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Sample records for a-induced lymphocyte proliferation

  1. Effect of spaceflight on lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Patricia V.; Konstantinova, Irina V.; Fuchs, Boris B.; Rakhmilevich, Alexandr L.; Lesniak, A. T.; Mastro, Andrea M.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, inguinal lymp node lymphocytes from rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission were tested for proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Cells cultured with mitogenic lectins, phorbol ester, and calcium ionophore, or T-cell mitogen and lymphokine, were assayed for DNA synthesis by (H-3) thymidine incorporation. Lymphocytes incubated with a T-cell mitogen alone also were tested for IL-2 production. Proliferation of lymphocytes from flight rats was not significantly different from controls for any of the mitogens tested. Furthermore, lymph node lymphocytes from control and flown rats produced similar amounts of IL-23. Thus microgravity may act on lymphocytes in a tissue-specific manner, a new finding that could impact on the evaluation of spaceflight effects on immunocompetence.

  2. N-acetylcysteine reverses immunotoxic effects of methyl mercury and augments murine lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Omara, F.; Fournier, M.; Bernier, J.

    1995-12-31

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol antioxidant used clinically to treat chronic inflammatory lung disorders and acetaminophen poisoning in humans. The authors evaluated in vitro the effect of NAC on mitogen-induced blastogenesis in C57BI/6 mouse splenocytes by {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake, and its ability to protect against the immunotoxic effects of methyl mercury on lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by optimal and suboptimal concentrations of concanavalin A (Con A), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or a combination of calcium ionophore A23187 and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) were markedly enhanced by NAC. NAC itself was a weak mitogen. The kinetics of the NAC effect on splenocyte proliferation weremore » mitogen dependent. NAC enhanced Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent and linear manner but enhanced the LPS-induced response at 50--400 {micro}g/ml of NAC followed by a decline in response to control value at higher concentrations. In splenocytes stimulated with PMA plus A23187, NAC increased proliferation at 50--200 pg/ml followed by a constant response at 200--1,000 {micro}g/ml NAC. When splenocytes were stimulated with higher concentrations of Con A (10 {micro}g/ml) or LPS (150 {micro}g/ml) which markedly suppress splenocyte proliferation, NAC significantly enhanced the Con A-induced response and reversed the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of LPS. NAC also protected lymphocytes against mitogen activation-induced cell death. Methyl mercury at 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}--1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} suppressed Con A- and LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by over 80%. However, NAC completely reversed the immunotoxic effects of methyl mercury on the mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation even when the cells were pre-incubated with methyl mercury for 6 or 24 hr before stimulation with the mitogens.« less

  3. Enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation by mouse glandular kallikrein.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z Q; Murakami, K; Ikigai, H; Shimamura, T

    1992-03-01

    Mouse glandular kallikrein (mGK) strongly enhanced the spontaneous and mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes. Both blast formation and 3H-TdR incorporation were dose-dependently enhanced at the same time many cells were killed. The enhancing activity was independent of EGF, because EGF-binding proteins (mGK-9 in mGK-6,9 mixture and mGK-13), renal kallikrein (mGK-6) and human kallikrein all displayed the same enhancement. A serine proteinase inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, could block the enhancement by mGK. The new function suggests that mGK is important in the immune system as a regulatory molecule.

  4. Effect of Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase on the mitogen response of T lymphocytes. I. Enhancement of macrophage T-lymphocyte cooperation in concanavalin-A-induced lymphocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Knop, J

    1980-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCN) enhances the immune response of lymphocytes in various systems, such as antigen- and mitogen-induced blastogenesis, mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) and tumor-cell response. We used macrophage-depleted and reconstituted murine lymph-node T-cells to investigate the effect of VCN on macrophage-T-lymphocyte co-operation in Con-A-induced lymphocyte activation. In unfractionated lymph-node cells VCN enhanced the Con-A-induced lymphocyte activation as measured by 3H-thymidine (3H-dThd) incorporation. Removing macrophages from the cells resulted in a significantly diminished response. In addition the enhancing effect of VCN was greatly reduced. Reconstitution of the lymphocyte cultures with macrophages in increasing numbers and from various sources rstored the lymphocyte response and the enhancing effect of VCN. VCN proved to be most efficient in cultures reconstituted with normal peritoneal macrophages. Some effect was also observed using bone-marrow-derived (BM) macrophages. However, higher numbers of normal PE macrophages in the presence of VCN inhibited lymphocyte activation, and inhibition by thioglycollate-broth-induced macrophages was considerably increased by VCN. These results suggest that VCN acts by increasing the efficiency of macrophage-T lymphocyte interaction.

  5. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  6. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90–100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  7. Proliferation of pronephric lymphocytes of carp, Cyprinus carpio induced by extracts of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi.

    PubMed

    Nie, P; Hoole, D; Arme, C

    1996-06-01

    The interaction between Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoda) and pronephric lymphocytes of carp, Cyprinus carpio L. was studied by examining proliferation of lymphocytes isolated from both naïve fish and fish injected intraperitoneally with cestode extract. Lymphocytes from naïve hosts were stimulated to proliferate in the presence of the extract depending upon the extract protein concentrations; lower concentrations (0.01-0.05 microgram/ml) induced the greatest response, and immunosuppression occurred at higher concentrations. Significant differences were noted in fish that received intraperitoneal injections of parasite extracts. Five days post-injection, lymphocyte proliferation was significantly greater in these individuals compared with sham injected or untreated controls. This difference was reduced at 10 days post-injection, although the response was dependent on the concentration of the parasite extract. The possible significance of the observed stimulation/suppression of lymphocyte activity to establishment of the parasite in the wild is discussed.

  8. [Cordyceps sinensis enhances lymphocyte proliferation and CD markers expression in simulated microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Hao, Tong; Li, Jun-Jie; Du, Zhi-Yan; Duan, Cui-Mi; Wang, Yan-Meng; Wang, Chang-Yong; Song, Jing-Ping; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of cordyceps sinensis enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and surface CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes were separated from mice and cultured in the rotary cell culture system simulated microgravity environment. The cells were treated with different concentration of cordyceps sinensis solution (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then the cells were harvested, and analyzed for cell proliferation and the expression of cell surface markers (CD4 and CD8). The results showed that under simulated microgravity environment, the lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited. When the concentration of cordyceps sinensis was 25 or 50 µg/ml, the lymphocyte proliferation, CD4 and CD8 expressions all increased, but 50 µg/ml cordyceps sinensis could inhibit the proliferation ability with the time prolonging. It is concluded that the suitable concentration of cordyceps sinensis displayed the ability to enhance the lymphocyte proliferation and CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. These results may be valuable for screening drugs which can be potentially against immunosuppression under simulated microgravity.

  9. l-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Yang, Kuender D; Ou, Chia-Yo; Hsu, Te-Yao

    2014-01-01

    In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3ζ chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 μm; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway. PMID:24697328

  10. In vivo but not in vitro leptin enhances lymphocyte proliferation in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Demas, Gregory E

    2010-04-01

    Mounting an immune response requires a relatively substantial investment of energy and marked reductions in energy availability can suppress immune function and presumably increase disease susceptibility. We have previously demonstrated that a moderate reduction in energy stores by partial surgical lipectomy impairs humoral immunity of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) and is mediated, in part, by changes in the adipose tissue hormone leptin. The goals of the present study were to assess the role of leptin in cell-mediated immunity and to determine if the potential effects of leptin on immunity are via the direct actions of this hormone on lymphocytes, or indirect, via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). In Experiment 1, hamsters received osmotic minipumps containing either murine leptin (0.5 microl/h) or vehicle alone for 10 days and splenocyte proliferation in response to the T-cell mitogen Concanavalin A (Con A) was determined. In Experiment 2, Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation was tested in the presence or absence of leptin in vitro. In Experiment 3, exogenous leptin was administered to intact or sympathetically denervated hamsters. Hamsters treated with in vivo leptin displayed increased splenocyte proliferation compared with control hamsters receiving vehicle. In contrast, in vitro leptin had no effect on splenocyte proliferation. Sympathetic denervation attenuated, but did not block, leptin-induced increases in immunity. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea that leptin can enhance cell-mediated immunity; the SNS appears to contribute, least in part, to leptin-induced increases in immunity. Importantly, these findings confirm previous studies that leptin serves as an important endocrine link between energy balance and immunity. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of environmental stressors on lymphocyte proliferation in Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Cathy J; Luer, Carl A; Noyes, David R

    2005-02-10

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected each year by exposure to cold weather or harmful algal blooms (red tide; Karenia brevis). Exposures can be sublethal, resulting in stressed animals that are rescued and taken to authorized facilities for rehabilitation, or lethal if exposures are prolonged or unusually severe. To investigate whether sublethal environmental exposures can impair immune function in manatees, rendering animals vulnerable to disease or death, mitogen-induced proliferation was assessed in lymphocytes from manatees exposed to cold temperatures (N=20) or red tide (N=19) in the wild, and compared to lymphocyte responses from healthy free-ranging manatees (N=32). All animals sampled for this study were adults. Lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with either concanavalin A (ConA) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and proliferation was assessed after 96 h using incorporation of the thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), into newly synthesized DNA. Proliferation of lymphocytes from manatees rescued from exposure to red tide or cold-stress was approximately one-third that of lymphocytes from healthy free-ranging manatees. To examine the direct effects of red tide toxins on lymphocyte function, mitogen-induced proliferation was assessed following co-culture of lymphocytes with K. brevis toxin extracts. Stimulation indices decreased with increasing toxin concentration, with a significant decrease in proliferation occurring in the presence of 400 ng red tide toxins/ml. When lymphocytes from cold-stressed manatees were co-cultured with red tide toxin extracts, proliferative responses were reduced even further, suggesting multiple stressors may have synergistic effects on immune function in manatees.

  12. Detection of mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Motobu, Maki; El-Abasy, Moshira; Na, Ki-Jeong; Hirota, Yoshikazu

    2002-04-01

    3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) incorporation assay has been generally used to measure lymphocyte proliferation in the chicken. Disadvantages of this assay are that radioisotope is biological hazard to the person and environment and that it can not measure which subset of lymphocytes proliferates. In this study, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay by flow cytometry was compared with 3H-TdR incorporation assay. As a result, BrdU incorporation assay showed a strong correlation with 3H-TdR incorporation assay, and it could be applied simultaneously to detect BrdU incorporation and expression of cell surface marker antigens. These results suggest that the BrdU incorporation assay by flow cytometry is useful to analyze lymphocyte proliferation in detail.

  13. Interaction between human mature adipocytes and lymphocytes induces T-cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Poloni, Antonella; Maurizi, Giulia; Ciarlantini, Marco; Medici, Martina; Mattiucci, Domenico; Mancini, Stefania; Maurizi, Angela; Falconi, Massimo; Olivieri, Attilio; Leoni, Pietro

    2015-09-01

    Adipose tissue is a critical organ that plays a major role in energy balance regulation and the immune response through intricate signals. We report on the inter-relation between mature adipocytes and lymphocytes in terms of adipocyte-derived T-cell chemo-attractants and adipocyte metabolic effects on lymphocytes. During the culture time, mature adipocytes changed their structural and functional properties into de-differentiated cells. Isolated mature adipocytes expressed significantly higher levels of CIITA, major histocompatibility complex II (human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-DR) and costimulatory signal molecule CD80 compared with adipocytes after the de-differentiation process. Moreover, human leukocyte antigen-G, which may prevent the immune responses of mesenchymal stromal cells, was expressed at lower level in mature adipocytes compared with de-differentiated adipocytes. In line with these molecular data, functional results showed different immunoregulatory properties between adipocytes before and after the de-differentiation process. Mature adipocytes stimulated the proliferation of total lymphocytes and immunoselected cell populations CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ in a direct contact-dependent way that involved the major histocompatibility complex I and II pathways. Moreover, adipocytes secreted potential chemo-attractant factors, but data showed that adipocyte-derived culture medium was not sufficient to activate lymphocyte proliferation, suggesting that a direct contact between adipocytes and immune cells was needed. However, specific mature adipocyte cytokines enhanced lymphocyte proliferation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. In conclusion, cross-talk occurs between adipocytes and lymphocytes within adipose tissue involving T-cell chemo-attraction by mature adipocytes. Our findings, together with current observations in the field, provide a rationale to identify adipocyte-lymphocyte cross-talk that instigates adipose inflammation. Copyright © 2015 International

  14. Fish oil feeding enhances lymphocyte proliferation but impairs virus-specific T lymphocyte cytotoxicity in mice following challenge with influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Byleveld, M; Pang, G T; Clancy, R L; Roberts, D C K

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a fish oil diet on virus-specific cytotoxicity and lymphocyte proliferation was investigated. Mice were fed fish oil (17 g fish oil and 3 g sunflower/100 g) or beef tallow (17 g tallow and 3 g sunflower/100 g) diets for 14 days before intranasal challenge with influenza virus. At day 5 after infection, lung virus-specific T lymphocyte, but not macrophage or natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxicity was significantly lower in mice fed fish oil, while bronchial lymph node cell proliferation to virus was significantly higher. In mice fed fish oil, spleen cell proliferation to virus was also significantly higher following immunization. The results showed that, despite improved lymphocyte proliferation, fish oil impairs primary virus-specific T lymphocyte cytotoxicity. This impairment may explain the delayed virus clearance that we have previously reported in infected mice fed the fish oil diet. PMID:10632664

  15. Fish oil feeding enhances lymphocyte proliferation but impairs virus-specific T lymphocyte cytotoxicity in mice following challenge with influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Byleveld, M; Pang, G T; Clancy, R L; Roberts, D C

    2000-02-01

    The effect of a fish oil diet on virus-specific cytotoxicity and lymphocyte proliferation was investigated. Mice were fed fish oil (17 g fish oil and 3 g sunflower/100 g) or beef tallow (17 g tallow and 3 g sunflower/100 g) diets for 14 days before intranasal challenge with influenza virus. At day 5 after infection, lung virus-specific T lymphocyte, but not macrophage or natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxicity was significantly lower in mice fed fish oil, while bronchial lymph node cell proliferation to virus was significantly higher. In mice fed fish oil, spleen cell proliferation to virus was also significantly higher following immunization. The results showed that, despite improved lymphocyte proliferation, fish oil impairs primary virus-specific T lymphocyte cytotoxicity. This impairment may explain the delayed virus clearance that we have previously reported in infected mice fed the fish oil diet.

  16. Endothelial cells promote the proliferation of lymphocytes partly through the Wnt pathway via LEF-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shu-Hong; Nan, Ke-Jun, E-mail: nankj@163.com; Wang, Yao-Chun

    The function of T cells and B cells is to recognize specific 'non-self' antigens, during a process known as antigen presentation. Once they have identified an invader, the cells generate specific responses that are tailored to maximally eliminate specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Endothelial cells (ECs) can trigger the activation of T cells through their class I and class II MHC molecules. In this study, we examined the effect of ECs on the proliferation of lymphocytes. We report that the proliferation of T and B cells can be improved by interaction with ECs. LEF-1 is one of the main molecularmore » mediators in this process, and the inhibition of LEF-1 induces apoptosis. These results suggest that LEF-1 modulates positively the proliferation of lymphocytes induced by their interaction with ECs.« less

  17. Effect of infection with bovine leukosis virus on lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Ronald J; Corl, Christine M; Gandy, Jeffery C; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2011-08-01

    To determine effects of infection with bovine leukosis virus (BLV) on lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis in dairy cattle. 27 adult Holstein cows. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood from lactating Holstein cows seronegative for BLV (n = 9 cows), seropositive for BLV and aleukemic (aleukemic; 9), and seropositive for BLV and persistently lymphocytotic (PL; 9). Isolated PBMCs were assayed for mitogen-induced proliferation and were analyzed by means of flow cytometry. The PBMCs from a subset of each group were assayed for apoptosis, caspase-9 activity, and expression of selected genes related to apoptosis. PL cows had significantly higher total lymphocyte counts and significantly lower proportions of T-lymphocyte populations than did BLV-negative and aleukemic cows. Both groups of BLV-infected cows had significantly higher proportions of B cells and major histocompatibility complex II-expressing cells than did BLV-negative cows. Proliferation with concanavalin A was significantly lower for PL cows, compared with proliferation for BLV-negative cows. Pokeweed mitogen-induced proliferation was significantly higher for aleukemic and PL cows than for BLV-negative cows. Gene expression of apoptosis-inhibitory proteins BCL2 and BCL2L1 was significantly higher for aleukemic cows and expression of BCL2 was significantly higher for PL cows than for BLV-negative cows. Cattle infected with BLV had marked changes in PBMC populations accompanied by alterations in proliferation and apoptosis mechanisms. Because the relative distribution and function of lymphocyte populations are critical for immune competence, additional studies are needed to investigate the ability of BLV-infected cattle to respond to infectious challenge.

  18. Piperine from black pepper inhibits activation-induced proliferation and effector function of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Carolyn D; Rodgers, Gemma; Liwski, Robert S; Hoskin, David W

    2015-11-01

    Piperine is a major alkaloid component of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn), which is a widely consumed spice. Here, we investigated the effect of piperine on mouse T lymphocyte activation. Piperine inhibited polyclonal and antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation without affecting cell viability. Piperine also suppressed T lymphocyte entry into the S and G2 /M phases of the cell cycle, and decreased expression of G1 -associated cyclin D3, CDK4, and CDK6. In addition, piperine inhibited CD25 expression, synthesis of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-17A, and the generation of cytotoxic effector cells. The inhibitory effect of piperine on T lymphocytes was associated with hypophosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and inhibitor of κBα, but not ZAP-70. The ability of piperine to inhibit several key signaling pathways involved in T lymphocyte activation and the acquisition of effector function suggests that piperine might be useful in the management of T lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Differential Dynamics of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocyte Proliferation and Activation in Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amitinder; Hale, Corrina L.; Ramanujan, Saroja; Jain, Rakesh K.; Johnson, R. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Although lymphocyte turnover in chronic human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been extensively studied, there is little information on turnover in acute infection. We carried out a prospective kinetic analysis of lymphocyte proliferation in 13 rhesus macaques inoculated with pathogenic SIV. A short-lived dramatic increase in circulating Ki-67+ lymphocytes observed at 1 to 4 weeks was temporally related to the onset of SIV replication. A 5- to 10-fold increase in Ki-67+ CD8+ T lymphocytes and a 2- to 3-fold increase in Ki-67+ CD3− CD8+ natural killer cells accounted for >85% of proliferating lymphocytes at peak proliferation. In contrast, there was little change in the percentage of Ki-67+ CD4+ T lymphocytes during acute infection, although transient increases in Ki-67− and Ki-67+ CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing CD69, Fas, and HLA-DR were observed. A two- to fourfold decline in CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing CD25 and CD69 was seen later in SIV infection. The majority of Ki-67+ CD8+ T lymphocytes were phenotypically CD45RA− CD49dhi Fashi CD25− CD69− CD28− HLA-DR− and persisted at levels twofold above baseline 6 months after SIV infection. Increased CD8+ T-lymphocyte proliferation was associated with cell expansion, paralleled the onset of SIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity, and had an oligoclonal component. Thus, divergent patterns of proliferation and activation are exhibited by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in early SIV infection and may determine how these cells are differentially affected in AIDS. PMID:10954541

  20. Sex-based differences in lymphocyte proliferation in the spleen after vanadium inhalation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lara, Vianey; Muñiz-Rivera Cambas, Angelica; González Villalva, Adriana; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2016-07-01

    Vanadium (V) is a transition metal often adhered to particulate matter and released into the atmosphere as vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) by the burning of fossil fuels. This air pollutant causes adverse effects in the immune system. Lymphocytosis and splenomegaly have been reported with increased white pulp in mice after V inhalation. The effect of V on the immune system as related to sex has been poorly investigated. This study sought to determine if V inhalation (a) produced lymphoproliferation that could explain the changes previously observed in the spleen and in peripheral blood lymphocyte counts and (b) whether any observed effects differed due to gender. Immunohistochemical analyses of Ki-67, a specific proliferation marker, was made in the spleens of CD-1 male and female mice exposed for 1 h, twice a week, over a 12-week period to V2O5 (at 1.4 mg V2O5/m(3)) by whole-body inhalation; similar analyses were performed on spleens of control mice exposed to vehicle (filtered air). The results showed that in male mice there was a significant increase in percentage of Ki-67 immunopositive lymphocytes starting from the second week and until the end of the exposure. The Ki-67 signal was cytoplasmic and nuclear in the exposed males, while in controls the signal was only nuclear. In female mice, V inhalation singificantly increased the percentage of proliferating lymphocytes only after 1 week of exposure. Ki-67 signal was observed only in the nucleus of lymphocytes from the control and exposed females. The results here help to explain the splenomegaly and lymphocytosis observed previously in male mice and support the lymphoproliferative effect induced by V. Lastly, the finding that there was a sex difference in the effect of vanadium on lymphocyte proliferation suggests a role for sex hormones in potential protection against V immunotoxicity; however, further studies are needed to support this hypothesis.

  1. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by marijuana components is related to cell number and cell source

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, T.; Pross, S.; Newton, C.

    Conflicting reports have appeared concerning the effect of marijuana components on immune responsiveness. The authors have observed that the effect of cannabinoids on lymphocyte proliferation varied with both the concentration of the drug and the mitogen used. They now report that at a constant concentration of drug, the cannabinoid effect varied from no effect to suppression depending upon the number of cells in culture and the organ source of the cells. Dispersed cell suspensions of mouse lymph node, spleen, and thymus were prepared and cultured at varying cell numbers with either delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and various mitogens. Lymphocyte proliferation wasmore » analyzed by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. T-lymphocyte mitogen responses in cultures containing high cell numbers were unaffected by the cannabinoids but as cell numbers were reduced a suppression of the response was observed. Furthermore, thymus cells were considerably more susceptible to cannabinoid suppression than cells from either lymph node or spleen. These results suggest that certain lymphocyte subpopulations are more sensitive to cannabinoid suppression and that in addition to drug concentration other variables such as cell number and cell source must be considered when analyzing cannabinoid effects.« less

  2. The Effects of Cocaine and Stress on Lymphocyte Proliferation in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-22

    indices of immune function while decreasing others. Bagarasa and Forman (1989) found that intraperitoneal cocaine (1 . 25, 2.5 mg/kg-10 days) at low ... doses caused an 3 increase in PFC response in male Fisher rats, but at higher doses (5 rng/kg-lO days) PFC response was suppressed. Analysis of...found that cocaine combined with Con A in vitro suppressed lymphocyte proliferation in a dose ~ dependent fashion for mice splenocytes and human

  3. Changes in lymphocyte accumulation and proliferation in the lymph nodes draining the pregnant uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, J D; McDougall, C M; Speedy, G; Inchley, C J

    1978-01-01

    Changes in weight, lymphocyte accumulation and cellular proliferation have been measured in the lymph nodes draining the uterus during inter- and intra-strain pregnancies and compared with similar effects after other antigenic stimuli. From the data obtained it was concluded that "paternal" antigenic stimulation from the conceptus initiated an immune response in these nodes. The mechanisms of the subsequent suppression of this response are discussed. PMID:657586

  4. Differential Inhibition of T Lymphocyte Proliferation and Cytokine Synthesis by [6]-Gingerol, [8]-Gingerol, and [10]-Gingerol.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Megan; Furlong, Suzanne J; Power Coombs, Melanie R; Hoskin, David W

    2015-11-01

    [6]-Gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [10]-gingerol are pungent components of fresh ginger, extracts of which inhibit various components of the inflammatory response. Because little is known regarding the effect of gingerols with different unbranched alkyl side chain lengths on the activation and effector function of T lymphocytes, we compared the effects of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [10]-gingerol on murine T lymphocyte proliferation, expression of CD25 and CD69 activation markers, cytokine synthesis, and interleukin (IL)-2 receptor signaling. All three gingerols inhibited DNA synthesis by T lymphocytes, as well as interferon-γ synthesis. In contrast, only [8]-gingerol and [10]-gingerol inhibited CD25 and CD69 expression, and IL-2 synthesis. None of the gingerols affected IL-4 synthesis. Exogenous IL-2 enhanced T lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of [6]-gingerol but did not significantly increase T lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of [8]-gingerol or [10]-gingerol. In line with this finding, [8]-gingerol and [10]-gingerol impaired IL-2-induced proliferation of CTLL-2 cells, but constitutive CD25 expression was unaffected, indicating inhibition of IL-2 receptor signaling. In general, [10]-gingerol and [8]-gingerol were more potent inhibitors of T lymphocytes than [6]-gingerol. Suppression of T lymphocyte responses by gingerols suggests that these phytochemicals may be beneficial in chronic inflammatory conditions associated with excessive or inappropriate T lymphocyte activation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The effect of stem cell from human exfoliated deciduous teeth on T lymphocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Razieh; Adib, Minoo; Hashemi-Beni, Batool; Sadeghi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), a specific type of adult tissue stem cell; have the immunosuppressive effects that make them valuable targets for regenerative medicine and treatment of many human illnesses. Hence, MSC have been the subject of numerous studies. The classical source of MSC is adult bone marrow (BM). Due to many shortcomings of harvesting MSC from BM, finding the alternative sources for MSC is an urgent. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are relative new MSC populations that fulfill these criteria but their potential immunosuppressive effect has not been studied enough yet. Thus, in this work the effect of SHED on the proliferation of in vitro activated T lymphocytes were explored. Materials and Methods: In this study, both mitogen and alloantigen activated T cells were cultured in the presence of different numbers of SHED. In some co-cultures, activated T cells were in direct contact to MSCs and in other co-cultures; they were separated from SHED by a permeable membrane. In all co-cultures, the proliferation of T cells was measured by ELISA Bromodeoxyuridine proliferation assay. Results: In general, our results showed that SHED significantly suppress the proliferation of activated T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the suppression was slightly stronger when MSCs were in physical contact to activated T cells. Conclusion: This study showed that SHED likewise other MSC populations can suppress the activation of T lymphocytes, which can be used instead of BM derived MSCs in many investigational and clinical applications. PMID:25337532

  6. The effect of stem cell from human exfoliated deciduous teeth on T lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Razieh; Adib, Minoo; Hashemi-Beni, Batool; Sadeghi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), a specific type of adult tissue stem cell; have the immunosuppressive effects that make them valuable targets for regenerative medicine and treatment of many human illnesses. Hence, MSC have been the subject of numerous studies. The classical source of MSC is adult bone marrow (BM). Due to many shortcomings of harvesting MSC from BM, finding the alternative sources for MSC is an urgent. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are relative new MSC populations that fulfill these criteria but their potential immunosuppressive effect has not been studied enough yet. Thus, in this work the effect of SHED on the proliferation of in vitro activated T lymphocytes were explored. In this study, both mitogen and alloantigen activated T cells were cultured in the presence of different numbers of SHED. In some co-cultures, activated T cells were in direct contact to MSCs and in other co-cultures; they were separated from SHED by a permeable membrane. In all co-cultures, the proliferation of T cells was measured by ELISA Bromodeoxyuridine proliferation assay. In general, our results showed that SHED significantly suppress the proliferation of activated T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the suppression was slightly stronger when MSCs were in physical contact to activated T cells. This study showed that SHED likewise other MSC populations can suppress the activation of T lymphocytes, which can be used instead of BM derived MSCs in many investigational and clinical applications.

  7. Inhibition of antigen- and mitogen-induced human lymphocyte proliferation by gold compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, P E; Ziff, M

    1977-01-01

    Gold sodium thiomalate (GST) inhibited in vitro antigen- and mitogen-triggered human lymphocyte DNA synthesis. Inhibition of responsiveness was observed with concentrations of GST equivalent to gold levels found in serum or tissues of patients receiving chrysotherapy, Inhibition was dependent upon the gold ion itself since GST and gold chloride were both inhibitory whereas thiomalic acid was not. Inhibition could not be explained by nonspecific killing of cells or by an alteration in the kinetics of the responses. GST inhibited mitogen-induced proliferation most effectively when present from the initiation of culture and could not inhibit the responsiveness of cells which previously had been activated by concanvalin A. These findings indicated that GST blocked a critical early step in lymphocyte activation. The degree of GST-induced inhibition of proliferation was increased in cultures of cells partially depleted of monocytes. Moreover, inhibition was reversed by supplementation of these cultures with purified monocytes. These observations suggested that GST blocked thymus-derived (T)-lymphocyte activation by interfering with a requisite function of the monocyte population in initiating such responses. Prolonged incubation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with GST resulted in diminished mitogen responsiveness upon subsequent culture in the absence of gold. The addition of fresh monocytes restored responsiveness to these populations. Furthermore, preincubation of purified monocytes with GST rendered them deficient in their ability to support mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation on subsequent culture. These observations indicate that the major effect of GST results from interference with the functional capability of the monocyte population. PMID:838859

  8. Effect of interleukins on the proliferation and survival of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mainou-Fowler, T; Copplestone, J A; Prentice, A G

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the effects of interleukin (IL) 1, 2, 4, and 5 on the proliferation and survival of peripheral blood B cells from patients with B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and compare them with the effects on normal peripheral blood B cells. METHODS--The proliferation and survival of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) activated B cells from B-CLL (n = 12) and normal peripheral blood (n = 5) were studied in vitro in response to IL-1, IL-2 IL-4, and IL-5. Survival of cells in cultures with or without added interleukins was studied by microscopic examination of cells and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS--Proliferation was observed in both B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells on culture with IL-2 alone and also in some, but not all, B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells with IL-1 and IL-4. However, there was greater variability in B-CLL cell responses than in normal peripheral blood cells. Il-5 did not affect normal peripheral blood cell proliferation but it increased proliferation in two B-CLL cases. Synergistic effects of these cytokines were not detected. IL-4 inhibited normal peripheral blood and B-CLL cell proliferation after the addition of IL-2. Inhibition of B-CLL cell responses to IL-2 was also observed with IL-5 and Il-1. Survival of B-CLL cells in cultures was enhanced with IL-4 not by an increase in proliferation but by reduced apoptosis. No such effect was seen in normal peripheral blood cells. IL-2 had a less noticeable antiapoptotic effect; IL-5 enhanced apoptosis in B-CLL cells. CONCLUSIONS--B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells proliferated equally well in response to IL-2. IL-4 had a much lower effect on B-CLL cell proliferation, but had noticeable antiapoptotic activity. IL-5 enhanced cell death by apoptosis. Images PMID:7629299

  9. Cirmtuzumab inhibits Wnt5a-induced Rac1 activation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with ibrutinib

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J; Chen, L; Cui, B; Wu, Christina; Choi, M Y; Chen, Y; Zhang, L; Rassenti, L Z; Widhopf II, G F; Kipps, T J

    2017-01-01

    Signaling via the B cell receptor (BCR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This is underscored by the clinical effectiveness of ibrutinib, an inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) that can block BCR-signaling. However, ibrutinib cannot induce complete responses (CR) or durable remissions without continued therapy, suggesting alternative pathways also contribute to CLL growth/survival that are independent of BCR-signaling. ROR1 is a receptor for Wnt5a, which can promote activation of Rac1 to enhance CLL-cell proliferation and survival. In this study, we found that CLL cells of patients treated with ibrutinib had activated Rac1. Moreover, Wnt5a could induce Rac1 activation and enhance proliferation of CLL cells treated with ibrutinib at concentrations that were effective in completely inhibiting BTK and BCR-signaling. Wnt5a-induced Rac1 activation could be blocked by cirmtuzumab (UC-961), an anti-ROR1 mAb. We found that treatment with cirmtuzumab and ibrutinib was significantly more effective than treatment with either agent alone in clearing leukemia cells in vivo. This study indicates that cirmtuzumab may enhance the activity of ibrutinib in the treatment of patients with CLL or other ROR1+ B-cell malignancies. PMID:27904138

  10. Cirmtuzumab inhibits Wnt5a-induced Rac1 activation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Chen, L; Cui, B; Wu, Christina; Choi, M Y; Chen, Y; Zhang, L; Rassenti, L Z; Widhopf Ii, G F; Kipps, T J

    2017-06-01

    Signaling via the B cell receptor (BCR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This is underscored by the clinical effectiveness of ibrutinib, an inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) that can block BCR-signaling. However, ibrutinib cannot induce complete responses (CR) or durable remissions without continued therapy, suggesting alternative pathways also contribute to CLL growth/survival that are independent of BCR-signaling. ROR1 is a receptor for Wnt5a, which can promote activation of Rac1 to enhance CLL-cell proliferation and survival. In this study, we found that CLL cells of patients treated with ibrutinib had activated Rac1. Moreover, Wnt5a could induce Rac1 activation and enhance proliferation of CLL cells treated with ibrutinib at concentrations that were effective in completely inhibiting BTK and BCR-signaling. Wnt5a-induced Rac1 activation could be blocked by cirmtuzumab (UC-961), an anti-ROR1 mAb. We found that treatment with cirmtuzumab and ibrutinib was significantly more effective than treatment with either agent alone in clearing leukemia cells in vivo. This study indicates that cirmtuzumab may enhance the activity of ibrutinib in the treatment of patients with CLL or other ROR1 + B-cell malignancies.

  11. Boron Induces Lymphocyte Proliferation and Modulates the Priming Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Routray, Indusmita; Ali, Shakir

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mediators of inflammation (CMI) are important in host defense against infection. The reduced capacity of host to induce the secretion of these mediators following infection is one of the factors in host susceptibility to infection. Boron, which has been suggested for its role in infection, is reported in this study to increase lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion of CMI by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Boron was administered to mice orally as borax at different doses for 10 consecutive days, followed by the stimulation of animals with ovalbumin and isolation of splenocytes for proliferation assay. The lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry in spleen cell suspension. The mediators of inflammation, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO), were measured in culture supernatant of LPS-primed macrophages isolated from borax treated mice. TNF and ILs were measured by ELISA. NO was determined by Griess test. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages was studied by confocal microscopy. Results showed a significant increase in T and B cell populations, as indicated by an increase in CD4 and CD19, but not CD8, cells. Boron further stimulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, NO and the expression of iNOS by the LPS-primed macrophages. The effect was dose dependent and most significant at a dose level of 4.6 mg/kg b. wt. Taken together, the study concludes that boron at physiological concentration induces lymphocyte proliferation and increases the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by the LPS-primed macrophages, more specifically the M1 macrophages, possibly acting through Toll-like receptor. The study implicates boron as a regulator of the immune and inflammatory reactions and macrophage polarization, thus playing an important role in augmenting host defense against infection, with possible role in cancer and other diseases.

  12. Boron Induces Lymphocyte Proliferation and Modulates the Priming Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Routray, Indusmita; Ali, Shakir

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mediators of inflammation (CMI) are important in host defense against infection. The reduced capacity of host to induce the secretion of these mediators following infection is one of the factors in host susceptibility to infection. Boron, which has been suggested for its role in infection, is reported in this study to increase lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion of CMI by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Boron was administered to mice orally as borax at different doses for 10 consecutive days, followed by the stimulation of animals with ovalbumin and isolation of splenocytes for proliferation assay. The lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry in spleen cell suspension. The mediators of inflammation, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO), were measured in culture supernatant of LPS-primed macrophages isolated from borax treated mice. TNF and ILs were measured by ELISA. NO was determined by Griess test. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages was studied by confocal microscopy. Results showed a significant increase in T and B cell populations, as indicated by an increase in CD4 and CD19, but not CD8, cells. Boron further stimulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, NO and the expression of iNOS by the LPS-primed macrophages. The effect was dose dependent and most significant at a dose level of 4.6 mg/kg b. wt. Taken together, the study concludes that boron at physiological concentration induces lymphocyte proliferation and increases the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by the LPS-primed macrophages, more specifically the M1 macrophages, possibly acting through Toll-like receptor. The study implicates boron as a regulator of the immune and inflammatory reactions and macrophage polarization, thus playing an important role in augmenting host defense against infection, with possible role in cancer and other diseases. PMID:26934748

  13. Associations of cord blood fatty acids with lymphocyte proliferation, IL-13, and IFN-γ

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Diane R.; Willwerth, Ben M.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Finn, Patricia W.; Schaub, Bianca; Perkins, David L.; Tzianabos, Arthur; Ly, Ngoc P.; Schroeter, Christian; Gibbons, Fiona; Campos, Hannia; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Ryan, Louise M.; Weiss, Scott T.

    2006-01-01

    Background. N-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been hypothesized to have opposing influences on neonatal immune responses that might influence the risk of allergy or asthma. However, both n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) are required for normal fetal development. Objective. We evaluated whether cord blood fatty acid levels were related to neonatal immune responses and whether n-3 and n-6 PUFA responses differed. Methods. We examined the relation of cord blood plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFAs (n = 192) to antigen- and mitogen-stimulated cord blood lymphocyte proliferation (n = 191) and cytokine (IL-13 and IFN-γ; n = 167) secretion in a US birth cohort. Results. Higher levels of n-6 linoleic acid were correlated with higher IL-13 levels in response to Bla g 2 (cockroach, P = .009) and Der f 1 (dust mite, P = .02). Higher n-3 EPA and n-6 AA levels were each correlated with reduced lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ levels in response to Bla g 2 and Der f 1 stimulation. Controlling for potential confounders, EPA and AA had similar independent effects on reduced allergen-stimulated IFN-γ levels. If neonates had either EPA or AA levels in the highest quartile, their Der f 1 IFN-γ levels were 90% lower (P = .0001) than those with both EPA and AA levels in the lowest 3 quartiles. Reduced AA/EPA ratio was associated with reduced allergen-stimulated IFN-γ level. Conclusion. Increased levels of fetal n-3 EPA and n-6 AA might have similar effects on attenuation of cord blood lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ secretion. Clinical implications. The implications of these findings for PMID:16630954

  14. Boron Affects Immune Function Through Modulation of Splenic T Lymphocyte Subsets, Cytokine Secretion, and Lymphocyte Proliferation and Apoptosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Erhui; Li, Shenghe; Ren, Man; Hu, Qianqian; Gu, Youfang; Li, Kui

    2017-08-01

    This study demonstrated the mechanisms of boron effects in a rat model and provided a scientific basis for the rational of boron use. These findings were achieved by investigating the effects of boron (10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, and 640 mg/L in drinking water or 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 mg/kg BW) on rat serum immunoglobulins (IgGs), splenic cytokines, lymphocyte subsets, as well as on lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Addition of 20 (3) and 40 (6) mg/L (mg/kg BW) of boron to drinking water significantly increased rat serum IgG concentrations, splenic IFN-γ and IL-4 expression as well as the number of splenic CD3 + , CD4 + and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) + cells. Supplementation of drinking water with 40 mg/L (6 mg/kg BW) boron also markedly increased splenic IL-2 expression and the CD4 + /CD8 + cell ratio and reduced splenic CD8 + cell number. Supplementation with 80 mg/L (12 mg/kg BW) boron significantly increased CD3 + and PCNA + cell numbers (P < 0.05) and decreased the IL-10 expression in the spleen. Addition of 320 (48) and 640 (96) mg/L (mg/kg BW) boron markedly reduced the serum IgG concentrations; splenic IL-2 and IL-10 expression; the number of CD3 + , CD4 + and PCNA + cells; and increased the number of splenic CD8 + and caspase-3 + cells and promoted caspase-3 expression in CD3 + cells. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the supplementation of rat drinking water with 20(3) and 40(6) mg/L (mg/kg BW) boron can markedly enhance humoral and cellular immune functions, while boron concentrations above 320 mg/L (48 mg/kg BW) can have an inhibitory effect or even toxicity on immune functions. These results exhibit a U-shaped response characteristic of low and high doses of boron supplementation on immune function and imply that proper boron supplementation in food for humans and animals could be used as an immunity regulator.

  15. Sulfasalazine and Mesalamine Modulate Beryllium-Specific Lymphocyte Proliferation and Inflammatory Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Dobis, Dave R.; Sawyer, Richard T.; Gillespie, May M.; Newman, Lee S.; Maier, Lisa A.; Day, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposure to beryllium (Be) results in Be sensitization (BeS) that can progress to pulmonary granulomatous inflammation associated with chronic Be disease (CBD). Be-specific lymphocytes are present in the blood of patients with BeS and in the blood and lungs of patients with CBD. Sulfasalazine and its active metabolite, mesalamine, are clinically used to ameliorate chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease. We tested whether sulfasalazine or mesalamine could decrease Be-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in subjects with CBD and BeS and Be-induced cytokine production in CBD bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. CBD (n = 25), BeS (n = 12) and healthy normal control (n = 6) subjects were enrolled and ex vivo proliferation and cytokine production were assessed in the presence of Be and sulfasalazine or mesalamine. Be-stimulated PBMC proliferation was inhibited by treatment with either sulfasalazine or mesalamine. Be-stimulated CBD BAL cell IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine production was decreased by treatment with sulfasalazine or mesalamine. Our data suggest that both sulfasalazine and mesalamine interfere with Be-stimulated PBMC proliferation in CBD and BeS and dampens Be-stimulated CBD BAL cell proinflammatory cytokine production. These studies demonstrate that sulfasalazine and mesalamine can disrupt inflammatory pathways critical to the pathogenesis of chronic granulomatous inflammation in CBD, and may serve as novel therapy for human granulomatous lung diseases. PMID:19901345

  16. Sulfasalazine and mesalamine modulate beryllium-specific lymphocyte proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Dobis, Dave R; Sawyer, Richard T; Gillespie, May M; Newman, Lee S; Maier, Lisa A; Day, Brian J

    2010-10-01

    Occupational exposure to beryllium (Be) results in Be sensitization (BeS) that can progress to pulmonary granulomatous inflammation associated with chronic Be disease (CBD). Be-specific lymphocytes are present in the blood of patients with BeS and in the blood and lungs of patients with CBD. Sulfasalazine and its active metabolite, mesalamine, are clinically used to ameliorate chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease. We tested whether sulfasalazine or mesalamine could decrease Be-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in subjects with CBD and BeS and Be-induced cytokine production in CBD bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. CBD (n = 25), BeS (n = 12) and healthy normal control (n = 6) subjects were enrolled and ex vivo proliferation and cytokine production were assessed in the presence of Be and sulfasalazine or mesalamine. Be-stimulated PBMC proliferation was inhibited by treatment with either sulfasalazine or mesalamine. Be-stimulated CBD BAL cell IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine production was decreased by treatment with sulfasalazine or mesalamine. Our data suggest that both sulfasalazine and mesalamine interfere with Be-stimulated PBMC proliferation in CBD and BeS and dampens Be-stimulated CBD BAL cell proinflammatory cytokine production. These studies demonstrate that sulfasalazine and mesalamine can disrupt inflammatory pathways critical to the pathogenesis of chronic granulomatous inflammation in CBD, and may serve as novel therapy for human granulomatous lung diseases.

  17. 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields do not affect human lymphocyte activation and proliferation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capri, Miriam; Mesirca, Pietro; Remondini, Daniel; Carosella, Simona; Pasi, Sara; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio; Bersani, Ferdinando

    2004-12-01

    In the last 30 years, an increasing public concern about the possible harmful effects of electromagnetic fields generated by power lines and domestic appliances has pushed the scientific community to search for a correct and comprehensive answer to this problem. In this work the effects of exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields, with a magnetic flux density of 0.05 mT and 2.5 mT (peak values), were studied on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from healthy young and elderly donors. Cell activation and proliferation were investigated by using flow cytometry techniques and 3H-TdR incorporation assays, respectively. The results obtained indicated that exposure to the fields altered neither DNA synthesis nor the capacity of lymphocytes to enter the activation phase and progress into the cell cycle. Thus, the conclusions are that two important functional phases of human lymphocytes, such as activation and proliferation, are not affected by exposures to 50 Hz magnetic fields similar to those found under power lines.

  18. The role of lymphocyte proliferation tests in assessing occupational sensitization and disease

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Stella E.; Pacheco, Karin; Maier, Lisa A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of Review Lymphocyte proliferation testing (LPT) is used in diagnosing occupationally-acquired delayed-type hypersensitivity. It has been used in beryllium-health effects, and it role is expanding in metal allergy. It may find application in diagnosis of other sensitizers. Recent findings Use of the beryllium LPT (BeLPT) in medical surveillance identifies beryllium sensitization at low exposure with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) that leads to physiologic impairment and need for immunosuppressive medications. New studies indicate that both beryllium exposure and genetic variation are associated with increased risk of CBD. Borderline positive BeLPTs warrant inclusion into diagnostic algorithms. Furthermore, use of LPTs to diagnose metal allergy is being proposed in diagnosis of chromium allergy and hypersensitivity to surgical implants. New occupational sensitizers continue to be identified including metalworking fluids, the sterilizing agent ortho-phthalaldehyde and the solvent parachlorobenzotrifluoride. Use of LPT in occupational surveillance to these agents, and other known sensitizers may play expanding roles. Summary Lymphocyte proliferation testing serves a valuable role in diagnosing occupational sensitization, as demonstrated with beryllium-health effects, as cases continue to be found at low exposure levels. The use of LPTs in diagnosing contact allergy is expanding, and new applications may be identified in human and animal studies. PMID:22306552

  19. Electromagnetic fields used clinically to improve bone healing also impact lymphocyte proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M T; Vanscoy-Cornett, A; Vesper, D N; Swez, J A; Chamberlain, J K; Seaward, M B; Nindl, G

    2001-01-01

    An important aspect of medical device development is the need to understand how a device produces a specific biological effect. The focus can then be on optimizing that effect by device modification and repeated testing. Several reports from this lab have targeted programmed cell death, or apoptosis, as a cellular pathway that is induced by exposure of transformed leukemic T-cells in culture to specific frequency and intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs). An EMF delivery device capable of selectively inducing T-cell apoptosis in human tissues could be used to enhance healing by limiting the production of molecules that promote inflammatory disorders such as psoriasis and tendonitis. In the present study, we examined the normal T-cell response to EMF exposure in vitro. In the peripheral blood, 70-80% of the lymphocytes are T-cells, and thus is a rich source of normal cells that match the transformed T-cells used in other experiments (Jurkat cells). We isolated lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of humans and rats, cultured them in nutritive medium and exposed them to either a complex 1.8 mT pulsed EMF (Electrobiology, Inc.), a 0.1 mT, 60 Hz power frequency EMF or a 0.2 mT, 100 Hz sinusoidal EMF. Control lymphocytes were cultured similarly, without field exposure. Lymphocytes were then treated with T-cell mitogens and evaluated for proliferative capacity after an additional 72 hours culture. Results indicate that T-cell proliferation is modulated by in vitro exposure to defined EMFs. The potential use of an EMF delivery device capable of selectively inducing such T-cell effects is discussed.

  20. Cellular immunity in vitro. Clonal proliferation of antigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W H; Valentine, F T; Lawrence, H S

    1969-08-01

    When sensitive lymphocytes are cultured with the appropriate antigen, lymphoblasts appear after 24-48 hr of incubation and the number of these increases steadily from the 2nd to the 6th or 7th day. Our problem was to discover, at a cellular level, how this increase takes place; whether it is a massive response of many cells, stepwise recruitment of cells into the lymphoblast class, or simply repeated division of a few cells to form clones. In these experiments lymphocytes were incubated with antigen in culture tubes for 2-4 days and then a few cells, usually less than 200, were transferred to special microchambers for further culture. In these microchambers the cells could be viewed continually with a microscope and their fate recorded over the next 3-5 days by time-lapse cinemicrography. Examination of the film produced in this way showed that lymphoblasts divided and redivided to produce clones of 64 cells or more. It was possible to measure generation times from the film for 301 cells; the majority were between 8 and 13 hr but the range was 7.5-38.0 hr. There was no clear difference between generation times of human lymphocytes stimulated with tuberculin, streptokinase-streptodrnase, extract of the American pokeweed, or in the mixed leukocyte reaction. Similar times were also found for rat cells in the mixed leukocyte reaction. While these observations show that clonal proliferation does occur and could reasonably account for all the increase of lymphoblasts in lymphocyte cultures, the experiments, because of their design, do not exclude the possibility that other mechanisms such as recruitment may play a role as well, particularly during the first 48 hr after contact between sensitive cells and antigens.

  1. Simultaneous Analysis of P53 Protein Expression and Cell Proliferation in Irradiated Human Lymphocytes by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas e Silva, Rafael; Gonçalves dos Santos, Neyliane Frassinetti; Pereira, Valéria Rěgo Alves; Amaral, Ademir

    2014-01-01

    P53 protein has an intrinsic role in modulating the cellular response against DNA radioinduced damages and has been pointed out as an indirect indicator of individual radiosensitivity. The rate of cell proliferation is also a parameter that has been related to tissue sensitivity to radiation. However, this feature is yet understudied. In this context, the aim of this work was to employ Flow Cytometry (FC) for simultaneously assessing of p53 protein expression levels together with cellular proliferation rate of irradiated human lymphocytes. From in vitro irradiated human blood samples, mononuclear cells were isolated and labeled with Carboxylfluorescein Diacetate Succinimidyl Ester (CFSE) prior to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation in culture for 96 hours. Cells were also labeled with anti-p53 monoclonal antibody PE-conjugated in order to analyze either proliferation rate or p53 expression levels by FC. It was verified a reduction in the proliferation rate of irradiated lymphocytes and, in parallel, a rise in the p53 expression levels, similar for quiescent and proliferating lymphocytes. The results emphasize the importance of the use of CFSE-stained lymphocytes in assays associated to proliferation rate and the use of this methodology in several studies, such as for evaluating individual radiosensitivity. PMID:24659936

  2. Setae from Larvae of the Northern Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) Stimulate Proliferation of Human Blood Lymphocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Göran; Andersson, Margareta; Ekberg, Monica; Fagrell, Bengt; Sjöberg, Jan; Bottai, Matteo; Björkholm, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of the Northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) carry microscopic needles (setae), which by penetrating skin and mucous membranes, may cause inflammatory/immune derived symptoms in man. In the present study the stimulatory effects of setae on human blood lymphocytes in vitro was investigated. Blood mononuclear cells were separated from venous blood or buffy coat of ten healthy individuals, six previously exposed to setae and four with no known exposure. Lymphoproliferation was measured as uptake of 3H-thymidine. Setae were prepared from TP larvae. Setae and saline setae extracts stimulated proliferation of T-lymphocytes in the presence of monocytic cells. Stimulation was pronounced in cells from persons who had been exposed to setae, and weak in cells from non-exposed donors. Chitin also induced lymphocyte proliferation in most donors, but to a lesser extent and independently of donor's previous exposure to setae. In conclusion, setae contain molecules that in the presence of monocytes activate human T-lymphocytes to proliferation. The antigenic nature of stimulatory molecules was supported by the significantly stronger lymphocyte response in persons previously exposed to setae than in non-exposed donors. The nature of such molecules remains to be defined. PMID:25531291

  3. Effect of Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. on natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Panthong, Sumalee; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Immune system is the most important system ofhuman body. Thaifolk doctors have used some medicinal plants as an adaptogenic drug or immunomodulatory agent. Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. are used by folk doctors to activate immune response in cancer patients. To investigate the effect on natural killer cell activity and on lymphocyte proliferation activity of water extract of P chaba Hunter P. sarmentosum Roxb. and P interruptum Opiz. MATERIAL ANDMETHOD: Plant materials were extracted by decoction method. All extracts were testedfor an immunomodulatory effect using PBMCs from twelve healthy donors by chromium release assay. Lymphocyte proliferation was also determined by 3H-thymidine uptake assay. The degree of activation was expressed as the stimulation index. The water extract of P chaba Hunter significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation at concentrations ofl ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. P sarmentosum Roxb., and P interruptum Opiz. extracts at those concentrations significantly stimulated lymphocyteproliferation. P sarmentosum Roxb. extractsignificantly increased natural killer (NK) cell activity at a concentration of 100 μg/ml but P chaba Hunter and P interruptum Opiz. extracts did not significantly stimulate natural killer cell activity. P chaba Hunter, P interruptum Opiz. andP sarmentosum Roxb. have an immunomodulatory effect especially for P sarmentosum Roxb. extract which can activate both lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity.

  4. Sitagliptin inhibit human lymphocytes proliferation and Th1/Th17 differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcelo Maia; Stoppa, Caroline Lais; Valduga, Claudete Justina; Okuyama, Cristina Eunice; Gorjão, Renata; Pereira, Regina Mara Silva; Diniz, Susana Nogueira

    2017-03-30

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetic agents that are widely used in clinical practice to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 is also known as lymphocyte cell surface protein, CD26, and plays an important role in T-cell immunity. Recent studies suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors improve beta-cell function and attenuate autoimmunity in type 1 diabetic mouse models. To investigate the direct effect of DPP4 in immune response, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy volunteers were obtained by Ficoll gradient and cultivated in the absence (control) or presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), or stimulated with PHA and treated with sitagliptin. The immune modulation mechanisms analyzed were: cell proliferation, by MTT assay; cytokine quantification by ELISA or cytometric bead array (CBA), Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotyping by flow cytometric analysis and CD26 gene expression by real time PCR. The results showed that sitagliptin treatment inhibited the proliferation of PBMC-PHA stimulated cells in a dose dependent manner and decreased CD26 expression by these cells, suggesting that sitagliptin may interfere in CD26 expression, dimerization and cell signaling. Sitagliptin treatment not only inhibited IL-10 (p<0.05) and IFN-gamma (p=0.07) cytokines, but also completely abolish IL-6 expression by PBMCs (p<0.001). On the other hand, IL-4 were secreted in culture supernatants from sitagliptin treated cells. A statistically significant increase (p<0.05) in the ratio of TGF-beta/proliferation index after sitagliptin treatment (2627.97±1351.65), when comparing to untreated cells (646.28±376.94), was also demonstrated, indicating higher TGF-beta1 production by viable cells in cultures. Sitagliptin treatment induced a significantly (p<0.05) decrease in IL-17 and IFN-gamma intracellular expression compared with PHA alone. Also, the percentage of T CD4 + IL-17 + , T CD4 + IFNgamma + and T CD4 + IL-4 + cells were

  5. Inhibition of murine splenic T lymphocyte proliferation by 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced metabolic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. S.; Klinger, J. C.; Akin, C.; Koebel, D. A.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1994-01-01

    Female Swiss-Webster mice were injected with the glucose analogue 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), which when administered to rodents induces acute periods of metabolic stress. A single or multiple injections of 2-DG invoked a stress response, as evidenced by increases in serum corticosterone levels. The influence of this metabolic stressor on the blastogenic potential of splenic T lymphocytes was then examined. It was found that one, two, or three injections of 2-DG resulted in depressed T cell proliferative responses, with an attenuation of the effect occurring by the fifth injection. The 2-DG-induced inhibition of T cell proliferation was not attributable to 2-DG-induced cytolysis, as in vitro incubation of naive T cells with varying concentrations of 2-DG did not result in a reduction in cell number or viability, and flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that percentages of CD3, CD4, and CD8 splenic T cells were not altered as a result of 2-DG-induced stress. Incubating naive T cells in varying concentrations of 2-DG resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of T cell blastogenic potential. Following in vivo exposure to 2-DG, T cell proliferation did not return to normal levels until 3 days after the cessation of 2-DG injections. Administering the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol did not reverse the inhibited lymphoproliferation in 2-DG-treated mice. The inhibition in T cell proliferation was not observed, however, in mice that had been adrenalectomized or hypophysectomized and injected with 2-DG.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  6. Effect of melatonin on monochromatic light-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in the thymus of chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fuju; Reheman, Aikebaier; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Dong, Yulan; Zhang, Yuxian; Chen, Yaoxing

    2016-08-01

    A total of 360 post-hatching day 0 (P0) Arbor Acre male broilers, including intact, sham operation and pinealectomy groups, were exposed to white light (WL), red light (RL), green light (GL) and blue light (BL) from a light-emitting diode (LED) system until for P14. We studied the effects of melatonin and its receptors on monochromatic light-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in the thymus of broilers. The density of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) cells and the proliferation of T-lymphocytes in response to Concanavalin A (ConA) in GL significantly increased both in vivo and in vitro (from 9.57% to 32.03% and from 34.30% to 50.53%, respectively) compared with other lights (p<0.005) and was strongly correlated with melatonin levels in plasma (p<0.005). Pinealectomy reduced the levels of circulatory melatonin and the proliferation of T-lymphocytes and eliminated the differences between GL and other lights (p<0.005). However, exogenous melatonin (10(-9)M) significantly increased the proliferative activity of T-lymphocyte by 9.64% (p=0.002). In addition, GL significantly increased mRNA expression levels of Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c receptors from 21.09% to 32.57%, and protein expression levels from 24.43% to 42.92% compared with RL (p<0.05). However, these effects were blocked after pinealectomy. Furthermore, 4P-PDOT (a selective Mel1b antagonist) and prazosin (a selective Mel1c antagonist) attenuated GL-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in response to ConA (p=0.000). Luzindole (a nonselective Mel1a/Mel1b antagonist), however, did not induce these effects (p=0.334). These results suggest that melatonin may mediate GL-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation via the Mel1b and Mel1c receptors but not via the Mel1a receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Activation and proliferation of lymphocytes and other mammalian cells in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.

    1997-01-01

    The experimental findings reviewed in this chapter support the following conclusions: Proliferation. Human T-lymphocytes, associated with monocytes as accessory cells, show dramatic changes in the centrifuge, in the clinostat and in space. In free-floating cells the mitogenic response is depressed by 90% in microgravity, whereas in cells attached to a substratum activation is enhanced by 100% compared to 1-G ground and inflight controls. The duration of phase G1 of the mitotic cycle of HeLa cells is reduced in hypergravity, resulting in an increased proliferation rate. Other systems like Friend cells and WI38 human embryonic lung cells do not show significant changes. Genetic expression and signal transduction. T-lymphocytes and monocytes show important changes in the expression of cytokines like interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor. The data from space experiments in Spacelab, Space Shuttle mid-deck, and Biokosmos have helped to clarify certain aspects of the mechanism of T-cell activation. Epidermoid A431 cells show changes in the genetic expression of the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun in the clinostat and in sounding rockets. Membrane function, in particular the binding of ligates as first messengers of a signal, is not changed in most of the cell systems in microgravity. Morphology and Mortility. Free cells, lymphocytes in particular, are able to move and form aggregates in microgravity, indicating that cell-cell contacts and cell communications do take place in microgravity. Dramatic morphological and ultrastructural changes are not detected in cells cultured in microgravity. Important experiments with single mammalian cells, including immune cells, were carried out recently in three Spacelab flights, (SL-J, D-2, and IML-2 in 1992, 1993, and 1994, respectively). The results of the D-2 mission have been published in ref. 75; those of the IML-2 mission in ref. 76. Finally, many cell biology experiments in space have suffered

  8. Lyt-2+ cells. Requirements for concanavalin A-induced proliferation and interleukin 2 production.

    PubMed

    Kern, D E; Lachmann, L B; Greenberg, P D

    1987-11-01

    The requirements for inducing Lyt-2+ T cell proliferation in response to concanavalin A (Con A) were examined. Purified Lyt-2+ or L3T4+ spleen cells of C57BL/6 origin were stimulated with Con A and syngeneic macrophages (MO) in the presence of monoclonal antibodies to T cell markers or to polymorphic determinants on major histocompatibility complex molecules, and assessed for the ability to proliferate and to produce interleukin (IL) 2. alpha I-Ab failed to inhibit the Con A response of Lyt-2+ cells at dilutions that significantly inhibited the response of L3T4+ cells. In contrast, alphaKb/Db or alpha Lyt-2.2 specifically inhibited the response of Lyt-2+ cells, but not L3T4+ cells. The ability of alpha Kb/Db and of alpha Lyt-2.2 to inhibit the response of Lyt-2+ cells was dependent upon the concentration of Con A. These data demonstrate that optimal triggering of T cell subsets to proliferate and to produce IL-2 in response to Con A requires interactions with the appropriate restricting major histocompatibility complex molecule. The role of accessory cells in Lyt-2+ Con A-induced proliferation and IL-2 production was also investigated. Purified Lyt-2+ cells and purified L3T4+ cells failed to respond to Con A in the absence of MO. IL-1 reconstituted the response when MO were limiting, but failed to restore the response of either Lyt-2+ or L3T4+ cells when T cells were rigorously purified to remove all MO. These results demonstrate that triggering Lyt-2+ T cells, like L3T4+ T cells, requires accessory cells, and that this does not merely reflect a requirement for IL-1 production. Thus, Con A-induced proliferation and IL-2 production by Lyt-2+ T cells requires intimate contact with accessory cells and interactions dependent upon the class I-restricting element.

  9. Proliferation of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Wharton's Jelly in Mixed and Membrane-Separated Cultures.

    PubMed

    Poltavtsev, A M; Poltavtseva, R A; Yushina, M N; Pavlovich, S V; Svirshchevskaya, E V

    2017-08-01

    We studied the effect of mesenchymal stromal cells on proliferation of CFSE-stained T cells in mixed and membrane-separated (Transwell) cultures and in 3D culture of mesenchymal stromal cells from Wharton's jelly. The interaction of mesenchymal stromal cells with mitogen-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from an allogeneic donor was followed by suppression of T-cell proliferation in a wide range of cell proportions. Culturing in the Transwell system showed the absence of suppression assessed by the fraction of proliferating cells and by the cell cycle analysis. In 3D cultures, contact interaction of mesenchymal stromal cells and lymphocytes was demonstrated that led to accumulation of G2/M phase lymphocytes and G0/G1 phase mesenchymal stromal cells. The suppressive effect of mesenchymal stromal cells from Wharton's jelly is mediated by two mechanisms. The effects are realized within 6 days, which suggests that the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stromal cells persist until their complete elimination from the body.

  10. Detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigens and interleukin-2 beta receptor molecules on mitogen- and antigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, J; Dobbelaere, D; Griffin, J F; Buchan, G

    1993-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R) and proliferating cell nuclear antigens (PCNA) were compared for their usefulness as markers of lymphocyte activation. Heterologous polyclonal (anti-bovine IL-2R) and monoclonal (anti-human PCNA) antibodies were used to detect the expression of these molecules on activated deer lymphocytes. Both molecules were co-expressed on blast cells which had been activated with mitogen [concanavalin A (Con A)]. There was detectable up-regulation of IL-2R expression in response to antigen [Mycobacterium bovis-derived purified protein derivative (PPD)] stimulation while PCNA expression mimicked lymphocyte transformation (LT) reactivity. PCNA expression was found to more accurately reflect both antigen- and mitogen-activated lymphocyte activation, as estimated by LT activity. The expression of PCNA was used to identify antigen reactive cells from animals exposed to M. bovis. A very low percentage (1.1 +/- 0.4%) of peripheral blood lymphocytes from non-infected animals could be stimulated to express PCNA by in vitro culture with antigen (PPD). Within the infected group both diseased and healthy, 'in-contact', animals expressed significantly higher levels of PCNA upon antigen stimulation. PMID:8104884

  11. Beryllium health effects in the era of the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test.

    PubMed

    Maier, L A

    2001-05-01

    The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) has revolutionized our approach to the diagnosis, screening, and surveillance of beryllium health effects. Based on the development of a beryllium-specific cell-mediated immune response, the BeLPT has allowed us to define early health effects of beryllium, including beryllium sensitization (BeS), and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at a subclinical stage. The use of this test as a screening tool has improved our understanding of these health effects. From a number of studies it is apparent that BeS precedes CBD and develops after as little as 9 weeks of beryllium exposure. CBD occurs within 3 months and up to 30 years after initial beryllium exposure. Exposure-response variables have been associated with BeS/CBD, including work as a machinist, chemical or metallurgical operator, laboratory technician, work in ceramics or beryllium metal production, and years of beryllium exposure. Recent studies have found BeS and CBD in workplaces in which the majority of exposures were below the 2 microg/m3 OSHA time-weighted average (TWA). Ideally, the BeLPT would be used in surveillance aimed at defining other risk-related processes, determining exposure variables which predict BeS and CBD, and defining the exposure level below which beryllium health effects do not occur. Unfortunately, the BeLPT can result in false negative tests and still requires an invasive procedure, a bronchoscopy, for the definitive diagnosis of CBD. Thus, research is needed to establish new tests to be used alone or in conjunction with the BeLPT to improve our ability to detect early beryllium health effects.

  12. Concanavalin A-induced and spontaneous suppressor cell activities in peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen cells from gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Toge, T; Hamamoto, S; Itagaki, E; Yajima, K; Tanada, M; Nakane, H; Kohno, H; Nakanishi, K; Hattori, T

    1983-11-01

    In 173 gastric cancer patients, activities of Concanavalin-A-induced suppressor cells (Con-AS) and spontaneous suppressor cells (SpS) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), splenic vein lymphocytes (SVL), and spleen cells (SCs) were investigated. Suppressions by Con-AS in PBL were significantly effective in patients of Stages III and IV, while suppressions by SpS were effective in patients with recurrent tumors. Thus, in PBLs of cancer patients, suppressor precursors, which are considered to be activated in vitro by Concanavalin-A, seemed to appear with the advances of the disease, and SpS activities, which could be already activated in vivo, seemed to increase in the terminal stage. In SCs, increased activities of Con-AS, but normal activities of SpS, were observed, and these suppressor-cell populations consisted of glass nonadherent cells. Suppressor activities of SCs would be due to suppressor T-cells, not to other types of cells. Furthermore, Con-AS existed in the medium-sized lymphocytes, which were fractionated on the basis of cell size, while SpS in the large-sized lymphocytes. A higher proportion of T-cells, bearing Fc receptors for IgG, was observed in the larger-sized lymphocyte fractions. Cell numbers in the large-sized lymphocyte fraction tended to increase with the advances of tumors. From these results, it is suggested that higher presence of suppressor precursors and the increase of SpS activities may occur in cancer patients, depending on the tumor advancing.

  13. The ibrutinib B-cell proliferation inhibition is potentiated in vitro by dexamethasone: Application to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Delphine; Catallo, Régine; Chebel, Amel; Baseggio, Lucile; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Roualdes, Olivier; Magaud, Jean-Pierre; Salles, Gilles; Ffrench, Martine

    2016-08-01

    New B-cell receptor-targeted therapies such as ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are now proposed for lymphoid pathologies. The putative benefits of its combination with glucocorticoids were evaluated here. We compared the effects of dexamethasone (DXM), ibrutinib and their in vitro combination on proliferation and metabolic stress markers in stimulated normal B-lymphocytes and in malignant lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. In both cellular models, cell cycle progression was globally inhibited by DXM and/or ibrutinib. This inhibition was significantly amplified by DXM addition to ibrutinib and was related to a significant decrease in the expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins CDK4 and cyclin E. Apoptosis increased especially with DXM/ibrutinib combination and was associated with a significant decrease in Mcl-1 expression. Treatment effects on metabolic stress were evaluated by DNA damage recognition after 53BP1 foci labeling. The percentage of cells with more than five 53BP1 foci decreased significantly with ibrutinib in normal and CLL lymphocytes. This decrease was strongly reinforced, in CLL, by DXM addition. Our data indicated that, in vitro, DXM potentiated antiproliferative effects of ibrutinib and decreased DNA damage in lymphoid B-cells. Thus their combination may be proposed for CLL treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Activity of non-specific T-suppressors regulating the proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes in patients with fibroadenomatosis, breast cancer and stomach cancer].

    PubMed

    Grinevich, Iu A; Drannik, G N; Nikol'skiĭ, I S; Kalinina, N A; Litvishchenko, E I

    1984-01-01

    A decrease in proliferative rate of blood-circulating lymphocytes in response to LPS and PHA was registered in patients with fibroadenomatosis and cancer of the breast and stomach cancer. The said cells preincubated with Concanavalin A showed a weak inhibitory action on B-cells. The inhibition of T-cell proliferation by lymphocytes either remained unchanged or became less apparent in stage II breast cancer and slightly increased in stage III gastric cancer. Since no correlation was established between proliferative levels of T- and B-lymphocytes, two separate subpopulations of non-specific lymphocytes (T-T and T-B) were suggested.

  15. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Decreases Cell Proliferation and TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 Cytokines Production in Cultures of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    de Abreu Costa, Lucas; Henrique Fernandes Ottoni, Marcelo; Dos Santos, Michaelle Geralda; Meireles, Agnes Batista; Gomes de Almeida, Valéria; de Fátima Pereira, Wagner; Alves de Avelar-Freitas, Bethânia; Eustáquio Alvim Brito-Melo, Gustavo

    2017-11-10

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule composed of a polar domain characterized by the sulfinyl and two nonpolar methyl groups, for this reason it is able to solubilize polar and nonpolar substances and transpose hydrophobic barriers. DMSO is widely used to solubilize drugs of therapeutic applications and studies indicated that 10% v/v concentration did not modify culture viability when used to treat human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, some DMSO concentrations could influence lymphocyte activation and present anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of DMSO on lymphocyte activation parameters. Cell viability analysis, proliferation, and cytokine production were performed on PBMC from six healthy subjects by flow cytometry. The results indicated that 2.5% v/v DMSO concentrations did not modify lymphocytes viability. DMSO at 1% and 2% v/v concentrations reduced the relative proliferation index of lymphocytes and at 5% and 10% v/v concentrations reduced the percentage of total lymphocytes, cluster of differentiation 4⁺ (CD4⁺) T lymphocytes and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) producers. Thus, it was concluded that DMSO has an in vitro anti-inflammatory effect by reducing lymphocyte activation demonstrated with proliferation reduction and the decrease of cytokine production.

  16. [Proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion of autologous T lymphocytes stimulated by myeloid leukemia cells induced with rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-Hui; Chen, Qin-Fen; Xie, Yi; Xie, Hong

    2002-12-01

    To observe the proliferation of T lymphocytes stimulated by CML and AML cells which were induced by rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4, and the secretion of IFN-gamma from proliferated T lymphocytes, the expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR on CML and AML cells induced by GM-CSF and IL-4 was assayed by flow cytometry in vitro. Then one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction was carried out, with induced leukemia cells as stimulating cells and auto-T lymphocytes as reactive cells. The secretion of IFN-gamma from T lymphocytes was determined by double antibody sandwich ELISA. The results showed that GM-CSF and IL-4 significantly upregulated the expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR on CML cells and CD80 and CD86 on AML cells, which could stimulate the T lymphocyte proliferation and high secretion of IFN-gamma (in CML group) of autologous T lymphocytes. It is concluded that the CML and AML cells induced by GM-CSF and IL-4 have the ability to present tumor specific antigen to auto-T lymphocyte.

  17. Assessment of the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test using statistical process control.

    PubMed

    Cher, Daniel J; Deubner, David C; Kelsh, Michael A; Chapman, Pamela S; Ray, Rose M

    2006-10-01

    Despite more than 20 years of surveillance and epidemiologic studies using the beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test (BeBLPT) as a measure of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and as an aid for diagnosing subclinical chronic beryllium disease (CBD), improvements in specific understanding of the inhalation toxicology of CBD have been limited. Although epidemiologic data suggest that BeS and CBD risks vary by process/work activity, it has proven difficult to reach specific conclusions regarding the dose-response relationship between workplace beryllium exposure and BeS or subclinical CBD. One possible reason for this uncertainty could be misclassification of BeS resulting from variation in BeBLPT testing performance. The reliability of the BeBLPT, a biological assay that measures beryllium sensitization, is unknown. To assess the performance of four laboratories that conducted this test, we used data from a medical surveillance program that offered testing for beryllium sensitization with the BeBLPT. The study population was workers exposed to beryllium at various facilities over a 10-year period (1992-2001). Workers with abnormal results were offered diagnostic workups for CBD. Our analyses used a standard statistical technique, statistical process control (SPC), to evaluate test reliability. The study design involved a repeated measures analysis of BeBLPT results generated from the company-wide, longitudinal testing. Analytical methods included use of (1) statistical process control charts that examined temporal patterns of variation for the stimulation index, a measure of cell reactivity to beryllium; (2) correlation analysis that compared prior perceptions of BeBLPT instability to the statistical measures of test variation; and (3) assessment of the variation in the proportion of missing test results and how time periods with more missing data influenced SPC findings. During the period of this study, all laboratories displayed variation in test results that

  18. An antigen receptor-driven, interleukin 2-independent pathway for proliferation of murine cytolytic T lymphocyte clones

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Proliferation of T lymphocytes can be induced by IL-2, either through an autocrine pathway in which the responding cell produces its own IL-2 or through an exocrine pathway in which IL-2 secreted by Th stimulates proliferation of IL-2-dependent CTL. However, proliferation of at least some CTL clones, such as CTL L3 and CTL dB45, also can be induced by stimulation of the antigen receptor in the absence of IL-2. Stimulation of these cloned CTL with T cell-depleted allogeneic spleen cells, allogeneic tumor cells, or immobilized mAb reactive with the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) induced thymidine incorporation, entry into cell cycle, and secretion of macrophage activating factor, but these stimuli did not induce the secretion of IL-2. Several observations indicated that such proliferation of cloned CTL induced by stimulation of the TCR was independent of IL-2; IL-2 could not be detected in supernatants from stimulated CTL cells. mAbs reactive with the murine IL-2-R efficiently blocked IL-2-mediated thymidine incorporation in cloned CTL and Th, but had no inhibitory effect on TCR-driven thymidine incorporation in the CTL clones. TCR-driven thymidine incorporation in cloned Th L2 cells was profoundly inhibited by these antibodies, indicating the operation of an IL-2-mediated autocrine pathway for proliferation in this cloned Th. When antibodies to the TCR were used to stimulate cloned CTL and Th, IFN-gamma mRNA was easily shown in the cloned CTL and Th. Although IL-2 mRNA could be detected in the cloned Th, it was never observed in the cloned CTL. These findings provide evidence for the existence of a TCR-mediated, IL-2-independent pathway for induction of cellular proliferation in cloned murine CTL. PMID:3486939

  19. Activation/proliferation and apoptosis of bystander goat lymphocytes induced by a macrophage-tropic chimeric caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing SIV Nef

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzar, Baya Amel; Rea, Angela; Hoc-Villet, Stephanie

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is the natural lentivirus of goats, well known for its tropism for macrophages and its inability to cause infection in lymphocytes. The viral genome lacks nef, tat, vpu and vpx coding sequences. To test the hypothesis that when nef is expressed by the viral genome, the virus became toxic for lymphocytes during replication in macrophages, we inserted the SIVsmm PBj14 nef coding sequences into the genome of CAEV thereby generating CAEV-nef. This recombinant virus is not infectious for lymphocytes but is fully replication competent in goat macrophages in which it constitutively expresses the SIV Nef.more » We found that goat lymphocytes cocultured with CAEV-nef-infected macrophages became activated, showing increased expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). Activation correlated with increased proliferation of the cells. Interestingly, a dual effect in terms of apoptosis regulation was observed in exposed goat lymphocytes. Nef was found first to induce a protection of lymphocytes from apoptosis during the first few days following exposure to infected macrophages, but later it induced increased apoptosis in the activated lymphocytes. This new recombinant virus provides a model to study the functions of Nef in the context of infection of macrophages, but in absence of infection of T lymphocytes and brings new insights into the biological effects of Nef on lymphocytes.« less

  20. Leukemia cell proliferation and death in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients on therapy with the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Burger, Jan A; Li, Kelvin W; Keating, Michael J; Sivina, Mariela; Amer, Ahmed M; Garg, Naveen; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Huang, Xuelin; Kantarjian, Hagop; Wierda, William G; O'Brien, Susan; Hellerstein, Marc K; Turner, Scott M; Emson, Claire L; Chen, Shih-Shih; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Wodarz, Dominik; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2017-01-26

    BACKGROUND. Ibrutinib is an effective targeted therapy for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that inhibits Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a kinase involved in B cell receptor signaling. METHODS. We used stable isotopic labeling with deuterated water ( 2 H 2 O) to measure directly the effects of ibrutinib on leukemia cell proliferation and death in 30 patients with CLL. RESULTS. The measured average CLL cell proliferation ("birth") rate before ibrutinib therapy was 0.39% of the clone per day (range 0.17%-1.04%); this decreased to 0.05% per day (range 0%-0.36%) with treatment. Death rates of blood CLL cells increased from 0.18% per day (average, range 0%-0.7%) prior to treatment to 1.5% per day (range 0%-3.0%) during ibrutinib therapy, and they were even higher in tissue compartments. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides the first direct in vivo measurements to our knowledge of ibrutinib's antileukemia actions, demonstrating profound and immediate inhibition of CLL cell proliferation and promotion of high rates of CLL cell death. TRIAL REGISTRATION. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01752426). FUNDING. This study was supported by a Cancer Center Support Grant (National Cancer Institute grant P30 CA016672), an NIH grant (CA081554) from the National Cancer Institute, MD Anderson's Moon Shots Program in CLL, and Pharmacyclics, an AbbVie company.

  1. Mast cells enhance proliferation of B lymphocytes and drive their differentiation toward IgA-secreting plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Sonia; Frossi, Barbara; Gri, Giorgia; Parusso, Serena; Tripodo, Claudio; Pucillo, Carlo

    2010-04-08

    The evidence of a tight spatial interaction between mast cells (MCs) and B lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs, along with the data regarding the abundance of MCs in several B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders prompted us to investigate whether MCs could affect the proliferation and differentiation of B cells. To this aim, we performed coculture assays using mouse splenic B cells and bone marrow-derived MCs. Both nonsensitized and activated MCs proved able to induce a significant inhibition of cell death and an increase in proliferation of naive B cells. Such proliferation was further enhanced in activated B cells. This effect relied on cell-cell contact and MC-derived interleukin-6 (IL-6). Activated MCs could regulate CD40 surface expression on unstimulated B cells and the interaction between CD40 with CD40 ligand (CD40L) on MCs, together with MC-derived cytokines, was involved in the differentiation of B cells into CD138(+) plasma cells and in selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion. These data were corroborated by in vivo evidence of infiltrating MCs in close contact with IgA-expressing plasma cells within inflamed tissues. In conclusion, we reported here a novel role for MCs in sustaining B-cell expansion and driving the development of IgA-oriented humoral immune responses.

  2. Novel T lymphocyte proliferation assessment using whole mouse cryo-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttisarnwattana, Patiwet; Raza, Syed A.; Eid, Saada; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Wilson, David L.

    2014-03-01

    New imaging technologies enable one to assess T-cell proliferation, an important feature of the immunological response. However, none of the traditional imaging modalities allow one to examine quantiatively T-cell function with microscopic resolution and single cell sensitivity over an entire mouse. To address this need, we established T-cells proliferation assays using 3D microscopic cryo-imaging. Assays include: (1) biodistribution of T-cells, (2) secondary lymphoid organ (SLO) volume measurement, (3) carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution per cell as cells divide. To demonstrate the application, a graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) model was used. 3D visualization show that T-cells specifically homed to the SLOs (spleen and lymph nodes) as well as GVHD target organs (such as GI-tract, liver, skin and thymus).The spleen was chosen as representative of the SLOs. For spleen size analysis, volumes of red and white pulp were measured. Spleen volumes of the allogeneic mice (with GVHD) were significantly larger than those of the syngeneic mice (without GVHD) at 72 to 120 hours post-transplant. For CFSE dilution approach, we employed color-coded volume rendering and probability density function (PDF) of single cell intensity to assess T-cell proliferation in the spleen. As compared to syngeneic T-cells, the allogeneic T-cells quickly aggregated in the spleen as indicated by increasing of CFSE signal over the first 48 hours. Then they rapidly proliferated as evidenced by reduced CFSE intensity (at 48-96 hours). Results suggest that assays can be used to study GVHD treatments using T-cell proliferation and biodistibution as assays. In summary, this is the first time that we are able to track and visualize T-cells in whole mouse with single cell sensitivity. We believe that our technique can be an alternative choice to traditional in vitro immunological proliferation assays by providing assessment of proliferation in an in vivo model.

  3. Effects of exogenous vitamins A, C, and E and NADH supplementation on proliferation, cytokines release, and cell redox status of lymphocytes from healthy aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Bouamama, Samia; Merzouk, Hafida; Medjdoub, Amel; Merzouk-Saidi, Amel; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological event that is associated with immune alterations. These alterations are related to increased cellular oxidative stress and micronutrient deficiency. Antioxidant supplementation could improve these age-related abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro effects of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) on T cell proliferation, cytokine release, and cell redox status in the elderly compared with young adults. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated using a density gradient of Histopaque. They were cultured in vitro and stimulated with concanavalin A in the presence or absence of vitamins. Cell proliferation was determined by conducting MTT assays, and based on interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 secretions. Cell oxidant/antioxidant balance was assessed by assaying reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein levels, and catalase activity. The present study demonstrated that T-lymphocyte proliferation was decreased with aging and was associated with cytokine secretion alterations, GSH depletion, and intracellular oxidative stress. In the elderly, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH significantly improved lymphocyte proliferation and mitigated cellular oxidative stress, whereas vitamin A did not affect cell proliferation or cell redox status. In conclusion, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH supplementation improved T-lymphocytes response in the elderly, and could contribute to the prevention of age-related immune alterations. Consumption of food items containing these vitamins is recommended, and further investigation is necessary to evaluate the effect of vitamin supplementation in vivo.

  4. Proliferation capacity of T-lymphocytes is affected transiently after a long-term weight gain in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, H; Janssens, G P J; Rochus, K; Duchateau, L; Scharek-Tedin, L; Zentek, J; Nguyen, P; Cox, E; Buyse, J; Biourge, V; Hesta, M

    2013-04-15

    Across species obesity is associated with several disorders but in companion animals little information is available on the impact of chronic obesity on immune competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weight gain and stable obese bodyweight affects the immune cell response. Obesity was induced in eight adult healthy beagle dogs (weight gain group; WGG) by a weight gain period (WGP) of 47 weeks, which was immediately followed by a period (stable period: SP) of stable obesity of 26 weeks. Eight adult healthy beagle dogs were included as a control group (CG) and remained at their ideal bodyweight throughout the entire study. Body composition was measured at five intervening time-points. Concentration of serum leptin and inflammatory cytokines, functionality of lymphocytes and phagocytic activity of neutrophils and monocytes were evaluated at ten intervening time-points. Serum leptin concentration was rising during the WGP in the WGG but went to lower concentrations during the SP. At the end of long-term weight gain, a decreased mitogen-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes was noted but this alteration seemed to be transient after stabilization of bodyweight. This finding may imply an altered immune response for dogs with different energy balances. However, no systemic low grade inflammation or alteration in other immune cell functions was observed. Consequently it is suggested that the change in energy balance during the onset of obesity (becoming obese versus being obese), evokes an additional obesity-related disorder in dogs, i.e. impaired T-lymphocyte immune function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CD4 T-cell cytokines synergize to induce proliferation of malignant and nonmalignant innate intraepithelial lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kooy-Winkelaar, Yvonne M C; Bouwer, Dagmar; Janssen, George M C; Thompson, Allan; Brugman, Martijn H; Schmitz, Frederike; de Ru, Arnoud H; van Gils, Tom; Bouma, Gerd; van Rood, Jon J; van Veelen, Peter A; Mearin, M Luisa; Mulder, Chris J; Koning, Frits; van Bergen, Jeroen

    2017-02-07

    Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a severe complication of celiac disease (CD) characterized by the presence of an enlarged clonal population of innate intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) lacking classical B-, T-, and natural killer (NK)-cell lineage markers (Lin - IELs) in the duodenum. In ∼50% of patients with RCDII, these Lin - IELs develop into a lymphoma for which no effective treatment is available. Current evidence indicates that the survival and expansion of these malignant Lin - IELs is driven by epithelial cell-derived IL-15. Like CD, RCDII is strongly associated with HLA-DQ2, suggesting the involvement of HLA-DQ2-restricted gluten-specific CD4 + T cells. We now show that gluten-specific CD4 + T cells isolated from CD duodenal biopsy specimens produce cytokines able to trigger proliferation of malignant Lin - IEL lines as powerfully as IL-15. Furthermore, we identify TNF, IL-2, and IL-21 as CD4 + T-cell cytokines that synergistically mediate this effect. Like IL-15, these cytokines were found to increase the phosphorylation of STAT5 and Akt and transcription of antiapoptotic mediator bcl-x L Several small-molecule inhibitors targeting the JAK/STAT pathway blocked proliferation elicited by IL-2 and IL-15, but only an inhibitor targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway blocked proliferation induced by IL-15 as well as the CD4 + T-cell cytokines. Confirming and extending these findings, TNF, IL-2, and IL-21 also synergistically triggered the proliferation of freshly isolated Lin - IELs and CD3 - CD56 + IELs (NK-IELs) from RCDII as well as non-RCDII duodenal biopsy specimens. These data provide evidence implicating CD4 + T-cell cytokines in the pathogenesis of RCDII. More broadly, they suggest that adaptive immune responses can contribute to innate IEL activation during mucosal inflammation.

  6. CD8+ T Lymphocyte Expansion, Proliferation and Activation in Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    de Matos, Andréia Manso; Carvalho, Karina Inacio; Rosa, Daniela Santoro; Villas-Boas, Lucy Santos; da Silva, Wanessa Cardoso; Rodrigues, Célia Luiza de Lima; Oliveira, Olímpia Massae Nakasone Peel Furtado; Levi, José Eduardo; Araújo, Evaldo Stanislau Affonso; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Luna, Expedito José Albuquerque; Kallas, Esper George

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever induces a robust immune response, including massive T cell activation. The level of T cell activation may, however, be associated with more severe disease. In this study, we explored the level of CD8+ T lymphocyte activation in the first six days after onset of symptoms during a DENV2 outbreak in early 2010 on the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Using flow cytometry we detected a progressive increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells in 74 dengue fever cases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 cases were thawed and evaluated using expanded phenotyping. The expansion of the CD8+ T cells was coupled with increased Ki67 expression. Cell activation was observed later in the course of disease, as determined by the expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR. This increased CD8+ T lymphocyte activation was observed in all memory subsets, but was more pronounced in the effector memory subset, as defined by higher CD38 expression. Our results show that most CD8+ T cell subsets are expanded during DENV2 infection and that the effector memory subset is the predominantly affected sub population. PMID:25675375

  7. Hepatitis B virus replication is upregulated in proliferated peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qin; Lan, Ying-Hua; Huang, Yan-Xin; Fan, Rong-Shan; Liu, Lan; Song, Shu-Peng; Li, Yong-Guo

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the hepatitis B virus (HBV) replicates in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but at a low level. The present study aimed to establish a reliable and sensitive method that effectively detects HBV viral products for monitoring antiviral therapy, organ transplantation screening, and diagnosing occult HBV infection. In the present study, PBMCs (obtained from six healthy volunteers) were inoculated with HBV, and cultured with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and interleukin‑2 (IL‑2) to stimulate cell proliferation. PBMCs were harvested, and quantitative detection of HBV DNA in cell suspension and intracellular hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was conducted on days 0, 1, 6 and 12, respectively. In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) were performed to analyze the HBV infection. The results demonstrated that HBV DNA increased concurrently with proliferation of PBMCs isolated from three of six healthy volunteers, and the mean number of PBMCs on day 12 was 13.61 times higher than the initially seeded cell number (P<0.01). The mean copies of HBV DNA at day 12 were 2.98 times higher compared with initial levels (P<0.05). Furthermore, intracellular HBsAg levels increased concurrently with proliferation of PBMCs in one group of cultured PBMCs, which was accompanied by increased HBV DNA levels. In addition, HBV nucleic acids were detected in PBMCs using in situ hybridization. Intracellular HBsAg was observed in PBMCs and HBV RNA was also detected by RT‑PCR. The present study demonstrated that HBV replicates in proliferating PBMCs, which were induced by PHA and IL‑2. This method offers a novel investigative tool to detect HBV infection in PBMCs and to monitor the course of HBV infection.

  8. Lymphocyte proliferation in mice after a full laparotomy is the same whether performed in a sealed carbon dioxide chamber or in room air.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Southall, J C; Gleason, N R; Huang, E H; Bessler, M; Whelan, R L

    2000-03-01

    Our laboratory has demonstrated that significantly more cell-mediated immunosuppression occurs after full laparotomy than after either anesthesia control or carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum. We further demonstrated that the postoperative immunosuppression is related to the length of the incision. Other investigators believe that the immunosuppression observed after laparotomy is caused by peritoneal exposure to small amounts of lipopolysaccharide found in circulating air. They believe that the better-preserved immune function associated with laparoscopic surgery results from the avoidance of air contamination of the peritoneal cavity. To investigate this hypothesis, we determined and compared postoperative lymphocyte proliferation rates after (a) laparotomy in room air, (b) laparotomy in a CO2 chamber, (c) CO2 insufflation in a murine model, and (d) anesthesia alone. Female C3H/He mice (n = 21) were divided randomly into four groups: (a) anesthesia control, (b) air laparotomy, (c) CO2 laparotomy, and (d) CO2 insufflation. The control mice underwent no procedure. The group 2 animals underwent a full midline incision (xiphoid to pubis) and exposure to room air for 20 min and then were clipped closed. The group 3 mice underwent a full midline incision in a sealed CO2 chamber for 20 min, and the group 4 mice insufflation with CO2 gas at 4 to 6 mm Hg for 20 min. Splenocytes were harvested from all the animals on day 2 after the interventions. Lymphocyte proliferation then was assessed using the nonradioactive colorimetric MTS/PMS system 72 h after concanavalin-A stimulation. There was no significant difference in lymphocyte proliferation between the air and CO2 laparotomy groups. Lymphocyte proliferation in the anesthesia control and CO2 insufflation groups was significantly higher than in both the air laparotomy (p<0.05) and CO2 laparotomy (p<0.05) groups (p values by Tukey-Kramer test). There was no significant difference between the anesthesia control and CO2

  9. Effects of conjugated linoleic acids on growth performance, serum lysozyme activity, lymphocyte proliferation, and antibody production in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Guo, Yuming; Yuan, Jianmin

    2005-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 240 day-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into four dietary treatments with different inclusion levels of CLA (0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg) for six weeks. Growth performance, peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proliferation, lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity (carbon clearance) and serum antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine were examined. There were no significant differences in growth performance among treatments (p > 0.05). Chicks fed CLA diets produced more lysozyme activity in serum than the control group at 2 and 6 weeks of age (p < 0.05). Dietary CLA enhanced the PBL proliferation in response to concanavalin A (ConA) at the age of 42 d (p < 0.05). Phagocytic ability was also affected by dietary CLA and chicks fed CLA diets had faster carbon clearance rate (p < 0.05), but antibody titers to NDV was not influenced by dietary CLA. The results of the study suggested that dietary CLA could enhance innate and cellular immune response in broiler chicks, and not affect the growth performance.

  10. Thymic lymphocytes. III. Cooperative phenomenon in the proliferation of thymocytes under Con A stimulation.

    PubMed

    Papiernik, M; Jacobson, J B

    1986-01-01

    In the present paper, the response of thymocytes to Con A is analyzed in terms of a cooperative phenomenon between medullary thymocytes, cortical thymocytes, thymic accessory cells, and interleukin 2. Medullary thymocytes respond spontaneously to Con A and produce IL-2. The addition of exogenously produced IL-2 enhances their proliferation. Small numbers of cortical (PNA+) thymocytes do not respond to Con A, even in the presence of IL-2-containing supernatant. By increasing the number of PNA+ cells per well, sensitivity to Con A and IL-2 appears. This response may be linked either to the increase in a minor PNA+-responding population and/or to the enhanced contamination by medullary thymocytes and macrophages in non-responding PNA+ thymocyte population. In this hypothesis, either the contaminating cells respond by themselves and/or cooperate with PNA+ cells to induce their proliferation. Coculture of non-responding low numbers of PNA+ thymocytes with Con A- and IL-2-containing supernatant in the presence of PNA- cells containing thymic medullary thymocytes and macrophages always produces a higher response than that of each individual population. These results show that a cooperative phenomenon occurs in the cocultures of PNA+ and PNA- thymic cells. We can show using PNA+ and PNA- thymocytes with different Thy 1 alleles, that indeed both PNA+ and populations participate PNA-thymocytes with different Thy 1 alleles, that indeed both PNA+ and PNA- populations participate in the generation of proliferating cells. We can demonstrate, by lysis experiments with monoclonal antibodies and complement that at the end of coculture, most of the proliferating cells are Lyt 1+, and part are Lyt 2+ or L3T4+. We discuss the fact that the phenotype of the cells after activation does not allow us to deduce the phenotype of their precursors. Lysis of Ia+ cells prior to coculture, reduces the level of the proliferative response but does not modify the percentage of cooperation produced

  11. T-kininogen, a cystatin-like molecule, inhibits ERK-dependent lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Aravena, Mauricio; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Pérez, Viviana; Gómez, Christian; Sabaj, Valeria; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Pérez, Claudio; Colombo, Alicia; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2005-12-01

    Plasma levels of kininogens increase with age in both rats and humans. Kininogens are inhibitors of cysteine proteinases, and filarial cysteine proteinase inhibitors (cystatins) reduce the proliferation of T cells. We evaluated whether T-kininogen (T-KG) might mimic this effect, and here we present data indicating that exposure of either rat splenocytes or Jurkat cells to purified T-KG results in inhibition of both ERK activation and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, both basal and in response to ConA or PHA. Interestingly, T-KG did not impair [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation in response to IL-2, which requires primarily the activation of the JNK and Jak/STAT pathways. These effects were neither the consequence of increased cell death, nor required the activity of kinin receptors. Furthermore, when T cell receptor proximal events were bypassed by the use of PMA plus Calcium ionophore, T-KG no longer inhibited ERK activation, suggesting that inhibition occurs upstream of these events, possibly at the level of membrane associated signal transduction molecules. We conclude that, like filarial cystatins, T-KG inhibits ERK-dependent T cell proliferation, and these observations suggest a possible role for T-KG in immunosenescence.

  12. [Enhanced lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of epidermal cells of HIV-infected patients in vitro].

    PubMed

    Kappus, R P; Berger, S; Thomas, C A; Ottmann, O G; Ganser, A; Stille, W; Shah, P M

    1992-07-01

    Clinical observations show that the HIV infection is often associated with affections of the skin. In order to examine the involvement of the epidermal immune system in the HIV infection, we determined accessory cell function of epidermal cells from HIV-1-infected patients. For this we measured the proliferative response of enriched CD(4+)-T-lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients and noninfected controls to stimulation with anti-CD3 and IL-2 in the presence of epidermal cells; the enhancement of the response is dependent on the presence of functionally intact accessory cells. The capacity of epidermal cells to increase the anti-CD3-stimulated T-cell proliferative response was significantly enhanced in HIV patients (CDC III/IVA) as compared with noninfected donors. It is discussed, whether the increased activity of epidermal cells from HIV-infected patients may be responsible for several of the dermal lesions in the course of an HIV infection as due to an enhanced production and release of epidermal cell-derived cytokines.

  13. Participation of interleukins in synergistic effect of Bu-WSA on concanavalin A-induced DNA synthesis in mouse splenic lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Nitta, T; Konno-Ejiri, H; Nemoto, K; Okumura, S; Ozawa, A; Nakano, M

    1986-09-01

    Butanol-extracted water-soluble adjuvant (Bu-WSA) obtained from Bacterionema matruchotii was mitogenic to murine splenic B lymphocytes, but not T lymphocytes. When murine splenic cells were cultured in the presence of Bu-WSA and concanavalin A (Con A) together, [3H]thymidine uptake of the culture cells synergically increased. The mechanism of the synergy of Con A and Bu-WSA and the participation of interleukin (IL) 1 and 2 in the synergy were studied. The proliferation cells in the synergy were Lyt-1+23- lymphocytes. Ia-positive accessory cells were required for the response. When separated cell populations and Marbrook-type culture vessels were used, a mixed cell population of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes or macrophages (M phi) produced some active factor(s) after co-stimulation by Con A and Bu-WSA, and the factors enhanced DNA synthesis of another Con A-activated T lymphocyte population. Supernatants obtained from the spleen cell cultures or the mixed cell cultures with T lymphocytes and M phi in the presence of Con A and Bu-WSA contained greater amounts of IL-1 and IL-2 than those from cultures containing Con A or Bu-WSA alone. An addition of exogenous IL-1 or IL-2 to spleen cell cultures with Con A resulted in a proliferative response like that obtained through co-stimulation by Con A and Bu-WSA. These results suggest that the synergistic effect of Con A and Bu-WSA on the proliferative response in murine splenic cells is sustained by the enhancement of production of these T-lymphocyte growth factors.

  14. Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Heng; Guo, Wei; Long, Cong

    Highlights: • Triptolide inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Triptolide reduces expression of LMP1 by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide inhibits ED-L1 promoter activity. - Abstract: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assaysmore » were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression.« less

  15. Chlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans and the human immune system (2) In vitro proliferation of lymphocytes from workers with quantified moderately-increased body burdens

    SciTech Connect

    Neubert, R.; Maskow, L.; Delgado, I.

    1995-11-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation responses were studied in workers with moderately increased body burdens of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and other polyclorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), calculated as International Toxicity Equivalencies [I-TE]. Mitogens (pokeweed mitogen [PWM], phytohemagglutinine [PHA], concanavalin A [Con A], as well as anti-human monoclonal antibody against CD3 were used as proliferation stimulators in vitro. Additionally, the feasibility of using the lymphocyte response to tetanus toxoid was assessed, and the response to this recall-antigen was included in this trial. No decrease in the capacity of {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation was observed with any of the proliferation stimulatorsmore » in the group of volunteers with the increased TCDD-body burden when compared with volunteers exhibiting TCDD-concentrations in blood flat within the reference range. Regression analysis revealed a slight trend towards an increase for {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation during the stimulation with PHA only. It can be concluded from our data that moderates increases in the TCDD- or I-TE-body burdens do not induce any medically significant changes in the capacity for proliferation of lymphocytes, measured as {sub 3}H=thymidine incorporation. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  16. Intrathymic lymphopoiesis: stromal cell-associated proliferation of T cells is independent of lymphocyte genotype.

    PubMed

    Kyewski, B A; Travis, M; Kaplan, H S

    1984-09-01

    We analyzed the genetic restriction of direct cell-cell interactions between thymocytes and a) cortical epithelial cells, b) macrophages, and c) medullary dendritic cells in the mouse thymus. Thymectomized (C3H X C57BL/Ka)F1 hybrid mice were doubly grafted with P1 and P2 neonatal thymus grafts, were lethally irradiated, and were reconstituted with a mixture of P1 and P2 bone marrow cells which differed in the Thy-1 locus. The contributions of both parental inocula to the composition of the free and stromal cell-associated T cell compartments were analyzed separately in thymic grafts of each parental strain. The lymphoid composition in both compartments essentially reflected the peripheral T cell-chimerism in the host. The development of lymphostromal complexes was not restricted by the genotype of the partner cells. Statistical analysis of the distributions of P1 and P2 T cells among free thymocytes and within individual lymphostromal complexes, however, suggests that the T cells of an individual complex are the progeny of oligoclonal proliferation. Thus, both epithelial cells and bone marrow-derived stromal cells seem to be involved in different stages of intrathymic lymphopoiesis.

  17. Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and antibody production in vitro by silica, talc, bentonite or Corynebacterium parvum: involvement of peroxidative processes.

    PubMed

    Hoffeld, J T

    1983-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether and by what means particles which induce granulomata in vivo can affect murine spleen lymphoproliferative and antibody responses in vitro. Particles of silica, talc, Bentonite or C. parvum cells inhibited lipopolysaccharide- or concanavalin A-stimulated proliferation and sheep red blood cell-induced antibody response in vitro. The inhibition required at least 48 hours exposure of the cells to the particles. The late onset of inhibition and its reproducibility at different cell or mitogen concentrations implicated particle-induced injury to both phagocytes and lymphocytes. Either alpha-tocopherol or 2-mercaptoethanol prevented the particle-induced inhibition of spleen cell responses. alpha-Tocopherol and 2-mercaptoethanol have in common the capacity to protect cells against membrane lipid peroxidation. The inhibitory peroxidative process(es) implicated by these studies are most likely attributable to: (a) stimulation of oxidative metabolism of phagocytic cells by particles; and (b) iron-catalyzed peroxidation directly by the particles. These data may be relevant in understanding the pathogenesis of and devising therapeutic approaches toward various granulomatous conditions.

  18. Interleukin 7 Plays a Role in T Lymphocyte Apoptosis Inhibition Driven by Mesenchymal Stem Cell without Favoring Proliferation and Cytokines Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Normanton, Marilia; Alvarenga, Heliene; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Ribeiro, Andreza; Kondo, Andrea; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Marti, Luciana Cavalheiro

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, when a case report describing the use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) infusion as a therapy for GVHD after bone marrow transplantation, a new perspective in MSC function emerged. Since then hMSCs immunomodulatory potential became the target of several studies. Although great progress has been made in our understanding of hMSCs, their effect on T cell remains obscure. Our study has confirmed the already described effect of hMSCs on lymphocytes proliferation and survival. We also show that the impairment of lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis is contact-independent and occurs in a prostaglandin-independent manner. A potential correlation between IL-7 and hMSCs effect is suggested, as we observed an increase in IL-7 receptors (CD127) on lymphocyte membrane in MSC presence. Additionally, blocking IL-7 in hMSCs-lymphocytes co-cultures increased lymphocytes apoptosis and we also have demonstrated that hMSCs are able to produce this interleukin. Moreover, we found that during Th1/Th17 differentiation in vitro, hMSCs presence leads to Th1/Th17 cells with reduced capacity of INF-y and IL-17 secretion respectively, regardless of having several pro-inflammatory cytokines in culture. We did not confirm an increment of Treg in these cultures, but a reduced percentage of INF-y/IL-17 secreting cells was observed, suggesting that the ratio between anti and pro-inflammatory cells changed. This changed ratio is very important to GvHD therapy and links hMSCs to an anti-inflammatory role. Taken together, our findings provide important preliminary results on the lymphocyte pathway modulated by MSCs and may contribute for developing novel treatments and therapeutic targets for GvHD and others autoimmune diseases. PMID:25184791

  19. Bioactive compounds or metabolites from black raspberries modulate T lymphocyte proliferation, myeloid cell differentiation and Jak/STAT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Thomas A.; King, Samantha A.; Ameen, Zeenath; Elnaggar, Omar; Young, Gregory; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Weghorst, Christopher M.; Lesinski, Gregory B.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive phyotochemicals from natural products, such as black raspberries (BRB; Rubus occidentalis) have direct anti-cancer properties on malignant cells in culture and in xenograft models. BRB components inhibit cancer progression in more complex rodent carcinogenesis models. Although mechanistic targets for BRB phytochemicals in cancer cells are beginning to emerge, the potential role in modulating host immune processes impacting cancer have not been systematically examined. We hypothesized that BRB contain compounds capable of eliciting potent immunomodulatory properties that impact cellular mediators relevant to chronic inflammation and tumor progression. We studied both an ethanol extract from black raspberries (BRB-E) containing a diverse mixture of phytochemicals and two abundant phytochemical metabolites of BRB produced upon ingestion (Cyanidin-3-Rutinoside, C3R; Quercitin-3-Rutinoside, Q3R). BRB-E inhibited proliferation and viability of CD3/CD28 activated human CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. BRB-E also limited in vitro expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and their suppressive capacity. Pre-treatment of immune cells with BRB-E attenuated IL-6-mediated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and IL-2 induced STAT5 phosphorylation. In contrast, pre-treatment of immune cells with the C3R and Q3R metabolites inhibited MDSC expansion, IL-6-mediated STAT3 signaling, but not IL-2 induced STAT5 phosphorylation and were less potent inhibitors of T cell viability. Together these data indicate that BRB extracts and their physiologically-relevant metabolites contain phytochemicals that affect immune processes relevant to carcinogenesis and immunotherapy. Furthermore, specific BRB components and their metabolites may be a source of lead compounds for drug development that exhibit targeted immunological outcomes or inhibition of specific STAT-regulated signaling pathways. PMID:24893859

  20. Increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges and decrease in cell viability and proliferation kinetics in human peripheral blood lymphocytes after in vitro exposure to whole bee venom.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2010-10-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the impact of bee venom on frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and viability in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. In addition, the proportion of lymphocytes that undergo one, two or three cell divisions as well as proliferative rate index (PRI) have been determined. Aqueous solution of whole bee venom was added to whole blood samples in concentrations ranging from 0.1 microg/mL to 20 microg/mL in different lengths of time. Results showed that whole bee venom inhibited cell viability, resulting in a 22.86 +/- 1.14% and 51.21 +/- 0.58% reduction of viable cells at 1 hour and 6 hours, respectively. The mean SCE per cell in all the exposed samples was significantly higher than in the corresponding controls. In addition, the percentage of high frequency cells (HFC) for each sample was estimated using the pooled distribution of all SCE measurements. This parameter was also significantly higher compared to the control. Inhibition of proliferation was statistically significant for both exposure times and concentrations and was time and dose dependent. These data indicate that whole bee venom inhibited cell proliferation, resulting in a 36.87 +/- 5.89% and 38.43 +/- 1.96% reduction of proliferation at 1 hour and 6 hours, respectively. In conclusion, this report demonstrated that whole bee venom is capable of inducing DNA alterations by virtue of increasing sister chromatid exchanges in addition to the cell viability decrease and inhibition of proliferation kinetics in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro.

  1. Effect of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to class I and class II HLA antigens on lectin- and MoAb OKT3-induced lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Y; Zicht, R; Ferrone, S; Bonnard, G D; Herberman, R B

    1985-04-01

    We have examined the effect of several monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to monomorphic determinants of class II HLA antigens, and MoAb to monomorphic determinants of class I HLA antigens and to beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2-mu) on lectin- and MoAb OKT3-induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) and cultured T cells (CTC). Some, but not all, anti-class II HLA MoAb inhibited the proliferative response of PBMNC to MoAb OKT3 and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). The degree of inhibitory effect varied considerably. This effect was not limited to anti-class II HLA MoAb since anti-class I HLA MoAb and anti-beta 2-mu MoAb also inhibited MoAb OKT3- or PWM-induced proliferative responses. In contrast, the response of PBMNC to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) was not blocked by any anti-class II HLA MoAb. However, some anti-class II HLA MoAb also inhibited the proliferative response of CTC plus allogeneic peripheral blood adherent accessory cells (AC) to PHA or Con A as well as to MoAb OKT3 or PWM. This may be attributable to the substantially greater class II HLA antigen expression by CTC than by fresh lymphocytes. Pretreatment of either CTC or AC with anti-class II HLA MoAb inhibited OKT3-induced proliferation. In contrast, pretreatment of CTC, but not AC, with anti-class I HLA MoAb inhibited the proliferative response of CTC to OKT3. Pretreatment of CTC with anti-class I HLA MoAb inhibited PHA-, Con A and PWM-induced proliferation, to a greater degree than the anti-class II HLA MoAb. It appears as if lymphocyte activation by different mitogens exhibits variable requirements for the presence of cells expressing major histocompatibility determinants. Binding of Ab to membrane markers may interfere with lymphocyte-AC cooperation, perhaps by inhibiting binding of mitogens to their receptors or by interfering with lymphocyte and AC function. We also have examined the role of class II HLA antigens on CTC by depleting class II HLA-positive cells

  2. In-vitro immunosuppression of canine T-lymphocyte-specific proliferation with dexamethasone, cyclosporine, and the active metabolites of azathioprine and leflunomide in a flow-cytometric assay

    PubMed Central

    Nafe, Laura A.; Dodam, John R.; Reinero, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    A high rate of mortality, expense, and complications of immunosuppressive therapy in dogs underscores the need for optimization of drug dosing. The purpose of this study was to determine, using a flow-cytometric assay, the 50% T-cell inhibitory concentration (IC50) of dexamethasone, cyclosporine, and the active metabolites of azathioprine (6-mercaptopurine) and leflunomide (A77 1726) in canine lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A). Whole blood was collected from 5 privately owned, healthy dogs of various ages, genders, and breeds. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, obtained by density-gradient separation, were cultured for 72 h with Con A, a fluorochrome-tagged cell proliferation dye, and various concentrations of dexamethasone (0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000, and 10 000 μM), cyclosporine (0.2, 2, 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, and 200 ng/mL), 6-mercaptopurine (0.5, 2.5, 50, 100, 250, and 500 μM), and A77 1726 (1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 200 μM). After incubation, the lymphocytes were labeled with propidium iodide and an antibody against canine CD5, a pan T-cell surface marker. Flow cytometry determined the percentage of live, proliferating T-lymphocytes incubated with or without immunosuppressants. The mean (± standard error) IC50 was 3460 ± 1900 μM for dexamethasone, 15.8 ± 2.3 ng/mL for cyclosporine, 1.3 ± 0.4 μM for 6-mercaptopurine, and 55.6 ± 22.0 μM for A77 1722. Inhibition of T-cell proliferation by the 4 immunosuppressants was demonstrated in a concentration-dependent manner, with variability between the dogs. These results represent the initial steps to tailor this assay for individual immunosuppressant protocols for dogs with immune-mediated disease. PMID:24982547

  3. Effects of perinatal exposure to low doses of PCB 153 and PCB 126 on lymphocyte proliferation and hematology in goat kids.

    PubMed

    Lyche, Jan; Larsen, Hans; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Tverdal, Aage; Dahl, Ellen; Johansen, Grethe; Ropstad, Erik

    2004-06-11

    Pregnant does (10 goats/group) were dosed orally with either PCB 153 or PCB 126 dissolved in corn oil or only corn oil (control group) from day 60 of gestation until delivery. Effects on in vitro mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and blood cell counts in their goat kids exposed to low levels of PCB 153 and PCB 126 during gestation and lactation were assessed. The concentrations of PCB 153 and PCB 126 in adipose tissue in the goat kids 9 mo postpartum were 5800 ng/g (fat weight) and 0.49 ng/g (fat weight), respectively. Kids exposed to PCB 153 had a significantly higher number of white blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes at 2 wk of age compared to controls. In the kids exposed to PCB 126 there was a significantly lower concentration of monocytes at 2, 4, and 8 wk of age. The mean lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and to concanavalin A (Con A) was significant lower in the PCB 153 compared to the control group at wk 2, 4, and 8 postnatally. The results of the present study support previous reports on immunotoxic effects of PCB exposure in animals. However, this is the first report to demonstrate immunotoxicity in animals by using low doses of PCB 153. The difference in results between PCB 126 and PCB 153 treatment groups may strengthen the hypothesis that PCBs mediate immunotoxic effects through both AhR-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

  4. Effects of iridoid-anthocyanin extract of Cornus mas L. on hematological parameters, population and proliferation of lymphocytes during experimental infection of mice with Trichinella spiralis.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, Jolanta; Szczypka, Marianna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Gorczykowski, Michał

    2018-05-01

    The influence of iridoid-anthocyanin aqueous extract of cornelian cherry fruits (CM) on hematological parameters, lymphocyte subsets and proliferation during Trichinella spiralis infection in mice was investigated. CM (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to T. spiralis-infected mice six times within a period encompassing three days prior to the infection and three days after the infection (dai). CM increased the percentage of CD3 + , CD4 + cells and CD4 + /CD8 + ratio and decreased total count of CD8 + and CD19 + splenocytes (5 th dai). An increase in total count of CD4 + , CD3 + , CD19 + splenocytes was observed (21 st dai). CM elevated the percentage of CD4 + cells (7 th dai) and CD4 + /CD8 + ratio (21 st dai) in MLN. CM increased (14 th dai) and then reduced (21 st dai) the percentage of CD8 + MLN lymphocytes and decreased total count of MLN CD8 + cells (21 st dai) and B cells (14 th dai). An activation of lymphocyte proliferation in spleen and simultaneous decrease in MLN on 5 th dai was observed. An increase in red blood cells parameters (5 th dai) and in leukocyte count (7 th dai) was found. A rise in platelet count was noticed both on 5 th and 7 th dai. Moreover, the number of adult T. spiralis on 5 th dai in mice receiving CM extract was lower than in the control mice. These results suggested that iridoid-anthocyanin aqueous extract of CM stimulated murine immune response during T. spiralis infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute exercise boosts cell proliferation and the heat shock response in lymphocytes: correlation with cytokine production and extracellular-to-intracellular HSP70 ratio.

    PubMed

    Heck, Thiago Gomes; Scomazzon, Sofia Pizzato; Nunes, Patrícia Renck; Schöler, Cinthia Maria; da Silva, Gustavo Stumpf; Bittencourt, Aline; Faccioni-Heuser, Maria Cristina; Krause, Mauricio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Curi, Rui; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo

    2017-03-01

    Exercise stimulates immune responses, but the appropriate "doses" for such achievements are unsettled. Conversely, in metabolic tissues, exercise improves the heat shock (HS) response, a universal cytoprotective response to proteostasis challenges that are centred on the expression of the 70-kDa family of intracellular heat shock proteins (iHSP70), which are anti-inflammatory. Concurrently, exercise triggers the export of HSP70 towards the extracellular milieu (eHSP70), where they work as pro-inflammatory cytokines. As the HS response is severely compromised in chronic degenerative diseases of inflammatory nature, we wondered whether acute exercise bouts of different intensities could alter the HS response of lymphocytes from secondary lymphoid organs and whether this would be related to immunoinflammatory responses. Adult male Wistar rats swam for 20 min at low, moderate, high or strenuous intensities as per an overload in tail base. Controls remained at rest under the same conditions. Afterwards, mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes were assessed for the potency of the HS response (42 °C for 2 h), NF-κB binding activity, mitogen-stimulated proliferation and cytokine production. Exercise stimulated cell proliferation in an "inverted-U" fashion peaking at moderate load, which was paralleled by suppression of NF-κB activation and nuclear location, and followed by enhanced HS response in relation to non-exercised animals. Comparative levels of eHSP70 to iHSP70 (H-index) matched IL-2/IL-10 ratios. We conclude that exercise, in a workload-dependent way, stimulates immunoinflammatory performance of lymphocytes of tissues far from the circulation and this is associated with H-index of stress response, which is useful to assess training status and immunosurveillance balance.

  6. Effect of cell density and HLA-DR incompatibility on T-cell proliferation and forkhead box P3 expression in human mixed lymphocyte reaction.

    PubMed

    Song, E Y; Han, S; Yang, B; Morris, G P; Bui, J D

    2015-04-01

    The proliferation rates of human T cells in vitro are affected by some factors such as initial T-cell number, dose of stimulating cells, and duration of culture. The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) has been used to identify regulatory T cells in humans and is thought to correlate with tolerance to allogeneic organ transplant. Thus, it is important to optimize conditions to expand FoxP3 cell proliferation to improve engraftment of allogeneic organ transplants. We studied proliferative responses and FoxP3 expression in divided T cells with the use of flow cytometric analysis of Ki-67 in culture of different concentrations of responding cells (6 × 10(6), 4 × 10(6), 2 × 10(6), 1 × 10(6), and 0.5 × 10(6)cells/mL), different types of stimulating cells (lymphocytes and low density cells), and different numbers of HLA mismatches. The proportion of CD3(+) cells, CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells among mononuclear cells were highest at initial cell concentration of 2 × 10(6) responder cells/mL with lymphocytes as stimulators at day-5 mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). They were highest at a concentration of 4 × 10(6) responder cells/mL with low density cells as stimulators. The recovery (%), proportion of CD3(+) cells, CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells with 2 HLA-DR incompatibility were significantly higher than those of 1 HLA-DR incompatibility at day-5 MLR. Initial cell concentration and HLA-DR incompatibility can affect the generation of FoxP3+ T cells in human MLR. These factors could be considered for efficient generation of Tregs for clinical trials in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulatory T cells generated during cytomegalovirus in vitro stimulation of mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals on HAART correlate with decreased lymphocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Jesser, Renee D.; Li, Shaobing; Weinberg, Adriana

    2006-09-01

    HIV-infected patients fail to fully recover cell-mediated immunity despite HAART. To identify regulatory factors, we studied the phenotype and function of in vitro cytomegalovirus (CMV)-stimulated T cells from HAART recipients. CFSE-measured proliferation showed CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} cells dividing in CMV-stimulated cultures. Compared with healthy controls, CMV-stimulated lymphocytes from HAART recipients had lower {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation; lower IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} production; higher CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} and CD8{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} frequencies; lower CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}; and higher FoxP3 expression in CD8{sup +}CD25{sup hi} cells. CMV-specific proliferation correlated with higher IFN{gamma}, TNF{alpha} and IL10 levels and higher CD4{sup +}perforin{supmore » +} and CD8{sup +}perforin{sup +} frequencies. Decreased proliferation correlated with higher CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} frequencies and TGF{beta}1 production, which also correlated with each other. Anti-TGF{beta}1 neutralizing antibodies restored CMV-specific proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. In HIV-infected subjects, decreased proliferation correlated with higher CMV-stimulated CD8{sup +}CD25{sup hi} frequencies and their FoxP3 expression. These data indicate that FoxP3- and TGF{beta}1-expressing regulatory T cells contribute to decreased immunity in HAART recipients.« less

  8. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Catherine J; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; de Wit, Martine; Bonde, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida's southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p<0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the wild impacts some immune function components, and thus, overall health, in the Florida manatee. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Disruption of Serinc1, which facilitates serine-derived lipid synthesis, fails to alter macrophage function, lymphocyte proliferation or autoimmune disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Chu, Edward P F; Elso, Colleen M; Pollock, Abigail H; Alsayb, May A; Mackin, Leanne; Thomas, Helen E; Kay, Thomas W H; Silveira, Pablo A; Mansell, Ashley S; Gaus, Katharina; Brodnicki, Thomas C

    2017-02-01

    During immune cell activation, serine-derived lipids such as phosphatidylserine and sphingolipids contribute to the formation of protein signaling complexes within the plasma membrane. Altering lipid composition in the cell membrane can subsequently affect immune cell function and the development of autoimmune disease. Serine incorporator 1 (SERINC1) is a putative carrier protein that facilitates synthesis of serine-derived lipids. To determine if SERINC1 has a role in immune cell function and the development of autoimmunity, we characterized a mouse strain in which a retroviral insertion abolishes expression of the Serinc1 transcript. Expression analyses indicated that the Serinc1 transcript is readily detectable and expressed at relatively high levels in wildtype macrophages and lymphocytes. The ablation of Serinc1 expression in these immune cells, however, did not significantly alter serine-derived lipid composition or affect macrophage function and lymphocyte proliferation. Analyses of Serinc1-deficient mice also indicated that systemic ablation of Serinc1 expression did not affect viability, fertility or autoimmune disease susceptibility. These results suggest that Serinc1 is dispensable for certain immune cell functions and does not contribute to previously reported links between lipid composition in immune cells and autoimmunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of PCBs and PBDEs on thyroid hormone, lymphocyte proliferation, hematology and kidney injury markers in residents of an e-waste dismantling area in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two typical categories of contaminants released from e-waste dismantling environments. In China, the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs are associated with abnormal thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites, but the results are limited and contradictory. In this study, we measured the serum levels of PCBs and PBDEs and the thyroid hormone free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in 40 residents in an e-waste dismantling area and in 15 residents in a control area. Additionally, we also measured some lymphocyte proliferation indexes, hematologic parameters and kidney injury markers, including white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, serum creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin (β2-MG). The results indicated that the mean level of ΣPCBs in the exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group (964.39 and 67.98 ng g(-1), p<0.0001), but the mean level of ΣPBDEs in the exposure group was not significantly higher than that in the controls (139.32 vs. 75.74 ng g(-1), p>0.05). We determined that serum levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes were significantly lower, whereas the levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, platelets and serum creatinine were significantly higher in the exposed group (p<0.05). The mean level of ΣPCBs was negatively correlated with levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes (p<0.05) and positively correlated with levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, serum creatinine and β2-MG (p<0.05). Additionally, the mean level of ΣPBDEs was positively correlated with levels of white blood cells, hemoglobin and platelets (p<0.05). Our data suggest that exposure to an e-waste dismantling environment may increase the body burdens of PCBs and the specific PBDEs congeners in native residents and that the contaminants released from e-waste may contribute to

  11. Inhibition of JAK3 and PKC via Immunosuppressive Drugs Tofacitinib and Sotrastaurin Inhibits Proliferation of Human B Lymphocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Martina, M N; Ramirez Bajo, M J; Bañon-Maneus, E; Moya Rull, D; Hierro-Garcia, N; Revuelta, I; Campistol, J M; Rovira, J; Diekmann, F

    2016-11-01

    Antibody-mediated response in solid organ transplantation is critical for graft dysfunction and loss. The use of immunosuppressive agents partially inhibits the B-lymphocyte response leading to a risk of acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. This study evaluated the impact of JAK3 and PKC inhibitors tofacitinib (Tofa) and sotrastaurin (STN), respectively, on B-cell proliferation, apoptosis, and activation in vitro. Human B cells isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers were cocultured with CD40 ligand-transfected fibroblasts as feeder cells in the presence of interleukin (IL) 2, IL-10, and IL-21. The cocultures were treated with immunosuppressants Tofa, STN, and rapamycin (as a control), to analyze the proliferation and apoptosis of B cells by means of Cyquant and flow cytometry, respectively. CD27 and IgG staining were applied to evaluate whether treatments modified the activation of B cells. Tofa and STN were able to inhibit B-cell proliferation to the same extent as rapamycin, without inducing cell apoptosis. After 6 days in coculture with feeder cells, all B cells showed CD27 memory B-cell phenotype. None of the immunosuppressive treatments modified the proportion between class-switched and non-class-switched memory B cells observed in nontreated cultures. The high predominance of CD27 + CD24 + phenotype was not modified by any immunosuppressive treatment. Our results show that Tofa and STN can suppress B-cell antibody responses to an extent similar to rapamycin, in vitro; therefore these compounds may be a useful therapy against antibody-mediated rejection in transplantation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Diadenosine polyphosphates Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, induce proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Peter; Schlüter, Hartmut; Schultheiss, Heinz Peter; Reusch, Hans Peter

    2008-05-15

    Depending on the number of phosphate groups, diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA, Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A and Ap6A) differ in properties such as proliferation, apoptosis, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Possible signaling pathways leading to effects such as proliferation are still unknown. This study examined the proliferative effects of diadenosine polyphosphates on VSMCs and their intracellular pathways. Proliferation of VSMCs was measured by the cell count and [(3)H] thymidine incorporation. Phosphorylation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 was determined by Western blotting. Single-cell [Ca(2+)](i) measurements were done to determine the influence of [Ca(2+)](i) on intracellular signaling. Stress fiber formation was assessed by fluorescence microscopy to detect an influence of G alpha(12). Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, were shown to increase proliferation of VSMCs by activating P2Y receptors, which leads to stimulation of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 cascade. Ap3A- and Ap4A-induced activation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 was dependent on a signaling pathway that included the EGF receptor, PKC, PLCbeta and the increase of [Ca(2+)](i). In conclusion, Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, induce proliferation of VSMCs by a signaling pathway that begins with activation of P2Y receptors and leads to stimulation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2.

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A enhances indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression by dendritic cells and subsequently impacts lymphocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Luciana Cavalheiro; Pavon, Lorena; Severino, Patricia; Sibov, Tatiana; Guilhen, Daiane; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen (Ag)-presenting cells that activate and stimulate effective immune responses by T cells, but can also act as negative regulators of these responses and thus play important roles in immune regulation. Pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to cause defective DC differentiation and maturation. Previous studies have demonstrated that the addition of VEGF to DC cultures renders these cells weak stimulators of Ag-specific T cells due to the inhibitory effects mediated by VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and/or VEGFR2 signalling. As the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is recognised as an important negative regulator of immune responses, this study aimed to investigate whether VEGF affects the expression of IDO by DCs and whether VEGF-matured DCs acquire a suppressor phenotype. Our results are the first to demonstrate that VEGF increases the expression and activity of IDO in DCs, which has a suppressive effect on Ag-specific and mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. These mechanisms have broad implications for the study of immunological responses and tolerance under conditions as diverse as cancer, graft rejection and autoimmunity. PMID:24141959

  14. Circular RNA circ-CBFB promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia through regulating miR-607/FZD3/Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Xia, Liang; Wu, Linlin; Bao, Jing; Li, Qingsheng; Chen, Xiaowen; Xia, Hailong; Xia, Ruixiang

    2018-06-15

    Circular RNA (circRNA) belongs to the non-coding RNA family and is involved in various human cancers, such as lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Nevertheless, whether circRNA expression is related to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) progression remains largely unclear. In our study, we investigated the role of circ-CBFB in CLL. We found that circ-CBFB was markedly overexpressed in CLL cells compared to normal controls. Furthermore, we found that circ-CBFB could serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for CLL patients. We also explored the physiological function of circ-CBFB. We found that circ-CBFB knockdown significantly suppressed CLL cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle progression, and induced cellular apoptosis. In terms of its mechanism, we identified circ-CBFB as a sponge of miR-607, which targeted FZD3. By inhibiting miR-607 availability, circ-CBFB promoted FZD3 expression, leading to the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and consequent CLL progression. Taken together, our findings revealed that the circ-CBFB/miR-607/FZD3/Wnt/β-catenin regulatory signaling cascade contributes to CLL progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The pan phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor SAR245409 (voxtalisib/XL765) blocks survival, adhesion and proliferation of primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, R; Ter Burg, J; van Bochove, G G W; de Rooij, M F M; Kuil, A; Jansen, M H; Kuijpers, T W; Baars, J W; Virone-Oddos, A; Spaargaren, M; Egile, C; van Oers, M H J; Eldering, E; Kersten, M J; Kater, A P

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are critical components of the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway and have an important role in the pathobiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Inhibitors of PI3Kδ block BCR-mediated cross-talk between CLL cells and the lymph node microenvironment and provide significant clinical benefit to CLL patients. However, the PI3Kδ inhibitors applied thus far have limited direct impact on leukemia cell survival and thus are unlikely to eradicate the disease. The use of inhibitors of multiple isoforms of PI3K might lead to deeper remissions. Here we demonstrate that the pan-PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor SAR245409 (voxtalisib/XL765) was more pro-apoptotic to CLL cells--irrespective of their ATM/p53 status--than PI3Kα or PI3Kδ isoform selective inhibitors. Furthermore, SAR245409 blocked CLL survival, adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, SAR245409 was a more potent inhibitor of T-cell-mediated production of cytokines, which support CLL survival. Taken together, our in vitro data provide a rationale for the evaluation of a pan-PI3K inhibitor in CLL patients.

  16. CD22-Binding Synthetic Sialosides Regulate B Lymphocyte Proliferation Through CD22 Ligand-Dependent and Independent Pathways, and Enhance Antibody Production in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Naoko; Imamura, Akihiro; Yonemizu, Tatsuya; Akatsu, Chizuru; Yang, Hongrui; Ueki, Akiharu; Watanabe, Natsuki; Abdu-Allah, Hajjaj; Numoto, Nobutaka; Takematsu, Hiromu; Kitazume, Shinobu; Tedder, Thomas F.; Marth, Jamey D.; Ito, Nobutoshi; Ando, Hiromune; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto; Tsubata, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are expressed in various immune cells and most of them carry signaling functions. High-affinity synthetic sialoside ligands have been developed for various Siglecs. Therapeutic potentials of the nanoparticles and compounds that contain multiple numbers of these sialosides and other reagents such as toxins and antigens have been demonstrated. However, whether immune responses can be regulated by monomeric sialoside ligands has not yet been known. CD22 (also known as Siglec-2) is an inhibitory molecule preferentially expressed in B lymphocytes (B cells) and is constitutively bound and functionally regulated by α2,6 sialic acids expressed on the same cell (cis-ligands). Here, we developed synthetic sialosides GSC718 and GSC839 that bind to CD22 with high affinity (IC50 ~100 nM), and inhibit ligand binding of CD22. When B cells are activated by B cell antigen receptor (BCR) ligation, both GSC718 and GSC839 downregulate proliferation of B cells, and this regulation requires both CD22 and α2,6 sialic acids. This result suggests that these sialosides regulate BCR ligation-induced B cell activation by reversing endogenous ligand-mediated regulation of CD22. By contrast, GSC718 and GSC839 augment B cell proliferation induced by TLR ligands or CD40 ligation, and this augmentation requires CD22 but not α2,6 sialic acids. Thus, these sialosides appear to enhance B cell activation by directly suppressing the inhibitory function of CD22 independently of endogenous ligand-mediated regulation. Moreover, GSC839 augments B cell proliferation that depends on both BCR ligation and CD40 ligation as is the case for in vivo B cell responses to antigens, and enhanced antibody production to the extent comparable to CpG oligonuleotides or a small amount of alum. Although these known adjuvants induce production of the inflammatory cytokines or accumulation of inflammatory cells, CD22-binding sialosides do not. Thus, synthetic

  17. CD22-Binding Synthetic Sialosides Regulate B Lymphocyte Proliferation Through CD22 Ligand-Dependent and Independent Pathways, and Enhance Antibody Production in Mice.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Naoko; Imamura, Akihiro; Yonemizu, Tatsuya; Akatsu, Chizuru; Yang, Hongrui; Ueki, Akiharu; Watanabe, Natsuki; Abdu-Allah, Hajjaj; Numoto, Nobutaka; Takematsu, Hiromu; Kitazume, Shinobu; Tedder, Thomas F; Marth, Jamey D; Ito, Nobutoshi; Ando, Hiromune; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto; Tsubata, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are expressed in various immune cells and most of them carry signaling functions. High-affinity synthetic sialoside ligands have been developed for various Siglecs. Therapeutic potentials of the nanoparticles and compounds that contain multiple numbers of these sialosides and other reagents such as toxins and antigens have been demonstrated. However, whether immune responses can be regulated by monomeric sialoside ligands has not yet been known. CD22 (also known as Siglec-2) is an inhibitory molecule preferentially expressed in B lymphocytes (B cells) and is constitutively bound and functionally regulated by α2,6 sialic acids expressed on the same cell (cis-ligands). Here, we developed synthetic sialosides GSC718 and GSC839 that bind to CD22 with high affinity (IC 50 ~100 nM), and inhibit ligand binding of CD22. When B cells are activated by B cell antigen receptor (BCR) ligation, both GSC718 and GSC839 downregulate proliferation of B cells, and this regulation requires both CD22 and α2,6 sialic acids. This result suggests that these sialosides regulate BCR ligation-induced B cell activation by reversing endogenous ligand-mediated regulation of CD22. By contrast, GSC718 and GSC839 augment B cell proliferation induced by TLR ligands or CD40 ligation, and this augmentation requires CD22 but not α2,6 sialic acids. Thus, these sialosides appear to enhance B cell activation by directly suppressing the inhibitory function of CD22 independently of endogenous ligand-mediated regulation. Moreover, GSC839 augments B cell proliferation that depends on both BCR ligation and CD40 ligation as is the case for in vivo B cell responses to antigens, and enhanced antibody production to the extent comparable to CpG oligonuleotides or a small amount of alum. Although these known adjuvants induce production of the inflammatory cytokines or accumulation of inflammatory cells, CD22-binding sialosides do not. Thus, synthetic

  18. Proliferation of CD4CD25Foxp3 regulatory T lymphocytes in ex vivo expanded ascitic fluid from primary and recurrent ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin Wha; Kim, Yong-Man; Lee, Ha-Young; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak

    2010-03-01

    Regulatory T lymphocytes evoke the immune tolerance by suppressing and inactivating cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The objective of this study was to compare the proportion of regulatory T lymphocytes, precisely defined as CD4(+)CD25(high+)Foxp3(+) T lymphocytes, in primary and recurrent ovarian carcinoma before and after ex vivo expansion of ascites with interleukin-2 (IL-2). Ascitic fluid samples were obtained from 26 patients with ovarian carcinoma. Lymphocytes were isolated from ascites and cell markers were analyzed by flow cytometry using anti-CD3/CD4/CD8/CD16/CD56/CD25 and anti-Foxp3 antibodies. Lymphocytes were incubated for 2 to 3 weeks and expanded ex vivo by IL-2 stimulation and their phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Following ex vivo expansion, ascitic fluid lymphocytes increased by a greater extent in the recurrent group than in the primary group. The proportion of ex vivo-expanded lymphocytes changed as follows; CD4(+) T lymphocytes increased, CD8(+) T lymphocytes decreased, and the proportion of CD3(-)CD16(+)56(+) NK cells was unchanged. The proportion of CD4(+)CD25(high+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T lymphocytes in CD4(+) T lymphocytes increased after ex vivo expansion in both groups, but to a greater degree in the recurrent group. This study showed that regulatory T lymphocytes, neither cytotoxic T lymphocytes nor NK cells, were extensively increased after ex vivo expansion, especially in recurrent ovarian carcinoma. These results may provide information that helps to guide the future development of adoptive immunotherapy against ovarian carcinoma.

  19. Natural killer cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine profile in tumor-bearing mice treated with MAPA, a magnesium aggregated polymer from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Justo, G Z; Durán, N; Queiroz, M L S

    2003-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of MAPA, an antitumor aggregated polymer of protein magnesium ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride, isolated from Aspergillus oryzae, on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced spleen cell proliferation, cytokine production and on natural killer (NK) cell activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice. The Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) growth led to diminished mitogen-induced expansion of spleen cell populations and total NK activity. This was accompanied by striking spleen enlargement, with a marked increase in total cell counts. Moreover, a substantial enhancement in IL-10 levels, paralleled by a significant decrease in IL-2 was observed, while production of IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was not altered. Treatment of mice with 5 mg/kg MAPA for 7 days promoted spleen cell proliferation, IL-2 production and NK cell activity regardless of tumor outgrowth. In addition, MAPA treatment markedly enhanced IFN-gamma levels and reduced IL-10 production relative to EAT mice. A 35% reduction in splenomegaly with normal number of nucleated cells was also found. Altogether, our results suggest that MAPA directly and/or indirectly modulates immune cell activity, and probably disengages tumor-induced suppression of these responses. Clearly, MAPA has an impact and may delay tumor outgrowth through immunotherapeutic mechanisms.

  20. Expression of alpha-AR subtypes in T lymphocytes and role of the alpha-ARs in mediating modulation of T cell function.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jing-Yin; Huang, Yan; Wang, Feng; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that alpha-adrenoreceptors (alpha-ARs) and beta-ARs exist on lymphocytes from functional profile, and that the receptors mediate the regulation of lymphocyte function by catecholamines. In the present study, we directly examined the expression of alpha-AR subtypes, alpha(1)-AR and alpha(2)-AR mRNAs, in T lymphocytes and explored the roles of the alpha-AR subtypes and intracellular signal transduction mechanisms linked to the receptors in mediating the modulation of T lymphocyte function. T lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph nodes of rats were purified by using a nylon wool column. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of alpha(1)-AR and alpha(2)-AR mRNAs in the freshly isolated T cells and the mitogen concanavalin A (Con A)-activated lymphocytes. Colorimetric methylthiazoletetrazolium assay was employed to measure lymphocyte proliferation induced by Con A. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels in the Con A-stimulated lymphocyte culture supernatants were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T cells expressed both alpha(1)-AR and alpha(2)-AR mRNAs. The expression of both alpha(1)-AR and alpha(2)-AR mRNAs was significantly higher in the Con A-activated lymphocytes than in the resting lymphocytes. Phenylephrine, a selective alpha(1)-AR agonist, had no evident effect on lymphocyte proliferation nor on IFN-gamma and IL-4 production induced by Con A. However, the selective alpha(2)-AR agonist clonidine attenuated Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation as well as IFN-gamma and IL-4 production. The inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma and IL-4 production by clonidine were blocked by yohimbine, an alpha(2)-AR antagonist. Either phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 or protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine partially prevented the suppressive effect of clonidine on Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and IL-4 production. T lymphocytes express

  1. Suppressor cell hyperactivity relative to allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation as a manifestation of defective T-T-cell interactions in systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Stenina, M.A.; Potapova, A.A.; Biryukov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors study the state of immunoregulatory process in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at the T-T-cell interaction level and seek to test the possibility of the pharmacological modulation of this process. The proliferative activity of mononuclear lymphocytes, extracted from the blood of ten lupus patients, was assessed by measuring the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into cultures stimulated by phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin, and theophylline. The comparative effects of each of these agents on the immunoregulatory and proliferative activity of the lymphocytes are reported.

  2. Inhibitory effect of the Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Spreng) R.M. King & H. Rob. aqueous extract on human lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ and TNF-α production in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, V.G.; Avelar-Freitas, B.A.; Santos, M.G.; Costa, L.A.; Silva, T.J.; Pereira, W.F.; Amorim, M.L.L.; Grael, C.F.F.; Gregório, L.E.; Rocha-Vieira, E.; Brito-Melo, G.E.A.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Asteraceae) is a plant commonly known as arnica-do-campo and belongs to the native flora of the Brazilian Cerrado. The alcoholic extract of the plant has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine, but the biological mechanism of action has not been elucidated. The present study evaluated the composition of P. brasiliensis aqueous extract and its effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. The extracts were prepared by sequential maceration of P. brasiliensis leaves in ethanol, ethyl acetate, and water. Extract cytotoxicity was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion assay, and apoptosis and necrosis were measured by staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The ethanolic (ETA) and acetate (ACE) extracts showed cytotoxic effects. The aqueous extract (AQU) was not cytotoxic. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin and treated with AQU (100 μg/mL) showed reduced interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression. AQU also inhibited lymphocyte proliferative response after nonspecific stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. The aqueous extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry. Quinic acid and its derivatives 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as well as the flavonoids luteolin and luteolin dihexoside, were detected. All these compounds are known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that P. brasiliensis aqueous extract can inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and proliferative response of lymphocytes. These effects may be related to the presence of chemical substances with anti-inflammatory actions previously reported in scientific literature. PMID:28700031

  3. Inhibitory effect of the Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Spreng) R.M. King & H. Rob. aqueous extract on human lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ and TNF-α production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Almeida, V G; Avelar-Freitas, B A; Santos, M G; Costa, L A; Silva, T J; Pereira, W F; Amorim, M L L; Grael, C F F; Gregório, L E; Rocha-Vieira, E; Brito-Melo, G E A

    2017-07-10

    Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Asteraceae) is a plant commonly known as arnica-do-campo and belongs to the native flora of the Brazilian Cerrado. The alcoholic extract of the plant has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine, but the biological mechanism of action has not been elucidated. The present study evaluated the composition of P. brasiliensis aqueous extract and its effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. The extracts were prepared by sequential maceration of P. brasiliensis leaves in ethanol, ethyl acetate, and water. Extract cytotoxicity was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion assay, and apoptosis and necrosis were measured by staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The ethanolic (ETA) and acetate (ACE) extracts showed cytotoxic effects. The aqueous extract (AQU) was not cytotoxic. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin and treated with AQU (100 μg/mL) showed reduced interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression. AQU also inhibited lymphocyte proliferative response after nonspecific stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. The aqueous extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry. Quinic acid and its derivatives 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as well as the flavonoids luteolin and luteolin dihexoside, were detected. All these compounds are known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that P. brasiliensis aqueous extract can inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and proliferative response of lymphocytes. These effects may be related to the presence of chemical substances with anti-inflammatory actions previously reported in scientific literature.

  4. Utilization of the ex vivo LLNA: BrdU-ELISA to distinguish the sensitizers from irritants in respect of 3 end points-lymphocyte proliferation, ear swelling, and cytokine profiles.

    PubMed

    Arancioglu, Seren; Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Karakaya, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    Dermal exposure to chemicals may result in allergic or irritant contact dermatitis. In this study, we performed ex vivo local lymph node assay: bromodeoxyuridine-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LLNA: BrdU-ELISA) to compare the differences between irritation and sensitization potency of some chemicals in terms of the 3 end points: lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine profiles (interleukin 2 [IL-2], interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-5, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]), and ear swelling. Different concentrations of the following well-known sensitizers and irritant chemicals were applied to mice: dinitrochlorobenzene, eugenol, isoeugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and croton oil. According to the lymph node results; the auricular lymph node weights and lymph node cell counts increased after application of both sensitizers and irritants in high concentrations. On the other hand, according to lymph node cell proliferation results, there was a 3-fold increase in proliferation of lymph node cells (stimulation index) for sensitizer chemicals and SLS in the applied concentrations; however, there was not a 3-fold increase for croton oil and negative control. The SLS gave a false-positive response. Cytokine analysis demonstrated that 4 cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-5 were released in lymph node cell cultures, with a clear dose trend for sensitizers whereas only TNF-α was released in response to irritants. Taken together, our results suggest that the ex vivo LLNA: BrdU-ELISA method can be useful for discriminating irritants and allergens. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress proliferation of PHA-activated lymphocytes in vitro by inducing CD4(+)CD25(high)CD45RA(+) regulatory T cell production and modulating cytokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongna; Sun, Jinhua; Li, Yan; Duan, Wei-Ming; Bi, Jianzhong; Qu, Tingyu

    2016-04-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidate cells for therapeutic application in autoimmune diseases due to their immunomodulatory properties. Unused human umbilical cords (UC) offer an abundant and noninvasive source of MSCs without ethical issues and are emerging as a valuable alternative to bone marrow tissue for producing MSCs. We thus investigated the immunomodulation effect of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), T cells in particular, in a co-culture system. We found that UC-MSCs efficiently suppressed the proliferation of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMCs (p<0.01). Kinetic analysis revealed that UC-MSCs primarily inhibited the division of generation 3 (G3) and 4 (G4) of PBMCs. In addition, UC-MSCs augmented the expression of CD127(+) and CD45RA(+) but reduced the expression of CD25(+) in PBMCs stimulated by PHA (p<0.05). Furthermore, UC-MSCs inhibited PHA-resulted increase in the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) Tregs significantly (p<0.01) but augmented PHA-resulted increase in the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD45RA(+) Tregs to about three times in PBMCs. The levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, PEG2, TGF-β, and IL-10 were greatly up-regulated, accompanied by a significant down-regulation of pro-inflammatory IFN-γ in the co-culture (p<0.01). Our results showed that UC-MSCs are able to suppress mitogen-induced PBMC activation and proliferation in vitro by altering T lymphocyte phenotypes, increasing the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD45RA(+) Tregs, and modulating the associated cytokine production. Further studies are warranted to investigate the therapeutic potential of UC-MSCs in immunologically-diseased conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole cell lysate enhances proliferation of CD8 positive lymphocytes and nitric oxide secretion in the lungs of live porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Cordelia; Dwivedi, Varun; Miller, Jayla; Papenfuss, Tracey; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2013-02-01

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important disease of pigs worldwide. Currently used PRRSV vaccines provide incomplete protection. Recently, we identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole cell lysate (Mtb WCL) as a potent mucosal adjuvant to modified live PRRSV vaccine (PRRS-MLV). In this study, pigs were unvaccinated or vaccinated with PRRS-MLV plus Mtb WCL, intranasally, and challenged with either homologous (strain VR2332) or virulent heterologous (strain MN184) PRRSV; subsequently, euthanized at three time points post-challenge to evaluate lung immune responses. Microscopic examination of lung sections revealed reduced disruption of the lung architecture and less of interstitial pneumonia in vaccinated, compared to unvaccinated MN184 challenged pigs. The restimulated lung and peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed increased proliferation of CD8(+) lymphocytes, and in the lung homogenate increased secretion of nitric oxide was detected in vaccinated MN184 challenged pigs. In summary, the adjuvant effects of Mtb WCL to PRRS-MLV resulted in favorable anti-PRRSV immune microenvironment in the lungs to help better viral clearance.

  7. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Impact Support LRF Subscribe About Lymphoma Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Home » About Lymphoma » Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Disease generally ...

  8. To the nucleolar bodies (nucleoli) in cells of the lymphocytic lineage in patients suffering from B - chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Smetana, K; Karban, J; Trneny, M

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide more information on nucleoli in lymphocytes of B - chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The computer assisted nucleolar and cytoplasmic RNA image densitometry, reflecting the nucleolar and cytoplasmic RNA concentration at the single cell level, demonstrated a remarkable stability during the differentiation and maturation of B- lymphocytes. In contrast, as it was expected, the nucleolar diameter during the lymphocytic development markedly decreased. Thus the nucleolar RNA content of leukemic B-lymphocytes was apparently related to the nucleolar size. In both immature and mature lymphocytes, the cytostatic treatment increased the incidence of micronucleoli, which represent the "inactive" type of nucleoli. However, the decreased values of the nucleolar diameter were statistically significant only in mature lymphocytes of treated patients. On the other hand, despite such observation, it must be mentioned that "large active" and "ring shaped resting" nucleoli were still present in immature and mature lymphocytes after the cytostatic therapy and such cells might represent a potential pool of proliferating cells. As it is generally accepted "large active nucleoli" with multiple fibrillar centers are known to be characteristic for proliferating cells. "Ring shaped resting nucleoli" are present in sleeping cells, which may be stimulated to return to the cell cycle and to proliferate again. In addition, the nucleolar RNA distribution also indicated that Gumprecht ghosts mostly originated from mature lymphocytes. Increased ratio of the nucleolar to cytoplasmic RNA density in Gumprecht ghosts or apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies of the lymphocytic origin was related to the decreased cytoplasmic RNA concentration. The increased nucleolar size together with the markedly decreased cytoplasmic RNA concentration characteristic for Gumprecht ghosts just reflected the spreading of lymphocytes during smear preparations. In apoptotic cells or

  9. Interleukin-2-dependent long-term cultures of low-density lymphocytes allow the proliferation of lymphokine-activated killer cells with natural killer, Ti gamma/delta or TNK phenotype.

    PubMed

    Testa, U; Care, A; Montesoro, E; Fossati, C; Giannella, G; Masciulli, R; Fagioli, M; Bulgarini, D; Habetswallner, D; Isacchi, G

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a culture system for "long-term" growth of human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells exhibiting an elevated, wide-spectrum antitumor cytotoxicity. The system allows the exponential growth of monocyte-depleted low-density lymphocytes in the presence of human serum and recombinant human interleukin-2 (10(3) U/ml), alone or in combination with interleukin-1 alpha or beta (both at 10 U/ml). Eighteen cultures were established from 18 normal adult donors. The membrane phenotypes of the final LAK cell population, assessed by a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb), consist of three main types: (a) NKH-1+, Ti alpha/beta-, Ti gamma/delta-, and CD3- lymphocytes; (b) NKH-1+, Ti alpha/beta-, Ti gamma/delta+, and CD3+ lymphocytes and (c) NKH-1+, Ti alpha/beta+, Ti gamma/delta- and CD3+ lymphocytes. Northern blot analysis showed that all these cell populations express relatively high levels of perforin RNA, particularly cells exhibiting the first phenotype. This culture system may provide a tool for cellular and molecular studies on the mechanisms of antitumor cytotoxicity, as well as the basis for new adoptive immunotherapy protocols in advanced center.

  10. [Acquirement of autologous murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes via cryopreservation of lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Peng, Na; Hu, Xiaoyan; Liang, Wentao; Liang, Kai; Peng, Guizhu

    2016-11-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of cryopreservation on the proliferation and killing activity of lymphocytes, and explore a novel protocol of preparing autologous mouse cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Methods Mononuclear cells derived from spleen (5.0×10 6 /mL) were cryopreserved in CELLBANKER2 for 6 days and recovered in water bath at 39DegreesCelsius. The fresh lymphocytes and post-cryopreservation lymphocytes were induced by CD3 mAb (100 ng/mL) and recombinant mouse interleukin 2 (rmIL-2, 100 ng/mL) to obtain cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs). Dendritic cells (DCs) were co-cultured with fresh allogenic lymphocytes and post-cryopreservation autologous lymphocytes to obtain CTLs. The viable cells were counted by trypan blue staining; the percentages of CD3 + T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were determined by flow cytometry; the levels of supernatant IFN-γ were detected through ELISA and the cytotoxicity was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Results The rate of viable lymphocytes declined to 78% after cryopreservation, and there were no significant differences in the percentages of CD3 + T cells and Tregs between pre-cryopreservation and post-cryopreservation. There were no significant differences in the proliferation of Tregs, the level of IFN-γ and the cytotoxicity between the fresh CIKs and cryopreservation CIKs, and the similar results were get between the autologous CTLs and allogenic CTLs. Conclusion The autologous CTLs acquired via cryopreservation of lymphocytes is equivalent to the allogenic CTLs with the similar proliferation and killing activity in vitro.

  11. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit juice delays immunosenescence in the lymphocytes in lymph nodes of old F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Uday P; Priyanka, Hannah P; Ramanathan, Karthik R; Raman, Vishak; Hima, Lalgi; Thyagarajan, Srinivasan

    2018-05-01

    Aging is associated with the development of diseases because of immunosuppression and altered functioning of the neuroendocrine system. The medicinal properties of Morinda citrifolia L. have been widely exploited for the treatment of age-associated diseases. This study aims to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of noni (M. citrifolia) fruit juice (NFJ) on neuro-immunomodulation in the lymph node lymphocytes of F344 rats. Lymphocytes isolated from axillary and inguinal lymph nodes of young (3-4 months) and old (18-21 months) rats were treated in vitro with different concentrations (0.0001%, 0.01%, and 1%) of NFJ for a period of 24 h. In the in vivo study, old (16-17 months) male F344 rats were treated with 5 mL/kg body weight of 5%, 10% and 20% of NFJ, twice a day, by oral gavage, and lymph node lymphocytes were isolated after 60 d. Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced lymphocyte proliferation, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production and expression of intracellular markers, such as phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2), phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein, phospho-protein kinase B (p-Akt), phospho-tyrosine hydroxylase (p-TH), phospho-nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-α (p-IκB-α) and phospho-nuclear factor-κB (p-NF-κB p65 and p50) were examined in the lymphocytes of lymph nodes. NFJ increased Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation, IL-2 and IFN-γ production, and p-ERK1/2 expression both in vitro and in vivo. In in vivo NFJ-treated old rats, lymph node lymphocytes showed increased expression of p-TH and Akt, nitric oxide production and decreased expression of p-NF-κB p65 and p50. These results suggest that the immunostimulatory properties of NFJ are facilitated through intracellular signaling pathways involving ERK1/2, Akt and NF-κB. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantifying T Lymphocyte Turnover

    PubMed Central

    De Boer, Rob J.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral T cell populations are maintained by production of naive T cells in the thymus, clonal expansion of activated cells, cellular self-renewal (or homeostatic proliferation), and density dependent cell life spans. A variety of experimental techniques have been employed to quantify the relative contributions of these processes. In modern studies lymphocytes are typically labeled with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU), deuterium, or the fluorescent dye carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), their division history has been studied by monitoring telomere shortening and the dilution of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) or the dye CFSE, and clonal expansion has been documented by recording changes in the population densities of antigen specific cells. Proper interpretation of such data in terms of the underlying rates of T cell production, division, and death has proven to be notoriously difficult and involves mathematical modeling. We review the various models that have been developed for each of these techniques, discuss which models seem most appropriate for what type of data, reveal open problems that require better models, and pinpoint how the assumptions underlying a mathematical model may influence the interpretation of data. Elaborating various successful cases where modeling has delivered new insights in T cell population dynamics, this review provides quantitative estimates of several processes involved in the maintenance of naive and memory, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell pools in mice and men. PMID:23313150

  13. Differentiation Capacity of Cultured B Lymphocytes from Immunodeficient Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, L. Y. F.; Lawton, A. R.; Cooper, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 27 healthy individuals and from 18 patients with a diverse spectrum of defects in humoral immunity were examined for their capacity to undergo terminal differentiation in vitro. Pokeweed mitogen induced cells from normal persons to synthesize and secrete IgM. IgG, and IgA as detected by Immunofluorescence and incorporation of [14C]amino acids, Lymphocytes from three boys with X-linked agammaglobulinemia were stimulated to proliferate, but did not synthesize immunoglobulin. Lymphocyte cultures from three of four patients having agammaglobulinemia with B lymphocytes produced different immunoglobulin classes in ratios similar to the in vivo distribution of classes of B lymphocytes, Lymphocytes from a dysgammaglobulinemic boy deficient in serum IgG and IgA, but who had normal numbers of IgM-, IgG-, and IgA-bearing B lymphocytes, could not be stimulated by pokeweed mitogen to make IgG and IgA. Synthesis and secretion of IgA, as well as IgM and IgG, was detected in cell cultures from each of 10 patients with isolated IgA deficiency. The results suggest that deficiencies in immunoglobulin synthesis may reflect either (a) failure to develop B lymphocytes, (b) arrested development of B lymphocytes due to intrinsic metabolic abnormalities, or (c) disturbance of factors extrinsic to the B lymphocyte which are essential for normal induction of plasma cell maturation. Images PMID:4543023

  14. Apolizumab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-15

    Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  15. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions patients recognize vaccine antigens in the presence of activated dendritic cells, and produced high levels of CD8 + IFNγ + T cells and low levels of IL-2 when induced to proliferate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are resolved without clinical intervention, but a minority evolves into chronic lesions of distinct grades, including cervical-uterine cancer. It is known that in most cases the immune system mediates elimination of HPV infection. However, the mechanism of immune evasion leading to HPV persistence and development of early cervical lesions is not fully understood. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) patients to be activated ex-vivo by vaccine antigens, the participation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and regulatory T cells, and to determine the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines mediated by stimulation of T cell receptors. Results We found that PBL from LSIL patients showed a significantly lower proliferation rate to vaccine antigens as compared to that of healthy donors, even though there was not a difference in the presence of antibodies to those antigens in sera from both groups. We did not find differences in either the frequency of CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3+ in PBL, or the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 in plasma or conditioned media from PBL incubated with TcR agonists in vitro, between the two groups. However, we detected a lower production of IL-2 and a higher proportion of CD8 + IFNγ + cells in PBL from LSIL patients as compared with PBL from normal donors. We also observed that PBL from patients infected by HPV-16 and −18 were not able to proliferate in the presence of soluble HPV antigens added to the culture; however, a high level of proliferation was attained when these antigens were presented by activated dendritic cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the immunodeficiency reported in LSIL patients could be due to the inability of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes that for some unknown reason are present but unable to mount a response when challenged with their antigens

  16. T cells which proliferate in response to concanavalin A include cells which proliferate in mixed leucocyte reactions.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Fathman, C G; Coutinho, A

    1977-09-01

    Selection in long-term culture of alloreactive T cells, by successive in vitro restimulation with semi-allogeneic cells, results in primed responder cell populations which maintain full proliferative reactivity to allogeneic cells as well as to the T cell mitogens concanavalin A (Con A) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) but are depleted of cells which can effect target cell destruction in either a specific or nonspecific manner. Con A-induced T cell blasts (selected by velocity sedimentation) can revert to small resting lymphocytes in the presence of inert "filler" cells. Con A blasts which have reverted, readily proliferate in response to Con A or allogeneic stimulator cells but are largely depleted of effector killer cells and PHA-responsive cells.

  17. Ofatumumab, Pentostatin, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-30

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  18. Lymphocyte Functions in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diane; Sundaresan, A.; Cooper, D.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of immunity impairment in space it is important to analyze the direct effects of space-related conditions on different lymphocytes functions. Since 1992, we are investigating the effect of modeled and true microgravity (MG) on numerous lymphocyte functions. We had shown that modeled (MMG) and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Polyclonal activation of lymphocytes prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. The relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG was investigated using PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and calcium ionophore (ionomycin). Direct activation of PKC by PMA substantially restored the MMG-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion and PHA-induced lymphocyte activation lonomycin by itself did not restore either locomotion or activation of the lymphocytes, indicating that these changes are not related to the impairment in the calcium flux in MMG. Treatment of lymphocytes with PMA before exposure to MMG prevented the loss of locomotion. It was observed that DNA synthesis is not necessary for restoration of locomotion since mitomicin C treated and untreated cells recovered their locomotion to the same level after PKC activation. Our recent data indicate that microgravity may selectively effect the expression of novel Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC, in particularly PKC sigma and delta. This provides a new insight in understanding of the mechanisms of MG-sensitive cellular functions.

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of the Activation and Proliferation Kinetics and Effector Functions of Human Lymphocytes, and Antigen Presentation Capacity of Antigen-Presenting Cells in Xenogeneic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sato, Kazuya; Hayakawa, Hiroko; Takayama, Norihito; Nakano, Hirofumi; Ito, Ryoji; Mashima, Kiyomi; Oh, Iekuni; Minakata, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Morita, Kaoru; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Ohmine, Ken; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2018-04-17

    Xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) models in highly immunodeficient mice are currently being used worldwide to investigate human immune responses against foreign antigens in vivo. However, the individual roles of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, and donor/host hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the induction and development of GVHD have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we comprehensively investigated the immune responses of human T cells and the antigen presentation capacity of donor/host hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic APCs in xenogeneic GVHD models using nonobese diabetic/Shi-scid-IL2rg null mice. CD4 + T cells and, to a lesser extent, CD8 + T cells individually mediated potentially lethal GVHD. In addition to inflammatory cytokine production, CD4 + T cells also supported the activation and proliferation of CD8 + T cells. Using bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that host hematopoietic, but not nonhematopoietic, APCs play a critical role in the development of CD4 + T cell-mediated GVHD. During early GVHD, we detected 2 distinct populations in memory CD4 + T cells. One population was highly activated and proliferated in major histocompatibility complex antigen (MHC) +/+ mice but not in MHC -/- mice, indicating alloreactive T cells. The other population showed a less activated and slowly proliferative status regardless of host MHC expression, and was associated with higher susceptibility to apoptosis, indicating nonalloreactive T cells in homeostasis-driven proliferation. These observations are clinically relevant to donor T cell response after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Our findings provide a better understanding of the immunobiology of humanized mice and support the development of novel options for the prevention and treatment for GVHD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Riqin; Zhang, Peijun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli

    2005-03-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood, spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-like factor in the supernatant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes ( P<0.01). The IL-2 activity was found in either mouse thymocyte proliferation assay or flounder head kidney lymphocyte proliferation assay and shown to have obvious enhancing effect on proliferation of the above two types of cell. The recombinant human IL-2, (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74±0.67%.

  1. Fate of lymphocytes after withdrawal of tofacitinib treatment.

    PubMed

    Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Cuzzoni, Eva; De Iudicibus, Sara; De Lorenzo, Elisa; Decorti, Giuliana; Tommasini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Tofacitinib (Tofa) is an inhibitor of Janus Kinase 3, developed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for the prevention of transplant rejection. Due to its selective action on proliferating cells, Tofa can offer a way to block T cell activation, without toxic effects on resting cells. However, few studies have investigated the effects of Tofa on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Our aim was to study the action of Tofa on different lymphocyte subsets after in vitro stimulation and to track the behaviour of treated cells after interruption of the treatment. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with mitogen and treated with two concentrations of Tofa. After a first period in culture, cells were washed and further incubated for an additional time. Lymphocyte subsets, activation phenotype and proliferation were assessed at the different time frames. As expected, Tofa was able to reduce the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes in the first four days of treatment. In addition the drug led to a relative decrease of Natural Killer, B cells and CD8 T cells compared to CD4 T cells. However, treated cells were still viable after the first period in culture and begun to proliferate, strikingly, in a dose dependent manner when the drug was removed from the environment by replacing the culture medium. This novel data does not necessarily predict a similar behaviour in vivo, but can warn about the clinical use of this drug when a discontinuation of treatment with Tofa is considered for any reason.

  2. Fate of Lymphocytes after Withdrawal of Tofacitinib Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Cuzzoni, Eva; De Iudicibus, Sara; De Lorenzo, Elisa; Decorti, Giuliana; Tommasini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Tofacitinib (Tofa) is an inhibitor of Janus Kinase 3, developed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for the prevention of transplant rejection. Due to its selective action on proliferating cells, Tofa can offer a way to block T cell activation, without toxic effects on resting cells. However, few studies have investigated the effects of Tofa on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Our aim was to study the action of Tofa on different lymphocyte subsets after in vitro stimulation and to track the behaviour of treated cells after interruption of the treatment. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with mitogen and treated with two concentrations of Tofa. After a first period in culture, cells were washed and further incubated for an additional time. Lymphocyte subsets, activation phenotype and proliferation were assessed at the different time frames. As expected, Tofa was able to reduce the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes in the first four days of treatment. In addition the drug led to a relative decrease of Natural Killer, B cells and CD8 T cells compared to CD4 T cells. However, treated cells were still viable after the first period in culture and begun to proliferate, strikingly, in a dose dependent manner when the drug was removed from the environment by replacing the culture medium. This novel data does not necessarily predict a similar behaviour in vivo, but can warn about the clinical use of this drug when a discontinuation of treatment with Tofa is considered for any reason. PMID:24416411

  3. Alvocidib in Treating Patients With B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  4. Localization of antigen-specific lymphocytes following lymph node challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H; Splitter, G A

    1986-01-01

    The effect of subcutaneous injections of Brucella abortus strain 19 antigen on the specific localization of autologous lymphocytes in the regional nodes of calves was analysed by fluorescent labelling and flow cytometry. Both in vitro and in vivo FITC labelling of lymphocytes indicated the preferential migration of lymphocytes from a previously challenged lymph node to a recently challenged lymph node. However, lymphocytes from a lymph node challenged with B. abortus failed to localize preferentially in a lymph node challenged with a control antigen, Listeria monocytogenes. Lymph node cells, enriched for T lymphocytes and isolated from primary stimulated or secondary challenged B. abortus lymph nodes, could proliferate when cultured with autologous antigen-pulsed macrophages. The kinetics of [3H]thymidine incorporation in lymphocytes from secondarily challenged lymph nodes occurred earlier and to a greater extent when compared with lymphocytes from primary challenged lymph nodes. Our data show that the accumulation of B. abortus-specific lymphocytes in secondarily challenged lymph nodes is increased by the presence of the specific antigen. Images Figure 4 PMID:2426183

  5. Lymphocyte responses to stress in postpartum women: relationship to vagal tone.

    PubMed

    Redwine, L S; Altemus, M; Leong, Y M; Carter, C S

    2001-04-01

    Although women spend their lives in various phases of the reproductive cycle, including menstrual, pregnancy, postpartum, lactation and menopause, few studies have examined immune responses to stress in women as a function of events associated with reproduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate differential effects of breastfeeding (n = 16), bottlefeeding (n = 10) and non-postpartum (n = 10) status on lymphocyte responses to stressful tasks (public speaking and mental arithmetic). To measure cellular immune responses, lymphocyte proliferation to plant lectins, poke weed mitogen (PWM) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were used. The autonomic measures, heart rate, vagal tone, blood pressure and the hormones of the HPA axis, ACTH and cortisol, were measured and their possible roles in mediating lymphocyte proliferation responses were examined. Recently parturient women who were breastfeeding or bottlefeeding had attenuated stress-induced change in lymphocyte responses to PWM compared with non-postpartum women, tested in the follicular phase of their cycle (P < 0.05). Also, lymphocyte responses to PHA were higher in the breastfeeding group compared with non-postpartum controls (P < 0.05). Regression analyses revealed that an index of cardiac vagal tone, but not other autonomic or endocrine measures, was positively predictive of lymphocyte proliferation to PWM. To summarize, these findings suggest that lactation and parturition can influence lymphocyte proliferation and that activity in the vagal system may influence lymphocyte responses to stress.

  6. Differential effects of arsenic on intracellular free calcium levels and the proliferative response of murine mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Goytia-Acevedo, Raquel C; Cebrian, Mariano E; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the effects of sodium arsenite treatment on free [Ca(2+)]i and cell death in mitogen-activated murine lymphocytes. The main findings of this study were that simultaneous sodium arsenite treatment inhibited PHA- but not Con A-induced T cell proliferation, induced a higher increase in free [Ca(2+)]i and an early increase in the proportion of dead cells in PHA than in Con A activated cells. Sodium arsenite pre-treatment reduced both PHA- and Con A-induced T-cell proliferation. Phorbol myristate ester (PMA) did not prevent the inhibitory effects of both sodium arsenite treatments, suggesting that sodium arsenite did not significantly decreased PKC activation or that its effects occurred on events parallel to PKC activation. Both PHA and Con A increased free [Ca(2+)]i after stimulation, yet the effect was more pronounced in mitogen-activated cells simultaneously treated with sodium arsenite and particularly in those activated with PHA. The increase in free [Ca(2+)]i was in agreement with the early cell death induced by sodium arsenite in PHA-activated cells, a finding consistent with the inhibitory effects on PHA-induced proliferation. Sodium arsenite-induced cell death occurred faster in PHA-activated cells. Further studies are needed to ascertain the relationships between the effects of sodium arsenite on free [Ca(2+)]i levels and the type of cell death induced by sodium arsenite and their relevance for the proliferative response of T cells.

  7. AID protein expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma is associated with poor prognosis and complex genetic alterations.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Mona; Frigerio, Simona; Wild, Peter J; Noetzli, Franziska; Korol, Dimitri; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Gengler, Carole; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Moch, Holger; Tinguely, Marianne

    2010-02-01

    The biological behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma is unpredictable. Nonetheless, non-mutated IgV(H) gene rearrangement, ATM (11q22-23) and p53 (17p13) deletion are recognized as unfavorable prognosticators in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The mRNA expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme indispensable for somatic hypermutation processes, was claimed to be predictive of non-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in blood. Here, we evaluated AID protein expression compared with known molecular and immunohistochemical prognostic indicators in 71 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients using a tissue microarray approach. We found AID heterogeneously expressed in tumor cells as shown by colocalization analysis for CD5 and CD23. Ki-67 positive paraimmunoblasts of the proliferation centers displayed the highest expression. This observation is reflected by a significant association of AID positivity with a high proliferation rate (P=0.012). ATM deletion was detected in 10% (6/63) of patients and p53 deletion in 19% (13/67) of patients. Moreover, both ATM (P=0.002) and p53 deletion (P=0.004) were significantly associated with AID. IgV(H) gene mutation was seen in 45% (27/60) of patients. Twenty-five percent (17/69) of patients with AID-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma displayed a shorter survival than AID-negative chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients (61 vs 130 months, P=0.001). Although there was a trend, we could not show an association with the IgV(H) gene mutation status. Taken together, our study shows that AID expression is an indicator of an unfavorable prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients, although it is not a surrogate marker for the IgV(H) status. Furthermore, the microenvironment of proliferation centers seems to influence AID regulation and might be an initiating factor

  8. Lymphocytosis (High Lymphocyte Count)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be lymphocytosis in adults. In children, the threshold for lymphocytosis varies with age. It may be ... as 9,000 lymphocytes per microliter. The exact thresholds for lymphocytosis may vary slightly from one lab ...

  9. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nitin; O'Brien, Susan

    2013-08-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Many kinases in the BCR signaling pathway are being studied as potential therapeutic targets. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is a novel first-in-class selective inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase. Preclinical evidence suggests that ibrutinib inhibits CLL cell survival and proliferation and affects CLL cell migration and homing. Early clinical data in patients with CLL and non-Hodgkin lymphoma is encouraging. It is likely that ibrutinib and other drugs targeting the BCR pathway will become an integral component of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte proliferative responses to food allergens in dogs with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Hayashiya, Makio; Okayama, Taro

    2011-10-01

    Two different allergy tests, antigen-specific immunoglobulin E quantification (IgE test) and flow cytometric analysis of antigen-specific proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes (lymphocyte proliferation test), were performed to examine differences in allergic reactions to food allergens in dogs with food allergy (FA). Thirteen dogs were diagnosed as FA based on clinical findings and elimination diet trials. Seven dogs clinically diagnosed with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) were used as a disease control group, and 5 healthy dogs were used as a negative control group. In the FA group, 19 and 33 allergen reactions were identified using the serum IgE test and the lymphocyte proliferation test, respectively. Likewise, in the CAD group, 12 and 6 allergen reactions and in the healthy dogs 3 and 0 allergen reactions were identified by each test, respectively. A significant difference was found between FA and healthy dogs in terms of positive allergen detection by the lymphocyte proliferation test, suggesting that the test can be useful to differentiate FA from healthy dogs but not from CAD. Both tests were repeated in 6 of the dogs with FA after a 1.5- to 5-month elimination diet trial. The IgE concentrations in 9 of 11 of the positive reactions decreased by 20-80%, whereas all the positive reactions in the lymphocyte proliferation test decreased to nearly zero (P<0.05), suggesting that lymphocytes against food allergens may be involved in the pathogenesis of canine FA.

  11. Cyclophosphamide, Alvocidib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With High Risk B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-10

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  12. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation. People exposed to very high levels of radiation, such as survivors of a nuclear reactor accident, have an increased risk of developing acute lymphocytic leukemia. Genetic disorders. Certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, are associated with an increased risk of acute ...

  13. Regulatory properties of polysaccharopeptide derived from Coriolus versicolor and its combined effect with ciclosporin on the homeostasis of human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Jiang, Pingping; Sit, Wai-Hung; Yang, Xiatong; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan

    2010-08-01

    Lymphocyte homoeostasis is essential in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In search of natural fungal metabolites with effects on lymphocyte homoeostasis, we recently reported that polysaccharopeptide (PSP) from Coriolus versicolor exhibited ciclosporin-like activity in controlling aberrant lymphocyte activation. This object of this study was to investigate its effect on lymphocyte homoeostasis. This was done by investigating the mechanistic actions of PSP in relation to ciclosporin by performing cell cycle and cell death analysis of human lymphocytes in vitro. We investigated the effect of PSP in the presence and absence of ciclosporin on cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell death, immunophenotype and cell cycle regulatory proteins in human lymphocytes. The data showed that PSP exhibited homoeostatic activity by promoting and inhibiting the proliferation of resting and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocytes, respectively. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes exhibited G0/G1 cell cycle arrest that was accompanied by a reduction of cyclin E expression with PSP treatment. Both PSP and ciclosporin blocked the reduction of the CD4/CD8 ratio in stimulated lymphocytes. PSP did not induce cell death in human lymphocytes, but the suppression of the Fasreceptor suggested a protective role of PSP against extrinsic cell death signals. These homoeostatic effects were more potent with combined PSP and ciclosporin treatment than with either fungal metabolite alone. Collectively, the results reveal certain novel effects of PSP in lymphocyte homoeostasis and suggest potential as a specific immunomodulatory adjuvant for clinical applications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  14. Human red blood cells have an enhancing effect on the relative expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Porto, B; Fonseca, A M; Godinho, I; Arosa, F A; Porto, G

    2001-12-01

    The present study was designed to analyse the effect of red blood cells on T-cell proliferation and expansion. A comparative study was done in peripheral blood cell cultures stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, with or without red blood cells. The presence of red blood cells had a consistent enhancing effect on T lymphocyte proliferation, as determined by an increase in both the mitotic index and thymidine uptake. Phenotypic characterization of T cell blasts by flow cytometry revealed that, in the presence of red blood cells, expanding cells were preferentially CD8+ cells. Accordingly, proliferation of CD8+ lymphocytes from two patients with CD8+ hyperlymphocytosis was dependent on the presence of red blood cells. In contrast, proliferation of CD4+ lymphocytes from two patients with CD4+ hyperlymphocytosis was strongly inhibited by the presence of red blood cells. This is the first reported evidence that human red blood cells have an enhancing effect on the expansion of CD8+ lymphocytes in vitro.

  15. Hapten-specific T-Cell Unresponsiveness Induced by Benzylpenicilloyl Autologous Gamma Globulin Conjugates in Human Lymphocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Geha, Raif S.; Fruchter, Lazar; Borel, Yves

    1980-01-01

    The aim of these studies was to determine whether unresponsiveness to the main determinant of penicillin, benzylpenicilloyl, can be induced in human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro by conjugates of benzylpenicilloyl (BPO) autologous gamma globulin (HGG). Initially it was shown that conjugates of BPO-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) elicited lymphocyte proliferation in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of six out of nine adult individuals in vitro. In contrast, conjugates of dinitrophenylated KLH and of BPO-HGG and the carriers HGG and KLH alone failed to do so. Similarly, release of the non-specific helper factor, lymphocyte mitogenic factor (LMF) occurred only after BPO-KLH stimulation. LMF activity was measured by B-cell proliferation and incorporation of radioactive amino acids into secreted immunoglobulin. Treatment with BPO-HGG for 24 h in vitro inhibited BPO-KLH-induced lymphocyte proliferation and LMF release. Treatment with either HGG, dinitrophenylated HGG, BPO-KLH, or BPO-human serum albumin failed to abrogate T-cell lymphocyte proliferation of human lymphocytes in vitro. The antigen specificity of the reduced immunologic responsiveness was further demonstrated by the observation that lymphocytes treated with BPO-HGG for 24 h in vitro responded normally to tetanus toxoid antigen. The data suggest that conjugates of BPO-HGG induce hapten-specific helper T-cell unresponsiveness in vitro. PMID:6157701

  16. Effect of olive oil-based emulsion on human lymphocyte and neutrophil death.

    PubMed

    Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Gorjão, Renata; de Lima, Thaís Martins; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Torres, Rosângela Pavan; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Soriano, Francisco Garcia; Curi, Rui

    2008-01-01

    The incorporation of lipid emulsions in parenteral diets is a requirement for energy and essential fatty acid supply to critically ill patients. The most frequently used IV lipid emulsions (LE) are composed with long-chain triacylglycerols rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from soybean oil, but these LE promote lymphocyte and neutrophil death. A new emulsion containing 20% soybean oil and 80% olive oil rich in omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) has been hypothesized not to cause impairment of immune function. In this study, the toxicity of an olive oil-based emulsion (OOE) on lymphocytes and neutrophils from healthy volunteers was investigated. Twenty volunteers were recruited and blood was collected before a 6-hour infusion of an OOE, immediately after infusion, and again 18 hours postinfusion. Lymphocytes and neutrophils were isolated by gradient density. The cells were studied immediately after isolation and after 24 hours or 48 hours in culture. The following determinations were carried out: triacylglycerol levels and fatty acid composition and levels in plasma, lymphocyte proliferation, production of reactive oxygen species, and parameters of lymphocyte and neutrophil death (viability, DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial depolarization, and neutral lipid accumulation). OOE decreased lymphocyte proliferation, provoked lymphocyte necrosis, and had no effect on the proportion of viable neutrophils. The mechanism of cell death induced by OOE involved neutral lipid accumulation but had no effect on mitochondrial membrane depolarization. The OOE given as a single dose of 500 mL induced low toxicity to lymphocytes from healthy volunteers, probably by necrosis.

  17. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT. PMID:21435270

  18. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wei-Jern; Chang, Chu-Ting; Wang, Guei-Jane; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Lu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Yuh-Chi

    2011-03-25

    Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  19. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma in First Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-10

    Lymphoid Leukemia in Remission; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  20. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-26

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  1. Lenalidomide, Ibrutinib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-13

    Ann Arbor Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Ann Arbor Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  2. A novel adoptive transfer model of chronic lymphocytic leukemia suggests a key role for T lymphocytes in the disease

    PubMed Central

    Bagnara, Davide; Kaufman, Matthew S.; Calissano, Carlo; Marsilio, Sonia; Patten, Piers E. M.; Simone, Rita; Chum, Philip; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Allen, Steven L.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Baskar, Sivasubramanian; Rader, Christoph; Mellstedt, Hakan; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Lee, Annette; Gregersen, Peter K.; Rai, Kanti R.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable adult disease of unknown etiology. Understanding the biology of CLL cells, particularly cell maturation and growth in vivo, has been impeded by lack of a reproducible adoptive transfer model. We report a simple, reproducible system in which primary CLL cells proliferate in nonobese diabetes/severe combined immunodeficiency/γcnull mice under the influence of activated CLL-derived T lymphocytes. By cotransferring autologous T lymphocytes, activated in vivo by alloantigens, the survival and growth of primary CFSE-labeled CLL cells in vivo is achieved and quantified. Using this approach, we have identified key roles for CD4+ T cells in CLL expansion, a direct link between CD38 expression by leukemic B cells and their activation, and support for CLL cells preferentially proliferating in secondary lymphoid tissues. The model should simplify analyzing kinetics of CLL cells in vivo, deciphering involvement of nonleukemic elements and nongenetic factors promoting CLL cell growth, identifying and characterizing potential leukemic stem cells, and permitting preclinical studies of novel therapeutics. Because autologous activated T lymphocytes are 2-edged swords, generating unwanted graph-versus-host and possibly autologous antitumor reactions, the model may also facilitate analyses of T-cell populations involved in immune surveillance relevant to hematopoietic transplantation and tumor cytoxicity. PMID:21385850

  3. Vorinostat, Fludarabine Phosphate, Cyclophosphamide, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-12

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  4. In vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. in chicken lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ruwali, Pushpa; Ambwani, Tanuj Kumar; Gautam, Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. methanolic extract in chicken lymphocyte culture system through lymphocyte (B and T cells) proliferation assay, after standardizing the maximum non-cytotoxic dose (MNCD) in chicken lymphocytes. Fresh aerial parts of A. indica Willd. (family: Asteraceae) specimens were collected (altitude 1560 m), gotten authenticated, processed, dried, and Soxhlet extracted to yield methanolic extract (AME). Chicken splenocytes were isolated from spleens collected from healthy birds; lymphocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation, percentage cell viability determined and final cell count adjusted to 10 7 cells/ml in RPMI-1640 medium. MNCD of AME in chicken lymphocytes was determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye reduction assay. Immunomodulatory potential of AME was evaluated through lymphocytes proliferation or B and T cells blastogenesis assay in the presence of appropriate mitogens, namely, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (Con A), respectively. Maximum concentration of AME exhibiting 100% cell viability (MNCD) was 200 μg/ml and was selected for further in vitro analysis. The in vitro exposure of chicken lymphocytes to 200 µg/ml dose of AME, resulted in significant (p<0.05) upregulation of 11.76% in B cell proliferation in the presence of B cell mitogen (LPS) and a significant (p<0.05) increase of 12.018% T cells proliferation in the presence of the mitogen (Con A), as compared to the control. The significant upregulation in the proliferation of two major cell types modulating the immune system is an indication of the immunostimulatory potential of the plant. It would be worthwhile to further evaluate A. indica on relevant immunomodulatory aspects, especially the in vivo studies in a poultry system.

  5. Time-dependent enhancement of lymphocyte activation by mitogens after exposure to isolation or water scheduling.

    PubMed

    Jessop, J J; Gale, K; Bayer, B M

    1988-01-01

    The effects of isolation and water scheduling on mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation were investigated. Isolated rats were animals which had been raised in group-housed conditions and then transferred to individual cages with ad lib access to water for a 1 or 2 week period. Water scheduled rats were maintained in group housing (5 rats per cage) with ad lib access to food but with access to water for a single 30 minute session each day. Responses of these groups were compared to those of animals which had been continuously group-housed with ad lib access to food and water. No differences in lymphocyte responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were found 1 week after exposure to isolation. However, after 2 weeks, splenic and blood T lymphocytes from isolated animals demonstrated an increased proliferative response to suboptimum and maximum concentrations of PHA. Splenic B lymphocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from isolated animals were also increased by 2- to 3-fold compared to group-housed controls. Two weeks of exposure of animals to daily water scheduling similarly increased the splenic lymphocyte proliferation. This increased responsiveness to PHA was not accompanied by a significant change in the sensitivity of the lymphocytes to PHA, in the total number of white blood cells, or the proportion of splenic T or T helper lymphocytes. Our results show that the increase in lymphocyte proliferation is time-dependent, requires greater than 1 week of exposure to isolation and is due to factors other than changes in sensitivity to mitogen or T lymphocyte number.

  6. Lymphocyte function following radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Barsegian, V; Müller, S P; Horn, P A; Bockisch, A; Lindemann, M

    2011-01-01

    Since the nuclear disaster in Fukushima has raised great concern about the danger of radioactivity, we here addressed the question if the therapeutic use of iodine 131, the most frequently applied radionuclide, was harmful to immune function in patients. It was our aim to define for the first time in a clinical setting how radioiodine therapy alters anti-microbial immune responses. In 21 patients with thyroid carcinoma anti-microbial lymphocyte responses were assessed by lymphocyte transformation test and ELISpot - measuring lymphocyte proliferation and on a single cell level production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-10) - prior to therapy, at day 1 and day 7 post therapy. Proliferative lymphocyte responses and interferon-γ production after in vitro stimulation with microbial antigens were significantly (p < 0.05) increased at day 1 vs. pre therapy, and returned to pre therapy levels at day 7. On the contrary, at day 1 interleukin-10 production was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Thus, we observed a short-term increase in pro-inflammatory immune responses. However, T lymphocyte responses were in the range of healthy controls at all three time points. Thyroid carcinoma patients receiving radioiodine therapy do not display any sign of immunosuppression.

  7. [Morphometric analysis of lymphocyte nuclei in chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Ostapenko, V A; Kruchinskiĭ, N G; Smirnova, L A; Cherednik, A B; Nesterov, V N; Tepliakov, A I

    1994-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of use of quantitative analysis of cell nucleus structure for the analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The structure of lymphocytic nuclei of healthy donors was evaluated by means of staining by toluidine blue purified cell suspensions smears. The preparations were analysed on the television measuring system "omnicon" with measurements of the following parameters: square of the nucleus, euchromatin, heterochromatin, and the ratio of heterochromatin and euchromatin squares. Actuarial analysis and nuclei classification of the previously mentioned parameters showed, that in peripheral blood of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia a large amount of atypical lymphocytes is present with reduced nucleus sizes. Atypical cells retain the ratio of structural components of chromatine, characteristic to normal cells, which show their low proliferative activity.

  8. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Kipps, Thomas J.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Wu, Catherine J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Packham, Graham; Wierda, William G.; O’Brien, Susan; Gribben, John; Rai, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5+ B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all. Several factors, including the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutational status, genomic changes, patient age and the presence of comorbidities, should be considered when defining the optimal management strategies, which include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy and/or drugs targeting B cell receptor signalling or inhibitors of apoptosis, such as BCL-2. Research on the biology of CLL has profoundly enhanced our ability to identify patients who are at higher risk for disease progression and our capacity to treat patients with drugs that selectively target distinctive phenotypic or physiological features of CLL. How these and other advances have shaped our current understanding and treatment of patients with CLL is the subject of this Primer. PMID:28102226

  9. Sensitivity of T-Lymphocytes to Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

    PubMed

    Tishevskaya, N V; Gevorkyan, N M; Kozlova, N I

    2017-01-01

    The review provides information about the features of the sensitivity of thymocytes, lymphoid organs' cells and T-lymphocytes of peripheral blood to the hormones secreted by anterior pituitary gland's cells: growth hormone, thyrotropin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin and β-endorphin. Some aspects of the T-lymphocytes's response to humoral signals from the hypophysis are shown in the article. Also the pituitary hormones' role in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and cytokine production of T-lymphocytes in normal and pathological conditions of the organism being discussed.

  10. Lymphocyte signaling : beyond knockouts

    PubMed Central

    Saveliev, Alexander; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of lymphocyte signaling was greatly enhanced by the advent of gene targeting, which allows the selective inactivation of a single gene. Whereas this gene ‘knockout’ approach is often informative, in many cases the phenotype resulting from gene ablation might not provide a complete picture of the function of the corresponding protein. If a protein has multiple functions within a single or several signaling pathways, or stabilizes other proteins in a complex, the phenotypic consequences of a gene knockout may manifest as a combination of several different perturbations. In these cases, gene targeting to ‘knockin’ subtle point mutations might provide more accurate insight into protein function. However, to be informative, such mutations must be carefully designed based on structural and biophysical data. PMID:19295633

  11. Lymphocyte signaling: beyond knockouts.

    PubMed

    Saveliev, Alexander; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of lymphocyte signaling was greatly enhanced by the advent of gene targeting, which allows the selective inactivation of a single gene. Although this gene 'knockout' approach is often informative, in many cases, the phenotype resulting from gene ablation might not provide a complete picture of the function of the corresponding protein. If a protein has multiple functions within a single or several signaling pathways, or stabilizes other proteins in a complex, the phenotypic consequences of a gene knockout may manifest as a combination of several different perturbations. In these cases, gene targeting to 'knock in' subtle point mutations might provide more accurate insight into protein function. However, to be informative, such mutations must be carefully based on structural and biophysical data.

  12. Decreased lymphocyte responses in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are associated with increased concentrations of PCBs and DDT in peripheral blood.

    PubMed Central

    Lahvis, G P; Wells, R S; Kuehl, D W; Stewart, J L; Rhinehart, H L; Via, C S

    1995-01-01

    Since 1987, large-scale mortalities of dolphins have been reported along the Atlantic coast of North America, in the Gulf of Mexico, and in the Mediterranean Sea. Autopsied bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, which were collected from the large-scale mortality along the Atlantic coast in 1987 to 1988, exhibited opportunistic infections indicative of immune dysfunction. Further, these animals had high levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as PCBs and DDT, that can suppress immune functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between chemical contaminant exposure and immune response in free-ranging dolphins. In June of 1991, peripheral blood was obtained from members of a bottlenose dolphin population that resides along the west coast of Florida. Peripheral blood lymphocyte responses to Concanavalin A (Con A) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were determined in vitro and compared by regression analysis with contaminant concentrations in whole blood from a small subset of these animals (n = 5). These data indicate that a reduced immune response in these bottlenose dolphins was correlated with increasing whole blood concentrations of several contaminants. Specifically, inverse correlations were found between Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation and tetrachlorinated to octachlorinated biphenyls (r2 values ranged from 0.70 to 0.87). Con A-induced lymphocyte responses also correlated inversely with p,p'DDT (r2 values of 0.73 and 0.79); o.p'-DDE (r2 values of 0.93 and 0.96); and p,p'-DDE (r2 values of 0.73 and 0.81). PMID:7556026

  13. Effect of borax on immune cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Pongsavee, Malinee

    2009-01-01

    Background Borax is used as a food additive. It becomes toxic when accumulated in the body. It causes vomiting, fatigue and renal failure. Methods The heparinized blood samples from 40 healthy men were studied for the impact of borax toxicity on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. The MTT assay and Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) technic were used in this experiment with the borax concentrations of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml. Results It showed that the immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) was decreased when the concentrations of borax increased. The borax concentration of 0.6 mg/ml had the most effectiveness to the lymphocyte proliferation and had the highest cytotoxicity index (CI). The borax concentrations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml significantly induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes (P < 0.05). Conclusion Borax had effects on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. Toxicity of borax may lead to cellular toxicity and genetic defect in human. PMID:19878537

  14. Lymphocyte thymidine kinase and treatment response in acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Russo, S A; Harris, M B; Greengard, O

    1987-01-01

    The activity of thymidine kinase (TK) and the proportion of its isozymes (TK1/TK2) were studied in peripheral lymphoid cells of 37 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). The high TK in 25 untreated subjects (31.5 +/- 8.9) decreased during chemotherapy-induced remission to uniformly low (5.3 +/- 0.4) normal values, and rose again during relapse to a mean of (24.8 +/- 8.1). The proportion of isozyme 1 followed the same pattern but TK was a more sensitive indicator of disease state. The lymphocyte fractions' TK (per mg protein) correlated with the number (per ml blood) of WBCs, blasts and lymphocytes. Although the higher TK of blasts than of apparently normal lymphocytes was confirmed in cases permitting clean physical separation, the lymphocyte fraction of several untreated subjects with minimal blast counts also exhibited elevated TK. Moreover, this elevation was also seen in relapsed cases even if their blood (unlike bone marrow) was devoid of blasts. The results indicate that quantification of TK can reveal a subpopulation of maldifferentiated lymphocytes which are microscopically normal and that it may provide an objective parameter of prognostic differences between ALL subjects with similar hematological characteristics.

  15. Mobiloization of intracellular calcium ions in chicken and rat lymphocytes induced by T cell mitogens.

    PubMed

    Gerilechaogetu; Narahara, Kiyoaki; Abe, Asaki; Kondo, Yasuhiro

    2009-04-01

    Cytosolic Ca(2+) is known to be an important factor in intracellular signaling pathways that regulate several cellular functions. The present study was designed to measure the intracellular concentrations of Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) in T cell mitogen-stimulated chicken lymphocytes, and to compare the results with those in rat lymphocytes. [Ca(2+)](i) was increased in the thymocytes, splenocytes and bursacytes of chickens, and in the thymocytes and splenocytes of rats following exposure to the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (ConA). Increases were greatest in the thymocytes followed by the splenocytes and bursacytes. The PHA-induced changes in the thymocytes and splenocytes were similar in chickens and rats, but the ConA-induced increases were significantly lower in the chickens than rats. Pretreatment with EGTA before the application of PHA and ConA completely suppressed the rise in [Ca(2+)](i) in all the chicken lymphocytes, indicating that the increases that occurred in PHA- and ConA-treated chicken lymphocytes could be entirely attributed to the influx of extracellular Ca(2+). On the other hand, the PHA- and ConA-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in rat lymphocytes was not completely suppressed by EGTA, indicating the recruitment of Ca(2+) from the intracellular Ca(2+) pool. The results suggest species differences in the Ca(2+)-based responses to T cell mitogens between chicken lymphocytes and rat lymphocytes.

  16. Electrostimulation of rat callus cells and human lymphocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Aro, H.; Eerola, E.; Aho, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetrical pulsing low voltage current was supplied via electrodes to cultured rat fracture callus cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation of the callus cells and 5-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation of the lymphocytes were determined. The growth pattern of callus cells (estimated by cellular density) did not respond to electrical stimulation. However, the uptake of (/sup 3/H)thymidine was increased at the early phase of cell proliferation and inhibited at later phases of proliferation. The (/sup 3/H)thymidine uptake of confluent callus cell cultures did not respond to electrical stimulation. Lymphocytes reacted in a similar way; stimulated cells took upmore » more DNA precursor than control cells at the early phase of stimulation. During cell division, induced by the mitogens phytohemagglutinin and Concanavalin-A, the uptake of DNA precursor by stimulated cells was constantly inhibited. The results suggest that electrical stimuli affect the uptake mechanisms of cell membranes. The duality of the effect seems to be dependent on the cell cycle.« less

  17. Lymphocyte-dependent antibodies in uveitis.

    PubMed

    Pápai, I; Lehrner, J

    1976-01-01

    Lymphocyte-dependent antibodies were revealed in the serum of patients suffering from uveitis of various aetiologies. The serum was incubated with normal uveal tissue and the binding of non-immune human lymphocytes was investigated. In three cases of sympathetic ophthalmitis the lymphocytes accumulated around the melanine granules, while in another 17 patients with uveitis cases the lymphocytes accumulated around the capillaries. Uveal tissue incubated with control sera failed to bound lymphocytes. The lymphocytic infiltration in certain cases of chronic uveitis suggested the role of lymphocyte-mediating antibodies in the aetiology of these cases.

  18. Human intraepithelial lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Mayassi, Toufic; Jabri, Bana

    2018-04-20

    The location of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) between epithelial cells, their effector memory, cytolytic and inflammatory phenotype positions them to kill infected epithelial cells and protect the intestine against pathogens. Human TCRαβ + CD8αβ + IEL have the dual capacity to recognize modified self via natural killer (NK) receptors (autoreactivity) as well as foreign antigen via the T cell receptor (TCR), which is accomplished in mouse by two cell subsets, the naturally occurring TCRαβ + CD8αα + and adaptively induced TCRαβ + CD8αβ + IEL subsets, respectively. The private/oligoclonal nature of the TCR repertoire of both human and mouse IEL suggests local environmental factors dictate the specificity of IEL responses. The line between sensing of foreign antigens and autoreactivity is blurred for IEL in celiac disease, where recognition of stress ligands by induced activating NK receptors in conjunction with inflammatory signals such as IL-15 can result in low-affinity TCR/non-cognate antigen and NK receptor/stress ligand interactions triggering destruction of intestinal epithelial cells.

  19. Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-alpha secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  20. Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet

    PubMed Central

    Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-α secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. PMID:17565606

  1. Resveratrol Alters Proliferative Responses and Apoptosis in Human Activated B Lymphocytes In Vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We hypothesized that resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes, peanuts, and berries would modulate B lymphocyte proliferation, immunoglobulin synthesis, and apoptosis after activation with T-cell dependent pokeweed mitogen. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the blood of ...

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-1 attenuates glucocorticoid suppression of pig lymphocyte function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study determined the effects of a synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone, DEX) and IGF-1 on mitogen-induced proliferation and immunoglobulin (Ig) production by pig lymphocytes in vitro. Blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture from male, crossbred pigs (45 days of age, n=3/e...

  3. Biology of cloned cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: clearance of virus and in vitro properties.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J; Byrne, J A; Schreiber, R; Patterson, S; Oldstone, M B

    1985-02-01

    We have generated lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific, H-2-restricted cytotoxic thymus-derived lymphocyte (CTL) clones. By using these reagents in several in vitro assays with infected target cells, we show that CTLs by themselves prevent the release of infectious virus into culture fluids and significantly lower the titers of infectious virus previously produced. This ability of cloned CTLs is not influenced by monensin. However, monensin does abrogate the ability of CTLs from spleens of mice primed 6 to 8 days previously with virus to kill virus-infected syngeneic targets. When tested for the participation of lymphokines in this system, the CTLs proliferate when reacted with syngeneic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-infected macrophages but fail to make interleukin-2. These CTLs make gamma interferon when reacted with syngeneic virus-infected targets. However, the production of interferon does not directly correlate with CTL-mediated killing. The number of H-2K and D molecules expressed on the target cell surface is not altered during the course of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Electron microscopy shows finger-like projections of the CTL clone thrust into the infected cell and lesions bearing an internal diameter of approximately 15 nm in those membranes, illustrating the lytic process.

  4. [Chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Maurer, C; Hallek, M

    2013-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder that accounts for approximately 30 % of adult leukemias and 25 % of Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). It is the most common form of leukemia in the western world (incidence 3-5/100 000). Elderly people are mainly affected, median age at diagnosis is around 70 years and there is a slight predominance in men. The etiology of the disease is unknown. The initial symptoms are nonspecific. Cervical lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly followed by general fatigue are seen most commonly. Other possible symptoms include night sweats, fever, loss of weight (so-called B symptoms) and frequent infections. Several patients develop autoimmune complications as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) or immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). To confirm the diagnosis more than 5000 B-lymphocytes/µl need to be present. The expression of the typical surface markers CD5, CD19, and CD23 has to be confirmed by flow cytometry. Imaging studies as X-ray of the chest, ultrasound of the abdomen, or CT scan are used to assess the degree of lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. A bone marrow biopsy is not mandatory for the diagnosis. According to the European Binet staging system, CLL is divided into 3 stages (A, B and C). Patients in Binet stage A have 0 to 2 areas of node or organ enlargement with normal levels of hemoglobin and platelets. Binet stage B patients have 3 to 5 areas of node or organ enlargement and normal or slightly decreased levels of hemoglobin and platelets. Binet stage C patients have anemia (hemoglobin < 10 g/dl) and/or thrombocytopenia (platelet counts < 100 000/µl), with or without lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. As there is no survival benefit associated with early intervention, asymptomatic patients with early stage CLL (Binet stage A and B) are usually not treated but are followed on a "watch and wait" principle. Treatment indications include stage Binet C or signs of an active disease as rapidly progressive

  5. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kay, Neil E; Hamblin, Terry J; Jelinek, Diane F; Dewald, Gordon W; Byrd, John C; Farag, Sherif; Lucas, Margaret; Lin, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This update of early stage B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) embraces current information on the diagnosis, biology, and intervention required to more fully develop algorithms for management of this disease. Emphasis on early stage is based on the rapid advancement in our understanding of the disease parameters and our increasing ability to predict for a given early stage patient whether there is a need for more aggressive management. In Section I, Dr. Terry Hamblin addresses the nature of the disease, accurate diagnostic procedures, evidence for an early "preclinical" phase, the use of newer prognostic features to distinguish who will be likely to progress or not, and whether it is best to watch or treat early stage disease. In Section II, Dr. Neil Kay and colleagues address the biologic aspects of the disease and how they may relate to disease progression. Review of the newer insights into gene expression, recurring genetic defects, role of cytokines/autocrine pathways, and the interaction of the CLL B cell with the microenvironment are emphasized. The relationship of these events to both trigger disease progression and as opportunities for future therapeutic intervention even in early stage disease is also considered. In Section III, Dr. John Byrd and colleagues review the historical and now current approaches to management of the previously untreated progressive B-CLL patient. They discuss what decision tree could be used in the initial decision to treat a given patient. The use of single agents versus newer combination approaches such as chemoimmunotherapy are discussed here. In addition, the place of marrow transplant and some of the newer antibodies available for treatment of B-CLL are considered. Finally, a challenge to utilize our growing knowledge of the biology of B-CLL in the early stage B-CLL is proffered.

  6. Potentiation of lymphocyte proliferative responses by nickel sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaramillo, A.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1992-01-01

    Crystalline nickel sulfide (NiS) induced a spleen cell proliferation that resembles a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). It depended on cell-cell interaction, induced high levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and the responding cell subpopulation was composed of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Furthermore, the proliferation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by magnesium. Crystalline NiS also increased significantly the spleen cell proliferative response to concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with magnesium potentiating the combined effects of crystalline NiS and mitogens. Interestingly, crystalline NiS did not show any effect on the induction of IL-2 by Con A. The results described herein suggest that crystalline NiS can potentiate both antigenic (MLR) and mitogenic (Con A and LPS) proliferative responses in vitro. Crystalline NiS appears to potentiate these responses by acting in the form of ionic nickel on several intracellular targets for which magnesium ions have different noncompetitive interactions. The effects of magnesium on the potentiating action of crystalline NiS are different depending upon the type of primary stimulatory signal for proliferation (mitogenic or antigenic).

  7. Antithymocyte globulins in renal transplantation-from lymphocyte depletion to lymphocyte activation: The doubled-edged sword.

    PubMed

    Bamoulid, Jamal; Crépin, Thomas; Courivaud, Cécile; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Saas, Philippe; Ducloux, Didier

    2017-07-01

    Compelling data suggest that lymphocyte depletion following T cell depleting therapy may induce prolonged CD4 T cell lymphopenia and trigger lymphocyte activation in some patients. These profound and non-reversible immune changes in T cell pool subsets are the consequence of both impaired thymic renewal and peripheral homeostatic proliferation. Chronic viral challenges by CMV play a major role in these immune alterations. Even when the consequences of CD4 T cell lymphopenia have been now well described, recent studies shed new light on the clinical consequences of immune activation. In this review, we will first focus on the mechanisms involved in T cell pool reconstitution after T cell depletion and further consider the clinical consequences of ATG-induced T cell activation and senescence in renal transplant recipients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and characterization of lymphocyte-like cells from a lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Werner E.; Uinuk-ool, Tatiana; Tichy, Herbert; Gartland, Lanier A.; Klein, Jan; Cooper, Max D.

    2002-01-01

    Lymphocyte-like cells in the intestine of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, were isolated by flow cytometry under light-scatter conditions used for the purification of mouse intestinal lymphocytes. The purified lamprey cells were morphologically indistinguishable from mammalian lymphocytes. A cDNA library was prepared from the lamprey lymphocyte-like cells, and more than 8,000 randomly selected clones were sequenced. Homology searches comparing these ESTs with sequences deposited in the databases led to the identification of numerous genes homologous to those predominantly or characteristically expressed in mammalian lymphocytes, which included genes controlling lymphopoiesis, intracellular signaling, proliferation, migration, and involvement of lymphocytes in innate immune responses. Genes closely related to those that in gnathostomes control antigen processing and transport of antigenic peptides could be ascertained, although no sequences with significant similarity to MHC, T cell receptor, or Ig genes were found. The data suggest that the evolution of lymphocytes in the lamprey has reached a stage poised for the emergence of adaptive immunity. PMID:12388781

  9. CD4+ lymphocytes control gut epithelial apoptosis and mediate survival in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Paul E; Woolsey, Cheryl A; Clark, Andrew T; Clark, Jessica A; Turnbull, Isaiah R; McConnell, Kevin W; Chang, Katherine C; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Ayala, Alfred; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-06-01

    Lymphocytes help determine whether gut epithelial cells proliferate or differentiate but are not known to affect whether they live or die. Here, we report that lymphocytes play a controlling role in mediating gut epithelial apoptosis in sepsis but not under basal conditions. Gut epithelial apoptosis is similar in unmanipulated Rag-1(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. However, Rag-1(-/-) animals have a 5-fold augmentation in gut epithelial apoptosis following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) compared to septic WT mice. Reconstitution of lymphocytes in Rag-1(-/-) mice via adoptive transfer decreases intestinal apoptosis to levels seen in WT animals. Subset analysis indicates that CD4(+) but not CD8(+), gammadelta, or B cells are responsible for the antiapoptotic effect of lymphocytes on the gut epithelium. Gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 in transgenic mice decreases mortality following CLP. This survival benefit is lymphocyte dependent since gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 fails to alter survival when the transgene is overexpressed in Rag-1(-/-) mice. Further, adoptively transferring lymphocytes to Rag-1(-/-) mice that simultaneously overexpress gut-specific Bcl-2 results in improved mortality following sepsis. Thus, sepsis unmasks CD4(+) lymphocyte control of gut apoptosis that is not present under homeostatic conditions, which acts as a key determinant of both cellular survival and host mortality.

  10. Lenalidomide interferes with tumor-promoting properties of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Martinelli, Silvia; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Audrito, Valentina; Zucchini, Patrizia; Colaci, Elisabetta; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto; Maffei, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent clinically active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The specific mechanism of action is still undefined, but includes modulation of the microenvironment. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, nurse-like cells differentiate from CD14+ mononuclear cells and protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from apoptosis. Nurse-like cells resemble M2 macrophages with potent immunosuppressive functions. Here, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on the monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. We found that lenalidomide induces high actin polymerization on CD14+ monocytes through activation of small GTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Rap1 that correlated with increased adhesion and impaired monocyte migration in response to CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL12. We observed that lenalidomide increases the number of nurse-like cells that lost the ability to nurture chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, acquired properties of phagocytosis and promoted T-cell proliferation. Gene expression signature, induced by lenalidomide in nurse-like cells, indicated a reduction of pivotal pro-survival signals for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, such as CCL2, IGF1, CXCL12, HGF1, and supported a modulation towards M1 phenotype with high IL2 and low IL10, IL8 and CD163. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of action of lenalidomide that mediates a pro-inflammatory switch of nurse-like cells affecting the protective microenvironment generated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia into tissues. PMID:25398834

  11. Prognosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia from infrared spectra of lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Christian P.; Liu, Kan-Zhi; Johnston, James B.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1997-06-01

    Peripheral mononuclear cells obtained from blood of normal individuals and from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were investigated by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. Not only are the spectra of CLL cells different from those of normal cells, but hierarchical clustering also separated the CLL cells into a number of subclusters, based on their different DNA content, a fact which may provide a useful diagnostic tool for staging (progression of the disease) and multiple clone detection. Moreover, there is evidence for a correlation between the increased amount of DNA in the CLL cells and the in-vivo doubling time of the lymphocytes in a given patient.

  12. Preparative electrophoresis of living lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanoss, C. J.; Bigazzi, P. E.; Gillman, C. F.; Allen, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Vertical liquid columns containing low molecular weight dextran density gradients can be used for preparative lymphocyte electrophoresis on earth, in simulation of 0 gravity conditions. Another method that has been tested at 1 G, is the electrophoresis of lymphocytes in a upward direction in vertical columns. By both methods up to 10 to the 7th power lymphocytes can be separated at one time in a 30 cm glass column of 8 mm inside diameter, at 12 v/cm, in 2 hours. Due to convection and sedimentation problems, the separation at 1 G is less than ideal, but it is expected that at 0 gravity electrophoresis will prove to be a uniquely powerful cell separation tool. The technical feasibility of electrophoresing inert particles at 0 G has been proven earlier, during the flight of Apollo 16.

  13. [The lymphocyte transformation test in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Zinn, K; Braun-Falco, O

    1976-03-01

    At first, immunologie and methodic basies of the lymphocyte transformation test are discussed. Then the results gained by this test in several dermatologic diseases are summarized. Finally, practice of the lymphocyte transformation test is critically reviewed.

  14. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Richards, Powell

    1985-01-01

    Lymphocytes labelled with .beta.-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  15. General Information about Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  16. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1983-05-03

    Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  17. What's New in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia What's New in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment? Research ... help researchers learn more about how CLL develops. New drugs for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Dozens of new ...

  18. Immunoregulatory and antioxidant performance of alpha-tocopherol and selenium on human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Yung Jetty; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan

    2002-05-01

    The role of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-toco) and selenium (Se) on human lymphocyte oxidative stress and T-cells proliferation were studied by flow cytometry. We measured the hydrogen peroxide and glutathione levels in cultured human T-lymphocytes and the proliferation of their subsets: T-helper/inducer, T-suppressor/cytotoxic, and natural killer and interleukin-2 receptors upon stimulation by the mitogens phytohemaglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results indicate that early stimulation by mitogens is affected by the glutathione and hydrogen peroxide status of the T-lymphocytes. The addition of 100 microM or 500 microM alpha-toco or 0.5 microM Se alone shows weak antioxidant and immunostimulant properties. When combined, an enhanced antioxidant and immunoregulatory effect was observed. The present findings indicate that alpha-toco and Se have interactive effects as oxygen radical scavengers, thus promoting human lymphocyte response to antigens. This suggests that micronutrient status is an important factor in considering when interpreting the results of in vitro assays of lymphocyte function.

  19. Differential effect of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract on cytokine production by murine lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ho, C Y; Lau, Clara B S; Kim, C F; Leung, K N; Fung, K P; Tse, T F; Chan, Helen H L; Chow, Moses S S

    2004-11-01

    Being one of the commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs, Coriolus versicolor (CV), also named as Yunzhi, was known to possess both anti-tumor and immunopotentiating activities. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of a standardized ethanol-water extract prepared from CV on the proliferation of murine splenic lymphocytes using the MTT assay, and the production of six T helper (Th)-related cytokines using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The results showed that the CV extract significantly augmented the proliferation of murine splenic lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner, maximally by 2.4-fold. Moreover, the production of two Th1-related cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12, in culture supernatants from the CV extract-activated lymphocytes was prominently upregulated at 48 and 72 h. Positive correlations were found between the levels of these two cytokines and the MTT-based proliferative response. In contrast, the production of two other Th1-related cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-18, was significantly augmented only at 24 h, but not at 48 and 72 h. On the other hand, the levels of two Th2-related cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-6 were undetectable in the culture supernatants of lymphocytes treated with the CV extract. The CV extract was suggested to be a lymphocyte mitogen by differentially enhancing the production of Th1-related cytokines.

  20. In vitro induction of lymphocyte responsiveness by a Strongylus vulgaris-derived mitogen.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M; Lloyd, S; Martin, S C; Soulsby, E J

    1984-01-01

    Proliferation in vitro of peripheral blood lymphocytes both from horses infected with Strongylus vulgaris and from helminth-free ponies was observed in the presence of extracts of the fourth and fifth stage larvae and adults of S. vulgaris. In addition, S. vulgaris extracts induced transformation in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes from sheep and dogs and in mouse spleen cell cultures. Nylon wool non-adherent, T cell enriched fractions of lymphocytes from both mice and horses were stimulated by the S. vulgaris larval mitogen while no proliferation was observed in cultures containing nylon wool adherent, B cell enriched fractions. Macrophage co-operation appeared not to be necessary for S. vulgaris mitogen-induced transformation of spleen cells. The S. vulgaris mitogen stimulated a subpopulation of mouse spleen cells different from those responsive to PHA, Con A and LPS. These cells might be T helper cells since B cells were stimulated to proliferate in the presence of both T cells and S. vulgaris larval mitogen. In addition, the supernatant of in vitro cultured larvae of S. vulgaris induced slight, but significant transformation of equine peripheral blood lymphocytes. Therefore, it is possible that the S. vulgaris mitogen released by both viable parasites and degenerating larvae might induce T cell dependent production of immunoglobulin in vivo and account for the beta-globulinaemia, of which IgG(T) is a major component, in S vulgaris infected horses.

  1. Responses of bovine lymphocytes to heat shock as modified by breed and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Kamwanja, L A; Chase, C C; Gutierrez, J A; Guerriero, V; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Hansen, P J

    1994-02-01

    We tested whether resistance of lymphocytes to heat stress is modified by breed, intracellular glutathione content, and extracellular antioxidants. In the first experiment, lymphocytes from Angus (Bos taurus, non-heat-tolerant), Brahman (B. indicus, heat-tolerant), and Senepol (B. taurus, heat-tolerant) heifers (12 heifers per breed) were cultured at 45 degrees C for 3 h to evaluate thermal killing, at 42 degrees C for 12 h in a 60-h phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation test, and at 42 degrees C for 1 h to measure induction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Killing at 45 degrees C was affected by breed x temperature (P < .01); the decrease in viability caused by a temperature of 45 degrees C was greater for Angus than for Brahman or Senepol. For phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes, heating to 42 degrees C reduced [3H]thymidine incorporation equally for all breeds. Viability at the end of culture was affected (P < .001) by a breed x temperature interaction because the decrease in viability caused by culture at 42 degrees C was greatest for lymphocytes from Angus heifers. Heat shock for 1 h at 42 degrees C caused a two- to threefold increase in intracellular concentrations of HSP70, but there was no interaction of temperature with breed. In another experiment (with lymphocytes harvested from three Holstein cows), buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione synthesis inhibitor, inhibited (P < .01) proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes at 38.5 and 42 degrees C. Addition of the antioxidants glutathione or thioredoxin to culture did not reduce the effects of heating to 42 degrees C on proliferation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.G.; Armstrong, G.D.

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, andmore » Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes.« less

  3. [Lymphocytic infiltration in uveal melanoma].

    PubMed

    Sach, J; Kocur, J

    1993-11-01

    After our observation of lymphocytic infiltration in uveal melanomas we present theoretical review to this interesting topic. Due to relatively low incidence of this feature we haven't got sufficiently large collection of cases for presentation of our statistically significant conclusions.

  4. Adverse effects of T-2 toxin on chicken lymphocytes blastogenesis and its protection with Vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Ziad W; Viià, Borja; Marquardt, Ronal R

    2006-08-15

    T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin that is produced by fusarium species, is prevalent mainly in cereal crops and poultry feed. One of the major effects of this toxin is immunomodulation. The effect of T-2 toxin on chicken lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of mitogens and the subsequent protection with Vitamin E in both fat and water soluble forms was studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. T-2 toxin was administered in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10ng/mL of lymphocytes in the presence of either concanavalin A (ConA) or phytohemagglutinine (PHA-M) at optimum concentration of 333ng/mL and a dilution of 1:160 for ConA and PHA-M, respectively. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to ConA and PHA-M mitogens was depressed at T-2 doses of 1ng/mL or higher (p<0.05). The proliferation was completely abolished at 10ng/mL when the toxin was added at 0 time, while it was decreased by 80% when the toxin was added to the lymphocytes after 24h. The addition of Vitamin E in the fat soluble form (alpha-tocopheryl acetate) did not exert any protection effect against the toxin when it was added at either 25 or 100microg. However, when the water soluble form (Trolox) was added at a concentration of (200microg) (equivalent to 100microM of alpha-tocopherol), it provided considerable protection (p<0.05) against T-2 toxin inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. The difference in the effect between the two forms of Vitamin E might be related to their relative solubility in the culture media which in turn may affect their availability for protection.

  5. Fludarabine Phosphate, Radiation Therapy, and Rituximab in Treating Patients Who Are Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Rituximab for High-Risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-26

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia

  6. Signal transduction in T lymphocytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.

    1997-01-01

    More than 120 experiments conducted in space in the last 15 years have shown that dramatic changes are occurring in several types of single cells during their exposure to microgravity. One focus of today's research on cells in space is on signal transduction, especially those steps involving the cytoskeleton and cell-cell interactions. Signal transduction is often altered in microgravity as well as in hypergravity. This leads to changes in cell proliferation, genetic expression and differentiation. Interesting examples are leukocytes, HeLa cells, epidermoid cells and osteoblastic cells. Signalling pathways were studied in T lymphocytes in microgravity by several investigators after the discovery that mitogenic activation in vitro is virtually nil at 0g. T cells are a good model to study signal transduction because three extracellular signals (mitogen, IL-1 and IL-2) are required for full activation, and two classical pathways (via proteins G and PKC) are activated within the cell. In addition, low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins (Ras and Rap) are interacting with the cytoskeleton. The data at 0g support the notion that the expression of IL-2 receptor is inhibited at 0g, while mitogen binding and the transmission of IL-1 by accessory cells occur normally. In addition, alterations of the cytoskeleton suggest that the interaction with Rap proteins is disturbed. Data obtained with phorbol esters indicate that the function of PKC is changed in microgravity. Similar conclusions are drawn from the results with epidermoid cells A431.

  7. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin; O’Brien, Susan

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Many kinases in the BCR signaling pathway are currently being studied as potential therapeutic targets. These include Lyn, Syk, PI3 and Bruton tyrosine (BTK). Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is a novel first-in-class selective inhibitor of BTK. Preclinical evidence suggests that ibrutinib inhibits CLL cell survival and proliferation. In addition, it also affects CLL cell migration and homing. Early clinical data in CLL and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients is very encouraging. In relapsed-refractory patients with CLL, a 67% response rate was observed (420mg dose cohort) with single-agent ibrutinib. Long-term follow-up of these studies and other ongoing/planned studies of ibrutinib either as single-agent or in combination with monoclonal antibodies and chemoimmunotherapy is eagerly awaited. It is likely that ibrutinib and other drugs targeting the BCR pathway will become an integral component of CLL therapy. PMID:23915749

  8. The use of decompression to simulate the effect of extravehicular activity on human lymphocyte transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, R. T.; Duncan, U.; Neale, L.; Waligora, J.; Taylor, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 35 subjects participating in a chamber study simulating extravehicular activity (EVA) conditions were studied. No significant differences in H3 thymidine uptake between pre chamber and post chamber response to any mitogens autologous plasma, or among circulating mononuclear cells by flow cytometry are observed. The studies could not identify the subjects who developed venous bubbles. Data from eight subjects suggests that acute stress associated with participating in the study augments in vitro lymphocyte proliferation. Results indicate EVA exposure does not greatly influence space-flight induced alterations in immune effector cell function.

  9. Deregulation of Apoptosis - Is it Still an Important Issue in Pathogenesis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    PubMed

    Podhorecka, Monika; Macheta, Arkadiusz; Bozko, Maria; Bozko, Andrzej; Malek, Nisar P; Bozko, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a clonal expansion of B CD5+ cells, is the most common type of adult leukemia in western countries. The accumulation of neoplastic B-cells is primarily caused by prolonged life-span of these cells due to deregulation of apoptosis, and only marginally due to a higher proliferation rate. In spite of numerous reports characterizing particular mechanisms of B-CLL cell apoptosis, still relatively little is known about the complex regulation of this process. Therefore, more detailed research is required to understand the complicated mechanisms and regulatory processes of apoptosis in neoplastic B lymphocytes.

  10. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-05

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  11. Characterization of ionotropic glutamate receptors in human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Grazia; Dianzani, Chiara; Miglio, Gianluca; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Fantozzi, Roberto

    2001-01-01

    The effect of L-glutamate (Glu) on human lymphocyte function was studied by measuring anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) or phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) rise (Fura-2 method), and cell proliferation (MTT assay). Glu (0.001 – 100 μM) did not modify basal lymphocyte [Ca2+]i, but significantly potentiated the effects of anti-CD3 mAb or PHA. Maximal [Ca2+]i rises over resting cells were: 165±8 and 247±10 nM at 3.0×10−2 mg ml−1 anti-CD3 mAb; 201±4 and 266±9 nM at 5.0×10−2 mg ml−1 PHA, in the absence or presence of 1 μM Glu, respectively. The Glu effect showed a bell-shape concentration-dependent relationship, with a maximum (+90±3% for anti-CD3 mAb and +57±2% for PHA over Glu-untreated cells) at 1 μM. Non-NMDA receptor agonists (1 μM) showed a greater efficacy (+76±2% for (S)-AMPA; +78±4% for KA), if compared to NMDA (+46±2%), or Glu itself. Ionotropic Glu receptor antagonists completely inhibited the effects of the corresponding specific receptor agonists (1 μM). The IC50 values calculated were: 0.9 μM for D-AP5; 0.6 μM for (+)-MK801; 0.3 μM for NBQX. Both NBQX and KYNA were able to abolish Glu effect. The IC50s calculated were: 3.4 μM for NBQX; 0.4 μM for KYNA. Glu (0.1 – 1 mM) did not change the resting cell proliferation, whereas Glu (1 mM) significant inhibited (−27±4%) PHA (1.0×10−2 mg ml−1)-induced lymphocyte proliferation at 72 h. In conclusion, human lymphocytes express ionotropic Glu receptors functionally operating as modulators of cell activation. PMID:11454668

  12. An Optimized Protocol to Analyze Glycolysis and Mitochondrial Respiration in Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Traba, Javier; Miozzo, Pietro; Akkaya, Billur; Pierce, Susan K; Akkaya, Munir

    2016-11-21

    Lymphocytes respond to a variety of stimuli by activating intracellular signaling pathways, which in turn leads to rapid cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation, and cytokine production. All of these events are tightly linked to the energy status of the cell, and therefore studying the energy-producing pathways may give clues about the overall functionality of these cells. The extracellular flux analyzer is a commonly used device for evaluating the performance of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in many cell types. This system has been used to study immune cells in a few published reports, yet a comprehensive protocol optimized particularly for lymphocytes is lacking. Lymphocytes are fragile cells that survive poorly in ex vivo conditions. Oftentimes lymphocyte subsets are rare, and working with low cell numbers is inevitable. Thus, an experimental strategy that addresses these difficulties is required. Here, we provide a protocol that allows for rapid isolation of viable lymphocytes from lymphoid tissues, and for the analysis of their metabolic states in the extracellular flux analyzer. Furthermore, we provide results of experiments in which the metabolic activities of several lymphocyte subtypes at different cell densities were compared. These observations suggest that our protocol can be used to achieve consistent, well-standardized results even at low cell concentrations, and thus it may have broad applications in future studies focusing on the characterization of metabolic events in immune cells.

  13. Theileria parva infection induces autocrine growth of bovine lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Dobbelaere, D A; Coquerelle, T M; Roditi, I J; Eichhorn, M; Williams, R O

    1988-01-01

    Bovine lymphocytes infected with the parasite Theileria parva continuously secrete a growth factor that is essential for their proliferation in vitro and also constitutively express interleukin 2 receptors on their surface. Dilution of the secreted growth factor, caused by culturing cells at low density, results in retardation of culture growth. Human recombinant interleukin 2, however, effectively substitutes for the diluted growth factor by restoring normal growth rates and also allows Theileria-infected cells to be grown at low density without the use of feeder layers. Secretion of the growth factor and expression of the interleukin 2 receptor depend on the presence of the parasite in the cytoplasm of the host cell. Elimination of the parasite from the cell cytoplasm by the specific antitheilerial drug BW 720c results in the arrest of growth factor secretion and the disappearance of interleukin 2 receptors from the cell surface. This is accompanied by growth arrest and reversion of the infected cells to the morphology of resting lymphocytes. We propose that the continuous proliferation of infected cells in vitro is mediated by autocrine receptor activation. Images PMID:3133661

  14. GENERATION OF CYTOTOXIC LYMPHOCYTES IN MIXED LYMPHOCYTE REACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Forman, James; Möller, Göran

    1973-01-01

    Generation of cytotoxic effector cells by a unidirectional mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in the mouse H-2 system was studied using labeled YAC (H-2a) leukemia cells as targets. The responding effector cell displayed a specific cytotoxic effect against target cells of the same H-2 genotype as the stimulating cell population. Killing of syngeneic H-2 cells was not observed, even when the labeled target cells were "innocent bystanders" in cultures where specific target cells were reintroduced. Similar results were found with spleen cells taken from mice sensitized in vivo 7 days earlier. The effector cell was not an adherent cell and was not activated by supernatants from MLR. The supernatants were not cytotoxic by themselves. When concanavalin A or phytohemagglutinin was added to the cytotoxic test system, target and effector cells were agglutinated. Under these conditions, killing of H-2a target cells was observed in mixed cultures where H-2a lymphocytes were also the effector cells. These findings indicate that specifically activated, probably thymus-derived lymphocytes, can kill nonspecifically once they have been activated and providing there is close contact between effector and target cells. Thus, specificity of T cell killing appears to be restricted to recognition and subsequent binding to the targets, the actual effector phase being nonspecific. PMID:4269560

  15. Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce T Lymphocyte Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest by Expression of Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuying; Xu, Zhuo; Bai, Jinping; Yang, Shuyuan; Zhao, Shuli; Zhang, Yingjie; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that human mesenchymal stem cells are able to inhibit T lymphocyte activation; however, the discrepancy among different sources of MSCs is not well documented. In this study, we have compared the MSCs from bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AT), placenta (PL), and umbilical cord (UC) to determine which one displayed the most efficient immunosuppressive effects on phytohemagglutinin-induced T cell proliferation. Among them we found that hUC-MSC has the strongest effects on inhibiting T cell proliferation and is chosen to do the further study. We observed that T lymphocyte spontaneously released abundant IFN-γ. And IFN-γ secreted by T lymphocyte could induce the expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in hUC-MSCs. IDO was previously reported to induce T lymphocyte apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in S phase. When cocultured with hUC-MSCs, T lymphocyte expression of caspase 3 was significantly increased, while Bcl2 and CDK4 mRNA expression decreased dramatically. Addition of 1-methyl tryptophan (1-MT), an IDO inhibitor, restored T lymphocyte proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and induced resumption of the cell cycle. In addition, the changes in caspase 3, CDK4, and Bcl2 expression were reversed by 1-MT. These findings demonstrate that hUC-MSCs induce T lymphocyte apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by expressing abundant IDO and provide an explanation for some of the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs. PMID:27418932

  16. Combined fish oil and astaxanthin supplementation modulates rat lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Otton, Rosemari; Marin, Douglas Popp; Bolin, Anaysa Paola; de Cássia Santos Macedo, Rita; Campoio, Thais Regina; Fineto, Claudio; Guerra, Beatriz Alves; Leite, José Roberto; Barros, Marcelo Paes; Mattei, Rita

    2012-09-01

    Higher intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are abundant in marine fishes have been long described as a "good nutritional intervention" with increasing clinical benefits to cardiovascular health, inflammation, mental, and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of daily fish oil (FO-10 mg EPA/kg body weight (BW) and 7 mg DHA/kg BW) intake by oral gavage associated with the antioxidant astaxanthin (ASTA-1 mg/kg BW) on the redox metabolism and the functional properties of lymphocytes from rat lymph nodes. This study was conducted by measurements of lymphocyte proliferation capacity, ROS production [superoxide (O₂(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)], nitric oxide (NO(•)) generation, intracellular calcium release, oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, activities of major antioxidant enzymes, GSH/GSSG content, and cytokines release. After 45 days of FO + ASTA supplementation, the proliferation capacity of activated T- and B-lymphocytes was significantly diminished followed by lower levels of O₂(•-), H₂O₂ and NO(•) production, and increased activities of total/SOD, GR and GPx, and calcium release in cytosol. ASTA was able to prevent oxidative modification in cell structures through the suppression of the oxidative stress condition imposed by FO. L: -selectin was increased by FO, and IL-1β was decreased only by ASTA supplementation. We can propose that association of ASTA with FO could be a good strategy to prevent oxidative stress induced by polyunsaturated fatty acids and also to potentiate immuno-modulatory effects of FO.

  17. Defective immunoregulatory T-cell function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Han, T.; Ozer, H.; Henderson, E.S.

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) of B-cell origin results in the malignant proliferation of small immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes. There is currently a controversy in the literature regarding both the ability of this leukemic population to differentiate into mature plasma cells, as well as the ability of apparently normal T cells from these patients to regulate allogeneic B-cell differentiation. In the present study we have examined the lymphocytes of CLL patients in various clinical stages of their disease and with different surface phenotypes of their leukemic B-cell population. Our results show that leukemic CLL B cells from all 20 patients (including one patientmore » with a monoclonal IgM paraprotein and another with a monoclonal IgG paraprotein) are incapable of further differentiation even in the absence of suppressor T cells and the presence of helper T lymphocytes. This lack of capacity to differentiate is unaffected by clinical stage, by therapy, or by the phenotype of the malignant population. Since the leukemic B population did not suppress normal allogeneic B-cell differentiation, the maturation deficit is evidently intrinsic to the leukemic clone rather than a result of activity of non-T suppressor cells. T helper function was also variably depressed in the blood of some patients with CLL, and this depression did not correlate with clinical stage, with therapy, or with the degree of lymphocytosis. Dysfunction of radiosensitive T suppressor cells was found to be the most consistent regulatory deficit of CLL T cells. Each of 11 patients whose leukemic cell population was of the ..mu..delta, ..mu cap alpha.., or ..mu.. phenotype had both helper and suppressor cell defects.« less

  18. CD4+ lymphocytes control gut epithelial apoptosis and mediate survival in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Stromberg, Paul E.; Woolsey, Cheryl A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Clark, Jessica A.; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; McConnell, Kevin W.; Chang, Katherine C.; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Ayala, Alfred; Buchman, Timothy G.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Lymphocytes help determine whether gut epithelial cells proliferate or differentiate but are not known to affect whether they live or die. Here, we report that lymphocytes play a controlling role in mediating gut epithelial apoptosis in sepsis but not under basal conditions. Gut epithelial apoptosis is similar in unmanipulated Rag-1−/− and wild-type (WT) mice. However, Rag-1−/− animals have a 5-fold augmentation in gut epithelial apoptosis following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) compared to septic WT mice. Reconstitution of lymphocytes in Rag-1−/− mice via adoptive transfer decreases intestinal apoptosis to levels seen in WT animals. Subset analysis indicates that CD4+ but not CD8+, γδ, or B cells are responsible for the antiapoptotic effect of lymphocytes on the gut epithelium. Gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 in transgenic mice decreases mortality following CLP. This survival benefit is lymphocyte dependent since gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 fails to alter survival when the transgene is overexpressed in Rag-1−/− mice. Further, adoptively transferring lymphocytes to Rag-1−/− mice that simultaneously overexpress gut-specific Bcl-2 results in improved mortality following sepsis. Thus, sepsis unmasks CD4+ lymphocyte control of gut apoptosis that is not present under homeostatic conditions, which acts as a key determinant of both cellular survival and host mortality.—Stromberg, P. E., Woolsey, C. A., Clark, A. T., Clark, J. A., Turnbull, I. R., McConnell, K. W., Chang, K. C., Chung, C.-S., Ayala, A., Buchman, T. G., Hotchkiss, R. S., Coopersmith, C. M. CD4+ lymphocytes control gut epithelial apoptosis and mediate survival in sepsis. PMID:19158156

  19. Emodin inhibits splenocyte proliferation and inflammation by modulating cytokine responses in a mouse model system.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2016-01-01

    Emodin, an anthraquinone derivative, was investigated for potential anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects in vitro. The potential to induce these outcomes was assessed using concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Dose-response studies showed that emodin at 100 µM was not cytotoxic to naive cells, and that the same dose caused proliferation to be significantly reduced in ConA-stimulated cells. In addition, emodin significantly reduced ConA-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and the formation/release of TH1 (IL-2, IFNγ, TNFα) and TH17 (IL-6 and IL-17) cell cytokines, but induced those of TH2 (IL-4) and Treg (IL-10) cells. From the results, it is concluded that earlier-reported immunomodulatory effects imparted by emodin may have been attributable, in part, to anti-proliferative effects on lymphocytes, as well as a shift within the TH1/TH2 and TH17/Treg balance (towards TH2 and Treg). These findings, while providing evidence of mechanisms of emodin immunomodulation, are also potentially important for sparking studies that ultimately may result in the potential use of this agent in preventive and/or corrective strategies against autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases.

  20. Cytokine secretion induced by superantigens in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, lamina propria lymphocytes, and intraepithelial lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sperber, K; Silverstein, L; Brusco, C; Yoon, C; Mullin, G E; Mayer, L

    1995-01-01

    Superantigens are potent inducers of T-cell proliferation and induce a broad range of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), gamma interferon, and interleukin 2 (IL-2). In the present study, we compared the abilities of different staphylococcal superantigens (staphylococcal enterotoxin B [SEB], staphylococcal enterotoxin E [SEE], and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 [TSST-1]) to stimulate distinct cytokine profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). One million PBMC, LPL, and IEL were stimulated with various concentrations of superantigen (10 to 0.001 ng/ml) for 24, 48, and 72 h. Maximum cytokine production by PBMC, LPL, and IEL was observed for all three superantigens at 48 h at a concentration of 1 ng/ml. In PBMC, SEE and TSST-1 stimulated more IL-2 and gamma interferon than SEB. SEE and TSST-1 also stimulated more TNF and IL-4 production than SEB. In contrast, SEB stimulated more IL-6 than either SEE or TSST-1. In LPL, there was no SEE-induced IL-2 or IL-4 production, but IL-6, TNF, and gamma interferon were induced. SEB similarly induced no IL-2 or gamma interferon from the LPL, but IL-4, IL-6, and TNF were detected. TSST-1 stimulation of LPL resulted in IL-2 and TNF production but no IL-4, IL-6, or gamma interferon. In IEL, SEE induced no IL-2, IL-4, or gamma interferon but produced IL-6 and TNF, while SEB stimulation resulted in no IL-2 or gamma interferon but did result in detectable IL-4, IL-6, and TNF. Taken together, these data indicate that there are significant differences in the cytokine profiles induced by superantigens in LPL and IEL compared with those in PBMC, and these differences may relate to differences in activation requirements. PMID:7583927

  1. Obatoclax, Fludarabine, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  2. Developmental changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis in the normal duck bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing; Peng, Xi

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate developmental changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis in normal duck bursa of Fabricius using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Studies were carried out on Tianfu ducks on days 24 and 27 of embryogenesis (E24 and E27) along with days 20, 70, and 200 of postnatal development (P20, P70, and P200). Results showed that the percentage of G0/G1 bursa cells significantly increased between E24 and P200 while the percentage of cells in the S phase or G2 + M phase as well as the proliferating index obviously decreased during the same period. Proliferation cell nuclear antigen was detected in lymphocyte and interfollicular epithelium. The proliferative lymphocyte density tended to decrease from E24 to P200. Apoptotic bodies in macrophages, free apoptotic bodies, or nuclei with condensed chromatin in lymphocytes in follicles were identified by transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling. Both flow cytometry and microscopic analysis reveal that the proportion of apoptotic cells and apoptotic lymphocyte density increased from E24 to P20, fell on P70, then rose again on P200. Our foundings demonstrate that cell proliferation decreases and apoptosis increases with age. These changes may account for duck bursa development and involution.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of Bacteroides products on in vitro human lymphocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Shenker, B J; Slots, J

    1989-03-01

    Bacteroides spp. have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including periodontal diseases. In this study sonic extracts of 6 Bacteroides spp. were examined for their abilities to alter human lymphocyte function. We found that soluble extracts from Bacteroides intermedius, Bacteroides endodontalis, Bacteroides asaccharolyticus, Bacteroides melaninogenicus, and to a lesser degree Bacteroides loescheii, caused dose-dependent inhibition of human lymphocyte responsiveness to both mitogens and antigens. Suppression involved altered DNA, RNA and protein synthesis as well as immunoglobulin production. In contrast, Bacteroides gingivalis did not suppress these responses; instead, it stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and enhanced immunoglobulin production. It has been proposed that impaired host defense may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many infections. The data presented in this paper suggest that microbial mediated immunosuppression may conceivably alter the nature and consequences of host-parasite interactions in periodontal disease.

  4. Blood lymphocyte ultrastructure and deoxyribonucleic acid content in children with systemic lupus erythematosis.

    PubMed

    Ptasekas, R; Matulis, A; Urmonas, V; Graziene, V; Zukiene, G

    1980-01-01

    Two varieties of peripheral blood lymphocytes have been disclosed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cases: one showing signs of degradation and nuclear chromatine elimination and the other one manifesting a state of biological activation, possibly of an immunologic nature. This karyostructural lymphocyte heterogeneity in SLE may cause a great scattering of these cells on histograms in respect to their nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid content determined by cytophotometry. On the other hand, the expressiveness of the scattering and the degree of predominance of negative tendency towards proliferation (with a shift to the left from 2 n) may thereby serve as a very objective quantitative indication of nuclear structure degradation and of loss by lymphocytes of chromatine with deoxyribonucleic acid during SLE.

  5. Functional and quantitative alterations in T lymphocyte subpopulations in acute toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Luft, B J; Kansas, G; Engleman, E G; Remington, J S

    1984-11-01

    The cellular immune response to Toxoplasma gondii has been studied in 23 patients with acute toxoplasma infection. Abnormalities of T cell subpopulations included a marked and significant elevation in suppressor (Leu 2) T cells in patients with prolonged symptoms due to acute infection and either a decrease in the number of T helper cells or an increase in the number of suppressor cells--or both--in patients with asymptomatic lymphadenopathy. There was no significant difference in lymphocyte proliferation to phytohemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen among the various groups tested. The peak lymphocyte response to toxoplasma antigen, however, was significantly depressed in patients with acute infection compared with that in chronically infected control patients. The kinetics of the depression were consistent with the induction of a non-Leu 2 suppressor cell. These results demonstrate marked quantitative alterations in T lymphocyte subpopulations and functional alterations of T cells to toxoplasma antigen during infection with T. gondii.

  6. Assessment of in vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen on human cultured lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan Basri; Dordu, Tuba; Husunet, Mehmet Tahir; Tazehkand, Mostafa Norizadeh; Valipour, Ebrahim; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is commonly used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the study was to explore the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen in human cultured lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange, chromosome aberration, and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus tests. 10, 20, 30, and 40 μg/mL concentrations of flurbiprofen (solvent is DMSO) were used to treatment of human cultured lymphocytes at two different treatment periods (24 and 48 h). Flurbiprofen had no significant genotoxic effect in any of these tests. But exposing to flurbiprofen for 24 and 48 h led to significant decrease on proliferation index, mitotic index, and nuclear division index (NDI). Also, all decreases were concentration-dependent (except NDI at 24 h treatment period). Consequently, the findings of this research showed that flurbiprofen had cytotoxic effects in human blood lymphocytes.

  7. Suppressive Effect of Hydroquinone, a Benzene Metabolite, on In Vitro Inflammatory Responses Mediated by Macrophages, Monocytes, and Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Youl

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of hydroquinone on cytokine release, phagocytosis, NO production, ROS generation, cell-cell/cell fibronectin adhesion, and lymphocyte proliferation. We found that hydroquinone suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6], secretion of toxic molecules [nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)], phagocytic uptake of FITC-labeled dextran, upregulation of costimulatory molecules, U937 cell-cell adhesion induced by CD18 and CD29, and the proliferation of lymphocytes from the bone marrow and spleen. Considering that (1) environmental chemical stressors reduce the immune response of chronic cigarette smokers and children against bacterial and viral infections and that (2) workers in petroleum factories are at higher risk for cancer, our data suggest that hydroquinone might pathologically inhibit inflammatory responses mediated by monocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes. PMID:19148301

  8. Expanded adipose-derived stem cells suppress mixed lymphocyte reaction by secretion of prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lei; Yin, Shuo; Liu, Wei; Li, Ningli; Zhang, Wenjie; Cao, Yilin

    2007-06-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in adult tissue are known to be less immunogenic and immunosuppressive. Previous study showed that primary cultures of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) shared their immunomodulatory properties with other MSCs. However, whether passaged human ADSCs can retain their immunomodulatory effect after in vitro expansion remains unknown. In addition, the mechanism of ADSC-mediated immunomodulatory effect remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate these issues by using passaged human ADSCs as an in vitro study model. Flow cytometry showed that passaged ADSCs expressed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I but not class II molecules, which could be induced to express to a high level with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treatment. The study found that passaged ADSCs could not elicit lymphocyte proliferation after co-culturing with them, even after IFN-gamma treatment. In addition, either IFN-gamma-treated or non-treated ADSCs could inhibit phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, passaged ADSCs could serve as the third-party cells to inhibited two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Further study using a transwell system also showed that this type of immunosuppressive effect was not cell-cell contact dependent. In defining possible soluble factors, we found that passaged ADSCs significantly increased their secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), but not transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), when they were co-cultured with MLR. Furthermore, the result demonstrated that only PGE2 production inhibitor indomethacine, but not TGF-beta- and HGF-neutralizing antibodies, could significantly counteract ADSC-mediated suppression on allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation. These results indicated that in vitro expanded ADSCs retain low immunogenicity and immunosuppressive effect, and PGE2 might be the major soluble factor involved in the in vitro inhibition of

  9. Cold thyroid nodules show a marked increase in proliferation markers.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Knut; Stricker, Ingo; Emmrich, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas and adenomatous thyroid nodules are a frequent finding in geographical areas with iodine deficiency. They occur as hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot) nodules. Their predominant clonal origin suggests that they result from clonal expansion of a single cell, which is very likely the result of a prolonged increase in proliferation compared with non-affected surrounding cells. To test whether increased cell proliferation is detectable in cold thyroid nodules, we studied paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cold thyroid nodules and their surrounding normal thyroid tissue for the occurrence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (MIB-1 antibody) epitopes as markers for cell proliferation. All 40 thyroid nodules were histologically well characterized and have been studied for molecular characteristics before. The labeling index (number of labeled cells versus total cell number) for nodular and surrounding tissue was calculated. In 33 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p < or = 0.05) increase in the labeling index for PCNA was detectable. In 19 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p < or = 0.05) increase in the labeling index for Ki-67 was detectable. Moreover, surrounding tissues with lymphocyte infiltration showed a significantly higher labeling index for both PCNA and Ki-67 compared with normal surrounding tissue. These findings are first evidence that an increased thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a uniform feature common to most cold nodules. However, the increase of proliferation markers shows a heterogeneity that is not correlated with histopathologic, molecular, or clinical characteristics.

  10. Opinion: Interactions of innate and adaptive lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which adaptive T cells function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential role of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes. PMID:25132095

  11. Assessment of cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects of chlorhexidine digluconate on cultured human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Arabaci, Taner; Türkez, Hasan; Çanakçi, Cenk Fatih; Özgöz, Mehmet

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genetic and cellular toxicity of Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) on peripheral human lymphocytes in vitro. Micronucleus assay was used to investigate the genotoxicity, while the cell viability and proliferation were evaluated by Trypan blue exclusion test and Nuclear Division Index in control and CHX-treated (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5 mg/ml) human blood cultures. A dose-dependent toxic effect was found depending on CHX incubation on the genetic and cell viability of the lymphocytes. Micronucleus frequency was found to be statistically higher at 0.5 mg/ml concentration compared to lower doses and the control group (p < 0.05). A significant reduction was shown in the cell viability and cell proliferation of the exposed lymphocytes at the concentrations of 0.4 and 0.5 mg/ml (p < 0.05), while no significant toxicity was found at lower concentrations compared to control (p > 0.05). This study showed dose-dependent genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of CHX on human lymphocytes in vitro. It should be considered during periodontal irrigation or novel CHX products at lower concentrations should be manufactured for clinical usage.

  12. ALS patients’ regulatory T lymphocytes are dysfunctional, and correlate with disease progression rate and severity

    PubMed Central

    Beers, David R.; Zhao, Weihua; Wang, Jinghong; Zhang, Xiujun; Wen, Shixiang; Neal, Dan; Thonhoff, Jason R.; Alsuliman, Abdullah S.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Rezvani, Katy

    2017-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark of ALS in both transgenic rodent models and patients, and is characterized by proinflammatory T lymphocytes and activated macrophages/microglia. In ALS mouse models, decreased regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) exacerbate the neuroinflammatory process, leading to accelerated motoneuron death and shortened survival; passive transfer of Tregs suppresses the neuroinflammation and prolongs survival. Treg numbers and FOXP3 expression are also decreased in rapidly progressing ALS patients. A key question is whether the marked neuroinflammation in ALS can be attributed to the impaired suppressive function of ALS Tregs in addition to their decreased numbers. To address this question, T lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed. Compared with control Tregs, ALS Tregs were less effective in suppressing responder T lymphocyte proliferation. Although both slowly and rapidly progressing ALS patients had dysfunctional Tregs, the greater the clinically assessed disease burden or the more rapidly progressing the patient, the greater the Treg dysfunction. Epigenetically, the percentage methylation of the Treg-specific demethylated region was greater in ALS Tregs. After in vitro expansion, ALS Tregs regained suppressive abilities to the levels of control Tregs, suggesting that autologous passive transfer of expanded Tregs might offer a novel cellular therapy to slow disease progression. PMID:28289705

  13. ALS patients' regulatory T lymphocytes are dysfunctional, and correlate with disease progression rate and severity.

    PubMed

    Beers, David R; Zhao, Weihua; Wang, Jinghong; Zhang, Xiujun; Wen, Shixiang; Neal, Dan; Thonhoff, Jason R; Alsuliman, Abdullah S; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Rezvani, Katy; Appel, Stanley H

    2017-03-09

    Neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark of ALS in both transgenic rodent models and patients, and is characterized by proinflammatory T lymphocytes and activated macrophages/microglia. In ALS mouse models, decreased regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) exacerbate the neuroinflammatory process, leading to accelerated motoneuron death and shortened survival; passive transfer of Tregs suppresses the neuroinflammation and prolongs survival. Treg numbers and FOXP3 expression are also decreased in rapidly progressing ALS patients. A key question is whether the marked neuroinflammation in ALS can be attributed to the impaired suppressive function of ALS Tregs in addition to their decreased numbers. To address this question, T lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed. Compared with control Tregs, ALS Tregs were less effective in suppressing responder T lymphocyte proliferation. Although both slowly and rapidly progressing ALS patients had dysfunctional Tregs, the greater the clinically assessed disease burden or the more rapidly progressing the patient, the greater the Treg dysfunction. Epigenetically, the percentage methylation of the Treg-specific demethylated region was greater in ALS Tregs. After in vitro expansion, ALS Tregs regained suppressive abilities to the levels of control Tregs, suggesting that autologous passive transfer of expanded Tregs might offer a novel cellular therapy to slow disease progression.

  14. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles.

    PubMed

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C

    2009-12-01

    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development.

  15. Lymphocyte-platelet crosstalk in Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Kuznik, Boris I; Vitkovsky, Yuri A; Gvozdeva, Olga V; Solpov, Alexey V; Magen, Eli

    2014-03-01

    Platelets can modulate lymphocytes' role in the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases. The present study was performed to clarify the status of platelet-lymphocyte subpopulations aggregation in circulating blood in patients with Graves' disease (GD). One hundred and fifty patients with GD (GD group) and 45 hyperthyroid patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG group) were recruited in the study. Control group consisted 150 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes was performed by flow cytometry. Detection of lymphocyte-platelet aggregates (LPAs) was done using light microscope after Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. The group of GD patients exhibited reduced CD8 lymphocyte and higher CD19 cell counts compared with TMG group and healthy controls. A greater number of activated CD3, HLA-DR+ lymphocytes were observed in GD than in TMG group and control group. GD group was characterized by lower blood platelet count (232 ± 89 × 10 cells/µL) than TMG group (251 ± 97 × 10 cells/µL; P < 0.05) and control group (262 ± 95 × 10 cells/µL; P < 0.05). In GD group, more platelet-bound lymphocytes (332 ± 91 /µL) were found than that in TMG group (116 ± 67/µL, P < 0.005) and control group (104 ± 58 /µL; P < 0.001). GD is associated with higher levels of activated lymphocytes and lymphocyte-platelet aggregates.

  16. Lymphocyte changes in beta-thalassaemia major.

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, S; Schiliro, G; Romeo, M A; Sciotto, A; Rosalba, A; Pizzarelli, G

    1979-01-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 20 hypertransfused patients with beta-thalassaemia major, some of whom had been splenectomised. B-lymphocytes were normal but T-lymphocytes were decreased in all patients. The T-cell count was lower in the splenectomised patients than in the nonsplenectomised ones. In the former, the active rosette-forming lymphocytes were also diminished, but the difference was not significant. In all patients the percentage of null cells was greater and the activity of K-cells increased compared with controls. PMID:316991

  17. Ocular surface epithelium induces expression of human mucosal lymphocyte antigen (HML-1) on peripheral blood lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, J A P; Dua, H S; Rizzo, L V; Nishi, M; Joseph, A; Donoso, L A

    2004-01-01

    Background/aims: Peripheral blood CD8+ lymphocytes that home to mucosal surfaces express the human mucosal lymphocyte antigen (HML-1). At mucosal surfaces, including the ocular surface, only intraepithelial CD8+ lymphocytes express HML-1. These lymphocytes are retained in the intraepithelial compartment by virtue of the interaction between HML-1 and its natural ligand, E-cadherin, which is expressed on epithelial cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ocular surface epithelial cells (ocular mucosa) could induce the expression of human mucosal lymphocyte antigen on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods: Human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells were co-cultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes. Both non-activated and activated lymphocytes were used in the experiments. After 7 days of incubation, lymphocytes were recovered and analysed for the antigens CD8/HML-1, CD4/HML-1, CD3/CD8, CD3/CD4, CD3/CD25, CD8/CD25, and CD4/CD25 by flowcytometry. Results: Significant statistical differences were observed in the CD8/HML-1 expression when conjunctival epithelial cells were co-cultured with non-activated and activated lymphocytes (p = 0.04 for each) and when corneal epithelial cells were co-cultured with non-activated lymphocytes (p = 0.03). Significant statistical difference in CD4/HML-1 expression was observed only when conjunctival epithelial cells were co-cultured with activated lymphocytes (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Ocular surface epithelial cells can induce the expression of human mucosal lymphocyte antigen on CD8+ (and to some extent on CD4+) lymphocytes. This may allow the retention of CD8+ and CD4+ lymphocytes within the epithelial compartment of the conjunctiva and play a part in mucosal homing of lymphocytes. PMID:14736792

  18. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    PubMed

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  19. Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid, Stimulates Immune Responses by Enhancing IFN-γ and IL-2 Secretion in Primary Cultured Lymphocytes in Vitro and ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Kao-Chang; Lu, Wan-Jung; Thomas, Philip-Aloysius; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant carotenoid, plays a major role in modulating the immune response. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of astaxanthin on cytokine production in primary cultured lymphocytes both in vitro and ex vivo. Direct administration of astaxanthin (70–300 nM) did not produce cytotoxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 µg/ mL)- or concanavalin A (Con A, 10 µg/ mL)-activated lymphocytes, whereas astaxanthin alone at 300 nM induced proliferation of splenic lymphocytes (p < 0.05) in vitro. Although astaxanthin, alone or with Con A, had no apparent effect on interferon (INF-γ) and interleukin (IL-2) production in primary cultured lymphocytes, it enhanced LPS-induced INF-γ production. In an ex vivo experiment, oral administration of astaxanthin (0.28, 1.4 and 7 mg/kg/day) for 14 days did not cause alterations in the body or spleen weights of mice and also was not toxic to lymphocyte cells derived from the mice. Moreover, treatment with astaxanthin significantly increased LPS-induced lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo but not Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis revealed that administration of astaxanthin significantly enhanced INF-γ production in response to both LPS and Con A stimulation, whereas IL-2 production increased only in response to Con A stimulation. Also, astaxanthin treatment alone significantly increased IL-2 production in lymphocytes derived from mice, but did not significantly change production of INF-γ. These findings suggest that astaxanthin modulates lymphocytic immune responses in vitro, and that it partly exerts its ex vivo immunomodulatory effects by increasing INF-γ and IL-2 production without inducing cytotoxicity. PMID:26729100

  20. Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid, Stimulates Immune Responses by Enhancing IFN-γ and IL-2 Secretion in Primary Cultured Lymphocytes in Vitro and ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Kao-Chang; Lu, Wan-Jung; Thomas, Philip-Aloysius; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2015-12-29

    Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant carotenoid, plays a major role in modulating the immune response. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of astaxanthin on cytokine production in primary cultured lymphocytes both in vitro and ex vivo. Direct administration of astaxanthin (70-300 nM) did not produce cytotoxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 µg/ mL)- or concanavalin A (Con A, 10 µg/ mL)-activated lymphocytes, whereas astaxanthin alone at 300 nM induced proliferation of splenic lymphocytes (p < 0.05) in vitro. Although astaxanthin, alone or with Con A, had no apparent effect on interferon (INF-γ) and interleukin (IL-2) production in primary cultured lymphocytes, it enhanced LPS-induced INF-γ production. In an ex vivo experiment, oral administration of astaxanthin (0.28, 1.4 and 7 mg/kg/day) for 14 days did not cause alterations in the body or spleen weights of mice and also was not toxic to lymphocyte cells derived from the mice. Moreover, treatment with astaxanthin significantly increased LPS-induced lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo but not Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis revealed that administration of astaxanthin significantly enhanced INF-γ production in response to both LPS and Con A stimulation, whereas IL-2 production increased only in response to Con A stimulation. Also, astaxanthin treatment alone significantly increased IL-2 production in lymphocytes derived from mice, but did not significantly change production of INF-γ. These findings suggest that astaxanthin modulates lymphocytic immune responses in vitro, and that it partly exerts its ex vivo immunomodulatory effects by increasing INF-γ and IL-2 production without inducing cytotoxicity.

  1. Regulators of Cholangiocyte Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Chad; Sato, Keisaku; Wu, Nan; Zhou, Tianhao; Kyritsi, Konstantina; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2017-02-10

    Cholangiocytes, a small population of cells within the normal liver, have been the focus of a significant amount of research over the past two decades because of their involvement in cholangiopathies such as primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cholangitis. This article summarizes landmark studies in the field of cholangiocyte physiology and aims to provide an updated review of biliary pathogenesis. The historical approach of rodent extrahepatic bile duct ligation and the relatively recent utilization of transgenic mice have led to significant discoveries in cholangiocyte pathophysiology. Cholangiocyte physiology is a complex system based on heterogeneity within the biliary tree and a number of signaling pathways that serve to regulate bile composition. Studies have expanded the list of neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and hormones that have been shown to be key regulators of proliferation and biliary damage. The peptide histamine and hormones, such as melatonin and angiotensin, angiotensin, as well as numerous sex hormones, have been implicated in cholangiocyte proliferation during cholestasis. Numerous pathways promote cholangiocyte proliferation during cholestasis, and there is growing evidence to suggest that cholangiocyte proliferation may promote hepatic fibrosis. These pathways may represent significant therapeutic potential for a subset of cholestatic liver diseases that currently lack effective therapies.

  2. Proliferation: Threat and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    weapons program threatens Japan, South Korea, and U.S. forces and interests in the region. In North Africa and the Middle East, states of proliferation...fanatical terrorists or self-proclaimed apocalyptic prophets. The followers of Usama bin Laden have, in fact, already trained with toxic chemicals...18 SOUTH ASIA

  3. Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Stafman, Laura L.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, continues to carry a dismal prognosis for children diagnosed with advanced stage or relapsed disease. This review focuses upon factors responsible for cell proliferation in neuroblastoma including transcription factors, kinases, and regulators of the cell cycle. Novel therapeutic strategies directed toward these targets in neuroblastoma are discussed. PMID:26771642

  4. Investigating chromosome damage and gammaH2AX response in human lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets as potential biomarkers of radiation sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaton, Lindsay A.

    This thesis examines in vitro irradiated blood samples from prostate cancer patients exhibiting late normal tissue damage after receiving radiotherapy, for lymphocyte response. Chromosomal aberrations, translocations and proliferation rate are measured, as well as gammaH2AX response in lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets. The goal of this thesis is to determine whether the lymphocyte response to in vitro radiation could be used as a marker for radiosensitivity. Patients were selected from a randomized clinical trial evaluating the optimal timing of Dose Escalated Radiation and short course Androgen Deprivation Therapy. Of 438 patients, 3% developed Grade 3 late radiation proctitis and were considered to be radiosensitive. Blood was drawn from 10 of these patients along with 20 matched samples from patients with grade 0 proctitis. The samples were irradiated and were analyzed for dicentric chromosomes, excess fragments and proliferation rates (at 6 Gy), translocations, stable and unstable damage (at 4 Gy), and dose response (up to 10 Gy), along with time response after 2 Gy (0 -- 24 h). Chromosome aberrations, excess fragments per cell, translocations per cell and proliferation rates were analyzed by brightfield and fluorescent microscopy, while the gammaH2AX response in lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets was analyzed by flow cytometry. Both groups were statistically similar for all endpoints at 0 Gy. At 6 Gy, there were statistically significant differences between the radiosensitive and control cohorts for three endpoints; the mean number of dicentric chromosomes per cell, the mean number of excess fragments per cell and the proportion of cells in second metaphase. At 4 Gy, there were statistically significant differences between the two cohorts for three endpoints; the mean number of translocations per cell, the mean number of dicentric chromosomes per cell and the mean number of deletions per cell. There were no significant differences between the gammaH2AX

  5. [Laboratory diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis].

    PubMed

    Marí, José María Navarro; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Anza, Diego Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Lymphocytic meningitis, mainly those with an acute and benign course, are caused by viruses. In our area, the most commonly involved agents are enteroviruses, herpes simplex, varicella zoster and Toscana viruses. Nucleic acids amplification techniques (NAAT) are the methods of choice to diagnose viral meningitis from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. They are more rapid and sensitive, and indeed, they are not influenced by the viability of the virus in the clinical specimen as traditional methods are. The development of commercial equipments, the degree of automation, and the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems are the most important premises to choose the molecular method in each laboratory. Recently, commercial kits of real-time PCR are available for the detection of enteroviruses and herpesviruses, which are the most frequently viruses involved in meningitis. Although NAAT from the clinical sample have replaced cell culture for diagnostic purposes, the combination of both methods remain useful. When the detection of the causal agent from the CSF sample is not possible, other specimens (pharyngeal exudates, stools) or serological methods can be used. Serology is the reference method for meningitis caused by West Nile virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, which are less frequently detected in our area. 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. [Individual variability of immunological markers, radiosensitivity and oxidative status in blood lymphocytes of Moscow residents].

    PubMed

    Pelevina, I I; Aleshchenko, A V; Antoshchina, M M; Kudriashova, O M; Nikonova, M F; Riabchenko, N I; Serebrianyĭ, A M; Iarilin, A A

    2013-01-01

    Expression of activation (CD69) and proliferation (Ki67) markers, their connection with each other, with the oxidative status (reactive oxygen species--ROS) and with radiosensitivity (determined by micronucleus test) have been studied on stimulated blood lymphocytes from Moscow inhabitants. It was shown that the content of T-lymphocytes with the expressed CD69 and the content of T-lymphocytes with the expressed Ki67 markers correlate (r = 0.571; p = 0.0004). We can suppose that expression of the CD69 marker (24 h after PHA stimulation) is needed for the cell cycle progression, but it is not enough for the high expression of Ki67 markers 48 h after stimulation (DNA synthesis phase). It was discovered that T-lymphocytes with the CD69 marker or T-lymphocytes with the Ki67 marker are connected by the negative correlation with the frequency of irradiated cell with micronucleus (MN) r = -0.487; p = 0.010; r = -0.440; p = 0.008, respectively. So we can suppose that lymphocyte radiosensitivity decreased with the increase of expression activation and proliferation markers. It was shown that radiosensitivity determined by MN test is not connected with the oxidative status determined by the reactive oxygen species content including superoxide anion radicals. It is possible to explain by the fact that the ROS concentration has been determined in non-stimulated lymphocytes, but frequencies of cells with MN - in the stimulated cells 48 h after stimulation. Using separate analysis of individual differences by the studied parameters that were determined in the same people, it was shown that individual differences are high enough in the same cases. For example, the radiosensitivity when cells were irradiated 48 h after stimulation, ROS concentration, cell content with activation and proliferation markers. In conclusion, we can say that we failed to find important correlation between the parameters studied. However, the presence of individual differences in the marker expression

  7. Photochemical inactivation of lymphocytes by riboflavin with visible light for TA-GVHD prevention.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qin; Huang, Yuwen; Wang, Li; Cheng, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaofei; Jia, Yao; Wang, Xun; Zhang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a life-threatening complication caused by the input of a number of immunocompetent allogeneic lymphocytes. This study focus on the photochemical effects of riboflavin excited by visible light (RB+L) treatment on human lymphocytes, to study the feasibility of using RB+L treatment to prevent adverse immune reactions caused by transfused lymphocytes. 100μM riboflavin was added to lymphocyte suspensions. After exposure to 400-580nm visible light with a total energy of 40J/mL, cells were cultured and the ability of proliferation and cytokine secretion were assayed upon stimuli. Meanwhile, lymphocytes were also treated by gamma-irradiation as parallel to testify the inactivation effect of RB+L. Results showed that γ-irradiation and RB+L treated cells showed a decline in cell viability. After stimulation of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or anti-CD3 together with anti-CD28, proliferative ability of RB+L treated cells was strongly inhibited when compared to untreated cells. The inhibitive rates of proliferation in RB+L group were also higher than those of cells treated by γ-irradiation. Results of CFSE assays also illustrated hardly any cell division of RB+L and γ-irradiation treated lymphocytes. Besides low level productions of IL-4 and IL-12, cytokine production of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10 by incubation with PHA or IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ stimulated by anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 were suppressed after treatment of RB+L significantly. It was suggested that RB+L/γ-irradiation treatment induced cell apoptosis. These results indicated that RB+L treatment functionally inactivated lymphocytes by inhibiting cell proliferation and cytokine production. RB+L might be an alternative for TA-GVHD prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Advances in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Mozas, Pablo; Delgado, Julio

    2016-11-18

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a proliferation of mature B cells, is one of the most prevalent haematological malignancies. Progress has been made in its treatment during the last few decades, and chemoimmunotherapy based on fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab is considered the treatment of choice for patients with standard-risk CLL and good performance status. However, due to the characterization of high-risk biological subgroups and its presentation in elderly patients and/or with comorbidities, targeted therapies, such as B-cell receptor inhibitors, have been developed and approved during the last few years. The current review examines traditional therapeutic strategies and focuses on new small molecules that already represent promising elements of the CLL treatment landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting BTK with ibrutinib in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Byrd, John C; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Flinn, Ian W; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Grant, Barbara; Sharman, Jeff P; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Chang, Betty Y; Clow, Fong; Hedrick, Eric; Buggy, Joseph J; James, Danelle F; O'Brien, Susan

    2013-07-04

    The treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has resulted in few durable remissions. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), an essential component of B-cell-receptor signaling, mediates interactions with the tumor microenvironment and promotes the survival and proliferation of CLL cells. We conducted a phase 1b-2 multicenter study to assess the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a first-in-class, oral covalent inhibitor of BTK designed for treatment of B-cell cancers, in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. A total of 85 patients, the majority of whom were considered to have high-risk disease, received ibrutinib orally once daily; 51 received 420 mg, and 34 received 840 mg. Toxic effects were predominantly grade 1 or 2 and included transient diarrhea, fatigue, and upper respiratory tract infection; thus, patients could receive extended treatment with minimal hematologic toxic effects. The overall response rate was the same in the group that received 420 mg and the group that received 840 mg (71%), and an additional 20% and 15% of patients in the respective groups had a partial response with lymphocytosis. The response was independent of clinical and genomic risk factors present before treatment, including advanced-stage disease, the number of previous therapies, and the 17p13.1 deletion. At 26 months, the estimated progression-free survival rate was 75% and the rate of overall survival was 83%. Ibrutinib was associated with a high frequency of durable remissions in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL and small lymphocytic lymphoma, including patients with high-risk genetic lesions. (Funded by Pharmacyclics and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01105247.).

  10. Targeting BTK with Ibrutinib in Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, John C.; Furman, Richard R.; Coutre, Steven E.; Flinn, Ian W.; Burger, Jan A.; Blum, Kristie A.; Grant, Barbara; Sharman, Jeff P.; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A.; Johnson, Amy J.; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Chang, Betty Y.; Clow, Fong; Hedrick, Eric; Buggy, Joseph J.; James, Danelle F.; O'Brien, Susan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has resulted in few durable remissions. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), an essential component of B-cell–receptor signaling, mediates interactions with the tumor microenvironment and promotes the survival and proliferation of CLL cells. METHODS We conducted a phase 1b–2 multicenter study to assess the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a first-in-class, oral covalent inhibitor of BTK designed for treatment of B-cell cancers, in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. A total of 85 patients, the majority of whom were considered to have high-risk disease, received ibrutinib orally once daily; 51 received 420 mg, and 34 received 840 mg. RESULTS Toxic effects were predominantly grade 1 or 2 and included transient diarrhea, fatigue, and upper respiratory tract infection; thus, patients could receive extended treatment with minimal hematologic toxic effects. The overall response rate was the same in the group that received 420 mg and the group that received 840 mg (71%), and an additional 20% and 15% of patients in the respective groups had a partial response with lymphocytosis. The response was independent of clinical and genomic risk factors present before treatment, including advanced-stage disease, the number of previous therapies, and the 17p13.1 deletion. At 26 months, the estimated progression-free survival rate was 75% and the rate of overall survival was 83%. CONCLUSIONS Ibrutinib was associated with a high frequency of durable remissions in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL and small lymphocytic lymphoma, including patients with high-risk genetic lesions. (Funded by Pharmacyclics and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01105247.) PMID:23782158

  11. A method for prolonged imaging of motile lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Day, Daniel; Pham, Kim; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J; Oliaro, Jane; Izon, David; Russell, Sarah M; Gu, Min

    2009-02-01

    With new imaging technologies and fluorescent probes, live imaging of cells in vitro has revolutionized many aspects of cell biology. A key goal now is to develop systems to optimize in vitro imaging, which do not compromise the physiological relevance of the study. We have developed a methodology that contains non-adherent cells within the field of view. 'Cell paddocks' are created by generating an array of microgrids using polydimethylsiloxane. Each microgrid is up to 250 x 250 microm(2) with a height of 60 microm. Overlayed cells settle into the grids and the walls restrict their lateral movement, but a contiguous supply of medium between neighboring microgrids facilitates the exchange of cytokines and growth factors. This allows culture over at least 6 days with no impact upon viability and proliferation. Adaptations of the microgrids have enabled imaging and tracking of lymphocyte division through multiple generations of long-term interactions between T lymphocytes and dendritic cells, and of thymocyte-stromal cell interactions.

  12. Genotoxic evaluation of terbinafine in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tolomeotti, Danielle; de Castro-Prado, Marialba Avezum Alves; de Sant'Anna, Juliane Rocha; Martins, Ana Beatriz Tozzo; Della-Rosa, Valter Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Terbinafine is an antimycotic drug usually used against several superficial fungal infections and with a potential application in the treatment of human cancers. Since to date there are few data on the genotoxic effects of terbinafine in mammalian cells, current study evaluated the potential genotoxic of such antifungal agent in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Terbinafine was used at the peak plasma concentration (1.0 μg/ml) and in four additional concentrations higher than the human plasmatic peak (5.0 μg/ml, 25.0 μg/ml, 50.0 μg/ml and 100.0 μg/ml). Chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NP) and nuclear buds (NB) were scored as genetic endpoints. In all analysis no significant differences (α = 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test) were observed. Complementary criterion adopted to obtain the final response in cytogenetic agreed with statistical results. Therefore, results of this study showed that terbinafine neither induced CA, SCE, MN, NP and NB nor affected significantly mitotic, replication and cytokinesis-block proliferation indices in any of the tested concentrations. It may be assumed that terbinafine was not genotoxic or cytotoxic to cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in our experimental conditions.

  13. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-23

    reactor with earlier United Nations specialists arriving into the dis- limited capability from an Argentine specialist company puted area had found no...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 PROLIFERATION ISSUES JPRS-TND-92-035 CONTENTS 23 September 1992...thought that joining this treaty would constitute a sort of given national resource. impediment to the commercialization of Niger’s ura- [Ouhoumoudou

  14. [Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: current management].

    PubMed

    Aurran-Schleinitz, T; Arnoulet, C; Ivanov, V; Coso, D; Rey, J; Schiano, J-M; Stoppa, A-M; Bouabdallah, R; Gastaut, J-A

    2008-05-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukaemia in the Western world. Recent advancement in the aetiology, pathophysiology and the development of new therapeutics tools have significantly modified the current management of CLL. The cellular origin of CLL is still unknown. The current main hypothesis will be first briefly described. This review will then focus on the newly defined prognostic factors and the development and use of new drugs for the treatment of CLL. To describe the modern and practical management of CLL, we will compare classical and new prognostic markers. Then, we will discuss the various therapeutic options including chemotherapy and immunotherapy (monoclonal antibodies, allogenic transplantation), and define their current respective indications. These new diagnostic and prognostic markers will allow the characterization of new prognostic subgroups of patients. This will lead to a targeted and individualized therapeutic approach. We will present the first results of clinical trials and the on-going studies conducted in this disease.

  15. MEMBRANE IMMUNOGLOBULINS OF B LYMPHOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Fu, S. M.; Kunkel, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    Hemagglutination and fluorescent antibody studies have provided strong evidence for the unavailability or absence of specific antigenic sites on membrane-bound IgM which are present in serum and intracellular IgM. Antisera specific for different parts of the molecule indicated that a portion but not all of the Fc was involved. Absorption experiments with normal and leukemic viable B lymphocytes failed to remove a population of Fc antibodies found in IgM-specific antisera. Similar findings were made for IgD, the other major membrane immunoglobulin of human peripheral blood B cells. Various interpretations of these observations are discussed. The most likely possibility appears that the C-terminal portion of the heavy chains of the immunoglobulin molecule is buried in the membrane. PMID:4139226

  16. Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Furman, Richard R; Zent, Clive S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) is usually diagnosed in asymptomatic patients with early-stage disease. The standard management approach is careful observation, irrespective of risk factors unless patients meet the International Workshop on CLL (IWCLL) criteria for "active disease," which requires treatment. The initial standard therapy for most patients combines an anti-CD20 antibody (such as rituximab, ofatumumab, or obinutuzumab) with chemotherapy (fludarabine/cyclophosphamide [FC], bendamustine, or chlorambucil) depending on multiple factors including the physical fitness of the patient. However, patients with very high-risk CLL because of a 17p13 deletion (17p-) with or without mutation of TP53 (17p-/TP53mut) have poor responses to chemoimmunotherapy and require alternative treatment regimens containing B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway inhibitors. The BCR signaling pathway inhibitors (ibrutinib targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase [BTK] and idelalisib targeting phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase delta [PI3K-delta], respectively) are currently approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory CLL and all patients with 17p- (ibrutinib), and in combination with rituximab for relapsed/refractory patients (idelalisib). These agents offer great efficacy, even in chemotherapy refractory CLL, with increased tolerability, safety, and survival. Ongoing studies aim to determine the best therapy combinations with the goal of achieving long-term disease control and the possibility of developing a curative regimen for some patients. CLL is associated with a wide range of infectious, autoimmune, and malignant complications. These complications result in considerable morbidity and mortality that can be minimized by early detection and aggressive management. This active monitoring requires ongoing patient education, provider vigilance, and a team approach to patient care.

  17. T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia display dysregulated expression of immune checkpoints and activation markers.

    PubMed

    Palma, Marzia; Gentilcore, Giusy; Heimersson, Kia; Mozaffari, Fariba; Näsman-Glaser, Barbro; Young, Emma; Rosenquist, Richard; Hansson, Lotta; Österborg, Anders; Mellstedt, Håkan

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by impaired immune functions largely due to profound T-cell defects. T-cell functions also depend on co-signaling receptors, inhibitory or stimulatory, known as immune checkpoints, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1). Here we analyzed the T-cell phenotype focusing on immune checkpoints and activation markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (n=80) with different clinical characteristics and compared them to healthy controls. In general, patients had higher absolute numbers of CD3 + cells and the CD8 + subset was particularly expanded in previously treated patients. Progressive patients had higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells expressing PD-1 compared to healthy controls, which was more pronounced in previously treated patients ( P =0.0003 and P =0.001, respectively). A significant increase in antigen-experienced T cells was observed in patients within both the CD4 + and CD8 + subsets, with a significantly higher PD-1 expression. Higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells with intracellular CTLA-4 were observed in patients, as well as high numbers of proliferating (Ki67 + ) and activated (CD69 + ) CD4 + and CD8 + cells, more pronounced in patients with active disease. The numbers of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells were substantially increased in patients compared to controls ( P <0.05), albeit decreasing to low levels in pre-treated patients. In conclusion, chronic lymphocytic leukemia T cells display increased expression of immune checkpoints, abnormal subset distribution, and a higher proportion of proliferating cells compared to healthy T cells. Disease activity and previous treatment shape the T-cell profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in different ways. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  18. View of the Life Sciences Laboratory Equipment (LSLE) Incubator - Lymphocite Proliferation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-18

    S84-43683 (26 Nov 1984) --- This vertically positioned rectangular piece of hardware, scheduled to fly on the science module of Spacelab Life Sciences-1, is important to the immunology investigation on the mission. Called Lymphocyte Proliferation in Weightlessness (Experiment 240), the test was developed by Dr. Augosto Cogoli of the Institute of Biotechnology, Gruppe Weltraum Biologie, in Zurich, Switzerland. It represents a continuation of previous Spacelab experiments by examining the effects of weightlessness on lymphocyte activation. Cultures will be grown in the microgravity incubators on the pictured hardware.

  19. Profound CD4+/CCR5+ T cell expansion is induced by CD8+ lymphocyte depletion but does not account for accelerated SIV pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Afam; Park, Haesun; Rohankhedkar, Mukta; Coyne-Johnson, Lia; Lum, Richard; Walker, Joshua M; Planer, Shannon L; Legasse, Alfred W; Sylwester, Andrew W; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Sodora, Donald L; Villinger, Francois; Axthelm, Michael K; Schmitz, Joern E; Picker, Louis J

    2009-07-06

    Depletion of CD8(+) lymphocytes during acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques (RMs) results in irreversible prolongation of peak-level viral replication and rapid disease progression, consistent with a major role for CD8(+) lymphocytes in determining postacute-phase viral replication set points. However, we report that CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion is also associated with a dramatic induction of proliferation among CD4(+) effector memory T (T(EM)) cells and, to a lesser extent, transitional memory T (T(TrM)) cells, raising the question of whether an increased availability of optimal (activated/proliferating), CD4(+)/CCR5(+) SIV "target" cells contributes to this accelerated pathogenesis. In keeping with this, depletion of CD8(+) lymphocytes in SIV(-) RMs led to a sustained increase in the number of potential CD4(+) SIV targets, whereas such depletion in acute SIV infection led to increased target cell consumption. However, we found that the excess CD4(+) T(EM) cell proliferation of CD8(+) lymphocyte-depleted, acutely SIV-infected RMs was completely inhibited by interleukin (IL)-15 neutralization, and that this inhibition did not abrogate the rapidly progressive infection in these RMs. Moreover, although administration of IL-15 during acute infection induced robust CD4(+) T(EM) and T(TrM) cell proliferation, it did not recapitulate the viral dynamics of CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion. These data suggest that CD8(+) lymphocyte function has a larger impact on the outcome of acute SIV infection than the number and/or activation status of target cells available for infection and viral production.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of lymphocyte extravasation. II. Studies of in vitro lymphocyte adherence to high endothelial venules.

    PubMed

    Braaten, B A; Spangrude, G J; Daynes, R A

    1984-07-01

    Lymphocyte migration from the blood into the lymph nodes in most species occurs across post-capillary high endothelial venules (HEV). In a previous study, we proposed that lymphocyte extravasation involves receptor-mediated binding followed by adenylate cyclase-dependent activation of lymphocyte motility. This hypothesis was, in part, based on observations of in vitro lymphocyte adherence to HEV by employing pertussigen, which is a known inhibitor of lymphocyte recirculation. In vitro lymphocyte-HEV binding requires a cold (6 degrees C) incubation step and binding is poor to nil if the assay is attempted at room (23 degrees C) or physiologic temperature. We decided to investigate why this assay is temperature restricted, because of the possibility that pertussigen or fucoidin -treated lymphocytes might interact with HEV differently at higher temperatures. We now report that O.C.T. compound (OCT), the embedding matrix generally used to cut frozen lymph node sections, is toxic to lymphocytes at temperatures above 6 degrees C. Exclusion of OCT from the assay system will allow lymphocyte-HEV binding to occur at 23 degrees C and to a lesser extent at 37 degrees C. With this modified protocol, lymphocytes treated with either pertussigen, fucoidin , or neuraminidase were tested for adherence to HEV at 23 degrees C. No essential difference in binding properties was observed from what had been reported at 6 degrees C. In contrast, trypsin-treated lymphocytes that did not bind to HEV with the standard technique at 6 degrees C did adhere to a minimal extent to HEV at 23 degrees C using the modified procedure. We also report some preliminary work, using the modified assay, on in vitro lymphocyte-HEV binding of rat, rabbit, and guinea pig lymphocytes to sections of lymph nodes from the respective species.

  1. Sezary syndrome cells unlike normal circulating T lymphocytes fail to migrate following engagement of NT1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Magazin, Marilyn; Poszepczynska-Guigné, Ewa; Bagot, Martine; Boumsell, Laurence; Pruvost, Christelle; Chalon, Pascale; Culouscou, Jean-Michel; Ferrara, Pascual; Bensussan, Armand

    2004-01-01

    Circulating malignant Sezary cells are a clonal proliferation of CD4+CD45RO+ T lymphocytes primarily involving the skin. To study the biology of these malignant T lymphocytes, we tested their ability to migrate in chemotaxis assays. Previously, we had shown that the neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) binds to freshly isolated Sezary malignant cells and induces through NT1 receptors the cell migration of the cutaneous T cell lymphoma cell line Cou-L. Here, we report that peripheral blood Sezary cells as well as the Sezary cell line Pno fail to migrate in response to neurotensin although they are capable of migrating to the chemokine stromal-cell-derived factor 1 alpha. This is in contrast with normal circulating CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes, which respond to both types of chemoattractants except after ex vivo short-time anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody activation, which abrogates the neurotensin-induced lymphocyte migration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that neurotensin-responsive T lymphocytes express the functional NT1 receptor responsible for chemotaxis. In these cells, but not in Sezary cells, neurotensin induces recruitment of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, and redistribution of phosphorylated cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase and filamentous actin. Taken together, these results, which show functional distinctions between normal circulating lymphocytes and Sezary syndrome cells, contribute to further understanding of the physiopathology of these atypical cells.

  2. Licorice infusion: Chemical profile and effects on the activation and the cell cycle progression of human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cheel, José; Onofre, Gabriela; Vokurkova, Doris; Tůmová, Lenka; Neugebauerová, Jarmila

    2010-01-01

    A licorice infusion (LI) and its major constituents were investigated for their capacity to stimulate the activation and the cell cycle progression of human lymphocytes, measured by the CD69 expression and DNA content, respectively. The chemical profile of LI was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Results: Two major components of LI were identified as liquiritin (1) and glycyrrhizin (2); total flavones and flavonols were shown as its minor constituents. The LI (100-800 μg/ml) stimulated the expression of CD69 on lymphocytes in a concentration-independent manner. Values of the activation index (AI) of total lymphocytes treated with LI (100-800 μg/ml) did not differ significantly among them (P < 0.05), but were 50% lower than the AI value exhibited by cells treated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The LI showed a similar effect on T cells, but on a lower scale. Compounds 1 and 2 (12-100 μg/ml) did not stimulate the CD69 expression on lymphocytes. The LI, 1 and 2 showed no meaningful effect on cell cycle progression of lymphocytes. The experimental data indicates that LI stimulates the activation of lymphocytes as a result of a proliferation-independent process. This finding suggests that LI could be considered as a potential specific immune stimulator. PMID:20548933

  3. Aerobic glycolysis: meeting the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lunt, Sophia Y; Vander Heiden, Matthew G

    2011-01-01

    Warburg's observation that cancer cells exhibit a high rate of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis) sparked debate over the role of glycolysis in normal and cancer cells. Although it has been established that defects in mitochondrial respiration are not the cause of cancer or aerobic glycolysis, the advantages of enhanced glycolysis in cancer remain controversial. Many cells ranging from microbes to lymphocytes use aerobic glycolysis during rapid proliferation, which suggests it may play a fundamental role in supporting cell growth. Here, we review how glycolysis contributes to the metabolic processes of dividing cells. We provide a detailed accounting of the biosynthetic requirements to construct a new cell and illustrate the importance of glycolysis in providing carbons to generate biomass. We argue that the major function of aerobic glycolysis is to maintain high levels of glycolytic intermediates to support anabolic reactions in cells, thus providing an explanation for why increased glucose metabolism is selected for in proliferating cells throughout nature.

  4. Effects of 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid on human lymphocyte sheep erythrocyte rosette formation and response to concanavalin A associated with HLA system.

    PubMed

    Gualde, N; Rabinovitch, H; Fredon, M; Rigaud, M

    1982-09-01

    The lipoxygenase product hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HPETE) has immunosuppressive properties in vitro and in vivo. It was observed that 15-HPETE inhibit the sheep red blood cell rosette formation and the concanavalin A-induced blast transformation of human lymphocytes. This inhibition was HLA-linked. HLA-B12 subjects were less sensitive than non-B12 subjects. It is likely that HPETE acids are macrophage mediators which inhibit some lymphocyte functions.

  5. Experiment K-7-23: Effect of Spaceflight on Level and Function of Immune Cells. Part 2; Proliferation and Cytokines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, P. V.; Konstantinova, I. V.; Fuchs, B. B.; Rakhmilevich, A. L.; Lesnyak, A. T.; Mastro, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Lymphocytes from the superficial inguinal lymph nodes of rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 space mission were tested for proliferation in response to polyclonal activators. Cells were cultured with T or B cell mitogens, phorbol ester and calcium ionophore, or T cell mitogen and the lymphokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) or interleukin-2 (IL-2), and assayed for DNA synthesis by (3)H-thymidine incorporation. Lymphocytes also were incubated with concanavalin A (Con A), a T cell mitogen, and tested for IL-2 production. Mitogen-stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes from rats exposed to microgravity was not significantly different from synchronous or vivarium controls. Responses to Con A and IL-2, and Con A and IL-1 likewise were unaffected by space flight. Lymphocytes from all of these groups responded well to phorbol ester and calcium ionophore stimulation. Furthermore, lymph node cells (LNC) from control rats and rats flown on Cosmos 2044 produced similar amounts of IL-2. The results obtained using hindlimb suspended rats were notably different from those of flight and control animals. LNC from suspended rats generally had greater proliferative responses to T cell mitogens than did lymphocytes from other groups. Responsiveness to a B cell mitogen was not enhanced. Con A-stimulated LNC from hindlimb suspended rats also produced more IL-2 than did lymphocytes from the other groups. This difference was statistically significant at both IL-2 induction times tested.

  6. Protective effects of FTY720 on chronic allograft nephropathy by reducing late lymphocytic infiltration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minghui; Liu, Shanying; Ouyang, Nengtai; Song, Erwei; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe

    2004-09-01

    Lymphocytic infiltration is obvious throughout early and late stages of chronic allograft nephropathy. Early infiltrating lymphocytes are involved in initial insults to kidney allografts, but the contribution of late infiltration to long-term allograft attrition is still controversial. Early application of FTY720 reduced the number of graft infiltrating lymphocytes, and inhibited acute rejection. The present study investigated the potential of FTY720 to reduce the number of infiltrating lymphocytes even at a late stage, and, thus, slow the pace of chronic allograft nephropathy. Fisher (F344) rat kidneys were orthotopically transplanted into Lewis recipients with an initial 10-day course of cyclosporine A (1.5 mg/kg/day). FTY720, at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day, or vehicle was administered to recipients either from weeks 12 to 24 or from 20 to 24 after transplantation. Animals were harvested 24 weeks after transplantation for histologic, immunohistologic, and molecular analysis. FTY720, either initiated at 12 or 20 weeks after transplantation, reduced urinary protein excretion, and significantly ameliorated glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and intimal proliferation of graft arteries at 24 weeks after transplantation. Furthermore FTY720 markedly suppressed lymphocyte infiltration and decreased mRNA levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) but enhanced the number of apoptotic cells in grafts. FTY720 ameliorated chronic allograft nephropathy even at advanced stages. Furthermore, our data suggest that this effect was achieved by a reduction of graft infiltrating lymphocytes.

  7. Regulated expression of telomerase activity in human T lymphocyte development and activation

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein that is capable of synthesizing telomeric repeats, is expressed in germline and malignant cells, and is absent in most normal human somatic cells. The selective expression of telomerase has thus been proposed to be a basis for the immortality of the germline and of malignant cells. In the present study, telomerase activity was analyzed in normal human T lymphocytes. It was found that telomerase is expressed at a high level in thymocyte subpopulations, at an intermediate level in tonsil T lymphocytes, and at a low to undetectable level in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Moreover, telomerase activity is highly inducible in peripheral T lymphocytes by activation through CD3 with or without CD28 costimulation, or by stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin. The induction of telomerase by anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 (anti-CD3/CD28) stimulation required RNA and protein synthesis, and was blocked by herbimycin A, an inhibitor of S pi protein tyrosine kinases. The immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A selectively inhibited telomerase induction by PMA/ionomycin and by anti-CD3, but not by anti-CD3/CD28. Although telomerase activity in peripheral T lymphocytes was activation dependent and correlated with cell proliferation, it was not cell cycle phase restricted. These results indicate that the expression of telomerase in normal human T lymphocytes is both developmentally regulated and activation induced. Telomerase may thus play a permissive role in T cell development and in determining the capacity of lymphoid cells for cell division and clonal expansion. PMID:8676067

  8. Reconciling Estimates of Cell Proliferation from Stable Isotope Labeling Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Drylewicz, Julia; Elemans, Marjet; Zhang, Yan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reljic, Rajko; Tesselaar, Kiki; de Boer, Rob J.; Macallan, Derek C.; Borghans, José A. M.; Asquith, Becca

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling is the state of the art technique for in vivo quantification of lymphocyte kinetics in humans. It has been central to a number of seminal studies, particularly in the context of HIV-1 and leukemia. However, there is a significant discrepancy between lymphocyte proliferation rates estimated in different studies. Notably, deuterated 2H2-glucose (D2-glucose) labeling studies consistently yield higher estimates of proliferation than deuterated water (D2O) labeling studies. This hampers our understanding of immune function and undermines our confidence in this important technique. Whether these differences are caused by fundamental biochemical differences between the two compounds and/or by methodological differences in the studies is unknown. D2-glucose and D2O labeling experiments have never been performed by the same group under the same experimental conditions; consequently a direct comparison of these two techniques has not been possible. We sought to address this problem. We performed both in vitro and murine in vivo labeling experiments using identical protocols with both D2-glucose and D2O. This showed that intrinsic differences between the two compounds do not cause differences in the proliferation rate estimates, but that estimates made using D2-glucose in vivo were susceptible to difficulties in normalization due to highly variable blood glucose enrichment. Analysis of three published human studies made using D2-glucose and D2O confirmed this problem, particularly in the case of short term D2-glucose labeling. Correcting for these inaccuracies in normalization decreased proliferation rate estimates made using D2-glucose and slightly increased estimates made using D2O; thus bringing the estimates from the two methods significantly closer and highlighting the importance of reliable normalization when using this technique. PMID:26437372

  9. Leukemia -- Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic

    MedlinePlus

    ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Leukemia - Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Stages Treatment Options About Clinical Trials Latest Research ...

  10. Response to phytohaemagglutinin of lymphocytes from mice treated with anti-lymphocyte globulin

    PubMed Central

    Tursi, A.; Greaves, M. F.; Torrigiani, G.; Playfair, J. H. L.; Roitt, I. M.

    1969-01-01

    Thymus, spleen, lymph node and peripheral blood lymphocytes taken from mice treated with anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) showed a greatly diminished response to PHA in vitro. Recovery of circulating lymphocyte levels preceded recovery of responsiveness to PHA. The latter could be prevented by reinjection of ALG or by thymectomy. Grafts were rejected within a period equal to the normal rejection time after PHA responsiveness had recovered to a value of approximately 20 per cent of the normal. Thus the effect of ALG on thymus dependent lymphocytes in mice can be monitored by assessing the PHA sensitivity of peripheral white blood cells. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4900922

  11. Immunomodulatory Activity of Ganoderma atrum Polysaccharide on Purified T Lymphocytes through Ca2+/CaN and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Based on RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Quan-Dan; Yu, Qiang; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Liu, Shi-Yu; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-07-05

    Our previous study has demonstrated that Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) has immunomodulatory activity on spleen lymphocytes. However, how PSG-1 exerts its effect on purified lymphocytes is still obscure. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of PSG-1 on purified T lymphocytes and further elucidate the underlying mechanism based on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Our results showed that PSG-1 promoted T lymphocytes proliferation and increased the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-12. Meanwhile, RNA-seq analysis found 394 differentially expressed genes. KEGG pathway analysis identified 20 significant canonical pathways and seven biological functions. Furthermore, PSG-1 elevated intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and calcineurin (CaN) activity and raised the p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-p38 expression levels. T lymphocytes proliferation and the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-12 were decreased by the inhibitors of calcium channel and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These results indicated that PSG-1 possesses immunomodulatory activity on purified T lymphocytes, in which Ca 2+ /CaN and MAPK pathways play essential roles.

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiuguo; Tanaka, Naoki; Nakajima, Takero

    2006-08-11

    Hepatic peroxisome proliferation, increases in the numerical and volume density of peroxisomes, is believed to be closely related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) activation; however, it remains unknown whether peroxisome proliferation depends absolutely on this activation. To verify occurrence of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation, fenofibrate treatment was used, which was expected to significantly enhance PPAR{alpha} dependence in the assay system. Surprisingly, a novel type of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation and enlargement was uncovered in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. The increased expression of dynamin-like protein 1, but not peroxisome biogenesis factor 11{alpha}, might be associated with the PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation at least in part.

  13. Effect of arachidonic acid metabolites on CR1 expression by B-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Cook, J M; Guibert, F; Delebassee, S; Gualde, N

    1989-01-01

    The effect of arachidonic acid metabolites on the expression of the receptor for the C3b/C4b fragment of complement (CR1) by human B-lymphocytes was investigated. Kinetic experiments to determine CR1 expression over time indicated that the maximal receptor number occurred at 2 h, followed by a return to baseline values. Addition of 10(-4) M puromycin to the cells suggested that the increase was due to the expression of an intracellular pool and not de novo synthesis of new receptor molecules. B-lymphocytes were incubated with arachidonic acid, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, leukotrienes B4 or C4 or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The quantity of membrane antigenic binding sites was determined before and after incubation. The lipoxygenase metabolites did not alter CR1 numbers. In contrast, PGE2 significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) the quantity of CR1 expressed. In kinetic experiments, PGE2 blocked the maximal expression of CR1 seen at 2 h, indicating that it prevents the appearance of an intracellular pool of receptor. These results show that CR1 number on B-lymphocytes can be altered by at least one arachidonic acid metabolite. This may offer a partial explanation for the inhibitory effects of PGE2 on B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion since CR1 is implicated in B-lymphocyte differentiation and specific antibody response.

  14. Entospletinib and Obinutuzumab in Treating Patients With Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-05

    Anemia; B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Fatigue; Fever; Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Lymphadenopathy; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Night Sweats; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Richter Syndrome; Splenomegaly; Thrombocytopenia; Weight Loss

  15. Metaphase yields from staphylococcal enterotoxin A stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes of unirradiated and irradiated aged rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, F. S.; Cox, A. B.; Salmon, Y. L.; Cantu, A. O.; Lucas, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    The mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) works well in both human and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) lymphocyte cultures to stimulate T cell proliferation. T cells from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are less responsive than human cells, producing few metaphases when thousands are required, e.g. in biological dosimetry studies. We show that staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), one of the most potent mitogens known, at a concentration of 0.5 microgram/ml stimulated peripheral lymphocytes to grow with a mitotic index (MI) averaging 0.13 metaphases/cell in old, irradiated rhesus macaques. This was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than that produced by PHA (MI < 0.01) in lymphocytes from the same animals. Whole blood was cultured for 96, 120 and 144 h for five irradiated individuals and for two controls. All cells cultured with SEA produced a high MI with a peak response at 120 h whereas the same cultures showed low MI for each PHA stimulated culture.

  16. T Lymphocyte Inhibition by Tumor-Infiltrating Dendritic Cells Involves Ectonucleotidase CD39 but Not Arginase-1.

    PubMed

    Trad, Malika; Gautheron, Alexandrine; Fraszczak, Jennifer; Alizadeh, Darya; Larmonier, Claire; LaCasse, Collin J; Centuori, Sara; Audia, Sylvain; Samson, Maxime; Ciudad, Marion; Bonnefoy, Francis; Lemaire-Ewing, Stéphanie; Katsanis, Emmanuel; Perruche, Sylvain; Saas, Philippe; Bonnotte, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    T lymphocytes activated by dendritic cells (DC) which present tumor antigens play a key role in the antitumor immune response. However, in patients suffering from active cancer, DC are not efficient at initiating and supporting immune responses as they participate to T lymphocyte inhibition. DC in the tumor environment are functionally defective and exhibit a characteristic of immature phenotype, different to that of DC present in nonpathological conditions. The mechanistic bases underlying DC dysfunction in cancer responsible for the modulation of T-cell responses and tumor immune escape are still being investigated. Using two different mouse tumor models, we showed that tumor-infiltrating DC (TIDC) are constitutively immunosuppressive, exhibit a semimature phenotype, and impair responder T lymphocyte proliferation and activation by a mechanism involving CD39 ectoenzyme.

  17. T Lymphocyte Inhibition by Tumor-Infiltrating Dendritic Cells Involves Ectonucleotidase CD39 but Not Arginase-1

    PubMed Central

    Trad, Malika; Gautheron, Alexandrine; Fraszczak, Jennifer; Larmonier, Claire; LaCasse, Collin J.; Centuori, Sara; Audia, Sylvain; Samson, Maxime; Ciudad, Marion; Bonnefoy, Francis; Lemaire-Ewing, Stéphanie; Katsanis, Emmanuel; Perruche, Sylvain; Saas, Philippe; Bonnotte, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    T lymphocytes activated by dendritic cells (DC) which present tumor antigens play a key role in the antitumor immune response. However, in patients suffering from active cancer, DC are not efficient at initiating and supporting immune responses as they participate to T lymphocyte inhibition. DC in the tumor environment are functionally defective and exhibit a characteristic of immature phenotype, different to that of DC present in nonpathological conditions. The mechanistic bases underlying DC dysfunction in cancer responsible for the modulation of T-cell responses and tumor immune escape are still being investigated. Using two different mouse tumor models, we showed that tumor-infiltrating DC (TIDC) are constitutively immunosuppressive, exhibit a semimature phenotype, and impair responder T lymphocyte proliferation and activation by a mechanism involving CD39 ectoenzyme. PMID:26491691

  18. Limiting nuclear proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.; Cecelski, L.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of the 1977 experience, it is shown that the U.S. no longer dominates the world nuclear market and must change its approach from coercion to persuasion. President Carter, implementing his campaign promises on nuclear nonproliferation, has used direct pressure, negotiated with nuclear suppliers, and asked for legislation to impose rigid criteria for the export of nuclear materials. Unilateral actions included the deferment of facilities for fuel reprocessing and breeder reactors, but were followed by efforts for international cooperation as the year progressed. While global non-proliferation policies reinforced with international technical cooperation are seen as admirable goals, themore » response to U.S. initiatives is not seen to be encouraging.« less

  19. The changing proliferation threat

    SciTech Connect

    Sopko, J.F.

    Technological advances and new adversaries with new motives have reduced the relevancy and effectiveness of the American nonproliferation strategy that was developed during the Cold War. The Cold War`s end and the breakup of the Soviet Union have created new proliferation dangers even as they have reduced others. The familiar balance of nuclear terror that linked the superpowers and their client states for nearly 50 years in a choreographed series of confrontations has given way to a much less predictable situation, where weapons of unthinkable power appear within the grasp of those more willing to use them. Rogue nations andmore » {open_quotes}clientless{close_quotes} states, terrorist groups, religious cults, ethnic minorities, disaffected political groups, and even individuals appear to have jointed a new arms race toward mass destruction. The author describes recent events that suggest the new trends and a serious challenge to US national security.« less

  20. Regulation of DNA synthesis and the cell cycle in human prostate cancer cells and lymphocytes by ovine uterine serpin

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Maria B; Hansen, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Background Uterine serpins are members of the serine proteinase inhibitor superfamily. Like some other serpins, these proteins do not appear to be functional proteinase inhibitors. The most studied member of the group, ovine uterine serpin (OvUS), inhibits proliferation of several cell types including activated lymphocytes, bovine preimplantation embryos, and cell lines for lymphoma, canine primary osteosarcoma and human prostate cancer (PC-3) cells. The goal for the present study was to evaluate the mechanism by which OvUS inhibits cell proliferation. In particular, it was tested whether inhibition of DNA synthesis in PC-3 cells involves cytotoxic actions of OvUS or the induction of apoptosis. The effect of OvUS in the production of the autocrine and angiogenic cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 by PC-3 cells was also determined. Finally, it was tested whether OvUS blocks specific steps in the cell cycle using both PC-3 cells and lymphocytes. Results Recombinant OvUS blocked proliferation of PC-3 cells at concentrations as low as 8 μg/ml as determined by measurements of [3H]thymidine incorporation or ATP content per well. Treatment of PC-3 cells with OvUS did not cause cytotoxicity or apoptosis or alter interleukin-8 secretion into medium. Results from flow cytometry experiments showed that OvUS blocked the entry of PC-3 cells into S phase and the exit from G2/M phase. In addition, OvUS blocked entry of lymphocytes into S phase following activation of proliferation with phytohemagglutinin. Conclusion Results indicate that OvUS acts to block cell proliferation through disruption of the cell cycle dynamics rather than induction of cytotoxicity or apoptosis. The finding that OvUS can regulate cell proliferation makes this one of only a few serpins that function to inhibit cell growth. PMID:18218135

  1. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Lymphocytic Lymphoma, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  2. Nuclear Proliferation: A Historical Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Talbert, “Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis ,” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL -14480 (September 2005), p. 92. 1973: Closed...L. Coles, and R. J. Talbert, “Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis ,” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL -14480 (September 2005...D. Zentner, G. L. Coles, and R. J. Talbert, “Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis ,” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL -14480

  3. Suppressive effects of chlorphenesin on lymphocyte function in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Stites, D P; Brecher, G; Schmidt, L; Berger, F M

    1979-12-01

    The immunosuppressive action of chlorphenesin was investigated in a wide variety of in vitro assays for cellular immunity in humans and mice. Chlorphenesin, at doses of 20-50 micrograms/ml, inhibited mitogenic responses of both mouse and human B and T cells. These doses did not kill cells exposed to the drug for 72 hr. Mixed lymphocyte reactions in inbred strains of mice and in unrelated humans were also inhibited at concentrations of about 50 micrograms/ml. However, the generation of cytotoxic T cells in cell-mediated lympholysis assays was not inhibited to the same degree as proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reaction and the cytotoxic potential of presensitized mouse T cells for allogeneic targets was totally unaffected. These studies suggest that chlorphenesin may have a broad spectrum of suppressive effects both on T and B cells and that the predominant inhibition of proliferative responses in these cells may reduce the expansion of clones of immunocompetent cells in vivo.

  4. Profound CD4+/CCR5+ T cell expansion is induced by CD8+ lymphocyte depletion but does not account for accelerated SIV pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Okoye, Afam; Park, Haesun; Rohankhedkar, Mukta; Coyne-Johnson, Lia; Lum, Richard; Walker, Joshua M.; Planer, Shannon L.; Legasse, Alfred W.; Sylwester, Andrew W.; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Sodora, Donald L.; Villinger, Francois; Axthelm, Michael K.; Schmitz, Joern E.

    2009-01-01

    Depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes during acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques (RMs) results in irreversible prolongation of peak-level viral replication and rapid disease progression, consistent with a major role for CD8+ lymphocytes in determining postacute-phase viral replication set points. However, we report that CD8+ lymphocyte depletion is also associated with a dramatic induction of proliferation among CD4+ effector memory T (TEM) cells and, to a lesser extent, transitional memory T (TTrM) cells, raising the question of whether an increased availability of optimal (activated/proliferating), CD4+/CCR5+ SIV “target” cells contributes to this accelerated pathogenesis. In keeping with this, depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes in SIV− RMs led to a sustained increase in the number of potential CD4+ SIV targets, whereas such depletion in acute SIV infection led to increased target cell consumption. However, we found that the excess CD4+ TEM cell proliferation of CD8+ lymphocyte–depleted, acutely SIV-infected RMs was completely inhibited by interleukin (IL)-15 neutralization, and that this inhibition did not abrogate the rapidly progressive infection in these RMs. Moreover, although administration of IL-15 during acute infection induced robust CD4+ TEM and TTrM cell proliferation, it did not recapitulate the viral dynamics of CD8+ lymphocyte depletion. These data suggest that CD8+ lymphocyte function has a larger impact on the outcome of acute SIV infection than the number and/or activation status of target cells available for infection and viral production. PMID:19546246

  5. Immunological aspects in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) development.

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz, Ricardo; Galiacho, Verónica Roldan; Llorente, Luis

    2012-07-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is unique among B cell malignancies in that the malignant clones can be featured either somatically mutated or unmutated IGVH genes. CLL cells that express unmutated immunoglobulin variable domains likely underwent final development prior to their entry into the germinal center, whereas those that express mutated variable domains likely transited through the germinal center and then underwent final development. Regardless, the cellular origin of CLL remains unknown. The aim of this review is to summarize immunological aspects involved in this process and to provide insights about the complex biology and pathogenesis of this disease. We propose a mechanistic hypothesis to explain the origin of B-CLL clones into our current picture of normal B cell development. In particular, we suggest that unmutated CLL arises from normal B cells with self-reactivity for apoptotic bodies that have undergone receptor editing, CD5 expression, and anergic processes in the bone marrow. Similarly, mutated CLL would arise from cells that, while acquiring self-reactivity for autoantigens-including apoptotic bodies-in germinal centers, are also still subject to tolerization mechanisms, including receptor editing and anergy. We believe that CLL is a proliferation of B lymphocytes selected during clonal expansion through multiple encounters with (auto)antigens, despite the fact that they differ in their state of activation and maturation. Autoantigens and microbial pathogens activate BCR signaling and promote tolerogenic mechanisms such as receptor editing/revision, anergy, CD5+ expression, and somatic hypermutation in CLL B cells. The result of these tolerogenic mechanisms is the survival of CLL B cell clones with similar surface markers and homogeneous gene expression signatures. We suggest that both immunophenotypic surface markers and homogenous gene expression might represent the evidence of several attempts to re-educate self-reactive B cells.

  6. Improved proliferation of antigen-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes using a multimodal nanovaccine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Siuta, Michael; Bright, Vanessa; Koktysh, Dmitry; Matlock, Brittany K; Dumas, Megan E; Zhu, Meiying; Holt, Alex; Stec, Donald; Deng, Shenglou; Savage, Paul B; Joyce, Sebastian; Pham, Wellington

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the immunoenhancing property of our newly designed nanovaccine, that is, its ability to induce antigen-specific immunity. This study also evaluated the synergistic effect of a novel compound PBS-44, an α-galactosylceramide analog, in boosting the immune response induced by our nanovaccine. The nanovaccine was prepared by encapsulating ovalbumin (ova) and an adjuvant within the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles. Quantitative analysis of our study data showed that the encapsulated vaccine was physically and biologically stable; the core content of our nanovaccine was found to be released steadily and slowly, and nearly 90% of the core content was slowly released over the course of 25 days. The in vivo immunization studies exhibited that the nanovaccine induced stronger and longer immune responses compared to its soluble counterpart. Similarly, intranasal inhalation of the nanovaccine induced more robust antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response than intraperitoneal injection of nanovaccine. PMID:27895483

  7. SALIVARY GLAND EXTRACTS OF CULICOIDES SONORENSIS INHIBIT MURINE LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION AND NO PRODUCTION BY MACROPHAGES

    PubMed Central

    BISHOP, JEANETTE V.; MEJIA, J. SANTIAGO; PÉREZ DE LEÓN, ADALBERTO A.; TABACHNICK, WALTER J.; TITUS, RICHARD G.

    2006-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North American that cause substantial economic losses to the US livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in their proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate. PMID:16968936

  8. Salivary gland extracts of Culicoides sonorensis inhibit murine lymphocyte proliferation and no production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeanette V; Mejia, J Santiago; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Tabachnick, Walter J; Titus, Richard G

    2006-09-01

    Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North American that cause substantial economic losses to the US livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in their proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate.

  9. A Compartmental Model for Computing Cell Numbers in CFSE-based Lymphocyte Proliferation Assays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-31

    of the “expected relative Kullback - Leibler distance” ( information loss) when a model is used to describe a data set [23...deconvolution of the data into cell numbers, it cannot be used to accurately assess the number of cells in a particular generation. This information could be...notation is meant to emphasize the dependence of the estimate on the particular data set used to fit the model. It should be noted that, rather

  10. Physalins B, F and G, seco-steroids purified from Physalis angulata L., inhibit lymphocyte function and allogeneic transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Soares, M B P; Brustolim, D; Santos, L A; Bellintani, M C; Paiva, F P; Ribeiro, Y M; Tomassini, T C B; Ribeiro Dos Santos, R

    2006-03-01

    Physalis angulata is a solanaceae widely used in folk medicine in various tropical countries in the world. We have previously described that seco-steroids (physalins) purified from P. angulata are potent inhibitors of macrophage activation, blocking the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and LPS-induced lethality. Herein we investigated the immunomodulatory activities of these substances in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production and in transplantation. The addition of physalins B, F or G to concanavalin A-activated splenocyte cultures induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of proliferation. Physalin B also inhibited IL-2 production by Con A-activated spleen cells. The addition of 2 mug/ml physalin B to mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) caused a 100% inhibition of proliferation. More importantly, treatment of mice with physalin B, F or G prevented the rejection of allogeneic heterotopic heart transplant. Our results demonstrate the suppressive activity of physalins B, F and G in lymphocyte function and indicate the potential use of physalins as immunosuppressive agents for treatments of pathologies in which inhibition of immune responses is desired.

  11. Interaction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with human B-lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, George, E-mail: Georg.Klein@ki.se; Klein, Eva; Kashuba, Elena

    Epstein-Barr virus, EBV, and humans have a common history that reaches back to our primate ancestors. The virus co-evolved with man and has established a largely harmless and highly complex co-existence. It is carried as silent infection by almost all human adults. A serendipitous discovery established that it is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. Still, EBV became known first in 1964, in a rare, geographically prevalent malignant lymphoma of B-cell origin, Burkitt lymphoma BL. Its association with a malignancy prompted intensive studies and its capacity to immortalize B-lymphocytes in vitro was soon demonstrated. Consequently EBV was classified therefore asmore » a potentially tumorigenic virus. Despite of this property however, the virus carrier state itself does not lead to malignancies because the transformed cells are recognized by the immune response. Consequently the EBV induced proliferation of EBV carrying B-lymphocytes is manifested only under immunosuppressive conditions. The expression of EBV encoded genes is regulated by the cell phenotype. The virus genome can be found in malignancies originating from cell types other than the B-lymphocyte. Even in the EBV infected B-cell, the direct transforming capacity is restricted to a defined window of differentiation. A complex interaction between virally encoded proteins and B-cell specific cellular proteins constitute the proliferation inducing program. In this short review we touch upon aspects which are the subject of our present work. We describe the mechanisms of some of the functional interactions between EBV encoded and cellular proteins that determine the phenotype of latently infected B-cells. The growth promoting EBV encoded genes are not expressed in the virus carrying BL cells. Still, EBV seems to contribute to the etiology of this tumor by modifying events that influence cell survival and proliferation. We describe a possible growth promoting mechanism in the genesis of Burkitt

  12. Vertical nuclear proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2007-01-01

    All the nuclear-weapon states are working to develop new nuclear-weapon systems and upgrade their existing ones. Although the US Congress has recently blocked further development of small nuclear weapons and earth-penetrating nuclear weapons, the United States is planning a range of new warheads under the Reliable Replacement Warhead programme, and renewing its nuclear weapons infrastructure. The United Kingdom is spending 1 billion pounds sterling on updating the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston, and about 20 billion pounds sterling on replacing its Vanguard submarines and maintaining its Trident warhead stockpile. The US has withdrawn from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and plans to install missile defence systems in Poland and the Czech Republic; Russia threatens to upgrade its nuclear countermeasures. The nuclear-weapon states should comply with their obligations under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, as summarised in the 13-point plan agreed at the 2000 NPT Review Conference, and they should negotiate a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

  13. Label Structured Cell Proliferation Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    and (, + ) are the cell proliferation and death rates , respectively, relative to the moving label coordinate system + . Daughter...proliferation and death rates relative to this new coordinate system. While not common in the biological sciences, it is altogether common in the physical

  14. Relative importance of the bone marrow and spleen in the production and dissemination of B lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosse, C.; Cole, S.B.; Appleton, C.

    1978-04-01

    The relative importance of the bone marrow and spleen in the production of B lymphocytes was investigated in guinea pigs by the combined use of (/sup 3/H)TdR radioautography and fluorescent microscopy after the staining of B cells by FITC-F (ab')/sub 2/-goat-anti-guinea pig Ig. Large and small lymphoid cells possess sIg in the marrow and spleen but B cell turnover in the marrow exceeds that in the spleen. That newly generated bone marrow B cells are not derived from an extramyeloid bursa equivalent was demonstrated by the absence of (/sup 3/H)TdR labeled B cells in tibial marrow 72 hr after (/supmore » 3/H)TdR was administered systemically, while the circulation to the hind limbs was occluded. Pulse and chase studies with (/sup 3/H)TdR showed that large marrow B cells are derived from sIg-negative, proliferating precursors resident in the bone marrow and not from the enlargement of activated small B lymphocytes. The acquisition of (/sup 3/H)TdR by splenic B cells lagged behind that observed in the marrow. Three days after topical labeling of tibial and femoral bone marrow with (/sup 3/H)TdR, a substantial proportion of splenic B cells were replaced by cells that had seeded there from the labeled marrow. The studies unequivocally identify the bone marrow as the organ of primary importance in B cell generation, and indicate that in the guinea pig rapidly renewed B lymphocytes of the spleen are replaced by lymphocytes recently generated in bone marrow. The rate of replacement of B lymphocytes in the lymph node by cells newly generated in the bone marrow takes place at a slower tempo than in the spleen.« less

  15. Isolation and purification of an early pregnancy factor-like molecule from culture supernatants obtained from lymphocytes of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Aranha, C; Natraj, U; Iyer, K S; Shahani, S

    1998-03-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether lymphocytes synthesize proteins during pregnancy, to observe whether one of the proteins synthesized has early pregnancy factor (EPF)-like activity and to isolate and purify this molecule from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women. Lymphocyte proliferation assay and 35S-methionine labeling were done to study de novo synthesis of proteins followed by autoradiography to confirm synthesis of proteins. The rosette inhibition assay was used for detection of the EPF-like molecule. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and RPHPLC were used for purification of the EPF-like molecule. The rate of incorporation of 35S-methionine was significantly higher in the lymphocytes of pregnant women compared to those of the control, and autoradiography confirmed the synthesis of proteins during pregnancy. There is a total protein enhancement trend observed during the first trimester that declines toward term. The EPF-like molecule is observed to be synthesized during all the trimesters of pregnancy. This molecule, when purified, showed a single homogeneous biologically active peak. The results indicated that there is an enhancement of existing protein or synthesis of new proteins during pregnancy. The EPF-like molecule is one of the many proteins synthesized and secreted by lymphocytes during pregnancy that, when purified, is biologically active.

  16. Folate-deficiency induced cell-specific changes in the distribution of lymphocytes and granulocytes in rats.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ikumi; Shirato, Ken; Hashizume, Yoko; Mitsuhashi, Ryosuke; Kobayashi, Ayumu; Shiono, Chikako; Sato, Shogo; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Folate (vitamin B(9)) plays key roles in cell growth and proliferation through regulating the synthesis and stabilization of DNA and RNA, and its deficiency leads to lymphocytopenia and granulocytopenia. However, precisely how folate deficiency affects the distribution of a variety of white blood cell subsets, including the minor population of basophils, and the cell specificity of the effects remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the effects of a folate-deficient diet on the circulating number of lymphocyte subsets [T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells] and granulocyte subsets (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) in rats. Rats were divided into two groups, with one receiving the folate-deficient diet (FAD group) and the other a control diet (CON group). All rats were pair-fed for 8 weeks. Plasma folate level was dramatically lower in the FAD group than in the CON group, and the level of homocysteine in the plasma, a predictor of folate deficiency was significantly higher in the FAD group than in the CON group. The number of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and NK cells was significantly lower in the FAD group than in the CON group by 0.73-, 0.49-, and 0.70-fold, respectively, indicating that B-lymphocytes are more sensitive to folate deficiency than the other lymphocyte subsets. As expected, the number of neutrophils and eosinophils was significantly lower in the FAD group than in the CON group. However, the number of basophils, the least common type of granulocyte, showed transiently an increasing tendency in the FAD group as compared with the CON group. These results suggest that folate deficiency induces lymphocytopenia and granulocytopenia in a cell-specific manner.

  17. Chromosome territory repositioning induced by PHA-activation of lymphocytes: A 2D and 3D appraisal.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Dimitrios; Kandukuri, Lakshmi; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Tempest, Helen Ghislaine

    2015-01-01

    Genomes and by extension chromosome territories (CTs) in a variety of organisms exhibit nonrandom organization within interphase nuclei. CTs are susceptible to movement upon induction by a variety of stimuli, including: cell differentiation, growth factors, genotoxic agents, proliferating status, and stimulants that induce novel transcription profiles. These findings suggest nuclear architecture can undergo reorganization, providing support for a functional significance of CT organization. The effect of the initiation of transcription on global scale chromatin architecture has been underexplored. This study investigates the organization of all 24 human chromosomes in lymphocytes from two individuals in resting and phytohaemagglutinin activated lymphocytes using 2D and 3D approaches. The radial organization of CTs in lymphocytes in both resting and activated lymphocytes follows a gene-density pattern. However, CT organization in activated nuclei appears less constrained exhibiting a more random organization. We report differences in the spatial relationship between homologous and heterologous CTs in activated nuclei. In addition, a reproducible radial hierarchy of CTs was identified and evidence of a CT repositioning was observed in activated nuclei using both 2D and 3D approaches. Alterations between resting and activated lymphocytes could be adaptation of CTs to the new transcription profile and possibly the formation of new neighborhoods of interest or interaction of CTs with nuclear landmarks. The increased distances between homologous and heterologous CTs in activated lymphocytes could be a reflection of a defensive mechanism to reduce potential interaction to prevent any structural chromosome abnormalities (e.g. translocations) as a result of DNA damage that increases during lymphocyte activation.

  18. Initial diagnosis of small lymphocytic lymphoma in parotidectomy for Warthin tumour, a rare collision tumour

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, A; Memauri, B; Hasegawa, W

    2005-01-01

    Warthin tumours (WT) and malignant lymphomas are only rarely associated, and most are examples of involvement of the lymphoid stroma of WT by a disseminated lymphoma. This report describes a case where excision of a parotid mass led to the initial diagnosis of WT and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The diagnosis of SLL was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. The patient had stage IV A disease and is currently in chemotherapy induced complete remission. This case highlights the extremely rare association of SLL with WT and the importance of evaluation of the WT stroma, where the pale proliferation centres of SLL may mimic germinal centres of reactive lymphoid nodules. PMID:15735173

  19. Metabolic reprogramming in the tumour microenvironment: a hallmark shared by cancer cells and T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Allison, Katrina E; Coomber, Brenda L; Bridle, Byram W

    2017-10-01

    Altered metabolism is a hallmark of cancers, including shifting oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and up-regulating glutaminolysis to divert carbon sources into biosynthetic pathways that promote proliferation and survival. Therefore, metabolic inhibitors represent promising anti-cancer drugs. However, T cells must rapidly divide and survive in harsh microenvironments to mediate anti-cancer effects. Metabolic profiles of cancer cells and activated T lymphocytes are similar, raising the risk of metabolic inhibitors impairing the immune system. Immune checkpoint blockade provides an example of how metabolism can be differentially impacted to impair cancer cells but support T cells. Implications for research with metabolic inhibitors are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cellular energy metabolism in T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Sawitzki, Birgit; Hoff, Paula; Buttgereit, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Energy homeostasis is a hallmark of cell survival and maintenance of cell function. Here we focus on the impact of cellular energy metabolism on T-lymphocyte differentiation, activation, and function in health and disease. We describe the role of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of lymphocyte metabolism on immune functions of T cells. We also summarize the current knowledge about T-lymphocyte adaptations to inflammation and hypoxia, and the impact on T-cell behavior of pathophysiological hypoxia (as found in tumor tissue, chronically inflamed joints in rheumatoid arthritis and during bone regeneration). A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control immune cell metabolism and immune response may provide therapeutic opportunities to alter the immune response under conditions of either immunosuppression or inflammation, potentially targeting infections, vaccine response, tumor surveillance, autoimmunity, and inflammatory disorders.

  1. Primary lymphocytic lymphoma of lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Romero-Caballero, M D; Lozano-García, I; Gómez-Molina, C; Gil-Liñán, A I; Arcas, I

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of primary small-cell lymphocytic lacrimal gland lymphoma in a male diagnosed with primary antiphospholipid syndrome. These rare lymphomas are usually presented in the clinic as disseminations secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and the primary site is rare in the orbit. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours. Although treatment in the IE stage is usually radiotherapy, due to its association with antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic treatment with rituximab was administered. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Aedes aegypti salivary components on dendritic cell and lymphocyte biology.

    PubMed

    Bizzarro, Bruna; Barros, Michele S; Maciel, Ceres; Gueroni, Daniele I; Lino, Ciro N; Campopiano, Júlia; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P; Calvo, Eric; Capurro, Margareth L; Sá-Nunes, Anderson

    2013-11-15

    Saliva is a key element of interaction between hematophagous mosquitoes and their vertebrate hosts. In addition to allowing a successful blood meal by neutralizing or delaying hemostatic responses, the salivary cocktail is also able to modulate the effector mechanisms of host immune responses facilitating, in turn, the transmission of several types of microorganisms. Understanding how the mosquito uses its salivary components to circumvent host immunity might help to clarify the mechanisms of transmission of such pathogens and disease establishment. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate if increasing concentrations of A. aegypti salivary gland extract (SGE) affects bone marrow-derived DC differentiation and maturation. Lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of SGE was estimated by a colorimetric assay. Western blot and Annexin V staining assays were used to assess apoptosis in these cells. Naïve and memory cells from mosquito-bite exposed mice or OVA-immunized mice and their respective controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. Concentration-response curves were employed to evaluate A. aegypti SGE effects on DC and lymphocyte biology. DCs differentiation from bone marrow precursors, their maturation and function were not directly affected by A. aegypti SGE (concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 40 μg/mL). On the other hand, lymphocytes were very sensitive to the salivary components and died in the presence of A. aegypti SGE, even at concentrations as low as 0.1 μg/mL. In addition, A. aegypti SGE was shown to induce apoptosis in all lymphocyte populations evaluated (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and B cells) through a mechanism involving caspase-3 and caspase-8, but not Bim. By using different approaches to generate memory cells, we were able to verify that these cells are resistant to SGE effects. Our results show that lymphocytes, and not DCs, are the primary target of A. aegypti salivary components. In the presence of A. aegypti SGE, naïve lymphocyte populations die by

  3. Effects of Aedes aegypti salivary components on dendritic cell and lymphocyte biology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Saliva is a key element of interaction between hematophagous mosquitoes and their vertebrate hosts. In addition to allowing a successful blood meal by neutralizing or delaying hemostatic responses, the salivary cocktail is also able to modulate the effector mechanisms of host immune responses facilitating, in turn, the transmission of several types of microorganisms. Understanding how the mosquito uses its salivary components to circumvent host immunity might help to clarify the mechanisms of transmission of such pathogens and disease establishment. Methods Flow cytometry was used to evaluate if increasing concentrations of A. aegypti salivary gland extract (SGE) affects bone marrow-derived DC differentiation and maturation. Lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of SGE was estimated by a colorimetric assay. Western blot and Annexin V staining assays were used to assess apoptosis in these cells. Naïve and memory cells from mosquito-bite exposed mice or OVA-immunized mice and their respective controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Concentration-response curves were employed to evaluate A. aegypti SGE effects on DC and lymphocyte biology. DCs differentiation from bone marrow precursors, their maturation and function were not directly affected by A. aegypti SGE (concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 40 μg/mL). On the other hand, lymphocytes were very sensitive to the salivary components and died in the presence of A. aegypti SGE, even at concentrations as low as 0.1 μg/mL. In addition, A. aegypti SGE was shown to induce apoptosis in all lymphocyte populations evaluated (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and B cells) through a mechanism involving caspase-3 and caspase-8, but not Bim. By using different approaches to generate memory cells, we were able to verify that these cells are resistant to SGE effects. Conclusion Our results show that lymphocytes, and not DCs, are the primary target of A. aegypti salivary components. In the presence of A. aegypti SGE

  4. Upregulation of GRAIL is associated with impaired CD4 T cell proliferation in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Matsuo, Shingo; Sharma, Archna; Zhou, Mian; Wang, Ping

    2014-03-01

    The loss of numbers and functionality of CD4 T cells is observed in sepsis; however, the mechanism remains elusive. Gene related to anergy in lymphocytes (GRAIL) is critical for the impairment of CD4 T cell proliferation. We therefore sought to examine the role of GRAIL in CD4 T cell proliferation during sepsis. Sepsis was induced in 10-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice by cecal ligation and puncture. Splenocytes were isolated and subjected to flow cytometry to determine CD4 T cell contents. CD4 T cell proliferation was assessed by CFSE staining, and the expression of GRAIL in splenocytes was measured by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and flow cytometry. The expressions of IL-2 and early growth response-2 were determined by real-time PCR. As compared with shams, the numbers of CD4 T cells were significantly reduced in spleens. Septic CD4 T cells were less efficient in proliferation than shams. The IL-2 expression was significantly reduced, whereas the GRAIL expression was significantly increased in septic mice splenocytes as compared with shams. The small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of GRAIL expression re-established the CD4 T cell proliferation ability ex vivo. Similarly, the treatment with recombinant murine IL-2 to the septic CD4 T cells restored their proliferation ability by downregulating GRAIL expression. Our findings reveal a novel association of the increased GRAIL expression with impaired CD4 T cell proliferation, implicating an emerging therapeutic tool in sepsis.

  5. Effect of PGE2 on thymocyte proliferation induced by Con A or IL-4 + PMA.

    PubMed

    Daculsi, R; Vaillier, D; Bezian, J H; Gualde, N

    1993-02-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is known to inhibit peripheral T-lymphocyte and thymocyte proliferation activated by antigens, mitogens or anti-CD3 antibodies. In this study, we have investigated, the effect of PGE2 on thymocyte proliferation induced by the combination of IL-4 plus PMA. PGE2 inhibits the proliferation of thymocytes activated by ConA, whatever the culture period; in contrast PGE2 shifts the kinetics of thymocyte proliferation after stimulation by IL-4 plus PMA, but does not sustain the proliferation beyond day 3. This effect depends upon cell density, IL-4 concentration and on the time that PGE2 is added to the culture. By use of the cAMP inducer, forskolin, or a cAMP analog, db-cAMP, we observed the same results, PGE2 increases the proliferation of CD8+ corticoresistant thymocytes (CRT) activated by IL-4 plus PMA, but inhibits that of CD4+ CRT. These results suggest that PGE2 can regulate thymocyte proliferation differently according to the activation pathway and the thymic subpopulations.

  6. Response of lymphocytes to a mitogenic stimulus during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Several studies were performed that demonstrate that immunological activities of lymphocytes can be affected by spaceflight or by models that attempt to simulate some aspects of weightlessness. Included among these are the responses of lymphocytes to external stimuli such as mitogens and viruses. When cultures of lymphocytes were flown in space, the ability of the lymphocytes to respond to mitogens was inhibited. Similar results were obtained when lymphocytes from astronauts or animals just returned from space were placed into culture immediately upon return to earth, and when models of hypogravity were used. Lymphocytes placed in culture during spaceflights produced enhanced levels of interferon compared to control cultures. When cultures of lymphocytes were prepared for cosmonauts or rodents immediately upon return to earth, interferon production was inhibited. These results suggest that space flight can have profound effects on lymphocyte function, and that effects on isolated cells may be different from that on cells in the whole organism.

  7. Age-related changes in cell localization and proliferation in lymph nodes and spleen after antigenic stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, J D; McDougall, C M; Micklem, H S; Inchley, C J

    1980-01-01

    Antigen-dependent localization of 51Cr-labelled lymphocytes, and the subsequent uptake of IUdR into lymphoid organs has been studied as a function of age. Measures of cell localization indicated that while old age can alter the patterns of entry of lymphocytes into lymph nodes and spleen, these changes are variable and probably not sufficient alone to explain decreased primary antibody responses in old animals. Proliferation of cells, however, was consistently affected in both organs and this phenomenon is discussed in terms of abnormal T-cell function. PMID:7429546

  8. Lymphocytic mastopathy mimicking breast malignancy: a case report*

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Gabriela Couto Possati; Castro, Melissa Vieira Koch e; de Mattos, Viviane Ferreira Esteves; Pinto, Laura Zaiden Ferreira e; Boechat, Marcia Cristina Bastos; dos Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet Moreira Damas

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocytic mastopathy affects both young and middle-aged women and is frequently associated with autoimmune diseases. Diagnosis is done by associating clinical (breast tissue thickening or hardened breast lump), radiological (increased breast density, presence of mass and calcifications), sonographic (nodule with posterior acoustic shadowing), histopathological (fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltrate) and immunohistochemical findings. Lymphocytic mastopathy is a benign entity that may mimic carcinoma. The authors report the case of a patient with lymphocytic mastopathy. PMID:25741094

  9. The effectiveness of choline citrate infusions monitored by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) in multiple sclerosis. A new approach to the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

    PubMed

    Muss, Claus; Stejskal, Vera; Titel, Ekkehard

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of intravenous choline citrate infusions was investigated in 34 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by clinical evaluation and by monitoring of lymphocyte proliferation in vitro against fragments of myelin basic protein (MOG-35-55, MBP15-31, PLP 39-15) over a period of 12 weeks. Patients have been diagnosed with MS at least one year before entering the study and suffered from mild relapsing/remitting course to long-term chronic progressive disease. Twenty one patients exhibited positive lymphocyte proliferation to myelin fragments prior to treatment and were therefore selected for further studies. Choline citrate was administered with a dosage of 1200mg/ 2x week for a period of 3 months. This treatment resulted in a significant decrease of lymphocyte proliferation to neural fragments (MOG- 35-55, MBP15-31) in lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). There was no significant SI change of PLP Peptide (PLP 39-15) LTT found after treatment with choline citrate. During the 3 mo observation period, patients remained stable and no side-effects of the treatment were observed. In addition, some patients reported long-lasting improvement (less paresthesia and increase of muscle strength in lower extremities) which was demonstrated up to 3 years later. In one spectacular case a commercial pilot was able to return to duty again after treatment. This pilot was allowed back in to his position as a commercial flying cockpit member and is on duty for more than 4 yrs now.

  10. Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Potent inhibitors of lymphocyte responses.

    PubMed

    Gualde, N; Chable-Rabinovitch, H; Motta, C; Durand, J; Beneytout, J L; Rigaud, M

    1983-03-01

    Arachidonic acid can be transformed into a series of HPETEs by the lipoxygenase enzyme activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages. These resulting HPETEs inhibit some mouse lymphocyte responses. When mice are injected with 15-L-HPETE, their splenocytes show a decreased [3H]thymidine uptake after lectin stimulation.

  11. 21 CFR 864.8500 - Lymphocyte separation medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lymphocyte separation medium. 864.8500 Section 864.8500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A lymphocyte separation medium is a device used to isolate lymphocytes from...

  12. 21 CFR 864.8500 - Lymphocyte separation medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lymphocyte separation medium. 864.8500 Section 864.8500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A lymphocyte separation medium is a device used to isolate lymphocytes from...

  13. 21 CFR 864.8500 - Lymphocyte separation medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lymphocyte separation medium. 864.8500 Section 864.8500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A lymphocyte separation medium is a device used to isolate lymphocytes from...

  14. 21 CFR 864.8500 - Lymphocyte separation medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lymphocyte separation medium. 864.8500 Section 864.8500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A lymphocyte separation medium is a device used to isolate lymphocytes from...

  15. 21 CFR 864.8500 - Lymphocyte separation medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lymphocyte separation medium. 864.8500 Section 864.8500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A lymphocyte separation medium is a device used to isolate lymphocytes from...

  16. Genotoxic effect of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) extract on human lymphocytes treated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Alves dos Santos, Raquel; Cabral, Teresinha Rosa; Cabral, Isabel Rosa; Antunes, Lusânia Maria; Pontes Andrade, Cristiane; Cerqueira dos Santos Cardoso, Plínio; de Oliveira Bahia, Marcelo; Pessoa, Claudia; Martins do Nascimento, José Luis; Rodríguez Burbano, Rommel; Takahashi, Catarina Satie

    2008-08-01

    Physalis angulata L (Solanaceae) is a medicinal plant from North of Brazil, whose different extracts and infusions are commonly used in the popular medicine for the treatment of malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism. However, the genotoxic effects of P. angulata on human cells is not well known. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro genotoxic effects of aqueous extract of P. angulata using the comet assay and the micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes provided from 6 healthy donors. Treatments with P. angulata extracts were performed in vitro in order to access the extent of DNA damage. The comet assay has shown that treatments with P. angulata at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 6.0 microg/mL in culture medium were genotoxic. Lymphocytes treated with P. angulata at the concentrations of 3.0 and 6.0 microg/mL in culture medium showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of micronucleus (p<0.05), however, the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI) was not decreased after P. angulata treatment. In conclusion, the present work demonstrated the genotoxic effects of P. angulata extract on human lymphocytes in vitro.

  17. Protection against rat vaginal candidiasis by adoptive transfer of vaginal B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Lucciarini, Roberta; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Amantini, Consuelo; Cassone, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a mucosal infection affecting many women, but the immune mechanisms operating against Candida albicans at the mucosal level remain unknown. A rat model was employed to further characterize the contribution of B and T cells to anti-Candida vaginal protection. Particularly, the protective role of vaginal B cells was studied by means of adoptive transfer of vaginal CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) cells from Candida-immunized rats to naïve animals. This passive transfer of B cells resulted into a number of vaginal C. albicans CFU approximately 50% lower than their controls. Sorted CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes from Candida-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with an immunodominant mannoprotein (MP) antigen of the fungus. Importantly, anti-MP antibodies and antibody-secreting B cells were detected in the supernatant and cell cultures, respectively, of vaginal B lymphocytes from infected rats incubated in vitro with vaginal T cells and stimulated with MP. No such specific antibodies were found when using vaginal B cells from uninfected rats. Furthermore, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6 and IL-10, were found in the supernatant of vaginal B cells from infected rats. These data are evidence of a partial anti-Candida protective role of CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes in our experimental model.

  18. The immunometabolite S-2-hydroxyglutarate regulates CD8+ T-lymphocyte fate

    PubMed Central

    Tyrakis, Petros A.; Palazon, Asis; Macias, David; Lee, Kian. L.; Phan, Anthony. T.; Veliça, Pedro; You, Jia; Chia, Grace S.; Sim, Jingwei; Doedens, Andrew; Abelanet, Alice; Evans, Colin E.; Griffiths, John R.; Poellinger, Lorenz; Goldrath, Ananda. W.; Johnson, Randall S.

    2016-01-01

    R-2-hydroxyglutarate accumulates to millimolar levels in cancers with gain-of-function isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutations. These levels of R-2-hydroxyglutarate affect 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. Both R- and S-2-hydroxyglutarate, the other enantiomer of this metabolite, are detectible in healthy individuals, yet their physiological function remains elusive. Here we show that CD8+ T-lymphocytes accumulate 2-hydroxyglutarate in response to T-cell receptor triggering. This increases to millimolar levels in physiological oxygen conditions, via a hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha-dependent mechanism. S-2-hydroxyglutarate predominates over R-2-hydroxyglutarate in activated T cells, and we demonstrate alterations in markers of CD8+ T-lymphocyte differentiation in response to this metabolite. Modulation of histone and DNA demethylation as well as hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha stability mediate these effects. S-2-hydroxyglutarate treatment greatly enhances the in vivo proliferation, persistence and anti-tumour capacity of adoptively transferred CD8+ T-lymphocytes. Thus S-2-hydroxyglutarate acts as an immunometabolite that links environmental context, via a metabolic-epigenetic axis, to immune fate and function. PMID:27798602

  19. Physical association and functional interaction between beta1 integrin and CD98 on human T lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, Yuko J.; Mitchell, Jason S.; McIntyre, Bradley W.

    2003-01-01

    CD98 is a cell surface protein previously characterized as a cell activation marker, an amino acid transporter, and has recently been implicated in integrin-related functions. Integrins are cell surface proteins, important for homotypic cell aggregation, cell adhesion, and coactivation of T lymphocytes. We have previously shown that the anti-CD98 mAb 80A10, when coimmobilized with anti-CD3 mAb OKT3, is able to mediate human T cell coactivation that is inhibited by anti-beta1 integrin specific mAb 18D3. These results indicated a functional association of CD98 and beta1 integrin signaling but left open the question of a physical association. We now show the induction of homotypic aggregation through CD98 among human T cells and this aggregation was inhibited by anti-beta1 integrin mAb. Therefore, CD98-dependent lymphocyte proliferation and adhesion may involve integrins. Competitive binding assays and fluorescence colocalization analysis suggested that CD98 and beta1 integrin were physically associated. Differential extraction techniques and immunoprecipitations provided the first evidence that the alpha4beta1 integrin and CD98 are specifically associated on human T lymphocytes.

  20. Metformin inhibits cell cycle progression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Silvia; Ledda, Bernardetta; Tenca, Claudya; Ravera, Silvia; Orengo, Anna Maria; Mazzarello, Andrea Nicola; Pesenti, Elisa; Casciaro, Salvatore; Racchi, Omar; Ghiotto, Fabio; Marini, Cecilia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; DeCensi, Andrea; Fais, Franco

    2015-09-08

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was believed to result from clonal accumulation of resting apoptosis-resistant malignant B lymphocytes. However, it became increasingly clear that CLL cells undergo, during their life, iterative cycles of re-activation and subsequent clonal expansion. Drugs interfering with CLL cell cycle entry would be greatly beneficial in the treatment of this disease. 1, 1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride (metformin), the most widely prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent, inexpensive and well tolerated, has recently received increased attention for its potential antitumor activity. We wondered whether metformin has apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity on leukemic cells derived from CLL patients. Metformin was administered in vitro either to quiescent cells or during CLL cell activation stimuli, provided by classical co-culturing with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts. At doses that were totally ineffective on normal lymphocytes, metformin induced apoptosis of quiescent CLL cells and inhibition of cell cycle entry when CLL were stimulated by CD40-CD40L ligation. This cytostatic effect was accompanied by decreased expression of survival- and proliferation-associated proteins, inhibition of signaling pathways involved in CLL disease progression and decreased intracellular glucose available for glycolysis. In drug combination experiments, metformin lowered the apoptotic threshold and potentiated the cytotoxic effects of classical and novel antitumor molecules. Our results indicate that, while CLL cells after stimulation are in the process of building their full survival and cycling armamentarium, the presence of metformin affects this process.

  1. Patterns of B-lymphocyte gene expression elicited by lipopolysaccharide mitogen.

    PubMed Central

    Janossy, G; Snajdr, J; Simak-Ellis, M

    1976-01-01

    When large proportions of B lymphocytes from the murine spleen are stimulated in vitro by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) B lymphoblasts with small amounts of intracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) and plasmablasts with large amounts of intracellular Ig concomitantly proliferate. It is likely that B lymphocytes are heterogeneous and LPS activates B cells to express their predetermined functional capacity since bromodeoxyuridine does not inhibit the initiation of Ig synthesis in plasmablasts, and Ig synthesis starts before these cells complete their first mitosis. The results suggest that LPS is a potent polyclonal activator (of a B-cell subset) but it is not a differentiation factor in the sense that it is unable to determine whether its target cell develops extensive endoplasmic reticulum or follows a different pathway. The results do not exclude that modulation of B cells' genetic programming might take place during T cell-dependent B-lymphocyte activation. The observed B-cell heterogeneity offers a possible explanation for the concomitant emergence of B memory cells and antibody producers during the early phase of immune responses in vivo. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1088414

  2. A role for autophagic protein beclin 1 early in lymphocyte development.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Ivica; Adebayo, Adeola; Kucerova-Levisohn, Martina; Haye, Joanna; MacNeil, Margaret; Papavasiliou, F Nina; Yue, Zhenyu; Ortiz, Benjamin D

    2011-02-15

    Autophagy is a highly regulated and evolutionarily conserved process of cellular self-digestion. Recent evidence suggests that this process plays an important role in regulating T cell homeostasis. In this study, we used Rag1(-/-) (recombination activating gene 1(-/-)) blastocyst complementation and in vitro embryonic stem cell differentiation to address the role of Beclin 1, one of the key autophagic proteins, in lymphocyte development. Beclin 1-deficient Rag1(-/-) chimeras displayed a dramatic reduction in thymic cellularity compared with control mice. Using embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro, we found that the inability to maintain normal thymic cellularity is likely caused by impaired maintenance of thymocyte progenitors. Interestingly, despite drastically reduced thymocyte numbers, the peripheral T cell compartment of Beclin 1-deficient Rag1(-/-) chimeras is largely normal. Peripheral T cells displayed normal in vitro proliferation despite significantly reduced numbers of autophagosomes. In addition, these chimeras had greatly reduced numbers of early B cells in the bone marrow compared with controls. However, the peripheral B cell compartment was not dramatically impacted by Beclin 1 deficiency. Collectively, our results suggest that Beclin 1 is required for maintenance of undifferentiated/early lymphocyte progenitor populations. In contrast, Beclin 1 is largely dispensable for the initial generation and function of the peripheral T and B cell compartments. This indicates that normal lymphocyte development involves Beclin 1-dependent, early-stage and distinct, Beclin 1-independent, late-stage processes.

  3. Fluoxetine suppresses calcium signaling in human T lymphocytes through depletion of intracellular calcium stores.

    PubMed

    Gobin, V; De Bock, M; Broeckx, B J G; Kiselinova, M; De Spiegelaere, W; Vandekerckhove, L; Van Steendam, K; Leybaert, L; Deforce, D

    2015-09-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, have recently been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Although the effects on cytokine secretion, proliferation and viability of T lymphocytes have been extensively characterized, little is known about the mechanism behind these effects. It is well known that Ca(2+) signaling is an important step in the signaling transduction pathway following T cell receptor activation. Therefore, we investigated if fluoxetine interferes with Ca(2+) signaling in Jurkat T lymphocytes. Fluoxetine was found to suppress Ca(2+) signaling in response to T cell receptor activation. Moreover, fluoxetine was found to deplete intracellular Ca(2+) stores, thereby leaving less Ca(2+) available for release upon IP3- and ryanodine-receptor activation. The Ca(2+)-modifying effects of fluoxetine are not related to its capability to block the serotonin transporter, as even a large excess of 5HT did not abolish the effects. In conclusion, these data show that fluoxetine decreases IP3- and ryanodine-receptor mediated Ca(2+) release in Jurkat T lymphocytes, an effect likely to be at the basis of the observed immunosuppression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Immune Modulation in Normal Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) (Lymphocytes) in Response to Benzofuran-2-Carboxylic Acid Derivative KMEG during Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoro, Elvis; Mann, Vivek; Ellis, Ivory; Mansoor, Elvedina; Olamigoke, Loretta; Marriott, Karla Sue; Denkins, Pamela; Williams, Willie; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2017-08-01

    Microgravity and radiation exposure during space flight have been widely reported to induce the suppression of normal immune system function, and increase the risk of cancer development in humans. These findings pose a serious risk to manned space missions. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid derivatives can inhibit the progression of some of these devastating effects on earth and in modeled microgravity. However, these studies had not assessed the impacts of benzofuran-2- carboxylic acid and its derivatives on global gene expression under spaceflight conditions. In this study, the ability of a specific benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid derivative (KMEG) to confer protection from radiation and restore normal immune function was investigated following exposure to space flight conditions on the ISS. Normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (lymphocytes) treated with 10 µ g/ml of KMEG together with untreated control samples were flown on Nanoracks hardware on Spacex-3 flight. The Samples were returned one month later and gene expression was analyzed. A 1g-ground control experiment was performed in parallel at the Kennedy spaceflight center. The first overall subtractive unrestricted analysis revealed 78 genes, which were differentially expressed in space flight KMEG, untreated lymphocytes as compared to the corresponding ground controls. However, in KMEG-treated space flight lymphocytes, there was an increased expression of a group of genes that mediate increased transcription, translation and innate immune system mediating functions of lymphocytes as compared to KMEG-untreated samples. Analysis of genes related to T cell proliferation in spaceflight KMEG-treated lymphocytes compared to 1g-ground KMEG- treated lymphocytes revealed six T cell proliferation and signaling genes to be significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) and five related genes were found to be significantly down-regulated. These genes play a significant role in

  5. The pyrimidin analogue cyclopentenyl cytosine induces alloantigen-specific non-responsiveness of human T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaeva, N; Bemelman, F J; Yong, S-L; Verschuur, A; van Lier, R A W; ten Berge, I J M

    2008-01-01

    Cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPEC) has been shown to induce apoptosis in human T lymphoblastic cell lines and T cells from leukaemia patients. In this study we have addressed the question of whether CPEC is able to decrease proliferation and effector functions of human alloresponsive T lymphocytes and induce T cell anergy. The proliferative capacity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to allogeneic stimulation was measured by 5,6-carboxy-succinimidyl-diacetate-fluorescein-ester staining. Flow cytometric analysis was performed using surface CD4, CD8, CD25, CD103 and intracellular perforin, granzyme A, granzyme B, caspase-3 and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) markers. The in vivo immunosuppressive capacity was tested in a murine skin graft model. Addition of CPEC at a concentration of 20 nM strongly decreased the expansion and cytotoxicity of alloreactive T cells. Specific restimulation in the absence of CPEC showed that the cells became anergic. The drug induced caspase-dependent apoptosis of alloreactive T lymphocytes. Finally, CPEC increased the percentage of CD25high FoxP3+ CD4+ and CD103+ CD8+ T cells, and potentiated the effect of rapamycin in increasing the numbers of alloreactive regulatory T cells. Treatment with CPEC of CBA/CA mice transplanted with B10/Br skin grafts significantly prolonged graft survival. We conclude that CPEC inhibits proliferation and cytotoxicity of human alloreactive T cells and induces alloantigen non-responsiveness in vitro. PMID:18062797

  6. Suppressive effects of fisetin on mice T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Song, Bocui; Guan, Shuang; Lu, Jing; Chen, Zhibao; Huang, Guoren; Li, Gen; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Shuang; Yue, Zhanpeng; Deng, Xuming

    2013-11-01

    Most of the immunosuppressive drugs have satisfactory therapeutic effects on organ transplantation and autoimmune disease. However, their clinical application is limited by side effects. Therefore, new and safe immunosuppressive drugs against acute and chronic rejections are eagerly awaited. Fisetin, a flavonoid present in various types of vegetables and fruits, has few side effects and low level of toxicity, which would be a desirable clinical feature. In the present study, we investigated the immunosuppressive effects and underlying mechanisms of fisetin against T-cell activation in vitro and in vivo. We measured the effect of fisetin on T-lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell subsets, cell cycle progression, cytokine production, and nuclear factor activation in vitro, as well as its influence on T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in vivo. In vitro, the results showed that fisetin significantly suppressed mouse splenocytes proliferation, Th1 and Th2 cytokine production, cell cycle and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, fisetin exerts an immunosuppressive effect in mouse T lymphocytes through the suppression of nuclear factor kappa B activation and nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, fisetin treatment also significantly inhibited the dinitrofluorobenzene-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions in mice. Fisetin had strong immunosuppressive activity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential role for fisetin as an immunosuppressive agent. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Clonal expansion under the microscope: studying lymphocyte activation and differentiation using live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Polonsky, Michal; Chain, Benjamin; Friedman, Nir

    2016-03-01

    Clonal expansion of lymphocytes is a hallmark of vertebrate adaptive immunity. A small number of precursor cells that recognize a specific antigen proliferate into expanded clones, differentiate and acquire various effector and memory phenotypes, which promote effective immune responses. Recent studies establish a large degree of heterogeneity in the level of expansion and in cell state between and within expanding clones. Studying these processes in vivo, while providing insightful information on the level of heterogeneity, is challenging due to the complex microenvironment and the inability to continuously track individual cells over extended periods of time. Live cell imaging of ex vivo cultures within micro fabricated arrays provides an attractive methodology for studying clonal expansion. These experiments facilitate continuous acquisition of a large number of parameters on cell number, proliferation, death and differentiation state, with single-cell resolution on thousands of expanding clones that grow within controlled environments. Such data can reveal stochastic and instructive mechanisms that contribute to observed heterogeneity and elucidate the sequential order of differentiation events. Intercellular interactions can also be studied within these arrays by following responses of a controlled number of interacting cells, all trapped within the same microwell. Here we describe implementations of live-cell imaging within microwell arrays for studies of lymphocyte clonal expansion, portray insights already gained from these experiments and outline directions for future research. These tools, together with in vivo experiments tracking single-cell responses, will expand our understanding of adaptive immunity and the ways by which it can be manipulated.

  8. Mitogen-induced responses in lymphocytes from platypus, the Tasmanian devil and the eastern barred bandicoot.

    PubMed

    Stewart, N J; Bettiol, S S; Kreiss, A; Fox, N; Woods, G M

    2008-10-01

    As the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisi) and the eastern barred bandicoot (Perameles gunni) are currently at risk of serious population decline or extinction from fatal diseases in Tasmania, the goal of the present study was to describe the normal immune response of these species to challenge using the lymphocyte proliferation assay, to give a solid basis for further studies. For this preliminary study, we performed lymphocyte proliferation assays on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the three species. We used the common mitogens phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). All three species recorded the highest stimulation index (SI) with the T-cell mitogens PHA and ConA. Tasmanian devils and bandicoots had greater responses than platypuses, although variability between individual animals was high. For the first time, we report the normal cellular response of the platypus, the Tasmanian devil and the eastern barred bandicoot to a range of commonly used mitogens.

  9. Assessment in vitro of cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of propolis on human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Montoro, A; Soriano, J M; Barquinero, J F; Almonacid, M; Montoro, A; Verdú, G; Sahuquillo, V; Villaescusa, J I; Sebastià, N

    2012-02-01

    We evaluated the genetic damage by ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) induced to human lymphocytes which were exposed to increasing concentrations (0-2000μgml(-1)). The results indicated that EEP reduced significantly the mitotic index (MI) and proliferation index (PI) when high concentrations of EEP were used. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) rates indicated that EEP could have genotoxic effects at high concentrations. Exposure of the cells to the amount of ethanol used as solvent did not alter either the MI and cell proliferation kinetics (CPK), or the rate of SCE. The results showed: (a) statistical increase in the percentage the cells with CAs and in the frequency of SCE at the highest concentrations, (b) a decrease in MI and in the CPK values was observed, (c) no effect was noticed in negative controls. In conclusion, it can be assumed that high concentrations of EEP have a cyto and genotoxic effect, in vitro, for human peripheral lymphocytes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alzheimer's lymphocytes are resistant to ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zana, Marianna; Juhász, Anna; Rimanóczy, Agnes; Bjelik, Annamária; Baltás, Eszter; Ocsovszki, Imre; Boda, Krisztina; Penke, Botond; Dobozy, Attila; Kemény, Lajos; Janka, Zoltán; Kálmán, János

    2006-06-01

    In the present pilot investigation, the susceptibility of T-lymphocytes from Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects (n=22) and aged-matched, non-demented controls (CNT) (n=12) was examined with ultraviolet (UV) B light-induced apoptosis in vitro. The basal apoptotic ratios were similar in both groups. However, the AD lymphocytes displayed significantly (p<0.0001) lower apoptotic levels than those of the CNT lymphocytes at all of the applied UVB exposure doses (100, 200 and 300 mJ/cm(2)). These observations indicate that AD lymphocytes are more resistant than CNT lymphocytes to UVB irradiation.

  11. Lymphocyte responses to phytohaemagglutinin: age-related effects.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, L A; MacSween, J M; Langley, G R

    1976-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is depressed in elderly individuals compared to young individuals, and lymphocytes from elderly individuals have been reported to have impaired lymphocyte responsiveness to stimulation by PHA after 4 days of culture. We have confirmed this observation. However, after 8 days of culture, the lymphocyte responses were greater in elderly normal individuals than in young normal individuals. Responses of lymphocytes from young individuals decreased with time from 4 to 8 days in culture, while there were increased responses with time when lymphocytes from elderly individuals were studied. When adherent cells from lymphocytes of young individuals were removed by passage through protein-coated Degalan-bead columns, the lymphocyte responses to PHA were significantly increased at 8 days. Passage of lymphocytes from elderly individuals through coated Degalan bead columns did not alter the lymphocyte responses. Removal of macrophages from the mononuclear cells obtained from young individuals did not result in increased lymphocyte responses to PHA after 8 days in culture. Removal of adherent cells appeared to have the same effect regardless of the efficiency of removing B cells. The adherent cells removed by the protein coated columns, therefore, appear to be nonphagocytic mononuclear cells which are not B lymphocytes. PMID:1086285

  12. Hypertrophic gastropathy with gastric adenocarcinoma: Menetrier's disease and lymphocytic gastritis?

    PubMed Central

    Mosnier, J F; Flejou, J F; Amouyal, G; Gayet, B; Molas, G; Henin, D; Potet, F

    1991-01-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis is a form of gastric inflammation characterised by a pronounced increase in lymphocytes in gastric surface and foveolar epithelium. Lymphocytic gastritis is often associated with endoscopic evidence of 'varioliform gastritis'. Lymphocytic gastritis has recently been reported to be associated with other forms of hypertrophic gastropathies. We present a case of hypertrophic gastropathy with gastric adenocarcinoma, with both Menetrier's disease and lymphocyte gastritis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the intraepithelial lymphocytes were predominantly alpha/beta T cells as in the normal stomach and not gamma/delta T cells as in coeliac sprue. This case together with the six recently published cases suggests that Menetrier's disease and lymphocytic gastritis may be part of the same disease spectrum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1773969

  13. Measurement of exercise-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Turner, James E; Bosch, Jos A; Aldred, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Vigorous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, a state that involves modifications to bodily molecules due to release of pro-oxidant species. Assessment of such modifications provides non-specific measures of oxidative stress in human tissues and blood, including circulating lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a very heterogeneous group of white blood cells, consisting of subtypes that have different functions in immunity. Importantly, exercise drastically changes the lymphocyte composition in blood by increasing the numbers of some subsets, while leaving other cells unaffected. This fact may imply that observed changes in oxidative stress markers are confounded by changes in lymphocyte composition. For example, lymphocyte subsets may differ in exposure to oxidative stress because of subset differences in cell division and the acquisition of cytotoxic effector functions. The aim of the present review is to raise awareness of interpretational issues related to the assessment of oxidative stress in lymphocytes with exercise and to address the relevance of lymphocyte subset phenotyping in these contexts.

  14. Colony formation by normal and malignant human B-lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Izaguirre, C. A.; Minden, M. D.; Howatson, A. F.; McCulloch, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described that permits colony formation in culture by B lymphocytes from normal blood and from blood, marrow or lymph nodes of patients with myeloma or lymphoma. The method depends on: (1) exhaustively depleting cell suspensions of T lymphocytes, (2) a medium conditioned by T lymphocytes in the presence of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA-TCM), and (3) irradiated autologous or homologous T lymphocytes. Under these conditions the assay is linear. Cellular development of B lymphocytes can be followed; differentiation to plasma cells is seen in cultures of cells from normal individuals and myeloma patients, but not lymphoma patients. Malignant B lymphocytes in culture produced immunoglobulin of the class identified in the patient's blood, or in freshly obtained cells. We conclude that the assay is suitable for studying the growth, differentiation and regulation of normal and malignant B lymphocytes in culture. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6968572

  15. Interleukin-7 restores lymphocytes in septic shock: the IRIS-7 randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Francois, Bruno; Daix, Thomas; Walton, Andrew H.; Shotwell, Matthew S.; Unsinger, Jacqueline; Rimmelé, Thomas; Blood, Teresa; Morre, Michel; Gregoire, Anne; Mayo, Gail A.; Blood, Jane; Durum, Scott K.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND. A defining pathophysiologic feature of sepsis is profound apoptosis-induced death and depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an antiapoptotic common γ-chain cytokine that is essential for lymphocyte proliferation and survival. Clinical trials of IL-7 in over 390 oncologic and lymphopenic patients showed that IL-7 was safe, invariably increased CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte counts, and improved immunity. METHODS. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of recombinant human IL-7 (CYT107) in patients with septic shock and severe lymphopenia. Twenty-seven patients at academic sites in France and the United States received CYT107 or placebo for 4 weeks. Primary aims were to determine the safety of CYT107 in sepsis and its ability to reverse lymphopenia. RESULTS. CYT107 was well tolerated without evidence of inducing cytokine storm or worsening inflammation or organ dysfunction. CYT107 caused a 3- to 4-fold increase in absolute lymphocyte counts and in circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that persisted for weeks after drug administration. CYT107 also increased T cell proliferation and activation. CONCLUSIONS. This is the first trial of an immunoadjuvant therapy targeting defects in adaptive immunity in patients with sepsis. CYT107 reversed the marked loss of CD4+ and CD8+ immune effector cells, a hallmark of sepsis and a likely key mechanism in its morbidity and mortality. CYT107 represents a potential new way forward in the treatment of patients with sepsis by restoring adaptive immunity. Such immune-based therapy should be broadly protective against diverse pathogens including multidrug resistant bacteria that preferentially target patients with impaired immunity. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02640807 and NCT02797431. FUNDING. Revimmune, NIH National Institute of General Medical Sciences GM44118. PMID:29515037

  16. Induction of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei by 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (oxybenzone) in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Santovito, Alfredo; Ruberto, Stefano; Galli, Gabriella; Menghi, Costanza; Girotti, Marilena; Cervella, Piero

    2018-04-12

    Oxybenzone or benzophenone-3 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone; BP-3) is a filter used in a variety of personal care products for protection of human skin and hair from damage by ultraviolet radiation. BP-3 is suspected to exhibit endocrine disruptive properties. Indeed, it was found to be able to interact with the endocrine system causing alteration of its homeostasis, with consequent adverse health effects. Moreover, it is ubiquitously present in the environment, mostly in aquatic ecosystems, with consequent risks to the health of aquatic organisms and humans. In the present study, we analyzed the cytogenetic effects of BP-3 on human lymphocytes using in vitro chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei assays. Blood samples were obtained from five healthy Italian subjects. Lymphocyte cultures were exposed to five concentrations of BP-3 (0.20, 0.10, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 μg/mL) for 24 and 48 h (for chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei tests, respectively). The concentration of 0.10 µg/mL represents the acceptable/tolerable daily intake reference dose established by European Union, whereas 0.20, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 µg/mL represent multiple and sub-multiple of this concentration value. Our results reported cytogenetic effects of BP-3 on cultured human lymphocytes in terms of increased micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations' frequencies at all tested concentrations, including concentrations lower than those established by European Union. Vice versa, after 48-h exposure, a significant reduction of the cytokinesis-block proliferation index value in cultures treated with BP-3 was not observed, indicating that BP-3 does not seem to produce effects on the proliferation/mitotic index when its concentration is equal to or less than 0.20 μg/mL.

  17. Effect of irradiation on human T-cell proliferation: low dose irradiation stimulates mitogen-induced proliferation and function of the suppressor/cytotoxic T-cell subset.

    PubMed

    Gualde, N; Goodwin, J S

    1984-04-01

    Unfractionated human T cells exposed to 10-50 rad of X irradiation incorporated less [3H]thymidine than nonirradiated T cells when subsequently cultured with PHA or Con A. The cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell subset, isolated as either OKT8(+) or OKT4(-) cells, demonstrated significantly enhanced [3H]thymidine incorporation in PHA- or Con A-stimulated cultures after exposure to 10-50 rad, compared to unirradiated cells, while the proliferation of the OKT4(+) helper/inducer subset was inhibited by low dose irradiation. It has been previously reported that approximately 30% of the cytotoxic/suppressor subset also stains with OKM1. When the cytotoxic/suppressor subset was further subdivided into OKT4(-), OKM1(+), and OKT4(-), OKM1(-) cells, proliferation of the OKT4(-), OKM1(+) population was inhibited by exposure to 25 rad while proliferation of the OKT4(-), OKM1(-) population was stimulated. The increase in proliferation of the cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell subset after low dose irradiation is paralleled by an increase in suppressor activity of these cells. T cells exposed to 25 rad and then cultured with Con A for 48 hr caused greater inhibition of IgG production when added to fresh autologous lymphocytes stimulated by pokeweed mitogen than did unirradiated cells. Thus, low dose irradiation enhances both the proliferation and function of the human suppressor T-cell subset.

  18. Effect of irradiation on human T-cell proliferation: low dose irradiation stimulates mitogen-induced proliferation and function of the suppressor/cytotoxic T-cell subset

    SciTech Connect

    Gualde, N.; Goodwin, J.S.

    1984-04-01

    Unfractionated human T cells exposed to 10-50 rad of X irradiation incorporated less (/sup 3/H)thymidine than nonirradiated T cells when subsequently cultured with PHA or Con A. The cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell subset, isolated as either OKT8(+) or OKT4(-) cells, demonstrated significantly enhanced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation in PHA- or Con A-stimulated cultures after exposure to 10-50 rad, compared to unirradiated cells, while the proliferation of the OKT4(+) helper/inducer subset was inhibited by low dose irradiation. It has been previously reported that approximately 30% of the cytotoxic/suppressor subset also stains with OKM1. When the cytotoxic/suppressor subset was further subdivided into OKT4(-), OKM1(+), andmore » OKT4(-), OKM1(-) cells, proliferation of the OKT4(-), OKM1(+) population was inhibited by exposure to 25 rad while proliferation of the OKT4(-), OKM1(-) population was stimulated. The increase in proliferation of the cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell subset after low dose irradiation is paralleled by an increase in suppressor activity of these cells. T cells exposed to 25 rad and then cultured with Con A for 48 hr caused greater inhibition of IgG production when added to fresh autologous lymphocytes stimulated by pokeweed mitogen than did unirradiated cells. Thus, low dose irradiation enhances both the proliferation and function of the human suppressor T-cell subset.« less

  19. Action of methotrexate and tofacitinib on directly stimulated and bystander-activated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Piscianz, Elisa; Candilera, Vanessa; Valencic, Erica; Loganes, Claudia; Paron, Greta; De Iudicibus, Sara; Decorti, Giuliana; Tommasini, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with autoimmune activation is characteristic of rheumatic diseases from childhood to adulthood. In recent decades, significant improvements in the treatment of these types of disease have been achieved using disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as methotrexate (MTX) and, more recently, using biologic inhibitors. The recent introduction of kinase inhibitors (for example, tofacitinib; Tofa) further increases the available ARDs. However, there are patients that do not respond to any treatment strategies, for whom combination therapies are proposed. The data regarding the combined action of different drugs is lacking and the knowledge of the mechanisms of ARDs and their actions upon pathogenic lymphocytes, which are hypothesized to sustain disease, is poor. An in vitro model of inflammation was developed in the current study, in which stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes were cultured together, but tracked separately, to investigate the action of MTX and Tofa on the two populations. By analysing lymphocyte proliferation and activation, and cytokine secretion in the culture supernatants, it was established that, due to the presence of activated cells, unstimulated cells underwent a bystander activation that was modulated by the ARDs. Additionally, varying administration schedules were demonstrated to affect lymphocytes differently in vitro, either directly or via bystander activation. Furthermore, MTX and Tofa exerted different effects; while MTX showed an antiproliferative effect, Tofa marginally effected activation, although only a slight antiproliferative action, which could be potentiated by sequential treatment with MTX. Thus, it was hypothesized that these differences may be exploited in sequential therapeutic strategies, to maximize the anti‑rheumatic effect. These findings are notable and must be accounted for, as bystander‑activated cells in vivo could contribute to the spread of autoimmune activation

  20. Immunostimulant activity of noni (Morinda citrifolia) on T and B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Smita; Mengi, Sushma

    2010-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb that has been purported to be beneficial in the treatment of infections due to its immune enhancing properties. However, detailed studies highlighting the effect of different compounds isolated from the plant on the immune system are lacking. In this study, the stimulatory effects of the extracts and fractions of M. citrifolia fruits on important components of the adaptive immune system such as T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes were studied. The effects of the plant extracts on lymphocytes were assessed by in vitro (MTT assay) and in vivo (cell mediated immune response) techniques. Results of the MTT study indicated that the hydroalcoholic (0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) and aqueous extracts (0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) significantly (p < 0.05) increased in vitro splenocyte proliferation to the extent of 43.6, 54.5, 32.7, and 36.4%, respectively. Moreover, the hydroalcoholic (200 mg/kg) and the aqueous (200 mg/kg) extracts significantly (p < 0.05) increased the cell-mediated immune response to the extent of 33.52 and 18.56%, respectively. The fractions F I, F II, and F III failed to elicit a significant stimulatory effect on lymphocytes in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The effect of the extractives of M. citrifolia fruits on B-cells was measured by the delayed type hypersensitivity method. The study revealed that the hydroalcoholic extract (200 mg/kg) and fraction F I (40 mg/kg) significantly increased the humoral response to the extent of 33.33 and 35.12%, respectively. The results of this study confirm the cellular and humoral immunostimulant properties of M. citrifolia fruits and justify its usage in traditional medicine.

  1. Characterization of the CD4+ and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes propagated with bispecific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wong, J T; Pinto, C E; Gifford, J D; Kurnick, J T; Kradin, R L

    1989-11-15

    To study the CD4+ and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in the antitumor response, we propagated these subsets directly from tumor tissues with anti-CD3:anti-CD8 (CD3,8) and anti-CD3:anti-CD4 (CD3,4) bispecific mAb (BSMAB). CD3,8 BSMAB cause selective cytolysis of CD8+ lymphocytes by bridging the CD8 molecules of target lymphocytes to the CD3 molecular complex of cytolytic T lymphocytes with concurrent activation and proliferation of residual CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes. Similarly, CD3,4 BSMAB cause selective lysis of CD4+ lymphocytes whereas concurrently activating the residual CD3+CD8+ T cells. Small tumor fragments from four malignant melanoma and three renal cell carcinoma patients were cultured in medium containing CD3,8 + IL-2, CD3,4 + IL-2, or IL-2 alone. CD3,8 led to selective propagation of the CD4+ TIL whereas CD3,4 led to selective propagation of the CD8+ TIL from each of the tumors. The phenotypes of the TIL subset cultures were generally stable when assayed over a 1 to 3 months period and after further expansion with anti-CD3 mAb or lectins. Specific 51Cr release of labeled target cells that were bridged to the CD3 molecular complexes of TIL suggested that both CD4+ and CD8+ TIL cultures have the capacity of mediating cytolysis via their Ti/CD3 TCR complexes. In addition, both CD4+ and CD8+ TIL cultures from most patients caused substantial (greater than 20%) lysis of the NK-sensitive K562 cell line. The majority of CD4+ but not CD8+ TIL cultures also produced substantial lysis of the NK-resistant Daudi cell line. Lysis of the autologous tumor by the TIL subsets was assessed in two patients with malignant melanoma. The CD8+ TIL from one tumor demonstrated cytotoxic activity against the autologous tumor but negligible lysis of allogeneic melanoma targets. In conclusion, immunocompetent CD4+ and CD8+ TIL subsets can be isolated and expanded directly from small tumor fragments of malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma using BSMAB. The resultant

  2. Polyclonal activation of human lymphocytes in vitro-II. Reappraisal of T and B cell-specific mitogens.

    PubMed

    Dosch, H M; Schuurman, R K; Gelfand, E W

    1980-08-01

    The capacity of the T cell mitogens phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and Staphylococcus protein A (SpA) to induce B cell proliferation and differentiation was compared with the B cell mitogen, formalinized Staphylococcus aureus (STA). Lymphocyte subpopulations from normal donors and patients with various immunodeficiency diseases were studied. In the presence of the T cell mitogens, irradiated T cells were capable of providing a helper cell activity that enabled co-cultured B lymphocytes to proliferate in response to these mitogens and to differentiate into IgM-secreting (direct) hemolytic plaque-forming cells (PFC). In the PFC response, radioresistant T-helper and radiosensitive T-suppressor cell activities could be demonstrated. T-suppressor cell activity outweighed helper activity only in nonirradiated co-cultures stimulated with Con A. Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency lacked mitogen-induced helper T cells, whereas patients with various forms of humoral immune deficiency were normal in this respect. These findings and the tissue distribution of the helper activity is aquired early in post-thymic T cell differentiation. The data suggest that experiments with cell lineage-specific lymphocyte mitogens should be considered in the context of more complex cell-cell interactions.

  3. Cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate and calcium induce CD152 (CTLA-4) up-regulation in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Vendetti, Silvia; Riccomi, Antonella; Sacchi, Alessandra; Gatta, Lucia; Pioli, Claudio; De Magistris, Maria Teresa

    2002-12-01

    The CTLA-4 (CD152) molecule is up-regulated upon T cell activation and proliferation, and plays a critical role in the inhibition of immune responses. We show in this study that cAMP induces up-regulation of CD152 in human CD4(+) T lymphocytes. This effect occurs in the absence of the up-regulation of CD69 and CD25 activation markers and T cell proliferation. In addition, we found that the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin also up-regulates CD152, and that the combination of a cAMP analog or cAMP inducers with ionomycin further enhances the expression of CD152 in resting CD4(+) T lymphocytes. However, cyclosporin A, which inhibits Ca(2+)/calcineurin signaling pathway, fully prevented the ionomycin- but not the cAMP-induced up-regulation of CD152. The effects of cAMP and ionomycin involve increase of both CD152 mRNA transcripts, coding for the membrane and the soluble forms of CD152. Furthermore, we show that CD152 molecules are translocated to the membrane and are functional, as their engagement by specific mAbs prevented NF-kappaB activation by anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation. These findings demonstrate that at least two novel signal pathways regulate CTLA-4 gene expression and CD152 molecule up-regulation in human CD4(+) T lymphocytes, in the absence of full T cell activation.

  4. Effects of folic acid deficiency and MTHFRC677T polymorphisms on cytotoxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xiayu; Liang Ziqing; Zou Tianning

    2009-02-13

    Apoptosis (APO) and necrosis (NEC) are two different types of cell death occurring in response to cellular stress factors. Cells with DNA damage may undergo APO or NEC. Folate is an essential micronutrient associated with DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) regulates intracellular folate metabolism. Folate deficiency and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms have been shown to be related to DNA damage. To verify the cytotoxic effects of folate deficiency on cells with different MTHFR C677T genotypes, 15 human peripheral lymphocyte cases with different MTHFR C677T genotypes were cultured in folic acid (FA)-deficient and -sufficient media for 9 days. Cytotoxicitymore » was quantified using the frequencies of APO and NEC as endpoints, the nuclear division index (NDI), and the number of viable cells (NVC). These results showed that FA is an important factor in reducing cytotoxicity and increasing cell proliferation. Lymphocytes with the TT genotype proliferated easily under stress and exhibited different responses to FA deficiency than lymphocytes with the CC and CT genotypes. A TT individual may accumulate more cytotoxicity under cytotoxic stress, suggesting that the effects of FA deficiency on cytotoxicity are greater than the effects in individuals with the other MTHFR C677T variants.« less

  5. Lymphocyte transformation in presumed ocular histoplasmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ganley, J.P.; Nemo, G.J.; Comstock, G.W.

    Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a higher mean response than the other two groups to pokeweed mitogen but not to phytohemagglutinin and had higher mean counts per minute to the specific antigens Toxoplasma gondii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M battery, and M gaus, butmore » not to Candida albicans. These data would suggest that individuals with the disciform lesion of presumed ocular histoplasmosis have a hyperreactive cellular immune response; this response may play an important role in the development of the disciform.« less

  6. Beta-Glucan Activated Human B-Lymphocytes Participate in Innate Immune Responses by Releasing Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Stimulating Neutrophil Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed F.; Driscoll, Christopher B.; Walters, Paula R.; Limper, Andrew H.; Carmona, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    B-lymphocytes play an essential regulatory role in the adaptive immune response through antibody production during infection. A less known function of B-lymphocytes is their ability to respond directly to infectious antigens through stimulation of pattern recognition receptors expressed on their surfaces. β-glucans are carbohydrates present in the cell wall of many pathogenic fungi that can be detected in the peripheral blood of patients during infection. They have been shown to participate in the innate inflammatory response as they can directly activate peripheral macrophages and dendritic cells. However, their effect as direct stimulators of B-lymphocytes has not been yet fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular mechanisms and cytokine profiles generated following β-glucan stimulation of B-lymphocytes, compared with the well-established TLR-9 agonist CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) and study the participation of β-glucan stimulated B-cells in the innate immune response. Herein, we demonstrate that β-glucan activated B-lymphocytes upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-6 and IL-8). Interestingly, β-glucan, unlike CpG, had no effect on B-lymphocyte proliferation or IgM production. When compared with CpG (TLR9 agonist), β-glucan-activated cells secreted significantly higher levels of IL-8. Furthermore, IL-8 secretion was partially mediated by Dectin-1 and required SYK, MAPKs and the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. Moreover, we observed that conditioned media from β-glucan stimulated B-lymphocytes elicited neutrophil chemotaxis. These studies suggest that β-glucan activated B-lymphocytes have an important and novel role in fungal innate immune responses. PMID:26519534

  7. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms of lymphocyte migration in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Norman, M U; Hickey, M J

    2005-09-01

    The recruitment of leukocytes to inflamed tissues plays an essential role in combating infection and promoting wound healing. However, in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and diabetes, leukocytes enter tissues and contribute to inappropriate inflammatory responses, which cause tissue injury and dysfunction. In diseases of this type, lymphocytes play critical roles in initiating and maintaining these aberrant inflammatory responses. The aim of this review is to examine the mechanisms whereby T-lymphocytes enter tissues in autoimmune diseases and to compare these mechanisms between various organs and diseases. An overview of the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment and the techniques used to study leukocyte trafficking is provided, focusing on the use of intravital microscopy as a tool to assess the functional microvasculature in vivo. We also discuss the series of tissue homing events which allow naïve lymphocytes to first enter lymph nodes and undergo activation, then subsequently to home to the peripheral organ where their cognate antigen is present. Finally, we examine mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, autoimmune diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and asthma.

  9. Lymphocyte Electrotaxis in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Francis; Baldessari, Fabio; Gyenge, Christina Crenguta; Sato, Tohru; Chambers, Robert D.; Santiago, Juan G.; Butcher, Eugene C.

    2008-01-01

    Electric fields are generated in vivo in a variety of physiologic and pathologic settings, including penetrating injury to epithelial barriers. An applied electric field with strength within the physiologic range can induce directional cell migration (i.e. electrotaxis) of epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and neutrophils suggesting a potential role in cell positioning during wound healing. In the present study, we investigated the ability of lymphocytes to respond to applied direct current (DC) electric fields. Using a modified transwell assay and a simple microfluidic device, we show that human peripheral blood lymphocytes migrate toward the cathode in physiologically relevant DC electric fields. Additionally, electrical stimulation activates intracellular kinase signaling pathways shared with chemotactic stimuli. Finally, video microscopic tracing of GFP-tagged immunocytes in the skin of mouse ears reveals that motile cutaneous T cells actively migrate toward the cathode of an applied DC electric field. Lymphocyte positioning within tissues can thus be manipulated by externally applied electric fields, and may be influenced by endogenous electrical potential gradients as well. PMID:18684937

  10. Microgravity and Cellular Consequences in Lymphocyte Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian cells adapt to the environment of low gravity and express a series of responses, some possibly from direct effects on cells and others based on environmental conditions created by microgravity. Human lymphocytes in microgravity culture are functionally diminished in activation and locomotion. Both processes are integral to optimal immune response to fight pathogens. The NASA Rotating-wall vessel (RWV) is a well-accepted analog for microgravity culture on the ground. Gene array experiments and immunoblotting identified upstream events in human lymphocytes adapting to microgravity analog culture. Microgravity induces selective changes, many of which are cell membrane related. Results showed that upstream of PKC in the T cell activation cascade, PLC-gamma and LAT are significantly diminished. ZAP 70 which controls LAT activation is also down regulated in modeled microgravity. Thus events governing cell shape might warrant attention in microgravity conditions. The goal of this study is to delineate response suites that are consequential, direct or indirect effects of the microgravity environment and which of these are essential to lymphocytes

  11. Influence of oxygen concentration on T cell proliferation and susceptibility to apoptosis in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Waskowska, Agnieszka; Lisowska, Katarzyna A; Daca, Agnieszka; Henc, Izabella; Brandberg, Fredrik; Mazurek, Paula; Brzustewicz, Edyta; Witkowski, Jacek M; Bryl, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Much of what we know about the functioning of human T lymphocytes is based on the experiments carried out in atmospheric oxygen (O₂) concentrations, which are significantly higher than those maintained in blood. Interestingly, the gender differences in the activity of T cells and their susceptibility to apoptosis under different O₂ conditions have not yet been described. The aim of the study was to compare two main markers of lymphocyte function: proliferation capacity and ability to produce cytokines as well as their susceptibility to apoptosis under two different O₂ concentrations, between men and women. 25 healthy volunteers, both males (13) and females (12) were recruited to the study (mean age 25.48 ± 5.51). By using cytometry proliferation parameters of human CD4+ CD28+ cells or CD8+CD28+ cells in response to polyclonal stimulation of the TCR/CD3 complex at atmospheric (21%) and physiological (10%) O₂ concentrations using our modified dividing cell tracking technique (DCT) were analyzed as well as the percentages of apoptotic cells. We also determined the levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17A using Cytometric Bead Array Flex system in cell culture supernatants. CD4+CD28+ and CD8+CD28+ cells from the whole study group were characterized by shorter time required to enter the first (G1) phase of the first cell cycle at 21% compared to 10% O₂. Both T cell populations performed significantly more divisions at 21% O₂. The percentages of dividing cells were also significantly higher at atmospheric O₂. Interestingly, data analysis by gender showed that male lymphocytes had similar proliferative parameters at both O₂ concentrations while female lymphocytes proliferate more efficiently (note from the author: we cannot say that lymphocytes proliferate faster, rather more effectively, because cells perform more divisions, which gives more percentage of offspring cells) at 21% oxygen. Compared to males, the female CD4+ cells showed increased

  12. The impact of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio among patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Stefan; Spolverato, Gaya; Kimbrough, Charles W; Alexandrescu, Sorin; Marques, Hugo P; Lamelas, Jorge; Aldrighetti, Luca; Gamblin, T Clark; Maithel, Shishir K; Pulitano, Carlo; Weiss, Matthew; Bauer, Todd W; Shen, Feng; Poultsides, George A; Marsh, J Wallis; IJzermans, Jan N M; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2018-06-11

    Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio may be host factors associated with prognosis. We sought to determine whether neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio were associated with overall survival among patients undergoing surgery for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Patients who underwent resection for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma between 1990 and 2015 were identified from 12 major centers. Clinicopathologic factors and overall survival were compared among patients stratified by neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio. Risk factors identified on multivariable analysis were included in a prognostic model and the discrimination was assessed using Harrell's concordance index (C index). A total of 991 patients were identified. Median neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio were 2.7 (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.0-4.0) and 109.6 (IQR: 72.4-158.8), respectively. Preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was elevated (≥5) in 100 patients (10.0%) and preoperative platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio (≥190) in 94 patients (15.2%). Patients with low and high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio generally had similar baseline characteristics with regard to tumor characteristics. Overall survival was 37.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.7-42.6); 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival was 78.8%, 51.6%, and 39.3%, respectively. Patients with an neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio <5 had a median survival of 47.1 months (95% CI: 37.9-53.3) compared with a median survival of 21.9 months (95% CI: 4.8-39.1) among patients with an neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥5 (P = .001). In contrast, patients who had a platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio <190 vs platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥190 had comparable long-term survival (P > .05). On multivariable analysis, an elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was independently associated with decreased overall survival

  13. [Chromosome banding analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with IL2 and CpG oligonucleotide DSP30 in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Stěpanovská, K; Vaňková, G; Némethová, V; Tomášiková, L; Smuhařová, P; Divíšková, E; Vallová, V; Kuglík, P; Plevová, K; Oltová, A; Doubek, M; Pospíšilová, S; Mayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations play an important role as prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These aberrations are mostly detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), as chromosomal banding analysis has been scarce due to low proliferative activity of malignant B-lymphocytes in vitro. In 2006, a new method using stimulation with IL-2 and CpG oligonucleotide DSP30 for metaphase generation in CLL was published [1]. The objective of our study was to verify the efficacy of stimulation and to evaluate if the method is suitable for routine diagnostics. In total, peripheral blood samples of 369 CLL patients were analyzed in parallel by chromosomal banding analysis and by FISH probes for 13q14, 11q22-23, CEP12 and 17p13. Out of 369 patients, 307 (83%) were successfully stimulated for metaphase generation. Chromosomal aberrations were detected in 243 (79%) out of 307 patients evaluated by chromosomal banding analysis. Other aberrations that are not included into standard FISH panel were detected in patients karyotypes, e.g. del(6q), del(14q), t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(11;14)(q13;q32) and t(18;22)(q21;q11). One hundred and three (42%) patients showed complex aberrant karyotype not detected by FISH analysis. Stimulation with IL-2 and oligonucleotide DSP30 is an efficient method how to induce proliferation of malignant B-lymphocytes and allows detection of a substantial number of chromosomal aberrations in addition to those detected by standard FISH panel. Using this method in routine diagnostics is helpful particularly in identification of patients with complex aberrant karyotype.

  14. Acetylcholine released from T cells regulates intracellular Ca2+, IL-2 secretion and T cell proliferation through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Masato; Iwasaki, Yukari; Inoue, Shoko; Saito, Shoko; Kawashima, Koichiro; Fujii, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    T lymphocytes synthesize acetylcholine (ACh) and express muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChR and nAChR, respectively) responsible for increases in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ). Our aim in the present study was to assess whether autocrine ACh released from T lymphocytes regulates their physiological functions. MOLT-3 human leukemic cell line and murine splenocytes were loaded with fura-2 to monitor [Ca 2+ ] i changes in the absence or presence of several AChR antagonists, including mecamylamine, methyllycaconitine and scopolamine. Real-time PCR and ELISA were performed to measure interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA and protein levels. T lymphocytes constitutively produce sufficient amounts of ACh to elicit autocrine changes in [Ca 2+ ] i . These autocrine ACh-evoked [Ca 2+ ] i transients were mediated by nAChRs and then influx of extracellular Ca 2+ . Mecamylamine, a nAChR inhibitor, suppressed not only these [Ca 2+ ] i transients, but also IL-2 release and T cell proliferation. Here, we confirmed that T lymphocytes utilize ACh as a tool to interact with each other and that autocrine ACh-activated nAChRs are involved in cytokine release and cell proliferation. These findings suggest the possibility that nAChR agonists and antagonists and smoking are able to modulate immune function, which in turn suggests the therapeutic potential of immune activation or suppression using nAChR agonists or antagonists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacovigilance during ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Finnes, Heidi D; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Ding, Wei; Kenderian, Saad S; Bowen, Deborah A; Conte, Michael; McCullough, Kristen B; Merten, Julianna A; Bartoo, Gabriel T; Smith, Matthew D; Leis, Jose; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Schwager, Susan M; Slager, Susan L; Kay, Neil E; Shanafelt, Tait D; Parikh, Sameer A

    2017-06-01

    Due to Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) metabolism, clinical trials of ibrutinib-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients prohibited concurrent medications metabolized by CYP3A. We evaluated concomitant medication use in 118 ibrutinib-treated CLL patients outside the context of clinical trials. Seventy-five (64%) patients were on medications that could increase ibrutinib toxicity and 4 (3%) were on drugs that could decrease ibrutinib efficacy. Nineteen (16%) patients were on concomitant CYP3A inhibitors (11 moderate, 8 strong), and 4 (3%) were on CYP3A inducers (two patients were on both CYP3A inhibitors and inducers). Although the ibrutinib starting dose was changed in 18 patients on CYP3A interacting medications, no difference in 18-month progression-free survival or rate of ibrutinib discontinuation was observed in patients who were not. In routine clinical practice, 2 of 3 CLL patients commencing ibrutinib are on a concomitant medication with potential to influence ibrutinib metabolism. Formal medication review by a pharmacist should be considered in all patients initiating ibrutinib.

  16. Proliferating macrophages prevail in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2013-09-01

    Macrophages accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions during the inflammation that is part of atherosclerosis development and progression. A new study in mice indicates that the accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques depends on local macrophage proliferation rather than the recruitment of circulating monocytes.

  17. In vitro effect of the antimalarial drug proguanil hydrochloride on viability and DNA damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Dinter, Domagoj; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of proguanil, a chemical substance used for treatment and prevention of malaria on viability and DNA integrity in human lymphocytes in vitro. Two different concentrations of proguanil obtained from the plasma concentrations were used: 130ng/ml used for prophylactic treatment and 520ng/ml used in treatment of malaria. Testing was done with and without metabolic activation. Viability of lymphocytes decreased in time and dose dependent manner. Comet assay parameters showed similar effects, indicating that some damage to DNA molecule can occur. Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges did not show significant deviation from the control samples. As for the proliferation kinetics no significant changes were noticed. Since majority of DNA damaging effect is induced after metabolic activation it is to be concluded that activity of proguanil is dependent upon the active metabolite cycloguanil and that monitoring should be conducted especially among frequent travellers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Flowcytometry – A rapid tool to correlate functional activities of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with their corresponding phenotypes after in vitro stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Nirmala, R; Narayanan, PR

    2002-01-01

    Background While dealing with mixed in vitro lymphocyte cultures one is faced with the problem of relative contributions of different populations to the activity being studied. This is especially true in the controversy relating to the contributions of lymphocyte sub-populations to the Lymphokine Activated Killer (LAK) phenomenon. Flowcytometry can be used to highlight relative contributions of lymphocyte subpopulations towards LAK activity without resorting to difficult purification strategies. We set up long-term in vitro lymphocyte cultures, stimulated them with cytokines IL-2/IL-12, recorded their phenotypic changes and cytotoxic activity against U-937 tumor targets. Results The results indicated that natural killer cells (NK) constituted the predominant proliferating cell population in the cytokine stimulatedcultures. Flowcytometric evidence revealed that CD56+ T cells contributed little to LAK activity against U937 target cells as compared to cells with NK phenotype which were predominantly responsible for spontaneous killing of the tumor targets. The two cytokines, IL-2 and IL-12, had an additive effect on cell proliferation and spontaneous cytotoxicity. Conclusion Flowcytometry can be used to rapidly delineate phenotypic changes in immune cells after stimulation and simultaneously correlate them with corresponding functional activity. This approach may find application as a initial screening tool for studying different types of cells in mixed cultures and their respective activities under stimulatory / inhibitory conditions. PMID:12165101

  19. Immunoregulatory effects on T lymphocytes by human mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, amniotic fluid, and placenta.

    PubMed

    Mareschi, Katia; Castiglia, Sara; Sanavio, Fiorella; Rustichelli, Deborah; Muraro, Michela; Defedele, Davide; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Fagioli, Franca

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising tool in cell therapies because of their multipotent, bystander, and immunomodulatory properties. Although bone marrow represents the main source of MSCs, there remains a need to identify a stem cell source that is safe and easily accessible and yields large numbers of cells without provoking debates over ethics. In this study, MSCs isolated from amniotic fluid and placenta were compared with bone marrow MSCs. Their immunomodulatory properties were studied in total activated T cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA-PBMCs). In particular, an in vitro co-culture system was established to study: (i) the effect on T-lymphocyte proliferation; (ii) the presence of T regulatory lymphocytes (Treg); (iii) the immunophenotype of various T subsets (Th1 and Th2 naïve, memory, effector lymphocytes); (iv) cytokine release and master gene expression to verify Th1, Th2, and Th17 polarization; and (v) IDO production. Under all co-culture conditions with PHA-PBMCs and MSCs (independently of tissue origin), data revealed: (i) T proliferation inhibition; (ii) increase in naïve T and decrease in memory T cells; (iii) increase in T regulatory lymphocytes; (iv) strong Th2 polarization associated with increased interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 levels, Th1 inhibition (significant decreases in interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-12) and Th17 induction (production of high concentrations of interleukins-6 and -17); (v) indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase mRNA induction in MSCs co-cultured with PHA-PBMCs. AF-MSCs had a more potent immunomodulatory effect on T cells than BM-MSCs, only slightly higher than that of placenta MSCs. This study indicates that MSCs isolated from fetal tissues may be considered a good alternative to BM-MSCs for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Natural History Study of Monoclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL), Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), and Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-27

    B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis; Lymhoma, Small Lymphocytic; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  1. The effect of veiled cells on lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Balfour, B; O'Brien, J A; Perera, M; Clarke, J; Sumerska, T; Knight, S C

    1982-01-01

    The response of lymphocytes to stimulation with Con A has been studied in the presence of veiled cells collected from the afferent lymph. In these enriched cultures the response occurred earlier with smaller numbers of lymphocytes and at lower concentrations of Con A. Veiled cells also caused clumping of lymphocytes in unstimulated cultures. In stimulated cultures small cells with veil-like projections appeared after 48 hr, but were not seen in unstimulated cultures.

  2. Select phytochemicals suppress human T-lymphocytes and mouse splenocytes suggesting their use in autoimmunity and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hushmendy, Shazaan; Jayakumar, Lalithapriya; Hahn, Amy B.; Bhoiwala, Devang; Bhoiwala, Dipti L.; Crawford, Dana R.

    2009-01-01

    We have considered a novel “rational” gene targeting approach for treating pathologies whose genetic bases are defined using select phytochemicals. We reason that one such potential application of this approach would be conditions requiring immunosuppression such as autoimmune disease and transplantation, where the genetic target is clearly defined; i.e., interleukin-2 and associated T-cell activation. Therefore, we hypothesized that select phytochemicals can suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. The immunosuppressive effects of berry extract, curcumin, quercetin, sulforaphane, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), resveratrol, α-tocopherol, vitamin C and sucrose were tested on anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28-activated primary human T-lymphocytes in culture. Curcumin, sulforaphane, quercetin, berry extract and EGCG all significantly inhibited T-cell proliferation, and this effect was not due to toxicity. IL-2 production was also reduced by these agents, implicating this important T-cell cytokine in proliferation suppression. Except for berry extract, these same agents also inhibited mouse splenic T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production. Subsequent in vivo studies revealed that quercetin (but not sulforaphane) modestly suppressed mouse splenocyte proliferation following supplementation of BALB/c mice diets. This effect was especially prominent if corrected for the loss of supplement “recall” as observed in cultured T-cells. These results suggest the potential use of these select phytochemicals for treating autoimmune and transplant patients, and support our strategy of using select phytochemicals to treat genetically-defined pathologies, an approach that we believe is simple, healthy, and cost-effective. PMID:19761891

  3. Increased mitogenic response in lymphocytes from chronically centrifuged mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Otfried; Hunzinger, E.; Cogoli, Augusto; Bechler, B.; Lee, J.; Moore, J.; Duke, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects upon the mitogenic response of splenic lymphocytes when exposing mice to prolonged hypergravity conditions (3.5 G for 1 year) were studied. Cultures of splenic lymphocytes isolated from both centrifuged and control (1 G) animals were stimulated with Concanavalin A and the response measured using both morphological and biochemical means. Lymphocytes obtained from centrifuged mice exhibited much higher activation rates (as measured by the incorporation of H-3 thymidine) and larger cell aggregates consisting of more lymphoblasts and mitotic figures than those observed in non centrifuged control animals. Isolated splenic lymphocytes thus appear to have been conditioned by hypergravity state.

  4. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Markovic-Denic, L; Jankovic, S; Marinkovic, J; Radovanovic, Z

    1995-01-01

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL.

  5. [B lymphocyte stimulator in systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Mercado, Ulises

    2012-01-01

    The B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is an essential protein for the growth and survival of B cells. BLyS is expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. BLyS binds to three receptors on B cells: BAFF-R, BCMA, and TACI. BLyS overexpression in mice leads to lupus-like syndrome, but not in all, whereas BLyS deficient mice results in a block of B cell development. High serum levels of BLyS can be detected in patients with lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. BLyS antagonists are an attractive target for treating autoimmune diseases.

  6. Melanoma exosomes deliver a complex biological payload that upregulates PTPN11 to suppress T lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yueting; Deng, Wentao; McGinley, Emily Chambers; Klinke, David J

    2017-03-01

    As exosomes are emerging as a new mode of intercellular communication, we hypothesized that the payload contained within exosomes is shaped by somatic evolution. To test this, we assayed the impact on primary CD8+ T-cell function, a key mechanism for antitumor immunity, of exosomes derived from three melanoma-related cell lines. While morphologically similar, exosomes from each cell line were functionally different, as B16F0 exosomes dose-dependently suppressed T-cell proliferation. In contrast, Cloudman S91 exosomes promoted T-cell proliferation and Melan-A exosomes had a negligible effect on primary CD8+ T cells. Mechanistically, transcript profiling suggested that exosomal mRNA is enriched for full-length mRNAs that target immune-related pathways. Interestingly, B16F0 exosomes were unique in that they contained both protein and mRNA for PTPN11, which inhibited T-cell proliferation. Collectively, the results suggest that upregulation of PTPN11 by B16F0 exosomes to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes would bypass the extracellular control of the immune checkpoints. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Melanoma exosomes deliver a complex biological payload that upregulates PTPN11 to suppress T lymphocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueting; Deng, Wentao; McGinley, Emily Chambers; Klinke, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary As exosomes are emerging as a new mode of intercellular communication, we hypothesized that the payload contained within exosomes is shaped by somatic evolution. To test this, we assayed the impact on primary CD8+ T cell function, a key mechanism for anti-tumor immunity, of exosomes derived from three melanoma-related cell lines. While morphologically similar, exosomes from each cell line were functionally different, as B16F0 exosomes dose-dependently suppressed T cell proliferation. In contrast, Cloudman S91 exosomes promoted T cell proliferation and Melan-A exosomes had a negligible effect on primary CD8+ T cells. Mechanistically, transcript profiling suggested that exosomal mRNA is enriched for full-length mRNAs that target immune-related pathways. Interestingly, B16F0 exosomes were unique in that they contained both protein and mRNA for Ptpn11, which inhibited T cell proliferation. Collectively, the results suggest that upregulation of PTPN11 by B16F0 exosomes to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes would bypass the extracellular control of the immune checkpoints. PMID:27930879

  8. Chronic Binge Alcohol Administration Increases Intestinal T-Cell Proliferation and Turnover in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Ronald S; Amedee, Angela; Wang, Xiaolei; Bernice Kaack, M; Porretta, Constance; Dufour, Jason; Welsh, David; Happel, Kyle; Pahar, Bapi; Molina, Patricia E; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Gregory J

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol use results in changes in intestinal epithelial cell turnover and microbial translocation, yet less is known about the consequences on intestinal lymphocytes in the gut. Here, we compared T-cell subsets in the intestine of macaques before and after 3 months of chronic alcohol administration to examine the effects of alcohol on intestinal T-cell subsets. Rhesus macaques received either alcohol or isocaloric sucrose as a control treatment daily over a 3-month period via indwelling gastric catheters. Intestinal lymphocyte subsets were identified in biopsy samples by flow cytometry. Twenty-four hours prior to sampling, animals were inoculated with bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to assess lymphocyte proliferation. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue samples to quantitate CD3+ cells. Animals receiving alcohol had increased rates of intestinal T-cell turnover of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as reflected by increased BrdU incorporation. However, absolute numbers of T cells were decreased in intestinal tissues as evidenced by immunohistochemistry for total CD3 expression per mm(2) intestinal lamina propria in tissue sections. Combining immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry data showed that the absolute numbers of CD8+ T cells were significantly decreased, whereas absolute numbers of total CD4+ T cells were minimally decreased. Collectively, these data indicate that alcohol exposure to the small intestine results in marked loss of CD3+ T cells, accompanied by marked increases in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation and turnover, which we speculate is an attempt to maintain stable numbers of T cells in tissues. This suggests that alcohol results in accelerated T-cell turnover in the gut, which may contribute to premature T-cell senescence. Further, these data indicate that chronic alcohol administration results in increased levels of HIV target cells (proliferating CD4+ T cells) that may support higher levels of HIV replication in intestinal tissues. Copyright

  9. Chronic binge alcohol administration increases intestinal T cell proliferation and turnover in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Amedee, Angela; Wang, Xiaolei; Kaack, M. Bernice; Porretta, Constance; Dufour, Jason; Welsh, David; Happel, Kyle; Pahar, Bapi; Molina, Patricia E.; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol use results in changes in intestinal epithelial cell turnover and microbial translocation, yet less in known about the consequences on intestinal lymphocytes in the gut. Here we compared T cell subsets in the intestine of macaques before and after 3 months of chronic alcohol administration to examine the effects of alcohol on intestinal T cell subsets. Methods Rhesus macaques received either alcohol or isocaloric sucrose as a control treatment daily over a 3 month period via indwelling gastric catheters. Intestinal lymphocytes subsets were identified in biopsy samples by flow cytometry. Twenty-four hours prior to sampling, animals were inoculated with BrdU to assess lymphocyte proliferation. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue samples to quantitate CD3+ cells. Results Animals receiving alcohol had increased rates of intestinal T cell turnover of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as reflected by increased BrdU incorporation. However, absolute numbers of T cells were decreased in intestinal tissues as evidenced by immunohistochemistry for total CD3 expression per mm2 intestinal lamina propria in tissue sections. Combining immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry data showed that the absolute numbers of CD8+ T cells were significantly decreased, whereas total of CD4+ T cells were minimally decreased. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate alcohol exposure to the small intestine results in marked loss of CD3+ T cells, accompanied by marked increases in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation and turnover, which we speculate is an attempt to maintain stable numbers of T cells in tissues. This suggests alcohol results in accelerated T cell turnover in the gut, which may contribute to premature T cell senescence. Further these data indicate that chronic alcohol administration results in increased levels of HIV target cells (proliferating CD4+ T cells) that may support higher levels of HIV replication in intestinal tissues. PMID:26146859

  10. Fibrates upregulate TRB3 in lymphocytes independent of PPAR alpha by augmenting CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBP beta) expression.

    PubMed

    Selim, Erin; Frkanec, Julie T; Cunard, Robyn

    2007-02-01

    Fibrates, which function by binding and activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), have been used successfully to treat hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to their lipid lowering activities these medications also function as immunosuppressive agents. Tribbles is a Drosophila protein that slows cell cycle progression, and its mammalian homolog, TRB3 interferes with insulin-induced activation of AKT. In these studies we demonstrate that fibrates upregulate TRB3 expression in mitogen-activated lymphocytes. Interestingly, in lymphocytes fibrates augment TRB3 expression in both PPARalpha wildtype and knockout mice, suggesting that upregulation of this protein occurs in a PPARalpha-independent manner. Fibrates activate a proximal TRB3 promoter construct and mutation or partial deletion of a potential PPAR response element does not alter the ability of fibrates to drive TRB3 expression. Subsequent studies reveal that fibrates upregulate C/EBPbeta and CHOP in lymphocytes and mutation of potential C/EBPbeta and CHOP consensus sequences abrogates the ability of fibrates to upregulate TRB3 promoter activity. Accordingly, fibrates enhance the recruitment of C/EBPbeta and CHOP to the proximal TRB3 promoter. Finally, TRB3 expression in lymphocytes induces G2 cell cycle delay and cellular depletion. These studies outline a novel PPARalpha-independent mechanism of action of fibrates and document for the first time the expression of TRB3 in activated lymphocytes.

  11. Some newer marker phytoconstituents in methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves and evaluation of its immunomodulatory and splenocytes proliferation potential in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, M.; Garg, Satish K.; Yadav, Prashant; Bhatia, A. K.; Goel, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to unravel the newer marker phytoconstituents in methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOLE) and evaluation of its immunomodulatory and splenocytes proliferation potential in rats. Materials and Methods: Hot methanolic extract of MOLE was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Immunomodulatory potential was studied in four groups of rats following administration of MOLE at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg for 21 days, followed by immunization with Salmonella typhimurium “O” antigen and antibody titer determined using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Total lymphocytes and T- and B-lymphocytes count were determined in control and after MOLE administration (62.5 and 125 mg/kg) to rats for 42 days. Splenocytes (2 × 106 spleen cells/ml) from MOLE treated rats were harvested and stimulated using concanavalin A and optical density (OD) and stimulation index were determined. Splenocytes from healthy control rats were also collected and treated in vitro with different concentrations of MOLE (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml) and concanavalin A to determine effect of MOLE on OD and stimulation index. Results: GC-MS analysis revealed presence of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid ethyl ester, 6-octadecenoic acid, cis-vaccenic acid and 2-octyl-cyclopropaneoctanal in MOLE. MOLE at 125 mg/kg increased the antibody titer by 50%. Although there was slight decline in lymphocytes count (total, B- and T-lymphocytes) in MOLE treated rats, percentage of T-lymphocytes was increased nonsignificantly. Ex vivo and in vitro studies revealed marked increase in OD and stimulation index indicating MOLE-induced splenocytes proliferation. Conclusion: GC-MS study revealed four new compounds in MOLE apart from promising its immunomodulatory potential based on humoral immune response, percentage increase in T-lymphocytes count, and induction of splenocytes proliferation. PMID:26600641

  12. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activitiesmore » (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.« less

  13. Russia’s Proliferation Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    2002. Russia’s willingness to provide the facilities and related support was also appealing because Moscow did not attach conditions related to human ...much higher level of risk than is already the case. In line with this wholly instrumental or utilitarian approach to the proliferation issue we also...hightened dispute with Georgia. Georgia’s leadership in turn beseeched the U.S. and Europe to stand up for democracy, human rights, and other Western norms

  14. Cell proliferation assessment in oncology.

    PubMed

    Hofstädter, F; Knüchel, R; Rüschoff, J

    1995-01-01

    A review of the current knowledge on cell cycle control and the techniques used to assess proliferation of normal and neoplastic cells was the focus of a workshop in Regensburg, Germany, held under the joint auspices of the Graduiertenkolleg: Therapieforschung Onkologie and the Committee on AgNOR Quantification. An overview of the recently discovered group of cyclins and their specific kinases, and of other proliferation-associated antigens, such as Ki67, PCNA and topoiseromase II alpha, was given. The topics continued with a reappraisal of modern imaging and flow-cytometric techniques. An update of the relation of AgNORs to cellular proliferation and differentiation was the link to presentations on clinical data, problems and strategies for standardization, as well as guidelines to establish the prognostic value of marker molecules. These lectures were supported by posters. Bringing together researchers from life sciences, technically oriented workers, pathologists, and clinicians resulted in a lively and constructive discussion, which is briefly summarized in the Concluding remarks.

  15. Allergic contact reaction to dexpanthenol: lymphocyte transformation test and evidence for microsomal-dependent metabolism of the allergen.

    PubMed

    Hahn, C; Röseler, S; Fritzsche, R; Schneider, R; Merk, H F

    1993-02-01

    In a patient with contact dermatitis, dexpanthenol was found to be the causative allergen. There was a positive reaction to dexpanthenol on patch testing. Controls did not show any positive reactions to dexpanthenol on patch testing. Additionally, an LTT was performed. After preincubation with dexpanthenol-modified microsomes, we observed an increase in lymphocyte proliferation to dexpanthenol, in comparison to dexpanthenol without microsomes, suggesting that microsomal metabolism plays a rôle in the pathogenesis of dexpanthenol sensitization, because microsomes are known to possess drug metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450.

  16. Comparative study on cytogenetic effects by diplatinum complexes of the ligands of naphthazarine and squaric acid in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lialiaris, T; Mourelatos, D; Boutis, L; Papageorgiou, A; Christianopoulou, M; Papageorgiou, V; Dozi-Vassiliades, J

    1989-10-01

    The effect of diplatinum complexes of the binucleating ligands of naphthazarine and squaric acid on Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) rates and human lymphocyte proliferation kinetics was studied. Squarodicisplatinum complex I, naphthazarindicisplatinum and squarodicisplatinum complex II induce cytotoxic effects as can be deduced from the resulted induction of SCEs and the produced cell division delays. Squarodicisplatinum complex I was found to be on a molar basis the most effective in causing markedly increased SCE rates and cell division delays. Cis-diaminodichloride platinum was found to be next in order of effectiveness with naphthazarindicisplatinum and squarodicisplatinum complex II following. Naphthazarine and SQA were found to be ineffective on induction of SCEs.

  17. Neural control of colonic cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-03-15

    The mitotic rate in rat colonic crypts and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinomas was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. In sympathectomized animals cell proliferation was retarded in the crypts but not in the tumors, whereas in animals treated with Metaraminol, a drug which releases norepinephrine from nerve terminals, crypt cell but not tumor cell proliferation was accelerated. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors also inhibited crypt cell proliferation. However, stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors inhibited and blockade of beta-adrenoceptors accelerated tumor cell proliferation without influencing crypt cell proliferation. Injection of either serotonin or histamine stimulated tumor but not crypt cell proliferation and blockade or serotonin receptors or histamine H2-receptors inhibited tumor cell proliferation. It is postulated that cell proliferation in the colonic crypts, like that in the jejunal crypts, is under both endocrine and autonomic neural control whereas colonic tumor cell division is subject to endocrine regulation alone.

  18. Lymphocyte electrotaxis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Francis; Baldessari, Fabio; Gyenge, Christina Crenguta; Sato, Tohru; Chambers, Robert D; Santiago, Juan G; Butcher, Eugene C

    2008-08-15

    Electric fields are generated in vivo in a variety of physiologic and pathologic settings, including penetrating injury to epithelial barriers. An applied electric field with strength within the physiologic range can induce directional cell migration (i.e., electrotaxis) of epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and neutrophils suggesting a potential role in cell positioning during wound healing. In the present study, we investigated the ability of lymphocytes to respond to applied direct current (DC) electric fields. Using a modified Transwell assay and a simple microfluidic device, we show that human PBLs migrate toward the cathode in physiologically relevant DC electric fields. Additionally, electrical stimulation activates intracellular kinase signaling pathways shared with chemotactic stimuli. Finally, video microscopic tracing of GFP-tagged immunocytes in the skin of mouse ears reveals that motile cutaneous T cells actively migrate toward the cathode of an applied DC electric field. Lymphocyte positioning within tissues can thus be manipulated by externally applied electric fields, and may be influenced by endogenous electrical potential gradients as well.

  19. Transformation of lymphocytes by Herpesvirus papio.

    PubMed

    Falk, L A; Henle, G; Henle, W; Deinhardt, F; Schudel, A

    1977-08-15

    Cotton-topped (CT) or white-lipped (WL) marmoset lymphocytes were transformed in vitro with herpesvirus papio (HVP) into permanently growing lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL). Five of 9 HVP-transformed CT cell lines contained cells with antigens reacting with antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsid antigen (VCA) and/or to EBV-induced early antigens (EA). None of 12 WL LCL revealed such antigen-producing cells. Cells from both groups of cultures failed to react with antibodies to the EBV-specified nuclear antigen (EBNA). Exposure of baboon circulating lymphocytes to X-irradiated HVP or EBV-carring cells, or to suspensions of EBV resulted in establishment of LCL which all contained VCA and/or EA-positive, but no EBNA-positive cells. Nuclear antigens were undetectable also with anti-VCA-positive sera from baboons, chimpanzees, or other non-human primates. DNA-complementary RNA (cRNA) filter hybridization with EBV cRNA showed that with one exception transformed CT or WL marmoset cells contained at least 1-2 virus genome equivalents per cell, while at least 12-25 virus genome equivalents per cell were detected in transformed baboon cells. These data need confirmation by DNA-DNA reassociation kinetics.

  20. Safety and Tolerability Study of PCI-32765 in B Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-03

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Well-differentiated Lymphocytic Lymphoma; B Cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Diffuse Lymphoma

  1. Identification of canine T lymphocytes by membrane receptor to peanut agglutinin: T-lymphocyte identification in dogs with lupus-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rigal, D; Bendali-Ahcène, S; Monier, J C; Mohana, K; Fournel, C

    1983-09-01

    Canine T lymphocytes were detected, using fluorescent peanut agglutinin (PNA) as a marker. Using a fluorescent technique and cytofluorometry, 70 +/- 11% and 72.4%, respectively, of peripheral blood lymphocytes were bound to PNA. Of thymocytes, 97 +/- 4.5% were detected by fluorescent PNA, but less than 1% were detected for lymphocytes from bone marrow. The T-lymphocyte depletion and enrichment indicated that PNA was bound to lymphocytes recognized by anti-T-lymphocyte heterologous serum. A T-lymphocyte deficiency was detected among 8 dogs with a lupus-like syndrome.

  2. Arabinosylthymine: inhibitor of splenic lymphocyte macromolecular synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, J M; McGowan, J J; Gentry, G A

    1979-01-01

    The effect of arabinosylthymine on lymphocyte transformation was investigated. Arabinosylthymine was demonstrated not to be cytotoxic for hamster spleen lymphocytes but was found to inhibit the increase in deoxyribonucleic acid and protein synthesis usually observed as a result of mitogen stimulation. These findings suggest that, in addition to being a potent anti-herpesvirus inhibitor, arabinosylthymine is also an immunosuppressive agent. PMID:500206

  3. IMMUNOGLOBULIN SPOTS ON THE SURFACE OF RABBIT LYMPHOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Pernis, Benvenuto; Forni, Luciana; Amante, Luisa

    1970-01-01

    Small and medium lymphocytes from the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues of the rabbit react in suspension with antibodies directed against different immunoglobulin determinants. Through immunofluorescence, it was possible to show that numerous discrete spots on the surface of the positive lymphocytes carry immunoglobulin molecules. The positive lymphocytes are about one-half of all lymphocytes in the different preparations; thymus lymphocytes are all negative. With antisera specific for rabbit IgM as well as with antisera directed against allotypic determinants specific for IgM or IgG, it was possible to show that about nine-tenths of the immunoglobulin-positive lymphocytes carry IgM molecules on their surface. With antisera directed against a- and b-locus determinants, it was also possible to demonstrate that both heavy and light chains were present in the surface immunoglobulins. Furthermore, in animals which were heterozygous at the a or the b locus, it was found that each lymphocyte had immunoglobulins synthesized under the influence of only one of two alleles. A very small proportion of lymphocytes could be shown to have a specific surface reaction with one antigen (horse ferritin); the proportion of these cells increased very much after immunization. PMID:4919141

  4. Lovastatin inhibits T cell proliferation while preserving the cytolytic function of EBV-, CMV- and MART-1-specific CTLs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Li, Yufeng; Hernandez, Jessica A.; Patenia, Rebecca; Kim, Tae Kon; Khalili, Jahan; Dougherty, Mark C.; Hanley, Patrick J.; Bollard, Catherine M.; Komanduri, Krishna V.; Hwu, Patrick; Champlin, Richard E.; Radvanyi, Laszlo G.; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Ma, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Statin treatment has been shown to reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) while preserving graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Herein, we investigated whether lovastatin treatment affects the function of human cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Upon TCR stimulation, lovastatin significantly inhibited the proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from healthy donors while their intracellular cytokine production including IFN-γ and TNF-α remained the same with a slight decrease of IL-2. Moreover, the specific lysis of target cells by CTL lines derived from patients and normal donors specific for EBV-encoded antigen LMP2 or CMV-encoded antigen pp65 was uncompromised in the presence of lovastatin. In addition, we evaluated the effect of lovastatin on the proliferation and effector function of the CD8+ tumor–infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) derived from melanoma patients specific for MART-1 antigen. Lovastatin significantly reduced the expansion of antigen-specific TILs upon MART-1 stimulation. However, the effector function of TILs, including the specific lysis of target cells and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ, remained intact with lovastatin treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrated that lovastatin inhibits the proliferation of EBV-, CMV- and MART-1-specific CTLs without affecting cytolytic capacity. The differential effect of lovastatin on the proliferation versus cytoxicity of CTLs might shed some light on elucidating the possible mechanisms of GVHD and GVT effect elicited by alloimmune responses. PMID:20948439

  5. A New Model for the Estimation of Cell Proliferation Dynamics Using CFSE Data

    PubMed Central

    Banks, H.T.; Sutton, Karyn L.; Thompson, W. Clayton; Bocharov, Gennady; Doumic, Marie; Schenkel, Tim; Argilaguet, Jordi; Giest, Sandra; Peligero, Cristina; Meyerhans, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    CFSE analysis of a proliferating cell population is a popular tool for the study of cell division and division-linked changes in cell behavior. Recently [13, 43, 45], a partial differential equation (PDE) model to describe lymphocyte dynamics in a CFSE proliferation assay was proposed. We present a significant revision of this model which improves the physiological understanding of several parameters. Namely, the parameter γ used previously as a heuristic explanation for the dilution of CFSE dye by cell division is replaced with a more physical component, cellular autofluorescence. The rate at which label decays is also quantified using a Gompertz decay process. We then demonstrate a revised method of fitting the model to the commonly used histogram representation of the data. It is shown that these improvements result in a model with a strong physiological basis which is fully capable of replicating the behavior observed in the data. PMID:21889510

  6. Lymphocytic colitis complicated by a mass in the terminal ileum.

    PubMed

    Hui, Chee-Kin

    2015-05-01

    Lymphocytic colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the bowel. The clinical course of lymphocytic colitis is believed to be benign with watery diarrhoea. We report herein what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of lymphocytic colitis complicated by a terminal ileal mass. A 23-year-old man presented with diarrhoea. Blind biopsies of samples taken from the terminal ileum, caecum and ascending colon showed features of lymphocytic colitis. He declined treatment with budesonide or 5-aminosalicylates. He presented 14 months later with pain over the right lumbar region and nausea. Computed tomographic enteroclysis showed a focal soft tissue enhancing mass at the terminal ileum. Excision of the soft tissue mass revealed that it was reactive nodular lymphoid hyperplasia with fibrous granulation tissue. In conclusion, an untreated lymphocytic colitis may result in the formation of an inflammatory mass lesion.

  7. Comparative study on cytogenetic damage induced by homo-aza-steroidal esters in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Mourelatos, D; Papageorgiou, A; Boutis, L; Catsoulacos, P

    1995-02-01

    The effect of P[N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenylacetate esters of 3 beta-hydroxy-N-methyl-17 alpha-aza-D-homo-5 alpha-androstan-17-one (compound 3) and 3 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-aza-D-homo-5 alpha-androstane (compound 2) on sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies and on human lymphocytes proliferation kinetics was studied. The results are compared with those of the P[N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenylacetate esters of 3 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-aza-D-homo-5 alpha-androstan-17-one (compound 1). All compounds were found to be active in inducing markedly increased SCE rates and cell division delays. A correlation between potency for SCE induction, effectiveness in cell division delay and previously established antitumour activity of these compounds was observed.

  8. Effect of PGE2 and LTB4 on vicia villosa binding lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Gualde, N; Cook, J M; Guibert, F

    1988-06-01

    Since there is a good deal of evidence that vicia villosa lectin (VVA) binds to contrasuppressor cells, mouse splenocytes and thymocytes were sorted by binding to VVA-coated Petri dishes. It was observed that vicia villosa adherent cells (VVA(+)) did not proliferate when mitogens were added to cultures, but they did enhance the thymidine uptake of PHA or ConA stimulated vicia villosa non-adherent (VVA(-)) splenocytes. PGE2 treatment of VVA(+) splenocytes or VVA(+) immature thymocytes did not very much affect the VVA(+) cell behavior. On the other hand, LTB4 increased the enhancing capability of VVA(+) splenocytes. Therefore, investigations dealing with the effects of LTB4 on lymphocyte subsets which may include VVA(+) cells should take into consideration the possible presence of contrasuppressor cells.

  9. Composition of extracts of airborne grain dusts: lectins and lymphocyte mitogens.

    PubMed Central

    Olenchock, S A; Lewis, D M; Mull, J C

    1986-01-01

    Airborne grain dusts are heterogeneous materials that can elicit acute and chronic respiratory pathophysiology in exposed workers. Previous characterizations of the dusts include the identification of viable microbial contaminants, mycotoxins, and endotoxins. We provide information on the lectin-like activity of grain dust extracts and its possible biological relationship. Hemagglutination of erythrocytes and immunochemical modulation by antibody to specific lectins showed the presence of these substances in extracts of airborne dusts from barley, corn, and rye. Proliferation of normal rat splenic lymphocytes in vitro provided evidence for direct biological effects on the cells of the immune system. These data expand the knowledge of the composition of grain dusts (extracts), and suggest possible mechanisms that may contribute to respiratory disease in grain workers. PMID:3709474

  10. Pavlovian conditioning of shock-induced suppression of lymphocyte reactivity: acquisition, extinction, and preexposure effects.

    PubMed

    Lysle, D T; Cunnick, J E; Fowler, H; Rabin, B S

    1988-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that physical stressors, such as electric shock, can suppress immune function in rats. The present study investigated whether a nonaversive stimulus that had been associated with electric shock would also impair immune function. Presentation of that conditioned stimulus (CS) by itself produced a pronounced suppression of lymphocyte proliferation in response to the nonspecific mitogens, Concanavalin-A (ConA) and Phytohemagglutinin (PHA). In further evidence of a conditioning effect, the suppression was attenuated by extinction and preexposure manipulations that degraded the associative value of the CS. These results indicate that a psychological or learned stressor can suppress immune reactivity independently of the direct effect of physically aversive stimulation or of ancillary changes in dietary and health-related habits.

  11. CD147 contains different bioactive epitopes involving the regulation of cell adhesion and lymphocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Chiampanichayakul, Sawitree; Peng-in, Pakorn; Khunkaewla, Panida; Stockinger, Hannes; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2006-01-01

    CD147 is a leukocyte surface molecule which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. It is broadly expressed on various cell types and is a lymphocyte activation-associated molecule. In order to study the function of CD147, five CD147 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated: M6-2F9; M6-1D4; M6-1F3; M6-1B9; and M6-1E9. Biochemical characterizations and cross-blocking experiments indicated that M6-1B9 and M6-1E9 recognize the same or contiguous epitopes on CD147. By employing COS transfectants expressing CD147 membrane-distal domain (domain 1) and membrane-proximal domain (domain 2), mAbs M6-2F9, M6-1D4, M6-1B9, and M6-1E9 were shown to recognize epitopes located on domain 1 of the molecule. Functional studies indicated that engagement of CD147 by mAbs M6-1B9 and M6-1E9 strongly inhibited lymphocyte proliferation induced by a CD3 mAb. In contrast, mAbs M6-2F9, M6-1D4, and M6-1F3 induced U937 homotypic cell aggregation. The results indicate that CD147 contains at least two bioactive domains. Epitopes responsible for induction of cell aggregation are different from those regulating lymphocyte activation.

  12. Differential requirements for activation and growth of unprimed cytotoxic and helper T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, M; Pobor, G; Bandeira, A; Larsson, E L; Coutinho, A

    1983-09-01

    The requirements for activation and growth of T lymphocytes capable of mediating either cytolytic activity or help to B lymphocytes were studied in unprimed splenic T cell populations. The selectivity of expression of Lyt-2 antigens, the reactivity to soluble concanavalin A (Con A), to partially purified interleukin 2 (IL 2, T cell growth factor[s]) and to lectin-pulsed macrophages (M phi) were used in this analysis. Lectin-dependent cytotoxicity assays and a novel method that allows for the detection of all effector helper cells, regardless of their clonal specificities, were used for the functional identification of the responding T cells. The results show a marked contrast between cytolytic and helper T cells in their growth and activation requirements. Thus, while Lyt-2+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors grow exponentially in IL 2 after a short pulse with soluble Con A in the absence of accessory cells, Lyt-2- helper cell precursors completely fail to proliferate under the same conditions and require the continuous presence of lectin-pulsed M phi for significant growth. Furthermore, addition of IL 2 to M phi-stimulated cultures of Lyt-2- cells has no effect. T cells which produce IL 2 have the same growth characteristics as helper cells. In both cases, effector helper functions could be expanded more than 10-fold on a per cell basis by a 5-day-culture period under those growth supporting conditions. The development of effector helper functions, however, was strongly inhibited by the presence of Lyt-2+ T cells.

  13. Oxcarbazepine-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lymphocyte cultures with or without metabolic activation.

    PubMed

    Atlı Şekeroğlu, Zülal; Kefelioğlu, Haluk; Kontaş Yedier, Seval; Şekeroğlu, Vedat; Delmecioğlu, Berrin

    2017-03-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relationship between epilepsy and cancer. Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is used for treating certain types of seizures in patients with epilepsy. There have been no detailed investigations about genotoxicity of OXC and its metabolites. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of OXC and its metabolites on cultured human lymphocytes. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of OXC on human peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in vitro by sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. Cultures were treated with 125, 250 and 500 μg/ml of OXC in the presence (3 h treatment) and absence (24 h and 48 h treatment) of a metabolic activator (S9 mix). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a solvent control. OXC showed cytotoxic activities due to significant decreases in mitotic index (MI), proliferation index (PI) and nuclear division index (NDI) in the absence of S9 mix when compared with solvent control. Metabolites of OXC also significantly reduced MI and PI in cultures with S9 mix. OXC significantly increased the CAs, aberrant cells, SCE and MN values in the presence and absence of S9 mix. Our results indicated that both OXC and its metabolites have cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic potential on human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures under the experimental conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relationship between cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects, and to make a possible risk assessment in patients receiving therapy with this drug.

  14. Genomic damage induced by the widely used fungicide chlorothalonil in peripheral human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Santovito, Alfredo; Gendusa, Claudio; Ferraro, Francesca; Musso, Irene; Costanzo, Maria; Ruberto, Stefano; Cervella, Piero

    2018-06-18

    Chlorothalonil is an important broad spectrum fungicide widely used in agriculture, silviculture, and urban settings. As a result of its massive use, chlorothalonil was found in all environmental matrices, with consequent risks to the health of terrestrial and aquatic organisms, as well as for humans. We analyzed the effects of chlorothalonil on human lymphocytes using in vitro chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNi) assays. Lymphocytes were exposed to five concentrations of chlorothalonil: 0.600 µg/mL, 0.060 µg/mL, 0.030 µg/mL, 0.020 µg/mL, and 0.015 µg/mL, where 0.020 and 0.600 µg/mL represent the ADI and the ARfD concentration values, respectively, established by FAO/WHO for this compound; 0.030 and 0.060 μg/mL represent intermediate values of these concentrations and 0.015 μg/mL represents the ADI value established by the Canadian health and welfare agency. We observed cytogenetic effects of chlorothalonil on cultured human lymphocytes in terms of increased CAs and MNi frequencies at all tested concentrations, including the FAO/WHO ADI and ARfD values of 0.020 and 0.600 μg/mL, respectively, but with exception of the Canadian ADI value of 0.015 μg/mL. Finally, no sexes differences were found in the levels of CAs and MNi induced by different chlorothalonil concentrations. Similarly, the mitotic index and the cytokinesis-block proliferation index did not show any significant effect on the proliferative capacity of the cells, although at the chlorothalonil concentration of 0.600 μg/mL the P-values of both indices were borderline. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective effect of apigenin on radiation-induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Tungjai, Montree; Whorton, Elbert B.

    2005-01-01

    The potential use of flavonoids as a radioprotector is of increasing interest because of their high antioxidant activity and abundance in the diet. The aim of this study is to examine genotoxic and radioprotective effects of one of the most common flavonoids, apigenin, on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was used to evaluate such effects of apigenin. Blood samples were collected from two non-smoking healthy male volunteers who had no history of previous exposure to other clastogenic agents. Isolated lymphocytes were cultured. There were two tubes per concentration for all treatments. To evaluate the genotoxicity of apigenin, cells were first treated with different concentrations of apigenin (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 25 microg/mL) at 24 h after culture initiation, followed by cytochalasin-B (Cyt-B) treatment (3 microg/mL) and cell harvest at 44 and 72 h, respectively. Secondly, to investigate the radioprotective effect, cell cultures were exposed to different concentrations of apigenin as described above for 30 min before being irradiated to 2 Gy of 137Cs gamma rays (at a dose rate of 0.75 Gy/min). In all instances, the frequency of MN was scored in binucleated (BN) cells. The nuclear proliferation index also was calculated. We did not detect an increase in the frequency of MN in non-irradiated human lymphocyte cultures treated with 2.5, 5.0 or 10 microg/mL apigenin; although, we did observe an increase in cultures treated with 25 microg/mL apigenin (the highest concentration of apigenin used in our study). We also observed a significant increase in the frequency of MN in irradiated cells overall; however, the frequency was decreased as the concentration of apigenin increased, suggesting a radioprotective effect. These findings provide a basis for additional studies to help clarify the potential use and benefit of apigenin as a radioprotector.

  16. Strain-dependent airway hyperresponsiveness and a chromosome 7 locus of elevated lymphocyte numbers in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Bazett, Mark; Stefanov, Anguel N; Paun, Alexandra; Paradis, Josee; Haston, Christina K

    2012-03-01

    We previously observed the lungs of naive BALB/cJ Cftr(tm1UNC) mice to have greater numbers of lymphocytes, by immunohistochemical staining, than did BALB wild type littermates or C57BL/6J Cftr(tm1UNC) mice. In the present study, we initially investigated whether this mutation in Cftr alters the adaptive immunity phenotype by measuring the lymphocyte populations in the lungs and spleens by FACS and by evaluating CD3-stimulated cytokine secretion, proliferation, and apoptosis responses. Next, we assessed a potential influence of this lymphocyte phenotype on lung function through airway resistance measures. Finally, we mapped the phenotype of pulmonary lymphocyte counts in BALB × C57BL/6J F2 Cftr(tm1UNC) mice and reviewed positional candidate genes. By FACS analysis, both the lungs and spleens of BALB Cftr(tm1UNC) mice had more CD3(+) (both CD4(+) and CD8(+)) cells than did littermates or C57BL/6J Cftr(tm1UNC) mice. Cftr(tm1UNC) and littermate mice of either strain did not differ in anti-CD3-stimulated apoptosis or proliferation levels. Lymphocytes from BALB Cftr(tm1UNC) mice produced more IL-4 and IL-5 and reduced levels of IFN-γ than did littermates, whereas lymphocytes from C57BL/6J Cftr(tm1UNC) mice demonstrated increased Il-17 secretion. BALB Cftr(tm1UNC) mice presented an enhanced airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine challenge compared with littermates and C57BL/6J Cftr(tm1UNC) mice. A chromosome 7 locus was identified to be linked to lymphocyte numbers, and genetic evaluation of the interval suggests Itgal and Il4ra as candidate genes for this trait. We conclude that the pulmonary phenotype of BALB Cftr(tm1UNC) mice includes airway hyperresponsiveness and increased lymphocyte numbers, with the latter trait being influenced by a chromosome 7 locus.

  17. The top ten clues to understand the origin of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz, Ricardo; Feliu, Jesús; Llorente, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental task of the immune system is to protect the individual from infectious organisms without serious injury to self. The essence of acquired immunity is molecular self/non self discrimination. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by a global failure of immune system that begins with the failure of immunological tolerance mechanisms (autoimmunity) and finish with the incapacity to response to non-self antigens (immunodeficiency). Immunological tolerance mechanisms are involved in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) development. During B cell development some self-reactive B cells acquire a special BCR that recognize their own BCR. This self-autoantibody-self BCR interaction promotes survival, differentiation and proliferation of self-reactive B cells. Continuous self-autoantibody-self BCR interaction cross-linking induces an increased rate of surface BCR elimination, CD5+ expression, receptor editing and anergy. Unfortunately, some times this mechanisms increase genomic instability and promote additional genetic damage that immortalize self-reactive B cells and convert them into CLL like clones with the capability of clonal evolution and transformed CLL B cells. This review summarizes the immunological effects of continuous self-autoantibody-self BCR interaction cross-linking in the surface of self-reactive B cells and their role in CLL development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Attenuation of CXCR4 responses by CCL18 in acute lymphocytic leukemia B cells.

    PubMed

    Catusse, J; Wollner, S; Leick, M; Schröttner, P; Schraufstätter, I; Burger, M

    2010-11-01

    CCL18 and CXCL12 are homeostatic chemokines with high constitutive concentrations in serum. Elevated levels of CCL18 have been described in various diseases including childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) but its functions remain poorly characterized. Its receptor has not been identified, but functional cellular responses like lymphocyte chemotaxis have been described. CXCL12 is a pivotal chemokine for hematopoiesis and B cell homing processes. We demonstrate that CCL18 interferes with CXCL12-mediated pre-B ALL cell activation. CXCL12-induced calcium mobilization, chemotaxis, pseudo-emperipolesis and cellular proliferation could be significantly reduced by CCL18 in pre-B ALL cell lines. The results could be observed in primary cells from patients suffering from pre-B ALL, but not in cells from patients suffering from common ALL. Direct effects of CCL18 on the receptor for CXCL12, CXCR4, could be excluded. Moreover, we found that CCL18 modulations of CXCL12-induced responses are mediated through the chemokine-like receptor GPR30. CCL18 bound to GPR30 expressing cells, and antibodies against GPR30 abolished this binding as well as CCL18-mediated functional effects. We also observed that, CCL18 interferes with the activation of GPR30 by previously identified ligands (17β-estradiol and chemical agonists). We therefore suggest that CCL18 is an important modulator of CXCR4-dependent responses in pre-B ALL cells via interactions with GPR30. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Leptin and adiponectin supplementation modifies mesenteric lymph node lymphocyte composition and functionality in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Grases-Pintó, Blanca; Abril-Gil, Mar; Rodríguez-Lagunas, Maria J; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels

    2018-03-01

    At birth, when immune responses are insufficient, there begins the development of the defence capability against pathogens. Leptin and adiponectin, adipokines that are present in breast milk, have been shown to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. We report here, for the first time, the influence of in vivo adipokine supplementation on the intestinal immune system in early life. Suckling Wistar rats were daily supplemented with leptin (0·7 μg/kg per d, n 36) or adiponectin (35 μg/kg per d, n 36) during the suckling period. The lymphocyte composition, proliferation and cytokine secretion from mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes (on days 14 and 21), as well as intestinal IgA and IgM concentration (day 21), were evaluated. At day 14, leptin supplementation significantly increased the TCRαβ + cell proportion in mesenteric lymph nodes, in particular owing to an increase in the TCRαβ + CD8+ cell population. Moreover, the leptin or adiponectin supplementation promoted the early development CD8+ cells, with adiponectin being the only adipokine capable of enhancing the lymphoproliferative ability at the end of the suckling period. Although leptin decreased intestinal IgA concentration, it had a trophic effect on the intestine in early life. Supplementation of both adipokines modulated the cytokine profile during (day 14) and at the end (day 21) of the suckling period. These results suggest that leptin and adiponectin during suckling play a role in the development of mucosal immunity in early life.

  20. Deletion of muscarinic type 1 acetylcholine receptors alters splenic lymphocyte functions and splenic noradrenaline concentration.

    PubMed

    Hainke, Susanne; Wildmann, Johannes; Del Rey, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    The existence of interactions between the immune and the sympathetic nervous systems is well established. Noradrenaline can promote or inhibit the immune response, and conversely, the immune response itself can affect noradrenaline concentration in lymphoid organs, such as the spleen. It is also well known that acetylcholine released by pre-ganglionic neurons can modulate noradrenaline release by the postsynaptic neuron. The spleen does not receive cholinergic innervation, but it has been reported that lymphocytes themselves can produce acetylcholine, and express acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholinesterase. We found that the spleen of not overtly immunized mice in which muscarinic type 1 acetylcholine receptors have been knocked out (M1KO) has higher noradrenaline concentrations than that of the wildtype mice, without comparable alterations in the heart, in parallel to a decreased number of IgG-producing B cells. Splenic lymphocytes from M1KO mice displayed increased in vitro-induced cytotoxicity, and this was observed only when CD4(+) T cells were present. In contrast, heterozygous acetylcholinesterase (AChE+/-) mice, had no alterations in splenic noradrenaline concentration, but the in vitro proliferation of AChE+/- CD4(+) T cells was increased. It is theoretically conceivable that reciprocal effects between neuronally and non-neuronally derived acetylcholine and noradrenaline might contribute to the results reported. Our results emphasize the need to consider the balance between the effects of these mediators for the final immunoregulatory outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the K+ current in human CD4+ T lymphocytes in hypercholesterolemic state.

    PubMed

    Somodi, Sándor; Balajthy, András; Szilágyi, Orsolya; Pethő, Zoltán; Harangi, Mariann; Paragh, György; Panyi, György; Hajdu, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis involves immune mechanisms: T lymphocytes are found in atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting their activation during atherogenesis. The predominant voltage-gated potassium channel of T cells, Kv1.3 is a key regulator of the Ca(2+)-dependent activation pathway. In the present experiments we studied the proliferation capacity and functional changes of Kv1.3 channels in T cells from healthy and hypercholestaeremic patients. By means of CFSE-assay (carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester) we showed that spontaneous activation rate of lymphocytes in hypercholesterolemia was elevated and the antiCD3/antiCD28 co-stimulation was less effective as compared to the healthy group. Using whole-cell patch-clamping we obtained that the activation and deactivation kinetics of Kv1.3 channels were faster in hypercholesterolemic state but no change in other parameters of Kv1.3 were found (inactivation kinetics, steady-state activation, expression level). We suppose that incorporation of oxLDL species via its raft-rupturing effect can modify proliferative rate of T cells as well as the gating of Kv1.3 channels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in patients with pesticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Zerrin Defne; Ergin, Mehmet; Koylu, Ramazan; Ozer, Rasit; Cander, Basar; Gunaydin, Yahya Kemal

    2014-09-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic to human beings, and pesticide poisoning is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The identification of powerful prognostic markers is important for the management of patients with pesticide poisoning in emergency settings. To investigate the prognostic value of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and hematological parameters measured in patients with pesticide poisoning within the first 24 h after admission to the emergency department (ED). All patients (≥15 years old) admitted to the ED from July 2008 through February 2013 due to pesticide poisoning were enrolled in the study. The written and electronic medical charts of patients were reviewed. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio were calculated for each patient using absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts. Mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality were used as the primary endpoints. A total of 189 patients were included in the study. The mechanically ventilated patients had significantly higher leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively), whereas they had significantly lower lymphocyte counts compared to nonventilated patients (p = 0.011). Survivors had significantly higher leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively), whereas there was no significant difference between groups in terms of lymphocyte counts (p = 0.463), compared to nonsurvivors. Leukocyte counts, neutrophil counts, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios measured within the first 24 h after admission to the ED are useful and easy-to-use parameters for estimating prognosis in the follow-up of patients with pesticide poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Extracts of chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes have a high level of DNA repair activity for O/sup 6/-methylguanine

    SciTech Connect

    Waldstein, E.A.; Cao, E.H.; Miller, M.E.

    Extracts of peripheral lymphocytes from six individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were assayed for the ability to remove O/sup 6/-methylguanine (O/sup 6/MeGua) from exogenous DNA. The O/sup 6/MeGua-removing activity in CLL lymphocytes, predominantly B cells, was approximately 7-fold higher than in B lymphocytes of normal individuals and about 2-fold higher than in the unstimulated T type cells of normal persons. The activity measured in extracts of lymphocytes from three blood relatives was in the upper range of the normal distribution. Over 80% of the removal of O/sup 6/MeGua was accomplished by the transfer of the methyl group to cysteinemore » moieties of acceptor proteins in a stoichiometric reaction. If one assumes one acceptor group per acceptor protein, the calculated number of acceptor molecules per CLL lymphocyte falls between 91,000 and 220,000. Thus CLL lymphocytes do not show lower O/sup 6/MeGua-removing activity, in contrast to many tumor cell strains or transformed cell lines, which are reported to have a deficient methyl excision repair phenotype (Mer/sup -/). Instead, the CLL lymphocytes act as if they have a super-Mer/sup +/ phenotype.« less

  4. ATG-Fresenius inhibits blood circulating cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Werner, I; Seitz-Merwald, I; Kiessling, A H; Kur, F; Beiras-Fernandez, A

    2014-11-01

    Antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-Fresenius (Neovii-Biotech, Graefelfing, Germany), a highly purified rabbit polyclonal antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin resulting from immunization of rabbits with the Jurkat T-lymphoblast cell line, is currently used for the prevention of acute rejection in patients receiving solid organ transplants. Our aim was to investigate the in vitro activity of ATG-Fresenius regarding the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), an important mechanism of rejection after solid organ transplantation. PBMCs were isolated from 6 healthy donors. Proliferation was assayed using [(3)H] thymidine incorporation. For analysis of mitogen-stimulated proliferation, the PBMCs were incubated at 37°C with various concentrations of ATG-Fresenius in the absence/presence of 40 μg/mL phytohemagglutinin. For analysis of the mixed lymphocyte reaction, PBMCs were incubated at 37°C with various concentrations of ATG-Fresenius for 3 days. On day 3, PBMCs (stimulator cells) from allogeneic donors were incubated with 25 μg/mL mitomycin C. The responder cells (preincubated with ATG-Fresenius) were then cultured at 37°C with the stimulator cells for 6 days. Groups were compared using ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test. Preincubation of PBMCs with ATG results in concentration-dependent inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated proliferation. The effect was more pronounced after 2 and 3 days of treatment with ATG compared with 1 day. There was a concentration-dependent decrease in the mixed lymphocyte reaction-induced proliferation (up to 80%) at ATG-Fresenius concentrations as low as 0.05 to 0.5 μg/mL. No further effect on proliferation at ATG-Fresenius concentrations of 0.5 to 50 μg/mL was seen, and higher concentrations (>100 μg/mL) totally inhibited proliferation. Our in vitro results provide more evidence of the beneficial effect of ATGs in the early phase of solid organ transplantation, by reducing effector cell

  5. Epstein-Barr virus exploits intrinsic B-lymphocyte transcription programs to achieve immortal cell growth.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Zou, James; Wang, Hongfang; Johannsen, Eric; Peng, Chih-wen; Quackenbush, John; Mar, Jessica C; Morton, Cynthia Casson; Freedman, Matthew L; Blacklow, Stephen C; Aster, Jon C; Bernstein, Bradley E; Kieff, Elliott

    2011-09-06

    Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) regulation of transcription through the cell transcription factor RBPJ is essential for resting B-lymphocyte (RBL) conversion to immortal lymphoblast cell lines (LCLs). ChIP-seq of EBNA2 and RBPJ sites in LCL DNA found EBNA2 at 5,151 and RBPJ at 10,529 sites. EBNA2 sites were enriched for RBPJ (78%), early B-cell factor (EBF, 39%), RUNX (43%), ETS (39%), NFκB (22%), and PU.1 (22%) motifs. These motif associations were confirmed by LCL RBPJ ChIP-seq finding 72% RBPJ occupancy and Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements LCL ChIP-seq finding EBF, NFκB RELA, and PU.1 at 54%, 31%, and 17% of EBNA2 sites. EBNA2 and RBPJ were predominantly at intergene and intron sites and only 14% at promoter sites. K-means clustering of EBNA2 site transcription factors identified RELA-ETS, EBF-RUNX, EBF, ETS, RBPJ, and repressive RUNX clusters, which ranked from highest to lowest in H3K4me1 signals and nucleosome depletion, indicative of active chromatin. Surprisingly, although quantitatively less, the same genome sites in RBLs exhibited similar high-level H3K4me1 signals and nucleosome depletion. The EBV genome also had an LMP1 promoter EBF site, which proved critical for EBNA2 activation. LCL HiC data mapped intergenic EBNA2 sites to EBNA2 up-regulated genes. FISH and chromatin conformation capture linked EBNA2/RBPJ enhancers 428 kb 5' of MYC to MYC. These data indicate that EBNA2 evolved to target RBL H3K4me1 modified, nucleosome-depleted, nonpromoter sites to drive B-lymphocyte proliferation in primary human infection. The primed RBL program likely supports antigen-induced proliferation.

  6. Alterations in T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with syphilis.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, J R; From, E

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of T-lymphocyte subpopulations was studied in 34 patients with primary or secondary syphilis before and after treatment. An absolute and relative T lymphopenia was found in all patients. In primary syphilis the concentration of helper cells--T cells with Fc receptors for IgM (T mu)--was low whereas in secondary syphilis the suppressor cell concentration--T cells with Fc receptors for IgG (T gamma)--was reduced. Using lymphocytes from healthy subjects this could be imitated in vitro by the addition of serum from patients with secondary syphilis. In many autoimmune diseases a low concentration of T gamma may be a primary factor in the production of autoantibodies. The occurrence of similar changes in patients with secondary syphilis, however, indicates that such fluctuations in the T-cell subpopulations may take place during a strong immune response. PMID:6459815

  7. NCCN Guidelines Insights: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Leukemia, Version 1.2017.

    PubMed

    Wierda, William G; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Gordon, Leo I; Abramson, Jeremy S; Advani, Ranjana H; Andreadis, C Babis; Bartlett, Nancy; Byrd, John C; Caimi, Paolo; Fayad, Luis E; Fisher, Richard I; Glenn, Martha J; Habermann, Thomas M; Harris, Nancy Lee; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Hoppe, Richard T; Horwitz, Steven M; Kaminski, Mark S; Kelsey, Christopher R; Kim, Youn H; Krivacic, Susan; LaCasce, Ann S; Martin, Michael G; Nademanee, Auayporn; Porcu, Pierluigi; Press, Oliver; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Reddy, Nishitha; Reid, Erin; Roberts, Kenneth; Saad, Ayman A; Snyder, Erin D; Sokol, Lubomir; Swinnen, Lode J; Vose, Julie M; Yahalom, Joachim; Dwyer, Mary A; Sundar, Hema

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are different manifestations of the same disease and managed in much the same way. The advent of novel CD20 monoclonal antibodies led to the development of effective chemoimmunotherapy regimens. More recently, small molecule inhibitors targeting kinases involved in a number of critical signaling pathways and a small molecule inhibitor of the BCL-2 family of proteins have demonstrated activity for the treatment of patients with CLL/SLL. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight important updates to the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for CLL/SLL for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  8. The anti-proliferative effect of cation channel blockers in T lymphocytes depends on the strength of mitogenic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Petho, Zoltan; Balajthy, Andras; Bartok, Adam; Bene, Krisztian; Somodi, Sandor; Szilagyi, Orsolya; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Panyi, Gyorgy; Varga, Zoltan

    2016-03-01

    Ion channels are crucially important for the activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes, and thus, for the function of the immune system. Previous studies on the effects of channel blockers on T cell proliferation reported variable effectiveness due to differing experimental systems. Therefore our aim was to investigate how the strength of the mitogenic stimulation influences the efficiency of cation channel blockers in inhibiting activation, cytokine secretion and proliferation of T cells under standardized conditions. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were activated via monoclonal antibodies targeting the TCR-CD3 complex and the co-stimulator CD28. We applied the blockers of Kv1.3 (Anuroctoxin), KCa3.1 (TRAM-34) and CRAC (2-Apb) channels of T cells either alone or in combination with rapamycin, the inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Five days after the stimulation ELISA and flow cytometric measurements were performed to determine IL-10 and IFN-γ secretion, cellular viability and proliferation. Our results showed that ion channel blockers and rapamycin inhibit IL-10 and IFN-γ secretion and cell division in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneous application of the blockers for each channel along with rapamycin was the most effective, indicating synergy among the various activation pathways. Upon increasing the extent of mitogenic stimulation the anti-proliferative effect of the ion channel blockers diminished. This phenomenon may be important in understanding the fine-tuning of T cell activation. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antigen-binding thymus-derived lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Nancy M.; Greaves, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Thymus-derived `rosette'-forming lymphocytes which have been separated from other SRBC-sensitive cells by means of cotton wool columns were examined for the presence of immunoglobulin. This was carried out by inhibition of rosette formation by anti-immunoglobulin sera. Inhibition was effected by a number of anti-IgM sera shown to contain antibodies with specificities directed towards the `hinge' region of the μ chain. No other heavy chain specific antisera were inhibitory. The ratio of rosette inhibition by anti-κ and anti-λ light chain sera varied during the course of the response to SRBC, the latter inhibiting by 89 per cent 3 days post-immunization. PMID:4113387

  10. Immunotherapy in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL).

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ciara L; Gribben, John G

    2016-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is well known to generate impaired immune responses in the host, with the malignant clone residing in well-vascularized tissues and circulating in peripheral blood but also in close proximity to effector cells that are capable, if activated appropriately, of eliciting a cytotoxic response. These, combined with the fact that this is frequently a condition affecting older patients with co-morbidities often unfit for many "traditional" cytotoxic agents with their significant associated toxicities, make CLL an ideal candidate for the development of immunotherapy. The impressive results seen with the addition of a monoclonal antibody, rituximab, to a chemotherapy backbone, for example, is testament to how effective harnessing an immune-mediated response in CLL can be. This review serves to outline the available arsenal of immunotherapies-past and present-demonstrated to have potential in CLL with some perspectives on how the landscape in this disease may evolve in the future.

  11. Effect of Microgravity on Mammalian Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, H.; Blackshear, M.; Mahaffey, K.; Knight, C.; Khan, A. A.; Delucas, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on mammalian system is an important and interesting topic for scientific investigation, since NASA s objective is to send manned flights to planets like Mars and eventual human colonization.The Astronauts will be exposed to microgravity environment for a long duration of time during these flights.Our objective of research is to conduct in vitro studies for the effect of microgravity on mammalian immune system.We did our preliminary investigations by exposing mammalian lymphocytes to a microgravity simulator cell bioreactor designed by NASA and manufactured at Synthecon Inc (USA).Our initial results showed no significant change in cytokine expression in these cells for a time period of forty eight hours exposure.Our future experiments will involve exposure for a longer period of time.

  12. Effect of Microgravity on Mammalian Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, H.; Blackshear, M.; Mahaffey, K.; Khan, A. A.; Delucas, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on mammalian system is an important and interesting topic for scientific investigation, since NASA s objective is to send manned flights to planets like Mars and eventual human colonization. The Astronauts will be exposed to microgravity environment for a long duration of time during these flights. Our objective of research is to conduct in vitro studies for the effect of microgravity on mammalian immune system and nervous system. We did our preliminary investigations by exposing mammalian lymphocytes and astrocyte cells to a microgravity simulator cell bioreactor designed by NASA and manufactured at Synthecon, Inc. (USA).Our initial results showed no significant change in cytokine expression in these cells up to a time period of 120 hours exposure. Our future experiments will involve exposure for a longer period of time.

  13. Casein expression in cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Grusby, M J; Mitchell, S C; Nabavi, N; Glimcher, L H

    1990-01-01

    A cDNA that expresses a mRNA restricted to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and mammary tissue has been isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence from this cDNA shows extensive homology with the previously reported amino acid sequence for rat alpha-casein. Indeed, the presence of a six-residue-repeated motif that is specific for rodent alpha-caseins strongly supports the identification of this cDNA as mouse alpha-casein. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of many hematopoietic cell types revealed that this gene is restricted to CTL, being expressed in four of six CTL lines examined. Furthermore, CTL that express this gene were also found to express other members of the casein gene family, such as beta- and kappa-casein. These results suggest that caseins may be important in CTL function, and their potential role in CTL-mediated lysis is discussed. Images PMID:2395885

  14. [Lymphocyte metabolism in children with extensive burns].

    PubMed

    Artem'ev, S A; Nazarov, I P; Kamzalakova, N I; Bulygin, G V

    2009-01-01

    The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the development of burn disease in children is accompanied by significant lymphocytic structural metabolic changes that determine the functional capabilities of cells and the immune system as a whole. There is an evident activation of the glutathione antioxidant system, a drastic activation of enzymes that ensure Krebs cycle reactions, as well as activation of anaerobic processes. The above changes are mainly caused by the activated sympathoadrenal system that is characteristic of stresses. The knowledge about the metabolic mechanisms responsible for the development of cellular reactions to burn shock and burn disease permits specification of the elements of the pathogenesis of these severe conditions and substantiation of the possibility of using metabolic correction in the complex treatment of children with the above pathology.

  15. Metabolism pathways in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rozovski, Uri; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Barzilay, Merav; Keating, Michael J.; Estrov, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in CLL cell metabolism have been studied by several investigators. Unlike normal B lymphocytes or other leukemia cells, CLL cells, like adipocytes, store lipids and utilize free fatty acids (FFA) to produce chemical energy. None of the recently identified mutations in CLL directly affects metabolic pathways, suggesting that genetic alterations do not directly contribute to CLL cells’ metabolic reprogramming. Conversely, recent data suggest that activation of STAT3 or downregulation of microRNA-125 levels plays a crucial role in the utilization of FFA to meet CLL cells’ metabolic needs. STAT3, known to be constitutively activated in CLL, increases the levels of lipoprotein lipase that mediates lipoprotein uptake and shifts CLL cells’ metabolism towards utilization of FFA. Herein we review the evidence for altered lipid metabolism, increased mitochondrial activity, and formation of reactive oxygen species in CLL cells, and discuss possible therapeutic strategies to inhibit lipid metabolism pathways in patient with CLL. PMID:26643954

  16. Minimal residual disease in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    García Vela, José Antonio; García Marco, José Antonio

    2018-02-23

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment is an important endpoint in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It is highly predictive of prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival and could be considered a surrogate for PFS in the context of chemoimmunotherapy based treatment. Evaluation of MRD level by flow cytometry or molecular techniques in the era of the new BCR and Bcl-2 targeted inhibitors could identify the most cost-effective and durable treatment sequencing. A therapeutic approach guided by the level of MRD might also determine which patients would benefit from an early stop or consolidation therapy. In this review, we discuss the different MRD methods of analysis, which source of tumour samples must be analysed, the future role of the detection of circulating tumour DNA, and the potential role of MRD negativity in clinical practice in the modern era of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Ibrutinib: A Review in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Deeks, Emma D

    2017-02-01

    Ibrutinib (Imbruvica ® ) is an oral irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, a B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling kinase expressed by various haematopoietic cells, B-cell lymphomas and leukaemias. The drug is indicated for the treatment of certain haematological malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), which are the focus of this review. In phase III CLL/SLL trials, ibrutinib monotherapy was more effective than chlorambucil in the first-line treatment of elderly patients (RESONATE-2) and more effective than ofatumumab in previously-treated adults (RESONATE). Likewise, a combination of ibrutinib, bendamustine and rituximab was more effective in previously-treated adults than bendamustine plus rituximab in a phase III placebo-controlled study (HELIOS). These ibrutinib regimens were associated with significantly better progression-free survival, overall response rates, and overall survival than the comparators (in protocol-specified or planned analyses), with ibrutinib therapy providing benefit regardless of adverse prognostic factors, such as del(17p)/TP53 mutation and del(11q). Ibrutinib has an acceptable tolerability profile, although certain adverse events (e.g. bleeding and atrial fibrillation) require consideration. Redistribution lymphocytosis can occur, but is not indicative of disease progression. Although longer-term data would be beneficial, ibrutinib is a welcome treatment option for patients with CLL, including those who have higher-risk disease or are less physically fit. Indeed, current EU and US guidelines recommend/prefer the drug for the first- and/or subsequent-line treatment of certain patients, including those with del(17p)/TP53 mutation.

  18. Chronic Consumption of Sweeteners and Its Effect on Glycaemia, Cytokines, Hormones, and Lymphocytes of GALT in CD1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Durán, Ninfa

    2018-01-01

    Background The consumption of sweeteners has increased in recent years, being used to control body weight and blood glucose. However, they can cause increased appetite, modification of immune function, and secretion of hormones in the GALT. Objective To assess the effect of chronic sweetener consumption on glycaemia, cytokines, hormones, and GALT lymphocytes in CD1 mice. Material and Methods 72 CD1 mice divided into 3 groups were used: (a) baseline, (b) middle, and (c) final. Groups (b) and (c) were divided into 4 subgroups: (i) Control, (ii) Sucrose, (iii) Sucralose, and (iv) Stevia. The following were determined: body weight, hormones (GIP, insulin, and leptin), lymphocytes CD3+T cells and CD19+B cells, IgA+ plasma cells, and cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). Results Sucralose reduces secretion of GIP and glycaemia but does not modify insulin concentration, increases body weight, and reduces food intake. Stevia increases the secretion of GIP, insulin, leptin, body weight, and glycaemia but keeps food consumption normal. Sucralose and Stevia showed a higher percentage of CD3+T cells, CD19+B cells, and IgA+ plasma cells in Peyer's patches, but only Stevia in lamina propria. Conclusion Sweeteners modulate the hormonal response of cytokines and the proliferation of lymphocytes in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:29854725

  19. Genotoxic potential of bee venom (Apis Mellifera) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro using single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2008-09-01

    Bee venom (BV) has been known to have therapeutic applications in traditional medicine to treat variety of diseases. It is also known that bee venom possesses anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects and that it can inhibit proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but there is lack of information regarding genotoxicity of whole bee venom on normal human cells. In the present study, peripheral blood human lymphocytes from healthy donor were exposed in vitro to different concentration (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 micro g/mL) of whole bee venom at different time periods (1, 6 and 24 hours). The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity towards human cells. Results showed statistically significant increase in DNA damage caused in BV treated human lymphocytes compared to corresponding control cells for the tail length and tail moment. These results show that the extent of DNA damage, determined by the use of single cell gel electrophoresis is time and dose dependent. Based on the results it is clear that whole bee venom induces DNA damage and has genotoxic potential on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro.

  20. THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ANTI-LYMPHOCYTE SERUM

    PubMed Central

    Lance, Eugene M.

    1969-01-01

    Studies designed to gain insight into the mechanism of action of the active component of antilymphocyte serum were carried out using an antibody eluate prepared from the IgG fraction of anti-lymphocyte serum by absorption and subsequent elution from thymocyte membrane. The resulting antibody eluate was labeled with radionuclide tracer to determine the fate of the antibody in vivo. The result indicated that anti-lymphocytic antibodies are eliminated from recipients extremely rapidly. The mechanism for this rapid clearance appears to depend upon the absorption of antibody molecules onto lymphocyte surfaces and the subsequent clearing and degradation of the antibody-lymphocyte complexes by the reticuloendothelial system. Distribution studies confirm that the major site of antibody-lymphocyte interaction occurs in the periphery with relatively little penetration of antibody within lymphoid organs. Radioautographic studies showed that the pattern of localization within lymphoid and other organs is confined to rather specific areas. These observations are believed to offer strong support for the notion that anti-lymphocyte serum achieves its immunosuppressive effect by bringing about a selective ablation of the population of recirculating lymphocytes. PMID:4183778

  1. The effect of the immunophilin ligands rapamycin and FK506 on proliferation of mast cells and other hematopoietic cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hultsch, T; Martin, R; Hohman, R J

    1992-01-01

    The immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and cyclosporin A have an identical spectrum of activities with respect to IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI)-mediated exocytosis from mast cells and T cell receptor-mediated transcription of IL-2. These findings suggest a common step in receptor-mediated signal transduction leading to exocytosis and transcription and imply that immunosuppressive drugs target specific signal transduction pathways, rather than specific cell types. This hypothesis is supported by studies on the effect of rapamycin on IL-3 dependent proliferation of the rodent mast cell line PT18. Rapamycin inhibits proliferation of PT18 cells, achieving a plateau of 80% inhibition at 1 nM. This inhibition is prevented in a competitive manner by FK506, a structural analogue of rapamycin. Proliferation of rat basophilic leukemia cells and WEHI-3 cells was also inhibited, at doses comparable to those shown previously to inhibit IL-2-dependent proliferation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte line (CTLL) cells. In contrast, proliferation of A-431 cells, a epidermoid cell line, was not affected by rapamycin. DNA histograms indicate that complexes formed between the rapamycin-FK506-binding protein (FKBP) and rapamycin arrest-proliferating PT18 cells in the G0/G1-phase. It is concluded that FKBP-rapamycin complexes may inhibit proliferative signals emanating from IL-3 receptors, resulting in growth arrest of cytokine-dependent, hematopoietic cells. PMID:1384815

  2. Impact of ingestion of rice bran and shitake mushroom extract on lymphocyte function and cytokine production in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Giese, Scott; Sabell, George Richard; Coussons-Read, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a controlled evaluation of the ability of dietary supplementation with a commercially available rice bran extract modified with shitake mushroom extract (MGN-3) to support the immune function by assessing the ability of immunocytes to proliferate and produce cytokines in response to a mitogenic challenge. Twenty-four male Lewis rats were fed a control diet (Maypo sweetened oatmeal) or Maypo containing the recommended daily dose of MGN-3 for 2 weeks. This treatment modestly enhanced mitogen enhanced proliferation of splenocytes and interferon-gamma (IFN-g) production, and significantly increased proliferation of splenocytes to the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) as well as natural killer (NK) cell activity and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) by stimulated lymphocytes. These data support the contention that ingestion of MGN-3 can support immune cell function. These data add to a growing body of data showing that ingestion of MGN-3 improves the ability of immune cells to proliferate the lyse tumor cells, suggesting that it may have utility as a dietary aid to support the immune system.

  3. Methionine enkephalin (MENK) improves lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood of 50 cancer patients by inhibiting regulatory T cells (Tregs)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiushi; Gao, Xinghua; Yuan, Zhe; Wang, Zhe; Meng, Yiming; Cao, Yan; Plotnikoff, Nicolas P; Griffin, Noreen; Shan, Fengping

    2014-01-01

    MENK, a penta-peptide is considered as being involved in the regulatory feedback loop between the immune and neuroendocrine systems, with marked modulation of various functions of human immune cells. The aim of the present work was to investigate change of lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood of 50 cancer patients before and after treatment with MENK. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of peripheral blood from 50 cancer patients were isolated by density gradient centrifugation using Ficoll-Paque solution and cultured with MENK. We measured proliferation of total nucleated cells, subpopulations of individual CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg), natural killer cells (NK) before and after treatment with 10-12M MENK in cell culture by flow cytometry (FCM). Our results indicated that MENK showed a strong inhibiting effect on Treg cells while it stimulated marked proliferation of other lymphocyte subpopulations. All data obtained were of significance statistically. It was therefore concluded that MENK could work as a strong immune booster with great potential in restoring damaged human immune system and we could consider MENK as a drug to treat cancer patients, whose immune systems are damaged by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Furthermore we could consider MENK as a chemotherapy additive, which would sustain immune system of cancer patients during the process of chemotherapy to get maximized efficacy with minimized side effect. PMID:25424790

  4. Mesenchymal stromal cells derived from cervical cancer produce high amounts of adenosine to suppress cytotoxic T lymphocyte functions.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Mora-García, María; García-Rocha, Rosario; Morales-Ramírez, Omar; Montesinos, Juan José; Weiss-Steider, Benny; Hernández-Montes, Jorge; Ávila-Ibarra, Luis Roberto; Don-López, Christian Azucena; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Gutiérrez-Serrano, Vianey; Monroy-García, Alberto

    2016-10-26

    In recent years, immunomodulatory mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) from bone marrow and other "classic" sources have been described. However, the phenotypic and functional properties of tumor MSCs are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the immunosuppressive capacity of cervical cancer-derived MSCs (CeCa-MSCs) on effector T lymphocytes through the purinergic pathway. We determined the expression and functional activity of the membrane-associated ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 on CeCa-MSCs and normal cervical tissue-derived MSCs (NCx-MSCs). We also analyzed their immunosuppressive capacity to decrease proliferation, activation and effector cytotoxic T (CD8+) lymphocyte function through the generation of adenosine (Ado). We detected that CeCa-MSCs express higher levels of CD39 and CD73 ectonucleotidases in cell membranes compared to NCx-MSCs, and that this feature was associated with the ability to strongly suppress the proliferation, activation and effector functions of cytotoxic T-cells through the generation of large amounts of Ado from the hydrolysis of ATP, ADP and AMP nucleotides. This study suggests that CeCa-MSCs play an important role in the suppression of the anti-tumor immune response in CeCa through the purinergic pathway.

  5. Human T lymphocytes express N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors functionally active in controlling T cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Miglio, Gianluca; Varsaldi, Federica; Lombardi, Grazia

    2005-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and the functional role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in human T cells. RT-PCR analysis showed that human resting peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and Jurkat T cells express genes encoding for both NR1 and NR2B subunits: phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated PBL also expresses both these genes and the NR2A and NR2D genes. Cytofluorimetric analysis showed that NR1 expression increases as a consequence of PHA (10 {mu}g/ml) treatment. D-(-)-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), and (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine [(+)-MK 801], competitive and non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists, respectively, inhibited PHA-induced T cell proliferation, whereas they did not affect IL-2 (10more » U/ml)-induced proliferation of PHA blasts. These effects were due to the prevention of T cell activation (inhibition of cell aggregate formation and CD25 expression), but not to cell cycle arrest or death. These results demonstrate that human T lymphocytes express NMDA receptors, which are functionally active in controlling cell activation.« less

  6. PARP1 expression, activity and ex vivo sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor, talazoparib (BMN 673), in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Herriott, Ashleigh; Tudhope, Susan J.; Junge, Gesa; Rodrigues, Natalie; Patterson, Miranda J.; Woodhouse, Laura; Lunec, John; Hunter, Jill E.; Mulligan, Evan A.; Cole, Michael; Allinson, Lisa M.; Wallis, Jonathan P.; Marshall, Scott; Wang, Evelyn; Curtin, Nicola J.; Willmore, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mutation and loss of p53 and ATM abrogate DNA damage signalling and predict poorer response and shorter survival. We hypothesised that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity, which is crucial for repair of DNA breaks induced by oxidative stress or chemotherapy, may be an additional predictive biomarker and a target for therapy with PARP inhibitors. We measured PARP activity in 109 patient-derived CLL samples, which varied widely (192 – 190052 pmol PAR/106 cells) compared to that seen in healthy volunteer lymphocytes (2451 – 7519 pmol PAR/106 cells). PARP activity was associated with PARP1 protein expression and endogenous PAR levels. PARP activity was not associated with p53 or ATM loss, Binet stage, IGHV mutational status or survival, but correlated with Bcl-2 and Rel A (an NF-kB subunit). Levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in DNA (a marker of oxidative damage) were not associated with PAR levels or PARP activity. The potent PARP inhibitor, talazoparib (BMN 673), inhibited CD40L-stimulated proliferation of CLL cells at nM concentrations, independently of Binet stage or p53/ATM function. PARP activity is highly variable in CLL and correlates with stress-induced proteins. Proliferating CLL cells (including those with p53 or ATM loss) are highly sensitive to the PARP inhibitor talazoparib. PMID:26539646

  7. Abnormal proliferation of CD4- CD8+ gammadelta+ T cells with chromosome 6 anomaly: role of Fas ligand expression in spontaneous regression of the cells.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, N; Kitano, K; Ito, T; Nakazawa, T; Shimodaira, S; Ishida, F; Kiyosawa, K

    1999-04-01

    We report a case of granular lymphocyte proliferative disorder accompanied with hemolytic anemia and neutropenia. Phenotypes of the cells were T cell receptor gammadelta+ CD3+ CD4- CD8+ CD16+ CD56- CD57-. Southern blot analysis of T cell receptor beta and gamma chains demonstrated rearranged bands in both. Chromosomal analysis after IL-2 stimulation showed deletion of chromosome 6. Sorted gammadelta+ T cells showed an increase in Fas ligand expression compared with the levels in sorted alphabeta+ T cells. The expression of Fas ligand on these gammadelta+ T cells increased after IL-2 stimulation. The patient's anemia improved along with a decrease in granular lymphocyte count and disappearance of the abnormal karyotype without treatment. The expression of Fas ligand may be involved in spontaneous regression of granular lymphocyte proliferation with hemolytic anemia.

  8. Changes in gravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, N. R.; Goodwin, T. J.; Risin, D.; McIntyre, B. W.; Pizzini, R. P.; Cooper, D.; Baker, T. L.; Spaulding, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    Immunity relies on the circulation of lymphocytes through many different tissues including blood vessels, lymphatic channels, and lymphoid organs. The ability of lymphocytes to traverse the interstitium in both nonlymphoid and lymphoid tissues can be determined in vitro by assaying their capacity to locomote through Type I collagen. In an attempt to characterize potential causes of microgravity-induced immunosuppression, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity on human lymphocyte function in vitro using a specialized rotating-wall vessel culture system developed at the Johnson Space Center. This very low shear culture system randomizes gravitational vectors and provides an in vitro approximation of microgravity. In the randomized gravity of the rotating-wall vessel culture system, peripheral blood lymphocytes did not locomote through Type I collagen, whereas static cultures supported normal movement. Although cells remained viable during the entire culture period, peripheral blood lymphocytes transferred to unit gravity (static culture) after 6 h in the rotating-wall vessel culture system were slow to recover and locomote into collagen matrix. After 72 h in the rotating-wall vessel culture system and an additional 72 h in static culture, peripheral blood lymphocytes did not recover their ability to locomote. Loss of locomotory activity in rotating-wall vessel cultures appears to be related to changes in the activation state of the lymphocytes and the expression of adhesion molecules. Culture in the rotating-wall vessel system blunted the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to polyclonal activation with phytohemagglutinin. Locomotory response remained intact when peripheral blood lymphocytes were activated by anti-CD3 antibody and interleukin-2 prior to introduction into the rotating-wall vessel culture system. Thus, in addition to the systemic stress factors that may affect immunity, isolated lymphocytes respond to gravitational changes

  9. Extended Treatment with Single-Agent Ibrutinib at the 420 mg Dose Leads to Durable Responses in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Coutré, Steven E; Furman, Richard R; Flinn, Ian W; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie; Sharman, Jeff; Jones, Jeffrey; Wierda, William; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Tran, Anh; Zhou, Cathy; Bilotti, Elizabeth; James, Danelle F; Byrd, John C; O'Brien, Susan

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Ibrutinib, a first-in-class, once-daily, oral inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase, promotes apoptosis, and inhibits B-cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Ibrutinib has demonstrated single-agent efficacy and acceptable tolerability at doses of 420 and 840 mg in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) who were treatment-naïve (TN) or had relapsed/refractory (R/R) CLL after ≥1 prior therapy in a phase Ib/II study (PCYC-1102). Subsequently, the ibrutinib 420 mg dose was approved in CLL. Experimental Design: We report data with 44 months of follow-up on 94 patients with TN and R/R CLL/SLL receiving ibrutinib 420 mg once-daily in PCYC-1102 and the long-term extension study PCYC-1103. Results: Ninety-four CLL/SLL patients (27 TN, 67 R/R) were treated with ibrutinib (420 mg/day). Patients with R/R disease had received a median of four prior therapies (range, 1-12). Responses were rapid and durable and median duration of response was not reached. Best overall response was 91% [85% TN (complete response, CR 26%) and 94% R/R (9% CR)]. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was not reached in either group. The 30-month PFS rate was 96% and 76% for TN and R/R patients, respectively. Ibrutinib was well tolerated with extended follow-up; rates of grade ≥3 cytopenias and fatigue, as well as discontinuations due to toxicities decreased over time. Conclusions: Single-agent ibrutinib at 420 mg once-daily resulted in durable responses and was well tolerated with up to 44 months follow-up in patients with TN and R/R CLL/SLL. Currently, 66% of patients continue on ibrutinib. Clin Cancer Res; 23(5); 1149-55. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of different types of dental cement on normal cultured human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bakopoulou, A; Mourelatos, D; Tsiftsoglou, A S; Giassin, N P; Mioglou, E; Garefis, P

    2009-01-31

    In this study we have investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of eluates derived from different types of commercially available dental cements, including glass ionomer cements (GICs) (Ketac Cem/3M ESPE and GC Fuji I/GC Corp), resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RM-GICs) (RelyX Luting/3M ESPE and Vitrebond/3M ESPE) and dual-cure resin cements (RCs) (Variolink II/ Ivoclar-Vivadent and Panavia F 2.0/Kuraray) on normal cultured human lymphocytes. Lymphocyte primary cultures obtained from blood samples of three healthy donors were exposed to serial dilutions of eluates derived from specimens of each material tested. Metaphases were induced with phytohaemagglutinin, collected after 72h treatment by use of colchicine and stained according to the fluorescence plus giemsa (FPG) procedure. Preparations were scored for sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs), while the proliferation rate index (PRI) was also calculated. Our results show that eluates derived from the RM-GICs and RCs caused severe genotoxic effects by significantly increasing the frequencies of SCEs and CAs in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes and by decreasing the relevant PRI values in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the two GICs caused only minor cytogenetic effects. Eluates of the two RM-GICs (Vitrebond and RelyX) were also very cytotoxic, as the first serial dilutions of both materials caused a complete mitotic arrest in lymphocyte cultures. Overall, the degree of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity caused by dental cements decreased as follows: Viterbond>Rely X>Panavia F 2.0>Variolink II>Ketac Cem=GC Fuji I. These results indicate that different types of dental cement differ extensively in their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and their ability to affect chromosomal integrity, cell-cycle progression, DNA replication and repair. Although these results cannot be directly extrapolated to the clinical situation, the potential occurrence of adverse effects caused by the

  11. Lymphocytes and Macrophages Are Infected by Theileria equi, but T Cells and B Cells Are Not Required to Establish Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Joshua D.; Ueti, Massaro W.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Scoles, Glen A.; Knowles, Donald P.; Mealey, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Theileria equi has a biphasic life cycle in horses, with a period of intraleukocyte development followed by patent erythrocytic parasitemia that causes acute and sometimes fatal hemolytic disease. Unlike Theileria spp. that infect cattle (Theileria parva and Theileria annulata), the intraleukocyte stage (schizont) of Theileria equi does not cause uncontrolled host cell proliferation or other significant pathology. Nevertheless, schizont-infected leukocytes are of interest because of their potential to alter host cell function and because immune responses directed against this stage could halt infection and prevent disease. Based on cellular morphology, Theileria equi has been reported to infect lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro, but the specific phenotype of schizont-infected cells has yet to be defined. To resolve this knowledge gap in Theileria equi pathogenesis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected in vitro and the phenotype of infected cells determined using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. These experiments demonstrated that the host cell range of Theileria equi was broader than initially reported and included B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. To determine if B and T lymphocytes were required to establish infection in vivo, horses affected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which lack functional B and T lymphocytes, were inoculated with Theileria equi sporozoites. SCID horses developed patent erythrocytic parasitemia, indicating that B and T lymphocytes are not necessary to complete the Theileria equi life cycle in vivo. These findings suggest that the factors mediating Theileria equi leukocyte invasion and intracytoplasmic differentiation are common to several leukocyte subsets and are less restricted than for Theileria annulata and Theileria parva. These data will greatly facilitate future investigation into the relationships between Theileria equi leukocyte tropism and pathogenesis, breed

  12. Lymphocytes and macrophages are infected by Theileria equi, but T cells and B cells are not required to establish infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Joshua D; Ueti, Massaro W; Johnson, Wendell C; Scoles, Glen A; Knowles, Donald P; Mealey, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Theileria equi has a biphasic life cycle in horses, with a period of intraleukocyte development followed by patent erythrocytic parasitemia that causes acute and sometimes fatal hemolytic disease. Unlike Theileria spp. that infect cattle (Theileria parva and Theileria annulata), the intraleukocyte stage (schizont) of Theileria equi does not cause uncontrolled host cell proliferation or other significant pathology. Nevertheless, schizont-infected leukocytes are of interest because of their potential to alter host cell function and because immune responses directed against this stage could halt infection and prevent disease. Based on cellular morphology, Theileria equi has been reported to infect lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro, but the specific phenotype of schizont-infected cells has yet to be defined. To resolve this knowledge gap in Theileria equi pathogenesis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected in vitro and the phenotype of infected cells determined using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. These experiments demonstrated that the host cell range of Theileria equi was broader than initially reported and included B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. To determine if B and T lymphocytes were required to establish infection in vivo, horses affected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which lack functional B and T lymphocytes, were inoculated with Theileria equi sporozoites. SCID horses developed patent erythrocytic parasitemia, indicating that B and T lymphocytes are not necessary to complete the Theileria equi life cycle in vivo. These findings suggest that the factors mediating Theileria equi leukocyte invasion and intracytoplasmic differentiation are common to several leukocyte subsets and are less restricted than for Theileria annulata and Theileria parva. These data will greatly facilitate future investigation into the relationships between Theileria equi leukocyte tropism and pathogenesis, breed

  13. Expression of calpain-calpastatin system (CCS) member proteins in human lymphocytes of young and elderly individuals; pilot baseline data for the CALPACENT project.

    PubMed

    Mikosik, Anna; Foerster, Jerzy; Jasiulewicz, Aleksandra; Frąckowiak, Joanna; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Bulati, Matteo; Buffa, Silvio; Martorana, Adriana; Caruso, Calogero; Bryl, Ewa; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2013-07-08

    Ubiquitous system of regulatory, calcium-dependent, cytoplasmic proteases - calpains - and their endogenous inhibitor - calpastatin - is implicated in the proteolytic regulation of activation, proliferation, and apoptosis of many cell types. However, it has not been thoroughly studied in resting and activated human lymphocytes yet, especially in relation to the subjects' ageing process. The CALPACENT project is an international (Polish-Italian) project aiming at verifying the hypothesis of the role of calpains in the function of peripheral blood immune cells of Polish (Pomeranian) and Italian (Sicilian) centenarians, apparently relatively preserved in comparison to the general elderly population. In this preliminary report we aimed at establishing and comparing the baseline levels of expression of μ- and m-calpain and calpastatin in various, phenotypically defined, populations of human peripheral blood lymphocytes for healthy elderly Sicilians and Poles, as compared to these values observed in young cohort. We have found significant differences in the expression of both μ- and m-calpain as well as calpastatin between various populations of peripheral blood lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+), both between the age groups compared and within them. Interestingly, significantly higher amounts of μ- and m-calpains but not of calpastatin could be demonstrated in the CD4+CD28- and CD8+CD28- lymphocytes of old subjects (but not in the cells of young individuals), as compared to their CD28+ counterparts. Finally, decreased expression of both calpains in the elderly T cells is not related to the accumulation of effector/memory (CD45RO+) cells in the latter, as the expression of both calpains does not differ significantly between the naïve and memory T cells, while is significantly lower for elderly lymphocytes if both populations are taken separately. Observed differences in the amounts of CCS member proteins between various populations of lymphocytes of young and elderly

  14. Ex vivo expansion of human umbilical cord blood-derived T-lymphocytes with homologous cord blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Man; Jung, Min-Hyung; Song, Ha-Young; Yang, Hyun Ok; Lee, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Young-Tak; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Mok, Jung-Eun

    2005-02-01

    This study was designed to establish a more effective and safe culture system for adoptive immunotherapy by investigating the use of homologous cord blood plasma (HCBP) instead of fetal bovine serum (FBS), which has various limitations including ethical problems for the ex vivo expansion of human umbilical T lymphocytes. Fresh human umbilical mononuclear cell fractions were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation. Nonadherent mononuclear cell fractions were cultured with anti-CD3 antibody (5 microg/ml), IL-2 (175 U/ml), and either 10% FBS or 10% HCBP. On day 8, the cellular proliferation rate and cell surface markers were assessed. There was no significant difference in proliferation when human umbilical cord blood T lymphocytes were grown in medium supplemented with FBS or HCBP (p > 0.05). In medium containing FBS, the proportion of CD3(+)CD4(+) (markers for helper T cell), CD3(+)CD8(+) (cytotoxic T cell), CD3(+)CD25(+) (activated T cell), CD3(+)CD38(+) (immature T cell), and CD3(+)CD45RO(+) (memory T cell) cells was significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas proportion of CD3(+)CD45RA(+) (naive T cell) and CD16(+)CD56(+) (NK cell) cells was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In HCBP supplemented medium, the proportion of CD3(+)CD8(+), CD3(+)CD25(+), CD3(+)CD45RA(+), and CD3(+)CD45RO(+) cells was significantly increased (p < 0.05). The proportion of CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD45RO(+) and CD3(+)CD38(+) cells was significantly higher, but proportion of CD3(+)CD45RA(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) cells was significantly lower in FBS compared with HCBP supplemented medium (p < 0.05). Our results support the feasibility of ex vivo expansion of human umbilical cord blood T lymphocytes in medium supplemented with HCBP for future adoptive cellular immunotherapy.

  15. Inhibition of the mobility of mouse lymphocyte surface immunoglobulins by locally bound concanavalin A.

    PubMed Central

    Henis, Y I; Elson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Fluorescence photobleaching recovery was used to study directly and quantitatively the inhibition of the lateral mobility of surface immunoglobulins (sIg) on mouse lymphocytes by localized binding of concanavalin A (Con A) coupled to platelets. Up to a threshold occupancy of about 10% of the upper cell surface by Con A-platelets, the diffusion coefficient and mobile fraction of sIg remained as in untreated cells (5.3 X 10(-10) cm2/sec and 0.65, respectively). At higher surface occupancy, these values decreased to 8 X 10(-11) cm2/sec and 0.11. The magnitude of the effect was independent of the percentage occupancy above the threshold and of the distance from the bound Con A-platelets, indicating a cooperative and propagated phenomenon. Treatment with colchicine or cytochalasin B separately induced only partial reversal of the Con A-induced modulation. Treatment with both reversal of the Con A-induced modulation. Treatment with both drugs together was synergistic and fully reversed the mobility inhibition. The modulation was unaffected by NaN3 and 2-deoxyglucose, suggesting no dependence on metabolic energy. Con A-platelets did not affect the mobility of a lipid probe. Models for the Con A-induced modulation and the relationship between the effects of Con A on sIg mobility and patch formation are discussed. PMID:6940124

  16. Homeostatic Proliferation and IL-7R Alpha Expression Do Not Correlate with Enhanced T Cell Proliferation and Protection in Chronic Mouse Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Robin; Seddon, Benedict; Langhorne, Jean

    2011-01-01

    While chronic infection has been shown to enhance protection from disease caused by several pathogens, the mechanisms are not known. The gamma-c family of cytokines IL-7, IL-2, and IL-15 are implicated in homeostatic proliferation, which is thought to maintain T cell memory. However in chronic infection, prolonged antigen exposure itself may contribute to lymphocyte survival. We have previously observed that chronic malaria infection enhances protection to re-infection, as well as enhancing B cell responses. Here, we show that chronic Plasmodium chabaudi malaria infection in mice enhances the expansion of CD4+ T cells in a second infection, and that this correlates with increased expression of the IL-2/15 Receptor beta (CD122) on memory T cells, as well as increasing IL-2 producers on re-infection. IL-2 has been recently linked to improved secondary proliferation, while the role of IL-7 in maintenance of CD4+ memory cells has been demonstrated in homeostatic proliferation, but its role in protective memory populations in infectious disease protective has not been fully investigated. Increased IL-7Rα (CD127) expression correlated, as previously reported with increased turnover of CD4 memory cells, however, this was not linked to protection or enhanced response to rechallenge, These data support the idea that antigen or IL-2 production resulting from chronic stimulation may play a role in an enhanced secondary T cell response. PMID:22039531

  17. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from humanmore » skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.« less

  18. Immunostimulation by cytomegalovirus (CMV): helper T cell-dependent activation of immunoglobulin production in vitro by lymphocytes from CMV-immune donors

    SciTech Connect

    Yachie, A.; Tosato, G.; Straus, S.E.

    1985-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the cause of a number of different diseases ranging from self-limited benign infections in healthy adults to life threatening illnesses among immunocompromised hosts and newborns. Suppression of cell-mediated immunity is often found in cases of acute CMV infection, and in addition, the virus may also be a potent stimulant of lymphoid cells in vivo. The authors studied cellular proliferation and immunoglobulin (Ig) production induced by CMV to determine its effect on human lymphocytes in vitro. The CMV that was added to cultures of lymphocytes from CMV-seronegative donors failed to induce either significant cellular proliferation or Ig production.more » By contrast, CMV-stimulated cultures from CMV-seropositive donors induced both prominent cellular proliferation and Ig production. B cell differentiation into Ig-secreting cells required the presence of T cells, and this T cell help was sensitive to irradiation with 2000 rad and to treatment with cyclosporin A. When T cells were depleted of OKT4+ cells with monoclonal antibody and complement, the co-cultured B cells failed to produce Ig, whereas the depletion of OKT8+ cells had no effect on the Ig-secreting cell response. Inactivation of CMV before culture did not result in a reduction of either cellular proliferation or Ig production. Thus, infection of target cells is not required for in vitro lymphocyte activation by CMV. These results demonstrate that CMV is a potent activator of B cells inducing Ig production in vitro, and that this process requires the presence of virus-specific memory T cells.« less

  19. Polyclonal proliferation of activated suppressor/cytotoxic T cells with transient depression of natural killer cell function in acute infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, M L; Loughran, T P; Kidd, P G; Starkebaum, G A

    1989-01-01

    In acute infectious mononucleosis large numbers of atypical lymphocytes proliferate in response to B cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus, generally resulting in a self-limited illness. Although both T-cells and NK cells are known to be involved, the precise origin of the large granular lymphocytes in this disorder is incompletely understood. Using two-colour immunofluorescent flow cytometry, we sequentially examined the phenotype of selected T cell and NK cell subsets from nine patients with infectious mononucleosis. In parallel, we determined whether these lymphocytes utilized a restricted repertoire of the T cell receptor gene and also measured their NK activity. Our results show that in acute infectious mononucleosis there was a greater than three-fold increase in T lymphocytes with the phenotype CD2+, CD3+, CD8+ and DR+. A modest increase in Leu7(HNK1)+ and CD4+ T cells was also seen. In addition, there was a three-fold increase in cells coexpressing CD3- and CD16+, the phenotype reported to represent most NK cells. In spite of this latter finding, however, a marked decrease in NK function was found at the time of diagnosis, gradually returning to normal by day 28. Finally, Southern blot analysis of DNA from patient lymphocytes showed polyclonal rearrangements of the T cell receptor beta chain gene. These studies indicate that the proliferation of activated suppressor/cytotoxic T lymphocytes in acute infectious mononucleosis is polyclonal and is associated with transient depression of NK function. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2527653

  20. CD38 is a signaling molecule in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Deaglio, Silvia; Capobianco, Andrea; Bergui, Luciana; Dürig, Jan; Morabito, Fortunato; Dührsen, Ulrich; Malavasi, Fabio

    2003-09-15

    The prognosis for patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is generally less favorable for those expressing CD38. Our working hypothesis is that CD38 is not merely a marker in B-CLL, but that it plays a receptor role with pathogenetic potential ruling the proliferation of the malignant clone. CD38 levels were generally low in the patients examined and monoclonal antibody (mAb) ligation was inefficient in signaling. Other cellular models indicated that molecular density and surface organization are critical for CD38 functionality. Interleukin 2 (IL-2) induced a marked up-modulation and surface rearrangement of CD38 in all the patients studied. On reaching a specific expression threshold, CD38 becomes an efficient receptor in purified B-CLL cells. Indeed, mAb ligation is followed by Ca2+ fluxes and by a markedly increased proliferation. The unsuitability of CD38 to perform as a receptor is obviated through close interaction with the B-cell-receptor (BCR) complex and CD19. On mAb binding, CD38 translocates to the membrane lipid microdomains, as shown by a colocalization with the GM1 ganglioside and with CD81, a raft-resident protein. Finally, CD38 signaling in IL-2-treated B-CLL cells prolonged survival and induced the appearance of plasmablasts, providing a pathogenetic hypothesis for the occurrence of Richter syndrome.

  1. Investigation of the immunosuppressive activity of Physalin H on T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Youjun; Sun, Lijuan; Ma, Lei; Li, Jiyu; Hu, Lihong; Liu, Jianwen

    2010-03-01

    Physalis angulata is an annual herb widely used in folk medicine. It is mainly used for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Following bioactivity-guided isolation, a representative immunosuppressive compound, Physalin H was been identified from this herb medicine. The purpose of this work was to assess the immunosuppressive activity of Physalin H on T cells and to explore its potential mode of action. The results showed that Physalin H in a dose-dependent manner significantly inhibited the proliferation of T cells induced by concanavalin A (ConA) and by the mixed lymphocyte culture reaction (MLR). This inhibitive activity was mainly due to interfering DNA replication in G1 stages. In vivo experiments showed that, administration of Physalin H dose-dependently suppressed CD4(+) T cell mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions, and suppressed antigen-specific T-cell response in ovalbumin (OVA) immunized mice. Further study indicated that Physalin H could modulate Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and induce the production of immune regulation target Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in T-cells in vitro. In this study, we demonstrated the immunosuppressive effect of Physalin H on T cells both in vitro and in vivo, and the immunosuppressive activity might be attributed to the suppression of T cell activation and proliferation, the modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and the induction of HO-1 in T cells. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The histone methyltransferase EZH2 as a novel prosurvival factor in clinically aggressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, Nikos; Ntoufa, Stavroula; Chartomatsidou, Elisavet; Kotta, Konstantia; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Giassafaki, Lefki; Karamanli, Tzeni; Bele, Panagiota; Moysiadis, Theodoros; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Sutton, Lesley Ann; Stavroyianni, Niki; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Makris, Antonios M; Ghia, Paolo; Rosenquist, Richard; Stamatopoulos, Kostas

    2016-06-14

    The histone methyltransferase EZH2 induces gene repression through trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3). EZH2 overexpression has been reported in many types of cancer and associated with poor prognosis. Here we investigated the expression and functionality of EZH2 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Aggressive cases with unmutated IGHV genes (U-CLL) displayed significantly higher EZH2 expression compared to indolent CLL cases with mutated IGHV genes (M-CLL); furthermore, in U-CLL EZH2 expression was upregulated with disease progression. Within U-CLL, EZH2high cases harbored significantly fewer (p = 0.033) TP53 gene abnormalities compared to EZH2low cases. EZH2high cases displayed high H3K27me3 levels and increased viability suggesting that EZH2 is functional and likely confers a survival advantage to CLL cells. This argument was further supported by siRNA-mediated downmodulation of EZH2 which resulted in increased apoptosis. Notably, at the intraclonal level, cell proliferation was significantly associated with EZH2 expression. Treatment of primary CLL cells with EZH2 inhibitors induced downregulation of H3K27me3 levels leading to increased cell apoptosis. In conclusion, EZH2 is overexpressed in adverse-prognosis CLL and associated with increased cell survival and proliferation. Pharmacologic inhibition of EZH2 catalytic activity promotes apoptosis, highlighting EZH2 as a novel potential therapeutic target for specific subgroups of patients with CLL.

  3. The histone methyltransferase EZH2 as a novel prosurvival factor in clinically aggressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chartomatsidou, Elisavet; Kotta, Konstantia; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Giassafaki, Lefki; Karamanli, Tzeni; Bele, Panagiota; Moysiadis, Theodoros; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Sutton, Lesley Ann; Stavroyianni, Niki; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Makris, Antonios M.; Ghia, Paolo; Rosenquist, Richard; Stamatopoulos, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    The histone methyltransferase EZH2 induces gene repression through trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3). EZH2 overexpression has been reported in many types of cancer and associated with poor prognosis. Here we investigated the expression and functionality of EZH2 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Aggressive cases with unmutated IGHV genes (U-CLL) displayed significantly higher EZH2 expression compared to indolent CLL cases with mutated IGHV genes (M-CLL); furthermore, in U-CLL EZH2 expression was upregulated with disease progression. Within U-CLL, EZH2high cases harbored significantly fewer (p = 0.033) TP53 gene abnormalities compared to EZH2low cases. EZH2high cases displayed high H3K27me3 levels and increased viability suggesting that EZH2 is functional and likely confers a survival advantage to CLL cells. This argument was further supported by siRNA-mediated downmodulation of EZH2 which resulted in increased apoptosis. Notably, at the intraclonal level, cell proliferation was significantly associated with EZH2 expression. Treatment of primary CLL cells with EZH2 inhibitors induced downregulation of H3K27me3 levels leading to increased cell apoptosis. In conclusion, EZH2 is overexpressed in adverse-prognosis CLL and associated with increased cell survival and proliferation. Pharmacologic inhibition of EZH2 catalytic activity promotes apoptosis, highlighting EZH2 as a novel potential therapeutic target for specific subgroups of patients with CLL. PMID:27191993

  4. Infection of autoreactive B lymphocytes with EBV, causing chronic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Pender, Michael P

    2003-11-01

    I hypothesize that human chronic autoimmune diseases are based on infection of autoreactive B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), in the following proposed scenario. During primary infection, autoreactive B cells are infected by EBV, proliferate and become latently infected memory B cells, which are resistant to the apoptosis that occurs during normal B-cell homeostasis because they express virus-encoded anti-apoptotic molecules. Genetic susceptibility to the effects of B-cell infection by EBV leads to an increased number of latently infected autoreactive memory B cells, which lodge in organs where their target antigen is expressed, and act there as antigen-presenting cells. When CD4(+) T cells that recognize antigens within the target organ are activated in lymphoid organs by cross-reactivity with infectious agents, they migrate to the target organ but fail to undergo activation-induced apoptosis because they receive a co-stimulatory survival signal from the infected B cells. The autoreactive T cells proliferate and produce cytokines, which recruit other inflammatory cells, with resultant target organ damage and chronic autoimmune disease.

  5. Regulatory Lymphocytes Are Key Factors in MHC-Independent Resistance to EAE

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Nieves; Mecha, Miriam; Espejo, Carmen; Mestre, Leyre; Eixarch, Herena; Montalban, Xavier; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C.; Guaza, Carmen; Villar, Luisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Resistant and susceptible mouse strains to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an inducible demyelinating experimental disease serving as animal model for multiple sclerosis, have been described. We aimed to explore MHC-independent mechanisms inducing resistance to EAE. Methods. For EAE induction, female C57BL/6 (susceptible strain) and CD1 (resistant outbred strain showing heterogeneous MHC antigens) mice were immunized with the 35–55 peptide of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35−55). We studied T cell proliferation, regulatory and effector cell subpopulations, intracellular and serum cytokine patterns, and titers of anti-MOG serum antibodies. Results. Upon immunization with MOG35−55, T lymphocytes from susceptible mice but not that of resistant strain were capable of proliferating when stimulated with MOG35−55. Accordingly, resistant mice experienced a rise in regulatory B cells (P = 0.001) and, to a lower extent, in regulatory T cells (P = 0.02) compared with C57BL/6 susceptible mice. As a consequence, MOG35−55-immunized C57BL/6 mice showed higher percentages of CD4+ T cells producing both IFN-gamma (P = 0.02) and IL-17 (P = 0.009) and higher serum levels of IL-17 (P = 0.04) than resistant mice. Conclusions. Expansion of regulatory B and T cells contributes to the induction of resistance to EAE by an MHC-independent mechanism. PMID:24868560

  6. Sp1 transcriptional activity is up-regulated by phosphatase 2A in dividing T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Isabelle; Lipcey, Carol; Imbert, Jean; Kahn-Perlès, Brigitte

    2002-03-15

    We have followed Sp1 expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced, via CD2 plus CD28 costimulation, to sustained proliferation and subsequent return to quiescence. Binding of Sp1 to wheat germ agglutinin lectin was not modified following activation, indicating that the overall glycosylation of the protein was unchanged. Sp1 underwent, instead, a major dephosphorylation that correlated with cyclin A expression and, thus, with cell cycle progression. A similar change was observed in T cells that re-entered cell cycle following secondary interleukin-2 stimulation, as well as in serum-induced proliferating NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) appears involved because 1) treatment of dividing cells with okadaic acid or cantharidin inhibited Sp1 dephosphorylation and 2) PP2A dephosphorylated Sp1 in vitro and strongly interacted with Sp1 in vivo. Sp1 dephosphorylation is likely to increase its transcriptional activity because PP2A overexpression potentiated Sp1 site-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression in dividing Kit225 T cells and okadaic acid reversed this effect. This increase might be mediated by a stronger affinity of dephosphorylated Sp1 for DNA, as illustrated by the reduced DNA occupancy by hyperphosphorylated Sp factors from cantharidin- or nocodazole-treated cells. Finally, Sp1 dephosphorylation appears to occur throughout cell cycle except for mitosis, a likely common feature to all cycling cells.

  7. New insights into Blimp-1 in T lymphocytes: a divergent regulator of cell destiny and effector function.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shin-Huei; Yeh, Li-Tzu; Chu, Chin-Chen; Yen, B Lin-Ju; Sytwu, Huey-Kang

    2017-07-21

    B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) serves as a master regulator of the development and function of antibody-producing B cells. Given that its function in T lymphocytes has been identified within the past decade, we review recent findings with emphasis on its role in coordinated control of gene expression during the development, differentiation, and function of T cells. Expression of Blimp-1 is mainly confined to activated T cells and is essential for the production of interleukin (IL)-10 by a subset of forkhead box (Fox)p3 + regulatory T cells with an effector phenotype. Blimp-1 is also required to induce cell elimination in the thymus and critically modulates peripheral T cell activation and proliferation. In addition, Blimp-1 promotes T helper (Th) 2 lineage commitment and limits Th1, Th17 and follicular helper T cell differentiation. Furthermore, Blimp-1 coordinates with other transcription factors to regulate expression of IL-2, IL-21 and IL-10 in effector T lymphocytes. In CD8 + T cells, Blimp-1 expression is distinct in heterogeneous populations at the stages of clonal expansion, differentiation, contraction and memory formation when they encounter antigens. Moreover, Blimp-1 plays a fundamental role in coordinating cytokine receptor signaling networks and transcriptional programs to regulate diverse aspects of the formation and function of effector and memory CD8 + T cells and their exhaustion. Blimp-1 also functions as a gatekeeper of T cell activation and suppression to prevent or dampen autoimmune disease, antiviral responses and antitumor immunity. In this review, we discuss the emerging roles of Blimp-1 in the complex regulation of gene networks that regulate the destiny and effector function of T cells and provide a Blimp-1-dominated transcriptional framework for T lymphocyte homeostasis.

  8. Apoptosis of lymphocytes in the presence of Cr(V) complexes: role in Cr(VI)-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Vasant, C; Balamurugan, K; Rajaram, R; Ramasami, T

    2001-08-03

    Cr(VI) compounds have been declared as a potent occupational carcinogen by IARC (1990) through epidemiological studies among workers in chrome plating, stainless-steel, and pigment industries. Studies relating to the role of intermediate oxidation states such as Cr(V) and Cr(IV) in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenicity are gaining importance. In this study, issues relating to toxicity elicited by Cr(V) have been addressed and comparisons made with those relating to Cr(VI) employing human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lymphocytes have been isolated from heparinized blood by Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation and exposed to Cr(V) complexes viz. sodium bis(2-ethyl-2-hydroxybutyrato)oxochromate(V), Na[Cr(V)O(ehba)(2)], 1 and sodium bis(2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrato)oxochromate(V), Na[Cr(V)O(hmba)(2)], 2 and Cr(VI). The phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced proliferation of lymphocytes has been found to be inhibited by the two complexes of Cr(V) and chromate Cr(VI) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Viability of cells decreases in the presence of Cr(V). Apoptosis appears to be the mode of cell death in the presence of both Cr(V) and Cr(VI). Pretreatment of cells with antioxidants before exposure to chromium(V) complexes reverse apoptosis partially. Possibility for the formation and implication of reactive oxygen species in Cr(V)-induced apoptosis of human lymphocyte cells has been indicated in this investigation. The intermediates of Cr(V) and radical species in the biotoxic pathways elicited by Cr(VI) seems feasible. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Combinational effects of non n-Hexane Fractions of ant-plant (Myrmecodia tuberosa Jack) hypocotyl with doxorubicin against lymphocyte and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sasmito, Ediati; Mulyadi, Sri Mulyani; Hertiani, Triana; Fathdhieny, Annisa Qisthia; Witsqa, Ade Azka Surya; Laksono, Yogi Sotya

    2017-09-01

    Doxorubicin is widely used as a chemotherapeutic drug despite having many side effects. It may cause the dysfunction of macrophage, decreasing proliferation of lymphocytes, decreasing CD4+/CD8+ ratio and inducing hepatotoxicity. Doxorubicin inhibits the growth of Vero, HeLa, and T47D cell lines, and also induces a resistance of MCF-7 cells. Previous studies showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of ant-plant (Myrmecodia tuberose Jack) hipocotyl could increase macrophage phagocytosis activity and lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Therefore, antplant is a potential immune stimulator. Combinational treatment of non n-hexane fraction (NHF) of ant-plant with doxorubicin did not affect the doxorubicin's potency. Nevertheless, increased lymphocyte viability induced by doxorubicin in varied dosages of NHF that lethal to HeLa, MCF-7 and T47D cells. Moreover, on Vero cells, doxorubicin became less toxic when induced together with NHF. Thus, NHF of ant-plant is potential to be proposed as doxorubicin co-chemotherapeutic agent against cancer cells.

  10. Ly49H Engagement Compensates for the Absence of Type I Interferon Signaling in Stimulating NK Cell Proliferation during MCMV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Geurs, Theresa L.; Zhao, Yun M.; Hill, Elaise B.; French, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    NK cells vigorously proliferate during viral infections, resulting in an expanded pool of innate lymphocytes that are able to participate in early host defense. The relative contributions of cytokines and activation receptors in stimulating NK cell proliferation during viral infections are not well characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that signaling through the NK cell activation receptor Ly49H was able to compensate for the absence of cytokine stimulation in the preferential phase of viral-induced proliferation during MCMV infection. In the absence of type I interferon stimulation, NK cell proliferation was strongly biased toward cells expressing the Ly49H receptor, even at early time points when minimal preferential Ly49H-mediated proliferation was observed in wild-type mice. In the absence of effective Ly49H signaling or following infection with virus that did not express the ligand for Ly49H, no difference was observed in the proliferation of subsets of NK cells that either express or lack expression of Ly49H, although the overall proliferation of NK cells in IFNαβR−/− mice was substantially reduced. These results highlight the contribution of NK cell activation receptors in stimulating proliferation and subsequent expansion of NK cells that are able to recognize virally infected cells. PMID:19828630

  11. Necrotizing lymphocytic folliculitis: the early lesion of acne necrotica (varioliformis).

    PubMed

    Kossard, S; Collins, A; McCrossin, I

    1987-05-01

    Skin biopsy specimens from four patients who had recurrent bouts of lesions conforming to the clinical description of acne necrotica were studied. The pathologic findings were dominated by lymphocytic inflammation around centrally placed follicles evolving to follicular necrosis that extended to the perifollicular epidermis and dermis. Early lesions showed the development of multiple individual necrotic keratinocytes within the follicular sheath and adjacent epidermis with lymphocytic exocytosis. Later lesions showed more intense necrosis and scale crust obscuring the central target but were still dominated by a peripheral lymphocytic infiltrate. The early pathologic findings of acne necrotica (varioliformis) are represented by a necrotizing lymphocytic folliculitis and differ from the pattern seen in association with nonspecific excoriations, acute bacterial folliculitis, classic comedogenic acne, or acnitis.

  12. Matched and Mismatched Metabolic Fuels in Lymphocyte Function

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Maldonado, Alfredo; Gerriets, Valerie A.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Immunological function requires metabolic support to suit the needs of lymphocytes at a variety of distinct differentiation and activation states. It is now evident that the signaling pathways that drive lymphocyte survival and activity can directly control cellular metabolism. This linkage provides a mechanism by which activation and specific signaling pathways provide a supply of appropriate and required nutrients to support cell functions in a pro-active supply rather than consumption-based metabolic model. In this way, the metabolism and fuel choices of lymphocytes are guided to specifically match the anticipated needs. If the fuel choice or metabolic pathways of lymphocytes are dysregulated, however, metabolic checkpoints can become activated to disrupt immunological function. These changes are now shown in several immunological diseases and may open new opportunities to selectively enhance or suppress specific immune functions through targeting of glucose, lipid, or amino acid metabolism. PMID:23290889

  13. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treatment options can include observation, steroids, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and/or stem cell transplant. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent CLL and available treatment modalities in this summary for clinicians.

  14. Carrier detection of pyruvate carboxylase deficiency in fibroblasts and lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Atkin, B M

    1979-10-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (E.C. 6.4.1.1) activity was determined in the circulating peripheral lymphocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from the family of a patient with hepatic, cerebral, renal cortical, leukocyte, and fibroblast pyruvate carboxylase deficiency (PC Portland deficiency). Lymphocyte activities were: mother, 33--39%; father, 11--29%; brother, 82--103%; and sister, 38--48% of the lowest normal. Fibroblasts from the patient's mother and father had 42 and 34%, respectively, of the activity of the lowest normal. These data demonstrate that the disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and that lymphocytes and fibroblasts can be used to detect carriers. Neither pyruvate carboxylase nor mitochondrial PEPCK activity in lymphocytes was increased by a 21-hr fast.

  15. Lymphocytic Mural Folliculitis Resembling Epitheliotropic Lymphoma in Tigers ( Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Sula, Mee-Ja M; Frank, Linda A; Ramsay, Edward C

    2018-01-01

    A striking form of lymphocytic mural folliculitis is described in 6 tigers ( Panthera tigris). Clinically, all tigers exhibited regionally extensive chronic, variably waxing and waning alopecia with minimal scaling and crusting most pronounced over the head, neck, and shoulders. More severely affected tigers exhibited marked hyperpigmentation and lichenification. Pruritus was not a feature. Tigers generally lacked signs of systemic illness and clinical pathology findings were unremarkable. Histologic examination of skin biopsies revealed infiltrative lymphocytic mural folliculitis extending the length of the hair follicle. Mild epidermal lymphocytic infiltrates were frequent. The surrounding dermis was histologically unremarkable in 4 of 6 tigers or associated with mild perifollicular and periadnexal mixed inflammation in 2 of 6 tigers. The cause of the mural folliculitis was not identified, and tigers responded poorly to immunomodulatory therapy. Lymphocytic mural folliculitis might be a nonspecific hypersensitivity reaction pattern in tigers, and care should be taken to differentiate this reaction pattern from epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma.

  16. Peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytomitogens in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Foad, B.; Adams, L. E.; Litwin, A.; Hess, E. V.

    1976-01-01

    Foad, B., Adams, L. E., Litwin, A., and Hess, E. V. (1976).Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 35, 407-414. Peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytomitogens in systemic lupus erythematosus. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to the phytomitogens, PHA, Con A, and PWM, was evaluated in 30 SLE patients and in 30 age, sex, and race-matched controls using dose and time responses. The proliferative response to the three phytomitogens was not depressed in this group of subacute and chronic SLE patients. Active lupus nephritis and a slow acetylator phenotype were associated with a decreased lymphocyte response. The incidence of a slow acetylator phenotype in spontaneous SLE was 68%. In interpreting the lymphocyte response to phytomitogens, the importance of a clear definition of the SLE group under study, the activity of the disease, and treatment status are emphasized. PMID:1234408

  17. Activation of microcarrier-attached lymphocytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechler, B.; Cogoli, A.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Muller, O.; Hunzinger, E.; Criswell, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    A technology has been developed to achieve optimal attachment of adhesion-independent lymphocytes to microcarrier beads. The activation of T-lymphocytes by concanavalin A was tested under microgravity conditions in an experiment carried out in space during the first Spacelab Life Science Mission. Activation, measured as the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the production of interferon-gamma, more than doubled in attached lymphocytes in microgravity. The depression of the activation discovered in previous space experiments is due to an impairment not of the lymphocyte but of the macrophage function. The system described here may be useful for radiobiological investigations on the effect of high-energy particles and for testing the efficiency of the immune system in humans during the long-duration space flight planned in the future. The biotechnological significance of the increased lymphokine production in space remains to be assessed.

  18. Lymphocytic hypophysitis in a dog with diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Meij, B P; Voorhout, G; Gerritsen, R J; Grinwis, G C M; Ijzer, J

    2012-11-01

    An 8-year-old male German longhaired pointer was referred for diabetes insipidus responsive to treatment with desmopressin. The dog had polyuria and polydipsia, exercise intolerance and a dull hair coat. Plasma concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 were decreased; plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was slightly elevated and plasma α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) was within the reference range. Computed tomography revealed a heterogeneously contrast-enhancing pituitary mass compressing the hypothalamus. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy was performed and microscopical examination of the surgical biopsy samples revealed hypophysitis without evidence of pituitary adenoma. The hypophysitis was characterized by marked lymphocytic infiltration of the adenohypophysis that contained a mixed population of neuroendocrine cells expressing GH, ACTH or α-MSH. The lymphocytes were identified as T cells, resulting in a final diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis strongly resembling human primary lymphocytic hypophysitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kefir induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Katia; Baydoun, Elias; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adult lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy that occurs in white blood cells. The overall cure rate in children is 85%, whereas it is only 40% in adults. Kefir is an important probiotic that contains many bioactive ingredients, which give it unique health benefits. It has been shown to control several cellular types of cancer. Purpose: The present study investigates the effect of a cell-free fraction of kefir on CEM and Jurkat cells, which are human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1)-negative malignant T-lymphocytes. Methods: Cells were incubated with different kefir concentrations. The cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated by determining the percentage viability of cells. The effect of all the noncytotoxic concentrations of kefir on the proliferation of CEM and Jurkat cells was then assessed. The levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α), transforming growth factor- beta1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 mRNA upon kefir treatment were then analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Finally, the growth inhibitory effects of kefir on cell-cycle progression/apoptosis were assessed by Cell Death Detection (ELISA) and flow cytometry. Results: The maximum cytotoxicity recorded after 48-hours treatment with 80 μg/μL kefir was only 42% and 39% in CEM and Jurkat cells, respectively. The percent reduction in proliferation was very significant, and was dose-, and time-dependent. In both cell lines, kefir exhibited its antiproliferative effect by downregulating TGF-α and upregulating TGF-β1 mRNA expression. Upon kefir treatment, a marked increase in cell-cycle distribution was noted in the preG1 phase of CEM and Jurkat cells, indicating the proapoptotic effect of kefir, which was further confirmed by Cell Death Detection ELISA. However, kefir did not affect the mRNA expression of metalloproteinases needed for the invasion of leukemic cell lines. Conclusion: In conclusion, kefir is

  20. Cytogenetic investigations of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wren, Catherine; Moriarty, Helen; Marsden, Katherine; Tegg, Elizabeth

    2010-04-15

    This study aimed to determine which culture method would yield the highest culture success rate, mitotic index, banding resolution, and abnormality rate in investigation of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A range of culture techniques for conventional cytogenetic (CC) analyses was compared: 24-hour unstimulated, 72 hours incubation with additional fetal calf serum, 72 hours stimulation with interleukin 4, 72 hours stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 72 hours stimulation with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate), and 72 hours stimulation with CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 + Interleukin-2 (IL-2). CC abnormality rates were also compared to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results using probes for CLL (LSI D13S319/13q34/CEP 12: LSI ATM/p53). Forty-five samples from 24 patients (consisting of 11 newly diagnosed and 13 previously diagnosed patients) were included. For CC, a 100.0% culture success rate was achieved (n = 45) by means of an EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) peripheral blood sample with an associated 62.5% CC abnormality rate (n = 24). FISH detected an abnormality rate of 75.0% (n = 24). The combined CC and FISH abnormality rate was 87.5% (n = 24). This study demonstrates that CC that uses TPA and DSP30 + IL-2 on EDTA peripheral blood is effective in the investigation of CLL and may be used as a supplement to FISH studies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lymphocyte DNA damage in bus manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, C Q; Lam, T H; Jiang, C Q

    2001-04-05

    To study the effect of occupational exposure, smoking, and drinking on lymphocyte DNA damage in bus manufacturing workers, 346 employees (106 women and 240 men) from six job categories (welders, mechanics, painters, and assembling, auxiliary and managerial workers) in a bus manufacturing factory in Guangzhou were included. Significant differences of tail moment among the six job categories were found (P=0.003) with adjustment for age and gender. Smoking increased tail moment significantly (3.14 (2.89-3.40) versus 2.79 microm (2.63-2.97), P=0.023). Analysis of covariance showed that occupational exposure (P=0.001) and smoking (P=0.019) had significant effect on tail moment after adjusting for all factors, whereas age and gender had no effect on DNA damage. Stratified analysis showed that painters (P=0.002), auxiliary workers (P=0.011), and mechanics (P=0.044) had larger tail moments than managerial workers after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and drinking.

  2. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment. PMID:25894333

  3. ZAP-70 staining in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Neus

    2005-05-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common chronic leukemia in Western countries. The disease has an extremely variable clinical course, and several prognostic features have been identified to assess individual risk. The configuration of the immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene (IgV(H)) is a strong predictor of the outcome. CLL patients with unmutated IgV(H) status have an aggressive clinical course and a short survival. Unfortunately, analysis of IgV(H) gene configuration is not available in most clinical laboratories. A small number of genes are differentially expressed between unmutated IgV(H) and mutated IgV(H) clinical forms of CLL. One of these genes is ZAP-70, which is detected in leukemic cells from patients with the unmutated IgV(H) form of CLL. Flow cytometry presents advantages over other methods to detect ZAP-70, and its quantification by flow cytometry has proved its predictive value. This unit focuses on protocols to quantify ZAP-70 by flow cytometry in CLL.

  4. Latent childhood thyroid carcinoma in diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Siegal, A; Mimouni, M; Kovalivker, M; Griffel, B

    1983-07-01

    Diffuse thyroid enlargement in a child is a rare presenting symptom of thyroid carcinoma. A papillary carcinoma may be hidden in a diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis and should be carefully searched for during surgery. Furthermore, the finding, in frozen sections, of psammoma bodies in a lymphocytic thyroiditis should raise the suspicion of an occult malignant neoplasm. A case illustrating these diagnostic difficulties in a 5-year-old child is presented.

  5. Organisation of lymphocytic infiltrates in ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Brix, Silke R; Noriega, Mercedes; Herden, Elisabeth M; Goldmann, Birgit; Langbehn, Ulrike; Busch, Martin; Jabs, Wolfram J; Steinmetz, Oliver M; Panzer, Ulf; Huber, Tobias B; Stahl, Rolf A K; Wiech, Thorsten

    2018-06-01

    Renal involvement in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in patients. In chronic inflammation, B cells are recruited to the inflamed tissue and organised lymphoid structures have been described in several autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to correlate the lymphoid organisation in renal biopsies with renal outcome in ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis (GN). We investigated 112 renal biopsies from patients with newly diagnosed ANCA-associated necrotising GN. We identified four different levels of the intrarenal organisation of lymphocytes: T cells without B cells, scattered B and T cells, clustered lymphocytic infiltrates and nodular compartmentally arranged B and T cell aggregates. Almost half the patients showed clusters of B and T lymphocytes in their biopsies. In 15 of these biopsies, a higher degree of organisation with lymphocytic compartments was detected. Inflammatory cell organisation was associated with renal failure, but not with tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Patients with organised lymphocytic infiltrates in their biopsy had worse renal function during follow-up and were more likely to develop end stage renal disease. In the present study, we show that the renal lymphocytic organisation is associated with renal outcome in ANCA-associated GN. The organisation of the lymphocytic infiltrate may be a morphological correlate of a perpetual and exaggerated inflammation in renal ANCA disease. Classifying the lymphocytic infiltrate could help to predict renal outcome, and might therefore be used for individualised adjustments in the intensity and duration of immunosuppressive therapy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Further characterization of the circulating cell in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Schutz, E.F.; Davis, S.; Rubin, A.D.

    Peripheral lymphocytes from normal individuals and from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were cultured in vitro for 1-7 days. The growth response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was quantitated by the incorporation of tritiated uridine into RNA nucleotide during a 2-hr pulse with the radioisotope. While the maximum response in PHA-stimulated normal cultures appeared at 2-3 days, CLL cultures required 5-7 days to develop their maximal response, which was 50 percent-60 percent of the normal magnitude. Dilution of the number of normally reactive lymphocytes by culturing them with totally unreactive, mitomycin-treated cells produced a normal 72-hr maximal response, no matter whatmore » proportion of unreactive cells was included in the PHA-stimulated cultures. In addition, the response of peripheral lymphocytes from patients with myeloblastic leukemia, where large numbers of unreactive myeloblasts diluted the normal small lymphocytes, a depressed reaction occurred at the anticipated 2-3 days. Nylon fiber-adherent lymphocytes consisting of 85 percent immunoglobulin (Ig)-bearing cells responded minimally to PHA, but showed no evidence of a delay. When isolated from CLL patients, both fiber-adherent cells (ig-bearing) as well as non-fiber-adherent (sheep erythrocyte-rosetting) cells responded to PHA in a delayed fashion. Similarly, a case of CLL, in which 93.5 percent of the circulating lymphocytes bore sheep red blood cell receptors, showed its peak response to PHA at 7 days. Therefore, using surface marker criteria considered characteristic of normal T cells and B cells, the delayed response to PHA on the part of CLL lymphocytes was independent of thymic or nonthymic origin.« less

  7. Biophysical Aspects of T Lymphocyte Activation at the Immune Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Hivroz, Claire; Saitakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    T lymphocyte activation is a pivotal step of the adaptive immune response. It requires the recognition by T-cell receptors (TCR) of peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHC) present at the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). T lymphocyte activation also involves engagement of costimulatory receptors and adhesion molecules recognizing ligands on the APC. Integration of these different signals requires the formation of a specialized dynamic structure: the immune synapse. While the biochemical and molecular aspects of this cell–cell communication have been extensively studied, its mechanical features have only recently been addressed. Yet, the immune synapse is also the place of exchange of mechanical signals. Receptors engaged on the T lymphocyte surface are submitted to many tensile and traction forces. These forces are generated by various phenomena: membrane undulation/protrusion/retraction, cell mobility or spreading, and dynamic remodeling of the actomyosin cytoskeleton inside the T lymphocyte. Moreover, the TCR can both induce force development, following triggering, and sense and convert forces into biochemical signals, as a bona fide mechanotransducer. Other costimulatory molecules, such as LFA-1, engaged during immune synapse formation, also display these features. Moreover, T lymphocytes themselves are mechanosensitive, since substrate stiffness can modulate their response. In this review, we will summarize recent studies from a biophysical perspective to explain how mechanical cues can affect T lymphocyte activation. We will particularly discuss how forces are generated during immune synapse formation; how these forces affect various aspects of T lymphocyte biology; and what are the key features of T lymphocyte response to stiffness. PMID:26913033

  8. Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M.; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R.; Zhou, Jian-nian

    2003-01-01

    Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis.

  9. Old and New Lymphocyte Players in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Paolo; Corazza, Gino Roberto; Di Sabatino, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), encompassing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disorder characterized by diffuse accumulation of lymphocytes in the gut mucosa as a consequence of over-expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. The infiltrating lymphocytes have been identified as subsets of T cells, including T helper (Th)1 cells, Th17 cells, and regulatory T cells. The function of these lymphocyte subpopulations in the development of IBD is well-known, since they produce a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ and interleukin-17A, which in turn activate mucosal proteases, thus leading to the development of intestinal lesions, i.e., ulcers, fistulas, abscesses, and strictures. However, the immune mechanisms underlying IBD are not yet fully understood, and knowledge about the function of newly discovered lymphocytes, including Th9 cells, innate lymphoid cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, and natural killer T cells, might add new pieces to the complex puzzle of IBD pathogenesis. This review summarizes the recent advances in the understanding of the role of mucosal lymphocytes in chronic intestinal inflammation and deals with the therapeutic potential of lymphocyte-targeting drugs in IBD patients.

  10. Identification of transcriptional networks involved in peroxisome proliferator chemical-induced hepatocyte proliferation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemical (PPC) exposure leads to increases in rodent liver tumors through a non-genotoxic mode of action (MOA). The PPC MOA includes increased oxidative stress, hepatocyte proliferation and decreased apoptosis. We investigated the putative genetic regulato...

  11. A comparison of the neutrophil-lymphocyte, platelet-lymphocyte and monocyte-lymphocyte ratios in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients - a retrospective file review.

    PubMed

    Özdin, Selçuk; Sarisoy, Gökhan; Böke, Ömer

    2017-10-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) have recently been used as indicators of inflammation. Higher MLR and PLR values have been determined in the euthymic and manic periods in patients with bipolar disorder compared to a control group. High NLR values were determined in the only study investigating this ratio in schizophrenia patients. The purpose of this study was to compare NLR, PLR and MLR values and complete blood count elements in patients receiving treatment and hospitalized due to schizophrenic psychotic episode and bipolar disorder manic episode. All patients meeting the inclusion criteria among subjects receiving treatment and hospitalized due to schizophrenia-psychotic episode and bipolar affective disorder-manic episode at the Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty Psychiatry Department, Turkey, in 2012-2016 were included in our study. A total of 157 healthy donors were included as a control group. White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet and monocyte numbers were noted retrospectively from complete blood counts at time of admission, and NLR, PLR and MLR were calculated from these. NLR, PLR and MLR values and platelet numbers in this study were higher and lymphocyte numbers were lower in bipolar disorder patients compared to the controls. Elevation in NLR, MLR and PLR values and neutrophil numbers and lower lymphocyte numbers were determined in schizophrenia patients compared to the controls. Higher NLR and MLR values were found in schizophrenia patients compared to bipolar disorder. Findings of our study supported the inflammation hypothesis for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  12. Presentation of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma in a Warthin Tumor: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Hadeel; McCarthy, Peter; O'Leary, Gerard; Heffron, Cynthia C

    2018-05-01

    Warthin tumor is the second most common salivary gland neoplasm. It occurs more commonly in males than in females. Malignant transformation in Warthin tumor is a rare but well-recognized phenomenon; however, the development or presentation of lymphoma in a Warthin tumor is rare. An 80-year-old man presented with painless mass of the right parotid gland of 2 years duration with recent ulceration of the overlying skin and right cervical lymphadenopathy underwent a surgical resection of parotid mass and biopsy of the periglandular lymph nodes. The histological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, present within the stroma of a Warthin tumor, and also present within the adjacent lymph node. This case is the third reported case describing a collision of Warthin tumor and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. It also emphasizes the importance of careful examination of the lymphoid stroma of these tumors.

  13. Selective toxicity of persian gulf sea cucumber holothuria parva on human chronic lymphocytic leukemia b lymphocytes by direct mitochondrial targeting.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Ahmad; Motallebi, Abbasali; Ayatollahi, Maryam; Seydi, Enayatollah; Mohseni, Ali Reza; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-04-01

    Natural products isolated from marine environment are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diversity of disease treatments such as cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are one of the marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm. Many studies have shown that the sea cucumber contains antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease characterized by the relentless accumulation of CD5 + B lymphocytes. CLL is the most common leukemia in adults, about 25-30% of all leukemias. In this study B lymphocytes and their mitochondria (cancerous and non-cancerous) were obtained from peripheral blood of human subjects and B lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay, and caspase 3 activation along with mitochondrial upstream events of apoptosis signaling including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial swelling were determined following the addition of Holothuria parva extract to both cancerous and non-cancerous B lymphocytes and their mitochondria. Our in vitro finding showed that mitochondrial ROS formation, MMP collapse, and mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were significantly (P < 0.05) increased after addition of different concentrations of H. parva only in cancerous BUT NOT normal non-cancerous mitochondria. Consistently, different concentrations of H. parva significantly (P < 0.05) increased cytotoxicity and caspase 3 activation only in cancerous BUT NOT normal non-cancerous B lymphocytes. These results showed that H. parva methanolic extract has a selective mitochondria mediated apoptotic effect on chronic lymphocytic leukemia B lymphocytes hence may be promising in the future anticancer drug development for treatment of CLL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1158-1169, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Teaching Activities on Horizontal Nuclear Proliferation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1990-01-01

    Provides learning activities concerning the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons. Includes step-by-step directions for four activities: (1) the life cycle of nuclear weapons; (2) nuclear nonproliferation: pros and cons; (3) the nuclear power/nuclear weapons connection; and (4) managing nuclear proliferation. (NL)

  15. Proliferation resistance of small modular reactors fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Polidoro, F.; Parozzi, F.; Fassnacht, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the proliferation resistance of different types of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) has been examined and classified with criteria available in the literature. In the first part of the study, the level of proliferation attractiveness of traditional low-enriched UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels to be used in SMRs based on pressurized water technology has been analyzed. On the basis of numerical simulations both cores show significant proliferation risks. Although the MOX core is less proliferation prone in comparison to the UO{sub 2} core, it still can be highly attractive for diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material. Inmore » the second part of the paper, calculations to assess the proliferation attractiveness of fuel in typical small sodium cooled fast reactor show that proliferation risks from spent fuel cannot be neglected. The core contains a highly attractive plutonium composition during the whole life cycle. Despite some aspects of the design like the sealed core that enables easy detection of unauthorized withdrawal of fissile material and enhances proliferation resistance, in case of open Non-Proliferation Treaty break-out, weapon-grade plutonium in sufficient quantities could be extracted from the reactor core.« less

  16. 15 CFR 12.2 - Undue proliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., he shall initiate an inquiry for the purpose of finding facts concerning the existence of undue... possible existence of undue proliferation. Such communications should be in writing and include supporting... regarding the possible existence of undue proliferation, the Secretary will determine whether there has been...

  17. 15 CFR 12.2 - Undue proliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., he shall initiate an inquiry for the purpose of finding facts concerning the existence of undue... possible existence of undue proliferation. Such communications should be in writing and include supporting... regarding the possible existence of undue proliferation, the Secretary will determine whether there has been...

  18. Chemotaxis of basophils by lymphocyte-dependent and lymphocyte-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ward, P A; Dvorak, H F; Cohen, S; Yoshida, T; Data, R; Selvaggio, S S

    1975-05-01

    Guine pigs basophils obtained from blood or bone marrow have been studied for their chemotactic responsiveness. Chemotactic factors for basophils include a substance (lymphokine) present in culture fluids from antigen-stimulated lymphocytes, a material generated in zymosan-activated guinea pig serum, a C5 cleavage factor, and a bacterial factor. When compared with homologous neutrophils and monocytes, basophils respond most rapidly to a chemotactic stimulus. The lymphokine basophil chemotactic factor is physicochemically similar to the previously described monocyte chemotactic factor but appears to be distinct from it as well as MIF and neutrophil chemotactic factor present in the same fluids, Part of the evidence for this is the ability to detect basophil chemotactic factor in the absence of other lymphokine activities under appropriate experimental conditions. More evidence, specifically relating to the monocyte factor, is that monocytes can adsorb basophil chemotactic activity but not vice versa. This latter observation may have implications for the mechanism whereby the accumulation of basophils is controlled and limited in vivo. In addition, it was noted that specific antigen could also suppress basophil chemotaxis. Although the mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear, it could serve as a second means by which basophil accumulation may be controlled in the intact animal. Taken together, these observations provide further definition of the chemotactic behavior of basophils in general, and underscore some of the ways in which lymphocytes can influence basophils through lymphokine-dependent mechanisms.

  19. Performance Evaluation of High Fluorescence Lymphocyte Count: Comparability to Atypical Lymphocyte Count and Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Tantanate, Chaicharoen; Klinbua, Cherdsak

    2018-06-15

    To investigate the association between high-fluorescence lymphocyte cell (HFLC) and atypical lymphocyte (AL) counts, and to determine the clinical significance of HFLC. We compared automated HFLC and microscopic AL counts and analyzed the findings. Patient clinical data for each specimen were reviewed. A total of 320 blood specimens were included. The correlation between HFLC and microscopic AL counts was 0.865 and 0.893 for absolute and percentage counts, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of HFLC at the cutoff value of 0.1 × 109 per L for detection of AL were 0.8, 0.77, and 0.8, respectively. Studied patients were classified into 4 groups: infection, immunological disorders, malignant neoplasms, and others. Patients with infections had the highest HFLC. Most of those patients (67.7%) had dengue infection. HFLC counts were well-correlated with AL counts with the acceptable test characteristics. Applying HFLC flagging may alert laboratory staff to be aware of ALs.

  20. Current Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Puła, Bartosz; Walewski, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A number of new treatment options have recently emerged for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, including the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) delta isoform inhibitor idelalisib combined with rituximab, the Bcl-2 antagonist venetoclax, and the new anti-CD20 antibodies obinutuzumab and ofatumumab. Most of these agents are already included into treatment algorithms defined by international practice guidelines, but more clinical investigations are needed to answer still remaining questions. Ibrutinib was proven as a primary choice for patients with the TP53 gene deletion/mutation, who otherwise have no active treatment available. Idelalisib with rituximab is also an active therapy, but due to increased risk of serious infections, its use in first-line treatment is limited to patients for whom ibrutinib is not an option. A new indication for ibrutinib was recently approved for older patients with comorbidities, as an alternative to the already existing indication for chlorambucil with obinutuzumab. The use of kinase inhibitors is already well established in recurrent/refractory disease. Immunochemotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab (FCR) remains a major first-line option for many CLL patients without the TP53 gene deletion/mutation, and who have no significant comorbidities or history of infections, and is particularly effective in patients with favorable features including mutated IGHV status. There are a number of issues regarding novel therapies for CLL that need further investigation such as optimum duration of treatment with kinase inhibitors, appropriate sequencing of novel agents, mechanisms of resistance to inhibitors and response to class switching after treatment failure, along with the potential role of combinations of targeted agents.

  1. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in Chornobyl Cleanup Workers.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, Dimitry; Gudzenko, Natalya; Dyagil, Iryna; Goroh, Eugeny; Polyschuk, Oksana; Trotsuk, Natalya; Babkina, Nataly; Romanenko, Anatoly

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) incidence in a cohort of 110,645 (enlarged later to 152,520) male Ukrainian cleanup workers of the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) accident who were exposed to a range of radiation doses over the 1986-1990 time period. The standardized incidence rates are presented for a 27-y period after the exposure. For 2007-2012 period, the authors have identified the incident CLL cases in an enlarged cohort of 152,520 persons by linkage of the cohort file with the Ukrainian National Cancer Registry (NCRU). CLL data for the previous period (1987-2006) were identified in a frame of the Ukrainian-American leukemia study in the original cohort of 110,645 male clean-up workers. A significant CLL incidence excess was shown for the entire study period 1987-2012, with more prominent levels for the earliest years (1987-1996) when the standardized incidence rate (SIR) value was estimated to be 3.61 with 95% confidence interval from 2.32 to 4.91. In 2007-2012, the CLL incidence decreased substantially but still exceeded the national level although not significantly. In parallel, the several studies were performed at the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine (NRCRM) to explore if any clinical and cytogenetic features of CLL existed in the clean-up workers. The clinical study included 80 exposed and 70 unexposed CLL cases. Among the major clinical differences of the CLL course in the clean-up workers were a shorter period of white blood cells (WBC) doubling (10.7 vs. 18.0; p<0.001), frequent infectious episodes, lymphoadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly (37 vs. 16), higher expression for CD38, and lower expression for ZAP-70 antigen.

  2. Ibrutinib for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vela, Cory M; McBride, Ali; Jaglowski, Samantha M; Andritsos, Leslie A

    2016-03-15

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, and safety of ibrutinib are described. Ibrutinib is a first-in-class oral inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) approved for treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Ibrutinib blocks downstream signaling of the B-cell receptor, disrupting stromal microenvironment interactions and B-cell cytokine signaling. BTK inhibition has been shown to be effective in relapsed or refractory CLL. A recent Phase III study evaluated ibrutinib (420 mg daily) versus ofatumumab (consistent with labeling) in relapsed or refractory CLL with a primary endpoint of progression free survival (PFS, n = 391). After a median follow-up period of 9.4 months, a PFS was not attained in ibrutinib-treated individuals with and without deletion 17p. In contrast, ofatumumab-treated individuals experienced a PFS of 8.1 months and those with deletion 17p experienced a PFS of 5.8 months. Major hemorrhage was reported in 2 (1%) patients treated with ibrutinib, and a total of 8 (4%) patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity or adverse reactions. Partial response or partial response with lymphocytosis was achieved in 63% of ibrutinib-treated individuals as determined by independent assessments. Overall, ibrutinib reduced the rate of mortality by 57%. Ibrutinib is a first-in-class, orally active, irreversible BTK inhibitor with a novel mechanism of action. This unique mechanism of action and high overall response rates observed in clinical trials make ibrutinib an attractive second-line option in patients who have disease progression while receiving monoclonal antibody therapy or chemoimmunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Division-Dependent Compartmental Model for Computing Cell Numbers in CFSE-based Lymphocyte Proliferation Assays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-12

    is the total number of data points, is an approximately unbiased estimate of the “expected relative Kullback - Leibler distance” ( information loss...possible models). Thus, after each model from Table 2 is fit to a data set, we can compute the Akaike weights for the set of candidate models and use ...computed from the OLS best- fit model solution (top), from a deconvolution of the data using normal curves (middle) and from a deconvolution of the data

  4. Disruption of PLZP in mice leads to increased T-lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and altered hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Francesco; Costoya, José A; Merghoub, Taha; Hobbs, Robin M; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2004-12-01

    Deregulated function of members of the POK (POZ and Kruppel) family of transcriptional repressors, such as promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) and B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, respectively. PLZP, also known as TZFP, FAZF, or ROG, is a novel POK protein that displays strong homology with PLZF and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the cancer-predisposing syndrome, Fanconi's anemia, and of APL, in view of its ability to heterodimerize with the FANC-C and PLZF proteins, respectively. Here we report the generation and characterization of mice in which we have specifically inactivated the PLZP gene through in-frame insertion of a lacZ reporter and without perturbing the expression of the neighboring MLL2 gene. We show that PLZP-deficient mice display defects in cell cycle control and cytokine production in the T-cell compartment. Importantly, PLZP inactivation perturbs the homeostasis of the hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cell. On the basis of our data, a deregulation of PLZP function in Fanconi's anemia and APL may affect the biology of the hematopoietic stem cell, in turn contributing to the pathogenesis of these disorders.

  5. Locomotion in Lymphocytes is Altered by Differential PKC Isoform Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    1999-01-01

    Lymphocyte locomotion is critical for proper elicitation of the immune response. Locomotion of immune cells via the interstitium is essential for optimal immune function during wound healing, inflammation and infection. There are conditions which alter lymphocyte locomotion and one of them is spaceflight. Lymphocyte locomotion is severely inhibited in true spaceflight (true microgravity) and in rotating wall vessel culture (modeled microgravity). When lymphocytes are activated prior to culture in modeled microgravity, locomotion is not inhibited and the levels are comparable to those of static cultured lymphocytes. When a phorbol ester (PMA) is used in modeled microgravity, lymphocyte locomotion is restored by 87%. This occurs regardless if PMA is added after culture in the rotating wall vessel or during culture. Inhibition of DNA synthesis also does not alter restoration of lymphocyte locomotion by PMA. PMA is a direct activator of (protein kinase C) PKC . When a calcium ionophore, ionomycin is used it does not possess any restorative properties towards locomotion either alone or collectively with PMA. Since PMA brings about restoration without help from calcium ionophores (ionomycin), it is infer-red that calcium independent PKC isoforms are involved. Changes were perceived in the protein levels of PKC 6 where levels of the protein were downregulated at 24,72 and 96 hours in untreated rotated cultures (modeled microgravity) compared to untreated static (1g) cultures. At 48 hours there is an increase in the levels of PKC & in the same experimental set up. Studies on transcriptional and translational patterns of calcium independent isoforms of PKC such as 8 and E are presented in this study.

  6. Effects of 3-dimensional culture conditions (collagen-chitosan nano-scaffolds) on maturation of dendritic cells and their capacity to interact with T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Daneshmandi, Saeed; Dibazar, Shaghayegh Pishkhan; Fateh, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    In the body, there is a natural three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment in which immune cells, including dendritic cells (DC), play their functions. This study evaluated the impact of using collagen-chitosan 3D nano-scaffolds in comparisons to routine 2D culture plates on DC phenotype and functions. Bone marrow-derived DC were cultured on scaffolds and plates and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or chitosan-based nanoparticles (NP) for 24 h. Thereafter, DC viability, expression of maturation markers and levels of cytokines secretion were evaluated. In another set of studies, the DC were co-cultured with allogenic T-lymphocytes in both the 2D and 3D systems and effects on DC-induction of T-lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine release were analyzed. The results indicated that CD40, CD86 and MHC II marker expression and interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by DC were enhanced in 3D cultures in comparison to by cells maintained in the 2D states. The data also showed that DNA/chitosan NP activated DC more than LPS in the 3D system. T-Lymphocyte proliferation was induced to a greater extent by DNA/NP-treated DC when both cell types were maintained on the scaffolds. Interestingly, while DC induction of T-lymphocyte interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-4 release was enhanced in the 3D system (relative to controls), there was a suppression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β production; effects on IL-10 secretion were variable. The results here suggested that collagen-chitosan scaffolds could provide a pro-inflammatory and activator environment to perform studies to analyze effects of exogenous agents on the induction of DC maturation, NP uptake and/or cytokines release, as well as for the ability of these cells to potentially interact with other immune system cells in vitro.

  7. Dengue virus-specific human T cell clones. Serotype crossreactive proliferation, interferon gamma production, and cytotoxic activity

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The severe complications of dengue virus infections, hemorrhagic manifestation and shock, are much more commonly observed during secondary infections caused by a different serotype of dengue virus than that which caused the primary infections. It has been speculated, therefore, that dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are caused by serotype crossreactive immunopathological mechanisms. We analyzed clones of dengue serotype crossreactive T lymphocytes derived from the PBMC of a donor who had been infected with dengue 3 virus. These PBMC responded best to dengue 3 antigen, but also responded to dengue 1, 2, and 4 antigens, in bulk culture proliferation assays. 12 dengue antigen-specific clones were established using a limiting dilution technique. All of the clones had CD3+ CD4+ CD8 phenotypes. Eight clones responded to dengue 1, 2, 3, and 4 antigens and are crossreactive, while four other clones responded predominantly to dengue 3 antigen. These results indicate that the serotype crossreactive dengue-specific T lymphocyte proliferation observed in bulk cultures reflects the crossreactive responses detected at the clonal level. Serotype crossreactive clones produced high titers of IFN- gamma after stimulation with dengue 3 antigens, and also produced IFN- gamma to lower levels after stimulation with dengue 1, 2, and 4 antigens. The crossreactive clones lysed autologous lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) pulsed with dengue antigens, and the crossreactivity of CTL lysis by T cell clones was consistent with the crossreactivity observed in proliferation assays. Epidemiological studies have shown that secondary infections with dengue 2 virus cause DHF/DSS at a higher rate than the other serotypes. We hypothesized that the lysis of dengue virus-infected cells by CTL may lead to DHF/DSS; therefore, the clones were examined for cytotoxic activity against dengue 2 virus-infected LCL. All but one of the serotype crossreactive clones lysed dengue 2 virus

  8. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio in mood disorders: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Lucchi, Sara; Tringali, Agnese Grazia Maria; Rossetti, Aurora; Botti, Eugenia Rossana; Clerici, Massimo

    2018-06-08

    The immune and inflammatory system is involved in the etiology of mood disorders. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platele