viral hepatitis and DILI are commonest causes of ACLF. Mortality is high in ACLF patients having OF ≥3, CTP ≥13, MELD ≥30, age >40 years, PSE, renal failure and urosepsis.

  10. Utility in Treating Kidney Failure in End-Stage Liver Disease With Simultaneous Liver-Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingxing S; Stedman, Margaret R; Chertow, Glenn M; Kim, W Ray; Tan, Jane C

    2017-05-01

    Simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation plays an important role in treating kidney failure in patients with end-stage liver disease. It used 5% of deceased donor kidney transplanted in 2015. We evaluated the utility, defined as posttransplant kidney allograft lifespan, of this practice. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we compared outcomes for all SLK transplants between January 1, 1995, and December 3, 2014, to their donor-matched kidney used in kidney-alone (Ki) or simultaneous pancreas kidney (SPK) transplants. Primary outcome was kidney allograft lifespan, defined as the time free from death or allograft failure. Secondary outcomes included death and death-censored allograft failure. We adjusted all analyses for donor, transplant, and recipient factors. The adjusted 10-year mean kidney allograft lifespan was higher in Ki/SPK compared with SLK transplants by 0.99 years in the Model for End-stage Liver Disease era and 1.71 years in the pre-Model for End-stage Liver Disease era. Death was higher in SLK recipients relative to Ki/SPK recipients: 10-year cumulative incidences 0.36 (95% confident interval 0.33-0.38) versus 0.19 (95% confident interval 0.17-0.21). SLK transplantation exemplifies the trade-off between the principles of utility and medical urgency. With each SLK transplantation, about 1 year of allograft lifespan is traded so that sicker patients, that is, SLK transplant recipients, are afforded access to the organ. These data provide a basis against which benefits derived from urgency-based allocation can be measured.

  11. Utility in Treating Kidney Failure in End-Stage Liver Disease With Simultaneous Liver-Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xingxing S.; Stedman, Margaret R.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Kim, W. Ray; Tan, Jane C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation plays an important role in treating kidney failure in patients with end-stage liver disease. It used 5% of deceased donor kidney transplanted in 2015. We evaluated the utility, defined as posttransplant kidney allograft lifespan, of this practice. Methods Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we compared outcomes for all SLK transplants between January 1, 1995, and December 3, 2014, to their donor-matched kidney used in kidney-alone (Ki) or simultaneous pancreas kidney (SPK) transplants. Primary outcome was kidney allograft lifespan, defined as the time free from death or allograft failure. Secondary outcomes included death and death-censored allograft failure. We adjusted all analyses for donor, transplant, and recipient factors. Results The adjusted 10-year mean kidney allograft lifespan was higher in Ki/SPK compared with SLK transplants by 0.99 years in the Model for End-stage Liver Disease era and 1.71 years in the pre-Model for End-stage Liver Disease era. Death was higher in SLK recipients relative to Ki/SPK recipients: 10-year cumulative incidences 0.36 (95% confident interval 0.33-0.38) versus 0.19 (95% confident interval 0.17-0.21). Conclusions SLK transplantation exemplifies the trade-off between the principles of utility and medical urgency. With each SLK transplantation, about 1 year of allograft lifespan is traded so that sicker patients, that is, SLK transplant recipients, are afforded access to the organ. These data provide a basis against which benefits derived from urgency-based allocation can be measured. PMID:28437790

  12. Severe acute haemorrhagic liver failure in a neonate with a favourable spontaneous outcome.

    PubMed

    Cavet, Madeleine; Balu, Marie; Garel, Catherine; Mitanchez, Delphine; Renolleau, Sylvain; Alexandre, Marie; Pariente, Danièle; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert

    2008-10-01

    Acute liver failure in neonates is rare and is frequently associated with an unfavourable outcome. There is no curative treatment other than liver transplantation. Screening for viral, metabolic, toxic or vascular disease is essential to assess the prognosis and to guide specific treatment. Hepatic haemorrhage in neonates is often associated with bacterial infection, trauma and coagulopathies. We present a unique case of neonatal acute liver failure and multifocal massive haemorrhagic intrahepatic lesions of traumatic origin, documented by US and MRI. The patient made a spontaneous recovery. Clinical, biological and imaging outcome was excellent despite the apparent severity of the initial features. The only possible aetiology was a difficult caesarean delivery for mild fetal macrosomia.

  13. Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: Getting ready for prime-time.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Moreau, Richard; Kamath, Patrick S; Vargas, Hugo E; Arroyo, Vicente; Reddy, K Rajender; Szabo, Gyongyi; Tandon, Puneeta; Olson, Jody; Karvellas, Constantine; Gustot, Thierry; Lai, Jennifer C; Wong, Florence

    2018-04-24

    Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a culmination of chronic liver disease and extra-hepatic organ failures, which is associated with a high short-term mortality and immense healthcare expenditure. There are varying definitions for organ failures and ACLF in Europe, North America and Asia. These differing definitions need to be reconciled to enhance progress in the field. The pathogenesis of ACLF is multi-factorial and related to interactions between the immuno-inflammatory system, microbiota and the precipitating factors. Individual organ failures related to the kidney, brain, lungs and circulation have cumulative adverse effects on mortality and are often complicated or precipitated by infections. Strategies to prevent and rapidly treat these organ failures are paramount in improving survival. With the aging population and paucity of organs for liver transplant, the prognosis of ACLF patients is poor, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic strategies. The role of liver transplant in ACLF is evolving and needs further investigation across large consortia. A role for early palliative care and management of frailty as approaches to alleviate disease burden and improve patient-reported outcomes is being increasingly recognized. ACLF is a clinically relevant syndrome that is epidemic worldwide and which requires a dedicated multi-national approach focused on prognostication and management. Investigations are underway worldwide to get ACLF ready for prime time. Compensated cirrhosis with >90% 1-year survival can transition into the decompensated stage with the onset of jaundice, ascites, variceal bleeding and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (1)Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is associated with rapid deterioration of liver function leading to liver failure, multiple extra-hepatic organ failures and high short-term mortality (2). Even if patients survive the acute insult, they may never return to their pre-episode functional state (3). The term "acute

  14. The effect of cirrhosis on the risk for failure of nonoperative management of blunt liver injuries.

    PubMed

    Barmparas, Galinos; Cooper, Zara; Ley, Eric J; Askari, Reza; Salim, Ali

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the association between cirrhosis and failure of nonoperative management (F-NOM) after blunt liver trauma. We carried out a review of the National Trauma Databank from 2007 to 2011 including patients ≥ 16 years old admitted after a blunt injury. Propensity score was used to match each cirrhotic to 3 noncirrhotic patients. Primary outcome was F-NOM (liver procedure >2 hours after admission and/or operative intervention directed at the liver after angiography). A total of 57 cirrhotic patients who met inclusion criteria were matched with 171 noncirrhotic patients. Splenic injury was present in 41% (35% vs 43%; P = .31) and 28% had a high-grade liver injury III/VI/V (26% vs 29%; P = .73). The majority of patients in both groups were selected for a trial of NOM (77% vs 85%; P = .15). There was no difference in the rate of F-NOM between the 2 groups (14% vs 14%; P = 1.00), even for high-grade injuries (13% vs 20%; P = .72). Cirrhotic patients had a greater overall mortality (28% vs 7%; P < .01), especially if they required a laparotomy (58% vs 17%; P < .01) or if they failed NOM (50% vs 4%; P < .01). Cirrhosis has no effect on the selection of patients with blunt liver injuries for a trial of nonoperative management and does not seem to be associated with a greater risk for failure of nonoperative management within the constraints of our study. Nonoperative management in this population is highly successful and failure is rarely related directly to the liver injury itself. Failure of non-operative management increases the already high mortality risk in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-volume plasma exchange in patients with acute liver failure: An open randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Schmidt, Lars Ebbe; Bernsmeier, Christine; Rasmussen, Allan; Isoniemi, Helena; Patel, Vishal C; Triantafyllou, Evangelos; Bernal, William; Auzinger, Georg; Shawcross, Debbie; Eefsen, Martin; Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Clemmesen, Jens Otto; Hockerstedt, Krister; Frederiksen, Hans-Jørgen; Hansen, Bent Adel; Antoniades, Charalambos G; Wendon, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) often results in cardiovascular instability, renal failure, brain oedema and death either due to irreversible shock, cerebral herniation or development of multiple organ failure. High-volume plasma exchange (HVP), defined as exchange of 8-12 or 15% of ideal body weight with fresh frozen plasma in case series improves systemic, cerebral and splanchnic parameters. In this prospective, randomised, controlled, multicentre trial we randomly assigned 182 patients with ALF to receive either standard medical therapy (SMT; 90 patients) or SMT plus HVP for three days (92 patients). The baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. The primary endpoint was liver transplantation-free survival during hospital stay. Secondary-endpoints included survival after liver transplantation with or without HVP with intention-to-treat analysis. A proof-of-principle study evaluating the effect of HVP on the immune cell function was also undertaken. For the entire patient population, overall hospital survival was 58.7% for patients treated with HVP vs. 47.8% for the control group (hazard ratio (HR), with stratification for liver transplantation: 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.86; p=0.0083). HVP prior to transplantation did not improve survival compared with patients who received SMT alone (CI 0.37 to 3.98; p=0.75). The incidence of severe adverse events was similar in the two groups. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores fell in the treated group compared to control group, over the study period (p<0.001). Treatment with HVP improves outcome in patients with ALF by increasing liver transplant-free survival. This is attributable to attenuation of innate immune activation and amelioration of multi-organ dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acetaminophen Adducts Detected in Serum of Pediatric Patients With Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Estella M; James, Laura P; Zhang, Song; Squires, Robert H

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies in patients with acute liver failure identified acetaminophen (APAP) protein adducts in the serum of 12% and 19% of children and adults, respectively, with acute liver failure of indeterminate etiology. This article details the testing of APAP adducts in a subset (n = 393) of patients with varied diagnoses in the Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Study Group (PALFSG). Serum samples were available from 393 participants included in the PALFSG registry. Adduct measurement was performed using validated methods. Participants were grouped by diagnostic category as known APAP overdose, known other diagnosis, and indeterminate etiology. Demographic and clinical characteristics and participant outcomes were compared by adduct status (positive or negative) within each group. APAP adduct testing was positive in 86% of participants with known APAP overdose, 6% with other known diagnoses, and 11% with an indeterminate cause of liver failure. Adduct-positive participants were noted to have marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase coupled with total serum bilirubin that was significantly lower than adduct-negative patients. In the indeterminate group, adduct-positive patients had different outcomes than adduct-negative patients (P = 0.03); spontaneous survival was 16 of 21 (76%) in adduct-positive patients versus 75 of 169 (44%) in adduct-negative patients. Prognosis did not vary by adduct status in patients with known diagnoses. Furthermore, study is needed to understand the relation of APAP exposure, as determined by the presence of APAP adducts, to the clinical phenotype and outcomes of children with acute liver failure.

  17. Features of liver tissue remodeling in intestinal failure during and after weaning off parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mutanen, Annika; Lohi, Jouko; Sorsa, Timo; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal failure is associated frequently with liver injury, which persists after weaning off parenteral nutrition. We compared features of liver remodeling in intestinal failure during and after weaning off parenteral nutrition. Liver biopsies and serum samples were obtained from 25 intestinal failure patients at a median age of 9.7 years (interquartile range: 4.6-18) and from age-matched control patients. Seven patients had been receiving parenteral nutrition for 53 months (22-160), and 18 patients had been weaned off parenteral nutrition 6.3 years (2.4-17) earlier, after having received parenteral nutrition for 10 months (3.3-34). Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, collagen 1, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was measured. Significant increases in immunohistochemical expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen 1 were observed predominantly in portal areas and were similar to increases seen in patients currently receiving parenteral nutrition and in patients weaned off parenteral nutrition. Gene and protein expressions of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen were interrelated. Gene expression of ACTA2, encoding alpha-smooth muscle actin, was increased only in patients who were receiving parenteral nutrition currently. Comparable upregulation of interleukin-1 (α and ß), epidermal growth factor, integrin-ß6, and MMP9 gene expression was observed in both patient groups, irrespective of whether they were receiving parenteral nutrition currently. Liver expression and serum levels of TIMP1 and MMP7 were increased only in the patients on parenteral nutrition currently but were not increased after weaning off parenteral nutrition. Intestinal failure is characterized by abnormal activation of hepatic myofibroblast and accumulation of collagen both during and after weaning off parenteral nutrition. Persistent transcriptional upregulation of proinflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines after weaning off

  18. [Changes in serotonin and noradrenaline in hepatic encephalopathy as a result of liver failure in rat].

    PubMed

    Song, Min-ning; Song, Yu-na; Chen, Fu; Luo, Mei-lan

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the changes in serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) in hepatic encephalopathy as a result of acute and chronic liver failure in rat. One hundred and ten Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into groups of normal control (n=20), experimental group of acute liver failure (ALF) encephalopathy (n=45), and experimental group of chronic liver failure (CLF) encephalopathy (n=45). Two dosages of thioacetamide (TAA) of 500 mg/kg were gavaged with an interval of 24 hours to reproduce ALF model. To reproduce CLF model rats were fed with 0.03% TAA in drinking water for 10 weeks, and 50% of TAA dosage was added or withheld according to the change in weekly body weight measurement. Animals were sacrificed and venous blood specimens were obtained after successful replication of model, and 5-HT, NA, ammonia, parameters of liver function were determined, and liver and brain were studied pathologically. The experiment showed that the liver functions of rats in groups ALF encephalopathy and CLF encephalopathy deteriorated seriously, changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), albumen (ALB), ALB/globulin (A/G), and blood ammonia were observed(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The clinical manifestations, liver and brain pathologies were identical to those of ALF and CLF encephalopathy. The values of 5-HT were increased in groups ALF encephalopathy and CLF encephalopathy [(16.06+/-1.08) micromol/L and (15.32+/-1.48) micromol/L] compared with the normal group [(2.75+/-0.26) micromol/L, both P<0.01], while the value of NA decreased in the group of CLF encephalopathy [(94.0+/-2.13) pmol/L vs.(121.2+/-14.8) pmol/L,P<0.05]. The levels of 5-HT are elevated in the groups of ALF encephalopathy and CLF encephalopathy. The content of NA decreases remarkably in CLF encephalopathy.

  19. Effect of fibrin glue occlusion of the hepatobiliary tract on thioacetamide-induced liver failure.

    PubMed

    Schmandra, T C; Bauer, H; Petrowsky, H; Herrmann, G; Encke, A; Hanisch, E

    2001-07-01

    Expression and activation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is stimulated by a complex system of interacting proteins, with thrombin playing an initial role in this process. The impact of temporary occlusion of the hepatobiliary tract with fibrin glue (major component thrombin) on the HGF system in acute and chronic liver damage in a rat model was investigated. Chronic liver damage was induced in 40 rats by daily intraperitoneal application of thioacetamide (100 mg/kg) for 14 days. After 7 days half of them received an injection of 0.2 mL fibrin glue into the hepatobiliary system. Daily intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide continued for 7 consecutive days. The rats were then sacrificed for blood and tissue analysis. Acute liver failure was induced in 12 rats by intraperitoneal administration of a lethal dose of thioacetamide (500 mg/kg per day for 3 days) after an injection with 0.2 mL fibrin glue into their hepatobiliary tract. Survival rates and histological outcome were investigated and compared with control animals. Fibrin glue occluded rats showed significantly lower liver enzyme activities and serum levels of bilirubin, creatinine and urea nitrogen. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant increase in c-met-, HGFalpha- and especially HGFbeta-positive cells. Rats subjected to a lethal dose of thioacetamide survived when fibrin glue was applied 24 hours prior to the toxic challenge. These animals showed normal liver structure and no clinical abnormalities. Fibrin glue occlusion of the hepatobiliary tract induces therapeutic and prophylactic effects on chronic and acute liver failure by stimulating the HGF system. Therefore, fibrin glue occlusion might be useful in treating toxic liver failure.

  20. Managing patients with acute liver failure: developing a tool for practitioners.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Helen; Olds, Jane; Webster, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) are treated on the general intensive care unit (ICU) within this regional centre for hepatology and liver transplantation. This group of patients are at high risk of developing cerebral oedema, but because of the associated coagulopathy, intracranial pressure is not measured invasively. The safe management of these patients is vital to their outcome, and yet, there is no national or local guidance on the best practice for this group of patients. An absence of guidelines, or evidence base specific to caring for hepatology patients, was highlighted as we reviewed local clinical practices and those at other liver specialty centres, the British Liver Trust and published literature. We identified a need to develop evidence-based guidance for staff caring for patients with ALF within ICUs. A systematic approach enabled us to identify best practice to support the development of a structured evidence-based approach to care.

  1. Pathological alterations in liver injury following congestive heart failure induced by volume overload in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shaqura, Mohammed; Mohamed, Doaa M.; Aboryag, Noureddin B.; Bedewi, Lama; Dehe, Lukas; Treskatsch, Sascha; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Schäfer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure has emerged as a disease with significant public health implications. Following progression of heart failure, heart and liver dysfunction are frequently combined in hospitalized patients leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Here, we investigated the underlying pathological alterations in liver injury following heart failure. Heart failure was induced using a modified infrarenal aortocaval fistula (ACF) in male Wistar rats. Sham operated and ACF rats were compared for their morphometric and hemodynamic data, for histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the liver as well as differences in the expression of apoptotic factors. ACF-induced heart failure is associated with light microscopic signs of apparent congestion of blood vessels, increased apoptosis and breakdown of hepatocytes and inflammatory cell inifltration were observed. The glycogen content depletion associated with the increased hepatic fibrosis, lipid globule formation was observed in ACF rats. Moreover, cytoplasmic organelles are no longer distinguishable in many ACF hepatocytes with degenerated fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, shrunken mitochondria and heavy cytoplasm vacuolization. ACF is associated with the upregulation of the hepatic TUNEL-positive cells and proapoptotic factor Bax protein concomitant with the mitochondrial leakage of cytochrome C into the cell cytoplasm and the transfer of activated caspase 3 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus indicating intrinsic apoptotic events. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ACF-induced congestive heart failure causes liver injury which results in hepatocellular apoptotic cell death mediated by the intrinsic pathway of mitochondrial cytochrome C leakage and subsequent transfer of activated caspase 3 into to the nucleus to initiate overt DNA fragmentation and cell death. PMID:28934226

  2. Characteristics and Discrepancies in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: Need for a Unified Definition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Yeon; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Yoon, Eileen L.; Kim, Chang Wook; Jung, Young Kul; Suk, Ki Tae; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Chang Hyeong; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Sung Eun; Baik, Soon Koo; Lee, Byung Seok; Jang, Jae Young; Suh, Jeong Ill; Kim, Hyoung Su; Nam, Seong Woo; Kwon, Hyeok Choon; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Sang Gyune; Chae, Hee Bok; Yang, Jin Mo; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Lee, Heon Ju; Park, Seung Ha; Han, Byung Hoon; Choi, Eun Hee; Kim, Chang H.; Kim, Dong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim To investigate the prevalence, mortalities, and patient characteristics of Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) according to the AARC (Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver ACLF Research Consortium) and European Association for the Study of the Liver CLIF-C (Chronic Liver Failure Consortium) definitions. Methods We collected retrospective data for 1470 hospitalized patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and acute deterioration between January 2013 and December 2013 from 21 university hospitals in Korea. Results Of the patients assessed, the prevalence of ACLF based on the AARC and CLIF-C definitions was 9.5% and 18.6%, respectively. The 28-day and 90-day mortality rates were higher in patients with ACLF than in those without ACLF. Patients who only met the CLIF-C definition had significantly lower 28-day and 90-day survival rates than those who only met the AARC definition (68.0% vs. 93.9%, P<0.001; 55.1% vs. 92.4%, P<0.001). Among the patients who had non-cirrhotic CLD, the 90-day mortality of the patients with ACLF was higher than of those without ACLF, although not significant (33.3% vs. 6.0%, P = 0.192). Patients with previous acute decompensation (AD) within 1- year had a lower 90-day survival rate than those with AD more than 1 year prior or without previous AD (81.0% vs. 91.9% or 89.4%, respectively, all P<0.001). Patients who had extra-hepatic organ failure without liver failure had a similar 90-day survival rate to those who had liver failure as a prerequisite (57.0% vs. 60.6%, P = 0.391). Conclusions The two ACLF definitions result in differences in mortality and patient characteristics among ACLF patients. We suggest that non-cirrhotic CLD, previous AD within 1 year, and extra-hepatic organ failure should be included in the ACLF diagnostic criteria. In addition, further studies are necessary to develop a universal definition of ACLF. PMID:26789409

  3. Outcomes of Children With and Without Hepatic Encephalopathy From the Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Study Group.

    PubMed

    Ng, Vicky L; Li, Ruosha; Loomes, Kathleen M; Leonis, Mike A; Rudnick, David A; Belle, Steven H; Squires, Robert H

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is challenging to identify in children with acute liver failure and was not a requirement for enrollment into the Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Study Group (PALFSG). The outcomes of PALFSG participants presenting with and without HE are presented. PALFSG participants were classified based on daily assessment of HE during the first 7 days following study enrollment: group 1-never developed HE; group 2-no HE at enrollment with subsequent HE development; and group 3-HE at study enrollment. Clinical and biochemical parameters and outcomes of death, spontaneous recovery, or liver transplantation were compared between groups. Data from 769 PALFSG (54% boys; median age 4.2 years; range 0-17.9 years) participants were analyzed, with 277 in group 1 (36%), 83 in group 2 (11%), and 409 in group 3 (53%). Mortality occurred in 11% of all participants and was highest among group 3 participants who demonstrated persistent grade III-IV HE (55%) or showed progression of HE (26%). Eleven (4%) group 1 participants died within 21 days of enrollment. Spontaneous recovery was highest in group 1 (79%) and lowest in group 2 (25%; P < 0.001). Mortality 21 days after enrollment was highest in participants enrolled with severe HE (grades III or IV) or demonstrating HE progression. Four percent of participants without recorded clinical HE in the 7 days after enrollment, however, died within 21 days. Improved assessment of neurological injury and pediatric acute liver failure prognostication schema are needed.

  4. The Development of Stem Cell-Based Treatment for Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tiantian; Li, Yuwen; Guo, Yusheng; Zhu, Chuanlong

    2017-01-01

    Liver failure is a devastating clinical syndrome with a persistently mortality rate despite advanced care. Orthotopic liver transplantation protected patients from hepatic failure. Yet, limitations including postoperative complications, high costs, and shortages of donor organs defect its application. The development of stem cell therapy complements the deficiencies of liver transplantation, due to the inherent ability of stem cells to proliferate and differentiate. Understand the source of stem cells, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of stem cell therapy. Based on published papers, we discussed the cell sources and therapeutic effect of stem cells. We also summarized the pros and cons, as well as optimization of stem cell-based treatment. Finally outlook future prospects of stem cell therapy. Stem cells may be harvested from a variety of human tissues, and then used to promote the convalescence of hepatocellular function. The emergence of the co-cultured system, tissueengineered technology and genetic modfication has further enhanced the functionality of stem cells. However, the tumorigenicity, the low survival rate and the scarcity of long-term treatment effect are obstacles for the further development of stem cell therapy. In this review, we highlight current research findings and present the future prospects in the area of stem cell-based treatment for liver failure. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Patients with the worst outcomes after paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver failure have an early monocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Moore, J K; MacKinnon, A C; Man, T Y; Manning, J R; Forbes, S J; Simpson, K J

    2017-02-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies have implicated the immune response, especially monocyte/macrophages as being important in dictating outcome. To investigate changes in the circulating monocytes and other immune cells serially in patients with ALF, relate these with cytokine concentrations, monocyte gene expression and patient outcome. In a prospective case-control study in the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 35 consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol-induced liver failure (POD-ALF), 10 patients with non-paracetamol causes of ALF and 16 controls were recruited. The peripheral blood monocyte phenotype was analysed by flow cytometry, circulating cytokines quantified by protein array and monocyte gene expression array performed and related to outcome. On admission, patients with worst outcomes after POD-ALF had a significant monocytopenia, characterised by reduced classical and expanded intermediate monocyte population. This was associated with reduced circulating lymphocytes and natural killer cells, peripheral cytokine patterns suggestive of a 'cytokine storm' and increased concentrations of cytokines associated with monocyte egress from the bone marrow. Gene expression array did not differentiate patient outcome. At day 4, there was no significant difference in monocyte, lymphocyte or natural killer cells between survivors and the patients with adverse outcomes. Severe paracetamol liver failure is associated with profound changes in the peripheral blood compartment, particularly in monocytes, related with worse outcomes. This is not seen in patients with non-paracetamol-induced liver failure. Significant monocytopenia on admission may allow earlier clarification of prognosis, and it highlights a potential target for therapeutic intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Micro-RNA-122 levels in acute liver failure and chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Perry H; Yuan, Hejun; Devine, Robert K; Hynan, Linda S; Jain, Mamta K; Lee, William M

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is the foremost liver-related micro-RNA, but its role in the hepatocyte is not fully understood. To evaluate whether circulating levels of miR-122 are elevated in chronic-HCV for a reason other than hepatic injury, we compared serum level in patients with chronic hepatitis C to other forms of liver injury including patients with acute liver failure and healthy controls. MiR-122 was quantitated using sera from 35 acute liver failure patients (20 acetaminophen-induced, 15 other etiologies), 39 chronic-HCV patients and 12 controls. In parallel, human genomic DNA (hgDNA) levels were measured to reflect quantitatively the extent of hepatic necrosis. Additionally, six HIV-HCV co-infected patients, who achieved viral clearance after undergoing therapy with interferon and ribavirin, had serial sera miR-122 and hgDNA levels measured before and throughout treatment. Serum miR-122 levels were elevated approximately 100-fold in both acute liver failure and chronic-HCV sera as compared to controls (P < 0.001), whereas hgDNA levels were only elevated in acute liver failure patients as compared to both chronic-HCV and controls (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that chronic-HCV sera with normal aminotransferase levels showed elevated miR-122 despite low levels of hepatocyte necrosis. All successfully treated HCV patients showed a significant Log10 decrease in miR-122 levels ranging from 0.16 to 1.46, after sustained viral response. Chronic-HCV patients have very elevated serum miR-122 levels in the range of most patients with severe hepatic injury leading to acute liver failure. Eradication of HCV was associated with decreased miR-122 but not hgDNA. An additional mechanism besides hepatic injury may be active in chronic-HCV to explain the exaggerated circulating levels of miR-122 observed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bioartificial liver assist devices in support of patients with liver failure.

    PubMed

    Patzer II, John F; Lopez, Roberto C; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Zi-Fa; Mazariegos, George V; Fung, John J

    2002-02-01

    Bioartificial liver assist devices (BALs) offer an opportunity for critical care physicians and transplant surgeons to stabilize patients prior to orthotopic liver transplantation. Such devices may also act as a bridge to transplant, providing liver support to patients awaiting transplant, or as support for patients post living-related donor transplant. Four BAL devices that rely on hepatocytes cultured in hollow fiber membrane cartridges (Circe Biomedical HepatAssist(r), Vitagen ELADTM, Gerlach BELS, and Excorp Medical BLSS) are currently in various stages of clinical evaluation. Comparison of the four devices shows that several unique approaches based upon the same overall system architecture are possible. Preliminary results of the Excorp Medical BLSS Phase I safety evaluation at the University of Pittsburgh, after treating four patients (F, 41, acetominophen-induced, two support periods; M, 50, Wilson's disease, one support period; F, 53, acute alcoholic hepatitis, two support periods; F, 24, chemotherapy-induced, one support period, are presented. All patients presented with hypoglycemia and transient hypotension at the start of extracorporeal perfusion. Hypoglycemia was treated by IV dextrose and the transient hypotension responded positively to IV fluid bolus. Heparin anticoagulation was used only in the second patient. No serious or adverse events were noted in the four patients. Moderate Biochemical response to support was noted in all patients. More complete characterization of the safety of the BLSS requires completion of the Phase I safety evaluation.

  8. Prognosis for children with acute liver failure due to Amanita phalloides poisoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulski, Marcin F.; Kamińska-Gocał, Diana; Dądalski, Maciej; Socha, Piotr; Mulawka, Jan J.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this article is to find new effective methods of diagnosis of urgent liver transplantation after Amanita phalloides intoxication amongst pediatric patients. The research was carried out using a medical database of pediatric patients who suffered from acute liver failure after amatoxin consumption. After data preprocessing and attribute selection steps, a two-phase experiment was conducted, which incorporated a wide variety of data mining algorithms. The results deliver two equivalent classification models with simple decision structure and reasonable quality of surgery prediction.

  9. Dolutegravir-induced liver injury leading to sub-acute liver failure requiring transplantation: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Abbott, Laura; Childs, Kate; Taylor, Chris; Agarwal, Kosh; Cormack, Ian; Miquel, Rosa; Suddle, Abid

    2018-03-01

    A patient with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection presented with sub-acute liver failure, temporally related to commencement of an antiretroviral therapy regimen containing dolutegravir (Triumeq). The patient was not a carrier of HLA-B5701, and abacavir hypersensitivity was unlikely. We believe this is the first report of severe dolutegravir-related hepatotoxicity resulting in sub-acute liver failure and transplantation and highlights a potential need for closer monitoring after drug initiation.

  10. Results of liver transplantation in patients with acute liver failure due to Amanita phalloides and paracetamol (acetaminophen) intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Grąt, Michał; Hołówko, Wacław; Masior, Łukasz; Wronka, Karolina M.; Grąt, Karolina; Stypułkowski, Jan; Patkowski, Waldemar; Krawczyk, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Amanita phalloides and paracetamol intoxications are responsible for the majority of acute liver failures. Aim To assess survival outcomes and to analyse risk factors affecting survival in the studied group. Material and methods Of 1369 liver transplantations performed in the Department of General, Transplant, and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw before December 2013, 20 (1.46%) patients with Amanita phalloides (n = 13, 0.95%) and paracetamol (n = 7, 0.51%) intoxication were selected for this retrospective study. Overall and graft survival at 5 years were set as primary outcome measures. Results Five-year overall survival after liver transplantation in the studied group was 53.57% and 53.85% in patients with paracetamol and Amanita phalloides poisoning, respectively (p = 0.816). Five-year graft survival was 26.79% for patients with paracetamol and 38.46% with Amanita phalloides intoxication (p = 0.737). Risk factors affecting patient survival were: pre-transplant bilirubin concentration (p = 0.023) and higher number of red blood cells (p = 0.013) and fresh frozen plasma (p = 0.004) transfused intraoperatively. Likewise, higher number of red blood cells (p = 0.012) and fresh frozen plasma (p = 0.007) transfused were risk factors affecting 5-year graft survival. Surprisingly, donor and recipient blood type incompatibility was neither the risk factor for 5-year overall survival (p = 0.939) nor the risk factor for 5-year graft survival (p = 0.189). Conclusions In selected intoxicated patients urgent liver transplantation is the only successful modality of treatment. Risk factors affecting survival are in correspondence with the patient's pre-transplant status (bilirubin level in serum) and intraoperative status (number of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma transfused). PMID:27350835

  11. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure.

    PubMed

    Korpela, Katri; Mutanen, Annika; Salonen, Anne; Savilahti, Erkki; de Vos, Willem M; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2017-02-01

    Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent phylogenetic microarray analysis. The microbiota was related to histological liver injury, fecal markers of intestinal inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and calprotectin, and disease characteristics. Overabundance of Lactobacilli, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria was observed in IF, whereas bacteria related to Clostridium clusters III, IV, and XIVa along with overall diversity and richness were reduced. Patients were segregated into 3 subgroups based on dominating bacteria: Clostridium cluster XIVa, Proteobacteria, and bacteria related to Lactobacillus plantarum. In addition to liver steatosis and fibrosis, Proteobacteria were associated with prolonged current parenteral nutrition (PN) as well as liver and intestinal inflammation. Lactobacilli were related to advanced steatosis and fibrosis mostly after weaning off PN without associated inflammation. In multivariate permutational analysis of variance, liver steatosis, bowel length, PN calories, and antibiotic treatment best explained the microbiota variation among patients with IF. Intestinal microbiota composition was associated with liver steatosis in IF and better predicted steatosis than duration of PN or length of the remaining intestine. Our results may be explained by a model in which steatosis is initiated during PN in response to proinflammatory lipopolysaccharides produced by Proteobacteria and progresses after weaning off PN, as the L plantarum group Lactobacilli becomes dominant and affects lipid metabolism by altering bile acid signaling.

  12. Presumptive Iatrogenic Microcystin-Associated Liver Failure and Encephalopathy in a Holsteiner Gelding.

    PubMed

    Mittelman, N S; Engiles, J B; Murphy, L; Vudathala, D; Johnson, A L

    2016-09-01

    An 8-year-old Holsteiner gelding was presented for evaluation of anorexia, obtundation, icterus, and mild colic signs of 48 hours duration. History, physical examination, and initial diagnostics were suggestive of hepatic disease and encephalopathy. Microcystin toxicosis was suspected based on historical administration of a cyanobacteria supplement, associated serum biochemistry abnormalities, and characteristic histopathological changes. Microcystin contamination was confirmed in both supplement containers fed to the horse. Fulminant hepatic failure and encephalopathy progressed resulting in euthanasia. Necropsy findings were consistent with microcystin induced liver failure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. External biliary drainage following major liver resection for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: impact on development of liver failure and biliary leakage

    PubMed Central

    Olthof, Pim B.; Coelen, Robert J.S.; Wiggers, Jimme K.; Besselink, Marc G.H.; Busch, Olivier R.C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Preoperative biliary drainage is considered essential in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC) requiring major hepatectomy with biliary-enteric reconstruction. However, evidence for postoperative biliary drainage as to protect the anastomosis is currently lacking. This study investigated the impact of postoperative external biliary drainage on the development of post-hepatectomy biliary leakage and liver failure (PHLF). Methods All patients who underwent major liver resection for suspected PHC between 2000 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Biliary leakage and PHLF was defined as grade B or higher according to the International Study Group of Liver Surgery (ISGLS) criteria. Results Eighty-nine out of 125 (71%) patients had postoperative external biliary drainage. PHLF was more prevalent in the drain group (29% versus 6%; P = 0.004). There was no difference in the incidence of biliary leakage (32% versus 36%). On multivariable analysis, postoperative external biliary drainage was identified as an independent risk factor for PHLF (Odds-ratio 10.3, 95% confidence interval 2.1–50.4; P = 0.004). Conclusions External biliary drainage following major hepatectomy for PHC was associated with an increased incidence of PHLF. It is therefore not recommended to routinely use postoperative external biliary drainage, especially as there is no evidence that this decreases the risk of biliary anastomotic leakage. PMID:27037204

  14. Incidence, predictors and outcomes of acute-on-chronic liver failure in outpatients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Vettore, Elia; Stanco, Marialuisa; Pilutti, Chiara; Romano, Antonietta; Mareso, Sara; Gambino, Carmine; Brocca, Alessandra; Sticca, Antonietta; Fasolato, Silvano; Angeli, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is the most life-threatening complication of cirrhosis. Prevalence and outcomes of ACLF have recently been described in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. However, no data is currently available on the prevalence and the risk factors of ACLF in outpatients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate incidence, predictors and outcomes of ACLF in a large cohort of outpatients with cirrhosis. A total of 466 patients with cirrhosis consecutively evaluated in the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital were included and followed up until death and/or liver transplantation for a mean of 45±44months. Data on development of hepatic and extrahepatic organ failures were collected during this period. ACLF was defined and graded according to the EASL-CLIF Consortium definition. During the follow-up, 118 patients (25%) developed ACLF: 57 grade-1, 33 grade-2 and 28 grade-3. The probability of developing ACLF was 14%, 29%, and 41% at 1year, 5years, and 10years, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, baseline mean arterial pressure (hazard ratio [HR] 0.96; p=0.012), ascites (HR 2.53; p=0.019), model of end-stage liver disease score (HR 1.26; p<0.001) and baseline hemoglobin (HR 0.07; p=0.012) were found to be independent predictors of the development of ACLF at one year. As expected, ACLF was associated with a poor prognosis, with a 3-month probability of transplant-free survival of 56%. Outpatients with cirrhosis have a high risk of developing ACLF. The degree of liver failure and circulatory dysfunction are associated with the development of ACLF, as well as low values of hemoglobin. These simple variables may help to identify patients at a high risk of developing ACLF and to plan a program of close surveillance and prevention in these patients. There is a need to identify predictors of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in patients with cirrhosis in order to identify patients at high risk of developing ACLF and to

  15. Acute lymphocytic cholangitis and liver failure in an Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    PubMed

    Crook, Erika K; Carpenter, Nancy A

    2014-03-01

    An adult male Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) with confirmed inflammatory bowel disease developed acute severe icterus, bilirubinuria, bilirubinemia, and elevated bile acids after a diet change. Liver biopsies showed moderate lymphoplasmacytic cholangiohepatitis (lymphocytic cholangitis). The tiger developed neurologic signs including ataxia, tremors, and seizures, as well as epistaxis. Therapy consisted of antibiotics, a steroid anti-inflammatory, vitamins, pro-coagulants, and liver-supportive medicines. The tiger improved from acute liver failure within 3 wk, while the epistaxis began at 3.5 wk and did not resolve until 10.5 wk. The long-term maintenance plan consists of oral prednisolone, metronidazole, ursodiol, and an all muscle-meat beef diet.

  16. Low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney failure following liver transplant: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Roberto C; Ferraz, Leonardo R; Rodrigues, Cassio J O; Monte, Júlio C M; Mie, Sérgio; Dos Santos, Oscar F P; Paes, Ângela T; Cendoroglo, Miguel; Jaber, Bertrand L; Durão, Marcelino S; Batista, Marcelo C

    2013-07-01

    Patients undergoing orthotropic liver transplant (LTx) often present with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Identification of patients who will progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) might allow not only the implementation of kidney protective measures but also simultaneous kidney transplant. Retrospective cohort study in adults who underwent LTx at a single center. ESRD, death, and composite of ESRD or death were studied outcomes. 331 patients, who underwent LTx, were followed up for 2.6 ± 1.4 years; 31 (10%) developed ESRD, 6 (2%) underwent kidney transplant after LTx and 25 (8%) remained on chronic hemodialysis. Patients with preoperative eGFR lesser than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 had a 4-fold increased risk of developing ESRD after adjustment for sex, diabetes mellitus, APACHE II score, use of nephrotoxic drugs, and severe liver graft failure (HR = 3.95, 95% CI 1.73, 9.01; p = 0.001). Other independent risk factors for ESRD were preoperative diabetes mellitus and post-operative severe liver graft dysfunction. These findings emphasize low eGFR prior to LTx as a predictor for ESRD or death. The consideration for kidney after liver transplant as a treatment modality should be taken into account for those who develop chronic kidney failure after LTx.

  17. Circuit lifespan during continuous renal replacement therapy for combined liver and kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Chua, Horng-Ruey; Baldwin, Ian; Bailey, Michael; Subramaniam, Ashwin; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate circuit lifespan (CL) and bleeding risk during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), in combined liver and renal failure. Single-center retrospective analysis of adults with acute liver failure or decompensated cirrhosis who received CRRT, without anticoagulation or with heparinization in intensive care unit. Seventy-one patients with 539 CRRT circuits were evaluated. Median overall CL was 9 (6-16) hours. CL was 12 (7-24) hours in 51 patients never anticoagulated for CRRT. In 20 patients who subsequently received heparinization, CL was 7 (5-11) hours without anticoagulation, which did not improve with systemic or regional heparinization (P = .231), despite higher peri-circuit activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and heparin dose. Using multivariate linear regression, patients with higher baseline APTT or serum bilirubin, or who were not mechanically ventilated, had longer CL (P < .05). Additionally, peri-circuit thrombocytopenia (P < .0001) or higher international normalized ratio (P < .05) predicted longer CL. Of 71 patients, 33 had significant bleeding events. Using multivariate logistic regression, patients with higher baseline APTT, vasoactive drug use >24 hours, or thrombocytopenia, had more bleeding complications (P < .05). Decreasing platelet counts (especially <50 × 10(9)/mm(3)) had an incremental effect on CL (P < .0001). CRRT CL is short in patients with liver failure despite apparent coagulopathy. Thrombocytopenia predicts longer CL and bleeding complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Establishment of a D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide induced acute-on-chronic liver failure model in rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu-hua; Chen, Yu; Wang, Tai-ling; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Li-jie; Song, Chen-zhao; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Zhong-ping

    2007-10-01

    To establish a practical and reproducible animal model of human acute-on-chronic liver failure for further study of the pathophysiological mechanism of acute-on-chronic liver failure and for drug screening and evaluation in its treatment. Immunological hepatic fibrosis was induced by human serum albumin in Wistar rats. In rats with early-stage cirrhosis (fibrosis stage IV), D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide were administered. Mortality and survival time were recorded in 20 rats. Ten rats were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 hours. Liver function tests and plasma cytokine levels were measured after D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide administration and liver pathology was studied. Cell apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. Most of the rats treated with human albumin developed cirrhosis and fibrosis, and 90% of them died from acute liver failure after administration of D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide, with a mean survival time of (16.1+/-3.7) hours. Liver histopathology showed massive or submassive necrosis of the regenerated nodules, while fibrosis septa were intact. Liver function tests were compatible with massive necrosis of hepatocytes. Plasma level of TNFalpha increased significantly, parallel with the degree of the hepatocytes apoptosis. Plasma IL-10 levels increased similarly as seen in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. We established an animal model of acute-on-chronic liver failure by treating rats with human serum albumin and later with D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide. TNFalpha-mediated liver cell apoptoses plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure.

  19. Transplantation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells via different routes in rats with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Sheng; Yang, Juan; Yang, Jinhui; Tang, Yingmei; Shao, Qinghua; Guo, Ling; Liu, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficacy of transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSC) in different routes in acute hepatic failure (ALF) in rats. hUCMSCs were isolated and identified by detection of surface antigens via flow cytometry. In T group and H group, ALF rats received hUCMSC transplantation through the tail vein and intrahepatic injection, respectively. In hUCMSC group, healthy rats received hUCMSCs transplantation via the tail vein. In ALF group, rats received injection of normal saline through the tail vein. The TBil and ALT in ALF rats with and without transplantation were significantly higher than in healthy rats (P<0.05). HE staining of the liver showed obvious hepatocyte regeneration and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, and liver pathology was improved in T group and H group as compared to ALF group. At 3 d after transplantation, CK18 expression was detectable in both H group and T group. At 1 w and 2 w, the mRNA expressions of CK8, CK18 and AFP in H group and T group were significantly different from those in ALF group (P<0.05). The liver function and differentiation of stem cells were comparable between H group and T group (P>0.05). hUCMSCs transplantation can improve the liver function and promote the liver repair following ALF. hUCMSCs transplantation via tail vein has similar therapeutic efficacy to that through intrahepatic injection.

  20. Spectral Electroencephalogram Analysis for the Evaluation of Encephalopathy Grade in Children With Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Press, Craig A; Morgan, Lindsey; Mills, Michele; Stack, Cynthia V; Goldstein, Joshua L; Alonso, Estella M; Wainwright, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Spectral electroencephalogram analysis is a method for automated analysis of electroencephalogram patterns, which can be performed at the bedside. We sought to determine the utility of spectral electroencephalogram for grading hepatic encephalopathy in children with acute liver failure. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary care pediatric hospital. Patients between 0 and 18 years old who presented with acute liver failure and were admitted to the PICU. None. Electroencephalograms were analyzed by spectral analysis including total power, relative δ, relative θ, relative α, relative β, θ-to-Δ ratio, and α-to-Δ ratio. Normal values and ranges were first derived using normal electroencephalograms from 70 children of 0-18 years old. Age had a significant effect on each variable measured (p < 0.03). Electroencephalograms from 33 patients with acute liver failure were available for spectral analysis. The median age was 4.3 years, 14 of 33 were male, and the majority had an indeterminate etiology of acute liver failure. Neuroimaging was performed in 26 cases and was normal in 20 cases (77%). The majority (64%) survived, and 82% had a good outcome with a score of 1-3 on the Pediatric Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended at the time of discharge. Hepatic encephalopathy grade correlated with the qualitative visual electroencephalogram scores assigned by blinded neurophysiologists (rs = 0.493; p < 0.006). Spectral electroencephalogram characteristics varied significantly with the qualitative electroencephalogram classification (p < 0.05). Spectral electroencephalogram variables including relative Δ, relative θ, relative α, θ-to-Δ ratio, and α-to-Δ ratio all significantly varied with the qualitative electroencephalogram (p < 0.025). Moderate to severe hepatic encephalopathy was correlated with a total power of less than or equal to 50% of normal for children 0-3 years old, and with a relative θ of less than or equal to 50% normal for children more than 3 years old (p

  1. Acute-on-chronic liver failure due to thiamazole in a patient with hyperthyroidism and trilogy of Fallot: case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Thiamazole is a widely used antithyroid agent that has been approved for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Although thiamazole-induced hepatotoxicity is a main side effect, it may progress to liver failure in a very few cases. Case Presentation We described a 24-year-old patient with hyperthyroidism and trilogy of Fallot, who developed liver failure due to thiamazole. Liver biopsy showed intrahepatic cholestasis, mild inflammatory infiltrates, as well as significant fibrosis, indicating both acute and chronic liver injuries. Although a series of potent therapies were given, the patient deceased due to severe liver decompensation. Conclusions This case suggests that thiamazole-induced hepatotoxicity in the setting of advanced fibrosis increases the risk of poor outcome. Regular liver function monitoring during thiamazole therapy is therefore important. PMID:20707932

  2. Liver fibrosis score predicts mortality in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Sato, Yu; Yokokawa, Tetsuro; Sato, Takamasa; Suzuki, Satoshi; Oikawa, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Saitoh, Shu-Ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2018-04-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has several pathophysiological aspects, including stiffness and/or congestion of multiple organs. Poor prognosis is expected in heart failure patients with liver stiffness, which has recently been assessed by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS; based on aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio, platelet counts, and albumin). We aimed to investigate the impact of NFS on prognosis of HFpEF patients, with consideration for the peripheral collagen markers such as procollagen type III peptide (PIIIP), type IV collagen 7S, and hyaluronic acid. We performed a prospective observational study. Consecutive 492 hospitalized HFpEF patients were divided into four groups based on their NFS: first-fourth quartiles (n = 123). The fourth quartile group had the highest levels of PIIIP, type IV collagen 7S, hyaluronic acid, and B-type natriuretic peptide (P<0.001 each). In addition, there were significant positive correlations between PIIIP, type IV collagen 7S, hyaluronic acid, B-type natriuretic peptide, and NFS (P < 0.001 each). In the follow-up period (mean 1107 days), 93 deaths occurred. All-cause mortality increased in all four quartiles (8.1%, 12.2%, 23.6%, and 31.7%, P < 0.001). In the multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis, NFS was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in the HFpEF patients. NFS, a novel indicator of liver fibrosis, correlates with circulating systemic markers of fibrosis and congestion and is associated with higher all-cause mortality in HFpEF patients. NFS can be calculated simply and may be a useful tool to assess liver stiffness and prognosis in HFpEF patients. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  3. Risk factors and outcomes of acute kidney injury in patients with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Tujios, Shannan R; Hynan, Linda S; Vazquez, Miguel A; Larson, Anne M; Seremba, Emmanuel; Sanders, Corron M; Lee, William M

    2015-02-01

    Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) frequently develop renal dysfunction, yet its overall incidence and outcomes have not been fully assessed. We investigated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) among patients with ALF, using defined criteria to identify risk factors and to evaluate its effect on overall outcomes. We performed a retrospective review of data from 1604 patients enrolled in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group, from 1998 through 2010. Patients were classified by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, as well as for etiology of liver failure (acetaminophen-based, ischemic, and all others). Seventy percent of patients with ALF developed AKI, and 30% received renal replacement therapy (RRT). Patients with severe AKI had higher international normalized ratio values than those without renal dysfunction (P < .001), and a higher proportion had advanced-grade coma (coma grades 3 or 4; P < .001) or presented with hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy (P < .001). A greater proportion of patients with acetaminophen-induced ALF had severe kidney injury than of patients with other etiologies of ALF; 34% required RRT, compared with 25% of patients with ALF not associated with acetaminophen or ischemia (P < .002). Of the patients with ALF who were alive at 3 weeks after study entry, significantly fewer with AKI survived for 1 year. Although AKI reduced the overall survival time, more than 50% of patients with acetaminophen-associated or ischemic ALF survived without liver transplantation (even with RRT), compared with 19% of patients with ALF attribute to other causes (P < .001). Only 4% of patients requiring RRT became dependent on dialysis. Based on a retrospective analysis of data from more than 1600 patients, AKI is common in patients with ALF and affects short- and long-term outcomes, but rarely results in chronic kidney disease. Acetaminophen-induced kidney injury is frequent, but patients have better outcomes than those with other forms of

  4. Prediction of posthepatectomy liver failure using transient elastography in patients with hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jie-Wen; Ji, Xiao-Yu; Hong, Jun-Feng; Li, Wan-Bin; Chen, Yan; Pan, Yan; Guo, Jia

    2017-12-29

    It is essential to accurately predict Postoperative liver failure (PHLF) which is a life-threatening complication. Liver hardness measurement (LSM) is widely used in non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The aims of this study were to explore the application of preoperative liver stiffness measurements (LSM) by transient elastography in predicting postoperative liver failure (PHLF) in patients with hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma. The study included 247 consecutive patients with hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent hepatectomy between May 2015 and September 2015. Detailed preoperative examinations including LSM were performed before hepatectomy. The endpoint was the development of PHLF. All of the patients had chronic hepatitis B defined as the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for more than 6 months and 76 (30.8%) had cirrhosis. PHLF occurred in 37 (14.98%) patients. Preoperative LSM (odds ratio, OR, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.13-1.29; P < 0.001) and international normalized ratio (INR) (OR, 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.12; P < 0.05) were revealed to be independent risk factors for PHLF, and a new model was defined as LSM-INR index (LSM-INR index = 0.191*LSM + 6.317*INR-11.154). The optimal cutoff values of LSM and LSM-INR index for predicting PHLF were 14 kPa (AUC 0.86, 95% CI: 0.811-0.901, P < 0.001) and -1.92 (AUC 0.87, 95% CI: 0.822-0.909, P < 0.001), respectively. LSM can be helpful for surgeons to make therapeutic decisions in patients with hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Profile, risk factors and outcome of acute kidney injury in paediatric acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Lal, Bikrant B; Alam, Seema; Sood, Vikrant; Rawat, Dinesh; Khanna, Rajeev

    2018-01-11

    There are no studies on acute kidney injury in paediatric acute-on-chronic liver failure. This study was planned with aim to describe the clinical presentation and outcome of acute kidney injury among paediatric acute-on-chronic liver failure patients. Data of all children 1-18 years of age presenting with acute chronic liver failure (Asia pacific association for the study of the liver definition) was reviewed. Acute kidney injury was defined as per Kidney Diseases-Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. Poor outcome was defined as death or need for liver transplant within 3 months of development of acute kidney injury. A total of 84 children with acute-on-chronic liver failure were presented to us in the study period. Acute kidney injury developed in 22.6% of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. The median duration from acute-on-chronic liver failure to development of acute kidney injury was 4 weeks (Range: 2-10 weeks). The causes of acute kidney injury were hepatorenal syndrome (31.6%), sepsis (31.6%), nephrotoxic drugs (21%), dehydration (10.5%) and bile pigment related acute tubular necrosis in one patient. On univariate analysis, higher baseline bilirubin, higher international normalized ratio, higher paediatric end stage liver disease, presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and presence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis had significant association with presence of acute kidney injury. On logistic regression analysis, presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (adjusted OR: 8.659, 95% CI: 2.18-34.37, P = .002) and higher baseline bilirubin (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.008-1.135, P = .025) were independently associated with presence of acute kidney injury. Of the patients with acute kidney injury, 5(26.3%) survived with native liver, 10(52.6%) died and 4 (21.1%) underwent liver transplantation. Acute kidney injury developed in 22.6% of children with acute-on-chronic liver failure. Bilirubin more than 17.7 mg/dL and

  6. Therapeutic effect comparison of hepatocyte-like cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in acute liver failure of rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongliang; Fan, Jingjing; He, Xiuhua; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Zhiyu; Ruan, Mei; Cai, Lirong

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) induced into hepatocyte-like cells and of un-induced BMSCs in acute liver failure rats. BMSCs in highly homogenous passage 3 were cultured using the whole bone marrow adherent culture method. Hepatic-related characters were confirmed with morphology, RT-PCR analysis, glycogen staining and albumin (ALB) immunofluorescence assay. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was injected intraperitoneally to establish an acute rat liver failure model. Hepatocyte-like cells or un-induced BMSCs were respectively injected into the models to examine rats' appearance, liver function assay and liver tissue pathology. Hepatocyte-like morphology, higher expression of cytokeratin 18 (CK18) mRNA and ALB protein, and glycogen accumulation were confirmed in the induced BMSCs. The transplanted DAPI-labeled BMSCs were localized in the liver tissue 3-14 days after transplantation. The levels of liver function indicators (AST, ALT, ALP, and TBIL) from transplanted rats were significant decreased and pathology was improved, indicating the recovery of liver function. However, the differences were statistically insignificant. Both hepatocyte-like cells and un-induced BMSCs had a similarly positively therapeutic efficacy on liver regeneration in rat liver failure model.

  7. Recurrent elevated liver transaminases and acute liver failure in two siblings with novel bi-allelic mutations of NBAS.

    PubMed

    Regateiro, Frederico S; Belkaya, Serkan; Neves, Nélson; Ferreira, Sandra; Silvestre, Paula; Lemos, Sónia; Venâncio, Margarida; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Gonçalves, Isabel; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Diogo, Luísa

    2017-08-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) in children can be life-threatening. Although many causes are known, ALF remains unexplained in about half of the cases. Recently, bi-allelic mutations in NBAS were reported to underlie recurrent episodes of elevated liver transaminases (ELT) and ALF in the context of diverse extrahepatic phenotypes. We here describe two sisters, born to non-consanguineous Portuguese parents, who had short stature and presented with recurrent episodes of severe ELT triggered by febrile respiratory viral infections since early childhood. Patient 1 had mild facial dysmorphism and died during the second ELT crisis at 3-11/12 years of age. Patient 2, currently 9 years old, had multiple episodes of ELT (>30), twice with ALF, often accompanied by extensive urticaria and facial angioedema. Whole-exome and Sanger sequencing revealed that both patients carried previously undescribed compound heterozygous mutations of NBAS (NM_015909.3): c.680A > C (p.His227Pro), affecting an evolutionarily conserved residue, and c.1749G > A (p.Trp583*), causing a premature stop codon. Both mutations are predicted to be highly damaging. The parents and two younger siblings are healthy and heterozygous for one or another mutant allele. The multiplex kindred reported herein expands the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of this recently described clinical syndrome due to autosomal recessive NBAS deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic evaluation of the artificial liver support system MARS in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, Franz P

    2006-01-01

    Background Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a life threatening acute decompensation of a pre-existing chronic liver disease. The artificial liver support system MARS is a new emerging therapeutic option possible to be implemented in routine care of these patients. The medical efficacy of MARS has been demonstrated in first clinical studies, but economic aspects have so far not been investigated. Objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of MARS. Methods In a clinical cohort trial with a prospective follow-up of 3 years 33 ACLF-patients treated with MARS were compared to 46 controls. Survival, health-related quality of life as well as direct medical costs for in- and outpatient treatment from a health care system perspective were determined. Based on the differences in outcome and indirect costs the cost-effectiveness of MARS expressed as incremental costs per life year gained and incremental costs per QALY gained was estimated. Results The average initial intervention costs for MARS were 14600 EUR per patient treated. Direct medical costs over 3 years follow up were overall 40000 EUR per patient treated with MARS respectively 12700 EUR in controls. The 3 year survival rate after MARS was 52% compared to 17% in controls. Kaplan-Meier analysis of cumulated survival probability showed a highly significant difference in favour of MARS. Incremental costs per life-year gained were 31400 EUR; incremental costs per QALY gained were 47200 EUR. Conclusion The results after 3 years follow-up of the first economic evaluation study of MARS based on empirical patient data are presented. Although high initial treatment costs for MARS occur the significantly better survival seen in this study led to reasonable costs per live year gained. Further randomized controlled trials investigating the medical efficacy and the cost-effectiveness are recommended. PMID:17022815

  9. Monitoring liver macrophages using nanobodies targeting Vsig4: concanavalin A induced acute hepatitis as paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Devoogdt, Nick; Sparkes, Amanda; Morias, Yannick; Abels, Chloé; Stijlemans, Benoit; Lahoutte, Tony; Muyldermans, Serge; De Baetselier, Patrick; Schoonooghe, Steve; Beschin, Alain; Raes, Geert

    2015-02-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) are liver resident macrophages which are important for tissue homeostasis and have been implicated in immunogenic, tolerogenic and pathogenic immune reactions depending on the insult. These cells and the biomarkers they express thus represent interesting in vivo sensors for monitoring liver inflammation. In the current study, we explored whether KCs can be monitored non-invasively using single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) with (99m)Tc labeled nanobodies (Nbs) targeting selected biomarkers. Nbs targeting V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing 4 (Vsig4) or macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) accumulated in the liver of untreated mice. The liver targeting of anti-Vsig4 Nbs, but not anti-MMR Nbs, was blunted upon depletion of macrophages, highlighting specificity of anti-Vsig4 Nbs for liver macrophage imaging. Ex vivo flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that anti-Vsig4 Nbs specifically targeted KCs but no other cell types in the liver. Upon induction of acute hepatitis using concanavalin A (ConA), down-regulation of the in vivo imaging signal obtained using anti-Vsig4 Nbs reflected reduction in KC numbers and transient modulation of Vsig4 expression on KCs. Overall, these results indicate that Nbs targeting Vsig4 as molecular imaging biomarker enable non-invasive monitoring of KCs during hepatic inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Histology and Glutamine Synthetase Immunoreactivity in Liver Biopsies From Patients With Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Bela; Zhu, Lei; Allende, Daniela; Xie, Hao; Guirguis, John; Cruise, Michael; Patil, Deepa T.; O’Shea, Robert; Rivas, John; Yordanka, Reyna; Lan, Nan; Liu, Xiuli

    2017-01-01

    Background Long-standing congestive heart failure can induce a constellation of histopathology changes in the liver that can range from mild sinusoidal dilation to advanced fibrosis and loss of normal perivenular expression of glutamine synthetase (GS). Liver biopsies might be performed to assess the perioperative risk of these patients or to determine the need of synchronous liver transplant. We aimed to assess interobserver agreement in recognizing these liver histologic features in patients undergoing evaluation for heart transplantation and to examine whether immunohistochemistry of GS will aid the diagnosis of cardiac hepatopathy (CH). Methods Hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome-stained slides from 36 liver biopsies from patients undergoing evaluation for heart transplantation were reviewed by four liver pathologists. Histologic features of CH were reviewed and an overall fibrosis (stage) was assessed according to a recently proposed congestive hepatic fibrosis score (CHFS). In addition, 24 liver biopsies with a consensus diagnosis of CH and eight liver biopsies with no significant pathological changes were subjected to immunohistochemistry for GS. The Fleiss’ kappa coefficient (K) analysis was performed to determine the interobserver agreement. Further, histologic features of CH were correlated with the staining pattern of GS. Results Sinusoidal dilation, centrilobular hepatocyte atrophy, centrilobular fibrosis and hemorrhage were the most common findings in this cohort with a substantial-to-fair level of interobserver agreement among four reviewers. The overall agreement on the diagnosis of CH and CHFS was moderate (K = 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32 - 0.73) and fair (K = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.24 - 0.49), respectively. Twelve (of 24, 50%) cases of CH showed loss of the normal perivenular GS staining, while the remaining 12 cases of CH and all eight controls showed retained GS expression. Histologic features of CH (presence of sinusoidal dilation

  11. Pulmonary vascular clearance of harmful endogenous macromolecules in a porcine model of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Nedredal, Geir I; Elvevold, Kjetil; Chedid, Marcio F; Ytrebø, Lars M; Rose, Christopher F; Sen, Sambit; Smedsrød, Bård; Jalan, Rajiv; Revhaug, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary complications are common in acute liver failure (ALF). The role of the lungs in the uptake of harmful soluble endogenous macromolecules was evaluated in a porcine model of ALF induced by hepatic devascularization (n = 8) vs. controls (n = 8). In additional experiments, pulmonary uptake was investigated in healthy pigs. Fluorochrome-labeled modified albumin (MA) was applied to investigate the cellular uptake. As compared to controls, the ALF group displayed a 4-fold net increased lung uptake of hyaluronan, and 5-fold net increased uptake of both tissue plasminogen activator and lysosomal enzymes. Anatomical distribution experiments in healthy animals revealed that radiolabeled MA uptake (taken up by the same receptor as hyaluronan) was 53% by the liver, and 24% by the lungs. The lung uptake of LPS was 14% whereas 60% remained in the blood. Both fluorescence and electron microscopy revealed initial uptake of MA by pulmonary endothelial cells (PECs) with later translocation to pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs). Moreover, the presence of PIMs was evident 10 min after injection. Systemic inflammatory markers such as leukopenia and increased serum TNF-α levels were evident after 20 min in the MA and LPS groups. Significant lung uptake of harmful soluble macromolecules compensated for the defect liver scavenger function in the ALF-group. Infusion of MA induced increased TNF-α serum levels and leukopenia, similar to the effect of the known inflammatory mediator LPS. These observations suggest a potential mechanism that may contribute to lung damage secondary to liver disease.

  12. Silibinin administration improves hepatic failure due to extensive liver infiltration in a breast cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Brunet, Joan; Menendez, Javier A

    2014-08-01

    Silibinin exerts hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Several pre-clinical studies have shown anti-tumoral activity of silibinin in breast cancer cell lines. We present the case of a heavily pre-treated breast cancer patient with extensive liver infiltration. The patient presented with progressive liver failure despite several chemotherapy treatments, including paclitaxel, capecitabine and vinorelbine. After four cycles of a fourth-line chemotherapy treatment consisting of carboplatin and gemcitabine, the patient's liver blood test results deteriorated to life-threatening levels. The compassionate use of Legasil®, a new commercially available nutraceutical product containing a new silibinin formulation, was offered to the patient according to article 37 of the 2013 Declaration of Helsinki. After treatment initiation, the patient presented clinical and liver improvement, which permitted the patient to continue palliative chemotherapy. This is the first case report of a clinical benefit of silibinin administration in a breast cancer patient. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Hodgkin's lymphoma coexisting with liver failure secondary to acute on chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Palta, Renee; McClune, Amy; Esrason, Karl

    2013-04-16

    Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is rarely the initial manifestation of a malignant process or precipitated by the initiation of anti-viral treatment with a nucleoside or nucleotide agent. We report an unusual case of ACLF temporally associated with initiation of Entecavir for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Early Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) was unmasked with initiation of the anti-viral treatment which may have exacerbated ACLF. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been described in the literature. In reviewing our patients clinical course and liver autopsy, he developed a severe acute exacerbation of his chronic hepatitis B virus coinciding with the institution of antiviral therapy and the underlying HL perhaps modulating the overall degree of hepatic injury.

  14. Hodgkin’s lymphoma coexisting with liver failure secondary to acute on chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Palta, Renee; McClune, Amy; Esrason, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is rarely the initial manifestation of a malignant process or precipitated by the initiation of anti-viral treatment with a nucleoside or nucleotide agent. We report an unusual case of ACLF temporally associated with initiation of Entecavir for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Early Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) was unmasked with initiation of the anti-viral treatment which may have exacerbated ACLF. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been described in the literature. In reviewing our patients clinical course and liver autopsy, he developed a severe acute exacerbation of his chronic hepatitis B virus coinciding with the institution of antiviral therapy and the underlying HL perhaps modulating the overall degree of hepatic injury. PMID:24303460

  15. Gap Junction Inhibition Prevents Drug-induced Liver Toxicity and Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Suraj J; Milwid, Jack M; King, Kevin R; Bohr, Stefan; Iracheta, Arvin; Li, Matthew; Vitalo, Antonia; Parekkadan, Biju; Jindal, Rohit; Yarmush, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) limits the development and utilization of numerous therapeutic compounds, and consequently presents major challenges to the pharmaceutical industry and clinical medicine1, 2. Acetaminophen (APAP) containing compounds are among the most frequently prescribed drugs, and also the most common cause of DILI3. Here we describe a pharmacological strategy that targets gap junction communication to prevent amplification of fulminant hepatic failure and APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We report that connexin 32 (Cx32), a key hepatic gap junction protein, is an essential mediator of DILI by showing that mice deficient in Cx32 are protected against liver damage, acute inflammation, and death. We identified a small molecule inhibitor of Cx32 as a novel hepatoprotectant that achieves the same result in wildtype mice when coadministered with known hepatotoxic drugs. These findings demonstrate that gap junction inhibition is an effective therapy for limiting DILI, and suggest a novel pharmaceutical strategy to improve drug safety. PMID:22252509

  16. Procalcitonin Identifies Cell Injury, Not Bacterial Infection, in Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Rule, Jody A; Hynan, Linda S; Attar, Nahid; Sanders, Corron; Korzun, William J; Lee, William M

    2015-01-01

    Because acute liver failure (ALF) patients share many clinical features with severe sepsis and septic shock, identifying bacterial infection clinically in ALF patients is challenging. Procalcitonin (PCT) has proven to be a useful marker in detecting bacterial infection. We sought to determine whether PCT discriminated between presence and absence of infection in patients with ALF. Retrospective analysis of data and samples of 115 ALF patients from the United States Acute Liver Failure Study Group randomly selected from 1863 patients were classified for disease severity and ALF etiology. Twenty uninfected chronic liver disease (CLD) subjects served as controls. Procalcitonin concentrations in most samples were elevated, with median values for all ALF groups near or above a 2.0 ng/mL cut-off that generally indicates severe sepsis. While PCT concentrations increased somewhat with apparent liver injury severity, there were no differences in PCT levels between the pre-defined severity groups-non-SIRS and SIRS groups with no documented infections and Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock groups with documented infections, (p = 0.169). PCT values from CLD patients differed from all ALF groups (median CLD PCT value 0.104 ng/mL, (p ≤0.001)). Subjects with acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity, many without evidence of infection, demonstrated median PCT >2.0 ng/mL, regardless of SIRS features, while some culture positive subjects had PCT values <2.0 ng/mL. While PCT appears to be a robust assay for detecting bacterial infection in the general population, there was poor discrimination between ALF patients with or without bacterial infection presumably because of the massive inflammation observed. Severe hepatocyte necrosis with inflammation results in elevated PCT levels, rendering this biomarker unreliable in the ALF setting.

  17. Encephalopathy in acute liver failure resulting from acetaminophen intoxication: new observations with potential therapy.

    PubMed

    Brusilow, Saul W; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2011-11-01

    Hyperammonemia is a major contributing factor to the encephalopathy associated with liver disease. It is now generally accepted that hyperammonemia leads to toxic levels of glutamine in astrocytes. However, the mechanism by which excessive glutamine is toxic to astrocytes is controversial. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence that glutamine-induced osmotic swelling, especially in acute liver failure, is a contributing factor: the osmotic gliopathy theory. The object of the current communication is to present evidence for the osmotic gliopathy theory in a hyperammonemic patient who overdosed on acetaminophen. Case report. Johns Hopkins Hospital. A 22-yr-old woman who, 36 hrs before admission, ingested 15 g acetaminophen was admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. She was treated with N-acetylcysteine. Physical examination was unremarkable; her mental status was within normal limits and remained so until approximately 72 hrs after ingestion when she became confused, irritable, and agitated. She was intubated, ventilated, and placed on lactulose. Shortly thereafter, she was noncommunicative, unresponsive to painful stimuli, and exhibited decerebrate posturing. A clinical diagnosis of cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure was made. She improved very slowly until 180 hrs after ingestion when she moved all extremities. She woke up shortly thereafter. Despite the fact that hyperammonemia is a major contributing factor to the encephalopathy observed in acute liver failure, the patient's plasma ammonia peaked when she exhibited no obvious neurologic deficit. Thereafter, her plasma ammonia decreased precipitously in parallel with a worsening neurologic status. She was deeply encephalopathic during a period when her liver function and plasma ammonia had normalized. Plasma glutamine levels in this patient were high but began to normalize several hours after plasma ammonia had returned to normal. The patient only started to recover as her plasma glutamine began

  18. Tumor-Like Liver Abscess Mimicking Malignancy With Lung Metastases in a Patient With Acute Renal Failure: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih Hsin; Sun, Cheuk-Kay; Jiang, Jiunn-Song; Tsai, Ming Hsien

    2016-03-01

    The worldwide incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess (KLA) is increasing. It is important to accurately diagnose this life-threatening disease to provide timely and appropriate treatment. Here we report the case of a 38-year-old man with acute renal failure and a tumor-like liver abscess and septic pulmonary embolism. Initially, his clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and radiological findings presented equivocal results of malignancy with metastases. Fine needle aspiration of liver tumor was performed, which showed purulent material with a culture positive for K pneumoniae. KLA symptoms are atypical, and radiological findings may mimic a malignancy with tumor necrosis. In some circumstances, liver aspiration biopsy may be necessary to confirm the real etiology, leading to prompt and timely treatment. Moreover, we should be alert for the impression of KLA when facing a diabetic patient with liver mass lesion and acute renal failure.

  19. Tumor-Like Liver Abscess Mimicking Malignancy With Lung Metastases in a Patient With Acute Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih Hsin; Sun, Cheuk-Kay; Jiang, Jiunn-Song; Tsai, Ming Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The worldwide incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess (KLA) is increasing. It is important to accurately diagnose this life-threatening disease to provide timely and appropriate treatment. Here we report the case of a 38-year-old man with acute renal failure and a tumor-like liver abscess and septic pulmonary embolism. Initially, his clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and radiological findings presented equivocal results of malignancy with metastases. Fine needle aspiration of liver tumor was performed, which showed purulent material with a culture positive for K pneumoniae. KLA symptoms are atypical, and radiological findings may mimic a malignancy with tumor necrosis. In some circumstances, liver aspiration biopsy may be necessary to confirm the real etiology, leading to prompt and timely treatment. Moreover, we should be alert for the impression of KLA when facing a diabetic patient with liver mass lesion and acute renal failure. PMID:26986170

  20. Liver failure due to antithyroid drugs: report of a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Livadas, Sarantis; Xyrafis, Xenofon; Economou, Frangiskos; Boutzios, Georgios; Christou, Maria; Zerva, Aristea; Karachalios, Athanasios; Palioura, Helen; Palimeri, Sotiria; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2010-08-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a common endocrine disorder affecting 2% of females and 0.5% of males worldwide and antithyroid drugs constitute the first line of treatment in the majority of cases. These agents may cause severe adverse effects and among them liver failure, although rare, is a potential lethal one. This case illustrates the sudden and abrupt deterioration of hepatic function due to antithyroid drug administration. This case along with a concise literature review is presented aiming to increase the awareness of endocrinologists of possible fatal complications from the everyday use of common agents such as antithyroid drugs.

  1. Acute liver failure following recreational use of psychotropic "head shop" compounds.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, S; Lambe, E; O'Dea, J

    2011-03-01

    The recreational use of the so-called "legal-highs" has been in both the medical and political arena over the last year as a result of the appearance of "head shops" in many towns in Ireland. These shops specialized in selling new psychotropic compounds that circumvented established drug legislation. Little is known about the potentially harmful effects of these substances but case reports suggest a plethora of harmful psychological and physical effects. Our case describes for the first time acute liver failure associated with the ingestion of two of these amphetamine type compounds.

  2. Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Wilson’s Disease Associated with Fulminant Hepatic Failure: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Hamada, Takashi; Eguchi, Susumu

    2018-01-01

    Patient: Female, 17 Final Diagnosis: Fulminant Wilson’s disease Symptoms: General jaundice • malaise • abdominal pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: ICU Specialty: Transplantology Objective: Rare disease Background: Liver transplantation is indicated for patients with Wilson’s disease (WD) who present either with acute liver failure or with end-stage liver disease and severe hepatic insufficiency as the first sign of disease. However, almost all reported cases have been treated with death donor liver transplantation. Here we report the case of a patient with WD associated with fulminant hepatic failure (WD-FHF) who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Case Report: A 17-year-old female was diagnosed with WD-FHF based on high uric copper (10 603 μg/day, normal <100 μg/day), low serum ceruloplasmin (15 mg/dL, normal >20 mg/dL) and Kayser-Fleischer (K-F) corneal ring, and acute liver failure (ALF), acute renal failure (ARF) and grade 2 hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was 35. Due to her critical condition, the patient underwent LDLT utilizing a right liver graft from her 44-year-old mother. The right hepatic vein (RHV) and inferior right hepatic vein (iRHV) were reconstructed. She developed severe liver dysfunction due to a crooked hepatic vein caused by compression from the large graft. To straighten the bend, a reoperation was performed. During the operation, we tried to relieve the compressed hepatic vein by adjusting the graft location, but the benefits were limited. We therefore performed stenting in both the RHV and iRHV on postoperative day 9. The patient gradually improved, exhibiting good liver and renal functions, and was finally discharged on postoperative day 114. Conclusions: When WD-FHF deteriorates too rapidly for conservative management, LDLT is an effective therapeutic strategy. PMID:29549236

  3. Relevance of liver failure for anti-infective agents: from pharmacokinetic alterations to dosage adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Büdingen, Fiona V.; Gonzalez, Daniel; Tucker, Amelia N.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a complex organ with great ability to influence drug pharmacokinetics (PK). Due to its wide array of function, its impairment has the potential to affect bioavailability, enterohepatic circulation, drug distribution, metabolism, clearance, and biliary elimination. These alterations differ widely depending on the cause of the liver failure, if it is acute or chronic in nature, the extent of impairment, and comorbid conditions. In addition, the effects on liver functions do not occur in a proportional or predictable manner for escalating degrees of liver impairment. The ability of hepatic alterations to influence PK is also dependent on drug characteristics, such as administration route, chemical properties, protein binding, and extraction ratio, among others. This complexity makes it difficult to predict what effects these changes will have on a particular drug. Unlike certain classes of agents, efficacy of anti-infectives is most often dependent on fulfilling PK/pharmacodynamic targets, such as maximum concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration (Cmax/MIC), area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC), time above MIC (T>MIC), half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) or half-maximal effective concentration (EC50), or the time above the concentration which inhibits viral replication by 95% (T>EC95). Loss of efficacy and/or an increased risk of toxicity may occur in certain circumstances of liver injury. Although it is important to consider these potential alterations and their effects on specific anti-infectives, many lack data to constitute specific dosing adjustments, making it important to monitor patients for effectiveness and toxicities of therapy. PMID:24949199

  4. Compressed spectral arrays of patients with fulminant hepatic failure in hepatic coma undergoing liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Takayuki; Asonuma, Katsuhiro; Kim, Ildeok; Inomata, Yukihiro; Kasahara, Mureo; Ohwada, Susumu; Morishita, Yasuo; Tanaka, Koichi

    2002-08-01

    Assessing the coma status of patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is important for determining the reversibility of brain damage and for properly timing liver transplantation. The compressed spectral array (CSA) method is a frequency analysis technique that processes electroencephalogram signals by computer to facilitate on-line interpretation. This method has been used to monitor the consciousness levels of neurointensive care unit patients. In this study, we determined whether CSA could be used to assess the coma status of patients with FHF, and whether CSA provided information that was useful in deciding when to proceed with liver transplantation. CSA recording was carried out in 17 FHF patients with encephalopathy (coma grade III-IV) who underwent living-related liver transplantation between August 1997 and May 1999. Recording was performed with a Neuromonitor OEE-72044 (NIHON KOHDEN, Osaka, Japan) every 24 h before and after transplantation, until the patients regained consciousness. The CSAs of healthy controls were distributed almost equally between 0 and 16 Hz. The CSAs of FHF patients in hepatic coma were classified into three patterns. Eight of the 17 patients showed very prominent slow waves of about 2 Hz (group A), and seven patients showed strongly suppressed rapid waves between 8 and 16 Hz (group B). The remaining two patients showed CSA patterns that were similar to those of healthy controls, even though these patients were comatose (group C). Abnormal CSA patterns were observed in 15 of the 17 patients (88%). Group B patients seemed to have higher coma grades than did group A patients. Sixteen patients underwent liver transplantation, completely recovered from hepatic encephalopathy, and subsequently showed CSA patterns similar to those of healthy controls. One patient died without regaining consciousness. These results suggest that CSA is useful in assessing the coma status of FHF patients and in evaluating electrophysiological recovery

  5. Technical Failure of MR Elastography Examinations of the Liver: Experience from a Large Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mathilde; Corcuera-Solano, Idoia; Lo, Grace; Esses, Steven; Liao, Joseph; Besa, Cecilia; Chen, Nelson; Abraham, Ginu; Fung, Maggie; Babb, James S; Ehman, Richard L; Taouli, Bachir

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To assess the determinants of technical failure of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography of the liver in a large single-center study. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Seven hundred eighty-one MR elastography examinations performed in 691 consecutive patients (mean age, 58 years; male patients, 434 [62.8%]) in a single center between June 2013 and August 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. MR elastography was performed at 3.0 T (n = 443) or 1.5 T (n = 338) by using a gradient-recalled-echo pulse sequence. MR elastography and anatomic image analysis were performed by two observers. Additional observers measured liver T2* and fat fraction. Technical failure was defined as no pixel value with a confidence index higher than 95% and/or no apparent shear waves imaged. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess potential predictive factors of technical failure of MR elastography. Results The technical failure rate of MR elastography at 1.5 T was 3.5% (12 of 338), while it was higher, 15.3% (68 of 443), at 3.0 T. On the basis of univariate analysis, body mass index, liver iron deposition, massive ascites, use of 3.0 T, presence of cirrhosis, and alcoholic liver disease were all significantly associated with failure of MR elastography (P < .004); but on the basis of multivariable analysis, only body mass index, liver iron deposition, massive ascites, and use of 3.0 T were significantly associated with failure of MR elastography (P < .004). Conclusion The technical failure rate of MR elastography with a gradient-recalled-echo pulse sequence was low at 1.5 T but substantially higher at 3.0 T. Massive ascites, iron deposition, and high body mass index were additional independent factors associated with failure of MR elastography of the liver with a two-dimensional gradient-recalled-echo pulse sequence. © RSNA, 2017.

  6. Liver failure induces a systemic inflammatory response. Prevention by recombinant N-terminal bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein.

    PubMed Central

    Boermeester, M. A.; Houdijk, A. P.; Meyer, S.; Cuesta, M. A.; Appelmelk, B. J.; Wesdorp, R. I.; Hack, C. E.; Van Leeuwen, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    The observed increased susceptibility of patients with fulminant hepatic failure for local and systemic infections has been hypothesized to be due to a failure for the hepatic clearance function and subsequent leaking of endogenous endotoxins into the systemic circulation. However, experimental evidence for such a systemic inflammation during liver failure due to endogenous endotoxemia is lacking. Therefore, we designed a study to clarify whether circulating endotoxins due to liver failure could lead to the development of systemic inflammations. In a rat model for liver failure induced by a two-thirds partial hepatectomy, we evaluated the course of circulating tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6, changes in blood chemistry and hemodynamics, and histopathological changes in the lungs. Partially hepatectomized animals, but not sham-operated animals, demonstrated cardiac failure, increased levels of creatinin and urea, metabolic acidosis, high plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6, and an influx of PMNs in the lungs-together indicating the development of a systemic inflammatory response. Continuous infusion of recombinant N-terminal bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI23), a well described endotoxin-neutralizing protein, prevented these inflammatory reactions. Ex vivo experiments with rat plasma samples confirmed the presence of circulating endotoxins in partially hepatectomized rats as opposed to those treated with rBPI23. Thus, our results indicate that the early phase of liver failure induces a systemic inflammatory response triggered by circulating endotoxins, which can be prevented by perioperative infusion of rBPI23. Images Figure 2 PMID:7485405

  7. [Early detection, prevention and management of renal failure in liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Castells, Lluís; Baliellas, Carme; Bilbao, Itxarone; Cantarell, Carme; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Esforzado, Núria; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Lladó, Laura; Rimola, Antoni; Serón, Daniel; Oppenheimer, Federico

    2014-10-01

    Renal failure is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A variety of risk factors for the development of renal failure in the pre- and post-transplantation periods have been described, as well as at the time of surgery. To reduce the negative impact of renal failure in this population, an active approach is required for the identification of those patients with risk factors, the implementation of preventive strategies, and the early detection of progressive deterioration of renal function. Based on published evidence and on clinical experience, this document presents a series of recommendations on monitoring RF in LT recipients, as well as on the prevention and management of acute and chronic renal failure after LT and referral of these patients to the nephrologist. In addition, this document also provides an update of the various immunosuppressive regimens tested in this population for the prevention and control of post-transplantation deterioration of renal function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  8. Urgent liver transplantation for acute liver failure due to parvovirus B19 infection complicated by primary Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections and aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    So, K; Macquillan, G; Garas, G; Delriviere, L; Mitchell, A; Speers, D; Mews, C; Augustson, B; de Boer, W B; Baker, D; Jeffrey, G P

    2007-03-01

    An 11-year-old boy presented with hepatic failure secondary to parvovirus B19 infection, requiring urgent liver transplantation. His recovery was complicated by primary Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections. He subsequently developed aplastic anaemia that has been refractory to antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine therapy and may now require bone marrow transplantation. We present this case to emphasize parvovirus as a rare cause of hepatic failure and of aplastic anaemia as a complication of the virus.

  9. Aberrant GSTP1 promoter methylation predicts short-term prognosis in acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure.

    PubMed

    Gao, S; Sun, F-K; Fan, Y-C; Shi, C-H; Zhang, Z-H; Wang, L-Y; Wang, K

    2015-08-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) methylation has been demonstrated to be associated with oxidative stress induced liver damage in acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF). To evaluate the methylation level of GSTP1 promoter in acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure and determine its predictive value for prognosis. One hundred and five patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure, 86 with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 30 healthy controls (HC) were retrospectively enrolled. GSTP1 methylation level in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) was detected by MethyLight. Clinical and laboratory parameters were obtained. GSTP1 methylation levels were significantly higher in patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (median 16.84%, interquartile range 1.83-59.05%) than those with CHB (median 1.25%, interquartile range 0.48-2.47%; P < 0.01) and HC (median 0.80%, interquartile range 0.67-1.27%; P < 0.01). In acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure group, nonsurvivors showed significantly higher GSTP1 methylation levels (P < 0.05) than survivors. GSTP1 methylation level was significantly correlated with total bilirubin (r = 0.29, P < 0.01), prothrombin time activity (r = -0.24, P = 0.01) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (r = 0.26, P = 0.01). When used to predict 1- or 2-month mortality of acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure, GSTP1 methylation showed significantly better predictive value than MELD score [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.89 vs. 0.72, P < 0.01; AUC 0.83 vs. 0.70, P < 0.05 respectively]. Meanwhile, patients with GSTP1 methylation levels above the cut-off points showed significantly poorer survival than those below (P < 0.05). Aberrant GSTP1 promoter methylation exists in acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure and shows high predictive value for short-term mortality. It might serve as a potential prognostic marker for acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure

  10. Interaction of Gender and Hepatitis C in Risk of Chronic Renal Failure After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ip, Stephen; Hussaini, Trana; Daulat, Aliya; Partovi, Nilufar; Erb, Siegfried R; Yoshida, Eric M; Marquez, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in post-liver transplantation (LT) recipients. The risk factors associated with the development of renal dysfunction are not clearly elucidated. To examine the risk factors in the development of CRF in these patients. Retrospective case-cohort of liver transplant patients without baseline kidney dysfunction who developed chronic renal failure during their follow-up. Of 370 patients, 254 met the inclusion criteria. 30% (76) of these patients had CRF of which 57% (43) were male. Age, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at discharge, and HCV infection were found to be risk factors for CRF post-LT. The odds ratio of developing CRF was 1.4 (0.6-3.3) in males with HCV, 1.6 (0.7-3.9) in females without HCV and 4.4 (1.5-13.2) among females with HCV when compared to men without HCV. In this cohort of LT receipients of a major Canadian city, age, eGFR, and HCV infection were risk factors for CRF. Female gender and HCV increased this odds by a factor of more than 4.

  11. Derangements of liver tissue bioenergetics in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamsi, Mariam; Shahin, Allen; Mensah-Brown, Eric P K; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2013-01-12

    A novel in vitro system was employed to investigate liver tissue respiration (mitochondrial O2 consumption) in mice treated with concanavalin A (Con A). This study aimed to investigate hepatocyte bioenergetics in this well-studied hepatitis model. C57Bl/6 and C57Bl/6 IFN-γ-/- mice were injected intravenously with 12 mg ConA/kg. Liver specimens were collected at various timepoints after injection and analyzed for cellular respiration and caspase activation. Serum was analyzed for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and aminotransferases. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis was used to determine the phenotype of infiltrating cells, and light and electron microscopy were used to monitor morphological changes. Phosphorescence analyzer that measured dissolved O2 as function of time was used to evaluate respiration. In sealed vials, O2 concentrations in solutions containing liver specimen and glucose declined linearly with time, confirming zero-order kinetics of hepatocyte respiration. O2 consumption was inhibited by cyanide, confirming the oxidation occurred in the respiratory chain. Enhanced liver respiration (by ≈68%, p<0.02) was noted 3 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with limited cellular infiltrations around the blood vessels. Diminished respiration (by ≈30%, p=0.005) was noted 12 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with deranged mitochondria, areas of necrosis, and prominent infiltrations with immune cells, most significantly, CD3+NKT+ cells. Increases in intracellular caspase activity and serum IFN-γ and aminotransferase levels were noted 3 hr after ConA treatment and progressed with time. The above-noted changes were less pronounced in C57Bl/6 IFN-γ-/- mice treated with ConA. Based on these results, liver tissue bioenergetics is increased 3 hr after ConA exposure. This effect is driven by the pathogenesis of the disease, in which IFN-γ and other cytokines contribute to. Subsequent declines in liver bioenergetics

  12. Validation of prognostic scores to predict short-term mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Song, Do Seon; Kim, Tae Yeob; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Hee Yeon; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Yoon, Eileen L; Kim, Chang Wook; Jung, Young Kul; Suk, Ki Tae; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Chang Hyeong; Kim, Tae Hun; Choe, Won Hyeok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Sung Eun; Baik, Soon Koo; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Hyoung Su; Kim, Sang Gyune; Yang, Jin Mo; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Choi, Eun Hee; Cho, Hyun Chin; Jeong, Soung Won; Kim, Moon Young

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment score (CLIF-SOFAs), CLIF consortium organ failure score (CLIF-C OFs), CLIF-C acute-on-chronic liver failure score (CLIF-C ACLFs), and CLIF-C acute decompensation score in Korean chronic liver disease patients with acute deterioration. Acute-on-chronic liver failure was defined by either the Asian Pacific Association for the study of the Liver ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) or CLIF-C criteria. The diagnostic performances for short-term mortality were compared by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Among a total of 1470 patients, 252 patients were diagnosed with ACLF according to the CLIF-C (197 patients) or AARC definition (95 patients). As the ACLF grades increased, the survival rates became significantly lower. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic of the CLIF-SOFAs, CLIF-C OFs, and CLIF-C ACLFs were significantly higher than those of the Child-Pugh, model for end-stage liver disease, and model for end-stage liver disease-Na scores in ACLF patients according to the CLIF-C definition (all P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in patients without ACLF or in patients with ACLF according to the AARC definition. The CLIF-SOFAs, CLIF-C OFs, and CLIF-C ACLFs had higher specificities with a fixed sensitivity than liver specific scores in ACLF patients according to the CLIF-C definition, but not in ACLF patients according to the AARC definition. The CLIF-SOFAs, CLIF-C OFs, and CLIF-C ACLFs are useful scoring systems that provide accurate information on prognosis in patients with ACLF according to the CLIF-C definition, but not the AARC definition. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. HBV-Associated Acute Liver Failure After Immunosuppression and Risk of Death.

    PubMed

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Cardoso, Filipe S; Gottfried, Michelle; Reddy, K Rajender; Hanje, A James; Ganger, Daniel; Lee, William M

    2017-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can occur after immunosuppressive treatment and be fatal, although it might be preventable. We aimed to characterize the causes, clinical course, and short-term outcomes of HBV-associated ALF after immune-suppressive therapy, compared with patients with HBV-associated ALF without immunosuppression (control subjects). We performed a retrospective multicenter study of 156 consecutive patients diagnosed with HBV-associated ALF (22 with a solid or blood malignancy) enrolled in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry from January 1998 through April 2015. We collected data on results of serologic and hepatic biochemistry analyses, grade of hepatic encephalopathy, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and King's College criteria. We also collected data on clinical features, medical therapies, and complications in the first 7 days following study enrollment. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with transplant-free survival at 21 days in HBV-associated ALF (the primary outcome). Among patients with HBV-associated ALF, 28 cases (18%) occurred after immunosuppressive therapy (15 patients received systemic corticosteroids and 21 received chemotherapy); and 128 cases did not (control subjects, 82%). Significantly greater proportions of patients with HBV-associated ALF after immunosuppression were nonwhite persons, and had anemia or thrombocytopenia than controls (P < .02 for all). The serologic profile of HBV infection, severity of liver failure (based on MELD score), and complications (hepatic encephalopathy or need for mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, or renal replacement therapy) were similar between the groups (P > .17 for all). Factors associated with 21 day transplant-free survival were increased MELD score (odds ratio ∼OR, 0.894 (95% confidence interval 0.842-0.949 per increment), requirement for mechanical ventilation (OR 0.111(0.041-0.300), and immunosuppressive

  14. Clinical management of acute liver failure: Results of an international multi-center survey

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowich, Liane; Wendon, Julia; Bernal, William; Shibolet, Oren

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the practice of caring for acute liver failure (ALF) patients in varying geographic locations and medical centers. METHODS Members of the European Acute Liver Failure Consortium completed an 88-item questionnaire detailing management of ALF. Responses from 22 transplantation centers in 11 countries were analyzed, treating between 300 and 500 ALF cases and performing over 100 liver transplants (LT) for ALF annually. The questions pertained to details of the institution and their clinical activity, standards of care, referral and admission, ward- based care versus intensive care unit (ICU) as well as questions regarding liver transplantation - including criteria, limitations, and perceived performance. Clinical data was also collected from 13 centres over a 3 mo period. RESULTS The interval between referral and admission of ALF patients to specialized units was usually less than 24 h and once admitted, treatment was provided by a multidisciplinary team. Principles of care of patients with ALF were similar among centers, particularly in relation to recognition of severity and care of the more critically ill. Centers exhibited similarities in thresholds for ICU admission and management of severe hepatic encephalopathy. Over 80% of centers administered n-acetyl-cysteine to ICU patients for non-paracetamol-related ALF. There was significant divergence in the use of prophylactic antibiotics and anti-fungals, lactulose, nutritional support and imaging investigations in admitted patients and in the monitoring and treatment of intra-cranial pressure (ICP). ICP monitoring was employed in 12 centers, with the most common indications being papilledema and renal failure. Most patients listed for transplantation underwent surgery within an average waiting time of 1-2 d. Over a period of 3 mo clinical data from 85 ALF patients was collected. Overall patient survival at 90-d was 76%. Thirty six percent of patients underwent emergency LT, with a 90% post transplant

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cell/Red Blood Cell-Inspired Nanoparticle Therapy in Mice with Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hongxia; Huang, Ke; Su, Teng; Li, Zhenhua; Hu, Shiqi; Dinh, Phuong-Uyen; Wrona, Emily A; Shao, Chen; Qiao, Li; Vandergriff, Adam C; Hensley, M Taylor; Cores, Jhon; Allen, Tyler; Zhang, Hongyu; Zeng, Qinglei; Xing, Jiyuan; Freytes, Donald O; Shen, Deliang; Yu, Zujiang; Cheng, Ke

    2018-06-26

    Acute liver failure is a critical condition characterized by global hepatocyte death and often time needs a liver transplantation. Such treatment is largely limited by donor organ shortage. Stem cell therapy offers a promising option to patients with acute liver failure. Yet, therapeutic efficacy and feasibility are hindered by delivery route and storage instability of live cell products. We fabricated a nanoparticle that carries the beneficial regenerative factors from mesenchymal stem cells and further coated it with the membranes of red blood cells to increase blood stability. Unlike uncoated nanoparticles, these particles promote liver cell proliferation in vitro and have lower internalization by macrophage cells. After intravenous delivery, these artificial stem cell analogs are able to remain in the liver and mitigate carbon tetrachloride-induced liver failure in a mouse model, as gauged by histology and liver function test. Our technology provides an innovative and off-the-shelf strategy to treat liver failure.

  16. Acetaminophen-induced Acute Liver Failure Is More Common and More Severe in Women.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Jessica B; Hameed, Bilal; Gottfried, Michelle; Lee, William M; Sarkar, Monika

    2018-06-01

    Acetaminophen overdose is the leading cause of acute liver injury (ALI) and acute liver failure (ALF) in the developed world. Sex differences in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity have not been described. We collected data from the Acute Liver Failure Study Group cohort, a national registry of 32 academic medical centers in North America of adults with ALI or ALF, including 1162 patients with acetaminophen-induced ALI (n = 250) or acetaminophen-induced ALF (n = 912) from January 2000 through September 2016. We analyzed data on patient presentation, disease course, demographics, medical and psychiatric history, medication use, substance use, and details of acetaminophen ingestion. Sex differences in continuous and categorical variables were evaluated by Wilcoxon rank-sum and χ 2 analysis or the Fisher exact test. Our primary aim was to evaluate sex differences in the presentation and clinical course of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury or liver failure, and our secondary goal was to compare overall and transplant-free survival between sexes. Most patients with acetaminophen-induced ALI (68%) or ALF (76%) were women. Higher proportions of women than men had psychiatric disease (60% of women vs 48% of men, P < .01) and had co-ingestion with sedating agents (70% of women vs 52% of men, P < .01)-more than half of which were opioids. Higher proportions of women had severe hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (68% of women vs 58% of men), and required intubation (67% of women vs 59% of men, P values <.03). Higher proportions of women used vasopressors (26% of women vs 19% of men, P = .04) or mannitol (13% of women vs 6% of men, P < .01); proportions of male vs female patients with transplant-free survival were similar (68%). On adjusted analysis, women had higher risk of severe HE (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.17-2.35). We found a significant interaction between sex and co-ingestion of sedating agents (P < .01); co-ingestion increased odds of

  17. Factors Associated with Mortality and Graft Failure in Liver Transplants: A Hierarchical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Andraus, Wellington; de Martino, Rodrigo Bronze; Ortega, Neli Regina de Siqueira; Abe, Jair Minoro; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation has received increased attention in the medical field since the 1980s following the introduction of new immunosuppressants and improved surgical techniques. Currently, transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage liver disease, and it has been expanded for other indications. Liver transplantation outcomes depend on donor factors, operating conditions, and the disease stage of the recipient. A retrospective cohort was studied to identify mortality and graft failure rates and their associated factors. All adult liver transplants performed in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2006 and 2012 were studied. Methods and Findings A hierarchical Poisson multiple regression model was used to analyze factors related to mortality and graft failure in liver transplants. A total of 2,666 patients, 18 years or older, (1,482 males; 1,184 females) were investigated. Outcome variables included mortality and graft failure rates, which were grouped into a single binary variable called negative outcome rate. Additionally, donor clinical, laboratory, intensive care, and organ characteristics and recipient clinical data were analyzed. The mortality rate was 16.2 per 100 person-years (py) (95% CI: 15.1–17.3), and the graft failure rate was 1.8 per 100 py (95% CI: 1.5–2.2). Thus, the negative outcome rate was 18.0 per 100 py (95% CI: 16.9–19.2). The best risk model demonstrated that recipient creatinine ≥ 2.11 mg/dl [RR = 1.80 (95% CI: 1.56–2.08)], total bilirubin ≥ 2.11 mg/dl [RR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.27–1.72)], Na+ ≥ 141.01 mg/dl [RR = 1.70 (95% CI: 1.47–1.97)], RNI ≥ 2.71 [RR = 1.64 (95% CI: 1.41–1.90)], body surface ≥ 1.98 [RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.68–0.97)] and donor age ≥ 54 years [RR = 1.28 (95% CI: 1.11–1.48)], male gender [RR = 1.19(95% CI: 1.03–1.37)], dobutamine use [RR = 0.54 (95% CI: 0.36–0.82)] and intubation ≥ 6 days [RR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.10–1.34)] affected the negative outcome

  18. Hepatic encephalopathy in patients with acute decompensation of cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Montagnese, Sara; Jalan, Rajiv

    2015-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy in a hospitalized cirrhotic patient is associated with a high mortality rate and its presence adds further to the mortality of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The exact pathophysiological mechanisms of HE in this group of patients are unclear but hyperammonemia, systemic inflammation (including sepsis, bacterial translocation, and insulin resistance) and oxidative stress, modulated by glutaminase gene alteration, remain as key factors. Moreover, alcohol misuse, hyponatremia, renal insufficiency, and microbiota are actively explored. HE diagnosis requires exclusion of other causes of neurological, metabolic and psychiatric dysfunction. Hospitalization in the ICU should be considered in every patient with overt HE, but particularly if this is associated with ACLF. Precipitating factors should be identified and treated as required. Evidence-based specific management options are limited to bowel cleansing and non-absorbable antibiotics. Ammonia lowering drugs, such as glycerol phenylbutyrate and ornithine phenylacetate show promise but are still in clinical trials. Albumin dialysis may be useful in refractory cases. Antibiotics, prebiotics, and treatment of diabetes reduce systemic inflammation. Where possible and not contraindicated, large portal-systemic shunts may be embolized but liver transplantation is the most definitive step in the management of HE in this setting. HE in patients with ACLF appears to be clinically and pathophysiologically distinct from that of acute decompensation and requires further studies and characterization. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of preoperative chronic renal failure on liver transplantation: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Peter Chi-Ho; Chen, Hsiu-Pin; Lin, Jr-Rung; Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess whether preoperative chronic renal failure (CRF) affects the rates of postoperative complications and survival after liver transplantation. Methods This population-based retrospective cohort study included 2,931 recipients of liver transplantation performed between 1998 and 2012, enrolled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients were divided into two groups, based on the presence or absence of preoperative CRF. Results The overall estimated survival rate of liver transplantation recipients (LTRs) with preoperative CRF was significantly lower than that of patients without preoperative CRF (P=0.0085). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of duration of intensive care unit stay, total hospital stay, bacteremia, postoperative bleeding, and pneumonia during hospitalization. Long-term adverse effects, including cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease, were not different between patients with versus without CRF. Conclusion These findings suggest that LTRs with preoperative CRF have a higher rate of mortality. PMID:28008264

  20. Association Between Plasma Level of Galectin-9 and Survival of Patients With Drug-Induced Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Hugo R; Biggins, Scott W; Niki, Toshiro; Gralla, Jane; Hillman, Holly; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Schilsky, Michael; Lee, William M

    2016-04-01

    Fewer than 50% of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) recover spontaneously, and ALF has high mortality without liver transplantation. Kupffer cells have been reported to mediate liver inflammation during drug-induced injury. Galectin-9 is produced by Kupffer cells and has diverse roles in regulating immunity. We investigated whether plasma levels of galectin-9 are associated with outcomes of patients with ALF. We analyzed plasma samples (collected at time of hospital admission) and clinical data from 149 patients included in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from July 2006 through November 2010 (110 had acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and 39 had nonacetaminophen drug-induced liver injury). We compared data with those from all patients enrolled in the study (from July 1, 2006 through October 30, 2013), and from healthy individuals of similar ages with no evidence of liver disease (control subjects). Plasma levels of galectin-9 were measured using a polyclonal antibody and colorimetric assay. Patients with ALF had statistically higher plasma levels of galectin-9 than control subjects, but levels did not differ significantly between patients with acetaminophen-induced liver injury and drug-induced liver injury. A level of galectin-9 above 690 pg/mL was associated with a statistically significant increase in risk for mortality or liver transplantation caused by ALF. Competing risk analyses associated level of galectin-9 with transplant-free survival, independently of Model For End-Stage Liver Disease score or systemic inflammatory response syndrome. A one-time measurement of plasma galectin-9 level can be used to assign patients with ALF to high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups. The combination of galectin-9 level and Model For End-Stage Liver Disease score was more closely associated with patient outcome than either value alone. These data might be used to determine patient prognoses and prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Clinical

  1. Hypervitaminosis A-induced liver fibrosis: stellate cell activation and daily dose consumption.

    PubMed

    Nollevaux, M-C; Guiot, Y; Horsmans, Y; Leclercq, I; Rahier, J; Geubel, A P; Sempoux, C

    2006-03-01

    Hypervitaminosis A-related liver toxicity may be severe and may even lead to cirrhosis. In the normal liver, vitamin A is stored in hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which are prone to becoming activated and acquiring a myofibroblast-like phenotype, producing large amounts of extracellular matrix. In order to assess the relationship between vitamin A intake, HSC activation and fibrosis, we studied nine liver biopsies from patients belonging to a well-characterized series of 41 patients with vitamin A hepatotoxicity. Fibrosis was underlined by Sirius-red staining, whereas activated HSC were immunohistochemically identified using an antibody against alpha smooth muscle actin. The volume density (Vv) of sinusoidal and total fibrosis and of sinusoidal and total activated HSC was quantified by the point-counting method. Morphology ranged from HSC hypertrophy and hyperplasia as the sole features to severe architectural distortion. There was a significant positive correlation between Vv of perisinusoidal fibrosis and the daily consumption of vitamin A (P=0.004). The close correlation between the severity of perisinusoidal fibrosis and the daily dose of the retinol intake suggests the existence of a dose-effect relationship.

  2. Detection of anti-isoniazid and anti-cytochrome P450 antibodies in patients with isoniazid-induced liver failure.

    PubMed

    Metushi, Imir G; Sanders, Corron; Lee, William M; Uetrecht, Jack

    2014-03-01

    Isoniazid (INH)-induced hepatotoxicity remains one of the most common causes of drug-induced idiosyncratic liver injury and liver failure. This form of liver injury is not believed to be immune-mediated because it is not usually associated with fever or rash, does not recur more rapidly on rechallenge, and previous studies have failed to identify anti-INH antibodies (Abs). In this study, we found Abs present in sera of 15 of 19 cases of INH-induced liver failure. Anti-INH Abs were present in 8 sera; 11 had anti-cytochrome P450 (CYP)2E1 Abs, 14 had Abs against CYP2E1 modified by INH, 14 had anti-CYP3A4 antibodies, and 10 had anti-CYP2C9 Abs. INH was found to form covalent adducts with CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9. None of these Abs were detected in sera from INH-treated controls without significant liver injury. The presence of a range of antidrug and autoAbs has been observed in other drug-induced liver injury that is presumed to be immune mediated. These data provide strong evidence that INH induces an immune response that causes INH-induced liver injury. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Improvement of impaired albumin binding capacity in acute-on-chronic liver failure by albumin dialysis.

    PubMed

    Klammt, Sebastian; Mitzner, Steffen R; Stange, Jan; Loock, Jan; Heemann, Uwe; Emmrich, Jörg; Reisinger, Emil C; Schmidt, Reinhard

    2008-09-01

    Extracorporeal albumin dialysis (ECAD) enables the elimination of albumin bound substances and is used as artificial liver support system. Albumin binding function for the benzodiazepine binding site specific marker Dansylsarcosine was estimated in plasma samples of 22 patients with cirrhosis and hyperbilirubinaemia (ECAD: n = 12; control: n = 10) during a period of 30 days in a randomized controlled clinical ECAD trial. Albumin Binding Capacity (ABiC) at baseline was reduced to 31.8% (median; range 24%-74%) and correlated to the severity of liver disease. Within two weeks a significant improvement of ABiC and a reduction of the albumin bound markers bilirubin and bile acids were observed in the ECAD group. During single treatments a significant decrease of albumin bound substances (bilirubin and bile acids) as well as an increase in ABiC was observed. In the control group, baseline ABiC was significantly lower in patients who died during study period (34.2% vs. 41.7%; P < 0.028), whereas no significant differences were observed for CHILD, coagulation factors, albumin, bile acids nor bilirubin. At baseline 13 patients had a severely impaired ABiC (<40%), improvement of ABiC was more frequent in the ECAD group (5/6) than in the SMT group (2/7). Reduced albumin binding function is present in decompensated liver failure and is related to severity and 30 day survival. ABiC can be improved by ECAD. The beneficial effect of this treatment may be related to the improvement of albumin binding function more than to the elimination of specific substances. Characterization of albumin function by the ABiC test may help to evaluate different liver support systems and other therapeutic measures.

  4. Frequency and Pathophysiology of Acute Liver Failure in Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTCD)

    PubMed Central

    Laemmle, Alexander; Gallagher, Renata C.; Keogh, Adrian; Stricker, Tamar; Gautschi, Matthias; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Häberle, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute liver failure (ALF) has been reported in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) and other urea cycle disorders (UCD). The frequency of ALF in OTCD is not well-defined and the pathogenesis is not known. Aim To evaluate the prevalence of ALF in OTCD, we analyzed the Swiss patient cohort. Laboratory data from 37 individuals, 27 females and 10 males, diagnosed between 12/1991 and 03/2015, were reviewed for evidence of ALF. In parallel, we performed cell culture studies using human primary hepatocytes from a single patient treated with ammonium chloride in order to investigate the inhibitory potential of ammonia on hepatic protein synthesis. Results More than 50% of Swiss patients with OTCD had liver involvement with ALF at least once in the course of disease. Elevated levels of ammonia often correlated with (laboratory) coagulopathy as reflected by increased values for international normalized ratio (INR) and low levels of hepatic coagulation factors which did not respond to vitamin K. In contrast, liver transaminases remained normal in several cases despite massive hyperammonemia and liver involvement as assessed by pathological INR values. In our in vitro studies, treatment of human primary hepatocytes with ammonium chloride for 48 hours resulted in a reduction of albumin synthesis and secretion by approximately 40%. Conclusion In conclusion, ALF is a common complication of OTCD, which may not always lead to severe symptoms and may therefore be underdiagnosed. Cell culture experiments suggest an ammonia-induced inhibition of hepatic protein synthesis, thus providing a possible pathophysiological explanation for hyperammonemia-associated ALF. PMID:27070778

  5. Emerging role of liver X receptors in cardiac pathophysiology and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Megan V; van Gilst, Wiek H; de Boer, Rudolf A

    2016-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are master regulators of metabolism and have been studied for their pharmacological potential in vascular and metabolic disease. Besides their established role in metabolic homeostasis and disease, there is mounting evidence to suggest that LXRs may exert direct beneficial effects in the heart. Here, we aim to provide a conceptual framework to explain the broad mode of action of LXRs and how LXR signaling may be an important local and systemic target for the treatment of heart failure. We discuss the potential role of LXRs in systemic conditions associated with heart failure, such as hypertension, diabetes, and renal and vascular disease. Further, we expound on recent data that implicate a direct role for LXR activation in the heart, for its impact on cardiomyocyte damage and loss due to ischemia, and effects on cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and myocardial metabolism. Taken together, the accumulating evidence supports the notion that LXRs may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure.

  6. Kidney allocation to liver transplant candidates with renal failure of undetermined etiology: role of percutaneous renal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wadei, H M; Geiger, X J; Cortese, C; Mai, M L; Kramer, D J; Rosser, B G; Keaveny, A P; Willingham, D L; Ahsan, N; Gonwa, T A

    2008-12-01

    The feasibility, value and risk of percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) in liver transplant candidates with renal failure are unknown. PRB was performed on 44 liver transplant candidates with renal failure of undetermined etiology and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <40 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (n = 37) or on renal replacement therapy (RRT) (n = 7). Patients with >or=30% interstitial fibrosis (IF), >or=40% global glomerulosclerosis (gGS) and/or diffuse glomerulonephritis were approved for simultaneous-liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation. Prebiopsy GFR, urinary sodium indices, dependency on RRT and kidney size were comparable between 27 liver-transplant-alone (LTA) and 17 SLK candidates and did not relate to the biopsy diagnosis. The interobserver agreement for the degree of IF or gGS was moderate-to-excellent. After a mean of 78 +/- 67 days, 16 and 8 patients received LTA and SLK transplants. All five LTA recipients on RRT recovered kidney function after transplantation and serum creatinine was comparable between LTA and SLK recipients at last follow-up. Biopsy complications developed in 13, of these, five required intervention. PRB is feasible in liver transplant candidates with renal failure and provides reproducible histological information that does not relate to the pretransplant clinical data. Randomized studies are needed to determine if PRB can direct kidney allocation in this challenging group of liver transplant candidates.

  7. Protective effects of silymarin against bisphenol A-induced hepatotoxicity in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Zaulet, Mihaela; Kevorkian, Steliana Elvira Maria; Dinescu, Sorina; Cotoraci, Coralia; Suciu, Maria; Herman, Hildegard; Buburuzan, Laura; Badulescu, Liliana; Ardelean, Aurel; Hermenean, Anca

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical released into the environment, with severe consequences for human health, including metabolic syndrome and associated pathological conditions. Due to limited information on BPA-induced hepatotoxicity, the present study focused on investigating the association between BPA-induced toxicity and inflammatory markers in the liver, and how these injuries may be alleviated using the natural agent silymarin, a flavonoid with antioxidant properties obtained from Silybum marianum. Administration of BPA to male CD-1 mice for 10 days caused a significant increase in the number of cells immunopositive for interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, pro-inflammatory cytokines that mediate the hepatic inflammatory response. Treatment with 200 mg/kg of silymarin concurrently with BPA for 10 days resulted in a diminished level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and in significantly reduced ultrastructural injuries. Additionally, silymarin was able to restore the significantly decreased glycogen deposits observed following BPA exposure to normal levels, thus favoring hepatic glycogenesis. This study represents the first report of silymarin ability to reduce hepatic lesions and to counteract inflammation caused by BPA in mice. A dose of 200 mg/kg silymarin was sufficient to induce a protective effect against structural and ultrastructural injuries induced by BPA and to lower the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines observed in murine liver tissue following exposure to BPA. PMID:28450905

  8. Progressive liver failure post acute hepatitis A, over a three-month period, resulting in hepatorenal syndrome and death

    PubMed Central

    Al Saadi, Tareq; Sawaf, Bisher; Alkhatib, Mahmoud; Zakaria, Mhd Ismael; Daaboul, Bisher

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis A is a common viral illness worldwide. It usually results in an acute, self-limiting disease and only rarely leads to fulminant hepatic failure or any other complications. During the period of conflict in Syria, and due to the damages to water infrastructure and poor sanitation, a dramatic increase in hepatitis A virus infection has been documented. Here we report a rare case of a 14-year-old male whose hepatitis A was complicated with hepatorenal syndrome and subacute liver failure. The war condition in Syria impeded transportation of the patient to a nearby country for liver transplantation, contributing to his unfortunate death. PMID:27247182

  9. Pretreatment with propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate ameliorated concanavalin A-induced liver injury by regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shizan; Wu, Liwei; Zhang, Qinghui; Feng, Jiao; Li, Sainan; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Tong; Mo, Wenhui; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Yingqun; Fan, Xiaoming; Guo, Chuanyong

    2017-09-15

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effect of PSS on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury in mice and examined the underlying mechanisms. Balb/C mice were injected intravenously with Con A (25mg/kg) to generate a model of acute liver injury. PSS (25 or 50mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1h before the Con A administration. The levels of serum liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and other marker proteins were determined, and liver injury was assessed histopathologically 2, 8, and 24h after Con A injection. Pretreatment with PSS reduced the levels of serum liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, and attenuated histopathological damage in Con A-induced liver injury in mice. The effects of Con A were mediated by apoptosis and autophagy, as indicated by changes in protein and gene expression of related factors after Con A injection. PSS activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway and showed a protective function against apoptosis and autophagy. PSS ameliorated Con A-induced liver injury by downregulating inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1β and regulating apoptosis and autophagy via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Outcomes in Adults With Acute Liver Failure Between 1998 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Reuben, Adrian; Tillman, Holly; Fontana, Robert J.; Davern, Timothy; McGuire, Brendan; Stravitz, R. Todd; Durkalski, Valerie; Larson, Anne M.; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; Schilsky, Michael; McCashland, Timothy; Hay, J. Eileen; Murray, Natalie; Shaikh, Obaid S.; Ganger, Daniel; Zaman, Atif; Han, Steven B.; Chung, Raymond T.; Smith, Alastair; Brown, Robert; Crippin, Jeffrey; Harrison, M. Edwyn; Koch, David; Munoz, Santiago; Reddy, K. Rajender; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Satyanarayana, Raj; Hassanein, Tarek; Hanje, A. James; Olson, Jody; Subramanian, Ram; Karvellas, Constantine; Hameed, Bilal; Sherker, Averell H.; Robuck, Patricia; Lee, William M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare syndrome of severe, rapid-onset hepatic dysfunction without prior advanced liver disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Intensive care and liver transplantation provide support and rescue, respectively. Objective To determine whether changes in causes, disease severity, treatment, or 21-day outcomes have occurred in recent years among adult patients with ALF referred to U.S. tertiary care centers. Design Prospective observational cohort study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00518440) Setting 31 liver disease and transplant centers in the United States. Patients Consecutively enrolled patients–without prior advanced liver disease–with ALF (n = 2070). Measurements Clinical features, treatment, and 21-day outcomes were compared over time annually for trends and were also stratified into two 8-year periods (1998 to 2005 and 2006 to 2013). Results Overall clinical characteristics, disease severity, and distribution of causes remained similar throughout the study period. The 21-day survival rates increased between the two 8-year periods (overall, 67.1% vs. 75.3%; transplant-free survival [TFS], 45.1% vs. 56.2%; posttransplantation survival, 88.3% vs. 96.3% [P < 0.010 for each]). Reductions in red blood cell infusions (44.3% vs. 27.6%), plasma infusions (65.2% vs. 47.1%), mechanical ventilation (65.7% vs. 56.1%), and vasopressors (34.9% vs. 27.8%) were observed, as well as increased use of N-acetylcysteine (48.9% vs. 69.3% overall; 15.8% vs. 49.4% [P < 0.001] in patients with ALF not due to acetaminophen toxicity). When examined longitudinally, overall survival and TFS increased throughout the 16-year period. Limitations The duration of enrollment, the number of patients enrolled, and possibly the approaches to care varied among participating sites. The results may not be generalizable beyond such specialized centers. Conclusion Although characteristics and severity of ALF changed little over 16 years

  11. Outcomes in Adults With Acute Liver Failure Between 1998 and 2013: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Reuben, Adrian; Tillman, Holly; Fontana, Robert J; Davern, Timothy; McGuire, Brendan; Stravitz, R Todd; Durkalski, Valerie; Larson, Anne M; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; Schilsky, Michael; McCashland, Timothy; Hay, J Eileen; Murray, Natalie; Shaikh, Obaid S; Ganger, Daniel; Zaman, Atif; Han, Steven B; Chung, Raymond T; Smith, Alastair; Brown, Robert; Crippin, Jeffrey; Harrison, M Edwyn; Koch, David; Munoz, Santiago; Reddy, K Rajender; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Satyanarayana, Raj; Hassanein, Tarek; Hanje, A James; Olson, Jody; Subramanian, Ram; Karvellas, Constantine; Hameed, Bilal; Sherker, Averell H; Robuck, Patricia; Lee, William M

    2016-06-07

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare syndrome of severe, rapid-onset hepatic dysfunction-without prior advanced liver disease-that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Intensive care and liver transplantation provide support and rescue, respectively. To determine whether changes in causes, disease severity, treatment, or 21-day outcomes have occurred in recent years among adult patients with ALF referred to U.S. tertiary care centers. Prospective observational cohort study. (ClinicalTrials .gov: NCT00518440). 31 liver disease and transplant centers in the United States. Consecutively enrolled patients-without prior advanced liver disease-with ALF (n = 2070). Clinical features, treatment, and 21-day outcomes were compared over time annually for trends and were also stratified into two 8-year periods (1998 to 2005 and 2006 to 2013). Overall clinical characteristics, disease severity, and distribution of causes remained similar throughout the study period. The 21-day survival rates increased between the two 8-year periods (overall, 67.1% vs. 75.3%; transplant-free survival [TFS], 45.1% vs. 56.2%; posttransplantation survival, 88.3% vs. 96.3% [P < 0.010 for each]). Reductions in red blood cell infusions (44.3% vs. 27.6%), plasma infusions (65.2% vs. 47.1%), mechanical ventilation (65.7% vs. 56.1%), and vasopressors (34.9% vs. 27.8%) were observed, as well as increased use of N-acetylcysteine (48.9% vs. 69.3% overall; 15.8% vs. 49.4% [P < 0.001] in patients with ALF not due to acetaminophen toxicity). When examined longitudinally, overall survival and TFS increased throughout the 16-year period. The duration of enrollment, the number of patients enrolled, and possibly the approaches to care varied among participating sites. The results may not be generalizable beyond such specialized centers. Although characteristics and severity of ALF changed little over 16 years, overall survival and TFS improved significantly. The effects of specific changes in

  12. Mir-24 regulates hepatocyte apoptosis via BIM during acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhiwen; Li, Zhi; Zhu, Deming; Ling, Wei; Zheng, Lei; Pu, Liyong; Kong, Lianbao

    2017-01-01

    Acuteliver failure (ALF) has a high mortality rate and is characterized by massive hepatocyte destruction. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in manyliver diseases, the role of miRNAs in ALF development is unknown. In this study, the murine ALF model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS). Compared with saline-treated mice, miR-24 was distinctly down-regulated post D-GalN/LPS challenge in vivo and D-galactosamine/tumor necrosis factor (D-GalN/TNF) challenge in vitro , which was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein levels of the BH3-only-domain-containing protein BIM were upregulated after challenge both in vivo and in vitro . Previous studies have demonstrated that hepatocyte apoptosis is a distinguishing feature of D-GalN/LPS-associated liver failure. In this study, D-GalN/LPS-challenged mice showed higher alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, more severe liver damage, increased numbers of apoptotic hepatocytes and higher levels of caspase-3 compared with saline-treated mice. In D-GalN/TNF-treated BNLCL2 cells, miR-24 overexpression attenuated apoptosis.Furthermore, miR-24 overexpression reduced BIM mRNA and protein levels in vitro . Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-24 regulates hepatocyte apoptosis via BIM during ALF development, suggesting that miR-24 is a novel onco-miRNA that may provide potential therapeutic targets for ALF.

  13. Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, NC; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiev, L; Magen, I; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, EM

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder of complex pathogenesis caused by acute or chronic liver failure. We investigated the effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with anti-inflammatory properties that activates the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5-HT1A, on brain and liver functions in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure induced in mice by thioacetamide. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Female Sabra mice were injected with either saline or thioacetamide and were treated with either vehicle or cannabidiol. Neurological and motor functions were evaluated 2 and 3 days, respectively, after induction of hepatic failure, after which brains and livers were removed for histopathological analysis and blood was drawn for analysis of plasma liver enzymes. In a separate group of animals, cognitive function was tested after 8 days and brain 5-HT levels were measured 12 days after induction of hepatic failure. KEY RESULTS Neurological and cognitive functions were severely impaired in thioacetamide-treated mice and were restored by cannabidiol. Similarly, decreased motor activity in thioacetamide-treated mice was partially restored by cannabidiol. Increased plasma levels of ammonia, bilirubin and liver enzymes, as well as enhanced 5-HT levels in thioacetamide-treated mice were normalized following cannabidiol administration. Likewise, astrogliosis in the brains of thioacetamide-treated mice was moderated after cannabidiol treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Cannabidiol restores liver function, normalizes 5-HT levels and improves brain pathology in accordance with normalization of brain function. Therefore, the effects of cannabidiol may result from a combination of its actions in the liver and brain. PMID:21182490

  14. Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, Nc; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiev, L; Magen, I; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, Em

    2011-04-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder of complex pathogenesis caused by acute or chronic liver failure. We investigated the effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with anti-inflammatory properties that activates the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5-HT(1A) , on brain and liver functions in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure induced in mice by thioacetamide. Female Sabra mice were injected with either saline or thioacetamide and were treated with either vehicle or cannabidiol. Neurological and motor functions were evaluated 2 and 3 days, respectively, after induction of hepatic failure, after which brains and livers were removed for histopathological analysis and blood was drawn for analysis of plasma liver enzymes. In a separate group of animals, cognitive function was tested after 8 days and brain 5-HT levels were measured 12 days after induction of hepatic failure. Neurological and cognitive functions were severely impaired in thioacetamide-treated mice and were restored by cannabidiol. Similarly, decreased motor activity in thioacetamide-treated mice was partially restored by cannabidiol. Increased plasma levels of ammonia, bilirubin and liver enzymes, as well as enhanced 5-HT levels in thioacetamide-treated mice were normalized following cannabidiol administration. Likewise, astrogliosis in the brains of thioacetamide-treated mice was moderated after cannabidiol treatment. Cannabidiol restores liver function, normalizes 5-HT levels and improves brain pathology in accordance with normalization of brain function. Therefore, the effects of cannabidiol may result from a combination of its actions in the liver and brain. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Acute-on-chronic liver failure: consensus recommendations of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) 2014.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Shiv Kumar; Kedarisetty, Chandan Kumar; Abbas, Zaigham; Amarapurkar, Deepak; Bihari, Chhagan; Chan, Albert C; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Dokmeci, A Kadir; Garg, Hitendra; Ghazinyan, Hasmik; Hamid, Saeed; Kim, Dong Joon; Komolmit, Piyawat; Lata, Suman; Lee, Guan Huei; Lesmana, Laurentius A; Mahtab, Mamun; Maiwall, Rakhi; Moreau, Richard; Ning, Qin; Pamecha, Viniyendra; Payawal, Diana Alcantara; Rastogi, Archana; Rahman, Salimur; Rela, Mohamed; Saraya, Anoop; Samuel, Didier; Saraswat, Vivek; Shah, Samir; Shiha, Gamal; Sharma, Brajesh Chander; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Kapil; Butt, Amna Subhan; Tan, Soek Siam; Vashishtha, Chitranshu; Wani, Zeeshan Ahmed; Yuen, Man-Fung; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    The first consensus report of the working party of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) set up in 2004 on acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) was published in 2009. Due to the rapid advancements in the knowledge and available information, a consortium of members from countries across Asia Pacific, "APASL ACLF Research Consortium (AARC)," was formed in 2012. A large cohort of retrospective and prospective data of ACLF patients was collated and followed up in this data base. The current ACLF definition was reassessed based on the new AARC data base. These initiatives were concluded on a 2-day meeting in February 2014 at New Delhi and led to the development of the final AARC consensus. Only those statements which were based on the evidence and were unanimously recommended were accepted. These statements were circulated again to all the experts and subsequently presented at the annual conference of the APASL at Brisbane, on March 14, 2014. The suggestions from the delegates were analyzed by the expert panel, and the modifications in the consensus were made. The final consensus and guidelines document was prepared. After detailed deliberations and data analysis, the original proposed definition was found to withstand the test of time and identify a homogenous group of patients presenting with liver failure. Based on the AARC data, liver failure grading, and its impact on the "Golden therapeutic Window," extra-hepatic organ failure and development of sepsis were analyzed. New management options including the algorithms for the management of coagulation disorders, renal replacement therapy, sepsis, variceal bleed, antivirals, and criteria for liver transplantation for ACLF patients were proposed. The final consensus statements along with the relevant background information are presented here.

  16. Acute liver failure caused by hepatitis E virus genotype 3 and 4: A systematic review and pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Haffar, Samir; Shalimar; Kaur, Ravinder J; Wang, Zhen; Prokop, Larry J; Murad, Mohammad H; Bazerbachi, Fateh

    2018-04-19

    Acute liver failure caused by hepatitis E virus genotype 3 and 4 has been rarely described. Because of the presence of a short golden therapeutic window in patients with viral acute liver failure from other causes, it is possible that early recognition and treatment might reduce the morbidity and mortality. We performed a systematic review and pooled analysis of acute liver failure caused by hepatitis E virus genotype 3 and 4. Two reviewers appraised studies after searching multiple databases on June 12th, 2017. Appropriate tests were used to compare hepatitis E virus genotype 3 vs 4, suspected vs confirmed genotypes, hepatitis E virus-RNA positive vs negative, and to discern important mortality risk factors. We identified 65 patients, with median age 58 years (range: 3-79), and a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. The median bilirubin, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase (expressed by multiplication of the upper limit of normal) levels were 14.8, 45.3, 34.8 and 1.63 respectively. Antihepatitis E virus IgG, antihepatitis E virus IgM and hepatitis E virus-RNA were positive in 84%, 91% and 86% of patients respectively. The median interval from symptoms onset to acute liver failure was 23 days, and 16 patients underwent liver transplantation. Final outcome was reported in 58 patients and mortality was 46%. Age was a predictor of poor prognosis in multivariate analysis. No important differences were found between patients infected with genotype 3 vs 4, patients with confirmed vs suspected genotypes, or patients with positive vs negative RNA. Acute liver failure caused by hepatitis E virus genotype 3 and 4 is rare, similar between genotypes, occurs commonly in middle-aged/elderly patients and has a very high mortality. Age is predictive of poor prognosis in multivariate analysis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. IL-1 or TNF receptor gene deletion delays onset of encephalopathy and attenuates brain edema in experimental acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Bémeur, Chantal; Qu, Hong; Desjardins, Paul; Butterworth, Roger F

    2010-01-01

    Previous reports suggested that brain-derived proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF). To further address this issue, expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNAs were measured in the brains of mice with acute liver failure resulting from exposure to azoxymethane. In addition, time to severe encephalopathy (coma) was assessed in mice lacking genes coding for interferon-gamma, the tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 or the interleukin-1 type 1 receptor. Interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma expression were quantified using RT-PCR. Significant increases in interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA were observed in the frontal cortex of azoxymethane-treated wild-type mice at coma stages of encephalopathy. Interferon-gamma, however, could not be detected in the brains of these animals. Onset of severe encephalopathy (coma) and brain edema in ALF mice were significantly delayed in interleukin-1 type 1 receptor or tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 knockout mice. Deletion of the interferon-gamma gene, on the other hand, had no significative effect on the neurological status or brain water content of acute liver failure mice. These results demonstrate that toxic liver injury resulting from exposure to azoxymethane is associated with selective induction of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain and that deletion of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 or interlukin-1 type 1 receptor delays the onset of coma and brain edema in this model of acute liver failure. These findings further support a role for selective brain-derived cytokines in the pathogenesis of the cerebral complications in acute liver failure and suggest that anti-inflammatory strategies could be beneficial in their prevention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wernicke encephalopathy in a patient with liver failure: Clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pan; Zhao, Yanling; Wei, Zhenman; Chen, Jing; Yan, Lilong

    2016-07-01

    Early recognition and diagnosis of Wernicke encephalopathy is pivotal for the prognosis of this medical emergency, especially in patients with liver failure which predisposes individuals to develop hepatic encephalopathy. For these patients, distinguishing between hepatic encephalopathy and Wernicke encephalopathy is a challenge in real-world clinical practice.A male patient with 21-year medical history of liver cirrhosis presented diarrhea and ascites. One month before this visit, he was noted to have poor appetite and progressive fatigue. After admission, although several major symptoms, including diarrhea, ascites, hyponatremia, and hypoproteinemia, were greatly improved through appropriate treatments, his laboratory indicators were not changed much. His appetite was not reversed at discharge. On the 5th day after discharge, the patient suddenly became reluctant to speak and did not remember the recent happenings. Simultaneously, unsteady gait and strabismus occurred. On the basis of clinical manifestations and brain magnetic resonance imaging scan results, the patient was diagnosed as Wernicke encephalopathy and these relative symptoms were resolved after intravenous vitamin B1.To our knowledge, this is the second case report of Wernicke encephalopathy developing in a critically ill cirrhotic patient without hepatocellular carcinoma or operative intervention. Wernicke encephalopathy may be underdiagnosed in these patients and this case raises physicians' awareness of its possible onset.

  19. Serum Lipoprotein (a) Levels in Chronic Renal Failure and Liver Cirrhosis Patients. Relationship with Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mady, Essam; Wissa, Gehane; Khalifa, Ali; El-Sabbagh, Mahmoud

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between lipoprotein (a) levels and the development of atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients with the possible role of the liver. Serum Lp (a) levels were measured in samples from 20 CRF patients on hemodialysis (HD), 20 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, 20 patients having both CRF and LC and undergoing HD, and 20 normal control subjects. Renal function (blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine), hepatic function (transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin) investigations and serum cholesterol were carried out for all the subjects enrolled in this study. Serum Lp (a) concentration in CRF patients without LC was 87.25 ± 6.17 mg/dl, which was significantly higher than all the investigated groups (P < 0.001). Lp(a) concentration in patients with both CRF and LC was 24.65 ± 1.98 mg/dl, which was not significantly different from the controls, but was significantly higher than that in the subjects with LC only (P < 0.001) where the latter group had significantly low Lp (a) values (11.1 ± 0.99) relative to all the other groups (P < 0.001). Lp (a) correlated positively with cholesterol in all groups except the LC subjects, but did not correlate with age, or renal function in both CRF groups. PMID:10689547

  20. The coagulopathy of acute liver failure and implications for intracranial pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Santiago J; Rajender Reddy, K; Lee, William

    2008-01-01

    The development of coagulopathy in acute liver failure (ALF) is universal. The severity of the coagulopathy is often assessed by determination of the prothrombin time and International Normalized Ratio (INR). In more than 1,000 ALF cases, the severity of the coagulopathy was moderate in 81% (INR 1.5-5.0), severe in 14% (INR 5.0-10.0), and very severe in 5% (INR > 10.0). Certain etiologies were associated with more severe coagulopathy, whereas ALF caused by fatty liver of pregnancy had the least severe coagulopathy. Management consisted of transfusions of FFP in 92%. Overall, FFP administered during the first week of admission amounted to 13.7 +/- 15 units. Patients who received an ICP monitor had significantly more FFP transfused than those managed without ICP monitor (22.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 12.3 +/- 0.8 units FFP; P < 0.001). Only a minority of patients developed gastrointestinal bleeding or had an intracranial pressure monitor installed. Further research is necessary to explore the reasons clinicians transfuse ALF patients with large amounts of FFP in the absence of active bleeding or invasive procedures.

  1. Alpha-fetoprotein as a prognostic marker in acute liver failure: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Anshul; Gupta, Rohit; Verma, Sanjiv K; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2017-07-01

    Prognostic markers of acute liver failure (ALF) are based on clinical, laboratory or radiological parameters. Most of the biochemical markers are based on hepatic degeneration. We studied the impact of serial serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, a marker of liver regeneration, on the outcome of the patients with ALF. AFP levels were estimated on days 1 and 3 of hospitalisation of 32 patients with ALF and the ratio (AFP day3/day1) was calculated. All subjects were categorised as group A (expired) or group B (survived). The AFP ratio was 0.84  +  0.15 in group A (n = 20) versus 1.55  +  0.70 in group B (n = 10); P < 0.001. However, the absolute initial AFP values were not associated with the outcome, favourable or unfavourable. We conclude that AFP levels change dynamically during ALF and have the potential to be used as a predictor of outcome in isolation or in combination with well-established prognostic markers.

  2. Hepatitis A as an etiologic agent of acute liver failure in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Mirta; Moreira-Silva, Sandra Fagundes; Alegría, Sylvia; Galoppo, Maria Cristina; Ruttiman, Ricardo; Porta, Gilda; Da Silvera, Themis Reverbel; Rubio, Pilar; Macias, Mercedes; Cervantes, Yolanda; Avila-Aguero, Maria Luisa; Clemens, Sue Anne Costa; Clemens, Ralf; Weil, John

    2007-08-01

    This prospective, multicenter study examined the importance of hepatitis viruses as etiological agents of acute liver failure (ALF) and the outcome of ALF cases in Latin American children and adolescents. The study was conducted for minimum 12 months in 9 centers in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico during 2001-2002. Hospitalized patients aged 1-20 years with a suspected diagnosis of ALF were included in the study and tested for serologic markers for hepatitis A, B, and C viruses. Of the 106 patients enrolled, 88 were included in the analysis. Median age was 5 years, and 55% with ALF were aged 1-5 years. A total of 37 individuals (43%) tested positive for anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) as marker of acute HAV infection; one was positive for anti-hepatitis B core antigen IgM and negative for hepatitis B surface antigen. None had markers of hepatitis C virus infection. Mortality rates in the overall study cohort (45%) and for those who tested anti-HAV IgM positive (41%) were similar. Forty-one percent of all patients and 46% of those positive for anti-HAV IgM underwent transplantation. The mortality rate in those with liver transplantation was half of that in patients who were not transplanted (28% versus 57%). HAV was the main etiologic agent of ALF in the population studied.

  3. Liver metastases from colorectal cancer: regional intra-arterial treatment following failure of systemic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cyjon, A; Neuman-Levin, M; Rakowsky, E; Greif, F; Belinky, A; Atar, E; Hardoff, R; Brenner, B; Sulkes, A

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to determine response rate, survival and toxicity associated with combination chemotherapy delivered intra-arterially to liver in patients with hepatic metastases of colorectal origin refractory to standard systemic treatment. A total of 28 patients who failed prior systemic treatment with fluoropyrimidines received a median of 5 cycles of intra-arterial treatment consisting of 5-fluorouracil 700 mg/m2/d, leucovorin 120 mg/m2/d, and cisplatin 20 mg/m2/d for 5 consecutive days. Cycles were repeated at intervals of 5–6 weeks. A major response was achieved in 48% of patients: complete response in 8% and partial response in 40%. The median duration of response was 11.5 months. Median survival was 12 months at a median follow up of 12 months. On multivariate analysis, the only variables with a significant impact on survival were response to treatment and performance status. Toxicity was moderate: grades III–IV neutropenia occurred in 29% of patients. Most of the patients complained of fatigue lasting for a few days following each cycle. There were no cases of hepatobiliary toxicity. These findings indicate that regional intra-arterial treatment should be considered in selected patients with predominantly liver disease following failure of standard treatment. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11506487

  4. Prodromal fever indicates a high risk of liver failure in acute hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Jun; Liu, Li; Sun, Chao; Yu, Jin-Hong; Xiao, Di; Li, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    The role of prodromal fever in the clinical course of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still largely unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the factors associated with prodromal fever and its role in the development of acute liver failure (ALF) in patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB). Inpatients with AHB diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2010 were evaluated and followed. Clinical manifestations, results of laboratory tests, and outcomes were compared between patients with and without prodromal fever. The diagnosis of AHB was based on the discrete onset of symptoms, jaundice, abnormal liver function tests, the detection of high-titer IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and a compatible clinical history. A total of 618 AHB inpatients were identified during the study period, of whom 102 (16.5%) had prodromal fever and 41 (6.6%) developed ALF. Prodromal fever indicated more severe liver injury and was independently associated with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negativity. The occurrence of ALF was more common in febrile patients than in non-febrile patients (18.6% vs. 4.3%, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed prodromal fever and temperature >38.0°C to be independently associated with the risk of ALF, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 3.5 (1.4-8.6) and 7.1 (2.6-19.7), respectively. AHB patients with prodromal fever, which is associated with a lack of HBeAg due to HBV mutation, are at high risk of ALF. Febrile patients with AHB should be managed with particular care. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening for Wilson disease in acute liver failure: a comparison of currently available diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Korman, Jessica D; Volenberg, Irene; Balko, Jody; Webster, Joe; Schiodt, Frank V; Squires, Robert H; Fontana, Robert J; Lee, William M; Schilsky, Michael L

    2008-10-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) due to Wilson disease (WD) is invariably fatal without emergency liver transplantation. Therefore, rapid diagnosis of WD should aid prompt transplant listing. To identify the best method for diagnosis of ALF due to WD (ALF-WD), data and serum were collected from 140 ALF patients (16 with WD), 29 with other chronic liver diseases and 17 with treated chronic WD. Ceruloplasmin (Cp) was measured by both oxidase activity and nephelometry and serum copper levels by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In patients with ALF, a serum Cp <20 mg/dL by the oxidase method provided a diagnostic sensitivity of 21% and specificity of 84% while, by nephelometry, a sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 63%. Serum copper levels exceeded 200 microg/dL in all ALF-WD patients measured (13/16), but were also elevated in non-WD ALF. An alkaline phosphatase (AP) to total bilirubin (TB) ratio <4 yielded a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 96%, and a likelihood ratio of 23 for diagnosing fulminant WD. In addition, an AST:ALT ratio >2.2 yielded a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 86%, and a likelihood ratio of 7 for diagnosing fulminant WD. Combining the tests provided a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Conventional WD testing utilizing serum ceruloplasmin and/or serum copper levels are less sensitive and specific in identifying patients with ALF-WD than other available tests. More readily available laboratory tests including alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and serum aminotransferases by contrast provides the most rapid and accurate method for diagnosis of ALF due to WD.

  6. Evaluation of neutrophil/leukocyte ratio and organ failure score as predictors of reversibility and survival following an acute-on-chronic liver failure event.

    PubMed

    Agiasotelli, Danai; Alexopoulou, Alexandra; Vasilieva, Larisa; Kalpakou, Georgia; Papadaki, Sotiria; Dourakis, Spyros P

    2016-05-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is defined as an acute deterioration of liver disease with high mortality in patients with cirrhosis. The early mortality in ACLF is associated with organ failure and high leukocyte count. The time needed to reverse this condition and the factors affecting mortality after the early 30-day-period were evaluated. One hundred and ninety-seven consecutive patients with cirrhosis were included. Patients were prospectively followed up for 180 days. ACLF was diagnosed in 54.8% of the patients. Infection was the most common precipitating event in patients with ACLF. On multivariate analysis, only the neutrophil/leukocyte ratio and Chronic Liver Failure Consortium Organ Failure (CLIF-C OF) score were associated with mortality. Hazard ratios for mortality of patients with ACLF compared with those without at different time end-points post-enrollment revealed that the relative risk of death in the ACLF group was 8.54 during the first 30-day period and declined to 1.94 during the second period of observation. The time varying effect of neutrophil/leukocyte ratio and CLIF-C score was negative (1% and 18% decline in the hazard ratio per month) while that of Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) was positive (3% increase in the hazard ratio per month). The condition of ACLF was reversible in patients who survived. During the 30-180-day period following the acute event, the probability of death in ACLF became gradually similar to the non-ACLF group. The impact of inflammatory response and organ failure on survival is powerful during the first 30-day period and weakens thereafter while that of MELD increases. © 2015 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  7. CSF1 Restores Innate Immunity After Liver Injury in Mice and Serum Levels Indicate Outcomes of Patients With Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Stutchfield, Benjamin M.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Mackinnon, Alison C.; Gow, Deborah J.; Bain, Calum C.; Hawley, Catherine A.; Hughes, Michael J.; Francis, Benjamin; Wojtacha, Davina; Man, Tak Y.; Dear, James W.; Devey, Luke R.; Mowat, Alan M.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Park, B. Kevin; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Simpson, Kenneth J.; Hume, David A.; Wigmore, Stephen J.; Forbes, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver regeneration requires functional liver macrophages, which provide an immune barrier that is compromised after liver injury. The numbers of liver macrophages are controlled by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1). We examined the prognostic significance of the serum level of CSF1 in patients with acute liver injury and studied its effects in mice. Methods We measured levels of CSF1 in serum samples collected from 55 patients who underwent partial hepatectomy at the Royal Infirmary Edinburgh between December 2012 and October 2013, as well as from 78 patients with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure admitted to the Royal Infirmary Edinburgh or the University of Kansas Medical Centre. We studied the effects of increased levels of CSF1 in uninjured mice that express wild-type CSF1 receptor or a constitutive or inducible CSF1-receptor reporter, as well as in chemokine receptor 2 (Ccr2)-/- mice; we performed fate-tracing experiments using bone marrow chimeras. We administered CSF1-Fc (fragment, crystallizable) to mice after partial hepatectomy and acetaminophen intoxication, and measured regenerative parameters and innate immunity by clearance of fluorescent microbeads and bacterial particles. Results Serum levels of CSF1 increased in patients undergoing liver surgery in proportion to the extent of liver resected. In patients with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure, a low serum level of CSF1 was associated with increased mortality. In mice, administration of CSF1-Fc promoted hepatic macrophage accumulation via proliferation of resident macrophages and recruitment of monocytes. CSF1-Fc also promoted transdifferentiation of infiltrating monocytes into cells with a hepatic macrophage phenotype. CSF1-Fc increased innate immunity in mice after partial hepatectomy or acetaminophen-induced injury, with resident hepatic macrophage as the main effector cells. Conclusions Serum CSF1 appears to be a prognostic marker for patients

  8. Correlation between plasma endothelin-1 levels and severity of septic liver failure quantified by maximal liver function capacity (LiMAx test). A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kaffarnik, Magnus F; Ahmadi, Navid; Lock, Johan F; Wuensch, Tilo; Pratschke, Johann; Stockmann, Martin; Malinowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the degree of liver dysfunction, quantified by maximal liver function capacity (LiMAx test) and endothelin-1, TNF-α and IL-6 in septic surgical patients. 28 septic patients (8 female, 20 male, age range 35-80y) were prospectively investigated on a surgical intensive care unit. Liver function, defined by LiMAx test, and measurements of plasma levels of endothelin-1, TNF-α and IL-6 were carried out within the first 24 hours after onset of septic symptoms, followed by day 2, 5 and 10. Patients were divided into 2 groups (group A: LiMAx ≥100 μg/kg/h, moderate liver dysfunction; group B: LiMAx <100 μg/kg/h, severe liver dysfunction) for analysis and investigated regarding the correlation between endothelin-1 and the severity of liver failure, quantified by LiMAx test. Group B showed significant higher results for endothelin-1 than patients in group A (P = 0.01, d5; 0.02, d10). For TNF-α, group B revealed higher results than group A, with a significant difference on day 10 (P = 0.005). IL-6 showed a non-significant trend to higher results in group B. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed a significant correlation between LiMAx and endothelin-1 (-0.434; P <0.001), TNF-α (-0.515; P <0.001) and IL-6 (-0.590; P <0.001). Sepsis-related hepatic dysfunction is associated with elevated plasma levels of endothelin-1, TNF-α and IL-6. Low LiMAx results combined with increased endothelin-1 and TNF-α and a favourable correlation between LiMAx and cytokine values support the findings of a crucial role of Endothelin-1 and TNF-α in development of septic liver failure.

  9. Correlation between plasma endothelin-1 levels and severity of septic liver failure quantified by maximal liver function capacity (LiMAx test). A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kaffarnik, Magnus F.; Ahmadi, Navid; Lock, Johan F.; Wuensch, Tilo; Pratschke, Johann; Stockmann, Martin; Malinowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Aim To investigate the relationship between the degree of liver dysfunction, quantified by maximal liver function capacity (LiMAx test) and endothelin-1, TNF-α and IL-6 in septic surgical patients. Methods 28 septic patients (8 female, 20 male, age range 35–80y) were prospectively investigated on a surgical intensive care unit. Liver function, defined by LiMAx test, and measurements of plasma levels of endothelin-1, TNF-α and IL-6 were carried out within the first 24 hours after onset of septic symptoms, followed by day 2, 5 and 10. Patients were divided into 2 groups (group A: LiMAx ≥100 μg/kg/h, moderate liver dysfunction; group B: LiMAx <100 μg/kg/h, severe liver dysfunction) for analysis and investigated regarding the correlation between endothelin-1 and the severity of liver failure, quantified by LiMAx test. Results Group B showed significant higher results for endothelin-1 than patients in group A (P = 0.01, d5; 0.02, d10). For TNF-α, group B revealed higher results than group A, with a significant difference on day 10 (P = 0.005). IL-6 showed a non-significant trend to higher results in group B. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed a significant correlation between LiMAx and endothelin-1 (-0.434; P <0.001), TNF-α (-0.515; P <0.001) and IL-6 (-0.590; P <0.001). Conclusions Sepsis-related hepatic dysfunction is associated with elevated plasma levels of endothelin-1, TNF-α and IL-6. Low LiMAx results combined with increased endothelin-1 and TNF-α and a favourable correlation between LiMAx and cytokine values support the findings of a crucial role of Endothelin-1 and TNF-α in development of septic liver failure. PMID:28542386

  10. Cordyceps sinensis prevents apoptosis in mouse liver with D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has long been considered to be an herbal medicine and has been used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the cytoprotective properties of C. sinensis on D(+)-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were randomly assigned into control, GalN/LPS, CS 20 mg and CS 40 mg groups (C. sinensis, oral gavage, five days/week, four weeks). After receiving saline or C. sinensis, mice were intraperitoneally given GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (10 μg/kg). The effects of C. sinensis on TNF-α, IL-10, AST, NO, SOD, and apoptoticrelated proteins after the onset of endotoxin intoxication were determined. Data demonstrated that GalN/LPS increased hepatocyte degeneration, circulating AST, TNF-α, IL-10, and hepatic apoptosis and caspase activity. C. sinensis pre-treatment reduced AST, TNF-α, and NO and increased IL-10 and SOD in GalN/LPS induced fulminant hepatic failure. C. sinensis attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, as evidenced by the TUNEL and capase-3, 6 activity analyses. In summary, C. sinensis alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by modulating the cytokine response and inhibiting apoptosis.

  11. [The protective effect of XD in ConA-induced liver injury].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Liu, Tao; Dang, Tong-Mei; Cao, Yi-Ming

    2010-12-01

    To explore the protective effect and its mechanism of Modified Xiaochaihu decoction(MXD) in the liver injury of mice. METHORDS: Using Reitman methord to examine serum ALT and ATS; Using sandwich enzyme immunoassay ABC-ELISA to examine serum TNF-α and IFN-γ. Serum ALT and ATS of MXD large dose group and Xiaochaihu decoction (XD )group were lower than that of animal models group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). There were not significant difference (P>0.05) between serum ALT and ATS of MXD small dose group and that of animal models group; MXD large dose group, XD group and Biphenyldimethylesterate (DDB) group are similar, no difference (P>0.05). Serum TNF-α and IFN-γ of MXD large dose group and XD group were significant lower than that of animal models group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). Serum TNF-α and IFN-γ of XD group ware higher than that of MXD large dose group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). MXD large dose group, XD group and DDB group were similar, no difference. Xiaocaihu decoction possesses the effect of pro2 tection of hepatic impairment and the protective mechanism might be associated with the inhibition of apoptosis and immunomodulation.

  12. Failure to obtain an autoimmune response following cryosurgery to the normal rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Townell, N H; Tsantoulas, D; Holborow, E J; Hobbs, K E

    1980-01-01

    Smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and anti-liver-specific lipoprotein (anti-LSP) responses were investigated following five different freeze thaw regimes to the normal rat liver. The livers were examined histologically for evidence of autoimmune liver disease. No SMA or anti-LSP was found in any animal and on histological examination the unfrozen part of all livers was normal. It is concluded that cryosurgical damage to the liver is unlikely to provoke an autoimmune response. PMID:7460392

  13. Characterization of acute-on-chronic liver failure and prediction of mortality in Asian patients with active alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwi Young; Chang, Young; Park, Jae Yong; Ahn, Hongkeun; Cho, Hyeki; Han, Seung Jun; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Donghee; Jung, Yong Jin; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Won

    2016-02-01

    Alcoholic liver diseases often evolve to acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), which increases the risk of (multi-)organ failure and death. We investigated the development and characteristics of alcohol-related ACLF and evaluated prognostic scores for prediction of mortality in Asian patients with active alcoholism. A total of 205 patients who were hospitalized with severe alcoholic liver disease were included in this retrospective cohort study, after excluding those with serious cardiovascular diseases, malignancy, or co-existing viral hepatitis. The Chronic Liver Failure (CLIF) Consortium Organ Failure score was used in the diagnosis and grading of ACLF, and the CLIF Consortium ACLF score (CLIF-C ACLFs) was used to predict mortality. Patients with ACLF had higher Maddrey discriminant function, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), and MELD-sodium scores than those without ACLF. Infections were more frequently documented in patients with ACLF (33.3% vs 53.0%; P = 0.004). Predictive factors for ACLF development were systemic inflammatory response syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 2.239; P < 0.001), serum sodium level (OR, 0.939; P = 0.029), and neutrophil count (OR, 1.000; P = 0.021). For prediction of mortality at predefined time points (28-day and 90-day) in patients with ACLF, areas under the receiver-operating characteristic were significantly greater for the CLIF-C ACLFs than for Child-Pugh, MELD, and MELD-sodium scores. Infection and systemic inflammatory response syndrome play an important role in the development of alcohol-related ACLF in Asian patients with active alcoholism. The CLIF-C ACLFs may be more useful for predicting mortality in ACLF cases than liver-specific scoring systems. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Ethyl pyruvate protects against experimental acute-on-chronic liver failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu-Wen; Wang, Li-Kun; Chen, Hui; Fan, Cheng; Li, Xun; He, Can-Ming; Gong, Zuo-Jiong

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in rats. METHODS: An ACLF model was established in rats, and animals were randomly divided into normal, model and EP treatment groups. The rats in EP treatment group received EP (40 mg/kg) at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after induction of ACLF. Serum endotoxin, high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), alanine transaminase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-α (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-18 levels, changes of liver histology and HMGB1 expressions in liver tissues were detected at 48 h after induction of ACLF. The effects of EP on the survival of ACLF rats were also observed. RESULTS: Serum levels of endotoxin (0.394 ± 0.066 EU/mL vs 0.086 ± 0.017 EU/mL, P < 0.001), HMGB1 (35.42 ± 10.86 μg/L vs 2.14 ± 0.27 μg/L, P < 0.001), ALT (8415.87 ± 3567.54 IU/L vs 38.64 ± 8.82 IU/L, P < 0.001), TNF-α (190.77 ± 12.34 ng/L vs 124.40 ± 4.12 ng/L, P < 0.001), IFN-γ (715.38 ± 86.03 ng/L vs 398.66 ± 32.91 ng/L, P < 0.001), IL-10 (6.85 ± 0.64 ng/L vs 3.49 ± 0.24 ng/L, P < 0.001) and IL-18 (85.19 ± 3.49 ng/L vs 55.38 ± 1.25 ng/L, P < 0.001) were significantly increased, and liver tissues presented severe pathological injury in the model group compared with the normal group. However, EP administration significantly improved hepatic histopathology and reduced the serum levels of endotoxin (0.155 ± 0.045 EU/mL vs 0.394 ± 0.066 EU/mL, P < 0.001) and inflammatory cytokines (11.13 ± 2.58 μg/L vs 35.42 ± 10.86 μg/L for HMGB1, 3512.86 ± 972.67 IU/L vs 8415.87 ± 3567.54 IU/L for ALT, 128.55 ± 5.76 ng/L vs 190.77 ± 12.34 ng/L for TNF-α, 438.16 ± 38.10 ng/L vs 715.38 ± 86.03 ng/L for IFN-γ, 3.55 ± 0.36 ng/L vs 6.85 ± 0.64 ng/L for IL-10, and 60.35 ± 1.63 ng/L vs 85.19 ± 3.49 ng/L for IL-18, respectively, P < 0.001), and the levels of HMGB1 in liver tissues regardless of treatment time after induction of ACLF. EP treatment at the four time

  15. Effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on the serum and liver HMGB1 expression in rats with acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Sheng; Yang, Juan; Tang, Yingmei; Yang, Jinhui; Shao, Qinghua; Guo, Ling; Liu, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on the expression of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in the serum and liver of rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Methods: Healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, ALF group and BMSCs group. ALF was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 900 mg/kg D-GalN and 10 μg/kg LPS. In BMSCs group, rats received BMSCs (1.0×107) transplantation via the tail vein at 2 h after ALF induction. Results: Intraperitoneal injection of 900 mg/kg D-GalN and 10 μg/kg LPS was able to induce ALF in rats. In ALF group, serum ALT and AST increased gradually over time. At 72 h, the serum ALT and AST in BMSCs group were significantly different from those in ALF group. HMGB1 expression in the serum and liver remained at a low level at any time point in control group, but increased significantly in ALF group and BMSCs group. The serum and liver HMGB1 expression increased progressively in ALF group, but reduced gradually in BMSCs group. Significant difference in serum and liver HMGB1 expression was observed between ALF group and BMSCs group at 24 h and 72 h. In addition, there was marked difference in the survival rate among three groups at 24 h (χ2=21.098, P<0.01). Conclusion: BMSCs transplantation is able to improve the liver function and liver pathology in ALF rats and decrease the serum and liver HMGB1. PMID:26884873

  16. Liver maximum capacity (LiMAx) test as a helpful prognostic tool in acute liver failure with sepsis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Buechter, Matthias; Gerken, Guido; Hoyer, Dieter P; Bertram, Stefanie; Theysohn, Jens M; Thodou, Viktoria; Kahraman, Alisan

    2018-06-20

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening entity particularly when infectious complications worsen the clinical course. Urgent liver transplantation (LT) is frequently the only curative treatment. However, in some cases, recovery is observed under conservative treatment. Therefore, prognostic tools for estimating course of the disease are of great clinical interest. Since laboratory parameters sometimes lack sensitivity and specificity, enzymatic liver function measured by liver maximum capacity (LiMAx) test may offer novel and valuable additional information in this setting. We here report the case of a formerly healthy 20-year old male caucasian patient who was admitted to our clinic for ALF of unknown origin in December 2017. Laboratory parameters confirmed the diagnosis with an initial MELD score of 28 points. Likewise, enzymatic liver function was significantly impaired with a value of 147 [> 315] μg/h/kg. Clinical and biochemical analyses for viral-, autoimmune-, or drug-induced hepatitis were negative. Liver synthesis parameters further deteriorated reaching a MELD score of 40 points whilst clinical course was complicated by septic pneumonia leading to severe hepatic encephalopathy grade III-IV, finally resulting in mechanical ventilation of the patient. Interestingly, although clinical course and laboratory data suggested poor outcome, serial LiMAx test revealed improvement of the enzymatic liver function at this time point increasing to 169 μg/h/kg. Clinical condition and laboratory data slowly improved likewise, however with significant time delay of 11 days. Finally, the patient could be dismissed from our clinic after 37 days. Estimating prognosis in patients with ALF is challenging by use of the established scores. In our case, improvement of enzymatic liver function measured by the LiMAx test was the first parameter predicting beneficial outcome in a patient with ALF complicated by sepsis.

  17. Salecan protected against concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury by modulating T cell immune responses and NMR-based metabolic profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Xi, E-mail: xuxi@njust.edu.cn; Yang,

    Salecan, a water-soluble extracellular β-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological effects. The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effect of salecan against Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, a well-established animal model of immune-mediated liver injury, and to search for possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with salecan followed by ConA injection. Salecan treatment significantly reduced ConA-induced acute liver injury, and suppressed the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in ConA-induced liver injury model. The high expression levels of chemokines andmore » adhesion molecules such as MIP-1α, MIP-1β, ICAM-1, MCP-1 and RANTES in the liver induced by ConA were also down-regulated after salecan treatment. Salecan inhibited the infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells, especially T cells, in the liver induced by ConA. Moreover, salecan reversed the metabolic profiles of ConA-treated mice towards the control group by partly recovering the metabolic perturbations induced by ConA. Our results suggest the preventive and therapeutic potential of salecan in immune-mediated hepatitis. - Highlights: • Salecan treatment significantly reduced ConA-induced liver injury. • Salecan suppressed the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. • Salecan decreased the expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules in liver. • Salecan inhibited the infiltration and activation of T cells induced by ConA. • Salecan partly recovered the metabolic perturbations induced by ConA.« less

  18. Lovastatin decreases mortality and improves liver functions in fulminant hepatic failure from 90% partial hepatectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, S R; Motoyama, K; Shen, K J; Kennedy, S C; Flye, M W; Ponder, K P

    2000-01-01

    Liver insufficiency occurs when the liver cannot perform critical functions such as ammonia metabolism, gluconeogenesis, or production of coagulation factors The hypothesis of this study was that decreased function of existing hepatocytes may contribute to hepatic failure, and that the function of these cells might be increased pharmacologically. Lovastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitor that inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis and affects the activity of some signal transduction pathways and liver transcription factors. Changes in hepatic transcription factors during liver regeneration might result in decreased liver functions, and lovastatin might prevent these changes Rats received 90% partial hepatectomy (90% PH), and either lovastatin or vehicle alone daily. Survival and liver functions were assessed. Lovastatin increased survival to 58% (vs. 6% in controls that received 90% PH without drug), decreased the peak ammonia level to 427 microM (vs. 846 microM in controls), increased the nadir of glucose to 88 mg/dl (vs. 57 mg/dl in controls), decreased the peak prothrombin time to 23 s (vs 29 s in controls), and decreased the peak activated partial thromboplastin time to 29 s (vs. 39 s in controls). The full survival and metabolic benefits were observed when lovastatin was started at 30 min after 90% PH, but lovastatin was less efficacious when started at later times. Lovastatin increases the function of existing hepatocytes and might be used to improve liver function after extensive hepatic resection.

  19. The role of Hepatitis E virus infection in Adult Americans with Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert John; Engle, Ronald E.; Scaglione, Steven; Araya, Victor; Shaikh, Obaid; Tillman, Holly; Attar, Nahid; Purcell, Robert H.; Lee, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in many developing countries yet rarely identified in Western countries. Since antibody testing for HEV infection is not routinely obtained, we hypothesized that HEV-related ALF might be present and unrecognized in North American ALF patients. Serum samples of 681 adults enrolled in the US ALF Study Group were tested for anti-HEV IgM and anti-HEV IgG levels. Subjects with a detectable anti-HEV IgM also underwent testing for HEV-RNA. Mean patient age was 41.8 years, 32.9% male, and ALF etiologies included acetaminophen hepatotoxicity (29%), indeterminate ALF (23%), idiosyncratic DILI (22%), acute HBV infection (12%), autoimmune hepatitis (12%) and pregnancy related ALF (2%). Three men ages 36, 39, and 70 demonstrated repeatedly detectable anti-HEV IgM but all were HEV RNA negative and had other putative diagnoses. The latter two subjects died within 3 and 11 days of enrollment while the 36 year old underwent emergency liver transplantation on study day 2. At admission, 294 (43.4%) of the ALF patients were anti-HEV IgG positive with the seroprevalence being highest in those from the Midwest (50%) and lowest in those from the Southeast (28%). Anti-HEV IgG + subjects were significantly older, less likely to have APAP overdose, and had a lower overall 3 week survival compared to anti-HEV IgG − subjects (63% vs 70%, p= 0.018). CONCLUSIONS Acute HEV infection is very rare in adult Americans with ALF (i.e., 0.4%) and could not be implicated in any indeterminate, autoimmune, or pregnancy-related ALF cases. Prior exposure to HEV with detectable anti-HEV IgG was significantly more common in the ALF patients compared to the general US population. PMID:27215797

  20. [Fulminant liver failure in a patient on carbamazepine and levetiracetam treatment associated with status epilepticus].

    PubMed

    Skopp, Gisela; Schmitt, Horst Peter; Pedal, Ingo

    2006-01-01

    A 22-year-old female with a history of developmental delay and seizures successfully treated with carbamazepine and levetiracetam developed fulminant hepatic failure and subsequently died. She had been admitted to the hospital following secondary generalized seizures of 35 min duration. A circulatory shock as well as intoxication was taken into consideration during the clinical course. Autopsy failed to reveal a macroscopically discernible cause of death. Significant findings on microscopic examination included acute tubular necrosis in the kidneys, pre-existing marked accumulation of neutral lipid within the hepatocytes as well as hyperacute liver damage with evidence of almost complete hepatocyte necrosis. Carbamazepine and levetiracetam were simultaneously determined from blood and tissues such as liver, lungs, muscle and kidneys by LC-MS/MS following addition of lamotrigine as an internal standard and liquid-liquid extraction. Validation data are given for levetiracetam. Both carbamazepine and levetiracetam were present in blood at concentrations within or below the therapeutic range, respectively. Moreover, tissue concentrations suggested long-term administration of anticonvulsant drugs, which is in accordance with the medical history. After excessive drug concentrations could be ruled out, the metabolic consequences of a prolonged carbamazepine therapy to cause severe hepatic injury in the present case are discussed. A mechanism of injury to the hepatocytes may be membrane damage by either an increased production of free radicals and/or a decreased free radical scavenging capacity. Following ischemia with reperfusion and during hyperthermia, large amounts of free radicals are formed. Induction of the mixed oxidase activity during longterm administration of carbamazepine may also increase production of free radicals, leaving the hepatic cell more vulnerable to oxidative injury.

  1. Candidate gene polymorphisms in patients with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Court, Michael H; Peter, Inga; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Greenblatt, David J; Lee, William M

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF). Genetic differences might predispose some individuals to develop ALF. In this exploratory study, we evaluated genotype frequency differences among patients enrolled by the ALF Study Group who had developed ALF either intentionally from a single-time-point overdose of acetaminophen (n = 78), unintentionally after chronic high doses of acetaminophen (n = 79), or from causes other than acetaminophen (n = 103). The polymorphisms evaluated included those in genes encoding putative acetaminophen-metabolizing enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT2B15, SULT1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A5) as well as CD44 and BHMT1. Individuals carrying the CYP3A5 rs776746 A allele were overrepresented among ALF patients who had intentionally overdosed with acetaminophen, with an odds ratio of 2.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.9; P = 0.034) compared with all other ALF patients. This finding is consistent with the enhanced bioactivation of acetaminophen by the CYP3A5 enzyme. Persons homozygous for the CD44 rs1467558 A allele were also overrepresented among patients who had unintentionally developed ALF from chronic acetaminophen use, with an odds ratio of 4.0 (1.0-17.2, P = 0.045) compared with all other ALF subjects. This finding confirms a prior study that found elevated serum liver enzyme levels in healthy volunteers with the CD44 rs1467558 AA genotype who had consumed high doses of acetaminophen for up to 2 weeks. However, both genetic associations were considered relatively weak, and they were not statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons testing. Nevertheless, both CYP3A5 rs776746 and CD44 rs1467558 warrant further investigation as potential genomic markers of enhanced risk of acetaminophen-induced ALF.

  2. Acute liver failure in a term neonate after repeated paracetamol administration

    PubMed Central

    Bucaretchi, Fábio; Fernandes, Carla Borrasca; Branco, Maíra Migliari; Capitani, Eduardo Mello De; Hyslop, Stephen; Caldas, Jamil Pedro S.; Moreno, Carolina Araújo; Porta, Gilda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Severe hepatotoxicity caused by paracetamol is rare in neonates. We report a case of paracetamol-induced acute liver failure in a term neonate. Case description: A 26-day-old boy was admitted with intestinal bleeding, shock signs, slight liver enlargement, coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis (pH=7.21; bicarbonate: 7.1mEq/L), hypoglycemia (18mg/dL), increased serum aminotransferase activity (AST=4,039IU/L; ALT=1,087IU/L) and hyperbilirubinemia (total: 9.57mg/dL; direct: 6.18mg/dL) after receiving oral paracetamol (10mg/kg/dose every 4 hours) for three consecutive days (total dose around 180mg/kg; serum concentration 36-48 hours after the last dose of 77µg/ mL). Apart from supportive measures, the patient was successfully treated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine infusion during 11 consecutive days, and was discharged on day 34. The follow-up revealed full recovery of clinical and of laboratory findings of hepatic function. Comments: The paracetamol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in neonates and infants differ substantially from those in older children and adults. Despite the reduced rates of metabolism by the P-450 CYP2E1 enzyme system and the increased ability to synthesize glutathione - which provides greater resistance after overdoses -, it is possible to produce hepatotoxic metabolites (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone) that cause hepatocellular damage, if glutathione sources are depleted. Paracetamol clearance is reduced and the half-life of elimination is prolonged. Therefore, a particular dosing regimen should be followed due to the toxicity risk of cumulative doses. This report highlights the risk for severe hepatotoxicity in neonates after paracetamol multiple doses for more than two to three days. PMID:24676202

  3. Use of nucleoside (tide) analogues in patients with hepatitis B-related acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Dao, Doan Y; Seremba, Emmanuel; Ajmera, Veeral; Sanders, Corron; Hynan, Linda S; Lee, William M

    2012-05-01

    The efficacy of nucleoside(tide) analogues (NA) in the treatment of acute liver failure due to hepatitis B virus (HBV-ALF) remains controversial. We determined retrospectively the impact of NAs in a large cohort of patients with HBV-ALF. The US Acute Liver Failure Study Group, a 23-site registry, prospectively enrolled 1,413 patients with ALF with different etiologies between 1998 and 2008. Of those, 105 patients were identified as HBV-ALF patients, of whom we excluded those without data on NA use or with co-infection with hepatitis C, leaving 85 patients, 43 of whom had received NA treatment. HBV-DNA on admission was quantified by real time polymerase chain reaction. The treated and untreated groups were similar in most respects but differed significantly in regard to higher aminotransferase and bilirubin levels and hepatic coma grades, all being observed in the untreated group. Median duration of NA treatment was 6 days (range, 1-21 days). Overall survival in the NA treated and untreated groups were 61 and 64%, respectively (P = 0.72). Rates of transplant-free survival were 21 and 36% in the treated and untreated groups, respectively (P = 0.42). Multivariate analysis revealed that not using a NA [odds ratio (OR) 4.4, 95% CI 1.1-18.1, P = 0.041], hepatic coma grade I or II [OR 14.4, 95% CI 3.3-62.8, P < 0.001] and prothrombin time (PT) [OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39-0.89, P = 0.012] were predictors of improved transplant-free survival. Patients who are admitted with established HBV-ALF do not appear to benefit from viral suppression using nucleoside(tide) analogues presumably because of rapid disease evolution and short treatment duration. Despite the lack of benefit, NAs should still be given to transplantation candidates since viral suppression prevents recurrence after grafting.

  4. Efficacy of a chronic disease management model for patients with chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Wigg, Alan J; McCormick, Rosemary; Wundke, Rachel; Woodman, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Despite the economic impacts of chronic liver failure (CLF) and the success of chronic disease management (CDM) programs in routine clinical practice, there have been no randomized controlled trials of CDM for CLF. We investigated the efficacy of CDM programs for CLF patients in a prospective, controlled trial. Sixty consecutive patients with cirrhosis and complications from CLF were assigned randomly to groups given intervention (n = 40) or usual care (n = 20), from 2009 to 2010. The 12-month intervention comprised 4 CDM components: delivery system redesign, self-management support, decision support, and clinical information systems. The primary outcome was the number of days spent in a hospital bed for liver-related reasons. Secondary outcomes were rates of other hospital use measures, rate of attendance at planned outpatient care, disease severity, quality of life, and quality of care. The intervention did not reduce the number of days patients spent in hospital beds for liver-related reasons, compared with usual care (17.8 vs 11.0 bed days/person/y, respectively; incidence rate ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-4.8; P = .39), or affect other measures of hospitalization. Patients given the intervention had a 30% higher rate of attendance at outpatient care (incidence rate ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.5; P = .004) and significant increases in quality of care, based on adherence to hepatoma screening, osteoporosis and vaccination guidelines, and referral to transplant centers (P < .05 for all). In a pilot study to determine the efficacy of CDM for patients with CLF, patients receiving CDM had significant increases in attendance at outpatient centers and quality of care, compared with patients who did not receive CDM. However, CDM did not appear to reduce hospital admission rates or disease severity or improve patient quality of life. Larger trials with longer follow-up periods are required to confirm these findings and assess cost

  5. Encephalopathy in acute liver failure resulting from acetaminophen intoxication: New observations with potential therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brusilow, Saul W; Cooper, Arthur J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Hyperammonemia is a major contributing factor to the encephalopathy associated with liver disease. It is now generally accepted that hyperammonemia leads to toxic levels of glutamine in astrocytes. However, the mechanism by which excessive glutamine is toxic to astrocytes is controversial. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence that glutamine-induced osmotic swelling, especially in acute liver failure (ALF), is a contributing factor – the osmotic gliopathy theory. The object of the current communication is to present evidence for the osmotic gliopathy theory in a hyperammonemic patient who overdosed on acetaminophen. Design Case report. Setting Johns Hopkins Hospital. Patient A 22-year old white female who, 36 hours prior to admission, ingested 15 grams of acetaminophen was admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Physical examination was unremarkable; her mental status was within normal limits and remained so until approximately 72 hours after ingestion when she became confused, irritable and agitated. Interventions She was intubated, ventilated and placed on lactulose. Shortly thereafter she was non-communicative, unresponsive to painful stimuli and exhibited decerebrate posturing. A clinical diagnosis of cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) was made. She improved very slowly until 180 hours after ingestion when she moved all extremities. She woke up shortly thereafter. Measurements and main results Despite the fact that hyperammonemia is a major contributing factor to the encephalopathy observed in ALF the patient’s plasma ammonia peaked when she exhibited no obvious neurological deficit. Thereafter, her plasma ammonia decreased precipitously in parallel with a worsening neurological status. She was deeply encephalopathic during a period when her liver function and plasma ammonia had normalized. Plasma glutamine levels in this patient were high, but began to normalize several hours after plasma ammonia had returned to normal. The

  6. Erythropoietin in Predicting Prognosis in Patients with Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Alempijevic, Tamara; Zec, Simon; Nikolic, Vladimir; Veljkovic, Aleksandar; Milivojevic, Vladimir; Dopsaj, Violeta; Stankovic, Sanja; Milosavljevic, Tomica

    2016-12-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is characterized by a rapid progression to multiple organ failure and is associated with a very high mortality rate of 50-90%. Novel therapies are being investigated such as Erythropoietin (EPO). The aim of this prospective cohort study was to analyse the value of EPO in predicting prognosis and determine which patients may benefit most from EPO therapy. According to the EASL-CLIF criteria, 104 consecutive patients were diagnosed with ACLF, and separated into two groups based on the type of insult: bleeding (Group A=31) or non-bleeding (Group B=73). In addition to a complete biochemical work-up and calculation of relevant prognostic scores, levels of EPO were measured on admission and correlated to the type of insult and final outcome. Fifteen patients from Group A (mean age 60.32+/-9.29 years) had a lethal outcome and higher values of EPO on admission (319.26+/-326.58 mIU/ml) (p<0.005), compared to the 37 patients from Group B (mean age 59.9+/-10.19 years) with EPO levels at admission of 29.88+/-34.6 mIU/mL. In Group B, a cut-off EPO value of 30.65 mIU/mL had a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity 57.4% in predicting lethal outcome with an AUROC of 0.823. In Group A, a cut-off value of 229.95 mlU/mL had a sensitivity and specificity of 53.3% and 92.7%, respectively. The AUROC for this cut-off was 0.847. Erythropoietin is superior to the standard prognostic scores in predicting 28-day mortality. Lower levels of EPO were detected in patients without bleeding as an insult indicating a possible therapeutic benefit in these patients.

  7. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for acute-on-chronic liver failure: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Mendiola-Pastrana, Indira; Ornelas-Arroyo, Victoria J; Noreña-Herrera, Camilo; Vidaña-Perez, Desiree; Delgado-Sanchez, Guadalupe; Uribe, Misael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2015-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is associated with increased short and long-term mortality. Animal models of liver failure have demonstrated that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) accelerates the liver regeneration process and improves survival. However, clinical evidence regarding the use of G-CSF in ACLF remains scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits and harms of G-CSF in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. An electronic search was made in The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS up to November 2013. Randomized clinical trials comparing the use of any regimen of G-CSF against placebo or no intervention in patients with ACLF were included. Primary outcomes included overal mortality, mortality due multi-organ failure, and adverse events. Relative risk (RR) and mean difference (MD) were used. Two trials involving 102 patients were included. A significant reduction in short-term overall mortality was observed in patients receiving G-CSF compared to controls (RR 0.56; 95%CI 0.39,0.80). G-CSF failed to reduce mortality secondary to gastrointestinal bleeding (RR 1.45; 95%CI 0.50, 4.27). Adverse effects reported included: fever, rash, herpes zoster, headache and nausea. In conclusion, the use of G-CSF for the treatment of patients with ACLF significantly reduced short-term mortality. While the evidence is still limited, the apparent benefit observed on short-term mortality, mild adverse effects and lack of an alternative therapy make the use of G-CSF in ACLF patients a reasonable alternative when liver transplantation is contraindicated or unavailable.

  8. Interstage Assessment of Remnant Liver Function in ALPPS Using Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy: Prediction of Posthepatectomy Liver Failure and Introduction of the HIBA Index.

    PubMed

    Serenari, Matteo; Collaud, Carlos; Alvarez, Fernando A; de Santibañes, Martin; Giunta, Diego; Pekolj, Juan; Ardiles, Victoria; de Santibañes, Eduardo

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate interstage liver function in associating liver partition and portal vein occlusion for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) using hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) and whether this may help to predict posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF). ALPPS remains controversial given the high rate of liver-related mortality after stage 2. HBS combined with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) accurately estimates future liver remnant function and may be useful to predict PHLF. Between 2011 and 2016, 20 of 39 patients (51.3%) underwent SPECT-HBS before ALPPS stage 2 for primary (n = 3) or secondary liver tumors (n = 17) at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA). PHLF was defined by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery criteria, 50-50 criteria, or peak bilirubin >7 mg/dL. Grade A PHLF was excluded, as it requires no change in clinical management. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to determine cutoff for HBS parameters. Interstagely, 3 HBS parameters differed significantly between patients with (n = 4) and without PHLF (n = 16) after stage 2. Among these, the HIBA-index best predicted PHLF, with a cutoff value of 15%. The risk of PHLF in patients with cutoff <15% was 80%, whereas no patient with cutoff ≥15% developed PHLF. Interstage HBS could help to predict clinically significant PHLF after ALPPS stage 2. An HIBA-index cutoff of 15% seemed to give the best diagnostic performance. Although further studies are needed to confirm our findings, the routine application of this noninvasive low-cost examination could facilitate decision-making in institutions performing ALPPS.

  9. Inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis cascade implications in bisphenol A-induced liver fibrosis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Elswefy, Sahar El-Sayed; Abdallah, Fatma Rizk; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini; Wahba, Alaa Samir; Hasan, Rehab Abdallah

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a key monomer in the production of plastics. It has been shown to be hepatotoxic. Inflammation and oxidative stress are closely linked with liver fibrosis, the major contributing factor to hepatic failure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to BPA on the development of hepatic fibrosis in male rats and to determine the cross-talk between the hepatic cytokine network, oxidative stress and apoptosis. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three equal groups as follows: the first group was given no treatment (normal control group); the second group was given corn oil once daily by oral gavage for 8 weeks (vehicle control group); and the third group received BPA (50 mg/kg body weight/day, p.o.) for 8 weeks. BPA administration induced liver fibrosis as reflected in an increase in serum hepatic enzymes activities, hepatic hydroxyproline content and histopathological changes particularly increased collagen fibre deposition around the portal tract. In addition, there was inflammation (as reflected in increase in interleukin-1beta 'IL-1β', decrease in interleukin-10 'IL-10' serum levels and increase in IL-1β/IL-10 ratio), oxidative stress (as reflected in increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level, reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH) content and inhibition of catalase (CAT) activity) and apoptosis [as reflected in an increase in caspase-3 level and a decrease in numbers of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-immunopositive hepatocytes]. Interestingly, BPA had an upregulating effect on an extracellular matrix turnover gene [as reflected in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)] and a downregulating effect on its inhibitor gene [as reflected in tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)] expression. Thus, the mechanism by which BPA induced liver fibrosis seems to be related to stimulation of the inflammatory response, along with oxidative stress, the apoptotic pathway and activation

  10. Acute Liver Failure from Herpes Simplex Virus in an Immunocompetent Patient Due to Direct Inoculation of the Peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Dhruv; Ahmed, Shifat; Liu, Nanlong; Marsano-Obando, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is a rare cause of acute liver failure (ALF). It carries a mortality rate of 80% if untreated, thus early identification and treatment are critical. Without high clinical suspicion, HSV hepatitis is difficult to diagnose. A 48-year-old Hispanic female presented with a 4-day history of abdominal pain and a vaginal cuff tear requiring laparoscopic repair. She subsequently developed postsurgical disseminated HSV, resulting in ALF. Acyclovir was initiated, but she was resistant to treatment. She was given additional foscarnet and responded without requiring a liver transplant.

  11. FIB-4 stage of liver fibrosis predicts incident heart failure among HIV-infected and uninfected patients.

    PubMed

    So-Armah, Kaku A; Lim, Joseph K; Lo Re, Vincent; Tate, Janet P; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Butt, Adeel A; Gibert, Cynthia L; Rimland, David; Marconi, Vincent C; Goetz, Matthew B; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Budoff, Matthew J; Tindle, Hilary A; Samet, Jeffrey H; Justice, Amy C; Freiberg, Matthew S

    2017-10-01

    Liver fibrosis is common, particularly in individuals who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV-infected individuals have excess congestive heart failure (CHF) risk compared with uninfected people. It remains unknown whether liver fibrosis stage influences the CHF risk or if HIV or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection modifies this association. Our objectives were to assess whether 1) stage of liver fibrosis is independently associated with incident CHF and 2) the association between stage of liver fibrosis and incident CHF is modified by HIV/HCV status. Participants alive on or after April 1, 2003, in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study were included. Those without prevalent cardiovascular disease were followed until their first CHF event, death, last follow-up date, or December 31, 2011. Liver fibrosis was measured using the fibrosis 4 index (FIB-4), which is calculated using age, aminotransferases, and platelets. Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for cardiovascular disease risk factors. Among 96,373 participants over 6.9 years, 3844 incident CHF events occurred. FIB-4 between 1.45 and 3.25 (moderate fibrosis) and FIB-4 > 3.25 (advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis) were associated with CHF (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.17 [1.07-1.27] and 1.65 [1.43-1.92], respectively). The association of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis and incident CHF persisted regardless of HIV/HCV status. Moderate and advanced liver fibrosis/cirrhosis are associated with an increased risk of CHF. The association for advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis persists even among participants without hepatitis C and/or HIV infection. Assessing liver health may be important for reducing the risk of future CHF events, particularly among HIV and hepatitis C infected people among whom cardiovascular disease risk is elevated and liver disease is common. (Hepatology 2017;66:1286-1295). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Cerebral Hemodynamics Patterns by Transcranial Doppler in Patients With Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A; Pérez-Bernal, J; Hinojosa, R; Porras, F; Castellanos, R; Gómez, F; Gutiérrez, J; Castellanos, A; Leal, G; Espinosa, N; Gómez-Bravo, M

    2015-11-01

    About half of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) show clinical signs of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension. Neuroimaging diagnostics and electroencephalography have poor correlation with intracranial pressure measurement. The objective of this study was to characterize the cerebral hemodynamics patterns with transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography in patients with ALF. We studied 21 patients diagnosed with ALF, admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at the Centro de Investigaciones Médico Quirúrgicas of Cuba. All of these patients had a TCD performed on arrival at ICU, evaluating the following: systolic (SV), diastolic (DV), and medium (MV) flows velocities and pulsatility index (PI) in right middle cerebral artery (RMCA) via temporal windows. The sonographic patterns of cerebral hemodynamics were as follows: low-flow, 12 patients (57.1%); high resistance, 5 patients (23.8%); and hyperemic, 4 patients (19%). Patients who died while waiting had lower MV RMCA (56.1 vs 58.1 cm/s) and higher PI (1.71 vs 1.41) than patients who could undergo transplantation (P = .800 and P = .787, respectively). In patients diagnosed with ALF admitted to the ICU the predominating cerebral hemodynamic pattern was low-flow with resistance increase. The TCD was shown to be a useful tool in the initial evaluation for prognosis and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yellapu, Radha K; Mittal, Vivek; Grewal, Priya; Fiel, Mariaisabel; Schiano, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, nonconventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful.

  14. Low Platelet to White Blood Cell Ratio Indicates Poor Prognosis for Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Jie, Yusheng; Gong, Jiao; Xiao, Cuicui; Zhu, Shuguang; Zhou, Wenying; Luo, Juan; Chong, Yutian; Hu, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Background. Platelet to white blood cell ratio (PWR) was an independent prognostic predictor for outcomes in some diseases. However, the prognostic role of PWR is still unclear in patients with hepatitis B related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). In this study, we evaluated the clinical performances of PWR in predicting prognosis in HBV-related ACLF. Methods. A total of 530 subjects were recruited, including 97 healthy controls and 433 with HBV-related ACLF. Liver function, prothrombin time activity (PTA), international normalized ratio (INR), HBV DNA measurement, and routine hematological testing were performed at admission. Results . At baseline, PWR in patients with HBV-related ACLF (14.03 ± 7.17) was significantly decreased compared to those in healthy controls (39.16 ± 9.80). Reduced PWR values were clinically associated with the severity of liver disease and the increased mortality rate. Furthermore, PWR may be an inexpensive, easily accessible, and significant independent prognostic index for mortality on multivariate analysis (HR = 0.660, 95% CI: 0.438-0.996, p = 0.048) as well as model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. Conclusions . The PWR values were markedly decreased in ACLF patients compared with healthy controls and associated with severe liver disease. Moreover, PWR was an independent prognostic indicator for the mortality rate in patients with ACLF. This investigation highlights that PWR comprised a useful biomarker for prediction of liver severity.

  15. Association between liver failure and hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in dairy cows with follicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Tanemura, Kouichi; Ohtaki, Tadatoshi; Kuwahara, Yasushi; Tsumagari, Shigehisa

    2017-01-20

    Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) liver activity was measured using estradiol-17β as a substrate in dairy cows with follicular cysts. The activity was significantly lower than that in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles (P<0.01). Liver disorders, such as fatty liver and hepatitis, were observed in half cows with follicular cysts, and liver UGT activity was lower than that in cows with normal estrus cycles. In addition, the liver UGT activity was significantly lower in dairy cows with follicular cysts without liver disorders than in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles. Therefore, the cows were divided into those with low, middle and high liver UGT activities, and liver disorder complication rates were investigated. The complication rate was significantly higher in the low- (78.1%) than in the middle- (22.2%) and high-level (8.3%) groups, suggesting that liver disorders are closely associated with the development of follicular cysts in dairy cows and that steroid hormone metabolism is delayed because of reduced liver UGT activity, resulting in follicular cyst formation. We conclude that reduced estradiol-17β glucuronidation in the liver and liver disorders are associated with follicular cyst occurrence in dairy cows.

  16. Association between liver failure and hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in dairy cows with follicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    TANEMURA, Kouichi; OHTAKI, Tadatoshi; KUWAHARA, Yasushi; TSUMAGARI, Shigehisa

    2016-01-01

    Uridine 5’-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) liver activity was measured using estradiol-17β as a substrate in dairy cows with follicular cysts. The activity was significantly lower than that in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles (P<0.01). Liver disorders, such as fatty liver and hepatitis, were observed in half cows with follicular cysts, and liver UGT activity was lower than that in cows with normal estrus cycles. In addition, the liver UGT activity was significantly lower in dairy cows with follicular cysts without liver disorders than in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles. Therefore, the cows were divided into those with low, middle and high liver UGT activities, and liver disorder complication rates were investigated. The complication rate was significantly higher in the low- (78.1%) than in the middle- (22.2%) and high-level (8.3%) groups, suggesting that liver disorders are closely associated with the development of follicular cysts in dairy cows and that steroid hormone metabolism is delayed because of reduced liver UGT activity, resulting in follicular cyst formation. We conclude that reduced estradiol-17β glucuronidation in the liver and liver disorders are associated with follicular cyst occurrence in dairy cows. PMID:27666462

  17. Transplantation for acute liver failure in patients exposed to NSAIDs or paracetamol (acetaminophen): the multinational case-population SALT study.

    PubMed

    Gulmez, Sinem Ezgi; Larrey, Dominique; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Lignot, Severine; Lassalle, Régis; Jové, Jérémy; Gatta, Angelo; McCormick, P Aiden; Metselaar, Harold J; Monteiro, Estela; Thorburn, Douglas; Bernal, William; Zouboulis-Vafiadis, Irene; de Vries, Corinne; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Bénichou, Jacques; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Horsmans, Yves; Salvo, Francesco; Hamoud, Fatima; Micon, Sophie; Droz-Perroteau, Cécile; Blin, Patrick; Moore, Nicholas

    2013-02-01

    Most NSAIDs are thought to be able to cause hepatic injury and acute liver failure (ALF), but the event rates of those leading to transplantation (ALFT) remain uncertain. The aim of the study was to estimate population event rates for NSAID-associated ALFT METHODS: This was a case-population study of ALFT in 57 eligible liver transplant centres in seven countries (France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal and the UK). Cases were all adults registered from 2005 to 2007 for a liver transplant following ALFT without identified clinical aetiology, exposed to an NSAID or paracetamol (acetaminophen) within 30 days before the onset of clinical symptoms. NSAID and paracetamol population exposures were assessed using national sales data from Intercontinental Marketing Services (IMS). Risk was estimated as the rate of ALFT per million treatment-years (MTY). In the 52 participating centres, 9479 patients were registered for transplantation, with 600 for ALFT, 301 of whom, without clinical aetiology, had been exposed to a drug within 30 days. Of these 301 patients, 40 had been exposed to an NSAID and 192 to paracetamol (81 of whom were without overdose). Event rates per MTY were 1.59 (95 % CI 1.1-2.2) for all NSAIDs pooled, 2.3 (95 % CI 1.2-3.9) for ibuprofen, 1.9 (95 % CI 0.8-3.7) for nimesulide, 1.6 (95 % CI 0.6-3.4) for diclofenac and 1.6 (95 % CI 0.3-4.5) for ketoprofen. For paracetamol, the event rate was 3.3 per MTY (95 % CI 2.6-4.1) without overdoses and 7.8 (95 % CI 6.8-9.0) including overdoses. ALF leading to registration for transplantation after exposure to an NSAID was rare, with no major difference between NSAID. Non-overdose paracetamol-exposed liver failure was twice more common than NSAID-exposed liver failure.

  18. Acute hepatic decompensation precipitated by pregnancy-related catabolic stress: a rare mimic of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Marie; Ket, Shara; Testro, Adam; Gow, Paul J; Angus, Peter W

    2014-02-01

    Abnormal liver function tests are common in pregnancy; however, liver failure is rare. Pregnancy is a catabolic state that can precipitate illness in patients with underlying metabolic disorders. A 19-year-old woman presented at 14 weeks of gestation with an alanine transaminase of 2,252 international units/L (less than 30), an international normalized ratio of 6.9 (0.9-1.2), and an ammonia of 58 micromole/L (11-51 micromole/L). No cause was identified on routine investigations including liver biopsy. Biochemical and clinical deterioration prompted investigation for a metabolic disorder. Urinary orotic acid was elevated, consistent with the urea cycle disorder type 1 citrullinemia. Appropriate management (arginine supplementation and dietary protein restriction) led to rapid improvement and later delivery of a healthy neonate. This is an unusual presentation that reminds us of the importance of considering metabolic disorders during the catabolic stress of pregnancy.

  19. Retrospective evaluation of acute liver failure in dogs (1995-2012): 49 cases.

    PubMed

    Lester, Carrie; Cooper, Johanna; Peters, Rachel M; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2016-07-01

    To characterize the clinical presentation and outcome of dogs with acute liver failure (ALF). Retrospective case series from January 1995 to December 2012. University teaching hospital. Forty-nine dogs were diagnosed with ALF defined as the acute onset of clinical signs accompanied by serum hyperbilirubinemia and coagulopathy (prothrombin time >1.5 times the upper limit of the reference interval) with or without signs of hepatic encephalopathy. Medical records were retrospectively analyzed for clinical presentation, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, diagnostic imaging findings, hepatic histopathology, treatment, and outcome. Presenting signs included anorexia (28/49, 57%), vomiting (25/49, 51%), neurologic abnormalities (17/49, 35%), and polydipsia/polyuria (10/49, 20%). Neurologic impairment compatible with hepatic encephalopathy occurred at some point during hospitalization in 28/49 (57%) of dogs. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities on presentation other than hyperbilirubinemia and increased serum liver enzyme activity included thrombocytopenia (25/49, 51%), hypoalbuminemia (23/49, 46%), leukocytosis (17/49, 34%), anemia (14/49, 29%), hypokalemia (13/49, 27%), and hypoglycemia (10/49, 20%). The causes of ALF included neoplasia (13/49, 27%), presumptive leptosporosis (4/49, 8%), and ischemia (1/49, 2%). The remaining cases were idiopathic although 15 of these dogs had exposure to possible hepatotoxins. Common lesions in the 35/49 (71%) dogs that had hepatic histopathology were necrosis (19/39, 48%), lipidosis (16/39, 41%), vacuolar change (7/49, 14%), and inflammation (4/49, 8%). Complications included ascites (20/49, 41%), bleeding tendencies (14/49, 29%), pancreatitis (12/49, 24%), and acute tubular necrosis (11/49, 22%). Seven (14%) dogs survived to discharge. Survivors had higher alanine aminotransferase activity, and were more likely to maintain normal albumin concentrations and not develop clinical bleeding or ascites during

  20. Acute Liver Failure in a Pediatric Patient with Congenital Dysery-Thropoietic Anemia Type I Treated with Deferasirox.

    PubMed

    Ling, Galina; Pinsk, Vered; Golan-Tripto, Inbal; Ling, Eduard

    2015-09-23

    Congenital dyserythropoietic anemias (CDA) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by morphological abnormalities of erythroid precursor cells and various degrees of hemolysis. Iron overload is a result of continuous hemolysis and recurrent transfusions. It is treated with iron chelators, including deferasirox. We present here a case of acute liver failure in a 12 years old girl with CDA type I treated with deferasirox and discuss the approach to treatment.

  1. The impact of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score on cardiac prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tetsu; Shishido, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Ken; Sugai, Takayuki; Toshima, Taku; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Miyuki; Tamura, Harutoshi; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Arimoto, Takanori; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yamanaka, Tamon; Miyamoto, Takuya; Kubota, Isao

    2018-07-01

    Liver abnormalities have a strong impact on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF), and are known as cardio-hepatic syndrome. The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fibrosis score (NFS) has been developed to identify liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. It remains to be determined whether NFS is associated with cardiovascular prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We calculated NFS in 516 patients with CHF admitted to our hospital. The clinical endpoints were deaths due to progressive HF, myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden cardiac death, and rehospitalization for worsening HF. There were 173 cardiovascular events noted during a median follow-up of 464 days. Patients with cardiovascular events showed a higher NFS as compared with those without. We divided the patients into four groups according to quartiles of NFS. The proportion of New York Heart Association functional class III/IV and serum brain natriuretic peptide levels were increased with increasing NFS. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that cardiovascular event rate was increased with increasing NFS in patients with CHF. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, NFS was independently associated with cardiovascular events after adjustment for confounding factors. Elevated NFS was associated with unfavorable outcomes in patients with CHF. Liver fibrosis assessed by NFS may provide valuable prognostic information in patients with CHF.

  2. Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure in China: Rationale for Developing a Patient Registry and Baseline Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wen-Yi; Xu, Bao-Yan; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Jinjun; Wang, Xian-Bo; Huang, Yan; Gao, Yan-Hang; Meng, Zhong-Ji; Qian, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Feng; Lu, Xiao-Bo; Shang, Jia; Li, Hai; Wang, Shao-Yang; Sun, Xin; Li, Hai

    2018-05-14

    Definitions and descriptions of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) vary between Western and Eastern types, and alcoholism and hepatitis B virus(HBV) are the main etiologies, respectively. To determine whether there are unified diagnostic criteria and common treatment programs for different etiologies of ACLF, a multicenter prospective cohort with the same inclusion criteria and disease indicators as those used in the European CANONIC (Chronic liver failure-ACLF in Cirrhosis) study is urgently needed in Asia, where the prevalence of HBV is high. Fourteen nationwide liver centers from tertiary university hospitals in China were included, and 2,600 hospitalized patients with chronic liver disease (both cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic) of various etiologies with acute decompensation or acute hepatic injury were continuously recruited from January 2015 to December 2016. Data were collected during hospitalization and continuous follow-ups were performed once a month until 36 months after hospital discharge. A multicenter prospective cohort of 2,600 patients was designed (NCT no. NCT02457637). Of these patients, 71.5% had HBV-related disease, 1,833 had cirrhotic disease, and 767 had non-cirrhotic disease. The numbers and proportions of enrolled patients from each participating center and the baseline characteristics of the patients with or without cirrhosis are presented.

  3. A systems pharmacology-oriented discovery of a new therapeutic use of the TCM formula Liuweiwuling for liver failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Bo; Cui, He-Rong; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Cong-En; Niu, Ming; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Xu, Gen-Hua; Li, Peng-Yan; Jiang, Wen-Yan; Han, Jing-Jing; Ma, Xiao; Cai, Guang-Ming; Li, Rui-Sheng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2018-04-04

    Multiple components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae determine their treatment targets for multiple diseases as opposed to a particular disease. However, discovering the unexplored therapeutic potential of a TCM formula remains challenging and costly. Inspired by the drug repositioning methodology, we propose an integrated strategy to feasibly identify new therapeutic uses for a formula composed of six herbs, Liuweiwuling. First, we developed a comprehensive systems approach to enrich drug compound-liver disease networks to analyse the major predicted diseases of Liuweiwuling and discover its potential effect on liver failure. The underlying mechanisms were subsequently predicted to mainly attribute to a blockade of hepatocyte apoptosis via a synergistic combination of multiple effects. Next, a classical pharmacology experiment was designed to validate the effects of Liuweiwuling on different models of fulminant liver failure induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS) or thioacetamide (TAA). The results indicated that pretreatment with Liuweiwuling restored liver function and reduced lethality induced by GalN/LPS or TAA in a dose-dependent manner, which was partially attributable to the abrogation of hepatocyte apoptosis by multiple synergistic effects. In summary, the integrated strategy discussed in this paper may provide a new approach for the more efficient discovery of new therapeutic uses for TCM formulae.

  4. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) induced acute liver failure - A social problem in an era of increasing tendency to self-treatment.

    PubMed

    Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Kobryń, Konrad; Kozieł, Sławomir; Ołdakowska-Jedynak, Urszula; Pinkas, Jarosław; Danielewicz, Roman; Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, Bogna; Krawczyk, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The widespread availability of medication without prescription, so-called over the counter (OTC), and the rapid development of health consciousness of Poles is associated with broad access to medical information in the mass media. This causes patients to recognize their own disease, cancel doctor's appointments, and begin self-treatment. This time and money-saving behavior, often signaled by pain, usually leads to the treatment of symptoms alone, without seeking the cause of the disease.The aim of the study was to present life-threatening paracetamol poisoning, and the treatment of acute liver failure. In 2002-2014, 35 patients were hospitalized due to acute paracetamol poisoning: 17 female and 18 male patients aged between 17-59 (mean 32.3 years). Patients were treated in the surgical intensive care unit, where their parameters of liver and renal function were continuously monitored. If there was no improvement in the liver function, patients underwent albumin dialysis with the Prometheus system and were qualified for liver transplantation (LTx). 26 patients were treated pharmacologically and 7 out of 9 patients who underwent LTx were dialyzed. Overall, 11 patients had 26 albumin dialysis in total; 4 patients died - 1 post-transplant and 3 pre-transplant. Paracetamol is the cause of many poisonings resulting from the lack of public awareness about toxic interactions with alcohol, and suicide attempts. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure concerns a small percentage of patients but can be successfully treated with albumin dialysis, and in extreme cases by liver transplantation.

  5. The potential antifibrotic impact of apocynin and alpha-lipoic acid in concanavalin A-induced liver fibrosis in rats: Role of NADPH oxidases 1 and 4.

    PubMed

    Fayed, Mostafa R; El-Naga, Reem N; Akool, El-Sayed; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2018-01-01

    Liver fibrosis results from chronic inflammation that precipitates excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. Oxidative stress is involved in its pathogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the potential antifibrotic effect of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, apocynin against concanavalin A (ConA)-induced immunological model of liver fibrosis, and to investigate the ability of the antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) to potentiate this effect. Rats were treated with apocynin and/or α-LA for six weeks. Hepatotoxicity indices, oxidative stress, insulin, NOXs, inflammatory and liver fibrosis markers were assessed. Treatment of animals with apocynin and α-LA significantly ameliorated the changes in liver functions and histopathological architecture induced by ConA. Liver fibrosis induced by ConA was evident where alpha-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor- beta1 were elevated, which was further confirmed by Masson's trichrome stain and increased hydroxyproline. Co-treatment with apocynin and α-LA significantly reduced their expression. Besides, apocynin and α-LA significantly ameliorated oxidative stress injury evoked by ConA, as evidenced by enhancing reduced glutathione content, antioxidant enzymes activities and decreasing lipid peroxides. ConA induced a significant elevation in serum insulin level and inflammatory markers; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and nuclear factor kappa b. Furthermore, the mRNA tissue expression of NOXs 1 and 4 was found to be elevated in the ConA group. All these elevations were significantly reduced by apocynin and α-LA co-treatment. These findings indicate that using apocynin and α-LA in combination possess marked antifibrotic effects, and that NOX enzymes are partially involved in the pathogenesis of ConA-induced liver fibrosis.

  6. The Impact of Hospital/Surgeon Volume on Acute Renal Failure and Mortality in Liver Transplantation: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Liu, Fu-Chao; Lin, Jr-Rung; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Chen, Hsiu-Pin; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the case volume of surgeons and hospitals affects the rates of postoperative complications and survival after liver transplantation. This population-based retrospective cohort study included 2938 recipients of liver transplantation performed between 1998 and 2012, enrolled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. They were divided into two groups, according to the cumulative case volume of their operating surgeons and the case volume of their hospitals. The duration of intensive care unit stay and post-transplantation hospitalization, postoperative complications, and mortality were analyzed. The results showed that, in the low and high case volume surgeons groups, respectively, acute renal failure occurred at the rate of 14.11% and 5.86% (p<0.0001), and the overall mortality rates were 19.61% and 12.44% (p<0.0001). In the low and high case volume hospital groups, respectively, acute renal failure occurred in 11% and 7.11% of the recipients (p = 0.0004), and the overall mortality was 18.44% and 12.86% (p<0.0001). These findings suggest that liver transplantation recipients operated on higher case volume surgeons or in higher case volume hospitals have a lower rate of acute renal failure and mortality.

  7. Aquaporin-4 deletion in mice reduces encephalopathy and brain edema in experimental acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Rama Rao, Kakulavarapu V; Verkman, A S; Curtis, Kevin M; Norenberg, Michael D

    2014-03-01

    Brain edema and associated astrocyte swelling leading to increased intracranial pressure are hallmarks of acute liver failure (ALF). Elevated blood and brain levels of ammonia have been implicated in the development of brain edema in ALF. Cultured astrocytes treated with ammonia have been shown to undergo cell swelling and such swelling was associated with an increase in the plasma membrane expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) protein. Further, silencing the AQP4 gene in cultured astrocytes was shown to prevent the ammonia-induced cell swelling. Here, we examined the evolution of brain edema in AQP4-null mice and their wild type counterparts (WT-mice) in different models of ALF induced by thioacetamide (TAA) or acetaminophen (APAP). Induction of ALF with TAA or APAP significantly increased brain water content in WT mice (by 1.6% ± 0.3 and 2.3 ± 0.4%, respectively). AQP4 protein was significantly increased in brain plasma membranes of WT mice with ALF induced by either TAA or APAP. In contrast to WT-mice, brain water content did not increase in AQP4-null mice. Additionally, AQP4-null mice treated with either TAA or APAP showed a remarkably lesser degree of neurological deficits as compared to WT mice; the latter displayed an inability to maintain proper gait, and demonstrated a markedly reduced exploratory behavior, with the mice remaining in one corner of the cage with its head tilted downwards. These results support a central role of AQP4 in the brain edema associated with ALF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Aquaporin-4 Deletion in Mice Reduces Encephalopathy and Brain Edema in Experimental Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rama Rao, Kakulavarapu V.; Verkman, A. S.; Curtis, Kevin M.; Norenberg, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Brain edema and associated astrocyte swelling leading to increased intracranial pressure are hallmarks of acute liver failure (ALF). Elevated blood and brain levels of ammonia have been implicated in the development of brain edema in ALF. Cultured astrocytes treated with ammonia have been shown to undergo cell swelling and such swelling was associated with an increase in the plasma membrane expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) protein. Further, silencing the AQP4 gene in cultured astrocytes was shown to prevent the ammonia-induced cell swelling. Here, we examined the evolution of brain edema in AQP4-null mice and their wild type counterparts (WT-mice) in different models of ALF induced by thioacetamide (TAA) or acetaminophen (APAP). Induction of ALF with TAA or APAP significantly increased brain water content in WT mice (by 1.6 ± 0.3 and 2.3 ± 0.4 %, respectively). AQP4 protein was significantly increased in brain plasma membranes of WT mice with ALF induced by either TAA or APAP. In contrast to WT-mice, brain water content did not increase in AQP4-null mice. Additionally, AQP4-null mice treated with either TAA or APAP showed a remarkably lesser degree of neurological deficits as compared to WT mice; the latter displayed an inability to maintain proper gait, and demonstrated a markedly reduced exploratory behavior, with the mice remaining in one corner of the cage with its head tilted downwards. These results support a central role of AQP4 in the brain edema associated with ALF. PMID:24321433

  9. Molecular Absorbent Recirculating System therapy (MARS®) in pediatric acute liver failure: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, Pierre; Merouani, Aicha; Phan, Véronique; Litalien, Catherine; Lallier, Michel; Alvarez, Fernando; Jouvet, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Supportive care as a bridge to transplant or recovery remains challenging in children suffering from acute liver failure (ALF). We report our experience in children using the Molecular Absorbent Recirculating System (MARS(®)). Retrospective data from children receiving therapy using MARS(®) from October 2009 to October 2012 were included in this single-center retrospective study. Patient characteristics, clinical presentation and complications of ALF, clinical and biological data before and after each MARS(®) session, technical modalities and adverse events were recorded. A total of six children underwent 17 MARS(®) sessions during the study period. Two adolescents were treated with the adult filter MARSFLUX(®) and four infants were treated with the MiniMARS(®) filter. The mean PEdiatric Logistic Dysfunction (PELOD) score at admission was 19 (range 11-33). All patients were mechanically ventilated, and four had acute kidney injury. The neurological course improved in one case, judged as stable in two cases and worsened in one case; data were unavailable in two cases. Mean serum ammonia levels decreased significantly following treatment with MARS(®) from an initial 89 ± 29 to 58 ± 35 mcmol/L (p = 0.02). No other significant biological improvement was observed. Hemodynamic status improved/remained unchanged in the adolescent group, but in the infants four of the seven sessions were poorly tolerated and two sessions were aborted. Three patients died, two were successfully transplanted and one recovered without transplantation. In our experience, treatment with MARS(®) is associated with encouraging results in adolescents, but it needs modification for very sick infants to improve tolerance.

  10. Candesartan, rather than losartan, improves motor dysfunction in thioacetamide-induced chronic liver failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Murad, H.A.; Gazzaz, Z.J.; Ali, S.S.; Ibraheem, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is more common than the acute syndrome. Losartan, the first angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB), and candesartan, another widely-used ARB, have protected against developing fibrogenesis, but there is no clear data about their curative antifibrotic effects. The current study was designed to examine their effects in an already-established model of hepatic fibrosis and also their effects on the associated motor dysfunction. Low-grade chronic liver failure (CLF) was induced in 3-month old Sprague-Dawley male rats using thioacetamide (TAA, 50 mg·kg−1·day−1) intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. The TAA-CLF rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=8) treated orally for 14 days (mg·kg−1·day−1) as follows: TAA (distilled water), losartan (5 and 10 mg/kg), and candesartan (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg). Rats were tested for rotarod and open-field tests. Serum and hepatic biochemical markers, and hepatic histopathological changes were evaluated by H&E and Masson's staining. The TAA-CLF rats showed significant increases of hepatic malondialdehyde, hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and serum ammonia, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, TNF-α, and malondialdehyde levels as well as significant decreases of hepatic and serum glutathione levels. All treatments significantly reversed these changes. The histopathological changes were moderate in losartan-5 and candesartan-0.1 groups and mild in losartan-10 and candesartan-0.3 groups. Only candesartan significantly improved TAA-induced motor dysfunction. In conclusion, therapeutic antifibrotic effects of losartan and candesartan in thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats are possibly through angiotensin-II receptor blocking, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Improved motor dysfunction by candesartan could be attributed to better brain penetration and slower “off-rate” from angiotensin-II receptors. Clinical trials are recommended. PMID

  11. Candesartan, rather than losartan, improves motor dysfunction in thioacetamide-induced chronic liver failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Murad, H A; Gazzaz, Z J; Ali, S S; Ibraheem, M S

    2017-09-21

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is more common than the acute syndrome. Losartan, the first angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB), and candesartan, another widely-used ARB, have protected against developing fibrogenesis, but there is no clear data about their curative antifibrotic effects. The current study was designed to examine their effects in an already-established model of hepatic fibrosis and also their effects on the associated motor dysfunction. Low-grade chronic liver failure (CLF) was induced in 3-month old Sprague-Dawley male rats using thioacetamide (TAA, 50 mg·kg-1·day-1) intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. The TAA-CLF rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=8) treated orally for 14 days (mg·kg-1·day-1) as follows: TAA (distilled water), losartan (5 and 10 mg/kg), and candesartan (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg). Rats were tested for rotarod and open-field tests. Serum and hepatic biochemical markers, and hepatic histopathological changes were evaluated by H&E and Masson's staining. The TAA-CLF rats showed significant increases of hepatic malondialdehyde, hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and serum ammonia, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, TNF-α, and malondialdehyde levels as well as significant decreases of hepatic and serum glutathione levels. All treatments significantly reversed these changes. The histopathological changes were moderate in losartan-5 and candesartan-0.1 groups and mild in losartan-10 and candesartan-0.3 groups. Only candesartan significantly improved TAA-induced motor dysfunction. In conclusion, therapeutic antifibrotic effects of losartan and candesartan in thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats are possibly through angiotensin-II receptor blocking, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Improved motor dysfunction by candesartan could be attributed to better brain penetration and slower "off-rate" from angiotensin-II receptors. Clinical trials are recommended.

  12. An Immunoassay to Rapidly Measure Acetaminophen Protein Adducts Accurately Identifies Patients with Acute Liver Injury or Failure

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Dean W.; Lee, William M.; Hinson, Jack A.; Bai, Shasha; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Stravitz, R. Todd; Reuben, Adrian; Letzig, Lynda; Simpson, Pippa M.; Rule, Jody; Fontana, Robert J.; Ganger, Daniel; Reddy, K. Rajender; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; James, Laura P.

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims A rapid, reliable point-of-care assay to detect acetaminophen protein adducts in serum of patients with acute liver injury could improve diagnosis and management. AcetaSTAT is a competitive immunoassay used to measure acetaminophen protein adducts formed by toxic metabolites in serum samples from patients. We compared the accuracy of AcetaSTAT vs high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC, a sensitive and specific quantitative analytical assay) to detect acetaminophen protein adducts. Methods We collected serum samples from 19 healthy individuals (no liver injury, no recent acetaminophen use), 29 patients without acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury, and 33 patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury participating in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry. Each serum sample was analyzed by AcetaSTAT (reported as test band amplitude) and HPLC-EC (the reference standard). We also collected data on patient age, sex, weight, level of alanine aminotransferase on test day and peak values, concentration of acetaminophen, diagnoses (by site investigator and causality review committee), and outcome after 21 days. Differences between groups were analyzed using Fisher’s Exact for categorical variables and Kruskal-Wallis Test or Rank-Sum test for continuous variables. Results AcetaSTAT discriminated between patients with and without acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury; the median (and range) AcetaSTAT test band amplitude for patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury was 584 (range, 222–1027) vs 3678 (range, 394–8289) for those without (P<.001). AcetaSTAT identified patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury with 100% sensitivity, 86.2% specificity, a positive-predictive value of 89.2%, and a negative-predictive value of 100%. Results from AcetaSTAT were positive in 4 subjects who received a causality review committee diagnosis of non

  13. Plasma cystatin C is a predictor of renal dysfunction, acute-on-chronic liver failure, and mortality in patients with acutely decompensated liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Markwardt, Daniel; Holdt, Lesca; Steib, Christian; Benesic, Andreas; Bendtsen, Flemming; Bernardi, Mauro; Moreau, Richard; Teupser, Daniel; Wendon, Julia; Nevens, Frederik; Trebicka, Jonel; Garcia, Elisabet; Pavesi, Marco; Arroyo, Vicente; Gerbes, Alexander L

    2017-10-01

    The development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in patients with liver cirrhosis is associated with high mortality rates. Renal failure is the most significant organ dysfunction that occurs in ACLF. So far there are no biomarkers predicting ACLF. We investigated whether cystatin C (CysC) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) can predict development of renal dysfunction (RD), hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), ACLF, and mortality. We determined the plasma levels of CysC and NGAL in 429 patients hospitalized for acute decompensation of cirrhosis in the EASL-CLIF Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure in Cirrhosis (CANONIC) study. The patients were followed for 90 days. Patients without RD or ACLF at inclusion but with development of either had significantly higher baseline concentrations of CysC and NGAL compared to patients without. CysC, but not NGAL, was found to be predictive of RD (odds ratio, 9.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-49.7), HRS (odds ratio, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.2-14.8), and ACLF (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.3-25.9). CysC at day 3 was not found to be a better predictor than baseline CysC. CysC and NGAL were both predictive of 90-day mortality, with hazard ratios for CysC of 3.1 (95% CI, 2.1-4.7) and for NGAL of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5-2.4). Baseline CysC is a biomarker of RD, HRS, and ACLF and an independent predictor of mortality in patients with acutely decompensated liver cirrhosis, though determining CysC at day 3 did not provide any benefit; while NGAL is also associated with short-term mortality, it fails to predict development of RD, HRS, and ACLF. Baseline CysC may help to identify patients at risk earlier and improve clinical management. (Hepatology 2017;66:1232-1241). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Small for Size and Flow (SFSF) syndrome: An alternative description for posthepatectomy liver failure.

    PubMed

    Golriz, Mohammad; Majlesara, Ali; El Sakka, Saroa; Ashrafi, Maryam; Arwin, Jalal; Fard, Nassim; Raisi, Hanna; Edalatpour, Arman; Mehrabi, Arianeb

    2016-06-01

    Small for Size Syndrome (SFSS) syndrome is a recognizable clinical syndrome occurring in the presence of a reduced mass of liver, which is insufficient to maintain normal liver function. A definition has yet to be fully clarified, but it is a common clinical syndrome following partial liver transplantation and extended hepatectomy, which is characterized by postoperative liver dysfunction with prolonged cholestasis and coagulopathy, portal hypertension, and ascites. So far, this syndrome has been discussed with focus on the remnant size of the liver after partial liver transplantation or extended hepatectomy. However, the current viewpoints believe that the excessive flow of portal vein for the volume of the liver parenchyma leads to over-pressure, sinusoidal endothelial damages and haemorrhage. The new hypothesis declares that in both extended hepatectomy and partial liver transplantation, progression of Small for Size Syndrome is not determined only by the "size" of the liver graft or remnant, but by the hemodynamic parameters of the hepatic circulation, especially portal vein flow. Therefore, we suggest the term "Small for Size and Flow (SFSF)" for this syndrome. We believe that it is important for liver surgeons to know the pathogenesis and manifestation of this syndrome to react early enough preventing non-reversible tissue damages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of predisposition, injury, response and organ failure in the prognosis of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute deterioration of cirrhosis is associated with high mortality rates particularly in the patients who develop organ failure (OF), a condition that is referred to as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), which is currently not completely defined. This study aimed to determine the role of predisposing factors, the nature of the precipitating illness and inflammatory response in the progression to OF according to the PIRO (predisposition, injury, response, organ failure) concept to define the risk of in-hospital mortality. Methods A total of 477 patients admitted with acute deterioration of cirrhosis following a defined precipitant over a 5.5-year period were prospectively studied. Baseline clinical, demographic and biochemical data were recorded for all patients and extended serial data from the group that progressed to OF were analysed to define the role of PIRO in determining in-hospital mortality. Results One hundred and fifty-nine (33%) patients developed OF, of whom 93 patients died (58%) compared with 25/318 (8%) deaths in the non-OF group (P < 0.0001). Progression to OF was associated with more severe underlying liver disease and inflammation. In the OF group, previous hospitalisation (P of PIRO); severity of inflammation and lack of its resolution (R of PIRO); and severity of organ failure (O of PIRO) were associated with significantly greater risk of death. In the patients who recovered from OF, mortality at three years was almost universal. Conclusions The results of this prospective study shows that the occurrence of OF alters the natural history of cirrhosis. A classification based on the PIRO concept may allow categorization of patients into distinct pathophysiologic and prognostic groups and allow a multidimensional definition of ACLF. PMID:23186071

  16. The prognostic value of acute-on-chronic liver failure during the course of severe alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sersté, Thomas; Cornillie, Alexia; Njimi, Hassane; Pavesi, Marco; Arroyo, Vicente; Putignano, Antonella; Weichselbaum, Laura; Deltenre, Pierre; Degré, Delphine; Trépo, Eric; Moreno, Christophe; Gustot, Thierry

    2018-03-08

    A better identification of factors predicting death is needed in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) occurs during the course of liver disease and can be identified when AH is diagnosed (prevalent ACLF [pACLF]) or during follow-up (incidental ACLF [iACLF]). This study analyzed the impact of ACLF on outcomes in AH and the role of infection on the onset of ACLF and death. Patients admitted from July 2006 to July 2015 suffering from biopsy-proven severe (s)AH with a Maddrey discriminant function (mDF) ≥32 were included. Infectious episodes, ACLF, and mortality were assessed during a 168-day follow-up period. Results were validated on an independent cohort. One hundred sixty-five patients were included. Mean mDF was 66.3 ± 20.7 and mean model for end-stage liver disease score was 26.8 ± 7.4. The 28-day cumulative incidence of death (CID) was 31% (95% CI 24-39%). Seventy-nine patients (47.9%) had pACLF. The 28-day CID without pACLF and with pACLF-1, pACLF-2, and pACLF-3 were 10.4% (95% CI 5.1-18.0), 30.8% (95% CI 14.3-49.0), 58.3% (95% CI 35.6-75.5), and 72.4% (95% CI 51.3-85.5), respectively, p <0.0001. Twenty-nine patients (17.5%) developed iACLF. The 28-day relative risk of death in patients developing iACLF was 41.87 (95% CI 5.2-335.1; p <0.001). A previous infection was the only independent risk factor for developing iACLF during the follow-up. Prevalence, incidence, and impact on prognosis of ACLF were confirmed in a validation cohort of 97 patients with probable sAH. ACLF is frequent during the course of sAH and is associated with high mortality. Infection strongly predicts the development of ACLF in this setting. In patients with chronic liver disease, an acute deterioration of liver function combined with single or multiple organ failures is known as acute-on-chronic liver failure. This study shows that acute-on-chronic liver failure is frequent during the course of severe alcoholic hepatitis. In severe alcoholic

  17. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, William M; Hynan, Linda S; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Fontana, Robert J; Stravitz, R Todd; Larson, Anne M; Davern, Timothy J; Murray, Natalie G; McCashland, Timothy; Reisch, Joan S; Robuck, Patricia R

    2009-09-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, might benefit patients with non-acetaminophen-related acute liver failure. In a prospective, double-blind trial, acute liver failure patients without clinical or historical evidence of acetaminophen overdose were stratified by site and coma grade and assigned randomly to groups that were given NAC or placebo (dextrose) infusion for 72 hours. The primary outcome was overall survival at 3 weeks. Secondary outcomes included transplant-free survival and rate of transplantation. A total of 173 patients received NAC (n = 81) or placebo (n = 92). Overall survival at 3 weeks was 70% for patients given NAC and 66% for patients given placebo (1-sided P = .283). Transplant-free survival was significantly better for NAC patients (40%) than for those given placebo (27%; 1-sided P = .043). The benefits of transplant-free survival were confined to the 114 patients with coma grades I-II who received NAC (52% compared with 30% for placebo; 1-sided P = .010); transplant-free survival for the 59 patients with coma grades III-IV was 9% in those given NAC and 22% in those given placebo (1-sided P = .912). The transplantation rate was lower in the NAC group but was not significantly different between groups (32% vs 45%; P = .093). Intravenous NAC generally was well tolerated; only nausea and vomiting occurred significantly more frequently in the NAC group (14% vs 4%; P = .031). Intravenous NAC improves transplant-free survival in patients with early stage non-acetaminophen-related acute liver failure. Patients with advanced coma grades do not benefit from NAC and typically require emergency liver transplantation.

  18. Inherited metabolic disorders presenting as acute liver failure in newborns and young children: King's College Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Robert; Hadzic, Nedim; Gissen, Paul; Dhawan, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) in children is a rare condition that is often fatal without liver transplantation. The diagnostic work-up is complex, and the etiology is unidentified in up to half of patients, making decisions like therapeutic transplantation extremely difficult. We collected clinical, laboratory, and outcome data on all patients under 5 years of age who were admitted between January 2001 and December 2011 to King's College Hospital with ALF secondary to an inherited metabolic disease (IMD), a common cause of pediatric acute liver failure. Thirty-six of 127 children with ALF had a metabolic etiology: galactosemia (17); mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder (MRCD, 7); ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency (4); tyrosinemia type 1 (4); Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC, 3); and congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1b (1). Seven children died: MRCD (4) and NPC (3). Four children were transplanted: OTC deficiency (1) and MRCD (3). Fifteen of 25 children followed up showed evidence of developmental delay. IMD is the most common group of disorders in this age group; indeterminate cases may yet include undiagnosed metabolic disorders; the overall survival rate is good but largely depends on diagnosis, while developmental outcome of the surviving patients is less favorable. • Up to half of children with ALF may be undiagnosed. • IMD is a common cause of pediatric acute liver failure. What is New: • Initial diagnostic clues may be gathered from the child's age and laboratory parameters. • Survival of children with IMD-related ALF is good, but developmental outcome is less favorable. • In the future, novel sequencing methods will aid in the diagnosis of disorders in which therapeutic decisions depend upon.

  19. Dimethylethanolamine does not prevent liver failure in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-deficient mice fed a choline-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Waite, Kristin A; Vance, Dennis E

    2004-03-22

    Mice that lack phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) and are fed a choline-deficient (CD) diet suffer severe liver damage and do not survive. Since phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine (PDME) has physical properties similar to those of phosphatidylcholine (PC), we hypothesized that dimethylethanolamine (DME) would be converted into PDME that might substitute for PC, and therefore abrogate the liver damage in the Pemt -/- mice fed a CD diet. We fed Pemt -/- mice either a CD diet, a CD diet supplemented with choline, or a CD diet supplemented with DME (CD + DME). Pemt -/- mice fed the CD diet developed severe liver failure by 4 days while CD + DME-fed mice developed severe liver failure by 5 days. The hepatic PC level in choline-supplemented (CS) mice was 67 +/- 4 nmol/mg protein, whereas the PC content was reduced in CD- and CD + DME-fed mice (49 +/- 3 and 30 +/- 3 nmol/mg protein, respectively). Upon supplementation of the CD diet with DME the amount of hepatic PDME was 81 +/- 9 nmol/mg protein so that the hepatic content of PC + PDME combined was 111 nmol/mg protein. Moreover, plasma apolipoprotein B100 and Al levels were markedly lower in mice fed the CD + DME diet compared to mice fed the CS diet, as was the plasma content of PC. Thus, despite replacement of the deficit in hepatic PC with PDME in Pemt -/- mice fed a CD diet, normal liver function was not restored. We conclude that although PC and PDME exhibit similar physical properties, the three methyl groups of choline are required for hepatic function in mice.

  20. Liver proteomics for therapeutic drug discovery: inhibition of the cyclophilin receptor CD147 attenuates sepsis-induced acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Dear, James W.; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Aponte, Angel; Hu, Xuzhen; Constant, Stephanie L.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Yuen, Peter S.T.; Star, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Sepsis-induced multi-organ failure continues to have a high mortality. The liver is an organ central to the disease pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to identify the liver proteins that change in abundance with sepsis and, therefore, identify new drug targets. Design Proteomic discovery study and drug target validation Setting Research institute laboratory Subjects Three month old C57BL/6 mice Interventions We used a mouse model of sepsis based on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) but with fluid and antibiotic resuscitation. Liver proteins that changed in abundance were identified by difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE). We compared liver proteins from 6 hr post-CLP to sham-operated mice (‘early proteins’) and 24 hr post-CLP with 6 hr post-CLP (‘late proteins’). Proteins that changed in abundance were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. We then inhibited the receptor for one protein and determined the effect on sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Results The liver proteins that changed in abundance after sepsis had a range of functions such as acute phase proteins, coagulation, ER stress, oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial proteins and nitric oxide metabolism. We found that cyclophilin increased in abundance after CLP. When the receptor for this protein, CD147, was inhibited sepsis-induced renal dysfunction was reduced. There was also a significant reduction in serum cytokine production when CD147 was inhibited. Conclusion By applying proteomics to a clinically relevant mouse model of sepsis we identified a number of novel proteins that changed in abundance. The inhibition of the receptor for one of these proteins, cyclophilin, attenuated sepsis-induced acute renal failure. The application of proteomics to sepsis research can facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets. PMID:17944020

  1. Protective role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-dependent CD39 and CD73 in fulminant acute liver failure

    SciTech Connect

    Tak, Eunyoung

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe life-threatening disease which usually arises in patients with-irreversible liver illnesses. Although human ectonucleotide triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1, E-NTPDase1 (CD39) and ecto-5′-nucleotidase, Ecto5′NTase (CD73) are known to protect tissues from ALF, the expression and function of CD39 and CD73 during ALF are currently not fully investigated. We tested whether CD39 and CD73 are upregulated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, and improve ischemic tolerance to ALF. To test our hypothesis, liver biopsies were obtained and we found that CD39 and CD73 mRNA and proteins from human specimens were dramatically elevated in ALF. We investigated that induction ofmore » CD39 and CD73 in ALF-related with wild type mice. In contrast, deletion of cd39 and cd73 mice has severe ALF. In this study, we concluded that CD39 and CD73 are molecular targets for the development of drugs for ALF patients care. - Highlights: • HIF-1a is stabilized during acute liver failure • Upregulation of CD39 and CD73 following acute liver failure • CD39 and CD73 are transcriptionally induced by HIF-1a • Deletion of Cd39 and CD73 aggravates murine acute liver failure • DMOG treatment induces HIF-1a stabilization, CD39 and CD73 during acute liver failure in WT mice.« less

  2. Full-length genome characterization and genetic relatedness analysis of hepatitis A virus outbreak strains associated with acute liver failure among children.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Gilberto; Forbi, Joseph C; Xia, Guo-Liang; Fonseca-Ford, Maureen; Vazquez, Roberto; Khudyakov, Yury E; Montiel, Sonia; Waterman, Steve; Alpuche, Celia; Gonçalves Rossi, Livia Maria; Luna, Norma

    2014-02-01

    Clinical infection by hepatitis A virus (HAV) is generally self-limited but in some cases can progress to liver failure. Here, an HAV outbreak investigation among children with acute liver failure in a highly endemic country is presented. In addition, a sensitive method for HAV whole genome amplification and sequencing suitable for analysis of clinical samples is described. In this setting, two fatal cases attributed to acute liver failure and two asymptomatic cases living in the same household were identified. In a second household, one HAV case was observed with jaundice which resolved spontaneously. Partial molecular characterization showed that both households were infected by HAV subtype IA; however, the infecting strains in the two households were different. The HAV outbreak strains recovered from all cases grouped together within cluster IA1, which contains closely related HAV strains from the United States commonly associated with international travelers. Full-genome HAV sequences obtained from the household with the acute liver failure cases were related (genetic distances ranging from 0.01% to 0.04%), indicating a common-source infection. Interestingly, the strain recovered from the asymptomatic household contact was nearly identical to the strain causing acute liver failure. The whole genome sequence from the case in the second household was distinctly different from the strains associated with acute liver failure. Thus, infection with almost identical HAV strains resulted in drastically different clinical outcomes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hepatic blood flow and splanchnic oxygen consumption in patients with liver failure. Effect of high-volume plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Clemmesen, J O; Gerbes, A L; Gülberg, V; Hansen, B A; Larsen, F S; Skak, C; Tygstrup, N; Ott, P

    1999-02-01

    Liver failure represents a major therapeutic challenge, and yet basic pathophysiological questions about hepatic perfusion and oxygenation in this condition have been poorly investigated. In this study, hepatic blood flow (HBF) and splanchnic oxygen delivery (DO2, sp) and oxygen consumption (VO2,sp) were assessed in patients with liver failure defined as hepatic encephalopathy grade II or more. Measurements were repeated after high-volume plasmapheresis (HVP) with exchange of 8 to 10 L of plasma. HBF was estimated by use of constant infusion of D-sorbitol and calculated according to Fick's principle from peripheral artery and hepatic vein concentrations. In 14 patients with acute liver failure (ALF), HBF (1.78 +/- 0.78 L/min) and VO2,sp (3.9 +/- 0.9 mmol/min) were higher than in 11 patients without liver disease (1.07 +/- 0.19 L/min, P <.01) and (2.3 +/- 0.7 mmol/min, P <.001). In 9 patients with acute on chronic liver disease (AOCLD), HBF (1.96 +/- 1.19 L/min) and VO2,sp (3.9 +/- 2.3 mmol/min) were higher than in 18 patients with stable cirrhosis (1.00 +/- 0.36 L/min, P <.005; and 2.0 +/- 0.6 mmol/min, P <.005). During HVP, HBF increased from 1.67 +/- 0.72 to 2.07 +/- 1.11 L/min (n=11) in ALF, and from 1.89 +/- 1.32 to 2.34 +/- 1.54 L/min (n=7) in AOCLD, P <.05 in both cases. In patients with ALF, cardiac output (thermodilution) was unchanged (6.7 +/- 2.5 vs. 6.6 +/- 2.2 L/min, NS) during HVP. Blood flow was redirected to the liver as the systemic vascular resistance index increased (1,587 +/- 650 vs. 2, 020 +/- 806 Dyne. s. cm-5. m2, P <.01) whereas splanchnic vascular resistance was unchanged. In AOCLD, neither systemic nor splanchnic vascular resistance was affected by HVP, but as cardiac output increased from 9.1 +/- 2.8 to 10.1 +/- 2.9 L/min (P <.01) more blood was directed to the splanchnic region. In all liver failure patients treated with HVP (n=18), DO2,sp increased by 15% (P <.05) whereas VO2,sp was unchanged. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ET-3 were determined

  4. Logistic regression model can reduce unnecessary artificial liver support in hepatitis B virus-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure: decision curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Gang; Bian, Zhao-Lian; Shen, Yi; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Yan-Mei; Shao, Jian-Guo

    2016-06-04

    Several models have been proposed to predict the short-term outcome of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) after treatment. We aimed to determine whether better decisions for artificial liver support system (ALSS) treatment could be made with a model than without, through decision curve analysis (DCA). The medical profiles of a cohort of 232 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated ACLF were retrospectively analyzed to explore the role of plasma prothrombin activity (PTA), model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and logistic regression model (LRM) in identifying patients who could benefit from ALSS. The accuracy and reliability of PTA, MELD and LRM were evaluated with previously reported cutoffs. DCA was performed to evaluate the clinical role of these models in predicting the treatment outcome. With the cut-off value of 0.2, LRM had sensitivity of 92.6 %, specificity of 42.3 % and an area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.68, which showed superior discrimination over PTA and MELD. DCA revealed that the LRM-guided ALSS treatment was superior over other strategies including "treating all" and MELD-guided therapy, for the midrange threshold probabilities of 16 to 64 %. The use of LRM-guided ALSS treatment could increase both the accuracy and efficiency of this procedure, allowing the avoidance of unnecessary ALSS.

  5. Successful Treatment of Corticosteroid with Antiviral Therapy for a Neonatal Liver Failure with Disseminated Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maeba, Shinji; Hasegawa, Shunji; Shimomura, Maiko; Ichimura, Takuya; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Motoyama, Masashi; Fukunaga, Shinnosuke; Ito, Yoshinori; Ichiyama, Takashi; Ohga, Shouichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection carries one of the poorest outcomes of neonatal liver failure (NLF). Neonates with disseminated HSV infection can develop hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and occasionally need orthotopic liver transplantation. Early interventions may be critical for the cure of NLF. Case Report We describe herewith a 6-day-old neonate with fulminant hepatic failure due to disseminated HSV-1 infection, who successfully responded to high-dose corticosteroid therapy 72 hours after the onset of disease. Preceding acyclovir, gamma globulin, and exchange blood transfusion therapies failed to control the disease. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy led to a drastic improvement of liver function and cytokine storms, and prevented the disease progression to HLH. Sustained levels of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid HSV DNA declined after prolonged acyclovir therapy. Bilateral lesions of the periventricular white matter areas, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, disappeared at 3 months of age. The infant showed normal growth and development at 4 years of age. Conclusion Early anti-hypercytokinemia therapy using corticosteroid, and prolonged antiviral therapy might only provide the transplantation-free cure of NLF with HSV dissemination. PMID:26495160

  6. Acute liver failure in neonates with undiagnosed hereditary fructose intolerance due to exposure from widely available infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Byers, Heather M; Diaz-Kuan, Alicia; Vos, Miriam B; Hall, Patricia L; Tortorelli, Silvia; Singh, Rani; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Allain, Meredith; Dimmock, David P; Farrell, Ryan M; McCandless, Shawn; Gambello, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by aldolase B (ALDOB) deficiency resulting in an inability to metabolize fructose. The toxic accumulation of intermediate fructose-1-phosphate causes multiple metabolic disturbances, including postprandial hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, electrolyte disturbance, and liver/kidney dysfunction. The clinical presentation varies depending on the age of exposure and the load of fructose. Some common infant formulas contain fructose in various forms, such as sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose. Exposure to formula containing fructogenic compounds is an important, but often overlooked trigger for severe metabolic disturbances in HFI. Here we report four neonates with undiagnosed HFI, all caused by the common, homozygous mutation c.448G>C (p.A150P) in ALDOB, who developed life-threatening acute liver failure due to fructose-containing formulas. These cases underscore the importance of dietary history and consideration of HFI in cases of neonatal or infantile acute liver failure for prompt diagnosis and treatment of HFI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hyponatremia influences the outcome of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure: an analysis of the CANONIC study.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Andrés; Solà, Elsa; Rodríguez, Ezequiel; Barreto, Rogelio; Graupera, Isabel; Pavesi, Marco; Saliba, Faouzi; Welzel, Tania Mara; Martinez-Gonzalez, Javier; Gustot, Thierry; Bernardi, Mauro; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere

    2014-12-13

    Hyponatremia is a marker of poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis. This analysis aimed to assess if hyponatremia also has prognostic value in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), a syndrome characterized by acute decompensation of cirrhosis, organ failure(s) and high short-term mortality. We performed an analysis of the Chronic Liver Failure Consortium CANONIC database in 1,341 consecutive patients admitted to 29 European centers with acute decompensation of cirrhosis (including ascites, gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, or bacterial infections, or any combination of these), both with and without associated ACLF (301 and 1,040 respectively). Of the 301 patients with ACLF, 24.3% had hyponatremia at inclusion compared to 12.3% of 1,040 patients without ACLF (P <0.001). Model for end-stage liver disease, Child-Pugh and chronic liver failure-SOFA scores were significantly higher in patients with ACLF and hyponatremia compared to those without hyponatremia. The presence of hyponatremia (at inclusion or during hospitalization) was a predictive factor of survival both in patients with and without ACLF. The presence of hyponatremia and ACLF was found to have an independent effect on 90-day survival after adjusting for the potential confounders. Hyponatremia in non-ACLF patients nearly doubled the risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.81 (1.33 to 2.47)) of dying at 90 days. However, when considering patients with both factors (ACLF and hyponatremia) the relative risk of dying at 90 days was significantly higher (HR 6.85 (3.85 to 12.19) than for patients without both factors. Patients with hyponatremia and ACLF had a three-month transplant-free survival of only 35.8% compared to 58.7% in those with ACLF without hyponatremia (P <0.001). The presence of hyponatremia is an independent predictive factor of survival in patients with ACLF. In cirrhosis, outcome of patients with ACLF is dependent on its association with hyponatremia.

  8. Comparison of the sequential organ failure assessment score with the King's College Hospital criteria and the model for end-stage liver disease score for the prognosis of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Cholongitas, Evangelos; Theocharidou, Eleni; Vasianopoulou, Panayota; Betrosian, Alex; Shaw, Steve; Patch, David; O'Beirne, James; Agarwal, Banwari; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2012-04-01

    Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a complex multiorgan illness. An assessment of the prognosis is essential for the accurate identification of patients for whom survival without liver transplantation (LT) is unlikely. The aims of this study were the comparison of prognostic models [King's College Hospital (KCH), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II)] and the identification of independent prognostic indicators of outcome. We evaluated consecutive patients with severe acetaminophen-induced ALF who were admitted to the intensive care unit. At admission, demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were recorded. The discriminative ability of each prognostic score at the baseline was evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). In addition, using a multiple logistic regression, we assessed independent factors associated with outcome. In all, 125 consecutive patients with acetaminophen-induced ALF were evaluated: 67 patients (54%) survived with conservative medical management (group 1), and 58 patients (46%) either died without LT (28%) or underwent LT (18%; group 2). Group 1 patients had significantly lower median APACHE II (10 versus 14) and SOFA scores (9 versus 12) than group 2 patients (P < 0.001). The independent indicators associated with death or LT were a longer prothrombin time (P = 0.007), the inspiratory oxygen concentration (P = 0.005), and the lactate level at 12 hours (P < 0.001). The KCH criteria had the highest specificity (83%) but the lowest sensitivity (47%), and the SOFA score had the best discriminative ability (AUC = 0.79). In conclusion, for patients with acetaminophen-induced ALF, the SOFA score performed better than the other prognostic scores, and this reflected the presence of multiorgan dysfunction. A further evaluation of SOFA with the KCH criteria is warranted. Copyright © 2012

  9. Volumetric analysis and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min as predictors of post-hepatectomy liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Joon; Kim, Choong Young; Park, Eun Kyu; Hur, Young Hoe; Koh, Yang Seok; Kim, Hyun Jong; Cho, Chol Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The actual future liver remnant (aFLR) is calculated as the ratio of remnant liver volume (RLV) to total functional liver volume (TFLV). The standardized future liver remnant (sFLR) is calculated as the ratio of RLV to standard liver volume (SLV). The aims of this study were to compare the aFLR with the sFLR and to determine criteria for safe hepatectomy using computed tomography volumetry and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICG R15). Methods Medical records and volumetric measurements were obtained retrospectively for 81 patients who underwent right hemi-hepatectomy for malignant hepatic tumours from January 2010 to November 2013. The sFLR was compared with the aFLR, and a ratio of sFLR to ICG R15 as a predictor of postoperative hepatic function was established. Results In patients without cirrhosis, the sFLR showed a stronger correlation with the total serum bilirubin level than the aFLR (R2 = 0.499 versus R2 = 0.239). Post-hepatectomy liver failure developed only in the group with an sFLR of <25%, regardless of ICG R15. In patients with cirrhosis, the aFLR and sFLR had no correlation with postoperative total serum bilirubin. An sFLR : ICG R15 ratio of >1.9 showed 66.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Conclusions Regardless of ICG R15, an sFLR of ≥25% in patients without cirrhosis, and an sFLR of ≥25% with an sFLR : ICG R15 ratio of >1.9 in patients with cirrhosis indicate acceptable levels of safety in major hepatectomy. PMID:24964188

  10. Deletion of the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase domain in mice provides protection from endotoxin-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Leonis, Mike A; Toney-Earley, Kenya; Degen, Sandra J F; Waltz, Susan E

    2002-11-01

    The targeted deletion of the cytoplasmic domain of the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) in mice leads to exaggerated responses to injury in several murine models of inflammation as well as increased lethality in response to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Using a well-characterized model of LPS-induced acute liver failure (ALF) in galactosamine (GalN)-sensitized mice, we show that Ron TK(-/-) mice display marked protection compared with control Ron TK(+/+) mice. Whereas control mice have profound elevation of serum aminotransferase levels (a marker of hepatocyte injury) and hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver, in dramatic contrast, Ron TK(-/-) mice have mild elevation of aminotransferase levels and relatively normal liver histology. These findings are associated with a reduction in the number of liver cells undergoing apoptosis in Ron TK(-/-) mice. Paradoxically, treatment of Ron TK(-/-) mice with LPS/GalN leads to markedly elevated (3.5-fold) serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, a key inflammatory mediator in this liver injury model, as well as reduced amounts of interleukin (IL) 10 (a suppressor of TNF-alpha production) and interferon (IFN)-gamma (a TNF-alpha sensitizer). These results show that ablation of the TK activity of the Ron receptor leads to protection from the development of hepatocellular apoptosis in response to treatment with LPS/GalN, even in the presence of excessive levels of serum TNF-alpha. In conclusion, our studies show that the Ron receptor TK plays a critical role in modulating the response of the liver to endotoxin.

  11. Risk of Acute Liver Failure in Patients With Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Evaluation of Hy's Law and a New Prognostic Model.

    PubMed

    Lo Re, Vincent; Haynes, Kevin; Forde, Kimberly A; Goldberg, David S; Lewis, James D; Carbonari, Dena M; Leidl, Kimberly B F; Reddy, K Rajender; Nezamzadeh, Melissa S; Roy, Jason; Sha, Daohang; Marks, Amy R; De Boer, Jolanda; Schneider, Jennifer L; Strom, Brian L; Corley, Douglas A

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have evaluated the ability of laboratory tests to predict risk of acute liver failure (ALF) among patients with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We aimed to develop a highly sensitive model to identify DILI patients at increased risk of ALF. We compared its performance with that of Hy's Law, which predicts severity of DILI based on levels of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin, and validated the model in a separate sample. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 15,353 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members diagnosed with DILI from 2004 through 2010, liver aminotransferase levels above the upper limit of normal, and no pre-existing liver disease. Thirty ALF events were confirmed by medical record review. Logistic regression was used to develop prognostic models for ALF based on laboratory results measured at DILI diagnosis. External validation was performed in a sample of 76 patients with DILI at the University of Pennsylvania. Hy's Law identified patients that developed ALF with a high level of specificity (0.92) and negative predictive value (0.99), but low level of sensitivity (0.68) and positive predictive value (0.02). The model we developed, comprising data on platelet count and total bilirubin level, identified patients with ALF with a C statistic of 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.96) and enabled calculation of a risk score (Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity ALF Score). We found a cut-off score that identified patients at high risk patients for ALF with a sensitivity value of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.71-0.99) and a specificity value of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.75-0.77). This cut-off score identified patients at high risk for ALF with a high level of sensitivity (0.89; 95% CI, 0.52-1.00) in the validation analysis. Hy's Law identifies patients with DILI at high risk for ALF with low sensitivity but high specificity. We developed a model (the Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity ALF Score) based on platelet count and

  12. Liver disease in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease: clinical characteristics and management in relation to renal failure.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Topi T; Pakarinen, Mikko P; Jahnukainen, Timo; Jalanko, Hannu

    2014-08-01

    We correlated liver and kidney manifestations in a national cohort of patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). A total of 27 consecutive patients with ARPKD were included. Hepatobiliary disorders were comparatively evaluated in 2 groups: children in group 1 (n = 10) displayed renal failure as infants and those in group 2 (n = 17) had normal kidney function through the first year of life. Median follow-up time was 10.6 (range, 0.4-40) years. Portal hypertension was diagnosed in 13 patients (48%) at the median age 5.0 (1.5-27.9) years. Esophageal varices developed in 8 patients (30%) at age 8.0 (2.1-11.9) years; 4 patients (15%) had variceal bleeding, and hypersplenism/splenomegaly occurred in 52%, similarly in both groups. Biliary tract dilatation was detected at 2.8 years in group 1 and at 7.9 years in group 2, significantly more frequently in group 1 (60% vs 18%, P = 0.039), causing cholangitis in 2 (20%) versus none in group 2 (P = 0.055). A total of 10 patients (37%) underwent cadaveric liver transplantation (LT) at a median age of 6.6 (1.0-20.0) years. In 1 patient LT was performed because of hepatoblastoma. Nine of these were combined liver-kidney transplantations (CLKT). Patients in group 1 required LT earlier (4.1 years vs 18.2 years, P = 0.017) and more frequently (70% vs 18%, P = 0.01). Overall survival beyond neonatal period was 85%. Two patients died because of infectious complications after CLKT, and 1 patient because of recurrent hepatoblastoma. Although correlation of renal and liver manifestations was variable, biliary dilatation was associated with early renal failure. CLKT may be a treatment for patients with ARPKD with marked hepatobiliary complications.

  13. Human Umbilical Cord Matrix Stem Cells Efficiently Rescue Acute Liver Failure Through Paracrine Effects Rather than Hepatic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Bo; Xiang, Dedong; Wang, Zhengguo

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from different tissues could act as an alternative source of mature hepatocytes for treatment of acute liver failure (ALF). Human umbilical cord matrix stem cells (hUCMSCs) represent a novel source of MSCs. We examined the therapeutic potential and the different mechanisms of hUCMSCs by their transplantation into nonobese diabetic severe combined-immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced ALF in comparison to adult human hepatocytes (AHHs). The characteristics of isolated hUCMSCs were determined from MSCs and hepatocyte marker expression, hepatic function, and differentiation. Native hUCMSCs constitutively expressed some hepatic markers, though weaker hepatocyte-specific functions were observed when compared to AHHs. When native hUCMSCs or AHHs were transplanted into livers of NOD-SCID mice with ALF induced by CCl4, both hUCMSCs and AHHs provided a significant survival benefit and prevented the release of liver injury biomarkers. hUCMSCs were found to engraft within the recipient liver and differentiated into functional hepatocytes, whereas the HepPar1-/albumin (ALB)-positive cells of the hUCMSC group were less than the AHH group in the recipient liver. Higher values of human ALB in the serum of mice-transplanted AHHs were determined in comparison with levels in mice-transplanted hUCMSCs. The analysis of mouse serum cytokine levels showed that hUCMSC transplantation was even more effective than treatment with AHHs and successfully downregulated the systemic inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Furthermore, paracrine effects produced by hUCMSCs were identified by indirect coculture with damaged mouse hepatocytes (MHs) induced by CCl4. Coculture with hUCMSCs significantly increased the viability, ALB secretion of damaged MHs, and greatly enhanced the regeneration of

  14. Current state of knowledge of hepatic encephalopathy (part I): newer treatment strategies for hyperammonemia in liver failure.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Rune Gangsoy

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in interorgan metabolism of ammonia play an important role in the onset of hyperammonemia in liver failure. Glutamine synthetase (GS) in muscle is an important target for ammonia removal strategies in hyperammonemia. Ornithine Phenylacetate (OP) is hypothesized to remove ammonia by providing glutamate as a substrate for increased GS activity and hence glutamine production. The newly generated glutamine conjugates with phenylacetate forming phenylacetylglutamine which can be excreted in the urine, providing an excretion pathway for ammonia. We have also shown that OP targets glycine metabolism, providing an additional ammonia reducing effect.

  15. Estimation of liver parameters and oxidative stress in chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis in Erbil governorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakey, Musher Ismail Salih; Abdoulrahman, Kamaran Kaiani

    2017-09-01

    The present study aims to evaluate iron related parameters in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on hemodialysis (HD). The study was carried out in Kidney Dialysis Center of Hawler Teaching Hospital in Erbil governorate. This study comprised (76) patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis and 41 healthy subjects as a control group of same ages. All hemodialysis patients were taking erythropoietin. The blood samples were taken from the patients before and after the process of hemodialysis for liver parameters and oxidative stress estimations. The results of this study showed lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total bilirubin, total protein and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), while higher levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), direct bilirubin and malondialdeyhde (MDA) before analysis was seen. Hemodialysis causes increasing in AST, ALT, albumin, total bilirubin, total protein and decreasing in ALP, direct bilirubin MDA and TAC.

  16. Development and validation of a prognostic score to predict mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Jalan, Rajiv; Saliba, Faouzi; Pavesi, Marco; Amoros, Alex; Moreau, Richard; Ginès, Pere; Levesque, Eric; Durand, Francois; Angeli, Paolo; Caraceni, Paolo; Hopf, Corinna; Alessandria, Carlo; Rodriguez, Ezequiel; Solis-Muñoz, Pablo; Laleman, Wim; Trebicka, Jonel; Zeuzem, Stefan; Gustot, Thierry; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar; Elkrief, Laure; Soriano, German; Cordoba, Joan; Morando, Filippo; Gerbes, Alexander; Agarwal, Banwari; Samuel, Didier; Bernardi, Mauro; Arroyo, Vicente

    2014-11-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a frequent syndrome (30% prevalence), characterized by acute decompensation of cirrhosis, organ failure(s) and high short-term mortality. This study develops and validates a specific prognostic score for ACLF patients. Data from 1349 patients included in the CANONIC study were used. First, a simplified organ function scoring system (CLIF Consortium Organ Failure score, CLIF-C OFs) was developed to diagnose ACLF using data from all patients. Subsequently, in 275 patients with ACLF, CLIF-C OFs and two other independent predictors of mortality (age and white blood cell count) were combined to develop a specific prognostic score for ACLF (CLIF Consortium ACLF score [CLIF-C ACLFs]). A concordance index (C-index) was used to compare the discrimination abilities of CLIF-C ACLF, MELD, MELD-sodium (MELD-Na), and Child-Pugh (CPs) scores. The CLIF-C ACLFs was validated in an external cohort and assessed for sequential use. The CLIF-C ACLFs showed a significantly higher predictive accuracy than MELDs, MELD-Nas, and CPs, reducing (19-28%) the corresponding prediction error rates at all main time points after ACLF diagnosis (28, 90, 180, and 365 days) in both the CANONIC and the external validation cohort. CLIF-C ACLFs computed at 48 h, 3-7 days, and 8-15 days after ACLF diagnosis predicted the 28-day mortality significantly better than at diagnosis. The CLIF-C ACLFs at ACLF diagnosis is superior to the MELDs and MELD-Nas in predicting mortality. The CLIF-C ACLFs is a clinically relevant, validated scoring system that can be used sequentially to stratify the risk of mortality in ACLF patients. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The protective effect of total phenolics from Oenanthe Javanica on acute liver failure induced by D-galactosamine.

    PubMed

    Ai, Guo; Huang, Zheng-Ming; Liu, Qing-Chuan; Han, Yan-Quan; Chen, Xi

    2016-06-20

    Water dropwort [Oenanthe javanica (O. javanica)] is an aquatic perennial herb cultivated in East Asian countries. It has been popularly used in traditional Chinese medicine which is beneficial for the treatment of many diseases, including jaundice and various types of chronic and acute hepatitis. In the present study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effect of total phenolics from O. javanica (TPOJ) against D-galactosamine (D-GalN) induced liver injury in mice. The hepatoprotective activity of TPOJ (125, 250 and 500mg/kg) was investigated on D-GalN (800mg/kg)-induced liver damages in mice. Blood and liver were collected for biochemical and microscopic analysis. RT-PCR was used to determine the changes in hepatic nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Protein levels of iNOS, COX-2, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were determined by western blotting. In the animal studies, TPOJ could improve the survival of acute liver failure model significantly and prevente the D-GalN-induced elevation of the serum enzymatic markers and nonenzymatic markers levels significantly. Meanwhile, TPOJ-treatment decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and elevated the content of glutathione (GSH) in the liver as compared to those in the D-GalN group. Hepatic activities and protein expressions of antioxidative enzymes, including SOD, GPx, and CAT were enhanced dose dependently with TPOJ. At the same time, application of TPOJ effectively suppressed the D-GalN-induced proinflammatory mRNA and protein expression of iNOS and COX-2. Subsequently, the serum levels of proinflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were reduced. Additionally, histological analyses also showed that TPOJ reduced the extent of liver lesions induced by D-GalN. Our investigation demonstrated the hepatoprotective activity of TPOJ and revealed that TPOJ attributed its significance in the traditional use for treating

  18. The Predictive Value of Indocyanine Green Clearance in Future Liver Remnant for Posthepatectomy Liver Failure Following Hepatectomy with Extrahepatic Bile Duct Resection.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Ebata, Tomoki; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Gen; Mizuno, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Nagino, Masato

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative liver failure (PHLF) is one of the most common complications following major hepatectomy. The preoperative assessment of future liver remnant (FLR) function is critical to predict the incidence of PHLF. To determine the efficacy of the plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green clearance of FLR (ICGK-F) in predicting PHLF in cases of highly invasive hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Five hundred and eighty-five patients who underwent major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection, from 2002 to 2014 in a single institution, were evaluated. Among them, 192 patients (33 %) had PHLF. The predictive value of ICGK-F for PHLF was determined and compared with other risk factors for PHLF. The incidence of PHLF was inversely proportional to the level of ICGK-F. With multivariate logistic regression analysis, ICGK-F, combined pancreatoduodenectomy, the operation time, and blood loss were identified as independent risk factors of PHLF. The risk of PHLF increased according to the decrement of ICGK-F (the odds ratio of ICGK-F for each decrement of 0.01 was 1.22; 95 % confidence interval 1.12-1.33; P < 0.001). Low ICGK-F was also identified as an independent risk factor predicting the postoperative mortality. ICGK-F is useful in predicting the PHLF and mortality in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. This criterion may be useful for highly invasive hepatectomy, such as that with extrahepatic bile duct resection.

  19. [Delayed right hepatic artery haemorrhage after iatrogenic gallbladder by laparoscopic cholecystectomy that required a liver transplant due to acute liver failure: clinical case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Robles Campos, Ricardo; Marín Hernández, Caridad; Fernández Hernández, Juan Angel; Sanchez Bueno, Francisco; Ramirez Romero, Pablo; Pastor Perez, Patricia; Parrilla Paricio, Pascual

    2011-12-01

    Right hepatic artery (RHA) injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) may go unnoticed clinically, but can sometimes cause necrosis of the right lobe. Exceptionally, when the necrosis spreads to segment IV, fulminant liver failure (FLF) may occur, and an urgent liver transplantation (LT) may be required. We provide a review of the literature on patients with indication for an LT due to vascular damage caused by bile duct injury following LC. The case reported herein is the fourth described in the specialized literature of LT due to RHA injury after LC and the second of FLF after RHA injury. LT due to RHA injury was performed in 3 of 13 patients reported in the literature: one LT was performed at 3 months due to FLF, after an extended right hepatectomy was performed, and the remaining two were performed due to secondary biliary cirrhosis. Our patient was transplanted due to FLF 15 days after the injury. RHA injury after LC may require LT due to FLF. Although exceptional, this possibility should be considered when there are RHA complications that may require occlusion. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute Liver Failure in a Patient Travelling From Asia: The Other Face of the Coin of Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahman, Balen; Ahmed, Mohamed H; Ramage, John

    2017-08-01

    We present a case of a 63-year-old male who had travelled from South India to United Kingdom (UK) visiting relatives. He had developed episodes of diarrhea, vomiting and fevers while travelling and on assessment in hospital, mild abdominal distension was noted with rapid deterioration to hypovolemic shock. Initial blood test showed a low platelet count with deranged liver function tests (LFTs). It was noted that during admission to intensive care unit (ICU), blood continued to ooze from a previous surgical laparoscopy wound, central and arterial line access sites. Blood results revealed ongoing derangement of clotting and LFT. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed possible acute cholecystitis and a laparoscopy showed an ischemic-looking liver and gut but no significant gallbladder abnormality. The virology screen was positive for dengue virus antibodies IgM and IgG. The patient developed multi-organ failure and deteriorated despite intensive support. Post mortem showed fulminant hepatic failure and acute tubular necrosis of kidneys.

  1. Evaluating the best time to intervene acute liver failure in rat models induced by d-galactosamine.

    PubMed

    Éboli, Lígia Patrícia de Carvalho Batista; Netto, Alcides Augusto Salzedas; Azevedo, Ramiro Antero de; Lanzoni, Valéria Pereira; Paula, Tatiana Sugayama de; Goldenberg, Alberto; Gonzalez, Adriano Miziara

    2016-12-01

    To describe an animal model for acute liver failure by intraperitoneal d-galactosamine injections in rats and to define when is the best time to intervene through King's College and Clichy´s criteria evaluation. Sixty-one Wistar female rats were distributed into three groups: group 1 (11 rats received 1.4 g/kg of d-galactosamine intraperitoneally and were observed until they died); group 2 (44 rats received a dose of 1.4 g/kg of d-galactosamine and blood and histological samples were collected for analysis at 12 , 24, 48 , 72 and 120 hours after the injection); and the control group as well (6 rats) . Twelve hours after applying d-galactosamine, AST/ALT, bilirubin, factor V, PT and INR were already altered. The peak was reached at 48 hours. INR > 6.5 was found 12 hours after the injection and factor V < 30% after 24 hours. All the laboratory variables presented statistical differences, except urea (p = 0.758). There were statistical differences among all the histological variables analyzed. King's College and Clichy´s criteria were fulfilled 12 hours after the d-galactosamine injection and this time may represent the best time to intervene in this acute liver failure animal model.

  2. Prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis and increased susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced liver failure in transaldolase-deficient mice by N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Hanczko, Robert; Fernandez, David R.; Doherty, Edward; Qian, Yueming; Vas, Gyorgy; Niland, Brian; Telarico, Tiffany; Garba, Adinoyi; Banerjee, Sanjay; Middleton, Frank A.; Barrett, Donna; Barcza, Maureen; Banki, Katalin; Landas, Steve K.; Perl, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Although oxidative stress has been implicated in acute acetaminophen-induced liver failure and in chronic liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), no common underlying metabolic pathway has been identified. Recent case reports suggest a link between the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme transaldolase (TAL; encoded by TALDO1) and liver failure in children. Here, we show that Taldo1–/– and Taldo1+/– mice spontaneously developed HCC, and Taldo1–/– mice had increased susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced liver failure. Oxidative stress in Taldo1–/– livers was characterized by the accumulation of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, failure to recycle ribose 5-phosphate for the oxidative PPP, depleted NADPH and glutathione levels, and increased production of lipid hydroperoxides. Furthermore, we found evidence of hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction, as indicated by loss of transmembrane potential, diminished mitochondrial mass, and reduced ATP/ADP ratio. Reduced β-catenin phosphorylation and enhanced c-Jun expression in Taldo1–/– livers reflected adaptation to oxidative stress. Taldo1–/– hepatocytes were resistant to CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, lifelong administration of the potent antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevented acetaminophen-induced liver failure, restored Fas-dependent hepatocyte apoptosis, and blocked hepatocarcinogenesis in Taldo1–/– mice. These data reveal a protective role for the TAL-mediated branch of the PPP against hepatocarcinogenesis and identify NAC as a promising treatment for liver disease in TAL deficiency. PMID:19436114

  3. Molecular adsorbent recirculating system and single-pass albumin dialysis in liver failure--a prospective, randomised crossover study.

    PubMed

    Sponholz, Christoph; Matthes, Katja; Rupp, Dina; Backaus, Wolf; Klammt, Sebastian; Karailieva, Diana; Bauschke, Astrid; Settmacher, Utz; Kohl, Matthias; Clemens, Mark G; Mitzner, Steffen; Bauer, Michael; Kortgen, Andreas

    2016-01-04

    The aim of extracorporeal albumin dialysis (ECAD) is to reduce endogenous toxins accumulating in liver failure. To date, ECAD is conducted mainly with the Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS). However, single-pass albumin dialysis (SPAD) has been proposed as an alternative. The aim of this study was to compare the two devices with a prospective, single-centre, non-inferiority crossover study design with particular focus on reduction of bilirubin levels (primary endpoint) and influence on paraclinical and clinical parameters (secondary endpoints) associated with liver failure. Patients presenting with liver failure were screened for eligibility and after inclusion were randomly assigned to be started on either conventional MARS or SPAD (with 4% albumin and a dialysis flow rate of 700 ml/h). Statistical analyses were based on a linear mixed-effects model. Sixty-nine crossover cycles of ECAD in 32 patients were completed. Both systems significantly reduced plasma bilirubin levels to a similar extent (MARS: median -68 μmol/L, interquartile range [IQR] -107.5 to -33.5, p = 0.001; SPAD: -59 μmol/L, -84.5 to +36.5, p = 0.001). However, bile acids (MARS: -39 μmol/L, -105.6 to -8.3, p < 0.001; SPAD: -9 μmol/L, -36.9 to +11.4, p = 0.131), creatinine (MARS: -24 μmol/L, -46.5 to -8.0, p < 0.001; SPAD: -2 μmol/L, -9.0 to +7.0/L, p = 0.314) and urea (MARS: -0.9 mmol/L, -1.93 to -0.10, p = 0.024; SPAD: -0.1 mmol/L, -1.0 to +0.68, p = 0.523) were reduced and albumin-binding capacity was increased (MARS: +10%, -0.8 to +20.9%, p < 0.001; SPAD: +7%, -7.5 to +15.5%, p = 0.137) only by MARS. Cytokine levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 and hepatic encephalopathy were altered by neither MARS nor SPAD. Both procedures were safe for temporary extracorporeal liver support. While in clinical practice routinely assessed plasma bilirubin levels were reduced by both systems, only MARS affected other paraclinical parameters (i.e., serum bile acids, albumin-binding capacity

  4. Effects of antimicrobial prophylaxis and blood stream infections in patients with acute liver failure: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Cavazos, Jorge; Battenhouse, Holly; Durkalski, Valerie; Balko, Jody; Sanders, Corron; Lee, William M

    2014-11-01

    We investigated whether antimicrobial prophylaxis alters the incidence of bloodstream infection in patients with acute liver failure (ALF), and whether bloodstream infections affect overall mortality within 21 days after development of ALF. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 1551 patients with ALF enrolled by the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group from January 1998 through November 2009. We analyzed data on infections in the first 7 days after admission and the effects of prophylaxis with antimicrobial drugs on the development of bloodstream infections and 21-day mortality. In our study population, 600 patients (39%) received antimicrobial prophylaxis and 226 patients (14.6%) developed at least 1 bloodstream infection. Exposure to antimicrobial drugs did not affect the proportion of patients who developed bloodstream infections (12.8% in patients with prophylaxis vs 15.7% in nonprophylaxed patients; P = .12), but a greater percentage of patients who received prophylaxis received liver transplants (28% vs 22%; P = .01). After adjusting for confounding factors, overall mortality within 21 days was associated independently with age (odds ratio [OR], 1.014), Model for End-stage Liver Disease score at admission (OR, 1.078), and vasopressor administration at admission (OR, 2.499). Low grade of coma (OR, 0.47) and liver transplantation (OR, 0.101) reduced mortality. Although bloodstream infection was associated significantly with 21-day mortality (P = .004), an interaction between bloodstream infection and etiology was detected: blood stream infection affected mortality to a greater extent in nonacetaminophen ALF patients (OR, 2.03) than in acetaminophen ALF patients (OR, 1.14). Based on a large, observational study, antimicrobial prophylaxis does not reduce the incidence of bloodstream infection or mortality within 21 days of ALF. However, bloodstream infections were associated with increased 21-day mortality in patients with ALF-to a greater extent in

  5. Two-year outcomes in initial survivors with acute liver failure: results from a prospective, multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Robert J; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Durkalski, Valerie E; Rangnekar, Amol; Reddy, Rajender K; Stravitz, Todd; McGuire, Brendan; Davern, Timothy; Reuben, Adrian; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; Ganger, Daniel R; Chung, Raymond T; Schilsky, Mike; Han, Steven; Hynan, Linda S; Sanders, Corron; Lee, William M

    2015-02-01

    The long-term clinical outcomes in initial survivors with acute liver failure (ALF) are not well known. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the 2-year clinical outcomes among initial survivors and liver transplant (LT) recipients that were alive 3 weeks after enrolment in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group (ALFSG). Outcomes in adult ALFSG patients that were enrolled between 1998 and 2010 were reviewed. Two-year patient survival was significantly higher in the 262 LT recipients (92.4%) compared to the 306 acetaminophen (APAP) spontaneous survivors (SS) (89.5%) and 200 non-APAP SS (75.5%) (P < 0.0001). The causes of death were similar in the three groups but the time to death was significantly longer in the LT recipients (P < 0.0001). Independent predictors of 2-year mortality in the APAP group were a high serum phosphate level and patient age (c-statistic = 0.65 (0.54, 0.76)), patient age and days from jaundice to ALF onset in the non-APAP group (c-statistic = 0.69 (0.60, 0.78)), and patient age, days from jaundice, and higher coma grade in the LT recipients (c-statistic = 0.74 (0.61, 0.87)). The LT recipients were significantly more likely to be employed and have a higher educational level (P < 0.05). Two-year outcomes in initial survivors of ALF are generally good but non-APAP patients have a significantly lower survival which may relate to pre-existing medical comorbidities. Spontaneous survivors with APAP overdose experience substantial morbidity during follow-up from ongoing psychiatric and substance abuse issues. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Characteristics of infection and its impact on short-term outcome in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junjun; Zhang, Mengchen; Han, Tao; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial infections are an important cause of mortality in liver failure. However, the type of infection, predictors of infection, and their impact on outcomes in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) are limited.A total of 389 patients with ACLF were admitted in this retrospective, corhort study. Once admitted, clinical data including first infection site, type (community-acquired, healthcare-associated, or nosocomial), and second infection occurrence during hospitalization were collected. The outcome was mortality within 90 days. Multivariable logistic regression models were preformed to predict second infection development and 90-day mortality. Survival probability curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method.Among 389 patients, 316 (81.2%) patients had infection. The 90-day mortality of patients with and without infection was 52.2% and 16.4%, respectively (P <.001). The most common first infection was healthcare associated (51.3%), followed by nosocomial (30.1%) and community-acquired infections (18.7%). Respiratory tract infection, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and urinary tract infection were most prevalent. Gram-positive organism was more frequently seen than gram-negative organisms. Of note, fungi accounted for 15.9% of the total infection cases. During hospitalization, 26.6% patients developed second infections. The 90-day mortality of patients developed or did not develop a second infection were 67.9% and 46.6%, respectively (P <.001). Independent predictors of 90-day mortality in infected patients with ACLF were age, white blood cell (WBC) count, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and second infection.Infections (regardless of first or second infection) can increase the 90-day mortality significantly in patients with ACLF. And age, WBC count, MELD score, HE, and the presence of second infection are independent risk factors affecting 90-day mortality in patients with ACLF showing

  7. Neonatal liver failure and Leigh syndrome possibly due to CoQ-responsive OXPHOS deficiency.

    PubMed

    Leshinsky-Silver, E; Levine, A; Nissenkorn, A; Barash, V; Perach, M; Buzhaker, E; Shahmurov, M; Polak-Charcon, S; Lev, D; Lerman-Sagie, T

    2003-08-01

    CoQ transfers electrons from complexes I and II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain to complex III. There are very few reports on human CoQ deficiency. The clinical presentation is usually characterized by: epilepsy, muscle weakness, ataxia, cerebellar atrophy, migraine, myogloblinuria and developmental delay. We describe a patient who presented with neonatal liver and pancreatic insufficiency, tyrosinemia and hyperammonemia and later developed sensorineural hearing loss and Leigh syndrome. Liver biopsy revealed markedly reduced complex I+III and II+III. Addition of CoQ to the liver homogenate restored the activities, suggesting CoQ depletion. Histological staining showed prominent bridging; septal fibrosis and widening of portal spaces with prominent mixed inflammatory infiltrate, associated with interface hepatitis, bile duct proliferation with numerous bile plugs. Electron microscopy revealed a large number of mitochondria, which were altered in shape and size, widened and disordered intercristal spaces. This may be the first case of Leigh syndrome with liver and pancreas insufficiency, possibly caused by CoQ responsive oxphos deficiency.

  8. Chronic Hepatitis E Infection Resulting in Graft Failure in a Liver Transplant Tourist

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Hui; Leong, Hoe-Nam; Tan, Boon-Huan; Oon, Lynette Lin-Ean; Lim, Kiat-Hon; Chang, Jason Pik-Eu; Tan, Chee-Kiat

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E, usually an acute hepatitis in the immunocompetent, has a chronic form described in immunocompromised hosts. We report the clinical course and outcome of an adult liver transplant recipient whose posttransplant period was complicated by chronic hepatitis E, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and cellular rejection of the graft. PMID:23198262

  9. Circulating mannan-binding lectin, M-, L-, H-ficolin and collectin-liver-1 levels in patients with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Tea L; Sandahl, Thomas D; Støy, Sidsel; Schiødt, Frank V; Lee, William M; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Thiel, Steffen; Grønbaek, Henning

    2015-03-01

    The complement system is activated in liver diseases including acute liver failure (ALF); however, the role of the lectin pathway of complement has scarcely been investigated in ALF. The pathway is initiated by soluble pattern recognition molecules: mannan-binding lectin (MBL), M-, L-, and H-ficolin and collectin-liver-1 (CL-L1), which are predominantly synthesized in the liver. We aimed to study lectin levels in ALF patients and associations with clinical outcome. Serum samples from 75 patients enrolled by the US ALF Study Group were collected on days 1 and 3. We included 75 healthy blood donors and 20 cirrhosis patients as controls. Analyses were performed using sandwich-type immunoassays (ELISA, TRIFMA). At day 1, the MBL level in ALF patients was 40% lower compared with healthy controls {[median (interquartile range) 0.72 μg/ml(0.91) vs. 1.15 (1.92)(P = 0.02]}, and increased significantly by day 3 [0.83 μg/ml(0.94)(P = 0.01)]. The M-ficolin level was 60% lower [0.54 μg/ml(0.50) vs. 1.48(1.01)(P < 0.0001)]. The CL-L1 level at day 1 was slightly higher compared with healthy controls [3.20 μg/ml(2.37) vs. 2.64(0.72)(P = 0.11)]; this was significant at day 3 [3.35(1.84)(P = 0.006)]. H- and L-ficolin levels were similar to healthy controls. Spontaneous ALF survivors had higher levels of MBL at day 1 [0.96 μg/ml(1.15) vs. 0.60(0.60)(P = 0.02)] and lower levels of L-ficolin by day 3 compared with patients who died or were transplanted [1.61 μg/ml(1.19) vs. 2.17(2.19)(P = 0.02)]. We observed significant dynamics in lectin levels in ALF patients, which may suggest they play a role in ALF pathogenesis. High MBL and low L-ficolin levels are associated with survival. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Peak hyperammonemia and atypical acute liver failure: The eruption of an urea cycle disorder during hyperemesis gravidarum.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Nicolas; Mochel, Fanny; Rudler, Marika; Demeret, Sophie; Lebray, Pascal; Conti, Filomena; Galanaud, Damien; Ottolenghi, Chris; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Dommergues, Marc; Bernuau, Jacques; Thabut, Dominique

    2017-09-20

    Inborn urea cycle disorders are under-recognised metabolic causes of hyperammonemia in adults. A 28-year-old primigravida, seven weeks pregnant, affected by hyperemesis gravidarum developed acute liver injury (ALI) and then acute liver failure (ALF) in less than 48 h. Because the patient developed atypical features, especially mildly elevated aminotransferases contrasting with very high blood ammonia levels (281 μmol/L), concomitant with normal serum creatinine, an inborn error of metabolism was suspected. We performed emergency metabolic analyses, stopped all protein intake and started with intravenous (i.v.) high caloric intake, nitrogen scavenger drugs and haemodialysis. The neurological and hepatic status of the patient quickly improved together with normalisation of her ammonemia levels. High plasma glutamine and urinary orotic acid, alongside low plasma arginine, citrulline and ornithine were suggestive of an ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, later confirmed by molecular analyses. Foetal sex was female, as determined by foetal DNA analysis in maternal blood, and foetal development was unremarkable throughout the pregnancy. Delivery was induced at 39 weeks with a close monitoring of ammonemia levels and i.v. perfusion of carbohydrates and lipids during labour and immediately post-partum to avoid hypercatabolism. Delivery was uneventful and the patient delivered a healthy female baby. Urea cycle disorders should be contemplated in non-jaundiced patients with ALI or ALF, severe hyperammonemia and normal serum creatinine regardless of serum aminotransferase levels. The prompt recognition of this rare condition and the rapid initiation of adequate metabolic therapy are mandatory to prevent irreversible neurological sequelae and to avoid liver transplantation. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gene transfer of high-mobility group box 1 box-A domain in a rat acute liver failure model.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masayuki; Shinoda, Masahiro; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Oshima, Go; Nishiyama, Ryo; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Yagi, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Tetsu; Masugi, Yohei; Suda, Koichi; Yamada, Shingo; Miyasho, Taku; Hibi, Taizo; Abe, Yuta; Kitago, Minoru; Obara, Hideaki; Itano, Osamu; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Sakamoto, Michiie; Tanabe, Minoru; Maruyama, Ikuro; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-04-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has recently been identified as an important mediator of various kinds of acute and chronic inflammation. The protein encoded by the box-A domain of the HMGB1 gene is known to act as a competitive inhibitor of HMGB1. In this study, we investigated whether box-A gene transfer results in box-A protein production in rats and assessed therapeutic efficacy in vivo using an acute liver failure (ALF) model. Three types of adenovirus vectors were constructed-a wild type and two mutants-and a mutant vector was then selected based on the secretion from HeLa cells. The secreted protein was subjected to a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production inhibition test in vitro. The vector was injected via the portal vein in healthy Wistar rats to confirm box-A protein production in the liver. The vector was then injected via the portal vein in rats with ALF. Western blot analysis showed enhanced expression of box-A protein in HeLa cells transfected with one of the mutant vectors. The culture supernatant from HeLa cells transfected with the vector inhibited TNF-α production from macrophages. Expression of box-A protein was confirmed in the transfected liver at 72 h after transfection. Transfected rats showed decreased hepatic enzymes, plasma HMGB1, and hepatic TNF-α messenger RNA levels, and histologic findings and survival were significantly improved. HMGB1 box-A gene transfer results in box-A protein production in the liver and appears to have a beneficial effect on ALF in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide precipitates hepatic encephalopathy and increases blood-brain barrier permeability in mice with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Chastre, Anne; Bélanger, Mireille; Nguyen, Bich N; Butterworth, Roger F

    2014-03-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is frequently complicated by infection leading to precipitation of central nervous system complications such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and increased mortality. There is evidence to suggest that when infection occurs in ALF patients, the resulting pro-inflammatory mechanisms may be amplified that could, in turn, have a major impact on blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endotoxemia on the progression of encephalopathy in relation to BBB permeability during ALF. Adult male C57-BL6 mice with ALF resulting from azoxymethane-induced toxic liver injury were administered trace amounts of the endotoxin component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Effects on the magnitude of the systemic inflammatory response, liver pathology and BBB integrity were measured as a function of progression of HE, defined as time to loss of corneal reflex (coma). Lipopolysaccharide caused additional two- to seven-fold (P < 0.001) increases in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6), worsening liver pathology and associated increases of circulating transaminases as well as increased hyperammonaemia consistent with a further loss of viable hepatocytes. LPS treatment of ALF mice led to a rapid precipitation of hepatic coma and the BBB became permeable to the 25-kDa protein immunoglobulin G (IgG). This extravasation of IgG was accompanied by ignificant up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an endopeptidase known to modulate opening of the BBB in a wide range of neurological disorders. These findings represent the first direct evidence of inflammation-related BBB permeability changes in ALF. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Publishing by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fialuridine induces acute liver failure in chimeric TK-NOG mice: a model for detecting hepatic drug toxicity prior to human testing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Nishimura, Toshi; Nishimura, Sachiko; Zhang, Haili; Zheng, Ming; Guo, Ying-Ying; Masek, Marylin; Michie, Sara A; Glenn, Jeffrey; Peltz, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Seven of 15 clinical trial participants treated with a nucleoside analogue (fialuridine [FIAU]) developed acute liver failure. Five treated participants died, and two required a liver transplant. Preclinical toxicology studies in mice, rats, dogs, and primates did not provide any indication that FIAU would be hepatotoxic in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be detected in chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers. Control and chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers were treated orally with FIAU 400, 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d. The response to drug treatment was evaluated by measuring plasma lactate and liver enzymes, by assessing liver histology, and by electron microscopy. After treatment with FIAU 400 mg/kg/d for 4 d, chimeric mice developed clinical and serologic evidence of liver failure and lactic acidosis. Analysis of liver tissue revealed steatosis in regions with human, but not mouse, hepatocytes. Electron micrographs revealed lipid and mitochondrial abnormalities in the human hepatocytes in FIAU-treated chimeric mice. Dose-dependent liver toxicity was detected in chimeric mice treated with FIAU 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d for 14 d. Liver toxicity did not develop in control mice that were treated with the same FIAU doses for 14 d. In contrast, treatment with another nucleotide analogue (sofosbuvir 440 or 44 mg/kg/d po) for 14 d, which did not cause liver toxicity in human trial participants, did not cause liver toxicity in mice with humanized livers. FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be readily detected using chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers, even when the mice were treated with a FIAU dose that was only 10-fold above the dose used in human participants. The clinical features, laboratory abnormalities, liver histology, and ultra-structural changes observed in FIAU-treated chimeric mice mirrored those of FIAU-treated human participants. The use of chimeric mice in preclinical toxicology studies could improve

  14. [Severe toxic liver failure after acute poisoning with paracetamol, ferrous sulphate and naproxen].

    PubMed

    Adamek, Robert; Wilczek, Lech; Krupiński, Bogusław

    2004-01-01

    We present the case of 20-year-old woman intoxicated with mixed drugs, composed of paracetamol (acetaminophen), ferrous sulphate, naproxen and benzodiazepines. Acute toxic liver damage with clinical symptoms of coma resolved at the patient. Lack of the past history doesn't let to specific therapy and systemic complications. In this data we confirm, that past history, clinical symptoms and laboratory results are needed in designing a treatment strategy.

  15. Mechanistic Biomarkers in Acetaminophen-induced Hepatotoxicity and Acute Liver Failure: From Preclinical Models to Patients

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Drug hepatotoxicity is a major clinical issue. Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is especially common. Serum biomarkers used to follow patient progress reflect either liver injury or function, but focus on biomarkers that can provide insight into the basic mechanisms of hepatotoxicity is increasing and enabling us to translate mechanisms of toxicity from animal models to humans. Areas covered We review recent advances in mechanistic serum biomarker research in drug hepatotoxicity. Specifically, biomarkers for reactive drug intermdiates, mitochondrial dysfunction, nuclear DNA damage, mode of cell death and inflammation are discussed, as well as microRNAs. Emphasis is placed on APAP-induced liver injury. Expert Opinion Several serum biomarkers of reactive drug intermediates, mitochondrial damage, nuclear DNA damage, apoptosis and necrosis, and inflammation have been described. These studies have provided evidence that mitochondrial damage is critical in APAP hepatotoxicity in humans, while apoptosis has only a minor role, and inflammation is important for recovery and regeneration after APAP overdose. Additionally, mechanistic serum biomarkers have been shown to predict outcome as well as, or better than, some clinical scores. In the future, such biomarkers will help determine the need for liver transplantation and, with improved understanding of the human pathophysiology, identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:24836926

  16. In Vitro Hepatic Trans-Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Sera from Congestive/Ischemic Liver during Cardiac Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bishi, Dillip Kumar; Mathapati, Santosh; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen; Guhathakurta, Soma; Verma, Rama Shanker

    2014-01-01

    Cellular therapy for end-stage liver failures using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)-derived hepatocytes is a potential alternative to liver transplantation. Hepatic trans-differentiation of hMSCs is routinely accomplished by induction with commercially available recombinant growth factors, which is of limited clinical applications. In the present study, we have evaluated the potential of sera from cardiac-failure-associated congestive/ischemic liver patients for hepatic trans-differentiation of hMSCs. Results from such experiments were confirmed through morphological changes and expression of hepatocyte-specific markers at molecular and cellular level. Furthermore, the process of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition during hepatic trans-differentiation of hMSCs was confirmed by elevated expression of E-Cadherin and down-regulation of Snail. The functionality of hMSCs-derived hepatocytes was validated by various liver function tests such as albumin synthesis, urea release, glycogen accumulation and presence of a drug inducible cytochrome P450 system. Based on these findings, we conclude that sera from congestive/ischemic liver during cardiac failure support a liver specific microenvironment for effective hepatic trans-differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. PMID:24642599

  17. Proposal for a New Predictive Model of Short-Term Mortality After Living Donor Liver Transplantation due to Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun Sik; Lee, Yu Jung; Jo, Yun Sung

    2017-02-21

    BACKGROUND Acute liver failure (ALF) is known to be a rapidly progressive and fatal disease. Various models which could help to estimate the post-transplant outcome for ALF have been developed; however, none of them have been proved to be the definitive predictive model of accuracy. We suggest a new predictive model, and investigated which model has the highest predictive accuracy for the short-term outcome in patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to ALF. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from a total 88 patients were collected retrospectively. King's College Hospital criteria (KCH), Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) classification, and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were calculated. Univariate analysis was performed, and then multivariate statistical adjustment for preoperative variables of ALF prognosis was performed. A new predictive model was developed, called the MELD conjugated serum phosphorus model (MELD-p). The individual diagnostic accuracy and cut-off value of models in predicting 3-month post-transplant mortality were evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The difference in AUC between MELD-p and the other models was analyzed. The diagnostic improvement in MELD-p was assessed using the net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). RESULTS The MELD-p and MELD scores had high predictive accuracy (AUC >0.9). KCH and serum phosphorus had an acceptable predictive ability (AUC >0.7). The CTP classification failed to show discriminative accuracy in predicting 3-month post-transplant mortality. The difference in AUC between MELD-p and the other models had statistically significant associations with CTP and KCH. The cut-off value of MELD-p was 3.98 for predicting 3-month post-transplant mortality. The NRI was 9.9% and the IDI was 2.9%. CONCLUSIONS MELD-p score can predict 3-month post-transplant mortality better than other scoring systems after

  18. Patterns of failure in patients with early onset (synchronous) resectable liver metastases from rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Butte, Jean M; Gonen, Mithat; Ding, Peirong; Goodman, Karyn A; Allen, Peter J; Nash, Garrett M; Guillem, Jose; Paty, Philip B; Saltz, Leonard B; Kemeny, Nancy E; Dematteo, Ronald P; Fong, Yuman; Jarnagin, William R; Weiser, Martin R; D'Angelica, Michael I

    2012-11-01

    The optimal combination of available therapies for patients with resectable synchronous liver metastases from rectal cancer (SLMRC) is unknown, and the pattern of recurrence after resection has been poorly investigated. In this study, the authors examined recurrence patterns and survival after resection of SLMRC. Consecutive patients with SLMRC (disease-free interval, ≤12 months) who underwent complete resection of the rectal primary and liver metastases between 1990 and 2008 were identified from a prospective database. Demographics, tumor-related variables, and treatment-related variables were correlated with recurrence patterns. Competing risk analysis was used to determine the risk of pelvic and extrapelvic recurrence. In total, 185 patients underwent complete resection of rectal primary and liver metastases. One hundred eighty patients (97%) received chemotherapy during their treatment course, and 91 patients (49%) received pelvic radiation therapy either before (N = 65; 71.4%), or after (N = 26; 28.6%) rectal resection. The 5-year disease-specific survival rate was 51% for the entire cohort with a median follow-up of 44 months for survivors. One hundred thirty patients (70%) developed a recurrence: Eighteen patients (10%) had recurrences in the pelvis in combination with other sites, and 7 of these (4%) had an isolated pelvic recurrence. Recurrence pattern did not correlate with survival. Competing risk analysis demonstrated that the likelihood of a pelvic recurrence was significantly lower than that of an extrapelvic recurrence (P < .001). Of the patients with SLMRC who developed recurrent disease, systemic sites were overwhelmingly more common than pelvic recurrences. The current results indicated that the selective exclusion of radiotherapy may be considered in patients who are diagnosed with simultaneous disease. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  19. Emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant secondary to fulminant hepatic failure: outcome, role of TPE and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maitta, Robert W; Choate, Jacquelyn; Emre, Sukru H; Luczycki, Stephen M; Wu, Yanyun

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand for solid organ transplants has brought to light the need to utilize organs in critical situations despite ABO-incompatibility. However, these transplantations are complicated by pre-existing ABO antibodies which may be potentially dangerous and makes the transplantation prone to failure due to rejection with resulting necrosis or intrahepatic biliary complications. We report the clinical outcome of an emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant (due to fulminant hepatic failure with sudden and rapidly deteriorating mental status) using a modified therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) protocol. The recipient was O-positive with an initial anti-B titer of 64 and the cadaveric organ was from a B-positive donor. The patient underwent initial TPE during the peri-operative period, followed by a series of postoperative daily TPE, and later a third series of TPE for presumptive antibody-mediated rejection. The latter two were performed in conjunction with the use of IVIg and rituximab. The recipient's anti-B titer was reduced and maintained at 8 or less 8 months post-op. However, an elevation of transaminases 3 months post-transplant triggered a biopsy which was consistent with cellular rejection and with weak C4d positive staining suggestive of antibody mediated rejection. Additional plasma exchange procedures were performed. The patient improved rapidly after modification of her immunosuppression regimen and treatment with plasma exchange. This case illustrates that prompt and aggressive plasma exchange, in conjunction with immunosuppression, is a viable approach to prevent and treat antibody mediated transplant rejection in emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dendritic cells with increased expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1(SOCS1) gene ameliorate lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan-Shan; Yang, Min; Chen, Yong-Ping; Tang, Xin-Yue; Zhang, Sheng-Guo; Ni, Shun-Lan; Yang, Nai-Bin; Lu, Ming-Qin

    2018-05-28

    Acute liver failure is a devastating clinical syndrome with extremely terrible inflammation reaction, which is still lack of effective treatment in clinic. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 protein is inducible intracellular negative regulator of Janus kinases (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway that plays essential role in inhibiting excessive intracellular signaling cascade and preventing autoimmune reaction. In this paper, we want to explore whether dendritic cells (DCs) with overexpression of SOCS1 have a therapeutic effect on experimental acute liver failure. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells were transfected with lentivirus encoding SOCS1 and negative control lentivirus, thereafter collected for costimulatory molecules analysis, allogeneic Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction and Western blot test of JAK/STAT pathway. C57BL/6 mice were randomly separated into normal control and treatment groups which respectively received tail vein injection of modified DCs, negative control DCs and normal saline 12 h earlier than acute liver failure induction. Our results indicated that DCs with overexpression of SOCS1 exhibited like regulatory DCs (DCregs) with low level of costimulatory molecules and poor allostimulatory ability in vitro, which was supposed to correlate with block of JAK2/STAT1 signaling. In vivo tests, we found that infusion of modified DCs increased survival rate of acute liver failure mice and alleviate liver injury via inhibition of TLR4/HMGB1 pathway. We concluded that DCs transduced with SOCS1 gene exhibit as DCregs through negative regulation of JAK2/STAT1 pathway and ameliorated lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine induced acute liver failure via inhibition of TLR4 pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Blocking NMDA receptors delays death in rats with acute liver failure by dual protective mechanisms in kidney and brain.

    PubMed

    Cauli, Omar; González-Usano, Alba; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Gimenez-Garzó, Carla; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Ruiz-Sauri, Amparo; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Duszczyk, Malgorzata; Malek, Michal; Lazarewicz, Jerzy W; Carratalá, Arturo; Urios, Amparo; Miguel, Alfonso; Torregrosa, Isidro; Carda, Carmen; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) is unsatisfactory and mortality remains unacceptably high. Blocking NMDA receptors delays or prevents death of rats with ALF. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Clarifying these mechanisms will help to design more efficient treatments to increase patient's survival. The aim of this work was to shed light on the mechanisms by which blocking NMDA receptors delays rat's death in ALF. ALF was induced by galactosamine injection. NMDA receptors were blocked by continuous MK-801 administration. Edema and cerebral blood flow were assessed by magnetic resonance. The time course of ammonia levels in brain, muscle, blood, and urine; of glutamine, lactate, and water content in brain; of glomerular filtration rate and kidney damage; and of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and intracranial pressure was assessed. ALF reduces kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as reflected by reduced inulin clearance. GFR reduction is due to both reduced renal perfusion and kidney tubular damage as reflected by increased Kim-1 in urine and histological analysis. Blocking NMDA receptors delays kidney damage, allowing transient increased GFR and ammonia elimination which delays hyperammonemia and associated changes in brain. Blocking NMDA receptors does not prevent cerebral edema or blood-brain barrier permeability but reduces or prevents changes in cerebral blood flow and brain lactate. The data show that dual protective effects of MK-801 in kidney and brain delay cerebral alterations, HE, intracranial pressure increase and death. NMDA receptors antagonists may increase survival of patients with ALF by providing additional time for liver transplantation or regeneration.

  2. Higher Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine Values Are Associated with Better Outcome in Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Jan-Peter; Manka, Paul; Katsounas, Antonios; Syn, Wing-Kin; Führer, Dagmar; Gieseler, Robert K.; Bechmann, Lars P.; Gerken, Guido; Moeller, Lars C.; Canbay, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Changes in thyroid hormone levels, mostly as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), have been described in many diseases. However, the relationship between acute liver failure (ALF) and thyroid hormone levels has not yet been clarified. The present study evaluates potential correlations of select thyroid functional parameters with ALF. Methods 84 consecutively recruited ALF patients were grouped according to the outcome of ALF (spontaneous recovery: SR; transplantation or death: NSR). TSH, free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), T4, and T3 were determined. Results More than 50% of patients with ALF presented with abnormal thyroid parameters. These patients had greater risk for an adverse outcome than euthyroid patients. SR patients had significantly higher TSH, T4, and T3 concentrations than NSR patients. Albumin concentrations were significantly higher in SR than in NSR. In vitro T3 treatment was not able to rescue primary human hepatocytes from acetaminophen induced changes in mRNA expression. Conclusions In patients with ALF, TSH and total thyroid hormone levels differed significantly between SR patients and NSR patients. This might be related to diminished liver-derived transport proteins, such as albumin, in more severe forms of ALF. Thyroid parameters may serve as additional indicators of ALF severity. PMID:26147961

  3. Higher Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine Values Are Associated with Better Outcome in Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, Olympia; Sydor, Svenja; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Manka, Paul; Katsounas, Antonios; Syn, Wing-Kin; Führer, Dagmar; Gieseler, Robert K; Bechmann, Lars P; Gerken, Guido; Moeller, Lars C; Canbay, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Changes in thyroid hormone levels, mostly as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), have been described in many diseases. However, the relationship between acute liver failure (ALF) and thyroid hormone levels has not yet been clarified. The present study evaluates potential correlations of select thyroid functional parameters with ALF. 84 consecutively recruited ALF patients were grouped according to the outcome of ALF (spontaneous recovery: SR; transplantation or death: NSR). TSH, free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), T4, and T3 were determined. More than 50% of patients with ALF presented with abnormal thyroid parameters. These patients had greater risk for an adverse outcome than euthyroid patients. SR patients had significantly higher TSH, T4, and T3 concentrations than NSR patients. Albumin concentrations were significantly higher in SR than in NSR. In vitro T3 treatment was not able to rescue primary human hepatocytes from acetaminophen induced changes in mRNA expression. In patients with ALF, TSH and total thyroid hormone levels differed significantly between SR patients and NSR patients. This might be related to diminished liver-derived transport proteins, such as albumin, in more severe forms of ALF. Thyroid parameters may serve as additional indicators of ALF severity.

  4. Acute liver failure during treatment of interferon alpha 2a chronic hepatitis B and coinfection of parvovirus B19

    PubMed

    Sobala-Szczygieł, Barbara; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna; Kępa, Lucjan; Oczko-Grzesik, Barbara; Piotrowski, Damian; Stolarz, Wojciech

    Parvovirus B19 infection is associated with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations among which some are well known but others remain controversial. The role of this infection as a cause of acute hepatitis or exacerbation of chronic liver disease requires discussion regarding its significance in a strategy of prevention and treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis. Clinical importance of this infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a is still unclear but exactly in this population significant complications during treatment may arise. Parvovirus B19 infection is not rare among persons with chronic hepatitis B, therefore searching for co-infection should be placed in standard diagnostic procedures especially in case of exacerbation of chronic hepatitis, pancytopaenia or anaemia of unknown origin. Pegylated interferon alpha 2a still remains a gold standard of therapy of patients with chronic hepatitis B according to European (EASL) and Polish guidelines. We present a case of 35 years old woman treated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a who developed acute liver failure in 23rd week of chronic hepatitis B therapy. An exacerbation of hepatitis with encephalopathy and pancytopaenia have been observed. Parvovirus B19 and HBV co-infection does not increase the frequency of liver function abnormalities in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Further investigations should be done to describe the natural course of co-infection with parvovirus B19 and HBV and to establish possible association between parvovirus B19 infection and chronic hepatitis B and also the influence of interferon alpha 2a on the infections course.

  5. Soluble ST2 Plasma Concentrations Predict Mortality in HBV-Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Zhishuo; Zhu, Jianyun; Pang, Xiuqing; Wu, Zhebin; Wang, Ke; Li, Xinhua; Xie, Dongying; Gao, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a rapidly progressing and frequently fatal condition. The aim of this study was to determine whether interleukin- (IL-) 33 and soluble ST2 (sST2) were associated with disease severity and mortality in HBV-ACLF. We found that plasma levels of sST2 but not IL-33 were higher in HBV-ACLF patients compared with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and healthy controls. However, plasma levels of IL-33, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10 did not correlate with sST2 levels. Similarly, immunohistochemistry revealed low IL-33 expression and high ST2 expression in liver sections of patients with HBV-ACLF. Evaluation of dynamic changes of sST2 in HBV-ACLF showed that plasma sST2 levels increased over time in patients who died during the 180-day follow-up but decreased in those who survived. In addition, plasma sST2 level after week 1 correlated with disease severity, as assessed by total bilirubin, prothrombin time, and model for end-stage liver disease score. Results of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that higher sST2 concentration (≥87 ng/mL) at week 3 was associated with poor survival. These findings indicate the potential usefulness of sST2 as a predictor of disease severity and in making treatment decisions for patients with HBV-ACLF. PMID:25892854

  6. Intrahepatic bilioenteric anastomosis after biliary complications of liver transplantation: operative rescue of surgical failures.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Miguel Angel; Vilatobá, Mario; Chan, Carlos; Domínguez, Ismael; Leal, Rafael Paulino; Olivera, Marco Antonio

    2009-03-01

    Biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are multifactorial in origin. In most series, the frequency of such complications ranges from 5-20%. Most can be treated by endoscopy and/or interventional radiology. For cases in which this option is not successful, surgical approach is indicated. We report the results of reoperation using an intrahepatic bilioenteric anastomosis. The medical charts of patients with biliary complications after OLT during a 10-year period (1997-2007), who failed to respond to nonsurgical treatment and were surgically treated, were reviewed. Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy was performed. Segments IV and V were partially removed after cutting the hilar plate, thus obtaining healthy ducts without ischemic or inflammatory reaction and allowing a wide hepatojejunostomy. Five cases (8.4%) with biliary complications after duct-to-duct anastomosis not amenable to further endoscopic management or interventional radiology were identified. Hepaticojejunostomy was achieved in all cases (wide, tension-free, nonischemic, fine hydrolyzable sutures), and segments IV and V were partially removed. No cholangitis, jaundice, and liver function test abnormalities were present in the postoperative. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Only one patient died of causes not related to bile duct reconstruction during follow-up. Intrahepatic hepatojejunostomy with partial resection of segments IV and V offers an excellent therapeutic alternative for biliary complications that require a surgical approach after OLT.

  7. Acute on chronic liver failure in a patient with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS)

    PubMed Central

    Im, Dana DaEun; Essien, Utibe; DePasse, Jacqueline W; Chiappa, Victor

    2015-01-01

    A man in his late 40s with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) presented to the emergency department with 2 weeks of diffuse oedema, increased abdominal girth and dyspnoea. His anasarca was thought to be indicative of an acute decompensation of his known liver cirrhosis with transfusion-induced haemosiderosis. While his anasarca improved with diuresis, his direct hyperbilirubinaemia suddenly worsened without any signs of haemolysis, biliary disease or obstruction. He also developed an acute worsening in serum creatinine (1.17–7.0 mg/dL in 7 days) despite subsequent treatment for presumed hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Given his clinical decline, the patient's goals of care were transitioned to comfort measures only. His clinical presentation and rapid liver and renal deterioration were most typical of sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis (SCIC). SCIC can lead to rapid deterioration in renal function and can be mistaken for HRS. When SCIC is suspected, consideration of exchange transfusions should be made early. PMID:26135492

  8. CPAP by helmet for treatment of acute respiratory failure after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chiusolo, F; Fanelli, V; Ciofi Degli Atti, M L; Conti, G; Tortora, F; Pariante, R; Ravà, L; Grimaldi, C; de Ville de Goyet, J; Picardo, S

    2018-02-01

    ARF after pediatric liver transplantation accounts for high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with this procedure. The role of CPAP in postoperative period is still unknown. The aim of the study was to describe current practice and risk factors associated with the application of helmet CPAP. In this retrospective observational cohort study, 119 recipients were divided into two groups based on indication to CPAP after extubation. Perioperative variables were studied, and determinants of CPAP application were analyzed in a multivariate logistic model. Sixty patients (60/114) developed ARF and were included in the CPAP group. No differences were found between the two groups for primary disease, graft type, and blood product transfused. At multivariate analysis, weight <11 kg (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.1-7.3; P = .026), PaO 2 /FiO 2 <380 before extubation (OR = 5.4; 95% CI = 2.1-13.6; P < .001), need of vasopressors (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.1-6.4; P = .038), and positive fluid balance >148 mL/kg (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.6-10.1; P = .004) were the main determinants of CPAP application. In the CPAP group, five patients (8.4%) needed reintubation. Pediatric liver recipients with lower weight, higher need of inotropes/vasopressors, higher positive fluid balance after surgery, and lower PaO 2 /FiO 2 before extubation were at higher odds of developing ARF needing CPAP application. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Association Between Grade of Acute on Chronic Liver Failure and Response to Terlipressin and Albumin in Patients With Hepatorenal Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Schmidt, Hartmut H; Ariza, Xavier; Amoros, Alex; Romano, Antonietta; Hüsing-Kabar, Anna; Solà, Elsa; Gerbes, Alexander; Bernardi, Mauro; Alessandria, Carlo; Scheiner, Bernhard; Tonon, Marta; Maschmeier, Miriam; Solè, Cristina; Trebicka, Jonel; Gustot, Thierry; Nevens, Frederik; Arroyo, Vicente; Gines, Pere; Angeli, Paolo

    2018-01-31

    Type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is the most high-risk type of renal failure in patients with cirrhosis. Terlipressin and albumin are effective treatments for type 1 HRS. However, the effects of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) grade on response to treatment are not clear. We aimed to identify factors associated with response to treatment with terlipressin and albumin in patients with type 1 HRS (reduction in serum level of creatinine to below 1.5 mg/dL at the end of treatment) and factors associated with death within 90 days of HRS diagnosis (90-day mortality). We performed a retrospective analysis of 4 different cohorts of consecutive patients with HRS treated with terlipressin and albumin from February 2007 through January 2016 at medical centers in Europe (total, 298 patients). We analyzed demographic, clinical, and laboratory data collected before and during treatment; patients were followed until death, liver transplantation, or 90 days after HRS diagnosis. Response to treatment was observed in 53% of patients. Of patients with grade 1 ACLF, 60% responded to treatment; among those with grade 2 ACLF, 48% responded, and among those with grade 3 ACLF, 29% responded (P < .001 for comparison between grades). In multivariate analysis, baseline serum level of creatinine (odds ratio, 0.23; P = .001) and ACLF grade (odds ratio, 0.63; P = .01) were independently associated with response to treatment. Patient age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; P < .001), white blood cell count (HR, 1.51; P = .006), ACLF grade (HR, 2.06; P < .001), and no response to treatment (HR, 0.41; P < .001) associated with 90-day mortality. In a retrospective analysis of data from 4 cohorts of patients treated for type 1 HRS, we found ACLF grade to be the largest determinant of response to terlipressin and albumin. ACLF grade affects survival independently of response to treatment. New therapeutic strategies should be developed for patients with type 1 HRS and extrarenal organ failure

  10. Liver Stiffness Reflecting Right-Sided Filling Pressure Can Predict Adverse Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Tatsunori; Ohtani, Tomohito; Kioka, Hidetaka; Tsukamoto, Yasumasa; Onishi, Toshinari; Nakamoto, Kei; Katsimichas, Themistoklis; Sengoku, Kaoruko; Chimura, Misato; Hashimoto, Haruko; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Sawa, Yoshiki; Sakata, Yasushi

    2018-01-12

    This study sought to investigate whether elevated liver stiffness (LS) values at discharge reflect residual liver congestion and are associated with worse outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Transient elastography is a newly developed, noninvasive method for assessing LS, which can be highly reflective of right-sided filling pressure associated with passive liver congestion in patients with HF. LS values were determined for 171 hospitalized patients with HF before discharge using a Fibroscan device. The median LS value was 5.6 kPa (interquartile range: 4.4 to 8.1; range 2.4 to 39.7) and that of right-sided filling pressure, which was estimated based on LS, was 5.7 mm Hg (interquartile range: 4.1 to 8.2 mm Hg; range 0.1 to 18.9 mm Hg). The patients in the highest LS tertile (>6.9 kPa, corresponding to an estimated right-sided filling pressure of >7.1 mm Hg) had advanced New York Heart Association functional class, high prevalence of jugular venous distention and moderate/severe tricuspid regurgitation, large inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter, low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, high serum direct bilirubin level, and a similar left ventricular ejection fraction compared with the lower tertiles. During follow-up periods (median: 203 days), 8 (5%) deaths and 33 (19%) hospitalizations for HF were observed. The patients in the highest LS group had a significantly higher mortality rate and HF rehospitalization (hazard ratio: 3.57; 95% confidence interval: 1.93 to 6.83; p < 0.001) compared with the other tertiles. Although LS correlated with IVC diameter and serum direct bilirubin and brain natriuretic peptide levels, LS values were predictive of worse outcomes, even after adjustment for these indices. These data suggest that LS is a useful index for assessing systemic volume status and predicting the severity of HF, and that the presence of liver congestion at discharge is associated with worse outcomes in patients with HF. Copyright © 2018 American

  11. Retrospective Identification of Herpes Simplex 2 Virus-Associated Acute Liver Failure in an Immunocompetent Patient Detected Using Whole Transcriptome Shotgun Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ono, Atsushi; Hayes, C Nelson; Akamatsu, Sakura; Imamura, Michio; Aikata, Hiroshi; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe condition in which liver function rapidly deteriorates in individuals without prior history of liver disease. While most cases result from acetaminophen overdose or viral hepatitis, in up to a third of patients, no clear cause can be identified. Liver transplantation has greatly reduced mortality among these patients, but 40% of patients recover without liver transplantation. Therefore, there is an urgent need for rapid determination of the etiology of acute liver failure. In this case report, we present a case of herpes simplex 2 virus- (HSV-) associated ALF in an immunocompetent patient. The patient recovered without LT, but the presence of HSV was not suspected at the time, precluding more effective treatment with acyclovir. To determine the etiology, stored blood samples were analyzed using whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing followed by mapping to a panel of viral reference sequences. The presence of HSV-DNA in blood samples at the time of admission was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and, at the time of discharge, HSV-DNA levels had decreased by a factor of 10 6 . Conclusions. In ALF cases of undetermined etiology, uncommon causes should be considered, especially those for which an effective treatment is available.

  12. Liver failure with coagulopathy, hyperammonemia and cyclic vomiting in a toddler revealed to have combined heterozygosity for genes involved with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Mira, Valerie; Boles, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    A girl with a 2 month history of cyclic episodes of vomiting, diarrhea, and lethargy lasting 2-3 days each presented with acute hepatopathy (ALT 3,500 IU/L) with coagulopathy (PT 55 s) and hyperammonemia (207 μmol/L) at age 1½ years. Biochemical and molecular analyzes revealed ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. While laboratory signs of mild hepatocellular dysfunction are common in OTC deficiency, substantial liver failure with coagulopathy is generally not seen, although four others cases have been reported, three of which presented with cyclic vomiting. Further evaluation in our case revealed elevated urine (198.8 μg/g creatinine) and liver (103 μg/g dry weight) copper content, and a heterozygous mutation in the Wilson disease gene, ATP7B. Our patient, now aged 5 years, has remained in excellent health with normal growth and development on fasting avoidance, a modified vegan diet, and sodium phenylbutyrate.These five cases demonstrate that generalized liver dysfunction/failure is a potential serious complication of OTC deficiency, although not a common one, and suggests that an ALT and PT should be obtained in OTC patients during episodes of hyperammonemia. Cyclic vomiting is a known presentation of OTC deficiency; it is not known if comorbid liver failure predisposes toward this phenotype. We propose that the heterozygote state in ATP7B increases the liver copper content, thus predisposing our patient with OTC deficiency to develop liver failure during a hyperammonemic episode. Our present case is an example of the opportunity of molecular diagnostics to identify putative modifier genes in patients with atypical presentations of genetic disorders.

  13. ATTIRE: Albumin To prevenT Infection in chronic liveR failurE: study protocol for a single-arm feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    China, Louise; Muirhead, Nicola; Skene, Simon S; Shabir, Zainib; De Maeyer, Roel P H; Maini, Alexander A N; Gilroy, Derek W; O'Brien, Alastair J

    2016-01-25

    Circulating prostaglandin E2 levels are elevated in acutely decompensated cirrhosis and have been shown to contribute to immune suppression. Albumin binds and inactivates this hormone. Human albumin solution could thus be repurposed as an immune restorative drug in these patients.This feasibility study aims to determine whether it is possible and safe to restore serum albumin to >30 g/L and maintain it at this level in patients admitted with acute decompensated cirrhosis using repeated 20% human albumin infusions according to daily serum albumin levels. Albumin To prevenT Infection in chronic liveR failurE (ATTIRE) stage 1 is a multicentre, open label dose feasibility trial. Patients with acutely decompensated cirrhosis admitted to hospital with a serum albumin of <30 g/L are eligible, subject to exclusion criteria. Daily intravenous human albumin solution will be infused, according to serum albumin levels, for up to 14 days or discharge in all patients. The primary end point is daily serum albumin levels for the duration of the treatment period and the secondary end point is plasma-induced macrophage dysfunction. The trial will recruit 80 patients. Outcomes will be used to assist with study design for an 866 patient randomised controlled trial at more than 30 sites across the UK. Research ethics approval was given by the London-Brent research ethics committee (ref: 15/LO/0104). The clinical trials authorisation was issued by the medicines and healthcare products regulatory agency (ref: 20363/0350/001-0001). Will be disseminated through peer reviewed journals and international conferences. Recruitment of the first participant occurred on 26/05/2015. The trial is registered with the European Medicines Agency (EudraCT 2014-002300-24) and has been adopted by the NIHR (ISRCTN 14174793). This manuscript refers to V.4.0 of the protocol; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  14. Transplant of Hepatocytes, Undifferentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells, and In Vitro Hepatocyte-Differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Chronic Liver Failure Experimental Model: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    El Baz, Hanan; Demerdash, Zeinab; Kamel, Manal; Atta, Shimaa; Salah, Faten; Hassan, Salwa; Hammam, Olfat; Khalil, Heba; Meshaal, Safa; Raafat, Inas

    2018-02-01

    Liver transplant is the cornerstone line of treatment for chronic liver diseases; however, the long list of complications and obstacles stand against this operation. Searching for new modalities for treatment of chronic liver illness is a must. In the present research, we aimed to compare the effects of transplant of undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cells, in vitro differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, and adult hepatocytes in an experimental model of chronic liver failure. Undifferentiated human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, pro-pagated, and characterized by morphology, gene expression analysis, and flow cytometry of surface markers and in vitro differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells. Rat hepatocytes were isolated by double perfusion technique. An animal model of chronic liver failure was developed, and undifferentiated human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells, in vitro hepato-genically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, or freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were transplanted into a CCL4 cirrhotic experimental model. Animals were killed 3 months after transplant, and liver functions and histopathology were assessed. Compared with the cirrhotic control group, the 3 cell-treated groups showed improved alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, and bilirubin levels, with best results shown in the hepatocyte-treated group. Histopathologic examination of the treated groups showed improved fibrosis, with best results obtained in the undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell-treated group. Both adult hepatocytes and cord blood mesenchymal stem cells proved to be promising candidates for cell-based therapy in liver regeneration on an experimental level. Improved liver function was evident in the hepatocyte-treated group, and fibrosis control was more evident in the undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell-treated group.

  15. King’s College Hospital criteria for non-acetaminophen induced acute liver failure in an international cohort of children

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vinay; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Dhawan, Anil; Ng, Vicky L.; Im, Kyungah; Belle, Steven; Squires, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To validate King’s College Hospital criteria (KCHC) in children with non-acetaminophen (APAP) induced pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) and to determine whether re-optimizing the KCHC would improve predictive accuracy. Study design We utilized the PALF study group database. Primary outcomes were survival without liver transplantation (LT) versus death at 21 days following enrollment. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was used to determine if modification of KCHC parameters would improve classification of death versus survival. Results Among 163 patients who met KCHC, 54 patients (33.1%) died within 21 days. Sensitivity of KCHC in this cohort was significantly lower than in the original study (61% vs 91%, p=0.002), and specificity did not differ significantly. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of KCHC for this cohort was 33% and 88% respectively. CART analysis yielded the following optimized parameters to predict death: grade 2–4 encephalopathy, international normalized ratio >4.02 and total bilirubin >2.02 mg/dL. These parameters did not improve PPV, but NPV was significantly better (88% vs. 92%, p<0.0001). Conclusions KCHC does not reliably predict death in PALF. With a PPV of 33%, twice as many participants who met KCHC recovered spontaneously than died, indicating that using KCHC may cause over utilization of LT. Re-optimized cutpoints for KCHC parameters improved NPV, but not PPV. Parameters beyond the KCHC should be evaluated to create a predictive model for PALF. PMID:22906509

  16. Classification and regression tree analysis of acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure: Seeing the forest for the trees.

    PubMed

    Shi, K-Q; Zhou, Y-Y; Yan, H-D; Li, H; Wu, F-L; Xie, Y-Y; Braddock, M; Lin, X-Y; Zheng, M-H

    2017-02-01

    At present, there is no ideal model for predicting the short-term outcome of patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF). This study aimed to establish and validate a prognostic model by using the classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. A total of 1047 patients from two separate medical centres with suspected ACHBLF were screened in the study, which were recognized as derivation cohort and validation cohort, respectively. CART analysis was applied to predict the 3-month mortality of patients with ACHBLF. The accuracy of the CART model was tested using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, which was compared with the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score and a new logistic regression model. CART analysis identified four variables as prognostic factors of ACHBLF: total bilirubin, age, serum sodium and INR, and three distinct risk groups: low risk (4.2%), intermediate risk (30.2%-53.2%) and high risk (81.4%-96.9%). The new logistic regression model was constructed with four independent factors, including age, total bilirubin, serum sodium and prothrombin activity by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The performances of the CART model (0.896), similar to the logistic regression model (0.914, P=.382), exceeded that of MELD score (0.667, P<.001). The results were confirmed in the validation cohort. We have developed and validated a novel CART model superior to MELD for predicting three-month mortality of patients with ACHBLF. Thus, the CART model could facilitate medical decision-making and provide clinicians with a validated practical bedside tool for ACHBLF risk stratification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Plasma concentration of diamine oxidase (DAO) predicts 1-month mortality of acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Cai; Li, Yue-Kai; Fan, Yu-Chen; Wang, Kai

    2018-05-26

    Acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF) has high 1-month mortality but it is difficult to predict. This present study was aimed to determine the diagnostic value of plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) in predicting the 1-month mortality of ACHBLF. A total of 106 consecutive newly diagnosed ACHBLF patients were retrospectively collected. The plasma expression of DAO was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The plasma DAO level of survivals [14.0 (7.1; 26.5) ng/mL] was significantly lower than the nonsurvivals [58.6 (32.5; 121.3) ng/mL, P < .001]. The plasma DAO level, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were independent factors associated with the 1-month mortality for ACHBLF. The cut-off point of 15.2 ng/mL for plasma DAO level with sensitivity of 95.45%, specificity of 62.5%, 22.6 for MELD score with sensitivity of 90.91%, specificity of 67.5%, 0.07 for DAO plus MELD with sensitivity of 87.88%, specificity of 80% were selected to discriminate 1-month morality of ACHBLF. Furthermore, DAO plus MELD score showed high AUROC than MELD score for predicting 1-month (0.916 vs. 0.843, P < .01). The plasma DAO level plus MELD > 0.07 predicts poor 1-month mortality of ACHBLF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of high-volume plasmapheresis on ammonia, urea, and amino acids in patients with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Clemmesen, J O; Kondrup, J; Nielsen, L B; Larsen, F S; Ott, P

    2001-04-01

    In acute liver failure (ALF), urea production is severely impaired, and detoxification of ammonia by glutamine synthesis plays an important protective role. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of therapeutic high-volume plasmapheresis (HVP) on arterial concentrations and splanchnic exchange rates of ammonia, urea, and amino acids-in particular, glutamine. A quantity of 8 L of plasma was exchanged over the course of 7 h in 11 patients with ALF after development of hepatic encephalopathy grade III-IV. Splanchnic exchange rates of ammonia, urea, and amino acids were measured by use of liver vein catheterization. HVP removed ammonia and glutamine at a rate of 1 micromol/min and 27 micromol/min, respectively. Arterial ammonia decreased from 160 +/- 65 to 114 +/- 50 micromol/L (p < 0.001). In contrast, arterial glutamine was only minimally changed from 1791 +/- 1655 to 1764 +/- 1875 micromol/L (NS). This implied that the rate of systemic glutamine synthesis was increased by 27 micromol/min. Splanchnic exchange rates (before vs after HVP) were as follows: for ammonia, -93 +/- 101 versus -70 +/- 80 micromol/min (NS); urea-nitrogen, 0.08 +/- 1.64 versus -0.31 +/- 0.45 mmol/min (NS); alanine, -73 +/- 151 versus 12 +/- 83 micromol/min (p < 0.05); and glutamine: 132 +/- 246 versus 186 +/- 285 micromol/min (NS), with negative values denoting release. Arterial ammonia decreased during HVP in patients with ALF. The data suggest that this effect of HVP could be explained by increased hepatic urea synthesis and possibly by increased glutamine synthesis in muscle tissue.

  19. Ethical dilemmas in psychiatric evaluations in patients with fulminant liver failure.

    PubMed

    Appel, Jacob; Vaidya, Swapna

    2014-04-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is one of the more dramatic and challenging syndromes in clinical medicine. Time constraints and the scarcity of organs complicate the evaluation process in the case of patients presenting with FHF, raising ethical questions related to fairness and justice. The challenges are compounded by an absence of standardized guidelines. Acetaminophen overdose, often occurring in patients with histories of psychiatric illness and substance dependence, has emerged as the most common cause of FHF. The weak correlations between psychosocial factors and nonadherence, as per some studies, suggest that adherence may be influenced by systematic factors. Most research suggests that applying rigid ethical parameters in these patients, rather than allowing for case-dependent flexibility, can be problematic. The decision to transplant in patients with FHF has to be made in a very narrow window of time. The time-constrained process is fraught with uncertainties and limitations, given the absence of patient interview, fluctuating medical eligibility, and limited data. Although standardized scales exist, their benefit in such settings appears limited. Predicting compliance with posttransplant medical regimens is difficult to assess and raises the question of prospective studies to monitor compliance.

  20. Prevention of liver cancer cachexia-induced cardiac wasting and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Jochen; Tschirner, Anika; Haghikia, Arash; von Haehling, Stephan; Lal, Hind; Grzesiak, Aleksandra; Kaschina, Elena; Palus, Sandra; Pötsch, Mareike; von Websky, Karoline; Hocher, Berthold; Latouche, Celine; Jaisser, Frederic; Morawietz, Lars; Coats, Andrew J.S.; Beadle, John; Argiles, Josep M.; Thum, Thomas; Földes, Gabor; Doehner, Wolfram; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Force, Thomas; Anker, Stefan D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Symptoms of cancer cachexia (CC) include fatigue, shortness of breath, and impaired exercise capacity, which are also hallmark symptoms of heart failure (HF). Herein, we evaluate the effects of drugs commonly used to treat HF (bisoprolol, imidapril, spironolactone) on development of cardiac wasting, HF, and death in the rat hepatoma CC model (AH-130). Methods and results Tumour-bearing rats showed a progressive loss of body weight and left-ventricular (LV) mass that was associated with a progressive deterioration in cardiac function. Strikingly, bisoprolol and spironolactone significantly reduced wasting of LV mass, attenuated cardiac dysfunction, and improved survival. In contrast, imidapril had no beneficial effect. Several key anabolic and catabolic pathways were dysregulated in the cachectic hearts and, in addition, we found enhanced fibrosis that was corrected by treatment with spironolactone. Finally, we found cardiac wasting and fibrotic remodelling in patients who died as a result of CC. In living cancer patients, with and without cachexia, serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide and aldosterone were elevated. Conclusion Systemic effects of tumours lead not only to CC but also to cardiac wasting, associated with LV-dysfunction, fibrotic remodelling, and increased mortality. These adverse effects of the tumour on the heart and on survival can be mitigated by treatment with either the β-blocker bisoprolol or the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone. We suggest that clinical trials employing these agents be considered to attempt to limit this devastating complication of cancer. PMID:23990596

  1. Prevention of liver cancer cachexia-induced cardiac wasting and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Springer, Jochen; Tschirner, Anika; Haghikia, Arash; von Haehling, Stephan; Lal, Hind; Grzesiak, Aleksandra; Kaschina, Elena; Palus, Sandra; Pötsch, Mareike; von Websky, Karoline; Hocher, Berthold; Latouche, Celine; Jaisser, Frederic; Morawietz, Lars; Coats, Andrew J S; Beadle, John; Argiles, Josep M; Thum, Thomas; Földes, Gabor; Doehner, Wolfram; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Force, Thomas; Anker, Stefan D

    2014-04-01

    Symptoms of cancer cachexia (CC) include fatigue, shortness of breath, and impaired exercise capacity, which are also hallmark symptoms of heart failure (HF). Herein, we evaluate the effects of drugs commonly used to treat HF (bisoprolol, imidapril, spironolactone) on development of cardiac wasting, HF, and death in the rat hepatoma CC model (AH-130). Tumour-bearing rats showed a progressive loss of body weight and left-ventricular (LV) mass that was associated with a progressive deterioration in cardiac function. Strikingly, bisoprolol and spironolactone significantly reduced wasting of LV mass, attenuated cardiac dysfunction, and improved survival. In contrast, imidapril had no beneficial effect. Several key anabolic and catabolic pathways were dysregulated in the cachectic hearts and, in addition, we found enhanced fibrosis that was corrected by treatment with spironolactone. Finally, we found cardiac wasting and fibrotic remodelling in patients who died as a result of CC. In living cancer patients, with and without cachexia, serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide and aldosterone were elevated. Systemic effects of tumours lead not only to CC but also to cardiac wasting, associated with LV-dysfunction, fibrotic remodelling, and increased mortality. These adverse effects of the tumour on the heart and on survival can be mitigated by treatment with either the β-blocker bisoprolol or the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone. We suggest that clinical trials employing these agents be considered to attempt to limit this devastating complication of cancer.

  2. Extracorporeal albumin dialysis with the molecular adsorbent recirculating system in acute-on-chronic liver failure: the RELIEF trial.

    PubMed

    Bañares, Rafael; Nevens, Frederik; Larsen, Fin Stolze; Jalan, Rajiv; Albillos, Agustín; Dollinger, Matthias; Saliba, Faouzi; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Klammt, Sebastian; Ockenga, Johann; Pares, Albert; Wendon, Julia; Brünnler, Tanja; Kramer, Ludwig; Mathurin, Philippe; de la Mata, Manuel; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Müllhaupt, Beat; Wilmer, Alexander; Laleman, Wim; Eefsen, Martin; Sen, Sambit; Zipprich, Alexander; Tenorio, Teresa; Pavesi, Marco; Schmidt, Hartmut H-J; Mitzner, Steffen; Williams, Roger; Arroyo, Vicente

    2013-03-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a frequent cause of death in cirrhosis. Albumin dialysis with the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) decreases retained substances and improves hemodynamics and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, its survival impact is unknown. In all, 189 patients with ACLF were randomized either to MARS (n=95) or to standard therapy (SMT) (n=94). Ten patients (five per group) were excluded due to protocol violations. In addition, 23 patients (MARS: 19; SMT: 4) were excluded from per-protocol (PP) analysis (PP population n=156). Up to 10 6-8-hour MARS sessions were scheduled. The main endpoint was 28-day ITT and PP survival. There were no significant differences at inclusion, although the proportion of patients with Model for Endstage Liver Disease (MELD) score over 20 points and with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) as a precipitating event was almost significantly greater in the MARS group. The 28-day survival was similar in the two groups in the ITT and PP populations (60.7% versus 58.9%; 60% versus 59.2% respectively). After adjusting for confounders, a significant beneficial effect of MARS on survival was not observed (odds ratio [OR]: 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-1.72). MELD score and HE at admission and the increase in serum bilirubin at day 4 were independent predictors of death. At day 4, a greater decrease in serum creatinine (P=0.02) and bilirubin (P=0.001) and a more frequent improvement in HE (from grade II-IV to grade 0-I; 62.5% versus 38.2%; P=0.07) was observed in the MARS group. Severe adverse events were similar. At scheduled doses, a beneficial effect on survival of MARS therapy in patients with ACLF could not be demonstrated. However, MARS has an acceptable safety profile, has significant dialysis effect, and nonsignificantly improves severe HE. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Characteristics, risk factors, and mortality of cirrhotic patients hospitalized for hepatic encephalopathy with and without acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF).

    PubMed

    Cordoba, Juan; Ventura-Cots, Meritxell; Simón-Talero, Macarena; Amorós, Àlex; Pavesi, Marco; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Angeli, Paolo; Domenicali, Marco; Ginés, Pere; Bernardi, Mauro; Arroyo, Vicente

    2014-02-01

    In spite of the high incidence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in cirrhosis, there are few observational studies. We performed an analysis to define the characteristics of HE and associated features using the database of the Canonic Study. Clinical, laboratory and survival data of 1348 consecutive cirrhotic patients admitted with an acute decompensation were compared according to the presence (n=406) or absence of HE and of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) (n=301). HE development was independently associated with previous HE episodes; survival probabilities worsen in relation to the presence and grade of HE. There were marked differences between HE associated (n=174) and not associated (n=286) to ACLF. HE not associated with ACLF occurred in older cirrhotics, inactive drinkers, without severe liver failure or systemic inflammatory reaction and in relation to diuretic use. In contrast, HE associated with ACLF occurred in younger cirrhotics, more frequently alcoholics, with severe liver failure and systemic inflammatory reaction, and in relation to bacterial infections, active alcoholism and/or dilutional hyponatremia. Prognosis was relatively preserved in the first and extremely poor in the second group. Independent risk factors of mortality in patients with HE were age, bilirubin, INR, creatinine, sodium, and HE grade. In cirrhosis, previous HE identifies a subgroup of patients that is especially vulnerable for developing new episodes of HE. The course of HE appears to be different according to the presence of ACLF. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pseudoephedrine/ephedrine shows potent anti-inflammatory activity against TNF-α-mediated acute liver failure induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongping; Kong, Xiangliang; Zhang, Tong; Ye, Jin; Fang, Zhaoqin; Yang, Xuejun

    2014-02-05

    The anti-inflammatory effects of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine were investigated using the experimental model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitised male rats in order to elucidate effects other than sympathomimetic effects. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with D-GalN (400 mg/kg) and LPS (40 μg/kg) to induce acute liver failure. The treatment groups were then intraperitoneally administered pseudoephedrine/ephedrine at 0 h and 4 h after induction and the activation induced by treatment with pseudoephedrine and/or LPS on the primary Kupffer cells (KCs) was monitored. Compared with controls induced by GalN/LPS alone, pseudoephedrine dramatically reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and bile ductular hyperplasia and hepatic necrosis observed in liver sections. It inhibited both hepatocellular apoptosis and the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1. It lowered the production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the beginning of acute liver failure induced by D-GalN/LPS. Correspondingly, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and malondialdehyde were attenuated. Ephedrine demonstrated all these identical protective effects as well. In addition, pseudoephedrine significantly suppressed the production of p-IκB-α, reducing the degradation of sequestered nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the cytoplasm, and inhibited the translocation of NF-κB/p65 to the nucleus, the transcription of TNF-α mRNA and the production of TNF-α in primary KCs. These results suggest that pseudoephedrine and ephedrine have a potent anti-inflammatory activity against D-GalN/LPS-induced acute liver failure in rats, and this comprehensive anti-inflammatory effect may result from the inhibition of TNF-α production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A switch in the source of ATP production and a loss in capacity to perform glycolysis are hallmarks of hepatocyte failure in advance liver disease.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Taichiro; Bellance, Nadège; Damm, Aaron; Bing, Han; Zhu, Zhen; Handa, Kan; Yovchev, Mladen I; Sehgal, Vasudha; Moss, Tyler J; Oertel, Michael; Ram, Prahlad T; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Fox, Ira J; Nagrath, Deepak

    2014-06-01

    The cause of hepatic failure in the terminal stages of chronic injury is unknown. Cellular metabolic adaptations in response to the microenvironment have been implicated in cellular breakdown. To address the role of energy metabolism in this process we studied mitochondrial number, respiration, and functional reserve, as well as cellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) production, glycolytic flux, and expression of glycolysis related genes in isolated hepatocytes from early and terminal stages of cirrhosis using a model that produces hepatic failure from irreversible cirrhosis in rats. To study the clinical relevance of energy metabolism in terminal stages of chronic liver failure, we analyzed glycolysis and energy metabolism related gene expression in liver tissue from patients at different stages of chronic liver failure according to Child-Pugh classification. Additionally, to determine whether the expression of these genes in early-stage cirrhosis (Child-Pugh Class A) is related to patient outcome, we performed network analysis of publicly available microarray data obtained from biopsies of 216 patients with hepatitis C-related Child-Pugh A cirrhosis who were prospectively followed up for a median of 10years. In the early phase of cirrhosis, mitochondrial function and ATP generation are maintained by increasing energy production from glycolytic flux as production from oxidative phosphorylation falls. At the terminal stage of hepatic injury, mitochondria respiration and ATP production are significantly compromised, as the hepatocytes are unable to sustain the increased demand for high levels of ATP generation from glycolysis. This impairment corresponds to a decrease in glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit and phosphoglucomutase 1. Similar decreased gene expression was observed in liver tissue from patients at different stages of chronic liver injury. Further, unbiased network analysis of microarray data revealed that expression of these genes was down

  6. Class III obesity is a risk factor for the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Vinay; Jalan, Rajiv; Ahn, Joseph C; Charlton, Michael R; Goldberg, David S; Karvellas, Constantine J; Noureddin, Mazen; Wong, Robert J

    2018-04-28

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome of systemic inflammation and organ failures. Obesity, also characterized by chronic inflammation, is a risk factor among patients with cirrhosis for decompensation, infection, and mortality. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that obesity predisposes patients with decompensated cirrhosis to the development of ACLF. We examined the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database, from 2005-2016, characterizing patients at wait-listing as non-obese (body mass index [BMI] <30), obese class I-II (BMI 30-39.9) and obese class III (BMI ≥40). ACLF was determined based on the CANONIC study definition. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to assess the association between obesity and ACLF development at liver transplantation (LT). We confirmed our findings using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), years 2009-2013, using validated diagnostic coding algorithms to identify obesity, hepatic decompensation and ACLF. Logistic regression evaluated the association between obesity and ACLF occurrence. Among 387,884 patient records with decompensated cirrhosis, 116,704 (30.1%) were identified as having ACLF in both databases. Multivariable modeling from the UNOS database revealed class III obesity to be an independent risk factor for ACLF at LT (hazard ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.09-1.41; p <0.001). This finding was confirmed using the NIS (odds ratio 1.30; 95% CI 1.25-1.35; p <0.001). Regarding specific organ failures, analysis of both registries demonstrated patients with class I-II and class III obesity had a greater prevalence of renal failure. Class III obesity is a newly identified risk factor for ACLF development in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Obese patients have a particularly high prevalence of renal failure as a component of ACLF. These findings have important implications regarding stratifying risk and preventing the occurrence of ACLF. In this study, we identify that among patients with decompensated

  7. Acute liver failure caused by ‘fat burners’ and dietary supplements: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Radha Krishna, Y; Mittal, V; Grewal, P; Fiel, MI; Schiano, T

    2011-01-01

    Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, non-conventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580

  8. Brain region-selective mechanisms contribute to the progression of cerebral alterations in acute liver failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Cauli, Omar; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Rodrigo, Regina; Agusti, Ana; Boix, Jordi; Nieto-Charques, Laura; Cerdán, Sebastián; Felipo, Vicente

    2011-02-01

    Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) often die of intracranial pressure (IP) and cerebral herniation. Main contributors to increased IP are ammonia, glutamine, edema, and blood flow. The sequence of events and underlying mechanisms, as well as the temporal pattern, regional distribution, and contribution of each parameter to the progression of neurologic deterioration and IP, are unclear. We studied rats with ALF to follow the progression of changes in ammonia, glutamine, grade and type (vasogenic or cytotoxic) of edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, cerebral blood flow, and IP. We assessed whether the changes in these parameters were similar between frontal cortex and cerebellum and evaluated the presence, type, and progression of edema in 12 brain areas. ALF was induced by injection of galactosamine. The grade and type of edema was assessed by measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient by magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral blood flow was measured by magnetic resonance and blood-brain barrier permeability by Evans blue-albumin extravasation. Increased IP arises from an early increase of blood-brain barrier permeability in certain areas (including cerebellum but not frontal cortex) followed by vasogenic edema. Ammonia and glutamine then increase progressively, leading to cytotoxic edema in many areas. Alterations in lactate and cerebral blood flow are later events that further increase IP. Different mechanisms in specific regions of the brain contribute, with different temporal patterns, to the progression of cerebral alterations and IP in ALF. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immune- and Nonimmune-Compartment-Specific Interferon Responses Are Critical Determinants of Herpes Simplex Virus-Induced Generalized Infections and Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Parker, Zachary M; Pasieka, Tracy Jo; Parker, George A; Leib, David A

    2016-12-01

    The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure, which is often fatal. Although herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFN-αβγR -/- mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1. In this study, we used bone marrow chimeras of IFN-αβγR -/- (AG129) and wild-type (WT; 129SvEv) mice to probe the underlying IFN-dependent mechanisms that control HSV-1 pathogenesis. After infection, WT mice with either IFN-αβγR -/- or WT marrow exhibited comparable survival, while IFN-αβγR -/- mice with WT marrow had a significant survival advantage over their counterparts with IFN-αβγR -/- marrow. Furthermore, using bioluminescent imaging to maximize data acquisition, we showed that the transfer of IFN-competent hematopoietic cells controlled HSV-1 replication and damage in the livers of IFN-αβγR -/- mice. Consistent with this, the inability of IFN-αβγR -/- immune cells to control liver infection in IFN-αβγR -/- mice manifested as profoundly elevated aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, indicative of severe liver damage. In contrast, IFN-αβγR -/- mice receiving WT marrow exhibited only modest elevations of AST and ALT levels. These studies indicate that IFN responsiveness of the immune system is a major determinant of viral tropism and damage during visceral HSV infections. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is an incurable viral infection with the most significant morbidity and mortality occurring in neonates and patients with compromised immune systems. Severe pathologies from HSV include the blindness

  10. Comparison of Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS) dialysis with combined plasma exchange and haemodialysis in children with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Betti; Schaefer, Franz; Engelmann, Guido; Meyburg, Jochen; Heckert, Karl Heinz; Zorn, Markus; Schmitt, Claus Peter

    2011-11-01

    Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS) is an extracorporeal liver support system eliminating albumin-bound and water-soluble substances. While it is increasingly applied in patients with acute liver failure (ALF), no comparison with standard dialysis methods has yet been performed. This is an analysis of ten children (0.1-18 years) with ALF, who underwent a total of 22 MARS sessions. Standard adult MARS sets were used in seven (23.5-72 kg) and MARS Mini in three children (2.8-13 kg). In eight children, MARS was alternated with combined plasma exchange (PE) and haemodialysis (HD) treatments. Mean treatment duration was 7.2 (6-10) h for MARS and 5.7 (4.5-6.6) h for PE/HD. Standard MARS treatment only slightly decreased serum bilirubin (16.3 ± 6.5-13.8 ± 5.9 mg/dL) and ammonia (113 ± 62-99 ± 68 μmol/L) and international normalized ratio (INR) tended to increase (1.5 ± 0.3 and 2 ± 1.1). Mini-MARS did not reduce serum bilirubin (19.7 ± 3-20.5 ± 3.2 mg/dL), ammonia slightly decreased (70 ± 24-56 ± 9 μmol/L) and INR increased (2.5 ± 0.7-2.9 ± 1.1, all P = n.s.). In contrast, PE/HD reduced serum bilirubin (23 ± 8.4-14.7 ± 7 mg/dL), ammonia (120 ± 60-70 ± 40 μmol/L) and INR (2.4 ± 0.8-1.4 ± 0.1, all P < 0.05). Intraindividual comparison showed a slight increase in bilirubin by 2 ± 22% with MARS and a reduction by 37 ± 11% with PE/HD (P < 0.001 versus MARS) and a decrease in ammonia of 18 ± 27 and 39 ± 23% (P < 0.05). INR increased during MARS by 26 ± 41% and decreased with PE/HD by 37 ± 20% (P < 0.01). All treatment sessions were well tolerated. Five children died, including the three children treated with Mini-MARS. Our experience suggests superior efficacy of combined PE/HD as compared to intermittent MARS therapy for treating ALF.

  11. B cell gene signature with massive intrahepatic production of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen in hepatitis B virus-associated acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Farci, Patrizia; Diaz, Giacomo; Chen, Zhaochun; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Tice, Ashley; Agulto, Liane; Pittaluga, Stefania; Boon, Denali; Yu, Claro; Engle, Ronald E; Haas, Mark; Simon, Richard; Purcell, Robert H; Zamboni, Fausto

    2010-05-11

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute liver failure (ALF) is a dramatic clinical syndrome due to a sudden loss of hepatic cells leading to multiorgan failure. The mechanisms whereby HBV induces ALF are unknown. Here, we show that liver tissue collected at the time of liver transplantation in two patients with HBV-associated ALF is characterized by an overwhelming B cell response apparently centered in the liver with massive accumulation of plasma cells secreting IgG and IgM, accompanied by complement deposition. We demonstrate that the molecular target of these antibodies is the hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg); that these anti-bodies display a restricted variable heavy chain (V(H)) repertoire and lack somatic mutations; and that these two unrelated individuals with ALF use an identical predominant V(H) gene with unmutated variable domain (IGHV1-3) for both IgG and IgM anti-HBc antibodies, indicating that HBcAg is the target of a germline human V(H) gene. These data suggest that humoral immunity may exert a primary role in the pathogenesis of HBV-associated ALF.

  12. Interstitial ion homeostasis and acid-base balance are maintained in oedematous brain of mice with acute toxic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Obara-Michlewska, Marta; Ding, Fengfei; Popek, Mariusz; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Nedergaard, Maiken; Zielinska, Magdalena; Albrecht, Jan

    2018-05-14

    Acute toxic liver failure (ATLF) rapidly leads to brain oedema and neurological decline. We evaluated the ability of ATLF-affected brain to control the ionic composition and acid-base balance of the interstitial fluid. ATLF was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57Bl mice by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 100 μg/g azoxymethane (AOM). Analyses were carried out in cerebral cortex of precomatous mice 20-24 h after AOM administration. Brain fluid status was evaluated by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] using NMR spectroscopy, Evans Blue extravasation, and accumulation of an intracisternally-injected fluorescent tracer. Extracellular pH ([pH] e ) and ([K + ] e ) were measured in situ with ion-sensitive microelectrodes. Cerebral cortical microdialysates were subjected to photometric analysis of extracellular potassium ([K + ] e ), sodium ([Na + ] e ) and luminometric assay of extracellular lactate ([Lac] e ). Potassium transport in cerebral cortical slices was measured ex vivo as 86 Rb uptake. Cerebral cortex of AOM-treated mice presented decreased ADC supporting the view that ATLF-induced brain oedema is primarily cytotoxic in nature. In addition, increased Evans blue extravasation indicated blood brain barrier leakage, and increased fluorescent tracer accumulation suggested impaired interstitial fluid passage. However, [K + ] e , [Na + ] e , [Lac] e , [pH] e and potassium transport in brain of AOM-treated mice was not different from control mice. We conclude that in spite of cytotoxic oedema and deregulated interstitial fluid passage, brain of mice with ATLF retains the ability to maintain interstitial ion homeostasis and acid-base balance. Tentatively, uncompromised brain ion homeostasis and acid-base balance may contribute to the relatively frequent brain function recovery and spontaneous survival rate in human patients with ATLF. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Viral Surveillance in Serum Samples From Patients With Acute Liver Failure By Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Somasekar, Sneha; Lee, Deanna; Rule, Jody; Naccache, Samia N; Stone, Mars; Busch, Michael P; Sanders, Corron; Lee, William M; Chiu, Charles Y

    2017-10-16

    Twelve percent of all acute liver failure (ALF) cases are of unknown origin, often termed indeterminate. A previously unrecognized hepatotropic virus has been suspected as a potential etiologic agent. We compared the performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) with confirmatory nucleic acid testing (NAT) to routine clinical diagnostic testing in detection of known or novel viruses associated with ALF. Serum samples from 204 adult ALF patients collected from 1998 to 2010 as part of a nationwide registry were analyzed. One hundred eighty-seven patients (92%) were classified as indeterminate, while the remaining 17 patients (8%) served as controls, with infections by either hepatitis A virus or hepatitis B virus (HBV), or a noninfectious cause for their ALF. Eight cases of infection from previously unrecognized viral pathogens were detected by mNGS (4 cases of herpes simplex virus type 1, including 1 case of coinfection with HBV, and 1 case each of HBV, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, and human herpesvirus 7). Several missed dual or triple infections were also identified, and assembled viral genomes provided additional information on genotyping and drug resistance mutations. Importantly, no sequences corresponding to novel viruses were detected. These results suggest that ALF patients should be screened for the presence of uncommon viruses and coinfections, and that most cases of indeterminate ALF in the United States do not appear to be caused by novel viral pathogens. In the future, mNGS testing may be useful for comprehensive diagnosis of viruses associated with ALF, or to exclude infectious etiologies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. Identification of key candidate genes and pathways in hepatitis B virus-associated acute liver failure by bioinformatical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huapeng; Zhang, Qian; Li, Xiaocheng; Wu, Yushen; Liu, Ye; Hu, Yingchun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis B virus-associated acute liver failure (HBV-ALF) is a rare but life-threatening syndrome that carried a high morbidity and mortality. Our study aimed to explore the possible molecular mechanisms of HBV-ALF by means of bioinformatics analysis. In this study, genes expression microarray datasets of HBV-ALF from Gene Expression Omnibus were collected, and then we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by the limma package in R. After functional enrichment analysis, we constructed the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes online database and weighted genes coexpression network by the WGCNA package in R. Subsequently, we picked out the hub genes among the DEGs. A total of 423 DEGs with 198 upregulated genes and 225 downregulated genes were identified between HBV-ALF and normal samples. The upregulated genes were mainly enriched in immune response, and the downregulated genes were mainly enriched in complement and coagulation cascades. Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), orosomucoid 2 (ORM2), plasminogen (PLG), and aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) were picked out as the hub genes that with a high degree in both PPI network and weighted genes coexpression network. The weighted genes coexpression network analysis found out 3 of the 5 modules that upregulated genes enriched in were closely related to immune system. The downregulated genes enriched in only one module, and the genes in this module majorly enriched in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway. In conclusion, 4 genes (ORM1, ORM2, PLG, and AOX1) with immune response and the complement and coagulation cascades pathway may take part in the pathogenesis of HBV-ALF, and these candidate genes and pathways could be therapeutic targets for HBV-ALF. PMID:29384847

  15. An Immunoassay to Rapidly Measure Acetaminophen Protein Adducts Accurately Identifies Patients With Acute Liver Injury or Failure.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Dean W; Lee, William M; Hinson, Jack A; Bai, Shasha; Swearingen, Christopher J; Stravitz, R Todd; Reuben, Adrian; Letzig, Lynda; Simpson, Pippa M; Rule, Jody; Fontana, Robert J; Ganger, Daniel; Reddy, K Rajender; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; James, Laura P

    2017-04-01

    A rapid and reliable point-of-care assay to detect acetaminophen protein adducts in the serum of patients with acute liver injury could improve diagnosis and management. AcetaSTAT is a competitive immunoassay used to measure acetaminophen protein adducts formed by toxic metabolites in serum samples from patients. We compared the accuracy of AcetaSTAT vs high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC; a sensitive and specific quantitative analytic assay) to detect acetaminophen protein adducts. We collected serum samples from 19 healthy individuals (no liver injury, no recent acetaminophen use), 29 patients without acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury, and 33 patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury participating in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry. Each serum sample was analyzed by AcetaSTAT (reported as test band amplitude) and HPLC-EC (the reference standard). We also collected data on patient age, sex, weight, level of alanine aminotransferase on test day and peak values, concentration of acetaminophen, diagnoses (by site investigator and causality review committee), and outcome after 21 days. Differences between groups were analyzed using the Fisher exact test for categoric variables and the Kruskal-Wallis test or rank-sum test for continuous variables. AcetaSTAT discriminated between patients with and without acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury; the median AcetaSTAT test band amplitude for patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury was 584 (range, 222-1027) vs 3678 (range, 394-8289) for those without (P < .001). AcetaSTAT identified patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury with 100% sensitivity, 86.2% specificity, a positive predictive value of 89.2%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. Results from AcetaSTAT were positive in 4 subjects who received a causality review committee diagnosis of non-acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury; HPLC-EC and

  16. Acute Liver Failure

    MedlinePlus

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  17. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabonomic platform in human plasma of liver failure caused by hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijun; Jia, Xiaofang; Peng, Xia; Ou, Qiang; Zhang, Zhengguo; Qiu, Chao; Yao, Yamin; Shen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ma, Fang; Wang, Jiefei; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents an liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabonomic platform that combined the discovery of differential metabolites through principal component analysis (PCA) with the verification by selective multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). These methods were applied to analyze plasma samples from liver disease patients and healthy donors. LC-MS raw data (about 1000 compounds), from the plasma of liver failure patients (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 16), were analyzed through the PCA method and a pattern recognition profile that had significant difference between liver failure patients and healthy controls (P < 0.05) was established. The profile was verified in 165 clinical subjects. The specificity and sensitivity of this model in predicting liver failure were 94.3 and 100.0%, respectively. The differential ions with m/z of 414.5, 432.0, 520.5, and 775.0 were verified to be consistent with the results from PCA by MRM mode in 40 clinical samples, and were proved not to be caused by the medicines taken by patients through rat model experiments. The compound with m/z of 520.5 was identified to be 1-Linoleoylglycerophosphocholine or 1-Linoleoylphosphatidylcholine through exact mass measurements performed using Ion Trap-Time-of-Flight MS and METLIN Metabolite Database search. In all, it was the first time to integrate metabonomic study and MRM relative quantification of differential peaks in a large number of clinical samples. Thereafter, a rat model was used to exclude drug effects on the abundance of differential ion peaks. 1-Linoleoylglycerophosphocholine or 1-Linoleoylphosphatidylcholine, a potential biomarker, was identified. The LC/MS-based metabonomic platform could be a powerful tool for the metabonomic screening of plasma biomarkers.

  18. Risk Factors, Clinical Presentation, and Outcomes in Overdose With Acetaminophen Alone or With Combination Products: Results From the Acute Liver Failure Study Group.

    PubMed

    Serper, Marina; Wolf, Michael S; Parikh, Nikhil A; Tillman, Holly; Lee, William M; Ganger, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most common cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the west. It is unknown if APAP overdose in combination with diphenhydramine or opioids confers a different clinical presentation or prognosis. Study objectives were to compare (1) baseline patient characteristics; (2) initial clinical presentation; and (3) clinical outcomes among patients with ALF due to APAP alone or in combination with diphenhydramine or opioids. We analyzed 666 cases of APAP-related liver failure using the Acute Liver Failure Study Group database from 1998 to 2012. The database contains detailed demographic, laboratory, and clinical outcome data, including hemodialysis, transplantation, and death and in-hospital complications such as arrhythmia and infection. The final sample included 666 patients with APAP liver injury. A total 30.3% of patients were overdosed with APAP alone, 14.1% with APAP/diphenhydramine, and 56.6% with APAP/opioids. Patients taking APAP with opioids were older, had more comorbidities, and were more likely to have unintentional overdose (all P<0.0001). On presentation, 58% in the APAP/opioid group had advanced encephalopathy as compared with 43% with APAP alone (P=0.001) The APAP/diphenhydramine group presented with the highest serum aminotransferase levels, no differences in laboratory values were noted at 3 days postenrollment. No significant differences were observed in clinical outcomes among the groups. Most patients with APAP-induced ALF were taking APAP combination products. There were significant differences in patient characteristics and clinical presentation based on the type of product ingested, however, there were no differences noted in delayed hepatotoxicity or clinical outcomes.

  19. Failure of nonoperative management of pediatric blunt liver and spleen injuries: A prospective Arizona-Texas-Oklahoma-Memphis-Arkansas Consortium study.

    PubMed

    Linnaus, Maria E; Langlais, Crystal S; Garcia, Nilda M; Alder, Adam C; Eubanks, James W; Maxson, R Todd; Letton, Robert W; Ponsky, Todd A; St Peter, Shawn D; Leys, Charles; Bhatia, Amina; Ostlie, Daniel J; Tuggle, David W; Lawson, Karla A; Raines, Alexander R; Notrica, David M

    2017-04-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) is standard of care for most pediatric blunt liver and spleen injuries (BLSI); only 5% of patients fail NOM in retrospective reports. No prospective studies examine failure of NOM of BLSI in children. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of failure of NOM in pediatric BLSI patients. A prospective observational study was conducted on patients 18 years or younger presenting to any of 10 Level I pediatric trauma centers April 2013 and January 2016 with BLSI on computed tomography. Management of BLSI was based on the Arizona-Texas-Oklahoma-Memphis-Arkansas Consortium pediatric guideline. Failure of NOM was defined as needing laparoscopy or laparotomy. A total of 1008 patients met inclusion; 499 (50%) had liver injury, 410 (41%) spleen injury, and 99 (10%) had both. Most patients were male (n = 624; 62%) with a median age of 10.3 years (interquartile range, 5.9, 14.2). A total of 69 (7%) underwent laparotomy or laparoscopy, but only 34 (3%) underwent surgery for spleen or liver bleeding. Other (nonexclusive) operations were for 21 intestinal injuries; 15 hematoma evacuations, washouts, or drain placements; 9 pancreatic injuries; 5 mesenteric injuries; 3 diaphragm injuries; and 2 bladder injuries. Patients who failed were more likely to receive blood (52 of 69 vs. 162 of 939; p < 0.001) and median time from injury to first blood transfusion was 2.3 hours for those who failed versus 5.9 hours for those who did not (p = 0.002). Overall mortality rate was 24% (8 of 34) in those who failed NOM due to bleeding. NOM fails in 7% of children with BLSI, but only 3% of patients failed for bleeding due to liver or spleen injury. For children failing NOM due to bleeding, the mortality was 24%. Therapeutic study, level II.

  20. NF-κB in The Mechanism of Brain Edema in Acute Liver Failure: Studies in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, A.R.; Bethea, J.R.; Tong, X.Y.; Gomez, J.; Norenberg, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocyte swelling and brain edema are major complications of the acute form of hepatic encephalopathy (acute liver failure, ALF). While elevated brain ammonia level is a well-known etiological factor in ALF, the mechanism by which ammonia brings about astrocyte swelling is not well understood. We recently found that astrocyte cultures exposed to ammonia activated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), and that pharmacological inhibition of such activation led to a reduction in astrocyte swelling. Although these findings suggest the involvement of NF-κB in astrocyte swelling in vitro, it is not known whether NF-κB contributes to the development of brain edema in ALF in vivo. Furthermore, pharmacological agents used to inhibit NF-κB may have non-specific effects. Accordingly, we used transgenic (Tg) mice that have a functional inactivation of astrocytic NF-κB and examined whether these mice are resistant to ALF-associated brain edema. ALF was induced in mice by treatment with the hepatotoxin thioacetamide (TAA). Wild type (WT) mice treated with TAA showed a significant increase in brain water content (1.65%) along with prominent astrocyte swelling and spongiosis of the neuropil, consistent with the presence of cytotoxic edema. These changes were not observed in Tg mice treated with TAA. Additionally, WT mice with ALF showed an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactivity in astrocytes from WT mice treated with TAA (iNOS is known to be activated by NF-κB and to contribute to cell swelling). By contrast, Tg mice treated with TAA did not exhibit brain edema, histological changes nor an increase in iNOS immunoreactivity. We also examined astrocytes cultures derived from Tg mice to determine whether these cells exhibit a lesser degree of swelling and cytopathological changes following exposure to ammonia. Astrocyte cultures derived from Tg mice showed no cell swelling nor morphological abnormalities when exposed to ammonia for 24 h. By contrast

  1. Overexpression of c-Met in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells improves their effectiveness in homing and repair of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Li, Yuwen; Zhu, Tiantian; Zhang, Yongting; Li, Wenting; Lin, Wenyu; Li, Jun; Zhu, Chuanlong

    2017-07-05

    Transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has emerged as a novel therapy for acute liver failure (ALF). However, the homing efficiency of BMSCs to the injured liver sites appears to be poor. In this study, we aimed to determine if overexpression of c-Met in BMSCs could promote the homing ability of BMSCs to rat livers affected by ALF. Overexpression of c-Met in BMSCs (c-Met-BMSCs) was attained by transfection of naive BMSCs with the lenti-c-Met-GFP. The impact of transplanted c-Met-BMSCs on both homing and repair of ALF was evaluated and compared with lenti-GFP empty vector transfected BMSCs (control BMSCs). After cells were transfected with the lenti-c-Met-GFP vector, the BMSCs displayed very high expression of c-Met protein as demonstrated by Western blot. In addition, in vitro transwell migration assays showed that the migration ability of c-Met-BMSCs was significantly increased in comparison with that of control BMSCs (P < 0.05), and was dependent on hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Furthermore, rats with ALF that received transplanted c-Met-BMSCs showed significantly improved homing ability to the injured liver; this was accompanied by elevated survival rates and liver function in the ALF rats. Parallel pathological examination further confirmed that transplantation of c-Met-BMSCs ameliorated liver injury with reduced hepatic activity index (HAI) scores, and that the effects of c-Met-BMSCs were more profound than those of control BMSCs. Overexpression of c-Met promotes the homing of BMSCs to injured hepatic sites in a rat model of ALF, thereby improving the efficacy of BMSC therapy for ALF repair.

  2. Splenic CD11clowCD45RBhigh dendritic cells derived from endotoxin-tolerant mice attenuate experimental acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sai-Nan; Yang, Nai-Bin; Ni, Shun-Lan; Dong, Jin-Zhong; Shi, Chun-Wei; Li, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Sheng-Guo; Tang, Xin-Yue; Lu, Ming-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is suggested to attenuate the severity of acute liver failure (ALF) in mice, possibly through both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the involvement of regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs) in ET has not been fully elucidated. In this study, their effect on ALF in mice was investigated. Splenic DCregs from ET-exposed mice (ET-DCregs) showed lower expression levels of CD40, CD80, and MHC-II markers and stronger inhibition of allogenic T cells and regulation of IL-10 and IL-12 secretion than splenic DCregs from normal mice (nDCregs). Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and P65 in splenic ET-DCregs were significantly lower than those in the splenic nDCregs. The survival rate was significantly increased and liver injury was mitigated in mice with ALF treated with splenic ET-DCregs. In addition, A20 expression was decreased in the liver of ALF mice, but elevated after infusion of splenic nDCregs and ET-DCregs, and a much higher elevation was observed after infusing the latter cells. The functionality of splenic DCregs was altered after ET exposure, contributing to protection of the livers against D-GalN/LPS-induced ALF. PMID:27625297

  3. Histocompatibility antigens in patients with alcoholic liver disease in Scotland and northeastern England: failure to show an association.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, P R; MacSween, R N; Dick, H M; Hislop, W S

    1988-01-01

    A study of HLA-A and B antigens in 248 patients with biopsy diagnosed alcoholic liver disease was conducted to examine for a genetic predisposition to alcohol related liver injury. No statistically significant differences were established for 8 HLA-A and 16 HLA-B antigens between normal healthy controls (n = 342) and patients with alcoholic fatty liver (n = 86), alcoholic hepatitis (n = 63), active alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 64) and inactive alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 35). It is concluded that no HLA-A or B locus genetic susceptibility to alcoholic related injury could be shown. PMID:3162222

  4. Mixed microencapsulation of rat primary hepatocytes and Sertoli cells improves the metabolic function in a D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced rat model of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming-Hua; Lin, Hai-Long; Qiu, Li-Xin; Cui, Yao-Li; Sun, Qing-Feng; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an alternative to transplantation of the whole liver. Compared with xenogeneic hepatocytes, primary hepatocytes have some advantages, such as a more powerful function and a smaller frequency of rejection caused by the host. Cell microencapsulation prevents direct access of host cells to the graft but cannot impede transfer of transplant-derived peptides, which can cross the physical barrier. Sertoli cells are central to the immune privilege demonstrated in the testis, and their actions have been utilized to protect cell transplants. Co-microencapsulating Sertoli cells with HepG2 cells has proved to be a valuable strategy in hepatocyte transplantation. Thus mixed microcapsules of primary rat hepatocytes and primary Sertoli cells may improve metabolic function in a d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced rat model of acute liver failure.

  5. SHYCD induces APE1/Ref-1 subcellular localization to regulate the p53-apoptosis signaling pathway in the prevention and treatment of acute on chronic liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Jianxin; Li, Haiye; Huang, Wei; Ma, Wenxiao; Dai, Huan; Liu, Yawei; Wang, Ming; Hua, He Yu; Ou, Jinying; Sun, Xiaomin; Sun, Xuegang; Yang, Yungao

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims: San huang yin chi decoction(SHYCD) is derived from the yin chen hao decoction, a well-known and canonical Chinese medicine formula from the “Treatise on Febrile Diseases”. Over the past decade, SHYCD has been used to treat and prevent the liver cirrhosis and liver failure. In the present study, we investigated the effects of SHYCD for acute on chronic liver failure(ACLF) and explored its potential mechanism. an ACLF rat model, which induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) combined with D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide(LPS), was used and confirmed by B-ultrasound analysis. Rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, SHYCD-H group, SHYCD-M group, SHYCD-L group, AGNHW group. Compared with the ACLF model group, High, medium, and low doses of SHYCD reduced ALT, AST, TBIL, NH3, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα expression levels in the serum, Shorten PT and INR time,and increased Fbg content in the whole blood, increased survival rate of the rats, improved liver pathological changes. APE1 / Ref-1 was mainly expressed in the nucleus, but the nucleus and cytoplasm were co-expressed after hepatocyte injury. SHYCD significantly downregulated APE1/Ref-1 expression in the cytoplasm. Increased APE1/Ref-1, Bcl-2, reduced p53, caspase-3, Bax, and Cyt-c in the total protein. Base on the results, we conclused that High, medium, and low doses of SHYCD could be applied in prevention and treatment of ACLF, and dose-dependent. The possible mechanism is to promote the APE1 / Ref-1 from the cytoplasm to the nuclear transfer, regulation of p53 apoptosis signal pathway prevention and treatment of ACLF. PMID:29156683

  6. A patient with acute liver failure and extreme hypoglycaemia with lactic acidosis who was not in a coma: causes and consequences of lactate-protected hypoglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Oldenbeuving, G; McDonald, J R; Goodwin, M L; Sayilir, R; Reijngoud, D J; Gladden, L B; Nijsten, M W N

    2014-07-01

    Lactate can substitute for glucose as a metabolic substrate. We report a patient with acute liver failure who was awake despite a glucose level of 0.7 mmol/l with very high lactate level of 25 mmol/l. The hypoglycaemia+hyperlactataemia combination may be considered paradoxical since glucose is the main precursor of lactate and lactate is reconverted into glucose by the Cori cycle. Literature relevant to the underlying mechanism of combined deep hypoglycaemia and severe hyperlactataemia was assessed. We also assessed the literature for evidence of protection against deep hypoglycaemia by hyperlactataemia. Four syndromes demonstrating hypoglycaemia+hyperlactataemia were found: 1) paracetamol-induced acute liver failure, 2) severe malaria, 3) lymphoma and 4) glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency. An impaired Cori cycle is a key component in all of these metabolic states. Apparently the liver, after exhausting its glycogen stores, loses the gluconeogenic pathway to generate glucose and thereby its ability to remove lactate as well. Several patients with lactic acidosis and glucose levels below 1.7 mmol/l who were not in a coma have been reported. These observations and other data coherently indicate that lactate-protected hypoglycaemia is, at least transiently, a viable state under experimental and clinical conditions. Severe hypoglycaemia+hyperlactataemia reflects failure of the gluconeogenic pathway of lactate metabolism. The existence of lactate-protected hypoglycaemia implies that patients who present with this metabolic state should not automatically be considered to have sustained irreversible brain damage. Moreover, therapies that aim to achieve hypoglycaemia might be feasible with concomitant hyperlactataemia.

  7. Transplantation of Porcine Hepatocytes Cultured with Polylactic Acid-O-Carboxymethylated Chitosan Nanoparticles Promotes Liver Regeneration in Acute Liver Failure Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong; Chang, Renan; Guan, Weijun; Cai, Hongyu; Tang, Fei; Zhu, Wencai; Chen, Jiahui

    2011-01-01

    In this study, free porcine hepatocytes suspension (Group A), porcine hepatocytes embedded in collagen gel (Group B), porcine hepatocytes cultured with PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles and embedded in collagen gel (Group C), and PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles alone (Group D) were transplanted into peritoneal cavity of ALF rats, respectively. The result showed that plasma HGF levels were elevated post-transplantation with a peak at 12 hr. The rats in Group C showed highest plasma HGF levels at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 36 hr post-transplantation and lowest HGF level at 48 hr. Plasma VEGF levels were elevated at 48 hr post-transplantation with a peak at 72 hr. The rats in Group C showed highest plasma HGF levels at 48, 72, and 96 hr post-transplantation. The liver functions in Group C were recovered most rapidly. Compared with Group B, Group C had significant high liver Kiel 67 antigen labeling index (Ki-67 LI) at day 1 post-HTx (P < .05). Ki-67 LI in groups B and C was higher than that in groups A and D at days 5 and 7 post-HTx. In conclusion, intraperitoneal transplantation of porcine hepatocytes cultured with PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles and embedded in collagen gel can promote significantly liver regeneration in ALF rats. PMID:21603218

  8. Circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products and ligands of the receptor for advanced glycation end products in patients with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Basta, Giuseppina; Del Turco, Serena; Navarra, Teresa; Lee, William M

    2015-06-01

    Animal studies suggest that receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-dependent mechanisms contribute to acetaminophen-induced liver damage. We examined whether circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) or RAGE ligands, including extracellular newly identified receptor for advanced glycation end products binding protein (EN-RAGE), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and Nε-(Carboxymethyl)lysine adducts (CML), could aid in prognostication after an acetaminophen overdose. Sixty well-characterized acetaminophen-related acute liver failure (ALF) patients (30 spontaneous survivors and 30 patients who underwent transplantation and/or died) who were enrolled in the National Institutes of Health-sponsored Acute Liver Failure Study Group, were matched by age, met standard criteria for encephalopathy, and had an international normalized ratio > 1.5 were retrospectively studied. HMGB1, EN-RAGE, CML, and sRAGE were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods in sera from ALF patients and 30 healthy controls. Levels of sRAGE, EN-RAGE, and HMGB1 (but not CML) were significantly greater (P < 0.001) in ALF patients versus normal controls. The levels of sRAGE, HMGB1, and EN-RAGE were significantly higher (P = 0.03, P < 0.01, and P = 0.03) in patients with a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score > 2 versus patients with a SIRS score ≤ 2. Nevertheless, only sRAGE levels were significantly higher in patients who underwent transplantation and/or died versus spontaneous survivors (P < 0.001), and they were positively associated with conventional markers of liver disease severity. Multivariate logistic regression identified an encephalopathy grade > 2 as an independent predictor of an adverse outcome on admission (odds ratio, 13; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-73; P < 0.001). The RAGE-ligand axis may interfere with liver regeneration and should be a promising objective for

  9. Epsilon-Aminocaproic Acid Has No Association With Thromboembolic Complications, Renal Failure, or Mortality After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nicolau-Raducu, Ramona; Ku, Timothy C; Ganier, Donald R; Evans, Brian M; Koveleskie, Joseph; Daly, William J; Fish, Brian; Cohen, Ari J; Reichman, Trevor W; Bohorquez, Humberto E; Bruce, David S; Carmody, Ian C; Loss, George E; Gitman, Marina; Marshall, Thomas; Nossaman, Bobby D

    2016-08-01

    To examine the role of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) administered after reperfusion of the donor liver in the incidences of thromboembolic events and acute kidney injury within 30 days after orthotopic liver transplantation. One-year survival rates between the EACA-treated and EACA-nontreated groups also were examined. Retrospective, observational, cohort study design. Single-center, university hospital. The study included 708 adult liver transplantations performed from 2008 to 2013. None. EACA administration was not associated with incidences of intracardiac thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (1.3%) or intraoperative death (0.6%). Logistic regression (n = 708) revealed 2 independent risk factors associated with myocardial ischemia (age and pre-transplant vasopressor use) and 8 risk factors associated with the need for post-transplant dialysis (age, female sex, redo orthotopic liver transplantation, preoperative sodium level, pre-transplant acute kidney injury or dialysis, platelet transfusion, and re-exploration within the first week after transplant); EACA was not identified as a risk factor for either outcome. One-year survival rates were similar between groups: 92% in EACA-treated group versus 93% in the EACA-nontreated group. The antifibrinolytic, EACA, was not associated with an increased incidence of thromboembolic complications or postoperative acute kidney injury, and it did not alter 1-year survival after liver transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical trial with traditional Chinese medicine intervention ''tonifying the kidney to promote liver regeneration and repair by affecting stem cells and their microenvironment'' for chronic hepatitis B-associated liver failure.

    PubMed

    Li, Han-Min; Ye, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Jun; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Yan-Ming; Yao, Xin; Gu, Jian-Xun; Zhan, Lei; Ji, Yang; Xu, Jian-Liang; Zeng, Ying-He; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Lin; Sheng, Guo-Guang; Xin, Wei; Long, Qi; Zhu, Qing-Jing; Shi, Zhao-Hong; Ruan, Lian-Guo; Yang, Jia-Yao; Li, Chang-Chun; Wu, Hong-Bin; Chen, Sheng-Duo; Luo, Xin-La

    2014-12-28

    To study the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) intervention "tonifying the kidney to promote liver regeneration and repair by affecting stem cells and their microenvironment" ("TTK") for treating liver failure due to chronic hepatitis B. We designed the study as a randomized controlled clinical trial. Registration number of Chinese Clinical Trial Registry is ChiCTR-TRC-12002961. A total of 144 patients with liver failure due to infection with chronic hepatitis B virus were enrolled in this randomized controlled clinical study. Participants were randomly assigned to the following three groups: (1) a modern medicine control group (MMC group, 36 patients); (2) a "tonifying qi and detoxification" ("TQD") group (72 patients); and (3) a "tonifying the kidney to promote liver regeneration and repair by affecting stem cells and their microenvironment" ("TTK") group (36 patients). Patients in the MMC group received general internal medicine treatment; patients in the "TQD" group were given a TCM formula "tonifying qi and detoxification" and general internal medicine treatment; patients in the "TTK" group were given a TCM formula of "TTK" and general internal medicine treatment. All participants were treated for 8 wk and then followed at 48 wk following their final treatment. The primary efficacy end point was the patient fatality rate in each group. Measurements of various virological and biochemical indicators served as secondary endpoints. The one-way analysis of variance and the t-test were used to compare patient outcomes in the different treatment groups. At the 48-wk post-treatment time point, the patient fatality rates in the MMC, "TQD", and "TTK" groups were 51.61%, 35.38%, and 16.67%, respectively, and the differences between groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the levels of hepatitis B virus DNA or prothrombin activity among the three groups (P > 0.05). Patients in the "TTK

  11. Pearson disease in an infant presenting with severe hypoplastic anemia, normal pancreatic function, and progressive liver failure.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Adi; Konopnicki, Muriel; Hammad-Saied, Mohammed; Shabad, Evelyn

    2014-07-01

    Pearson disease is a rare, usually fatal, mitochondrial disorder affecting primarily the bone marrow and the exocrine pancreas. We report a previously healthy 10-week-old girl who presented with profound macrocytic anemia followed by pancytopenia, synthetic liver dysfunction with liver steatosis, and metabolic acidosis with high lactate levels. She had no pancreatic involvement. Multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles in myelocytes and monocytes were seen upon microscopic evaluation of the bone marrow. Genetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome revealed a 5 kbp deletion, thus establishing the diagnosis of Pearson disease.

  12. Failure of Chemotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Due to Impaired and Dysregulated Primary Liver Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Drug Transport Proteins: What to Do?

    PubMed

    Ul Islam, Salman; Ahmed, Muhammad Bilal; Shehzad, Adeeb; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Lee, Young Sup

    2018-05-28

    Most of the drugs are metabolized in the liver by the action of drug metabolizing enzymes. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), primary drug metabolizing enzymes are severely dysregulated, leading to failure of chemotherapy. Sorafenib is the only standard systemic drug available, but it still presents certain limitations, and much effort is required to understand who is responsive and who is refractory to the drug. Preventive and therapeutic approaches other than systemic chemotherapy include vaccination, chemoprevention, liver transplantation, surgical resection, and locoregional therapies. This review details the dysregulation of primary drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transport proteins of the liver in HCC and their influence on chemotherapeutic drugs. Furthermore, it emphasizes the adoption of safe alternative therapeutic strategies to chemotherapy. The future of HCC treatment should emphasize the understanding of resistance mechanisms and the finding of novel, safe, and efficacious therapeutic strategies, which will surely benefit patients affected by advanced HCC. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Nivolumab as salvage treatment in a patient with HIV-related relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and liver failure with encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Sus, Jose D; Mogollon-Duffo, Francis; Patel, Ankita; Visweshwar, Nathan; Laber, Damian A; Kim, Richard; Jagal, Michael V

    2017-01-01

    We report the first case to our knowledge of a patient with relapsed/refractory classical hodgkin lymphoma and liver failure with encephalopathy along with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection, successfully treated with nivolumab without major side effects and encouraging prolonged disease control. In December 2015, at the time of the patient's progression from his Hodgkin lymphoma after fourth line treatment, he developed persistent fevers, abdominal distension, jaundice and worsening of his liver function tests. Magnetic resonance imaging of abdomen/pelvis demonstrated hepatomegaly with innumerable new liver lesions, splenomegaly with multiple splenic nodules and several new mediastinal, intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. In accordance with the patient's wishes before admission, and after agreement with the family, nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) was given. Of note, antiretroviral therapy was on hold due to liver function tests, his viral load was undectable and cluster of differentiation 4 counts were 103/uL at the time of nivolumab administration. One week after the first dose of nivolumab both his hepatic encephalopathy and constitutional symptoms started to improve, and after 2 doses, (January 2016) his LFTs were almost back to normal. After 5 months of nivolumab treatment (10 doses), restaging (computerized tomography scans of neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis) done on May 2016 showed resolution of hepatosplenomegaly with two residual small hepatic lesions, heterogeneous spleen with no splenic lesions, and stable non-enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes without intraabdominal lymphadenopathy; consistent with partial response. We report a case of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome -related relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma and acute liver failure with encephalopathy successfully treated with nivolumab after failing all standard therapeutic options

  14. The extent of intestinal failure-associated liver disease in patients referred for intestinal rehabilitation is associated with increased mortality: an analysis of the pediatric intestinal failure consortium database.

    PubMed

    Javid, Patrick J; Oron, Assaf P; Duggan, Christopher; Squires, Robert H; Horslen, Simon P

    2017-09-05

    The advent of regional multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation programs has been associated with improved survival in pediatric intestinal failure. Yet, the optimal timing of referral for intestinal rehabilitation remains unknown. We hypothesized that the degree of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) at initiation of intestinal rehabilitation would be associated with overall outcome. The multicenter, retrospective Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium (PIFCon) database was used to identify all subjects with baseline bilirubin data. Conjugated bilirubin (CBili) was used as a marker for IFALD, and we stratified baseline bilirubin values as CBili<2 mg/dL, CBili 2-4 mg/dL, and CBili>4 mg/dL. The association between baseline CBili and mortality was examined using Cox proportional hazards regression. Of 272 subjects in the database, 191 (70%) children had baseline bilirubin data collected. 38% and 28% of patients had CBili >4 mg/dL and CBili <2 mg/dL, respectively, at baseline. All-cause mortality was 23%. On univariate analysis, mortality was associated with CBili 2-4 mg/dL, CBili >4 mg/dL, prematurity, race, and small bowel atresia. On regression analysis controlling for age, prematurity, and diagnosis, the risk of mortality was increased by 3-fold for baseline CBili 2-4 mg/dL (HR 3.25 [1.07-9.92], p=0.04) and 4-fold for baseline CBili >4 mg/dL (HR 4.24 [1.51-11.92], p=0.006). On secondary analysis, CBili >4 mg/dL at baseline was associated with a lower chance of attaining enteral autonomy. In children with intestinal failure treated at intestinal rehabilitation programs, more advanced IFALD at referral is associated with increased mortality and decreased prospect of attaining enteral autonomy. Early referral of children with intestinal failure to intestinal rehabilitation programs should be strongly encouraged. Treatment Study, Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting outcome on admission and post-admission for acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure using classification and regression tree models.

    PubMed

    Speiser, Jaime Lynn; Lee, William M; Karvellas, Constantine J

    2015-01-01

    Assessing prognosis for acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (APAP-ALF) patients often presents significant challenges. King's College (KCC) has been validated on hospital admission, but little has been published on later phases of illness. We aimed to improve determinations of prognosis both at the time of and following admission for APAP-ALF using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) models. CART models were applied to US ALFSG registry data to predict 21-day death or liver transplant early (on admission) and post-admission (days 3-7) for 803 APAP-ALF patients enrolled 01/1998-09/2013. Accuracy in prediction of outcome (AC), sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), and area under receiver-operating curve (AUROC) were compared between 3 models: KCC (INR, creatinine, coma grade, pH), CART analysis using only KCC variables (KCC-CART) and a CART model using new variables (NEW-CART). Traditional KCC yielded 69% AC, 90% SP, 27% SN, and 0.58 AUROC on admission, with similar performance post-admission. KCC-CART at admission offered predictive 66% AC, 65% SP, 67% SN, and 0.74 AUROC. Post-admission, KCC-CART had predictive 82% AC, 86% SP, 46% SN and 0.81 AUROC. NEW-CART models using MELD (Model for end stage liver disease), lactate and mechanical ventilation on admission yielded predictive 72% AC, 71% SP, 77% SN and AUROC 0.79. For later stages, NEW-CART (MELD, lactate, coma grade) offered predictive AC 86%, SP 91%, SN 46%, AUROC 0.73. CARTs offer simple prognostic models for APAP-ALF patients, which have higher AUROC and SN than KCC, with similar AC and negligibly worse SP. Admission and post-admission predictions were developed. • Prognostication in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (APAP-ALF) is challenging beyond admission • Little has been published regarding the use of King's College Criteria (KCC) beyond admission and KCC has shown limited sensitivity in subsequent studies • Classification and Regression Tree (CART) methodology allows the

  16. Protective Role of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Activation in Galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Liver Failure through Regulation of Macrophage Polarization and MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Sunil; E. Zumbrun, Elizabeth; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a potentially life-threatening disorder without any effective treatment strategies. d-Galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced ALF is a widely used animal model to identify novel hepato-protective agents. In the present study, we investigated the potential of a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133 [(6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran], in the amelioration of GalN/LPS-induced ALF. JWH-133 treatment protected the mice from ALF-associated mortality, mitigated alanine transaminase and proinflammatory cytokines, suppressed histopathological and apoptotic liver damage, and reduced liver infiltration of mononuclear cells (MNCs). Furthermore, JWH-133 pretreatment of M1/M2-polarized macrophages significantly increased the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in M1 macrophages and potentiated the expression of M2 markers in M2-polarized macrophages. In vivo, JWH-133 treatment also suppressed ALF-triggered expression of M1 markers in liver MNCs, while increasing the expression of M2 markers such as Arg1 and IL-10. microRNA (miR) microarray analysis revealed that JWH-133 treatment altered the expression of only a few miRs in the liver MNCs. Gene ontology analysis of the targets of miRs suggested that Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling was among the most significantly targeted cellular pathways. Among the altered miRs, miR-145 was found to be the most significantly decreased. This finding correlated with concurrent upregulated expression of its predicted target gene, interleukin-1 receptor–associated kinase 3, a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling. Together, these data are the first to demonstrate that CB2 activation attenuates GalN/LPS-induced ALF by inducing an M1 to M2 shift in macrophages and by regulating the expression of unique miRs that target key molecules involved in the TLR4 pathway. PMID:25749929

  17. Protective effects of sea buckthorn polysaccharide extracts against LPS/d-GalN-induced acute liver failure in mice via suppressing TLR4-NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Wei; Dong, Shichao; Song, Liang; Zhao, Shimin; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Xue; Liu, Fang; Xie, Jiming; Wang, Jinling; Wang, Yuzhen

    2015-12-24

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries have been traditionally used to treat gastric disorders, cardiovascular problems, and liver injuries in oriental medicinal system. This study aimed to explore the protective effects and mechanisms of the polysaccharide extracts of Sea buckthorn (HRP) berries against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and d-galactosamine hydrochloride (d-GalN)-induced acute liver failure in mice. HRP was isolated by hot-water extraction and characterized by HPLC and infrared spectrum analysis. The total carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein contents of HRP were measured by a spectrophotometric method. Mice were orally administrated with HRP (50, 100, 200mg/kg) once daily for 14 consecutive days prior to the challenge with LPS (50 μg/kg) and d-GalN (300 mg/kg). Animals of positive control group were intraperitoneally injected with dexamethasone (10mg/kg). Mice were sacrificed at 8h after LPS/d-GalN injection. Pretreatment with HRP significantly inhibited LPS/d-GalN-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, which were accompanied by alleviated liver injuries and reduced production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). HRP was also found to reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) content and to restore superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities. Furthermore, HRP supplementation dose-dependently inhibited the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and phosphorylated mitogen activated protein kinase 38 (p-p38 MAPK) in the liver of LPS/d-GalN challenged mice. Pretreatment with HRP also inhibited LPS/d-GalN-induced activation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). This study indicates that pretreatment with HRP protects against LPS/d-GalN-induced liver injury in mice via suppressing the TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway. Sea

  18. Protectin D1 reduces concanavalin A-induced liver injury by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis and NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Meng, Shanshan; Yan, Bingdi; Yu, Jinyan; Liu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Protectin D1 (PD1) is a bioactive product generated from docosahexaenoic acid, which may exert anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its anti‑inflammatory activity on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of PD1 against Con A‑induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms via intravenous injection of PD1 prior to Con A administration. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups as follows: Control group, Con A group (30 mg/kg), 20 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group and 10 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group. PD1 pretreatment was demonstrated to significantly inhibit elevated plasma aminotransferase levels, high mobility group box 1 and liver necrosis, which were observed in Con A‑induced hepatitis. Furthermore, compared with the Con A group, PD1 pretreatment prevented the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α, interferon‑γ and interleukin‑2, ‑1β and ‑6. In addition, pretreatment with PD1 markedly downregulated cluster of differentiation (CD)4+, CD8+ and natural killer T (NKT) cell infiltration in the liver. PD1 pretreatment was observed to suppress the messenger RNA and protein expression levels of NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 and Toll‑like receptor (TLR) 4 in liver tissue samples. Further data indicated that PD1 pretreatment inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) signaling pathway and chemokine (C‑X3‑C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1)/chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1) axis by preventing phosphorylation of nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, α and NF‑κB in Con A‑induced liver injury. Therefore, these results suggest that PD1 administration protects mice against Con A‑induced liver injury via

  19. High-volume plasma exchange in a patient with acute liver failure due to non-exertional heat stroke in a sauna.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Sue, Yuh-Mou; Chen, Tzay-Jinn; Cheng, Chung-Yi

    2014-10-01

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition characterized by an increased core body temperature (over 40°C) and a systemic inflammatory response, which may lead to a syndrome of multiple organ dysfunction. Heat stroke may be due to either strenuous exercise or non-exercise-induced exposure to a high environmental temperature. Current management of heat stroke is mostly supportive, with an emphasis on cooling the core body temperature and preventing the development of multiple organ dysfunction. Prognosis of heat stroke depends on the severity of organ involvement. Here, we report a rare case of non-exercise-induced heat stroke in a 73-year-old male patient who was suffering from acute liver failure after prolonged exposure in a hot sauna room. We successfully managed this patient by administering high-volume plasma exchange, and the patient recovered completely after treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Precise Regulation of miR-210 Is Critical for the Cellular Homeostasis Maintenance and Transplantation Efficacy Enhancement of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Acute Liver Failure Therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingxia; Xiong, Yongjia; Xing, Feiyue; Gao, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; He, Liumin; Ren, Chaoran; Liu, Lei; So, Kwok-Fai; Xiao, Jia

    2017-05-09

    Stem cell transplantation is a promising clinical strategy to cure acute liver failure. However, a low cell survival ratio after transplantation significantly impairs its therapeutic efficacy. This is partly due to insufficient resistance of transplanted stem cells to severe oxidative and inflammatory stress at the injury sites. In the current study, we demonstrated that a small molecule zeaxanthin dipalmitate (ZD) could enhance the defensive abilities against adverse stresses of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) in vitro and increase their therapeutic outcomes of acute liver failure after transplantation in vivo. Treatment with ZD dramatically improved cell survival and suppressed apoptosis, inflammation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of hADMSCs through the PKC/Raf-1/MAPK/NF-κB pathway to maintain a reasonably high expression level of microRNA-210 (miR-210). The regulation loop between miR-210 and cellular/mitochondrial ROS production was found to be linked by the ROS inhibitor iron-sulfur cluster assembly proteins (ISCU). Pretreatment with ZD and stable knockdown of miR-210 significantly improved and impaired the stem cell transplantation efficacy through the alteration of hepatic cell expansion and injury amelioration, respectively. Vehicle treatment with ZD did not pose any adverse effect on cell homeostasis or healthy animal. In conclusion, elevating endogenous antioxidant level of hADMSCs with ZD significantly enhances their hepatic tissue-repairing capabilities. Maintenance of a physiological level of miR-210 is critical for hADMSC homeostasis.

  1. Risk factors, sequential organ failure assessment and model for end-stage liver disease scores for predicting short term mortality in cirrhotic patients admitted to intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Cholongitas, E; Senzolo, M; Patch, D; Kwong, K; Nikolopoulou, V; Leandro, G; Shaw, S; Burroughs, A K

    2006-04-01

    Prognostic scores in an intensive care unit (ICU) evaluate outcomes, but derive from cohorts containing few cirrhotic patients. To evaluate 6-week mortality in cirrhotic patients admitted to an ICU, and to compare general and liver-specific prognostic scores. A total of 312 consecutive cirrhotic patients (65% alcoholic; mean age 49.6 years). Multivariable logistic regression to evaluate admission factors associated with survival. Child-Pugh, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were compared by receiver operating characteristic curves. Major indication for admission was respiratory failure (35.6%). Median (range) Child-Pugh, APACHE II, MELD and SOFA scores were 11 (5-15), 18 (0-44), 24 (6-40) and 11 (0-21), respectively; 65% (n = 203) died. Survival improved over time (P = 0.005). Multivariate model factors: more organs failing (FOS) (<3 = 49.5%, > or =3 = 90%), higher FiO(2), lactate, urea and bilirubin; resulting in good discrimination [area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.83], similar to SOFA and MELD (AUC = 0.83 and 0.81, respectively) and superior to APACHE II and Child-Pugh (AUC = 0.78 and 0.72, respectively). Cirrhotics admitted to ICU with > or =3 failing organ systems have 90% mortality. The Royal Free model discriminated well and contained key variables of organ function. SOFA and MELD were better predictors than APACHE II or Child-Pugh scores.

  2. Protection against acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure by omentum adipose tissue derived stem cells through the mediation of Nrf2 and cytochrome P450 expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Jen; Chen, Poda; Lee, Chih-Yuan; Yang, Sin-Yu; Lin, Ming-Tsan; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Wu, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-19

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes acute liver failure (ALF) in animals and humans via the rapid depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and the generation of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage hepatocytes. Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment strategy for ALF. We isolated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from mice omentum adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and transplanted them into a mouse model of APAP-induced ALF to explore their therapeutic potential. In addition, we performed in vitro co-culture studies with omentum-derived ASCs and primary isolated hepatocytes to demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of omentum-derived ASCs on hepatocytes that were subjected to APAP-induced damage. ASC transplantation significantly improved the survival rate of mice with ALF and attenuated the severity of APAP-induced liver damage by suppressing cytochrome P450 activity to reduce the accumulation of toxic nitrotyrosine and the upregulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression, resulting in an increase in the subsequent antioxidant activity. These effects protected the hepatocytes from APAP-induced damage through the suppression of downstream MAPK signal activation and inflammatory cytokine production. our results demonstrate that omentum-derived ASCs are an alternative source of ASCs that regulate the antioxidant response and may represent a beneficial therapeutic strategy for ALF.

  3. Clinical Usefulness of Measuring Red Blood Cell Distribution Width in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Gao, Yufeng; Ye, Jun; Zou, Guizhou; Li, Xu

    2017-09-01

    The red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is increased in chronic liver disease, but its clinical significance in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of RDW in HBV-ACLF patients. The medical records of HBV-ACLF patients who were admitted to The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University between April 2012 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Correlations between RDW, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were analyzed using the Spearman's approach. Multivariable stepwise logistic regression test was used to evaluate independent clinical parameters predicting 3-month mortality of HBV-ACLF patients. The association between RDW and hospitalization outcome was estimated by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. Patient survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and subsequently compared by log-rank test. Sixty-two HBV-ACLF patients and sixty CHB patients were enrolled. RDW were increased in HBVACLF patients and positively correlated with the NLR as well as MELD scores. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that RDW value was an independent predictor for mortality. RDW had an area under the ROC of 0.799 in predicting 3-month mortality of HBV-ACLF patients. Patients with HBV-ACLF who had RDW > 17% showed significantly poorer survival than those who had RDW ≤ 17%. RDW values are significantly increased in patients with HBV-ACLF. Moreover, RDW values are an independent predicting factor for an in-hospital mortality in patients with HBV-ACLF.

  4. Factors Affecting the Development of an Antibody Response to Hepatitis B Immunization in Children With Intestinal Failure: Before and After Small Bowel Transplantation (With and Without Liver Graft).

    PubMed

    Craggs, Helen M; Jackson, Phoebe; Gupte, Girish; Hartley, Jane; Abdel-Hady, Mona; Morton, Rachael; Beath, Sue; Hogg, Lindsay

    2017-08-01

    Small bowel transplant with or without a liver graft (SBTx ± LTx) for children with intestinal failure involves checking their immunity to a range of microorganisms, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), at the time of assessment. HBV vaccination in the United Kingdom is recommended for transplant candidates. The aim of this audit was to find out how many SBTx ± LTx candidates received HBV vaccination before transplantation and how the timing of vaccination influenced the development of immunity. Retrospective review of case notes and hospital microbiology database formed the basis of the study. Vaccination history and serology were available in 56 of 87 subjects who had SBTx ± LTx. All patients were seronegative for HBV when assessed for transplant. HBV vaccination was started before transplant in 25 children and after transplant in 31. Eight children died posttransplant before their immunity could be checked, but of the 48 survivors, 20 children developed immunity, of whom 13 (65%) received at least 1 vaccination before SBTx ± LTx ( P = .008). Lack of response to HBV vaccine was significantly associated with isolated bowel transplantation and intensification of immune suppression. Of 11 children, 5 lost hepatitis B surface antibody (HbsAb), and 28 never made HBsAb, despite repeated vaccinations. Our study clearly shows that HBV vaccine before transplant is more effective. In line with renal failure patients, we suggest that children with chronic intestinal failure receive HBV vaccine when clinically stable, before referral for transplant. Higher-dose vaccines, accelerated schedules, and more frequent booster vaccinations are also strategies that may improve HBsAb levels after transplant.

  5. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  6. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    PubMed

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  7. Ability of King's College Criteria and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Scores to Predict Mortality of Patients With Acute Liver Failure: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Mark J W; Farne, Hugo; Senvar, Naz; Wendon, Julia A; Bernal, William

    2016-04-01

    Several prognostic factors are used to identify patients with acute liver failure (ALF) who require emergency liver transplantation. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the accuracy of King's College criteria (KCC) versus the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores in predicting hospital mortality among patients with ALF. We performed a systematic search of the literature for articles published from 2001 through 2015 that compared the accuracy of the KCC with MELD scores in predicting hospital mortality in patients with ALF. We identified 23 studies (comprising 2153 patients) and assessed the quality of data, and then performed a meta-analysis of pooled sensitivity and specificity values, diagnostic odds ratios (DORs), and summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Subgroups analyzed included study quality, era, location (Europe vs non-Europe), and size; ALF etiology (acetaminophen-associated ALF [AALF] vs nonassociated [NAALF]); and whether or not the study included patients who underwent liver transplantation and if the study center was also a transplant center. The DOR for the KCC was 5.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-7.6; 57% heterogeneity) and the DOR for MELD score was 7.0 (95% CI, 5.1-9.7; 48% heterogeneity), so the MELD score and KCC are comparable in overall accuracy. The summary area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values was 0.76 for the KCC and 0.78 for MELD scores. The KCC identified patients with AALF who died with 58% sensitivity (95% CI, 51%-65%) and 89% specificity (95% CI, 85%-93%), whereas MELD scores identified patients with AALF who died with 80% sensitivity (95% CI, 74%-86%) and 53% specificity (95% CI, 47%-59%). The KCC predicted hospital mortality in patients with NAALF with 58% sensitivity (95% CI, 54%-63%) and 74% specificity (95% CI, 69%-78%), whereas MELD scores predicted hospital mortality in patients with NAALF with 76% sensitivity (95% CI, 72%-80%) and 73% specificity (95% CI, 69%-78%). In

  8. Occludin is regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor activation in brain endothelial cells and brains of mice with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Hori, Tomohide; Ohashi, Norifumi; Baine, Ann-Marie; Eckman, Christopher B; Nguyen, Justin H

    2011-04-01

    Mechanisms of brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF) are not completely understood. We recently demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) induces significant alterations to occludin in brain endothelial cells in vitro and in brains of mice with experimental ALF (Hepatology 2009;50:1914). In this study we show that MMP-9-induced transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p38 MAPK/NFκB (mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappa B) signals participate in regulating brain endothelial occludin level. Mouse brain endothelial bEnd3 cells were exposed to MMP-9 or p38 MAPK up-regulation in the presence and absence of EGFR inhibitor, p38 MAPK inhibitor, NFκB inhibitor, and/or appropriate small interfering RNA. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting were used for messenger RNA and protein expression analyses. Immunohistochemical staining and confocal microscopy were used to demonstrate cellular EGFR activation. Intraperitoneal azoxymethane was use to induce ALF in mice. Brains of comatose ALF mice were processed for histological and biochemical analyses. When bEnd3 cells were exposed to MMP-9, EGFR was significantly transactivated, followed by p38 MAPK activation, I-kappa B alpha (IκBα) degradation, NFκB activation, and suppression of occludin synthesis and expression. Similar EGFR activation and p38 MAPK/NFκB activation were found in the brains of ALF mice, and these changes were attenuated with GM6001 treatment. EGFR activation with p38 MAPK/NFκB signaling contributes to the regulation of tight junction integrity in ALF. EGFR activation may thus play an important role in vasogenic brain edema in ALF. 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. NMR-based urinary profiling of lactulose/mannitol ratio used to assess the altered intestinal permeability in acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Pandey, Gaurav; Bansal, Deepak; Rawat, Atul; Kumar, Umesh; Dubey, Durgesh; Guleria, Anupam; Saraswat, Vivek Anand

    2017-04-01

    The article presents a simplified NMR-based protocol for urinary profiling of lactulose/mannitol ratio (LMR) and demonstrates here its utility to assess increased intestinal permeability (IP) in patients with acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF). ACLF is a serious clinical complication associated with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis). The major risk factor in its development is increased IP ('leaky gut'), which has been linked to disease progression and to infectious complications. However, IP has seldom been investigated in patients with ACLF, even though patients frequently report gastrointestinal disorders and associated complications. To this end, we first optimized the NMR-based targeted profiling of urinary metabolites (i.e. actulose, mannitol, and creatinine) and subsequently used this resulted protocol (a) first to evaluate the altered IP in ACLF patients and then (b) to explore its utility for monitoring the treatment response in these patients. The normal profiles were obtained for 7 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. The results revealed that the urinary LMR excretion was significantly higher in ACLF patients compared to normal controls (median ~0.7, range (0.12-2.84), vs median ~0.11, range (0.02-0.28), p < 0.001) suggesting that the ACLF patients' exhibit altered IP. However, the LMR excretion in six clinically improved follow-up ACLF patients was comparable to normal controls indicating restored IP after the treatment. The protocol-as demonstrated here with ACLF-is equally applicable for evaluating IP or mucosal barrier function in other intestinal disorders with reasonable sensitivity and specificity, highlighting its general utility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Clinical performance of stem cell therapy in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ran; Meng, Qinghua; Dong, Jinling; Li, Juan; Yao, Qinwei; Zhu, Yueke; Yu, Hongwei

    2018-05-10

    Stem cell therapy has been applied in the treatment of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, its clinical efficiency is still debatable. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the clinical efficiency of stem cell therapy in the treatment of ACLF. The Cochrane Library, OVID, EMBASE, and PUBMED were searched to December 2017. Both randomized and non-randomized studies, assessing stem cell therapy in patients with ACLF, were included. The outcome measures were total bilirubin (TBIL), alanine transaminase (ALT), international normalized ratio (INR), albumin (ALB), and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. The quality of evidence was assessed by GRADEpro. Four randomized controlled trials and six non-randomized controlled trials were included. The TBIL levels significantly decreased at 1-, 3-, 12-month after the stem cell therapy (p = 0.0008; p = 0.04; p = 0.007). The ALT levels decreased significantly compared with the control group in the short-term (p < 0.00001). There was no obvious change in the INR level compared with the control groups (p = 0.64). The ALB levels increased markedly as compared with the control groups (p < 0.0001). The significant difference can be found in MELD score between stem cell therapy and control groups (p = 0.008). Further subgroup analysis for 3-month clinical performance according to the stem cell types have also been performed. This study suggests that the clinical outcomes of stem cell therapy were satisfied in patients with ACLF in the short-term. MSCs may be better than BM-MNCs in the stem cells transplantation of ACLF. However, more attention should focus on clinical trials in large-volume centers.

  11. Discrepancy between recurrence-free survival and overall survival in patients with resectable colorectal liver metastases: a potential surrogate endpoint for time to surgical failure.

    PubMed

    Oba, Masaru; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Shindoh, Junichi; Mise, Yoshihiro; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Makuuchi, Masatoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-06-01

    Recurrence-free survival (RFS) may not be a surrogate for overall survival (OS) in patients with resectable colorectal liver metastases (CLM). We investigated whether a new composite tool-time to surgical failure (TSF)-is a suitable endpoint. The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent curative resection for CLM at our center over a 17-year period were reviewed. Patients with liver-limited tumors (n = 371) who had not received previous treatment for metastasis were eligible for analysis. TSF was defined as the time until unresectable relapse or death. The correlations between TSF and OS, and between RFS and OS, were assessed for all the eligible patients. The median OS, TSF, and RFS were 5.7, 2.7, and 0.7 years, respectively, and the 5-year OS, TSF, and RFS rates were 52.6, 39.8, and 23.7 %, respectively, for all patients. The rates of first, second, and third relapse were 75.5, 77.6, and 70.8 %, respectively, and repeat resections were performed in 54.3 % (first relapses), 40.7 % (second relapses), and 47.1 % (third relapses) of patients. The concordance proportions of TSF and RFS for OS events were 0.83 and 0.65, respectively. The correlation between TSF and OS was stronger than that between RFS and OS in terms of the predicted probabilities. The correlation between TSF and OS was stronger than that between RFS and OS after curative hepatic resection. TSF could be a suitable endpoint for CLM overall management.

  12. Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS(®)) removal of piperacillin/tazobactam in a patient with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Ruggero, M A; Argento, A C; Heavner, M S; Topal, J E

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to illustrate the pharmacokinetic removal of piperacillin/tazobactam in an anuric patient on Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS(®)). The patient was a 32-year-old woman who presented to a medical intensive care unit with acute liver failure secondary to an acetaminophen overdose. While awaiting transplant, she was started on MARS therapy as a bridge to liver transplant and empirically started on piperacillin/tazobactam therapy. MARS is an extracorporeal hemofiltration device, which incorporates a continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHD) machine linked to an albumin-enriched dialysate filter to normalize excess electrolytes, metabolic waste, and protein-bound toxins. In addition to protein-bound waste, MARS removes water-soluble, low molecular-weight molecules. The patient received piperacillin/tazobactam 4.5 g infused intravenously over 3 h. A steep decline in serum levels occurred between hours 4 and 6 while MARS continued and no antibiotic was infused. The elimination rate constant (k(e)) for the removal of piperacillin in this patent was 0.453 h(-1) and the half-life (λ) was 1.53 h. The k(e) was 2.9-fold higher than with CVVHD alone and the λ was 3.7-fold shorter. Low levels of piperacillin are achieved during MARS therapy, but in the treatment of more resistant organisms, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, these low levels may not be adequate to achieve bactericidal activity. Drug levels following a standard infusion of 30 min would likely be even lower. Formalized pharmacokinetic studies of piperacillin/tazobactam removal in patients on MARS therapy are necessary to make clear dosing recommendations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. CD14+ CD15- HLA-DR- myeloid-derived suppressor cells impair antimicrobial responses in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Bernsmeier, Christine; Triantafyllou, Evangelos; Brenig, Robert; Lebosse, Fanny J; Singanayagam, Arjuna; Patel, Vishal C; Pop, Oltin T; Khamri, Wafa; Nathwani, Rooshi; Tidswell, Robert; Weston, Christopher J; Adams, David H; Thursz, Mark R; Wendon, Julia A; Antoniades, Charalambos Gustav

    2018-06-01

    Immune paresis in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) accounts for infection susceptibility and increased mortality. Immunosuppressive mononuclear CD14 + HLA-DR - myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) have recently been identified to quell antimicrobial responses in immune-mediated diseases. We sought to delineate the function and derivation of M-MDSC in patients with ACLF, and explore potential targets to augment antimicrobial responses. Patients with ACLF (n=41) were compared with healthy subjects (n=25) and patients with cirrhosis (n=22) or acute liver failure (n=30). CD14 + CD15 - CD11b + HLA-DR - cells were identified as per definition of M-MDSC and detailed immunophenotypic analyses were performed. Suppression of T cell activation was assessed by mixed lymphocyte reaction. Assessment of innate immune function included cytokine expression in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR-2, TLR-4 and TLR-9) stimulation and phagocytosis assays using flow cytometry and live cell imaging-based techniques. Circulating CD14 + CD15 - CD11b + HLA-DR - M-MDSCs were markedly expanded in patients with ACLF (55% of CD14+ cells). M-MDSC displayed immunosuppressive properties, significantly decreasing T cell proliferation (p=0.01), producing less tumour necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-6 in response to TLR stimulation (all p<0.01), and reduced bacterial uptake of Escherichia coli (p<0.001). Persistently low expression of HLA-DR during disease evolution was linked to secondary infection and 28-day mortality. Recurrent TLR-2 and TLR-4 stimulation expanded M-MDSC in vitro. By contrast, TLR-3 agonism reconstituted HLA-DR expression and innate immune function ex vivo. Immunosuppressive CD14 + HLA-DR - M-MDSCs are expanded in patients with ACLF. They were depicted by suppressing T cell function, attenuated antimicrobial innate immune responses, linked to secondary infection, disease severity and prognosis. TLR-3 agonism reversed M-MDSC expansion and innate immune

  14. Genome-wide association study identifies HLA-DR variants conferring risk of HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenting; Xia, Jie; Dan, Yunjie; Li, Mengying; Lin, Shide; Pan, Xingnan; Wang, Huifen; Tang, Yingzi; Liu, Nana; Tan, Shun; Liu, Ming; He, Weiwei; Zhang, Weihua; Mao, Qing; Wang, Yuming; Deng, Guohong

    2018-04-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is an extreme condition after severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B; however, the underlying genetic factors involved in its onset and progression are currently unclear. We carried out a genome-wide association study among 399 HBV-related ACLFs (cases) and 401 asymptomatic HBV carriers (AsCs, as controls) without antiviral treatment. The initial findings were replicated in four independent case-control sets (a total of 901 ACLFs and 1686 AsCs). The roles of risk variants on clinical traits of ACLF were also analysed. Among 1300 ACLFs and 2087 AsCs, we identified rs3129859 at human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II region (chromosome 6p21.32) associated with HBV-related ACLF (combined P dominant =2.64×10 -20 , OR=1.83). Analysis identified HLA-DRB1*12:02 as the top susceptible HLA allele associated with ACLF (p=3.94×10 -6 , OR=2.05). The association of rs3129859 was robust in ACLF subgroups (ACLFs with liver cirrhosis, p=1.36×10 -16 ; ACLFs without liver cirrhosis, p=1.52×10 -7 ), and patients at low-replicative phase (p=6.36×10 -11 , OR=2.29) or HBV e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B phase (p=1.51×10 -14 , OR=1.86). Clinical traits analysis in patients with ACLF showed that the risky rs3129859*C allele was also associated with prolonged prothrombin time, faster progression to ascites development and higher 28-day mortality. Our genome-wide association study identified HLA-DR as the major locus for susceptibility to HBV-related ACLF. Our findings highlight the importance of HLA class II restricted CD4+ T-cell pathway on the immunopathogenesis of HBV-related ACLF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Single-centre validation of the EASL-CLIF consortium definition of acute-on-chronic liver failure and CLIF-SOFA for prediction of mortality in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro E Soares E; Fayad, Leonardo; Lazzarotto, César; Ronsoni, Marcelo F; Bazzo, Maria L; Colombo, Bruno S; Dantas-Correa, Esther B; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína L; Schiavon, Leonardo L

    2015-05-01

    The idea of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) has emerged to identify those subjects with organ failure and high mortality rates. However, the absence of a precise definition has limited the clinical application and research related to the ACLF concept. We sought to validate the ACLF definition and the CLIF-SOFA Score recently proposed by the EASL-CLIF Consortium in a cohort of patients admitted for acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis. In this prospective cohort study, patients were followed during their hospital stay and thirty and 90-day mortality was evaluated by phone call, in case of hospital discharge. All subjects underwent laboratory evaluation at admission. Between December 2010 and November 2013, 192 cirrhotic patients were included. At enrollment, 46 patients (24%) met the criteria for ACLF (Grades 1, 2 and 3 in 18%, 4% and 2% respectively). The 30-day mortality was 65% in ACLF group and 12% in the remaining subjects (P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that 30-day mortality was independently associated with ascites and ACLF at admission. The Kaplan-Meier survival probability at 90-day was 92% in patients without ascites or ACLF and only 22% for patients with both ascites and ACLF. The AUROC of CLIF-SOFA in predicting 30-day mortality was 0.847 ± 0.034, with sensitivity of 64%, specificity of 90% and positive likelihood ratio of 6.61 for values ≥9. In our single-centre experience the CLIF-SOFA and the EASL-CLIF Consortium definition of ACLF proved to be strong predictors of short-term mortality in cirrhotic patients admitted for AD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Disruptions of occludin and claudin-5 in brain endothelial cells in vitro and in brains of mice with acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Florence; Ohashi, Norifumi; Li, Wensheng; Eckman, Christopher; Nguyen, Justin H.

    2010-01-01

    Brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF) remains lethal. The role of vasogenic mechanisms of brain edema has not been explored. We previously demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributes to the pathogenesis of brain edema. Here, we show that MMP-9 mediates disruptions in tight junction proteins in vitro and in brains of mice with ALF. We transfected murine brain endothelial cells with MMP-9 cDNA using pc DNA3.1 (+)/Myc-His A expression vector. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) cDNA transfection or GM6001 was used to inhibit MMP-9. ALF was induced in mice with azoxymethane. Endogenous overexpression of MMP-9 in brain endothelial cells resulted in significant degradation of tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5. The alterations in tight junction proteins correlated with increased permeability to FITC-dextran molecules. The degradation of tight junction proteins and the increased permeability were reversed by TIMP-1 and GM6001. Similar results were found when MMP-9 was exogenously added to brain EC. We also found that tight junction proteins degradation was reversed with GM6001 in brains of mice with ALF. Conclusions Tight junction proteins are significantly perturbed in brains of mice with ALF. These data corroborate the important role of MMP-9 in the vasogenic mechanism of brain edema in ALF. PMID:19821483

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Plasma Versus Recombinant Factor VIIa for Placing Intracranial Pressure Monitors in Pretransplant Patients With Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Pham, Huy P; Sireci, Anthony N; Kim, Chong H; Schwartz, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Both plasma- and recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa)-based algorithms can be used to correct coagulopathy in preliver transplant patients with acute liver failure requiring intracranial pressure monitor (ICPM) placement. A decision model was created to compare the cost-effectiveness of these methods. A 70-kg patient could receive either 1 round of plasma followed by coagulation testing or 2 units of plasma and 40 μg/kg rFVIIa. Intracranial pressure monitor is placed without coagulation testing after rFVIIa administration. In the plasma algorithm, the probability of ICPM placement was estimated based on expected international normalized ratio (INR) after plasma administration. Risks of rFVIIa thrombosis and transfusion reactions were also included. The model was run for patients with INRs ranging from 2 to 6 with concomitant adjustments to model parameters. The model supported the initial use of rFVIIa for ICPM placement as a cost-effective treatment when INR ≥2 (with incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of at most US$7088.02). © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Urinary Liver-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Level as a Predictive Biomarker of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Hishikari, Keiichi; Hikita, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shun; Nakagama, Shun; Mizusawa, Masahumi; Yamamoto, Tasuku; Doi, Junichi; Hayashi, Yosuke; Utsugi, Yuya; Araki, Makoto; Sudo, Yuta; Kimura, Shigeki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ashikaga, Takashi; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2017-10-01

    There are no biological markers to predict the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) levels are markedly upregulated in the proximal tubules after renal ischemia. We investigated whether urinary L-FABP is a suitable marker to predict AKI in ADHF patients. We examined 281 consecutive patients with ADHF. Serum creatinine (Cr) and L-FABP levels were measured at admission and 24 and 48 h after admission. AKI developed in 104 patients (37%). Urinary L-FABP levels at admission were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without (33.0 vs. 5.2 μg/g Cr; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that baseline urinary L-FABP level was an independent predictor of AKI in ADHF patients (odds ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.12; p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that baseline urinary L-FABP level exhibited 94.2% sensitivity and 87.0% specificity at a cutoff value of 12.5 μg/g Cr. Urinary L-FABP level is useful for predicting the onset of AKI in patients with ADHF. The results of our study could help clinicians diagnose AKI in ADHF patients earlier, leading to possible improvements in the treatment of this group of patients.

  19. Curcumin alleviates lipopolysaccharide induced sepsis and liver failure by suppression of oxidative stress-related inflammation via PI3K/AKT and NF-κB related signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenhui; Qian, Kejian; Xiong, Jibin; Ma, Ke; Wang, Aizhong; Zou, Yan

    2016-10-01

    In many liver disorders, oxidative stress-related inflammation and apoptosis are important pathogenic components, finally resulting in acute liver failure. Erythropoietin and its analogues are well known to influence the interaction between apoptosis and inflammation in brain and kidney. The study is to clarify the effect of curcumin, a natural plant phenolic food additive, on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced acute liver injury of mice with endotoxemia and associated molecular mechanism from inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress levels. And curcumin, lowered serum cytokines, including Interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and improved liver apoptosis through suppressing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway and inhibiting Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/Caspase expression, and decreased oxidative stress-associated protein expression, mainly involving 2E1 isoform of cytochrome P450/nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/reactive oxygen species (CYP2E/Nrf2/ROS) signaling pathway, as well as liver nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced mice. Moreover, curcumin regulated serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), accelerated liver antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) levels, and inhibited activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (P38/JNK) cascade in the livers of LPS-induced rats. Thus, curcumin treatment attenuates LPS-induced PI3K/AKT and CYP2E/Nrf2/ROS signaling and liver injury. Strategies to inhibit inflammation and apoptosis signaling may provide alternatives to the current clinical approaches to improve oxidative responses of endotoxemia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Incidence of DAA failure and the clinical impact of retreatment in real-life patients treated in the advanced stage of liver disease: Interim evaluations from the PITER network

    PubMed Central

    Gaeta, Giovanni Battista; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana; Di Leo, Alfredo; Iannone, Andrea; Santantonio, Teresa Antonia; Giammario, Adele; Raimondo, Giovanni; Filomia, Roberto; Coppola, Carmine; Amoruso, Daniela Caterina; Blanc, Pierluigi; Del Pin, Barbara; Chemello, Liliana; Cavalletto, Luisa; Morisco, Filomena; Donnarumma, Laura; Rumi, Maria Grazia; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Siciliano, Massimo; Massari, Marco; Corsini, Romina; Coco, Barbara; Madonia, Salvatore; Cannizzaro, Marco; Zignego, Anna Linda; Monti, Monica; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Zanetto, Alberto; Persico, Marcello; Masarone, Mario; Villa, Erica; Bernabucci, Veronica; Taliani, Gloria; Biliotti, Elisa; Chessa, Luchino; Pasetto, Maria Cristina; Andreone, Pietro; Margotti, Marzia; Brancaccio, Giuseppina; Ieluzzi, Donatella; Borgia, Guglielmo; Zappulo, Emanuela; Calvaruso, Vincenza; Petta, Salvatore; Falzano, Loredana; Quaranta, Maria Giovanna; Weimer, Liliana Elena; Rosato, Stefano; Vella, Stefano; Giannini, Edoardo Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Background Few data are available on the virological and clinical outcomes of advanced liver disease patients retreated after first-line DAA failure. Aim To evaluate DAA failure incidence and the retreatment clinical impact in patients treated in the advanced liver disease stage. Methods Data on HCV genotype, liver disease severity, and first and second line DAA regimens were prospectively collected in consecutive patients who reached the 12-week post-treatment and retreatment evaluations from January 2015 to December 2016 in 23 of the PITER network centers. Results Among 3,830 patients with advanced fibrosis (F3) or cirrhosis, 139 (3.6%) failed to achieve SVR. Genotype 3, bilirubin levels >1.5mg/dl, platelet count <120,000/mm3 and the sofosbuvir+ribavirin regimen were independent predictors of failure by logistic regression analysis. The failure rate was 7.6% for patients treated with regimens that are no longer recommended or considered suboptimal (sofosbuvir+ribavirin or simeprevir+sofosbuvir±ribavirin), whereas 1.4% for regimens containing sofosbuvir combined with daclatasvir or ledipasvir or other DAAs. Of the patients who failed to achieve SVR, 72 (51.8%) were retreated with a second DAA regimen, specifically 38 (52.7%) with sofosbuvir+daclatasvir, 27 (37.5%) with sofosbuvir+ledipasvir, and 7 (9.7%) with other DAAs ±ribavirin. Among these, 69 (96%) patients achieved SVR12 and 3 (4%) failed. During a median time of 6 months (range: 5–14 months) between failure and the second DAA therapy, the Child-Pugh class worsened in 12 (16.7%) patients: from A to B in 10 patients (19.6%) and from B to C in 2 patients (10.5%), whereas it did not change in the remaining 60 patients. Following the retreatment SVR12 (median time of 6 months; range: 3–12 months), the Child-Pugh class improved in 17 (23.6%) patients: from B to A in 14 (19.4%) patients, from C to A in 1 patient (1.4%) and from C to B in 2 (2.9%) patients; it remained unchanged in 53 patients (73.6%) and

  1. Incidence of DAA failure and the clinical impact of retreatment in real-life patients treated in the advanced stage of liver disease: Interim evaluations from the PITER network.

    PubMed

    Kondili, Loreta A; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana; Di Leo, Alfredo; Iannone, Andrea; Santantonio, Teresa Antonia; Giammario, Adele; Raimondo, Giovanni; Filomia, Roberto; Coppola, Carmine; Amoruso, Daniela Caterina; Blanc, Pierluigi; Del Pin, Barbara; Chemello, Liliana; Cavalletto, Luisa; Morisco, Filomena; Donnarumma, Laura; Rumi, Maria Grazia; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Siciliano, Massimo; Massari, Marco; Corsini, Romina; Coco, Barbara; Madonia, Salvatore; Cannizzaro, Marco; Zignego, Anna Linda; Monti, Monica; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Zanetto, Alberto; Persico, Marcello; Masarone, Mario; Villa, Erica; Bernabucci, Veronica; Taliani, Gloria; Biliotti, Elisa; Chessa, Luchino; Pasetto, Maria Cristina; Andreone, Pietro; Margotti, Marzia; Brancaccio, Giuseppina; Ieluzzi, Donatella; Borgia, Guglielmo; Zappulo, Emanuela; Calvaruso, Vincenza; Petta, Salvatore; Falzano, Loredana; Quaranta, Maria Giovanna; Weimer, Liliana Elena; Rosato, Stefano; Vella, Stefano; Giannini, Edoardo Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Few data are available on the virological and clinical outcomes of advanced liver disease patients retreated after first-line DAA failure. To evaluate DAA failure incidence and the retreatment clinical impact in patients treated in the advanced liver disease stage. Data on HCV genotype, liver disease severity, and first and second line DAA regimens were prospectively collected in consecutive patients who reached the 12-week post-treatment and retreatment evaluations from January 2015 to December 2016 in 23 of the PITER network centers. Among 3,830 patients with advanced fibrosis (F3) or cirrhosis, 139 (3.6%) failed to achieve SVR. Genotype 3, bilirubin levels >1.5mg/dl, platelet count <120,000/mm3 and the sofosbuvir+ribavirin regimen were independent predictors of failure by logistic regression analysis. The failure rate was 7.6% for patients treated with regimens that are no longer recommended or considered suboptimal (sofosbuvir+ribavirin or simeprevir+sofosbuvir±ribavirin), whereas 1.4% for regimens containing sofosbuvir combined with daclatasvir or ledipasvir or other DAAs. Of the patients who failed to achieve SVR, 72 (51.8%) were retreated with a second DAA regimen, specifically 38 (52.7%) with sofosbuvir+daclatasvir, 27 (37.5%) with sofosbuvir+ledipasvir, and 7 (9.7%) with other DAAs ±ribavirin. Among these, 69 (96%) patients achieved SVR12 and 3 (4%) failed. During a median time of 6 months (range: 5-14 months) between failure and the second DAA therapy, the Child-Pugh class worsened in 12 (16.7%) patients: from A to B in 10 patients (19.6%) and from B to C in 2 patients (10.5%), whereas it did not change in the remaining 60 patients. Following the retreatment SVR12 (median time of 6 months; range: 3-12 months), the Child-Pugh class improved in 17 (23.6%) patients: from B to A in 14 (19.4%) patients, from C to A in 1 patient (1.4%) and from C to B in 2 (2.9%) patients; it remained unchanged in 53 patients (73.6%) and worsened in 2 (2.8%) patients. Of

  2. Up-regulation of brain cytokines and chemokines mediates neurotoxicity in early acute liver failure by a mechanism independent of microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Faleiros, Bruno E; Miranda, Aline S; Campos, Alline C; Gomides, Lindisley F; Kangussu, Lucas M; Guatimosim, Cristina; Camargos, Elizabeth R S; Menezes, Gustavo B; Rachid, Milene A; Teixeira, Antônio L

    2014-08-26

    The neurological involvement in acute liver failure (ALF) is characterized by arousal impairment with progression to coma. There is a growing body of evidence that neuroinflammatory mechanisms play a role in this process, including production of inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation. However, it is still uncertain whether brain-derived cytokines and glial cells are crucial to the pathophysiology of ALF at the early stage, before coma development. Here, we investigated the influence of cytokines and microglia in ALF-induced encephalopathy in mice as soon as neurological symptoms were identifiable. Behavior was assessed at 12, 24, 36 and 48 h post-injection of thioacetamide, a hepatotoxic drug, through locomotor activity by an open field test. Brain concentration of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and chemokines (CXCL1, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5) were assessed by ELISA. Microglial activation in brain sections was investigated through immunohistochemistry, and cellular ultrastructural changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy. We found that ALF-induced animals presented a significant decrease in locomotor activity at 24 h, which was accompanied by an increase in IL-1β, CXCL1, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5 in the brain. TNF-α level was significantly increased only at 36 h. Despite marked morphological changes in astrocytes and brain endothelial cells, no microglial activation was observed. These findings suggest an involvement of brain-derived chemokines and IL-1β in early pathophysiology of ALF by a mechanism independent of microglial activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Occludin is regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor activation in brain endothelial cells and brains of mice with acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Hori, Tomohide; Ohashi, Norifumi; Baine, Ann-Marie; Eckman, Christopher B.; Nguyen, Justin H.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms of brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF) are not completely understood. We recently demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) induces significant alterations to occludin in brain endothelial cells in vitro and in brains of mice with experimental ALF (Hepatology 50:1914, 2009). In this study, we show that MMP-9-induced transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p38MAPK/NFκB signals participate in regulating brain endothelial occludin level. Mouse brain endothelial bEnd3 cells were exposed to MMP-9 or p38 MAPK upregulation in the presence and absence of EGFR inhibitor, p38 MAPK inhibitor, NFκB inhibitor, and/or appropriate small interfering RNA. RT-PCR and western blotting were used for mRNA and protein expression analyses. Immunohistochemical staining and confocal microscopy were used to demonstrate cellular EGFR activation. Intraperitoneal azoxymethane was use to induce ALF in mice. Brains of comatose ALF mice were processed for histological and biochemical analyses. When bEnd3 cells were exposed to MMP-9, EGFR was significantly transactivated, followed by p38 MAPK activation, IκBα degradation, NFκB activation, and suppression of occludin synthesis and expression. Similar EGFR activation and p38 MAPK/NFκB activation were found in the brains of ALF mice, and these changes were attenuated with GM6001 treatment. Conclusion EGFR activation with p38 MAPK/NFκB signaling contributes to the regulation of tight junction integrity in ALF. EGFR activation may thus play an important role in vasogenic brain edema in ALF. PMID:21480332

  4. Interleukin-10 Contributes to Therapeutic Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Acute Liver Failure via Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hu-Cheng; Wang, Xin; Wu, Min-Na; Zhao, Xin; Yuan, Xian-Wen; Shi, Xiao-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation has been proven to have therapeutic potential for acute liver failure (ALF). However, the mechanism remains controversial. Recently, modulation of inflammation by MSCs has been regarded as a crucial mechanism. The aim of the present study was to explore the soluble cytokines secreted by MSCs and their therapeutic effects in ALF. Methods: MSCs isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were identified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Conditioned medium derived from MSCs (MSCs-CM) was collected and analyzed by a cytokine microarray. MSCs and MSCs-CM were transplanted into rats with D-galactosamine-induced ALF. Liver function, survival rate, histology, and inflammatory factors were determined. Exogenous recombinant rat interleukin (IL)-10, anti-rat IL-10 antibody, and AG490 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [STAT3] signaling pathway inhibitor) were administered to explore the therapeutic mechanism of MSCs-CM. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 19.0, and all data were analyzed by the independent-sample t-test. Results: There are statistical differences of the survival curve between ALF+MSCs group and ALF+Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) group, as well as ALF+MSCs-CM group and ALF+DMEM group (all P < 0.05). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level in the ALF+MSCs and ALF+MSCs-CM groups was lower than that in the ALF+DMEM group (865.53±52.80 vs. 1709.75±372.12 U/L and 964.72±414.59 vs. 1709.75±372.12 U/L, respectively, all P < 0.05); meanwhile, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level in the ALF+MSCs and ALF+MSCs-CM groups was lower than that in the ALF+DMEM group (2440.83±511.94 vs. 4234.35±807.30 U/L and 2739.83±587.33 vs. 4234.35±807.30 U/L, respectively, all P < 0.05). Furthermore, MSCs or MSCs-CM treatment significantly reduced serum interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β, IL-6 levels and increased serum IL-10 level compared with DMEM (all P < 0

  5. The UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A Polymorphism c.2042C>G (rs8330) Is Associated with Increased Human Liver Acetaminophen Glucuronidation, Increased UGT1A Exon 5a/5b Splice Variant mRNA Ratio, and Decreased Risk of Unintentional Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver FailureS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Freytsis, Marina; Wang, Xueding; Peter, Inga; Guillemette, Chantal; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Duan, Su X.; Greenblatt, David J.; Lee, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen is cleared primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. Polymorphisms in genes encoding the acetaminophen UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes could explain interindividual variability in acetaminophen glucuronidation and variable risk for liver injury after acetaminophen overdose. In this study, human liver bank samples were phenotyped for acetaminophen glucuronidation activity and genotyped for the major acetaminophen-glucuronidating enzymes (UGTs 1A1, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B15). Of these, only three linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the shared UGT1A-3′UTR region (rs10929303, rs1042640, rs8330) were associated with acetaminophen glucuronidation activity, with rs8330 consistently showing higher acetaminophen glucuronidation at all the tested concentrations of acetaminophen. Mechanistic studies using luciferase-UGT1A-3′UTR reporters indicated that these SNPs do not alter mRNA stability or translation efficiency. However, there was evidence for allelic imbalance and a gene-dose proportional increase in the amount of exon 5a versus exon 5b containing UGT1A mRNA spliced transcripts in livers with the rs8330 variant allele. Cotransfection studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of exon 5b containing cDNAs on acetaminophen glucuronidation by UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 cDNAs containing exon 5a. In silico analysis predicted that rs8330 creates an exon splice enhancer site that could favor exon 5a (over exon 5b) utilization during splicing. Finally, the prevalence of rs8330 was significantly lower (P = 0.027, χ2 test) in patients who had acute liver failure from unintentional acetaminophen overdose compared with patients with acute liver failure from other causes or a race- or ethnicity-matched population. Together, these findings suggest that rs8330 is an important determinant of acetaminophen glucuronidation and could affect an individual’s risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. PMID:23408116

  6. Incidence, risk factors and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) of underlying cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zang, Hong; Liu, Fangfang; Liu, Hongling; You, Shaoli; Zhu, Bing; Wan, Zhihong; Xin, Shaojie

    2016-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a life-threatening complication in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) of underlying cirrhosis. However, the characteristics of AKI in these patients have not been clarified. Our aim was to determine the incidence and risk factors of AKI and the association between AKI severity and 180-day transplant-free survival. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients with ACLF of underlying cirrhosis in a single center from January 2009 through December 2014. AKI was defined by the criteria proposed by International Club of Ascites (ICA). The incidence and risk factors of AKI development and its relationship to 180-day transplant-free survival rates were evaluated. Of 1032 patients with ACLF of underlying cirrhosis, 121 (11.72 %) had AKI at admission, and 319 (30.9 %) developed AKI during hospitalization. We established a logistic regression model including four independent factors with AKI development: MELD score [odds ratio (OR), 1.1; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.14], presence of ascites (OR, 3.80; 95 % CI, 2.13-6.78), sepsis/infection (OR, 2.25; 95 % CI, 1.66-3.03) and acute variceal bleed (OR, 1.78; 95 % CI, 1.00-3.19). The area under receiver operating characteristics of the model in internal and external validations were 0.95 and 0.85, respectively. Patients with mild-A AKI had a higher 180-day transplant-free survival rate (23.8 %) than patients with mild-B AKI (19.0 %) or marked AKI (5.9 %) (all p < 0.001). AKI patients with a peak value of sCr <1.5 mg/dl had higher 180-day transplant-free survival rates compared to those with a peak value of sCr ≧1.5 mg/dl (23.8 % vs. 14.7 %, p < 0.001). We developed a clinical risk model for predicting development of AKI with great accuracy. Combining the ICA-AKI criteria and the peak value of sCr with 1.5 mg/dl provides a good prognostic method for patients with ACLF of underlying cirrhosis.

  7. Liver Disease in Mitochondrial Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Way S.; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Liver involvement, a common feature in childhood mitochondrial hepatopathies, particularly in the neonatal period, may manifest as neonatal acute liver failure, hepatic steatohepatitis, cholestasis, or cirrhosis with chronic liver failure of insidious onset. There are usually significant neuromuscular symptoms, multisystem involvement, and lactic acidemia. The liver disease is usually progressive and eventually fatal. Current medical therapy of mitochondrial hepatopathies is largely ineffective, and the prognosis is usually poor. The role of liver transplantation in patients with liver failure remains poorly defined because of the systemic nature of the disease that does not respond to transplantation. Several specific molecular defects (mutations in nuclear genes such as SCO1, BCS1L, POLG, DGUOK, and MPV17 and deletion or rearrangement of mitochondrial DNA) have been identified in recent years. Prospective, longitudinal multicenter studies will be needed to address the gaps in our knowledge in these rare liver diseases. PMID:17682973

  8. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  9. 3,3’-Diindolylmethane attenuates LPS-mediated acute liver failure by regulating miRNAs to target IRAK4 and suppress Toll-like receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, S; Nagarkatti, M; Nagarkatti, P S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe and potentially lethal clinical syndrome. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a natural plant-derived compound with anti-cancer activities. Recently, DIM has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DIM would suppress endotoxin-induced ALF. Experimental Approach We investigated the therapeutic potential of DIM in a mouse model of D-galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS)-induced ALF. The efficacy of DIM treatment was assessed by survival, liver histopathology, serum levels of alanine transaminase, pro-inflammatory cytokines and number of activated liver macrophages. Effects of DIM on the expression of two miRNAs, 106a and 20b, and their predicted target gene were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Effects of DIM on the release of TNF-α from RAW264.7 macrophages transfected with mimics of these miRNAs and activated by LPS was assessed by elisa. Key Results DIM treatment protected mice from ALF symptoms and reduced the number of activated liver macrophages. DIM increased expression of miR-106a and miR-20b in liver mononuclear cells and decreased expression of their predicted target gene IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4), involved in signalling from Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In vitro transfection of RAW264.7 cells using miRNA mimics of miR-106a and 20b decreased expression of IRAK4 and of TNF-α secretion, following LPS stimulation. Conclusions and Implications DIM attenuated GalN/LPS-induced ALF by regulating the expression of unique miRNAs that target key molecules in the TLR4 inflammatory pathway. DIM may represent a potential novel hepatoprotective agent. PMID:25521277

  10. Orchestrating liver development.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Miriam; Evans, Todd; Gouon-Evans, Valerie

    2015-06-15

    The liver is a central regulator of metabolism, and liver failure thus constitutes a major health burden. Understanding how this complex organ develops during embryogenesis will yield insights into how liver regeneration can be promoted and how functional liver replacement tissue can be engineered. Recent studies of animal models have identified key signaling pathways and complex tissue interactions that progressively generate liver progenitor cells, differentiated lineages and functional tissues. In addition, progress in understanding how these cells interact, and how transcriptional and signaling programs precisely coordinate liver development, has begun to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this complexity. Here, we review the lineage relationships, signaling pathways and transcriptional programs that orchestrate hepatogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; Almeida, Adilson José de; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Nascimento, Jussara Pereira do; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group.

  12. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255

  13. Computational Modeling in Liver Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Christ, Bruno; Dahmen, Uta; Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; König, Matthias; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.; Ricken, Tim; Schleicher, Jana; Ole Schwen, Lars; Vlaic, Sebastian; Waschinsky, Navina

    2017-01-01

    The need for extended liver resection is increasing due to the growing incidence of liver tumors in aging societies. Individualized surgical planning is the key for identifying the optimal resection strategy and to minimize the risk of postoperative liver failure and tumor recurrence. Current computational tools provide virtual planning of liver resection by taking into account the spatial relationship between the tumor and the hepatic vascular trees, as well as the size of the future liver remnant. However, size and function of the liver are not necessarily equivalent. Hence, determining the future liver volume might misestimate the future liver function, especially in cases of hepatic comorbidities such as hepatic steatosis. A systems medicine approach could be applied, including biological, medical, and surgical aspects, by integrating all available anatomical and functional information of the individual patient. Such an approach holds promise for better prediction of postoperative liver function and hence improved risk assessment. This review provides an overview of mathematical models related to the liver and its function and explores their potential relevance for computational liver surgery. We first summarize key facts of hepatic anatomy, physiology, and pathology relevant for hepatic surgery, followed by a description of the computational tools currently used in liver surgical planning. Then we present selected state-of-the-art computational liver models potentially useful to support liver surgery. Finally, we discuss the main challenges that will need to be addressed when developing advanced computational planning tools in the context of liver surgery. PMID:29249974

  14. NAT2 genotype guided regimen reduces isoniazid-induced liver injury and early treatment failure in the 6-month four-drug standard treatment of tuberculosis: a randomized controlled trial for pharmacogenetics-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Junichi; Ohno, Masako; Kubota, Ryuji; Yokota, Soichiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Okuda, Yasuhisa; Takashima, Tetsuya; Kamimura, Sayaka; Fujio, Yasushi; Kawase, Ichiro

    2013-05-01

    This study is a pharmacogenetic clinical trial designed to clarify whether the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) genotype-guided dosing of isoniazid improves the tolerability and efficacy of the 6-month four-drug standard regimen for newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. In a multicenter, parallel, randomized, and controlled trial with a PROBE design, patients were assigned to either conventional standard treatment (STD-treatment: approx. 5 mg/kg of isoniazid for all) or NAT2 genotype-guided treatment (PGx-treatment: approx. 7.5 mg/kg for patients homozygous for NAT2 4: rapid acetylators; 5 mg/kg, patients heterozygous for NAT2 4: intermediate acetylators; 2.5 mg/kg, patients without NAT2 4: slow acetylators). The primary outcome included incidences of 1) isoniazid-related liver injury (INH-DILI) during the first 8 weeks of therapy, and 2) early treatment failure as indicated by a persistent positive culture or no improvement in chest radiographs at the 8th week. One hundred and seventy-two Japanese patients (slow acetylators, 9.3 %; rapid acetylators, 53.5 %) were enrolled in this trial. In the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, INH-DILI occurred in 78 % of the slow acetylators in the STD-treatment, while none of the slow acetylators in the PGx-treatment experienced either INH-DILI or early treatment failure. Among the rapid acetylators, early treatment failure was observed with a significantly lower incidence rate in the PGx-treatment than in the STD-treatment (15.0 % vs. 38 %). Thus, the NAT2 genotype-guided regimen resulted in much lower incidences of unfavorable events, INH-DILI or early treatment failure, than the conventional standard regimen. Our results clearly indicate a great potential of the NAT2 genotype-guided dosing stratification of isoniazid in chemotherapy for tuberculosis.

  15. Fulminant Epstein-Barr virus - infectious mononucleosis in an adult with liver failure, splenic rupture, and spontaneous esophageal bleeding with ensuing esophageal necrosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Busch, Daniel; Hilswicht, Sarah; Schöb, Dominik S; von Trotha, Klaus T; Junge, Karsten; Gassler, Nikolaus; Truong, Son; Neumann, Ulf P; Binnebösel, Marcel

    2014-02-05

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical syndrome most commonly associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. The majority of patients with infectious mononucleosis recovers without apparent sequelae. However, infectious mononucleosis may be associated with several acute complications. In this report we present a rare case of esophageal rupture that has never been described in the literature before. We present the case of an 18-year-old Caucasian man affected by severe infectious mononucleosis complicated by fulminant hepatic failure, splenic rupture and esophageal necrosis. Although primary Epstein-Barr virus infection is rarely fatal, fulminant infection may occur - in this case leading to hepatic failure, splenic rupture and esophageal necrosis, subsequently making several surgical interventions necessary. We show here that infectious mononucleosis is not only a strictly medical condition, but can also lead to severe surgical complications.

  16. Prevention and reversal of intestinal failure-associated liver disease in premature infants with short bowel syndrome using intravenous fish oil in combination with omega-6/9 lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Helene Engstrand; Finkel, Yigael; Paulsson, Mattias; Lucas, Steven

    2011-07-01

    Although premature infants with short bowel syndrome are at the highest risk of developing intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), they have great capacity for intestinal growth and adaptation if IFALD can be prevented. Conventional soybean oil-based intravenous lipid emulsions have been associated with IFALD. This study presents data on 5 premature neonates with short bowel syndrome treated with a combination of parenteral fish oil- and olive/soybean-based lipid emulsion for periods ranging between 7 and 17 months. Despite an enteral tolerance of less than 50% in 4 of these patients during their first year of life, direct bilirubin levels normalized while on this combination of ClinOleic (Baxter, Maurepas, France)/Omegaven (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Homburg, Germany) at a 1:1 ratio. None of our patients developed irreversible IFALD even though all of them were premature, had undergone multiple major surgical procedures, and had experienced several episodes of sepsis. Thus far, we have not seen any adverse effects of this mixed lipid emulsion in these preterm infants. All 5 patients are growing and developing well and have normal liver function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Liver Hemangioma

    MedlinePlus

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  18. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Delta agent (hepatitis D) Drug-induced cholestasis Fatty liver disease Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C ... abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Images Fatty liver, CT scan Liver with disproportional fattening, CT scan ...

  19. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... store Donate Now Give Monthly Give In Honor Kidney Failure (ESRD) Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments www.kidneyfund.org > ... Disaster preparedness Kidney failure/ESRD diet What causes kidney failure? In most cases, kidney failure is caused ...

  20. Drug-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    David, Stefan; Hamilton, James P

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is common and nearly all classes of medications can cause liver disease. Most cases of DILI are benign, and improve after drug withdrawal. It is important to recognize and remove the offending agent as quickly as possible to prevent the progression to chronic liver disease and/or acute liver failure. There are no definite risk factors for DILI, but pre-existing liver disease and genetic susceptibility may predispose certain individuals. Although most patients have clinical symptoms that are identical to other liver diseases, some patients may present with symptoms of systemic hypersensitivity. Treatment of drug and herbal-induced liver injury consists of rapid drug discontinuation and supportive care targeted to alleviate unwanted symptoms. PMID:21874146

  1. Liver failure secondary to poisoning by a homemade product made of star and green anise in a 4-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Obando Pacheco, Pablo; Martínez-Martínez, Patricia Luisa; Pérez de Eulate Bazán, Yolanda; de la Mota Ybancos, José Luis; Milano Manso, Guillermo; Sierra Salinas, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Intoxications in pediatric age represent a frequent cause of visit to the hospital emergency unit. Herb-made products can be toxic for the infant. The neurotoxic properties of the star anise (Illicium verum) have been widely described, although it is a classic product used to treat the infantile colic. Hepatic failure due to the consumption of anise herb elaborated infusions is presented as an exceptional finding in our environment. A case of a 4-month-old infant with hypertransaminasemia, severe coagulopathy, non ketotic hypoglycemia, moderated metabolic acidosis and neurologic symptoms such as seizures and nistagmus is described. After discarding infectious, metabolic and autoimmune etiology and through a meticulous anamnesis, the family referred having administered in the last two months a daily star anise and green anise (Pimpinella anisum) infusion to the patient. It is important to emphasize the serious risk of administering homemade herb infusions to infants.

  2. Effect of a carbohydrate-containing late-evening snack on energy metabolism and fasting substrate utilization in adults with acute-on-chronic liver failure due to Hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Hou, W; Li, J; Lu, J; Wang, J H; Zhang, F Y; Yu, H W; Zhang, J; Yao, Q W; Wu, J; Shi, S Y; Mager, D R; Meng, Q H

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO; lotus-root starch) predominant, late-evening snack (LES), containing 200 kcal (50 g CHO) on fasting resting energy expenditure (REE) and nutrient oxidation in hospitalized adults with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Adults with ACLF were randomized to receive daily LES (treatment; n=35) or standard care (n=35; non-supplemented control) for 14 days. REE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured by indirect calorimetry, nutrient oxidation (CHO, protein and fat), intake and biochemical parameters were measured in both groups at baseline and after 14 days using validated techniques. Disease severity was measured using the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD). No significant differences in macronutrient intake, anthropometric, demographic characteristics or MELD scores were observed between groups at baseline (P>0.05). Fasting RQ was significantly higher in the LES supplemented verses the control group after 2 weeks (P=0.02). CHO oxidation was significantly higher (P=0.001) and fat oxidation (P=0.02) was lower in the LES-supplemented group when compared with controls after 2 weeks. Fasting RQ and REE in the LES-supplemented group increased significantly (0.83 verses 0.88; P=0.007/1301±409 vs 1687±718 kcal/day; P=0.02) in patients with MELD scores 30 when compared with patients with MELD scores >30 (0.82 verses 0.84; P=0.27/ 1361±405 vs 1437±429 kcal/day; P=0.67) after supplementation. A carbohydrate-predominant LES is associated with increases in fasting carbohydrate oxidation, REE and reductions in fat oxidation in adults with ACLF. Therapeutic strategies utilizing LES may promote improved nutritional status in adults with ACLF.

  3. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of oxygen in the blood, it's called hypoxemic (HI-pok-SE-mik) respiratory failure. When respiratory failure ... carbon dioxide in the blood, it's called hypercapnic (HI-per-KAP-nik) respiratory failure. Causes Diseases and ...

  4. Liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marino, I R; Tzakis, A G; Fung, J J; Todo, S; Doyle, H R; Manez, R; Starzl, T E

    1993-10-01

    During the past 30 years orthotopic liver transplantation has become a highly successful form of surgical treatments. The significant advances achieved in this field have led to an increased demand for organs and created a wide gap between organ availability and organ supply. A wider availability of organs for transplantation would allow an expansions rather than a contraction of the indications for transplantation, and, at the same time a relaxation of the patient selection criteria. All these facts clearly justify the renewed interest observed in the last decade in xenotransplantation. The original concept of xenografting, meaning the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, is so ancient that it is easily recognizable in Greek and Roman mythology. The centaur Chiron, the teacher of Esculapius, and the Chimera are legendary examples of discordant xenogeneic creatures. However, it is only during this century that scientists have been able to bring this idea into the clinical arena. The early efforts were prompted by the shortage of humans organs at a time when there were few alternatives for treating end-stage organ failure.

  5. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  6. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  7. Two distinct subtypes of hepatitis B virus-related acute liver failure are separable by quantitative serum immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis B core antibody and hepatitis B virus DNA levels.

    PubMed

    Dao, Doan Y; Hynan, Linda S; Yuan, He-Jun; Sanders, Corron; Balko, Jody; Attar, Nahid; Lok, Anna S F; Word, R Ann; Lee, William M

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute liver failure (HBV-ALF) may occur after acute HBV infection (AHBV-ALF) or during an exacerbation of chronic HBV infection (CHBV-ALF). Clinical differentiation of the two is often difficult if a previous history of HBV is not available. Quantitative measurements of immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) titers and of HBV viral loads (VLs) might allow the separation of AHBV-ALF from CHBV-ALF. Of 1,602 patients with ALF, 60 met clinical criteria for AHBV-ALF and 27 for CHBV-ALF. Sera were available on 47 and 23 patients, respectively. A quantitative immunoassay was used to determine IgM anti-HBc levels, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) was used to determine HBV VLs. AHBV-ALFs had much higher IgM anti-HBc titers than CHBV-ALFs (signal-to-noise [S/N] ratio median: 88.5; range, 0-1,120 versus 1.3, 0-750; P < 0.001); a cut point for a S/N ratio of 5.0 correctly identified 44 of 46 (96%) AHBV-ALFs and 16 of 23 (70%) CHBV-ALFs; the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.86 (P < 0.001). AHBV-ALF median admission VL was 3.9 (0-8.1) log10 IU/mL versus 5.2 (2.0-8.7) log10 IU/mL for CHBV-ALF (P < 0.025). Twenty percent (12 of 60) of the AHBV-ALF group had no hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) detectable on admission to study, wheras no CHBV-ALF patients experienced HBsAg clearance. Rates of transplant-free survival were 33% (20 of 60) for AHBV-ALF versus 11% (3 of 27) for CHBV-ALF (P = 0.030). AHBV-ALF and CHBV-ALF differ markedly in IgM anti-HBc titers, in HBV VLs, and in prognosis, suggesting that the two forms are, indeed, different entities that might each have a unique pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Suppressive role of hepatic dendritic cells in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, C; Watanabe, H; Izutsu, Y; Watanabe, M; Abo, T

    2011-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis is a mouse model of acute autoimmune hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hepatic dendritic cells (DC) in the immune modulation of tissue damage. Almost all hepatic DC were plasmacytoid DC (CD11c+ I-Alow B220+); however, conventional DC were CD11c+ I-Ahigh B220–. At an early stage (3–6 h) after Con A administration, the number of DC in both the liver and spleen decreased, increasing thereafter (12–24 h) in parallel with hepatic failure. The hepatic CD11c+ DC population contained many CD11b- cells, while the majority of splenic CD11c+ DC were CD11b+. After Con A administration, the proportion of I-A+ and CD11b+ cells within the CD11c+ DC population tended to increase in the liver, but not in the spleen. Similarly, expression of the activation markers CD80, CD86 and CD40 by CD11c+ DC increased in the liver, but not in the spleen. Next, adoptive transfer of DC isolated from the liver and spleen was performed 3 h after Con A administration to examine the immunomodulatory function of DC. Only hepatic DC had the ability to suppress hepatic failure. Analysis of cytokine production and subsequent identification of the effector cells showed that hepatic DC achieved this by suppressing the production of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-2, rather than modulating effector cell function. PMID:21985372

  9. Encephalopathy and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) candidates experience frequently episodic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients can exhibit neurological comorbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in the pre-transplant period. Assessment of the respective contribution of hepatic encephalopathy or comorbidities in the cognitive manifestations is critical to estimate the neurological benefits of restoring liver function. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are useful to assess the impact of liver failure or comorbidities. This assessment is critical to decide liver transplant in difficult cases. In the early postoperative period, LT is commonly complicated by a confusional syndrome. The possible role of persisting hepatic encephalopathy in its development has not been clearly established. The origin is usually considered multifactorial and relates to complications following LT, such as infections, rejection, primary liver dysfunction, immunosuppressors, etc.… The diagnosis and treatment is based in the recognition of comorbidities and optimal care of metabolic disturbances. Several studies have demonstrated recovery of cognitive function after LT in patients that have exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. However, some deficits may persist specifically among patients with persistent HE. Other factors present before LT that contribute to a worse neuropsychological outcome after LT are diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption. Long-term after LT, cognitive function may worsen in relation to vascular risk factors.

  10. [Deceased donor liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Seehofer, D; Schöning, W; Neuhaus, P

    2013-05-01

    Deceased donor liver transplantation is nowadays a routine procedure for the treatment of terminal liver failure and often represents the only chance of a cure. Under given optimal conditions excellent long-term results can be obtained with 15-year survival rates of well above 60 %.In Germany the outcome after liver transplantation has deteriorated since the introduction of an allocation policy, which is based on the medical urgency. At present 25 % of liver graft recipients die within the first year after transplantation. In contrast 1-year survival in most other countries, e.g. in the USA or the United Kingdom is around 90 % and therefore significantly better. Reasons for the inferior results in Germany are on the one hand an increasing