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Sample records for a-induced liver injury

  1. Salidroside mediates apoptosis and autophagy inhibition in concanavalin A-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiao; Niu, Peiqin; Chen, Kan; Wu, Liwei; Liu, Tong; Xu, Shizan; Li, Jingjing; Li, Sainan; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Ning; Xu, Ling; Wang, Fan; Dai, Weiqi; Xia, Yujing; Fan, Xiaoming; Guo, Chuanyong

    2018-01-01

    Salidroside (Sal) is a glycoside extract from Rhodiola rosea L. with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and cardioprotective properties. The present study explored the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of Sal on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury in mice. Balb/C mice were divided into five groups: Normal control (injected with normal saline), ConA (25 mg/kg), Sal (10 mg/kg) +ConA, Sal (20 mg/kg) + ConA (Sal injected 2 h prior to ConA injection) and Sal (20 mg/kg) only. The serum levels of liver enzymes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis- and autophagy-associated marker proteins were determined at 2, 8 and 24 h after ConA injection. LY294002 was further used to verify whether the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway was activated. Primary hepatocytes were isolated to verify the effect of Sal in vitro. The results indicated that Sal was a safe agent to reduce pathological damage and serum liver enzymes in ConA-induced liver injury. Sal suppressed inflammatory reactions in serum and liver tissues, and activated the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to inhibit apoptosis and autophagy in vivo and in vitro, which could be reversed by LY294002. In conclusion, Sal attenuated ConA-induced liver injury by modulating PI3K/Akt pathway-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in mice.

  2. Hepatoprotective Effect of Wedelolactone against Concanavalin A-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingqiong; Ding, Jieying; Zhu, Liping; Chen, Fuxiang; Xu, Lili

    2018-05-08

    Eclipta prostrata L. is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. However, its biological mechanisms remain elusive. The current study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of wedelolactone, a major coumarin ingredient of Eclipta prostrata L., on immune-mediated liver injury. Using the well-established animal model of Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis (CIH), we found that pretreatment of mice with wedelolactone markedly reduced both the serum levels of transaminases and the severity of liver damage. We further investigated the mechanisms of the protective effect of wedelolactone. In mice treated with wedelolactone prior to the induction of CIH, increases of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], interferon (IFN)-[Formula: see text], and interleukin (IL)-6 were dramatically attenuated. Additionally, expressions of the interferon-inducible chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 gene CXCL10 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene ICAM1 were lower in livers of the treated mice. Moreover, wedelolactone-treated CIH mice exhibited reduced leukocyte infiltration and T-cell activation in liver. Furthermore, wedelolactone suppressed the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-[Formula: see text]B), a critical transcriptional factor of the above-mentioned inflammatory cytokines by limiting the phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha (I[Formula: see text]B[Formula: see text] and p65. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the inhibitory potential of wedelolactone in immune-mediated liver injury in vivo, and show that this protection is associated with modulation of the NF-[Formula: see text]B signaling pathway.

  3. Pretreatment with propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate ameliorated concanavalin A-induced liver injury by regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shizan; Wu, Liwei; Zhang, Qinghui; Feng, Jiao; Li, Sainan; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Tong; Mo, Wenhui; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Yingqun; Fan, Xiaoming; Guo, Chuanyong

    2017-09-15

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effect of PSS on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury in mice and examined the underlying mechanisms. Balb/C mice were injected intravenously with Con A (25mg/kg) to generate a model of acute liver injury. PSS (25 or 50mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1h before the Con A administration. The levels of serum liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and other marker proteins were determined, and liver injury was assessed histopathologically 2, 8, and 24h after Con A injection. Pretreatment with PSS reduced the levels of serum liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, and attenuated histopathological damage in Con A-induced liver injury in mice. The effects of Con A were mediated by apoptosis and autophagy, as indicated by changes in protein and gene expression of related factors after Con A injection. PSS activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway and showed a protective function against apoptosis and autophagy. PSS ameliorated Con A-induced liver injury by downregulating inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1β and regulating apoptosis and autophagy via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [The protective effect of XD in ConA-induced liver injury].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Liu, Tao; Dang, Tong-Mei; Cao, Yi-Ming

    2010-12-01

    To explore the protective effect and its mechanism of Modified Xiaochaihu decoction(MXD) in the liver injury of mice. METHORDS: Using Reitman methord to examine serum ALT and ATS; Using sandwich enzyme immunoassay ABC-ELISA to examine serum TNF-α and IFN-γ. Serum ALT and ATS of MXD large dose group and Xiaochaihu decoction (XD )group were lower than that of animal models group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). There were not significant difference (P>0.05) between serum ALT and ATS of MXD small dose group and that of animal models group; MXD large dose group, XD group and Biphenyldimethylesterate (DDB) group are similar, no difference (P>0.05). Serum TNF-α and IFN-γ of MXD large dose group and XD group were significant lower than that of animal models group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). Serum TNF-α and IFN-γ of XD group ware higher than that of MXD large dose group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). MXD large dose group, XD group and DDB group were similar, no difference. Xiaocaihu decoction possesses the effect of pro2 tection of hepatic impairment and the protective mechanism might be associated with the inhibition of apoptosis and immunomodulation.

  5. Salecan protected against concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury by modulating T cell immune responses and NMR-based metabolic profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Xi, E-mail: xuxi@njust.edu.cn; Yang,

    Salecan, a water-soluble extracellular β-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological effects. The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effect of salecan against Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, a well-established animal model of immune-mediated liver injury, and to search for possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with salecan followed by ConA injection. Salecan treatment significantly reduced ConA-induced acute liver injury, and suppressed the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in ConA-induced liver injury model. The high expression levels of chemokines andmore » adhesion molecules such as MIP-1α, MIP-1β, ICAM-1, MCP-1 and RANTES in the liver induced by ConA were also down-regulated after salecan treatment. Salecan inhibited the infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells, especially T cells, in the liver induced by ConA. Moreover, salecan reversed the metabolic profiles of ConA-treated mice towards the control group by partly recovering the metabolic perturbations induced by ConA. Our results suggest the preventive and therapeutic potential of salecan in immune-mediated hepatitis. - Highlights: • Salecan treatment significantly reduced ConA-induced liver injury. • Salecan suppressed the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. • Salecan decreased the expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules in liver. • Salecan inhibited the infiltration and activation of T cells induced by ConA. • Salecan partly recovered the metabolic perturbations induced by ConA.« less

  6. Drug-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    David, Stefan; Hamilton, James P

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is common and nearly all classes of medications can cause liver disease. Most cases of DILI are benign, and improve after drug withdrawal. It is important to recognize and remove the offending agent as quickly as possible to prevent the progression to chronic liver disease and/or acute liver failure. There are no definite risk factors for DILI, but pre-existing liver disease and genetic susceptibility may predispose certain individuals. Although most patients have clinical symptoms that are identical to other liver diseases, some patients may present with symptoms of systemic hypersensitivity. Treatment of drug and herbal-induced liver injury consists of rapid drug discontinuation and supportive care targeted to alleviate unwanted symptoms. PMID:21874146

  7. Protectin D1 reduces concanavalin A-induced liver injury by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis and NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Meng, Shanshan; Yan, Bingdi; Yu, Jinyan; Liu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Protectin D1 (PD1) is a bioactive product generated from docosahexaenoic acid, which may exert anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its anti‑inflammatory activity on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of PD1 against Con A‑induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms via intravenous injection of PD1 prior to Con A administration. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups as follows: Control group, Con A group (30 mg/kg), 20 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group and 10 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group. PD1 pretreatment was demonstrated to significantly inhibit elevated plasma aminotransferase levels, high mobility group box 1 and liver necrosis, which were observed in Con A‑induced hepatitis. Furthermore, compared with the Con A group, PD1 pretreatment prevented the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α, interferon‑γ and interleukin‑2, ‑1β and ‑6. In addition, pretreatment with PD1 markedly downregulated cluster of differentiation (CD)4+, CD8+ and natural killer T (NKT) cell infiltration in the liver. PD1 pretreatment was observed to suppress the messenger RNA and protein expression levels of NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 and Toll‑like receptor (TLR) 4 in liver tissue samples. Further data indicated that PD1 pretreatment inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) signaling pathway and chemokine (C‑X3‑C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1)/chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1) axis by preventing phosphorylation of nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, α and NF‑κB in Con A‑induced liver injury. Therefore, these results suggest that PD1 administration protects mice against Con A‑induced liver injury via

  8. NOD2: a potential target for regulating liver injury.

    PubMed

    Body-Malapel, Mathilde; Dharancy, Sébastien; Berrebi, Dominique; Louvet, Alexandre; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Philpott, Dana J; Giovannini, Marco; Chareyre, Fabrice; Pages, Gilles; Gantier, Emilie; Girardin, Stephen E; Garcia, Irène; Hudault, Sylvie; Conti, Filoména; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Chamaillard, Mathias; Desreumaux, Pierre; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Mathurin, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    The recent discovery of bacterial receptors such as NOD2 that contribute to crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune systems in the digestive tract constitutes an important challenge in our understanding of liver injury mechanisms. The present study focuses on NOD2 functions during liver injury. NOD2, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma mRNA were quantified using real-time PCR in liver samples from patients and mice with liver injury. We evaluated the susceptibility of concanavalin A (ConA) challenge in NOD2-deficient mice (Nod2-/-) compared to wild-type littermates. We tested the effect of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the specific activator of NOD2, on ConA-induced liver injury in C57BL/6 mice. We studied the cellular distribution and the role of NOD2 in immune cells and hepatocytes. We demonstrated that NOD2, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were upregulated during liver injury in mice and humans. Nod2-/- mice were resistant to ConA-induced hepatitis compared to their wild-type littermates, through reduced IFN-gamma production by immune cells. Conversely, administration of MDP exacerbated ConA-induced liver injury. MDP was a strong inducer of IFN-gamma in freshly isolated human PBMC, splenocytes and hepatocytes. Our study supports the hypothesis that NOD2 contributes to liver injury via a regulatory mechanism affecting immune cells infiltrating the liver and hepatocytes. Taken together, our results indicate that NOD2 may represent a new therapeutic target in liver diseases.

  9. Liver transplantation in the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Lauterio, Andrea; De Carlis, Riccardo; Di Sandro, Stefano; Ferla, Fabio; Buscemi, Vincenzo; De Carlis, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    The place of liver transplantation in the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injuries has not yet been widely discussed in the literature. Bile duct injuries during cholecystectomy represent the leading cause of liver transplantation in this setting, while other indications after abdominal surgery are less common. Urgent liver transplantation for the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injury may-represent a surgical challenge requiring technically difficult and time consuming procedures. A debate is ongoing on the need for centralization of complex surgery in tertiary referral centers. The early referral of patients with severe iatrogenic liver injuries to a tertiary center with experienced hepato-pancreato-biliary and transplant surgery has emerged as the best treatment of care. Despite widespread interest in the use of liver transplantation as a treatment option for severe iatrogenic injuries, reported experiences indicate few liver transplants are performed. This review analyzes the literature on liver transplantation after hepatic injury and discusses our own experience along with surgical advances and future prospects in this uncommon transplant setting. PMID:28932348

  10. Sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and liver injury.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian-li; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Bao-yuan

    2010-01-05

    A general review was made of studies involving: (1) the relationship between sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome/sleep apnea style intermittent hypoxia and liver injury and (2) the mechanism that causes the liver injury. The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English from 1993 to February 2009. The search term was "sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome". (1) Clinical and laboratory evidence that sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and sleep apnea style intermittent hypoxia leads to liver injury; (2) the mechanism that causes the liver injury. The effect of sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and sleep apnea style intermittent hypoxia on the liver function is characterized by serum aminotransferase elevation. The liver histological injury includes hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, lobular inflammation, lobular necrosis, and liver fibrosis. Sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and sleep apnea style intermittent hypoxia can cause insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and sleep apnea style intermittent hypoxia can lead to chronic liver injury, which, in most cases, is shown as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance and oxidative stress caused by sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and sleep apnea style intermittent hypoxia play an important role in the mechanism of chronic liver disease development.

  11. Herbal and Dietary Supplement Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Ynto S.; Sherker, Averell H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The increase in the use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) over the last decades has been accompanied with an increase in the reports of HDS associated hepatotoxicity. The spectrum of HDS induced liver injury is diverse and the outcome may vary from transient liver test elevations to fulminant hepatic failure resulting in death or requiring liver transplantation. There are no validated standardized tools to establish the diagnosis, but some HDS products do have a typical clinical signature that may help to identify HDS induced liver injury. PMID:27842768

  12. Liver injury from herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide, and HDS-induced liver injury in the United States has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements. Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute hepatitis-like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to multi-ingredient nutritional supplements, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment, and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of nonprescription products to guarantee their constituents and ensure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. (Hepatology 2017;65:363-373). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Liver Injury from Herbal and Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Victor; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide and HDS induced liver injury in the U.S. has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements (MINS). Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic, but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute-hepatitis like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to MINS, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges, in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of non-prescription products to guarantee their constituents and insure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. PMID:27677775

  14. Macrophage heterogeneity in liver injury and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Zimmermann, Henning W

    2014-05-01

    Hepatic macrophages are central in the pathogenesis of chronic liver injury and have been proposed as potential targets in combatting fibrosis. Recent experimental studies in animal models revealed that hepatic macrophages are a remarkably heterogeneous population of immune cells that fulfill diverse functions in homeostasis, disease progression, and regression from injury. These range from clearance of pathogens or cellular debris and maintenance of immunological tolerance in steady state conditions; central roles in initiating and perpetuating inflammation in response to injury; promoting liver fibrosis via activating hepatic stellate cells in chronic liver damage; and, finally, resolution of inflammation and fibrosis by degradation of extracellular matrix and release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cellular heterogeneity in the liver is partly explained by the origin of macrophages. Hepatic macrophages can either arise from circulating monocytes, which are recruited to the injured liver via chemokine signals, or from self-renewing embryo-derived local macrophages, termed Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells appear essential for sensing tissue injury and initiating inflammatory responses, while infiltrating Ly-6C(+) monocyte-derived macrophages are linked to chronic inflammation and fibrogenesis. In addition, proliferation of local or recruited macrophages may possibly further contribute to their accumulation in injured liver. During fibrosis regression, monocyte-derived cells differentiate into Ly-6C (Ly6C, Gr1) low expressing 'restorative' macrophages and promote resolution from injury. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate hepatic macrophage heterogeneity, either by monocyte subset recruitment, by promoting restorative macrophage polarization or by impacting distinctive macrophage effector functions, may help to develop novel macrophage subset-targeted therapies for liver injury and fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver

  15. Liver injury from Herbals and Dietary Supplements in the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Victor J.; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J.; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K. Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H.; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity due to conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). Rationale To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight US referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury due to HDS. Hepatotoxicity due to HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments including death and liver transplantation were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury due to bodybuilding HDS, 85 due to non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 due to medications. Main Results Liver injury due to HDS increased from 7% to 20% (p < 0.001) during the study period. Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median 91 days) in young men but did not result in any fatalities or liver transplantation. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women and more frequently led to death or transplantation compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%, p < 0.05). Conclusions The proportion of liver injury cases attributed to HDS in DILIN has increased significantly. Liver injury from non-bodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes; death and transplantation. PMID:25043597

  16. Mild Hypothermia and Acute Kidney Injury in Liver Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-18

    Cirrhosis; End Stage Liver Disease; Acute Kidney Injury; Liver Transplant; Complications; Chronic Kidney Diseases; Hepatitis c; Hepatitis B; NASH - Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis; Alcoholic Cirrhosis; Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  17. Chronic intermittent hypoxia predisposes to liver injury.

    PubMed

    Savransky, Vladimir; Nanayakkara, Ashika; Vivero, Angelica; Li, Jianguo; Bevans, Shannon; Smith, Philip L; Torbenson, Michael S; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2007-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). OSA is associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CIH on the liver in the absence of obesity. Lean C57BL/6J mice (n = 15) on a regular chow diet were exposed to CIH for 12 weeks and compared with pair-fed mice exposed to intermittent air (IA, n = 15). CIH caused liver injury with an increase in serum ALT (224 +/- 39 U/l versus 118 +/- 22 U/l in the IA group, P < 0.05), whereas AST and alkaline phosphatase were unchanged. CIH also induced hyperglycemia, a decrease in fasting serum insulin levels, and mild elevation of fasting serum total cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Liver TG content was unchanged, whereas cholesterol content was decreased. Histology showed swelling of hepatocytes, no evidence of hepatic steatosis, and marked accumulation of glycogen in hepatocytes. CIH led to lipid peroxidation of liver tissue with a malondialdehyde (MDA)/free fatty acids (FFA) ratio of 0.54 +/- 0.07 mmol/mol versus 0.30 +/- 0.01 mmol/mol in control animals (P < 0.01), and increased levels of active nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in the nuclear fraction of hepatocytes, suggesting that CIH induced oxidative stress in the liver. Finally, CIH greatly exacerbated acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity, causing fulminant hepatocellular injury. In the absence of obesity, CIH leads to mild liver injury via oxidative stress and excessive glycogen accumulation in hepatocytes and sensitizes the liver to a second insult, whereas NASH does not develop.

  18. Amiodarone-Induced Liver Injury and Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kappus, Matthew; Lagoo, Anand S.; Brady, Carla W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case report of an 80-year-old woman with volume overload thought initially to be secondary to heart failure, but determined to be amiodarone-induced acute and chronic liver injury leading to submassive necrosis and bridging fibrosis consistent with early cirrhosis. Her histopathology was uniquely absent of steatosis and phospholipidosis, which are commonly seen in AIC. PMID:26157932

  19. Amiodarone-Induced Liver Injury and Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Buggey, Jonathan; Kappus, Matthew; Lagoo, Anand S; Brady, Carla W

    2015-01-01

    We present a case report of an 80-year-old woman with volume overload thought initially to be secondary to heart failure, but determined to be amiodarone-induced acute and chronic liver injury leading to submassive necrosis and bridging fibrosis consistent with early cirrhosis. Her histopathology was uniquely absent of steatosis and phospholipidosis, which are commonly seen in AIC.

  20. Paintball-related traumatic liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Joshua; Bell, Daniel; Bashir, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Paintball is a popular recreational sport played at both amateur and professional level. Ocular injuries are well recognised, although there is a growing body of literature documenting superficial vascular as well as deep solid organ injuries. An 18-year-old man presented with signs and symptoms consistent with acute appendicitis. Intraoperatively, a grade III liver injury was identified and packed before a relook at 48 h. No further active bleeding was identified; however, follow-up ultrasound at 3 weeks demonstrated non-resolution of a large subcapsular haematoma. The patient was readmitted for a short period of observation and discharged with repeat ultrasound scheduled for 3 months. This represents the first report of paintball-related blunt traumatic injury to the liver. Solid organ injuries of this nature have only been reported three times previously—all in the urological setting. This case also highlights issues surrounding the use of routine follow-up imaging in blunt liver trauma and provides a concise discussion of the relevant literature. PMID:27122206

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Herb-induced Liver Injury: Comparison with Drug-induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jing; Teschke, Rolf

    2018-03-28

    Cases of suspected herb-induced liver injury (HILI) caused by herbal Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) and of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are commonly published in the scientific literature worldwide. As opposed to the multiplicity of botanical chemicals in herbal TCM products, which are often mixtures of several herbs, conventional Western drugs contain only a single synthetic chemical. It is therefore of interest to study how HILI by TCM and DILI compare with each other, and to what extent results from each liver injury type can be transferred to the other. China is among the few countries with a large population using synthetic Western drugs as well as herbal TCM. Therefore, China is well suited to studies of liver injury comparing drugs with TCM herbs. Despite some concordance, recent analyses of liver injury cases with verified causality, using the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, revealed major differences in HILI caused by TCMs as compared to DILI with respect to the following features: HILI cases are less frequently observed as compared to DILI, have a smaller proportion of females and less unintentional rechallenge events, and present a higher rate of hepatocellular injury features. Since many results were obtained among Chinese residents who had access to and had used Western drugs and TCM herbs, such ethnic homogeneity supports the contention that the observed differences of HILI and DILI in the assessed population are well founded.

  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Herb-induced Liver Injury: Comparison with Drug-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jing; Teschke, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cases of suspected herb-induced liver injury (HILI) caused by herbal Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) and of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are commonly published in the scientific literature worldwide. As opposed to the multiplicity of botanical chemicals in herbal TCM products, which are often mixtures of several herbs, conventional Western drugs contain only a single synthetic chemical. It is therefore of interest to study how HILI by TCM and DILI compare with each other, and to what extent results from each liver injury type can be transferred to the other. China is among the few countries with a large population using synthetic Western drugs as well as herbal TCM. Therefore, China is well suited to studies of liver injury comparing drugs with TCM herbs. Despite some concordance, recent analyses of liver injury cases with verified causality, using the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, revealed major differences in HILI caused by TCMs as compared to DILI with respect to the following features: HILI cases are less frequently observed as compared to DILI, have a smaller proportion of females and less unintentional rechallenge events, and present a higher rate of hepatocellular injury features. Since many results were obtained among Chinese residents who had access to and had used Western drugs and TCM herbs, such ethnic homogeneity supports the contention that the observed differences of HILI and DILI in the assessed population are well founded. PMID:29577033

  3. Drug-induced liver injury due to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, Einar S

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important differential diagnosis in patients with abnormal liver tests and normal hepatobiliary imaging. Of all known liver diseases, the diagnosis of DILI is probably one of the most difficult one to be established. In all major studies on DILI, antibiotics are the most common type of drugs that have been reported. The clinical phenotype of different types of antibiotics associated with liver injury is highly variable. Some widely used antibiotics such as amoxicillin-clavulanate have been shown to have a delayed onset on liver injury and recently cefazolin has been found to lead to liver injury 1-3 weeks after exposure of a single infusion. The other extreme is the nature of nitrofurantoin-induced liver injury, which can occur after a few years of treatment and lead to acute liver failure (ALF) or autoimmune-like reaction. Most patients with liver injury associated with use of antibiotics have a favorable prognosis. However, patients with jaundice have approximately 10% risk of death from liver failure and/or require liver transplantation. In rare instances, the hepatoxicity can lead to chronic injury and vanishing bile duct syndrome. Given, sometimes very severe consequences of the adverse liver reactions, it cannot be over emphasized that the indication for the different antibiotics should be evidence-based and symptoms and signs of liver injury from the drugs should lead to prompt cessation of therapy.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Li; Guo, Yun; Zheng, Changqing

    2014-05-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenolic compound present in green tea and has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of EGCG against concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms. EGCG (5 mg/kg) was administered orally by gavage to mice twice daily for 10 days before an intravenous injection of ConA. We found that EGCG effectively rescued lethality, improved hepatic pathological damage, and decreased serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in ConA-challenged mice. Furthermore, EGCG also significantly prevented the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-6 in serum, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and restored glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver tissues from ConA-challenged mice. Finally, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and TLR9 protein in liver tissues were significantly inhibited by EGCG pretreatment. Taken together, our data suggest that EGCG possesses hepatoprotective properties against ConA-induced liver injury through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Melatonin on Liver Injuries and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Liver injuries and diseases are serious health problems worldwide. Various factors, such as chemical pollutants, drugs, and alcohol, could induce liver injuries. Liver diseases involve a wide range of liver pathologies, including hepatic steatosis, fatty liver, hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinoma. Despite all the studies performed up to now, therapy choices for liver injuries and diseases are very few. Therefore, the search for a new treatment that could safely and effectively block or reverse liver injuries and diseases remains a priority. Melatonin is a well-known natural antioxidant, and has many bioactivities. There are numerous studies investigating the effects of melatonin on liver injuries and diseases, and melatonin could regulate various molecular pathways, such as inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, and autophagy in different pathophysiological situations. Melatonin could be used for preventing and treating liver injuries and diseases. Herein, we conduct a review summarizing the potential roles of melatonin in liver injuries and diseases, paying special attention to the mechanisms of action. PMID:28333073

  6. Amoxicillin–Clavulanate-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghabril, Marwan; Rockey, Don C.; Gu, Jiezhun; Barnhart, Huiman X.; Fontana, Robert J.; Kleiner, David E.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Amoxicillin–clavulanate (AC) is the most frequent cause of idiosyncratic drug-induced injury (DILI) in the US DILI Network (DILIN) registry. Here, we examined a large cohort of AC-DILI cases and compared features of AC-DILI to those of other drugs. Methods Subjects with suspected DILI were enrolled prospectively, and cases were adjudicated as previously described. Clinical variables and outcomes of patients with AC-DILI were compared to the overall DILIN cohort and to DILI caused by other antimicrobials. Results One hundred and seventeen subjects with AC-DILI were identified from the cohort (n = 1038) representing 11 % of all cases and 24 % of those due to antimicrobial agents (n = 479). Those with AC-DILI were older (60 vs. 48 years, P < 0.001). AC-DILI was more frequent in men than women (62 vs. 39 %) compared to the overall cohort (40 vs. 60 %, P < 0.001). The mean time to symptom onset was 31 days. The Tb, ALT, and ALP were 7 mg/dL, 478, and 325 U/L at onset. Nearly all liver biopsies showed prominent cholestatic features. Resolution of AC-DILI, defined by return of Tb to <2.5 mg/dL, occurred on average 55 days after the peak value. Three female subjects required liver transplantation, and none died due to DILI. Conclusion AC-DILI causes a moderately severe, mixed hepatocellular–cholestatic injury, particularly in older men, unlike DILI in general, which predominates in women. Although often protracted, eventual apparent recovery is typical, particularly for men and usually in women, but three women required liver transplantation. PMID:27003146

  7. Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    deLemos, Andrew S; Ghabril, Marwan; Rockey, Don C; Gu, Jiezhun; Barnhart, Huiman X; Fontana, Robert J; Kleiner, David E; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC) is the most frequent cause of idiosyncratic drug-induced injury (DILI) in the US DILI Network (DILIN) registry. Here, we examined a large cohort of AC-DILI cases and compared features of AC-DILI to those of other drugs. Subjects with suspected DILI were enrolled prospectively, and cases were adjudicated as previously described. Clinical variables and outcomes of patients with AC-DILI were compared to the overall DILIN cohort and to DILI caused by other antimicrobials. One hundred and seventeen subjects with AC-DILI were identified from the cohort (n = 1038) representing 11 % of all cases and 24 % of those due to antimicrobial agents (n = 479). Those with AC-DILI were older (60 vs. 48 years, P < 0.001). AC-DILI was more frequent in men than women (62 vs. 39 %) compared to the overall cohort (40 vs. 60 %, P < 0.001). The mean time to symptom onset was 31 days. The Tb, ALT, and ALP were 7 mg/dL, 478, and 325 U/L at onset. Nearly all liver biopsies showed prominent cholestatic features. Resolution of AC-DILI, defined by return of Tb to <2.5 mg/dL, occurred on average 55 days after the peak value. Three female subjects required liver transplantation, and none died due to DILI. AC-DILI causes a moderately severe, mixed hepatocellular-cholestatic injury, particularly in older men, unlike DILI in general, which predominates in women. Although often protracted, eventual apparent recovery is typical, particularly for men and usually in women, but three women required liver transplantation.

  8. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  9. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

  10. A review of drug-induced liver injury databases.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangwen; Shen, Yiting; Yang, Lizhu; Lu, Aiping; Xiang, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Drug-induced liver injuries have been a major focus of current research in drug development, and are also one of the major reasons for the failure and withdrawal of drugs in development. Drug-induced liver injuries have been systematically recorded in many public databases, which have become valuable resources in this field. In this study, we provide an overview of these databases, including the liver injury-specific databases LiverTox, LTKB, Open TG-GATEs, LTMap and Hepatox, and the general databases, T3DB, DrugBank, DITOP, DART, CTD and HSDB. The features and limitations of these databases are summarized and discussed in detail. Apart from their powerful functions, we believe that these databases can be improved in several ways: by providing the data about the molecular targets involved in liver toxicity, by incorporating information regarding liver injuries caused by drug interactions, and by regularly updating the data.

  11. The Impact of Liver Graft Injury on Cancer Recurrence Posttransplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Xian; Man, Kwan; Lo, Chung-Mau

    2017-11-01

    Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. However, cancer recurrence, posttransplantation, remains to be the critical issue that affects the long-term outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma recipients. In addition to tumor biology itself, increasing evidence demonstrates that acute-phase liver graft injury is a result of hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (which is an inevitable consequence during liver transplantation) and may promote cancer recurrence at late phase posttransplantation. The liver grafts from living donors, donors after cardiac death, and steatotic donors have been considered as promising sources of organs for liver transplantation and are associated with high incidence of liver graft injury. The acute-phase liver graft injury will trigger a series of inflammatory cascades, which may not only activate the cell signaling pathways regulating the tumor cell invasion and migration but also mobilize the circulating progenitor and immune cells to facilitate tumor recurrence and metastasis. The injured liver graft may also provide the favorable microenvironment for tumor cell growth, migration, and invasion through the disturbance of microcirculatory barrier function, induction of hypoxia and angiogenesis. This review aims to summarize the latest findings about the role and mechanisms of liver graft injury resulted from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury on tumor recurrence posttransplantation, both in clinical and animal cohorts.

  12. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. [Liver injury in visceral leishmaniasis in children: systematic review].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Francisco Salomao de; Tavares-Neto, Jose; D'Oliveira, Argemiro; Paraná, Raymundo

    2007-09-01

    Visceral Leisshimaniosis or Kalazar is a parasitic infection caused by Leishimania Donovani subspecies. It is transmitted by phlebotomineos and may lead to liver and spleen enlargements as well as immunological impairment. Sometimes it is described liver injury simulating acute or chronic viral hepatitis and even portal hypertension. The liver injury makes difficult the diffencial diagnosis of Kalazar and other liver diseases in endemic regions. To define and clarify the liver injury spectrum described in published cases reports. Systematic revision of published data on Kalazar and liver injury using the following databank: LILACS, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Only paper published in French, English, Portuguese and Spanish were taken into consideration. The procedures for systematic review recommended by the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of Cork, were adopted. The paper quality classification was based on the number of reported variables previously defined in our study Only 11/28 (55%) publications were included in our analysis because they filled the minimal required data. Acute and chronic liver disease were well documented in these articles. Serum albumin and prothombine time were associated with severity of liver disease (P < .05). "Liver involvement, even when it is severe, may occur at tha begining of the disease. Kalazar should be considered as a differential diagnosis of cholestasis, acute and chronic liver injury as well as portal hypertension in children.

  14. Acute Kidney Injury after Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Durand, François; Francoz, Claire; Asrani, Sumeet K; Khemichian, Saro; Pham, Thomas A; Sung, Randall S; Genyk, Yuri S; Nadim, Mitra K

    2018-05-29

    Since the implementation of the MELD score-based allocation system, the number of transplant candidates with impaired renal function has increased. The aims of this review are to present new insights in the definitions and predisposing factors that result in acute kidney injury (AKI), and to propose guidelines for the prevention and treatment of post liver transplantation (LT) AKI. This review is based on both systematic review of relevant literature and expert opinion. Pretransplant AKI is associated with posttransplant morbidity, including prolonged post LT AKI which then predisposes to posttransplant chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prevention of posttransplant AKI is essential in the improvement of long term outcomes. Accurate assessment of baseline kidney function at evaluation is necessary, taking into account that serum creatinine overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR). New diagnostic criteria for AKI have been integrated with traditional approaches in patients with cirrhosis to potentially identify AKI earlier and improve outcomes. Delayed introduction or complete elimination of calcineurin inhibitors during the first weeks post LT in patients with early posttransplant AKI may improve GFR in high risk patients but with higher rates of rejection and more adverse events. Biomarkers may in the future provide diagnostic information such as etiology of AKI, and prognostic information on renal recovery post-LT, and potentially impact the decision for simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. Overall, more attention should be paid to pretransplant and early posttransplant AKI to reduce the burden of late CKD.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinases in liver injury, repair and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Sergio; Baber, John; Fujii, Takehiro; Coito, Ana J.

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a large highly vascularized organ with a central function in metabolic homeostasis, detoxification, and immunity. Due to its roles, the liver is frequently exposed to various insults which can cause cell death and hepatic dysfunction. Alternatively, the liver has a remarkable ability to self-repair and regenerate after injury. Liver injury and regeneration have both been linked to complex extracellular matrix (ECM) related pathways. While normal degradation of ECM components is an important feature of tissue repair and remodeling, irregular ECM turnover contributes to a variety of liver diseases. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the main enzymes implicated in ECM degradation. MMPs not only remodel the ECM, but also regulate immune responses. In this review, we highlight some of the MMP-attributed roles in acute and chronic liver injury and emphasize the need for further experimentation to better understand their functions during hepatic physiological conditions and disease progression. PMID:25599939

  16. Vinpocetine protects liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Hala Fahmy; Abdelsalam, Rania Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a clinical problem that leads to cellular damage and organ dysfunction mediated mainly via production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines. Vinpocetine has long been used in cerebrovascular disorders. This study aimed to explore the protective effect of vinpocetine in IR injury to the liver. Ischemia was induced in rats by clamping the common hepatic artery and portal vein for 30 min followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Serum transaminases and liver lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, liver inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and liver histopathology were assessed. IR resulted in marked histopathology changes in liver tissues coupled with elevations in serum transaminases and liver LDH activities. IR also increased the production of liver lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-6, in parallel with a reduction in reduced glutathione and interleukin-10 in the liver. Pretreatment with vinpocetine protected against liver IR-induced injury, in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by the attenuation of oxidative stress as well as inflammatory and liver injury biomarkers. The effects of vinpocetine were comparable with that of curcumin, a natural antioxidant, and could be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  17. Liver injury from herbals and dietary supplements in the U.S. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-10-01

    The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity caused by conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight U.S. referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury caused by HDS. Hepatotoxicity caused by HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments, including death and liver transplantation (LT), were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury caused by bodybuilding HDS, 85 by nonbodybuilding HDS, and 709 by medications. Liver injury caused by HDS increased from 7% to 20% (P < 0.001) during the study period. Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median, 91 days) in young men, but did not result in any fatalities or LT. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women, and, more frequently, led to death or transplantation, compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%; P < 0.05). The proportion of liver injury cases attributed to HDS in DILIN has increased significantly. Liver injury from nonbodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes (death and transplantation). (Hepatology 2014;60:1399-1408). © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wildmore » type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.« less

  19. Potential mechanisms of hepatitis B virus induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Suhail, Mohd; Abdel-Hafiz, Hany; Ali, Ashraf; Fatima, Kaneez; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Azhar, Esam; Chaudhary, Adeel GA; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2014-01-01

    Chronic active hepatitis (CAH) is acknowledged as an imperative risk factor for the development of liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma. The histological end points of CAH are chronic inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis which are coupled with increased DNA synthesis in cirrhotic vs healthy normal livers. The potential mechanism involved in CAH includes a combination of processes leading to liver cell necrosis, inflammation and cytokine production and liver scaring (fibrosis). The severity of liver damage is regulated by Hepatitis B virus genotypes and viral components. The viral and cellular factors that contribute to liver injury are discussed in this article. Liver injury caused by the viral infection affects many cellular processes such as cell signaling, apoptosis, transcription, DNA repair which in turn induce radical effects on cell survival, growth, transformation and maintenance. The consequence of such perturbations is resulted in the alteration of bile secretion, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, detoxification and metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fat and balance of nutrients. The identification and elucidation of the molecular pathways perturbed by the viral proteins are important in order to design effective strategy to minimize and/or restore the hepatocytes injury. PMID:25253946

  20. Lipopolysaccharides in liver injury: molecular mechanisms of Kupffer cell activation.

    PubMed

    Su, Grace L

    2002-08-01

    Endogenous gut-derived bacterial lipopolysaccharides have been implicated as important cofactors in the pathogenesis of liver injury. However, the molecular mechanisms by which lipopolysaccharides exert their effect are not entirely clear. Recent studies have pointed to proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha as mediators of hepatocyte injury. Within the liver, Kupffer cells are major sources of proinflammatory cytokines that are produced in response to lipopolysaccharides. This review will focus on three important molecular components of the pathway by which lipopolysaccharides activate Kupffer cells: CD14, Toll-like receptor 4, and lipopolysaccharide binding protein. Within the liver, lipopolysaccharides bind to lipopolysaccharide binding protein, which then facilitates its transfer to membrane CD14 on the surface of Kupffer cells. Signaling of lipopolysaccharide through CD14 is mediated by the downstream receptor Toll-like receptor 4 and results in activation of Kupffer cells. The role played by these molecules in liver injury will be examined.

  1. Spinal Cord Injury Causes Chronic Liver Pathology in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbeck, Andrew D.; Laws, J. Lukas; Bandaru, Veera V.R.; Popovich, Phillip G.; Haughey, Norman J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes major disruption to peripheral organ innervation and regulation. Relatively little work has investigated these post-SCI systemic changes, however, despite considerable evidence that multiple organ system dysfunction contributes to chronic impairments in health. Because metabolic dysfunction is common after SCI and the liver is a pivotal site for metabolic homeostasis, we sought to determine if liver pathology occurs as a result of SCI in a rat spinal contusion model. Histologic evidence showed excess lipid accumulation in the liver for at least 21 days post-injury after cervical or midthoracic SCI. Lipidomic analysis revealed an acute increase in hepatic ceramides as well as chronically elevated lactosylceramide. Post-SCI hepatic changes also included increased proinflammatory gene expression, including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, chemokine ligand-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA. These were coincident with increased CD68+ macrophages in the liver through 21 days post-injury. Serum alanine transaminase, used clinically to detect liver damage, was significantly increased at 21 days post-injury, suggesting that early metabolic and inflammatory damage preceded overt liver pathology. Surprisingly, liver inflammation was even detected after lumbar SCI. Collectively, these results suggest that SCI produces chronic liver injury with symptoms strikingly similar to those of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (fatty liver disease). These clinically significant hepatic changes after SCI are known to contribute to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome, all of which are more prevalent in persons with SCI. Targeting acute and prolonged hepatic pathology may improve recovery and reduce long-term complications after SCI. PMID:25036371

  2. Liver Transplantation in the Mouse: Insights Into Liver Immunobiology, Tissue Injury and Allograft Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Ono, Yoshihiro; Geller, David A.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2016-01-01

    The surgically-demanding mouse orthotopic liver transplant model was first described in 1991. It has proved a powerful research tool for investigation of liver biology, tissue injury, the regulation of alloimmunity and tolerance induction and the pathogenesis of specific liver diseases. Liver transplantation in mice has unique advantages over transplantation of the liver in larger species, such as the rat or pig, since the mouse genome is well-characterized and there is much greater availability of both genetically-modified animals and research reagents. Liver transplant experiments using various transgenic or gene knockout mice has provided valuable mechanistic insights into the immuno- and pathobiology of the liver and the regulation of graft rejection and tolerance over the past 25 years. The molecular pathways identified in regulation of tissue injury and promotion of liver transplant tolerance provide new potential targets for therapeutic intervention to control adverse inflammatory responses/ immune-mediated events in the hepatic environment and systemically. Conclusion: Orthotopic liver transplantation in the mouse is a valuable model for gaining improved insights into liver biology, immunopathology and allograft tolerance that may result in therapeutic innovation in liver and other diseases. PMID:26709949

  3. Intestinal ischemic preconditioning reduces liver ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    XUE, TONG-MIN; TAO, LI-DE; ZHANG, JIE; ZHANG, PEI-JIAN; LIU, XIA; CHEN, GUO-FENG; ZHU, YI-JIA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate whether intestinal ischemic preconditioning (IP) reduces damage to the liver during hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR). Sprague Dawley rats were used to model liver IR injury, and were divided into the sham operation group (SO), IR group and IP group. The results indicated that IR significantly increased Bax, caspase 3 and NF-κBp65 expression levels, with reduced expression of Bcl-2 compared with the IP group. Compared with the IR group, the levels of AST, ALT, MPO, MDA, TNF-α and IL-1 were significantly reduced in the IP group. Immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2 and Bax indicated that Bcl-2 expression in the IP group was significantly increased compared with the IR group. In addition, IP reduced Bax expression compared with the IR group. The average liver injury was worsened in the IR group and improved in the IP group, as indicated by the morphological evaluation of liver tissues. The present study suggested that IP may alleviates apoptosis, reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, ameloriate reductions in liver function and reduce liver tissue injury. To conclude, IP provided protection against hepatic IR injury. PMID:26821057

  4. Lineage fate of ductular reactions in liver injury and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jörs, Simone; Jeliazkova, Petia; Ringelhan, Marc; Thalhammer, Julian; Dürl, Stephanie; Ferrer, Jorge; Sander, Maike; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Schmid, Roland M; Siveke, Jens T; Geisler, Fabian

    2015-06-01

    Ductular reactions (DRs) are observed in virtually all forms of human liver disease; however, the histogenesis and function of DRs in liver injury are not entirely understood. It is widely believed that DRs contain bipotential liver progenitor cells (LPCs) that serve as an emergency cell pool to regenerate both cholangiocytes and hepatocytes and may eventually give rise to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we used a murine model that allows highly efficient and specific lineage labeling of the biliary compartment to analyze the histogenesis of DRs and their potential contribution to liver regeneration and carcinogenesis. In multiple experimental and genetic liver injury models, biliary cells were the predominant precursors of DRs but lacked substantial capacity to produce new hepatocytes, even when liver injuries were prolonged up to 12 months. Genetic modulation of NOTCH and/or WNT/β-catenin signaling within lineage-tagged DRs impaired DR expansion but failed to redirect DRs from biliary differentiation toward the hepatocyte lineage. Further, lineage-labeled DRs did not produce tumors in genetic and chemical HCC mouse models. In summary, we found no evidence in our system to support mouse biliary-derived DRs as an LPC pool to replenish hepatocytes in a quantitatively relevant way in injury or evidence that DRs give rise to HCCs.

  5. S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE IN LIVER HEALTH, INJURY, AND CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shelly C.; Mato, José M.

    2013-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet, also known as SAM and SAMe) is the principal biological methyl donor synthesized in all mammalian cells but most abundantly in the liver. Biosynthesis of AdoMet requires the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). In mammals, two genes, MAT1A that is largely expressed by normal liver and MAT2A that is expressed by all extrahepatic tissues, encode MAT. Patients with chronic liver disease have reduced MAT activity and AdoMet levels. Mice lacking Mat1a have reduced hepatic AdoMet levels and develop oxidative stress, steatohepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In these mice, several signaling pathways are abnormal that can contribute to HCC formation. However, injury and HCC also occur if hepatic AdoMet level is excessive chronically. This can result from inactive mutation of the enzyme glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT). Children with GNMT mutation have elevated liver transaminases, and Gnmt knockout mice develop liver injury, fibrosis, and HCC. Thus a normal hepatic AdoMet level is necessary to maintain liver health and prevent injury and HCC. AdoMet is effective in cholestasis of pregnancy, and its role in other human liver diseases remains to be better defined. In experimental models, it is effective as a chemopreventive agent in HCC and perhaps other forms of cancer as well. PMID:23073625

  6. Liver metabolomics study reveals protective function of Phyllanthus urinaria against CCl4-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Hong-Cong; Zhang, Zun-Jian; Liu, Bu-Ming; Xu, Feng-Guo

    2017-07-01

    Phyllanthus Urinaria L. (PUL) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat hepatic and renal disorders. However, the mechanism of its hepatoprotective action is not fully understood. In the present study, blood biochemical indexes and liver histopathological changes were used to estimate the extent of hepatic injury. GC/MS and LC/MS-based untargeted metabolomics were used in combination to characterize the potential biomarkers associated with the protective activity of PUL against CCl 4 -induced liver injury in rats. PUL treatment could reverse the increase in ALT, AST and ALP induced by CCl 4 and attenuate the pathological changes in rat liver. Significant changes in liver metabolic profiling were observed in PUL-treated group compared with liver injury model group. Seventeen biomarkers related to the hepatoprotective effects of PUL against CCl 4 -induced liver injury were screened out using nonparametric test and Pearson's correlation analysis (OPLS-DA). The results suggested that the potential hepatoprotective effects of PUL in attenuating CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity could be partially attributed to regulating L-carnitine, taurocholic acid, and amino acids metabolism, which may become promising targets for treatment of liver toxicity. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mechanism of the hepatoprotection of Phyllanthus Urinaria. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Eosin fluorescence: A diagnostic tool for quantification of liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamid; Ali, Safdar; Mazhar, Maryam; Ali, Amjad; Jahan, Azra; Ali, Abid

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis is one of the most common life threatening diseases. The diagnosis is mainly based on biochemical analysis such as liver function test. However, histopathological evaluation of liver serves far better for more accurate final diagnosis. The goal of our study was to evaluate the eosin fluorescence pattern in CCl 4 -induced liver injury model compared with normal and different treatment groups. For this purpose, liver tissues were stained with H/E and examined under bright field microscope but the fluorescence microscopy of H/E stained slides provided an interesting fluorescence pattern and was quite helpful in identifying different structures. Interesting fluorescence patterns were obtained with FITC, Texas Red and Dual channel filter cubes that were quite helpful in identifying different morphological features of the liver. During the course of hepatic injury, liver cells undergo necrosis, apoptosis and overall cellular microenvironment is altered due to the modification of proteins and other intracellular molecules. Intensified eosin fluorescence was observed around the central vein of injured liver compared to normal indicating enhanced binding of eosin to the more exposed amino acid residues. To conclude, eosin fluorescence pattern varies with the health status of a tissue and can be used further for the diagnosis and quantification of severity of various liver diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Atypical onset of bicalutamide-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Yun, Gee Young; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Seok Won; Joo, Jong Seok; Kim, Ju Seok; Lee, Eaum Seok; Lee, Byung Seok; Kang, Sun Hyoung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Lee, Heon Young; Kim, Kyung Hee

    2016-04-21

    Anti-androgen therapy is the leading treatment for advanced prostate cancer and is commonly used for neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. Bicalutamide is a non-steroidal anti-androgen, used during the initiation of androgen deprivation therapy along with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist to reduce the symptoms of tumor-related flares in patients with advanced prostate cancer. As side effects, bicalutamide can cause fatigue, gynecomastia, and decreased libido through competitive androgen receptor blockade. Additionally, although not as common, drug-induced liver injury has also been reported. Herein, we report a case of hepatotoxicity secondary to bicalutamide use. Typically, bicalutamide-induced hepatotoxicity develops after a few days; however, in this case, hepatic injury occurred 5 mo after treatment initiation. Based on this rare case of delayed liver injury, we recommend careful monitoring of liver function throughout bicalutamide treatment for prostate cancer.

  9. Drug-induced liver injury: Do we know everything?

    PubMed Central

    Alempijevic, Tamara; Zec, Simon; Milosavljevic, Tomica

    2017-01-01

    Interest in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has dramatically increased over the past decade, and it has become a hot topic for clinicians, academics, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory bodies. By investigating the current state of the art, the latest scientific findings, controversies, and guidelines, this review will attempt to answer the question: Do we know everything? Since the first descriptions of hepatotoxicity over 70 years ago, more than 1000 drugs have been identified to date, however, much of our knowledge of diagnostic and pathophysiologic principles remains unchanged. Clinically ranging from asymptomatic transaminitis and acute or chronic hepatitis, to acute liver failure, DILI remains a leading causes of emergent liver transplant. The consumption of unregulated herbal and dietary supplements has introduced new challenges in epidemiological assessment and clinician management. As such, numerous registries have been created, including the United States Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network, to further our understanding of all aspects of DILI. The launch of LiverTox and other online hepatotoxicity resources has increased our awareness of DILI. In 2013, the first guidelines for the diagnosis and management of DILI, were offered by the Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology, and along with the identification of risk factors and predictors of injury, novel mechanisms of injury, refined causality assessment tools, and targeted treatment options have come to define the current state of the art, however, gaps in our knowledge still undoubtedly remain. PMID:28443154

  10. SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) knockdown protects mice from acute liver injury by reducing vascular endothelial cell damage

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, E; Atorrasagasti, C; Aquino, JB; Militello, R; Bayo, J; Fiore, E; Piccioni, F; Salvatierra, E; Alaniz, L; García, MG; Bataller, R; Corrales, F; Gidekel, M; Podhajcer, O; Colombo, MI; Mazzolini, G

    2015-01-01

    Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is involved in many biological process including liver fibrogenesis, but its role in acute liver damage is unknown. To examine the role of SPARC in acute liver injury, we used SPARC knock-out (SPARC−/−) mice. Two models of acute liver damage were used: concanavalin A (Con A) and the agonistic anti-CD95 antibody Jo2. SPARC expression levels were analyzed in liver samples from patients with acute-on-chronic alcoholic hepatitis (AH). SPARC expression is increased on acute-on-chronic AH patients. Knockdown of SPARC decreased hepatic damage in the two models of liver injury. SPARC−/− mice showed a marked reduction in Con A-induced necroinflammation. Infiltration by CD4+ T cells, expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 and apoptosis were attenuated in SPARC−/− mice. Sinusoidal endothelial cell monolayer was preserved and was less activated in Con A-treated SPARC−/− mice. SPARC knockdown reduced Con A-induced autophagy of cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Hepatic transcriptome analysis revealed several gene networks that may have a role in the attenuated liver damaged found in Con A-treated SPARC−/− mice. SPARC has a significant role in the development of Con A-induced severe liver injury. These results suggest that SPARC could represent a therapeutic target in acute liver injury. PMID:25410742

  11. Liver injury induced by herbal complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Seeff, Leonard B

    2013-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement use is common. Most marketed products consist of complex mixtures. Although they are perceived as safe, instances of hepatotoxicity attributable to these products underscore their potential for injury, but the exact component that is responsible for injury is difficult to discern. The lenient regulatory environment in the United States, which opens the possibility of adulteration and contamination, adds to the challenge of disease attribution. Although many different herbal and dietary supplements have been reported to cause liver injury, in the United States, products used for bodybuilding and weight loss are the most commonly implicated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Innate Immune Regulations and Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ling; Zhou, Haoming; Ni, Ming; Wang, Xuehao; Busuttil, Ronald; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy; Zhai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Liver ischemia reperfusion activates innate immune system to drive the full development of inflammatory hepatocellular injury. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) stimulate myeloid and dendritic cells via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate the immune response. Complex intracellular signaling network transduces inflammatory signaling to regulate both innate immune cell activation and parenchymal cell death. Recent studies have revealed that DAMPs may trigger not only proinflammatory, but also immune regulatory responses by activating different PRRs or distinctive intracellular signaling pathways or in special cell populations. Additionally, tissue injury milieu activates PRR-independent receptors which also regulate inflammatory disease processes. Thus, the innate immune mechanism of liver IRI involves diverse molecular and cellular interactions, subjected to both endogenous and exogenous regulation in different cells. A better understanding of these complicated regulatory pathways/network is imperative for us in designing safe and effective therapeutic strategy to ameliorate liver IRI in patients. PMID:27861288

  13. Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia and Acetaminophen Induce Synergistic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Savransky, Vladimir; Reinke, Christian; Jun, Jonathan; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Nanayakkara, Ashika; Li, Jianguo; Myers, Allen C.; Torbenson, Michael S.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during sleep. OSA has been associated with liver injury. Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most commonly used drugs, which has known hepatotoxicity. The goal of the present study was to examine whether CIH increases liver injury, hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation induced by chronic APAP treatment. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to CIH or intermittent air (IA) for 4 weeks. Mice in both groups were treated with intraperitoneal injections of either APAP (200 mg/kg) or normal saline daily. A combination of CIH and APAP caused liver injury with marked increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin levels, whereas CIH alone induced only elevation in serum AST levels. APAP alone did not affect serum levels of liver enzymes. Histopathology revealed hepatic necrosis and increased apoptosis in mice exposed to CIH and APAP, whereas the liver remained intact in all other groups. Mice exposed to CIH and APAP exhibited decreased hepatic glutathione in conjunction with a five-fold increase in nitrotyrosine levels, suggesting formation of toxic peroxynitrite in hepatocytes. APAP or CIH alone had no effect on either glutathione or nitrotyrosine. A combination of CIH and APAP caused marked increases in pro-inflammatory chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, which were not observed in mice exposed to CIH or APAP alone. We conclude that CIH and chronic APAP treatment lead to synergistic liver injury, which may have clinical implications for patients with OSA. PMID:19028810

  14. Drug-induced liver injury: present and future

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae

    2012-01-01

    Liver injury due to prescription and nonprescription medications is a growing medical, scientific, and public health problem. Worldwide, the estimated annual incidence rate of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is 13.9-24.0 per 100,000 inhabitants. DILI is one of the leading causes of acute liver failure in the US. In Korea, the annual extrapolated incidence of cases hospitalized at university hospital is 12/100,000 persons/year. Most cases of DILI are the result of idiosyncratic metabolic responses or unexpected reactions to medication. There is marked geographic variation in relevant agents; antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and psychotropic drugs are the most common offending agents in the West, whereas in Asia, 'herbs' and 'health foods or dietary supplements' are more common. Different medical circumstances also cause discrepancy in definition and classification of DILI between West and Asia. In the concern of causality assessment, the application of the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) scale frequently undercounts the cases caused by 'herbs' due to a lack of previous information and incompatible time criteria. Therefore, a more objective and reproducible tool that could be used for the diagnosis of DILI caused by 'herbs' is needed in Asia. In addition, a reporting system similar to the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) in the US should be established as soon as possible in Asia. PMID:23091804

  15. Augmenter of liver regeneration protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury by promoting autophagy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hongbo; Han, Weijia; Shi, Honglin; Ren, Feng; Chen, Dexi; Chen, Yu; Duan, Zhongping

    2017-01-01

    Background Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) exerts strong hepatoprotective properties in various animal models of liver injury, but its protective mechanisms have not yet been explored. Autophagy is a recently recognized rudimentary cellular response to inflammation and injury. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ALR may protect against acute liver injury through the autophagic pathway. Methods The level and role of ALR in liver injury were studied in a mouse model of acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The effect of ALR on autophagy was analyzed in vitro and in vivo. After autophagy was inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), apoptosis and proliferation were detected in the mouse model with acute liver injury. The ALR and autophagic levels were measured in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and acute liver failure (ALF), respectively. Results During the progression of acute liver injury, the ALR levels increased slightly in early stage and significantly decreased in late stage in mice Treatment with an ALR plasmid via tail vein injection protected mice against acute liver injury. The protective effect of ALR relied on the induction of autophagy, which was supported by the following evidence: (1) ALR overexpression directly induced autophagy flux in vitro and in vivo; and (2) ALR treatment suppressed apoptosis and promoted proliferation in mice exposed to CCl4, but the inhibition of autophagy reversed these effects. More importantly, the ALR levels decreased in patients with LC and ALF compared with normal controls. Conclusion We demonstrated that ALR ameliorated liver injury via an autophagic mechanism, which indicates a potential therapeutic application for liver injury. PMID:28061452

  16. Baicalein Reduces Liver Injury Induced by Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chang-Chi; Huang, Po-Hsun; Yang, An-Han; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Tang, Chia-Yu; Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Baicalein is a component of the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which has traditionally been used to treat liver disease in China. In the present study, we investigated baicalein' ability to reduce the liver injury induced by myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Myocardial I/R was induced in this experiment by a 40[Formula: see text]min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and a 3[Formula: see text]h reperfusion in rats. The induced myocardial I/R significantly increased the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), indicating the presence of liver injury. Hepatic apoptosis was significantly increased. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] (TNF-[Formula: see text]), interleukin-1[Formula: see text] (IL-1[Formula: see text]), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly elevated, as was the TNF-[Formula: see text] level in the liver. Intravenous pretreatment with baicalein (3, 10, or 30[Formula: see text]mg/kg) 10[Formula: see text]min before myocardial I/R significantly reduced the serum level increase of AST and ALT, apoptosis in the liver, and the elevation of TNF-[Formula: see text], IL-1[Formula: see text], and IL-6 levels. Moreover, baicalein increased Bcl-2 and decreased Bax in the liver. Phosphorylation of the prosurvival kinases, including Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), was also increased. In conclusion, we found that baicalein can reduce the liver injury induced by myocardial I/R. The underlying mechanisms are likely related to the inhibition of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, possibly via the inhibition of TNF-[Formula: see text] production, the modulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, and the activation of Akt and ERK1/2. Our findings may provide a rationale for the application of baicalein or traditional Chinese medicine containing large amounts of baicalein to prevent liver injury in acute myocardial infarction and cardiac

  17. Ginseng for Liver Injury: Friend or Foe?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Panax sp., including Panax ginseng Meyer, Panax quiquifolius L., or Panax notoginseng (Burk.) FH Chen, have been used as functional foods or for traditional Chinese medicine for diabetes, inflammation, stress, aging, hepatic injury, and cancer. In recent decades, a number of both in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as human studies have been conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of various types of ginseng samples and their components. Of these, the hepatoprotective and hepatotoxic effects of ginseng and their ginsenosides and polysaccharides are reviewed and summarized. PMID:28930143

  18. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MICE LIVER IN DYNAMICS OF CONCANAVALIN A - INDUCED HEPATITIS.

    PubMed

    Pavlovych, S I; Makogon, N V; Grushka, N G; Bryzgina, T M; Janchiy, R I

    The injure of the liver tissue and its infiltration by cells of the innate and adaptive immunity in dynamics of Con A-induced hepatitis in mice was studied. The semiquantitative method of damage rate of microcirculation channel and liver parenchyma was used, leukocyte liver infiltration and cellular composition of infiltrates were investigated also. Primary liver reaction to the Con-A was the inflammatory changes in the vascular bed, followed by disturbances in the parenchyma.The sufficient increasing of leukocyte migration to the liver was revealed. Besides, the neutrophile infiltration was increased first with a maximum at 6 hours of the experiment (63,9 ±4,6%, p<0,001 to the control level) ,and then the lymphocyte infiltration was increased with creation of manycellular lymphocytemacrophage infiltrates (62% at 48 hours comparing to 6 hours of experiment) and sufficient quantity of plasma cells population (4,9%, p<0,05 comparing to 6 hours of experiment). The obtained data gives the base to suggest that the elevated infiltration of liver tissue by leukocytes, particularly by lymphocytes and monocytes, together with necrotic death increasing creats the conditions for effective intracellular interaction and immune response to autoantigenes. This can be the essential pathogenic mechanism of development of autoimmune liver deseases.

  20. Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Pattern Recognition and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Tanvir; Sasatomi, Eizaburo; Hayashi, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a significant clinical challenge and is the leading cause of acute liver failure in most countries. An aging population that uses more medications, a constant influx of newly developed drugs and a growing risk from unfamiliar herbal and dietary supplements will make DILI an increasing part of clinical practice. Currently, the most effective strategy for disease management is rapid identification, withholding the inciting agents, supportive care and having a firm understanding of the expected natural history. There are resources available to aid the clinician, including a new online “textbook” as well as causality assessment tools, but a heightened awareness of risk and the disease’s varying phenotypes and good history-taking remain cornerstones to diagnosis. Looking ahead, growing registries of cases, pharmacoepidemiology studies and translational research into the mechanisms of injury may produce better diagnostic tools, markers for risk and disease, and prevention and therapeutics. PMID:26696029

  1. Phycocyanobilin accelerates liver regeneration and reduces mortality rate in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Yu, Li-Ming; Liu, Bin; Li, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Run-Zhi

    2015-05-14

    To investigate the hepatoprotective effects of phycocyanobilin (PCB) in reducing hepatic injury and accelerating hepatocyte proliferation following carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered PCB 100 mg/kg for 4 d after CCl4 injection, and then the serum and liver tissue of the mice were collected at days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after CCl4 treatment. A series of evaluations were performed to identify the curative effects on liver injury and recovery. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected to indirectly assess the anti-inflammatory effects of PCB. Meanwhile, we detected the expressions of hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), the factors which are associated with inflammation and liver regeneration. The protein expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TNF-α and cytochrome C were detected by western blot. Furthermore, the survival rates were analyzed of mice which were administered a lethal dose of CCl4 (2.6 mg/kg) with or without PCB. In our research, PCB showed a strongly anti-inflammatory effect on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. The ALT was significantly decreased after CCl4 treatment from day 1 (P < 0.01) and the AST was significantly decreased from day 2 (P < 0.001). Both albumin and liver SOD were increased from day 2 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01), but serum SOD levels did not show a significant increase (P > 0.05). PCB protected the structure of liver from the injury by CCl4. TUNEL assay showed that PCB dramatically reduced the number of apoptotic cells after CCl4 treatment compared to the control (101.0 ± 25.4 vs 25.7 ± 6.4, P < 0.01). The result of western blotting showed that PCB could increase PCNA expression, decrease TNF-α and cytochrome C expression. Furthermore, data shows that PCB could improve the survival rate of acute liver

  2. Phycocyanobilin accelerates liver regeneration and reduces mortality rate in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Yu, Li-Ming; Liu, Bin; Li, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Run-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effects of phycocyanobilin (PCB) in reducing hepatic injury and accelerating hepatocyte proliferation following carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were orally administered PCB 100 mg/kg for 4 d after CCl4 injection, and then the serum and liver tissue of the mice were collected at days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after CCl4 treatment. A series of evaluations were performed to identify the curative effects on liver injury and recovery. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected to indirectly assess the anti-inflammatory effects of PCB. Meanwhile, we detected the expressions of hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), the factors which are associated with inflammation and liver regeneration. The protein expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TNF-α and cytochrome C were detected by western blot. Furthermore, the survival rates were analyzed of mice which were administered a lethal dose of CCl4 (2.6 mg/kg) with or without PCB. RESULTS: In our research, PCB showed a strongly anti-inflammatory effect on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. The ALT was significantly decreased after CCl4 treatment from day 1 (P < 0.01) and the AST was significantly decreased from day 2 (P < 0.001). Both albumin and liver SOD were increased from day 2 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01), but serum SOD levels did not show a significant increase (P > 0.05). PCB protected the structure of liver from the injury by CCl4. TUNEL assay showed that PCB dramatically reduced the number of apoptotic cells after CCl4 treatment compared to the control (101.0 ± 25.4 vs 25.7 ± 6.4, P < 0.01). The result of western blotting showed that PCB could increase PCNA expression, decrease TNF-α and cytochrome C expression. Furthermore, data shows that PCB could improve the

  3. Natural history of nonoperative management for grade 4 and 5 liver and spleen injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeannie C; Sharp, Susan W; Ostlie, Daniel J; Holcomb, George W; St Peter, Shawn D

    2008-12-01

    Nonoperative management is standard treatment of blunt liver or spleen injuries. However, there are few reports outlining the natural history and outcomes of severe blunt hepatic and splenic trauma. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with nonoperative management of grade 4 or 5 liver and spleen injuries. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with grade 4 or 5 (high-grade) blunt liver and/or spleen injuries from April 1997 to July 2007 at our children's hospital. Demographics, hospital course data, and follow-up data were analyzed. There were 74 high-grade injuries in 72 patients. There were 30 high-grade liver and 44 high-grade spleen injuries. Two patients had both a liver and splenic injury. High-grade liver injuries had a significantly longer length of intensive care and hospital stay compared to high-grade spleen injuries. There were also a significantly higher number of transfusions, radiographs, and total charges in the high-grade liver injuries when compared to the high-grade splenic injuries. The only mortality from solid organ injury was a grade 4 liver injury with portal vein disruption. In contrast, there was only one complication from a high-grade splenic injury-a pleural effusion treated with thoracentesis. There were 5 patients with complications from their liver injury requiring 18 therapeutic procedures. Three patients (10%) with liver injury required readmission as follows: one 5 times, one 3 times, and another one time. Patients with high-grade liver injuries have a longer recovery, more complications, and greater use of resources than in patients with similar injuries to the spleen.

  4. An Update on Drug-induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Devarbhavi, Harshad

    2012-09-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following drugs taken in therapeutic doses. Hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of attrition in drug development, or withdrawal or restricted use after marketing. No age is exempt although adults and the elderly are at increased risk. DILI spans the entire spectrum ranging from asymptomatic elevation in transaminases to severe disease such as acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure. The liver specific Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is the most validated and extensively used for determining the likelihood that an implicated drug caused DILI. Asymptomatic elevation in liver tests must be differentiated from adaptation. Drugs producing DILI have a signature pattern although no single pattern is characteristic. Antimicrobial and central nervous system agents including antiepileptic drugs are the leading causes of DILI worldwide. In the absence of a diagnostic test or a biomarker, the diagnosis rests on the evidence of absence of competing causes such as acute viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis and others. Recent studies show that antituberculosis drugs given for active or latent disease are still a major cause of drug-induced liver injury in India and the West respectively. Presence of jaundice signifies a severe disease and entails a worse outcome. The pathogenesis is unclear and is due to a mix of host, drug metabolite and environmental factors. Research has evolved from incriminating candidate genes to genome wide analysis studies. Immediate cessation of the drug is key to prevent or minimize progressive damage. Treatment is largely supportive. N-acetylcysteine is the antidote for paracetamol toxicity. Carnitine has been tried in valproate injury whereas steroids and ursodeoxycholic acid may be used in DILI associated with hypersensitivity or cholestatic features respectively. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, the patterns of

  5. Outcome of children with blunt liver or spleen injuries: Experience from a single institution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Woon-Won

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the demographics, injury pattern, and treatment outcomes among children hospitalized for the management of blunt liver and spleen injury at a single institution in Korea, and to document trends in treatment strategies of children with blunt torso trauma. Children (<20 years) with blunt liver and spleen injuries, hospitalized at our center between May 2010 and February 2016, were included in the present study. Data were retrospectively analyzed for demographic and injury-related information were obtained. During the study period, 34 patients with blunt liver injury and 21 patients with blunt spleen injury presented at the center. The most common cause of liver and spleen injury was motor vehicle collision, followed by fall. Thirty patients (88.2%) with liver injuries and 18 patients (85.7%) with spleen injuries were managed conservatively. No cases of mortality occurred in patients with spleen injury group; one patient (2.9%) died in patients with liver injury due to uncontrolled bleeding. Our data demonstrated that 85.7% of patients with spleen injuries and 88.2% of patients with liver injuries were managed nonoperatively. Operative management was chosen more selectively, being applied in patients with high grade organ injury scores or abrupt changes in vital status. Our findings will contribute to the available data concerning children with traumatic injuries in Korea. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute kidney injury in acute liver failure: a review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joanna K; Love, Eleanor; Craig, Darren G; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2013-11-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare and often devastating condition consequent on massive liver cell necrosis that frequently affects young, previously healthy individuals resulting in altered cognitive function, coagulopathy and peripheral vasodilation. These patients frequently develop concurrent acute kidney injury (AKI). This abrupt and sustained decline in renal function, through a number of pathogenic mechanisms such as renal hypoperfusion, direct drug-induced nephrotoxicity or sepsis/systemic inflammatory response contributes to increased morbidity and is strongly associated with a worse prognosis. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology AKI in the context of acute liver failure may be beneficial in a number of areas; the development of new and sensitive biomarkers of renal dysfunction, refining prognosis and organ allocation, and ultimately leading to the development of novel treatment strategies, these issues are discussed in more detail in this expert review.

  7. Systematic review of severe acute liver injury caused by terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Wang, Xiaolin; Chen, Shengli

    2014-08-01

    Terbinafine is an effective antimicrobial agent against dermatophytes, cryptococcus and other fungi. It is the preferred drug to treat onychomycosis. However, severe acute hepatitis from oral terbinafine administration has been recently reported. To describe a representative case, and review the literature regarding the best evidence on treatment and prognosis of severe acute hepatitis caused by oral terbinafine. The literature was searched for publications on severe hepatitis caused by terbinafine using MEDLINE, China Biology Medicine Disc, and the VIP Medical Information Resource System. Related references were searched manually. Seventeen English and three Chinese references of case reports were included after eliminating duplicate publications. No randomized control studies were found. Liver enzyme levels were found to have been increased significantly. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated cholestasis. Severe acute liver injury is a known, but unusual complication of terbinafine exposure. The prognosis is often good with appropriate treatment. Liver function assessment before treatment and periodic monitoring 4-6 weeks after initiation of treatment is recommended.

  8. Herb-Induced Liver Injuries in Developing Nations: An Update.

    PubMed

    Amadi, Cecilia Nwadiuto; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2018-04-17

    The last few decades have seen a rise in the use of herbal supplements, natural products, and traditional medicines. However, there are growing concerns related to the safety and toxicities of these medicines. These herbal medicines are associated with complications such as liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic cases with abnormal liver functions tests to sudden and severe liver failure necessitating liver transplantation. This work aimed to review the etiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and selected clinical case reports of herbal hepatotoxicity in developing nations. PubMed and Google Scholar searches were undertaken to identify relevant literature. Furthermore, we scanned the reference lists of the primary and review articles to identify publications not retrieved by electronic searches. Little data exists on clinical cases of herb-induced liver injury in some developing countries such as Nigeria, as most incidences are either not reported to health care providers or reports from hospitals go unpublished. Studies in Nigeria have highlighted a possible correlation between use of herbs and liver disease. In Uganda, and association between the use of traditional herbal medicine with liver fibrosis in HIV-infected and non-HIV patients was demonstrated. Reports from China have revealed incidences of acute liver failure as a result of herbal medicine use. The actual incidence and prevalence of HILI in developing nations remain largely unknown due to both poor pharmacovigilance programs and non-application of emerging technologies. Improving education and public awareness of the potential risks of herbals and herbal products is desirable to ensure that suspected adverse effects are formally reported. There is need for stricter regulations and pre-clinical studies necessary for efficacy and safety.

  9. Apocynum venetum Attenuates Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenyan; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Zhihui; Wang, Jian; Melzig, Matthias F; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Apocynum venetum L. (A. venetum) has long been used in oriental folk medicine for the treatment of some liver diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic drug that can cause acute liver injury in overdose situations. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effect of A. venetum leaf extract (ALE) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Mice were intragastrically administered with ALE once daily for 3 consecutive days prior to receiving a single intraperitoneal injection of APAP. The APAP group showed severe liver injury characterized by the noticeable fluctuations in the following parameters: serum aminotransferases; hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH). These liver damages induced by APAP were significantly attenuated by ALE pretreatments. A collective analysis of histopathological examination, DNA laddering and western blot for caspase-3 and cytochrome c indicated that the ALE is also capable of preventing APAP-induced hepatocyte death. Hyperoside, isoquercitrin and their derivatives have been identified as the major components of ALE using HPLC-MS/MS. Taken together, the A. venetum possesses hepatoprotective effects partially due to its anti-oxidant action.

  10. Drug-induced liver injury caused by iodine-131.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chei Won; Park, Ji Sun; Oh, Se Hwan; Park, Jae-Hyung; Shim, Hyun-Ik; Yoon, Jae Woong; Park, Jin Seok; Hong, Seong Bin; Kim, Jun Mi; Le, Trong Binh; Lee, Jin Woo

    2016-06-01

    Iodine-131 is a radioisotope that is routinely used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer after total or near-total thyroidectomy. However, there is some evidence that iodine-131 can induce liver injury . Here we report a rare case of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by iodine-131 in a patient with regional lymph node metastasis after total thyroidectomy. A 47-year-old woman was admitted with elevated liver enzymes and symptoms of general weakness and nausea. Ten weeks earlier she had undergone a total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma and had subsequently been prescribed levothyroxine to reduce the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Eight weeks after surgery she underwent iodine-131 ablative therapy at a dose of 100 millicuries, and subsequently presented with acute hepatitis after 10 days. To rule out all possible causative factors, abdominal ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonography (on the biliary tree and gall bladder), and a liver biopsy were performed. DILI caused by iodine-131 was suspected. Oral prednisolone was started at 30 mg/day, to which the patient responded well.

  11. Hyperhomocysteinemia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and alcoholic liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Cheng; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Deficiencies in vitamins or other factors (B6, B12, folic acid, betaine) and genetic disorders for the metabolism of the non-protein amino acid-homocysteine (Hcy) lead to hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). HHcy is an integral component of several disorders including cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, diabetes and alcoholic liver disease. HHcy unleashes mediators of inflammation such as NFκB, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, increases production of intracellular superoxide anion causing oxidative stress and reducing intracellular level of nitric oxide (NO), and induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which can explain many processes of Hcy-promoted cell injury such as apoptosis, fat accumulation, and inflammation. Animal models have played an important role in determining the biological effects of HHcy. ER stress may also be involved in other liver diseases such as α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) deficiency and hepatitis C and/or B virus infection. Future research should evaluate the possible potentiative effects of alcohol and hepatic virus infection on ER stress-induced liver injury, study potentially beneficial effects of lowering Hcy and preventing ER stress in alcoholic humans, and examine polymorphism of Hcy metabolizing enzymes as potential risk-factors for the development of HHcy and liver disease. PMID:15188490

  12. Drug-induced liver injury caused by iodine-131

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won; Park, Ji Sun; Oh, Se Hwan; Park, Jae-Hyung; Shim, Hyun-Ik; Yoon, Jae Woong; Park, Jin Seok; Hong, Seong Bin; Kim, Jun Mi; Le, Trong Binh; Lee, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    Iodine-131 is a radioisotope that is routinely used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer after total or near-total thyroidectomy. However, there is some evidence that iodine-131 can induce liver injury . Here we report a rare case of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by iodine-131 in a patient with regional lymph node metastasis after total thyroidectomy. A 47-year-old woman was admitted with elevated liver enzymes and symptoms of general weakness and nausea. Ten weeks earlier she had undergone a total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma and had subsequently been prescribed levothyroxine to reduce the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Eight weeks after surgery she underwent iodine-131 ablative therapy at a dose of 100 millicuries, and subsequently presented with acute hepatitis after 10 days. To rule out all possible causative factors, abdominal ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonography (on the biliary tree and gall bladder), and a liver biopsy were performed. DILI caused by iodine-131 was suspected. Oral prednisolone was started at 30 mg/day, to which the patient responded well. PMID:27209646

  13. GGPPS deficiency aggravates CCl4-induced liver injury by inducing hepatocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Bo; Lai, Shan-Shan; Yu, De-Cai; Liu, Jia; Jiang, Shan; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Ding, Yi-Tao; Li, Chao-Jun; Xue, Bin

    2015-04-28

    GGPPS catalyses the expression of GGPP, a key protein in the mevalonate metabolic pathway. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor statins can induce liver injury by inhibiting GGPP. However, the function of GGPPS in liver injury has not yet been revealed. In this study, we found that GGPPS increased in liver injury and that GGPPS deletion augmented liver injury and fibrosis. GGPPS inhibition induced hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation and TGF-β1 secretion, which activated hepatic stellate cells. Our findings imply that GGPPS deletion induces hepatocyte apoptosis, which makes the liver vulnerable to hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of the inflammasome in acetaminophen-induced liver injury and acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Woolbright, Benjamin L; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    Drug-induced acute liver failure carries a high morbidity and mortality rate. Acetaminophen overdose is the number one cause of acute liver failure and remains a major problem in Western medicine. Administration of N-acetyl cysteine is an effective antidote when given before the initial rise in toxicity; however, many patients present to the hospital after this stage occurs. As such, treatments which can alleviate late-stage acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure are imperative. While the initial mechanisms of toxicity are well described, a debate has recently occurred in the literature over whether there is a second phase of injury, mediated by inflammatory processes. Critical to this potential inflammatory process is the activation of caspase-1 and interleukin-1β by a molecular complex known as the inflammasome. Several different stimuli for the formation of multiple different inflammasome complexes have been identified. Formation of the NACHT, leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and pyrin (PYD) domains-containing protein 3 (Nalp3) inflammasome in particular, has directly been attributed to late-stage acetaminophen toxicity. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice and man with a particular focus on the role of inflammation and the inflammasome. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining the optimal cut-off values for liver enzymes in diagnosing blunt liver injury.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomohide; Hamada, Hirohisa; Nishida, Masamichi; Naess, Paal A; Gaarder, Christine; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-01-25

    Patients with blunt trauma to the liver have elevated levels of liver enzymes within a short time post injury, potentially useful in screening patients for computed tomography (CT). This study was performed to define the optimal cut-off values for serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with blunt liver injury diagnosed with contrast enhanced multi detector-row CT (CE-MDCT). All patients admitted from May 2006 to July 2013 to Teikyo University Hospital Trauma and Critical Care Center, and who underwent abdominal CE-MDCT within 3 h after blunt trauma, were retrospectively enrolled. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the optimal cut-off values for AST and ALT were defined, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Of a total of 676 blunt trauma patients 64 patients were diagnosed with liver injury (Group LI+) and 612 patients without liver injury (Group LI-). Group LI+ and LI- were comparable for age, Revised Trauma Score, and Probability of survival. The groups differed in Injury Severity Score [median 21 (interquartile range 9-33) vs. 17 (9-26) (p < 0.01)]. Group LI+ had higher AST than LI- [276 (48-503) vs. 44 (16-73); p < 0.001] and higher ALT [240 (92-388) vs. 32 (16-49); p < 0.001]. Using ROC curve analysis, the optimal cut-off values for AST and ALT were set at 109 U/l and 97 U/l, respectively. Based on these values, AST ≥ 109 U/l had a sensitivity of 81%, a specificity of 82%, a positive predictive value of 32%, and a negative predictive value of 98%. The corresponding values for ALT ≥ 97 U/l were 78, 88, 41 and 98%, respectively, and for the combination of AST ≥ 109 U/l and/or ALT ≥ 97 U/l were 84, 81, 32, 98%, respectively. We have identified AST ≥ 109 U/l and ALT ≥ 97 U/l as optimal cut-off values in predicting the presence of liver injury, potentially useful as a screening tool for CT scan in patients otherwise eligible for observation only or as a transfer

  16. Suppression of immune-mediated liver injury after vaccination with attenuated pathogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yunhua; Wang, Ying; Xu, Lingyun

    2007-05-15

    Cell vaccination via immunization with attenuated pathogenic cells is an effective preventive method that has been successfully applied in several animal models of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis (CIH) is a commonly used experimental model to study immune-mediated liver injury. Multiple cell types including T lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of CIH. In this study, we used attenuated spleen lymphocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes as vaccines to investigate whether they could induce protective immune responses to prevent mice from developing CIH. We found that mice receiving such vaccination before CIH induction developed much milder diseases, exhibited a lower level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) released into their plasma and had less inflammatory lesions in their livers. Such CIH-suppression is dose- and frequency-dependent. The suppressive effect was associated with inhibition of several major inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

  17. [Protective effect of octreotide on liver warm ischemia reperfusion injury].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie-qun; Qi, Hai-zhi; He, Zhi-jun; Hu, Wei; Si, Zhong-zhou; Li, Yi-ning

    2006-10-01

    To explore the protective effect of octreotide on liver warm ischemia-reperfusion injury and its possible mechanism. Pringle's maneuver liver ischemia-reperfusion models were established. Forty eight male Sprague Daweley rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group (S group, n=16), an ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R group, n=16) and an octreotide preconditioning group (OPC group, n=16). ALT and AST in the serum were measured at 30 min after the ischemia and 120 min after the reperfusion. The histomorphological changes and ultrastructure of hepatocellular were observed by optic and transmission electronic microscope. Hepatic adenine nucleotide levels and energy changes (EC) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (1) At 30 min after the ischemia and 120 min after the reperfusion, the levels of ALT and AST in the serum of OPC group was lower than those in I/R group, whereas the levels of ATP and EC in the hepatic tissue were higher than those in the I/R group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with the I/R group, the injury of hepatocellular histomorphology and ultrastructure in the OPC group was abated. (2) At 30, 60, and 120 min after the reperfusion, the levels of ATP and EC in the OPC groups were higher than those in the I/R group. During the ischemia, the levels of ATP and EC in the OPC group dropped more slowly than those in the I/R group, but ATP and EC in the OPC groups rose more quickly than those in the I/R group during the reperfusion. Octreotide precondition can improve the hepatocellular energy reserve, and protect the liver from warm ischemia-reperfusion injury. The protective of octreotide on warm ischemia-reperfusion injury may be related to its influence on endocrine secretion.

  18. Comparison of isolated and concomitant liver injuries: is hepatic trauma entirely responsible for the outcome?

    PubMed

    Yazici, P; Aydin, U; Sozbilen, M

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine both isolated and concomitant liver injuries to clarify the role of liver trauma on outcome. This retrospective study was a review of all abdominal trauma patients who presented with liver injuries, with or without concomitant injury at Ege University School of Medicine over a 3-year period. Presentation, injury grade, management, and outcomes were analyzed. Patients with isolated hepatic injury (Group A) were compared with patients who had concomitant hepatic injury (liver and spleen/small bowel) (Group B). Significance was set at 95% confidence intervals. Of 368 patients, 80 (21%) presented with liver injury. Of these, the aetiology was as follows: 53 (66.2%) blunt injury, 19 (23%) penetrating injury, and 8 (10%) gun shot trauma. There were 38 patients in Group A and 42 in Group B. Of these 42 patients, 19 were diagnosed with serious types of injury ; eight thoracic, three open long bone fracture, one intra-cardiac, one intracranial. Six additional patients were observed with injuries to large abdominal vessels. Eleven patients (28.9%) with isolated hepatic injury were managed non-operatively. Mortality, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and transfusion requirements were significantly higher in Group B. Only the number of transfused blood units and the grade of liver injury were found to be effective on outcome whereas stepwise regression analysis revealed that injury type (penetrating) and blood transfusion were predictive for mortality. This study highlighted that although isolated liver injury results in good outcome with non-operative management, concomitant injuries to the liver lead to a higher failure and mortality rate. However, liver injury itself is rarely responsible for death.

  19. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kai C.; Liu, Jie J.; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-nullmore » mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 promotes liver regeneration in mice with acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sihyung; Lee, Ji-Seon; Hyun, Jeongeun; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Seung U; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Jung, Youngmi

    2015-03-11

    Tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6), one of the cytokines released by human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSC), has an anti-inflammatory effect and alleviates several pathological conditions; however, the hepatoprotective potential of TSG-6 remains unclear. We investigated whether TSG-6 promoted liver regeneration in acute liver failure. The immortalized hMSC (B10) constitutively over-expressing TSG-6 or empty plasmid (NC: Negative Control) were established, and either TSG-6 or NC-conditioned medium (CM) was intraperitoneally injected into mice with acute liver damage caused by CCl4. Mice were sacrificed at 3 days post-CM treatment. Higher expression and the immunosuppressive activity of TSG-6 were observed in CM from TSG-6-hMSC. The obvious histomorphological liver injury and increased level of liver enzymes were shown in CCl4-treated mice with or without NC-CM, whereas those observations were markedly ameliorated in TSG-6-CM-treated mice with CCl4. Ki67-positive hepatocytic cells were accumulated in the liver of the CCl4+TSG-6 group. RNA analysis showed the decrease in both of inflammation markers, tnfα, il-1β, cxcl1 and cxcl2, and fibrotic markers, tgf-β1, α-sma and collagen α1, in the CCl4+TSG-6 group, compared to the CCl4 or the CCl4+NC group. Protein analysis confirmed the lower expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in the CCl4+TSG-6 than the CCl4 or the CCl4+NC group. Immunostaining for α-SMA also revealed the accumulation of the activated hepatic stellate cells in the livers of mice in the CCl4 and CCl4+NC groups, but not in the livers of mice from the CCl4+TSG-6 group. The cultured LX2 cells, human hepatic stellate cell line, in TSG-6-CM showed the reduced expression of fibrotic markers, tgf-β1, vimentin and collagen α1, whereas the addition of the TSG-6 antibody neutralized the inhibitory effect of TSG-6 on the activation of LX2 cells. In addition, cytoplasmic lipid drops, the marker of inactivated hepatic stellate cell, were

  1. Antifibrotic mechanism of deferoxamine in concanavalin A induced-liver fibrosis: Impact on interferon therapy.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Samar F; El-Bakly, Wesam M; El-Naga, Reem N; Awad, Azza S; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2015-11-01

    Iron-overload is a well-known factor of hepatotoxicity and liver fibrosis, which found to be a common finding among hepatitis C virus patients and related to interferon resistance. We aimed to elucidate the potential antifibrotic effect of deferoxamine; the main iron chelator, and its additional usefulness to interferon-based therapy in concanavalin A-induced immunological model of liver fibrosis. Rats were treated with deferoxamine and/or pegylated interferon-α for 6 weeks. Hepatotoxicity indices, oxidative stress, inflammatory and liver fibrosis markers were assessed. Concanavalin A induced a significant increase in hepatotoxicity indices and lipid peroxidation accompanied with a significant depletion of total antioxidant capacity, glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity. Besides, it increased CD4(+) T-cells content and the downstream inflammatory cascades, including NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, α-SMA, TGF-β1 and hydroxyproline were increased markedly, which confirmed by histopathology. Treatment with either deferoxamine or pegylated interferon-α alone reduced liver fibrosis markers significantly and improved liver histology. However, some of the hepatotoxicity indices and oxidative stress markers did not improve upon pegylated interferon-α treatment alone, besides the remarkable increase in IL-6. Combination therapy of deferoxamine with pegylated interferon-α further improved all previous markers, ameliorated IL-6 elevation, as well as increased hepcidin expression. In conclusion, our study provides evidences for the potent antifibrotic effects of deferoxamine and the underlying mechanisms that involved attenuating oxidative stress and subsequent inflammatory cascade, as well as the production of profibrogenic factors. Addition of deferoxamine to interferon regimen for HCV patients may offer a promising adjuvant modality to enhance therapeutic response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. How to Diagnose and Exclude Drug-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is largely a diagnosis of exclusion because, with the possible exception of protein:drug adducts in paracetamol overdose, there are no laboratory, biopsy or imaging tests that alone are capable of establishing an unequivocal diagnosis of DILI. However, it is increasingly appreciated that drugs that cause DILI typically have characteristic clinical presentations or 'signatures' that can be very useful in the diagnosis of DILI. Indeed, knowing a drug's DILI signature (or sometimes signatures) and the incidence rate of DILI during treatment with that drug are perhaps the most useful pieces of historical information in arriving at the diagnosis of DILI. Components of the signature include the typical latency from the onset of treatment, whether there are extrahepatic manifestations, whether the injury is hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed, and sometimes characteristic features on biopsy or serological testing (e.g. liver autoantibodies). A major advance has been the establishment of the LiverTox website (http://livertox.nih.gov/) which provides open access to standardized entries for over 600 different drugs, including the characteristic clinical presentations of DILI when known. LiverTox will also calculate the causality score for individual cases using the RUCAM instrument and case-specific data entered by the site user. However, the problem with standard diagnostic instruments such as the RUCAM is that DILI signatures are not incorporated into the scoring system. The person entering data must therefore subjectively weigh the RUCAM score with the characteristic DILI signature(s) of the drug to arrive at a diagnosis. In the future, it should be possible to construct improved diagnostic instruments that objectively incorporate DILI signatures, data-based estimates of the incidence rates of DILI from each implicated drug, and perhaps genetic variants associated with the risk of DILI. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Protective effect of thalidomide on endotoxin-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Hirose, Miyoko; Kitamura, Tsuneo; Ikejima, Kenichi; Sato, Nobuhiro

    2003-08-01

    Activation of Kupffer cells by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a pivotal role in the onset of pathophysiological events that occur during endotoxemia, and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is involved in LPS-stimulated cytokine production. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is produced exclusively by the monocyte-macrophage lineage, which is mostly made up of Kupffer cells, and thalidomide has been shown to reduce TNF-alpha production from macrophages. However, there is increasing evidence that TNF-alpha may play a role in the initiation or progression of multiple organ failure syndrome. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to determine whether thalidomide could prevent LPS-induced liver injury. Rats were given a single oral dose of thalidomide (5 mg/kg). To assess the sensitization of Kupffer cells, LPS (5 or 10 mg/kg) was administered intravenously, and mortality, liver histology, and transaminases were evaluated 24 hr later. Kupffer cells were isolated 2 hr after thalidomide treatment. After the addition of LPS, [Ca2+]i was measured by using a microspectrofluorometer with the fluorescent indicator fura-2, and TNF-alpha was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. LPS caused focal necrosis with neutrophil infiltration in the liver. Moreover, LPS dramatically increased transaminases. These pathologic parameters and increases of serum transaminases were diminished markedly by thalidomide. In isolated Kupffer cells, LPS-induced increases in [Ca2+]i and TNF-alpha production were suppressed by treatment with thalidomide. To further explore the mechanism by which thalidomide directly abrogated Kupffer cell sensitivity to LPS, we determined the effect of thalidomide (5 microM) in vitro on LPS-induced [Ca2+]i response and TNF-alpha production. With the addition of thalidomide (5 microM) in vitro to the culture media for 2 hr before LPS, these parameters were suppressed. Thalidomide prevents LPS-induced liver injury via mechanisms dependent on the

  4. The role of CYP2A5 in liver injury and fibrosis: chemical-specific difference.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng; Si, Chuanping; Gao, Pengfei; Cederbaum, Arthur I; Xiong, Huabao; Lu, Yongke

    2016-01-01

    Liver injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) or thioacetamide (TAA) are dependent on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). CYP2A5 can be induced by TAA but not by CCL4. In this study, liver injury including fibrosis induced by CCL4 or TAA were investigated in wild-type (WT) mice and CYP2A5 knockout (cyp2a5 (-/-) ) mice as well as in CYP2E1 knockout (cyp2e1 (-/-) ) mice as a comparison. Acute and subchronic liver injuries including fibrosis were induced by CCL4 and TAA in WT mice but not in cyp2e1 (-/-) mice, confirming the indispensable role of CYP2E1 in CCL4 and TAA hepatotoxicity. WT mice and cyp2a5 (-/-) mice developed comparable acute liver injury induced by a single injection of CCL4 as well as subchronic liver injury including fibrosis induced by 1 month of repeated administration of CCL4, suggesting that CYP2A5 does not affect CCL4-induced liver injury and fibrosis. However, while 200 mg/kg TAA-induced acute liver injury was comparable in WT mice and cyp2a5 (-/-) mice, 75 and 100 mg/kg TAA-induced liver injury were more severe in cyp2a5 (-/-) mice than those found in WT mice. After multiple injections with 200 mg/kg TAA for 1 month, while subchronic liver injury as indicated by serum aminotransferases was comparable in WT mice and cyp2a5 (-/-) mice, liver fibrosis was more severe in cyp2a5 (-/-) mice than that found in WT mice. These results suggest that while both CCL4- and TAA-induced liver injuries and fibrosis are CYP2E1 dependent, under some conditions, CYP2A5 may protect against TAA-induced liver injury and fibrosis, but it does not affect CCL4 hepatotoxicity.

  5. Protective effects of silymarin against bisphenol A-induced hepatotoxicity in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Zaulet, Mihaela; Kevorkian, Steliana Elvira Maria; Dinescu, Sorina; Cotoraci, Coralia; Suciu, Maria; Herman, Hildegard; Buburuzan, Laura; Badulescu, Liliana; Ardelean, Aurel; Hermenean, Anca

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical released into the environment, with severe consequences for human health, including metabolic syndrome and associated pathological conditions. Due to limited information on BPA-induced hepatotoxicity, the present study focused on investigating the association between BPA-induced toxicity and inflammatory markers in the liver, and how these injuries may be alleviated using the natural agent silymarin, a flavonoid with antioxidant properties obtained from Silybum marianum. Administration of BPA to male CD-1 mice for 10 days caused a significant increase in the number of cells immunopositive for interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, pro-inflammatory cytokines that mediate the hepatic inflammatory response. Treatment with 200 mg/kg of silymarin concurrently with BPA for 10 days resulted in a diminished level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and in significantly reduced ultrastructural injuries. Additionally, silymarin was able to restore the significantly decreased glycogen deposits observed following BPA exposure to normal levels, thus favoring hepatic glycogenesis. This study represents the first report of silymarin ability to reduce hepatic lesions and to counteract inflammation caused by BPA in mice. A dose of 200 mg/kg silymarin was sufficient to induce a protective effect against structural and ultrastructural injuries induced by BPA and to lower the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines observed in murine liver tissue following exposure to BPA. PMID:28450905

  6. [The Correlation Between MicroRNAs in Serum and the Extent of Liver Injury].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yi-Nan; He, Xue-Ling; Shi, Xue-Ni; Wei, Shi-Hang; Yin, Hai-Lin

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the correlation between the absolute quantification of the microRNAs (miR-122, miR-451, miR-92a, miR-192) in serum during acute liver injury and the extent of liver injury on rat models of CCl 4 induced acute liver injury and mice models of acetaminophen (APAP) induced acute liver injury. Furthermore, to investigate the correlation between the absolute quantification of microRNAs in serum and the drug induced liver injury pathological scoring system (DILI-PSS). The acute liver injury model in rat by CCl 4 (1.5 mL/kg), and the acute liver injury model in mice by APAP (160 mg/kg) were established. The serum at different time points on both models were collected respectively. The absolute quantification of microRNAs in serum were detected by using MiRbay TM SV miRNA Assay kit. Meanwhile, the pathological sections of liver tissue of the mice at each time point were collected to analyze the correlation between microRNAs and the degree of liver injury. In CCl 4 -induced rat acute liver injury model and APAP induced mouse acute liver injury, miR-122 and miR-192 appeared to be rising significantly, which remained the highest level at 24 h after treatment, and declined to the normal level after 72 h. In CCl 4 -induced rat acute liver injury model, the change of miR-92a was fluctuated and had no apparent rules, miR-451 declined gradually, but not obviously. In mice acute liver injury model induced by APAP, miR-92a and miR-451 in the progress of liver injury declined gradually, reached the lowest point at 48 h, and then recovered. The result of correlation analysis indicated that miR-122 and miR-192 presented a good positive correlation with the DILI-PSS ( r =0.741 3, P <0.05; r =0.788 3, P <0.01). The absolute quantification of miR-122 and miR-192 in serum has the highest level in 24 h, then decrease in 72 h, in both drug-induced and chemical liver injury. In addition, both the two microRNAs have good correlation with DILI-PSS in APAP-induced liver injury

  7. Normothermic machine perfusion reduces bile duct injury and improves biliary epithelial function in rat donor livers.

    PubMed

    Op den Dries, Sanna; Karimian, Negin; Westerkamp, Andrie C; Sutton, Michael E; Kuipers, Michiel; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Ottens, Petra J; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Bile duct injury may occur during liver procurement and transplantation, especially in livers from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) has been shown to reduce hepatic injury compared to static cold storage (SCS). However, it is unknown whether NMP provides better preservation of bile ducts. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of NMP on bile duct preservation in both DCD and non-DCD livers. DCD and non-DCD livers obtained from Lewis rats were preserved for 3 hours using either SCS or NMP, followed by 2 hours ex vivo reperfusion. Biomarkers of bile duct injury (gamma-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in bile) were lower in NMP-preserved livers compared to SCS-preserved livers. Biliary bicarbonate concentration, reflecting biliary epithelial function, was 2-fold higher in NMP-preserved livers (P < 0.01). In parallel with this, the pH of the bile was significantly higher in NMP-preserved livers (7.63 ± 0.02 and 7.74 ± 0.05 for non-DCD and DCD livers, respectively) compared with SCS-preserved livers (7.46 ± 0.02 and 7.49 ± 0.04 for non-DCD and DCD livers, respectively). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of donor extrahepatic bile ducts demonstrated significantly decreased injury of the biliary epithelium of NMP-preserved donor livers (including the loss of lateral interdigitations and mitochondrial injury). Differences between NMP and SCS were most prominent in DCD livers. Compared to conventional SCS, NMP provides superior preservation of bile duct epithelial cell function and morphology, especially in DCD donor livers. By reducing biliary injury, NMP could have an important impact on the utilization of DCD livers and outcome after transplantation. Liver Transplantation 22 994-1005 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. The potential antifibrotic impact of apocynin and alpha-lipoic acid in concanavalin A-induced liver fibrosis in rats: Role of NADPH oxidases 1 and 4.

    PubMed

    Fayed, Mostafa R; El-Naga, Reem N; Akool, El-Sayed; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2018-01-01

    Liver fibrosis results from chronic inflammation that precipitates excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. Oxidative stress is involved in its pathogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the potential antifibrotic effect of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, apocynin against concanavalin A (ConA)-induced immunological model of liver fibrosis, and to investigate the ability of the antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) to potentiate this effect. Rats were treated with apocynin and/or α-LA for six weeks. Hepatotoxicity indices, oxidative stress, insulin, NOXs, inflammatory and liver fibrosis markers were assessed. Treatment of animals with apocynin and α-LA significantly ameliorated the changes in liver functions and histopathological architecture induced by ConA. Liver fibrosis induced by ConA was evident where alpha-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor- beta1 were elevated, which was further confirmed by Masson's trichrome stain and increased hydroxyproline. Co-treatment with apocynin and α-LA significantly reduced their expression. Besides, apocynin and α-LA significantly ameliorated oxidative stress injury evoked by ConA, as evidenced by enhancing reduced glutathione content, antioxidant enzymes activities and decreasing lipid peroxides. ConA induced a significant elevation in serum insulin level and inflammatory markers; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and nuclear factor kappa b. Furthermore, the mRNA tissue expression of NOXs 1 and 4 was found to be elevated in the ConA group. All these elevations were significantly reduced by apocynin and α-LA co-treatment. These findings indicate that using apocynin and α-LA in combination possess marked antifibrotic effects, and that NOX enzymes are partially involved in the pathogenesis of ConA-induced liver fibrosis.

  9. Liver injury after aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid treatment of hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Kawashima, Reimi; Hirose, Yuki; Shibata, Keiko; Akasu, Takafumi; Hagiwara, Noriko; Yokota, Takeharu; Imai, Nami; Iwaku, Akira; Kobayashi, Go; Kobayashi, Hirohiko; Kinoshita, Akiyoshi; Fushiya, Nao; Kijima, Hiroyuki; Koike, Kazuhiko; Saruta, Masayuki

    2017-07-21

    We are reporting a rare case of acute liver injury that developed after an internal hemorrhoid treatment with the aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) regimen. A 41-year-old man developed a fever and liver injury after undergoing internal hemorrhoid treatment with a submucosal injection of ALTA with lidocaine. The acute liver injury was classified clinically as hepatocellular and pathologically as cholestastic. We could not classify the mechanism of injury. High eosinophil and immunoglobulin E levels characterized the injury, and a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was negative on postoperative day 25. Fluid replacement for two weeks after hospitalization improved the liver injury. ALTA therapy involves injecting chemicals into the submucosa, from the rectum to the anus, and this is the first description of a case that developed a severe liver disorder after this treatment; hence, an analysis of future cases as they accumulate is desirable.

  10. Association between nocturnal hypoxia and liver injury in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qi-Chang; Chen, Li-Da; Chen, Gong-Ping; Zhao, Jian-Ming; Chen, Xiao; Huang, Jie-Feng; Wu, Li-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is suggested as a potential risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanism is still far from clear. The aim of this observational study was to investigate the influence of OSA-related hypoxia on severity of liver injury in patients with NAFLD. Consecutive patients with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD who underwent standard polysomnography were enrolled. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all patients for biological profile measurements, and demographic data were collected. Subjects were divided into control, moderate, and severe groups. A total of 85 subjects with 73 males and 12 females were included (mean age, 44.67 ± 1.28 years; mean body mass index, 27.28 ± 0.33 kg/m(2)). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ALT/AST, gamma glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, fasting glucose, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly increased with the aggravation of OSA. In multivariate analysis, oxygen desaturation index was the major contributing factor for elevated ALT (β = 0.435, p = 0.000), average O2 saturation was the major independent predictor of elevated AST (β = -0.269, p = 0.020). OSA-related hypoxia was independently associated with the biochemical evidence of liver injury in the presence of NAFLD.

  11. Nonselective inhibition of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase by naproxen ameliorates hepatic injury in animals with acute or chronic liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Bahde, Ralf; Kapoor, Sorabh; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    The rising prevalence of hepatic injury due to toxins, metabolites, viruses, etc., necessitates development of further mechanisms for protecting the liver and for treating acute or chronic liver diseases. To examine whether inhibition of inflammation directed by cyclo-oxygenase pathways, we performed animal studies with naproxen, which inhibits prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases 1 and 2 and is in extensive clinical use. We administered carbon tetrachloride to induce acute liver injury and ligated the common bile duct to induce chronic liver injury in adult rats. These experimental manipulations produced abnormalities in liver tests, tissue necrosis, compensatory hepatocyte or biliary proliferation, and onset of fibrosis, particularly after bile duct ligation. After carbon tetrachloride-induced acute injury, naproxen decreased liver test abnormalities, tissue necrosis and compensatory hepatocellular proliferation. After bile duct ligation-induced chronic injury, naproxen decreased liver test abnormalities, tissue injury and compensatory biliary hyperplasia. Moreover, after bile duct ligation, naproxen-treated rats showed more periductular oval liver cells, which have been classified as hepatic progenitor cells. In naproxen-treated rats, we found greater expression in hepatic stellate cells and mononuclear cells of cytoprotective factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor. The ability of naproxen to induce expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was verified in cell culture studies with CFSC-8B clone of rat hepatic stellate cells. Whereas assays for carbon tetrachloride toxicity using cultured primary hepatocytes established that naproxen was not directly cytoprotective, we found conditioned medium containing vascular endothelial growth factor from naproxen-treated CFSC-8B cells protected hepatocytes from carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Therefore, naproxen was capable of ameliorating toxic liver injury, which involved naproxen-induced release of

  12. Acute liver injury due to flavocoxid (Limbrel), a medical food for osteoarthritis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Naga; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Navarro, Victor; Fontana, Robert; Bonkovsky, Herbert; Barnhart, Huiman; Kleiner, David E; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2012-06-19

    Flavocoxid is a prescription medical food that is used to treat osteoarthritis. It is a proprietary blend of 2 flavonoids, baicalin and catechins, which are derived from the botanicals Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu, respectively. To describe characteristics of patients with acute liver injury suspected of being caused by flavocoxid. Case series. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network Prospective Study ongoing at multiple academic medical centers since 2004. Four adults with liver injury. Clinical characteristics, liver biochemistry values, and outcomes. Among 877 patients enrolled in the prospective study, 4 had liver injury suspected to have been caused by flavocoxid. All were women; ages ranged from 57 to 68 years. All developed symptoms and signs of liver injury within 1 to 3 months after initiating flavocoxid. Liver injury was characterized by marked elevations in levels of alanine aminotransferase (mean peak, 1268 U/L; range, 741 to 1540 U/L), alkaline phosphatase (mean peak, 510 U/L; range, 286 to 770 U/L), and serum bilirubin (mean peak, 160.7 µmol/L [9.4 mg/dL]; range, 34.2 to 356 µmol/L [2.0 to 20.8 mg/dL]). Liver biochemistry values decreased to the normal range within 3 to 12 weeks after flavocoxid was stopped, and all patients recovered without experiencing acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. Causality was adjudicated as highly likely in 3 patients and as possible in 1 patient. The frequency and mechanism of liver injury could not be assessed. Flavocoxid can cause clinically significant liver injury, which seems to resolve within weeks after cessation.

  13. Association of age dependent liver injury and fibrosis with immune cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Bradley H.; Holzknecht, Zoie E.; Lynn, Kellie A.; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Smith, Cathy Choy; Liu, Songling; Parker, William; Rockey, Don C.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim The liver’s response to injury is fibrosis, and when chronic, cirrhosis. Age is a critical factor impacting many immune-mediated processes, potentially including the liver’s wounding response to injury. Methods The effects of age on acute and chronic liver injury were evaluated using a carbon tetrachloride model in mice. Lymphocyte and macrophage populations were assessed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Acute liver injury was greater in 18-month old (old) mice than in 9-month old (middle aged) mice as judged by changes in aminotransferases. Similarly, 18-month old livers had a significantly greater fibrogenic response to injury than did 9-month old livers after chronic injury (assessed by col1α1 mRNA expression, morphometric analysis and hydroxyproline measurement). Interestingly, livers from young mice (6 weeks old) also exhibited an increase in fibrogenesis compared to 9-month old mice, albeit not to the same degree as in old mice. Consistent with a role for macrophages in fibrogenesis, the number of liver macrophages in young and 9-month old mice increased, while in chronically injured 18-month old livers, the number of macrophages was reduced, and was less than in the livers of young and 9-month old injured livers. Conclusions Our data indicate that the fibrogenic response to injury varies substantially with age, and moreover that macrophage recruitment and dynamics may be an important component in differential age-associated fibrotic disease. PMID:23710620

  14. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  15. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine resulting in liver injury].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingli; Zhou, Chaofan

    2011-12-01

    The adverse reactions caused by Chinese herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are reported increased in recent years, among which the acute liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine accounts for 21.5% of total liver injuries. Despite the misuse of traditional Chinese medicine not in accordance with differentiation of symptoms and signs, the adverse reaction of Chinese herbal medicine itself can't be little to these adverse events. The paper summarizes the most common categories of traditional Chinese medicine resulting in liver injury, the mechanism, pathological characteristics, clinical symptom of liver injury, the reasons of the reaction and how to prevent. The research aims to enhance the clinical physician recognition of liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine, in order to ensure the safe and rational usage of traditional Chinese medicine.

  16. Ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat fatty liver: role of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Caraceni, P; Nardo, B; Domenicali, M; Turi, P; Vici, M; Simoncini, M; De Maria, N; Trevisani, F; Van Thiel, D H; Derenzini, M; Cavallari, A; Bernardi, M

    1999-04-01

    Fatty livers are more sensitive to the deleterious effects of ischemia-reperfusion than normal livers. Nutritional status greatly modulates this injury in normal livers, but its role in the specific setting of fatty liver is unknown. This study aimed to determine the effect of nutritional status on warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat fatty livers. Fed and fasted rats with normal or fatty liver induced by a choline deficient diet underwent 1 hour of lobar ischemia and reperfusion. Rat survival was determined for 7 days. Serum transaminases, liver histology and cell ultrastructure were assessed before and after ischemia, and at 30 minutes, 2 hours, 8 hours, and 24 hours after reperfusion. Survival was also determined in fatty fasted rats supplemented with glucose before surgery. The preischemic hepatic glycogen was measured in all groups. Whereas survival was similar in fasted and fed rats with normal liver (90% vs. 100%), fasting dramatically reduced survival in rats with fatty liver (14% vs. 64%, P <.01). Accordingly, fasting and fatty degeneration had a synergistic effect in exacerbating liver injury. Mitochondrial damage was a predominant feature of ultrastructural hepatocyte injury in fasted fatty livers. Glucose supplementation partially prevented the fasting-induced depletion of glycogen and improved the 7-day rat survival to 45%. These data indicate that rat fatty livers exposed to normothermic ischemia-reperfusion injury are much more sensitive to fasting than histologically normal livers. Because glucose supplementation improves both the hepatic glycogen stores and the rat survival, a nutritional repletion procedure may be part of a treatment strategy aimed to prevent ischemia-reperfusion injury in fatty livers.

  17. Proper Heat Shock Pretreatment Reduces Acute Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride and Accelerates Liver Repair in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, San-Qiang; Wang, Dong-Mei; Shu, You-Ju; Wan, Xue-Dong; Xu, Zheng-Shun; Li, En-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Whether proper heat shock preconditioning can reduce liver injury and accelerate liver repair after acute liver injury is worth study. So mice received heat shock preconditioning at 40°C for 10 minutes (min), 20 min or 30 min and recovered at room temperature for 8 hours (h) under normal feeding conditions. Then acute liver injury was induced in the heat shock-pretreated mice and unheated control mice by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and the expression levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected in the unheated control mice and heat shock-pretreated mice after CCl4 administration. Our results showed that heat shock preconditioning at 40°C for 20 min remarkably improved the mice’s survival rate (P<0.05), lowered the levels of serum AST and ALT (P<0.05), induced HSP70 (P<0.01), CYP1A2 (P<0.01) and PCNA (P<0.05) expression, effectively reduced liver injury (P<0.05) and accelerated the liver repair (P<0.05) compared with heat shock preconditioning at 40°C for 10 min or 30 min in the mice after acute liver injury induced by CCl4 when compared with the control mice. Our results may be helpful in further investigation of heat shock pretreatment as a potential clinical approach to target liver injury PMID:24526809

  18. Revisiting acute liver injury associated with herbalife products

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, Kristy; Smith, Casey; Bejar, Ezra; Henig, Y Steve

    2011-01-01

    In the November 27, 2010 issue of the World Journal of Hepatology (WJH), three case reports were published which involved patients who had consumed various dietary supplements and conventional foods generally marketed as weight loss products. The reference to Herbalife products as contaminated and generally comparable to all dietary supplements or weight loss products is not scientifically supported. The authors provided an insufficient amount of information regarding patient histories, concomitant medications and other compounds, dechallenge results, and product specifications and usage. This information is necessary to fully assess the association of Herbalife products in the WJH case reports. Therefore, the article does not objectively support a causal relationship between the reported cases of liver injury and Herbalife products or ingredients. PMID:22059112

  19. Revisiting acute liver injury associated with herbalife products.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Kristy; Smith, Casey; Bejar, Ezra; Henig, Y Steve

    2011-10-27

    In the November 27, 2010 issue of the World Journal of Hepatology (WJH), three case reports were published which involved patients who had consumed various dietary supplements and conventional foods generally marketed as weight loss products. The reference to Herbalife products as contaminated and generally comparable to all dietary supplements or weight loss products is not scientifically supported. The authors provided an insufficient amount of information regarding patient histories, concomitant medications and other compounds, dechallenge results, and product specifications and usage. This information is necessary to fully assess the association of Herbalife products in the WJH case reports. Therefore, the article does not objectively support a causal relationship between the reported cases of liver injury and Herbalife products or ingredients.

  20. RUCAM in Drug and Herb Induced Liver Injury: The Update

    PubMed Central

    Danan, Gaby; Teschke, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) or its previous synonym CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) is a well established tool in common use to quantitatively assess causality in cases of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI). Historical background and the original work confirm the use of RUCAM as single term for future cases, dismissing now the term CIOMS for reasons of simplicity and clarity. RUCAM represents a structured, standardized, validated, and hepatotoxicity specific diagnostic approach that attributes scores to individual key items, providing final quantitative gradings of causality for each suspect drug/herb in a case report. Experts from Europe and the United States had previously established in consensus meetings the first criteria of RUCAM to meet the requirements of clinicians and practitioners in care for their patients with suspected DILI and HILI. RUCAM was completed by additional criteria and validated, assisting to establish the timely diagnosis with a high degree of certainty. In many countries and for more than two decades, physicians, regulatory agencies, case report authors, and pharmaceutical companies successfully applied RUCAM for suspected DILI and HILI. Their practical experience, emerging new data on DILI and HILI characteristics, and few ambiguous questions in domains such alcohol use and exclusions of non-drug causes led to the present update of RUCAM. The aim was to reduce interobserver and intraobserver variability, to provide accurately defined, objective core elements, and to simplify the handling of the items. We now present the update of the well accepted original RUCAM scale and recommend its use for clinical, regulatory, publication, and expert purposes to validly establish causality in cases of suspected DILI and HILI, facilitating a straightforward application and an internationally harmonized approach of causality assessment as a common

  1. Neutrophil-cytokine interactions in a rat model of sulindac-induced idiosyncratic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Roth, Robert A; Younis, Husam S; Malle, Ernst; Ganey, Patricia E

    2011-12-18

    Previous studies indicated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) interacts with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac (SLD) to produce liver injury in rats. In the present study, the mechanism of SLD/LPS-induced liver injury was further investigated. Accumulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the liver was greater in SLD/LPS-cotreated rats compared to those treated with SLD or LPS alone. In addition, PMN activation occurred specifically in livers of rats cotreated with SLD/LPS. The hypothesis that PMNs and proteases released from them play critical roles in the hepatotoxicity was tested. SLD/LPS-induced liver injury was attenuated by prior depletion of PMNs or by treatment with the PMN protease inhibitor, eglin C. Previous studies suggested that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and the hemostatic system play critical roles in the pathogenesis of liver injury induced by SLD/LPS. TNF and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) can contribute to hepatotoxicity by affecting PMN activation and fibrin deposition. Therefore, the role of TNF and PAI-1 in PMN activation and fibrin deposition in the SLD/LPS-induced liver injury model was tested. Neutralization of TNF or inhibition of PAI-1 attenuated PMN activation. TNF had no effect on PAI-1 production or fibrin deposition. In contrast, PAI-1 contributed to fibrin deposition in livers of rats treated with SLD/LPS. In summary, PMNs, TNF and PAI-1 contribute to the liver injury induced by SLD/LPS cotreatment. TNF and PAI-1 independently contributed to PMN activation, which is critical to the pathogenesis of liver injury. Moreover, PAI-1 contributed to liver injury by promoting fibrin deposition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. False positive acetaminophen concentrations in patients with liver injury.

    PubMed

    Polson, Julie; Wians, Frank H; Orsulak, Paul; Fuller, Dwain; Murray, Natalie G; Koff, Jonathan M; Khan, Adil I; Balko, Jody A; Hynan, Linda S; Lee, William M

    2008-05-01

    Acetaminophen toxicity is the most common form of acute liver failure in the U.S. After acetaminophen overdoses, quantitation of plasma acetaminophen can aid in predicting severity of injury. However, recent case reports have suggested that acetaminophen concentrations may be falsely increased in the presence of hyperbilirubinemia. We tested sera obtained from 43 patients with acute liver failure, mostly unrelated to acetaminophen, utilizing 6 different acetaminophen quantitation systems to determine the significance of this effect. In 36 of the 43 samples with bilirubin concentrations ranging from 1.0-61.5 mg/dl no acetaminophen was detectable by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. These 36 samples were then utilized to test the performance characteristics of 2 immunoassay and 4 enzymatic-colorimetric methods. Three of four colorimetric methods demonstrated 'detectable' values for acetaminophen in from 4 to 27 of the 36 negative samples, low concentration positive values being observed when serum bilirubin concentrations exceeded 10 mg/dl. By contrast, the 2 immunoassay methods (EMIT, FPIA) were virtually unaffected. The false positive values obtained were, in general, proportional to the quantity of bilirubin in the sample. However, prepared samples of normal human serum with added bilirubin showed a dose-response curve for only one of the 4 colorimetric assays. False positive acetaminophen tests may result when enzymatic-colorimetric assays are used, most commonly with bilirubin concentrations >10 mg/dl, leading to potential clinical errors in this setting. Bilirubin (or possibly other substances in acute liver failure sera) appears to affect the reliable measurement of acetaminophen, particularly with enzymatic-colorimetric assays.

  3. The Protective Effects of Trypsin Inhibitor on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Liver Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lianyue; Liu, Hongyu; Fu, Peiyao; Li, Zhuonan; Li, Peidong; Xie, Lijuan; Xin, Mingang; Wang, Zhanpeng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI) on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft survival. We employed mouse liver cold IRI and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) models. UTI was added to lactated Ringer's (LR) solution for liver perfusion and preservation in vitro or combined with UTI injection intraperitoneally to the liver graft recipient. Our results indicated that UTI supplementation protected the liver from cold IRI in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged liver graft survival from extended cold preserved liver donors significantly. The underlying mechanism of UTI on liver IRI may be mediated by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release, increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptosis genes of Caspase-3 and Bax, and further protects hepatocytes from apoptotic death and improves liver function.

  4. The Protective Effects of Trypsin Inhibitor on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Liver Graft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Lianyue; Liu, Hongyu; Fu, Peiyao; Li, Zhuonan; Li, Peidong; Xie, Lijuan; Xin, Mingang; Wang, Zhanpeng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI) on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft survival. We employed mouse liver cold IRI and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) models. UTI was added to lactated Ringer's (LR) solution for liver perfusion and preservation in vitro or combined with UTI injection intraperitoneally to the liver graft recipient. Our results indicated that UTI supplementation protected the liver from cold IRI in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged liver graft survival from extended cold preserved liver donors significantly. The underlying mechanism of UTI on liver IRI may be mediated by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release, increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptosis genes of Caspase-3 and Bax, and further protects hepatocytes from apoptotic death and improves liver function. PMID:26783413

  5. Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Smuckler, E A

    1976-06-01

    Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.

  6. Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury.

    PubMed Central

    Smuckler, E A

    1976-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 11. PMID:1001290

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 as a key regulator of liver progenitor cells in DDC-induced cholestatic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Addante, Annalisa; Roncero, Cesáreo; Almalé, Laura; Lazcanoiturburu, Nerea; García-Álvaro, María; Fernández, Margarita; Sanz, Julián; Hammad, Seddik; Nwosu, Zeribe C; Lee, Se-Jin; Fabregat, Isabel; Dooley, Steven; Ten Dijke, Peter; Herrera, Blanca; Sánchez, Aránzazu

    2018-05-11

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) interferes with liver regeneration upon acute injury, while promoting fibrosis upon carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic injury. We have now addressed the role of BMP9 in 3,5 diethoxicarbonyl-1,4 dihydrocollidine (DDC)-induced cholestatic liver injury, a model of liver regeneration mediated by hepatic progenitor cell (known as oval cell), exemplified as ductular reaction and oval cell expansion. WT and BMP9KO mice were submitted to DDC diet. Livers were examined for liver injury, fibrosis, inflammation and oval cell expansion by serum biochemistry, histology, RT-qPCR and western blot. BMP9 signalling and effects in oval cells were studied in vitro using western blot and transcriptional assays, plus functional assays of DNA synthesis, cell viability and apoptosis. Crosslinking assays and short hairpin RNA approaches were used to identify the receptors mediating BMP9 effects. Deletion of BMP9 reduces liver damage and fibrosis, but enhances inflammation upon DDC feeding. Molecularly, absence of BMP9 results in overactivation of PI3K/AKT, ERK-MAPKs and c-Met signalling pathways, which together with an enhanced ductular reaction and oval cell expansion evidence an improved regenerative response and decreased damage in response to DDC feeding. Importantly, BMP9 directly targets oval cells, it activates SMAD1,5,8, decreases cell growth and promotes apoptosis, effects that are mediated by Activin Receptor-Like Kinase 2 (ALK2) type I receptor. We identify BMP9 as a negative regulator of oval cell expansion in cholestatic injury, its deletion enhancing liver regeneration. Likewise, our work further supports BMP9 as an attractive therapeutic target for chronic liver diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of liver ischemia reperfusion injury: Insights from transgenic knockout models

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Gourab; Fuller, Barry J; Davidson, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury is a major obstacle in liver resection and liver transplantation surgery. Understanding the mechanisms of liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and developing strategies to counteract this injury will therefore reduce acute complications in hepatic resection and transplantation, as well as expanding the potential pool of usable donor grafts. The initial liver injury is initiated by reactive oxygen species which cause direct cellular injury and also activate a cascade of molecular mediators leading to microvascular changes, increased apoptosis and acute inflammatory changes with increased hepatocyte necrosis. Some adaptive pathways are activated during reperfusion that reduce the reperfusion injury. IRI involves a complex interplay between neutrophils, natural killer T-cells cells, CD4+ T cell subtypes, cytokines, nitric oxide synthases, haem oxygenase-1, survival kinases such as the signal transducer and activator of transcription, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases/Akt and nuclear factor κβ pathways. Transgenic animals, particularly genetic knockout models, have become a powerful tool at elucidating mechanisms of liver ischaemia reperfusion injury and are complementary to pharmacological studies. Targeted disruption of the protein at the genetic level is more specific and maintained than pharmacological inhibitors or stimulants of the same protein. This article reviews the evidence from knockout models of liver IRI about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying liver IRI. PMID:23555157

  9. Changing interdigestive migrating motor complex in rats under acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Zheng, Su-Jun; Xu, Weihong; Zhang, Jianying; Chen, Yu; Duan, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal motility disorder is a major clinical manifestation of acute liver injury, and interdigestive migrating motor complex (MMC) is an important indicator. We investigated the changes and characteristics of MMC in rats with acute liver injury. Acute liver injury was created by d-galactosamine, and we recorded the interdigestive MMC using a multichannel physiological recorder and compared the indexes of interdigestive MMC. Compared with normal controls, antral MMC Phase I duration was significantly prolonged and MMC Phase III duration was significantly shortened in the rats with acute liver injury. The duodenal MMC cycle and MMC Phases I and IV duration were significantly prolonged and MMC Phase III duration was significantly shortened in the rats with acute liver injury. The jejunal MMC cycle and MMC Phases I and IV duration were significantly prolonged and MMC Phase III duration was significantly shortened in the rats with acute liver injury compared with normal controls. Compared with the normal controls, rats with acute liver injury had a significantly prolonged interdigestive MMC cycle, related mainly to longer MMC Phases I and IV, shortened MMC Phase III, and MMC Phase II characterized by increased migrating clustered contractions, which were probably major contributors to the gastrointestinal motility disorders.

  10. Elevated troponin I levels in acute liver failure: is myocardial injury an integral part of acute liver failure?

    PubMed

    Parekh, Nimisha K; Hynan, Linda S; De Lemos, James; Lee, William M

    2007-06-01

    Although rare instances of cardiac injury or arrhythmias have been reported in acute liver failure (ALF), overall, the heart is considered to be spared in this condition. Troponin I, a sensitive and specific marker of myocardial injury, may be elevated in patients with sepsis and acute stroke without underlying acute coronary syndrome, indicating unrecognized cardiac injury in these settings. We sought to determine whether subclinical cardiac injury might also occur in acute liver failure. Serum troponin I levels were measured in 187 patients enrolled in the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry, and correlated with clinical variables and outcomes. Diagnoses were representative of the larger group of >1000 patients thus far enrolled and included 80 with acetaminophen-related injury, 26 with viral hepatitis, 19 with ischemic injury, and 62 others. Overall, 74% of patients had elevated troponin I levels (>0.1 ng/ml). Patients with elevated troponin I levels were more likely to have advanced hepatic coma (grades III or IV) or to die (for troponin I levels >0.1 ng/ml, odds ratio 3.88 and 4.69 for advanced coma or death, respectively). In acute liver failure, subclinical myocardial injury appears to occur more commonly than has been recognized, and its pathogenesis in the context of acute liver failure is unclear. Elevated troponin levels are associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Measurement of troponin I levels may be helpful in patients with acute liver failure, to detect unrecognized myocardial damage and as a marker of unfavorable outcome.

  11. Quantitative analyses and transcriptomic profiling of circulating messenger RNAs as biomarkers of rat liver injury.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Barbara A; Brees, Dominique J; Singh, Reetu; Watkins, Paul B; Andersen, Melvin E; Loy, James; Thomas, Russell S

    2010-06-01

    Serum aminotransferases have been the clinical standard for evaluating liver injury for the past 50-60 years. These tissue enzymes lack specificity, also tracking injury to other tissues. New technologies assessing tissue-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) release into blood should provide greater specificity and permit indirect assessment of gene expression status of injured tissue. To evaluate the potential of circulating mRNAs as biomarkers of liver injury, rats were treated either with hepatotoxic doses of D-(+)-galactosamine (DGAL) or acetaminophen (APAP) or a myotoxic dose of bupivacaine HCl (BPVC). Plasma, serum, and liver samples were obtained from each rat. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were increased by all three compounds, whereas circulating liver-specific mRNAs were only increased by the hepatotoxicants. With APAP, liver-specific mRNAs were significantly increased in plasma at doses that had no effect on serum aminotransferases or liver histopathology. Characterization of the circulating mRNAs by sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed that the liver-specific mRNAs were associated with both necrotic debris and microvesicles. DGAL treatment also induced a shift in the size of plasma microvesicles, consistent with active release of microvesicles following liver injury. Finally, gene expression microarray analysis of the plasma following DGAL and APAP treatment revealed chemical-specific profiles. The comparative analysis of circulating liver mRNAs with traditional serum transaminases and histopathology indicated that the circulating liver mRNAs were more specific and more sensitive biomarkers of liver injury. Further, the possibility of identifying chemical-specific transcriptional profiles from circulating mRNAs could open a range of possibilities for identifying the etiology of drug/chemical-induced liver injury.

  12. Increased liver-specific proteins in circulating extracellular vesicles as potential biomarkers for drug- and alcohol-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Eun; Im, Eun-Ju; Moon, Pyong-Gon; Mezey, Esteban; Song, Byoung-Joon; Baek, Moon-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Drug- and alcohol-induced liver injury are a leading cause of liver failure and transplantation. Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a source of biomarkers because they contain unique proteins reflecting the identity and tissue-specific origin of the EV proteins. This study aimed to determine whether potentially hepatotoxic agents, such as acetaminophen (APAP) and binge alcohol, can increase the amounts of circulating EVs and evaluate liver-specific EV proteins as potential biomarkers for liver injury. The circulating EVs, isolated from plasma of APAP-exposed, ethanol-fed mice, or alcoholic hepatitis patients versus normal control counterparts, were characterized by proteomics and biochemical methods. Liver specific EV proteins were analyzed by immunoblots and ELISA. The amounts of total and liver-specific proteins in circulating EVs from APAP-treated mice significantly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Proteomic analysis of EVs from APAP-exposed mice revealed that the amounts of liver-specific and/or hepatotoxic proteins were increased compared to those of controls. Additionally, the increased protein amounts in EVs following APAP exposure returned to basal levels when mice were treated with N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. Similar results of increased amounts and liver-specific proteins in circulating EVs were also observed in mice exposed to hepatotoxic doses of thioacetamide or d-galactosamine but not by non-hepatotoxic penicillin or myotoxic bupivacaine. Additionally, binge ethanol exposure significantly elevated liver-specific proteins in circulating EVs from mice and alcoholics with alcoholic hepatitis, compared to control counterparts. These results indicate that circulating EVs in drug- and alcohol-mediated hepatic injury contain liver-specific proteins that could serve as specific biomarkers for hepatotoxicity. PMID:28225807

  13. Correlation between liver cell necrosis and circulating alanine aminotransferase after ischaemia/reperfusion injuries in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Anders R; Andersen, Kasper J; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Nyengaard, Jens R; Mortensen, Frank V

    2016-04-01

    Circulating liver enzymes such as alanine transaminase are often used as markers of hepatocellular damage. Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an inevitable consequence of prolonged liver ischaemia. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between liver enzymes and volume of liver cell necrosis after ischaemia/reperfusion injuries, using design-unbiased stereological methods. Forty-seven male Wistar rats were subjected to 1 h of partial liver ischaemia, followed by either 4 or 24 h of reperfusion. Within each group, one-third of animals were subjected to ischaemic preconditioning and one-third to ischaemic postconditioning. At the end of reperfusion, blood and liver samples were collected for analysis. The volume of necrotic liver tissue was subsequently correlated to circulating markers of I/R injury. Correlation between histological findings and circulating markers was performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Alanine transferase peaked after 4 h of reperfusion; however, at this time-point, only mild necrosis was observed, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.663 (P = 0.001). After 24 h of reperfusion, alanine aminotransferase was found to be highly correlated to the degree of hepatocellular necrosis R = 0.836 (P = 0.000). Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase (R = 0.806) and α-2-macroglobulin (R = 0.655) levels were also correlated with the degree of necrosis. We show for the first time that there is a close correlation between the volume of hepatocellular necrosis and alanine aminotransferase levels in a model of I/R injury. This is especially apparent after 24 h of reperfusion. Similarly, increased levels of alkaline phosphatase and α-2-macroglobulin are correlated to the volume of liver necrosis. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  14. Caffeic acid attenuates rat liver reperfusion injury through sirtuin 3-dependent regulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    PubMed

    Mu, Hong-Na; Li, Quan; Pan, Chun-Shui; Liu, Yu-Ying; Yan, Li; Hu, Bai-He; Sun, Kai; Chang, Xin; Zhao, Xin-Rong; Fan, Jing-Yu; Han, Jing-Yan

    2015-08-01

    Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) plays critical roles in regulating mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, whether Sirt3 is involved in liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury remains elusive. Caffeic acid (CA) is a natural antioxidant derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza. Whether CA protects against liver I/R injury through regulating Sirt3 and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) is unclear. This study investigated the effect of CA on liver I/R injury, microcirculatory disturbance, and potential mechanisms, particularly focusing on Sirt3-dependent MRC. Liver I/R of male Sprague-Dawley rats was established by occlusion of portal area vessels for 30 min followed by 120 min of reperfusion. CA (15 mg/kg/h) was continuously infused via the femoral vein starting 30 min before ischemia. After I/R, Sirt3 expression, and MRC activity decreased, acetylation of NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 9 and succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein variant provoked, and the liver microcirculatory disturbance and injury were observed. Treatment with CA attenuated liver injury, inhibited Sirt3 down-expression, and up-regulated MRC activity. CA attenuated rat liver microcirculatory disturbance and oxidative injury through regulation of Sirt3 and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of defibrotide, a novel oligodeoxyribonucleotide, on ischaemia and reperfusion injury of the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Joon; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Song, Jin Ho; Oh, Byung Kwon; Choi, Myung Sup; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2002-02-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of defibrotide, a single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide, on ischaemia-reperfusion injury to the liver using a rat model. 2. Ischaemia of the left and median lobes was created by total inflow occlusion for 30 min followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Hepatic injury was assessed by the release of liver enzymes (alanine transferase, ALT and lactic dehydrogenase, LDH). Hepatic oxidant stress was measured by superoxide production, lipid peroxidation and nitrite/nitrate formation. Leukocyte-endothelium interaction and Kupffer cell mobilization were quantified by measuring hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO), polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence to superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and immunostaining of Kupffer cell. 3. Defibrotide treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of postreperfusion superoxide generation, lipid peroxidation, serum ALT activity, serum LDH activity, MPO activity, serum nitrite/nitrate level, leukocyte adherence to SMA, and Kupffer cell mobilization, indicating a significant attenuation of hepatic dysfunction. 4. A significant correlation existed between liver ischaemia/reperfusion and hepatic injury, suggesting that liver ischaemia/reperfusion injury is mediated predominantly by generation of oxygen free radicals and mobilization of Kupffer cells. 5. We conclude that defibrotide significantly protects the liver against liver ischaemia/reperfusion injury by interfering with Kupffer cell mobilization and formation of oxygen free radicals. This study provides strong evidence that defibrotide has important beneficial effects on acute inflammatory tissue injury such as that occurring in the reperfusion of the ischaemic liver.

  16. The role of CYP2A5 in liver injury and fibrosis: chemical-specific difference

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Feng; Si, Chuanping; Gao, Pengfei; Cederbaum, Arthur I.; Xiong, Huabao; Lu, Yongke

    2015-01-01

    Liver injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) or thioacetamide (TAA) are dependent on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). CYP2A5 can be induced by TAA but not by CCL4. In this study, liver injury including fibrosis induced by CCL4 or TAA were investigated in wild type (WT) mice and CYP2A5 knockout (cyp2a5−/−) mice as well as in CYP2E1 knockout (cyp2e1−/−) mice as a comparison. Acute and sub-chronic liver injuries including fibrosis were induced by CCL4 and TAA in WT mice but not in cyp2e1−/− mice, confirming the indispensable role of CYP2E1 in CCL4 and TAA hepatotoxicity. WT mice and cyp2a5−/− mice developed comparable acute liver injury induced by a single injection of CCL4 as well as sub-chronic liver injury including fibrosis induced by one month of repeated administration of CCL4, suggesting that CYP2A5 does not affect CCL4-induced liver injury and fibrosis. However, while 200 mg/kg TAA-induced acute liver injury was comparable in WT mice and cyp2a5−/− mice, 75 and 100 mg/kg TAA-induced liver injury were more severe in cyp2a5−/− mice than those found in WT mice. After multiple injections with 200 mg/kg TAA for one month, while sub-chronic liver injury as indicated by serum aminotransferases was comparable in WT mice and cyp2a5−/− mice, liver fibrosis was more severe in cyp2a5−/− mice than that found in WT mice. These results suggest that while both CCL4- and TAA-induced liver injuries and fibrosis are CYP2E1 dependent, under some conditions, CYP2A5 may protect against TAA-induced liver injury and fibrosis, but it doesn’t affect CCL4 hepatotoxicity. PMID:26363552

  17. Abate Cytochrome C induced apoptosome to protect donor liver against ischemia reperfusion injury on rat liver transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhuonan; Lian, Peilong; Wu, Xiaojuan; Shi, Baoxu; Zhuang, Maoyou; Zhou, Ruiling; Zhao, Rui; Zhao, Zhen; Guo, Sen; Ji, Zhipeng; Xu, Kesen

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to protect donor liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury by abating Cytochrome C induced apoptosome on rat model. A total of 25 clean SD inbred male rats were used in this research. The rats in ischemia-reperfusion injury group (I/R group, n=5) were under liver transplantation operation; rats in dichloroacetate diisopropylamine group (DADA group, n=5) were treated DADA before liver transplantation; control group (Ctrl group, n=5); other 10 rats were used to offer donor livers. In DADA therapy group, Cytochrome C expression in donor hepatocellular cytoplasm was detected lower than that in I/R group. And the Cytochrome C induced apoptosome was also decreased in according to the lower expressions of Apaf-1 and Caspase3. Low level of cleaved PARP expression revealed less apoptosis in liver tissue. The morphology of donor liver mitochondria in DADA group was observed to be slightly edema but less than I/R group after operation 12 h. The liver function indexes of ALT and AST in serum were tested, and the results in DADA group showed it is significantly lower than I/R group after operation 12 h. The inflammation indexes of IL-6 and TNF-α expressions in DADA group were significantly lower than that in I/R group after operation 24 h. The dichloroacetate diisopropylamine treatment could protect the hepatocellular mitochondria in case of the spillage of Cytochrome C induced apoptosome, and protect the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, it may be a method to promote the recovery of donor liver function after transplantation.

  18. The Hepatic Response to Thermal Injury: Is the Liver Important for Postburn Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G

    2009-01-01

    Thermal injury produces a profound hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic stress response characterized by increased endogenous glucose production via gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, lipolysis, and proteolysis. The liver is the central body organ involved in these metabolic responses. It is suggested that the liver, with its metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and acute phase functions, plays a pivotal role in patient survival and recovery by modulating multiple pathways following thermal injury. Studies have evaluated the role and function of the liver during the postburn response and showed that liver integrity and function are essential for survival, and that hepatic acute phase proteins are strong predictors for postburn survival. This review discusses these studies and delineates the pivotal role of the liver in patients following severe thermal injury. PMID:19603107

  19. Acute liver injury associated with a newer formulation of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut

    PubMed Central

    Worman, Howard J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDS), serious cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported. The popular herbal weight loss supplement, Hydroxycut, has previously been implicated in acute liver injury. Since its introduction, Hydroxycut has undergone successive transformations in its formulation; yet, cases of liver injury have remained an ongoing problem. We report a case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man who developed acute hepatocellular liver injury with associated nausea, vomiting, jaundice, fatigue and asterixis attributed to the use of a newer formulation of Hydroxycut, SX-7 Clean Sensory. The patient required hospitalisation and improved with supportive therapy. Despite successive transformations in its formulation, potential liver injury appears to remain an ongoing problem with Hydroxycut. Our case illustrates the importance of obtaining a thorough medication history, including HDS, regardless of new or reformulated product marketing efforts. PMID:25948859

  20. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Elizabeth X.; Navarro, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have hepatotoxic potential and to characterize its clinical effects as well as pattern of liver injury. We also propose future strategies in the identification and study of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in an effort to outline a diagnostic approach for identifying any drug induced liver injury. PMID:26357638

  1. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Elizabeth X; Navarro, Victor J

    2015-06-28

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have hepatotoxic potential and to characterize its clinical effects as well as pattern of liver injury. We also propose future strategies in the identification and study of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in an effort to outline a diagnostic approach for identifying any drug induced liver injury.

  2. Acute liver injury associated with a newer formulation of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut.

    PubMed

    Araujo, James L; Worman, Howard J

    2015-05-06

    Despite the widespread use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDS), serious cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported. The popular herbal weight loss supplement, Hydroxycut, has previously been implicated in acute liver injury. Since its introduction, Hydroxycut has undergone successive transformations in its formulation; yet, cases of liver injury have remained an ongoing problem. We report a case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man who developed acute hepatocellular liver injury with associated nausea, vomiting, jaundice, fatigue and asterixis attributed to the use of a newer formulation of Hydroxycut, SX-7 Clean Sensory. The patient required hospitalisation and improved with supportive therapy. Despite successive transformations in its formulation, potential liver injury appears to remain an ongoing problem with Hydroxycut. Our case illustrates the importance of obtaining a thorough medication history, including HDS, regardless of new or reformulated product marketing efforts. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Bupivacaine drug-induced liver injury: a case series and brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chintamaneni, Preethi; Stevenson, Heather L; Malik, Shahid M

    2016-08-01

    Bupivacaine is an established and efficacious anesthetic that has become increasingly popular in postoperative pain management. However, there is limited literature regarding the potential for bupivacaine-induced delayed liver toxicity. Describe cholestasis as a potential adverse reaction of bupivacaine infusion into a surgical wound. Retrospective review of patients' medical records. We report the cases of 3 patients with new onset of cholestatic injury after receiving bupivacaine infusion for postoperative herniorrhaphy pain management. All patients had negative serologic workups for other causes of liver injury. All patients achieved eventual resolution of their liver injury. Bupivacaine-induced liver injury should be on the differential of individuals presenting with jaundice and cholestasis within a month of infusion via a surgically placed catheter of this commonly used anesthetic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A synthetic biology-based device prevents liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Bai, Peng; Ye, Haifeng; Xie, Mingqi; Saxena, Pratik; Zulewski, Henryk; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Djonov, Valentin; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The liver performs a panoply of complex activities coordinating metabolic, immunologic and detoxification processes. Despite the liver's robustness and unique self-regeneration capacity, viral infection, autoimmune disorders, fatty liver disease, alcohol abuse and drug-induced hepatotoxicity contribute to the increasing prevalence of liver failure. Liver injuries impair the clearance of bile acids from the hepatic portal vein which leads to their spill over into the peripheral circulation where they activate the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor TGR5 to initiate a variety of hepatoprotective processes. By functionally linking activation of ectopically expressed TGR5 to an artificial promoter controlling transcription of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), we created a closed-loop synthetic signalling network that coordinated liver injury-associated serum bile acid levels to expression of HGF in a self-sufficient, reversible and dose-dependent manner. After implantation of genetically engineered human cells inside auto-vascularizing, immunoprotective and clinically validated alginate-poly-(L-lysine)-alginate beads into mice, the liver-protection device detected pathologic serum bile acid levels and produced therapeutic HGF levels that protected the animals from acute drug-induced liver failure. Genetically engineered cells containing theranostic gene circuits that dynamically interface with host metabolism may provide novel opportunities for preventive, acute and chronic healthcare. Liver diseases leading to organ failure may go unnoticed as they do not trigger any symptoms or significant discomfort. We have designed a synthetic gene circuit that senses excessive bile acid levels associated with liver injuries and automatically produces a therapeutic protein in response. When integrated into mammalian cells and implanted into mice, the circuit detects the onset of liver injuries and coordinates the production of a protein pharmaceutical which prevents liver

  5. Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia triggered by liver injury in elderly subjects with low body weight: case reports.

    PubMed

    Anno, Takatoshi; Kaneto, Hideaki; Shigemoto, Ryo; Kawasaki, Fumiko; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Urata, Noriyo; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Kaku, Kohei; Okimoto, Niro

    2018-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is induced by many causes, especially over-dose of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetic subjects. In such a case, hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is usually observed. On the other hand, it is important to classify secondary hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Liver injury-induced hypoglycemia is one of the causes of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia but rarely observed in clinical practice. Herein, we experienced similar 2 cases of non-diabetic hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Both of them were elderly subjects with low body weight. Furthermore, it is likely that hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia in both subjects was triggered by severe liver injury, at least in part, due to possible limited liver glycogen store. In elderly subjects with low body weight and/or malnutrition, metabolism in the liver is reduced and glycogen accumulation is decreased. Such alteration brings out acute and marked liver injury, which finally leads to the onset of severe hypoglycemia. It is known that not only liver injury but also multiple organ failure could be induced due to extreme emaciation in subjects. It is likely that in elderly subjects with low body weight and/or malnutrition, multiple organ failure including liver failure could be induced due to the similar reason. Therefore, we should be very careful of such subjects in order to avoid the development of multiple organ failure which leads to life-threatening situations. In conclusion, we should keep in mind the possibility of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia when we examine severe liver injury, especially in elderly or starving subjects with low body weight and limited liver glycogen stores. It is important to classify secondary hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia.Liver injury-induced hypoglycemia is one of the causes of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia but rarely observed in everyday clinical practice.Herein, we reported similar 2 cases of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia without diabetes presumably triggered

  6. HIFU Hemostasis of Liver Injuries Enhanced by Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zderic, Vesna; Vaezy, Shahram; Brayman, Andrew A.; Matula, Thomas J.; O'Keefe, Grant E.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2005-03-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) hemostasis can be achieved faster in the presence of ultrasound contrast agents (UCA). Incisions (3 cm long and 0.5 cm deep) were made in surgically exposed rabbit liver. Optison at a concentration of 0.18 ml/kg was injected into the mesenteric vein, immediately before the incision was made. The HIFU applicator (frequency of 5.5 MHz, and intensity of 3,700 W/cm2) was scanned manually over the incision (at an approximate rate of 1 mm/s) until hemostasis was achieved. The times to complete hemostasis were measured and normalized with the initial blood loss. The hemostasis times were 59±23 s in the presence of Optison and 70±23 s without Optison. The presence of Optison produced a 37% reduction in the normalized hemostasis times (p<0.05). Optison also provided faster (by 34%) formation of the coagulum seal over the lesion. Gross observations showed that the lesion size did not change due to the presence of Optison. Histological analysis showed that lesions consisted of an area of coagulation necrosis in vicinity of the incision, occasionally surrounded by a congestion zone filled with blood. Our results suggest the potential utility of microbubble contrast agents for increasing efficiency of HIFU hemostasis of internal organ injuries.

  7. Hepatic Histological Findings in Suspected Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Systematic Evaluation and Clinical Associations

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, David E; Chalasani, Naga P; Lee, William M; Fontana, Robert J; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Watkins, Paul B; Hayashi, Paul H; Davern, Timothy J; Navarro, Victor; Reddy, Rajender; Talwalkar, Jayant A; Stolz, Andrew; Gu, Jiezhun; Barnhart, Huiman; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is considered to be a diagnosis of exclusion. Liver biopsy may contribute to diagnostic accuracy, but the histological features of DILI and their relationship to biochemical parameters and outcomes are not well defined. We have classified the pathological pattern of liver injury and systematically evaluated histological changes in liver biopsies obtained from 249 patients with suspected DILI enrolled in the prospective, observational study conducted by the Drug Induced Liver Injury Network. Histological features were analyzed for their frequency within different clinical phenotypes of liver injury and to identify associations between clinical and laboratory findings and histological features. The most common histological patterns were acute (21%) and chronic hepatitis (14%), acute (9%) and chronic cholestasis (10%), and cholestatic hepatitis (29%). Liver histology from 128 patients presenting with hepatocellular injury had more severe inflammation, necrosis, and apoptosis and more frequently demonstrated lobular disarray, rosette formation, and hemorrhage than those with cholestasis. Conversely, histology of the 73 patients with cholestatic injury more often demonstrated bile plugs and duct paucity. Severe or fatal hepatic injury in 46 patients was associated with higher degrees of necrosis, fibrosis stage, microvesicular steatosis, and ductular reaction among other findings, whereas eosinophils and granulomas were found more often in those with milder injury. Conclusion: We describe an approach for evaluating liver histology in DILI and demonstrate numerous associations between pathological findings and clinical presentations that may serve as a foundation for future studies correlating DILI pathology with its causality and outcome. (Hepatology 2014;59:661–670) PMID:24037963

  8. Obeticholic acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury and inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Da-Gang

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays important roles in regulating bile acid homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel synthetic FXR agonist, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced acute liver injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl{sub 4} (0.15 ml/kg). In CCl{sub 4} + OCA group, mice were orally with OCA (5 mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1 h before CCl{sub 4}. As expected, hepatic FXR was activated by OCA. Interestingly, OCA pretreatment alleviated CCl{sub 4}-induced elevation of serum ALT and hepatic necrosis. Moreover, OCA pretreatmentmore » inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Additional experiment showed that OCA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic chemokine gene Mcp-1, Mip-2 and Kc. Moreover, OCA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic pro-inflammatory gene Tnf-α and Il-1β. By contrast, OCA pretreatment elevated hepatic anti-inflammatory gene Il-4. Further analysis showed that OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic IκB phosphorylation and blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits during CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury. In addition, OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic Akt, ERK and p38 phosphorylation in CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury. These results suggest that OCA protects against CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury and inflammation. Synthetic FXR agonists may be effective antidotes for hepatic inflammation during acute liver injury. - Highlights: • OCA pretreatment activates hepatic FXR. • FXR activation protects against CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury. • FXR activation inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis during CCl{sub 4}-induced liver injury. • FXR activation differentially regulates hepatic inflammatory genes. • Synthetic FXR agonists are effective antidotes for acute liver injury.« less

  9. Extracellular Vesicles from Human Liver Stem Cells Reduce Injury in an Ex Vivo Normothermic Hypoxic Rat Liver Perfusion Model.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Federica; De Stefano, Nicola; Navarro-Tableros, Victor; David, Ezio; Rizza, Giorgia; Catalano, Giorgia; Gilbo, Nicholas; Maione, Francesca; Gonella, Federica; Roggio, Dorotea; Martini, Silvia; Patrono, Damiano; Salizzoni, Mauro; Camussi, Giovanni; Romagnoli, Renato

    2018-05-01

    The gold standard for organ preservation before transplantation is static cold storage, which is unable to fully protect suboptimal livers from ischemia/reperfusion injury. An emerging alternative is normothermic machine perfusion (NMP), which permits organ reconditioning. Here, we aimed to explore the feasibility of a pharmacological intervention on isolated rat livers by using a combination of NMP and human liver stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles (HLSC-EV). We established an ex vivo murine model of NMP capable to maintain liver function despite an ongoing hypoxic injury induced by hemodilution. Livers were perfused for 4 hours without (control group, n = 10) or with HLSC-EV (treated group, n = 9). Bile production was quantified; perfusate samples were collected hourly to measure metabolic (pH, pO2, pCO2) and cytolysis parameters (AST, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase). At the end of perfusion, we assessed HLSC-EV engraftment by immunofluorescence, tissue injury by histology, apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, tissue hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 RNA expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. During hypoxic NMP, livers were able to maintain homeostasis and produce bile. In the treated group, AST (P = 0.018) and lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.032) levels were significantly lower than those of the control group at 3 hours of perfusion, and AST levels persisted lower at 4 hours (P = 0.003). By the end of NMP, HLSC-EV had been uptaken by hepatocytes, and EV treatment significantly reduced histological damage (P = 0.030), apoptosis (P = 0.049), and RNA overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (P < 0.0001) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (P = 0.014). HLSC-EV treatment, even in a short-duration model, was feasible and effectively reduced liver injury during hypoxic NMP.

  10. SPONTANEOUS REPOPULATION OF β-CATENIN NULL LIVERS WITH β-CATENIN POSITIVE HEPATOCYTES AFTER CHRONIC MURINE LIVER INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michael D.; Wickline, Emily D.; Bowen, William B.; Lu, Amy; Singh, Sucha; Misse, Amalea; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of mice to diet containing 0.1% 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) results in hepatobiliary injury, atypical ductular proliferation, oval cell appearance and limited fibrosis. Previously, we reported that short-term ingestion of DDC diet by hepatocyte-specific β-catenin conditional knockout (KO) mice, led to fewer A6-positive oval cells than wild-type (WT) littermates. To examine the role of β-catenin in chronic hepatic injury and repair, we exposed WT and KO mice to DDC for 80 and 150 days. Paradoxically, long-term DDC exposure led to significantly more A6-positive cells indicating greater atypical ductular proliferation in KO, which coincided with increased fibrosis and cholestasis. Surprisingly, at 80 and 150 days in KO, we observed a significant amelioration of hepatocyte injury. This coincided with extensive repopulation of β-catenin null livers with β-catenin-positive hepatocytes at 150 days, which was preceded by appearance of β-catenin-positive hepatocyte clusters at 80 days and a few β-catenin-positive hepatocytes at earlier times. Intriguingly, occasional β-catenin-positive hepatocytes that were negative for progenitor markers were also observed at baseline in the KO livers suggesting spontaneous escape from cre-mediated recombination. These cells with hepatocyte morphology expressed mature hepatocyte markers but lacked markers of hepatic progenitors. The gradual repopulation of KO livers with β-catenin-positive hepatocytes occurred only following DDC injury and coincided with a progressive loss of hepatic cre-recombinase expression. A few β-catenin-positive cholangiocytes were observed albeit only after long-term DDC-exposure and trailed the appearance of β-catenin-positive hepatocytes. In conclusion, in a chronic liver injury model, β-catenin-positive hepatocytes exhibit growth and survival advantages and repopulate KO livers eventually limiting hepatic injury and dysfunction despite increased fibrosis and

  11. Drug-induced liver injury in inflammatory bowel disease: 1-year prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Koller, Tomas; Galambosova, Martina; Filakovska, Simona; Kubincova, Michaela; Hlavaty, Tibor; Toth, Jozef; Krajcovicova, Anna; Payer, Juraj

    2017-06-14

    To analyze 1-year liver injury burden in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. During a 6-mo inclusion period, consecutive IBD cases having a control visit at IBD center were included. Basic demographics, IBD phenotype and IBD treatment were recorded on entry. Aminotransferase (AT) activities of ALT, AST, ALP and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were measured at baseline, 3 mo prior to study entry and prospectively every 3 mo for 1 year. Liver injury patterns were predefined as: Grade 1 in ALT 1-3 × upper limit of normal (ULN), grade 2 in ALT > 3 × ULN, hepatocellular injury in ALT > 2 × ULN, cholestatic injury in simultaneous GGT and ALP elevation > ULN. Persisting injury was reported when AT elevations were found on > 1 measurement. Risk factors for the patterns of liver injury were identified among demographic parameters, disease phenotype and IBD treatment in univariate and multivariate analysis. Finally, implications for the change in IBD management were evaluated in cases with persisting hepatocellular or cholestatic injury. Two hundred and fifty-one patients were included having 917 ALT and 895 ALP and GGT measurements. Over one year, grade 1 injury was found in 66 (26.3%), grade 2 in 5 (2%) and hepatocellular injury in 16 patients (6.4%). Persisting hepatocellular injury was found in 4 cases. Cholestasis appeared in 11 cases (4.4%) and persisted throughout the entire study period in 1 case. In multivariate analysis, hepatocellular injury was associated with BMI (OR = 1.13, 1.02-1.26), liver steatosis (OR = 10.61, 2.22-50.7), IBD duration (1.07, 1.00-1.15) and solo infliximab (OR = 4.57, 1.33-15.7). Cholestatic liver injury was associated with prior intestinal resection (OR = 32.7, 3.18-335), higher CRP (OR = 1.04, 1.00-1.08) and solo azathioprine (OR = 10.27, 1.46-72.3). In one case with transient hepatocellular injury azathioprine dose was decreased. In 4 cases with persisting hepatocellular injury, fatty liver or alcohol were most likely causes

  12. Human Umbilical Cord MSC-Derived Exosomes Suppress the Development of CCl4-Induced Liver Injury through Antioxidant Effect.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenqian; Tan, Youwen; Cai, Mengjie; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Fei; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Wenrong; Yan, Zhixin; Qian, Hui; Yan, Yongmin

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been increasingly applied into clinical therapy. Exosomes are small (30-100 nm in diameter) membrane vesicles released by different cell types and possess the similar functions with their derived cells. Human umbilical cord MSC-derived exosomes (hucMSC-Ex) play important roles in liver repair. However, the effects and mechanisms of hucMSC-Ex on liver injury development remain elusive. Mouse models of acute and chronic liver injury and liver tumor were induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) injection, followed by administration of hucMSC-Ex via the tail vein. Alleviation of liver injury by hucMSC-Ex was determined. We further explored the production of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the development of liver injury and compared the antioxidant effects of hucMSC-Ex with frequently used hepatic protectant, bifendate (DDB) in liver injury. hucMSC-Ex alleviated CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury and liver fibrosis and restrained the growth of liver tumors. Decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis were found in hucMSC-Ex-treated mouse models and liver cells. Compared to bifendate (DDB) treatment, hucMSC-Ex presented more distinct antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. hucMSC-Ex may suppress CCl 4 -induced liver injury development via antioxidant potentials and could be a more effective antioxidant than DDB in CCl 4 -induced liver tumor development.

  13. Protective effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidins against alcohol-induced liver steatosis and injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiguo; Su, Bo; Fan, Sumei; Fei, Haixia; Zhao, Wei

    2015-03-20

    The long-term consumption of alcohol has been associated with multiple pathologies at all levels, such as alcoholism, chronic pancreatitis, malnutrition, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cancer. In the current study, we investigated the protective effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) against alcohol-induced liver steatosis and injury and the possible mechanisms using ethanol-induced chronic liver damage mouse models. The results showed that OPC significantly improved alcohol-induced dyslipidemia and alleviated liver steatosis by reducing levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density cholesterol (LDL-c) and liver malondialdehyde (MDA), and increasing levels of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), liver superoxide dismutase (SOD). Further investigation indicated that OPC markedly decreased the expressions of lipid synthesis genes and inflammation genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebp-1c), protein-2 (Srebp2), interleukin IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, AML-12 cells line was used to investigate the possible mechanisms which indicated that OPC might alleviate liver steatosis and damage through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation involving oxidative stress. In conclusion, our study demonstrated excellent protective effect of OPC against alcohol-induced liver steatosis and injury, which could a potential drug for the treatment of alcohol-induced liver injury in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatic pseudoaneurysm after traumatic liver injury; is CT follow-up warranted?

    PubMed

    Østerballe, Lene; Helgstrand, Frederik; Axelsen, Thomas; Hillingsø, Jens; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic pseudoaneurysm (HPA) is a rare complication after liver trauma, yet it is potentially fatal, as it can lead to sudden severe haemorrhage. The risk of developing posttraumatic HPA is one of the arguments for performing follow-up CT of patients with liver injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of HPA post liver trauma. A retrospective study from 2000-2010 of conservatively treated patients with blunt liver trauma was performed to investigate the incidence and nature of HPA. After the initial CT scan patients were admitted to the department and if not clinically indicated prior a follow-up CT was performed on day 4-5. A total of 259 non-operatively managed patients with liver injury were reviewed. 188 had a follow-up CT or US and in 7 patients a HPA was diagnosed. All aneurysms were treated with angiographic embolization and there were no treatment failures. There was no correlation between the severity of the liver injury and development of HPA. 5 out of 7 patients were asymptomatic and would have been discharged without treatment if the protocol did not include a default follow-up CT. In conclusion, this study shows that HPA is not correlated to the severity of liver injury and it develops in 4% of patients after traumatic liver injury. In order to avoid potentially life-threatening haemorrhage from a post trauma hepatic pseudoaneurysm, it seems appropriate to do follow-up CT as part of the conservative management of blunt and penetrating liver injuries.

  15. Desferrioxamine in warm reperfusion media decreases liver injury aggravated by cold storage

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Peter G; Niu, Xian-Wa; Huang, Wen-Hua; DeBoer, Bastiaan; Lai, Ching Tat; Rossi, Enrico; Joseph, John; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether desferrioxamine decreases ischemia and perfusion injury aggravated by cold storage (CS) in a rat liver perfusion model. METHODS: Isolated rat livers were kept in CS in University of Wisconsin Solution for 20 h at 4 °C, then exposed to 25 min of warm ischemia (WI) at 37 °C followed by 2 h of warm perfusion (WP) at 37 °C with oxygenated (95% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide) Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Desferrioxamine (DFO), an iron chelator, was added at different stages of storage, ischemia and perfusion: in CS only, in WI only, in WP only, in WI and perfusion, or in all stages. Effluent samples were collected after CS and after WI. Perfusate samples and bile were collected every 30 min (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 h) during liver perfusion. Cellular injury was assessed by the determination of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the effluent and perfusate samples. Total iron was analysed in the perfusate samples. After WP, the liver was collected for the determination of liver swelling (wet to dry ratio) and liver morphological examination (hematoxylin and eosin staining). RESULTS: Increased CS time caused increased liver dysfunction during WP. After 2 h of WP, liver injury was indicated by increased release of AST (0.5 h CS: 9.4 ± 2.2 U/g liver vs 20 h CS: 45.9 ± 10.8 U/g liver, P < 0.05) and LDH (0.5 h CS: 59 ± 14 U/g liver vs 20 h CS: 297 ± 71 U/g liver, P < 0.05). There was an associated increase in iron release into the perfusate (0.5 h CS: 0.11 ± 0.03 μmoL/g liver vs 20 h CS: 0.58 ± 0.10 μmoL/g liver, P < 0.05) and reduction in bile flow (0.5 h CS: 194 ± 12 μL/g vs 20 h CS: 71 ± 8 μL/g liver, P < 0.05). When DFO was added during WI and WP following 20 h of CS, release of iron into the perfusate was decreased (DFO absent 0.58 ± 0.10 μmoL/g liver vs DFO present 0.31 ± 0.06 μmoL/g liver, P < 0.05), and liver function substantially improved with decreased release of AST (DFO absent 45.9 ± 10.8 U

  16. The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid reduces liver injury and fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic bile duct injury.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nikita; Kopec, Anna K; Towery, Keara; Williams, Kurt J; Luyendyk, James P

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic fibrin deposition has been shown to inhibit hepatocellular injury in mice exposed to the bile duct toxicant α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). Degradation of fibrin clots by fibrinolysis controls the duration and extent of tissue fibrin deposition. Thus, we sought to determine the effect of treatment with the antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) deficiency on ANIT-induced liver injury and fibrosis in mice. Plasmin-dependent lysis of fibrin clots was impaired in plasma from mice treated with TA (1200 mg/kg i.p., administered twice daily). Prophylactic TA administration reduced hepatic inflammation and hepatocellular necrosis in mice fed a diet containing 0.025% ANIT for 2 weeks. Hepatic type 1 collagen mRNA expression and deposition increased markedly in livers of mice fed ANIT diet for 4 weeks. To determine whether TA treatment could inhibit this progression of liver fibrosis, mice were fed ANIT diet for 4 weeks and treated with TA for the last 2 weeks. Interestingly, TA treatment largely prevented increased deposition of type 1 collagen in livers of mice fed ANIT diet for 4 weeks. In contrast, biliary hyperplasia/inflammation and liver fibrosis were significantly increased in PAI-1(-/-) mice fed ANIT diet for 4 weeks. Overall, the results indicate that fibrinolytic activity contributes to ANIT diet-induced liver injury and fibrosis in mice. In addition, these proof-of-principle studies suggest the possibility that therapeutic intervention with an antifibrinolytic drug could form a novel strategy to prevent or reduce liver injury and fibrosis in patients with liver disease.

  17. FXR: Big fish or small fry for drug-induced liver injury?

    PubMed

    Ballet, François

    2016-02-01

    By integrating network analysis and molecular modeling, a "system pharmacology" approach identified FXR as a potential off-target protein mediating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)-induced liver injury. In vitro assays showed that NSAID are potent FXR antagonists that inhibit FXR transcriptional activity. Given the role of FXR in bile acid homeostasis, liver inflammation and cell proliferation, the data suggest that FXR antagonism could mediate, at least in part, NSAID-induced liver injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Silybin Against Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: Something Old, Something New….

    PubMed

    Oltean, Mihai

    2017-09-13

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a life threatening condition that may develop after elective liver surgery or liver transplantation. Numerous surgical and pharmacological approaches have shown varying degrees of protection against liver IRI. A group of protective compounds are the flavonoids but their intestinal absorbtion and bioavailability are low and impredictible. In this issue Tsaroucha et al. reports significantly decreased hepatocellular injury, Fas/FasL expression and inhibited HMGB1 release in rats receiving a hydrosoluble, lyophilized complex of SLB and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (SLB-HP-β-CD) intravenously.

  19. Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury is associated with acute kidney injury following donation after brain death liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Leithead, Joanna A; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Christopher; Andrew, Mark; Kothari, Chirag; Gunson, Bridget K; Muiesan, Paolo; Ferguson, James W

    2013-11-01

    Donation after cardiac death liver transplant recipients have an increased frequency of acute kidney injury (AKI). This suggests that hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of AKI after liver transplantation. The aim of this single-center study was to determine if hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, estimated by peak peri-operative serum amino-transferase (AST), is associated with AKI following donation after brain death (DBD) liver transplantation. A total of 296 patients received 298 DBD liver transplants from January 2007 to June 2011. The incidence of AKI was 35.9%. AKI was a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (P = 0.037) and mortality (P = 0.002). On univariate analysis, peak AST correlated with peak creatinine (P < 0.001) and peak change in creatinine from baseline (P < 0.001). Peak AST was higher in AKI patients (P < 0.001). The incidence of AKI in patients with a peak AST of <1500, 1500-2999 and ≥ 3000 U/l was 26.1%, 39.8% and 71.2%, respectively (P < 0.001). On multiple logistic regression analysis, peak AST was independently associated with the development of AKI (P < 0.001). In conclusion, hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury demonstrates a strong relationship with peri-operative AKI in DBD liver transplant recipients. © 2013 Steunstichting ESOT. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Recreational Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Associated With Liver Injuries Among Brazilian Young Men.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Cotrim, Helma Pinchemel; Santos, Crimério Ribeiro dos; Santos, Adriano Oliveira dos; Andrade, Antônio Ricardo Cardia Ferraz de; Carruego, Marcos Vinicius Vilas Boas; Zoppi, Cláudio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The recreational use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) has reached alarming levels among healthy people. However, several complications have been related to consumption of these drugs, including liver disorders. To evaluate the prevalence of liver injuries in young Brazilian recreational AAS users. Between February/2007 and May/2012 asymptomatic bodybuilders who were ≥18 years old and reported AAS use for ≥6 months were enrolled. All had clinical evaluations, abdominal ultrasound (AUS), and blood tests. 182 individuals were included in the study. The median age (interquartile range) was 26.0 years (22.0-30.0) and all were male. Elevated liver enzyme levels were observed in 38.5% (n = 70) of AAS users, and creatine phosphokinase was normal in 27.1% (n = 19) of them. Hepatic steatosis was observed by AUS in 12.1% of the sample. One individual had focal nodular hyperplasia and another had hepatocellular adenoma. One case each of hepatitis B and C virus infection was found. A diagnosis of toxic liver injury was suggested in 23 (12.6%) AAS users without a history of alcohol or other medications/drugs consumption, or evidence of other liver diseases. Young Brazilian recreational AAS users presented a wide spectrum of liver injuries that included hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, and liver neoplasm. They also presented risk factors for liver diseases such as alcohol consumption and hepatitis B and C virus infection. The results suggest that the risk of AAS use for the liver may be greater than the esthetic benefits, and demonstrate the importance of screening AAS users for liver injuries.

  1. Inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 facilitates liver repair after hepatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Nobuyuki; Ito, Yoshiya; Eshima, Koji; Ohkubo, Hirotoki; Kojo, Ken; Inoue, Tomoyoshi; Raouf, Joan; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Narumiya, Shuh; Watanabe, Masahiko; Majima, Masataka

    2018-07-01

    Liver repair following hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is crucial to survival. This study aims to examine the role of endogenous prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) produced by inducible microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1), a terminal enzyme of PGE 2 generation, in liver injury and repair following hepatic I/R. mPGES-1 deficient (Ptges -/- ) mice or their wild-type (WT) counterparts were subjected to partial hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion. The role of E prostanoid receptor 4 (EP4) was then studied using a genetic knockout model and a selective antagonist. Compared with WT mice, Ptges -/- mice exhibited reductions in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), necrotic area, neutrophil infiltration, chemokines, and proinflammatory cytokine levels. Ptges -/- mice also showed promoted liver repair and increased Ly6C low macrophages (Ly6C low /CD11b high /F4/80 high -cells) with expression of anti-inflammatory and reparative genes, while WT mice exhibited delayed liver repair and increased Ly6C high macrophages (Ly6C high /CD11b high /F4/80 low -cells) with expression of proinflammatory genes. Bone marrow (BM)-derived mPGES-1-deficient macrophages facilitated liver repair with increases in Ly6C low macrophages. In vitro, mPGES-1 was expressed in macrophages polarized toward the proinflammatory profile. Mice treated with the mPGES-1 inhibitor Compound III displayed increased liver protection and repair. Hepatic I/R enhanced the hepatic expression of PGE receptor subtype, EP4, in WT mice, which was reduced in Ptges -/- mice. A selective EP4 antagonist and genetic deletion of Ptger4, which codes for EP4, accelerated liver repair. The proinflammatory gene expression was upregulated by stimulation of EP4 agonist in WT macrophages but not in EP4-deficient macrophages. These results indicate that mPGES-1 regulates macrophage polarization as well as liver protection and repair through EP4 signaling during hepatic I/R. Inhibition of mPGES-1 could have therapeutic potential by

  2. CD18 deficiency improves liver injury in the MCD model of steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Andrew A.; Siao, Kevin; Mattis, Aras N.; Goodsell, Amanda; Baron, Jody L.; Maher, Jacquelyn J.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils and macrophages are important constituents of the hepatic inflammatory infiltrate in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. These innate immune cells express CD18, an adhesion molecule that facilitates leukocyte activation. In the context of fatty liver, activation of infiltrated leukocytes is believed to enhance hepatocellular injury. The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which activated innate immune cells promote steatohepatitis by comparing hepatic outcomes in wild-type and CD18-mutant mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet. After 3 weeks of MCD feeding, hepatocyte injury, based on serum ALT elevation, was 40% lower in CD18-mutant than wild-type mice. Leukocyte infiltration into the liver was not impaired in CD18-mutant mice, but leukocyte activation was markedly reduced, as shown by the lack of evidence of oxidant production. Despite having reduced hepatocellular injury, CD18-mutant mice developed significantly more hepatic steatosis than wild-type mice after MCD feeding. This coincided with greater hepatic induction of pro-inflammatory and lipogenic genes as well as a modest reduction in hepatic expression of adipose triglyceride lipase. Overall, the data indicate that CD18 deficiency curbs MCD-mediated liver injury by limiting the activation of innate immune cells in the liver without compromising intrahepatic cytokine activation. Reduced liver injury occurs at the expense of increased hepatic steatosis, which suggests that in addition to damaging hepatocytes, infiltrating leukocytes may influence lipid homeostasis in the liver. PMID:28873429

  3. CD18 deficiency improves liver injury in the MCD model of steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Andrew A; Duwaerts, Caroline C; Siao, Kevin; Mattis, Aras N; Goodsell, Amanda; Baron, Jody L; Maher, Jacquelyn J

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils and macrophages are important constituents of the hepatic inflammatory infiltrate in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. These innate immune cells express CD18, an adhesion molecule that facilitates leukocyte activation. In the context of fatty liver, activation of infiltrated leukocytes is believed to enhance hepatocellular injury. The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which activated innate immune cells promote steatohepatitis by comparing hepatic outcomes in wild-type and CD18-mutant mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet. After 3 weeks of MCD feeding, hepatocyte injury, based on serum ALT elevation, was 40% lower in CD18-mutant than wild-type mice. Leukocyte infiltration into the liver was not impaired in CD18-mutant mice, but leukocyte activation was markedly reduced, as shown by the lack of evidence of oxidant production. Despite having reduced hepatocellular injury, CD18-mutant mice developed significantly more hepatic steatosis than wild-type mice after MCD feeding. This coincided with greater hepatic induction of pro-inflammatory and lipogenic genes as well as a modest reduction in hepatic expression of adipose triglyceride lipase. Overall, the data indicate that CD18 deficiency curbs MCD-mediated liver injury by limiting the activation of innate immune cells in the liver without compromising intrahepatic cytokine activation. Reduced liver injury occurs at the expense of increased hepatic steatosis, which suggests that in addition to damaging hepatocytes, infiltrating leukocytes may influence lipid homeostasis in the liver.

  4. Implications of microbiota and bile acid in liver injury and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Xin; Keane, Ryan; Sheng, Lili; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Summary Studies examining the mechanisms by which the liver injures and regenerates usually focus on factors and pathways within the liver, neglecting the signaling derived from the gut-liver axis. The intestinal content is rich in microorganisms as well as metabolites generated from both the host and colonizing bacteria. Via the gut-liver axis, this complex “soup” exerts an immense impact on liver integrity and function. This review article summarizes data published in the past 30 years that have demonstrated the signaling derived from the gut-liver axis in relation to liver injury and regeneration. Despite many correlative findings, the intricate networks of pathways involved along with a scarcity of mechanistic data urgently require nutrigenomic, metabolomics, and microbiota profiling approaches to provide a deep understanding of the interplay between nutrition, bacteria, and host response. Such knowledge would better elucidate the molecular mechanisms that link microbiota alteration to host physiological response and vice-versa. PMID:26256437

  5. Mfsd2a+ hepatocytes repopulate the liver during injury and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Xiuzhen; Tian, Xueying; He, Lingjuan; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Libo; Liu, Qiaozhen; Li, Yan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Kuo; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Huang, Pengyu; Nie, Yu; Yan, Yan; Hui, Lijian; Lui, Kathy O.; Zhou, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes are functionally heterogeneous and are divided into two distinct populations based on their metabolic zonation: the periportal and pericentral hepatocytes. During liver injury and regeneration, the cellular dynamics of these two distinct populations remain largely elusive. Here we show that major facilitator super family domain containing 2a (Mfsd2a), previously known to maintain blood–brain barrier function, is a periportal zonation marker. By genetic lineage tracing of Mfsd2a+ periportal hepatocytes, we show that Mfsd2a+ population decreases during liver homeostasis. Nevertheless, liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy significantly stimulates expansion of the Mfsd2a+ periportal hepatocytes. Similarly, during chronic liver injury, the Mfsd2a+ hepatocyte population expands and completely replaces the pericentral hepatocyte population throughout the whole liver. After injury recovery, the adult liver re-establishes the metabolic zonation by reprogramming the Mfsd2a+-derived hepatocytes into pericentral hepatocytes. The evidence of entire zonation replacement during injury increases our understanding of liver biology and disease. PMID:27857132

  6. Role and mechanisms of autophagy in acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Chao, Xiaojuan; Wang, Hua; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Ding, Wen-Xing

    2018-04-23

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in the USA and many other countries. Although the metabolism and pathogenesis of APAP has been extensively investigated for decades, the mechanisms by which APAP induces liver injury are incompletely known, which hampers the development of effective therapeutic approaches to tackle this important clinical problem. Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation pathway, which aims at recycling cellular components and damaged organelles in response to adverse environmental conditions and stresses as a survival mechanism. There is accumulating evidence indicating that autophagy is activated in response to APAP overdose in specific liver zone areas, and pharmacological activation of autophagy protects against APAP-induced liver injury. Increasing evidence also suggests that hepatic autophagy is impaired in nonalcoholic fatty livers (NAFLD), and NAFLD patients are more susceptible to APAP-induced liver injury. Here, we summarized the current progress on the role and mechanisms of autophagy in protecting against APAP-induced liver injury. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Oxaloacetate Ameliorates Chemical Liver Injury via Oxidative Stress Reduction and Enhancement of Bioenergetic Fluxes.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ye; Han, Xiaoyun; Xu, Mu; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Yuxiang; Yang, Qing

    2018-05-31

    Chemical injury is partly due to free radical lipid peroxidation, which can induce oxidative stress and produce a large number of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxaloacetic acid is an important intermediary in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and participates in metabolism and energy production. In our study, we found that oxaloacetate (OA) effectively alleviated liver injury which was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) in vitro and carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) in vivo. OA scavenged ROS, prevented oxidative damage and maintained the normal structure of mitochondria. We further confirmed that OA increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by promoting the TCA production cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Finally, OA inhibited the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and apoptotic pathways by suppressing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our findings reveal a mechanism for OA ameliorating chemical liver injury and suggest a possible implementation for preventing the chemical liver injury.

  8. Influence of diabetes on liver injury induced by antitubercular drugs and on silymarin hepatoprotection in rats.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Sharma, S; Verma, S; Arora, B; Lal, H

    2008-12-01

    Isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide during short-course chemotherapy for tuberculosis can result in liver injury. The coexistence of tuberculosis and diabetes is common in patients who receive inadequate treatment. The risk of hepatotoxicity from many toxicants is increased in diabetic rats. Silymarin provides protection against liver injury caused by many hepatotoxicants, including antitubercular drugs (ATDs). In the wake of increased severity of ATD-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetes we report here the results of a study on the influence of diabetes on silymarin hepatoprotection in rats. Rats with diabetes induced via intraperitoneally injected streptozotocin (50 mg/kg), nondiabetic rats and insulin-treated diabetic rats received isoniazid (7.5 mg/kg/day), rifampicin (10 mg/kg/day) and pyrazinamide (35 mg/kg/day) orally (p.o.) with or without silymarin (100 mg/kg/day p.o.) treatment for 45 days. Compared to nondiabetic rats, liver function tests and histological changes of liver revealed exaggerated liver injury in diabetic rats caused by ATDs which was evident by 5- to 8-fold increases in serum levels of marker enzymes (aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase) and 1- to 2-fold increases in bilirubin accompanied by a 2-fold decrease in total serum proteins, intense fatty and inflammatory infiltrations, necrosis and fibrosis. Coadministration of silymarin provided protection against ATD hepatotoxicity in all animals. However, insulin-treated diabetic animals showed greater silymarin-induced hepatoprotection against ATD-induced liver injury, which was characterized by near normal levels of marker enzymes, an increase in total proteins and normal hepatic structure. These results thus indicate that diabetes exaggerates ATD-induced liver injury and attenuates silymarin-induced hepatoprotection. However, insulin treatment for diabetes offers greater silymarin-induced hepatoprotection against ATD-induced liver

  9. Oleanolic acid alters bile acid metabolism and produces cholestatic liver injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie, E-mail: JLiu@kumc.edu; Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003; Lu, Yuan-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoids that exists widely in plants. OA is effective in protecting against hepatotoxicants. Whereas a low dose of OA is hepatoprotective, higher doses and longer-term use of OA produce liver injury. This study characterized OA-induced liver injury in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were given OA at doses of 0, 22.5, 45, 90, and 135 mg/kg, s.c., daily for 5 days, and liver injury was observed at doses of 90 mg/kg and above, as evidenced by increases in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, increases in serum total bilirubin, as well as by livermore » histopathology. OA-induced cholestatic liver injury was further evidenced by marked increases of both unconjugated and conjugated bile acids (BAs) in serum. Gene and protein expression analysis suggested that livers of OA-treated mice had adaptive responses to prevent BA accumulation by suppressing BA biosynthetic enzyme genes (Cyp7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1); lowering BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2); and increasing a BA efflux transporter (Ostβ). OA increased the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, Nqo1, but decreased the expression of AhR, CAR and PPARα along with their target genes, Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10 and Cyp4a10. OA had minimal effects on PXR and Cyp3a11. Taken together, the present study characterized OA-induced liver injury, which is associated with altered BA homeostasis, and alerts its toxicity potential. - Highlights: • Oleanolic acid at higher doses and long-term use may produce liver injury. • Oleanolic acid increased serum ALT, ALP, bilirubin and bile acid concentrations. • OA produced feathery degeneration, inflammation and cell death in the liver. • OA altered bile acid homeostasis, affecting bile acid synthesis and transport.« less

  10. Natural killer cells mediate severe liver injury in a murine model of halothane hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Christine M; Fullerton, Aaron M; Roth, Robert A; Ganey, Patricia E

    2011-04-01

    Severe halothane (HAL)-induced hepatotoxicity occurs in one in 6000-30,000 patients by an unknown mechanism. Female sex is a risk factor in humans and rodents. We tested the hypothesis that a sex difference in natural killer (NK) cell activity contributes to HAL-induced liver injury. HAL (15 mmol/kg, ip) treatment resulted in severe liver injury by 12 h in female, wild-type BALB/cJ mice, and the magnitude of liver injury varied with stage of the estrous cycle. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice developed only mild liver injury. Plasma interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was elevated 10-fold in HAL-treated females compared with similarly treated male mice or with OVX female mice. IFN-γ knockout mice were resistant to severe HAL-induced liver injury. The deactivation of NK cells with anti-asialo GM1 treatment attenuated liver injury and the increase in plasma IFN-γ compared with immunoglobulin G-treated control mice. Mice with a mutated form of perforin, a protein involved in granule-mediated cytotoxicity, were protected from severe liver injury. Furthermore, HAL increased the activity of NK cells in vivo, as indicated by increased surface expression of CD69, an early activation marker. In response to HAL, NK cell receptor ligands on the surface of hepatocytes were expressed in a manner that can activate NK cells. These results confirm the sexual dimorphic hepatotoxic response to HAL in mice and suggest that IFN-γ and NK cells have essential roles in the development of severe HAL-induced hepatotoxicity.

  11. Natural Killer Cells Mediate Severe Liver Injury in a Murine Model of Halothane Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Christine M.; Fullerton, Aaron M.; Roth, Robert A.; Ganey, Patricia E.

    2011-01-01

    Severe halothane (HAL)-induced hepatotoxicity occurs in one in 6000–30,000 patients by an unknown mechanism. Female sex is a risk factor in humans and rodents. We tested the hypothesis that a sex difference in natural killer (NK) cell activity contributes to HAL-induced liver injury. HAL (15 mmol/kg, ip) treatment resulted in severe liver injury by 12 h in female, wild-type BALB/cJ mice, and the magnitude of liver injury varied with stage of the estrous cycle. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice developed only mild liver injury. Plasma interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was elevated 10-fold in HAL-treated females compared with similarly treated male mice or with OVX female mice. IFN-γ knockout mice were resistant to severe HAL-induced liver injury. The deactivation of NK cells with anti-asialo GM1 treatment attenuated liver injury and the increase in plasma IFN-γ compared with immunoglobulin G–treated control mice. Mice with a mutated form of perforin, a protein involved in granule-mediated cytotoxicity, were protected from severe liver injury. Furthermore, HAL increased the activity of NK cells in vivo, as indicated by increased surface expression of CD69, an early activation marker. In response to HAL, NK cell receptor ligands on the surface of hepatocytes were expressed in a manner that can activate NK cells. These results confirm the sexual dimorphic hepatotoxic response to HAL in mice and suggest that IFN-γ and NK cells have essential roles in the development of severe HAL-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:21245496

  12. Saccharomyces boulardii Administration Changes Gut Microbiota and Attenuates D-Galactosamine-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Zhao, Xue-Ke; Cheng, Ming-Liang; Yang, Guo-Zhen; Wang, Bi; Liu, Hua-Juan; Hu, Ya-Xin; Zhu, Li-Li; Zhang, Shuai; Xiao, Zi-Wen; Liu, Yong-Mei; Zhang, Bao-Fang; Mu, Mao

    2017-05-02

    Growing evidence has shown that gut microbiome is a key factor involved in liver health. Therefore, gut microbiota modulation with probiotic bacteria, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, constitutes a promising therapy for hepatosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of S. boulardii on D-Galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice. Liver function test and histopathological analysis both suggested that the liver injury can be effectively attenuated by S. boulardii administration. In the meantime, S. boulardii induced dramatic changes in the gut microbial composition. At the phylum level, we found that S. boulardii significantly increased in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, and decreased the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which may explain the hepatic protective effects of S. boulardii. Taken together, our results demonstrated that S. boulardii administration could change the gut microbiota in mice and alleviate acute liver failure, indicating a potential protective and therapeutic role of S. boulardii.

  13. Mechanistic Modelling of Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Investigating the Role of Innate Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Lisl Km; Battista, Christina; Siler, Scott Q; Pisetsky, David S; Watkins, Paul B; Howell, Brett A

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains an adverse event of significant concern for drug development and marketed drugs, and the field would benefit from better tools to identify liver liabilities early in development and/or to mitigate potential DILI risk in otherwise promising drugs. DILIsym software takes a quantitative systems toxicology approach to represent DILI in pre-clinical species and in humans for the mechanistic investigation of liver toxicity. In addition to multiple intrinsic mechanisms of hepatocyte toxicity (ie, oxidative stress, bile acid accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction), DILIsym includes the interaction between hepatocytes and cells of the innate immune response in the amplification of liver injury and in liver regeneration. The representation of innate immune responses, detailed here, consolidates much of the available data on the innate immune response in DILI within a single framework and affords the opportunity to systematically investigate the contribution of the innate response to DILI.

  14. Obeticholic acid protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xi; Ren, Yuqian; Cui, Yun; Li, Rui; Wang, Chunxia; Zhang, Yucai

    2017-12-01

    Cholestasis, as a main manifestation, induces liver injury during sepsis. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in regulating bile acid homeostasis. Whether FXR activation by its agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) is contributed to improve sepsis-induced liver injury remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of OCA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury in mice. 8-week old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group, LPS group, oral OCA group and LPS plus oral OCA (LPS + OCA) group. The serum and livers were collected for further analysis. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bile acid (TBA) and total bilirubin (TBIL) were measured at indicated time after LPS administration. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E). Orally OCA pretreatment stimulated the expression of FXR and BSEP in livers and protected mice from LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration. Consistently, LPS-induced higher serum levels of ALT, AST, TBA and TBIL were significantly reversed by OCA administration. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were decreased in livers of mice in LPS + OCA group compared with LPS group. Further investigation indicated that the higher expression of ATF4 and LC3II/I were associated with the protective effect of OCA on LPS-induced liver injury. Orally OCA pretreatment protects mice from LPS-induced liver injury possibly contributed by improved bile acid homeostasis, decreased inflammatory factors and ATF4-mediated autophagy activity in hepatocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of primary human hepatocyte spheroids as a model system for drug-induced liver injury, liver function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Catherine C.; Hendriks, Delilah F. G.; Moro, Sabrina M. L.; Ellis, Ewa; Walsh, Joanne; Renblom, Anna; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Dankers, Anita C. A.; Jacobs, Frank; Snoeys, Jan; Sison-Young, Rowena L.; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Nordling, Åsa; Mkrtchian, Souren; Park, B. Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Goldring, Christopher E. P.; Lauschke, Volker M.; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Liver biology and function, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and liver diseases are difficult to study using current in vitro models such as primary human hepatocyte (PHH) monolayer cultures, as their rapid de-differentiation restricts their usefulness substantially. Thus, we have developed and extensively characterized an easily scalable 3D PHH spheroid system in chemically-defined, serum-free conditions. Using whole proteome analyses, we found that PHH spheroids cultured this way were similar to the liver in vivo and even retained their inter-individual variability. Furthermore, PHH spheroids remained phenotypically stable and retained morphology, viability, and hepatocyte-specific functions for culture periods of at least 5 weeks. We show that under chronic exposure, the sensitivity of the hepatocytes drastically increased and toxicity of a set of hepatotoxins was detected at clinically relevant concentrations. An interesting example was the chronic toxicity of fialuridine for which hepatotoxicity was mimicked after repeated-dosing in the PHH spheroid model, not possible to detect using previous in vitro systems. Additionally, we provide proof-of-principle that PHH spheroids can reflect liver pathologies such as cholestasis, steatosis and viral hepatitis. Combined, our results demonstrate that the PHH spheroid system presented here constitutes a versatile and promising in vitro system to study liver function, liver diseases, drug targets and long-term DILI. PMID:27143246

  16. Characterization of primary human hepatocyte spheroids as a model system for drug-induced liver injury, liver function and disease.

    PubMed

    Bell, Catherine C; Hendriks, Delilah F G; Moro, Sabrina M L; Ellis, Ewa; Walsh, Joanne; Renblom, Anna; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Dankers, Anita C A; Jacobs, Frank; Snoeys, Jan; Sison-Young, Rowena L; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Nordling, Åsa; Mkrtchian, Souren; Park, B Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R; Goldring, Christopher E P; Lauschke, Volker M; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-05-04

    Liver biology and function, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and liver diseases are difficult to study using current in vitro models such as primary human hepatocyte (PHH) monolayer cultures, as their rapid de-differentiation restricts their usefulness substantially. Thus, we have developed and extensively characterized an easily scalable 3D PHH spheroid system in chemically-defined, serum-free conditions. Using whole proteome analyses, we found that PHH spheroids cultured this way were similar to the liver in vivo and even retained their inter-individual variability. Furthermore, PHH spheroids remained phenotypically stable and retained morphology, viability, and hepatocyte-specific functions for culture periods of at least 5 weeks. We show that under chronic exposure, the sensitivity of the hepatocytes drastically increased and toxicity of a set of hepatotoxins was detected at clinically relevant concentrations. An interesting example was the chronic toxicity of fialuridine for which hepatotoxicity was mimicked after repeated-dosing in the PHH spheroid model, not possible to detect using previous in vitro systems. Additionally, we provide proof-of-principle that PHH spheroids can reflect liver pathologies such as cholestasis, steatosis and viral hepatitis. Combined, our results demonstrate that the PHH spheroid system presented here constitutes a versatile and promising in vitro system to study liver function, liver diseases, drug targets and long-term DILI.

  17. Heat stroke leading to acute liver injury & failure: A case series from the Acute Liver Failure Study Group.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian C; Tillman, Holly; Chung, Raymond T; Stravitz, Richard T; Reddy, Rajender; Fontana, Robert J; McGuire, Brendan; Davern, Timothy; Lee, William M

    2017-04-01

    In the United States, nearly 1000 annual cases of heat stroke are reported but the frequency and outcome of severe liver injury in such patients is not well described. The aim of this study was to describe cases of acute liver injury (ALI) or failure (ALF) caused by heat stroke in a large ALF registry. Amongst 2675 consecutive subjects enrolled in a prospective observational cohort of patients with ALI or ALF between January 1998 and April 2015, there were eight subjects with heat stroke. Five patients had ALF and three had ALI. Seven patients developed acute kidney injury, all eight had lactic acidosis and rhabdomyolysis. Six patients underwent cooling treatments, three received N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), three required mechanical ventilation, three required renal replacement therapy, two received vasopressors, one underwent liver transplantation, and two patients died-both within 48 hours of presentation. All cases occurred between May and August, mainly in healthy young men because of excessive exertion. Management of ALI and ALF secondary to heat stroke should focus on cooling protocols and supportive care, with consideration of liver transplantation in refractory patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Systems Toxicology of Chemically Induced Liver and Kidney Injuries: Histopathology-Associated Gene Co-Expression Modules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-04

    2016 (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/jat.3278Systems toxicology of chemically induced liver and kidney injuries: histopathology-associated gene...injuries that classify 11 liver and eight kidney histopathology endpoints based on dose-dependent activation of the identified modules. We showed that...well as determine whether the injury module activation was specific to the tissue of origin (liver and kidney ). The generated modules provide a link

  19. Fractal Dimension of Tc-99m DTPA GSA Estimates Pathologic Liver Injury due to Chemotherapy in Liver Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Kawaguchi, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Yutaro; Kasahara, Kohei; Murakami, Takashi; Hirano, Atsushi; Mori, Mikito; Kosugi, Chihiro; Matsuo, Kenichi; Ishida, Yasuo; Koda, Keiji; Tanaka, Kuniya

    2016-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced liver injury after potent chemotherapy is a considerable problem in patients undergoing liver resection. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the fractal dimension (FD) of Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) and pathologic change of liver parenchyma in liver cancer patients who have undergone chemotherapy. We examined 34 patients (10 female and 24 male; mean age, 68.5 years) who underwent hepatectomy. Hepatic injury was defined as steatosis more than 30 %, grade 2-3 sinusoidal dilation, and/or steatohepatitis Kleiner score ≥4. Fractal analysis was applied to all images of Tc-99m DTPA GSA using a plug-in tool on ImageJ software (NIH, Bethesda, MD). A differential box-counting method was applied, and FD was calculated as a heterogeneity parameter. Correlations between FD and clinicopathological variables were examined. FD values of patients with steatosis and steatohepatitis were significantly higher than those without (P > .001 and P > .001, respectively). There was no difference between the FD values of patients with and without sinusoidal dilatation (P = .357). Multivariate logistic regression showed FD as the only significant predictor for steatosis (P = .005; OR 36.5; 95 % CI 3.0-446.3) and steatohepatitis (P = .012; OR, 29.1; 95 % CI 2.1-400.1). FD of Tc-99m DTPA GSA was the significant predictor for fatty liver disease in patients who underwent chemotherapy. This new modality is able to differentiate steatohepatitis from steatosis; therefore, it may be useful for predicting chemotherapy-induced pathologic liver injury.

  20. Livers from fasted rats acquire resistance to warm and cold ischemia injury.

    PubMed

    Sumimoto, R; Southard, J H; Belzer, F O

    1993-04-01

    Successful liver transplantation is dependent upon many factors, one of which is the quality of the donor organ. Previous studies have suggested that the donor nutritional status may affect the outcome of liver transplantation and starvation, due to prolonged stay in the intensive care unit, may adversely affect the liver. In this study we have used the orthotopic rat liver transplant model to measure how fasting the donor affects the outcome of liver transplantation. Rat livers were preserved with UW solution either at 37 degrees C (warm ischemia for 45-60 min) or at 4 degrees C (cold ischemia for 30 or 44 hr). After preservation the livers were orthotopically transplanted and survival (for 7 days) was measured, as well as liver functions 6 hr after transplantation. After 45 min of warm ischemia 50% (3 of 6) animals survived when the liver was obtained from a fed donor about 80% (4 of 5) survived when the liver was obtained from a three-day-fasted donor. After 60 min warm ischemia no animal survived (0 of 8, fed group). However, if the donor was fasted for 3 days 89% (8 of 9) of the animals survived for 7 days. Livers cold-stored for 30 hr were 50% viable (3 of 6) and fasting for 1-3 days did not affect this outcome. However, if the donor was fasted for 4 days 100% (9 of 9) survival was obtained. After 44-hr preservation only 29% (2/7) of the recipients survived for 7 days. If the donor was fasted for 4 days, survival increased to 83% (5/6). Liver functions, bile production, and serum enzymes were better in livers from the fasted rats than from the fed rats. Fasting caused a 95% decrease in liver glycogen content. Even with this low concentration of glycogen, liver viability (animal survival) after warm or cold ischemia was not affected, and livers with a low glycogen content were fully viable. Thus liver glycogen does not appear to be important in liver preservation. This study shows that fasting the donor does not cause injury to the liver after warm or cold

  1. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and protects the liver from chronic intermittent hypoxia induced injury.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanpeng; Yang, Huai'an; Cui, Zeshi; Tai, Xuhui; Chu, Yanling; Guo, Xing

    2017-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea that characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been reported to associate with chronic liver injury. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) exerts liver-protective effects in various liver diseases. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that TUDCA could protect liver against CIH injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intermittent hypoxia for eight weeks and applied with TUDCA by intraperitoneal injection. The effect of TUDCA on liver histological changes, liver function, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, hepatocyte apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated. The results showed that administration of TUDCA attenuated liver pathological changes, reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase level, suppressed reactive oxygen species activity, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β level and inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis induced by CIH. TUDCA also inhibited CIH-induced ER stress in liver as evidenced by decreased expression of ER chaperone 78 kDa glucose-related protein, unfolded protein response transducers and ER proapoptotic proteins. Altogether, the present study described a liver-protective effect of TUDCA in CIH mice model, and this effect seems at least partly through the inhibition of ER stress.

  2. Oligofructose protects against arsenic-induced liver injury in a model of environment/obesity interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, Veronica L.; Stocke, Kendall S.; Schmidt, Robin H.

    Arsenic (As) tops the ATSDR list of hazardous environmental chemicals and is known to cause liver injury. Although the concentrations of As found in the US water supply are generally too low to directly damage the liver, subhepatotoxic doses of As sensitize the liver to experimental NAFLD. It is now suspected that GI microbiome dysbiosis plays an important role in development of NALFD. Importantly, arsenic has also been shown to alter the microbiome. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the prebiotic oligofructose (OFC) protects against enhanced liver injury caused by As in experimental NAFLD.more » Male C57Bl6/J mice were fed low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD), or HFD containing oligofructose (OFC) during concomitant exposure to either tap water or As-containing water (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for 10 weeks. HFD significantly increased body mass and caused fatty liver injury, as characterized by an increased liver weight-to-body weight ratio, histologic changes and transaminases. As observed previously, As enhanced HFD-induced liver damage, which was characterized by enhanced inflammation. OFC supplementation protected against the enhanced liver damage caused by As in the presence of HFD. Interestingly, arsenic, HFD and OFC all caused unique changes to the gut flora. These data support previous findings that low concentrations of As enhance liver damage caused by high fat diet. Furthermore, these results indicate that these effects of arsenic may be mediated, at least in part, by GI tract dysbiosis and that prebiotic supplementation may confer significant protective effects. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) enhances liver damage caused by a high-fat (HFD) diet in mice. • Oligofructose protects against As-enhanced liver damage caused by HFD. • As causes dysbiosis in the GI tract and exacerbates the dysbiosis caused by HFD. • OFC prevents the dysbiosis caused by HFD and As, increasing commensal bacteria.« less

  3. Role of activin A in carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Hui; Wang, Yi-Nan; Ge, Jing-Yan; Liu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Hong-Jun; Qi, Yan; Liu, Zhong-Hui; Cui, Xue-Ling

    2013-06-28

    To investigate the expression and role of activin A in a mouse model of acute chemical liver injury. Acute liver injury in C57BL/6 male mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (0.5 mL/kg, body weight) dissolved in olive oil (1:19 v/v). Mice were sacrificed 1, 3, 5 and 7 d after the treatment. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum were examined and pathological changes of liver observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining to evaluate the liver injury. Activin A protein levels in serum and hepatic tissue homogenate of mice were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the expression pattern of activin A protein in livers of mice was examined by immunohistochemistry. Activin type IIA receptor (ActRIIA) and Smad3 expressions in the liver were analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In order to further investigate the role of activin A, we also utilized activin A blocking experiment by anti-activin A antibody (500 μg/kg, body weight) injection into mouse tail vein. In CCl4-treated mice, serum ALT and AST levels were significantly increased, compared with that in control mice (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the serious necrosis was observed around hepatic portal areas in CCl4-treated mice. Simultaneously, activin A levels in serum and hepatic tissue homogenate of mice treated with CCl4 for 1, 3 and 5 d increased significantly, compared with that in control mice (P < 0.01). Activin A protein expression in hepatocytes not within the necrotic area was also upregulated in mice following CCl4 treatment. Not only activin A, but also ActRIIA and activin signaling molecule Smad3 mRNA expressions in injury liver induced by CCl4 were significantly higher than that in control liver. In addition, levels of serum ALT and AST in CCl4-treated mice were significantly decreased by injection of anti-activin A antibody to block endogenous activin A

  4. Complications of high grade liver injuries: management and outcomewith focus on bile leaks.

    PubMed

    Bala, Miklosh; Gazalla, Samir Abu; Faroja, Mohammad; Bloom, Allan I; Zamir, Gideon; Rivkind, Avraham I; Almogy, Gidon

    2012-03-23

    Although liver injury scale does not predict need for surgical intervention, a high-grade complex liver injury should alert the physician to expect an increased risk of hepatic complications following trauma. The aim of the current study was to define hepatic related morbidity in patients sustaining high-grade hepatic injuries that could be safely managed non-operatively. This is a retrospective study of patients with liver injury admitted to Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centre over a 10-year period. Grade 3-5 injuries were considered to be high grade. Collected data included the number and types of liver-related complications. Interventions which were required for these complications in patients who survived longer than 24 hours were analysed. Of 398 patients with liver trauma, 64 (16%) were found to have high-grade liver injuries. Mechanism of injury was blunt trauma in 43 cases, and penetrating in 21. Forty patients (62%) required operative treatment. Among survivors 22 patients (47.8%) developed liver-related complications which required additional interventional treatment. Bilomas and bile leaks were diagnosed in 16 cases post-injury. The diagnosis of bile leaks was suspected with abdominal CT scan, which revealed intraabdominal collections (n = 6), and ascites (n = 2). Three patients had continuous biliary leak from intraabdominal drains left after laparotomy. Nine patients required ERCP with biliary stent placement, and 2 required percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. ERCP failed in one case. Four angioembolizations (AE) were performed in 3 patients for rebleeding. Surgical treatment was found to be associated with higher complication rate. AE at admission was associated with a significantly higher rate of biliary complications. There were 24 deaths (37%), the majority from uncontrolled haemorrhage (18 patients). There were only 2 hepatic-related mortalities due to liver failure. A high complication rate following high-grade liver injuries should

  5. Complications of high grade liver injuries: management and outcomewith focus on bile leaks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although liver injury scale does not predict need for surgical intervention, a high-grade complex liver injury should alert the physician to expect an increased risk of hepatic complications following trauma. The aim of the current study was to define hepatic related morbidity in patients sustaining high-grade hepatic injuries that could be safely managed non-operatively. Patients and methods This is a retrospective study of patients with liver injury admitted to Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centre over a 10-year period. Grade 3-5 injuries were considered to be high grade. Collected data included the number and types of liver-related complications. Interventions which were required for these complications in patients who survived longer than 24 hours were analysed. Results Of 398 patients with liver trauma, 64 (16%) were found to have high-grade liver injuries. Mechanism of injury was blunt trauma in 43 cases, and penetrating in 21. Forty patients (62%) required operative treatment. Among survivors 22 patients (47.8%) developed liver-related complications which required additional interventional treatment. Bilomas and bile leaks were diagnosed in 16 cases post-injury. The diagnosis of bile leaks was suspected with abdominal CT scan, which revealed intraabdominal collections (n = 6), and ascites (n = 2). Three patients had continuous biliary leak from intraabdominal drains left after laparotomy. Nine patients required ERCP with biliary stent placement, and 2 required percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. ERCP failed in one case. Four angioembolizations (AE) were performed in 3 patients for rebleeding. Surgical treatment was found to be associated with higher complication rate. AE at admission was associated with a significantly higher rate of biliary complications. There were 24 deaths (37%), the majority from uncontrolled haemorrhage (18 patients). There were only 2 hepatic-related mortalities due to liver failure. Conclusions A high

  6. Obeticholic acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Gang; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Wang, Bi-Wei; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Lu, Yan; Tao, Li; Wang, Jian-Qing; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays important roles in regulating bile acid homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel synthetic FXR agonist, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced acute liver injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl 4 (0.15ml/kg). In CCl 4 +OCA group, mice were orally with OCA (5mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1h before CCl 4 . As expected, hepatic FXR was activated by OCA. Interestingly, OCA pretreatment alleviated CCl 4 -induced elevation of serum ALT and hepatic necrosis. Moreover, OCA pretreatment inhibited CCl 4 -induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Additional experiment showed that OCA inhibits CCl 4 -induced hepatic chemokine gene Mcp-1, Mip-2 and Kc. Moreover, OCA inhibits CCl 4 -induced hepatic pro-inflammatory gene Tnf-α and Il-1β. By contrast, OCA pretreatment elevated hepatic anti-inflammatory gene Il-4. Further analysis showed that OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic IκB phosphorylation and blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits during CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. In addition, OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic Akt, ERK and p38 phosphorylation in CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. These results suggest that OCA protects against CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury and inflammation. Synthetic FXR agonists may be effective antidotes for hepatic inflammation during acute liver injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Virtual Liver for Simulating Chemical-Induced Injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Virtual Liver – vLiver™ --is a tissue simulator that is designed to predict histopathologic lesions – the gold-standard for toxicity. We have developed an approach for a biologically motivated model of a canonical liver lobule. The simulated lobule is composed of discr...

  8. Simulation of Chronic Liver Injury Due to Environmental Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA Virtual Liver (v-Liver) is a cellular systems model of hepatic tissues to predict the effects of chronic exposure to chemicals. Tens of thousands of chemicals are currently in commerce and hundreds more are introduced every year. Few of these chemicals have been adequate...

  9. Involvement of TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Liman; Cui, Xueling; Qi, Yan; Xie, Dongxue; Wu, Qian; Chen, Xinxin; Ge, Jingyan; Liu, Zhonghui

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) is a major factor in pathogenesis of chronic hepatic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a liver toxicant, and CCl4-induced liver injury in mouse is a classical animal model of chemical liver injury. However, it is still unclear whether TGF-β1 is involved in the process of CCl4-induced acute chemical liver injury. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of TGF-β1 and its signaling molecule Smad3 in the acute liver injury induce by CCl4. The results showed that CCl4 induced acute liver injury in mice effectively confirmed by H&E staining of liver tissues, and levels of not only liver injury markers serum ALT and AST, but also serum TGF-β1 were elevated significantly in CCl4-treated mice, compared with the control mice treated with olive oil. Our data further revealed that TGF-β1 levels in hepatic tissue homogenate increased significantly, and type II receptor of TGF-β (TβRII) and signaling molecules Smad2, 3, mRNA expressions and Smad3 and phospho-Smad3 protein levels also increased obviously in livers of CCl4-treated mice. To clarify the effect of the elevated TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling on CCl4-induced acute liver injury, Smad3 in mouse liver was overexpressed in vivo by tail vein injection of Smad3-expressing plasmids. Upon CCl4 treatment, Smad3-overexpressing mice showed more severe liver injury identified by H&E staining of liver tissues and higher serum ALT and AST levels. Simultaneously, we found that Smad3-overexpressing mice treated with CCl4 showed more macrophages and neutrophils infiltration in liver and inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 levels increment in serum when compared with those in control mice treated with CCl4. Moreover, the results showed that the apoptosis of hepatocytes increased significantly, and apoptosis-associated proteins Bax, cytochrome C and the cleaved caspase 3 expressions were up-regulated in CCl4-treated Smad3-overexpressing mice as well. These results suggested that TGF

  10. Obesity Increases Sensitivity to Endotoxin Liver Injury: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Steatohepatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi Qi; Zhi Lin, Hui; Lane, M. Daniel; Clemens, Mark; Diehl, Anna Mae

    1997-03-01

    Genetically obese fatty/fatty rats and obese/obese mice exhibit increased sensitivity to endotoxin hepatotoxicity, quickly developing steatohepatitis after exposure to low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Among obese animals, females are more sensitive to endotoxin liver injury than males. LPS induction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα ), the proven affecter of endotoxin liver injury, is no greater in the livers, white adipose tissues, or sera of obese animals than in those of lean controls. Indeed, the lowest serum concentrations of TNF occur in female obese rodents, which exhibit the most endotoxin-induced liver injury. Several cytokines that modulate the biological activity of TNF are regulated abnormally in the livers of obese animals. After exposure to LPS, mRNA of interferon γ , which sensitizes hepatocytes to TNF toxicity, is overexpressed, and mRNA levels of interleukin 10, a TNF inhibitor, are decreased. The phagocytic activity of liver macrophages and the hepatic expression of a gene encoding a macrophage-specific receptor are also decreased in obesity. This new animal model of obesity-associated liver disease demonstrates that hepatic macrophage dysfunction occurs in obesity and suggests that this might promote steatohepatitis by sensitizing hepatocytes to endotoxin.

  11. Exacerbated liver injury of antithyroid drugs in endotoxin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Reza; Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Azarpira, Negar; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Najibi, Asma; Niknahad, Hossein

    2018-05-03

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major concern in clinical studies as well as in post-marketing surveillance. Previous evidence suggested that drug exposure during periods of inflammation could increase an individual's susceptibility to drug hepatoxicity. The antithyroid drugs, methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) can cause adverse reactions in patients, with liver as a usual target. We tested the hypothesis that MMI and PTU could be rendered hepatotoxic in animals undergoing a modest inflammation. Mice were treated with a nonhepatotoxic dose of LPS (100 µg/kg, i.p) or its vehicle. Nonhepatotoxic doses of MMI (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, oral) and PTU (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, oral) were administered two hours after LPS treatment. It was found that liver injury was evident only in animals received both drug and LPS, as estimated by increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and TNF-α. An increase in liver myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity and tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) in addition of liver glutathione (GSH) depletion were also detected in LPS and antithyroid drugs cotreated animals. Furthermore, histopathological changes including, endotheliitis, fatty changes, severe inflammatory cells infiltration (hepatitis) and sinusoidal congestion were detected in liver tissue. Methyl palmitate (2 g/kg, i.v, 44 hours before LPS), as a macrophage suppressor, significantly alleviated antithyroids hepatotoxicity in LPS-treated animals. The results indicate a synergistic liver injury from antithyroid drugs and bacterial lipopolysaccharide coexposure.

  12. The protection of meloxicam against chronic aluminium overload-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; He, Qin; Wang, Hong; Hu, Xinyue; Luo, Ying; Liang, Guojuan; Kuang, Shengnan; Mai, Shaoshan; Ma, Jie; Tian, Xiaoyan; Chen, Qi; Yang, Junqing

    2017-04-04

    The present study was designed to observe the protective effect and mechanisms of meloxicam on liver injury caused by chronic aluminium exposure in rats. The histopathology was detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The levels of prostaglandin E2, cyclic adenosine monophosphate and inflammatory cytokines were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of cyclooxygenases-2, prostaglandin E2 receptors and protein kinase A were measured by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our experimental results showed that aluminium overload significantly damaged the liver. Aluminium also significantly increased the expressions of cyclooxygenases-2, prostaglandin E2, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, protein kinase A and the prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1,2,4) and the levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, while significantly decreased the EP3 expression in liver. The administration of meloxicam significantly improved the impairment of liver. The contents of prostaglandin E2 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate were significantly decreased by administration of meloxicam. The administration of meloxicam also significantly decreased the expressions of cyclooxygenases-2 and protein kinase A and the levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, while significantly increased the EP1,2,3,4 expressions in rat liver. Our results suggested that the imbalance of cyclooxygenases-2 and downstream prostaglandin E2 signaling pathway is involved in the injury of chronic aluminium-overload rat liver. The protective mechanism of meloxicam on aluminium-overload liver injury is attributed to reconstruct the balance of cyclooxygenases-2 and downstream prostaglandin E2 signaling pathway.

  13. Protective effects of Centella asiatica leaf extract on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Myung-Joo; Zheng, Hong-Mei; Kim, Jae Min; Lee, Kye Wan; Park, Yu Hwa; Lee, Don Haeng

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress in liver injury is a major pathogenetic factor in the progression of liver damage. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, known in the United States as Gotu kola, is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine in Chinese or Indian Pennywort. The efficacy of Centella asiatica is comprehensive and is used as an anti-inflammatory agent, for memory improvement, for its antitumor activity and for treatment of gastric ulcers. The present study investigated the protective effects of Centella asiatica on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver injury in rats. The rats in the treatment groups were treated with Centella asiatica at either 100 or 200 mg/kg in distilled water (D.W) or with silymarin (200 mg/kg in D.W) by oral administration for 5 days daily following intraperitoneal injections of 30 mg/kg DMN. Centella asiatica significantly decreased the relative liver weights in the DMN-induced liver injury group, compared with the control. The assessment of liver histology showed that Centella asiatica significantly alleviated mass periportal ± bridging necrosis, intralobular degeneration and focal necrosis, with fibrosis of liver tissues. Additionally, Centella asiatica significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde, significantly increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and may have provided protection against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. In addition, Centella asiatica significantly decreased inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. These results suggested that Centella asiatica had hepatoprotective effects through increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the levels of inflammatory mediators in rats with DMN-induced liver injury. Therefore, Centella asiatica may be useful in preventing liver damage. PMID:27748812

  14. Role of dietary fatty acids in liver injury caused by vinyl chloride metabolites in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Lisanne C

    Background: Vinyl chloride (VC) causes toxicant-associated steatohepatitis at high exposure levels. Recent work by this group suggests that underlying liver disease may predispose the liver to VC hepatotoxicity at lower exposure levels. The most common form of underlying liver disease in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well-known that the type of dietary fat can play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, whether the combination of dietary fat and VC/metabolites promotes liver injury has not been studied. Methods: Mice were administered chloroethanol (CE - a VC metabolite) or vehicle once, 10 weeksmore » after being fed diets rich in saturated fatty acids (HSFA), rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (HPUFA), or the respective low-fat control diets (LSFA; LPUFA). Results: In control mice, chloroethanol caused no detectable liver injury, as determined by plasma transaminases and histologic indices of damage. In HSFA-fed mice, chloroethanol increased HSFA-induced liver damage, steatosis, infiltrating inflammatory cells, hepatic expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, markers of inflammasome activation were increased, while markers of inflammasome inhibition were downregulated. In mice fed HPUFA all of these effects were significantly attenuated. Conclusions: Chloroethanol promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. This effect is far more exacerbated with saturated fat, versus poly-unsaturated fat; and strongly correlates with a robust activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the saturated fed animals only. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that environmental toxicant exposure can exacerbate the severity of NAFLD/NASH. - Highlights: • CE promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. • This effect is stronger with saturated than with unsaturated fatty acids. • Damage caused by saturated

  15. Steatotic livers are susceptible to normothermic ischemia-reperfusion injury from mitochondrial Complex-I dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Michael JJ; Premkumar, Rakesh; Hickey, Anthony JR; Jiang, Yannan; Delahunt, Brett; Phillips, Anthony RJ; Bartlett, Adam SJR

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC, 10-min ischemia/10-min reperfusion) on steatotic liver mitochondrial function after normothermic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 8-wk with either control chow or high-fat/high-sucrose diet inducing > 60% mixed steatosis. Three groups (n = 10/group) for each dietary state were tested: (1) the IRI group underwent 60 min partial hepatic ischemia and 4 h reperfusion; (2) the IPC group underwent IPC prior to same standard IRI; and (3) sham underwent the same surgery without IRI or IPC. Hepatic mitochondrial function was analyzed by oxygraphs. Mitochondrial Complex-I, Complex-II enzyme activity, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and histological injury were measured. RESULTS: Steatotic-IRI livers had a greater increase in ALT (2476 ± 166 vs 1457 ± 103 IU/L, P < 0.01) and histological injury following IRI compared to the lean liver group. Steatotic-IRI demonstrated lower Complex-I activity at baseline [78.4 ± 2.5 vs 116.4 ± 6.0 nmol/(min.mg protein), P < 0.001] and following IRI [28.0 ± 6.2 vs 104.3 ± 12.6 nmol/(min.mg protein), P < 0.001]. Steatotic-IRI also demonstrated impaired Complex-I function post-IRI compared to the lean liver IRI group. Complex-II activity was unaffected by hepatic steatosis or IRI. Lean liver mitochondrial function was unchanged following IRI. IPC normalized ALT and histological injury in steatotic livers but had no effect on overall steatotic liver mitochondrial function or individual mitochondrial complex enzyme activities. CONCLUSION: Warm IRI impairs steatotic liver Complex-I activity and function. The protective effects of IPC in steatotic livers may not be mediated through mitochondria. PMID:27217699

  16. Role of liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatocellular injury: effect of CrPic treatment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weijiang; Chen, Kun; Zheng, Guoqiang; Wang, Wenhang; Teng, Anguo; Liu, Anjun; Ming, Dongfeng; Yan, Peng

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of chromium picolinate (CrPic, Fig. 1) hepatoprotective activity from alloxan-induced hepatic injury. Diabetes is induced by alloxan-treatment concurrently with the hepatic injury in mice. In this study, we investigate the protective effect of CrPic treatment in hepatic injury and the signal role of liver fatty acid binding protein in early hepatocellular injury diagnostics. In this study, alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) levels in the alloxan group were higher 71% and 50%, respectively, than those of the control group (ALT: 14.51±0.74; AST: 22.60±0.69). The AST and ALT levels in CrPic group were of minimal difference compared to the control groups. Here, CrPic exhibited amelioration alloxan induced oxidative stress in mouse livers. A significant increase in liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) was observed, which indicates increased fatty acid utilization in liver tissue [1]. In this study, the mRNA levels of L-FABP increased in both the control (1.1 fold) and CrPic (0.78 fold) groups compared the alloxan group. These findings suggest that hepatic injury may be prevented by CrPic, and is a potential target for use in the treatment of early hepatic injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomechanics of liver injury by steering wheel loading.

    PubMed

    Lau, I V; Horsch, J D; Viano, D C; Andrzejak, D V

    1987-03-01

    Abdominal injury induced by steering wheel contact at a velocity of 32 km/hr was investigated using anesthetized swine as the surrogate on a Hyge sled. The lower rim of the wheel was positioned 5 cm below the xyphoid. By varying wheel stiffness, wheel orientation, and column angle, resultant abdominal injury ranged from fatal or critical to minor or none. Wheel stiffness was found to be the primary determinant of abdominal injury severity. The mechanism of abdominal injury was identified to be the rim impacting the abdomen and exceeding a combined velocity and compression sensitive tolerance limit. Abdominal injury occurred within the initial 15 ms of wheel contact before whole body movement of the surrogate of column compression, which were initiated by hub contact with the thorax. The severity of abdominal injury correlated with the peak viscous response which can be represented by the product of the instantaneous velocity of abdominal deformation and abdominal compression. It did not correlate with spinal acceleration.

  18. Decoy receptor 3 analogous supplement protects steatotic rat liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Tzu-Hao; Liu, Chih-Wei; Lee, Pei-Chang; Huang, Chia-Chang; Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Yang, Ying-Ying; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Lin, Han-Chieh; Tsai, Chang-Youh

    2017-07-01

    For steatotic livers, pharmacological approaches to minimize the hepatic neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, and cytokine and chemokine release in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury are still limited. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α superfamily-stimulated pathogenic cascades and M1 macrophage/Kupffer cells (KC) polarization from Th1 cytokines are important in the pathogenesis of IR liver injury with hepatic steatosis (HS). Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages produce Th2 cytokine (interleukin-4), which reciprocally enhances M2 polarization. Toll-like receptor 4-activated KCs can release proinflammatory mediators, skew M1 polarization and escalate liver IR injury. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR 3 ) could be potential agents simultaneously blocking the IR liver injury-related pathogenic changes and extend the survival of steatotic graft. Rats were fed with methionine and choline-deficient high-fat diet (MCD HFD) for 6 weeks to induce HS. Preliminary experiments with HS group and IR group were conducted, and either immunoglobulin G Fc protein or DcR3 analogue was treated for 14 days in all groups to evaluate the severity. In the Zucker rat-focused experiments, various serum and hepatic substances, M1 polarization, and hepatic microcirculation were assessed. We found that serum/hepatic DcR 3 levels were lower in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients with HS. DcR 3 a protected Zucker rats with HS from IR liver injury. The beneficial effects of DcR 3 a supplement were mediated by inhibiting hepatic M1 polarization of KCs, decreasing serum/hepatic TNFα, nitric oxide, nitrotyrosine, soluble TNF-like cytokine 1A, Fas ligand, and interferon-γ levels, neutrophil infiltration, and improving hepatic microcirculatory failure among rats with IR-injured steatotic livers. Additionally, downregulated hepatic TNF-like cytokine 1A/Fas-ligand and toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB signals were found to mediate the DcR 3 a-related protective effects of steatotic livers from

  19. Protection against acetaminophen-induced liver injury by allopurinol is dependent on aldehyde oxidase-mediated liver preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Lebofsky, Margitta

    2014-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe and occasionally fatal liver injury. Numerous drugs that attenuate APAP toxicity have been described. However these compounds frequently protect by cytochrome P450 inhibition, thereby preventing the initiating step of toxicity. We have previously shown that pretreatment with allopurinol can effectively protect against APAP toxicity, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the current study, C3HeB/FeJ mice were administered allopurinol 18 h or 1 h prior to an APAP overdose. Administration of allopurinol 18 h prior to APAP overdose resulted in an 88% reduction in liver injury (serum ALT) 6 h after APAP; however, 1 h pretreatmentmore » offered no protection. APAP-cysteine adducts and glutathione depletion kinetics were similar with or without allopurinol pretreatment. The phosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of c-jun-N-terminal-kinase (JNK) have been implicated in the progression of APAP toxicity. In our study we showed equivalent early JNK activation (2 h) however late JNK activation (6 h) was attenuated in allopurinol treated mice, which suggests that later JNK activation is more critical for the toxicity. Additional mice were administered oxypurinol (primary metabolite of allopurinol) 18 h or 1 h pre-APAP, but neither treatment protected. This finding implicated an aldehyde oxidase (AO)-mediated metabolism of allopurinol, so mice were treated with hydralazine to inhibit AO prior to allopurinol/APAP administration, which eliminated the protective effects of allopurinol. We evaluated potential targets of AO-mediated preconditioning and found increased hepatic metallothionein 18 h post-allopurinol. These data show metabolism of allopurinol occurring independent of P450 isoenzymes preconditions the liver and renders the animal less susceptible to an APAP overdose. - Highlights: • 18 h allopurinol pretreatment protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury. • 1 h allopurinol pretreatment does not protect

  20. Molecular mediators of hepatic steatosis and liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Jeffrey D.; Horton, Jay D.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities are among the most prevalent and challenging conditions confronting the medical profession in the 21st century. A major metabolic consequence of obesity is insulin resistance, which is strongly associated with the deposition of triglycerides in the liver. Hepatic steatosis can either be a benign, noninflammatory condition that appears to have no adverse sequelae or can be associated with steatohepatitis: a condition that can result in end-stage liver disease, accounting for up to 14% of liver transplants in the US. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the molecular events contributing to hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:15254578

  1. Silencing of long noncoding RNA AK139328 attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in mouse livers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenzhen; Jia, Shi; Li, Danhua; Cai, Junyan; Tu, Jian; Geng, Bin; Guan, Youfei; Cui, Qinghua; Yang, Jichun

    2013-01-01

    Recently, increasing evidences had suggested that long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here we determined the LncRNA expression profile using microarray technology in mouse livers after ischemia/reperfusion treatment. Seventy one LncRNAs were upregulated, and 27 LncRNAs were downregulated in ischemia/reperfusion-treated mouse livers. Eleven of the most significantly deregulated LncRNAs were further validated by quantitative PCR assays. Among the upregulated LncRNAs confirmed by quantitative PCR assays, AK139328 exhibited the highest expression level in normal mouse livers. siRNA-mediated knockdown of hepatic AK139328 decreased plasma aminotransferase activities, and reduced necrosis area in the livers with a decrease in caspase-3 activation after ischemia/reperfusion treatment. In ischemia/reperfusion liver, knockdown of AK139328 increased survival signaling proteins including phosphorylated Akt (pAkt), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (pGSK3) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (peNOS). Furthermore, knockdown of AK139328 also reduced macrophage infitration and inhibited NF-κB activity and inflammatory cytokines expression. In conclusion, these findings revealed that deregulated LncRNAs are involved in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury. Silencing of AK139328 ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion injury in the liver with the activation of Akt signaling pathway and inhibition of NF-κB activity. LncRNA AK139328 might be a novel target for diagnosis and treatment of liver surgery or transplantation.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells restore CCl4-induced liver injury by an antioxidative process.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Ah; Woo, So-Youn; Seoh, Ju-Young; Han, Ho-Seong; Ryu, Kyung-Ha

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated BM (bone marrow)-derived MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) for the treatment of liver injury. It was hypothesized that MSC-mediated resolution of liver injury could occur through an antioxidative process. After being injected with CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride), mice were injected with syngenic BM-derived MSCs or normal saline. Oxidative stress activity of the MSCs was determined by the analysis of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity. In addition, cytoprotective genes of the liver tissue were assessed by real-time PCR and ARE (antioxidant-response element) reporter assay. Up-regulated ROS of CCl4-treated liver cells was attenuated by co-culturing with MSCs. Suppression of SOD by adding an SOD inhibitor decreased the effect of MSCs on injured liver cells. MSCs significantly increased SOD activity and inhibited ROS production in the injured liver. The gene expression levels of Hmox-1 (haem oxygenase-1), BI-1 (Bax inhibitor-1), HGF (hepatocyte growth factor), GST (glutathione transferase) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythoid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 20), attenuated by CCl4, were increased up to basal levels after MSC transplantation. In addition, MSCs induced an ARE, shown by luciferase activity, which represented a cytoprotective response in the injured liver. Evidence of a new cytoprotective effect is shown in which MSCs promote an antioxidant response and supports the potential of using MSC transplantation as an effective treatment modality for liver disease.

  3. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Juice and Phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Mrzljak, Anna; Kosuta, Iva; Skrtic, Anita; Kanizaj, Tajana Filipec; Vrhovac, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice is a popular herbal dietary supplement globally used for preventive or therapeutic purposes in a variety of ailments, claiming to exhibit hepatoprotective properties as well. Herein we present the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed acute liver injury associated with noni juice consumption on a long-term (9 months) anticonvulsant therapy. Clinical presentation and liver biopsy were consistent with severe, predominantly hepatocellular type of injury. Both agents were stopped and corticosteroids were initiated. Five months later the patient had fully recovered. Although in the literature the hepatotoxicity of noni juice remains speculative, sporadic but emerging cases of noni juice-associated liver injury address the need to clarify and investigate potential harmful effects associated with this supplement.

  4. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis pathogenesis: sublethal hepatocyte injury as a driver of liver inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Samar H; Hirsova, Petra; Gores, Gregory J

    2018-01-01

    A subset of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease develop an inflammatory condition, termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterised by hepatocellular injury, innate immune cell-mediated inflammation and progressive liver fibrosis. The mechanisms whereby hepatic inflammation occurs in NASH remain incompletely understood, but appear to be linked to the proinflammatory microenvironment created by toxic lipid-induced hepatocyte injury, termed lipotoxicity. In this review, we discuss the signalling pathways induced by sublethal hepatocyte lipid overload that contribute to the pathogenesis of NASH. Furthermore, we will review the role of proinflammatory, proangiogenic and profibrotic hepatocyte-derived extracellular vesicles as disease biomarkers and pathogenic mediators during lipotoxicity. We also review the potential therapeutic strategies to block the feed-forward loop between sublethal hepatocyte injury and liver inflammation. PMID:29367207

  5. [Transfection of hBcl-2 gene protects the liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats during liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-tong; Liu, Jing-shi; Jiang, Jin-yu; Zhou, Li-xue; Liang, Gang; Li, Yan-chun

    2010-12-01

    To study the effect of hBcl-2 gene transfer on rat liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and explore the feasibility of this approach to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in liver transplantation. We constructed the replication-deficient recombinant adenoviruses Adv-EGFP and Adv-Bcl-2 and transfected them into 293 cells and packaged into adenovirus particles for amplification and purification. The empty plasmid vector virus was constructed similarly. Male SD rats were randomized into Adv-Bcl-2-transfected group, Adv-EGFP-transfected group, ischemia-reperfusion group, and sham-operated group, and liver allograft transplantation model was established by sleeve method. In the transfected groups, the recombinant viruses were administered by perfusion through the portal vein, and the ischemia-reperfusion and sham-operated groups received no treatment. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of bcl-2 in the liver tissue of each group, and at 0, 60 and 180 min after reperfusion, serum AST, LDH, and MDA levels were measured. Histological changes of the liver cells were evaluated by HE staining. Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expressions in Adv-Bcl-2-transfected group, as compared with those in Adv-EGFP-transfected group and control group, were significantly increased (P<0.01); the serum levels of AST, LDH and MDA in Adv-Bcl-2-transfected group were significantly lower than those of Adv-EGFP-transfected group and ischemia-reperfusion group (P<0.05 or 0.01). Compared with the sham-operated group, Adv-Bcl-2 treatment group showed lessened edema and vacuolar degeneration of the liver cells without patches or spots of necrosis. In ischemia-reperfusion and Adv-EGFP group, HE staining revealed hepatic lobular destruction and extensive liver cell swelling, enlargement, vacuolar degeneration, edema and occasional focal necrosis. Adv-Bcl-2 transfection can induce the expression of bcl-2 gene to reduce ischemia

  6. Interleukin-1 inhibition facilitates recovery from liver injury and promotes regeneration of hepatocytes in alcoholic hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Iracheta-Vellve, Arvin; Petrasek, Jan; Gyogyosi, Benedek; Bala, Shashi; Csak, Timea; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2017-07-01

    Inflammation and impaired hepatocyte regeneration contribute to liver failure in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Interleukin (IL)-1 is a key inflammatory cytokine in the pathobiology of AH. The role of IL-1 in liver regeneration in the recovery phase of alcohol-induced liver injury is unknown. In this study, we tested IL-1 receptor antagonist to block IL-1 signalling in a mouse model of acute-on-chronic liver injury on liver inflammation and hepatocyte regeneration in AH. We observed that inhibition of IL-1 signalling decreased liver inflammation and neutrophil infiltration, and resulted in enhanced regeneration of hepatocytes and increased rate of recovery from liver injury in AH. Our novel findings suggest that IL-1 drives sustained liver inflammation and impaired hepatocyte regeneration even after cessation of ethanol exposure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. An Animal Model of Abacavir-Induced HLA-Mediated Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Binbin; Aoki, Shigeki; Liu, Cong; Susukida, Takeshi; Ito, Kousei

    2018-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies indicate that several idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are highly associated with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. For instance, abacavir, a human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase inhibitor, induces multiorgan toxicity exclusively in patients carrying the HLA-B*57:01 allele. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear due to a lack of appropriate animal models. Previously, we developed HLA-B*57:01 transgenic mice and found that topical application of abacavir to the ears induced proliferation of CD8+ lymphocytes in local lymph nodes. Here, we attempted to reproduce abacavir-induced liver injury in these mice. However, oral administration of abacavir alone to HLA-B*57:01 transgenic mice did not increase levels of the liver injury marker alanine aminotransferase. Considering the importance of innate immune activation in mouse liver, we treated mice with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, a toll-like receptor 9 agonist, plus abacavir. This resulted in a marked increase in alanine aminotransferase, pathological changes in liver, increased numbers of activated CD8+ T cells, and tissue infiltration by immune cells exclusively in HLA-B*57:01 transgenic mice. These results indicate that CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-induced inflammatory reactions and/or innate immune activation are necessary for abacavir-induced HLA-mediated liver injury characterized by infiltration of CD8+ T cells. Thus, we developed the first mouse model of HLA-mediated abacavir-induced idiosyncratic liver injury. Further investigation will show that the proposed HLA-mediated liver injury model can be applied to other combinations of drugs and HLA types, thereby improving drug development and contributing to the development of personalized medicine.

  8. Intralipid minimizes hepatocytes injury after anoxia-reoxygenation in an ex vivo rat liver model.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Michaela; Nuyens, Vincent; Boogaerts, Jean G

    2007-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a determinant in liver injury occurring during surgical procedures, ischemic states, and multiple organ failure. The pre-existing nutritional status of the liver, i.e., fasting, might contribute to the extent of tissue injury. This study investigated whether Intralipid, a solution containing soybean oil, egg phospholipids, and glycerol, could protect ex vivo perfused livers of fasting rats from anoxia-reoxygenation injury. The portal vein was cannulated, and the liver was removed and perfused in a closed ex vivo system. Isolated livers were perfused with glucose 5.5 and 15 mM, and two different concentrations of Intralipid, i.e., 0.5:100 and 1:100 (v/v) Intralipid 10%:medium (n = 5 in each group). The experiment consisted of perfusion for 15 min, warm anoxia for 60 min, and reoxygenation during 60 min. Hepatic enzymes, potassium, glucose, lactate, bilirubin, dienes, trienes, and cytochrome-c were analyzed in perfusate samples. The proportion of glycogen in hepatocytes was determined in biopsies. Intralipid attenuated transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, potassium, diene, and triene release in the perfusate (dose-dependant) during the reoxygenation phase when compared with glucose-treated groups. The concentration of cytochrome-c in the medium was the highest in the 5.5-mM glucose group. The glycogen content was low in all livers at the start of the experiment. Intralipid presents, under the present experimental conditions, a better protective effect than glucose in anoxia-reoxygenation injury of the rat liver.

  9. The effect of cirrhosis on the risk for failure of nonoperative management of blunt liver injuries.

    PubMed

    Barmparas, Galinos; Cooper, Zara; Ley, Eric J; Askari, Reza; Salim, Ali

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the association between cirrhosis and failure of nonoperative management (F-NOM) after blunt liver trauma. We carried out a review of the National Trauma Databank from 2007 to 2011 including patients ≥ 16 years old admitted after a blunt injury. Propensity score was used to match each cirrhotic to 3 noncirrhotic patients. Primary outcome was F-NOM (liver procedure >2 hours after admission and/or operative intervention directed at the liver after angiography). A total of 57 cirrhotic patients who met inclusion criteria were matched with 171 noncirrhotic patients. Splenic injury was present in 41% (35% vs 43%; P = .31) and 28% had a high-grade liver injury III/VI/V (26% vs 29%; P = .73). The majority of patients in both groups were selected for a trial of NOM (77% vs 85%; P = .15). There was no difference in the rate of F-NOM between the 2 groups (14% vs 14%; P = 1.00), even for high-grade injuries (13% vs 20%; P = .72). Cirrhotic patients had a greater overall mortality (28% vs 7%; P < .01), especially if they required a laparotomy (58% vs 17%; P < .01) or if they failed NOM (50% vs 4%; P < .01). Cirrhosis has no effect on the selection of patients with blunt liver injuries for a trial of nonoperative management and does not seem to be associated with a greater risk for failure of nonoperative management within the constraints of our study. Nonoperative management in this population is highly successful and failure is rarely related directly to the liver injury itself. Failure of non-operative management increases the already high mortality risk in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10.  Early initiation of MARS® dialysis in Amanita phalloides-induced acute liver injury prevents liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pillukat, Mike Hendrik; Schomacher, Tina; Baier, Peter; Gabriëls, Gert; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2016-01-01

     Amanita phalloides is the most relevant mushroom intoxication leading to acute liver failure. The two principal groups of toxins, the amatoxins and the phallotoxins, are small oligopeptides highly resistant to chemical and physical influences. The amatoxins inhibit eukaryotic RNA polymerase II causing transcription arrest affecting mainly metabolically highly active cells like hepatocytes and renal cells. The clinically most characteristic symptom is a 6-40 h lag phase before onset of gastrointestinal symptoms and the rapid progression of acute liver failure leading to multi-organ failure and death within a week if left untreated. Extracorporeal albumin dialysis (ECAD) was reported to improve patient's outcome or facilitate bridging to transplantation. In our tertiary center, out of nine intoxicated individuals from five non-related families six patients presented with acute liver injury; all of them were treated with ECAD using the MARS® system. Four of them were listed on admission for high urgency liver transplantation. In addition to standard medical treatment for Amanita intoxication we initiated ECAD once patients were admitted to our center. Overall 16 dialysis sessions were performed. All patients survived with full native liver recovery without the need for transplantation. ECAD was well tolerated; no severe adverse events were reported during treatment. Coagulopathy resolved within days in all patients, and acute kidney injury in all but one individual. In conclusion, ECAD is highly effective in treating intoxication with Amanita phalloides. Based on these experiences we suggest early initiation and repeated sessions depending on response to ECAD with the chance of avoiding liver transplantation.

  11. Liver-specific deletion of prohibitin 1 results in spontaneous liver injury, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwang Suk; Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Iglesias-Ara, Ainhoa; French, Barbara A; French, Samuel W; Ramani, Komal; Lozano, Juan José; Oh, Pilsoo; He, Lina; Stiles, Bangyan L; Li, Tony W H; Yang, Heping; Martínez-Chantar, M Luz; Mato, José M; Lu, Shelly C

    2010-12-01

    Prohibitin 1 (PHB1) is a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed protein that participates in diverse processes including mitochondrial chaperone, growth and apoptosis. The role of PHB1 in vivo is unclear and whether it is a tumor suppressor is controversial. Mice lacking methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) have reduced PHB1 expression, impaired mitochondrial function, and spontaneously develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To see if reduced PHB1 expression contributes to the Mat1a knockout (KO) phenotype, we generated liver-specific Phb1 KO mice. Expression was determined at the messenger RNA and protein levels. PHB1 expression in cells was varied by small interfering RNA or overexpression. At 3 weeks, KO mice exhibit biochemical and histologic liver injury. Immunohistochemistry revealed apoptosis, proliferation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, bile duct epithelial metaplasia, hepatocyte dysplasia, and increased staining for stem cell and preneoplastic markers. Mitochondria are swollen and many have no discernible cristae. Differential gene expression revealed that genes associated with proliferation, malignant transformation, and liver fibrosis are highly up-regulated. From 20 weeks on, KO mice have multiple liver nodules and from 35 to 46 weeks, 38% have multifocal HCC. PHB1 protein levels were higher in normal human hepatocytes compared to human HCC cell lines Huh-7 and HepG2. Knockdown of PHB1 in murine nontransformed AML12 cells (normal mouse hepatocyte cell line) raised cyclin D1 expression, increased E2F transcription factor binding to cyclin D1 promoter, and proliferation. The opposite occurred with PHB1 overexpression. Knockdown or overexpression of PHB1 in Huh-7 cells did not affect proliferation significantly or sensitize cells to sorafenib-induced apoptosis. Hepatocyte-specific PHB1 deficiency results in marked liver injury, oxidative stress, and fibrosis with development of HCC by 8 months. These results support PHB1 as a tumor suppressor in

  12. Protective effect of ethanolic extract of polyherbal formulation on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Gurusamy, K; Kokilavani, R; Arumugasamy, K; Sowmia, C

    2009-01-01

    Protective effect of ethanolic extract of polyherbalformulation (PHF) of three medicinalplants was studied on carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. Treatment with 250mg I kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of PHF protected rats against carbon tetrachloride liver injury by significantly lowering 5’NT, GGF, GDH and SDH and bilirubin levels compared to control group of rats. Normalising the effect of these parameters indicates strong hepatoprotective property of the PHF extract. PMID:22557313

  13. Usage and outcomes of deceased donor liver allografts with preprocurement injury from blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Geenen, Irma Laurentia Antonia; Sosef, Meindert Nico; Shun, Albert; Crawford, Michael; Gallagher, James; Strasser, Simone; Stormon, Michael; McCaughan, Geoff; Verran, Deborah Jean

    2009-03-01

    The use of extended criteria donors is an effective way of reducing the shortage of deceased donor organs. Evidence of significant liver trauma in a deceased donor usually rules out transplantation of the liver. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use and outcomes of donor livers with preprocurement trauma. Records of all 312 deceased donors with a history of trauma between January 1986 and September 2007 were reviewed. Donors with macroscopic liver injuries were identified, and data from recipient medical records were obtained. Data on declined donor offers were also evaluated. The median donor age was 20 (range, 10-57) years, and 9 of 15 (60%) were male. The liver injuries were predominantly lacerations (grades 1-5) and vascular injury. The right lobe was resected because of extensive damage in 3 cases. This resulted in 2 left lobes (back-table cut-down) and 1 left lateral segment allograft (in situ split). For the 15 recipients, the median age was 43 (3-69) years. Primary nonfunction was not seen. There was no difference in survival between whole and partial allografts. Three deaths occurred within 3 months post-transplantation. During the same period, 42 of 1405 donor offers (3%) were declined because of extensive liver trauma or major ongoing intra-abdominal hemorrhage. In conclusion, the use of donor livers with preexisting trauma leads to acceptable outcomes. Strategies to deal with trauma include resection of the right lobe if required. Use of deceased donor livers with injury is a safe way to expand the donor pool.

  14. Role of Hydrogen Sulfide on Autophagy in Liver Injuries Induced by Selenium Deficiency in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wenzhong, Wang; Tong, Zhang; Hongjin, Lin; Ying, Chang; Jun, Xing

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an indispensable trace mineral that was associated with liver injuries in animal models. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is involved in many liver diseases, and autophagy can maintain liver homeostasis with a stress stimulation. However, little is known about the correlation between H 2 S and autophagy in the liver injury chicken models induced by Se deficiency. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between H 2 S and autophagy in the liver injury chicken models. We randomly divided 120 1-day-old chickens into two equal groups. The control group was fed with complete food with a Se content of 0.15 mg/kg, and the Se-deficiency group (lab group) was fed with a Se-deficient diet with a Se content of 0.033 mg/kg. When the time comes to 15, 25, and 35 days, the chickens were sacrificed (20 each). The liver tissues were gathered and examined for pathological observations, the mRNA and protein levels of H 2 S synthases (CSE, CBS, and 3-MST) and the mRNA and protein levels of autophagy-related genes. The results showed that the expression of CSE, CBS, and 3-MST and H 2 S production were higher in the lab group than in the control group. Swellings, fractures, and vacuolizations were visible in the mitochondria cristae in the livers of the lab group and autophagosomes were found as well. In addition, the expression of autophagy-related genes (ATG5, LC3-I, LC3-II, Beclin1, and Dynein) was higher in the lab group than in the control group (p < 0.05) while TOR decreased significantly in the lab group (p < 0.05). The results showed that H 2 S and autophagy were involved in the liver injury chicken models, and H 2 S was correlated with autophagy.

  15. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Zong, L; Yu, Q H; Du, Y X; Deng, X M

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis.

  16. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zong, L.; Yu, Q.H.; Du, Y.X.; Deng, X.M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24554039

  17. Ischaemia–reperfusion injury in liver transplantation—from bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yuan; Petrowsky, Henrik; Hong, Johnny C.; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.

    2013-01-01

    Ischaemia–reperfusion injury (IRI) in the liver, a major complication of haemorrhagic shock, resection and transplantation, is a dynamic process that involves the two interrelated phases of local ischaemic insult and inflammation-mediated reperfusion injury. This Review highlights the latest mechanistic insights into innate–adaptive immune crosstalk and cell activation cascades that lead to inflammation-mediated injury in livers stressed by ischaemia–reperfusion, discusses progress in large animal experiments and examines efforts to minimize liver IRI in patients who have received a liver transplant. The interlinked signalling pathways in multiple hepatic cell types, the IRI kinetics and positive versus negative regulatory loops at the innate–adaptive immune interface are discussed. The current gaps in our knowledge and the pathophysiology aspects of IRI in which basic and translational research is still required are stressed. An improved appreciation of cellular immune events that trigger and sustain local inflammatory responses, which are ultimately responsible for organ injury, is fundamental to developing innovative strategies for treating patients who have received a liver transplant and developed ischaemia–reperfusion inflammation and organ dysfunction. PMID:23229329

  18. Maresin 1, a Proresolving Lipid Mediator, Mitigates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruidong; Wang, Yaxin; Zhao, Ende; Wu, Ke; Li, Wei; Shi, Liang; Wang, Di; Xie, Gengchen; Yin, Yuping; Deng, Meizhou; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Kaixiong

    2016-01-01

    Maresin 1 (MaR 1) was recently reported to have protective properties in several different animal models of acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory response. However, its function in acute liver injury is still unknown. To address this question, we induced liver injury in BALB/c mice with intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride with or without treatment of MaR 1. Our data showed that MaR 1 attenuated hepatic injury, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride, as evidenced by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reactive oxygen species levels were inhibited by treatment of MaR 1. Furthermore, MaR 1 increased activities of antioxidative mediators in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice liver. MaR 1 decreased indices of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, myeloperoxidase, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Administration of MaR 1 inhibited activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κb) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the liver of CCl4 treated mice. In conclusion, these results suggested the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory properties of MaR 1 in CCl4 induced liver injury. The possible mechanism is partly implicated in its abilities to inhibit ROS generation and activation of NF-κb and MAPK pathway. PMID:26881046

  19. Marine collagen peptides protect against early alcoholic liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Yongchao; Jiang, Qinghao; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2012-04-01

    Marine collagen peptides (MCP) have been reported to exhibit antioxidative activity, which is the common property of numerous hepatoprotective agents. Previous studies have shown that MCP have biological functions including anti-hypertension, anti-ulcer, anti-skin ageing and extending the life span. However, its role in alcoholic liver injury remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of MCP on early alcoholic liver injury in rats. Rats were administered with alcohol at a dose of 6 g/kg body weight intragastrically per d to induce early liver injury, which was then evaluated by serum markers and histopathological examination. Treatment with MCP could reverse the increased level of serum aminotransferase and reduce hepatic histological damage. In addition, MCP attenuated the alteration in serum superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels. MCP also counteracted the increased levels of total cholesterol and TAG. However, no significant difference was observed in the contents of alcohol dehydrogenase both in liver and serum protein of rats. These findings suggest that MCP have a protective effect on early alcoholic liver injury in rats by their antioxidative activity and improving lipid metabolism.

  20. Drug Metabolism, Drug Interactions, and Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Living Donor Liver Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Swaytha; Almazroo, Omar Abdulhameed; Tevar, Amit; Humar, Abhinav; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2017-02-01

    Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) fills a critically needed gap in the number of livers available for transplant. However, little is known about the functional recovery of the liver in the donor and in the recipient after surgery. Given that both donor and recipients are treated with several drugs, it is important to characterize the time course of recovery of hepatic synthetic, metabolic, and excretory function in these patients. In the absence of data from LDLT, information on the effect of liver disease on the pharmacokinetics of medications can be used as guidance for drug dosing in LDLT patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultra Low Dose Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Protects Mouse Liver from Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Hochhauser, Edith; Lahat, Eylon; Sultan, Maya; Pappo, Orit; Waldman, Maayan; Sarne, Yosef; Shainberg, Asher; Gutman, Mordechai; Safran, Michal; Ben Ari, Ziv

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the main cause of both primary graft dysfunction and primary non-function of liver allografts. Cannabinoids has been reported to attenuate myocardial, cerebral and hepatic I/R oxidative injury. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabinoid agonist, is the active components of marijuana. In this study we examined the role of ultralow dose THC (0.002mg/kg) in the protection of livers from I/R injury. This extremely low dose of THC was previously found by us to protect the mice brain and heart from a variety of insults. C57Bl Mice were studied in in vivo model of hepatic segmental (70%) ischemia for 60min followed by reperfusion for 6 hours. THC administration 2h prior to the induction of hepatic I/R was associated with significant attenuated elevations of: serum liver transaminases ALT and AST, the hepatic oxidative stress (activation of the intracellular signaling CREB pathway), the acute proinflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-10 and c-FOS hepatic mRNA levels, and ERK signaling pathway activation). This was followed by cell death (the cleavage of the pro-apoptotic caspase 3, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL) after 6 hours of reperfusion. Significantly less hepatic injury was detected in the THC treated I/R mice and fewer apoptotic hepatocytes cells were identified by morphological criteria compared with untreated mice. A single ultralow dose THC can reduce the apoptotic, oxidative and inflammatory injury induced by hepatic I/R injury. THC may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in hepatic I/R injury during liver transplantation, liver resection and trauma. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Interleukin-23 mediates the pathogenesis of LPS/GalN-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Bao, Suxia; Zhao, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Ning; Huang, Chong; Chen, Mingquan; Cheng, Qi; Zhu, Mengqi; Yu, Kangkang; Liu, Chenghai; Shi, Guangfeng

    2017-05-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is required for T helper 17 (Th17) cell responses and IL-17 production in hepatitis B virus infection. A previous study showed that the IL-23/IL-17 axis aggravates immune injury in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. However, the role of IL-23 in acute liver injury remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the inflammatory cytokine IL-23 in lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Serum IL-23 from patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB), acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and healthy individuals who served as healthy controls (HCs) was measured by ELISA. An IL-23p19 neutralizing antibody or an IL-23p40 neutralizing antibody was administered intravenously at the time of challenge with LPS (10μg/kg) and GalN (400mg/kg) in C57BL/6 mice. Hepatic pathology and the expression of Th17-related cytokines, including IL-17 and TNF-α; neutrophil chemoattractants, including Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Cxcl9, and Cxcl10; and the stabilization factor Csf3 were assessed in liver tissue. Serum IL-23 was significantly upregulated in ACLF patients compared with CHB patients and HCs (P<0.05 for both). Serum IL-23 was significantly upregulated in the non-survival group compared with the survival group of ACLF patients, which was consistent with LPS/GalN-induced acute hepatic injury in mice (P<0.05 for both). Moreover, after treatment, serum IL-23 was downregulated in the survival group of ACLF patients (P<0.001). Compared with LPS/GalN mice, mice treated with either an IL-23p19 neutralizing antibody or an IL-23p40 neutralizing antibody showed less severe liver tissue histopathology and significant reductions in the expression of Th17-related inflammatory cytokine, including IL-17 and TNF-α; neutrophil chemoattractants, including Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Cxcl9, and Cxcl10; and stabilization factors Csf3 within the liver tissue compared with LPS/GalN mice (P<0.05 for all). High serum IL-23 was

  3. Subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion reduces endothelial cell and bile duct injury after donation after cardiac death pig liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Knaak, Jan M; Spetzler, Vinzent N; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Boehnert, Markus U; Bazerbachi, Fateh; Louis, Kristine S; Adeyi, Oyedele A; Minkovich, Leonid; Yip, Paul M; Keshavjee, Shaf; Levy, Gary A; Grant, David R; Selzner, Nazia; Selzner, Markus

    2014-11-01

    An ischemic-type biliary stricture (ITBS) is a common feature after liver transplantation using donation after cardiac death (DCD) grafts. We compared sequential subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (SNEVLP; 33°C) with cold storage (CS) for the prevention of ITBS in DCD liver grafts in pig liver transplantation (n = 5 for each group). Liver grafts were stored for 10 hours at 4°C (CS) or preserved with combined 7-hour CS and 3-hour SNEVLP. Parameters of hepatocyte [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), international normalized ratio (INR), factor V, and caspase 3 immunohistochemistry], endothelial cell (EC; CD31 immunohistochemistry and hyaluronic acid), and biliary injury and function [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and bile lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] were determined. Long-term survival (7 days) after transplantation was similar between the SNEVLP and CS groups (60% versus 40%, P = 0.13). No difference was observed between SNEVLP- and CS-treated animals with respect to the peak of serum INR, factor V, or AST levels within 24 hours. CD31 staining 8 hours after transplantation demonstrated intact EC lining in SNEVLP-treated livers (7.3 × 10(-4) ± 2.6 × 10(-4) cells/μm(2)) but not in CS-treated livers (3.7 × 10(-4) ± 1.3 × 10(-4) cells/μm(2) , P = 0.03). Posttransplant SNEVLP animals had decreased serum ALP and serum bilirubin levels in comparison with CS animals. In addition, LDH in bile fluid was lower in SNEVLP pigs versus CS pigs (14 ± 10 versus 60 ± 18 μmol/L, P = 0.02). Bile duct histology revealed severe bile duct necrosis in 3 of 5 animals in the CS group but none in the SNEVLP group (P = 0.03). Sequential SNEVLP preservation of DCD grafts reduces bile duct and EC injury after liver transplantation. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Zebrafish as model organisms for studying drug-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Vliegenthart, A D Bastiaan; Tucker, Carl S; Del Pozo, Jorge; Dear, James W

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major challenge in clinical medicine and drug development. New models are needed for predicting which potential therapeutic compounds will cause DILI in humans, and new markers and mediators of DILI still need to be identified. This review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of using zebrafish as a high-throughput in vivo model for studying DILI. Although the zebrafish liver architecture is different from that of the mammalian liver, the main physiological processes remain similar. Zebrafish metabolize drugs using similar pathways to those in humans; they possess a wide range of cytochrome P450 enzymes that enable metabolic reactions including hydroxylation, conjugation, oxidation, demethylation and de-ethylation. Following exposure to a range of hepatotoxic drugs, the zebrafish liver develops histological patterns of injury comparable to those of mammalian liver, and biomarkers for liver injury can be quantified in the zebrafish circulation. The zebrafish immune system is similar to that of mammals, but the zebrafish inflammatory response to DILI is not yet defined. In order to quantify DILI in zebrafish, a wide variety of methods can be used, including visual assessment, quantification of serum enzymes and experimental serum biomarkers and scoring of histopathology. With further development, the zebrafish may be a model that complements rodents and may have value for the discovery of new disease pathways and translational biomarkers. PMID:24773296

  5. [Protective effects of polysaccharides from Dendrobium huoshanense on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Li, Sheng-Li; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Pan, Li-Hua; Sun, Hao-Qiao; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2013-02-01

    To study the protective effects of polysaccharides from Dendrobium huoshanense (DHP) against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. Eighty male Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group, dextran control group, starch control group, hydrolyzate control group, three different dose of DPH groups consisting of high-dosage group, middle-dosage group and low-dosage group (200, 100, 50 mg x kg(-1)). Each group contained ten mice. The mice were treated with DHP via intragastric administration for 15 days before treatment of 50% CCl4 in olive oil for consecutive two days. Both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in serum and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in liver tissues were determined in all groups. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of TNF-alpha in hepatic tissue. Hepatic histopathological examination was observed. DHP effectively decreased the activities of ALT and AST in serum and the contents of hepatic MDA, and restored hepatic SOD activities in acute liver injury mice. Liver tissue damage induced by CCl4 was ameliorated in mice with DHP administration through histopathology examination. Furthermore, the expression of TNF-alpha was greatly decreased in groups treated with polysaccharides. DHP has a significantly hepatoprotective effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. Protective effect of DHP on the liver may be related to its function of scavenging free radicals and inhibiting lipid peroxidation and TNF-alpha expression.

  6. Clonal tracing of Sox9+ liver progenitors in oval cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Tarlow, Branden D.; Finegold, Milton J.; Grompe, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Proliferating ducts, termed “oval cells”, have long thought to be bipotential, i.e. produce both biliary ducts and hepatocytes during chronic liver injury. The precursor to oval cells is considered to be a facultative liver stem cell (LSC). Recent lineage tracing experiments indicated that the LSC is Sox9+ and can replace the bulk of hepatocyte mass in several settings. However, no clonal relationship between Sox9+ cells and the two epithelial liver lineages was established. We labeled Sox9+ mouse liver cells at low density with a multicolor fluorescent confetti reporter. Organoid formation validated the progenitor activity of the labeled population. Sox9+ cells were traced in multiple oval cell injury models using both histology and FACS. Surprisingly, only rare clones containing both hepatocytes and oval cells were found in any experiment. Quantitative analysis showed that Sox9+ cells contributed only minimally (<1%) to the hepatocyte pool, even in classic oval cell injury models. In contrast, clonally marked mature hepatocytes demonstrated the ability to self-renew in all classic mouse oval cell activation injuries. A hepatocyte chimera model to trace hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells also demonstrated the prevalence of hepatocyte-driven regeneration in mouse oval cell injury models. Conclusion Sox9+ ductal progenitor cells give rise to clonal oval cell proliferation and bipotential organoids but rarely produce hepatocytes in vivo. Hepatocytes themselves are the predominant source of new parenchyma cells in prototypical mouse models of oval cell activation. PMID:24700457

  7. Liver segment IV hypoplasia as a risk factor for bile duct injury.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Miguel Angel; Franssen, Bernardo; Arriola, Juan Carlos; Garcia-Badiola, Artemio; Arámburo, Rigoberto; Elnecavé, Alejandro; Cortés-González, Rubén

    2011-09-01

    Bile duct injury remains constant in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and misidentification of structures remains one of the most common causes of such injuries. Abnormalities in liver segment IV, which is fully visible during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, may contribute to misidentification as proposed herein. We describe the case of a 36-year-old female who had a bile duct injury during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy where the surgeon noticed an unusually small distance between the gallbladder and the round ligament. We define hypoplasia of liver segment IV as well as describe the variation of the biliary anatomy in the case. We also intend to fit it in a broader spectrum of developmental anomalies that have both hyopoplasia of some portion of the liver and variations in gallbladder and bile duct anatomy that may contribute to bile duct injury. To our knowledge, hypoplasia of liver segment IV has not been suggested in the literature as a risk factor for bile duct injury except in the extreme case of a left-sided gallbladder. Surgeons should be vigilant during laparoscopic cholecystectomy when they become aware of an unusually small distance between the gallbladder bed and the round ligament prior to beginning their dissection, variations in the common bile duct and cystic duct should be expected.

  8. Liver injuries in children: the role of selective non-operative management.

    PubMed

    Nouira, Faouzi; Kerkeni, Yosra; Ben Amor, Anissa; Ben Ahmed, Yosra; Charieg, Aouatef; Khemakhem, Rachid; Ghorbel, Soufiane; Jlidi, Said; Ben Kahlifa, Sonia; Chaouachi, Beji

    2012-02-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of mortality in the pediatric population. Liver injuries occur commonly in blunt abdominal trauma. To assess the selective non-operative management of liver injuries in children. A retrospective review of 51 patients with a discharge diagnosis of traumatic liver injuries at Tunis Children's Hospital, over a 14-year period from 1996 to 2009. We identified 51 patients with liver trauma. The median age was 7 years. Boys accounted for 58% (n= 30), and the most common cause was traffic accident. Head injuries were the most common associated injuries. Forty-nine patients (96%) required non-operative management without complications. The mean in-hospital stay was 10 days in this group. The ultrasound demonstrated complete resolution and healing after 3-6 months. Two patients underwent surgery for hemodynamic instability. The mortality rate was 0.2 %. Safe, non-operative management involves careful serial examination, a CT scanning facility and close monitoring of the patient in a fully equipped high-dependency unit with trained staff to run it. Even though most patients can be treated non-operatively the challenge is to identify the severely injured child early and institute aggressive resuscitation and expedite laparotomy.

  9. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Complementary and Alternative Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Koji; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Kumagai, Junichiro; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Nakamura, Masato; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old man was admitted due to acute hepatitis with unknown etiology. After his condition and laboratory data gradually improved with conservative therapy, he was discharged 1 month later. Two months after his discharge, however, liver dysfunction reappeared. After his mother accidentally revealed that he took complementary and alternative medicine, discontinuation of the therapy caused his condition to improve. Finally, he was diagnosed with a recurrent drug-induced liver injury associated with Japanese complementary and alternative medicine. It is important to take the medical history in detail and consider complementary and alternative medicine as a cause of liver disease. PMID:28100990

  10. Remote ischemic preconditioning protects liver ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating eNOS-NO pathway and liver microRNA expressions in fatty liver rats.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yun-Fei; An, Yong; Zhu, Feng; Jiang, Yong

    2017-08-15

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a strategy to reduce ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The protective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) on liver I/R injury is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the roles of RIPC in liver I/R in fatty liver rats and the involvement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide (eNOS-NO) pathway and microRNA expressions in this process. A total of 32 fatty rats were randomly divided into the sham group, I/R group, RIPC group and RIPC+I/R group. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe histological changes of liver tissues, TUNEL to detect hepatocyte apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry assay to detect heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression. Western blotting was used to detect liver inducible NOS (iNOS) and eNOS protein levels and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect miR-34a, miR-122 and miR-27b expressions. Compared with the sham and RIPC groups, serum ALT, AST and iNOS in liver tissue were significantly higher in other two groups, while serum NO and eNOS in liver tissue were lower, and varying degrees of edema, degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration were found. Cell apoptosis number was slightly lower in the RIPC+I/R group than that in I/R group. Compared with the sham group, HSP70 expressions were significantly increased in other three groups (all P<0.05). Compared with the sham and RIPC groups, elevated miR-34a expressions were found in I/R and RIPC+I/R groups (P<0.05). MiR-122 and miR-27b were found significantly decreased in I/R and RIPC+I/R groups compared with the sham and RIPC groups (all P<0.05). RIPC can reduce fatty liver I/R injury by affecting the eNOS-NO pathway and liver microRNA expressions. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Accurate Prediction of Drug-Induced Liver Injury Using Stem Cell-Derived Populations

    PubMed Central

    Szkolnicka, Dagmara; Farnworth, Sarah L.; Lucendo-Villarin, Baltasar; Storck, Christopher; Zhou, Wenli; Iredale, John P.; Flint, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Despite major progress in the knowledge and management of human liver injury, there are millions of people suffering from chronic liver disease. Currently, the only cure for end-stage liver disease is orthotopic liver transplantation; however, this approach is severely limited by organ donation. Alternative approaches to restoring liver function have therefore been pursued, including the use of somatic and stem cell populations. Although such approaches are essential in developing scalable treatments, there is also an imperative to develop predictive human systems that more effectively study and/or prevent the onset of liver disease and decompensated organ function. We used a renewable human stem cell resource, from defined genetic backgrounds, and drove them through developmental intermediates to yield highly active, drug-inducible, and predictive human hepatocyte populations. Most importantly, stem cell-derived hepatocytes displayed equivalence to primary adult hepatocytes, following incubation with known hepatotoxins. In summary, we have developed a serum-free, scalable, and shippable cell-based model that faithfully predicts the potential for human liver injury. Such a resource has direct application in human modeling and, in the future, could play an important role in developing renewable cell-based therapies. PMID:24375539

  12. Serum from CCl4-induced acute rat injury model induces differentiation of ADSCs towards hepatic cells and reduces liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Baig, Maria Tayyab; Ali, Gibran; Awan, Sana Javaid; Shehzad, Umara; Mehmood, Azra; Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Shaheen N; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2017-10-01

    Cellular therapies hold promise to alleviate liver diseases. This study explored the potential of allogenic serum isolated from rat with acute CCl 4 injury to differentiate adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) towards hepatic lineage. Acute liver injury was induced by CCl 4 which caused significant increase in serum levels of VEGF, SDF1α and EGF. ADSCs were preconditioned with 3% serum isolated from normal and acute liver injury models. ADSCs showed enhanced expression of hepatic markers (AFP, albumin, CK8 and CK19). These differentiated ADSCs were transplanted intra-hepatically in CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis model. After one month of transplantation, fibrosis and liver functions (alkaline phosphatase, ALAT and bilirubin) showed marked improvement in acute injury group. Elevated expression of hepatic (AFP, albumin, CK 18 and HNF4a) and pro survival markers (PCNA and VEGF) and improvement in liver architecture as deduced from results of alpha smooth muscle actin, Sirius red and Masson's trichome staining was observed.

  13. Improved outcomes in the non-operative management of liver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Saltzherr, Teun Peter; van der Vlies, Cees H; van Lienden, Krijn P; Beenen, Ludo F M; Ponsen, Kees Jan; van Gulik, Thomas M; Goslings, J Carel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Non-operative management has become the treatment of choice in the majority of liver injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in primary treatment and outcomes in a single Dutch Level 1 trauma centre with wide experience in angio-embolisation (AE). Methods The prospective trauma registry was retrospectively analysed for 7-year periods before (Period 1) and after (Period 2) the introduction of AE. The primary outcome was the failure rate of primary treatment defined as liver injury-related death or re-bleeding requiring radiologic or operative (re)interventions. Secondary outcomes were liver injury-related intra-abdominal complications. Results Despite an increase in high-grade liver injuries, the incidence of primary non-operative management more than doubled over the two periods, from 33% (20 of 61 cases) in Period 1 to 72% (84 of 116 cases) in Period 2 (P < 0.001). The failure rate of primary treatment in Period 1 was 18% (11/61), compared with 11% (13/116) in Period 2 (P = 0.21). Complication rates were 23% (14/61) and 16% (18/116) in Periods 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.22). Liver-related mortality rates were 10% (6/61) and 3% (4/116) in Periods 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.095). The increase in the frequency of non-operative management was even higher in high-grade injuries, in which outcomes were improved. In high-grade injuries in Periods 1 and 2, failure rates decreased from 45% (9/20) to 20% (11/55) (P = 0.041), liver-related mortality decreased from 30% (6/20) to 7% (4/55) (P = 0.019) and complication rates fell from 60% (12/20) to 27% (15/55) (P = 0.014). Liver infarction or necrosis and abscess formation seemed to occur more frequently with AE. Conclusions Overall, liver-related mortality, treatment failure and complication rates remained constant despite an increase in non-operative management. However, in high-grade injuries outcomes improved after the introduction of AE. PMID:21492335

  14. Low-Dose N,N-Dimethylformamide Exposure and Liver Injuries in a Cohort of Chinese Leather Industry Workers.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cong; Gu, Yiyang; Sun, Qing; Gu, Hongliang; Xu, Bo; Gu, Qing; Xiao, Jing; Lian, Yulong

    2017-05-01

    We assessed the risk of liver injuries following low doses of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) below threshold limit values (20 mg/m) among leather industry workers and comparison groups. A cohort of 429 workers from a leather factory and 466 non-exposed subjects in China were followed for 4 years. Poisson regression and piece-wise linear regression were used to examine the relationship between DMF and liver injury. Workers exposed to a cumulative dose of DMF were significantly more likely than non-exposed workers to develop liver injury. A nonlinear relationship between DMF and liver injury was observed, and a threshold of the cumulative DMF dose for liver injury was 7.30 (mg/m) year. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce DMF occupational exposure limits for promoting worker health.

  15. Increased E-selectin in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury mediates liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIMOTO, KATSUHIRO; TAJIMA, HIDEHIRO; OHTA, TETSUO; OKAMOTO, KOICHI; SAKAI, SEISHO; KINOSHITA, JUN; FURUKAWA, HIROYUKI; MAKINO, ISAMU; HAYASHI, HIRONORI; NAKAMURA, KEISHI; OYAMA, KATSUNOBU; INOKUCHI, MASAFUMI; NAKAGAWARA, HISATOSHI; ITOH, HIROSHI; FUJITA, HIDETO; TAKAMURA, HIROYUKI; NINOMIYA, ITASU; KITAGAWA, HIROHISA; FUSHIDA, SACHIO; FUJIMURA, TAKASHI; WAKAYAMA, TOMOHIKO; ISEKI, SHOICHI; SHIMIZU, KOICHI

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported that selectins are produced during ischemia-reperfusion injury, and that selectin ligands play an important role in cell binding to the endothelium and in liver metastasis. Portal clamping during pancreaticoduodenectomy with vessel resection for pancreatic head cancer causes hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, which might promote liver metastasis. We investigated the liver colonization of pancreatic cancer cells under hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and examined the involvement of E-selectin and its ligands. A human pancreatic cancer cell line (Capan-1) was injected into the spleen of mice after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R group). In addition, to investigate the effect of an anti-E-selectin antibody on liver colonization in the IR group, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of the anti-E-selectin antibody following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and tumor inoculation (IR+Ab group). Four weeks later, mice were sacrificed and the number of tumor nodules on the liver was compared to mice without hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (control group). The incidence of liver metastasis in the I/R group was significantly higher (16 of 20, 80%) than that in the control group (6 of 20, 30%) (P<0.01). Moreover, mice in the I/R group had significantly more tumor nodules compared to those in the control group (median, 9.9 vs. 2.7 nodules) (P<0.01). In the I/R+Ab group, only 2 of 5 (40%) mice developed liver metastases. RT-PCR and southern blotting of the liver extracts showed that the expression of IL-1 and E-selectin mRNA after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion was significantly higher than the basal levels. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion increases liver metastases and E-selectin expression in pancreatic cancer. These results suggest that E-selectin produced due to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion is involved in liver metastasis. PMID:22766603

  16. Monitoring liver macrophages using nanobodies targeting Vsig4: concanavalin A induced acute hepatitis as paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Devoogdt, Nick; Sparkes, Amanda; Morias, Yannick; Abels, Chloé; Stijlemans, Benoit; Lahoutte, Tony; Muyldermans, Serge; De Baetselier, Patrick; Schoonooghe, Steve; Beschin, Alain; Raes, Geert

    2015-02-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) are liver resident macrophages which are important for tissue homeostasis and have been implicated in immunogenic, tolerogenic and pathogenic immune reactions depending on the insult. These cells and the biomarkers they express thus represent interesting in vivo sensors for monitoring liver inflammation. In the current study, we explored whether KCs can be monitored non-invasively using single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) with (99m)Tc labeled nanobodies (Nbs) targeting selected biomarkers. Nbs targeting V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing 4 (Vsig4) or macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) accumulated in the liver of untreated mice. The liver targeting of anti-Vsig4 Nbs, but not anti-MMR Nbs, was blunted upon depletion of macrophages, highlighting specificity of anti-Vsig4 Nbs for liver macrophage imaging. Ex vivo flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that anti-Vsig4 Nbs specifically targeted KCs but no other cell types in the liver. Upon induction of acute hepatitis using concanavalin A (ConA), down-regulation of the in vivo imaging signal obtained using anti-Vsig4 Nbs reflected reduction in KC numbers and transient modulation of Vsig4 expression on KCs. Overall, these results indicate that Nbs targeting Vsig4 as molecular imaging biomarker enable non-invasive monitoring of KCs during hepatic inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The safety of low molecular-weight heparin after blunt liver and spleen injuries.

    PubMed

    Rostas, Jack W; Manley, Justin; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Ahmed, Naveed; Frotan, Mohammad Amin; Mitchell, Ellen; Simmons, Jon D

    2015-07-01

    Anticoagulation is routinely administered to all trauma patients owing to the high incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the timing of administration of anticoagulation is not clearly defined when patients have blunt spleen or liver injuries because of the perceived risk of hemorrhage with early administration. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients who sustained blunt liver and/or spleen injuries during the 5-year period from 2007 to 2011. Data were collected for all patients managed with nonoperative therapy for these injuries while also receiving routine prophylactic anticoagulation with low molecular-weight heparin. Patients were categorized based on the initiation of enoxaparin therapy after injury: early (<48 hours), intermediate (48 to 72 hours), and late (>72 hours). Primary and secondary outcomes were designated as need for operative or radiologic intervention secondary to spleen or liver hemorrhage, number of transfusions, and incidence of VTE. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients were included. There were no enoxaparin-related hemorrhagic complications or hemorrhage necessitating operative intervention. Patients in the early, intermediate, and late groups received an average of .9, .93, and 1.55 units of blood, respectively. There was 1 pulmonary embolism in the early group, and there were 6 VTE complications in the late group (3 deep venous thromboses and 3 pulmonary embolisms). There are currently no standards for the initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation in trauma patients with blunt liver and spleen injuries. Early administration may be safe and reduce the incidence of thrombotic complications in patients with blunt spleen and liver injuries. Prospective studies in this area are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 protects mouse liver from apoptotic ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Issan, Y.; Katz, Y.; Sultan, M.; Safran, M.; Michal, Laniado-Schwartzman; Nader, G. Abraham; Kornowski, R.; Grief, F.; Pappo, O.; Hochhauser, E.

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the main cause of primary graft dysfunction of liver allografts. Cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP)–dependent induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has been shown to protect the liver from I/R injury. This study analyzes the apoptotic mechanisms of HO-1-mediated cytoprotection in mouse liver exposed to I/R injury. HO-1 induction was achieved by the administration of CoPP (1.5 mg/kg body weight i.p.). Mice were studied in in vivo model of hepatic segmental (70 %) ischemia for 60 min and reperfusion injury. Mice were randomly allocated to four main experimental groups (n = 10 each): (1) A control group undergoing sham operation. (2) Similar to group 1 but with the administration of CoPP 72 h before the operation. (3) Mice undergoing in vivo hepatic I/R. (4) Similar to group 3 but with the administration of CoPP 72 h before ischemia induction. When compared with the I/R mice group, in the I/R+CoPP mice group, the increased hepatic expression of HO-1 was associated with a significant reduction in liver enzyme levels, fewer apoptotic hepatocytes cells were identified by morphological criteria and by immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, there was a decreased mean number of proliferating cells (positively stained for Ki67), and a reduced hepatic expression of: C/EBP homologous protein (an index of endoplasmic reticulum stress), the NF-κB’s regulated genes (CIAP2, MCP-1 and IL-6), and increased hepatic expression of IκBa (the inhibitory protein of NF-κB). HO-1 over-expression plays a pivotal role in reducing the hepatic apoptotic IR injury. HO-1 may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in hepatic I/R injury during liver transplantation. PMID:23435964

  19. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 protects mouse liver from apoptotic ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Z; Issan, Y; Katz, Y; Sultan, M; Safran, M; Michal, Laniado-Schwartzman; Nader, G Abraham; Kornowski, R; Grief, F; Pappo, O; Hochhauser, E

    2013-05-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the main cause of primary graft dysfunction of liver allografts. Cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP)-dependent induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has been shown to protect the liver from I/R injury. This study analyzes the apoptotic mechanisms of HO-1-mediated cytoprotection in mouse liver exposed to I/R injury. HO-1 induction was achieved by the administration of CoPP (1.5 mg/kg body weight i.p.). Mice were studied in in vivo model of hepatic segmental (70 %) ischemia for 60 min and reperfusion injury. Mice were randomly allocated to four main experimental groups (n = 10 each): (1) A control group undergoing sham operation. (2) Similar to group 1 but with the administration of CoPP 72 h before the operation. (3) Mice undergoing in vivo hepatic I/R. (4) Similar to group 3 but with the administration of CoPP 72 h before ischemia induction. When compared with the I/R mice group, in the I/R+CoPP mice group, the increased hepatic expression of HO-1 was associated with a significant reduction in liver enzyme levels, fewer apoptotic hepatocytes cells were identified by morphological criteria and by immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, there was a decreased mean number of proliferating cells (positively stained for Ki67), and a reduced hepatic expression of: C/EBP homologous protein (an index of endoplasmic reticulum stress), the NF-κB's regulated genes (CIAP2, MCP-1 and IL-6), and increased hepatic expression of IκBa (the inhibitory protein of NF-κB). HO-1 over-expression plays a pivotal role in reducing the hepatic apoptotic IR injury. HO-1 may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in hepatic I/R injury during liver transplantation.

  20. Role of caspase-1 and interleukin-1{beta} in acetaminophen-induced hepatic inflammation and liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. David; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.ed

    2010-09-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose can result in serious liver injury and potentially death. Toxicity is dependent on metabolism of APAP to a reactive metabolite initiating a cascade of intracellular events resulting in hepatocellular necrosis. This early injury triggers a sterile inflammatory response with formation of cytokines and innate immune cell infiltration in the liver. Recently, IL-1{beta} signaling has been implicated in the potentiation of APAP-induced liver injury. To test if IL-1{beta} formation through caspase-1 is critical for the pathophysiology, C57Bl/6 mice were treated with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VD-fmk to block the inflammasome-mediated maturation of IL-1{beta} during APAP overdose (300 mg/kg APAP).more » This intervention did not affect IL-1{beta} gene transcription but prevented the increase in IL-1{beta} plasma levels. However, APAP-induced liver injury and neutrophil infiltration were not affected. Similarly, liver injury and the hepatic neutrophilic inflammation were not attenuated in IL-1-receptor-1 deficient mice compared to wild-type animals. To evaluate the potential of IL-1{beta} to increase injury, mice were given pharmacological doses of IL-1{beta} after APAP overdose. Despite increased systemic activation of neutrophils and recruitment into the liver, there was no alteration in injury. We conclude that endogenous IL-1{beta} formation after APAP overdose is insufficient to activate and recruit neutrophils into the liver or cause liver injury. Even high pharmacological doses of IL-1{beta}, which induce hepatic neutrophil accumulation and activation, do not enhance APAP-induced liver injury. Thus, IL-1 signaling is irrelevant for APAP hepatotoxicity. The inflammatory cascade is a less important therapeutic target than intracellular signaling pathways to attenuate APAP-induced liver injury.« less

  1. Drag reducing polymers decrease hepatic injury and metastases after liver ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Hamza O.; Sud, Vikas; Goswami, Julie; Loughran, Patricia; Huang, Hai; Simmons, Richard L.; Tsung, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Surgery, a crucial therapeutic modality in the treatment of solid tumors, can induce sterile inflammatory processes which can result in metastatic progression. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, an inevitable consequence of hepatic resection of metastases, has been shown to foster hepatic capture of circulating cancer cells and accelerate metastatic growth. Efforts to reduce these negative consequences have not been thoroughly investigated. Drag reducing polymers (DRPs) are blood-soluble macromolecules that can, in nanomolar concentrations, increase tissue perfusion, decrease vascular resistance and decrease near-wall microvascular concentration of neutrophils and platelets thereby possibly reducing the inflammatory microenvironment. We hypothesize that DRP can potentially be used to ameliorate metastatic capture of tumor cells and tumor growth within the I/R liver. Methods Experiments were performed utilizing a segmental ischemia model of mice livers. Five days prior or immediately prior to ischemia, murine colon adenocarcinoma cells (MC38) were injected into the spleen. DRP (polyethylene oxide) or a control of low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol without drag reducing properties were administered intraperitoneally at the onset of reperfusion. Results After three weeks from I/R, we observed that liver I/R resulted in an increased ability to capture and foster growth of circulating tumor cells; in addition, the growth of pre-existing micrometastases was accelerated three weeks later. These effects were significantly curtailed when mice were treated with DRPs at the time of I/R. Mechanistic investigations in vivo indicated that DRPs protected the livers from I/R injury as evidenced by significant decreases in hepatocellular damage, neutrophil recruitment into the liver, formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, deposition of platelets, formation of microthrombi within the liver sinusoids and release of inflammatory cytokines

  2. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A deficiency exacerbates acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2017-02-26

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose induces acute liver injury via enhanced oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) acts as a reactive oxygen species scavenger by catalyzing the cyclic reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide. Herein, we investigated the protective role of MsrA against APAP-induced liver damage using MsrA gene-deleted mice (MsrA -/- ). We found that MsrA -/- mice were more susceptible to APAP-induced acute liver injury than wild-type mice (MsrA +/+ ). The central lobule area of the MsrA -/- liver was more impaired with necrotic lesions. Serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in MsrA -/- than in MsrA +/+ mice after APAP challenge. Deletion of MsrA enhanced APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and oxidative stress, leading to increased susceptibility to APAP-induced liver injury in MsrA-deficient mice. APAP challenge increased Nrf2 activation more profoundly in MsrA -/- than in MsrA +/+ livers. Expression and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and its target gene expression were significantly elevated in MsrA -/- than in MsrA +/+ livers after APAP challenge. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MsrA protects the liver from APAP-induced toxicity. The data provided herein constitute the first in vivo evidence of the involvement of MsrA in hepatic function under APAP challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intraperitoneal administration of apigenin in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury protective effects.

    PubMed

    Tsaroucha, Alexandra K; Tsiaousidou, Anastasia; Ouzounidis, Nikolaos; Tsalkidou, Evanthia; Lambropoulou, Maria; Giakoustidis, Dimitrios; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Simopoulos, Constantinos

    2016-11-01

    Hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a clinical problem associated with major liver surgery. Among other flavonoids, apigenin has shown a promising effect on I/R cases. In this study, we have investigated the effects of apigenin after liver I/R injury in rats. Forty eight rats were randomized into the following eight groups: (1) Control-sham group: rats subjected to the surgical procedure, except for liver I/R; (2) DMSO group: rats subjected to surgery, except for liver I/R given the apigenin solvent dimethyl-sulfoxide intraperitoneally; (3) C60 group; (4) C120 group; (5) C240 group: rats underwent liver ischemia for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min, 120 min, and 240 min; (6) AP60 group; (7) AP120 group; (8) AP240 group: rats underwent liver ischemia for 45 min, and then given apigenin (5 mg) intraperitoneally followed by reperfusion for 60 min, 120 min, and 240 min. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed on liver tissues to measure BCL-2/BAX expression, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure M30/M65 and ICAM-1. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify M30 biomarker in liver tissues. Quantitative variables were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, repeated measures analysis of variance/Friedman test. Gene levels were assessed by Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U-test. BCL-2 levels were significantly higher in I/R apigenin groups than in I/R control groups. BAX levels were lower in the AP240 group than in C240 group. Prolongation of reperfusion resulted in increased activation of M30. ICAM-1 levels were lower in the AP240 group than in C240 group. Apigenin seems to inhibit the process of apoptosis and ameliorate the hepatic I/R injury.

  4. Neutrophils alleviate fibrosis in the CCl4-induced mouse chronic liver injury model.

    PubMed

    Saijou, Eiko; Enomoto, Yutaka; Matsuda, Michitaka; Yuet-Yin Kok, Cindy; Akira, Shizuo; Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2018-06-01

    Tribbles pseudokinase 1 ( Trib1 ) is a negative regulator of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) and is known to induce granulopoiesis while suppressing monocyte differentiation. Loss of Trib1 was previously shown to increase the neutrophil population in the spleen but lead to M2-like macrophage reduction. Because M2 macrophages are anti-inflammatory and promote tissue repair by producing fibrogenic factors, we investigated liver fibrosis in Trib1 -deficient mice. Interestingly, loss of Trib1 suppressed fibrosis in the CCl 4 -induced chronic liver injury model. Trib1 knockout increased neutrophils but had a minimal effect on the macrophage population in the liver. Hepatic expressions of neutrophil matrix metalloproteinases ( Mmp ) 8 and Mmp9 were increased, but the production of fibrogenic factors, including transforming growth factor β1, was not affected by loss of Trib1 . These results suggest that neutrophils are responsible for the suppression of fibrosis in Trib1 -deficient liver. Consistently, transplantation of Trib1 -deficient bone marrow cells into wild-type mice alleviated CCl 4 -induced fibrosis. Furthermore, expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 ( Cxcl1 ) by adeno-associated viral vector in the normal liver recruited neutrophils and suppressed CCl 4 -induced fibrosis; infusion of wild-type neutrophils in CCl 4 -treated mice also ameliorated fibrosis. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of Mmp8 and Mmp9 alleviated liver fibrosis. Finally, neutrophil depletion by infusion of Ly6G antibody significantly enhanced CCl 4 -induced fibrosis. Conclusion : While neutrophils are well known to exacerbate acute liver injury, our results demonstrate a beneficial role of neutrophils in chronic liver injury by promoting fibrolysis. ( Hepatology Communications 2018;2:703-717).

  5. Neutrophils alleviate fibrosis in the CCl4‐induced mouse chronic liver injury model

    PubMed Central

    Saijou, Eiko; Enomoto, Yutaka; Matsuda, Michitaka; Yuet‐Yin Kok, Cindy; Akira, Shizuo; Tanaka, Minoru

    2018-01-01

    Tribbles pseudokinase 1 (Trib1) is a negative regulator of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) and is known to induce granulopoiesis while suppressing monocyte differentiation. Loss of Trib1 was previously shown to increase the neutrophil population in the spleen but lead to M2‐like macrophage reduction. Because M2 macrophages are anti‐inflammatory and promote tissue repair by producing fibrogenic factors, we investigated liver fibrosis in Trib1‐deficient mice. Interestingly, loss of Trib1 suppressed fibrosis in the CCl4‐induced chronic liver injury model. Trib1 knockout increased neutrophils but had a minimal effect on the macrophage population in the liver. Hepatic expressions of neutrophil matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp)8 and Mmp9 were increased, but the production of fibrogenic factors, including transforming growth factor β1, was not affected by loss of Trib1. These results suggest that neutrophils are responsible for the suppression of fibrosis in Trib1‐deficient liver. Consistently, transplantation of Trib1‐deficient bone marrow cells into wild‐type mice alleviated CCl4‐induced fibrosis. Furthermore, expression of chemokine (C‐X‐C motif) ligand 1 (Cxcl1) by adeno‐associated viral vector in the normal liver recruited neutrophils and suppressed CCl4‐induced fibrosis; infusion of wild‐type neutrophils in CCl4‐treated mice also ameliorated fibrosis. Using recombinant adeno‐associated virus‐mediated expression of Mmp8 and Mmp9 alleviated liver fibrosis. Finally, neutrophil depletion by infusion of Ly6G antibody significantly enhanced CCl4‐induced fibrosis. Conclusion: While neutrophils are well known to exacerbate acute liver injury, our results demonstrate a beneficial role of neutrophils in chronic liver injury by promoting fibrolysis. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:703‐717) PMID:29881822

  6. Ex vivo adenoviral gene transfer of constitutively activated STAT3 reduces post-transplant liver injury and promotes regeneration in a 20% rat partial liver transplant model.

    PubMed

    Huda, Kamrul A S M; Guo, Lei; Haga, Sanae; Murata, Hiroshi; Ogino, Tetsuya; Fukai, Moto; Yagi, Takahito; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Tanaka, Noriaki; Ozaki, Michitaka

    2006-05-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is one of the most important transcription factors for liver regeneration. This study was designed to examine the effects of constitutively activated STAT3 (STAT3-C) on post-transplant liver injury and regeneration in a rat 20% partial liver transplant (PLTx) model by ex vivo adenoviral gene transfer. Adenovirus encoding the STAT3-C gene was introduced intraportally into liver grafts and clamped for 30 min during cold preservation. After orthotopic PLTx, liver graft/body weights and serum biochemistry were monitored, and both a histological study and DNA binding assay were performed. STAT3-C protein expression and its binding to DNA in the liver graft were confirmed by Western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), respectively. This treatment modality promoted post-Tx liver regeneration effectively and rapidly. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (AST/ALT) and bilirubin decreased in rats with STAT3-C. However, albumin (a marker of liver function) did not. Ex vivo gene transfer of STAT3-C to liver grafts reduced post-Tx injury and promoted liver regeneration. Thus, the activation of STAT3 in the liver graft may be a potentially effective clinical strategy for improving the outcome of small-for-size liver transplantation.

  7. Possible gasoline-induced chronic liver injury due to occupational malpractice in a motor mechanic: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gunathilaka, Mahesh Lakmal; Niriella, Madunil Anuk; Luke, Nathasha Vihangi; Piyarathna, Chathura Lakmal; Siriwardena, Rohan Chaminda; De Silva, Arjuna Priyadarshin; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2017-07-03

    Hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury is a well-known clinical entity among petroleum industry workers. There are many types of hydrocarbon exposure, with inhalation being the most common. Hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury is a rarely suspected and commonly missed etiological agent for liver injury. We report a case of a non-petroleum industry worker with chronic liver disease secondary to hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury caused by chronic low-grade hydrocarbon ingestion due to occupational malpractice. A 23-year-old Sri Lankan man who was a motor mechanic presented to our hospital with decompensated cirrhosis. He had been chronically exposed to gasoline via inadvertent ingestion due to occupational malpractice. He used to remove gasoline from carburetors by sucking and failed to practice mouth washing thereafter. On evaluation, he had histologically proven established cirrhosis. A comprehensive history and workup ruled out other nonoccupational etiologies for cirrhosis. The patient's long-term occupational gasoline exposure and clinical course led us to a diagnosis of hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury leading to decompensated cirrhosis. Hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury should be considered as a cause when evaluating a patient with liver injury with possible exposure in relevant occupations.

  8. A Text Searching Tool to Identify Patients with Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, Lauren; Law, James; Fontana, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an uncommon but important cause of liver disease that is challenging to diagnose and identify in the electronic medical record (EMR). To develop an accurate, reliable, and efficient method of identifying patients with bonafide DILI in an EMR system. In total, 527,000 outpatient and ER encounters in an EPIC-based EMR were searched for potential DILI cases attributed to eight drugs. A searching algorithm that extracted 200 characters of text around 14 liver injury terms in the EMR were extracted and collated. Physician investigators reviewed the data outputs and used standardized causality assessment methods to adjudicate the potential DILI cases. A total of 101 DILI cases were identified from the 2564 potential DILI cases that included 62 probable DILI cases, 25 possible DILI cases, nine historical DILI cases, and five allergy-only cases. Elimination of the term "liver disease" from the search strategy improved the search recall from 4 to 19 %, while inclusion of the four highest yield liver injury terms further improved the positive predictive value to 64 % but reduced the overall case detection rate by 47 %. RUCAM scores of the 57 probable DILI cases were generally high and concordant with expert opinion causality assessment scores. A novel text searching tool was developed that identified a large number of DILI cases from a widely used EMR system. A computerized extraction of dictated text followed by the manual review of text snippets can rapidly identify bona fide cases of idiosyncratic DILI.

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ravan, Alireza Pouyandeh; Bahmani, Mahdi; Ghasemi Basir, Hamid Reza; Salehi, Iraj; Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi

    2017-09-26

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos (V.a) methanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in Wistar rats. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant activity of V.a were determined. Extracts of V.a at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered by oral gavage to rats once per day for 7 days and then were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL/kg CCl4 (1:1 in olive oil) for 3 consecutive days. Serum biochemical markers of liver injury, oxidative markers, as well as hydroxyproline (HP) content and histopathology of liver were evaluated. The obtained results showed that V.a had strong antioxidant activity. Treatment of rats with V.a blocked the CCl4-induced elevation of serum markers of liver function and enhanced albumin and total protein levels. The level of hepatic HP content was also reduced by the administration of V.a treatment. Histological examination of the liver section revealed that V.a prevented the occurrence of pathological changes in CCl4-treated rats. These findings suggested that V.a may be useful in the treatment and prevention of hepatic injury induced by CCl4.

  10. Risk assessment of silica nanoparticles on liver injury in metabolic syndrome mice induced by fructose.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianmei; He, Xiwei; Yang, Yang; Li, Mei; Xu, Chenke; Yu, Rong

    2018-07-01

    This study aims to assess the effects and the mechanisms of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) on hepatotoxicity in both normal and metabolic syndrome mouse models induced by fructose. Here, we found that SiNPs exposure lead to improved insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome mice, but markedly worsened hepatic ballooning, inflammation infiltration, and fibrosis. Moreover, SiNPs exposure aggravated liver injury in metabolic syndrome mice by causing serious DNA damage. Following SiNPs exposure, liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in metabolic syndrome mice were stimulated, which is accompanied by significantly increased malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels as compared to normal mice. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that SiNPs were more readily deposited in the liver mitochondria of metabolic syndrome mice, resulting in more severe mitochondrial injury as compared to normal mice. We speculated that SiNPs-induced mitochondrial injury might be the cause of hepatic oxidative stress, which further lead to a series of liver lesions as observed in mice following SiNPs exposure. Based on these results, it is likely that SiNPs will increase the risk and severity of liver disease in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, SiNPs should be used cautiously in food additives and clinical settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms of Adaptation and Progression in Idiosyncratic Drug Induced Liver Injury, Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dara, Lily; Liu, Zhang-Xu; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade our understanding of idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (IDILI) and the contribution of genetic susceptibility and the adaptive immune system to the pathogenesis of this disease process has grown tremendously. One of the characteristics of IDILI is that it occurs rarely and only in a subset of individuals with a presumed susceptibility to the drug. Despite a clear association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and certain drugs that cause IDILI, not all individuals with susceptible HLA genotypes develop clinically significant liver injury when exposed to drugs. The adaptation hypothesis has been put forth as an explanation for why only a small percentage of susceptible individuals develop overt IDILI and severe injury, while the majority with susceptible genotypes develop only mild abnormalities that resolve spontaneously upon continuation of the drug. This spontaneous resolution is referred to as clinical adaptation. Failure to adapt or defective adaptation leads to clinically significant liver injury. In this review we explore the immuno-tolerant microenvironment of the liver and the mechanisms of clinical adaptation in IDILI with a focus on the role of immune-tolerance and cellular adaptive responses. PMID:26484420

  12. The role of intestinal endotoxin in liver injury: a long and evolving history.

    PubMed

    Nolan, James P

    2010-11-01

    From the mid-1950s, it was observed that liver injury by a variety of toxins greatly sensitized the host to the effects of administered lipopolysaccharide. In the nutritional cirrhosis of choline deficiency, and in acute toxic injury as well, the need for the presence of enteric endotoxin was demonstrated. The universality of this association was striking for almost all agents associated with liver injury. In addition, the presence of endotoxemia in human liver disease was documented in the 1970s, when the hypothesis was first proposed, and correlated with the severity of the disease. Despite imposing evidence of the critical role of enteric endotoxin in liver injury, it did not excite much interest in investigators until the 1980s. With the ability to study effects of alcohol in newer delivery systems, and an increased understanding of the role of Kupffer cells in the process, the original hypothesis has been accepted. This historical review details the progress of this novel concept of disease initiation and suggests future directions to bring potential therapies to the bedside.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Liver Injury-Associated Cytokines in Acute Hepatitis A and B.

    PubMed

    Shin, So Youn; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Sung, Pil Soo; Lee, Jino; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Hyun Woong; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-05-01

    Acute hepatitis A (AHA) and acute hepatitis B (AHB) are caused by an acute infection of the hepatitis A virus and the hepatitis B virus, respectively. In both AHA and AHB, liver injury is known to be mediated by immune cells and cytokines. In this study, we measured serum levels of various cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins in patients with AHA or AHB to identify liver injury-associated cytokines. Forty-six patients with AHA, 16 patients with AHB, and 14 healthy adults were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of 17 cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or cytometric bead arrays and analyzed for correlation with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Interleukin (IL)-18, IL-8, CXCL9, and CXCL10 were significantly elevated in both AHA and AHB. IL-6, IL-22, granzyme B, and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) were elevated in AHA but not in AHB. In both AHA and AHB, the serum level of CXCL10 significantly correlated with the peak ALT level. Additionally, the serum level of granzyme B in AHA and the serum level of sFasL in AHB correlated with the peak ALT level. We identified cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins associated with liver injury in AHA and AHB. These findings deepen the existing understanding of immunological mechanisms responsible for liver injury in acute viral hepatitis.

  14. Genomic Indicators in the blood predict drug-induced liver injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatotoxicity and other forms of liver injury stemming from exposure to toxicants and idiosyncratic drug reactions are major concerns during the drug discovery process. Animal model systems have been utilized in an attempt to extrapolate the risk of harmful agents to humans and...

  15. Comparative Analysis of Liver Injury-Associated Cytokines in Acute Hepatitis A and B

    PubMed Central

    Shin, So Youn; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Sung, Pil Soo; Lee, Jino; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Hyun Woong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acute hepatitis A (AHA) and acute hepatitis B (AHB) are caused by an acute infection of the hepatitis A virus and the hepatitis B virus, respectively. In both AHA and AHB, liver injury is known to be mediated by immune cells and cytokines. In this study, we measured serum levels of various cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins in patients with AHA or AHB to identify liver injury-associated cytokines. Materials and Methods Forty-six patients with AHA, 16 patients with AHB, and 14 healthy adults were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of 17 cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or cytometric bead arrays and analyzed for correlation with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Results Interleukin (IL)-18, IL-8, CXCL9, and CXCL10 were significantly elevated in both AHA and AHB. IL-6, IL-22, granzyme B, and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) were elevated in AHA but not in AHB. In both AHA and AHB, the serum level of CXCL10 significantly correlated with the peak ALT level. Additionally, the serum level of granzyme B in AHA and the serum level of sFasL in AHB correlated with the peak ALT level. Conclusion We identified cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins associated with liver injury in AHA and AHB. These findings deepen the existing understanding of immunological mechanisms responsible for liver injury in acute viral hepatitis. PMID:26996565

  16. LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Information Resources Glossary Abbreviations SEARCH THE LIVERTOX DATABASE Search for a specific medication, herbal or supplement: ... About Us . Disclaimer. Information presented in the LiverTox database is derived from the scientific literature and public ...

  17. An experimental research on chronic intermittent hypoxia leading to liver injury.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu-zhi; Tian, Jian-li; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Hui; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Bao-yuan

    2011-09-01

    Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and its chronic intermittent hypoxia component may cause multi-system-targeted injury. The latest finding shows that liver is one of the injured organs. The purpose of the study is to observe the dynamic process of the influence that chronic intermittent hypoxia plays on rat liver enzyme, hepatic histology, and ultrastructure based on lipid disorders. A total of 72 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group was fed with a regular chow diet, the high fat group with a high fat diet, and the high fat plus intermittent hypoxia group with a high fat diet with a 7-h/day intermittent hypoxia treatment. Changes were observed in rat liver enzyme, hepatic histology, and ultrastructure of the three groups on the third, sixth, and ninth weeks, respectively. The liver paraffin sections were detected with myeloperoxidase. The liver function and structure of the control group were found to be normal; the liver enzyme level of the high fat group was significantly higher than that of the control group on the sixth and ninth weeks; and the liver enzyme level of the high fat plus intermittent hypoxia group was significantly higher than that of the control group and the high fat group on the third, sixth, and ninth weeks (all P < 0.01). Observed by a light microscope and a transmission electron microscope, the high fat group and the high fat plus intermittent hypoxia group were all characterized by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: the high fat group was characterized by simple fatty liver on the third and sixth weeks and by steatohepatitis on the ninth week; the damage of the high fat plus intermittent hypoxia group was significantly more severe than that of the high fat group in all the monitoring points, characterized by steatohepatitis on the sixth week and by obvious liver fibrosis on the ninth week; the myeloperoxidase level of the high fat plus intermittent hypoxia group was significantly higher than that of the

  18. MicroRNA-mediated Th2 bias in methimazole-induced acute liver injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Uematsu, Yasuaki, E-mail: yasuaki-uematsu@ds-pharm

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of small non-coding RNAs containing approximately 20 nucleotides that negatively regulate target gene expression. Little is known about the role of individual miRNAs and their targets in immune- and inflammation-related responses in drug-induced liver injury. In the present study, involvement of miRNAs in the T helper (Th) 2-type immune response was investigated using a methimazole (MTZ)-induced liver injury mouse model. Co-administration of L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine and MTZ induced acute hepatocellular necrosis and elevated plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from 4 h onward in female Balb/c mice. The hepatic mRNA expression of Th2 promotive factors was significantlymore » increased concomitantly with plasma ALT levels. In contrast, the hepatic mRNA expression of Th2 suppressive factors was significantly decreased during the early phase of liver injury. Comprehensive profiling of hepatic miRNA expression was analyzed before the onset of MTZ-induced liver injury. Using in silico prediction of miRNAs that possibly regulate Th2-related genes and subsequent quantification, we identified up-regulation of expression of miR-29b-1-5p and miR-449a-5p. Among targets of these miRNAs, down-regulation of Th2 suppressive transcription factors, such as SRY-related HMG-box 4 (SOX4) and lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF1), were observed from the early phase of liver injury. In conclusion, negative regulation of the expression of SOX4 by miR-29b-1-5p and that of LEF1 by miR-449a-5p is suggested to play an important role in the development of Th2 bias in MTZ-induced liver injury. - Highlights: • Methimazole induced hepatic Th2 bias in the pathogenesis of liver injury in mice. • Rapid down-regulation of SOX4 and LEF1 may initiate and/or maintain hepatic Th2 bias. • Negative regulation of SOX4 by miR-29b-1-5p and LEF1 by miR-449a-5p was suggested.« less

  19. Endogenous glucocorticoids exacerbate cholestasis-associated liver injury and hypercholesterolemia in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Geest, Rick van der, E-mail: r.van.der.geest@lacdr

    Cholestatic liver disease is characterized by a disruption of bile flow, bile acid toxicity, liver injury, and hypercholesterolemia. Relatively high secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenals has been observed under cholestatic conditions. Here we investigated a contribution of the rise in endogenous glucocorticoids to initial stage cholestasis pathology. Adrenalectomized or sham-operated control C57BL/6 mice were given an oral dose of alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate to induce cholestasis. Adrenalectomy effectively lowered plasma corticosterone levels (18 ± 5 ng/ml vs 472 ± 58 ng/ml; P < 0.001) and disrupted the metabolic and anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid function. Adrenal removal did not exacerbate the cholestasis extent. In contrast,more » the cholestasis-associated liver injury was markedly lower in adrenalectomized mice as compared to controls as evidenced by a 84%–93% decrease in liver necrosis and plasma alanine aminotransferase and bile acid levels (P < 0.001 for all). Gene expression analysis on livers from adrenalectomized mice suggested the absence of bile acid toxicity-associated farnesoid X receptor signaling in the context of a 44% (P < 0.01) and 82% (P < 0.001) reduction in sodium/bile acid cotransporter member 1 transcript level as compared to respectively control and non-diseased mice. Adrenalectomy reduced the expression of the cholesterol synthesis gene HMG-CoA reductase by 70% (P < 0.05), which translated into a 73% lower plasma total cholesterol level (P < 0.05). Treatment of C57BL/6 mice with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486 recapitulated the protective effect of adrenalectomy on indices of liver injury and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion, we have shown that endogenous glucocorticoids exacerbate the liver injury and hypercholesterolemia associated with acute cholestasis in mice. - Highlights: • Cholestasis is associated with increased plasma glucocorticoid levels in mice. • Adrenalectomy lowers cholestasis

  20. Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury Alters the Acyl Ethanolamine-Based Anti-Inflammatory Signaling System in Liver.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Patricia; Pastor, Antoni; Arrabal, Sergio; Decara, Juan; Vargas, Antonio; Sánchez-Marín, Laura; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Bautista, Dolores; Boronat, Anna; de la Torre, Rafael; Baixeras, Elena; Lucena, M Isabel; de Fonseca, Fernando R; Suárez, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Protective mechanisms against drug-induced liver injury are actively being searched to identify new therapeutic targets. Among them, the anti-inflammatory N -acyl ethanolamide (NAE)-peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha (PPARα) system has gained much interest after the identification of its protective role in steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. An overdose of paracetamol (APAP), a commonly used analgesic/antipyretic drug, causes hepatotoxicity, and it is being used as a liver model. In the present study, we have analyzed the impact of APAP on the liver NAE-PPARα system. A dose-response (0.5-5-10-20 mM) and time-course (2-6-24 h) study in human HepG2 cells showed a biphasic response, with a decreased PPAR α expression after 6-h APAP incubation followed by a generalized increase of NAE-PPARα system-related components ( PPAR α, NAPE-PLD , and FAAH ), including the NAEs oleoyl ethanolamide (OEA) and docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide, after a 24-h exposure to APAP. These results were partially confirmed in a time-course study of mice exposed to an acute dose of APAP (750 mg/kg). The gene expression levels of Ppar α and Faah were decreased after 6 h of treatment and, after 24 h, the gene expression levels of Nape-pld and Faah , as well as the liver levels of OEA and palmitoyl ethanolamide, were increased. Repeated APAP administration (750 mg/kg/day) up to 4 days also decreased the expression levels of PPARα and FAAH, and increased the liver levels of NAEs. A resting period of 15 days completely restored these impairments. Liver immunohistochemistry in a well-characterized human case of APAP hepatotoxicity confirmed PPARα and FAAH decrements. Histopathological and hepatic damage ( Cyp2e1, Caspase3 , α Sma, Tnf α, and Mcp1 )-related alterations observed after repeated APAP administration were aggravated in the liver of Ppar α-deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory NAE-PPARα signaling system is implicated in liver toxicity

  1. Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury Alters the Acyl Ethanolamine-Based Anti-Inflammatory Signaling System in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Patricia; Pastor, Antoni; Arrabal, Sergio; Decara, Juan; Vargas, Antonio; Sánchez-Marín, Laura; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Bautista, Dolores; Boronat, Anna; de la Torre, Rafael; Baixeras, Elena; Lucena, M. Isabel; de Fonseca, Fernando R.; Suárez, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Protective mechanisms against drug-induced liver injury are actively being searched to identify new therapeutic targets. Among them, the anti-inflammatory N-acyl ethanolamide (NAE)-peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha (PPARα) system has gained much interest after the identification of its protective role in steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. An overdose of paracetamol (APAP), a commonly used analgesic/antipyretic drug, causes hepatotoxicity, and it is being used as a liver model. In the present study, we have analyzed the impact of APAP on the liver NAE-PPARα system. A dose-response (0.5–5–10–20 mM) and time-course (2–6–24 h) study in human HepG2 cells showed a biphasic response, with a decreased PPARα expression after 6-h APAP incubation followed by a generalized increase of NAE-PPARα system-related components (PPARα, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH), including the NAEs oleoyl ethanolamide (OEA) and docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide, after a 24-h exposure to APAP. These results were partially confirmed in a time-course study of mice exposed to an acute dose of APAP (750 mg/kg). The gene expression levels of Pparα and Faah were decreased after 6 h of treatment and, after 24 h, the gene expression levels of Nape-pld and Faah, as well as the liver levels of OEA and palmitoyl ethanolamide, were increased. Repeated APAP administration (750 mg/kg/day) up to 4 days also decreased the expression levels of PPARα and FAAH, and increased the liver levels of NAEs. A resting period of 15 days completely restored these impairments. Liver immunohistochemistry in a well-characterized human case of APAP hepatotoxicity confirmed PPARα and FAAH decrements. Histopathological and hepatic damage (Cyp2e1, Caspase3, αSma, Tnfα, and Mcp1)-related alterations observed after repeated APAP administration were aggravated in the liver of Pparα-deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory NAE-PPARα signaling system is implicated in liver toxicity after

  2. Effect of liver steatosis in outcome after bile duct reconstruction for iatrogenic injury.

    PubMed

    Mercado Díaz, Miguel Angel; Marcué, Miguel Urencio; Ramírez Del Val, Fernando; Domínguez Rosado, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    The estimated prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the overall population is 30%. Bile duct injuries associated with cholecystectomy have a constant frequency and some patients with these types of injuries have concomitant hepatic stenosis (HS). It has not been determined if HS has a negative outcome on the results of surgical bile duct repair. Among a cohort of patients surgically repaired for bile duct injury, we selected those from whom a liver biopsy was obtained. Patients were divided into the following groups: group I--HS, group II--without HS. The groups were compared for long-term results of the reconstruction, postoperative complications, liver function test and need for reintervention. From group I we obtained 18 patients and from group II 71 patients. In 11% of the HS group and in 10% of the non-HS group anastomosis dysfunction was observed. Three cases in group I (17%) and 11 patients in group II (15.5%) needed further surgical reintervention. Complete rehabilitation was obtained in 77% of the cases in group I and 66% of patients in group II. No statistical differences were found in any features between groups. Patients with HS have a higher incidence of gallstone disease than the general population; hence, an increased probability of having a bile duct injury. The results of surgical reconstruction after these injuries are similar to those of patients without HS. Analyzed data showed no repercussion in outcome of patients with HS.

  3. A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Yannam, Govardhana Rao; Han, Bing; Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi

    Background: Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a dose-escalation study in a primate, the cynomolgus monkey, using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in 13 animals. Results: At doses ≥40 Gy, animals developed a systemic syndrome resembling human radiation-induced liver disease, consisting of decreased albumin, elevatedmore » alkaline phosphatase, loss of appetite, ascites, and normal bilirubin. Higher radiation doses were lethal, causing severe disease that required euthanasia approximately 10 weeks after radiation. Even at lower doses in which radiation-induced liver disease was mild or nonexistent, latent and significant injury to hepatocytes was demonstrated by asialoglycoprotein-mediated functional imaging. These monkeys developed hepatic failure with encephalopathy when they received parenteral nutrition containing high concentrations of glucose. Histologically, livers showed central obstruction via an unusual intimal swelling that progressed to central fibrosis. Conclusions: The cynomolgus monkey, as the first animal model of human veno-occlusive radiation-induced liver disease, provides a resource for characterizing the early changes and pathogenesis of venocclusion, for establishing nonlethal therapeutic dosages, and for examining experimental therapies to minimize radiation injury.« less

  4. Nigella sativa relieves the deleterious effects of ischemia reperfusion injury on liver

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Fahrettin; Coban, Sacit; Terzi, Alpaslan; Ates, Mustafa; Aksoy, Nurten; Cakir, Hale; Ocak, Ali Riza; Bitiren, Muharrem

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether Nigella sativa prevents hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury to the liver. METHODS: Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (Group 1), control (Group 2), and Nigella sativa (NS) treatment group (Group 3). All rats underwent hepatic ischemia for 45 min followed by 60 min period of reperfusion. Rats were intraperitoneally infused with only 0.9% saline solution in group 2. Rats in group 3 received NS (0.2 mL/kg) intraperitoneally, before ischemia and before reperfusion. Blood samples and liver tissues were harvested from the rats, and then the rats were sacrificed. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were determined. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), total oxidative status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in hepatic tissue were measured. Also liver tissue histopathology was evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: The levels of liver enzymes in group 3 were significantly lower than those in the group 2. TAC in liver tissue was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 2. TOS, OSI and MPO in hepatic tissue were significantly lower in group 3 than the group 2. Histological tissue damage was milder in the NS treatment group than that in the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa treatment protects the rat liver against to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:18777598

  5. Betanin attenuates carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Han, Junyan; Gao, Cheng; Yang, Shaobin; Wang, Jun; Tan, Dehong

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the protective effect of betanin against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish were treated with 1, 2, and 4 % betanin in fodder throughout the experiment. After 20 days of treatment, the fish were intraperitoneally injected with 20 % (v/v in peanut oil) CCl4 at a volume of 0.5 mL/kg body weight. The fish were killed 3 days after CCl4 intoxication, and then, histological and biochemical assays were performed. Results showed that CCl4-induced liver CYP2E1 activity, oxidative stress, and injury, as indicated by the depleted glycogen storage, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and liver histological damage. Compared with the CCl4 control group, the betanin-treated groups exhibited reduced CYP2E1 activity, decreased malondialdehyde level, increased liver antioxidative capacity (increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities), increased liver glycogen storage, and reduced serum AST/ALT activities, with significant differences in the 2 and 4 % groups (p < 0.05). Histological assay further confirmed the protective effect of betanin. In conclusion, betanin attenuates CCl4-induced liver damage in common carp. Moreover, the inhibition of CYP2E1 activity and oxidative stress may have significant roles in the protective effect of betanin.

  6. Profile, risk factors and outcome of acute kidney injury in paediatric acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Lal, Bikrant B; Alam, Seema; Sood, Vikrant; Rawat, Dinesh; Khanna, Rajeev

    2018-01-11

    There are no studies on acute kidney injury in paediatric acute-on-chronic liver failure. This study was planned with aim to describe the clinical presentation and outcome of acute kidney injury among paediatric acute-on-chronic liver failure patients. Data of all children 1-18 years of age presenting with acute chronic liver failure (Asia pacific association for the study of the liver definition) was reviewed. Acute kidney injury was defined as per Kidney Diseases-Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. Poor outcome was defined as death or need for liver transplant within 3 months of development of acute kidney injury. A total of 84 children with acute-on-chronic liver failure were presented to us in the study period. Acute kidney injury developed in 22.6% of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. The median duration from acute-on-chronic liver failure to development of acute kidney injury was 4 weeks (Range: 2-10 weeks). The causes of acute kidney injury were hepatorenal syndrome (31.6%), sepsis (31.6%), nephrotoxic drugs (21%), dehydration (10.5%) and bile pigment related acute tubular necrosis in one patient. On univariate analysis, higher baseline bilirubin, higher international normalized ratio, higher paediatric end stage liver disease, presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and presence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis had significant association with presence of acute kidney injury. On logistic regression analysis, presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (adjusted OR: 8.659, 95% CI: 2.18-34.37, P = .002) and higher baseline bilirubin (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.008-1.135, P = .025) were independently associated with presence of acute kidney injury. Of the patients with acute kidney injury, 5(26.3%) survived with native liver, 10(52.6%) died and 4 (21.1%) underwent liver transplantation. Acute kidney injury developed in 22.6% of children with acute-on-chronic liver failure. Bilirubin more than 17.7 mg/dL and

  7. Gut microbiota mediates diurnal variation of acetaminophen induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shenhai; Lan, Tian; Zeng, Liyan; Luo, Haihua; Yang, Xiaoyu; Li, Na; Chen, Xiaojiao; Liu, Zhanguo; Li, Rui; Win, Sanda; Liu, Shuwen; Zhou, Hongwei; Schnabl, Bernd; Jiang, Yong; Kaplowitz, Neil; Chen, Peng

    2018-07-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of acute liver failure worldwide. It is well established that the liver damage induced by acetaminophen exhibits diurnal variation. However, the detailed mechanism for the hepatotoxic variation is not clear. Herein, we aimed to determine the relative contributions of gut microbiota in modulating the diurnal variation of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP. Male Balb/C mice were treated with or without antibiotics and a single dose of orally administered APAP (300 mg/kg) at ZT0 (when the light is on-start of resting period) and ZT12 (when the light is off-start of active period). In agreement with previous findings, hepatic injury was markedly enhanced at ZT12 compared with ZT0. Interestingly, upon antibiotic treatment, ZT12 displayed a protective effect against APAP hepatotoxicity similar to ZT0. Moreover, mice that received the cecal content from ZT12 showed more severe liver damage than mice that received the cecal content from ZT0. 16S sequencing data revealed significant differences in the cecal content between ZT0 and ZT12 in the compositional level. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis showed that the gut microbial metabolites were also different between ZT0 and ZT12. Specifically, the level of 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione (PPD) was significantly higher at ZT12 than ZT0. Treatment with PPD alone did not cause obvious liver damage. However, PPD synergistically enhanced APAP-induced hepatic injury in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we found Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which could reduce intestinal PPD levels, was able to markedly alleviate APAP-induced liver damage at ZT12. The gut microbial metabolite PPD was responsible, at least in part, for the diurnal variation of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP by decreasing glutathione levels. Acetaminophen (APAP) induced acute liver failure because of over dose is a leading public health problem. APAP-induced liver injury exhibits diurnal variation, specifically APAP causes

  8. Liraglutide attenuates partial warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat livers.

    PubMed

    Abdelsameea, Ahmed A; Abbas, Noha A T; Abdel Raouf, Samar M

    2017-03-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury constitutes the most important cause of primary dysfunction of liver grafts. In this study, we have addressed the possible hepatoprotective action of liraglutide against partial warm hepatic IR injury in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into: sham, IR, and liraglutide-pretreated IR groups. Liraglutide was administered 50 μg/kg s.c. twice daily for 14 days, and then, hepatic IR was induced by clamping portal vein and hepatic artery to left and median lobes for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities were determined. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), phosphoralated Akt (p-Akt), and caspase-3 levels of the liver were determined. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from liver were examined as well as immunohistochemical sections for detection of Bcl-2 expression. IR injury increased ALT, AST, and GGT while decreased GSH and p-Akt with increase in MDA, TNF-α, and caspase-3 levels in the liver with necrosis and inflammatory cellular infiltration with decreased Bcl-2 expression. Pretreatment with liraglutide decreased ALT, AST, and GGT activities while increased glutathione content and Akt activation with decrements in MDA, TNF-α, and caspase-3 levels with attenuation of necrosis and inflammation while enhanced Bcl-2 expression in the liver. Liraglutide protects against IR injury of the liver through antiinflammatory and antioxidant actions as well as inhibition of apoptosis.

  9. Chronic intermittent hypoxia and acetaminophen induce synergistic liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Savransky, Vladimir; Reinke, Christian; Jun, Jonathan; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Nanayakkara, Ashika; Li, Jianguo; Myers, Allen C; Torbenson, Michael S; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2009-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) leads to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnoea has been associated with liver injury. Acetaminophen (APAP; known as paracetamol outside the USA) is one of the most commonly used drugs which has known hepatotoxicity. The goal of the present study was to examine whether CIH increases liver injury, hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation induced by chronic APAP treatment. Adult C57BL/6J mice were exposed to CIH or intermittent air (IA) for 4 weeks. Mice in both groups were treated with intraperitoneal injections of either APAP (200 mg kg(-1)) or normal saline daily. A combination of CIH and APAP caused liver injury, with marked increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin levels, whereas CIH alone induced only elevation in serum AST levels. Acetaminophen alone did not affect serum levels of liver enzymes. Histopathology revealed hepatic necrosis and increased apoptosis in mice exposed to CIH and APAP, whereas the liver remained intact in all other groups. Mice exposed to CIH and APAP exhibited decreased hepatic glutathione in conjunction with a fivefold increase in nitrotyrosine levels, suggesting formation of toxic peroxynitrite in hepatocytes. Acetaminophen or CIH alone had no effect on either glutathione or nitrotyrosine. A combination of CIH and APAP caused marked increases in pro-inflammatory chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, which were not observed in mice exposed to CIH or APAP alone. We conclude that CIH and chronic APAP treatment lead to synergistic liver injury, which may have clinical implications for patients with OSA.

  10. Baicalin Attenuates IL-17-Mediated Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chia-Chih; Day, Yuan-Ji; Lee, Hung-Chen; Liou, Jiin-Tarng; Chou, An-Hsun; Liu, Fu-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background IL-17 has been shown to be involved in liver inflammatory disorders in both mice and humans. Baicalin (BA), a major compound extracted from traditional herb medicine (Scutellariae radix), has potent hepatoprotective properties. Previous study showed that BA inhibits IL-17-mediated lymphocyte adhesion and downregulates joint inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of IL-17 in the hepatoprotective effects of BA in an acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury mouse model. Methods Eight weeks male C57BL/6 (B6) mice were used for this study. Mice received intraperitoneal hepatotoxic injection of APAP (300 mg/kg) and after 30 min of injection, the mice were treated with BA at a concentration of 30 mg/kg. After 16 h of treatment, mice were killed. Blood samples and liver tissues were harvested for analysis of liver injury parameters. Results APAP overdose significantly increased the serum alanine transferase (ALT) levels, hepatic activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO), expression of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17), and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity when compared with the control animals. BA treatment after APAP administration significantly attenuated the elevation of these parameters in APAP-induced liver injury mice. Furthermore, BA treatment could also decrease hepatic IL-17-producing γδT cells recruitment, which was induced after APAP overdose. Conclusion Our data suggested that baicalin treatment could effectively decrease APAP-induced liver injury in part through attenuation of hepatic IL-17 expression. These results indicate that baicalin is a potential hepatoprotective agent. PMID:27855209

  11. Azathioprine and 6-Mercaptopurine-induced Liver Injury: Clinical Features and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, Einar S; Gu, Jiezhun; Kleiner, David E; Chalasani, Naga; Hayashi, Paul H; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define the clinical, biochemical, and histologic features of liver injury from thiopurines. Azathioprine (Aza) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) can cause liver injury, but no large series exist. Clinical and laboratory data and 6-month outcomes of patients with thiopurine hepatotoxicity from the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network Prospective Study were analyzed. Twenty-two patients were identified, 12 due to Aza and 10 due to 6-MP, with a median age of 55 years; the majority were female (68%). Inflammatory bowel disease was the indication in 55%, and the median thiopurine dose was 150 (range, 25 to 300) mg daily. The median latency to onset was 75 (range, 3 to 2584) days. Injury first arose after a dose escalation in 59% of patients, the median latency after dose increase being 44 (range, 3 to 254) days. At onset, the median alanine aminotransferase level was 210 U/L, alkaline phosphatase was 151 U/L, and bilirubin was 7.4 mg/dL (peak, 13.4 mg/dL). There were no major differences between Aza and 6-MP cases, but anicteric cases typically had nonspecific symptoms and a hepatocellular pattern of enzyme elevations, whereas icteric cases experienced cholestatic hepatitis with modest enzyme elevations in a mixed pattern. One patient with preexisting cirrhosis required liver transplantation; all others resolved clinically. One patient still had moderate alkaline phosphatase elevations 2 years after onset. Nearly three-quarters of patients with thiopurine-induced liver injury present with self-limited, cholestatic hepatitis, typically within 3 months of starting or a dose increase. The prognosis is favorable except in patients with preexisting cirrhosis.

  12. Azathioprine and 6-Mercaptopurine Induced Liver Injury: Clinical Features and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Björnsson, Einar S.; Gu, Jiezhun; Kleiner, David E.; Chalasani, Naga; Hayashi, Paul H.; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2017-01-01

    Goals To define the clinical, biochemical and histologic features of liver injury from thiopurines. Background Azathioprine (Aza) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) can cause liver injury but no large series exist. Methods Clinical and laboratory data and 6-months outcomes were analyzed from patients with thiopurine hepatotoxicity from the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network Prospective Study. Results 22 patients were identified, 12 due to Aza and 10 6-MP, with a median age of 55 years and the majority females (68%). Inflammatory bowel disease was the indication in 55%, and median thiopurine dose 150 (range 25–300) mg daily. The median latency to onset was 75 (range 3 to 2584) days. Injury first arose after a dose escalation in 59% of patients; the median latency after dose increase being 44 (range 3 to 254) days. At onset, the median alanine aminotransferase was 210 U/L, alkaline phosphatase 151 U/L and bilirubin 7.4 mg/dL (peak 13.4 mg/dL). There were no major differences between Aza and 6-MP cases, but anicteric cases typically had non-specific symptoms and a hepatocellular pattern of enzyme elevations, whereas icteric cases experienced a cholestatic hepatitis with modest enzyme elevations in a mixed pattern. One patient with pre-existing cirrhosis required liver transplantation, all others resolved clinically. One patient still had moderate alkaline phosphatase elevations 2 years after onset. Conclusions Nearly three-quarters of patients with thiopurine-induced liver injury present with self-limited, cholestatic hepatitis, typically within 3 months of starting or a dose increase. The prognosis is favorable except in patients with pre-existing cirrhosis. PMID:27648552

  13. Levosimendan: a cardiovascular drug to prevent liver ischemia-reperfusion injury?

    PubMed

    Onody, Peter; Stangl, Rita; Fulop, Andras; Rosero, Oliver; Garbaisz, David; Turoczi, Zsolt; Lotz, Gabor; Rakonczay, Zoltan; Balla, Zsolt; Hegedus, Viktor; Harsanyi, Laszlo; Szijarto, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Temporary occlusion of the hepatoduodenal ligament leads to an ischemic-reperfusion (IR) injury in the liver. Levosimendan is a new positive inotropic drug, which induces preconditioning-like adaptive mechanisms due to opening of mitochondrial KATP channels. The aim of this study was to examine possible protective effects of levosimendan in a rat model of hepatic IR injury. Levosimendan was administered to male Wistar rats 1 hour (early pretreatment) or 24 hours (late pretreatment) before induction of 60-minute segmental liver ischemia. Microcirculation of the liver was monitored by laser Doppler flowmeter. After 24 hours of reperfusion, liver and blood samples were taken for histology, immuno- and enzyme-histochemistry (TUNEL; PARP; NADH-TR) as well as for laboratory tests. Furthermore, liver antioxidant status was assessed and HSP72 expression was measured. In both groups pretreated with levosimendan, significantly better hepatic microcirculation was observed compared to respective IR control groups. Similarly, histological damage was also reduced after levosimendan administration. This observation was supported by significantly lower activities of serum ALT (p early = 0.02; p late = 0.005), AST (p early = 0.02; p late = 0.004) and less DNA damage by TUNEL test (p early = 0.05; p late = 0.034) and PAR positivity (p early = 0.02; p late = 0.04). Levosimendan pretreatment resulted in significant improvement of liver redox homeostasis. Further, significantly better mitochondrial function was detected in animals receiving late pretreatment. Finally, HSP72 expression was increased by IR injury, but it was not affected by levosimendan pretreatment. Levosimendan pretreatment can be hepatoprotective and it could be useful before extensive liver resection.

  14. Levosimendan: A Cardiovascular Drug to Prevent Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Fulop, Andras; Rosero, Oliver; Garbaisz, David; Turoczi, Zsolt; Lotz, Gabor; Rakonczay, Zoltan; Balla, Zsolt; Hegedus, Viktor; Harsanyi, Laszlo; Szijarto, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Temporary occlusion of the hepatoduodenal ligament leads to an ischemic-reperfusion (IR) injury in the liver. Levosimendan is a new positive inotropic drug, which induces preconditioning-like adaptive mechanisms due to opening of mitochondrial KATP channels. The aim of this study was to examine possible protective effects of levosimendan in a rat model of hepatic IR injury. Material and Methods Levosimendan was administered to male Wistar rats 1 hour (early pretreatment) or 24 hours (late pretreatment) before induction of 60-minute segmental liver ischemia. Microcirculation of the liver was monitored by laser Doppler flowmeter. After 24 hours of reperfusion, liver and blood samples were taken for histology, immuno- and enzyme-histochemistry (TUNEL; PARP; NADH-TR) as well as for laboratory tests. Furthermore, liver antioxidant status was assessed and HSP72 expression was measured. Results In both groups pretreated with levosimendan, significantly better hepatic microcirculation was observed compared to respective IR control groups. Similarly, histological damage was also reduced after levosimendan administration. This observation was supported by significantly lower activities of serum ALT (pearly = 0.02; plate = 0.005), AST (pearly = 0.02; plate = 0.004) and less DNA damage by TUNEL test (pearly = 0.05; plate = 0.034) and PAR positivity (pearly = 0.02; plate = 0.04). Levosimendan pretreatment resulted in significant improvement of liver redox homeostasis. Further, significantly better mitochondrial function was detected in animals receiving late pretreatment. Finally, HSP72 expression was increased by IR injury, but it was not affected by levosimendan pretreatment. Conclusion Levosimendan pretreatment can be hepatoprotective and it could be useful before extensive liver resection. PMID:24040056

  15. Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine and suspected liver injury: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Melchart, Dieter; Hager, Stefan; Albrecht, Sabine; Dai, Jingzhang; Weidenhammer, Wolfgang; Teschke, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze liver tests before and following treatment with herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in order to evaluate the frequency of newly detected liver injury. METHODS Patients with normal values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as a diagnostic marker for ruling out pre-existing liver disease were enrolled in a prospective study of a safety program carried out at the First German Hospital of TCM from 1994 to 2015. All patients received herbal products, and their ALT values were reassessed 1-3 d prior to discharge. To verify or exclude causality for suspected TCM herbs, the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) was used. RESULTS This report presents for the first time liver injury data derived from a prospective, hospital-based and large-scale study of 21470 patients who had no liver disease prior to treatment with herbal TCM. Among these, ALT ranged from 1 × to < 5 × upper limit normal (ULN) in 844 patients (3.93%) and suggested mild or moderate liver adaptive abnormalities. However, 26 patients (0.12%) experienced higher ALT values of ≥ 5 × ULN (300.0 ± 172.9 U/L, mean ± SD). Causality for TCM herbs was RUCAM-based probable in 8/26 patients, possible in 16/26, and excluded in 2/26 cases. Bupleuri radix and Scutellariae radix were the two TCM herbs most commonly implicated. CONCLUSION In 26 (0.12%) of 21470 patients treated with herbal TCM, liver injury with ALT values of ≥ 5 × ULN was found, which normalized shortly following treatment cessation, also substantiating causality. PMID:29085558

  16. Relationship between in vivo chlorzoxazone hydroxylation, hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 content and liver injury in obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Myriam; Rodrigo, Ramón; Varela, Nelson; Araya, Julia; Poniachik, Jaime; Csendes, Attila; Smok, Gladys; Videla, Luis A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in the liver of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is correlated both with the in vivo activity of the cytochrome and with the development of liver injury. For this purpose, the liver content of CYP2E1 was determined by Western blot and the CYP2E1 activity by the in vivo hydroxylation of chlorzoxazone (CLZ). The study groups were obese women with an average body mass index (BMI) of 40.3kg/m(2), who underwent therapeutic gastroplasty or gastrectomy with a gastro-jejunal anastomosis. Further, the hepatic histology was determined to establish the pathological score grouping the subjects into three categories: control, steatosis and steatohepatitis. The liver CYP2E1 content and the CLZ hydroxylation of obese patients with steatosis and, particularly, with steatohepatitis were significantly higher than controls and correlated positively with both the severity of the liver damage. These data provide evidence that CYP2E1 would be involved in the mechanism of liver injury found in obese NAFLD patients. Also, the correlation between liver CYP2E1 content and in vivo CLZ hydroxylation would validate the latter as a reliable indicator of liver injury in NAFLD, thus providing a simple and not invasive method to study these patients.

  17. Arctigenin protects against liver injury from acute hepatitis by suppressing immune cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xixi; Wang, Huafeng; Yang, Jinlai; Cheng, Yingnan; Wang, Dan; Yang, Fengrui; Li, Yan; Zhou, Dongmei; Wang, Yanxia; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Luhong; Zhang, Rongxin; Da, Yurong

    2018-06-01

    As a phenylpropanoid and dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan present in medical plants, such as those used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, including Arctium lappa (Niubang), arctigenin exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated the protective role of arctigenin in Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatitis in mice. Arctigenin remarkably reduced the congestion and necroinflammation of livers, and improved hepatic function (ALT and AST) in ConA-induced acute hepatitis in vivo. The infiltration of CD4 T, NKT and macrophages into the livers was found to be reduced with arctigenin treatment. Arctigenin suppressed ConA-induced T lymphocyte proliferations that might have resulted from enhanced IL-10 production by macrophages and CD4 T cells. These results suggested that arctigenin could be a powerful drug candidate for acute hepatitis through immune suppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant ameliorates acute alcohol-induced intestinal permeability and liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Sidhu, Anju; Ma, Zhenhua; McClain, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxemia is a contributing cofactor to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and alcohol-induced increased intestinal permeability is one of the mechanisms of endotoxin absorption. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect barrier function in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in ALD. Although it is highly possible that some common molecules secreted by probiotics contribute to this action in IBD, the effect of probiotic culture supernatant has not yet been studied in ALD. We examined the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LGG-s) on the acute alcohol-induced intestinal integrity and liver injury in a mouse model. Mice on standard chow diet were supplemented with supernatant from LGG culture (109 colony-forming unit/mouse) for 5 days, and one dose of alcohol at 6 g/kg body wt was administered via gavage. Intestinal permeability was measured by FITC-FD-4 ex vivo. Alcohol-induced liver injury was examined by measuring the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma, and liver steatosis was evaluated by triglyceride content and Oil Red O staining of the liver sections. LGG-s pretreatment restored alcohol-induced reduction in ileum mRNA levels of claudin-1, intestine trefoil factor (ITF), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), which play important roles on intestinal barrier integrity. As a result, LGG-s pretreatment significantly inhibited the alcohol-induced intestinal permeability, endotoxemia and subsequently liver injury. Interestingly, LGG-s pretreatment increased ileum mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α, an important transcription factor of ITF, P-gp, and CRAMP. These results suggest that LGG-s ameliorates the acute alcohol-induced liver injury by promoting HIF signaling, leading to the suppression of alcohol-induced increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. The use of bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant provides a novel

  19. Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion reduces bile duct reperfusion injury after transplantation of donation after circulatory death livers

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, Rianne; van Leeuwen, Otto B.; Matton, Alix P. M.; Burlage, Laura C.; Wiersema‐Buist, Janneke; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; de Kleine, Ruben H. J.; de Boer, Marieke T.; Gouw, Annette S. H.

    2018-01-01

    Dual hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (DHOPE) of the liver has been advocated as a method to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This study aimed to determine whether DHOPE reduces IRI of the bile ducts in donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation. In a recently performed phase 1 trial, 10 DCD livers were preserved with DHOPE after static cold storage (SCS; http://www.trialregister.nl NTR4493). Bile duct biopsies were obtained at the end of SCS (before DHOPE; baseline) and after graft reperfusion in the recipient. Histological severity of biliary injury was graded according to an established semiquantitative grading system. Twenty liver transplantations using DCD livers not preserved with DHOPE served as controls. Baseline characteristics and the degree of bile duct injury at baseline (end of SCS) were similar between both groups. In controls, the degree of stroma necrosis (P = 0.002) and injury of the deep peribiliary glands (PBG; P = 0.02) increased after reperfusion compared with baseline. In contrast, in DHOPE‐preserved livers, the degree of bile duct injury did not increase after reperfusion. Moreover, there was less injury of deep PBG (P = 0.04) after reperfusion in the DHOPE group compared with controls. In conclusion, this study suggests that DHOPE reduces IRI of bile ducts after DCD liver transplantation. Liver Transplantation 24 655–664 2018 AASLD. PMID:29369470

  20. Chronic liver injury in mice promotes impairment of skin barrier function via tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol is frequently used to induce chronic liver injury in laboratory animals. Alcohol causes oxidative stress in the liver and increases the expression of inflammatory mediators that cause hepatocellular damage. However, during chronic liver injury, it is unclear if/how these liver-derived factors affect distal tissues, such as the skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skin barrier function during chronic liver injury. Hairless mice were administered 5% or 10% ethanol for 8 weeks, and damages to the liver and skin were assessed using histological and protein-analysis methods, as well as by detecting inflammatory mediators in the plasma. After alcohol administration, the plasma concentration of the aspartate and alanine aminotransferases increased, while albumin levels decreased. In mice with alcohol-induced liver injury, transepidermal water loss was significantly increased, and skin hydration decreased concurrent with ceramide and type I collagen degradation. The plasma concentrations of [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were significantly increased in mice with induced liver injury. TNF receptor (TNFR) 2 expression was upregulated in the skin of alcohol-administered mice, while TNFR1 levels remained constant. Interestingly, the impairment of skin barrier function in mice administered with 10% ethanol was ameliorated by administering an anti-TNF-α antibody. We propose a novel mechanism whereby plasma TNF-α, via TNFR2 alone or with TNFR1, plays an important role in skin barrier function during chronic liver disease in these mouse models.

  1. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of green tea polyphenols against azathioprine-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Tork, Ola M; El-Bab, Mohamed F; Autifi, Mohamed A

    2011-04-01

    Green tea polyphenols (GTP) is considered to have protective effects against several diseases. The hepatotoxicity of azathioprine (AZA) has been reported and was found to be associated with oxidative damage. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of GTP to protect against AZA-induced liver injury in rats. AZA was administered i.p. in a single dose (50mgkg(-1)) to adult male rats. AZA-intoxicated rats were orally administered GTP (either 100mgkg(-1)day(-1) or 300mgkg(-1)day(-1), for 21 consecutive days, started 7 days prior AZA injection). AZA administration to rats resulted in significant elevation of serum transaminases (sALT and sAST), alkaline phosphatase (sALP), depletion of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), accumulation of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), elevation of lipid peroxides (LPO) expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction of the hepatic total antioxidant activity (TAA), decrease serum total proteins and elevation of liver protein carbonyl content. Significant rises in liver tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and caspase-3 levels were noticed in AZA-intoxicated rats. Treatment of the AZA-intoxicated rats with GTP significantly prevented the elevations of sALT, sAST and sALP, inhibited depletion of hepatic GSH, GPx, CAT and GSSG and inhibited MDA accumulation. Furthermore, GTP had normalized serum total proteins and hepatic TAA, CAT, TNF-α and caspase-3 levels of AZA-intoxicated rats. In addition, GTP prevented the AZA-induced apoptosis and liver injury as indicated by the liver histopathological analysis. The linear regression analysis showed significant correlation in either AZA-GTP100 or AZA-GTP300 groups between TNF-α and each of serum ALT, AST, ALP and total proteins and liver TAA, GPX, CAT, GSH, GSSG, MDA and caspase-3 levels. However, liver TNF-α produced non-significant correlation with the serum total proteins in both AZA-GTP100 and AZA-GTP300 groups. In conclusion, our data indicate

  2. Targeting cholesterol at different levels in the mevalonate pathway protects fatty liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Llacuna, Laura; Fernández, Anna; Montfort, Claudia Von; Matías, Núria; Martínez, Laura; Caballero, Francisco; Rimola, Antoni; Elena, Montserrat; Morales, Albert; Fernández-Checa, José C; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2011-05-01

    Liver steatosis enhances ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and is considered a primary factor in graft failure after liver transplantation. Although previous reports have shown a role for qualitative steatosis (macrovesicular vs. microvesicular) in hepatic I/R injury, no studies have compared side by side the specific contribution of individual lipids accumulating in fatty liver to I/R damage. We used nutritional and genetic models of micro and macrovesicular fatty livers exhibiting specific lipid profiles to assess their susceptibility to normothermic I/R injury. Unlike choline-deficient (CD) diet-fed mice, characterized by predominant liver triglycerides/free fatty acids (TG/FFA) accumulation, mice fed a cholesterol-enriched (HC) diet, which exhibited enhanced hepatic cholesterol loading in mitochondria, were highly sensitive to I/R-induced liver injury. In vivo two-photon confocal imaging revealed enhanced mitochondrial depolarization and generation of reactive oxygen species following hepatic I/R in HC-fed but not in CD-fed mice, consistent with decreased mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) observed in HC-fed mice. Moreover, ob/ob mice, characterized by increased hepatic TG, FFA, and cholesterol levels, were as sensitive to I/R-mediated liver injury as mice fed the HC diet. Livers from ob/ob mice displayed increased StAR expression and mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation, resulting in mGSH depletion. Interestingly, atorvastatin therapy or squalene synthase inhibition in vivo attenuated StAR overexpression, mitochondrial cholesterol loading, and mGSH depletion, protecting ob/ob mice from I/R-mediated liver injury. Cholesterol accumulation, particularly in mitochondria, sensitizes to hepatic I/R injury, and thus represents a novel target to prevent the enhanced damage of steatotic livers to I/R-mediated damage. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of Sengstaken-Blakemore intrahepatic balloon: an alternative for liver-penetrating injuries.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Zago, Thiago Messias; Pereira, Bruno Monteiro; Calderan, Thiago Rodrigues Araujo; Silveira, Henrique Jose Virgili

    2012-09-01

    Severe lesions in the liver are associated with a high mortality rate. Alternative surgical techniques such as the use of an intrahepatic balloon may be effective and reduce mortality in severe hepatic lesions. This study aimed to demonstrate the experience of a university hospital in the use of the Sengstaken-Blakemore balloon in patients with transfixing penetrating hepatic injury as an alternative way to treat these challenging injuries. A retrospective study based on the trauma registry of a university hospital was performed. All patients admitted with hepatic penetrating injuries and treated with the Sengstaken-Blakemore balloon within the period 1990-2010 were reviewed. Forty-six patients with transfixing hepatic injuries were treated with the Sengstaken-Blakemore balloon in the study period. The most frequent cause of injury was gunshot wound (87 % of the patients). The mean trauma scores on admission were Revised Trauma Score (RTS) = 7.12 ± 1.46, Injury Severity Score (ISS) = 22.4 ± 9.7, and Abdominal Trauma Index (ATI) = 19.5 ± 11. According to the severity of the hepatic trauma, 71.8 % of patients had grade III, 23.9 % grade IV, and 4.3 % grade V injuries. Associated abdominal injuries were found in 89.1 % of the patients. The most frequent liver-related complications were hepatic abscess postoperative bleeding (8.6 %), biliary fistula (8.6 %), (4.3 %), and biliary peritonitis (2.1 %). Surgical reintervention was necessary in 14 patients (31.1 %). From those 14, only 3 had the balloon removed. The overall morbidity and mortality rates were 56.5 % and 23.9 % (11 patients), respectively. The knowledge of alternative surgical techniques is essential in improving survival in patients with severe penetrating hepatic injuries. The use of intrahepatic balloon is a viable surgical strategy.

  4. Derangements of liver tissue bioenergetics in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamsi, Mariam; Shahin, Allen; Mensah-Brown, Eric P K; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2013-01-12

    A novel in vitro system was employed to investigate liver tissue respiration (mitochondrial O2 consumption) in mice treated with concanavalin A (Con A). This study aimed to investigate hepatocyte bioenergetics in this well-studied hepatitis model. C57Bl/6 and C57Bl/6 IFN-γ-/- mice were injected intravenously with 12 mg ConA/kg. Liver specimens were collected at various timepoints after injection and analyzed for cellular respiration and caspase activation. Serum was analyzed for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and aminotransferases. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis was used to determine the phenotype of infiltrating cells, and light and electron microscopy were used to monitor morphological changes. Phosphorescence analyzer that measured dissolved O2 as function of time was used to evaluate respiration. In sealed vials, O2 concentrations in solutions containing liver specimen and glucose declined linearly with time, confirming zero-order kinetics of hepatocyte respiration. O2 consumption was inhibited by cyanide, confirming the oxidation occurred in the respiratory chain. Enhanced liver respiration (by ≈68%, p<0.02) was noted 3 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with limited cellular infiltrations around the blood vessels. Diminished respiration (by ≈30%, p=0.005) was noted 12 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with deranged mitochondria, areas of necrosis, and prominent infiltrations with immune cells, most significantly, CD3+NKT+ cells. Increases in intracellular caspase activity and serum IFN-γ and aminotransferase levels were noted 3 hr after ConA treatment and progressed with time. The above-noted changes were less pronounced in C57Bl/6 IFN-γ-/- mice treated with ConA. Based on these results, liver tissue bioenergetics is increased 3 hr after ConA exposure. This effect is driven by the pathogenesis of the disease, in which IFN-γ and other cytokines contribute to. Subsequent declines in liver bioenergetics

  5. Loss of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein promotes acute cholestatic liver injury and inflammation from bile duct ligation.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, Nadine; Nagel, Michael; Straub, Beate K; Wörns, Marcus A; Schuchmann, Marcus; Galle, Peter R; Schattenberg, Jörn M

    2018-03-01

    Cholestatic liver injury results from impaired bile flow or metabolism and promotes hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis. Toxic bile acids that accumulate in cholestasis induce apoptosis and contribute to early cholestatic liver injury, which is amplified by accompanying inflammation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of the antiapoptotic caspase 8-homolog cellular FLICE-inhibitory (cFLIP) protein during acute cholestatic liver injury. Transgenic mice exhibiting hepatocyte-specific deletion of cFLIP (cFLIP -/- ) were used for in vivo and in vitro analysis of cholestatic liver injury using bile duct ligation (BDL) and the addition of bile acids ex vivo. Loss of cFLIP in hepatocytes promoted acute cholestatic liver injury early after BDL, which was characterized by a rapid release of proinflammatory and chemotactic cytokines (TNF, IL-6, IL-1β, CCL2, CXCL1, and CXCL2), an increased presence of CD68 + macrophages and an influx of neutrophils in the liver, and resulting apoptotic and necrotic hepatocyte cell death. Mechanistically, liver injury in cFLIP -/- mice was aggravated by reactive oxygen species, and sustained activation of the JNK signaling pathway. In parallel, cytoprotective NF-κB p65, A20, and the MAPK p38 were inhibited. Increased injury in cFLIP -/- mice was accompanied by activation of hepatic stellate cells and profibrogenic regulators. The antagonistic caspase 8-homolog cFLIP is a critical regulator of acute, cholestatic liver injury. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The current paper explores the role of a classical modulator of hepatocellular apoptosis in early, cholestatic liver injury. These include activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling, production of inflammatory cytokines, and recruitment of neutrophils in response to cholestasis. Because these signaling pathways are currently exploited in clinical trials for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis, the current data will help in the development of novel pharmacological

  6. Renal Impairment with Sublethal Tubular Cell Injury in a Chronic Liver Disease Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Tokiko; Kotani, Hirokazu; Miyao, Masashi; Kawai, Chihiro; Jemail, Leila; Abiru, Hitoshi; Tamaki, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of renal impairment in chronic liver diseases (CLDs) has been primarily studied in the advanced stages of hepatic injury. Meanwhile, the pathology of renal impairment in the early phase of CLDs is poorly understood, and animal models to elucidate its mechanisms are needed. Thus, we investigated whether an existing mouse model of CLD induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) shows renal impairment in the early phase. Renal injury markers, renal histology (including immunohistochemistry for tubular injury markers and transmission electron microscopy), autophagy, and oxidative stress were studied longitudinally in DDC- and standard diet–fed BALB/c mice. Slight but significant renal dysfunction was evident in DDC-fed mice from the early phase. Meanwhile, histological examinations of the kidneys with routine light microscopy did not show definitive morphological findings, and electron microscopic analyses were required to detect limited injuries such as loss of brush border microvilli and mitochondrial deformities. Limited injuries have been recently designated as sublethal tubular cell injury. As humans with renal impairment, either with or without CLD, often show almost normal tubules, sublethal injury has been of particular interest. In this study, the injuries were associated with mitochondrial aberrations and oxidative stress, a possible mechanism for sublethal injury. Intriguingly, two defense mechanisms were associated with this injury that prevent it from progressing to apparent cell death: autophagy and single-cell extrusion with regeneration. Furthermore, the renal impairment of this model progressed to chronic kidney disease with interstitial fibrosis after long-term DDC feeding. These findings indicated that DDC induces renal impairment with sublethal tubular cell injury from the early phase, leading to chronic kidney disease. Importantly, this CLD mouse model could be useful for studying the pathophysiological mechanisms

  7. Dysbiosis contributes to fibrogenesis in the course of chronic liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    De Minicis, Samuele; Rychlicki, Chiara; Agostinelli, Laura; Saccomanno, Stefania; Candelaresi, Cinzia; Trozzi, Luciano; Mingarelli, Eleonora; Facinelli, Bruna; Magi, Gloria; Palmieri, Claudio; Marzioni, Marco; Benedetti, Antonio; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    chronic liver injury in NAFLD. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Hepatoprotective effects of setarud against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Khorshid, Hamid Reza Khorram; Azonov, Jahan A; Novitsky, Yury A; Farzamfar, Bardia; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan

    2008-01-01

    To assess the hepatoprotective activity of a new herbal drug "setarud" in experimental liver fibrosis, 48 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: controls, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) group, and two treatment groups that received CCl4 and setarud at doses of 0.02 or 0.04 g/Kg/day for 30 days. Body weight gain, biochemical liver tests, bile flow rate and composition, and changes in liver morphology in the four groups were studied. CCl4 administration led to morphological and biochemical evidence of liver injury as compared to untreated controls. Setarud administration led to significant protection against CCl4-induced changes in body weight gain, liver morphology, bile flow and concentration. It was also associated with significantly lower serum liver enzyme levels (p<0.01), higher serum albumin level, and reduced increase in narcotic-induced sleeping time. Thus, setarud showed protective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Further studies of its efficacy in liver disease are warranted.

  9. The Acute Liver Injury in Mice Caused by Nano-Anatase TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Linglan; Zhao, Jinfang; Wang, Jue; Liu, Jie; Duan, Yanmei; Liu, Huiting; Li, Na; Yan, Jingying; Ruan, Jie; Wang, Han; Hong, Fashui

    2009-11-01

    Although it is known that nano-TiO2 or other nanoparticles can induce liver toxicities, the mechanisms and the molecular pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, nano-anatase TiO2 (5 nm) was injected into the abdominal cavity of ICR mice for consecutive 14 days, and the inflammatory responses of liver of mice was investigated. The results showed the obvious titanium accumulation in liver DNA, histopathological changes and hepatocytes apoptosis of mice liver, and the liver function damaged by higher doses nano-anatase TiO2. The real-time quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA analyses showed that nano-anatase TiO2 can significantly alter the mRNA and protein expressions of several inflammatory cytokines, including nucleic factor-κB, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, cross-reaction protein, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10. Our results also implied that the inflammatory responses and liver injury may be involved in nano-anatase TiO2-induced liver toxicity.

  10. Proteomic analysis of protective effects of polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza against immunological liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Gang; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Cai, Hong-Bing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Chun-Hua; Liu, Ya-Wei; Li, Ying-Jia; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Song, Yu-Hong; Lv, Zhi-Ping

    2011-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate mechanisms of the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide (SMPS) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed mice. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis showed that three proteins are down-regulated and six proteins are up-regulated by SMPS. SMPS reduces the degree of liver injury by up-regulating the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, namely malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. LPS significantly increases nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and MDA level in BCG primed mice liver, whereas SMPS treatment protects against the immunological liver injury through inhibition of the NF-κB activation by up-regulation of PRDX6 and the subsequent attenuation of lipid peroxidation, iNOS expression and inflammation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against liver injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Nigella sativa (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. N. sativa is referred in the Middle East as a part of an overall holistic approach to health. Pharmacological properties of N. sativa including immune stimulant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, spasmolytic and bronchodilator have been shown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are known as the major causes of many diseases such as liver injury and many substances and drugs can induce oxidative damage by generation of ROS in the body. Many pharmacological properties of N. sativa are known to be attributed to the presence of thymoquinone and its antioxidant effects. Thymoquinone protects liver from injury via different mechanisms including inhibition of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, elevation in total thiol content and glutathione level, radical scavengering, increasing the activity of quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase, inhibition of NF-κB activity and inhibition of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Therefore, this review aimed to highlight the roles of ROS in liver diseases and the mechanisms of N. sativa in prevention of liver injury.

  12. [Protective effect of purple sweet potato flavonoids on CCL4-induced acute liver injury in mice].

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuya; Li, Xiangrong; Shao, Yingying

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the protective effect of purple sweet potato flavonoids (PSPF) on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. Sixty mice were randomly divided into six groups (n=10 in each): blank group, model group, PSPF groups (400 mg*kg(-1), 200 mg*kg-1 and 100 mg*kg(-1)) and positive control group (DDB 150 mg*kg(-1)). Acute liver injury was induced by administration of peanut oil with 0.1% CCl4 (10 mg*kg(-1)) in mice. The viscera index, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in hepatic tissues were also measured. The pathological changes of liver were observed with microscopy. PSPF significantly decreased serum ALT, AST and LDH levels (P<0.05 or P<0.01) and MDA content in hepatic tissues (P<0.01), increased the activities of SOD (P<0.01). Purple sweet potato total flavonoids can prevent CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice, which may be related to inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reduction of oxygen free radicals.

  13. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A deficiency exacerbates acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Department of Zoology, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144411, Punjab; Kim, Ki Young

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose induces acute liver injury via enhanced oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) acts as a reactive oxygen species scavenger by catalyzing the cyclic reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide. Herein, we investigated the protective role of MsrA against APAP-induced liver damage using MsrA gene-deleted mice (MsrA{sup −/−}). We found that MsrA{sup −/−} mice were more susceptible to APAP-induced acute liver injury than wild-type mice (MsrA{sup +/+}). The central lobule area of the MsrA{sup −/−} liver was more impaired with necrotic lesions. Serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in MsrA{supmore » −/−} than in MsrA{sup +/+} mice after APAP challenge. Deletion of MsrA enhanced APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and oxidative stress, leading to increased susceptibility to APAP-induced liver injury in MsrA-deficient mice. APAP challenge increased Nrf2 activation more profoundly in MsrA{sup −/−} than in MsrA{sup +/+} livers. Expression and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and its target gene expression were significantly elevated in MsrA{sup −/−} than in MsrA{sup +/+} livers after APAP challenge. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MsrA protects the liver from APAP-induced toxicity. The data provided herein constitute the first in vivo evidence of the involvement of MsrA in hepatic function under APAP challenge. - Highlights: • MsrA deficiency increases APAP-induced liver damage. • MsrA deletion enhances APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and oxidative stress. • MsrA deficiency induces more profound activation of Nrf2 in response to APAP. • MsrA protects the liver from APAP-induced toxicity.« less

  14. MRI-based assessment of liver perfusion and hepatocyte injury in the murine model of acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Byk, Katarzyna; Jasinski, Krzysztof; Bartel, Zaneta; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Sitek, Barbara; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Chlopicki, Stefan; Skorka, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    To assess alterations in perfusion and liver function in the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mouse model of acute liver failure (ALF) using two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based methods: dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with Gd-EOB-DTPA contrast agent and arterial spin labelling (ASL). BALB/c mice were studied using a 9.4 T MRI system. The IntraGateFLASH TM and FAIR-EPI pulse sequences were used for optimum mouse abdomen imaging. The average perfusion values for the liver of the control and ConA group were equal to 245 ± 20 and 200 ± 32 ml/min/100 g (p = 0.008, respectively). DCE-MRI showed that the time to the peak of the image enhancement was 6.14 ± 1.07 min and 9.72 ± 1.69 min in the control and ConA group (p < 0.001, respectively), while the rate of the contrast wash-out in the control and ConA group was 0.037 ± 0.008 and 0.021 ± 0.008 min -1 (p = 0.004, respectively). These results were consistent with hepatocyte injury in the ConA-treated mice as confirmed by histopathological staining. Both the ASL and DCE-MRI techniques represent a reliable methodology to assess alterations in liver perfusion and hepatocyte integrity in murine hepatitis.

  15. The role of damage associated molecular pattern molecules in acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Martin-Murphy, Brittany V; Holt, Michael P; Ju, Cynthia

    2010-02-15

    The idiosyncratic nature, severity and poor diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) make these reactions a major safety issue during drug development, as well as the most common cause for the withdrawal of drugs from the pharmaceutical market. Elucidation of the underlying mechanism(s) is necessary for identifying predisposing factors and developing strategies in the treatment and prevention of DILI. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used over the counter therapeutic that is known to be effective and safe at therapeutic doses. However, in overdose situations fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis can result. Evidence suggests that the chemically reactive metabolite of the drug initiates hepatocyte damage and that inflammatory innate immune responses also occur within the liver, leading to the exacerbation and progression of tissue injury. Here we investigate whether following APAP-induced liver injury (AILI) damaged hepatocytes release "danger" signals or damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules, which induce pro-inflammatory activation of hepatic macrophages, further contributing to the progression of liver injury. Our study demonstrated a clear activation of Kupffer cells following early exposure to APAP (1h). Activation of a murine macrophage cell line, RAW cells, was also observed following treatment with liver perfusate from APAP-treated mice, or with culture supernatant of APAP-challenged hepatocytes. Moreover, in these media, the DAMP molecules, heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) were detected. Overall, these findings reveal that DAMP molecules released from damaged and necrotic hepatocytes may serve as a crucial link between the initial hepatocyte damage and the activation of innate immune cells following APAP-exposure, and that DAMPs may represent a potential therapeutic target for AILI. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Dimethylthiourea ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Mitazaki, Satoru; Kotajima, Natsumi; Matsuda, Sakiko; Ida, Naruki; Iide, Mina; Honma, Shigeyoshi; Suto, Miwako; Kato, Naho; Kuroda, Naohito; Hiraiwa, Kouichi; Yoshida, Makoto; Abe, Sumiko

    2018-08-01

    In order to clarify hepato-protective actions of estrogen, we examined the progress of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in sham and ovariectomized (ovx) mice and the effects of dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a hydroxyl radical scavenger, and meloxicam (Melo), a selective cox-2 inhibitor, on the development of CCl 4 -induced ALI. Female C57BL/6 J mice weighing 15-20 g were performed sham or ovx operation at 8 weeks of age. Blood and liver samples were collected 15 and 24 h after CCl 4 administration. Sham and ovx mice were given DMTU, Melo or saline intraperitoneally 30 min before CCl 4 or corn oil administration. ALT levels in ovx mice were significantly increased compared to those in sham mice. DMTU reduced ALT levels in ovx mice to the same levels as those in sham mice after CCl 4 injection. CCl 4 upregulated TNF-α, IL-6, cox-2 and iNOS expression in ovx mice compared to the levels in sham mice. DMTU significantly reduced cox-2 and iNOS expression levels upregulated by CCl 4 in ovx mice. However, pretreatment with Melo had no effects on ALT levels and the gene expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and HO-1 in either sham or ovx mice, indicating that cox-2 may not participate in increase of CCl 4 -induced ALI caused by estrogen deficiency. Ovariectomy accelerated the development of CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury, and DMTU reduced liver injury. These results suggest that estrogen may act as an antioxidant in the development CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of cholangiocyte bile Acid transporters in large bile duct injury after rat liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Long; Zhao, Lijin; Li, Dajiang; Liu, Zipei; Chen, Geng; Tian, Feng; Li, Xiaowu; Wang, Shuguang

    2010-07-27

    The pathogenesis of nonanastomotic strictures with a patent hepatic artery remains to be investigated. This study focuses on the role of cholangiocyte bile acid transporters in bile duct injury after liver transplantation. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n=20 for each): the sham-operated group (Sham), the transplant group with 1-hr donor liver cold preservation (CP-1h), and the transplant group with 12-hr donor liver cold preservation (CP-12h). Bile was collected for biochemical analysis. The histopathologic evaluation of bile duct injury was performed and the cholangiocyte bile acid transporters apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), ileal lipid binding protein (ILBP), and Ostalpha/Ostbeta were investigated. RESULTS.: The immunohistochemical assay suggested that ASBT and ILBP were expressed exclusively on large bile duct epithelial cells, whereas Ostalpha and Ostbeta were expressed on both small and large bile ducts. Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the expression levels of these transporters dramatically decreased after transplantation. It took seven to 14 days for ILBP, Ostalpha, and Ostbeta to recover, whereas ASBT recovered within 3 days and even reached a peak above the normal level seven days after operation. In the CP-12h group, the ratios of the ASBT/ILBP, ASBT/Ostalpha and ASBT/Ostbeta expression levels were correlated with the injury severity scores of large but not small bile ducts. The results suggest that the unparallel alteration of cholangiocyte bile acid transporters may play a potential role in large bile duct injury after liver transplantation with prolonged donor liver preservation.

  18. Intraoperative Hyperglycemia during Liver Resection: Predictors and Association with the Extent of Hepatocytes Injury

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sangbin; Ko, Justin Sangwook; Jin, Sang-Man; Park, Hyo-Won; Kim, Jong Man; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Gaabsoo; Choi, Soo Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing liver resection are at risk for intraoperative hyperglycemia and acute hyperglycemia is known to induce hepatocytes injury. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether intraoperative hyperglycemia during liver resection is associated with the extent of hepatic injury. Methods This 1 year retrospective observation consecutively enrolled 85 patients undergoing liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. Blood glucose concentrations were measured at predetermined time points including every start/end of intermittent hepatic inflow occlusion (IHIO) via arterial blood analysis. Postoperative transaminase concentrations were used as surrogate parameters indicating the extent of surgery-related acute hepatocytes injury. Results Thirty (35.5%) patients developed hyperglycemia (blood glucose > 180 mg/dl) during surgery. Prolonged (≥ 3 rounds) IHIO (odds ratio [OR] 7.34, P = 0.004) was determined as a risk factors for hyperglycemia as well as cirrhosis (OR 4.07, P = 0.022), lower prothrombin time (OR 0.01, P = 0.025), and greater total cholesterol level (OR 1.04, P = 0.003). Hyperglycemia was independently associated with perioperative increase in transaminase concentrations (aspartate transaminase, β 105.1, standard error 41.7, P = 0.014; alanine transaminase, β 81.6, standard error 38.1, P = 0.035). Of note, blood glucose > 160 or 140 mg/dl was not associated with postoperative transaminase concentrations. Conclusions Hyperglycemia during liver resection might be associated with the extent of hepatocytes injury. It would be rational to maintain blood glucose concentration < 180 mg/dl throughout the surgery in consideration of parenchymal disease, coagulation status, lipid profile, and the cumulative hepatic ischemia in patients undergoing liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25295519

  19. Hypervitaminosis A-induced liver fibrosis: stellate cell activation and daily dose consumption.

    PubMed

    Nollevaux, M-C; Guiot, Y; Horsmans, Y; Leclercq, I; Rahier, J; Geubel, A P; Sempoux, C

    2006-03-01

    Hypervitaminosis A-related liver toxicity may be severe and may even lead to cirrhosis. In the normal liver, vitamin A is stored in hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which are prone to becoming activated and acquiring a myofibroblast-like phenotype, producing large amounts of extracellular matrix. In order to assess the relationship between vitamin A intake, HSC activation and fibrosis, we studied nine liver biopsies from patients belonging to a well-characterized series of 41 patients with vitamin A hepatotoxicity. Fibrosis was underlined by Sirius-red staining, whereas activated HSC were immunohistochemically identified using an antibody against alpha smooth muscle actin. The volume density (Vv) of sinusoidal and total fibrosis and of sinusoidal and total activated HSC was quantified by the point-counting method. Morphology ranged from HSC hypertrophy and hyperplasia as the sole features to severe architectural distortion. There was a significant positive correlation between Vv of perisinusoidal fibrosis and the daily consumption of vitamin A (P=0.004). The close correlation between the severity of perisinusoidal fibrosis and the daily dose of the retinol intake suggests the existence of a dose-effect relationship.

  20. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates endotoxin-induced liver injury by promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yan; College of Food Safety, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025; Ruan, Zheng, E-mail: ruanzheng@ncu.edu.cn

    Acute or chronic hepatic injury is a common pathology worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play important roles in liver injury. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are some of the most abundant phenolic acids in human diet. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CGA may protect against chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by modulating mitochondrial energy generation. CGA decreased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The contents of ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), as well as the ratio of AMP/ATP, were increased after CGA supplementation. The activities of enzymes thatmore » are involved in glycolysis were reduced, while those of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were increased. Moreover, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mRNA levels of AMPK-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor A were increased after CGA supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CGA might be associated with enhanced ATP production, the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the inhibition of glycolysis. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation with chlorogenic acid (CGA) improved endotoxin-induced liver injury. • Chlorogenic acid enhances ATP increase and shifts energy metabolism, which is correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α. • The possible mechanism of CGA on mitochondrial biogenesis was correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α.« less

  1. Repeated whiskey binges promote liver injury in rats fed a choline-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Natalia; Rojkind, Marcos

    2007-02-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is associated with nutritional deficiency and it may aggravate within the context of fatty liver. We investigated the relationship between alcohol intake (whiskey binge drinking) and a choline-deficient diet (CD) and assessed whether stellate cells could contribute to liver injury in this model. Rats fed the CD diet plus whiskey showed increased liver damage compared to rats fed the CD diet, as demonstrated by H&E staining, elevated transaminases, steatosis, TNF-alpha levels, enhanced CYP2E1 activity, impaired antioxidant defense, elevated lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyls. The combined treatment triggered an apoptotic response as determined by elevated Bax, caspase-3 activity, cytochrome-c release, and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Stellate cells were activated as increased expression of alpha-Sma was observed over that by the CD diet alone. The combined treatment shifted extracellular matrix remodeling towards a pro-fibrogenic response due to up-regulation of collagen I, TIMP1, and Hsp47 proteins, along with down-regulation of MMP13, MMP2, and MMP9 expression, proteases which degrade collagen I. These events were accompanied by increased phosphorylation of p38, a kinase that elevates collagen I. Repeated alcohol binges in the context of mild steatosis may promote activation of stellate cells and contribute to liver injury.

  2. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of traditional Chinese medicine-induced liver injury: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Qi, Xingshun; Yoshida, Eric M; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Teschke, Rolf; Sun, Mingyu; Liu, Xu; Su, Chunping; Deng, Jiao; Deng, Han; Hou, Feifei; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2018-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is becoming increasingly popular and related adverse events are often ignored or underestimated. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of TCM-induced liver injury (TCM-ILI) and to estimate the proportion of TCM-ILI in all drug-induced liver injuries (DILI). China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched. Demographic, clinical, and survival data were extracted and pooled. Factors associated with worse outcomes were calculated. For the proportion meta-analyses, the data were pooled by using a random-effects model. Overall, 21,027 articles were retrieved, of which 625 were finally included. There was a predominance of female and older patients. The proportion of liver transplantation was 2.18% (7/321). The mortality was 4.67% (15/321). Male, higher aspartate aminotransferase and direct bilirubin, and lower albumin were significantly associated with an increased risk of death/liver transplantation in TCM-ILI patients. The proportion of TCM-ILI in all DILI was 25.71%. The proportion was gradually increased with year. Our work summarises current knowledge regarding clinical presentation, disease course, and prognosis of TCM-ILI. TCM can result in hepatotoxicity, even death or necessitate life-saving liver transplantation. Governmental regulation of TCM products should be strictly established.

  3. Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Against Ccl4 Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinfa; Qi, Fengjie; Ye, Liping; Yao, Suyan

    2016-03-17

    We investigated the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury. Sixty SPF KM mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: the control group, CCl4-model group, bifendate group (DDB group), and low-, moderate-, and high-dose GSP groups. The following parameters were measured: serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT); aspartate aminotransferase (AST); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; interleukin-6 (IL-6); high-mobility group box (HMGB)-1; body weight; liver, spleen, and thymus indexes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity; HMGB1 mRNA; malondialdehyde (MDA) content; hepatocyte proliferation; and changes in liver histology. Compared to the CCl4-model group, decreases in liver index and increases in thymus index significantly increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and reduced MDA content, and higher hepatocyte proliferative activity was found in all GSP dose groups and the DDB group (all P<0.001). Compared with the CCl4-model group, serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels and HMGB 1 mRNA and protein expressions decreased significantly in the high GSP dose group (all P<0.05). Our results provide strong evidence that administration of GSPs might confer significant protection against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

  4. Vismodegib Suppresses TRAIL-mediated Liver Injury in a Mouse Model of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hirsova, Petra; Ibrahim, Samar H.; Bronk, Steven F.; Yagita, Hideo; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling pathway activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH. Despite this concept, hedgehog pathway inhibitors have not been explored. Thus, we examined the effect of vismodegib, a hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor, in a diet-induced model of NASH. C57BL/6 mice were placed on 3-month chow or FFC (high saturated fats, fructose, and cholesterol) diet. One week prior to sacrifice, mice were treated with vismodegib or vehicle. Mice fed the FFC diet developed significant steatosis, which was unchanged by vismodegib therapy. In contrast, vismodegib significantly attenuated FFC-induced liver injury as manifested by reduced serum ALT and hepatic TUNEL-positive cells. In line with the decreased apoptosis, vismodegib prevented FFC-induced strong upregulation of death receptor DR5 and its ligand TRAIL. In addition, FFC-fed mice, but not chow-fed animals, underwent significant liver injury and apoptosis following treatment with a DR5 agonist; however, this injury was prevented by pre-treatment with vismodegib. Consistent with a reduction in liver injury, vismodegib normalized FFC-induced markers of inflammation including mRNA for TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and a variety of macrophage markers. Furthermore, vismodegib in FFC-fed mice abrogated indices of hepatic fibrogenesis. In conclusion, inhibition of hedgehog signaling with vismodegib appears to reduce TRAIL-mediated liver injury in a nutrient excess model of NASH, thereby attenuating hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. We speculate that hedgehog signaling inhibition may be salutary in human NASH. PMID:23894677

  5. Role of the Nalp3 inflammasome in acetaminophen-induced sterile inflammation and liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. David; Antoine, Daniel J.; Shaw, Patrick J.

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the US and UK. Recent studies implied that APAP-induced injury is partially mediated by interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), which can activate and recruit neutrophils, exacerbating injury. Mature IL-1{beta} is formed by caspase-1, dependent on inflammasome activation. The objective of this invetstigation was to evaluate the role of the Nalp3 inflammasome on release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), hepatic neutrophil accumulation and liver injury (ALT, necrosis) after APAP overdose. Mice deficient for each component of the Nalp3 inflammasome (caspase-1, ASC and Nalp3) were treated with 300 mg/kg APAP for 24more » h; these mice had similar neutrophil recruitment and liver injury as APAP-treated C57Bl/6 wildtype animals. In addition, plasma levels of DAMPs (DNA fragments, keratin-18, hypo- and hyper-acetylated forms of high mobility group box-1 protein) were similarly elevated with no significant difference between wildtype and gene knockout mice. In addition, aspirin treatment, which has been postulated to attenuate cytokine formation and the activation of the Nalp3 inflammasome after APAP, had no effect on release of DAMPs, hepatic neutrophil accumulation or liver injury. Together, these data confirm the release of DAMPs and a sterile inflammatory response after APAP overdose. However, as previously reported minor endogenous formation of IL-1{beta} and the activation of the Nalp3 inflammasome have little impact on APAP hepatotoxicity. It appears that the Nalp3 inflammasome is not a promising therapeutic target to treat APAP overdose.« less

  6. Rac2 deficiency attenuates CCl4-induced liver injury through suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Xiong, Ji-Bin; Ma, Ke; Wang, Ai-Zhong; Qian, Ke-Jian

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a leading cause to liver injury. Rac2 is a Ras-associated guanosine triphosphatase, an important molecule modulating a large number of cells and involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). For the study described here, we supposed that Rac2 knockout protects mice against CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. We found that Rac2 expressed highly in CCl 4 -induced liver tissues. CCl 4 -treated Rac2 knockout (Rac2-/-) mice had reduced CD24 levels and steatosis. In addition, CCl 4 -induced high expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were reversed by Rac2 deficiency compared to CCl 4 -treated wild type (WT) mice. We also found that fibrosis-related signals of MMP-9, MMP-2 and TGF-β1 were also down-regulated in Rac2 knockout mice induced by CCl 4 . Significantly, oxidative stress induced by CCl 4 was also suppressed owing to the lack of Rac2, evidenced by enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide radical, H 2 O 2 , xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and XO/XDH ratio. Moreover, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases (JNK MAPK) was activated by CCl 4 , which was reversed in the liver of Rac2-/- mice through western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro, endotoxin (LPS) was treated to hepatocytes isolated from WT mice and Rac2-/- mice. The data further confirmed the role of Rac2 deficiency suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, as well as fibrosis-related signals. Of note, production of ROS induced by LPS was reduced in Rac2-/- cells, accompanied with enhanced SOD1, SOD2 and reduced XO and phosphorylated-JNK expressions. Our results indicated that Rac2 played an essential role in acute liver injury induced by CCl 4 , providing the compelling information of the effects of Rac2 on liver injury, and revealing a novel regulatory mechanism for acute liver injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  7. Pharmacological promotion of autophagy alleviates steatosis and injury in alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver conditions in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Wen; Zhang, Hao; Li, Min; Xiong, Xiwen; Chen, Xi; Chen, Xiaoyun; Dong, Xiaocheng C; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacological approaches can potentially improve fatty liver condition in alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. The salutary effects of reducing lipid synthesis or promoting lipid oxidation have been well reported, but the benefits of increasing lipid degradation have yet to be well explored. Macroautophagy is a cellular degradation process that can remove subcellular organelles including lipid droplets. We thus investigated whether pharmacological modulation of macroautophagy could be an effective approach to alleviate fatty liver condition and liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were given ethanol via intraperitoneal injection (acute) or by a 4-week oral feeding regime (chronic), or high fat diet for 12 weeks. An autophagy enhancer, carbamazepine or rapamycin, or an autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine, was given before sacrifice. Activation of autophagy, level of hepatic steatosis, and blood levels of triglycerides, liver enzyme, glucose and insulin were measured. In both acute and chronic ethanol condition, macroautophagy was activated. Carbamazepine, as well as rapamycin, enhanced ethanol-induced macroautophagy in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Hepatic steatosis and liver injury were exacerbated by chloroquine, but alleviated by carbamazepine. The protective effects of carbamazepine and rapamycin in reducing steatosis and in improving insulin sensitivity were also demonstrated in high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver condition. These findings indicate that pharmacological modulation of macroautophagy in the liver can be an effective strategy for reducing fatty liver condition and liver injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of Two Anesthetics, Propofol and Sevoflurane, on Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhijie; Yu, Jingui; Wu, Jianbo; Qi, Feng; Wang, Huanliang; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Propofol and sevoflurane are widely used in clinical anesthesia, and both have been reported to exert a protective effect in organ ischemia/reperfusion (IR). This study aims to investigate and compare the effects of propofol and sevoflurane on liver ischemia/reperfusion and the precise molecular mechanism. Rats were randomized into four groups: the sham group, I/R group, propofol treatment group (infused with 1% propofol at 500 μg· kg-1· min-1), and sevoflurane treatment group (infused with 3% (2 L/min) sevoflurane). The liver ischemia/reperfusion model was used to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect on ischemic injury. Liver enzyme leakage, liver cytokines and histopathological examination were used to evaluate the extent of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Oxidative stress was investigated by evaluating the levels of Malondialdehyde(MDA), Superoxide Dismutase(SOD) and NO. The terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase(TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and western blot were applied to detect apoptosis in the ischemic liver tissue and its mechanism. Both propofol and sevoflurane attenuated the extent of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury which is evident from the hisopathological studies and alterations in liver enzymes such as AST and LDH by inhibiting Nuclear factor kappa B (NFx03BA;B) activation and subsequent alterations in inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1(IL-1), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and increased IL10 release. Propofol exhibited a similar protective effect and a lower IL-1 release, while sevoflurane decreased TNF-α leakage more significantly. Meanwhile, oxidative stress was attenuated by reduced MDA and NO and elevated SOD release. The expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl were enhanced while that of apoptotic protein Bax and Bak were reduced by both propofol and sevoflurane to regulate hepatic apoptosis. In addition, propofol downregulated the phosphorylation of AKT and Bad protein

  9. Reference intervals for putative biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury and liver regeneration in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Francis, Ben; Clarke, Joanna I; Walker, Lauren E; Brillant, Nathalie; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Park, B Kevin; Pirmohamed, Munir; Antoine, Daniel J

    2018-05-02

    The potential of mechanistic biomarkers to improve the prediction of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and hepatic regeneration is widely acknowledged. We sought to determine reference intervals for new biomarkers of DILI and regeneration as well as to characterize their natural variability and impact of diurnal variation. Serum samples from 200 healthy volunteers were recruited as part of a cross sectional study; of these, 50 subjects had weekly serial sampling over 3 weeks, while 24 had intensive blood sampling over a 24h period. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), total keratin-18 (FL-K18), caspase cleaved keratin-18 (cc-K18), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) were assessed by validated assays. Reference intervals were established for each biomarker based on the 97.5% quantile (90% CI) following the assessment of fixed effects in univariate and multivariable models (ALT 50 (41-50) U/l, miR-122 3548 (2912-4321) copies/µl, HMGB1 2.3 (2.2-2.4) ng/ml, FL-K18 475 (456-488) U/l, cc-K18 272 (256-291) U/l, GLDH 27 (26-30) U/l and CSF-1 2.4 (2.3-2.9) ng/ml). There was a small but significant intra-individual time random effect detected but no significant impact of diurnal variation was observed, with the exception of GLDH. Reference intervals for novel DILI biomarkers have been described for the first time. An upper limit of a reference range might represent the most appropriate method to utilize these data. Regulatory authorities have published letters of support encouraging further qualification of leading candidate biomarkers. These data can now be used to interpret data from exploratory clinical DILI studies and to assist their further qualification. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has a big impact on patient health and the development of new medicines. Unfortunately, currently used blood-based tests to assess liver injury and recovery suffer from insufficiencies. Newer blood

  10. Acute liver injury due to flavocoxid (Limbrel®), a medical food for osteoarthritis: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Naga; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Navarro, Victor; Fontana, Robert; Bonkovsky, Herbert; Barnhart, Huiman; Kleiner, David E.; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Flavocoxid is a medical food that is available with prescription for dietary management of osteoarthritis. It is a proprietary blend of two flavonoids, baicalin and catechins which are derived from botanicals Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu respectively. Objective To describe characteristics of patients with acute liver injury suspected due to flavocoxid. Design Case series Setting Prospective Study of the Drug Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) initiated at multiple academic medical centers in 2004. Patients 4 patients with liver injury suspected due to flavocoxid. Measurements Clinical characteristics, liver biochemistries, histology, and outcomes. Results Among 877 patients enrolled in the DILIN Prospective Study, 4 were attributed to flavocoxid. All 4 were women with a mean age of 61 years. The time to onset averaged 11.2 weeks (range 5–16) after initiating therapy with flavocoxid. Liver injury was characterized by marked elevations in alanine aminotransferase (mean peak ALT 1268 U/L, range 741 to 1540 U/L), with moderate elevations in alkaline phosphatase (mean peak 510 U/L, range 286 to 770 U/L) and serum bilirubin (mean peak 9.4 mg/dL, range 2.0 to 20.8 mg/dL). Liver biochemistries fell into the normal range within 3 to 12 weeks of stopping. The causality was adjudicated as highly likely in three and as possible in one patient. All recovered uneventfully with no evidence acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. Limitations The frequency or mechanism of liver injury caused by flavocoxid cannot be assessed. Conclusion Flavocoxid can cause significant liver injury which appears to resolve within weeks after its cessation. PMID:22711078

  11. Serum CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, and CXCL14 chemokine patterns in patients with acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Chalin, Arnaud; Lefevre, Benjamin; Devisme, Christelle; Pronier, Charlotte; Carrière, Virginie; Thibault, Vincent; Amiot, Laurence; Samson, Michel

    2018-06-04

    The chemokines CXCL10 (interferon ϒ-inducible protein 10 [IP-10]), CXCL11 (Human interferon inducible T cell alpha chemokine [I-TAC]), CXCL12 (stromal cell derived factor 1 [SDF-1]), and CXCL14 (breast and kidney-expressed chemokine [BRAK]) are involved in cell recruitment, migration, activation, and homing in liver diseases and have been shown to be upregulated during acute liver injury in animal models. However, their expression in patients with acute liver injury is unknown. Here, we aimed to provide evidence of the presence of circulating CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, and CXCL14 during human acute liver injury to propose new inflammation biomarkers for acute liver injury. We analyzed the serum concentration of the studied chemokines in healthy donors (n = 36) and patients (n = 163) with acute liver injuries of various etiologies. Serum CXCL10, CXCL11 and CXCL12 levels were elevated in all the studied groups except biliary diseases for CXCL11. CXCL14 was associated with only acute viral infection and vascular etiologies. The strongest correlation was found between the IFN-inducible studied chemokines (CXCL10 and CXCL11) in all patients and more specifically in the acute viral infection group. These data provide evidence for the presence of circulating CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, and CXCL14 during acute liver injury and are consistent with data obtained in animal models. CXCL10, CXCL11 and CXCL12 were the most highly represented and CXCL14 the least represented chemokines. Differential expression patterns were obtained depending on acute liver injury etiology, suggesting the potential use of these chemokines as acute liver injury biomarkers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Drug-induced liver injury is frequently associated with severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions: experience from two Australian tertiary hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wendy C; Adler, Nikki R; Graudins, Linda V; Goldblatt, Caitlin; Goh, Michelle S Y; Roberts, Stuart K; Trubiano, Jason A; Aung, Ar Kar

    2018-05-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can be associated with certain cutaneous adverse drug reaction (cADR). To demonstrate the prevalence of DILI in patients with cADRs. Severity and patterns of liver injury, risk factors, causal medications and outcomes are also examined. A retrospective cohort study of patients with cADRs was conducted across two hospitals in Australia. Patients were identified through cross-linkage of multiple databases. One hundred and four patients with cADRs were identified. Of these, 33 (31.7%) had liver injury, representing 50% of patients with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and 30.2% of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Most cases of liver injury (69.7%) were of a cholestatic/mixed pattern with severe disease in 18.2%. No significant risk factors for development of liver injury were noted, but peripheral lymphocytosis may represent a risk in patients with SJS (odds ratio, OR = 6.0, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.8-19.7, P = 0.003). Antimicrobials were the most common class to be implicated in DILI. The median length of inpatient stay was longer in patients with liver injury compared to those without (19 vs 11 days, P = 0.002). The mortality rate in those with liver injury was 15.2% and 9.9% in those without. No patients required liver transplantation. DILI commonly occurs in patients with cADRs and is associated with longer inpatient stay. Patients with SJS/TEN and peripheral lymphocytosis appear to be at higher risk for developing associated liver injury. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. Pushing the boundaries in liver graft utilisation in transplantation: Case report of a donor with previous bile duct injury repair.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Asma; Powell, James J; Oniscu, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    Liver transplantation is a recognised treatment for extensive bile duct injuries with secondary biliary cirrhosis or recurring sepsis. However, there have been no reports of successful liver transplantation from a donor who sustained a previous bile duct injury. Here we discuss the case of a liver transplant from a 51-year-old brain dead donor who had suffered a Strasberg E1 bile duct injury and had undergone a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy 24 years prior to donation. The liver was successfully recovered and transplanted into a 56-year-old male recipient with end stage liver disease consequent to alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. The graft continues to function well 36 months post-transplant, with normal liver function tests and imaging revealing a patent hepaticojejunostomy. The potential associated vascular injuries should be identified during bench preparation whilst the management of biliary reconstruction at the time of transplant should follow the principles of biliary reconstruction in cases with biliary injuries, extending the hilar opening into the left duct. This case highlights the successful utilisation of a post bile duct injury repair liver, employing an experienced procurement team and careful bench assessment and reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Fecal microbiota manipulation prevents dysbiosis and alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrere, Gladys; Wrzosek, Laura; Cailleux, Frédéric; Turpin, Williams; Puchois, Virginie; Spatz, Madeleine; Ciocan, Dragos; Rainteau, Dominique; Humbert, Lydie; Hugot, Cindy; Gaudin, Françoise; Noordine, Marie-Louise; Robert, Véronique; Berrebi, Dominique; Thomas, Muriel; Naveau, Sylvie; Perlemuter, Gabriel; Cassard, Anne-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of liver failure and mortality. In humans, severe alcoholic hepatitis is associated with key changes to intestinal microbiota (IM), which influences individual sensitivity to develop advanced ALD. We used the different susceptibility to ALD observed in two distinct animal facilities to test the efficiency of two complementary strategies (fecal microbiota transplantation and prebiotic treatment) to reverse dysbiosis and prevent ALD. Mice were fed alcohol in two distinct animal facilities with a Lieber DeCarli diet. Fecal microbiota transplantation was performed with fresh feces from alcohol-resistant donor mice to alcohol-sensitive receiver mice three times a week. Another group of mice received pectin during the entire alcohol consumption period. Ethanol induced steatosis and liver inflammation, which were associated with disruption of gut homeostasis, in alcohol-sensitive, but not alcohol resistant mice. IM analysis showed that the proportion of Bacteroides was specifically lower in alcohol-sensitive mice (p<0.05). Principal coordinate analysis showed that the IM of sensitive and resistant mice clustered differently. We targeted IM using two different strategies to prevent alcohol-induced liver lesions: (1) pectin treatment which induced major modifications of the IM, (2) fecal microbiota transplantation which resulted in an IM very close to that of resistant donor mice in the sensitive recipient mice. Both methods prevented steatosis, liver inflammation, and restored gut homeostasis. Manipulation of IM can prevent alcohol-induced liver injury. The IM should be considered as a new therapeutic target in ALD. Sensitivity to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is driven by intestinal microbiota in alcohol fed mice. Treatment of mice with alcohol-induced liver lesions by fecal transplant from alcohol fed mice resistant to ALD or with prebiotic (pectin) prevents ALD. These findings open new possibilities for treatment of human

  15. Features and Outcomes of 899 Patients With Drug-Induced Liver Injury: The DILIN Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Naga; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Fontana, Robert; Lee, William; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Reddy, K Rajendar; Watkins, Paul B; Navarro, Victor; Barnhart, Huiman; Gu, Jiezhun; Serrano, Jose

    2015-06-01

    The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network is conducting a prospective study of patients with DILI in the United States. We present characteristics and subgroup analyses from the first 1257 patients enrolled in the study. In an observational longitudinal study, we began collecting data on eligible individuals with suspected DILI in 2004, following them for 6 months or longer. Subjects were evaluated systematically for other etiologies, causes, and severity of DILI. Among 1257 enrolled subjects with suspected DILI, the causality was assessed in 1091 patients, and 899 were considered to have definite, highly likely, or probable DILI. Ten percent of patients died or underwent liver transplantation, and 17% had chronic liver injury. In the 89 patients (10%) with pre-existing liver disease, DILI appeared to be more severe than in those without (difference not statistically significant; P = .09) and mortality was significantly higher (16% vs 5.2%; P < .001). Azithromycin was the implicated agent in a higher proportion of patients with pre-existing liver disease compared with those without liver disease (6.7% vs 1.5%; P = .006). Forty-one cases with latency ≤7 days were caused predominantly by antimicrobial agents (71%). Two most common causes for 60 DILI cases with latency >365 days were nitrofurantoin (25%) or minocycline (17%). There were no differences in outcomes of patients with short vs long latency of DILI. Compared with individuals younger than 65 years, individuals 65 years or older (n = 149) were more likely to have cholestatic injury, although mortality and rate of liver transplantation did not differ. Nine patients (1%) had concomitant severe skin reactions; implicated agents were lamotrigine, azithromycin, carbamazepine, moxifloxacin, cephalexin, diclofenac, and nitrofurantoin. Four of these patients died. Mortality from DILI is significantly higher in individuals with pre-existing liver disease or concomitant severe skin reactions compared with patients

  16. Features and Outcomes of 899 Patients with Drug-induced Liver Injury: The DILIN Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, N; Bonkovsky, HL; Fontana, R; Lee, W; Stolz, A; Talwalkar, J; Reddy, KR; Watkins, PB; Navarro, V; Barnhart, H; Gu, J; Serrano, J

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The drug-induced liver injury network (DILIN) is conducting a prospective study of patients with DILI in the United States. We present characteristics and subgroup analyses from the first 1257 patients enrolled in the study. Methods In an observational longitudinal study, we began collecting data on eligible individuals with suspected DILI in 2004, following them for 6 months or longer. Subjects were evaluated systematically for other etiologies, causes, and severity of DILI. Results Among 1257 enrolled subjects with suspected DILI, the causality was assessed in 1091 patients, and 899 were considered to have definite, highly likely, or probable DILI. Ten percent of patients died or underwent liver transplantation and 17% had chronic liver injury. In the 89 patients (10%) with pre-existing liver disease, DILI appeared to be more severe than in those without (difference not statistically significant; P=.09) and mortality was significantly higher (16% vs 5.2%; P<.001). Azithromycin was the implicated agent in a higher proportion of patients with pre-existing liver disease compared to those without liver disease (6.7% vs. 1.5%, p=0.006). Forty-one cases with latency ≤ 7 days were caused predominantly by antimicrobial agents (71%). Two most common causes for 60 DILI cases with latency >365 days were nitrofurantoin (25%) or minocycline (17%). There were no differences in outcomes of patients with short vs long latency of DILI. Compared to individuals younger than 65 y, individuals 65 y or older (n=149) were more likely to have cholestatic injury, although mortality and rate of liver transplantation did not differ. Nine patients (1%) had concomitant severe skin reactions; implicated agents were lamotrigine, azithromycin, carbamazepine, moxifloxacin, cephalexin, diclofenac, and nitrofurantoin. Four of these patients died. Conclusion Mortality from DILI is significantly higher in individuals with pre-existing liver disease or concomitant severe skin

  17. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Null Mice Are Sensitive to Cholestatic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L.; Cheng, Xingguo; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in livers of mice and is thought to transport bile acids (BAs) from blood into liver. Because Oatp1a1 expression is markedly decreased in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). We hypothesized that Oatp1a1-null mice would be protected against liver injury during BDL-induced cholestasis due largely to reduced hepatic uptake of BAs. To evaluate this hypothesis, BDL surgeries were performed in both male wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice. At 24 h after BDL, Oatp1a1-null mice showed higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels and more severe liver injury than WT mice, and all Oatp1a1-null mice died within 4 days after BDL, whereas all WT mice survived. At 24 h after BDL, surprisingly Oatp1a1-null mice had higher total BA concentrations in livers than WT mice, suggesting that loss of Oatp1a1 did not prevent BA accumulation in the liver. In addition, secondary BAs dramatically increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null BDL mice but not in WT BDL mice. Oatp1a1-null BDL mice had similar basolateral BA uptake (Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and Oatp1b2) and BA-efflux (multidrug resistance–associated protein [Mrp]-3, Mrp4, and organic solute transporter α/β) transporters, as well as BA-synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) in livers as WT BDL mice. Hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner Cyp3a11, Cyp4a14, and Nqo1, which are target genes of farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor 2, respectively, were increased in WT BDL mice but not in Oatp1a1-null BDL mice. These results demonstrate that loss of Oatp1a1 function exacerbates cholestatic liver injury in mice and suggest that Oatp1a1 plays a unique role in liver adaptive responses to obstructive cholestasis. PMID:22461449

  18. Surgical intervention for paediatric liver injuries is almost history - a 12-year cohort from a major Scandinavian trauma centre.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomohide; Skattum, Jorunn; Engelsen, Peder; Eken, Torsten; Gaarder, Christine; Naess, Pål Aksel

    2016-11-29

    Although nonoperative management (NOM) has become standard care, optimal treatment of liver injuries in children is still challenging since many of these patients have multiple injuries. Moreover, the role of angiography remains poorly defined, and a high index of suspicion of complications is warranted. This study reviews treatment and outcomes in children with liver injuries at a major Scandinavian trauma centre over a 12-year period. Patients <17 years old with liver injury admitted to Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal during the period 2002-2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were compiled from the institutional trauma registry and medical records. A total of 66 children were included. The majority was severely injured as reflected by a median injury severity score of 20.5 (mean 22.2). NOM was attempted in 60 (90.9%) patients and was successful in 57, resulting in a NOM success rate of 95.0% [95% CI 89.3 to 100]. Only one of the three NOM failures was liver related, occurred in the early part of the study period, and consisted in operative placement of drains for bile leak. Two (3.0%) patients underwent angiographic embolization (AE). Complications occurred in 18 (27.3% [95 % CI 16.2 to 38.3]) patients. Only 2 (3.0%) patients had liver related complications, in both cases bile leak. Six (9.1%) patients underwent therapeutic laparotomy for non-liver related injuries. Two (3.0%) patients died secondary to traumatic brain injury. This single institution paediatric liver injury cohort confirms high attempted NOM and NOM success rates even in patients with high grade injuries and multiple accompanying injuries. AE can be a useful NOM adjunct in the treatment of paediatric liver injuries, but is seldom indicated. Moreover, bile leak is the most common liver-related complication and the need for liver-related surgery is very infrequent. NOM is the treatment of choice in almost all liver injuries in children, with operative management and interventional radiology

  19. Association of serum retinoic acid with hepatic steatosis and liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Hongen; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Wenjing; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2015-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol), has been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in animal models. However, the relation between RA and liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unknown. This study aimed at examining the association of RA with NAFLD and NASH in Chinese subjects. Serum RA concentration was determined by ELISA in 41 control subjects, 45 patients with NAFLD, and 38 patients with NASH. The associations of RA with adiposity, serum glucose, lipid profiles, and markers of liver damage were studied. Moreover, both mRNA and protein levels of retinoic X receptor α (RXRα) in the liver were analyzed in subjects with different degrees of hepatic steatosis. Serum RA concentrations in patients with NAFLD (1.42 ± 0.47 ng/mL) and NASH (1.14 ± 0.26 ng/mL) were significantly lower than those in control subjects (2.70 ± 0.52 ng/mL) (P < 0.01). Furthermore, serum RA concentrations were significantly different between subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with type 2 diabetes in control [2.87 ± 0.52 (n = 28) vs. 2.32 ± 0.44 ng/mL (n = 13)], NAFLD [1.61 ± 0.37 (n = 29) vs. 1.28 ± 0.41 ng/mL (n = 16)], and NASH [1.35 ± 0.34 (n = 24) vs. 1.07 ± 0.29 ng/mL (n = 14)] groups. In human liver tissue, RXRα mRNA expression was inversely correlated with the exacerbation of hepatic steatosis. Both serum RA concentrations and RXRα mRNA levels were inversely correlated with intrahepatic triglyceride content (r = -0.700, P < 0.001, and r = -0.611, P = 0.002, respectively). Compared with grade 0 severity, the concentration of RXRα protein was lower in more severe grades in patients with NAFLD. These results show that circulating RA concentrations were lower in subjects with NAFLD and were associated with hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01940263. © 2015

  20. Liver free fatty acid (FFA) accumulation as an indicator of ischemic injury during cold preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, E.M.; Kang, Y.; DeWolf, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Reliable assessment of hepatic viability prior to harvest and transplant could improve graft success and aid in evaluating the efficacy of liver preservation techniques. Hepatic tissue metabolites, protein (Pr) synthesis, and ATP have been studied, but none reliably correlate with hepatic viability. Therefore, they studied changes in liver FFA relative to changes in ATP and Pr synthesis during cold ischemic preservation. Rats mechanically ventilated on 0.5% isoflurane/70% N/sub 2/O/30% O/sub 2/ were heparinized and their livers perfused with air-equilibrated Euro-Collins solution (ECS) at 0-4/sup 0/C and kept on ice. A piece of the liver was removed after 0, 2, 6,more » 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h of preservation for ATP and FFA analysis. A portion of the liver was sliced (250 ..mu..m thick) and incubated in vitro for /sup 14/C-lysine incorporation in albumin. ATP, FFA and Pr synthesis were unchanged in the first 8 h, but markedly decreased between 8 and 12 h with little change thereafter. In contrast, between 8 and 48 h, arachidonic and stearic acids increased by 5 and 2-fold, respectively. Changes in ATP and Pr synthesis correlate with the empirically derived clinical maximum of 8 to 12 h preservation. FFA accumulation appears to reflect hepatic ischemic injury and may be a means of evaluating the quality of a donor liver.« less

  1. Effects of dietary fatty acids and cholesterol excess on liver injury: A lipidomic approach.

    PubMed

    Serviddio, Gaetano; Bellanti, Francesco; Villani, Rosanna; Tamborra, Rosanna; Zerbinati, Chiara; Blonda, Maria; Ciacciarelli, Marco; Poli, Giuseppe; Vendemiale, Gianluigi; Iuliano, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Lipid accumulation is the hallmark of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and has been suggested to play a role in promoting fatty liver inflammation. Previous findings indicate that during oxidative stress conditions excess cholesterol autoxidizes to oxysterols. To date, the role of oxysterols and their potential interaction with fatty acids accumulation in NASH pathogenesis remains little investigated. We used the nutritional model of high fatty acids (HFA), high cholesterol (HCh) or high fat and high cholesterol (HFA+FCh) diets and explored by a lipidomic approach, the blood and liver distribution of fatty acids and oxysterols in response to dietary manipulation. We observed that HFA or HCh diets induced fatty liver without inflammation, which was otherwise observed only after supplementation of HFA+HCh. Very interestingly, the combination model was associated with a specific oxysterol fingerprint. The present work provides a complete analysis of the change in lipids and oxysterols profile induced by different lipid dietary model and their association with histological alteration of the liver. This study allows the generation of interesting hypotheses on the role of interaction of lipid and cholesterol metabolites in the liver injury during NAFLD development and progression. Moreover, the changes in the concentration and quality of oxysterols induced by a combination diet suggest a novel potential pathogenic mechanism in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Curcumin Attenuates N-Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Utilizing the Method of Metabonomics.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peiyu; Sun, Jiachen; Man, Shuli; Yang, He; Ma, Long; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2017-03-08

    N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) exists as a food additive in cheddar cheese, processed meats, beer, water, and so forth. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen in animals and humans. Curcumin as a natural dietary compound decreased DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in this research. According to the histopathological examination of liver tissues and biomarker detection in serum and livers, it was demonstrated that curcumin attenuated DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis through parts of regulating the oxidant stress enzymes (T-SOD and CAT), liver function (ALT and AST) and LDHA, AFP level, and COX-2/PGE2 pathway. Furthermore, curcumin attenuated metabolic disorders via increasing concentration of glucose and fructose, and decreasing levels of glycine and proline, and mRNA expression of GLUT1, PKM and FASN. Docking study indicated that curcumin presented strong affinity with key metabolism enzymes such as GLUT1, PKM, FASN and LDHA. There were a number of amino acid residues involved in curcumin-targeting enzymes of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. All in all, curcumin exhibited a potent liver protective agent inhibiting chemically induced liver injury through suppressing liver cellular metabolism in the prospective application.

  3. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weibin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032; Zhu, Bo

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. •Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. •Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid andmore » glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.« less

  4. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network Causality Assessment: Criteria and Experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Paul H

    2016-02-04

    Hepatotoxicity due to drugs, herbal or dietary supplements remains largely a clinical diagnosis based on meticulous history taking and exclusion of other causes of liver injury. In 2004, the U.S. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) was created under the auspices of the U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases with the aims of establishing a large registry of cases for clinical, epidemiological and mechanistic study. From inception, the DILIN has used an expert opinion process that incorporates consensus amongst three different DILIN hepatologists assigned to each case. It is the most well-established, well-described and vigorous expert opinion process for DILI to date, and yet it is an imperfect standard. This review will discuss the DILIN expert opinion process, its strengths and weaknesses, psychometric performance and future.

  5. Predictors of poor outcomes in patients with wild mushroom-induced acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taerim; Lee, Danbi; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Oh, Bum Jin; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2017-02-21

    To identify early predictive markers of poor outcomes in patients with acute liver injury from wild mushroom intoxication. This observational, retrospective record review involved adults aged ≥ 18 years admitted to emergency department with mushroom intoxication from January 2005 to December 2015. The diagnosis of mushroom intoxication was based on the following: (1) a positive history of recent wild mushroom intake (either raw or cooked); (2) the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, such as watery diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, after ingestion; and (3) the exclusion of other possible causes of acute liver injury. Acute liver injury was defined by a > 5-fold elevation of liver enzymes or moderate coagulopathy [international normalized ratio (INR) > 2.0]. Clinical and laboratory findings were compared in survivors and non-survivors. Of 93 patients with mushroom intoxication, 23, 11 men (47.8%) and 12 women (52.2%), of median age 61 years, developed acute liver injury. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 43.5% (10/23). Among the laboratory variables, mean serum alkaline phosphatase (73.38 ± 10.89 mg/dL vs 180.40 ± 65.39 mg/dL, P < 0.01), total bilirubin (2.312 ± 1.16 mg/dL vs 7.16 ± 2.94 mg/dL, P < 0.01) concentrations and indirect/direct bilirubin (2.45 ± 1.39 mg/dL vs 0.99 ± 0.45 mg/dL, P < 0.01) ratio as well as prothrombin time (1.88 ± 0.83 mg/dL vs 10.43 ± 4.81 mg/dL, P < 0.01), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT; 32.48 ± 7.64 s vs 72.58 ± 41.29 s, P = 0.01), were significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Logistic regression analysis showed that total bilirubin concentration (OR = 3.58, 95%CI: 1.25-10.22), indirect/direct bilirubin ratio (OR = 0.14, 95%CI: 0.02-0.94) and aPTT (OR = 1.30, 95%CI: 1.04-1.63) were significantly associated with mortality. All patients with total bilirubin > 5 mg/dL or aPTT > 50 s on day 3 died. Monitoring of bilirubin concentrations and aPTT may help in predicting clinical

  6. 76 FR 4918 - Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Are We Ready to Look?; Public Conference; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Research Manufacturers of America to discuss and debate issues regarding drug-induced liver injury (DILI... of both basic science and clinical experts, and selecting for specific debate and discussion issues...

  7. Evidence for liver injury in the setting of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Thomas J; Parish, James M; Somers, Virend; Aqel, Bashar A; Rakela, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are both strongly associated with obesity. Whether OSA is an independent risk factor for liver injury is uncertain. To assess the hypothesis that OSA is associated with liver injury independent of obesity. We reviewed the histories of 73 consecutive patients referred to a hospital-based sleep lab because of suspected OSA. OSA was determined to be present if the apnea-hypopnea index was > 10. Obesity was defined as a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 . Patients were included for analysis if they had aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels obtained within 60 days of sleep study. Patients with evidence of viral hepatitis, autoimmune-, metabolic- or established alcoholic-liver disease were excluded. Patients who reported alcohol intake equivalent to a dose ≥ 20 g/day were also excluded. 53 of 73 patients met study criteria. Patients were subdivided for analysis into groups meeting or not meeting OSA and obesity criteria, and having or not having elevated aminotransferase levels. 35/53 patients (66%) had OSA. 31/53 (58%) patients were obese. 15 (28%) and 12 (23%) patients had elevated AST and ALT, respectively. Mean age, gender distribution, mean BMI and percentage with either diabetes or hyperlipidemia were not significantly different in those with or without OSA. Elevated ALT was found in 11/35 (31%) patients with OSA, compared to 1/18 patients without OSA (p = 0.041). Frequency of elevated AST [obese 11/31 (35%); non-obese 4/22 (18%)] or ALT [obese 10/31 (32%); non-obese 2/22 (9%)] was not significantly different in the obese and non-obese cohorts. OSA may be a risk factor for liver injury independent of obesity. The prevalence and nature of liver disease in the setting of OSA should be determined with larger, prospective studies. The impact of OSA treatment, if any, on liver injury should be similarly evaluated.

  8. Dihydromyricetin alleviates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury via JNK-dependent mechanism in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jie; Chen, Tu-Ming; Lan, Qing; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Liu, Bin; Dai, Dong; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Hu, Li-Ping; Zhu, Run-Zhi

    2015-05-14

    To assess the effects of dihydromyricetin (DHM) as a hepatoprotective candidate in reducing hepatic injury and accelerating hepatocyte proliferation after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment. C57 BL/6 mice were used in this study. Mice were orally administered with DHM (150 mg/kg) for 4 d after CCl4 treatment. Serum and liver tissue samples were collected on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after CCl4 treatment. The anti-inflammatory effect of DHM was assessed directly by hepatic histology detection and indirectly by serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were detected using ELISA kits. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining was used to evaluate the role of DHM in promoting hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay. Furthermore, apoptosis proteins Caspases-3, 6, 8, and 9 were detected by Western blot. SP600125 were used to confirm whether DHM regulated liver regeneration through JNK/TNF-α pathways. DHM showed a strong anti-inflammatory effect on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. DHM could significantly decrease serum ALT, AST, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and increase serum albumin, SOD and liver SOD compared to the control group after CCl4 treatment (P < 0.05). PCNA results indicated that DHM could significantly increase the number of PCNA positive cells compared to the control (348.9 ± 56.0 vs 107.1 ± 31.4, P < 0.01). TUNEL assay showed that DHM dramatically reduced the number of apoptotic cells after CCl4 treatment compared to the control (365.4 ± 99.4 vs 90.5 ± 13.8, P < 0.01). Caspase activity detection showed that DHM could reduce the activities of Caspases- 8, 3, 6 and 9 compared to the control (P < 0.05). The results of Western blot showed that DHM increased the expression of JNK and decreased TNF-α expression. However, DHM could not affect

  9. Protective effects of cassia seed ethanol extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing; Guo, Fang-Fang; Zhou, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been recognized as a critical pathogenetic mechanism for the initiation and the progression of hepatic injury in a variety of liver disorders. Antioxidants, including many natural compounds or extracts, have been used to cope with liver disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of cassia seed ethanol extract (CSE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in mice. The animals were pre-treated with different doses of CSE (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg body weight) or distilled water for 5 days, then were injected intraperitoneally with CCl(4) (0.1% in corn oil, v/v, 20 ml/kg body weight), and sacrificed at 16 hours after CCl(4) exposure. The serum aminotransferase activities, histopathological changes, hepatic and mitochondrial antioxidant indexes, and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activities were examined. Consistent with previous studies, acute CCl(4) administration caused great lesion to the liver, shown by the elevation of the serum aminotransferase activities, mitochondria membrane permeability transition (MPT), and the ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. However, these adverse effects were all significantly inhibited by CSE pretreatment. CCl(4)-induced decrease of the CYP2E1 activity was dose-dependently inhibited by CSE pretreatment. Furthermore, CSE dramatically decreased the hepatic and mitochondrial malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, increased the hepatic and mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) levels, and restored the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). These results suggested that CSE could protect mice against CCl(4)-induced liver injury via enhancement of the antioxidant capacity.

  10. Hepatoprotectant Ursodeoxycholyl Lysophosphatidylethanolamide Increasing Phosphatidylcholine Levels as a Potential Therapy of Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chamulitrat, Walee; Zhang, Wujuan; Xu, Weihong; Pathil, Anita; Setchell, Kenneth; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    It has been long known that hepatic synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) is depressed during acute such as carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. Anti-hepatotoxic properties of PC as liposomes have been recognized for treatment of acute liver damage. Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) is a known hepatoprotectant in stabilizing cellular membrane. For therapeutic management of liver injury, we coupled UDCA with a phospholipid known as ursodeoxycholyl lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE). UDCA-LPE has been shown to first-in-class hepatoprotectant being superior to UDCA or PC. It inhibits mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, elicits survival signaling pathway, and promotes regeneration of hepatocytes. We herein report that a unique contribution of UDCA-LPE in increasing concentrations of PC in vitro and in vivo. UDCA-LPE-treated hepatocytes contained significantly increased PC levels. UDCA-LPE underwent the hydrolysis to LPE which was not the precursor of the increased PC. The levels of PC in the liver and blood were increased rapidly after intraperitoneally administration UDCA-LPE, and were found to be sustained even after 24 h. Among PC synthesis genes tested, UDCA-LPE treatment of mouse hepatocytes increased transcription of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase 1 which is an enzyme catalyzing phosphatidic acid to generate intermediates for PC synthesis. Thus, UDCA-LPE as a hepatoprotectant was able to induce synthesis of protective PC which would supplement for the loss of PC occurring during acute liver injury. This property has placed UDCA-LPE as a candidate agent for therapy of acute hepatotoxicity such as acetaminophen poisoning. PMID:22363296

  11. Caspase-1 Is Hepatoprotective during Trauma and Hemorrhagic Shock by Reducing Liver Injury and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Christoph L; Sun, Qian; Loughran, Patricia A; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Billiar, Timothy R; Scott, Melanie J

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses are induced in liver after major stresses such as hemorrhagic shock (HS) and trauma. There is emerging evidence that the inflammasome, the multiprotein platform that induces caspase-1 activation and promotes interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 processing, is activated in response to cellular oxidative stress, such as after hypoxia, ischemia and HS. Additionally, damage-associated molecular patterns, such as those released after injury, have been shown to activate the inflammasome and caspase-1 through the NOD-like receptor (NLR) NLRP3. However, the role of the inflammasome in organ injury after HS and trauma is unknown. We therefore investigated inflammatory responses and end-organ injury in wild-type (WT) and caspase-1−/−mice in our model of HS with bilateral femur fracture (HS/BFF). We found that caspase-1−/− mice had higher levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines than WT mice. This result corresponded to higher levels of liver damage, cell death and neutrophil influx in caspase-1−/− liver compared with WT, although there was no difference in lung damage between experimental groups. To determine if hepatoprotection also depended on NLRP3, we subjected NLRP3−/− mice to HS/BFF, but found inflammatory responses and liver damage in these mice was similar to WT. Hepatoprotection was also not due to caspase-1–dependent cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18. Altogether, these data suggest that caspase-1 is hepatoprotective, in part through regulation of cell death pathways in the liver after major trauma, and that caspase-1 activation after HS/BFF does not depend on NLRP3. These findings may have implications for the treatment of trauma patients and may lead to progress in prevention or treatment of multiple organ failure (MOF). PMID:21666957

  12. Liver grafts from selected older donors do not have significantly more ischaemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Paulo N; Chang, Sue; Mahadevapa, Basant; Martins, Ann-Britt; Sheiner, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a general concern that aged organs are more susceptible to ischaemia. In the light of recent proposals to change the liver allocation system by expanding regional sharing, it is feared that increased cold ischaemia time of grafts from older donors may reduce graft survival. The aim of this study was to correlate donor age and the patterns of ischaemia reperfusion injury and synthetic function early after liver transplantation. Methods We performed a retrospective study of first transplants using a single-centre electronic database. Patterns of liver injury (based on transaminases and post-reperfusion biopsy), synthetic function (international normalized ratio [INR]), and graft and patient survival in recipients receiving liver grafts from donors aged ≥65 years (group 1, n= 50) were compared with equivalent patterns in a matched cohort of recipients transplanted with grafts from donors aged <65 years (group 2, n= 50). Results There was no significant difference in transaminase levels from day 0 to day 6 after transplantation. When groups 1 and 2 were subdivided into two subgroups based on the duration of graft cold ischaemia time (<8 h and ≥8 h), there was no statistical difference in transaminase levels during the first 7 days. There were two cases (4%) of primary non-function in group 1 and one (2%) in group 2. Initial poor function did not differ significantly between the groups (26% vs. 24%; P= 0.81). In addition, there was no difference in histological changes in post-reperfusion biopsies (21% vs. 34%; P= 0.078) and rate of acute rejection episodes in the first year (30% vs. 32%; P= 0.99). There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in 1-year patient and graft survivals (78% vs. 90% [P= 0.17]; 88% vs. 94% [P= 0.48], respectively). Conclusions Judiciously selected livers from aged donors are not associated with major increased susceptibility to ischaemia reperfusion injury. PMID:21309940

  13. Quercetin ameliorates liver injury induced with Tripterygium glycosides by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junming; Miao, Mingsan; Zhang, Yueyue; Liu, Ruixin; Li, Xaobing; Cui, Ying; Qu, Lingbo

    2015-06-01

    Quercetin (Que) is one of main compounds in Lysimachia christinae Hance (Christina loosestrife), and has both medicinal and nutritional value. Glycosides from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f. (léi gōng téng [the thunder duke vine]; TG) have diverse and broad bioactivities but with a high incidence of liver injury. Our previous study reported on the hepatoprotective properties of an ethanol extract from L. christinae against TG-induced liver injury in mice. This research is designed to observe, for the first time, the possible protective properties of the compound Que against TG-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms that are involved in oxidative stress and anti-inflammation. The results indicated that TG caused excessive elevation in serum levels of alanine/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), as well as hepatic lipid peroxidation (all P < 0.01). On the other hand, following TG exposure, we observed significantly reduced levels of biomarkers, including hepatic glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, as well as the enzyme activity and mRNA expression of copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) (all P < 0.01). Nevertheless, all of these alterations were reversed by the pre-administration of Que or the drug bifendate (positive control) for 7 consecutive days. Therefore, this study suggests that Que ameliorates TG-induced acute liver injury, probably through its ability to reduce oxidative stress and its anti-inflammatory properties.

  14. Prominent contribution of portal mesenchymal cells to liver fibrosis in ischemic and obstructive cholestatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Beaussier, Marc; Wendum, Dominique; Schiffer, Eduardo; Dumont, Sylvie; Rey, Colette; Lienhart, André; Housset, Chantal

    2007-03-01

    Liver fibrosis is produced by myofibroblasts of different origins. In culture models, rat myofibroblasts derived from hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and from periductal portal mesenchymal cells, show distinct proliferative and immunophenotypic evolutive profiles, in particular regarding desmin microfilament (overexpressed vs shut-down, respectively). Here, we examined the contributions of both cell types, in two rat models of cholestatic injury, arterial liver ischemia and bile duct ligation (BDL). Serum and (immuno)histochemical hepatic analyses were performed at different time points (2 days, 1, 2 and 6 weeks) after injury induction. Cholestatic liver injury, as attested by serum biochemical tests, was moderate/resolutive in ischemia vs severe and sustained in BDL. Spatio-temporal and morphometric analyses of cytokeratin-19 and Sirius red stainings showed that in both models, fibrosis accumulated around reactive bile ductules, with a significant correlation between the progression rates of fibrosis and of the ductular reaction (both higher in BDL). After 6 weeks, fibrosis was stabilized and did not exceed F2 (METAVIR) in arterial ischemia, whereas micronodular cirrhosis (F4) was established in BDL. Immuno-analyses of alpha-smooth muscle actin and desmin expression profiles showed that intralobular HSCs underwent early phenotypic changes marked by desmin overexpression in both models and that the accumulation of fibrosis coincided with that of alpha-SMA-labeled myofibroblasts around portal/septal ductular structures. With the exception of desmin-positive myofibroblasts located at the portal/septal-lobular interface at early stages, and of myofibroblastic HSCs detected together with fine lobular septa in BDL cirrhotic liver, the vast majority of myofibroblasts were desmin-negative. These findings suggest that both in resolutive and sustained cholestatic injury, fibrosis is produced by myofibroblasts that derive predominantly from portal/periportal mesenchymal cells

  15. Risk factors and outcomes of acute kidney injury in patients with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Tujios, Shannan R; Hynan, Linda S; Vazquez, Miguel A; Larson, Anne M; Seremba, Emmanuel; Sanders, Corron M; Lee, William M

    2015-02-01

    Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) frequently develop renal dysfunction, yet its overall incidence and outcomes have not been fully assessed. We investigated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) among patients with ALF, using defined criteria to identify risk factors and to evaluate its effect on overall outcomes. We performed a retrospective review of data from 1604 patients enrolled in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group, from 1998 through 2010. Patients were classified by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, as well as for etiology of liver failure (acetaminophen-based, ischemic, and all others). Seventy percent of patients with ALF developed AKI, and 30% received renal replacement therapy (RRT). Patients with severe AKI had higher international normalized ratio values than those without renal dysfunction (P < .001), and a higher proportion had advanced-grade coma (coma grades 3 or 4; P < .001) or presented with hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy (P < .001). A greater proportion of patients with acetaminophen-induced ALF had severe kidney injury than of patients with other etiologies of ALF; 34% required RRT, compared with 25% of patients with ALF not associated with acetaminophen or ischemia (P < .002). Of the patients with ALF who were alive at 3 weeks after study entry, significantly fewer with AKI survived for 1 year. Although AKI reduced the overall survival time, more than 50% of patients with acetaminophen-associated or ischemic ALF survived without liver transplantation (even with RRT), compared with 19% of patients with ALF attribute to other causes (P < .001). Only 4% of patients requiring RRT became dependent on dialysis. Based on a retrospective analysis of data from more than 1600 patients, AKI is common in patients with ALF and affects short- and long-term outcomes, but rarely results in chronic kidney disease. Acetaminophen-induced kidney injury is frequent, but patients have better outcomes than those with other forms of

  16. Effect of Recombinant FVIIA in Hypothermic, Coagulopathic Pigs with Liver Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    1󈨊 190 210 230 250 Time (min) United States Army Institute of Surgical Research 33 FIG 5A. Activated Factor FVII (FVIIa) in pig plasma--as measured by...8217X18)F 18) Pre-Dilution Basal Post-Dilution Basal Experimental stage with reference to liver injury FIG 5B. Activated Factor FVII (rFVIIa...the drug, rcombinant activated Factor VII (rFVIIa) on survival, survival time, blood loss, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in

  17. Neutrophil interaction with the hemostatic system contributes to liver injury in rats cotreated with lipopolysaccharide and ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaomin; Luyendyk, James P; Zou, Wei; Lu, Jingtao; Malle, Ernst; Ganey, Patricia E; Roth, Robert A

    2007-08-01

    Cotreatment of rats with nontoxic doses of ranitidine (RAN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes liver injury, and this drug-inflammation interaction might be a model for idiosyncratic adverse drug responses in humans. Both polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and the hemostatic system have been shown to be important in the injury. We tested the hypothesis that PMNs cause liver injury by interacting with the hemostatic system and producing subsequent hypoxia. In rats cotreated with LPS/RAN, PMN depletion by anti-PMN serum reduced fibrin deposition and hypoxia in the liver. PMN depletion also reduced the plasma concentration of active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a major down-regulator of the fibrinolytic system. This suggests that PMNs promote fibrin deposition by increasing PAI-1 concentration. PMNs were activated in the livers of LPS/RAN-cotreated rats as evidenced by increased staining for hypochlorous acid-modified proteins generated by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system of activated phagocytes. Antiserum against the PMN adhesion molecule CD18 protected against LPS/RAN-induced liver injury. Because CD18 is important for PMN transmigration and activation, these results suggest that PMN activation is required for the liver injury. Furthermore, anti-CD18 serum reduced biomarkers of hemostasis and hypoxia, suggesting the necessity for PMN activation in the interaction between PMNs and the hemostatic system/hypoxia. Liver injury, liver fibrin, and plasma PAI-1 concentration were also reduced by eglin C, an inhibitor of proteases released by activated PMNs. In summary, PMNs are activated in LPS/RAN-cotreated rats and participate in the liver injury in part by contributing to hemostasis and hypoxia.

  18. Orlistat and the risk of acute liver injury: self controlled case series study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Langham, Julia; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Brauer, Ruth; Smeeth, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To measure the association between orlistat and acute liver injury. Design Self controlled case series study. Setting Population based primary care setting, United Kingdom. Participants 94 695 patients receiving orlistat and registered in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and linked with Hospital Episode Statistics data between 1999 and 2011. Main outcome measure Relative incidence of acute liver injury comparing periods when patients were receiving orlistat with periods of non-usage. Results Among 94 695 patients who received orlistat, 988 cases of acute liver injury were identified, with 335 confirmed as definite cases and 653 as probable cases. For all cases an increased incidence of liver injury was detected during the 90 day period before orlistat was first started, with an incidence rate ratio of 1.50 (95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.06). The incidence remained raised during the first 30 days of treatment (2.21, 1.43 to 3.42), before returning to baseline levels with prolonged treatment. When the risk during the first 90 days of treatment was compared with the 90 days preceding first treatment, the incidence of liver injury was not increased (1.02, 0.67 to 1.56). An analysis restricted to definite cases showed no evidence of an increased risk of liver injury during treatment. Conclusion The incidence of acute liver injury was higher in the periods both immediately before and immediately after the start of orlistat treatment. This suggests that the observed increased risks of liver injury linked to the start of treatment may reflect changes in health status associated with the decision to begin treatment rather than any causal effect of the drug. PMID:23585064

  19. Downregulation of Glutathione Biosynthesis Contributes to Oxidative Stress and Liver Dysfunction in Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Siow, Yaw L.; Isaak, Cara K.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion is a common cause for acute kidney injury and can lead to distant organ dysfunction. Glutathione is a major endogenous antioxidant and its depletion directly correlates to ischemia-reperfusion injury. The liver has high capacity for producing glutathione and is a key organ in modulating local and systemic redox balance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which kidney ischemia-reperfusion led to glutathione depletion and oxidative stress. The left kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats was subjected to 45 min ischemia followed by 6 h reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion impaired kidney and liver function. This was accompanied by a decrease in glutathione levels in the liver and plasma and increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and plasma homocysteine levels. Ischemia-reperfusion caused a significant decrease in mRNA and protein levels of hepatic glutamate-cysteine ligase mediated through the inhibition of transcription factor Nrf2. Ischemia-reperfusion inhibited hepatic expression of cystathionine γ-lyase, an enzyme responsible for producing cysteine (an essential precursor for glutathione synthesis) through the transsulfuration pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of glutamate-cysteine ligase expression and downregulation of the transsulfuration pathway lead to reduced hepatic glutathione biosynthesis and elevation of plasma homocysteine levels, which, in turn, may contribute to oxidative stress and distant organ injury during renal ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:27872680

  20. Free phenolic acids from the seaweed Halimeda monile with antioxidant effect protecting against liver injury.

    PubMed

    Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Novoa, Alexis Vidal; González, Ana Elsa Batista; de Andrade-Wartha, Elma Regina S; de O e Silva, Ana Mara; Pinto, José Ricardo; Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are found in seaweed species together with other substances presenting antioxidant activity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the free phenolic acids (FPA) fraction from the seaweed Halimeda monile, and its activity to protect the expression of hepatic enzymes in rats, under experimental CCl4 injury. The antioxidant activity was measured by the DPPH method. The FPA fraction (80 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered during 20 consecutive days to rats. The peroxidation was performed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The SOD and CAT enzymatic expressions were measured by RT/PCR. The histology technique was used to evaluate liver injuries. The expression of both, CAT and SOD genes, was more preserved by FPA. Only partial injury could be observed by histology in the liver of rats receiving FPA as compared with the control group; and CCl4 administration induced 60% more peroxidation as compared with the rats receiving FPA. These data suggest that FPA could modulate the antioxidant enzymes and oxidative status in the liver through protection against adverse effects induced by chemical agents.

  1. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Xu, Dong-Ping; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40–80 g/day for males and more than 20–40 g/day for females) could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity. PMID:28567423

  2. Involvement of catalase in the protective benefits of metformin in mice with oxidative liver injury.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Mingwei; Ai, Qing; Lin, Ling; Wu, Kunwei; Deng, Xinyu; Jing, Yuping; Jia, Mengying; Wan, Jingyuan; Zhang, Li

    2014-06-05

    Metformin is a commonly used anti-diabetic drug with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent hypoglycemic activities. Recent studies have revealed its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. In the present study, the anti-oxidative potential of metformin and its potential mechanisms were investigated in a mouse model with carbon tetrachloride (CCl₂)-induced severe oxidative liver injury. Our results showed that treatment with metformin significantly attenuated CCl₂-induced elevation of serum aminotransferases and hepatic histological abnormalities. The alleviated liver injury was associated with decreased hepatic contents of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, metformin treatment dose-dependently enhanced the activities of catalase (CAT) and decreased CCl₄-induced elevation of hepatic H₂O₂ levels, but it had no obvious effects on the protein level of CAT. We also found that metformin increased the level of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but treatment with AMPK activator AICAR had no obvious effects on CAT activity. A molecular docking analysis indicated that metformin might interact with CAT via hydrogen bonds. These data suggested that metformin effectively alleviated CCl₄-induced oxidative liver injury in mice and these hepatoprotective effects might be associated with CAT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Xu, Dong-Ping; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40-80 g/day for males and more than 20-40 g/day for females) could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity.

  4. Drugs of abuse and addiction: A slippery slope toward liver injury.

    PubMed

    Roy, Dijendra Nath; Goswami, Ritobrata

    2016-08-05

    Substances of abuse induce alteration in neurobehavioral symptoms, which can lead to simultaneous exacerbation of liver injury. The biochemical changes of liver are significantly observed in the abused group of people using illicit drugs or drugs that are abused. A huge amount of work has been carried out by scientists for validation experiments using animal models to assess hepatotoxicity in cases of drugs of abuse. The risk of hepatotoxicity from these psychostimulants has been determined by different research groups. Hepatotoxicity of these drugs has been recently highlighted and isolated case reports always have been documented in relation to misuse of the drugs. These drugs induce liver toxicity on acute or chronic dose dependent process, which ultimately lead to liver damage, acute fatty infiltration, cholestatic jaundice, liver granulomas, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis etc. Considering the importance of drug-induced hepatotoxicity as a major cause of liver damage, this review emphasizes on various drugs of abuse and addiction which induce hepatotoxicity along with their mechanism of liver damage in clinical aspect as well as in vitro and in vivo approach. However, the mechanisms of drug-induced hepatotoxicity is dependent on reactive metabolite formation via metabolism, modification of covalent bonding between cellular components with drug and its metabolites, reactive oxygen species generation inside and outside of hepatocytes, activation of signal transduction pathways that alter cell death or survival mechanism, and cellular mitochondrial damage, which leads to alteration in ATP generation have been notified here. Moreover, how the cytokines are modulated by these drugs has been mentioned here. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protection of Flos Lonicerae against acetaminophen-induced liver injury and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Sheng, Yu-chen; Chen, Yu-hao; Ji, Li-li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to observe the protective action of Flos Lonicerae (FL) aqueous extract against acetaminophen (AP)-induced liver injury and its mechanism. Results show that FL decreases AP-increased serum alanine/aspartate transaminases (ALT/AST) activity, as well as total bilirubin (TB) amount, in mice. Histological evaluation of the liver further confirms the protection of FL against AP-induced hepatotoxicity. TdT-mediated biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay shows that FL reduces AP-increased apoptotic cells. Furthermore, AP-decreased liver glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) enzymatic activity and glutathione (GSH) amount are both reversed by FL because of the increased expression of the catalytic subunit of GCL (GCLC) protein. The amount of chlorogenic acid (CGA), caffeic acid, and luteolin, the main active compounds in FL, is detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, cell viability assay demonstrates that polyphenols in FL, such as CGA, caffeic acid, as well as isochlorogenic acids A, B, and C, can reverse AP-induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, FL can prevent AP-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis. The cellular antioxidant enzyme GCL is also involved in such protection. Polyphenols may be the main active hepato-protective ingredients in FL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exaggerated Liver Injury Induced by Renal Ischemia Reperfusion in Diabetes: Effect of Exenatide

    PubMed Central

    Vaghasiya, Jitendra D.; Sheth, Navin R.; Bhalodia, Yagnik S.; Jivani, Nurudin P.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: This study was designed to investigate the possible effect of exenatide (Glucagon like Peptide-1 receptor agonist) on liver injury (distant organ) induced by renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In vivo renal IR was performed in both type 2 diabetic and normal rats. Each protocol comprised ischemia for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 24 hours and a treatment period of 14 days before induction of ischemia. Results: Lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide level in liver tissue were significantly increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.05, respectively), after IR in diabetic rats compared to normal rats. Antioxidant enzymes like glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly reduced (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively), after IR in diabetic rats compared to normal rats. Exenatide treatment significantly normalized (P < 0.01), these biochemical parameters in treated rats compared to diabetic IR rats. Serum creatinine phosphokinase activity and liver function enzymes were also significantly normalized (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively), after administration of exenatide. Conclusion: Exenatide exerted protective effect on exaggerated remote organ (liver) injury induced by renal IR in diabetes. PMID:20616412

  7. [The mechanisms of formation of liver injuries associated with the blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dubrovina, I A; Dubrovin, I A

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of liver damage associated with the blunt abdominal trauma are considered based on the analysis of the literature publications. The general characteristic of these mechanisms and the processes underlying the development of liver injuries is presented. It is argued that the mechanisms underlying the formation of damages to the liver differ depending on the form of the traumatic impact, the injurious factor, and the processes leading to the destruction of the hepatic tissue. The main forms of traumatic impact in the case of a blunt abdominal trauma include the strike (blow), pressure, and concussion of the organ while the major traumatic factors are deformation, displacement, and "shock-resistant effects". The mechanisms underlying tissue destruction are compression and stretching. These two mechanisms are responsible for the formation of different variants of liver destruction. The results of the study suggest the necessity of the search for other mechanisms of degradation of the hepatic tissue following a blunt abdominal trauma for the improvement of forensic medical diagnostics of its cause and the underlying mechanism.

  8. Gamma-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester attenuates progression of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Nishida, K; Ohta, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1998-02-20

    We examined the effect of gamma-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester (gamma-GCE), which is readily transported into hepatocytes and increases hepatocellular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, on the progression of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in mice in comparison with that of GSH. Administration of more than 160 micromol/kg of gamma-GCE, but not GSH, to mice at 3 h after intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (1 ml/kg) significantly attenuated increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities at 24 h after the CCl4 injection. Increases in hepatic lipid peroxide (LPO) concentrations and decreases in hepatic GSH concentrations after the CCl4 injection were significantly diminished by the gamma-GCE (160 micromol/kg) administration, but not by the same dose of GSH. Gamma-GCE, gamma-glutamylcysteine, and cysteine acted as substrates for glutathione peroxidases much less efficiently than GSH in the post-mitochondrial fraction of normal mouse liver cells. These results indicate that gamma-GCE attenuates the progression of CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice through the maintenance of hepatic GSH levels, leading to inhibition of hepatic LPO formation, which could be due to an efficient utilization of GSH converted from gamma-GCE in the liver cells.

  9. Early markers of reperfusion injury after liver transplantation: association with primary dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Helge; Heil, Jan; Schultze, Daniel; Al Saeedi, Mohammed; Schemmer, Peter

    2015-06-01

    In patients with end-stage liver disease, liver transplantation is the only available curative treatment. Although the outcome and quality of life in the patients have improved over the past decades, primary dys- or nonfunction (PDF/PNF) can occur. Early detection of PDF and PNF is crucial and could lead to individual therapies. This study was designed to identify early markers of reperfusion injury and PDF in liver biopsies taken during the first hour after reperfusion. Biopsies from donor livers were prospectively taken as a routine during the first hour after reperfusion. Recipient data, transaminases and outcome were routinely monitored. In total, 10 biopsy specimens taken from patients with 90-day mortality and PDF, and patients with long-term survival but without PDF were used for DNA microarrays. Markers that were significantly up- or down-regulated in the microarray were verified using quantitative real-time PCR. Age, indications and labMELD score were similar in both groups. Peak-transaminases during the first week after transplantation were significantly different in the two groups. In total, 20 differentially regulated markers that correlated to PDF were identified using microarray analysis and verified with quantitative real-time PCR. The markers identified in this study could predict PDF at a very early time point and might point to interventions that ameliorate reperfusion injury and thus prevent PDF. Identification of patients and organs at risk might lead to individualized therapies and could ultimately improve outcome.

  10. Complete activation of autophagic process attenuates liver injury and improves survival in septic mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Wen; Lo, Steven; Perng, Daw-Shyong; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Lee, Po-Huang; Chang, Ya-Fang; Kuo, Po-Lin; Yu, Ming-Lung; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Hsieh, Ya-Ching

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of autophagosomes in the terminal step of the autophagic process has recently emerged as a potentially maladaptive process in the septic heart and lung. However, the role of autophagy in the septic liver has not been ascertained. This study was investigated by first examining the entire sequence of the autophagic process in the liver of septic mice. Second, a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach was utilized to treat sepsis with autophagy enhancer/inhibitor. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). C57BL/6 mice received autophagy enhancer carbamazepine (CBZ), autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (inhibition of autophagosomal formation), or chloroquine (impairment of autophagosomal clearance). We found that the whole autophagic process was activated at 4 h after CLP; however, it did not proceed to completion during the 4- to 24-h time period, as indicated by accumulated autophagosomes and decreased autophagic flux. Carbamazepine, which induced complete activation of the autophagic process, improved CLP survival. This protective effect was also associated with decreased cell death, inflammatory responses, and hepatic injury. However, disruption of autophagosomal clearance with chloroquine abolished the above protective effects in CBZ-treated CLP mice. 3-Methyladenine, which resulted in inhibition of the autophagosomal formation, did not show any above beneficial effects in CLP mice. Impaired autophagosome-lysome fusion resulting in incomplete activation of autophagy may contribute to sepsis-induced liver injury. Treatment with CBZ may serve a protective role in the septic liver, possibly through the effect of complete activation of autophagic process.

  11. Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide prevents ethanol-induced liver injury in mice by metabolomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Luo, Jian-Ping; Chen, Rui; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Pan, Li-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of alcohol consumption has increased in modern dietary life and alcoholic liver injury can follow. Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide (DHP) is a homogeneous polysaccharide isolated from Dendrobium huoshanense, which possesses hepatoprotection function. In this study, we investigated the metabolic profiles of serum and liver tissues extracts from control, ethanol-treated and DHP\\ethanol-treated mice using a UHPLC/LTQ Orbitrap XL MS-based metabolomics approach. Our results indicated that DHP alleviated early steatosis and inflammation in liver histology and the metabolomic analysis of serum and hepatic tissue revealed that first, ethanol treatment mainly altered phosphatidylcholines (PCs) including PC (13:0) and phosphocholine, arachidonic acid metabolites including 20-ethyl PGF2α and amino acids including L-Proline; Second, DHP supplementation ameliorated the altered metabolic levels particularly involved in phosphocholine and L-Proline. These data suggested that DHP might restore the perturbed metabolism pathways by ethanol exposure to prevent the progression of alcoholic liver injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Drug Induced Liver Injury: Can Biomarkers Assist RUCAM in Causality Assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel; Danan, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a potentially serious adverse reaction in a few susceptible individuals under therapy by various drugs. Health care professionals facing DILI are confronted with a wealth of drug-unrelated liver diseases with high incidence and prevalence rates, which can confound the DILI diagnosis. Searching for alternative causes is a key element of RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) to assess rigorously causality in suspected DILI cases. Diagnostic biomarkers as blood tests would be a great help to clinicians, regulators, and pharmaceutical industry would be more comfortable if, in addition to RUCAM, causality of DILI can be confirmed. High specificity and sensitivity are required for any diagnostic biomarker. Although some risk factors are available to evaluate liver safety of drugs in patients, no valid diagnostic or prognostic biomarker exists currently for idiosyncratic DILI when a liver injury occurred. Identifying a biomarker in idiosyncratic DILI requires detailed knowledge of cellular and biochemical disturbances leading to apoptosis or cell necrosis and causing leakage of specific products in blood. As idiosyncratic DILI is typically a human disease and hardly reproducible in animals, pathogenetic events and resulting possible biomarkers remain largely undisclosed. Potential new diagnostic biomarkers should be evaluated in patients with DILI and RUCAM-based established causality. In conclusion, causality assessment in cases of suspected idiosyncratic DILI is still best achieved using RUCAM since specific biomarkers as diagnostic blood tests that could enhance RUCAM results are not yet available. PMID:28398242

  13. Diagnostic performance of traditional hepatobiliary biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ennulat, Daniela; Magid-Slav, Michal; Rehm, Sabine; Tatsuoka, Kay S

    2010-08-01

    Nonclinical studies provide the opportunity to anchor biochemical with morphologic findings; however, liver injury is often complex and heterogeneous, confounding the ability to relate biochemical changes with specific patterns of injury. The aim of the current study was to compare diagnostic performance of hepatobiliary markers for specific manifestations of drug-induced liver injury in rat using data collected in a recent hepatic toxicogenomics initiative in which rats (n = 3205) were given 182 different treatments for 4 or 14 days. Diagnostic accuracy of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbili), serum bile acids (SBA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (Chol), and triglycerides (Trig) was evaluated for specific types of liver histopathology by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. To assess the relationship between biochemical and morphologic changes in the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, a second ROC analysis was performed on a subset of rats (n = 2504) given treatments (n = 152) that did not cause hepatocellular necrosis. In the initial analysis, ALT, AST, Tbili, and SBA had the greatest diagnostic utility for manifestations of hepatocellular necrosis and biliary injury, with comparable magnitude of area under the ROC curve and serum hepatobiliary marker changes for both. In the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, ALT increases were observed with biochemical or morphologic evidence of cholestasis. In both analyses, diagnostic utility of ALP and GGT for biliary injury was limited; however, ALP had modest diagnostic value for peroxisome proliferation, and ALT, AST, and total Chol had moderate diagnostic utility for phospholipidosis. None of the eight markers evaluated had diagnostic value for manifestations of hypertrophy, cytoplasmic rarefaction, inflammation, or lipidosis.

  14. Circulating Kidney Injury Molecule 1 Predicts Prognosis and Poor Outcome in Patients With Acetaminophen‐Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sabbisetti, Venkata S.; Francis, Ben; Jorgensen, Andrea L.; Craig, Darren G.N.; Simpson, Kenneth J.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Park, B. Kevin; Dear, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury in the context of acetaminophen (APAP; paracetamol)‐induced liver injury is an important predictor of the requirement for urgent liver transplantation (LT) to avoid death. However, the prognostic biomarker used to report kidney dysfunction (serum creatinine concentration) has suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM‐1) can be quantified in plasma as a sensitive and specific biomarker of kidney injury in both clinical and preclinical studies. Therefore, plasma KIM‐1 has potential as a sensitive prognostic biomarker of patient outcome post‐APAP overdose. In a cohort of APAP overdose patients (N = 74) with and without established liver injury, we quantified plasma KIM‐1 by immunoassay on the first day of admission to a LT unit and assessed its diagnostic performance to predict outcome compared with serum creatinine concentration. Day 1 plasma KIM‐1 was significantly elevated in patients that died or required LT, compared to spontaneous survivors (1,182 ± 251 vs. 214 ± 45 pg/mL; P < 0.005). Receiver operator characteristic analysis demonstrated the superiority of KIM‐1 (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78‐0.95; 0.56 sensitivity at 0.95 specificity), compared with serum creatinine (AUC, 0.76; 95% CI: 0.64‐0.87; 0.08 sensitivity at 0.95 specificity) and other current prognostic indicators, when measured on the first day of enrollment into the study. Furthermore, KIM‐1 was found to be a statistically significant independent predictor of outcome at the 5% level (P < 0.0386) in a multivariable logistic regression model that considered all measured factors (pseudo‐R^2 = 0.895). Conclusion: Early measurement of plasma KIM‐1 represents a more sensitive predictor of patient outcome than serum creatinine concentration post‐APAP overdose. With further development, plasma KIM‐1 could significantly improve prognostic stratification. (Hepatology

  15. [Liver injury and intervention of compound 912 liquid on it in rats with endotoxemia].

    PubMed

    Hu, Lan; Zhang, Shu-Wen; Yin, Cheng-Hong

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the liver injury in model rats with endotoxemia and to observe the protective effect of Compound 912 Liquid on it. Rats were randomly divided into three groups, the endotoxemia model group (EMG, injected by lipoplysaccharides (LPS) peritoneally), the intervention group (IG, treated with Compound 912 Liquid via gastrogavage 1 h before model establishing) and the normal control group (NCG). Blood samples of rats were taken at the time points of the 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 48th, 72nd hour and the 7th day after modeling for measuring liver function, levels of plasmatic endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-10 (IL-10). The pathological change of liver was observed using light microscope and electro-transmission microscope. The peak concentration of endotoxin detected at 2 hour after modeling in the IG was significantly lower than that in the EMG (0.358 +/- 0.056 vs 0.685 +/- 0.030), but insignificant difference (P > 0.05) was shown between them in TNF-alpha level. The level of IL-10 continuously rose in IG after treatment, it was still higher than normal level until day 7 (49.096 +/- 4.076 vs 43.454 +/- 5.928, P < 0.05). LPS can induce the increase of serum inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines in rats to injure liver. Therefore, the inflammatory reaction indicated by LPS may be one of the mechanisms for liver injury. Preventive medication with Compound 912 Liquid showed a significant liver protective effect.

  16. S-Adenosylmethionine attenuates bile duct early warm ischemia reperfusion injury after rat liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong; Chu, Hongpeng; Cao, Guojun; Du, Xiaolong; Min, Xiaobo; Wan, Chidan

    2018-03-01

    Warm ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) plays a key role in biliary complication, which is a substantial vulnerability of liver transplantation. The early pathophysiological changes of IRI are characterized by an excessive inflammatory response. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) is an important metabolic intermediate that modulates inflammatory reactions; however, its role in bile duct warm IRI is not known. In this study, male rats were treated with or without SAM (170 μmol/kg body weight) after orthotopic autologous liver transplantation. The histopathological observations showed that bile duct injury in the IRI group was more serious than in the SAM group. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) levels in the serum of the IRI group were significantly increased compared to the SAM group (P < .05). Simultaneously, SAM effectively improved the survival of the transplant recipients. Furthermore, the H 2 O 2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) of the IRI group were much higher compared to the SAM group (P < .05). The GSH/GSSG ratio in the SAM group was significantly increased by SAM treatment compared to the IRI group (P < .05). SAM administration significantly inhibited macrophage infiltration in liver and bile duct tissues, down-regulated TNF-α levels and up-regulated IL-10 expression in bile duct tissues compared to the IRI group (P < .05). The number of apoptotic biliary epithelial cells and caspase-3-positive cells in IRI rat livers were much higher compared to those in SAM-treated rats at 24 h after liver transplantation (P < .05). These data suggested that SAM protected bile ducts against warm IRI by suppressing oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions and apoptosis of biliary epithelial cells after liver transplantation.α. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Argininosuccinate synthase conditions the response to acute and chronic ethanol-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Leung, Tung Ming; Lu, Yongke; Yan, Wei; Morón-Concepción, Jose A; Ward, Stephen C; Ge, Xiaodong; Conde de la Rosa, Laura; Nieto, Natalia

    2012-05-01

    Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in both the urea and the L-citrulline/nitric oxide (NO·) cycles regulating protein catabolism, ammonia levels, and NO· generation. Because a proteomics analysis identified ASS and nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) as coinduced in rat hepatocytes by chronic ethanol consumption, which also occurred in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and in cirrhosis patients, we hypothesized that ASS could play a role in ethanol binge and chronic ethanol-induced liver damage. To investigate the contribution of ASS to the pathophysiology of ALD, wildtype (WT) and Ass(+/-) mice (Ass(-/-) are lethal due to hyperammonemia) were exposed to an ethanol binge or to chronic ethanol drinking. Compared with WT, Ass(+/-) mice given an ethanol binge exhibited decreased steatosis, lower NOS2 induction, and less 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) protein residues, indicating that reducing nitrosative stress by way of the L-citrulline/NO· pathway plays a significant role in preventing liver damage. However, chronic ethanol-treated Ass(+/-) mice displayed enhanced liver injury compared with WT mice. This was due to hyperammonemia, lower phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (pAMPKα) to total AMPKα ratio, decreased sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (Pgc1α) messenger RNAs (mRNAs), lower fatty acid β-oxidation due to down-regulation of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-II (CPT-II), decreased antioxidant defense, and elevated lipid peroxidation end-products in spite of comparable nitrosative stress but likely reduced NOS3. Partial Ass ablation protects only in acute ethanol-induced liver injury by decreasing nitrosative stress but not in a more chronic scenario where oxidative stress and impaired fatty acid β-oxidation are key events. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Antioxidant properties of repaglinide and its protections against cyclosporine A-induced renal tubular injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dao; Li, Jin; Li, Hui; Wu, Qiong; Li, Qi-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Repaglinide (RG) is an antihyperglycemic agent used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. It has a good safety and efficacy profile in diabetic patients with complications in renal impairment and is an appropriate treatment choice, even for individuals with more severe degrees of renal malfunctions. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effect of RG on cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced rat renal impairment and to evaluate the antioxidant mechanisms by which RG exerts its protective actions. Materials and Methods: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into five groups: administrations of olive oil (control, PO), RG (0.4 mg/kg, PO), CsA (30 mg/kg in olive oil, SC), RG (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg, PO) plus CsA (30 mg/kg in olive oil SC) every day for 15 days. Results: SC administration of CsA (30 mg/kg) to rats produced marked elevations in the levels of renal impairment parameters such as urinary protein, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), serum creatinine (SCr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). It also caused histologic injury to the kidneys. Oral administration of RG (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) markedly decreased all the aforementioned changes. In addition, CsA caused increases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione in kidney homogenate, which were reversed significantly by both doses of RG. Conclusion: The findings of our study indicate that RG may play an important role in protecting the kidney from oxidative insult. PMID:27635199

  19. 1-methylmalate from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) suppressed D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Akachi, Toshiyuki; Shiina, Yasuyuki; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the protective effects of fruit juices against D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury, lyophilized fruit juices (total 12 kinds) were fed to rats for 7 d, and then we evoked liver injury by injecting GalN. The juice of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) significantly suppressed GalN-induced liver injury when the magnitude of liver injury was assessed by plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, although some other juices (acerola, dragon fruit, shekwasha, and star fruit) also tended to have suppressive effects. An active compound was isolated from camu-camu juice by solvent fractionation and silica gel column chromatography. The structure was determined to be 1-methylmalate. On the other hand, malate, 1,4-dimethylmalate, citrate, and tartrate had no significant effect on GalN-induced liver injury. It is suggested that 1-methylmalate might be a rather specific compound among organic acids and their derivatives in fruit juices in suppressing GalN-induced liver injury.

  20. Protective effect of Trillium tschonoskii saponin on CCl4-induced acute liver injury of rats through apoptosis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Qiu, Yong; Shu, Ziyang; Zhang, Xu; Li, Renpeng; Liu, Su; Chen, Longquan; Liu, Hong; Chen, Ning

    2016-12-01

    To explore hepatoprotective role and underlying mechanisms of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim (TTM), 36 rats were randomly divided into control, CCl 4 -induced liver injury model, and biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate (DDB) and low-, moderate-, and high-dose TTM treatment groups. After CCl 4 -induced model establishment, the rats from DDB and TTM groups were administrated with DDB at 0.2 g/kg per day and TTM at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/kg per day, while the rats from control and model groups were administrated with saline. After 5 days of treatments, all rats were sacrificed for determining serum ALT and AST levels and liver index, examining histopathological changes in liver through HE and TUNEL staining, and evaluating TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression by real-time PCR, and caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax expression by Western blot. Results indicated that CCl 4 could induce acute liver injury and abnormal liver function in rats with obvious hepatomegaly, increased liver index, high ALT and AST levels, up-regulated TNF-α and IL-6, and overexpressed Bax and caspase-3. However, DDB and TTM could execute protective role in CCl 4 -induced liver injury in rats through reducing ALT and AST levels, rescuing hepatomegaly, down-regulating inflammatory factors and inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, TTM has obvious protective role in CCl 4 -induced liver injury of rats through inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis.

  1. An Immunoassay to Rapidly Measure Acetaminophen Protein Adducts Accurately Identifies Patients with Acute Liver Injury or Failure

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Dean W.; Lee, William M.; Hinson, Jack A.; Bai, Shasha; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Stravitz, R. Todd; Reuben, Adrian; Letzig, Lynda; Simpson, Pippa M.; Rule, Jody; Fontana, Robert J.; Ganger, Daniel; Reddy, K. Rajender; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; James, Laura P.

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims A rapid, reliable point-of-care assay to detect acetaminophen protein adducts in serum of patients with acute liver injury could improve diagnosis and management. AcetaSTAT is a competitive immunoassay used to measure acetaminophen protein adducts formed by toxic metabolites in serum samples from patients. We compared the accuracy of AcetaSTAT vs high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC, a sensitive and specific quantitative analytical assay) to detect acetaminophen protein adducts. Methods We collected serum samples from 19 healthy individuals (no liver injury, no recent acetaminophen use), 29 patients without acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury, and 33 patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury participating in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry. Each serum sample was analyzed by AcetaSTAT (reported as test band amplitude) and HPLC-EC (the reference standard). We also collected data on patient age, sex, weight, level of alanine aminotransferase on test day and peak values, concentration of acetaminophen, diagnoses (by site investigator and causality review committee), and outcome after 21 days. Differences between groups were analyzed using Fisher’s Exact for categorical variables and Kruskal-Wallis Test or Rank-Sum test for continuous variables. Results AcetaSTAT discriminated between patients with and without acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury; the median (and range) AcetaSTAT test band amplitude for patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury was 584 (range, 222–1027) vs 3678 (range, 394–8289) for those without (P<.001). AcetaSTAT identified patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury with 100% sensitivity, 86.2% specificity, a positive-predictive value of 89.2%, and a negative-predictive value of 100%. Results from AcetaSTAT were positive in 4 subjects who received a causality review committee diagnosis of non

  2. Hydrogen Gas Ameliorates Hepatic Reperfusion Injury After Prolonged Cold Preservation in Isolated Perfused Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Shingo; Wakayama, Kenji; Fukai, Moto; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Takahisa; Fukumori, Daisuke; Shibata, Maki; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kimura, Taichi; Todo, Satoru; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen gas reduces ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) in the liver and other organs. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive. We investigated whether hydrogen gas ameliorated hepatic I/R injury after cold preservation. Rat liver was subjected to 48-h cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution. The graft was reperfused with oxygenated buffer with or without hydrogen at 37° for 90 min on an isolated perfusion apparatus, comprising the H 2 (+) and H 2 (-) groups, respectively. In the control group (CT), grafts were reperfused immediately without preservation. Graft function, injury, and circulatory status were assessed throughout the perfusion. Tissue samples at the end of perfusion were collected to determine histopathology, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. In the H 2 (-) group, IRI was indicated by a higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) leakage, portal resistance, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cell rate, apoptotic index, and endothelial endothelin-1 expression, together with reduced bile production, oxygen consumption, and GSH/GSSG ratio (vs. CT). In the H 2 (+) group, these harmful changes were significantly suppressed [vs. H 2 (-)]. Hydrogen gas reduced hepatic reperfusion injury after prolonged cold preservation via the maintenance of portal flow, by protecting mitochondrial function during the early phase of reperfusion, and via the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades thereafter. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hepatic parenchymal atrophy induction for intractable segmental bile duct injury after liver resection.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shin; Park, Gil-Chun; Ha, Tae-Yong; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong-Il; Choi, Young-Il; Song, Gi-Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2012-05-01

    Liver resection can result in various types of bile duct injuries but their treatment is usually difficult and often leads to intractable clinical course. We present an unusual case of hepatic segment III duct (B3) injury, which occurred after left medial sectionectomy for large hepatocellular carcinoma and was incidentally detected 1 week later due to bile leak. Since the pattern of this B3 injury was not adequate for operative biliary reconstruction, atrophy induction of the involved hepatic parenchyma was attempted. This treatment consisted of embolization of the segment III portal branch to inhibit bile production, induction of heavy adhesion at the bile leak site and clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube to accelerate segment III atrophy. This entire procedure, from liver resection to PTBD tube removal took 4 months. This patient has shown no other complication or tumor recurrence for 4 years to date. These findings suggest that percutaneous segmental portal vein embolization, followed by intentional clamping of external biliary drainage, can effectively control intractable bile leak from segmental bile duct injury.

  4. Molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) in acute liver injury and graft dysfunction: Results from a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gerth, Hans U; Pohlen, Michele; Thölking, Gerold; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Brand, Marcus; Wilms, Christian; Hüsing-Kabar, Anna; Görlich, Dennis; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2017-01-01

    The primary therapeutic goals in the treatment of liver injury are to support liver regeneration or bridge the gap to liver transplantation (LT). Molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) therapy has shown beneficial effects for specific symptoms of liver failure; however, general survival advantages have not yet been demonstrated. We studied the effects of MARS therapy compared to standard medical treatment (SMT) in two patient cohorts: in patients with an acute liver injury and in those with graft dysfunction (GD). We report on our experience over a 6.5-year period with 73 patients treated with SMT or with SMT and MARS (MARS group). In total, 53 patients suffered from acute liver injury in their native liver without a preexisting liver disease (SMT: n = 31, MARS: n = 22), and 20 patients showed a severe GD after LT (SMT: n = 10, MARS: n = 10). The entire cohort was predominantly characterized by hemodynamically and respiratorily stable patients with a low hepatic encephalopathy (HE) grade and a model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 20.57 (MARS) or 22.51 (SMT, p = 0.555). Within the MARS group, the median number of extracorporeal therapy sessions was four (range = 3-5 sessions). Independent of the underlying etiology, MARS improved the patients' bilirubin values in the short term compared to SMT alone. In patients with acute liver injury, this response was sustained even after the end of MARS therapy. By contrast, the majority of patients with GD and an initial response to MARS therapy experienced worsened hyperbilirubinemia. No differences in 28-day mortality were observed with respect to acute liver injury (MARS 5.3% (95% CI: 0-15.3); SMT 3.3% (95% CI: 0-9.8), p = 0.754) or GD (MARS 20.0% (95% CI: 0-44.7), SMT 11.1% (95% CI: 0-31.7), p = 0.478). Although it did not improve 28-day mortality, MARS therapy improved the short-term response in patients with acute liver injury as well as in those with GD. In cases of acute hepatic injury, the use of

  5. Molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) in acute liver injury and graft dysfunction: Results from a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Thölking, Gerold; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Brand, Marcus; Wilms, Christian; Hüsing-Kabar, Anna; Görlich, Dennis; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The primary therapeutic goals in the treatment of liver injury are to support liver regeneration or bridge the gap to liver transplantation (LT). Molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) therapy has shown beneficial effects for specific symptoms of liver failure; however, general survival advantages have not yet been demonstrated. Aim We studied the effects of MARS therapy compared to standard medical treatment (SMT) in two patient cohorts: in patients with an acute liver injury and in those with graft dysfunction (GD). Methods We report on our experience over a 6.5-year period with 73 patients treated with SMT or with SMT and MARS (MARS group). In total, 53 patients suffered from acute liver injury in their native liver without a preexisting liver disease (SMT: n = 31, MARS: n = 22), and 20 patients showed a severe GD after LT (SMT: n = 10, MARS: n = 10). Results The entire cohort was predominantly characterized by hemodynamically and respiratorily stable patients with a low hepatic encephalopathy (HE) grade and a model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 20.57 (MARS) or 22.51 (SMT, p = 0.555). Within the MARS group, the median number of extracorporeal therapy sessions was four (range = 3–5 sessions). Independent of the underlying etiology, MARS improved the patients’ bilirubin values in the short term compared to SMT alone. In patients with acute liver injury, this response was sustained even after the end of MARS therapy. By contrast, the majority of patients with GD and an initial response to MARS therapy experienced worsened hyperbilirubinemia. No differences in 28-day mortality were observed with respect to acute liver injury (MARS 5.3% (95% CI: 0–15.3); SMT 3.3% (95% CI: 0–9.8), p = 0.754) or GD (MARS 20.0% (95% CI: 0–44.7), SMT 11.1% (95% CI: 0–31.7), p = 0.478). Conclusions Although it did not improve 28-day mortality, MARS therapy improved the short-term response in patients with acute liver injury as well as in those

  6. Modulation of O-GlcNAc Levels in the Liver Impacts Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury by Affecting Protein Adduct Formation and Glutathione Synthesis.

    PubMed

    McGreal, Steven R; Bhushan, Bharat; Walesky, Chad; McGill, Mitchell R; Lebofsky, Margitta; Kandel, Sylvie E; Winefield, Robert D; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Zachara, Natasha E; Zhang, Zhen; Tan, Ee Phie; Slawson, Chad; Apte, Udayan

    2018-04-01

    Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) results in acute liver failure. We have investigated the role of a posttranslational modification of proteins called O-GlcNAcylation, where the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) adds and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes a single β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety, in the pathogenesis of APAP-induced liver injury. Hepatocyte-specific OGT knockout mice (OGT KO), which have reduced O-GlcNAcylation, and wild-type (WT) controls were treated with 300 mg/kg APAP and the development of injury was studied over a time course from 0 to 24 h. OGT KO mice developed significantly lower liver injury as compared with WT mice. Hepatic CYP2E1 activity and glutathione (GSH) depletion following APAP treatment were not different between WT and OGT KO mice. However, replenishment of GSH and induction of GSH biosynthesis genes were significantly faster in the OGT KO mice. Next, male C57BL/6 J mice were treated Thiamet-G (TMG), a specific inhibitor of OGA to induce O-GlcNAcylation, 1.5 h after APAP administration and the development of liver injury was studied over a time course of 0-24 h. TMG-treated mice exhibited significantly higher APAP-induced liver injury. Treatment with TMG did not affect hepatic CYP2E1 levels, GSH depletion, APAP-protein adducts, and APAP-induced mitochondrial damage. However, GSH replenishment and GSH biosynthesis genes were lower in TMG-treated mice after APAP overdose. Taken together, these data indicate that induction in cellular O-GlcNAcylation exacerbates APAP-induced liver injury via dysregulation of hepatic GSH replenishment response.

  7. Methimazole-induced liver injury overshadowed by methylprednisolone pulse therapy: Case report.

    PubMed

    Abramavicius, Silvijus; Velickiene, Dzilda; Kadusevicius, Edmundas

    2017-09-01

    Treatment choices are limited, when deciding how to manage thyrotoxicosis and moderate to severe Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) with suspected optic nerve damage in patients with elevated liver transaminase levels. The situation become even more complicated, if methimazole induced hepatotoxicity is suspected and intravenous methylprednisolone is co-administrated. A 74-year-old woman presented with spontaneous retro-bulbar pain, eyelid swelling and inconstant diplopia. Thyrotoxicosis and severe GO with suspected optic nerve damage and drug induced liver injury (DILI). Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy was administered to treat GO and methimazole was continued for thyrotoxicosis. Dose of methimazole was reduced after exclusion of concurrent infection and active liver disease. The GO symptoms (eyelid swelling, sight loss, proptosis, retro-bulbar pain, diplopia) markedly decreased after the treatment course. Liver transaminases spontaneously returned to normal ranges and remained normal during the next 12 months until the Graves' disease until the treatment was completed. 1. The interaction of methimazole and methylprednisolone may result in DILI. 2. In a patient without concomitant liver diseases MP can be continued if the methimazole dose is reduced if no other treatment options are available.

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract on sodium dichromate-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2016-03-01

    Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber, commonly known as Dandelion, has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders and some women diseases such as breast and uterus cancers. The main objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of T. officinale leaf extract (TOE) in treating sodium dichromate hazards; it is a major environmental pollutant known for its wide toxic manifestations witch induced liver injury. TOE at a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w was orally administered once per day for 30 days consecutively, followed by 10 mg/kg b.w sodium dichromate was injected (intraperitoneal) for 10 days. Our results using Wistar rats showed that sodium dichromate significantly increased serum biochemical parameters. In the liver, it was found to induce an oxidative stress, evidenced from increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidative activities. In addition, histopathological observation revealed that sodium dichromate causes acute liver damage, necrosis of hepatocytes, as well as DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, animals that were pretreated with TOE, prior to sodium dichromate administration, showed a significant hepatoprotection, revealed by a significant reduction of sodium dichromate-induced oxidative damage for all tested markers. These finding powerfully supports that TOE was effective in the protection against sodium dichromate-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity and, therefore, suggest a potential therapeutic use of this plant as an alternative medicine for patients with acute liver diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High regenerative capacity of the liver and irreversible injury of male reproductive system in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis rat model.

    PubMed

    Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Drahulian, Maria V; Buchek, Polina V; Gulko, Tamara P

    2018-03-01

    Liver fibrosis (LF) is a chronic disease, associated with many collateral diseases including reproductive dysfunction. Although the normal liver has a large regenerative capacity the complications of LF could be severe and irreversible. Hormone and sex-related issues of LF development and interactions with male reproductive have not been finally studied. The aim was to study the reproductive function of male rats in experimental CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis rat model, and the capability for restoration of both the liver and male reproduction system. Studies were conducted on 20 3-month old Wistar male rats. The experimental animals were injected with freshly prepared 50% olive oil solution of carbohydrate tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). On the 8th week after injection we noted the manifestations of liver fibrosis. The rats were left to self-healing of the liver for 8 weeks. All male rats underwent ultrasound and biopsy of the liver and testes on the 8th and 16th weeks. The male rats were mated with healthy females before CCl 4 injection, after modeling LF on the 8th week, and after self-healing of the liver. Pregnancy was monitored on ultrasound. On the 8th week of experiment we observed ultrasound manifestation of advanced liver fibrosis, including hepatosplenomegaly, portal hypertension. Ultrasound exam of the rat testes showed testicular degeneration, hydrocele, fibrosis, scarring, petrifications, size reduction, and restriction of testicular descent; testes size decreased from 1.24 ± 0.62 ml to 0.61 ± 0.13, p  < 0.01. Liver histology showed granular dystrophy of hepatocytes, necrotic areas, lipid inclusions in parenchyma. Rats with liver fibrosis demonstrated severe injury of the reproductive system and altering of fertility: the offspring of male rats with advanced LF was 4.71 ± 0.53 born alive vs 9.55 ± 0.47 born from mating with healthy males, p  < 0.001. Eight weeks after last CCl 4 injection, we revealed signs of liver regeneration, significant

  10. 17β-Estradiol protects the liver against cold ischemia/reperfusion injury through the Akt kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohua; Qin, Lei; Liu, Jianxia; Tian, Liping; Qian, Haixin

    2012-12-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury occurs during liver resection and transplantation. Recent studies have shown that 17β-estradiol (E2) can protect the heart and liver against warm IR. The present study focused on the cytoprotective effects of E2 on cold IR injury to the liver. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham, IR, and IR plus E2. The model of rat orthotopic liver transplantation was used. The rats in the IR plus E2 group were intraperitoneally injected with E2 (100 μg/kg/d) for 7 d before surgery. The sham and IR group received the same quantity of saline. The donor livers were then orthotopically transplanted into rats after cold ischemia preservation for 4 h at 4°C lactated Ringer's solution. After 6 h reperfusion, liver function, bile flow volume, hepatocyte apoptosis, and activation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and Bcl-2-associated death promoter were assessed. The survival rate of the rats was also investigated. The administration of E2 significantly prolonged the survival of liver grafts by improving liver function and decreasing hepatocyte apoptosis. Rats undergoing E2 demonstrated a greater level activation of Akt in the liver compared with the IR group. In addition, E2 also inhibited the activities of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, Bcl-2-associated death promoter, and caspase-3-induced by IR injury. E2 pretreatment attenuated the hepatocellular damage caused by hepatic cold IR injury through the Akt pathway. Estrogen therapy might be important in clinical settings associated with cold IR injury during liver transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hemostatic Effects of Microbubble-Enhanced Low-Intensity Ultrasound in a Liver Avulsion Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guiying; Liu, Jianhua; Zhao, Xiaochen; Wei, Jinglu; Ou, Wencai; Xiao, Shuyi; Hu, Zhiwen; Wei, Hongqin; Liu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Microbubble-enhanced therapeutic ultrasound (MEUS) can block the blood flow in the organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemostatic effect of microbubble-enhanced pulsed, low-intensity ultrasound in a New Zealand White rabbit model of avulsion trauma of the liver. The therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) transducer was operated with the frequency of 1.2 MHz and an acoustic pressure of 3.4 MPa. Microbubble-(MB) enhanced ultrasound (MEUS) (n = 6) was delivered to the distal part of the liver where the avulsion was created. Livers were treated by TUS only (n = 4) or MB only (n = 4) which served as controls. Bleeding rates were measured and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed to assess the hemostatic effect, and liver hemoperfusion before and after treatment. Generally, bleeding rates decreased more than 10-fold after the treatment with MEUS compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). CEUS showed significant declines in perfusion. The peak intensity value and the area under the curve also decreased after insonation compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). Histological examination showed cloudy and swollen hepatocytes, dilated hepatic sinusoids, perisinusoidal spaces with erythrocyte accumulation in small blood vessels, obvious hemorrhage around portal areas and scattered necrosis in liver tissues within the insonation area of MEUS Group. In addition, necrosis was found in liver tissue 48 h after insonation. We conclude that MEUS might provide an effective hemostatic therapy for serious organ trauma such as liver avulsion injury. PMID:24788757

  12. A transcriptomics data-driven gene space accurately predicts liver cytopathology and drug-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Kohonen, Pekka; Parkkinen, Juuso A.; Willighagen, Egon L.; Ceder, Rebecca; Wennerberg, Krister; Kaski, Samuel; Grafström, Roland C.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting unanticipated harmful effects of chemicals and drug molecules is a difficult and costly task. Here we utilize a ‘big data compacting and data fusion’—concept to capture diverse adverse outcomes on cellular and organismal levels. The approach generates from transcriptomics data set a ‘predictive toxicogenomics space’ (PTGS) tool composed of 1,331 genes distributed over 14 overlapping cytotoxicity-related gene space components. Involving ∼2.5 × 108 data points and 1,300 compounds to construct and validate the PTGS, the tool serves to: explain dose-dependent cytotoxicity effects, provide a virtual cytotoxicity probability estimate intrinsic to omics data, predict chemically-induced pathological states in liver resulting from repeated dosing of rats, and furthermore, predict human drug-induced liver injury (DILI) from hepatocyte experiments. Analysing 68 DILI-annotated drugs, the PTGS tool outperforms and complements existing tests, leading to a hereto-unseen level of DILI prediction accuracy. PMID:28671182

  13. Hyperoxygenated hydrogen-rich solution suppresses shock- and resuscitation-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yangjie; Liu, Ting; Mei, Xiaopeng; Meng, Xiangzhong; Gou, Xingchun; Deng, Bin; Xu, Hao; Xu, Lixian

    2017-12-01

    It is not known whether simultaneous delivery of hydrogen and oxygen can reduce injury caused by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR). This study investigated the therapeutic potential of hyperoxygenated hydrogen-rich solution (HHOS), a combined hydrogen/oxygen carrier, in a rat model of HSR-induced liver injury. Rats (n = 60) were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 6 per group at each time point). One group underwent sham operation, and the others were subjected to severe hemorrhagic shock and then treated with lactated Ringer's solution (LRS), hydrogen-rich solution, hyperoxygenated solution, or HHOS. At 2 and 6 h after resuscitation, blood samples (n = 6) were collected from the femoral artery and serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured. Rats were then sacrificed, and histopathological changes in the liver were evaluated by quantifying the percentage of apoptotic cells by caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling. Inflammation was assessed by assessing malondialdehyde content and tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 expression. Compared to lactated Ringer's solution, hydrogen-rich solution, or hyperoxygenated solution groups, serum AST and alanine aminotransferase levels and IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and malondialdehyde expression in liver tissue were decreased by HHOS treatment. The number of caspase-3- and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells was decreased (P < 0.05) by HHOS treatment, 2 and 6 h after resuscitation. HHOS has protective effects against liver injury in a rat model of HSR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sterile inflammation in acetaminophen-induced liver injury is mediated by Cot/tpl2.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Garcia, Carlos; Ferrer-Mayorga, Gemma; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Valverde, Angela M; Martín-Duce, Antonio; Velasco-Martín, Juan P; Regadera, Javier; Fernández, Margarita; Alemany, Susana

    2013-05-24

    Cot/tpl2 (MAP3K8) activates MKK1/2-Erk1/2 following stimulation of the Toll-like/IL-1 receptor superfamily. Here, we investigated the role of Cot/tpl2 in sterile inflammation and drug-induced liver toxicity. Cot/tpl2 KO mice exhibited reduced hepatic injury after acetaminophen challenge, as evidenced by decreased serum levels of both alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, decreased hepatic necrosis, and increased survival relative to Wt mice. Serum levels of both alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were also lower after intraperitoneal injection of acetaminophen in mice expressing an inactive form of Cot/tpl2 compared with Wt mice, suggesting that Cot/tpl2 activity contributes to acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Furthermore, Cot/tpl2 deficiency reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in the liver of mice treated with acetaminophen, as well as their hepatic and systemic levels of IL-1α. Intraperitoneal injection of damage-associated molecular patterns from necrotic hepatocytes also impaired the recruitment of leukocytes and decreased the levels of several cytokines in the peritoneal cavity in Cot/tpl2 KO mice compared with Wt counterparts. Moreover, similar activation profiles of intracellular pathways were observed in Wt macrophages stimulated with Wt or Cot/tpl2 KO damage-associated molecular patterns. However, upon stimulation with damage-associated molecular patterns, the activation of Erk1/2 and JNK was deficient in Cot/tpl2 KO macrophages compared with their Wt counterparts; an effect accompanied by weaker release of several cytokines, including IL-1α, an important component in the development of sterile inflammation. Taken together, these findings indicate that Cot/tpl2 contributes to acetaminophen-induced liver injury, providing some insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  15. Sterile Inflammation in Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury Is Mediated by Cot/tpl2*

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Garcia, Carlos; Ferrer-Mayorga, Gemma; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Valverde, Ángela M.; Martín-Duce, Antonio; Velasco-Martín, Juan P.; Regadera, Javier; Fernández, Margarita; Alemany, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Cot/tpl2 (MAP3K8) activates MKK1/2-Erk1/2 following stimulation of the Toll-like/IL-1 receptor superfamily. Here, we investigated the role of Cot/tpl2 in sterile inflammation and drug-induced liver toxicity. Cot/tpl2 KO mice exhibited reduced hepatic injury after acetaminophen challenge, as evidenced by decreased serum levels of both alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, decreased hepatic necrosis, and increased survival relative to Wt mice. Serum levels of both alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were also lower after intraperitoneal injection of acetaminophen in mice expressing an inactive form of Cot/tpl2 compared with Wt mice, suggesting that Cot/tpl2 activity contributes to acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Furthermore, Cot/tpl2 deficiency reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in the liver of mice treated with acetaminophen, as well as their hepatic and systemic levels of IL-1α. Intraperitoneal injection of damage-associated molecular patterns from necrotic hepatocytes also impaired the recruitment of leukocytes and decreased the levels of several cytokines in the peritoneal cavity in Cot/tpl2 KO mice compared with Wt counterparts. Moreover, similar activation profiles of intracellular pathways were observed in Wt macrophages stimulated with Wt or Cot/tpl2 KO damage-associated molecular patterns. However, upon stimulation with damage-associated molecular patterns, the activation of Erk1/2 and JNK was deficient in Cot/tpl2 KO macrophages compared with their Wt counterparts; an effect accompanied by weaker release of several cytokines, including IL-1α, an important component in the development of sterile inflammation. Taken together, these findings indicate that Cot/tpl2 contributes to acetaminophen-induced liver injury, providing some insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:23572518

  16. Parboiled Germinated Brown Rice Protects Against CCl4-Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wunjuntuk, Kansuda; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri; Rungruang, Thanaporn

    2016-01-01

    Parboiled germinated brown rice (PGBR) of Khao Dawk Mali 105 variety was produced by steaming germinated paddy rice, which is well-known for its nutrients and bioactive compounds. In this study we determined the in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of PGBR in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, (weight 200-250 g) were randomly divided into (1) control, (2) CCl(4), (3) white rice (WR)+CCl(4), (4) brown rice (BR)+CCl(4), and (5) PGBR+CCl(4) groups. PGBR, BR, and WR diets were produced by replacing corn starch in the AIN76A diet with cooked PGBR, BR, and WR powders, respectively. All rats except the control group were gavaged with 50% CCl4 in olive oil (v/v, 1 mL/kg) twice a week for 8 weeks. CCl(4)-treated rats exhibited significant liver injury, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, as well as obvious changes to liver histopathology compared to control. In addition, CCl(4) treatment decreased the activities of CYP2E1 and antioxidant enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and glutathione (GSH) content. However, the PGBR+CCl(4) group exhibited less liver injury, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, as well as better antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH content. Furthermore, PGBR inhibited degradation of CYP2E1 in CCl(4)-induced decrease of CYP2E1 activity. These data suggest that PGBR may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative stress and injury through enhancement of the antioxidant capacities, which may be due to complex actions of various bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids, γ-oryzanol, tocotrienol, and GABA.

  17. Glechoma hederacea extracts attenuate cholestatic liver injury in a bile duct-ligated rat model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Yu; Lin, Shih-Yi; Chen, Wen-Ying; Liao, Su-Lan; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Pan, Pin-Ho; Chou, Su-Tze; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2017-05-23

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Glechoma hederacea is frequently prescribed to patients with cholelithiasis, dropsy, abscess, diabetes, inflammation, and jaundice. Polyphenolic compounds are main bioactive components of Glechoma hederacea. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective potential of hot water extract of Glechoma hederacea against cholestatic liver injury in rats. Cholestatic liver injury was produced by ligating common bile ducts in Sprague-Dawley rats. Saline and hot water extract of Glechoma hederacea were orally administrated using gastric gavages. Liver tissues and bloods were collected and subjected to evaluation using histological, molecular, and biochemical approaches. Using a rat model of cholestasis caused by bile duct ligation (BDL), daily oral administration of Glechoma hederacea hot water extracts showed protective effects against cholestatic liver injury, as evidenced by the improvement of serum biochemicals, ductular reaction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. Glechoma hederacea extracts alleviated BDL-induced transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor, and collagen expression, and the anti-fibrotic effects were accompanied by reductions in α-smooth muscle actin-positive matrix-producing cells and Smad2/3 activity. Glechoma hederacea extracts attenuated BDL-induced inflammatory cell infiltration/accumulation, NF-κB and AP-1 activation, and inflammatory cytokine production. Further studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Glechoma hederacea extracts on the axis of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1)/toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) intracellular signaling pathways. The hepatoprotective, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic effects of Glechoma hederacea extracts seem to be multifactorial. The beneficial effects of daily Glechoma hederacea extracts supplementation were associated with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic potential, as well as down

  18. Mitigation of autophagy ameliorates hepatocellular damage following ischemia-reperfusion injury in murine steatotic liver

    PubMed Central

    Kolachala, Vasantha L.; Jiang, Rong; Abramowsky, Carlos; Shenoi, Asha; Kosters, Astrid; Pavuluri, Haritha; Anania, Frank; Kirk, Allan D.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common clinical consequence of hepatic surgery, cardiogenic shock, and liver transplantation. A steatotic liver is particularly vulnerable to IRI, responding with extensive hepatocellular injury. Autophagy, a lysosomal pathway balancing cell survival and cell death, is engaged in IRI, although its role in IRI of a steatotic liver is unclear. The role of autophagy was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice exposed to IRI in vivo and in steatotic hepatocytes exposed to hypoxic IRI (HIRI) in vitro. Two inhibitors of autophagy, 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1, protected the steatotic hepatocytes from HIRI. Exendin 4 (Ex4), a glucagon-like peptide 1 analog, also led to suppression of autophagy, as evidenced by decreased autophagy-associated proteins [microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) II, p62, high-mobility group protein B1, beclin-1, and autophagy-related protein 7], reduced hepatocellular damage, and improved mitochondrial structure and function in HFD-fed mice exposed to IRI. Decreased autophagy was further demonstrated by reversal of a punctate pattern of LC3 and decreased autophagic flux after IRI in HFD-fed mice. Under the same conditions, the effects of Ex4 were reversed by the competitive antagonist exendin 9-39. The present study suggests that, in IRI of hepatic steatosis, treatment of hepatocytes with Ex4 mitigates autophagy, ameliorates hepatocellular injury, and preserves mitochondrial integrity. These data suggest that therapies targeting autophagy, by Ex4 treatment in particular, may ameliorate the effects of IRI in highly prevalent steatotic liver. PMID:25258410

  19. Age-associated change of C/EBP family proteins causes severe liver injury and acceleration of liver proliferation after CCl4 treatments.

    PubMed

    Hong, Il-Hwa; Lewis, Kyle; Iakova, Polina; Jin, Jingling; Sullivan, Emily; Jawanmardi, Nicole; Timchenko, Lubov; Timchenko, Nikolai

    2014-01-10

    The aged liver is more sensitive to the drug treatments and has a high probability of developing liver disorders such as fibrosis, cirrhosis, and cancer. Here we present mechanisms underlying age-associated severe liver injury and acceleration of liver proliferation after CCl4 treatments. We have examined liver response to CCl4 treatments using old WT mice and young C/EBPα-S193D knockin mice, which express an aged-like isoform of C/EBPα. Both animal models have altered chromatin structure as well as increased liver injury and proliferation after acute CCl4 treatments. We found that these age-related changes are associated with the repression of key regulators of liver biology: C/EBPα, Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) and telomere reverse transcriptase (TERT). In quiescent livers of old WT and young S193D mice, the inhibition of TERT is mediated by HDAC1-C/EBPα complexes. After CCl4 treatments, TERT, C/EBPα and FXR are repressed by different mechanisms. These mechanisms include the increase of a dominant negative isoform, C/EBPβ-LIP, and subsequent repression of C/EBPα, FXR, and TERT promoters. C/EBPβ-LIP also disrupts Rb-E2F1 complexes in C/EBPα-S193D mice after CCl4 treatments. To examine if these alterations are involved in drug-mediated liver diseases, we performed chronic treatments of mice with CCl4. We found that C/EBPα-S193D mice developed fibrosis much more rapidly than WT mice. Thus, our data show that the age-associated alterations of C/EBP proteins create favorable conditions for the increased liver proliferation after CCl4 treatments and for development of drug-mediated liver diseases.

  20. Age-associated Change of C/EBP Family Proteins Causes Severe Liver Injury and Acceleration of Liver Proliferation after CCl4 Treatments*

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Il-Hwa; Lewis, Kyle; Iakova, Polina; Jin, Jingling; Sullivan, Emily; Jawanmardi, Nicole; Timchenko, Lubov; Timchenko, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    The aged liver is more sensitive to the drug treatments and has a high probability of developing liver disorders such as fibrosis, cirrhosis, and cancer. Here we present mechanisms underlying age-associated severe liver injury and acceleration of liver proliferation after CCl4 treatments. We have examined liver response to CCl4 treatments using old WT mice and young C/EBPα-S193D knockin mice, which express an aged-like isoform of C/EBPα. Both animal models have altered chromatin structure as well as increased liver injury and proliferation after acute CCl4 treatments. We found that these age-related changes are associated with the repression of key regulators of liver biology: C/EBPα, Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) and telomere reverse transcriptase (TERT). In quiescent livers of old WT and young S193D mice, the inhibition of TERT is mediated by HDAC1-C/EBPα complexes. After CCl4 treatments, TERT, C/EBPα and FXR are repressed by different mechanisms. These mechanisms include the increase of a dominant negative isoform, C/EBPβ-LIP, and subsequent repression of C/EBPα, FXR, and TERT promoters. C/EBPβ-LIP also disrupts Rb-E2F1 complexes in C/EBPα-S193D mice after CCl4 treatments. To examine if these alterations are involved in drug-mediated liver diseases, we performed chronic treatments of mice with CCl4. We found that C/EBPα-S193D mice developed fibrosis much more rapidly than WT mice. Thus, our data show that the age-associated alterations of C/EBP proteins create favorable conditions for the increased liver proliferation after CCl4 treatments and for development of drug-mediated liver diseases. PMID:24273171

  1. No significant impact of Foxf1 siRNA treatment in acute and chronic CCl4 liver injury.

    PubMed

    Abshagen, Kerstin; Rotberg, Tobias; Genz, Berit; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2017-08-01

    Chronic liver injury of any etiology is the main trigger of fibrogenic responses and thought to be mediated by hepatic stellate cells. Herein, activating transcription factors like forkhead box f1 are described to stimulate pro-fibrogenic genes in hepatic stellate cells. By using a liver-specific siRNA delivery system (DBTC), we evaluated whether forkhead box f1 siRNA treatment exhibit beneficial effects in murine models of acute and chronic CCl 4 -induced liver injury. Systemic administration of DBTC-forkhead box f1 siRNA in mice was only sufficient to silence forkhead box f1 in acute CCl 4 model, but was not able to attenuate liver injury as measured by liver enzymes and necrotic liver cell area. Therapeutic treatment of mice with DBTC-forkhead box f1 siRNA upon chronic CCl 4 exposition failed to inhibit forkhead box f1 expression and hence lacked to diminish hepatic stellate cells activation or fibrosis development. As a conclusion, DBTC-forkhead box f1 siRNA reduced forkhead box f1 expression in a model of acute but not chronic toxic liver injury and showed no positive effects in either of these mice models. Impact statement As liver fibrosis is a worldwide health problem, antifibrotic therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Therefore, further developments of new technologies including validation in different experimental models of liver disease are essential. Since activation of hepatic stellate cells is a key event upon liver injury, the activating transcription factor forkhead box f1 (Foxf1) represents a potential target gene. Previously, we evaluated Foxf1 silencing by a liver-specific siRNA delivery system (DBTC), exerting beneficial effects in cholestasis. The present study was designed to confirm the therapeutic potential of Foxf1 siRNA in models of acute and chronic CCl 4 -induced liver injury. DBTC-Foxf1 siRNA was only sufficient to silence Foxf1 in acute CCl 4 model and did not ameliorate liver injury or fibrogenesis. This underlines the

  2. The effects of epidural bupivacaine on ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Sarikus, Z; Bedirli, N; Yilmaz, G; Bagriacik, U; Bozkirli, F

    2016-01-01

    Several animal studies showed beneficial effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) in hippocampal, mesenteric and myocardial IR injury (2-4). In this study, we investigated the effects of epidural bupivacaine on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in a rat model. Eighteen rats were randomly divided into three groups each containing 6 animals. The rats in Group C had sham laparotomy. The rats in the Group S were subjected to liver IR through laparotomy and 20 mcg/kg/h 0.9% NaCl was administered to these rats via an epidural catheter. The rats in the Group B were subjected to liver IR and were given 20 mcg/kg/h bupivacaine via an epidural catheter. Liver tissue was harvested for MDA analysis, apoptosis and histopathological examination after 60 minutes of ischemia followed by 360 minutes of reperfusion. Blood samples were also collected for TNF-α, IL-1β, AST and ALT analysis. The AST and ALT levels were higher in ischemia and reperfusion group, which received only normal saline via the thoracic epidural catheter, compared to the sham group. In the ischemia reperfusion group, which received bupivacaine via the epidural catheter, IL-1 levels were significantly higher than in the other groups. TNF-α levels were higher in the Groups S and B compared to the sham group. Bupivacaine administration induced apoptosis in all animals. These results showed that thoracic epidural bupivacaine was not a suitable agent for preventing inflammatory response and lipid peroxidation in experimental hepatic IR injury in rats. Moreover, epidural bupivacaine triggered apoptosis in hepatocytes. Further research is needed as there are no studies in literature investigate the effects of epidural bupivacaine on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (Tab. 3, Fig. 3, Ref. 34).

  3. CSF1 Restores Innate Immunity After Liver Injury in Mice and Serum Levels Indicate Outcomes of Patients With Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Stutchfield, Benjamin M.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Mackinnon, Alison C.; Gow, Deborah J.; Bain, Calum C.; Hawley, Catherine A.; Hughes, Michael J.; Francis, Benjamin; Wojtacha, Davina; Man, Tak Y.; Dear, James W.; Devey, Luke R.; Mowat, Alan M.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Park, B. Kevin; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Simpson, Kenneth J.; Hume, David A.; Wigmore, Stephen J.; Forbes, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver regeneration requires functional liver macrophages, which provide an immune barrier that is compromised after liver injury. The numbers of liver macrophages are controlled by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1). We examined the prognostic significance of the serum level of CSF1 in patients with acute liver injury and studied its effects in mice. Methods We measured levels of CSF1 in serum samples collected from 55 patients who underwent partial hepatectomy at the Royal Infirmary Edinburgh between December 2012 and October 2013, as well as from 78 patients with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure admitted to the Royal Infirmary Edinburgh or the University of Kansas Medical Centre. We studied the effects of increased levels of CSF1 in uninjured mice that express wild-type CSF1 receptor or a constitutive or inducible CSF1-receptor reporter, as well as in chemokine receptor 2 (Ccr2)-/- mice; we performed fate-tracing experiments using bone marrow chimeras. We administered CSF1-Fc (fragment, crystallizable) to mice after partial hepatectomy and acetaminophen intoxication, and measured regenerative parameters and innate immunity by clearance of fluorescent microbeads and bacterial particles. Results Serum levels of CSF1 increased in patients undergoing liver surgery in proportion to the extent of liver resected. In patients with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure, a low serum level of CSF1 was associated with increased mortality. In mice, administration of CSF1-Fc promoted hepatic macrophage accumulation via proliferation of resident macrophages and recruitment of monocytes. CSF1-Fc also promoted transdifferentiation of infiltrating monocytes into cells with a hepatic macrophage phenotype. CSF1-Fc increased innate immunity in mice after partial hepatectomy or acetaminophen-induced injury, with resident hepatic macrophage as the main effector cells. Conclusions Serum CSF1 appears to be a prognostic marker for patients

  4. ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE CONDITIONS THE RESPONSE TO ACUTE AND CHRONIC ETHANOL-INDUCED LIVER INJURY IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wei; Morón-Concepción, Jose A.; Ward, Stephen C.; Ge, Xiaodong; de la Rosa, Laura Conde; Nieto, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in both the urea and the l-citrulline/nitric oxide (NO·) cycles regulating protein catabolism, ammonia levels and NO· generation (1-2). Since a proteomics analysis identified ASS and nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) as co-induced in rat hepatocytes by chronic ethanol consumption, which also occurred in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and in cirrhotic patients, we hypothesized that ASS could play a role in ethanol binge and chronic ethanol-induced liver damage. Methods To investigate the contribution of ASS to the pathophysiology of ALD, wild-type (WT) and Ass+/− mice (Ass−/− are lethal due to hyperammonemia) were exposed to an ethanol binge or to chronic ethanol drinking. Results Compared with WT, Ass+/− mice given an ethanol binge exhibited decreased steatosis, lower NOS2 induction and less 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) protein residues, indicating that reducing nitrosative stress via the l-citrulline/NO· pathway plays a significant role in preventing liver damage. However, chronic ethanol treated Ass+/− mice displayed enhanced liver injury compared with WT mice. This was due to hyperammonemia, lower phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPKα) to total AMPKα ratio, decreased sirtuin (Sirt-1) and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (Pgc1α) mRNAs, lower fatty acid β-oxidation due to down-regulation of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-II (CPT-II), decreased antioxidant defense and elevated lipid peroxidation end-products in spite of comparable nitrosative stress but likely reduced NOS3. Conclusion Partial Ass ablation protects only in acute ethanol-induced liver injury by decreasing nitrosative stress but not in a more chronic scenario where oxidative stress and impaired fatty acid β-oxidation are key events. PMID:22213272

  5. Drug induced liver injury with analysis of alternative causes as confounding variables.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Danan, Gaby

    2018-04-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is rare compared to the worldwide frequent acute or chronic liver diseases. Therefore, patients included in series of suspected DILI are at high risk of not having DILI, whereby alternative causes may confound the DILI diagnosis. The aim of this review is to evaluate published case series of DILI for alternative causes. Relevant studies were identified using a computerized search of the Medline database for publications from 1993 through 30 October 2017. We used the following terms: drug hepatotoxicity, drug induced liver injury, hepatotoxic drugs combined with diagnosis, causality assessment and alternative causes. Alternative causes as variables confounding the DILI diagnosis emerged in 22 published DILI case series, ranging from 4 to 47%. Among 13 335 cases of suspected DILI, alternative causes were found to be more likely in 4555 patients (34.2%), suggesting that the suspected DILI was probably not DILI. Biliary diseases such as biliary obstruction, cholangitis, choledocholithiasis, primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis were among the most missed diagnoses. Alternative causes included hepatitis B, C and E, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, ischemic hepatitis, cardiac hepatopathy, autoimmune hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. In more than one-third of published global DILI case series, alternative causes as published in these reports confounded the DILI diagnosis. In the future, published DILI case series should include only patients with secured DILI diagnosis, preferentially established by prospective use of scored items provided by robust diagnostic algorithms such as the updated Roussel Uclaf causality assessment method. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Characterization of liver injury induced by cancer immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    De Martin, Eleonora; Michot, Jean-Marie; Papouin, Barbara; Champiat, Stéphane; Mateus, Christine; Lambotte, Olivier; Roche, Bruno; Antonini, Teresa Maria; Coilly, Audrey; Laghouati, Salim; Robert, Caroline; Marabelle, Aurélien; Guettier, Catherine; Samuel, Didier

    2018-06-01

    Immunotherapy for metastatic cancer can be complicated by the onset of hepatic immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). This study compared hepatic IRAEs associated with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Among 536 patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA-4 immunotherapies, 19 (3.5%) were referred to the liver unit for grade ≥3 hepatitis. Of these patients, nine had received anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and seven had received anti-CTLA-4 mAbs, in monotherapy or in combination with anti-PD-1. Liver investigations were undertaken in these 16 patients, including viral assays, autoimmune tests and liver biopsy, histological review, and immunostaining of liver specimens. In the 16 patients included in this study, median age was 63 (range 33-84) years, and nine (56%) were female. Time between therapy initiation and hepatitis was five (range, 1-49) weeks and median number of immunotherapy injections was two (range, 1-36). No patients developed hepatic failure. Histology related to anti-CTLA-4 mAbs demonstrated granulomatous hepatitis including fibrin ring granulomas and central vein endotheliitis. Histology related to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 mAbs was characterised by lobular hepatitis. The management of hepatic IRAEs was tailored according to the severity of both the biology and histology of liver injury: six patients improved spontaneously; seven received oral corticosteroids at 0.5-1 mg/kg/day; two were maintained on 0.2 mg/kg/day corticosteroids; and one patient required pulses and 2.5 mg/kg/day of corticosteroids, and the addition of a second immunosuppressive drug. In three patients, immunotherapy was reintroduced without recurrence of liver dysfunction. Acute hepatitis resulting from immunotherapy for metastatic cancer is rare (3.5%) and, in most cases, not severe. Histological assessment can distinguish between anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 mAb toxicity. The

  7. Forsythia suspensa extract attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory liver injury in rats via promoting antioxidant defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Panfeng; Piao, Xiangshu; Pan, Long; Zeng, Zhikai; Li, Qingyun; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Hongliang

    2017-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to have a role in inflammation. We investigated whether Forsythia suspensa extract (FSE) could exert its antioxidant potential against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory liver injury in rats. Rats were orally fed FSE once daily for 7 consecutive days prior to LPS (Escherichia coli, serotype O55:B5) injection. LPS treatment caused liver dysfunction as evidenced by massive histopathological changes and increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities which were ameliorated by FSE pretreatment. FSE attenuated LPS-induced depletion of cytosolic nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and suppression of Nrf2 nuclear translocation in liver, and the generation of ROS and malondialdehyde in serum and liver. FSE increased the Nrf2-mediated induction of heme oxygenase-1 in liver, as well as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in serum and liver. Importantly, FSE attenuated LPS-induced nuclear factor-кB (NF-кB) nuclear translocation in liver, and subsequently decreased tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in serum and liver, which were associated with FSE-induced activation of Nrf2 in liver. These results indicate that the protective mechanisms of FSE may be involved in the attenuation of oxidative stress and the inhibition of the NF-кB-mediated inflammatory response by modulating the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response against LPS-induced inflammatory liver injury. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Withaferin A induces Nrf2-dependent protection against liver injury: Role of Keap1-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Palliyaguru, Dushani L; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Skoko, John J; Yagishita, Yoko; Singh, Shivendra V; Kensler, Thomas W

    2016-12-01

    Small molecules of plant origin offer presumptively safe opportunities to prevent carcinogenesis, mutagenesis and other forms of toxicity in humans. However, the mechanisms of action of such plant-based agents remain largely unknown. In recent years the stress responsive transcription factor Nrf2 has been validated as a target for disease chemoprevention. Withania somnifera (WS) is a herb used in Ayurveda (an ancient form of medicine in South Asia). In the recent past, withanolides isolated from WS, such as Withaferin A (WA) have been demonstrated to be preventive and therapeutic against multiple diseases in experimental models. The goals of this study are to evaluate withanolides such as WA as well as Withania somnifera root extract as inducers of Nrf2 signaling, to probe the underlying signaling mechanism of WA and to determine whether prevention of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatic toxicity in mice by WA occurs in an Nrf2-dependent manner. We observed that WA profoundly protects wild-type mice but not Nrf2-disrupted mice against APAP hepatotoxicity. WA is a potent inducer of Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective enzyme expression both in vivo and in vitro. Unexpectedly, WA induces Nrf2 signaling at least in part, in a Keap1-independent, Pten/Pi3k/Akt-dependent manner in comparison to prototypical Nrf2 inducers, sulforaphane and CDDO-Im. The identification of WA as an Nrf2 inducer that can signal through a non-canonical, Keap1-independent pathway provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of other regulatory partners of Nrf2 in the dietary and pharmacological induction of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Apocynin alleviated hepatic oxidative burden and reduced liver injury in hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Long-Sheng; Wu, Chau-Chung; Hung, Li-Man; Chiang, Meng-Tsan; Lin, Ching-Ting; Lin, Chii-Wann; Su, Ming-Jai

    2007-05-01

    This study addressed the effects of apocynin, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, on hepatic oxidative burden and liver injury during diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia. Male Wistar rats were fed a 4% cholesterol-enriched diet for 3 weeks. Apocynin was administered in drinking water concurrently. The high-cholesterol diet (HC) significantly increased the serum level of cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol ester deposition, and these parameters were similar between the HC and high-cholesterol diet plus apocynin (HCA) groups. The HC group showed abnormal liver function tests [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (Alk-P)] as well as increased Evans blue extravasation and macrophages infiltration. Apocynin treatment could suppress these inflammation-related parameters. In vivo measurement of NADPH-derived cellular autofluorescence suggested that HC increased oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Biochemical analysis of redox status including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and oxidized glutathione also confirmed the phenomenon. Apocynin treatment was able to alleviate these indices of oxidative burden owing to HC. Furthermore, apocynin-abrogated HC induced gp91(phox) expression, suggesting the involvement of NADPH oxidase in the pathogenesis. We concluded that apocynin suppressed NADPH oxidase activation and subsequent liver injuries owing to high-cholesterol intake in rats. The impacts of cholesterol metabolism disorders on pathogenesis and progression of steatohepatitis warrant further clinical investigation.

  10. Preventive effects of the deleted form of hepatocyte growth factor against various liver injuries.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, H; Fujise, N; Shiota, A; Ogawa, H; Sato, Y; Imai, E; Yasuda, H; Higashio, K

    1998-01-26

    The effects of a naturally occurring deleted form of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on hepatic disorder were studied in various models of hepatic failure. The pretreatment of rats and mice with the deleted form of HGF prevented the liver injuries and coagulopathy induced by endotoxin, dimethylnitrosamine and acetaminophen and reduced the mortality due to hepatic dysfunction induced by these hepatotoxins. The concurrent administration of the deleted form of HGF also prevented the liver injury and hepatic fibrosis in mice treated with alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate and in rats treated with dimethylnitrosamine. Moreover, the deleted form of HGF normalized the results of the bromosulphalein-clearance test and ameliorated jaundice in rats with periportal cholangiolitic hepatopathy induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate. The deleted form of HGF also reversed the coagulopathy in rats with hepatic disorder induced by dimethylnitrosamine or by 70% resection of cirrhotic liver (induced by carbon tetrachloride). In Long Evans cinnamon rats receiving vehicle, 20 out of 21 animals died within 4 days after the onset of jaundice. After infusion of the deleted form of HGF for 4 days, 7 out of 20 Long-Evans cinnamon rats survived. These results indicate that the deleted form of HGF could have therapeutic potency in patients with severe hepatic failure.

  11. Relevance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Cell Signaling in Liver Cold Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Folch-Puy, Emma; Panisello, Arnau; Oliva, Joan; Lopez, Alexandre; Castro Benítez, Carlos; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in calcium homeostasis, protein folding and lipid biosynthesis. Perturbations in its normal functions lead to a condition called endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). This can be triggered by many physiopathological conditions such as alcoholic steatohepatitis, insulin resistance or ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cell reacts to ERS by initiating a defensive process known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), which comprises cellular mechanisms for adaptation and the safeguarding of cell survival or, in cases of excessively severe stress, for the initiation of the cell death program. Recent experimental data suggest the involvement of ERS in ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) of the liver graft, which has been considered as one of major problems influencing outcome after liver transplantation. The purpose of this review is to summarize updated data on the molecular mechanisms of ERS/UPR and the consequences of this pathology, focusing specifically on solid organ preservation and liver transplantation models. We will also discuss the potential role of ERS, beyond the simple adaptive response and the regulation of cell death, in the modification of cell functional properties and phenotypic changes. PMID:27231901

  12. Liver Injury and Fibrosis Induced by Dietary Challenge in the Ossabaw Miniature Swine

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tiebing; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Bell, Lauren N.; Fullenkamp, Allison; Saxena, Romil; Van Alstine, William; Bybee, Phelan; Werling, Klára; Sturek, Michael; Chalasani, Naga; Masuoka, Howard C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ossabaw miniature swine when fed a diet high in fructose, saturated fat and cholesterol (NASH diet) develop metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) characterized by liver injury and fibrosis. This study was conducted to further characterize the development of NASH in this large animal model. Methods Ossabaw swine were fed standard chow (control group; n = 6) or NASH diet (n = 6) for 24 weeks. Blood and liver tissue were collected and liver histology were characterized at 0, 8, 16 and 24 weeks of dietary intervention. Hepatic apoptosis and lipid levels were assessed at week 24. Results The NASH diet group developed metabolic syndrome and progressive histologic features of NASH including: (a) hepatocyte ballooning at 8 weeks which progressed to extensive ballooning (>90% hepatocytes), (b) hepatic fibrosis at week 16, which progressed to moderate fibrosis, and (c) Kupffer cell accumulation with vacuolization at 8 weeks which progressed through week 24. The NASH diet group showed increased hepatocyte apoptosis that correlated with hepatic total and free cholesterol and free fatty acids, but not esterified cholesterol or triglycerides. Conclusions This report further characterizes the progression of diet-induced NASH in the Ossabaw swine model. In Ossabaw swine fed the NASH diet: (a) hepatocyte injury and fibrosis can occur without macrovesicular steatosis or excess triglyceride accumulation; (b) hepatocyte ballooning generally precedes the development of fibrosis; (c) there is increased hepatocyte apoptosis, and it is correlated more significantly with hepatic free cholesterol than hepatic free fatty acids and had no correlation with hepatic triglycerides. PMID:25978364

  13. Liver injury and fibrosis induced by dietary challenge in the Ossabaw miniature Swine.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tiebing; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Bell, Lauren N; Fullenkamp, Allison; Saxena, Romil; Van Alstine, William; Bybee, Phelan; Werling, Klára; Sturek, Michael; Chalasani, Naga; Masuoka, Howard C

    2015-01-01

    Ossabaw miniature swine when fed a diet high in fructose, saturated fat and cholesterol (NASH diet) develop metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) characterized by liver injury and fibrosis. This study was conducted to further characterize the development of NASH in this large animal model. Ossabaw swine were fed standard chow (control group; n = 6) or NASH diet (n = 6) for 24 weeks. Blood and liver tissue were collected and liver histology were characterized at 0, 8, 16 and 24 weeks of dietary intervention. Hepatic apoptosis and lipid levels were assessed at week 24. The NASH diet group developed metabolic syndrome and progressive histologic features of NASH including: (a) hepatocyte ballooning at 8 weeks which progressed to extensive ballooning (>90% hepatocytes), (b) hepatic fibrosis at week 16, which progressed to moderate fibrosis, and (c) Kupffer cell accumulation with vacuolization at 8 weeks which progressed through week 24. The NASH diet group showed increased hepatocyte apoptosis that correlated with hepatic total and free cholesterol and free fatty acids, but not esterified cholesterol or triglycerides. This report further characterizes the progression of diet-induced NASH in the Ossabaw swine model. In Ossabaw swine fed the NASH diet: (a) hepatocyte injury and fibrosis can occur without macrovesicular steatosis or excess triglyceride accumulation; (b) hepatocyte ballooning generally precedes the development of fibrosis; (c) there is increased hepatocyte apoptosis, and it is correlated more significantly with hepatic free cholesterol than hepatic free fatty acids and had no correlation with hepatic triglycerides.

  14. Unraveling cellular pathways contributing to drug-induced liver injury by dynamical modeling.

    PubMed

    Kuijper, Isoude A; Yang, Huan; Van De Water, Bob; Beltman, Joost B

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant threat to human health and a major problem in drug development. It is hard to predict due to its idiosyncratic nature and which does not show up in animal trials. Hepatic adaptive stress response pathway activation is generally observed in drug-induced liver injury. Dynamical pathway modeling has the potential to foresee adverse effects of drugs before they go in trial. Ordinary differential equation modeling can offer mechanistic insight, and allows us to study the dynamical behavior of stress pathways involved in DILI. Areas covered: This review provides an overview on the progress of the dynamical modeling of stress and death pathways pertinent to DILI, i.e. pathways relevant for oxidative stress, inflammatory stress, DNA damage, unfolded proteins, heat shock and apoptosis. We also discuss the required steps for applying such modeling to the liver. Expert opinion: Despite the strong progress made since the turn of the century, models of stress pathways have only rarely been specifically applied to describe pathway dynamics for DILI. We argue that with minor changes, in some cases only to parameter values, many of these models can be repurposed for application in DILI research. Combining both dynamical models with in vitro testing might offer novel screening methods for the harmful side-effects of drugs.

  15. TNF-α dependent production of inducible nitric oxide is involved in PGE1 protection against acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Muntane, J; Rodriguez, F; Segado, O; Quintero, A; Lozano, J; Siendones, E; Pedraza, C; Delgado, M; O'Valle, F; Garcia, R; Montero, J; De la Mata, M; Mino, G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide modulate damage in several experimental models of liver injury. We have previously shown that protection against D-galactosamine (D-GalN) induced liver injury by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) was accompanied by an increase in TNF-α and nitrite/nitrate in serum.
AIMS—The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of TNF-α and nitric oxide during protection by PGE1 of liver damage induced by D-GalN.
METHODS—Liver injury was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of 1 g/kg of D-GalN. PGE1 was administered 30 minutes before D-GalN. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was inhibited by methylisothiourea (MT), and TNF-α concentration in serum was lowered by administration of anti-TNF-α antibodies. Liver injury was evaluated by alanine aminotransferase activity in serum, and histological examination and DNA fragmentation in liver. TNF-α and nitrite/nitrate concentrations were determined in serum. Expression of TNF-α and iNOS was also assessed in liver sections.
RESULTS—PGE1 decreased liver injury and increased TNF-α and nitrite/nitrate concentrations in serum of rats treated with D-GalN. PGE1 protection was related to enhanced expression of TNF-α and iNOS in hepatocytes. Administration of anti-TNF-α antibodies or MT blocked the protection by PGE1 of liver injury induced by D-GalN.
CONCLUSIONS—This study suggests that prior administration of PGE1 to D-GalN treated animals enhanced expression of TNF-α and iNOS in hepatocytes, and that this was causally related to protection by PGE1 against D-GalN induced liver injury.


Keywords: tumour necrosis factor α; nitric oxide; prostaglandin E1; methylisothiourea; D-galactosamine; liver injury PMID:10986217

  16. Amelioration of tamoxifen-induced liver injury in rats by grape seed extract, black seed extract and curcumin.

    PubMed

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Nagy, Ayman A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2010-03-01

    Liver injury was induced in female rats using tamoxifen (TAM). Grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) extract (GSE), black seed (Nigella sativa) extract (NSE), curcumin (CUR) or silymarin (SYL) were orally administered to TAM-intoxicated rats. Liver histopathology of TAM-intoxicated:rats showed pathological changes. TAM-intoxication elicited declines in liver antioxidant enzymes levels (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase), reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG ratio plus the hepatic elevations in lipid peroxides, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and serum liver enzymes; alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Oral intake of NSE, GSE, CUR or SYL to TAM-intoxicated rats, attenuated histopathological changes and corrected all parameters mentioned above. Improvements were prominent in case of NSE (similarly SYL) > CUR > GSE. Data indicated that NSE, GSE or CUR act as free radicals scavengers and protect TAM-induced liver injury in rats.

  17. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates endotoxin-induced liver injury by promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Zhou, Lili; Shu, Xugang; Sun, Xiaohong; Mi, Shumei; Yang, Yuhui; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-22

    Acute or chronic hepatic injury is a common pathology worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play important roles in liver injury. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are some of the most abundant phenolic acids in human diet. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CGA may protect against chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by modulating mitochondrial energy generation. CGA decreased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The contents of ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), as well as the ratio of AMP/ATP, were increased after CGA supplementation. The activities of enzymes that are involved in glycolysis were reduced, while those of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were increased. Moreover, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mRNA levels of AMPK-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor A were increased after CGA supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CGA might be associated with enhanced ATP production, the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the inhibition of glycolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parkin regulates mitophagy and mitochondrial function to protect against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica A.; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease claims two million lives per year. We previously reported that autophagy protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis by removing damaged mitochondria. However, the mechanisms for removal of these mitochondria are unknown. Parkin is an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that is recruited to damaged mitochondria to initiate ubiquitination of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins and subsequent mitochondrial degradation by mitophagy. In addition to its role in mitophagy, Parkin has been shown to have other roles in maintaining mitochondrial function. We investigated whether Parkin protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis using wild-type (WT) and Parkin knockout (KO) mice treated with alcohol by the acute-binge and Gao-binge (chronic plus acute-binge) models. We found that Parkin protected against liver injury in both alcohol models, likely because of Parkin's role in maintaining a population of healthy mitochondria. Alcohol caused greater mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in Parkin KO livers compared with WT livers. After alcohol treatment, Parkin KO mice had severely swollen and damaged mitochondria that lacked cristae, which were not seen in WT mice. Furthermore, Parkin KO mice had decreased mitophagy, β-oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and cytochrome c oxidase activity after acute alcohol treatment compared with WT mice. Interestingly, liver mitochondria seemed able to adapt to alcohol treatment, but Parkin KO mouse liver mitochondria had less capacity to adapt to Gao-binge treatment compared with WT mouse liver mitochondria. Overall, our findings indicate that Parkin is an important mediator of protection against alcohol-induced mitochondrial damage, steatosis, and liver injury. PMID:26159696

  19. Parkin regulates mitophagy and mitochondrial function to protect against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jessica A; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Yifeng; Ding, Wen-Xing

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholic liver disease claims two million lives per year. We previously reported that autophagy protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis by removing damaged mitochondria. However, the mechanisms for removal of these mitochondria are unknown. Parkin is an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that is recruited to damaged mitochondria to initiate ubiquitination of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins and subsequent mitochondrial degradation by mitophagy. In addition to its role in mitophagy, Parkin has been shown to have other roles in maintaining mitochondrial function. We investigated whether Parkin protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis using wild-type (WT) and Parkin knockout (KO) mice treated with alcohol by the acute-binge and Gao-binge (chronic plus acute-binge) models. We found that Parkin protected against liver injury in both alcohol models, likely because of Parkin's role in maintaining a population of healthy mitochondria. Alcohol caused greater mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in Parkin KO livers compared with WT livers. After alcohol treatment, Parkin KO mice had severely swollen and damaged mitochondria that lacked cristae, which were not seen in WT mice. Furthermore, Parkin KO mice had decreased mitophagy, β-oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and cytochrome c oxidase activity after acute alcohol treatment compared with WT mice. Interestingly, liver mitochondria seemed able to adapt to alcohol treatment, but Parkin KO mouse liver mitochondria had less capacity to adapt to Gao-binge treatment compared with WT mouse liver mitochondria. Overall, our findings indicate that Parkin is an important mediator of protection against alcohol-induced mitochondrial damage, steatosis, and liver injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Susceptibility to T cell-mediated liver injury is enhanced in asialoglycoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    McVicker, Benita L; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Casey, Carol A; Osna, Natalia A; Tuma, Dean J

    2013-05-01

    T cell activation and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine production is a pathological feature of inflammatory liver disease. It is also known that liver injury is associated with marked impairments in the function of many hepatic proteins including a hepatocyte-specific binding protein, the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). Recently, it has been suggested that hepatic ASGPRs may play an important role in the physiological regulation of T lymphocytes, leading to our hypothesis that ASGPR defects correlate with inflammatory-mediated events in liver diseases. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether changes in hepatocellular ASGPR expression were related to the dysregulation of intrahepatic T lymphocytes and correlate with the development of T-cell mediated hepatitis. Mice lacking functional ASGPRs (receptor-deficient, RD), and wild-type (WT) controls were intravenously injected with T-cell mitogens, Concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 antibody. As a result of T cell mitogen treatment, RD mice lacking hepatic ASGPRs displayed enhancements in liver pathology, transaminase activities, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and caspase activation compared to that observed in normal WT mice. Furthermore, FACS analysis demonstrated that T-cell mitogen administration resulted in a significant rise in the percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes present in the livers of RD animals versus WT mice. Since these two mouse strains differ only in whether they express the hepatic ASGPR, it can be concluded that proper ASGPR function exerts a protective effect against T cell mediated hepatitis and that impairments to this hepatic receptor could be related to the accumulation of cytotoxic T cells that are observed in inflammatory liver diseases. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Cannabidiol attenuates alcohol-induced liver steatosis, metabolic dysregulation, inflammation and neutrophil-mediated injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuping; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Cao, Zongxian; Wang, Hua; Feng, Dechun; Haskó, György; Mechoulam, Raphael; Gao, Bin; Pacher, Pal

    2017-09-21

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive component of marijuana, which has anti-inflammatory effects. It has also been approved by FDA for various orphan diseases for exploratory trials. Herein, we investigated the effects of CBD on liver injury induced by chronic plus binge alcohol feeding in mice. CBD or vehicle was administered daily throughout the alcohol feeding study. At the conclusion of the feeding protocol, serums samples, livers or isolated neutrophils were utilized for molecular biology, biochemistry and pathology analysis. CBD significantly attenuated the alcohol feeding-induced serum transaminase elevations, hepatic inflammation (mRNA expressions of TNFα, MCP1, IL1β, MIP2 and E-Selectin, and neutrophil accumulation), oxidative/nitrative stress (lipid peroxidation, 3-nitrotyrosine formation, and expression of reactive oxygen species generating enzyme NOX2). CBD treatment also attenuated the respiratory burst of neutrophils isolated from chronic plus binge alcohol fed mice or from human blood, and decreased the alcohol-induced increased liver triglyceride and fat droplet accumulation. Furthermore, CBD improved alcohol-induced hepatic metabolic dysregulation and steatosis by restoring changes in hepatic mRNA or protein expression of ACC-1, FASN, PPARα, MCAD, ADIPOR-1, and mCPT-1. Thus, CBD may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of alcoholic liver diseases associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and steatosis, which deserves exploration in human trials.

  2. Redox-dependent regulation of hepatocyte AIM2 inflammasome activation in sterile liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qian; Loughran, Patricia; Shapiro, Richard; Shrivastava, Indira H.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Li, Tunliang; Yan, Zhengzheng; Fan, Jie; Billiar, Timothy R.; Scott, Melanie J.

    2016-01-01

    Sterile liver inflammation, such as liver ischemia reperfusion, hemorrhagic shock after trauma and drug-induced liver injury is initiated and regulated by endogenous mediators including DNA and reactive oxygen species. Here we identify a novel mechanism for redox-mediated regulation of AIM2-inflammasome activation in hepatocytes after redox stress in mice, which occurs via interaction with cytosolic HMGB1. We show that in liver during hemorrhagic shock in mice, and in hepatocytes after hypoxia with reoxygenation, cytosolic HMGB1 associates with AIM2 and is required for activation of caspase-1 in response to cytosolic DNA. Activation of caspase-1 via AIM2 leads to subsequent hepatoprotective responses such as autophagy. HMGB1 binds to AIM2 at a non-DNA-binding site on the HIN-domain of AIM2 to facilitate inflammasome and caspase-1 activation in hepatocytes. Furthermore, binding of HMGB1 to AIM2 is stronger with fully-reduced all-thiol HMGB1 than with partially oxidized disulfide-HMGB1, and binding strength corresponds to caspase-1 activation. These data suggest HMGB1 redox status regulates AIM2 inflammasome activation. Conclusion Our findings suggest a novel and important mechanism for regulation of AIM2 inflammasome activation in hepatocytes during redox stress. Our study may suggest broader implications for how this and other inflammasomes are activated and how their activation is regulated during cell stress, as well as the mechanisms of inflammasome regulation in non-immune cell types. PMID:27774630

  3. Hepatoprotective effect of manganese chloride against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Behzadi, Khodabakhsh; Rohani, Ali Haeri; Safi, Shahabeddin

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of manganese chloride against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in rats. Manganese chloride (0.001, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg bw) was administered intragastrically for 28 consecutive days to male CCl4-treated rats. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Histopathological changes in the liver of different groups were also studied. Administration of CCl4 increased the serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT but decreased SOD levels in rats. Treatment with manganese chloride significantly attenuated these changes to nearly normal levels. The animals treated with manganese chloride have shown decreased necrotic zones and hepatocellular degeneration when compared to the liver exposed to CCl4 intoxication alone. Thus, the histopathological studies also supported the protective effect of manganese chloride. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that manganese chloride exerts hepatoprotection via promoting antioxidative properties against CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage.

  4. Protective effect of wedelolactone against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Hu, DongMei; Ma, ShanBo; Zhao, Xian; Wang, Shan; Wei, Guo; Wang, XiFang; Wen, AiDong; Wang, JingWen

    2016-05-01

    Eclipta, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat liver disease for centuries. However, the chemical basis and biological mechanisms of Eclipta remain elusive. The current study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of wedelolactone (WEL), a major coumarin in Eclipta, using C57BL/6 mice with carbon tetrachloride CCl4-induced acute liver injury (ALI). Our data showed that WEL markedly decreased the CCl4-induced elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, and improved hepatic histopathology changes. WEL also significantly decreased the content of MDA in liver tissues, meanwhile increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD and GSH-Px. In addition, WEL reduced the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, as well as mRNA expression. Western blot results revealed that WEL repressed phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus and enhanced the phosphorylation of c-Jun. N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, results showed that WEL significantly inhibited CCl4-induced hepatocytes apoptosis, markedly suppressed the down-regulation of Bax and active Caspase-3 expression and accelerated the expression of Bcl-2. Overall, the findings indicate that WEL exhibits a protective effect against CCl4-induced ALI in mice by enhancing the antioxidative defense system, suppressing the inflammatory response and cell apoptosis of liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Nancy Sayuri; Silva-Filho, Saulo Euclides; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Wiirzler, Luiz Alexandre Marques; Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; Cavalcante, Heitor Augusto Otaviano; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Becker, Tânia Cristina Alexandrino; Silva, Expedito Leite; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus or lemongrass essential oil (LGO), it was used in an animal model of acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Swiss mice were pretreated with LGO (125, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and SLM (standard drug, 200[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for a duration of seven days, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity of APAP (single dose, 250[Formula: see text]mg/kg). The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of the LGO. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide (NO) production and histological analysis. The effect of LGO on leukocyte migration was evaluated in vitro. Anti-oxidant activity was performed by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro. LGO pretreatment decreased significantly the levels of ALT, AST and ALP compared with APAP group. MPO activity and NO production were decreased. The histopathological analysis showed an improved of hepatic lesions in mice after LGO pretreatment. LGO inhibited neutrophil migration and exhibited anti-oxidant activity. Our results suggest that LGO has protective activity against liver toxicity induced by paracetamol.

  6. Is the Grading of Liver Injuries a Useful Clinical Tool in the Initial Management of Blunt Trauma Patients?

    PubMed

    Helling, Thomas S; Ward, Michael R; Balon, Jennifer

    2009-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the preferred method for evaluation of the abdomen for victims of blunt trauma. Grading of liver injuries, primarily by CT, has been advocated as a measure of severity and, by implication, the likelihood for intervention or complications. We have sought to determine if grading of liver injuries, as a clinical tool, affects immediate or extended management of patients. We have retrospectively reviewed all patients sustaining blunt liver injuries as diagnosed by CT over a five-year period at a Level I trauma center to determine if grading of injury influenced management. The AAST organ scaling system was utilized (major grade 4-5, minor grade 1-3), as well as the ISS, AIS, mortality, morbidity, and treatment. There were 133 patients available for review. The patients were grouped into major (n = 20) and minor (n = 113) liver injuries and operative (n = 12) and nonoperative (n = 121) management. Major liver injuries had a higher ISS (39 + 13 vs. 27 + 15, p = 0.001) and were more likely to require operative intervention (5/20 vs. 7/113, p = 0.02). Mortality in this group was not different (major vs. minor), and there were no differences in the incidence of complications. Twelve patients (9%) required operation, all for hemodynamic instability, all within 24 h, and 11/12 within 6 h. At operation 8/12 patients had other sources of bleeding beside the liver injury, and 7/12 had minor hepatic injuries. The operative patients had higher ISS and AIS scores (head/neck, chest, abdomen, extremities) than those managed nonoperatively. More patients died in the operative group (6/12 vs. 8/121, p = 0.0003). There were more pulmonary (6/12 vs. 16/121, p = 0.005), cardiovascular (6/12 vs. 19/121, p = 0.01), and infectious (5/12 vs. 20/121, p = 0.049) complications in the operative group. There were 14 deaths overall; 13/14 were due to traumatic brain injury, and 8/14 required urgent operation for hemorrhage. In conclusion, grading of liver

  7. Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Advances in Mechanistic Understanding that will Inform Risk Management

    PubMed Central

    Mosedale, Merrie; Watkins, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major public health problem. Intrinsic (dose-dependent) DILI associated with acetaminophen overdose is the number one cause of acute liver failure in the US. However the most problematic type of DILI impacting drug development is idiosyncratic, occurring only very rarely among treated patients and often only after several weeks or months of treatment with the offending drug. Recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of DILI suggest that three mechanisms may underlie most hepatocyte effects in response to both intrinsic and idiosyncratic DILI drugs: mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and alterations in bile acid homeostasis. However, in some cases, hepatocyte stress promotes an immune response that results in clinically important idiosyncratic DILI. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of both intrinsic and idiosyncratic DILI as well as emerging tools and techniques that will likely improve DILI risk identification and management. PMID:27861792

  8. Acute liver injury following Garcinia cambogia weight-loss supplementation: case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Crescioli, Giada; Lombardi, Niccolò; Bettiol, Alessandra; Marconi, Ettore; Risaliti, Filippo; Bertoni, Michele; Menniti Ippolito, Francesca; Maggini, Valentina; Gallo, Eugenia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Vannacci, Alfredo

    2018-05-25

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are sold as self-medication products, and are often used under the misconception that their natural origin guarantees their safety. Food supplements are not required to provide any benefit/risk profile evaluation before marketing; however, possible risks associated with use of herbal extracts in food supplements are becoming more and more documented in the literature. Some herbs are listed as the leading cause of herb-induced liver injury, with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and unpredictable herb-drug interactions. Garcinia cambogia (GC) extract and GC-containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we present four cases of acute liver failure in women taking GC extract for weight loss, and a literature review of clinical evidences about hepatic toxicity in patients taking dietary supplements containing GC extract.

  9. The pathogenesis of ethanol versus methionine and choline deficient diet-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Gyamfi, Maxwell Afari; Damjanov, Ivan; French, Samuel; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2008-02-15

    The differences and similarities of the pathogenesis of alcoholic (ASH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were examined. Mice (six/group) received one of four Lieber-Decarli liquid diets for 6 weeks: (1) paired-fed control diet; (2) control diet with ethanol (ethanol); (3) paired-fed methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet; and (4) MCD plus ethanol (combination). Hepatotoxicity, histology, and gene expression changes were examined. Both MCD and ethanol induced macrovesicular steatosis. However, the combination diet produced massive steatosis with minor necrosis and inflammation. MCD and combination diets, but not ethanol, induced serum ALT levels by 1.6- and 10-fold, respectively. MCD diet, but not ethanol, also induced serum alkaline phosphatase levels suggesting bile duct injury. Ethanol increased liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, the combination diet decreased L-FABP mRNA and protein levels and increased hepatic free fatty acid and lipid peroxide levels. Ethanol, but not MCD, reduced hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and GSH levels. Hepatic TNFalpha protein levels were increased in all treatment groups, however, IL-6, a hepatoprotective cytokine which promotes liver regeneration was increased in ethanol-fed mice (2-fold), but decreased in the combination diet-treated mice. In addition, the combination diet reduced phosphorylated STAT3 and Bcl-2 levels. While MCD diet might cause bile duct injury and cholestasis, ethanol preferentially interferes with the SAM-GSH oxidative stress pathway. The exacerbated liver injury induced by the combination diet might be explained by reduced L-FABP, increased free fatty acids, oxidative stress, and decreased IL-6 protein levels. The combination diet is an efficient model of steatohepatitis.

  10. Mechanisms of the hepatoprotective effects of tamoxifen against drug-induced and chemical-induced acute liver injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Yukitaka; Miyashita, Taishi; Higuchi, Satonori

    Although estrogen receptor (ER)α agonists, such as estradiol and ethinylestradiol (EE2), cause cholestasis in mice, they also reduce the degree of liver injury caused by hepatotoxicants as well as ischemia–reperfusion. The functional mechanisms of ERα have yet to be elucidated in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. The present study investigated the effects of an ERα agonist, selective ER modulators (SERMs) and an ER antagonist on drug-induced and chemical-induced liver injuries caused by acetaminophen, bromobenzene, diclofenac, and thioacetamide (TA). We observed hepatoprotective effects of EE2, tamoxifen (TAM) and raloxifene pretreatment in female mice that were exposed to a variety of hepatotoxicmore » compounds. In contrast, the ER antagonist did not show any hepatoprotective effects. DNA microarray analyses suggested that monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd2) protein, which has an unknown function, is commonly increased by TAM and RAL pretreatment, but not by pretreatment with the ER antagonist. In ERα-knockout mice, the hepatoprotective effects of TAM and the increased expression of Mmd2 mRNA were not observed in TA-induced liver injury. To investigate the function of Mmd2, the expression level of Mmd2 mRNA was significantly knocked down to approximately 30% in mice by injection of siRNA for Mmd2 (siMmd2). Mmd2 knockdown resulted in a reduction of the protective effects of TAM on TA-induced liver injury in mice. This is the first report of the involvement of ERα in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. Upregulation of Mmd2 protein in the liver was suggested as the mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of EE2 and SERMs. -- Highlights: ► Liver injury induced by drugs or chemicals was investigated in mice. ► Liver injury was suppressed by pretreatment with tamoxifen in female mice. ► Mmd2, whose function was unknown, could be a candidate gene for liver protection. ► Tamoxifen up-regulated Mmd2 m

  11. Pathological alterations in liver injury following congestive heart failure induced by volume overload in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shaqura, Mohammed; Mohamed, Doaa M.; Aboryag, Noureddin B.; Bedewi, Lama; Dehe, Lukas; Treskatsch, Sascha; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Schäfer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure has emerged as a disease with significant public health implications. Following progression of heart failure, heart and liver dysfunction are frequently combined in hospitalized patients leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Here, we investigated the underlying pathological alterations in liver injury following heart failure. Heart failure was induced using a modified infrarenal aortocaval fistula (ACF) in male Wistar rats. Sham operated and ACF rats were compared for their morphometric and hemodynamic data, for histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the liver as well as differences in the expression of apoptotic factors. ACF-induced heart failure is associated with light microscopic signs of apparent congestion of blood vessels, increased apoptosis and breakdown of hepatocytes and inflammatory cell inifltration were observed. The glycogen content depletion associated with the increased hepatic fibrosis, lipid globule formation was observed in ACF rats. Moreover, cytoplasmic organelles are no longer distinguishable in many ACF hepatocytes with degenerated fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, shrunken mitochondria and heavy cytoplasm vacuolization. ACF is associated with the upregulation of the hepatic TUNEL-positive cells and proapoptotic factor Bax protein concomitant with the mitochondrial leakage of cytochrome C into the cell cytoplasm and the transfer of activated caspase 3 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus indicating intrinsic apoptotic events. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ACF-induced congestive heart failure causes liver injury which results in hepatocellular apoptotic cell death mediated by the intrinsic pathway of mitochondrial cytochrome C leakage and subsequent transfer of activated caspase 3 into to the nucleus to initiate overt DNA fragmentation and cell death. PMID:28934226

  12. Protective effects of α-mangostin against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tianhua; Wang, Shijie; Liu, Jinping; Cai, Enbo; Li, Haijun; Li, Pingya; Zhao, Yan

    2018-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of α-mangostin against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury and discover its potential mechanisms in mice. Mice were continuously treated with α-mangostin (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) by intragastric administration once daily for 6 days, and injected intraperitoneally with APAP (300 mg/kg) after 1 h of α-mangostin administration on the last day. After APAP exposure for 24 h, the liver and serum were gathered to evaluate the hepatotoxicity. The results showed that α-mangostin effectively decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β and 6 (IL-1β, IL-6), and hepatic malondialdehyde level; and recovered hepatic glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Liver histopathological observation provided further evidence that α-mangostin pretreatment significantly inhibited APAP-induced hepatocellular necrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cell and hyperemia. According to the analysis of western-blot and RT-PCR detection, α-mangostin pretreatment validly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK induced by APAP, which was consistent with the changes of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β levels; the phosphorylation of IκBα and the translocation of NF-κBp65 were also attenuated by α-mangostin. These results provided a new mechanism for the protective effects of α-mangostin against APAP-induced acute liver injury. α-Mangostin significantly restrainted the oxidative stress induced by APAP. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory property of α-mangostin, which is mediated by the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, also contributed to its hepatoprotective effect. Taken together, we believed that α-mangostin might be a potential material for drug development against drug-related hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of Scoparia dulcis on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective activity and active constituents of the ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis (SDE). The hepatoprotective effect of SDE (0.1, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) was evaluated on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury. The active constituents were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mice pretreated orally with SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin (200 mg/kg) for five consecutive days before the administering of a single dose of 0.2% CCl(4) (10 ml/kg of bw, ip) showed a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Histological analyses also showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin reduced the extent of liver lesions induced by CCl(4), including vacuole formation, neutrophil infiltration and necrosis. Moreover, SDE decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and elevated the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver as compared to those in the CCl(4) group. Furthermore, SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The quantities of active constituents in SDE were about 3.1 mg luteolin/g extract and 1.1 mg apigenin/g extract. The hepatoprotective mechanisms of SDE were likely associated to the decrease in MDA level and increase in GSH level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx, GRd and GST. These results demonstrated that SDE could alleviate CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury in mice.

  14. ERK Signaling Pathway Plays a Key Role in Baicalin Protection Against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Chih; Day, Yuan-Ji; Lee, Hung-Chen; Liou, Jiin-Tarng; Chou, An-Hsun; Liu, Fu-Chao

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes hepatocytes necrosis and acute liver failure. Baicalin (BA), a major flavonoid of Scutellariae radix, has potent hepatoprotective properties in traditional medicine. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of BA on a APAP-induced liver injury in a mouse model. The mice received an intraperitoneal hepatotoxic dose of APAP (300[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and after 30[Formula: see text]min, were treated with BA at concentrations of 0, 15, 30, or 60[Formula: see text]mg/kg. After 16[Formula: see text]h of treatment, the mice were sacrificed for further analysis. APAP administration significantly elevated the serum alanine transferase (ALT) enzyme levels and hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity when compared with control animals. Baicalin treatment significantly attenuated the elevation of liver ALT levels, as well as hepatic MPO activity in a dose- dependent manner (15-60[Formula: see text]mg/kg) in APAP-treated mice. The strongest beneficial effects of BA were seen at a dose of 30[Formula: see text]mg/kg. BA treatment at 30[Formula: see text]mg/kg after APAP overdose reduced elevated hepatic cytokine (TNF-[Formula: see text] and IL-6) levels, and macrophage recruitment around the area of hepatotoxicity in immunohistochemical staining. Significantly, BA treatment can also decrease hepatic phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression, which is induced by APAP overdose. Our data suggests that baicalin treatment can effectively attenuate APAP-induced liver injury by down-regulating the ERK signaling pathway and its downstream effectors of inflammatory responses. These results support that baicalin is a potential hepatoprotective agent.

  15. Protective effect of human serum amyloid P on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Cong, Min; Zhao, Weihua; Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; Fan, Xu; Zhai, Qingling; Bao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Dong; You, Hong; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Brenner, David A; Jia, Jidong; Zhuang, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Human serum amyloid P (hSAP), a member of the pentraxin family, inhibits the activation of fibrocytes in culture and inhibits experimental renal, lung, skin and cardiac fibrosis. As hepatic inflammation is one of the causes of liver fibrosis, in the present study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of hSAP against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. Our data indicated that hSAP attenuated hepatic histopathological abnormalities and significantly decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory factor expression. Moreover, CCl4-induced apoptosis in the mouse liver was inhibited by hSAP, as measured by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and cleaved caspase-3 expression. hSAP significantly restored the expression of B cell lymphoma/leukemia (Bcl)-2 and suppressed the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in vivo. The number of hepatocytes in early apoptosis stained with Annexin V was significantly reduced by 28-30% in the hSAP treatment group compared with the CCl4 group, and the expression of Bcl-2 was increased, whereas the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly inhibited in the hSAP pre-treatment group compared with the CCl4 group. hSAP administration also inhibited the migration and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in CCl4-injured liver and suppressed the activation of isolated primary HSCs induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in vitro. Collectively, these findings suggest that hSAP exerts a protective effect againts CCl4-induced hepatic injury by suppressing the inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis, potentially by inhibiting HSC activation.

  16. Protective effect of human serum amyloid P on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Min; Zhao, Weihua; Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; Fan, Xu; Zhai, Qingling; Bao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Dong; You, Hong; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Brenner, David A.; Jia, Jidong; Zhuang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Human serum amyloid P (hSAP), a member of the pentraxin family, inhibits the activation of fibrocytes in culture and inhibits experimental renal, lung, skin and cardiac fibrosis. As hepatic inflammation is one of the causes of liver fibrosis, in the present study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of hSAP against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. Our data indicated that hSAP attenuated hepatic histopathological abnormalities and significantly decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory factor expression. Moreover, CCl4-induced apoptosis in the mouse liver was inhibited by hSAP, as measured by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and cleaved caspase-3 expression. hSAP significantly restored the expression of B cell lymphoma/leukemia (Bcl)-2 and suppressed the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in vivo. The number of hepatocytes in early apoptosis stained with Annexin V was significantly reduced by 28–30% in the hSAP treatment group compared with the CCl4 group, and the expression of Bcl-2 was increased, whereas the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly inhibited in the hSAP pre-treatment group compared with the CCl4 group. hSAP administration also inhibited the migration and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in CCl4-injured liver and suppressed the activation of isolated primary HSCs induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in vitro. Collectively, these findings suggest that hSAP exerts a protective effect againts CCl4-induced hepatic injury by suppressing the inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis, potentially by inhibiting HSC activation. PMID:28627620

  17. Cilostazol attenuates cholestatic liver injury and its complications in common bile duct ligated rats.