Science.gov

Sample records for a-induced oxidative liver

  1. Inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis cascade implications in bisphenol A-induced liver fibrosis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Elswefy, Sahar El-Sayed; Abdallah, Fatma Rizk; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini; Wahba, Alaa Samir; Hasan, Rehab Abdallah

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a key monomer in the production of plastics. It has been shown to be hepatotoxic. Inflammation and oxidative stress are closely linked with liver fibrosis, the major contributing factor to hepatic failure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to BPA on the development of hepatic fibrosis in male rats and to determine the cross-talk between the hepatic cytokine network, oxidative stress and apoptosis. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three equal groups as follows: the first group was given no treatment (normal control group); the second group was given corn oil once daily by oral gavage for 8 weeks (vehicle control group); and the third group received BPA (50 mg/kg body weight/day, p.o.) for 8 weeks. BPA administration induced liver fibrosis as reflected in an increase in serum hepatic enzymes activities, hepatic hydroxyproline content and histopathological changes particularly increased collagen fibre deposition around the portal tract. In addition, there was inflammation (as reflected in increase in interleukin-1beta 'IL-1β', decrease in interleukin-10 'IL-10' serum levels and increase in IL-1β/IL-10 ratio), oxidative stress (as reflected in increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level, reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH) content and inhibition of catalase (CAT) activity) and apoptosis [as reflected in an increase in caspase-3 level and a decrease in numbers of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-immunopositive hepatocytes]. Interestingly, BPA had an upregulating effect on an extracellular matrix turnover gene [as reflected in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)] and a downregulating effect on its inhibitor gene [as reflected in tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)] expression. Thus, the mechanism by which BPA induced liver fibrosis seems to be related to stimulation of the inflammatory response, along with oxidative stress, the apoptotic pathway and activation

  2. Antifibrotic mechanism of deferoxamine in concanavalin A induced-liver fibrosis: Impact on interferon therapy.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Samar F; El-Bakly, Wesam M; El-Naga, Reem N; Awad, Azza S; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2015-11-01

    Iron-overload is a well-known factor of hepatotoxicity and liver fibrosis, which found to be a common finding among hepatitis C virus patients and related to interferon resistance. We aimed to elucidate the potential antifibrotic effect of deferoxamine; the main iron chelator, and its additional usefulness to interferon-based therapy in concanavalin A-induced immunological model of liver fibrosis. Rats were treated with deferoxamine and/or pegylated interferon-α for 6 weeks. Hepatotoxicity indices, oxidative stress, inflammatory and liver fibrosis markers were assessed. Concanavalin A induced a significant increase in hepatotoxicity indices and lipid peroxidation accompanied with a significant depletion of total antioxidant capacity, glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity. Besides, it increased CD4(+) T-cells content and the downstream inflammatory cascades, including NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, α-SMA, TGF-β1 and hydroxyproline were increased markedly, which confirmed by histopathology. Treatment with either deferoxamine or pegylated interferon-α alone reduced liver fibrosis markers significantly and improved liver histology. However, some of the hepatotoxicity indices and oxidative stress markers did not improve upon pegylated interferon-α treatment alone, besides the remarkable increase in IL-6. Combination therapy of deferoxamine with pegylated interferon-α further improved all previous markers, ameliorated IL-6 elevation, as well as increased hepcidin expression. In conclusion, our study provides evidences for the potent antifibrotic effects of deferoxamine and the underlying mechanisms that involved attenuating oxidative stress and subsequent inflammatory cascade, as well as the production of profibrogenic factors. Addition of deferoxamine to interferon regimen for HCV patients may offer a promising adjuvant modality to enhance therapeutic response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Tan, Hor-Yue; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Lao, Lixing; Wong, Chi-Woon; Feng, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed. PMID:26540040

  4. Influence of nutrition on liver oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, F; Culebras, J M; González-Gallego, J

    1996-06-01

    The liver plays a major role in the disposition of the majority of drugs. This is due to the presence of several drug-metabolizing enzyme systems, including a group of membrane-bound mixed-function oxidative enzymes, mainly the cytochrome P450 system. Hepatic oxidative capacity can be assessed by changes in antipyrine metabolism. Different drugs and other factors may induce or inhibit the cytochrome P450-dependent system. This effect is important in terms of the efficacy or toxicity of drugs that are substrates for the system. Microsomal oxidation in animals fed with protein-deficient diets is depressed. The mixed-function oxidase activity recovers after a hyperproteic diet or the addition of lipids. Similar findings have been reported in patients with protein-calorie malnutrition, although results in the elderly are conflicting. Different studies have revealed that microsomal oxidation is impaired by total parenteral nutrition and that this effect is absent when changing the caloric source from carbohydrates to a conventional amino acid solution or after lipid addition, especially when administered as medium-chain/long-chain triglyceride mixtures. Peripheral parenteral nutrition appears to increase antipyrine clearance.

  5. Salidroside mediates apoptosis and autophagy inhibition in concanavalin A-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiao; Niu, Peiqin; Chen, Kan; Wu, Liwei; Liu, Tong; Xu, Shizan; Li, Jingjing; Li, Sainan; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Ning; Xu, Ling; Wang, Fan; Dai, Weiqi; Xia, Yujing; Fan, Xiaoming; Guo, Chuanyong

    2018-01-01

    Salidroside (Sal) is a glycoside extract from Rhodiola rosea L. with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and cardioprotective properties. The present study explored the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of Sal on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury in mice. Balb/C mice were divided into five groups: Normal control (injected with normal saline), ConA (25 mg/kg), Sal (10 mg/kg) +ConA, Sal (20 mg/kg) + ConA (Sal injected 2 h prior to ConA injection) and Sal (20 mg/kg) only. The serum levels of liver enzymes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis- and autophagy-associated marker proteins were determined at 2, 8 and 24 h after ConA injection. LY294002 was further used to verify whether the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway was activated. Primary hepatocytes were isolated to verify the effect of Sal in vitro. The results indicated that Sal was a safe agent to reduce pathological damage and serum liver enzymes in ConA-induced liver injury. Sal suppressed inflammatory reactions in serum and liver tissues, and activated the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to inhibit apoptosis and autophagy in vivo and in vitro, which could be reversed by LY294002. In conclusion, Sal attenuated ConA-induced liver injury by modulating PI3K/Akt pathway-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in mice.

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MICE LIVER IN DYNAMICS OF CONCANAVALIN A - INDUCED HEPATITIS.

    PubMed

    Pavlovych, S I; Makogon, N V; Grushka, N G; Bryzgina, T M; Janchiy, R I

    The injure of the liver tissue and its infiltration by cells of the innate and adaptive immunity in dynamics of Con A-induced hepatitis in mice was studied. The semiquantitative method of damage rate of microcirculation channel and liver parenchyma was used, leukocyte liver infiltration and cellular composition of infiltrates were investigated also. Primary liver reaction to the Con-A was the inflammatory changes in the vascular bed, followed by disturbances in the parenchyma.The sufficient increasing of leukocyte migration to the liver was revealed. Besides, the neutrophile infiltration was increased first with a maximum at 6 hours of the experiment (63,9 ±4,6%, p<0,001 to the control level) ,and then the lymphocyte infiltration was increased with creation of manycellular lymphocytemacrophage infiltrates (62% at 48 hours comparing to 6 hours of experiment) and sufficient quantity of plasma cells population (4,9%, p<0,05 comparing to 6 hours of experiment). The obtained data gives the base to suggest that the elevated infiltration of liver tissue by leukocytes, particularly by lymphocytes and monocytes, together with necrotic death increasing creats the conditions for effective intracellular interaction and immune response to autoantigenes. This can be the essential pathogenic mechanism of development of autoimmune liver deseases.

  7. The potential antifibrotic impact of apocynin and alpha-lipoic acid in concanavalin A-induced liver fibrosis in rats: Role of NADPH oxidases 1 and 4.

    PubMed

    Fayed, Mostafa R; El-Naga, Reem N; Akool, El-Sayed; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2018-01-01

    Liver fibrosis results from chronic inflammation that precipitates excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. Oxidative stress is involved in its pathogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the potential antifibrotic effect of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, apocynin against concanavalin A (ConA)-induced immunological model of liver fibrosis, and to investigate the ability of the antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) to potentiate this effect. Rats were treated with apocynin and/or α-LA for six weeks. Hepatotoxicity indices, oxidative stress, insulin, NOXs, inflammatory and liver fibrosis markers were assessed. Treatment of animals with apocynin and α-LA significantly ameliorated the changes in liver functions and histopathological architecture induced by ConA. Liver fibrosis induced by ConA was evident where alpha-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor- beta1 were elevated, which was further confirmed by Masson's trichrome stain and increased hydroxyproline. Co-treatment with apocynin and α-LA significantly reduced their expression. Besides, apocynin and α-LA significantly ameliorated oxidative stress injury evoked by ConA, as evidenced by enhancing reduced glutathione content, antioxidant enzymes activities and decreasing lipid peroxides. ConA induced a significant elevation in serum insulin level and inflammatory markers; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and nuclear factor kappa b. Furthermore, the mRNA tissue expression of NOXs 1 and 4 was found to be elevated in the ConA group. All these elevations were significantly reduced by apocynin and α-LA co-treatment. These findings indicate that using apocynin and α-LA in combination possess marked antifibrotic effects, and that NOX enzymes are partially involved in the pathogenesis of ConA-induced liver fibrosis.

  8. Mitochondrial metabolism mediates oxidative stress and inflammation in fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Satapati, Santhosh; Kucejova, Blanka; Duarte, Joao A.G.; Fletcher, Justin A.; Reynolds, Lacy; Sunny, Nishanth E.; He, Tianteng; Nair, L. Arya; Livingston, Kenneth; Fu, Xiaorong; Merritt, Matthew E.; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.; Shelton, John M.; Lambert, Jennifer; Parks, Elizabeth J.; Corbin, Ian; Magnuson, Mark A.; Browning, Jeffrey D.; Burgess, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are critical for respiration in all tissues; however, in liver, these organelles also accommodate high-capacity anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways that are essential to gluconeogenesis and other biosynthetic activities. During nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), mitochondria also produce ROS that damage hepatocytes, trigger inflammation, and contribute to insulin resistance. Here, we provide several lines of evidence indicating that induction of biosynthesis through hepatic anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways is energetically backed by elevated oxidative metabolism and hence contributes to oxidative stress and inflammation during NAFLD. First, in murine livers, elevation of fatty acid delivery not only induced oxidative metabolism, but also amplified anaplerosis/cataplerosis and caused a proportional rise in oxidative stress and inflammation. Second, loss of anaplerosis/cataplerosis via genetic knockdown of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) prevented fatty acid–induced rise in oxidative flux, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Flux appeared to be regulated by redox state, energy charge, and metabolite concentration, which may also amplify antioxidant pathways. Third, preventing elevated oxidative metabolism with metformin also normalized hepatic anaplerosis/cataplerosis and reduced markers of inflammation. Finally, independent histological grades in human NAFLD biopsies were proportional to oxidative flux. Thus, hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with elevated oxidative metabolism during an obesogenic diet, and this link may be provoked by increased work through anabolic pathways. PMID:26571396

  9. Hepatoprotective Effect of Wedelolactone against Concanavalin A-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingqiong; Ding, Jieying; Zhu, Liping; Chen, Fuxiang; Xu, Lili

    2018-05-08

    Eclipta prostrata L. is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. However, its biological mechanisms remain elusive. The current study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of wedelolactone, a major coumarin ingredient of Eclipta prostrata L., on immune-mediated liver injury. Using the well-established animal model of Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis (CIH), we found that pretreatment of mice with wedelolactone markedly reduced both the serum levels of transaminases and the severity of liver damage. We further investigated the mechanisms of the protective effect of wedelolactone. In mice treated with wedelolactone prior to the induction of CIH, increases of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], interferon (IFN)-[Formula: see text], and interleukin (IL)-6 were dramatically attenuated. Additionally, expressions of the interferon-inducible chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 gene CXCL10 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene ICAM1 were lower in livers of the treated mice. Moreover, wedelolactone-treated CIH mice exhibited reduced leukocyte infiltration and T-cell activation in liver. Furthermore, wedelolactone suppressed the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-[Formula: see text]B), a critical transcriptional factor of the above-mentioned inflammatory cytokines by limiting the phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha (I[Formula: see text]B[Formula: see text] and p65. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the inhibitory potential of wedelolactone in immune-mediated liver injury in vivo, and show that this protection is associated with modulation of the NF-[Formula: see text]B signaling pathway.

  10. Derangements of liver tissue bioenergetics in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamsi, Mariam; Shahin, Allen; Mensah-Brown, Eric P K; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2013-01-12

    A novel in vitro system was employed to investigate liver tissue respiration (mitochondrial O2 consumption) in mice treated with concanavalin A (Con A). This study aimed to investigate hepatocyte bioenergetics in this well-studied hepatitis model. C57Bl/6 and C57Bl/6 IFN-γ-/- mice were injected intravenously with 12 mg ConA/kg. Liver specimens were collected at various timepoints after injection and analyzed for cellular respiration and caspase activation. Serum was analyzed for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and aminotransferases. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis was used to determine the phenotype of infiltrating cells, and light and electron microscopy were used to monitor morphological changes. Phosphorescence analyzer that measured dissolved O2 as function of time was used to evaluate respiration. In sealed vials, O2 concentrations in solutions containing liver specimen and glucose declined linearly with time, confirming zero-order kinetics of hepatocyte respiration. O2 consumption was inhibited by cyanide, confirming the oxidation occurred in the respiratory chain. Enhanced liver respiration (by ≈68%, p<0.02) was noted 3 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with limited cellular infiltrations around the blood vessels. Diminished respiration (by ≈30%, p=0.005) was noted 12 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with deranged mitochondria, areas of necrosis, and prominent infiltrations with immune cells, most significantly, CD3+NKT+ cells. Increases in intracellular caspase activity and serum IFN-γ and aminotransferase levels were noted 3 hr after ConA treatment and progressed with time. The above-noted changes were less pronounced in C57Bl/6 IFN-γ-/- mice treated with ConA. Based on these results, liver tissue bioenergetics is increased 3 hr after ConA exposure. This effect is driven by the pathogenesis of the disease, in which IFN-γ and other cytokines contribute to. Subsequent declines in liver bioenergetics

  11. Oxidative stress promotes pathologic polyploidization in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Gentric, Géraldine; Maillet, Vanessa; Paradis, Valérie; Couton, Dominique; L’Hermitte, Antoine; Panasyuk, Ganna; Fromenty, Bernard; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidization is one of the most dramatic changes that can occur in the genome. In the liver, physiological polyploidization events occur during both liver development and throughout adult life. Here, we determined that a pathological polyploidization takes place in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a widespread hepatic metabolic disorder that is believed to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In murine models of NAFLD, the parenchyma of fatty livers displayed alterations of the polyploidization process, including the presence of a large proportion of highly polyploid mononuclear cells, which are rarely observed in normal hepatic parenchyma. Biopsies from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) revealed the presence of alterations in hepatocyte ploidy compared with tissue from control individuals. Hepatocytes from NAFLD mice revealed that progression through the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle was inefficient. This alteration was associated with activation of a G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, which prevented activation of the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex. Furthermore, we determined that oxidative stress promotes the appearance of highly polyploid cells, and antioxidant-treated NAFLD hepatocytes resumed normal cell division and returned to a physiological state of polyploidy. Collectively, these findings indicate that oxidative stress promotes pathological polyploidization and suggest that this is an early event in NAFLD that may contribute to HCC development. PMID:25621497

  12. Oxidative stress promotes pathologic polyploidization in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gentric, Géraldine; Maillet, Vanessa; Paradis, Valérie; Couton, Dominique; L'Hermitte, Antoine; Panasyuk, Ganna; Fromenty, Bernard; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2015-03-02

    Polyploidization is one of the most dramatic changes that can occur in the genome. In the liver, physiological polyploidization events occur during both liver development and throughout adult life. Here, we determined that a pathological polyploidization takes place in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a widespread hepatic metabolic disorder that is believed to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In murine models of NAFLD, the parenchyma of fatty livers displayed alterations of the polyploidization process, including the presence of a large proportion of highly polyploid mononuclear cells, which are rarely observed in normal hepatic parenchyma. Biopsies from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) revealed the presence of alterations in hepatocyte ploidy compared with tissue from control individuals. Hepatocytes from NAFLD mice revealed that progression through the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle was inefficient. This alteration was associated with activation of a G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, which prevented activation of the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex. Furthermore, we determined that oxidative stress promotes the appearance of highly polyploid cells, and antioxidant-treated NAFLD hepatocytes resumed normal cell division and returned to a physiological state of polyploidy. Collectively, these findings indicate that oxidative stress promotes pathological polyploidization and suggest that this is an early event in NAFLD that may contribute to HCC development.

  13. Creatine supplementation and oxidative stress in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on liver biomarkers of oxidative stress in exercise-trained rats. Methods Forty 90-day-old adult male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups for the eight-week experiment. Control group (C) rats received a balanced control diet; creatine control group (CCr) rats received a balanced diet supplemented with 2% creatine; trained group (T) rats received a balanced diet and intense exercise training equivalent to the maximal lactate steady state phase; and supplemented-trained (TCr) rats were given a balanced diet supplemented with 2% creatine and subjected to intense exercise training equivalent to the maximal lactate steady state phase. At the end of the experimental period, concentrations of creatine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured as well as the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx) and catalase (CAT). Liver tissue levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were also determined. Results Hepatic creatine levels were highest in the CCr and TCr groups with increased concentration of H2O2 observed in the T and TCr animal groups. SOD activity was decreased in the TCr group. GSH-GPx activity was increased in the T and TCr groups while CAT was elevated in the CCr and TCr groups. GSH, GGS and the GSH/GSSG ratio did not differ between all animal subsets. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that creatine supplementation acts in an additive manner to physical training to raise antioxidant enzymes in rat liver. However, because markers of liver oxidative stress were unchanged, this finding may also indicate that training-induced oxidative stress cannot be ameliorated by creatine supplementation. PMID:24325803

  14. [Acetylcholine activation of alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation in liver mitochondria].

    PubMed

    Shostakovskaia, I V; Doliba, N M; Gordiĭ, S K; Babskiĭ, A M; Kondrashova, M N

    1986-01-01

    Activation of alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation in the rat liver mitochondria takes place 15 and 30 min after intraperitoneal injection of acetyl choline. This mediator in doses of 25, 50 and 100 micrograms per 100 g of body weight causes a pronounced stimulation of phosphorylation respiration rate and calcium capacity of mitochondria with alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation. Acetyl choline is found to have a moderate inhibitory action on oxidation of lower (physiological) concentrations of succinate. Its stimulating action on alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation is associated with activation of M-cholinoreceptors; atropine, a choline-blocker, removes completely this effect. It is supposed that alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate are included into the composition of two reciprocal hormonal-substrate nucleotide systems.

  15. Pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease: Role of oxidative metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ceni, Elisabetta; Mello, Tommaso; Galli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a predominant etiological factor in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases, resulting in fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) involves complex and still unclear biological processes, the oxidative metabolites of ethanol such as acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a preeminent role in the clinical and pathological spectrum of ALD. Ethanol oxidative metabolism influences intracellular signaling pathways and deranges the transcriptional control of several genes, leading to fat accumulation, fibrogenesis and activation of innate and adaptive immunity. Acetaldehyde is known to be toxic to the liver and alters lipid homeostasis, decreasing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and increasing sterol regulatory element binding protein activity via an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent mechanism. AMPK activation by ROS modulates autophagy, which has an important role in removing lipid droplets. Acetaldehyde and aldehydes generated from lipid peroxidation induce collagen synthesis by their ability to form protein adducts that activate transforming-growth-factor-β-dependent and independent profibrogenic pathways in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Furthermore, activation of innate and adaptive immunity in response to ethanol metabolism plays a key role in the development and progression of ALD. Acetaldehyde alters the intestinal barrier and promote lipopolysaccharide (LPS) translocation by disrupting tight and adherent junctions in human colonic mucosa. Acetaldehyde and LPS induce Kupffer cells to release ROS and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines that contribute to neutrophils infiltration. In addition, alcohol consumption inhibits natural killer cells that are cytotoxic to HSCs and thus have an important antifibrotic function in the liver. Ethanol metabolism may also interfere with cell

  16. Ochratoxin A induces rat renal carcinogenicity with limited induction of oxidative stress responses

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Yu, Tao; Zhu, Liye

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has displayed nephrotoxicity and renal carcinogenicity in mammals, however, no clear mechanisms have been identified detailing the relationship between oxidative stress and these toxicities. This study was performed to clarify the relationship between oxidative stress and the renal carcinogenicity induced by OTA. Rats were treated with 70 or 210 μg/kg b.w. OTA for 4 or 13 weeks. In the rats administrated with OTA for 13 weeks, the kidney was damaged seriously. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed in the outer stripe of the outer medulla. Karyomegaly was prominent in the tubular epithelium. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was detected inmore » the outer stripe of the outer medulla in both low- and high-dose groups. OTA increased the mRNA levels of clusterin in rat kidneys. Interestingly, OTA did not significantly alter the oxidative stress level in rat liver and kidney. Yet, some indications related to proliferation and carcinogenicity were observed. A dose-related increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was observed at 4 weeks in both liver and kidney, but at 13 weeks, only in the kidney. OTA down-regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and up-regulated vimentin and lipocalin 2 in rat kidney at 13 weeks. The p53 gene was decreased in both liver and kidney at 13 weeks. These results suggest that OTA caused apparent kidney damage within 13 weeks but exerted limited effect on oxidative stress parameters. It implies that cell proliferation is the proposed mode of action for OTA-induced renal carcinogenicity. - Highlights: • We studied OTA toxicities in both the rat liver and kidney for 13 weeks. • OTA exerts limited effects on oxidative stress in the rat liver and kidney. • OTA induced renal carcinogenicity resulting from cell proliferation.« less

  17. Nonylphenol induces liver toxicity and oxidative stress in rat.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Sohrab; Mousavi Kani, Seydeh Narges; Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam; Aghapour, Fahimeh; Khorasani, Hamidreza; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2016-10-07

    Nonylphenol (NP) is one of the most widely used synthetic xenoestrogens in detergents, plastic products, paints and the most important environmental degradation factor. In this study, the effects NP was investigated on hepatic oxidative stress-related gene expression in rats. Wistar male rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into control and NP receiving groups. NP was given in three doses (5, 25, and 125 μg/kg). All doses were given by gavage and the experiment continued for a consecutive 35 days. AST, ALT and ALP determined by the colorimetric method. The RNA was extracted from the rats liver tissue and RT- PCR was used to investigate the changes in gene expression. For this purpose, primers and specific probes of HO1 and Gadd45b genes as well as B-actin as control were prepared and the expression of each gene was separately assessed with ABI-7300. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for evaluating of cell death. The data from our study indicated nonylphenol increased alkaline phosphatase level but not changed aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. That various doses of NP result in a dose-dependent increase in the expression of HO-1 gene. The intensified expression of HO-1 was statistically significant just at the doses of 25 and 125 μg/kg compared to control group (p < 0.05). In addition, it was shown that different doses of nonylphenol raised the expression of Gadd45b gene and this increase was significantly evident at 5 μg/kg (p < 0.05). Histological evaluation also indicated that NP increased hepatocytes cell death. We conclude that NP increased serum alkaline phosphatase, lead to liver damage and can increase the expression of HO1 and Gadd45b genes and may modify the toxic effects on liver through induction of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of moclobemide N-oxidation in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, J; Shenfield, G; Murray, M; Gross, A

    2001-07-01

    1. Moclobemide underdergoes morpholine ring N-oxidation to form a major metabolite in plasma Rol2-5637. 2. The kinetics of moclobemide N-oxidation in human liver microsomes (HLM) (n = 6) have been investigated and the mixed-function oxidase enzymes catalysing this reaction have been identified using inhibition, enzyme correlation, altered pH and heat pretreatment experiments. 3. N-oxidation followed single enzyme Michealis-Menten kinetics (0.02-4.0 mm). Km app and Vmax ranged from 0.48 to 1.35 mM (mean +/- SD) 0.77 +/- 0.34 mM) and 0.22 to 2.15 nmol mg(-1) min(-1) (1.39 +/- 0.80 nmol mg(-1) respectively. 4. The N-oxidation of moclobemide strongly correlated with benzydamine N-oxidation a probe reaction for flavin-containing monoxygenase (FMO) activity (0.1 mM moclobemide, rs = 0.81, p < 0.005; 4 mM moclobemide, rs = 0.94, p = 0.0001). Correlations were observed between moclobemide N-oxidation and specific cytochromre P450 (CYP) activities at both moclobemide concentrations (0.1 mM moclobemide, CYP2C19 0.66, p < 0.05; 4 mM moclobemide, CYP2E1 rs = 0.56, p < 0.05). 5. The general P450 inhibitor, N-benzylimidazole, did not affect the rate of Rol2-5637 formation (0% inhibition versus control) (at 1.3 mM moclobemide. Furthermore, the rate of Ro12-5637 formation in HLM was unaffected by inhibitors Or substrates of specific P450s (< 10% inhibition versus control). 6. Heat pretreatment of HLM in the absence of NADPH (inactivating FMOs) resulted in 97% inhibition of Ro12-5637 formation. N-oxidation activity was greatest when incubated at pH 8.5. These results ilre consistent with the reaction being FMO medialtetd . 7. In conclusion, moclobemide N-oxidation activity has been observed in HLM in vitro and the reaction is predominantly catalysed by FMOs with a potentially small contribution from cytochrome P450 isoforms.

  19. Monitoring liver macrophages using nanobodies targeting Vsig4: concanavalin A induced acute hepatitis as paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Devoogdt, Nick; Sparkes, Amanda; Morias, Yannick; Abels, Chloé; Stijlemans, Benoit; Lahoutte, Tony; Muyldermans, Serge; De Baetselier, Patrick; Schoonooghe, Steve; Beschin, Alain; Raes, Geert

    2015-02-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) are liver resident macrophages which are important for tissue homeostasis and have been implicated in immunogenic, tolerogenic and pathogenic immune reactions depending on the insult. These cells and the biomarkers they express thus represent interesting in vivo sensors for monitoring liver inflammation. In the current study, we explored whether KCs can be monitored non-invasively using single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) with (99m)Tc labeled nanobodies (Nbs) targeting selected biomarkers. Nbs targeting V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing 4 (Vsig4) or macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) accumulated in the liver of untreated mice. The liver targeting of anti-Vsig4 Nbs, but not anti-MMR Nbs, was blunted upon depletion of macrophages, highlighting specificity of anti-Vsig4 Nbs for liver macrophage imaging. Ex vivo flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that anti-Vsig4 Nbs specifically targeted KCs but no other cell types in the liver. Upon induction of acute hepatitis using concanavalin A (ConA), down-regulation of the in vivo imaging signal obtained using anti-Vsig4 Nbs reflected reduction in KC numbers and transient modulation of Vsig4 expression on KCs. Overall, these results indicate that Nbs targeting Vsig4 as molecular imaging biomarker enable non-invasive monitoring of KCs during hepatic inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Is Liver Enzyme Release Really Associated with Cell Necrosis Induced by Oxidant Stress?

    PubMed

    Contreras-Zentella, Martha Lucinda; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic diseases are a major concern worldwide. Increased specific plasma enzyme activities are considered diagnostic features for liver diseases, since enzymes are released into the blood compartment following the deterioration of the organ. Release of liver mitochondrial enzymes is considered strong evidence for hepatic necrosis, which is associated with an increased production of ROS, often leading to greater hepatic lipid peroxidation. Lipotoxic mediators and intracellular signals activated Kupffer cells, which provides evidence strongly suggesting the participation of oxidant stress in acute liver damage, inducing the progression of liver injury to chronic liver damage. Elevated transaminase activities are considered as an index marker of hepatotoxicity, linked to oxidant stress. However, a drastic increase of serum activities of liver enzyme markers ought not necessarily to reflect liver cell death. In fact, increased serum levels of cytoplasmic enzymes have readily been observed after partial hepatectomy (PH) in the regenerating liver of rats. In this regard, we are now showing that in vitro modifications of the oxidant status affect differentially the release of liver enzymes, indicating that this release is a strictly controlled event and not directly related to the onset of oxidant stress of the liver.

  1. Hypervitaminosis A-induced liver fibrosis: stellate cell activation and daily dose consumption.

    PubMed

    Nollevaux, M-C; Guiot, Y; Horsmans, Y; Leclercq, I; Rahier, J; Geubel, A P; Sempoux, C

    2006-03-01

    Hypervitaminosis A-related liver toxicity may be severe and may even lead to cirrhosis. In the normal liver, vitamin A is stored in hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which are prone to becoming activated and acquiring a myofibroblast-like phenotype, producing large amounts of extracellular matrix. In order to assess the relationship between vitamin A intake, HSC activation and fibrosis, we studied nine liver biopsies from patients belonging to a well-characterized series of 41 patients with vitamin A hepatotoxicity. Fibrosis was underlined by Sirius-red staining, whereas activated HSC were immunohistochemically identified using an antibody against alpha smooth muscle actin. The volume density (Vv) of sinusoidal and total fibrosis and of sinusoidal and total activated HSC was quantified by the point-counting method. Morphology ranged from HSC hypertrophy and hyperplasia as the sole features to severe architectural distortion. There was a significant positive correlation between Vv of perisinusoidal fibrosis and the daily consumption of vitamin A (P=0.004). The close correlation between the severity of perisinusoidal fibrosis and the daily dose of the retinol intake suggests the existence of a dose-effect relationship.

  2. Protective effects of silymarin against bisphenol A-induced hepatotoxicity in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Zaulet, Mihaela; Kevorkian, Steliana Elvira Maria; Dinescu, Sorina; Cotoraci, Coralia; Suciu, Maria; Herman, Hildegard; Buburuzan, Laura; Badulescu, Liliana; Ardelean, Aurel; Hermenean, Anca

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical released into the environment, with severe consequences for human health, including metabolic syndrome and associated pathological conditions. Due to limited information on BPA-induced hepatotoxicity, the present study focused on investigating the association between BPA-induced toxicity and inflammatory markers in the liver, and how these injuries may be alleviated using the natural agent silymarin, a flavonoid with antioxidant properties obtained from Silybum marianum. Administration of BPA to male CD-1 mice for 10 days caused a significant increase in the number of cells immunopositive for interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, pro-inflammatory cytokines that mediate the hepatic inflammatory response. Treatment with 200 mg/kg of silymarin concurrently with BPA for 10 days resulted in a diminished level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and in significantly reduced ultrastructural injuries. Additionally, silymarin was able to restore the significantly decreased glycogen deposits observed following BPA exposure to normal levels, thus favoring hepatic glycogenesis. This study represents the first report of silymarin ability to reduce hepatic lesions and to counteract inflammation caused by BPA in mice. A dose of 200 mg/kg silymarin was sufficient to induce a protective effect against structural and ultrastructural injuries induced by BPA and to lower the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines observed in murine liver tissue following exposure to BPA. PMID:28450905

  3. Pretreatment with propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate ameliorated concanavalin A-induced liver injury by regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shizan; Wu, Liwei; Zhang, Qinghui; Feng, Jiao; Li, Sainan; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Tong; Mo, Wenhui; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Yingqun; Fan, Xiaoming; Guo, Chuanyong

    2017-09-15

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effect of PSS on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury in mice and examined the underlying mechanisms. Balb/C mice were injected intravenously with Con A (25mg/kg) to generate a model of acute liver injury. PSS (25 or 50mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1h before the Con A administration. The levels of serum liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and other marker proteins were determined, and liver injury was assessed histopathologically 2, 8, and 24h after Con A injection. Pretreatment with PSS reduced the levels of serum liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, and attenuated histopathological damage in Con A-induced liver injury in mice. The effects of Con A were mediated by apoptosis and autophagy, as indicated by changes in protein and gene expression of related factors after Con A injection. PSS activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway and showed a protective function against apoptosis and autophagy. PSS ameliorated Con A-induced liver injury by downregulating inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1β and regulating apoptosis and autophagy via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Bauhinia forficata Tea on Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salgueiro, Andréia Caroline Fernandes; da Silva, Marianne Pires; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Posser, Thaís; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Puntel, Gustavo Orione

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (BF) tea on oxidative stress and liver damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic male mice have remained 30 days without any treatment. BF treatment started on day 31 and continued for 21 days as a drinking-water substitute. We evaluated (1) BF chemical composition; (2) glucose levels; (3) liver/body weight ratio and liver transaminases; (4) reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation in liver; (5) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in liver; (6) δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) and nonprotein thiols (NPSH) in liver; (7) Nrf2, NQO-1, and HSP70 levels in liver and pancreas. Phytochemical analyses identified four phenols compounds. Diabetic mice present high levels of NQO-1 in pancreas, increased levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation in liver, and decrease in CAT activity. BF treatment normalized all these parameters. BF did not normalize hyperglycemia, liver/body weight ratio, aspartate aminotransferase, protein carbonyl, NPSH levels, and δ-ALA-D activity. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential mechanism involved in liver damage in hyperglycemic conditions. Our results indicated that BF protective effect could be attributed to its antioxidant capacity, more than a hypoglycemic potential. PMID:26839634

  5. Effects of Bauhinia forficata Tea on Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, Andréia Caroline Fernandes; Folmer, Vanderlei; da Silva, Marianne Pires; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Posser, Thaís; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Puntel, Gustavo Orione

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (BF) tea on oxidative stress and liver damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic male mice have remained 30 days without any treatment. BF treatment started on day 31 and continued for 21 days as a drinking-water substitute. We evaluated (1) BF chemical composition; (2) glucose levels; (3) liver/body weight ratio and liver transaminases; (4) reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation in liver; (5) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in liver; (6) δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) and nonprotein thiols (NPSH) in liver; (7) Nrf2, NQO-1, and HSP70 levels in liver and pancreas. Phytochemical analyses identified four phenols compounds. Diabetic mice present high levels of NQO-1 in pancreas, increased levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation in liver, and decrease in CAT activity. BF treatment normalized all these parameters. BF did not normalize hyperglycemia, liver/body weight ratio, aspartate aminotransferase, protein carbonyl, NPSH levels, and δ-ALA-D activity. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential mechanism involved in liver damage in hyperglycemic conditions. Our results indicated that BF protective effect could be attributed to its antioxidant capacity, more than a hypoglycemic potential.

  6. Anti-oxidative effects of curcumin on immobilization-induced oxidative stress in rat brain, liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samini, Fariborz

    2017-03-01

    Restraint stress has been indicated to induce oxidative damage in tissues. Several investigations have reported that curcumin (CUR) may have a protective effect against oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of CUR on restraint stress induced oxidative stress damage in the brain, liver and kidneys. For chronic restraint stress, rats were kept in the restrainers for 1h every day, for 21 consecutive days. The animals received systemic administrations of CUR daily for 21days. In order to evaluate the changes of the oxidative stress parameters following restraint stress, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as antioxidant enzyme activities superoxide dismutase (SOD) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) were measured in the brain, liver and kidney of rats after the end of restraint stress. The restraint stress significantly increased MDA level, but decreased the level of GSH and activists of SOD, GPx, GR, and CAT the brain, liver and kidney of rats in comparison to the normal rats (P<0.001). Intraperitoneal administration of CUR significantly attenuated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, prevented apoptosis, and increased antioxidant defense mechanism activity in the tissues versus the control group (P<0.05). This study shows that CUR can prevent restraint stress-induced oxidative damage in the brain, liver and kidney of rats and propose that CUR may be useful agents against oxidative stress in the tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Insights into the Role and Interdependence of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Hong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The crucial roles of oxidative stress and inflammation in the development of hepatic diseases have been unraveled and emphasized for decades. From steatosis to fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver cancer, hepatic oxidative stress, and inflammation are sustained and participated in this pathological progressive process. Notably, increasing evidences showed that oxidative stress and inflammation are tightly related, which are regarded as essential partners that present simultaneously and interact with each other in various pathological conditions, creating a vicious cycle to aggravate the hepatic diseases. Clarifying the interaction of oxidative stress and inflammation is of great importance to provide new directions and targets for developing therapeutic intervention. Herein, this review is concerned with the regulation and interdependence of oxidative stress and inflammation in a variety of liver diseases. In addition to classical mediators and signaling, particular emphasis is placed upon immune suppression, a potential linkage of oxidative stress and inflammation, to provide new inspiration for the treatment of liver diseases. Furthermore, since antioxidation and anti-inflammation have been extensively attempted as the strategies for treatment of liver diseases, the application of herbal medicines and their derived compounds that protect liver from injury via regulating oxidative stress and inflammation collectively were reviewed and discussed. PMID:28070230

  8. Dietary moderately oxidized oil activates the Nrf2 signaling pathway in the liver of pigs.

    PubMed

    Varady, Juliane; Gessner, Denise K; Most, Erika; Eder, Klaus; Ringseis, Robert

    2012-02-24

    Previous studies have shown that administration of oxidized oils increases gene expression and activities of various enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and stress response in the liver of rats and guinea pigs. As these genes are controlled by nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), we investigated the hypothesis that feeding of oxidized fats causes an activation of that transcription factor in the liver which in turn activates the expression of antioxidant, cytoprotective and detoxifying genes. Twenty four crossbred pigs were allocated to two groups of 12 pigs each and fed nutritionally adequate diets with either fresh rapeseed oil (fresh fat group) or oxidized rapeseed oil prepared by heating at a temperature of 175°C for 72 h (oxidized fat group). After 29 days of feeding, pigs of the oxidized fat group had a markedly increased nuclear concentration of the transcription factor Nrf2 and a higher activity of cellular superoxide dismutase and T4-UDP glucuronosyltransferase in liver than the fresh fat group (P < 0.05). In addition, transcript levels of antioxidant and phase II genes in liver, like superoxide dismutase 1, heme oxygenase 1, glutathione peroxidase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, microsomal glutathione-S-transferase 1, UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in the liver were higher in the oxidized fat group than in the fresh fat group (P < 0.05). Moreover, pigs of the oxidized fat group had an increased hepatic nuclear concentration of the transcription factor NF-κB which is also an important transcription factor mediating cellular stress response. The present study shows for the first time that administration of an oxidized fat activates the Nrf2 in the liver of pigs which likely reflects an adaptive mechanism to prevent cellular oxidative damage. Activation of the NF-κB pathway might also contribute to this effect of oxidized fat.

  9. [The protective effect of XD in ConA-induced liver injury].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Liu, Tao; Dang, Tong-Mei; Cao, Yi-Ming

    2010-12-01

    To explore the protective effect and its mechanism of Modified Xiaochaihu decoction(MXD) in the liver injury of mice. METHORDS: Using Reitman methord to examine serum ALT and ATS; Using sandwich enzyme immunoassay ABC-ELISA to examine serum TNF-α and IFN-γ. Serum ALT and ATS of MXD large dose group and Xiaochaihu decoction (XD )group were lower than that of animal models group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). There were not significant difference (P>0.05) between serum ALT and ATS of MXD small dose group and that of animal models group; MXD large dose group, XD group and Biphenyldimethylesterate (DDB) group are similar, no difference (P>0.05). Serum TNF-α and IFN-γ of MXD large dose group and XD group were significant lower than that of animal models group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). Serum TNF-α and IFN-γ of XD group ware higher than that of MXD large dose group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). MXD large dose group, XD group and DDB group were similar, no difference. Xiaocaihu decoction possesses the effect of pro2 tection of hepatic impairment and the protective mechanism might be associated with the inhibition of apoptosis and immunomodulation.

  10. Ascorbate oxidation is a prerequisite for its transport into rat liver microsomal vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Csala, M; Mile, V; Benedetti, A; Mandl, J; Bánhegyi, G

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation and uptake of ascorbate show similar time courses in rat liver microsomal vesicles: a rapid burst phase is followed by a slower process. Inhibitors of ascorbate oxidation (proadifen, econazole or quercetin) also effectively decreased the uptake of ascorbate. The results show that dehydroascorbate is the transport form of ascorbate at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:10880339

  11. Salecan protected against concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury by modulating T cell immune responses and NMR-based metabolic profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Xi, E-mail: xuxi@njust.edu.cn; Yang,

    Salecan, a water-soluble extracellular β-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological effects. The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effect of salecan against Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, a well-established animal model of immune-mediated liver injury, and to search for possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with salecan followed by ConA injection. Salecan treatment significantly reduced ConA-induced acute liver injury, and suppressed the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in ConA-induced liver injury model. The high expression levels of chemokines andmore » adhesion molecules such as MIP-1α, MIP-1β, ICAM-1, MCP-1 and RANTES in the liver induced by ConA were also down-regulated after salecan treatment. Salecan inhibited the infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells, especially T cells, in the liver induced by ConA. Moreover, salecan reversed the metabolic profiles of ConA-treated mice towards the control group by partly recovering the metabolic perturbations induced by ConA. Our results suggest the preventive and therapeutic potential of salecan in immune-mediated hepatitis. - Highlights: • Salecan treatment significantly reduced ConA-induced liver injury. • Salecan suppressed the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. • Salecan decreased the expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules in liver. • Salecan inhibited the infiltration and activation of T cells induced by ConA. • Salecan partly recovered the metabolic perturbations induced by ConA.« less

  12. Differential effects of experimental and cold-induced hyperthyroidism on factors inducing rat liver oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Venditti, P; Pamplona, R; Ayala, V; De Rosa, R; Caldarone, G; Di Meo, S

    2006-03-01

    Thyroid hormone-induced increase in metabolic rates is often associated with increased oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of iodothyronines to liver oxidative stress in the functional hyperthyroidism elicited by cold, using as models cold-exposed and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)- or thyroxine (T4)-treated rats. The hyperthyroid state was always associated with increases in both oxidative capacity and oxidative damage of the tissue. The most extensive damage to lipids and proteins was found in T3-treated and cold-exposed rats, respectively. Increase in oxygen reactive species released by mitochondria and microsomes was found to contribute to tissue oxidative damage, whereas the determination of single antioxidants did not provide information about the possible contribution of a reduced effectiveness of the antioxidant defence system. Indeed, liver oxidative damage in hyperthyroid rats was scarcely related to levels of the liposoluble antioxidants and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Conversely, other biochemical changes, such as the degree of fatty acid unsaturation and hemoprotein content, appeared to predispose hepatic tissue to oxidative damage associated with oxidative challenge elicited by hyperthyroid state. As a whole, our results confirm the idea that T3 plays a key role in metabolic changes and oxidative damage found in cold liver. However, only data concerning changes in glutathione peroxidase activity and mitochondrial protein content favour the idea that dissimilarities in effects of cold exposure and T3 treatment could depend on differences in serum levels of T4.

  13. Oxidative damage in liver after perinatal intoxication with lead and/or cadmium.

    PubMed

    Massó, Elvira Luján; Corredor, Laura; Antonio, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Lead acetate (300 mg Pb/L) and/or cadmium acetate (10mg Cd/L) in blood and liver were administrated as drinking water to pregnant Wistar rats from day 1 of pregnancy to parturition (day 0) or until weaning (day 21), to investigate the toxic effects in blood and in the liver. Both metals produced mycrocitic anaemia in the pups as well as oxidative damage in the liver, as suggested by the significant increase in TBARS production and the high catalase activity. Moreover, intense alkaline and acid phosphatase activity, used as biomarkers of liver adaptation to damaging factors, was observed. In addition, the toxikinetics are different for Pb and Cd: while Cd is a hepatotoxic from day 0, Pb is not until day 21. Finally, simultaneous perinatal administration of both metals seems to protect, at least, in the liver TBARS production against the toxicity produced by Cd or Pb separately.

  14. Oxaloacetate Ameliorates Chemical Liver Injury via Oxidative Stress Reduction and Enhancement of Bioenergetic Fluxes.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ye; Han, Xiaoyun; Xu, Mu; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Yuxiang; Yang, Qing

    2018-05-31

    Chemical injury is partly due to free radical lipid peroxidation, which can induce oxidative stress and produce a large number of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxaloacetic acid is an important intermediary in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and participates in metabolism and energy production. In our study, we found that oxaloacetate (OA) effectively alleviated liver injury which was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) in vitro and carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) in vivo. OA scavenged ROS, prevented oxidative damage and maintained the normal structure of mitochondria. We further confirmed that OA increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by promoting the TCA production cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Finally, OA inhibited the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and apoptotic pathways by suppressing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our findings reveal a mechanism for OA ameliorating chemical liver injury and suggest a possible implementation for preventing the chemical liver injury.

  15. Efficacy of grape seed and skin extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safouen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2015-11-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline used in chemotherapy, although it causes toxicity and oxidative stress. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a mixture of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. To evaluate the hepato-toxicity of Dox on healthy rats as well as the protective effect of GSSE, rats were treated with GSSE (500mg/kg bw) during 8 days. At the 4th day of treatment, they received a single dose of Dox (20 mg/kg bw). After the treatment (9th day), livers were collected and processed for oxidative stress status. Dox increased MDA (+ 900%), decreased catalase (-60%) and increased peroxidase (+90%) and superoxide dismutase (+100%) activities. In this latter case Dox mainly increased the iron isoform. Furthermore Dox altered intracellular mediators as catalytic free iron (-75%), H₂O₂(-75%) and calcium (+30%). Dox also affected liver function by elevating plasma triacylglycerol and transaminases and liver morphology by altering its typical architecture. Importantly all Dox-induced liver disturbances were alleviated upon GSSE treatment. Dox induced liver toxicity and an oxidative stress mainly characterized by increased lipoperoxidation but not protein carbonylation. GSSE efficiently protected the liver from Dox-induced toxicity and appeared as a safe adjuvant that could be incorporated into chemotherapy protocols.

  16. Insulin resistance and oxidative stress interdependency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Videla, Luis A; Rodrigo, Ramón; Araya, Julia; Poniachik, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a major cause of chronic liver disease in association with the rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the population. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance (IR) are major contributors in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and in the progression from steatosis to steatohepatitis. Recently, Houstis and colleagues reported that reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of IR, a phenomenon that can further promote exacerbation of oxidative stress. The improvement of the knowledge of these interrelationships should contribute to elucidate pathogenic pathways and design effective treatments for NAFLD.

  17. Effects of ovariectomy and resistance training on oxidative stress markers in the rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda Cury; Stotzer, Uliana Sbeguen; Domingos, Mateus Moraes; Deminice, Rafael; Shiguemoto, Gilberto Eiji; Tomaz, Luciane Magri; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Ferreira, Fabiano Candido; Leite, Richard Diego; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa Sobreiro; Jordão-Júnior, Alceu Afonso; Baldissera, Vilmar; de Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of resistance training on oxidative stress markers in the livers of ovariectomized rats. METHOD: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups (n = 8 per group): sham-operated sedentary, ovariectomized sedentary, sham-operated resistance training, and ovariectomized resistance training. During the resistance training period, the animals climbed a 1.1-m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails; the sessions were conducted 3 times per week, with 4-9 climbs and 8-12 dynamic movements per climb. The oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the levels of reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione, the enzymatic activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, vitamin E concentrations, and the gene expression of glutathione peroxidase. RESULTS: The results showed significant reductions in the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (4.11±0.65 nmol/g tec), vitamin E concentration (55.36±11.11 nmol/g), and gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (0.49±0.16 arbitrary units) in the livers of ovariectomized rats compared with the livers of unovariectomized animals (5.71±0.71 nmol/g tec, 100.14±10.99 nmol/g, and 1.09±0.54 arbitrary units, respectively). Moreover, resistance training for 10 weeks was not able to reduce the oxidative stress in the livers of ovariectomized rats and induced negative changes in the hepatic anti-oxidative/oxidative balance. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the resistance training program used in this study was not able to attenuate the hepatic oxidative damage caused by ovariectomy and increased the hepatic oxidative stress. PMID:24141842

  18. Effects of ovariectomy and resistance training on oxidative stress markers in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda Cury; Stotzer, Uliana Sbeguen; Domingos, Mateus Moraes; Deminice, Rafael; Shiguemoto, Gilberto Eiji; Tomaz, Luciane Magri; Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade de; Ferreira, Fabiano Candido; Leite, Richard Diego; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa Sobreiro; Jordão-Júnior, Alceu Afonso; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sérgio Eduardo de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of resistance training on oxidative stress markers in the livers of ovariectomized rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups (n = 8 per group): sham-operated sedentary, ovariectomized sedentary, sham-operated resistance training, and ovariectomized resistance training. During the resistance training period, the animals climbed a 1.1-m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails; the sessions were conducted 3 times per week, with 4-9 climbs and 8-12 dynamic movements per climb. The oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the levels of reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione, the enzymatic activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, vitamin E concentrations, and the gene expression of glutathione peroxidase. The results showed significant reductions in the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (4.11±0.65 nmol/g tec), vitamin E concentration (55.36±11.11 nmol/g), and gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (0.49±0.16 arbitrary units) in the livers of ovariectomized rats compared with the livers of unovariectomized animals (5.71±0.71 nmol/g tec, 100.14±10.99 nmol/g, and 1.09±0.54 arbitrary units, respectively). Moreover, resistance training for 10 weeks was not able to reduce the oxidative stress in the livers of ovariectomized rats and induced negative changes in the hepatic anti-oxidative/oxidative balance. Our findings indicate that the resistance training program used in this study was not able to attenuate the hepatic oxidative damage caused by ovariectomy and increased the hepatic oxidative stress.

  19. Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary tr...

  20. Chlorogenic and Caftaric Acids in Liver Toxicity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Koriem, Khaled M. M.; Soliman, Rowan E.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine intoxication can cause acute hepatic failure. Chlorogenic and caftaric acids are the major dietary polyphenols present in various foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of chlorogenic and caftaric acids in liver toxicity and oxidative stress induced by methamphetamine in rats. Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups. Group 1, which was control group, was injected (i.p) with saline (1 mL/kg) twice a day over seven-day period. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were injected (i.p) with methamphetamine (10 mg/kg) twice a day over seven-day period, where groups 3 and 4 were injected (i.p) with 60 mg/kg chlorogenic acid and 40 mg/kg caftaric acid, respectively, one day before methamphetamine injections. Methamphetamine increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. Also, malondialdehyde in serum, liver, and brain and plasma and liver nitric oxide levels were increased while methamphetamine induced a significant decrease in serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, brain serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, blood and liver superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels. Chlorogenic and caftaric acids prior to methamphetamine injections restored all the above parameters to normal values. In conclusion, chlorogenic and caftaric acids before methamphetamine injections prevented liver toxicity and oxidative stress where chlorogenic acid was more effective. PMID:25136360

  1. Oxidative deamination of alicyclic primary amines by liver microsomes from rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kurebayashi, H; Tanaka, A; Yamaha, T; Tatahashi, A

    1988-09-01

    1. Substrate selectivity and species difference in the oxidative deamination of the alicyclic primary amines, cyclopentylamine, cyclohexylamine, cycloheptylamine, 1- and 2-aminoindane, and 1- and 2-aminotetralin were studied using liver microsomes from rats and rabbits. 2. The deamination rates of the amines were much greater with liver microsomes from rabbits than from rats. Substrate selectivity resulted in much faster deamination of 1-aminoindane and 1-aminotetralin than of the corresponding 2-amino compounds, especially in rats. 3. When 1-aminoindane and 1-aminotetralin were incubated with rat liver microsomes and NADPH under 18O2, oxygen-18 was incorporated into the deaminated products, 1-indanone and 1-tetralone. The carbinolamine is a key intermediate in the oxidative deamination by rat liver microsomes, indicating the contribution of cytochrome P-450-dependent alpha-C-oxidation to the reaction. 4. Alicyclic primary amines gave type II binding spectra with rat and rabbit liver microsomes, but the spectra appeared to contain type I components. 5. The ratios of the alcohols, cyclohexanol, 2-tetralol and 2-indanol in the deaminated products were high in both rats and rabbits. The ketones were precursors of the alcohols, and substrate selectivity in reduction of the alicyclic ketones with NADPH was similar in both species.

  2. Oxidative stress, a trigger of hepatitis C and B virus-induced liver carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Alexander V.; Valuev-Elliston, Vladimir T.; Tyurina, Daria A.; Ivanova, Olga N.; Kochetkov, Sergey N.; Bartosch, Birke; Isaguliants, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    Virally induced liver cancer usually evolves over long periods of time in the context of a strongly oxidative microenvironment, characterized by chronic liver inflammation and regeneration processes. They ultimately lead to oncogenic mutations in many cellular signaling cascades that drive cell growth and proliferation. Oxidative stress, induced by hepatitis viruses, therefore is one of the factors that drives the neoplastic transformation process in the liver. This review summarizes current knowledge on oxidative stress and oxidative stress responses induced by human hepatitis B and C viruses. It focuses on the molecular mechanisms by which these viruses activate cellular enzymes/systems that generate or scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and control cellular redox homeostasis. The impact of an altered cellular redox homeostasis on the initiation and establishment of chronic viral infection, as well as on the course and outcome of liver fibrosis and hepatocarcinogenesis will be discussed The review neither discusses reactive nitrogen species, although their metabolism is interferes with that of ROS, nor antioxidants as potential therapeutic remedies against viral infections, both subjects meriting an independent review. PMID:27965466

  3. The effect of grape seed extract on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Aysun; Kaynar, Leylagül; Koçyiğit, Ismail; Hacioğlu, Sibel Kabukçu; Saraymen, Recep; Oztürk, Ahmet; Orhan, Okan; Sağdiç, Osman

    2008-06-01

    The tolerance of the liver is considerably low when an effective radiation (RTx) dose needs to be delivered in patients in whom either their liver or whole body area has to be irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of grape seed extract on liver toxicity induced by RTx in the rat liver. We used four groups, each consisting of 12 healthy male Wistar rats. RTx-grape seed extract group: rats were given grape seed extract (100 mg/kg) orally for seven days, following 8 Gy whole body irradiation, and grape seed extract was maintained for four days. RTx group: the same protocol was applied in this group; however, they received distilled water instead of grape seed extract. Grape seed extract group: only grape seed extract solution was administered for 11 consecutive days in the same fashion. only distilled water (orally) was administered in a similar manner. The level of malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, two important endogenous antioxidants, were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Grape seed extract was seen to protect the cellular membrane from oxidative damage and consequently from protein and lipid oxidation. In the RTx group, malondialdehyde levels were extremely higher than those of the grape seed extract-RTx group (p<0.001). Grape seed extract administration moderately reserved the malondialdehyde levels. RTx therapy decreased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the liver homogenates (p<0.001), and these alterations were significantly reversed by grape seed extract treatment (p<0.001). There were no differences between the grape seed extract- RTx, grape seed extract and control groups with regard to antioxidant activity (p>0.05). The levels of antioxidant parameters on RTx-induced liver toxicity were restored to control values with grape seed extract therapy. Grape seed extract may be promising as a therapeutic option in RTx

  4. [The role of oxidative stress and arterial blood supply in the transplanted liver function].

    PubMed

    Kóbori, László; Sárváry, Enikö; Nemes, Balázs; Lakatos, Márta; Fehérvári, Imre; Görög, Dénes; Dallos, Gábor; Gerlei, Zsuzsa; Fazakas, János; Tóth, Tibor; Lengyel, Gabriella; Fehér, János; Járay, Jenö

    2003-11-09

    Reperfusion injury and hepatic artery thrombosis are major causes of graft failure after liver transplantation. The magnitude of oxidative stress increases after reperfusion and the appearance of an arterial thrombosis presents a higher risk for the graft and patient survival. The aim of the study was to detect the level of oxidative stress in the perioperative period of transplantation. Clinical documentations of 32 patients were investigated and the level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured for the monitoring of the oxidative stress. The mean age of the patients was 43 years and hepatitis C cirrhosis was the most common indication (14 cases, 43%). Two retransplantations were done. In 24 cases (75%) the primary graft functions and patient survival were good. Eight patients died, in two cases because of acute liver failure, in two cases due to primary non function and in four cases due to late complications. The incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis was 11% (4 cases) and the incidence of acute rejection was 35% (12 cases). The level of MPO was higher (65 ng/ml) in all patients before operation. After the first 48 hours this level increased significantly (p < 0.0001) up to the mean level of 123 ng/ml and decreased after one week. In the cases with acute liver failure and hepatic artery thrombosis high levels of MPO were measured. This study provides evidence of increased oxidative stress before liver transplantation. The magnitude of these changes increased after operation, mostly in cases with acute liver failure and hepatic artery thrombosis. Reducing the reperfusion injury and performing an "ideal" arterial supply for the liver-graft present better survival.

  5. Ion Imbalance Is Involved in the Mechanisms of Liver Oxidative Damage in Rats Exposed to Glyphosate

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Juan; Hu, Ping; Li, Yansen; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Li, Chunmei

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine, GLP) is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of glyphosate on rats' liver function and induction of pathological changes in ion levels and oxidative stress in hepatic tissue. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with 0, 5, 50, and 500 mg/kg body weight of the GLP. After 5 weeks of treatment, blood and liver samples were analyzed for biochemical and histomorphological parameters. The various mineral elements content in the organs of the rats were also measured. Significant decreases were shown in the weights of body, liver, kidney and spleen between the control and treatment groups. Changes also happened in the histomorphology of the liver and kidney tissue of GLP-treated rats. The GLP resulted in an elevated level of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and IL-1β in the serum. Besides, decreased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the serum, liver, and kidney indicated the presence of oxidative stress. Moreover, increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level and catalase (CAT) activity in the serum and liver and decrease of glutathione (GSH) and lutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the kidney tissue further confirmed the occurrence of oxidative stress. The results of RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expressions of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, MAPK3, NF-κB, SIRT1, TNF-α, Keap1, GPX2, and Caspase-3 were significantly increased in the GLP-treated groups compared to the control group. Furthermore, PPARα, DGAT, SREBP1c, and SCD1 mRNA expressions were also remarkably increased in the GLP-treated groups compared to the control group. In addition, aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and magnesium (Mg) levels were showed a significant difference reduction or increase in rat liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, muscle, brain, and fat tissues. These results suggested that glyphosate

  6. Involvement of catalase in the protective benefits of metformin in mice with oxidative liver injury.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Mingwei; Ai, Qing; Lin, Ling; Wu, Kunwei; Deng, Xinyu; Jing, Yuping; Jia, Mengying; Wan, Jingyuan; Zhang, Li

    2014-06-05

    Metformin is a commonly used anti-diabetic drug with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent hypoglycemic activities. Recent studies have revealed its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. In the present study, the anti-oxidative potential of metformin and its potential mechanisms were investigated in a mouse model with carbon tetrachloride (CCl₂)-induced severe oxidative liver injury. Our results showed that treatment with metformin significantly attenuated CCl₂-induced elevation of serum aminotransferases and hepatic histological abnormalities. The alleviated liver injury was associated with decreased hepatic contents of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, metformin treatment dose-dependently enhanced the activities of catalase (CAT) and decreased CCl₄-induced elevation of hepatic H₂O₂ levels, but it had no obvious effects on the protein level of CAT. We also found that metformin increased the level of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but treatment with AMPK activator AICAR had no obvious effects on CAT activity. A molecular docking analysis indicated that metformin might interact with CAT via hydrogen bonds. These data suggested that metformin effectively alleviated CCl₄-induced oxidative liver injury in mice and these hepatoprotective effects might be associated with CAT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-invasive oxidative stress markers for liver fibrosis development in the evolution of toxic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Clichici, Simona; Catoi, C; Mocan, T; Filip, A; Login, C; Nagy, A; Daicoviciu, D; Decea, N; Gherman, C; Moldovan, R; Muresan, Adriana

    2011-06-01

    Oxidative stress is related to the liver fibrosis, anticipating the hepatic stellate cells' (HSC) activation. Our aim was to correlate oxidative stress markers with the histological liver alterations in order to identify predictive, noninvasive parameters of fibrosis progression in the evolution of toxic hepatitis.CCl4 in sunflower oil was administered to rats intragastrically, twice a week. After 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC), hydrogen donor capacity (HD), sulfhydryl groups (SH), and glutathione (GSH) were measured and histological examination of the liver slides was performed. Dynamics of histological disorders was assessed by The Knodell score. Significant elevation of inflammation grade was obtained after the second week of the experiment only (p=0.001), while fibrosis started to become significant (p=0.001) after 1 month of CCl4 administration. Between plasma MDA and liver fibrosis development a good correlation was obtained (r=0.877, p=0.05). Correlation between PC dynamics and liver alterations was marginally significant for inflammation grade (r=0.756, p=0.138). HD evolution revealed a marginally inverse correlation with inflammation grade (r=-0.794, p=0.108). No correlations could be established for other parameters with either inflammation grade or fibrosis stage.Our study shows that MDA elevation offers the best prediction potential for fibrosis, while marginal prediction fiability could be attributed to high levels of plasma PC and low levels of HD.

  8. Liver Cholesterol Overload Aggravates Obstructive Cholestasis by Inducing Oxidative Stress and Premature Death in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nuño-Lámbarri, Natalia; Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Baulies-Domenech, Anna; Monte, Maria J; Marin, Jose J G; Rosales-Cruz, Patricia; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U; Bucio, Leticia; Montalvo-Jave, Eduardo E; Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is one of the leading causes of liver disease. Dietary factors determine the clinical presentation of steatohepatitis and can influence the progression of related diseases. Cholesterol has emerged as a critical player in the disease and hence consumption of cholesterol-enriched diets can lead to a progressive form of the disease. The aim was to investigate the impact of liver cholesterol overload on the progression of the obstructive cholestasis in mice subjected to bile duct ligation surgery. Mice were fed with a high cholesterol diet for two days and then were subjected to surgery procedure; histological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were conducted to address the effect of cholesterol in liver damage. Mice under the diet were more susceptible to damage. Results show that cholesterol fed mice exhibited increased apoptosis and oxidative stress as well as reduction in cell proliferation. Mortality following surgery was higher in HC fed mice. Liver cholesterol impairs the repair of liver during obstructive cholestasis and aggravates the disease with early fatal consequences; these effects were strongly associated with oxidative stress.

  9. Cannabidiol protects liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increase in autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lili; Rozenfeld, Raphael; Wu, Defeng; Devi, Lakshmi A.; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Cederbaum, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol drinking induces steatosis, and effective prevention of steatosis can protect liver from progressive damage caused by alcohol. Increased oxidative stress has been reported as one mechanism underlying alcohol-induced steatosis. We evaluated whether cannabidiol, which has been reported to function as an antioxidant, can protect the liver from alcohol-generated oxidative stress-induced steatosis. Cannabidiol can prevent acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice, possibly by preventing the increase in oxidative stress and the activation of the JNK MAPK pathway. Cannabidiol per se can increase autophagy both in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 cells and in mouse liver. Importantly, cannabidiol can prevent the decrease in autophagy induced by alcohol. In conclusion, these results show that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms including attenuation of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, prevention of JNK MAPK activation, and increasing autophagy. PMID:24398069

  10. Geraniol attenuates 2-acetylaminofluorene induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the liver of wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Syed Kazim; Sultana, Sarwat

    2015-01-01

    2-Acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), is a well-known liver toxicant, generally used to induce tumors in laboratory animals. Geraniol (GE), a monoterpene found in essential oils of herbs and fruits, has been known to possess preventive efficacy against chemically induced toxicities. The present study was designed to analyze the protective effect of GE against 2-AAF induced oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperproliferation and apoptotic tissue damage in the liver of female Wistar rats. 2-AAF (0.02% w/w in diet) was administered and subjected to partial hepatectomy, as a mitogenic stimulus for the induction of hyperproliferation of liver tissue. GE was pre-treated orally at two different doses (100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt.) dissolved in corn oil. GE pre-treatment significantly ameliorated 2-AAF induced oxidative damage by diminishing tissue lipid peroxidation accompanied by the increase in enzymatic activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione content. The level of serum toxicity markers (AST, ALT, LDH) was found to be decreased. Pre-treatment with GE downregulated the expression of caspase-3,9, COX-2, NFkB, PCNA, iNOS, VEGF and significantly decreased disintegration of DNA. Histological findings further revealed that GE significantly restores the architecture of liver tissue. In the light of the above observations it may be concluded that GE may be used as preventive agent against 2-AAF induced oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperproliferation and apoptotic damage.

  11. Withaferin A induces apoptosis through the generation of thiol oxidation in human head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Won; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Dong Eun; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Withaferin A is a steroidal lactone purified from the Indian medicinal plant, Withania somnifera. Withaferin A has been shown to inhibit the proliferation, metastasis, invasion and angiogenesis of cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated whether withaferin A induces apoptosis in the human head and neck cancer cells, AMC-HN4. Withaferin A markedly increased the sub-G1 cell population and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which are markers of apoptosis. Pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk (z-VAD), markedly inhibited the withaferin A-induced apoptosis. However, the withaferin A-induced increase in the expression of COX-2 was not affected by treatment with z-VAD. Furthermore, withaferin A upregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. The COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, reduced the withaferin A-induced production of prostaglandin E2. However, treatment with NS-398 did not affect the sub-G1 population and the cleavage of PARP. In addition, the withaferin A-induced apoptosis was independent of reactive oxygen species production. Thiol donors [N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and dithiothreitol (DTT)] reversed withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Therefore, our data suggest that withaferin A induces apoptosis through the mechanism of thiol oxidation in head and neck carcinoma cells.

  12. Nilotinib counteracts thioacetamide-induced hepatic oxidative stress and attenuates liver fibrosis progression.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Mohamed E; Salem, Hatem A; Shiha, Gamal E; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of imatinib and nilotinib to that of silymarin on established liver fibrosis and oxidative stress in a thioacetamide (TAA) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of TAA (150mg/kg, twice weekly) for 12weeks. Daily treatments with imatinib (10mg/kg), nilotinib (10mg/kg), and silymarin (100mg/kg) were administered orally during the last 4weeks of TAA-administration. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests in serum. Hepatic histopathology and collagen content were employed to quantify liver fibrosis. Hepatic oxidative stress was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), total nitrate/nitrite (NOx), and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Nilotinib, silymarin and, to a lesser extent, imatinib treatments ameliorated TAA-induced hepatic oxidative stress and damage as indicated by hepatic MDA, 4-HNE, NOx, GSH, MPO and SOD levels, as well as liver function tests. Hepatic histopathology results revealed that nilotinib, imatinib, and silymarin treatments decreased the mean score of fibrosis in TAA-treated rats by 24, 14, and 3%, respectively. However, nilotinib and silymarin, but not imatinib, treatments decreased hepatic collagen content in TAA-treated rats by 17 and 36%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that nilotinib not only protected against hepatic oxidative stress, but also slowed down liver fibrosis progression. Thus, we provide the first evidence that nilotinib might be a promising anti-fibrotic drug. © 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  13. Seasonal variations in PM composition from Beijing, China drive liver oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, M.; Rudich, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress, inflammation and adverse health effects, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not completely understood. In order to understand how seasonal and chemical variations drive health impacts, we investigated the oxidative stress and inflammation in mice exposed to extracts (water and DCM) from urban PM collected in Beijing (China). Higher levels of pollution components were detected in the heating season (HS, winter) than in the non-heating season (NHS, summer). Higher concentrations of PM were measured in the heating season, mostly from coal and wood burning used for domestic heating. This was accompanied by increased levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the DCM extracts. An increased inflammatory response was detected in the lung and liver with DCM extracts compared to the water extracts, and mostly in the winter aerosol. Reduced antioxidant response was observed in the lung, whereas it was activated in the liver. Gene expression of the Nrf2 transcription factor (A master regulator of stress response that controls the basal oxidative capacity and induces the expression of antioxidant response) and its related genes were induced. In the liver, higher levels of lipid peroxidation adducts were measured, correlated with histologic analysis that revealed morphologic features of damage/proliferation in the liver, indicating oxidative and toxic damage. Altogether, our study suggests that the acute effects of PM can vary by the season with the largest effect observed in winter than summer in Beijing, and that some secondary organs may be susceptible for exposure damage. This suggests that the liver is a potential organ to be influenced from PM especially by PAHs

  14. The role of oxidative stress in the development of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Galicia-Moreno, M; Gutiérrez-Reyes, G

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most accepted addictive substance worldwide and its consumption is related to multiple health, economic, and social problems. The liver is the organ in charge of ethanol metabolism and it is susceptible to alcohol's toxic effects. To provide a detailed review of the role of oxidative stress in alcoholic liver disease and the mechanisms of damage involved, along with current information on the hepatoprotective effectiveness of the molecules that have been studied. A search of the PubMed database was conducted using the following keywords oxidative stress, alcoholic liver damage, alcoholic cirrhosis, and antioxidants. There was no time limit for gathering all available information on the subject at hand. According to the literature reviewed, oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver damage. Molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), formed during ethanol metabolism, structurally and functionally modify organic molecules. Consequently, biologic processes are altered and hepatocytes are sensitized to the action of cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as to the action of endotoxins, activating signaling pathways such as those controlled by nuclear factor kappa B, extracellular signal regulated kinases, and mitogen activated protein kinase. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of liver damage resulting from alcohol consumption. The molecules that have currently displayed a hepatoprotective effect in preclinical and clinical trials must be studied further so that their effectiveness can be confirmed and they can possibly be used as adjuvant treatments for this disease. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Apocynin alleviated hepatic oxidative burden and reduced liver injury in hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Long-Sheng; Wu, Chau-Chung; Hung, Li-Man; Chiang, Meng-Tsan; Lin, Ching-Ting; Lin, Chii-Wann; Su, Ming-Jai

    2007-05-01

    This study addressed the effects of apocynin, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, on hepatic oxidative burden and liver injury during diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia. Male Wistar rats were fed a 4% cholesterol-enriched diet for 3 weeks. Apocynin was administered in drinking water concurrently. The high-cholesterol diet (HC) significantly increased the serum level of cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol ester deposition, and these parameters were similar between the HC and high-cholesterol diet plus apocynin (HCA) groups. The HC group showed abnormal liver function tests [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (Alk-P)] as well as increased Evans blue extravasation and macrophages infiltration. Apocynin treatment could suppress these inflammation-related parameters. In vivo measurement of NADPH-derived cellular autofluorescence suggested that HC increased oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Biochemical analysis of redox status including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and oxidized glutathione also confirmed the phenomenon. Apocynin treatment was able to alleviate these indices of oxidative burden owing to HC. Furthermore, apocynin-abrogated HC induced gp91(phox) expression, suggesting the involvement of NADPH oxidase in the pathogenesis. We concluded that apocynin suppressed NADPH oxidase activation and subsequent liver injuries owing to high-cholesterol intake in rats. The impacts of cholesterol metabolism disorders on pathogenesis and progression of steatohepatitis warrant further clinical investigation.

  16. Melatonin protects against taurolithocholic-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Broto, Lorena; Miana-Mena, Francisco J; Piedrafita, Eduardo; Berzosa, César; Martínez-Ballarín, Enrique; García-Gil, Francisco A; Reiter, Russel J; García, Joaquín J

    2010-08-01

    Cholestasis, encountered in a variety of clinical disorders, is characterized by intracellular accumulation of toxic bile acids in the liver. Furthermore, oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bile acids. Taurolithocholic acid (TLC) was revealed in previous studies as the most pro-oxidative bile acid. Melatonin, a well-known antioxidant, is a safe and widely used therapeutic agent. Herein, we investigated the hepatoprotective role of melatonin on lipid and protein oxidation induced by TLC alone and in combination with FeCl(3) and ascorbic acid in rat liver homogenates and hepatic membranes. The lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA + 4-HDA), and carbonyl levels were quantified as indices of oxidative damage to hepatic lipids and proteins, respectively. In the current study, the rise in MDA + 4-HDA levels induced by TLC was inhibited by melatonin in a concentration-dependent manner in both liver homogenates and in hepatic membranes. Melatonin also had protective effects against structural damage to proteins induced by TLC in membranes. These results suggest that the indoleamine melatonin may potentially act as a protective agent in the therapy of those diseases that involve bile acid toxicity. Published 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Effect of broccoli extract enriched diet on liver cholesterol oxidation in rats subjected to exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Lorenzini, Antonello; Bandini, Erika; Angeloni, Cristina; Hrelia, Silvana; Malaguti, Marco

    2017-05-01

    The effect of broccoli extract (BE)-enriched diet was studied in order to evaluate its ability to counteract liver cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) induced by acute strenuous exercise in rats. Thirty-two female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control diet without exercise (C), BE-enriched diet without exercise (B), control diet with acute exhaustive exercise (S) and BE-enriched diet with acute exhaustive exercise (BS). The study lasted 45days and on the last day, rats of S and BS groups were forced to run until exhaustion on a treadmill. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were determined in liver. Exhaustive exercise was clearly responsible for tissue damage, as evidenced by the increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) plasma activity in the S group. Moreover, the exercise protocol reduced CAT activity in liver, while it did not affect GST, GR and GPx. BE-enriched diet raised GST, GR and CAT activities in rats of BS group. The main COPs found were 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, cholestanetriol, 24-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol. The BE-enriched diet led to reduced cholesterol oxidation following exhaustive exercise; the highest level of COPs was found in the S group, whereas the BS rats showed the lowest amount. This study indicates that the BE-enriched diet increases antioxidant enzyme activities and exerts an antioxidant effect towards cholesterol oxidation in rat liver, suggesting the use of phytochemicals in the prevention of oxidative damage and in the modulation of the redox environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Oxygen Free Radicals, Nitric Oxide and Mitochondria in Mediating Cardiac Alterations During Liver Cirrhosis Induced by Thioacetamide.

    PubMed

    Amirtharaj, G Jayakumar; Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Pulimood, Anna; Balasubramanian, K A; Venkatraman, Aparna; Ramachandran, Anup

    2017-04-01

    Thioacetamide (TAA) administration is widely used for induction of liver cirrhosis in rats, where reactive oxygen radicals (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) participate in development of liver damage. Cardiac dysfunction is an important complication of liver cirrhosis, but the role of ROS or NO in cardiac abnormalities during liver cirrhosis is not well understood. This was investigated in animals after TAA-induced liver cirrhosis and temporal changes in oxidative stress, NO and mitochondrial function in the heart evaluated. TAA induced elevation in cardiac levels of nitrate before development of frank liver cirrhosis, without gross histological alterations. This was accompanied by an early induction of P38 MAP kinase, which is influenced by ROS and plays an important signaling role for induction of iNOS. Increased nitrotyrosine, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the heart and cardiac mitochondria, suggestive of oxidative stress, also preceded frank liver cirrhosis. However, compromised cardiac mitochondrial function with a decrease in respiratory control ratio and increased mitochondrial swelling was seen later, when cirrhosis was evident. In conclusion, TAA induces elevations in ROS and NO in the heart in parallel to early liver damage. This leads to later development of functional deficits in cardiac mitochondria after development of liver cirrhosis.

  19. Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Do Not Discriminate between Genotoxic and Nongenotoxic Liver Carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Deferme, Lize; Wolters, Jarno; Claessen, Sandra; Briedé, Jacco; Kleinjans, Jos

    2015-08-17

    It is widely accepted that in chemical carcinogenesis different modes-of-action exist, e.g., genotoxic (GTX) versus nongenotoxic (NGTX) carcinogenesis. In this context, it has been suggested that oxidative stress response pathways are typical for NGTX carcinogenesis. To evaluate this, we examined oxidative stress-related changes in gene expression, cell cycle distribution, and (oxidative) DNA damage in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) exposed to GTX-, NGTX-, and noncarcinogens, at multiple time points (4-8-24-48-72 h). Two GTX (azathriopine (AZA) and furan) and two NGTX (tetradecanoyl-phorbol-acetate, (TPA) and tetrachloroethylene (TCE)) carcinogens as well as two noncarcinogens (diazinon (DZN, d-mannitol (Dman)) were selected, while per class one compound was deemed to induce oxidative stress and the other not. Oxidative stressors AZA, TPA, and DZN induced a 10-fold higher number of gene expression changes over time compared to those of furan, TCE, or Dman treatment. Genes commonly expressed among AZA, TPA, and DZN were specifically involved in oxidative stress, DNA damage, and immune responses. However, differences in gene expression between GTX and NGTX carcinogens did not correlate to oxidative stress or DNA damage but could instead be assigned to compound-specific characteristics. This conclusion was underlined by results from functional readouts on ROS formation and (oxidative) DNA damage. Therefore, oxidative stress may represent the underlying cause for increased risk of liver toxicity and even carcinogenesis; however, it does not discriminate between GTX and NGTX carcinogens.

  20. Oxidized Low-Density-Lipoprotein Accumulation is Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Experimental Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz, Güldeniz; Acikgoz, Serefden; Tekin, Ishak Ozel; Tascýlar, Oge; Gun, Banu Dogan; Cömert, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to examine the probable relationship between the accumulation of oxLDL and hepatic fibrogenesis in cholestatic rats. INTRODUCTION There is growing evidence to support the current theories on how oxidative stress that results in lipid peroxidation is involved in the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver injury and fibrogenesis. One of the major and early lipid peroxidation products, OxLDL, is thought to play complex roles in various immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. METHODS A prolonged (21-day) experimental bile duct ligation was performed on Wistar-albino rats. Biochemical analysis of blood, histopathologic evaluation of liver, measurement of the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue homogenates, and immunofluorescent staining for oxLDL in liver tissue was conducted in bile-duct ligated (n = 8) and sham-operated rats (n = 8). RESULTS Significantly higher levels of MDA and lower concentrations of SOD were detected in jaundiced rats than in the sham-operated rats. Positive oxLDL staining was also observed in liver tissue sections of jaundiced rats. Histopathological examination demonstrated that neither fibrosis nor other indications of hepatocellular injury were found in the sham-operated group, while features of severe hepatocellular injury, particularly fibrosis, were found in jaundiced rats. CONCLUSION Our results support the finding that either oxLDLs are produced as an intermediate agent during exacerbated oxidative stress or they otherwise contribute to the various pathomechanisms underlying the process of liver fibrosis. Whatever the mechanism, it is clear that an association exists between elevated oxLDL levels and hepatocellular injury, particularly with fibrosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential effects of oxLDLs on the progression of secondary biliary cirrhosis. PMID:18719767

  1. Arsenite induced oxidative damage in mouse liver is associated with increased cytokeratin 18 expression.

    PubMed

    Gonsebatt, M E; Del Razo, L M; Cerbon, M A; Zúñiga, O; Sanchez-Peña, L C; Ramírez, P

    2007-09-01

    Cytokeratins (CK) constitute a family of cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins that are typically expressed in epithelial cells. An abnormal structure and function are effects that are clearly related to liver diseases as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We have previously observed that sodium arsenite (SA) induced the synthesis of CK18 protein and promotes a dose-related disruption of cytoplasmic CK18 filaments in a human hepatic cell line. Both abnormal gene expression and disturbance of structural organization are toxic effects that are likely to cause liver disease by interfering with normal hepatocyte function. To investigate if a disruption in the CK18 expression pattern is associated with arsenite liver damage, we investigated CK18 mRNA and protein levels in liver slices treated with low levels of SA. Organotypic cultures were incubated with 0.01, 1 and 10 microM of SA in the absence and presence of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Cell viability and inorganic arsenic metabolism were determined. Increased expression of CK18 was observed after exposure to SA. The addition of NAC impeded the oxidative effects of SA exposure, decreasing the production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and significantly diminishing the up regulation of CK18 mRNA and protein. Liver arsenic levels correlated with increased levels of mRNA. Mice treated with intragastric single doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of SA showed an increased expression of CK18. Results suggest that CK18 expression may be a sensible early biomarker of oxidative stress and damage induced by arsenite in vitro and in vivo. Then, during SA exposure, altered CK expression may compromise liver function.

  2. Citric acid effects on brain and liver oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Youness, Eman R; Mohammed, Nadia A; Morsy, Safaa M Youssef; Omara, Enayat A; Sleem, Amany A

    2014-05-01

    Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 μg/kg). Citric acid was given orally at 1, 2, or 4 g/kg at time of endotoxin injection and mice were euthanized 4 h later. LPS induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver tissue, resulting in marked increase in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and nitrite, while significantly decreasing reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed a pronounced increase in brain tissue after endotoxin injection. The administration of citric acid (1-2 g/kg) attenuated LPS-induced elevations in brain MDA, nitrite, TNF-α, GPx, and PON1 activity. In the liver, nitrite was decreased by 1 g/kg citric acid. GPx activity was increased, while PON1 activity was decreased by citric acid. The LPS-induced liver injury, DNA fragmentation, serum transaminase elevations, caspase-3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were attenuated by 1-2 g/kg citric acid. DNA fragmentation, however, increased after 4 g/kg citric acid. Thus in this model of systemic inflammation, citric acid (1-2 g/kg) decreased brain lipid peroxidation and inflammation, liver damage, and DNA fragmentation.

  3. Citric Acid Effects on Brain and Liver Oxidative Stress in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Youness, Eman R.; Mohammed, Nadia A.; Morsy, Safaa M. Youssef; Omara, Enayat A.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 μg/kg). Citric acid was given orally at 1, 2, or 4 g/kg at time of endotoxin injection and mice were euthanized 4 h later. LPS induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver tissue, resulting in marked increase in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and nitrite, while significantly decreasing reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed a pronounced increase in brain tissue after endotoxin injection. The administration of citric acid (1–2 g/kg) attenuated LPS-induced elevations in brain MDA, nitrite, TNF-α, GPx, and PON1 activity. In the liver, nitrite was decreased by 1 g/kg citric acid. GPx activity was increased, while PON1 activity was decreased by citric acid. The LPS-induced liver injury, DNA fragmentation, serum transaminase elevations, caspase-3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were attenuated by 1–2 g/kg citric acid. DNA fragmentation, however, increased after 4 g/kg citric acid. Thus in this model of systemic inflammation, citric acid (1–2 g/kg) decreased brain lipid peroxidation and inflammation, liver damage, and DNA fragmentation. PMID:24433072

  4. Chronic administration of fluoxetine or clozapine induces oxidative stress in rat liver: a histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Zlatković, Jelena; Todorović, Nevena; Tomanović, Nada; Bošković, Maja; Djordjević, Snežana; Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara; Bernardi, Rick E; Djurdjević, Aleksandra; Filipović, Dragana

    2014-08-01

    Chronic exposure to stress contributes to the etiology of mood disorders, and the liver as a target organ of antidepressant and antipsychotic drug metabolism is vulnerable to drug-induced toxicity. We investigated the effects of chronic administration of fluoxetine (15mg/kg/day) or clozapine (20mg/kg/day) on liver injury via the measurement of liver enzymes, oxidative stress and histopathology in rats exposed to chronic social isolation (21days), an animal model of depression, and controls. The activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the liver content of carbonyl groups, malonyldialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites were determined. We also characterized nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) protein expression as well as histopathological changes. Increased serum ALT activity in chronically-isolated and control animals treated with both drugs was found while increased AST activity was observed only in fluoxetine-treated rats (chronically-isolated and controls). Increased carbonyl content, MDA, GST activity and decreased GSH levels in drug-treated controls/chronically-isolated animals suggest a link between drugs and hepatic oxidative stress. Increased NO levels associated with NF-κB activation and the concomitant increased COX-2 expression together with compromised CuZnSOD expression in clozapine-treated chronically-isolated rats likely reinforce oxidative stress, observed by increased lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion. In contrast, fluoxetine reduced NO levels in chronically-isolated rats. Isolation induced oxidative stress but histological changes were similar to those observed in vehicle-treated controls. Chronic administration of fluoxetine in both chronically-isolated and control animals resulted in more or less normal hepatic architecture, while clozapine in both groups

  5. Parboiled Germinated Brown Rice Protects Against CCl4-Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wunjuntuk, Kansuda; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri; Rungruang, Thanaporn

    2016-01-01

    Parboiled germinated brown rice (PGBR) of Khao Dawk Mali 105 variety was produced by steaming germinated paddy rice, which is well-known for its nutrients and bioactive compounds. In this study we determined the in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of PGBR in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, (weight 200-250 g) were randomly divided into (1) control, (2) CCl(4), (3) white rice (WR)+CCl(4), (4) brown rice (BR)+CCl(4), and (5) PGBR+CCl(4) groups. PGBR, BR, and WR diets were produced by replacing corn starch in the AIN76A diet with cooked PGBR, BR, and WR powders, respectively. All rats except the control group were gavaged with 50% CCl4 in olive oil (v/v, 1 mL/kg) twice a week for 8 weeks. CCl(4)-treated rats exhibited significant liver injury, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, as well as obvious changes to liver histopathology compared to control. In addition, CCl(4) treatment decreased the activities of CYP2E1 and antioxidant enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and glutathione (GSH) content. However, the PGBR+CCl(4) group exhibited less liver injury, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, as well as better antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH content. Furthermore, PGBR inhibited degradation of CYP2E1 in CCl(4)-induced decrease of CYP2E1 activity. These data suggest that PGBR may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative stress and injury through enhancement of the antioxidant capacities, which may be due to complex actions of various bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids, γ-oryzanol, tocotrienol, and GABA.

  6. Effects of long term ethanol consumption mediated oxidative stress on neovessel generation in liver.

    PubMed

    Das, Subir Kumar; Mukherjee, Sukhes; Vasudevan, D M

    2012-06-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, is essential during tissue repair. Though most molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis are common to the liver and other organs, there was no report available whether alcoholic liver disease also causes angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the effects of long term ethanol (1.6 g/kg body weight/day) consumption on angiogenic responses in the liver of male Wistar strain albino rats (16-18 weeks old, weighing 200-220 g) up to 36 weeks. Chronic ethanol consumption was associated with not only elevated oxidative stress, and altered cytokines expression, but also developed large von Willebrand factor, fibrosis and activation of matrix metalloproteinases. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor-receptor 2 (VEGF-R2, fetal liver kinase 1: Flk-1/KDR) expression and neovessel generation in the rat liver were noted after 36 weeks of ethanol consumption. Thus our study provides novel evidence that long-term ethanol consumption is associated with angiogenesis through delicate and coordinated action of a variety of mediators.

  7. Berberis vulgaris L. effects on oxidative stress and liver injury in lead-intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Laamech, Jawhar; El-Hilaly, Jaouad; Fetoui, Hamadi; Chtourou, Yassine; Gouitaa, Hanane; Tahraoui, Adel; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2017-03-01

    Background Berberis vulgaris L. (BV), commonly known as "Aghriss" in Moroccan pharmacopoeia, is used to cure liver disorders and other diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of BV aqueous extract against lead-induced toxicity in mice liver. Methods Sixty IOPS mice were divided into six groups and were treated as follows: group 1 (normal control) received double distilled water; group 2 (toxic control) received lead acetate (5 mg/kg body weight/day) in double distilled water for 40 days; groups 3-6 received BV aqueous extract at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight , respectively, once daily for 30 days from 11 day after beginning of lead acetate exposure to the end of the experiment. Results Toxic control group showed a significant alteration of serum alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), total bilirubin (TB), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Histological assessment of lead-intoxicated mice liver revealed alterations in hepatocytes and focal necrosis. BV treatment significantly prevented lead accumulation, increased ALT, AST, TC, and TB, inhibited lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls(PCO) formation. Additionally, BV extract normalized the antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD and GPx), GSH and architecture of liver tissues. Conclusions BV aqueous extract exerts significant hepatoprotective effects against lead-induced oxidative stress and liver dysfunction. The BV effect may be mediated through the enhancement of antioxidant status, lead-chelating abilities and free radicals quenching.

  8. Increased sensitivity of apolipoprotein E knockout mice to copper-induced oxidative injury to the liver.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Bin; Zhao, Ran-ran; Zhang, Hui-feng; Zhen, Chao; Guo, Li

    2015-04-10

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotypes are related to clinical presentations in patients with Wilson's disease, indicating that ApoE may play an important role in the disease. However, our understanding of the role of ApoE in Wilson's disease is limited. High copper concentration in Wilson's disease induces excessive generation of free oxygen radicals. Meanwhile, ApoE proteins possess antioxidant effects. We therefore determined whether copper-induced oxidative damage differ in the liver of wild-type and ApoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Both wild-type and ApoE(-/-) mice were intragastrically administered with 0.2 mL of copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mg/kg; a total dose of 4 mg/d) or the same volume of saline daily for 12 weeks, respectively. Copper and oxidative stress markers in the liver tissue and in the serum were assessed. Our results showed that, compared with the wild-type mice administered with copper, TBARS as a marker of lipid peroxidation, the expression of oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone 1 (NQO1) significantly increased in the ApoE(-/-) mice administered with copper, meanwhile superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly decreased. Thus, it is concluded that ApoE may protect the liver from copper-induced oxidative damage in Wilson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Counteraction of oxidative damage in the rat liver by an ancient grain (Kamut brand khorasan wheat).

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Serena; Primiterra, Mariangela; Tagliamonte, Maria Chiara; Carnevali, Andrea; Gianotti, Andrea; Bordoni, Alessandra; Canestrari, Franco

    2012-04-01

    We previously demonstrated in rat plasma the antioxidant protective effect of whole-grain bread, particularly when made from Kamut brand khorasan wheat. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the same experimental breads in rat liver using two different bread-making procedures (baker's yeast and sourdough fermentation). Rats were examined in the basal condition and after the administration of doxorubicin, a pro-oxidative agent. The following parameters were measured in liver homogenates: glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase activities, as antioxidant enzymes containing selenium; glutathione, α-tocopherol and β-carotene, as major non-enzymatic cell antioxidants; malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products, as markers of oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, respectively. A histologic evaluation of liver tissue was also conducted. In agreement with our previous work, we observed a lower oxidative status and a different activity of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in rats fed the whole-grain Kamut khorasan bread than in rats fed the modern whole-grain durum wheat bread. Histologic evaluation of the hepatic tissue showed the onset of inflammation in response to doxorubicin only in rats fed the modern durum wheat bread. Our data confirm that bread made from whole-grain Kamut khorasan protects rats from oxidative stress better than bread made from whole-grain durum wheat. This is consistent with their different antioxidant profiles. The type of wheat used for bread-making appeared to be the main determinant of the observed protective effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Royal Jelly Modulates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Liver and Kidneys of Rats Treated with Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz, Ali; Simsek, Nejdet; Karakus, Emre; Yildirim, Serap; Kara, Adem; Can, Ismail; Kisa, Fikrullah; Emre, Habib; Turkeli, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in the treatment of cancer and has adverse side effects such as nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the effects of royal jelly (RJ) against oxidative stress caused by CDDP injury of the kidneys and liver, by measuring tissue biochemical and antioxidant parameters and investigating apoptosis immunohistochemically. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups, group C: control group received 0.9% saline; group CDDP: injected i.p. with cisplatin (CDDP, 7 mg kg−1 body weight i.p., single dose); group RJ: treated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with RJ (300 mg/kg/day); group RJ + CDDP: treated by gavage with RJ 15 days following a single injection of CDDP. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in liver and kidney homogenates, and the liver and kidney were also histologically examined. RJ elicited a significant protective effect towards liver and kidney by decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA), elevating the level of GSH, and increasing the activities of GST, GSH-Px, and SOD. In the immunohistochemical examinations were observed significantly enhanced apoptotic cell numbers and degenerative changes by cisplatin, but these histological changes were lower in the liver and kidney tissues of RJ + CDDP group. Besides, treatment with RJ lead to an increase in antiapoptotic activity hepatocytes and tubular epithelium. In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with cisplatin in chemotherapy to improve cisplatin-induced oxidative stress parameters and apoptotic activity. PMID:21904651

  11. Thymoquinone restores liver fibrosis and improves oxidative stress status in a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation model in rats.

    PubMed

    Asgharzadeh, Fereshteh; Bargi, Rahimeh; Beheshti, Farimah; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Farzadnia, Mehdi; Khazaei, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the primary sign of chronic liver injury induced by various causes. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major ingredient of Nigella sativa with several beneficial effects on the body. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of TQ on liver fibrosis in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in male rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group) as follow: (1) control; (2) LPS (1 mg/kg/day; i.p); (3) LPS+TQ 2 mg/kg/day (i.p) (LPs+TQ2); (4) LPS+TQ 5 mg/kg/day (LPS+TQ5); (5) LPS+ TQ 10 mg/kg/day (LPS+ TQ10). After three weeks, blood samples were taken for evaluation of liver function tests. Then, the livers were harvested for histological evaluation of fibrosis and collagen content and measurement of oxidative stress markers including malondialdehyde (MDA), total thiol groups, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity in tissue homogenates. LPS group showed higher levels of fibrosis and collagen content stained by Masson's trichrome in liver tissue with impaired liver function test and increased oxidative stress markers (p<0.05). Treatment by TQ restored liver fibrosis, improved liver function tests and increased the levels of anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD and catalase), while reduced MDA concentration (p<0.05). Treatment by TQ restores inflammation-induced liver fibrosis possibly through affecting oxidative stress status. It seems that administration of TQ can be considered as a part of liver fibrosis management.

  12. Modulatory role of Pterocarpus santalinus against alcohol-induced liver oxidative/nitrosative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Bulle, Saradamma; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Maturu, Paramahamsa; N Ch, Varadacharyulu

    2016-10-01

    Pterocarpus santalinus, a traditional medicinal plant has shown protective mechanisms against various complications. The aim of the present study is to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of P. santalinus heartwood methanolic extract (PSE) against alcohol-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress leading to hepatotoxicity. In-vitro studies revealed that PSE possess strong DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. For in vivo studies male albino Wistar rats were treated with 20% alcohol (5g/kg b.wt/day) and PSE (250mg/kg b.wt/day) for 60days. Results showed that alcohol administration significantly altered plasma lipid profile with marked increase in the levels of plasma transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT). Moreover, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide (NOx) levels in plasma and liver were increased with increased iNOS protein expression in liver was noticed in alcohol administered rats and these levels were significantly brought back close to normal level by PSE administration except iNOS protein expression. Alcohol administration also decreased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver, which were significantly enhanced by administration of PSE. The active compounds pterostilbene, lignan and lupeols present in PSE might have shown protection against alcohol-induced hepatic damage by possibly reducing the rate of lipid peroxidation, NOx levels and increasing the antioxidant defence mechanism in alcohol administered rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the alcohol-induced liver damage model emphasize beneficial action of PSE as a hepatoprotective agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Kupffer cell phagosomal motility, bacterial clearance, and liver function

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christa Y; Molina, Ramon M; Louzada, Andressa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M; Donaghey, Thomas C; Brain, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc oxide engineered nanoparticles (ZnO ENPs) have potential as nanomedicines due to their inherent properties. Studies have described their pulmonary impact, but less is known about the consequences of ZnO ENP interactions with the liver. This study was designed to describe the effects of ZnO ENPs on the liver and Kupffer cells after intravenous (IV) administration. Materials and methods First, pharmacokinetic studies were conducted to determine the tissue distribution of neutron-activated 65ZnO ENPs post-IV injection in Wistar Han rats. Then, a noninvasive in vivo method to assess Kupffer cell phagosomal motility was employed using ferromagnetic iron particles and magnetometry. We also examined whether prior IV injection of ZnO ENPs altered Kupffer cell bactericidal activity on circulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Serum and liver tissues were collected to assess liver-injury biomarkers and histological changes, respectively. Results We found that the liver was the major site of initial uptake of 65ZnO ENPs. There was a time-dependent decrease in tissue levels of 65Zn in all organs examined, refecting particle dissolution. In vivo magnetometry showed a time-dependent and transient reduction in Kupffer cell phagosomal motility. Animals challenged with P. aeruginosa 24 hours post-ZnO ENP injection showed an initial (30 minutes) delay in vascular bacterial clearance. However, by 4 hours, IV-injected bacteria were cleared from the blood, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. Seven days post-ZnO ENP injection, creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in serum were significantly increased. Histological evidence of hepatocyte damage and marginated neutrophils were observed in the liver. Conclusion Administration of ZnO ENPs transiently inhibited Kupffer cell phagosomal motility and later induced hepatocyte injury, but did not alter bacterial clearance from the blood or killing in the liver, spleen, lungs, or kidneys. Our data show that

  14. Oxaliplatin-induced Oxidative Stress Provokes Toxicity in Isolated Rat Liver Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Heena; Waseem, Mohammad; Parvez, Suhel; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2015-11-01

    Oxaliplatin is a widely employed platinum-derived chemotherapeutic agent commonly used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, the benefit of this important drug is compromised by severe side effects such as neuropathy, ototoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, and hematological toxicity. Recently, few studies have also suggested the occurrence of hepatotoxicity in oxaliplatin-treated patients. Mitochondria have emerged as targets for anticancer drugs in various kinds of toxicity including hepatotoxicity that can lead to neoplastic disease. Oxidative stress is a well-established biomarker of mitochondrial toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent damage caused by oxaliplatin on isolated liver mitochondria under in vitro conditions. The study was conducted in mitochondria isolated from liver of Wistar rats. Oxaliplatin was incubated with mitochondria in a dose-dependent manner under in vitro conditions. Oxidative stress indexes, non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants were evaluated, looking at the overall armamentarium against the toxicity induced by oxaliplatin. Oxaliplatin caused a significant rise in the mitochondrial oxidative stress indexes lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. Alterations in the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants and activities of enzymatic antioxidants were also observed. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the mitochondrial toxicity of oxaliplatin. The integrity of the hepatic tissue is compromised by the reactive oxygen species-mediated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular evidence of offspring liver dysfunction after maternal exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanan; Liu, Jing; Feng, Yanni; Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Lan; Min, Lingjiang; Zhang, Hongfu; Shen, Wei; Zhao, Yong

    2017-08-15

    Recently, reproductive, embryonic and developmental toxicity have been considered as one important sector of nanoparticle (NP) toxicology, with some studies already suggesting varying levels of toxicity and possible transgenerational toxic effects. Even though many studies have investigated the toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), little is known of their impact on overall reproductive outcome and transgenerational effects. Previously we found ZnO NPs caused liver dysfunction in lipid synthesis. This investigation, for the first time, explored the liver dysfunction at the molecular level of gene and protein expression in offspring after maternal exposure to ZnO NPs. Three pathways were investigated: lipid synthesis, growth related factors and cell toxic biomarkers/apoptosis at 5 different time points from embryonic day-18 to postnatal day-20. It was found that the expression of 15, 16, and 16 genes in lipid synthesis, growth related factors and cell toxic biomarkers/apoptosis signalling pathway respectively in F1 animal liver were altered by ZnO NPs compared to ZnSO 4 . The proteins in these signalling pathways (five in each pathways analyzed) in F1 animal liver were also changed by ZnO NPs compared to ZnSO 4 . The results suggest that ZnO NPs caused maternal liver defects can also be detected in offspring that might result in problems on offspring liver development, mainly on lipid synthesis, growth, and lesions or apoptosis. Along with others, this study suggests that ZnO NPs may pose reproductive, embryonic and developmental toxicity; therefore, precautions should be taken with regard to human exposure during daily life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitric oxide protects murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2) from cytotoxicity induced by glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Pae, H O; Kim, H G; Paik, Y S; Paik, S G; Kim, Y M; Oh, G S; Chung, H T

    2000-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of nitric oxide on cell death of murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2) after glucose deprivation. Endogenous nitric oxide production by BNL CL.2 cells was induced by 6 hr pretreatment with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. We used sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-L-glutathione as exogenous nitric oxide-generating compounds. All agents were used at doses that did not show direct cytotoxicity as measured by crystal violet staining assay. In the BNL CL.2 cells, the viability dropped very steeply after 24 hr incubation with glucose-free media. Endogenous nitric oxide produced by treatment of the cells with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide protected the cells from glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity, but did not protect them in the presence of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Exogenous nitric oxide protected the cells from glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Cytoprotection by nitric oxide donors was abolished by the use of nitric oxide scavenger, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazole, but not by the soluble guanosine cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one. In addition, cytoprotective effects comparable to endogenous or exogenous nitric oxide were not observed when the cells were incubated with dibutyl guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. Based upon these results, we suggest that nitric oxide may enhance the cell survival of BNL CL.2 cells after glucose deprivation via a guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-independent pathway.

  17. Rac2 deficiency attenuates CCl4-induced liver injury through suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Xiong, Ji-Bin; Ma, Ke; Wang, Ai-Zhong; Qian, Ke-Jian

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a leading cause to liver injury. Rac2 is a Ras-associated guanosine triphosphatase, an important molecule modulating a large number of cells and involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). For the study described here, we supposed that Rac2 knockout protects mice against CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. We found that Rac2 expressed highly in CCl 4 -induced liver tissues. CCl 4 -treated Rac2 knockout (Rac2-/-) mice had reduced CD24 levels and steatosis. In addition, CCl 4 -induced high expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were reversed by Rac2 deficiency compared to CCl 4 -treated wild type (WT) mice. We also found that fibrosis-related signals of MMP-9, MMP-2 and TGF-β1 were also down-regulated in Rac2 knockout mice induced by CCl 4 . Significantly, oxidative stress induced by CCl 4 was also suppressed owing to the lack of Rac2, evidenced by enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide radical, H 2 O 2 , xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and XO/XDH ratio. Moreover, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases (JNK MAPK) was activated by CCl 4 , which was reversed in the liver of Rac2-/- mice through western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro, endotoxin (LPS) was treated to hepatocytes isolated from WT mice and Rac2-/- mice. The data further confirmed the role of Rac2 deficiency suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, as well as fibrosis-related signals. Of note, production of ROS induced by LPS was reduced in Rac2-/- cells, accompanied with enhanced SOD1, SOD2 and reduced XO and phosphorylated-JNK expressions. Our results indicated that Rac2 played an essential role in acute liver injury induced by CCl 4 , providing the compelling information of the effects of Rac2 on liver injury, and revealing a novel regulatory mechanism for acute liver injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  18. Graft reconditioning with nitric oxide gas in rat liver transplantation from cardiac death donors.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Shoichi; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Saito, Shunichi; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Hata, Koichiro; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Tolba, Rene; Shinji, Uemoto

    2014-03-27

    Liver transplant outcomes using grafts donated after cardiac death (DCD) remain poor. We investigated the effects of ex vivo reconditioning of DCD grafts with venous systemic oxygen persufflation using nitric oxide gas (VSOP-NO) in rat liver transplants. Orthotopic liver transplants were performed in Lewis rats, using DCD grafts prepared using static cold storage alone (group-control) or reconditioning using VSOP-NO during cold storage (group-VSOP-NO). Experiment I: In a 30-min warm ischemia model, graft damage and hepatic expression of inflammatory cytokines, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were examined, and histologic analysis was performed 2, 6, 24, and 72 hr after transplantation. Experiment II: In a 60-min warm ischemia model, grafts were evaluated 2 hr after transplantation (6 rats/group), and survival was assessed (7 rats/group). Experiment I: Group-VSOP-NO had lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P<0.001), hyaluronic acid (P<0.05), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.001), hepatic interleukin-6 expression (IL-6) (P<0.05), and hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression (P<0.001). Hepatic eNOS expression (P<0.001) was upregulated, whereas hepatic iNOS (P<0.01) and ET-1 (P<0.001) expressions were downregulated. The damage of hepatocyte and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) were lower in group-VSOP-NO.Experiment II: VSOP-NO decreased ET-1 and 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) expression and improved survival after transplantation by 71.4% (P<0.01). These results suggest that VSOP-NO effectively reconditions warm ischemia-damaged grafts, presumably by decreasing ET-1 upregulation and oxidative damage.

  19. Caveolin 1-related autophagy initiated by aldosterone-induced oxidation promotes liver sinusoidal endothelial cells defenestration.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoying; Dan Wang; Luo, Xuan; Zhu, Xintao; Wang, Guozhen; Ning, Zuowei; Li, Yang; Ma, Xiaoxin; Yang, Renqiang; Jin, Siyi; Huang, Yun; Meng, Ying; Li, Xu

    2017-10-01

    Aldosterone, with pro-oxidation and pro-autophagy capabilities, plays a key role in liver fibrosis. However, the mechanisms underlying aldosterone-promoted liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) defenestration remain unknown. Caveolin 1 (Cav1) displays close links with autophagy and fenestration. Hence, we aim to investigate the role of Cav1-related autophagy in LSECs defenestration. We found the increase of aldosterone/MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) level, oxidation, autophagy, and defenestration in LSECs in the human fibrotic liver, BDL or hyperaldosteronism models; while antagonizing aldosterone or inhibiting autophagy relieved LSECs defenestration in BDL-induced fibrosis or hyperaldosteronism models. In vitro, fenestrae of primary LSECs gradually shrank, along with the down-regulation of the NO-dependent pathway and the augment of the AMPK-dependent autophagy; these effects were aggravated by rapamycin (an autophagy activator) or aldosterone treatment. Additionally, aldosterone increased oxidation mediated by Cav1, reduced ATP generation, and subsequently induced the AMPK-dependent autophagy, leading to the down-regulation of the NO-dependent pathway and LSECs defenestration. These effects were reversed by MR antagonist spironolactone, antioxidants or autophagy inhibitors. Besides, aldosterone enhanced the co-immunoprecipitation of Cav1 with p62 and ubiquitin, and induced Cav1 co-immunofluorescence staining with LC3, ubiquitin, and F-actin in the perinuclear area of LSECs. Furthermore, aldosterone treatment increased the membrane protein level of Cav1, whereas decrease the cytoplasmic protein level of Cav1, indicating that aldosterone induced Cav1-related selective autophagy and F-actin remodeling to promote defenestration. Consequently, Cav1-related selective autophagy initiated by aldosterone-induced oxidation promotes LSECs defenestration via activating the AMPK-ULK1 pathway and inhibiting the NO-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  20. Downregulation of Glutathione Biosynthesis Contributes to Oxidative Stress and Liver Dysfunction in Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Siow, Yaw L.; Isaak, Cara K.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion is a common cause for acute kidney injury and can lead to distant organ dysfunction. Glutathione is a major endogenous antioxidant and its depletion directly correlates to ischemia-reperfusion injury. The liver has high capacity for producing glutathione and is a key organ in modulating local and systemic redox balance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which kidney ischemia-reperfusion led to glutathione depletion and oxidative stress. The left kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats was subjected to 45 min ischemia followed by 6 h reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion impaired kidney and liver function. This was accompanied by a decrease in glutathione levels in the liver and plasma and increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and plasma homocysteine levels. Ischemia-reperfusion caused a significant decrease in mRNA and protein levels of hepatic glutamate-cysteine ligase mediated through the inhibition of transcription factor Nrf2. Ischemia-reperfusion inhibited hepatic expression of cystathionine γ-lyase, an enzyme responsible for producing cysteine (an essential precursor for glutathione synthesis) through the transsulfuration pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of glutamate-cysteine ligase expression and downregulation of the transsulfuration pathway lead to reduced hepatic glutathione biosynthesis and elevation of plasma homocysteine levels, which, in turn, may contribute to oxidative stress and distant organ injury during renal ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:27872680

  1. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates endotoxin-induced liver injury by promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yan; College of Food Safety, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025; Ruan, Zheng, E-mail: ruanzheng@ncu.edu.cn

    Acute or chronic hepatic injury is a common pathology worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play important roles in liver injury. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are some of the most abundant phenolic acids in human diet. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CGA may protect against chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by modulating mitochondrial energy generation. CGA decreased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The contents of ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), as well as the ratio of AMP/ATP, were increased after CGA supplementation. The activities of enzymes thatmore » are involved in glycolysis were reduced, while those of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were increased. Moreover, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mRNA levels of AMPK-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor A were increased after CGA supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CGA might be associated with enhanced ATP production, the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the inhibition of glycolysis. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation with chlorogenic acid (CGA) improved endotoxin-induced liver injury. • Chlorogenic acid enhances ATP increase and shifts energy metabolism, which is correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α. • The possible mechanism of CGA on mitochondrial biogenesis was correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α.« less

  2. Protective effects of Ziyang tea polysaccharides on CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongying; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Yanfei; Yang, Xingbin

    2014-01-15

    This study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the tea polysaccharides (ZTPs) extracted from a selenium-enriched Ziyang green tea (Camellia sinensis). ZTPs were identified as the heteropolysaccharides with glucose (31.4%), arabinose (23.5%) and galactose (21.8%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. ZTPs displayed noteworthy scavenging effects against DPPH, OH and O2(-), and high antioxidant effects in vitro, and the effects were further verified by suppressing CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg BW. Administration of ZTPs in mice prior to CCl4 significantly prevented the CCl4-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactic dehydrogenase, as well as hepatic malondialdehyde level. Mice treated with ZTPs showed normal glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, relative to CCl4-treated group. ZTPs also prevented the CCl4-caused liver histological alteration, as indicated by histopathological evaluation. These findings demonstrate that ZTPs have protective effects against acute CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective effect of Anoectochilus roxburghii polysaccharide against CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Lawei; Pan, Qunwen; Li, Juan; Wu, Yongfu; Chen, Meizhen; Cui, Shichao; Yu, Jie

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the isolation and characterization of Anoectochilus roxburghii polysaccharides (ARP), and further evaluated whether ARP possessed hepatoprotective activities against CCl 4 -induced oxidative liver damage in mice. ARP is comprised of glucose and galactose in a 1.9:1 molar ratio, and the molecular weight is 19.5kDa. ARP displayed significant scavenging effects against hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical, DPPH radical and a strong reducing power. In vivo experiment demonstrated ARP (150mg/kg) administrated to mice for 7days prior to carbon tetrachloride treatment, attenuated the elevated expression levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride (TG) in serum and inhibited the formation of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). ARP pretreatment also increased antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the liver of CCl 4 -induced mice. Furthermore, hepatic histopathological changes induced by CCl 4 were significantly normalized by ARP pretreatment. These findings demonstrated that ARP possessed hepatoprotective effect against acute CCl 4 -induced liver damage by reducing lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Melatonin attenuates oxidative stress, liver damage and hepatocyte apoptosis after bile-duct ligation in rats.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Cevat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Mete, Rafet; Oran, Mustafa

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of melatonin against cholestatic oxidative stress, liver damage and hepatocyte apoptosis in the common rats with bile duct ligation (BDL). A total of 24 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: control, BDL and BDL + received melatonin; each group contains eight animals. Melatonin-treated BDL rats received daily melatonin 100 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal injection. The application of BDL clearly increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activities. Melatonin treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue MDA levels and increased the reduced SOD and GSH enzyme levels in the tissues. The changes demonstrate that the bile duct proliferation and fibrosis in expanded portal tracts include the extension of proliferated bile ducts into lobules, mononuclear cells and neutrophil infiltration into the widened portal areas as observed in the BDL group. The data indicate that melatonin attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation and fibrosis. The α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the BDL were observed to be reduced with the melatonin treatment. These results suggest that administration of melatonin is a potentially beneficial agent to reduce liver damage in BDL by decreasing oxidative stress. © The Author(s) 2012.

  5. Dietary Supplementation of Calendula officinalis Counteracts the Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage Resulted from Aflatoxin

    PubMed Central

    Hamzawy, Mohamed A.; El-Denshary, Ezzeldein S. M.; Hassan, Nabila S.; Mannaa, Fathia A.; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant properties, and the hepatorenoprotective potential of Calendula officinalis extract against aflatoxins (AFs-) induced liver damage. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 6 weeks included the control; the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5 mg/kg diet); the groups treated orally with Calendula extract at low (CA1) and high (CA2) doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w); the groups treated orally with CA1 and CA2 one week before and during AFs treatment for other five weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract contained higher phenolic compounds and posses higher 1,1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. Animals fed AFs-contaminated diet showed significant disturbances in serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, and the histological and histochemical pictures of the liver accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver. Calendula extract succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, decreased the oxidative stress, and improved the histological pictures in the liver of rats fed AFs-contaminated diet in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Calendula extract has potential hepatoprotective effects against AFs due to its antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity. PMID:24959547

  6. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction induced by isoniazid: study on isolated rat liver and brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ahadpour, Morteza; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Mashayekhi, Vida; Haj Mohammad Ebrahim Tehrani, Kamaleddin; Jafarian, Iman; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH or isonicotinic hydrazide) is used for the treatment and prophylaxis of tuberculosis. Liver and brain are two important target organs in INH toxicity. However, the exact mechanisms behind the INH hepatotoxicity or neurotoxicity have not yet been completely understood. Considering the mitochondria as one of the possible molecular targets for INH toxicity, the aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of INH mitochondrial toxicity on isolated mitochondria. Mitochondria were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation from male Sprague-Dawley rats and incubated with different concentrations of INH (25-2000 μM) for the investigation of mitochondrial parameters. The results indicated that INH could interact with mitochondrial respiratory chain and inhibit its activity. Our results showed an elevation in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse after exposure of isolated liver mitochondria in INH. However, different results were obtained in brain mitochondria. Noteworthy, significant glutathione oxidation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and lipid peroxidation were observed in higher concentration of INH, as compared to liver mitochondria. In conclusion, our results suggest that INH may initiate its toxicity in liver mitochondria through interaction with electron transfer chain, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential decline and cytochrome c expulsion which ultimately lead to cell death signaling.

  7. Pathological Lesions and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expressions in the Liver of Mice Experimentally Infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-Li; Shen, Ji-Qing; Xue, Yan; Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Yi-Chao; Chen, Ying-Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-12-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) formation and intrinsic nitrosation may be involved in the possible mechanisms of liver fluke-associated carcinogenesis. We still do not know much about the responses of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) induced by Clonorchis sinensis infection. This study was conducted to explore the pathological lesions and iNOS expressions in the liver of mice with different infection intensity levels of C. sinensis. Extensive periductal inflammatory cell infiltration, bile duct hyperplasia, and fibrosis were commonly observed during the infection. The different pathological responses in liver tissues strongly correlated with the infection intensity of C. sinensis. Massive acute spotty necrosis occurred in the liver parenchyma after a severe infection. The iNOS activity in liver tissues increased, and iNOS-expressing cells with morphological differences were observed after a moderate or severe infection. The iNOS-expressing cells in liver tissues had multiple origins.

  8. Quercetin ameliorates liver injury induced with Tripterygium glycosides by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junming; Miao, Mingsan; Zhang, Yueyue; Liu, Ruixin; Li, Xaobing; Cui, Ying; Qu, Lingbo

    2015-06-01

    Quercetin (Que) is one of main compounds in Lysimachia christinae Hance (Christina loosestrife), and has both medicinal and nutritional value. Glycosides from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f. (léi gōng téng [the thunder duke vine]; TG) have diverse and broad bioactivities but with a high incidence of liver injury. Our previous study reported on the hepatoprotective properties of an ethanol extract from L. christinae against TG-induced liver injury in mice. This research is designed to observe, for the first time, the possible protective properties of the compound Que against TG-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms that are involved in oxidative stress and anti-inflammation. The results indicated that TG caused excessive elevation in serum levels of alanine/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), as well as hepatic lipid peroxidation (all P < 0.01). On the other hand, following TG exposure, we observed significantly reduced levels of biomarkers, including hepatic glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, as well as the enzyme activity and mRNA expression of copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) (all P < 0.01). Nevertheless, all of these alterations were reversed by the pre-administration of Que or the drug bifendate (positive control) for 7 consecutive days. Therefore, this study suggests that Que ameliorates TG-induced acute liver injury, probably through its ability to reduce oxidative stress and its anti-inflammatory properties.

  9. Oxidative phosphorylation of liver mitochondria from mice acclimatized to hypobaric hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Velarde, F.; Whittembury, J.; Monge, C.

    1986-09-01

    Mice exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia for 20 hours a day, 6 days a week, develop extracellular adaptive responses similar to those found in humans exposed to oxygen tension equivalent to that found at an altitude of 4500 m. Isolated liver mitochondria from these animals show no significant differences in rates of substrate-stimulated respiration, ADP-stimulated respiration and the respiratory control ratio (RCR), when compared with sea level controls. Undetectable or negligible differences in these parameters are also noted when sea level animals are exposed for one hour to severe hypoxia (7% O2). We therefore conclude that the oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the isolated mouse liver mitochondria remains unaltered in both acute and chronic hypoxia. However the in vivo oxygen consumption by mice at this degree of hypoxia was markedly reduced. Lack of observable changes in oxidative phosphorylation could be accounted for by extracellular adaptations in mitochondria isolated from acclimatized animals. This explanation, however, is not consistent with the lack of changes on oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria isolated from mice undergoing acute hypoxia at sea level. It is then suggested that isolated mitochondrial preparations are of limited value for investigating biochemical mechanisms underlying the variation of cellular respiration occurring in vivo.

  10. Oxidative metabolism of BDE-99 by human liver microsomes: predominant role of CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Erratico, Claudio A; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2012-10-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been found in human serum, suggesting that they are formed by in vivo oxidative metabolism of PBDEs. However, the biotransformation of 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), a major PBDE detected in human tissue and environmental samples, is poorly understood. In the present study, the oxidative metabolism of BDE-99 was assessed using pooled and single-donor human liver microsomes, a panel of human recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, and CYP-specific antibodies. Hydroxylated metabolites were quantified using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-based method. In total, 10 hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-99 were produced by human liver microsomes. Six metabolites were identified as 2,4,5-tribromophenol (2,4,5-TBP), 4-OH-BDE-90, 5'-OH-BDE-99, 6'-OH-BDE-99, 4'-OH-BDE-101, and 2-OH-BDE-123 using authentic standards. Three monohydroxy- and one dihydroxy-pentabrominated metabolites were unidentified. Rates of formation of the three major metabolites (2,4,5-TBP, 5'-OH-BDE-99, and 4'-OH-BDE-101) by human liver microsomes ranged from 24.4 to 44.8 pmol/min/mg protein. Additional experiments demonstrated that the dihydroxylated metabolite was a primary metabolite of BDE-99 and was not produced by hydroxylation of a monohydroxy metabolite. Among the panel of recombinant CYP enzymes tested, formation of all 10 hydroxylated metabolites was catalyzed solely by CYP2B6. A combined approach using antibodies to CYP2B6 and single-donor liver microsomes expressing a wide range of CYP2B6 levels confirmed that CYP2B6 was responsible for the biotransformation of BDE-99. Collectively, the results show that the oxidative metabolism of BDE-99 by human liver microsomes is catalyzed solely by CYP2B6 and is an important determinant of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of BDE-99 in humans.

  11. A Single Zidovudine (AZT) Administration Delays Hepatic Cell Proliferation by Altering Oxidative State in the Regenerating Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Butanda-Ochoa, Armando; Hernández-Espinosa, Diego Rolando; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Sánchez-Sevilla, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Mario R.; Chávez-Rentería, Benito; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine or Zidovudine (AZT) was the first antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of HIV patients, which has good effectiveness but also hepatotoxic side effects that include cell cycle arrest and oxidative/nitrative mitochondrial damage. Whether such an oxidative damage may affect the proliferative-regenerative capacity of liver remains to be clearly specified at doses commonly used in the clinical practice. In this study, we described the oxidative-proliferative effect of AZT administered at a common clinical dose in rat liver submitted to 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). The results indicate that AZT significantly decreased DNA synthesis and the number of mitosis in liver subjected to PH in a synchronized way with the promotion of organelle-selective lipid peroxidation events (especially those observed in plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions) and with liver enzyme release to the bloodstream. Then at the dose used in clinical practice AZT decreased liver regeneration but stimulates oxidative events involved during the proliferation process in a way that each membrane system inside the cell preserves its integrity in order to maintain the cell proliferative process. Here, the induction of large amounts of free ammonia in the systemic circulation could become a factor capable of mediating the deleterious effects of AZT on PH-induced rat liver regeneration. PMID:28479956

  12. A Single Zidovudine (AZT) Administration Delays Hepatic Cell Proliferation by Altering Oxidative State in the Regenerating Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Butanda-Ochoa, Armando; Hernández-Espinosa, Diego Rolando; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Sánchez-Sevilla, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Mario R; Chávez-Rentería, Benito; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2017-01-01

    The 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine or Zidovudine (AZT) was the first antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of HIV patients, which has good effectiveness but also hepatotoxic side effects that include cell cycle arrest and oxidative/nitrative mitochondrial damage. Whether such an oxidative damage may affect the proliferative-regenerative capacity of liver remains to be clearly specified at doses commonly used in the clinical practice. In this study, we described the oxidative-proliferative effect of AZT administered at a common clinical dose in rat liver submitted to 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). The results indicate that AZT significantly decreased DNA synthesis and the number of mitosis in liver subjected to PH in a synchronized way with the promotion of organelle-selective lipid peroxidation events (especially those observed in plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions) and with liver enzyme release to the bloodstream. Then at the dose used in clinical practice AZT decreased liver regeneration but stimulates oxidative events involved during the proliferation process in a way that each membrane system inside the cell preserves its integrity in order to maintain the cell proliferative process. Here, the induction of large amounts of free ammonia in the systemic circulation could become a factor capable of mediating the deleterious effects of AZT on PH-induced rat liver regeneration.

  13. Current status of superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agents for liver magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J

    2015-12-21

    Five types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), i.e. Ferumoxides (Feridex(®) IV, Berlex Laboratories), Ferucarbotran (Resovist(®), Bayer Healthcare), Ferumoxtran-10 (AMI-227 or Code-7227, Combidex(®), AMAG Pharma; Sinerem(®), Guerbet), NC100150 (Clariscan(®), Nycomed,) and (VSOP C184, Ferropharm) have been designed and clinically tested as magnetic resonance contrast agents. However, until now Resovist(®) is current available in only a few countries. The other four agents have been stopped for further development or withdrawn from the market. Another SPIO agent Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)) is approved for the treatment of iron deficiency in adult chronic kidney disease patients. Ferumoxytol is comprised of iron oxide particles surrounded by a carbohydrate coat, and it is being explored as a potential imaging approach for evaluating lymph nodes and certain liver tumors.

  14. Oxidative stress-related liver dysfunction by sodium arsenite: Alleviation by Pistacia lentiscus oil.

    PubMed

    Klibet, Fahima; Boumendjel, Amel; Khiari, Mohamed; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Abdennour, Cherif; Messarah, Mahfoud

    2016-01-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae) is an evergreen shrub widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean region. Pistacia lentiscus oil (PLo) was particularly known in North African traditional medicine. Thus, people of these regions have used it externally to treat sore throats, burns and wounds, as well as they employed it internally for respiratory allergies. PLo is rich in essential fatty acids, vitamin E and polyphenols. As a very active site of metabolism, liver is reported to be susceptible to arsenic (As) intoxication. The present study evaluates the protective effect of PLo against sodium arsenite-induced hepatic dysfunction and oxidative stress in experimental Wistar rats. Twenty-eight rats were equally divided into four groups; the first served as a control, the remaining groups were respectively treated with PLo (3.3 mL/kg body weight), sodium arsenite (5.55 mg/kg body weight) and a combination of sodium arsenite and PLo. After 21 consecutive days, cellular functions were evaluated by hematological, biochemical and oxidative stress markers. A significant decrease in the levels of red blood cells, haemoglobin (p ≤ 0.001), hematocrit (p ≤ 0.001), reduced glutathione and metallothionein (p ≤ 0.05) associated with a significant increase of malondialdehyde (p ≤ 0.001) were noticed in the arsenic-exposed group when compared to the control. The As-treated group also exhibited an increase in hepatic antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (p ≤ 0.01) and catalase (p ≤ 0.05). However, the co-administration of PLo has relatively reduced arsenic effect. The results showed that arsenic intoxication disturbed the liver pro-oxidant/antioxidant status. PLo co-administration mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative damage in rat.

  15. Inhibiting poly ADP-ribosylation increases fatty acid oxidation and protects against fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gariani, Karim; Ryu, Dongryeol; Menzies, Keir J; Yi, Hyon-Seung; Stein, Sokrates; Zhang, Hongbo; Perino, Alessia; Lemos, Vera; Katsyuba, Elena; Jha, Pooja; Vijgen, Sandrine; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Kim, Yong Kyung; Kim, Jung Tae; Kim, Koon Soon; Shong, Minho; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2017-01-01

    To date, no pharmacological therapy has been approved for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in mouse models of NAFLD. As poly ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) of proteins by PARPs consumes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), we hypothesized that overactivation of PARPs drives NAD + depletion in NAFLD. Therefore, we assessed the effectiveness of PARP inhibition to replenish NAD + and activate NAD + -dependent sirtuins, hence improving hepatic fatty acid oxidation. To do this, we examined the preventive and therapeutic benefits of the PARP inhibitor (PARPi), olaparib, in different models of NAFLD. The induction of NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice using a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS)-diet increased PARylation of proteins by PARPs. As such, increased PARylation was associated with reduced NAD + levels and mitochondrial function and content, which was concurrent with elevated hepatic lipid content. HFHS diet supplemented with PARPi reversed NAFLD through repletion of NAD + , increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and β-oxidation in liver. Furthermore, PARPi reduced reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum stress and fibrosis. The benefits of PARPi treatment were confirmed in mice fed with a methionine- and choline-deficient diet and in mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis; PARP activation was attenuated and the development of hepatic injury was delayed in both models. Using Sirt1 hep-/- mice, the beneficial effects of a PARPi-supplemented HFHS diet were found to be Sirt1-dependent. Our study provides a novel and practical pharmacological approach for treating NAFLD, fueling optimism for potential clinical studies. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now considered to be the most common liver disease in the Western world and has no approved pharmacological therapy. PARP inhibitors given as a treatment in two different mouse

  16. Diet-induced obesity associated with steatosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in liver.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yanhua; Rideout, Drew; Rakita, Steven; Lee, James; Murr, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Obesity induces steatosis and increases oxidative stress, as well as chronic inflammation in the liver. The balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis is disrupted in obese animals. At a cellular level, the changes in metabolic sensors and energy regulators are poorly understood. We hypothesized that diet-induced steatosis increases oxidative stress, inflammation, and changes the metabolic regulators to promote energy storage in mice. The setting was a university-affiliated basic science research laboratory. Four-week-old C57BL mice were fed a high-fat diet (n = 8) or regular chow (n = 8) for 7 weeks. The liver sections were stained for fat content and immunofluorescence. Liver homogenates were used for protein analysis by immunoblotting and mRNA analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The gels were quantified using densitometry P ≤ .05 was considered significant. The high-fat diet upregulated protein kinase-C atypical isoforms ζ and λ and decreased glucose tolerance and the interaction of insulin receptor substrate 2 with phosphoinositide kinase-3. The high-fat diet increased the transcriptional factors liver X receptor (4321 ± 98 versus 2981 ± 80) and carbohydrate response element-binding protein (5132 ± 135 versus 3076 ± 91), the lipogenesis genes fatty acid binding protein 5, stearoyl-co-enzyme A desaturase-1, and acetyl-co-enzyme A carboxylase protein, and fatty acid synthesis. The high-fat diet decreased 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (2561 ± 78 versus 1765 ± 65), glucokinase-3β (2.214 ± 34 versus 3356 ± 86), and SIRT1 (2015 ± 76 versus 3567 ± 104) and increased tumor necrosis factor-α (3415 ± 112 versus 2042 ± 65), nuclear factor kappa B (5123 ± 201 versus 2562 ± 103), cyclooxygenase-2 (4230 ± 113 versus 2473 ± 98), nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (3501 ± 106 versus 1600 ± 69) and reactive oxygen species production (all P < .001, obese mice versus lean mice). A high-fat diet

  17. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates endotoxin-induced liver injury by promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Zhou, Lili; Shu, Xugang; Sun, Xiaohong; Mi, Shumei; Yang, Yuhui; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-22

    Acute or chronic hepatic injury is a common pathology worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play important roles in liver injury. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are some of the most abundant phenolic acids in human diet. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CGA may protect against chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by modulating mitochondrial energy generation. CGA decreased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The contents of ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), as well as the ratio of AMP/ATP, were increased after CGA supplementation. The activities of enzymes that are involved in glycolysis were reduced, while those of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were increased. Moreover, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mRNA levels of AMPK-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor A were increased after CGA supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CGA might be associated with enhanced ATP production, the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the inhibition of glycolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidative stress-mediated mouse liver lesions caused by Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Sejung; Lee, Hye Won; Bashir, Qudsia; Kim, Tae Im; Hong, Sung-Jong; Lee, Tae Jin; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kim, Tong-Soo; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2016-03-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a high-risk pathogenic helminth that strongly provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Chronic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of various cancers due to the disruption of redox homeostasis. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to examine the time course relationship between histopathological changes and the appearance of oxidative stress markers, including lipid peroxidation, enzymes involved in lipid peroxidation, and mutagenic DNA adducts in the livers of mice infected with C. sinensis, as well as proinflammatory cytokines in infected mouse sera. Histopathological phenotypes such as bile duct epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis, edema and inflammatory infiltration increased in infected livers in a time-dependent manner. Intense immunoreactivity of lipid peroxidation products (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; malondialdehyde), cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine were concomitantly observed in these injured regions. We also found elevated expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase in C. sinensis excretory-secretory product-treated cholangiocarcinoma cells. Moreover, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, ILβ-1 and IL-6 were differentially upregulated in infected sera. With regard to oxidative stress-mediated carcinogenesis, our findings suggest that C. sinensis infestation may disrupt host redox homeostasis, creating a damaging environment that favors the development of advanced hepatobiliary diseases such as clonorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Burn after feeding. An old uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation is redesigned for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fromenty, B

    2014-10-01

    Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in brown adipose tissue can be used by hibernating animals to produce heat at the expense of their fat mass. In a recent work, Dr Shulman et al. generated a liver-targeted derivative of the prototypical OXPHOS uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol that alleviated steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in several models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative damage in gills and liver in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to diazinon.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Díaz Resendiz, K J G; Ventura-Ramón, G H; González-Jaime, F; Vega-López, A; Becerril-Villanueva, E; Pavón, L; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural activity demands the use of pesticides for plague control and extermination. In that matter, diazinon is one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Despite its benefits, the use of OPs in agricultural activities can also have negative effects since the excessive use of these substances can represent a major contamination problem for water bodies and organisms that inhabit them. The aim of this paper was to evaluate oxidative damage in lipids and proteins of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed acutely to diazinon (0.97, 1.95 and 3.95ppm) for 12 or 24h. The evaluation of oxidative damage was determined by quantifying lipid hydroperoxides (Fox method) and oxidized proteins (DNPH method). The data from this study suggest that diazinon induces a concentration-dependent oxidative damage in proteins, but not lipids, of the liver and gills of Nile tilapia. Furthermore, the treatment leads to a decrease in the concentration of total proteins, which can have serious consequences in cell physiology and fish development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective Effect of Thalidomide on Liver Injury in Rats with Acute Pancreatitis via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lv, Peng; Fan, Li-Juan; Li, Hong-Yun; Meng, Qing-Shun; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the preventive effect of thalidomide on acute pancreatitis-associated liver injury in the rat and analyze its relationship with oxidative stress. The acute pancreatitis of rats was induced by the retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Thalidomide (100 mg/kg) was given daily via the intragastric route for 8 days before this injection. The levels of oxidative stress parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver were detected by biochemical assay. Nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κBp65), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein and mRNA levels in the liver were detected using western blots and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Compared with the untreated model group, liver histopathology, SOD, GSHpx, MDA levels, NF-κBp65, TNF-α, ICAM-1 protein, and mRNA levels in the liver of rats given thalidomide were improved significantly. Results demonstrate that thalidomide may exert its effects on oxidative stress to attenuate the progression of acute pancreatitis-associated liver injury in rats. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  2. Oxidative stress-dependent contribution of HMGB1 to the interplay between apoptosis and autophagy in diabetic rat liver.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Anja; Bogojević, Desanka; Korać, Aleksandra; Golić, Igor; Jovanović-Stojanov, Sofija; Martinović, Vesna; Ivanović-Matić, Svetlana; Stevanović, Jelena; Poznanović, Goran; Grigorov, Ilijana

    2017-11-01

    The progression of oxidative stress, resulting cell damage, and cell death underlies the etiology of liver damage/dysfunction as a complication of diabetes. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, a chromatin-binding nuclear protein and damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, is integral to oxidative stress and signaling pathways regulating cell death and cell survival. We previously found that in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, reduction of oxidative stress after melatonin administration lowered necrotic cell death and increased expression of HMGB1 and hepatocellular damage. In the present study, we examined whether alleviation of diabetes-attendant oxidative stress and ensuing change in HMGB1 expression influence the dynamic equilibrium between apoptosis/autophagy and liver damage. We observed that elevated HMGB1 protein levels in diabetic rat liver accompanied increased interactions of HMGB1 with TLR4 and RAGE, and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and Beclin 1-dependent autophagy. The absence of p62 degradation in diabetic rat liver pointed to defective autophagy which was responsible for lower autophagosome/autophagolysosome formation and an increased apoptosis/autophagy ratio. Compared to diabetic rats, in melatonin-treated diabetic rats, the structure of liver cells was preserved, HMGB1/TLR4 interaction and downstream apoptotic signaling were significantly reduced, HMGB1/Beclin 1 colocalization and interactions were augmented and Beclin 1-mediated autophagy, mithophagy in particular, were increased. We concluded that in mild oxidative stress, HMGB1 is cytoprotective, whereas in intense oxidative stress, HMGB1 actions promote cell death and liver damage. Since reduced HMGB1 binds to RAGE but not to TLR4, redox modification of HMGB1 as a mechanism regulating the cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy in diabetes is discussed.

  3. Size and oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein particles in breast cancer patients with tamoxifen-induced fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Wakatsuki, Akihiko; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Saibara, Toshiji; Okatani, Yuji; Fukaya, Takao

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of tamoxifen on the size and oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in breast cancer patients with tamoxifen-induced fatty liver. We investigated the following breast cancer patients: 13 receiving no tamoxifen (group A), 13 receiving tamoxifen 40 mg daily but without fatty liver (group B), and 13 receiving tamoxifen 40 mg daily with fatty liver (group C). Plasma lipids and diameter of LDL particles were measured. Susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was analyzed by incubation with CuSO(4) while monitoring conjugated diene formation and assaying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in groups B and C were significantly lower than those in group A. In group C, concentrations of plasma triglyceride (TG) and TBARS were significantly greater, but LDL particle diameter and lag time for LDL oxidation were significantly smaller than those in groups A and B. Plasma TG concentrations correlated negatively with computed tomography ratio of liver to spleen (r = -0.76; P < 0.001). LDL particle diameter correlated negatively with plasma TG (r = -0.62; P < 0.001) and TBARS (r = -0.44; P < 0.01), but positively with LDL lag time (r = 0.47; P < 0.01). Tamoxifen-induced fatty liver in breast cancer patients may be atherogenic, via increased TG and consequent small, easily oxidized LDL particles.

  4. Ligand-activated PPARα-dependent DNA demethylation regulates the fatty acid β-oxidation genes in the postnatal liver.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Tatsuya; Kamei, Yasutomi; Yuan, Xunmei; Takahashi, Mayumi; Kanai, Sayaka; Tamura, Erina; Tsujimoto, Kazutaka; Tamiya, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Shimano, Hitoshi; Takai-Igarashi, Takako; Hatada, Izuho; Suganami, Takayoshi; Hashimoto, Koshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    The metabolic function of the liver changes sequentially during early life in mammals to adapt to the marked changes in nutritional environment. Accordingly, hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation is activated after birth to produce energy from breast milk lipids. However, how it is induced during the neonatal period is poorly understood. Here we show DNA demethylation and increased mRNA expression of the fatty acid β-oxidation genes in the postnatal mouse liver. The DNA demethylation does not occur in the fetal mouse liver under the physiologic condition, suggesting that it is specific to the neonatal period. Analysis of mice deficient in the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and maternal administration of a PPARα ligand during the gestation and lactation periods reveal that the DNA demethylation is PPARα dependent. We also find that DNA methylation of the fatty acid β-oxidation genes are reduced in the adult human liver relative to the fetal liver. This study represents the first demonstration that the ligand-activated PPARα-dependent DNA demethylation regulates the hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation genes during the neonatal period, thereby highlighting the role of a lipid-sensing nuclear receptor in the gene- and life-stage-specific DNA demethylation of a particular metabolic pathway. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Sarcoptic mange in dogs: Its effect on liver, oxidative stress, trace minerals and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Beigh, S A; Soodan, J S; Bhat, A M

    2016-08-30

    The present study was aimed to determine the effect on liver, associated oxidative stress, trace element and vitamin alteration in dogs with sarcoptic mange. A total of 24 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of sarcoptic mange, divided into two groups, severely infested group (n=9) and mild/moderately infested group (n=15), according to the extent of skin lesions caused by sarcoptic mange and 6 dogs as control group were included in the present study. In comparison to healthy control hemoglobin, PCV, and TEC were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in dogs with sarcoptic mange however, significant increase in TLC along with neutrophilia and lymphopenia was observed only in severely infested dogs. The albumin, glucose and cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) decreased and globulin, ALT, AST and bilirubin were significantly (P<0.05) increased in severely infested dogs when compared to other two groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly (P<0.01) higher in dogs with sarcoptic mange, with levels highest in severely infested groups. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.05) and catalase were significantly (P<0.01) lower in sarcoptic infested dogs when compared with the healthy control group. Zinc and copper levels in dogs with sarcoptic mange were significantly (P<0.05) lower when compared with healthy control group with the levels lowest in severely infested group. Vitamin A and vitamin C levels were significantly (P<0.05) lower in sarcoptic infested dogs when compared to healthy control. From the present study, it was concluded that sarcoptic mange in dogs affects the liver and the infestation is associated with oxidant/anti-oxidant imbalance, significant alteration in trace elements and vitamins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. TNF-α dependent production of inducible nitric oxide is involved in PGE1 protection against acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Muntane, J; Rodriguez, F; Segado, O; Quintero, A; Lozano, J; Siendones, E; Pedraza, C; Delgado, M; O'Valle, F; Garcia, R; Montero, J; De la Mata, M; Mino, G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide modulate damage in several experimental models of liver injury. We have previously shown that protection against D-galactosamine (D-GalN) induced liver injury by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) was accompanied by an increase in TNF-α and nitrite/nitrate in serum.
AIMS—The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of TNF-α and nitric oxide during protection by PGE1 of liver damage induced by D-GalN.
METHODS—Liver injury was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of 1 g/kg of D-GalN. PGE1 was administered 30 minutes before D-GalN. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was inhibited by methylisothiourea (MT), and TNF-α concentration in serum was lowered by administration of anti-TNF-α antibodies. Liver injury was evaluated by alanine aminotransferase activity in serum, and histological examination and DNA fragmentation in liver. TNF-α and nitrite/nitrate concentrations were determined in serum. Expression of TNF-α and iNOS was also assessed in liver sections.
RESULTS—PGE1 decreased liver injury and increased TNF-α and nitrite/nitrate concentrations in serum of rats treated with D-GalN. PGE1 protection was related to enhanced expression of TNF-α and iNOS in hepatocytes. Administration of anti-TNF-α antibodies or MT blocked the protection by PGE1 of liver injury induced by D-GalN.
CONCLUSIONS—This study suggests that prior administration of PGE1 to D-GalN treated animals enhanced expression of TNF-α and iNOS in hepatocytes, and that this was causally related to protection by PGE1 against D-GalN induced liver injury.


Keywords: tumour necrosis factor α; nitric oxide; prostaglandin E1; methylisothiourea; D-galactosamine; liver injury PMID:10986217

  7. Swimming Training Induces Liver Mitochondrial Adaptations to Oxidative Stress in Rats Submitted to Repeated Exhaustive Swimming Bouts

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Frederico D.; Stamm, Daniel N.; Della-Pace, Iuri D.; Dobrachinski, Fernando; de Carvalho, Nélson R.; Royes, Luiz Fernando F.; Soares, Félix A.; Rocha, João B.; González-Gallego, Javier; Bresciani, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Although acute exhaustive exercise is known to increase liver reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and aerobic training has shown to improve the antioxidant status in the liver, little is known about mitochondria adaptations to aerobic training. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the aerobic training on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defense in liver mitochondria both after training and in response to three repeated exhaustive swimming bouts. Methods Wistar rats were divided into training (n = 14) and control (n = 14) groups. Training group performed a 6-week swimming training protocol. Subsets of training (n = 7) and control (n = 7) rats performed 3 repeated exhaustive swimming bouts with 72 h rest in between. Oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant activity, and mitochondria functionality were assessed. Results Trained group showed increased reduced glutathione (GSH) content and reduced/oxidized (GSH/GSSG) ratio, higher superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity, and decreased lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondria. Aerobic training protected against exhaustive swimming ROS production herein characterized by decreased oxidative stress markers, higher antioxidant defenses, and increases in methyl-tetrazolium reduction and membrane potential. Trained group also presented higher time to exhaustion compared to control group. Conclusions Swimming training induced positive adaptations in liver mitochondria of rats. Increased antioxidant defense after training coped well with exercise-produced ROS and liver mitochondria were less affected by exhaustive exercise. Therefore, liver mitochondria also adapt to exercise-induced ROS and may play an important role in exercise performance. PMID:23405192

  8. Withaferin A Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis and DNA Damage in Oral Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Li, Ruei-Nian; Wang, Hui-Ru; Liu, Jing-Ru; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Chan, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is one of the most active steroidal lactones with reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulating effects against several types of cancer. ROS regulation involves selective killing. However, the anticancer and selective killing effects of WFA against oral cancer cells remain unclear. We evaluated whether the killing ability of WFA is selective, and we explored its mechanism against oral cancer cells. An MTS tetrazolium cell proliferation assay confirmed that WFA selectively killed two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) rather than normal oral cells (HGF-1). WFA also induced apoptosis of Ca9-22 cells, which was measured by flow cytometry for subG1 percentage, annexin V expression, and pan-caspase activity, as well as western blotting for caspases 1, 8, and 9 activations. Flow cytometry analysis shows that WFA-treated Ca9-22 oral cancer cells induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and phosphorylated histone H2A.X (γH2AX)-based DNA damage. Moreover, pretreating Ca9-22 cells with N -acetylcysteine (NAC) rescued WFA-induced selective killing, apoptosis, G2/M arrest, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. We conclude that WFA induced oxidative stress-mediated selective killing of oral cancer cells.

  9. Withaferin A Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis and DNA Damage in Oral Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Li, Ruei-Nian; Wang, Hui-Ru; Liu, Jing-Ru; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Chan, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is one of the most active steroidal lactones with reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulating effects against several types of cancer. ROS regulation involves selective killing. However, the anticancer and selective killing effects of WFA against oral cancer cells remain unclear. We evaluated whether the killing ability of WFA is selective, and we explored its mechanism against oral cancer cells. An MTS tetrazolium cell proliferation assay confirmed that WFA selectively killed two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) rather than normal oral cells (HGF-1). WFA also induced apoptosis of Ca9-22 cells, which was measured by flow cytometry for subG1 percentage, annexin V expression, and pan-caspase activity, as well as western blotting for caspases 1, 8, and 9 activations. Flow cytometry analysis shows that WFA-treated Ca9-22 oral cancer cells induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and phosphorylated histone H2A.X (γH2AX)-based DNA damage. Moreover, pretreating Ca9-22 cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) rescued WFA-induced selective killing, apoptosis, G2/M arrest, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. We conclude that WFA induced oxidative stress-mediated selective killing of oral cancer cells. PMID:28936177

  10. Hsp72 protects against liver injury via attenuation of hepatocellular death, oxidative stress, and JNK signaling.

    PubMed

    Levada, Kateryna; Guldiken, Nurdan; Zhang, Xiaoji; Vella, Giovanna; Mo, Fa-Rong; James, Laura P; Haybaeck, Johannes; Kessler, Sonja M; Kiemer, Alexandra K; Ott, Thomas; Hartmann, Daniel; Hüser, Norbert; Ziol, Marianne; Trautwein, Christian; Strnad, Pavel

    2018-05-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 is a molecular chaperone that has broad cytoprotective functions and is upregulated in response to stress. To determine its hepatic functions, we studied its expression in human liver disorders and its biological significance in newly generated transgenic animals. Double transgenic mice overexpressing Hsp72 (gene Hspa1a) under the control of a tissue-specific tetracycline-inducible system (Hsp72-LAP mice) were produced. Acute liver injury was induced by a single injection of acetaminophen (APAP). Feeding with either a methionine choline-deficient (MCD; 8 weeks) or a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine-supplemented diet (DDC; 12 weeks) was used to induce lipotoxic injury and Mallory-Denk body (MDB) formation, respectively. Primary hepatocytes were treated with palmitic acid. Patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and chronic hepatitis C infection displayed elevated HSP72 levels. These levels increased with the extent of hepatic inflammation and HSP72 expression was induced after treatment with either interleukin (IL)-1β or IL-6. Hsp72-LAP mice exhibited robust, hepatocyte-specific Hsp72 overexpression. Primary hepatocytes from these animals were more resistant to isolation-induced stress and Hsp72-LAP mice displayed lower levels of hepatic injury in vivo. Mice overexpressing Hsp72 had fewer APAP protein adducts and were protected from oxidative stress and APAP-/MCD-induced cell death. Hsp72-LAP mice and/or hepatocytes displayed significantly attenuated Jnk activation. Overexpression of Hsp72 did not affect steatosis or the extent of MDB formation. Our results demonstrate that HSP72 induction occurs in human liver disease, thus, HSP72 represents an attractive therapeutic target owing to its broad hepatoprotective functions. HSP72 constitutes a stress-inducible, protective protein. Our data demonstrate that it is upregulated in patients with chronic hepatitis C and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Moreover, Hsp72

  11. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). Results The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. Conclusions It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina. PMID:20353607

  12. Baicalin Ameliorates Experimental Liver Cholestasis in Mice by Modulation of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and NRF2 Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaowen; Zhang, Feng; Xie, Haiyang

    2017-01-01

    Experimental cholestatic liver fibrosis was performed by bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice, and significant liver injury was observed in 15 days. Administration of baicalin in mice significantly ameliorates liver fibrosis. Experimental cholestatic liver fibrosis was associated with induced gene expression of fibrotic markers such as collagen I, fibronectin, alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF); increased inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, MIP1α, IL1β, and MIP2); increased oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species- (ROS-) inducing enzymes (NOX2 and iNOS); dysfunctional mitochondrial electron chain complexes; and apoptotic/necrotic cell death markers (DNA fragmentation, caspase 3 activity, and PARP activity). Baicalin administration on alternate day reduced fibrosis along with profibrotic gene expression, proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and cell death whereas improving the function of mitochondrial electron transport chain. We observed baicalin enhanced NRF2 activation by nuclear translocation and induced its target genes HO-1 and GCLM, thus enhancing antioxidant defense. Interplay of oxidative stress/inflammation and NRF2 were key players for baicalin-mediated protection. Stellate cell activation is crucial for initiation of fibrosis. Baicalin alleviated stellate cell activation and modulated TIMP1, SMA, collagen 1, and fibronectin in vitro. This study indicates that baicalin might be beneficial for reducing inflammation and fibrosis in liver injury models. PMID:28757911

  13. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny C; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2010-03-31

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina.

  14. Oxidative stress/reactive metabolite gene expression signature in rat liver detects idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, Angelique; Nie, Alex; Brandon Parker, J.

    Previously we reported a gene expression signature in rat liver for detecting a specific type of oxidative stress (OS) related to reactive metabolites (RM). High doses of the drugs disulfiram, ethinyl estradiol and nimesulide were used with another dozen paradigm OS/RM compounds, and three other drugs flutamide, phenacetin and sulindac were identified by this signature. In a second study, antiepileptic drugs were compared for covalent binding and their effects on OS/RM; felbamate, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital produced robust OS/RM gene expression. In the present study, liver RNA samples from drug-treated rats from more recent experiments were examined for statistical fit tomore » the OS/RM signature. Of all 97 drugs examined, in addition to the nine drugs noted above, 19 more were identified as OS/RM-producing compounds—chlorpromazine, clozapine, cyproterone acetate, dantrolene, dipyridamole, glibenclamide, isoniazid, ketoconazole, methapyrilene, naltrexone, nifedipine, sulfamethoxazole, tamoxifen, coumarin, ritonavir, amitriptyline, valproic acid, enalapril, and chloramphenicol. Importantly, all of the OS/RM drugs listed above have been linked to idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, excepting chloramphenicol, which does not have a package label for hepatotoxicity, but does have a black box warning for idiosyncratic bone marrow suppression. Most of these drugs are not acutely toxic in the rat. The OS/RM signature should be useful to avoid idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of drug candidates. - Highlights: • 28 of 97 drugs gave a positive OS/RM gene expression signature in rat liver. • The specificity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 98%. • The sensitivity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 75%. • The signature can help eliminate hepatotoxicants from drug development.« less

  15. Uncoupling and oxidative stress in liver mitochondria isolated from rats with acute iron overload.

    PubMed

    Pardo Andreu, G L; Inada, N M; Vercesi, A E; Curti, C

    2009-01-01

    One hypothesis for the etiology of cell damage arising from iron overload is that its excess selectively affects mitochondria. Here we tested the effects of acute iron overload on liver mitochondria isolated from rats subjected to a single dose of i.p. 500 mg/kg iron-dextran. The treatment increased the levels of iron in mitochondria (from 21 +/- 4 to 130 +/- 7 nmol/mg protein) and caused both lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. The mitochondria of iron-treated rats showed lower respiratory control ratio in association with higher resting respiration. The mitochondrial uncoupling elicited by iron-treatment did not affect the phosphorylation efficiency or the ATP levels, suggesting that uncoupling is a mitochondrial protective mechanism against acute iron overload. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H+ leak couple, functioning as a mitochondrial redox homeostatic mechanism could play a protective role in the acutely iron-loaded mitochondria.

  16. Genotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by the fungicide azoxystrobin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) livers.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingnan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Lusheng

    2016-10-01

    Azoxystrobin is a frequently used fungicide in agriculture. Its toxicological effects on non-target organisms have aroused attention. In the present work, the toxic effects of azoxystrobin on zebrafish (Danio rerio) were investigated. Male and female zebrafish were separately exposed to a control solution and three azoxystrobin treatments (1, 10, and 100μg/L) and were sampled on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were accumulated in excess in the zebrafish livers. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly inhibited in the male zebrafish. Moreover, a notable decrease was also observed after day 21 in the female zebrafish. Catalase (CAT) activity was induced by the azoxystrobin treatments with the exception of the 1μg/L treatment. A significant increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was observed after day 21. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was generated, and DNA damage was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, azoxystrobin induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in zebrafish livers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transformation of liver cells by 3-methylcholanthrene potentiates oxidative stress via the downregulation of glutathione synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sou Hyun; Yoon, Dahye; Lee, Yun-Hee; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Nam Deuk; Kim, Suhkmann; Jung, Young-Suk

    2017-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread contaminants resulting from the incomplete combustion of organic materials in the environment. The primary concern for the hazardous effect of PAHs is their ability to activate the pathway linked to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and lead to carcinogenesis. While previous research has demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a key role in the AhR-dependent toxic response, the effect of PAHs on the biosynthesis of glutathione (GSH), which is a powerful endogenous antioxidant, has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, we utilized a global metabolomic approach, via high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and identified significant metabolome differences between non-tumorigenic liver cells (BNL CL.2; CL2) and transformed liver cells (BNL 1MEA. 7R.1; 1MEA) chronically exposed to 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), a well‑known carcinogenic PAH. A significant change that was observed, was a lower GSH level in 1MEA cells compared with that in CL2 cells. This was contrasted by increased levels of precursor metabolites for GSH synthesis, such as S-adenosylmethionine and cysteine. These changes were accompanied by a significantly reduced expression of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL), known to be the rate‑limiting step of GSH synthesis. Furthermore, the protein level of cysteine dioxygenase was downregulated; however, the concentration of taurine was unaltered. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that cells transformed by chronic exposure to 3MC exhibited inhibition of GSH biosynthesis by suppression of GCL protein expression and reduction of cysteine availability, which may subsequently render cells vulnerable to oxidative stress.

  18. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract treatment improves triglyceridemia, liver cholesterol, liver steatosis, oxidative damage and corticosteronemia in rats rendered obese by high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Thamara C; Moura, Egberto G; de Oliveira, Elaine; Soares, Patrícia N; Guarda, Deysla S; Bernardino, Dayse N; Ai, Xu Xue; Rodrigues, Vanessa da S T; de Souza, Gabriela Rodrigues; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Figueiredo, Mariana S; Manhães, Alex C; Lisboa, Patrícia C

    2017-05-13

    Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. We hypothesize that cranberry extract (CE) can improve this dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in rats since it has an important antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of CE in food intake, adiposity, biochemical and hormonal parameters, lipogenic and adipogenic factors, hepatic morphology and oxidative balance in a HFD model. At postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44.5% (35.2% from lard) energy from fat. At PN150, 12 animals from SD and HFD groups were killed while the others were subdivided into four groups (n = 12/group): animals that received 200 mg/kg cranberry extract (SD CE, HFD CE) gavage/daily/30 days or water (SD, HFD). At PN180, animals were killed. HFD group showed higher body mass and visceral fat, hypercorticosteronemia, higher liver glucocorticoid sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride contents and microsteatosis. Also, HFD group had higher lipid peroxidation (plasma and tissues) and higher protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) compared to SD group. HFD CE group showed lower body mass gain, hypotrygliceridemia, hypocorticosteronemia, and lower hepatic cholesterol and fatty acid synthase contents. HFD CE group displayed lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) and accumulation of liver fat compared to HFD group. Although adiposity was not completely reversed, cranberry extract improved the metabolic profile and reduced oxidative damage and steatosis in HFD-fed rats, which suggests that it can help manage obesity-related disorders.

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor prevents oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride-treated rat liver.

    PubMed

    Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Tabassum, Nabila; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Rahman, Mahbubur; Jain, Preeti; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a common feature of chronic liver injury, and the involvement of angiotensin II in such process has been studied earlier. We hypothesized that anti-angiotensin II agents may be effective in preventing hepatic fibrosis. In this study, Long Evans female rats were used and divided into four groups such as Group-I, Control; Group-II, Control + ramipril; Group-III, CCl4; and Group-IV, CCl4 + ramipril. Group II and IV are treated with ramipril for 14 d. At the end of treatment, the livers were removed, and the level of hepatic marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation product , catalase activity, and lipid peroxidation were determined. The degree of fibrosis was evaluated through histopathological staining with Sirius red and trichrome milligan staining. Carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4) administration in rats developed hepatic dysfunction and raised the hepatic marker enzymes activities significantly. CCl4 administration in rats also produced oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in liver. Furthermore, angiotensinogen-inhibitor ramipril normalized the hepatic enzymes activities and improved the antioxidant enzyme catalase activity. Moreover, ramipril treatment ameliorated lipid peroxidation and hepatic inflammation in CCl4-treated rats. Ramipril treatment also significantly reduced hepatic fibrosis in CCl4-administered rats. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that the antifibrotic effect of ramipril may be attributed to inhibition of angiotensin-II mediated oxidative stress and inflammation in liver CCl4-administered rats.

  20. OXPHOS-Mediated Induction of NAD+ Promotes Complete Oxidation of Fatty Acids and Interdicts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Akie, Thomas E; Liu, Lijun; Nam, Minwoo; Lei, Shi; Cooper, Marcus P

    2015-01-01

    OXPHOS is believed to play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, precise mechanisms whereby OXPHOS influences lipid homeostasis are incompletely understood. We previously reported that ectopic expression of LRPPRC, a protein that increases cristae density and OXPHOS, promoted fatty acid oxidation in cultured primary hepatocytes. To determine the biological significance of that observation and define underlying mechanisms, we have ectopically expressed LRPPRC in mouse liver in the setting of NAFLD. Interestingly, ectopic expression of LRPPRC in mouse liver completely interdicted NAFLD, including inflammation. Consistent with mitigation of NAFLD, two markers of hepatic insulin resistance--ROS and PKCε activity--were both modestly reduced. As reported by others, improvement of NAFLD was associated with improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Regarding hepatic lipid homeostasis, the ratio of NAD+ to NADH was dramatically increased in mouse liver replete with LRPPRC. Pharmacological activators and inhibitors of the cellular respiration respectively increased and decreased the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio, indicating respiration-mediated control of the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio. Supporting a prominent role for NAD+, increasing the concentration of NAD+ stimulated complete oxidation of fatty acids. Importantly, NAD+ rescued impaired fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes deficient for either OXPHOS or SIRT3. These data are consistent with a model whereby augmented hepatic OXPHOS increases NAD+, which in turn promotes complete oxidation of fatty acids and protects against NAFLD.

  1. Effects of hydrocortisone and insulin on oxidative phosphorylation in liver and spleen mitochondria of rats exposed to fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sutkovoi, D.A.; Alferov, A.N.; Letov, V.N.

    The radioprotective effects of hydrocortisone and insulin on postradiation disturbances of energy metabolism in rats was investigated. The effects of neutron radiation on oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of the liver and spleen as well as the response modifying effects of hydrocortisone and insulin were discussed.

  2. Swimming training induces liver adaptations to oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in rats submitted to high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Aline Cruz; Barbosa, Maria Andrea; Guerra-Sá, Renata; De Castro, Uberdan Guilherme Mendes; Bezerra, Frank Silva; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Cardoso, Leonardo M; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza Dos; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José; Alzamora, Andréia Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Oxidative stress, physical inactivity and high-fat (FAT) diets are associated with hepatic disorders such as metabolic syndrome (MS). The therapeutic effects of physical training (PT) were evaluated in rats with MS induced by FAT diet for 13 weeks, on oxidative stress and insulin signaling in the liver, during the last 6 weeks. FAT-sedentary (SED) rats increased body mass, retroperitoneal fat, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), and total cholesterol, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose and insulin. Livers of FAT-SED rats increased superoxide dismutase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl and oxidized glutathione (GSSG); and decreased catalase activity, reduced glutathione/GSSG ratio, and the mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and serine/threonine kinase 2. FAT-PT rats improved in fitness and reduced their body mass, retroperitoneal fat, and glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, MAP and HR; and their livers increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, the reduced glutathione/GSSG ratio and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor compared to FAT-SED rats. These findings indicated adaptive responses to PT by restoring the oxidative balance and insulin signaling in the liver and certain biometric and biochemical parameters as well as MAP in MS rats.

  3. Sleep deprivation predisposes liver to oxidative stress and phospholipid damage: a quantitative molecular imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hung-Ming; Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Bo-Jung; Wu, Un-In; Huang, Yi-Lun; Lan, Chyn-Tair; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2008-01-01

    Sleep disorders are associated with an increased rate of various metabolic disturbances, which may be related to oxidative stress and consequent lipid peroxidation. Since hepatic phosphatidylcholine plays an important role in metabolic regulation, the aim of the present study was to determine phosphatidylcholine expression in the liver following total sleep deprivation. To determine the effects of total sleep deprivation, we used adult rats implanted for polygraphic recording. Phosphatidylcholine expression was examined molecularly by the use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, along with biochemical solid-phase extraction. The parameters of oxidative stress were investigated by evaluating the hepatic malondialdehyde levels as well as heat shock protein 25 immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. In normal rats, the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry spectra revealed specific peaks (m/z 184 and 224) that could be identified as molecular ions for phosphatidylcholine. However, following total sleep deprivation, the signals for phosphatidylcholine were significantly reduced to nearly one-third of the normal values. The results of solid-phase extraction also revealed that the phosphatidylcholine concentration was noticeably decreased, from 15.7 µmol g–1 to 9.4 µmol g–1, after total sleep deprivation. By contrast, the biomarkers for oxidative stress were drastically up-regulated in the total sleep deprivation-treated rats as compared with the normal ones (4.03 vs. 1.58 nmol mg–1 for malondialdehyde levels, and 17.1 vs. 6.7 as well as 1.8 vs. 0.7 for heat shock protein 25 immunoblotting and immunoreactivity, respectively). Given that phosphatidylcholine is the most prominent component of all plasma lipoproteins, decreased expression of hepatic phosphatidylcholine following total sleep deprivation may be attributed to the enhanced oxidative stress and the subsequent lipid peroxidation, which would play an important role in the formation

  4. Maize Purple Plant Pigment Protects Against Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Damage of Liver and Kidney in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hiaohong; Wang, Fei; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Xi, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanins are polyphenols and well known for their biological antioxidative benefits. Maize purple plant pigment (MPPP) extracted and separated from maize purple plant is rich in anthocyanins. In the present study, MPPP was used to alleviate the adverse effects generated by fluoride on liver and kidney in rats. The results showed that the ultrastructure of the liver and kidney in fluoride treated rats displayed shrinkage of nuclear and cell volume, swollen mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and vacuols formation in the liver and kidney cells. MPPP significantly attenuated these fluoride-induced pathological changes. The MDA levels in serum and liver tissue of fluoride alone treated group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05). The presence of 5 g/kg MPPP in the diet reduced the elevation of MDA levels in blood and liver, and increased the SOD and GSH-Px activities in kidney and GSH level in liver and kidney compared with the fluoride alone treated group (p < 0.05). In addition, MPPP alleviated the decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression and the increase of Bax protein expression induced by fluoride. This study demonstrated the protective role of MPPP against fluoride-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney of rats. PMID:24419046

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of collagen peptides from cod skin against liver oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, Yantao; Xie, Jing; Gao, Hui; Xia, Yunqiu; Chen, Xuehong; Wang, Chunbo

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of cod skin collagen peptides (CSCP), isolated from fishing industrial by-products, in vitro and in vivo. Effect of CSCP on cell proliferation of normal and H2O2-damaged Chang liver cells was determined by MTT assay in vitro. Two animal models, CCl4-induced and acetaminophenum-induced acute hepatotoxicity, were established to assess the hepatoprotective effect of CSCP. Liver weight index, serum ALT and AST, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation product were used as the markers of liver toxicity. The cell viability in the H2O2-treated Chang liver cells was remarkably increased when pretreated with CSCP from 100 to 1,000 µg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. CSCP pretreatment also alleviated the CCL4-induced liver index loss, while no marked changes were found in acetaminophenum-treated mice. Furthermore, CSCP pulled down serum ALT and AST level, increased the activities of SOD and CAT, and decreased MDA in both murine models of acute liver toxicity. Pretreatment with CSCP protected liver tissue against oxidative injure in vivo and in vitro. The underlying mechanism might involve enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduction in the lipid peroxidation.

  6. Caffeine intake decreases oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in experimental liver diseases induced by thioacetamide: Biochemical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Amer, Mona G; Mazen, Nehad F; Mohamed, Ahmed M

    2017-03-01

    Liver disease remains a significant global health problem. Increased caffeine consumption has been associated with a lower prevalence of chronic liver disease. This study aimed to investigate the modifying effects of caffeine on liver injury induced by thioacetamide (TAA) administration in male rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Forty adult male rats were equally classified into four groups: control group, received only tap water; caffeine-treated group, received caffeine (37.5 mg/kg per day); TAA-treated group, received intraperitoneal (i.p.) TAA (200 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week; and caffeine + TAA-treated group, received combined TAA and caffeine in the same previous doses. After eight weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and liver specimens were prepared for histological and immunohistochemical studies and for assessment of oxidative stress. TAA induced liver toxicity with elevated liver enzymes and histological alterations, fatty changes, apoptosis, and fibrosis evidenced by increased immunohistochemical reaction to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and collagen type IV in hepatocytes. Also, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in serum were significantly elevated. Co-treatment with caffeine and TAA restored normal liver structure and function. Caffeine provided an anti-fibrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effect that was associated with recovery of hepatic histological and functional alterations from TAA-induced hepatotoxicity.

  7. Oxidative phosphorylation flexibility in the liver of mice resistant to high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Poussin, Carinne; Ibberson, Mark; Hall, Diana; Ding, Jun; Soto, Jamie; Abel, E Dale; Thorens, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    To identify metabolic pathways that may underlie susceptibility or resistance to high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis. We performed comparative transcriptomic analysis of the livers of A/J and C57Bl/6 mice, which are, respectively, resistant and susceptible to high-fat diet-induced hepatosteatosis and obesity. Mice from both strains were fed a normal chow or a high-fat diet for 2, 10, and 30 days, and transcriptomic data were analyzed by time-dependent gene set enrichment analysis. Biochemical analysis of mitochondrial respiration was performed to confirm the transcriptomic analysis. Time-dependent gene set enrichment analysis revealed a rapid, transient, and coordinate upregulation of 13 oxidative phosphorylation genes after initiation of high-fat diet feeding in the A/J, but not in the C57Bl/6, mouse livers. Biochemical analysis using liver mitochondria from both strains of mice confirmed a rapid increase by high-fat diet feeding of the respiration rate in A/J but not C57Bl/6 mice. Importantly, ATP production was the same in both types of mitochondria, indicating increased uncoupling of the A/J mitochondria. Together with previous data showing increased expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation genes in C57Bl/6 but not A/J mouse livers, our present study suggests that an important aspect of the adaptation of livers to high-fat diet feeding is to increase the activity of the oxidative phosphorylation chain and its uncoupling to dissipate the excess of incoming metabolic energy and to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species. The flexibility in oxidative phosphorylation activity may thus participate in the protection of A/J mouse livers against the initial damages induced by high-fat diet feeding that may lead to hepatosteatosis.

  8. Accumulation of polystyrene microplastics in juvenile Eriocheir sinensis and oxidative stress effects in the liver.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Liu, Zhiquan; Wu, Donglei; Chen, Minghai; Lv, Weiwei; Zhao, Yunlong

    2018-07-01

    As a widespread and ubiquitous pollutant of marine ecosystems, microplastic has the potential to become an emerging global threat for aquatic organisms. The present study aims to elucidate the effects of microplastics on the growth, accumulation and oxidative stress response in the liver of Eriocheir sinensis. Fluorescent microplastic particles (diameter = 0.5 μm) accumulated in the gill, liver and gut tissues of E. sinensis were investigated when crabs were exposed to a concentration of 40000 μg/L for 7 days. A 21 day toxicity test suggested that the rate of weight gain, specific growth rate, and hepatosomatic index of E. sinensis decreased with increasing microplastic concentration (0 μg/L, 40 μg/L, 400 μg/L, 4000 μg/L and 40000 μg/L). The activities of AChE and GPT in crabs exposed to microplastics were lower than those in control group. GOT activity increased significantly after exposure to a low concentration of microplastics and then decreased continuously with increasing microplastic concentrations. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), aspartate transaminase (GOT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) increased in specimens exposed to low concentrations of microplastics (40 and 400 μg/L) compared to the control and decreased in organisms exposed to high concentrations (4000 and 40000 μg/L). In contrast, the activities of acetylcholinesterase, catalase (CAT), and alanine aminotransferase were significantly lower in the organisms exposed to microplastics compared to control animals. Upon exposure to increasing microplastic concentrations, the expression of genes encoding the antioxidants SOD, CAT, GPx and glutathione S-transferase in the liver decreased after first increasing. Exposure to microplastics increased the expression of the gene encoding p38 in the MAPK signaling pathway and significantly decreased the expressions of genes encoding ERK, AKT, and MEK. The results of this study demonstrate that

  9. Green Tea Potentially Ameliorates Bisphenol A-Induced Oxidative Stress: An In Vitro and In Silico Study

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Hiral; Verma, R. J.; Patel, Saumya; Jasrai, Y. T.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was an attempt to elucidate oxidative stress induced by bisphenol A on erythrocytes and its amelioration by green tea extract. For this, venous blood samples from healthy human adults were collected in EDTA vials and used for preparation of erythrocytes suspension. When erythrocyte suspensions were treated with different concentrations of BPA/H2O2, a dose-dependent increase in hemolysis occurred. Similarly, when erythrocytes suspensions were treated with either different concentrations of H2O2 (0.05–0.25 mM) along with BPA (50 μg/mL) or 0.05 mM H2O2 along with different concentrations of BPA (50–250 μg/mL), dose-dependent significant increase in hemolysis occurred. The effect of BPA and H2O2 was found to be additive. For the confirmation, binding capacity of bisphenol A with erythrocyte proteins (hemoglobin, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) was inspected using molecular docking tool, which showed presence of various hydrogen bonds of BPA with the proteins. The present data clearly indicates that BPA causes oxidative stress in a similar way as H2O2 . Concurrent addition of different concentrations (10–50 μg/mL) of green tea extract to reaction mixture containing high dose of bisphenol A (250 μg/mL) caused concentration-dependent amelioration in bisphenol A-induced hemolysis. The effect was significant (P < 0.05). It is concluded that BPA-induced oxidative stress could be significantly mitigated by green tea extract. PMID:25180096

  10. Effects of grape seed polyphenols on oxidative damage in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Büyükbaş, Sadık

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense markers in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: Control (C), Control Chronic Exercise (CE), Control Acute Exercise (AE), GSE-supplemented Control (GC), GSE-supplemented Chronic Exercise(GCE) and GSE-supplemented Acute Exercise (GAE). Rats in the chronic exercise groups were subjected to a six-week treadmill running and in the acute exercise groups performed an exhaustive running. Rats in the GSE supplemented groups received GSE (100 mg.kg(-1) .day(-1) ) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver tissues of the rats were taken for the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels and total antioxidant activity (AOA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. MDA levels decreased with GSE supplementation in control groups but increased in acute and chronic exercise groups compared to their non-supplemented control. NO levels increased with GSE supplementation. XO activities were higher in AE group compared to the CE group. AOA decreased with GSE supplementation. In conclusion, while acute exercise triggers oxidative stress, chronic exercise has protective role against oxidative stress. GSE has a limited antioxidant effect on exercise-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  11. Inhibition of nitric oxide production reverses diabetes-induced Kupffer cell activation and Klebsiella pneumonia liver translocation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Fung, Chang-Phone; Hsu, Ching-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the most common pathogen of pyogenic liver abscess in East and Southeast Asia and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor. The effect and mechanism of diabetes on KP liver abscess was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and Akita mice (C57BL/6J-Ins2Akita). KP translocation to liver and plasma alaine transaminase levels were increased and liver clearance of KP was decreased in DM mice. Diabetic mice exhibited overgrowth of Enterococcus as well as E.coli and decreased lactobacilli/bifidas growth in intestine, increased intestinal iNOS protein and nitrite levels in portal vein, and increased IL-1β and TNF-α expression of Kupffer cells. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) or dead L. salivarius (dLac) supplementation reversed diabetes-induced enteric dysbiosis, NO levels in portal vein, and KP translocation to liver. L-NAME treatment decreased intestinal iNOS protein expression as well as Kupffer cell activation and increased liver clearance of KP in DM mice. Dead E.coli (2×108 CFU/ml) feeding for one week induced iNOS and TLR4 expression of intestine in germ-free (GF) mice. Dead bacteria feeding induced IL-1β and TNF-α expression of Kupffer cells in GF mice but not in GF TLR4-/- mice. In conclusion, balance of intestinal microflora is important for preventing intestinal iNOS expression, Kupffer cell activation, and KP liver translocation in diabetes. Reversal of diabetes-induced enteric dysbiosis with FOS or dead L. salivarius decreases diabetes-induced intestinal iNOS expression and KP liver translocation. Diabetes induces Kupffer cell activation and KP liver translocation through enteric dysbiosis and nitric oxide production. PMID:28493939

  12. Ameliorative Effects of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) from Schisandra chinensis on Alcoholic Liver Oxidative Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Qu, Xin-Nan; Han, Ye; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), L-DLC (low density lipoprotein) in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:25622257

  13. Stevia Prevents Acute and Chronic Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride by Blocking Oxidative Stress through Nrf2 Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Tovar, Erika; Hernández-Aquino, Erika; Casas-Grajales, Sael; Buendia-Montaño, Laura D.; Tsutsumi, Víctor

    2018-01-01

    The effect of stevia on liver cirrhosis has not been previously investigated. In the present study, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of stevia leaves were studied in male Wistar rats with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute and chronic liver damage. Acute and chronic liver damage induced oxidative stress, necrosis, and cholestasis, which were significantly ameliorated by stevia. Chronic CCl4 treatment resulted in liver cirrhosis, as evidenced by nodules of hepatocytes surrounded by thick bands of collagen and distortion of the hepatic architecture, and stevia significantly prevented these alterations. Subsequently, the underlying mechanism of action of the plant was analyzed. Our study for the first time shows that stevia upregulated Nrf2, thereby counteracting oxidative stress, and prevented necrosis and cholestasis through modulation of the main proinflammatory cytokines via NF-κB inhibition. These multitarget mechanisms led to the prevention of experimental cirrhosis. Given the reasonable safety profile of stevia, our results indicated that it may be useful for the clinical treatment of acute and chronic liver diseases. PMID:29849889

  14. Ameliorative effects of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) from Schisandra chinensis on alcoholic liver oxidative injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Qu, Xin-Nan; Han, Ye; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), L-DLC (low density lipoprotein) in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  15. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation Reduces Oxidative Stress and Prolongs Survival in Rats with Advanced Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Hara, Nagisa; Miyachi, Hirohide; Sugimoto, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hideaki; Fujita, Naoki; Gabazza, Esteban C.; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Long-term supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) is associated with prolonged survival and decreased frequency of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the pharmaceutical mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. We investigated whether continuous BCAA supplementation increases survival rate of rats exposed to a fibrogenic agent and influences the iron accumulation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Further, the effects of BCAA on gluconeogenesis in cultured cells were also investigated. A significant improvement in cumulative survival was observed in BCAA-supplemented rats with advanced cirrhosis compared to untreated rats with cirrhosis (P<0.05). The prolonged survival due to BCAA supplementation was associated with reduction of iron contents, reactive oxygen species production and attenuated fibrosis in the liver. In addition, BCAA ameliorated glucose metabolism by forkhead box protein O1 pathway in the liver. BCAA prolongs survival in cirrhotic rats and this was likely the consequences of reduced iron accumulation, oxidative stress and fibrosis and improved glucose metabolism in the liver. PMID:23936183

  16. High calcium diet improves the liver oxidative stress and microsteatosis in adult obese rats that were overfed during lactation.

    PubMed

    Conceição, E P S; Moura, E G; Soares, P N; Ai, X X; Figueiredo, M S; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is related to diabetes, higher oxidative stress and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and dietetic therapies, for instance calcium-rich diet, can improve these dysfunctions. Rats raised in small litters (SL) had increased fat depots and insulin resistance at adulthood associated with higher liver oxidative stress and microsteatosis. Thus, we evaluated if dietary calcium can improve these changes. In PN3, litter size was adjusted to 3 pups (SL group) to induce overfeeding, while controls had 10 pups until weaning. At PN120, SL group was randomly divided into: rats fed with standard chow or fed with calcium supplementation (SL-Ca group, 10 g/kg chow) for 60 days. At PN180, dietary calcium normalized food consumption, visceral fat, plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glycaemia. Concerning oxidative balance, calcium restored both higher hepatic lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation as well as higher plasma lipid peroxidation. Higher fatty acid synthase (FAS) content, steatosis and lower protein kinase B (Akt) in SL group were normalized by dietary calcium and SL-Ca rats had lower hepatic cholesterol. Thus, calcium supplementation improved the insulin sensitivity, redox balance and steatosis in the liver. Therefore, dietary calcium can be a promising therapy for liver disease in the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Possible role of Arthrospira platensis in reversing oxidative stress-mediated liver damage in rats exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Samah R; Elhady, Walaa M; Elewa, Yaser H A; Abd El-Hameed, Noura E; Ali, Sozan A

    2018-01-01

    Environmental pollutants, particularly metallic elements, mobilized and released into the environment, eventually accumulate in the food chain and thus pose a serious threat to human and animal health. In the present study, the role of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis; SP) as a protector against oxidative stress-mediated liver damage induced by an exposure to lead acetate (LA; as a metallic pollutant) was assessed. To achieve this aim, rats were orally administered with 300 mg/kg bw SP for 15 days, before and concurrently with an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg bw LA (6 injections throughout 15 days). As a result, co-administration of SP with LA reduced the amount of lead that accumulated in both blood and liver tissue of the exposed rats and minimized the increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, DNA oxidative damage, and liver enzyme endpoints. In addition, because of SP administration, the levels of depleted biomarkers of antioxidant status and total antioxidant capacity in LA-exposed rats improved. Moreover, SP protected the liver tissue against the changes caused by LA exposure and also decreased the reactivity of HSP70 in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Collectively, our data suggest that SP has a potential use as a food supplement in the regions highly polluted with heavy metals such as lead. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Aldosterone induces fibrosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage in livers of male rats independent of blood pressure changes

    SciTech Connect

    Queisser, Nina; Happ, Kathrin; Link, Samuel

    Mineralocorticoid receptor blockers show antifibrotic potential in hepatic fibrosis. The mechanism of this protective effect is not known yet, although reactive oxygen species seem to play an important role. Here, we investigated the effects of elevated levels of aldosterone (Ald), the primary ligand of the mineralocorticoid receptor, on livers of rats in a hyperaldosteronism model: aldosterone-induced hypertension. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated for 4 weeks with aldosterone. To distinguish if damage caused in the liver depended on increased blood pressure or on increased Ald levels, the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone was given in a subtherapeutic dose, not normalizing blood pressure.more » To investigate the impact of oxidative stress, the antioxidant tempol was administered. Aldosterone induced fibrosis, detected histopathologically, and by expression analysis of the fibrosis marker, α-smooth muscle actin. Further, the mRNA amount of the profibrotic cytokine TGF-β was increased significantly. Fibrosis could be reduced by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and also by blocking the mineralocorticoid receptor. Furthermore, aldosterone treatment caused oxidative stress and DNA double strand breaks in livers, as well as the elevation of DNA repair activity. An increase of the transcription factor Nrf2, the main regulator of the antioxidative response could be observed, and of its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. All these effects of aldosterone were prevented by spironolactone and tempol. Already after 4 weeks of treatment, aldosteroneinfusion induced fibrosis in the liver. This effect was independent of elevated blood pressure. DNA damage caused by aldosterone might contribute to fibrosis progression when aldosterone is chronically increased. - Highlights: • Aldosterone has direct profibrotic effects on the liver independent of blood pressure. • Fibrosis is mediated by the mineralocorticoid

  19. Effects of Delta-tocotrienol Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, Inflammation, Oxidative stress and Hepatic Steatosis in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Muhammad Amjad; Khan, Dishad Ahmet; Ijaz, Aamir; Khan, Shamrez

    2018-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing public health problem worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for this disease. δ-Tocotrienol has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and may reduce liver injury in NAFLD. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of δ-tocotrienol in the treatment of NAFLD. The present study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study conducted in patients aged > 20 years, belonging to both sexes, having ultrasound-proven fatty liver disease, having a fatty liver index (FLI) of ≥ 60, and persistent elevation of alanine transaminase. A total of 71 patients were assigned to receive either oral δ-tocotrienol (n=35, 300 mg twice daily) or placebo (n=36) for 12 weeks. At the baseline and at the end of the study, clinical and biochemical parameters, including lipid profile, liver function tests, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Body mass index and FLI were calculated, and ultrasound grading of hepatic steatosis was performed. Out of 71 enrolled patients, 64 patients, 31 in the δ-tocotrienol group and 33 in the placebo group, completed the study. After 12 weeks of supplementation, δ-tocotrienol showed greater efficacy than placebo by decreasing serum aminotransferases, hs-CRP, MDA, and FLI score (p<0.001). However, it did not improve hepatic steatosis on ultrasound examination. No adverse effects were reported. δ-Tocotrienol was safe, and it effectively improved aminotransferase levels and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in patients with NAFLD. Large-scale randomized clinical trials are warranted to further support these findings.

  20. Interactions between fatty acid synthesis, oxidation, and esterification in the production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by the liver.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, N; Ontko, J A

    1984-08-01

    In a series of experiments with male rat livers perfused with or without 5-tetradecyloxy-2-furoic acid (TOFA) in the presence and absence of oleate, the relationships between fatty acid synthesis, oxidation, and esterification from newly synthesized and exogenous fatty acid substrates have been examined. When livers from fed rats were perfused without exogenous fatty acid substrate, 20% of the triglyceride secreted was derived from de novo fatty acid synthesis. Addition of TOFA caused immediate and nearly complete inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, measured by incorporation of 3H2O into fatty acids. Concurrently, ketone body production increased 140% and triglyceride secretion decreased 84%. These marked reciprocal alterations in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in the liver almost completely abolished the production of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Cholesterol synthesis was also depressed by TOFA, suggesting that this drug also inhibited lipid synthesis at a site other than acetyl-CoA carboxylase. When livers from fed rats were supplied with a continuous infusion of [1-14C]oleate as exogenous substrate, similar proportions, about 45-47%, of both ketone bodies and triglyceride in the perfusate were derived from the infused [1-14C]oleate. The production of ketone bodies was markedly increased by TOFA; the secretion of triglyceride and cholesterol were decreased. Altered conversion of [1-14C]oleate into these products occurred in parallel. While TOFA decreased esterification of oleate into triglyceride, incorporation of [1-14C]oleate into liver phospholipid was increased, indicating that TOFA also affected glycerolipid synthesis at the stage of diglyceride processing. The decreased secretion of triglyceride and cholesterol following TOFA treatment was localized almost exclusively in VLDL. The specific activities of 3H and of 14C fatty acids in triglyceride of the perfusate were greater than those of liver triglyceride, indicating preferential secretion of

  1. Inhibition of nitric oxide production and the effects of arginine and Lactobacillus administration in an acute liver injury model.

    PubMed

    Adawi, D; Molin, G; Jeppsson, B

    1998-12-01

    To study the effect of inhibiting nitric oxide production and the effects of arginine and lactobacilli administration in an acute liver injury (LI) model. Infectious complications caused by enteric bacteria are common in patients with liver diseases and those who have undergone liver surgery. Increased bacterial translocation has been proposed as one underlying mechanism. Lactobacilli constitute an integral part of the normal gastrointestinal microecology; they are involved in host metabolism and have many beneficial properties. Arginine has numerous roles in cellular metabolism and may be metabolized by lactobacilli in some cases. We have previously shown that rectal administration of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 (strain 299v), with and without arginine, in an acute LI model significantly reduces the extent of the LI and reduces bacterial translocation. To clarify the pathogenetic mechanisms, we studied the role of nitric oxide in the effects of L. plantarum and arginine in acute LI, as determined by bacterial translocation, ileal, cecal, and colonic nucleotides, RNA, and DNA. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. L. plantarum, 2% arginine, and/or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), as appropriate, were administered rectally once daily for 8 days. Acute LI was induced on the eighth day by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (1.1 g/kg body weight), and samples were collected after 24 hours. Bacterial translocation was evaluated by culture of portal and arterial blood, mesenteric lymph nodes, and liver tissue. Liver enzymes and bilirubin were assayed in the serum. The bacterial load in the cecum and colon was determined. Ileal, cecal, and colonic mucosal nucleotides, RNA, and DNA were evaluated. The levels of liver enzymes and bilirubin were lower in liver-injured rats supplemented with arginine and Lactobacillus, and this effect was abolished by the addition of L-NAME. Inhibition of nitric oxide production (by L-NAME) increased bacterial

  2. Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on oxidant and anti-oxidant status of liver and serum in a rat model with acute methanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Yazgan, Ü C; Elbey, B; Kuş, S; Baykal, B; Keskin, I; Yılmaz, A; Şahin, A

    2017-05-01

    Methanol toxicity is one of the major public health problems because it can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Methanol intoxication causes changes in the balance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant capacity. We aimed to investigate the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the total oxidant status, total antioxidant status (TAS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) parameters of the liver and the serum in a rat model of acute methanol intoxication. Rats were treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) Methotrexate (MTX) for 7 days. On the 8th day, i.p. Methanol was administered in the methanol, ethanol and CAPE groups. Four hours after methanol treatment, ethanol was injected i.p. in the ethanol group; CAPE (i.p.) in the CAPE group; serum physiologic i.p. in other groups. After 8 hours, rats were killed and the serum and the liver samples were obtained for biochemical analyses. The OSI value was significantly higher in the methanol group compared to the ethanol and CAPE groups. Serum TAS levels of the methanol group were significantly different compared to the control group, but not compared to the MTX group. The amelioration of oxidative stress was greater in the CAPE group compared to the ethanol group but was not statistically significant. This study demonstrates that CAPE treatment ameliorates oxidative stress in the serum and liver in a rat model of acute methanol intoxication.

  3. Carbohydrate dose influences liver and muscle glycogen oxidation and performance during prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    King, Andy J; O'Hara, John P; Morrison, Douglas J; Preston, Tom; King, Roderick F G J

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) dose and composition on fuel selection during exercise, specifically exogenous and endogenous (liver and muscle) CHO oxidation. Ten trained males cycled in a double-blind randomized order on 5 occasions at 77% V˙O2max for 2 h, followed by a 30-min time-trial (TT) while ingesting either 60 g·h -1 (LG) or 75 g·h -1 13 C-glucose (HG), 90 g·h -1 (LGF) or 112.5 g·h -1 13 C-glucose- 13 C-fructose ([2:1] HGF) or placebo. CHO doses met or exceed reported intestinal transporter saturation for glucose and fructose. Indirect calorimetry and stable mass isotope [ 13 C] tracer techniques were utilized to determine fuel use. TT performance was 93% "likely/probable" to be improved with LGF compared with the other CHO doses. Exogenous CHO oxidation was higher for LGF and HGF compared with LG and HG (ES > 1.34, P < 0.01), with the relative contribution of LGF (24.5 ± 5.3%) moderately higher than HGF (20.6 ± 6.2%, ES = 0.68). Increasing CHO dose beyond intestinal saturation increased absolute (29.2 ± 28.6 g·h -1 , ES = 1.28, P = 0.06) and relative muscle glycogen utilization (9.2 ± 6.9%, ES = 1.68, P = 0.014) for glucose-fructose ingestion. Absolute muscle glycogen oxidation between LG and HG was not significantly different, but was moderately higher for HG (ES = 0.60). Liver glycogen oxidation was not significantly different between conditions, but absolute and relative contributions were moderately attenuated for LGF (19.3 ± 9.4 g·h -1 , 6.8 ± 3.1%) compared with HGF (30.5 ± 17.7 g·h -1 , 10.1 ± 4.0%, ES = 0.79 & 0.98). Total fat oxidation was suppressed in HGF compared with all other CHO conditions (ES > 0.90, P = 0.024-0.17). In conclusion, there was no linear dose response for CHO ingestion, with 90 g·h -1 of glucose-fructose being optimal in terms of TT performance and fuel selection. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals

  4. Obesity, lipid profiles and oxidative stress in children after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Czubkowski, Piotr; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Pawłowska, Joanna; Jankowska, Irena; Socha, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    In adult liver transplant recipients, coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure are significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This may be attributed to the long-term immunosuppressive treatment, mostly with calcineurin inhibitors and steroids, which in long-term may be associated with hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and cardiovascular complications. Since such data for children is sparse, the aim of this study was to assess the lipid and oxidative stress markers after pediatric liver transplantation (LTx). We performed prospective analysis of 74 children, at the median age of 7.9 (2.8-11.6) years, 3.2 (1.2-4.3) years after LTx. We assessed the BMI Z-scores, cholesterol fractions (LDLc, HDLc, VLDLc), triglicerides, apolipoproteins (ApoAI, ApoB, ApoE), LCAT, insulin resistance by HOMA-IR and markers of oxidative stress and atherosclerosis: glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), asymmetrical dimethyl arginine (ADMA) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxyLDL). At baseline, the results were compared with a healthy age-and-sex matched control group. After 3.1±0.3 year follow-up we repeated all investigations and compared them with the baseline results. At the baseline, we investigated 74 patients 3.2 (1.2-4.3) years after LTx, at the median age of 7.9 (2.8-11.6) years. The prevalence of overweight or obesity (BMI >85 th percentile) was 23% and was more common in girls (24% vs 20%). Fourteen patients had TCH >200 mg%, 9 patients had LDLc >130 mg% and TG were at normal levels in all patients. Compared to the controls, there were no significant differences in lipid profiles but we found decreased GSH (p<0.001) and GPx (p<0.001) which play role as an antioxidant defense. OS markers were higher in the study group: ADMA (p<0.001), and oxyLDL (p<0.0001). Insulin resistance by HOMA-IR was increased in the study group (p=0.0002) but fasting glucose remained within normal ranges in all patients. After 3.1-year follow-up, the BMI >95 th and >85 Th

  5. The nitric oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione reduces apoptotic primary liver cell loss in a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor culture model developed for liver support.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jose M; Vodovotz, Yoram; Baun, Matthew J; Monga, Satdarshan Pal; Billiar, Timothy R; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2010-03-01

    Artificial extracorporeal support for hepatic failure has met with limited clinical success. In hepatocytes, nitric oxide (NO) functions as an antiapoptotic modulator in response to a variety of stresses. We hypothesized that NO administration would yield improved viability and hepatocellular restructuring in a four-compartment, hollow fiber-based bioreactor with integral oxygenation for dynamic three-dimensional perfusion of hepatic cells in bioartificial liver support systems. Isolated adult rat liver cells were placed in culture medium alone (control) or medium supplemented with various concentrations of an NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]) in the bioreactors. Media samples were obtained from the cell perfusion circuit to monitor cellular response. After 24 and 72 h, histology biopsies were taken to investigate spontaneous restructuring of the cells. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to quantify apoptotic nuclei. Control bioreactors exhibited 47.9 +/- 2.9% (mean +/- standard error of the mean) apoptotic nuclei. In contrast, NO-treated bioreactors exhibited a biphasic response. Fewer apoptotic nuclei were seen in the 200 and 500 microM GSNO groups (14.4 +/- 0.4%). No effect was observed in the 10 microM GSNO group (47.3%), and increased TUNEL staining was observed in the 1000 microM GSNO group (82.6%). Media lactate dehydrogenase levels were lower in bioreactor groups treated with 200 or 500 microM GSNO (310 +/- 38 IU/L) compared with the control group (919 +/- 188 IU/L; p < 0.05). Protein synthesis was not affected, as measured by albumin levels in the media (115 +/- 19 microg/day/cell inoculum in GSNO-treated bioreactors at 24 h vs. 110 +/- 13 in controls; p = 0.851). Histologically, all of the bioreactor groups exhibited liver cell aggregates with some attached to the bioreactor capillaries. Increased numbers of cells in the aggregates and superior spontaneous restructuring of the cells were seen at

  6. Autoxidation and toxicant-induced oxidation of lipid and DNA in monkey liver: reduction of molecular damage by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Cabrer, J; Burkhardt, S; Tan, D X; Manchester, L C; Karbownik, M; Reiter, R J

    2001-11-01

    Melatonin, the main secretory product of the pineal gland, is a free radical scavenger and antioxidant which protects against oxidative damage due to a variety of toxicants. However, there is little information regarding melatonin's antioxidative capacity in tissues of primates. In this study we examined the protective effects of melatonin in monkey liver homogenates against lipid damage that occurred as a result of autoxidation or that induced by exogenous addition of H202 and ferrous iron (Fe2+). Additionally, we tested melatonin's protective effect against oxidative damage to DNA induced by chromium(III) (CrIII) plus H202. The levels of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals were assayed as an index of lipid peroxidation, and the concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as an endpoint of oxidative DNA damage. The increases in malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals concentrations as a consequence of autoxidation or after the addition of H202 plus Fe2+ to the homogenates were time-dependent. The accumulation of these damaged products due to either auto-oxidative processes or induced by H202 and Fe2+ were significantly reduced by melatonin in a concentration-dependent-manner. The levels of 8-OHdG were elevated in purified monkey liver DNA incubated with a combination of CrCl3 plus H2O2. This rise in oxidatively damaged DNA was prevented by 10 microM concentration of melatonin. Also, melatonin reduced the damage to DNA that was caused by auto-oxidative processes. These findings in monkey liver tissue document the ability of melatonin to protect against oxidative damage to both lipid and DNA in primate tissue, as observed previously in rodent tissue. The findings provide support for the use of melatonin as suitable agent to reduce damage inflicted by free radical species in primates.

  7. The Protective Effect of Selenium on Oxidative Stress Induced by Waterpipe (Narghile) Smoke in Lungs and Liver of Mice.

    PubMed

    Charab, Mohamad A; Abouzeinab, Noura S; Moustafa, Mohamed E

    2016-12-01

    Waterpipe smoking is common in the Middle East populations and results in health problems. In this study, we investigated the effects of exposure of mice to waterpipe smoke on oxidative stress in lungs and liver and the effects of selenium administration before smoke exposure on the oxidative stress. Twenty-four mice were divided equally into four groups: (i) the control mice received no exposure or treatment; (ii) mice exposed to waterpipe smoke; (iii) mice received intraperitoneal injection of 0.59 μg selenium/kg body weight as sodium selenite 15 min before the exposure to waterpipe smoke; and (iv) mice received intraperitoneal injection of 1.78 μg selenium/kg body weight as sodium selenite 15 min before the exposure to waterpipe smoke. Mice were exposed to waterpipe smoke every other day for four times within 8 successive days. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in the lungs and liver, while the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and catalase were significantly lower in the waterpipe smoke group when compared to control mice. Treating mice with 1.78 μg selenium/kg body weight significantly restored the normal levels of these parameters. Histological examinations of lungs and liver confirmed the protective actions of selenium against the effects of exposure to waterpipe smoke. In conclusion, exposure of mice to waterpipe smoke-induced oxidative stress in lungs and liver. Administration of low level of selenium, 1.78 μg selenium/kg body weight as sodium selenite, exerted protective effects against oxidative stress induced by exposure to waterpipe smoke.

  8. Factors influencing palmitoyl-CoA oxidation by rat liver peroxisomal fractions. Substrate concentration, organelle integrity and ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J; Debeer, L J; De Schepper, P J; Mannaerts, G P

    1980-01-01

    1. The first dehydrogenation step of peroxisomal beta-oxidation involves the reduction of O2 to H2O2. Production rates of H2O2 and acetyl units by purified rat liver peroxisomes oxidizing palmitoyl-CoA were equal, indicating that H2O2 production is a reliable index for the release of acetyl units during peroxisomal fatty-acid oxidation. 2. Measurements of H2O2 and acid-soluble oxidation products during [1-14C]palmitoyl-CoA oxidation by purified peroxisomes revealed that the number of acetyl units released per molecule of palmitoyl-CoA oxidized rapidly decreased with increasing unbound palmitoyl-CoA concentrations. Structural damage to the peroxisomes caused by detergents or other treatments also decreased the number of acetyl units released. Under conditions where oxidation proceeded linearly with time the theoretical maximum of 5 acetyl units released per molecule of palmitoyl-CoA oxidized [Lazarow (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 1522--1528] was never reached. 3. Expressed in terms of acetyl units produced and measured at low unbound-palmitoyl-CoA concentrations, mitochondrial oxidation was 10--20-fold higher than peroxisomal oxidation. 4. ATP stimulated peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidation approx. 2-fold. The ATP effect required the presence of Mg2+ and was lost when peroxisomal membranes were disrupted by Triton X-100 or high concentrations of unbound palmitoyl-CoA. 5. Disruption of peroxisomes by detergents, freeze--thawing, osmotic or mechanical treatment did not stimulate palmitoyl-CoA oxidation in the presence of ATP, indicating that peroxisomal fatty-acid-CoA oxidation was not latent. In the absence of ATP, Triton X-100 stimulated peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidation approx. 2-fold. PMID:7470063

  9. Ob/ob Mouse Livers Show Decreased Oxidative Phosphorylation Efficiencies and Anaerobic Capacities after Cold Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Tagaloa, Sherry; Zhang, Linda; Dare, Anna J.; MacDonald, Julia R.; Yeong, Mee-Ling; Bartlett, Adam S. J. R.; Phillips, Anthony R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for graft failure in liver transplantation. Hepatic steatosis shows a greater negative influence on graft function following prolonged cold ischaemia. As the impact of steatosis on hepatocyte metabolism during extended cold ischaemia is not well-described, we compared markers of metabolic capacity and mitochondrial function in steatotic and lean livers following clinically relevant durations of cold preservation. Methods Livers from 10-week old leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob, n = 9) and lean C57 mice (n = 9) were preserved in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution. Liver mitochondrial function was then assessed using high resolution respirometry after 1.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, 16 and 24 hours of storage. Metabolic marker enzymes for anaerobiosis and mitochondrial mass were also measured in conjunction with non-bicarbonate tissue pH buffering capacity. Results Ob/ob and lean mice livers showed severe (>60%) macrovesicular and mild (<30%) microvesicular steatosis on Oil Red O staining, respectively. Ob/ob livers had lower baseline enzymatic complex I activity but similar adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels compared to lean livers. During cold storage, the respiratory control ratio and complex I-fueled phosphorylation deteriorated approximately twice as fast in ob/ob livers compared to lean livers. Ob/ob livers also demonstrated decreased ATP production capacities at all time-points analyzed compared to lean livers. Ob/ob liver baseline lactate dehydrogenase activities and intrinsic non-bicarbonate buffering capacities were depressed by 60% and 40%, respectively compared to lean livers. Conclusions Steatotic livers have impaired baseline aerobic and anaerobic capacities compared to lean livers, and mitochondrial function indices decrease particularly from after 5 hours of cold preservation. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the clinical recommendation of shorter cold storage durations in steatotic donor

  10. Effect of ubiquinone Q(10) and antioxidant vitamins on free radical oxidation of phospholipids in biological membranes of rat liver.

    PubMed

    Tikhaze, A K; Konovalova, G G; Lankin, V Z; Kaminnyi, A I; Kaminnaja, V I; Ruuge, E K; Kukharchuk, V V

    2005-08-01

    We studied the effects of 30-day peroral treatment with beta-carotene, a complex of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins C and E and provitamin A) and selenium, and solubilized ubiquinone Q(10) on the antioxidant potential in rat liver (ascorbate-dependent free radical oxidation of unsaturated membrane phospholipids). beta-Carotene irrespective of the administration route increased antioxidant potential of the liver by 2-3.5 times. The complex of antioxidant vitamins and selenium increased this parameter by more than 15 times. Antiradical activity in rat liver was extremely high after administration of solubilized ubiquinone Q(10) (increase by more than by 36 times). It can be expected that reduced ubiquinone Q(10) in vivo should produce a more pronounced protective effect due to activity of the system for bioregeneration of this natural antioxidant.

  11. ER Stress Inhibits Liver Fatty Acid Oxidation while Unmitigated Stress Leads to Anorexia-Induced Lipolysis and Both Liver and Kidney Steatosis.

    PubMed

    DeZwaan-McCabe, Diane; Sheldon, Ryan D; Gorecki, Michelle C; Guo, Deng-Fu; Gansemer, Erica R; Kaufman, Randal J; Rahmouni, Kamal; Gillum, Matthew P; Taylor, Eric B; Teesch, Lynn M; Rutkowski, D Thomas

    2017-05-30

    The unfolded protein response (UPR), induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, regulates the expression of factors that restore protein folding homeostasis. However, in the liver and kidney, ER stress also leads to lipid accumulation, accompanied at least in the liver by transcriptional suppression of metabolic genes. The mechanisms of this accumulation, including which pathways contribute to the phenotype in each organ, are unclear. We combined gene expression profiling, biochemical assays, and untargeted lipidomics to understand the basis of stress-dependent lipid accumulation, taking advantage of enhanced hepatic and renal steatosis in mice lacking the ER stress sensor ATF6α. We found that impaired fatty acid oxidation contributed to the early development of steatosis in the liver but not the kidney, while anorexia-induced lipolysis promoted late triglyceride and free fatty acid accumulation in both organs. These findings provide evidence for both direct and indirect regulation of peripheral metabolism by ER stress. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Silymarin Prevents Restraint Stress-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress and Reducing Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Dal-Seok; Oh, Ji Youn; Son, Tae Gen; Yuk, Dong Yeon; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-04-01

    Silymarin is a flavonoid extracted from the milk thistle Silybum marianum. It has been reported to prevent liver injuries induced by various chemicals or toxins. Our recent study suggested that silymarin induces hepatic synthesis of glutathione by increasing cysteine availability, which may consequently contribute to increased antioxidant capacity of the liver. In the present study, we investigated the effects of silymarin on acute liver injury induced by restraint stress. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was orally administered to BALB/c mice every 12 h (3 times in total). After the last dose, mice were subjected to restraint stress for 6 h, and serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, and hepatic levels of lipid peroxidation were determined. Hepatic levels of sulfur-containing metabolites such as methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, cysteine, and glutathione were also measured. The level of pro-inflammatory mediators in both liver and serum was determined. To study the mechanism of the effects of silymarin, we assessed Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and apoptotic signaling. Restraint stress induced severe oxidative stress and increased mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory mediators; both effects of restraint stress were significantly inhibited by silymarin. Moreover, administration of silymarin significantly prevented acute liver injury induced by restraint stress by blocking JNK activation and subsequently apoptotic signaling. In conclusion, these results suggest that the inhibition of restraint stress-induced liver injury by silymarin is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to suppress the inflammatory response.

  13. CYP3A5 Contributes significantly to CYP3A-mediated drug oxidations in liver microsomes from Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Yamaori, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Iwano, Shunsuke; Kiyotani, Kazuma; Matsumura, Keiko; Honda, Goro; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Ishizaki, Takashi; Kamataki, Tetsuya

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a contribution of polymorphic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 to the oxidation of diltiazem, midazolam and testosterone by liver microsomes from Japanese subjects. Twenty-seven liver samples were classified into three groups according to the CYP3A5 genotypes; CYP3A5(*)1/(*)1 (n=3), (*)1/(*)3 (n=12) and (*)3/(*)3 (n=12). The results of genotyping and immunochemical quantitation of CYP3A5 protein showed a good accordance between the CYP3A5 genotype and CYP3A5 content but not CYP3A4 content in liver microsomes. The expression levels of hepatic CYP3A5 protein ranged from 20 to 60% of the sum of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 contents in subjects with at least one wild type allele ((*)1). The CYP3A5 contents correlated well with liver microsomal activities of diltiazem N-demethylation, midazolam 1'- and 4-hydroxylations and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation among subjects carrying at least one (*)1 allele. In addition, the correlation coefficients of CYP3A5 contents with the rates of diltiazem N-demethylation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and testosterone 6beta- hydroxylation were higher than those of CYP3A4, although the value of CYP3A5 with the midazolam 4-hydroxylation rate was similar to that of CYP3A4. Kinetic analyses revealed a biphasic diltiazem N-demethylation in liver microsomes from subjects carrying the (*)1 allele. The apparent V(max)/K(m) values for recombinant CYP3A5 indicated the greater contributions to diltiazem N-demethylation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation as compared with CYP3A4. These results suggest that polymorphic CYP3A5 contributes markedly to the drug oxidations, particularly diltiazem N-demethylation, midazolam 1'- hydroxylation and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation by liver microsomes from Japanese subjects.

  14. Effects of agmatine on chlorpromazine toxicity in the liver of Wistar rats: the possible role of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Bratislav, Dejanovic; Irena, Lavrnja; Milica, Ninkovic; Ivana, Stojanovic; Ana, Djuric; Sanda, Dilber; Ivana, Stevanovic

    2016-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is a member of a widely used class of antipsychotic agents. The metabolic pathways of CPZ toxicity were examined by monitoring oxidative/nitrosative stress markers. The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that agmatine (AGM) prevents oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats 48 h after administration of CPZ. All tested compounds were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in one single dose. The animals were divided into control (C, 0.9% saline solution), CPZ (CPZ, 38.7 mg/kg b.w.), CPZ+AGM (AGM, 75 mg/kg b.w. immediately after CPZ, 38.7 mg/kg b.w. i.p.), and AGM (AGM, 75 mg/kg b.w.) groups. Rats were sacrificed by decapitation 48 h after treatment. The CPZ and CPZ+AGM treatments significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the nitrite and nitrate (NO2+NO3) concentration, and superoxide anion (O2•-) production in rat liver homogenates compared with C values. CPZ injection decreased the capacity of the antioxidant defense system: superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, total glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and glutathione reductase (GR) activity compared with the values of the C group. However, treatment with AGM increased antioxidant capacity in the rat liver; it increased the CAT activity, GSH concentration, GPx activity, and GR activity compared with the values of the CPZ rats. Immunohistochemical staining of ED1 in rats showed an increase in the number of positive cells 48 h after acute CPZ administration compared with the C group. Our results showed that AGM has no protective effects on parameters of oxidative and/or nitrosative stress in the liver but that it absolutely protective effects on the antioxidant defense system and restores the antioxidant capacity in liver tissue after administration of CPZ. PMID:27523096

  15. Effects of agmatine on chlorpromazine toxicity in the liver of Wistar rats: the possible role of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance.

    PubMed

    Bratislav, Dejanovic; Irena, Lavrnja; Milica, Ninkovic; Ivana, Stojanovic; Ana, Djuric; Sanda, Dilber; Ivana, Stevanovic

    2017-01-27

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is a member of a widely used class of antipsychotic agents. The metabolic pathways of CPZ toxicity were examined by monitoring oxidative/nitrosative stress markers. The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that agmatine (AGM) prevents oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats 48 h after administration of CPZ. All tested compounds were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in one single dose. The animals were divided into control (C, 0.9% saline solution), CPZ (CPZ, 38.7 mg/kg b.w.), CPZ+AGM (AGM, 75 mg/kg b.w. immediately after CPZ, 38.7 mg/kg b.w. i.p.), and AGM (AGM, 75 mg/kg b.w.) groups. Rats were sacrificed by decapitation 48 h after treatment. The CPZ and CPZ+AGM treatments significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the nitrite and nitrate (NO 2 +NO 3 ) concentration, and superoxide anion (O 2 •- ) production in rat liver homogenates compared with C values. CPZ injection decreased the capacity of the antioxidant defense system: superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, total glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and glutathione reductase (GR) activity compared with the values of the C group. However, treatment with AGM increased antioxidant capacity in the rat liver; it increased the CAT activity, GSH concentration, GPx activity, and GR activity compared with the values of the CPZ rats. Immunohistochemical staining of ED1 in rats showed an increase in the number of positive cells 48 h after acute CPZ administration compared with the C group. Our results showed that AGM has no protective effects on parameters of oxidative and/or nitrosative stress in the liver but that it absolutely protective effects on the antioxidant defense system and restores the antioxidant capacity in liver tissue after administration of CPZ.

  16. Impact of ovariectomy, high fat diet, and lifestyle modifications on oxidative/antioxidative status in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Rosemary; Blažetić, Senka; Oršolić, Ivana; Heffer, Marija; Vari, Sandor G; Gajdoš, Martin; Krivošíková, Zora; Kramárová, Patrícia; Kebis, Anton; Has-Schön, Elizabeta

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the impact of high fat diet and estrogen deficiency on the oxidative and antioxidative status in the liver of the ovariectomized rats, as well as the ameliorating effect of physical activity or consumption of functional food containing bioactive compounds with antioxidative properties on oxidative damage in the rat liver. The study was conducted from November 2012 to April 2013. Liver oxidative damage was determined by lipid peroxidation levels expressed in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), while liver antioxidative status was determined by catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. Sixty-four female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups: sham operated and ovariectomized rats that received either standard diet, high fat diet, or high fat diet supplemented with cereal selenized onion biscuits or high fat diet together with introduction of physical exercise of animals. High fat diet significantly increased TBARS content in the liver compared to standard diet (P=0.032, P=0.030). Furthermore, high fat diet decreased the activities of CAT, GR, and GST, as well as the content of GSH (P<0.050). GPx activity remained unchanged in all groups. Physical activity and consumption of cereal selenized onion biscuits showed protective effect through increased GR activity in sham operated rats (P=0.026, P=0.009), while in ovariectomized group CAT activity was increased (P=0.018) in rats that received cereal selenized onion biscuits. Feeding rats with high fat diet was accompanied by decreased antioxidative enzyme activities and increased lipid peroxidation. Bioactive compounds of cereal selenized onion biscuits showed potential to attenuate the adverse impact of high fat diet on antioxidative status.

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Glutathione on Oxidative Liver Injury Induced by Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Infections in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Chen, Yanlei; Gao, Na; Wang, Yisong; Tian, Yanping; Wu, Jiangman; Zhang, Junlei; Zhu, Junping; Fan, Dongying; An, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of dengue virus (DV) infection has not been completely defined and change of redox status mediated by depletion of glutathione (GSH) in host cell is a common result of viral infection. Our previous study has demonstrated that DV serotype 2 (DV2) infection alters host intracellular GSH levels, and exogenous GSH inhibits viral production by modulating the activity of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. GSH is the most powerful intracellular antioxidant and involved in viral infections. Thus, this study was to investigate whether DV2 infection can induce alteration in redox balance and effect of GSH on the disease in HepG2 xenografts SCID mice. Our results revealed that mice infected with DV2 showed alterations in oxidative stress by increasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation, and GSSG/GSH ratio. DV2-infected mice also showed a decrease in the activity of catalase (CAT) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) in the serum and/or observed organs, especially the liver. Moreover, DV2 infection resulted in elevated serum levels of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interlukin-6 and obvious histopathological changes in the liver. The administration of exogenous GSH significantly reversed all of the aforementioned pathological changes and prevented significant liver damage. Furthermore, in vitro treatment of HepG2 cells with antioxidants such as GSH inhibited viral entry as well as the production of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GSH prevents DV2-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in mice by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production, and GSH and may be a promising therapeutic agent for prevention of oxidative liver damage during DV infection. PMID:23383181

  18. Oxidative stress and hepatic stellate cell activation are key events in arsenic induced liver fibrosis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatak, Subhadip; Biswas, Ayan; Dhali, Gopal Krishna

    2011-02-15

    Arsenic is an environmental toxicant and carcinogen. Exposure to arsenic is associated with development of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension through ill defined mechanisms. We evaluated hepatic fibrogenesis after long term arsenic exposure in a murine model. BALB/c mice were exposed to arsenic by daily gavages of 6 {mu}g/gm body weight for 1 year and were evaluated for markers of hepatic oxidative stress and fibrosis, as well as pro-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic and pro-fibrogenic factors at 9 and 12 months. Hepatic NADPH oxidase activity progressively increased in arsenic exposure with concomitant development of hepatic oxidative stress. Hepatic steatosis with occasional collection ofmore » mononuclear inflammatory cells and mild portal fibrosis were the predominant liver lesion observed after 9 months of arsenic exposure, while at 12 months, the changes included mild hepatic steatosis, inflammation, necrosis and significant fibrosis in periportal areas. The pathologic changes in the liver were associated with markers of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, matrix reorganization and fibrosis including {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-{beta}1, PDGF-R{beta}, pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhanced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and pro({alpha}) collagen type I. Moreover, pro-apoptotic protein Bax was dominantly expressed and Bcl-2 was down-regulated along with increased number of TUNEL positive hepatocytes in liver of arsenic exposed mice. Furthermore, HSCs activation due to increased hepatic oxidative stress observed after in vivo arsenic exposure was recapitulated in co-culture model of isolated HSCs and hepatocytes exposed to arsenic. These findings have implications not only for the understanding of the pathology of arsenic related liver fibrosis but also for the design of preventive strategies in chronic arsenicosis.« less

  19. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Mahua G.; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2016-01-01

    The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) is frequently being challenged by bacterial contaminants, and different environmental insults like osmotic, hyper-ammonia, dehydration and oxidative stresses in its natural habitats throughout the year. The main objectives of the present investigation were to determine (a) the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a bacterial endotoxin), and (b) to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from the iNOS-induced perfused liver of singhi catfish. Intra-peritoneal injection of LPS led to induction of iNOS gene and localized tissue specific expression of iNOS enzyme with more production and accumulation of NO in different tissues of singhi catfish. Further, changes of hydration status/cell volume, caused either by anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites such as glutamine plus glycine and adenosine, affected the NO production from the perfused liver of iNOS-induced singhi catfish. In general, increase of hydration status/cell swelling due to hypotonicity caused decrease, and decrease of hydration status/cell shrinkage due to hypertonicity caused increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver, thus suggesting that changes in hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells serve as a potent modulator for regulating the NO production. Significant increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver was also observed while infusing the liver with stress hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine, accompanied with decrease of hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells. Further, oxidative stress, caused due to infusion of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide separately, in the perfused liver of singhi catfish, resulted in

  20. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Mahua G; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2016-01-01

    The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) is frequently being challenged by bacterial contaminants, and different environmental insults like osmotic, hyper-ammonia, dehydration and oxidative stresses in its natural habitats throughout the year. The main objectives of the present investigation were to determine (a) the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a bacterial endotoxin), and (b) to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from the iNOS-induced perfused liver of singhi catfish. Intra-peritoneal injection of LPS led to induction of iNOS gene and localized tissue specific expression of iNOS enzyme with more production and accumulation of NO in different tissues of singhi catfish. Further, changes of hydration status/cell volume, caused either by anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites such as glutamine plus glycine and adenosine, affected the NO production from the perfused liver of iNOS-induced singhi catfish. In general, increase of hydration status/cell swelling due to hypotonicity caused decrease, and decrease of hydration status/cell shrinkage due to hypertonicity caused increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver, thus suggesting that changes in hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells serve as a potent modulator for regulating the NO production. Significant increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver was also observed while infusing the liver with stress hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine, accompanied with decrease of hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells. Further, oxidative stress, caused due to infusion of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide separately, in the perfused liver of singhi catfish, resulted in

  1. Energy status and oxidation reduction status in rat liver at high altitude /3.8 km/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. D.; Pace, N.

    1980-01-01

    Adult male rats were exposed to 3.8-km altitude for intervals ranging from 1 h-60 d. Liver samples were taken under light ether anesthesia and were examined by enzymatic analyses. Within 1-6 h of hypoxic exposure, ATP levels decreased while ADP and AMP levels increased, producing a fall in calculated ATP/ADP and adenylate charge ratios. Concurrently, lactate/pyruvate and alpha-glycerophosphate/dihydroxyacetone phosphate ratios increased markedly. Direct measurements of cellular pyridine nucleotides indicated increased NADH/NAD and NADPH/NADP ratios. Levels of total adenosine phosphates and pyridine nucleotides decreased in a significant accompanying response. Many metabolite levels and calculated ratios returned to near-normal values within 1 week of exposure, indicating secondary intracellular adjustments to hypoxic stress; however, persistence of that stress is reflected in lactate concentrations and both substrate redox ratios. Results support and explore concepts that increased oxidation-reduction status and decreased energy status are primary events during hypoxia.

  2. Protective mechanisms of Moringa oleifera against CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress in precision-cut liver slices.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaves against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-treated liver slices in vitro. The study evaluated the antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaves against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in liver slices. CCl(4) treatment significantly decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase and caused decreased glutathione content and increased the thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS). Treatment with Moringa oleifera extract increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content and reduced the levels of TBARS significantly. Observed reduction in the level of lipid peroxides showed a decreased tendency of peroxidative damage. We conclude that, under these experimental conditions, the leaf extracts effectively suppress CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress. Our findings provide evidence to demonstrate that the possible mechanism of this activity may be due to the strong antioxidant property of the leaves. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Halloysite nanotubes-induced Al accumulation and oxidative damage in liver of mice after 30-day repeated oral administration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Gong, Jiachun; Gui, Zongxiang; Hu, Tingting; Xu, Xiaolong

    2018-06-01

    Halloysite (Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ·nH 2 O) nanotubes (HNTs) are natural clay materials and widely applied in many fields due to their natural hollow tubular structures. Many in vitro studies indicate that HNTs exhibit a high level of biocompatibility, however the in vivo toxicity of HNTs remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the hepatic toxicity of the purified HNTs in mice via oral route. The purified HNTs were orally administered to mice at 5, 50, and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW) every day for 30 days. Oral administration of HNTs stimulated the growth of the mice at the low dose (5 mg/kg BW) with no liver toxicity, but inhibited the growth of the mice at the middle (50 mg/kg BW) and high (300 mg/kg BW) doses. In addition, oral administration of HNTs at the high dose caused Al accumulation in the liver but had no marked effect on the Si content in the organ. The Al accumulation caused significant oxidative stress in the liver, which induced hepatic dysfunction and histopathologic changes. These findings demonstrated that Al accumulation-induced oxidative stress played an important role in the oral HNTs-caused liver injury. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Protective effect of rosmarinic acid against oxidative stress biomarkers in liver and kidney of strepotozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Nadia; Schmatz, Roberta; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Pereira, Luciane Belmonte; da Costa, Pauline; Reichert, Karine Paula; Dalenogare, Diéssica; Pelinson, Luana Paula; Vieira, Juliano Marchi; Stefanello, Naiara; de Oliveira, Lizielle Souza; Mulinacci, Nadia; Bellumori, Maria; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the efficiency of rosmarinic acid (RA) in preventing the alteration of oxidative parameters in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were divided into six groups (n = 8): control, ethanol, RA 10 mg/kg, diabetic, diabetic/ethanol, and diabetic/RA 10 mg/kg. After 3 weeks of treatment, we found that TBARS levels in liver and kidney were significantly increased in the diabetic/saline group and the administration of RA prevented this increase in the liver and kidney (P < 0.05). Diabetes caused a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the diabetes/saline group (P < 0.05). However, the treatment with 10 mg/kg RA (antioxidant) prevented this alteration in SOD and CAT activity in the diabetic RA group (P < 0.05). In addition, RA reverses the decrease in ascorbic acid and non-protein-thiol (NPSH) levels in diabetic rats. The treatment with RA also prevented the decrease in the Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Furthermore, RA did not have any effect on glycemic levels. These results indicate that RA effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced by STZ, suggesting that RA is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of pathological conditions in diabetic models.

  5. Oxyresveratrol ameliorates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by regulating hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation through liver kinase B1 and AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Baek, Su Youn; Jang, Eun Jeong; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kim, Kyu Min; Ki, Sung Hwan; Kim, Chang-Eop; Park, Kwang Il; Kim, Sang Chan; Kim, Young Woo

    2018-06-01

    Oxyresveratrol (OXY) is a naturally occurring polyhydroxylated stilbene that is abundant in mulberry wood (Morus alba L.), which has frequently been supplied as a herbal medicine. It has been shown that OXY has regulatory effects on inflammation and oxidative stress, and may have potential in preventing or curing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study examined the effects of OXY on in vitro model of NAFLD in hepatocyte by the liver X receptor α (LXRα)-mediated induction of lipogenic genes and in vivo model in mice along with its molecular mechanism. OXY inhibited the LXRα agonists-mediated sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) induction and expression of the lipogenic genes and upregulated the mRNA of fatty acid β-oxidation-related genes in hepatocytes, which is more potent than genistein and daidzein. OXY also induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, AMPK activation by the OXY treatment helped inhibit SREBP-1c using compound C as an AMPK antagonist. Oral administration of OXY decreased the Oil Red O stained-positive areas significantly, indicating lipid droplets and hepatic steatosis regions, as well as the serum parameters, such as fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol in high fat diet fed-mice, as similar with orally treatment of atorvastatin. Overall, this result suggests that OXY has the potency to inhibit hepatic lipogenesis through the AMPK/SREBP-1c pathway and can be used in the development of pharmaceuticals to prevent a fatty liver. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Seasonal variations in fine particle composition from Beijing prompt oxidative stress response in mouse lung and liver.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Michal; Xu, Fanfan; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhu, Tong; Rudich, Yinon

    2018-06-01

    Exposure to air pollution can induce oxidative stress, inflammation and adverse health effects. To understand how seasonal and chemical variations drive health impacts, we investigated indications for oxidative stress and inflammation in mice exposed to water and organic extracts from urban fine particles/PM 2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) collected in Beijing, China. Higher levels of pollution components were detected in heating season (HS, winter and part of spring) PM 2.5 than in the non-heating season (NHS, summer and part of spring and autumn) PM 2.5 . HS samples were high in metals for the water extraction and high in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for the organic extraction compared to their controls. An increased inflammatory response was detected in the lung and liver following exposure to the organic extracts compared to the water extracts, and mostly in the HS PM 2.5 . While reduced antioxidant response was observed in the lung, it was activated in the liver, again, more in the HS extracts. Nrf2 transcription factor, a master regulator of stress response that controls the basal oxidative capacity and induces the expression of antioxidant response, and its related genes were induced. In the liver, elevated levels of lipid peroxidation adducts were measured, correlated with histologic analysis that revealed morphologic features of cell damage and proliferation, indicating oxidative and toxic damage. In addition, expression of genes related to detoxification of PAHs was observed. Altogether, the study suggests that the acute effects of PM 2.5 can vary seasonally with stronger health effects in the HS than in the NHS in Beijing, China and that some secondary organs may be susceptible for the exposure damage. Specifically, the liver is a potential organ influenced by exposure to organic components such as PAHs from coal or biomass burning and heating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Andrew G; Mah, Richard; Keddie, Danae; Noble, Ronan M N; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Lemieux, Hélène; Bourque, Stephane L

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal iron deficiency alters fetal developmental trajectories, which results in persistent changes in organ function. Here, we studied the effects of prenatal iron deficiency on fetal kidney and liver mitochondrial function. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed partially or fully iron-restricted diets to induce a state of moderate or severe iron deficiency alongside iron-replete control rats. We assessed mitochondrial function via high-resolution respirometry and reactive oxygen species generation via fluorescence microscopy on gestational d 21. Hemoglobin levels were reduced in dams in the moderate (-31%) and severe groups (-54%) compared with controls, which was accompanied by 55% reductions in fetal hemoglobin levels in both moderate and severe groups versus controls. Male iron-deficient kidneys exhibited globally reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, as well as increased cytosolic superoxide and decreased NO. Female iron-deficient kidneys exhibited complex II down-regulation and increased mitochondrial oxidative stress. Male iron-deficient livers exhibited reduced complex IV respiration and increased cytosolic superoxide, whereas female liver tissues exhibited no alteration in oxidant levels or mitochondrial function. These findings indicate that prenatal iron deficiency causes changes in mitochondrial content and function as well as oxidant status in a sex- and organ-dependent manner, which may be an important mechanism that underlies the programming of cardiovascular disease.-Woodman, A. G., Mah, R., Keddie, D., Noble, R. M. N., Panahi, S., Gragasin, F. S., Lemieux, H., Bourque, S. L. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

  8. Curcumin Attenuates Iron Accumulation and Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Spleen of Chronic Iron-Overloaded Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badria, Farid A.; Ibrahim, Ahmed S.; Badria, Adel F.; Elmarakby, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Iron overload is now recognized as a health problem in industrialized countries, as excessive iron is highly toxic for liver and spleen. The potential use of curcumin as an iron chelator has not been clearly identified experimentally in iron overload condition. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of curcumin to alleviate iron overload-induced hepatic and splenic abnormalities and to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms. Design and Methods Three groups of male adult rats were treated as follows: control rats, rats treated with iron in a drinking water for 2 months followed by either vehicle or curcumin treatment for 2 more months. Thereafter, we studied the effects of curcumin on iron overload-induced lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant depletion. Results Treatment of iron-overloaded rats with curcumin resulted in marked decreases in iron accumulation within liver and spleen. Iron-overloaded rats had significant increases in malonyldialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide (NO) in liver and spleen when compared to control group. The effects of iron overload on lipid peroxidation and NO levels were significantly reduced by the intervention treatment with curcumin (P<0.05). Furthermore, the endogenous anti-oxidant activities/levels in liver and spleen were also significantly decreased in chronic iron overload and administration of curcumin restored the decrease in the hepatic and splenic antioxidant activities/levels. Conclusion Our study suggests that curcumin may represent a new horizon in managing iron overload-induced toxicity as well as in pathological diseases characterized by hepatic iron accumulation such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes possibly via iron chelation, reduced oxidative stress derived lipid peroxidation and improving the body endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism. PMID:26230491

  9. Effects of two aerobic exercise training protocols on parameters of oxidative stress in the blood and liver of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; Ulbricht, Ariene Sampaio Souza Farias; Werlang-Coelho, Carla; Delwing-Dal Magro, Débora; Joaquim, Victor Hugo Antonio; Salamaia, Eloise Mariani; de Quevedo, Silvana Rodrigues; Desordi, Larissa

    2017-12-08

    We evaluated the effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols on the alterations in oxidative stress parameters caused by a high-fat diet (HFD), in the blood and liver of rats. The HFD enhanced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS) and protein carbonyl content, while reducing total sulfhydryl content and catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the blood. Both training protocols prevented an increase in TBA-RS and protein carbonyl content, and prevented a reduction in CAT. HIIT protocol enhanced SOD activity. In the liver, HFD didn't alter TBA-RS, total sulfhydryl content or SOD, but increased protein carbonyl content and CAT and decreased GSH-Px. The exercise protocols prevented the increase in protein carbonyl content and the MICT protocol prevented an alteration in CAT. In conclusion, HFD elicits oxidative stress in the blood and liver and both protocols prevented most of the alterations in the oxidative stress parameters.

  10. Chronic high fat, high cholesterol supplementation decreases 18 kDa Translocator Protein binding capacity in association with increased oxidative stress in rat liver and aorta.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova-Shumkovska, Jasmina; Veenman, Leo; Ristoski, Trpe; Leschiner, Svetlana; Gavish, Moshe

    2010-03-01

    It is well known that high fat and high cholesterol levels present a contributing factor to pathologies including fatty liver and atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress is also considered to play a role in these pathologies. The 18 kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO), formerly known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is known to be involved in cholesterol metabolism, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular pathology. We applied a high fat high cholesterol atherogenic (HFHC) diet to rats to study correlations between cardiovascular and liver pathology, oxidative stress, and TSPO expression in the liver and the cardiovascular system. This study corroborates the presence of increased oxidative stress markers and decreased anti-oxidants in liver and aorta. In addition, it appeared that induction of oxidative stress in the liver and aorta by atherogenic HFHC diet was accompanied by a reduction in TSPO binding density in both these tissues. Our data suggest that involvement of TSPO in oxidative stress and ROS generation, as reported in other studies, may also take part in atherogenesis as induced by HFHC diet. Presently, it is not clear whether this TSPO response is compensatory for the stress induced by HFHC diet or is a participant in the induction of oxidative stress. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatocellular toxicity of oxalicumone A via oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction in healthy human liver cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Si; Yao, Limei; Guo, Kunbin; Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Qi; Li, Weirong

    2018-01-01

    The marine‑derived oxalicumone A (POA) has been demonstrated as a potent anti‑tumor bioactive agent for a variety of human carcinoma, but to the best of our knowledge, remains to be evaluated in healthy liver cells. As many drugs distribute preferentially in the liver, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of POA on apoptosis, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in L‑02 healthy liver cells. A Cell‑Counting kit‑8 assay demonstrated that POA inhibits the proliferation of L‑02 cells in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. Furthermore, POA induced apoptosis by increasing the percentage of cells in early apoptosis and the sub‑G1 cell cycle, along with causing S‑phase arrest in L‑02 cells. Additionally, POA activated caspase 3, increased the protein expression levels of Fas ligand and B‑cell lymphoma X‑associated protein, and decreased the expression of the anti‑apoptotic protein B‑cell lymphoma 2. POA additionally reduced the content of GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase, elevated malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, increased reactive oxygen species production and the levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, which suggested that POA induced lipid peroxidation injury in L‑02 cells and that oxidative stress serves an important role. Furthermore, POA caused alternations of mitochondrial function, including an abrupt depletion of adenosine triphosphate synthesis, mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential in L‑02 cells. These data suggested that POA exerts cytotoxicity, at least in part, by inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and eventually apoptosis. Changes in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress by POA may therefore be critical in POA‑induced toxicity in L‑02 cells.

  12. Elevated trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is associated with poor prognosis in primary sclerosing cholangitis patients with normal liver function.

    PubMed

    Kummen, Martin; Vesterhus, Mette; Trøseid, Marius; Moum, Bjørn; Svardal, Asbjørn; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Aukrust, Pål; Karlsen, Tom Hemming; Berge, Rolf Kristian; Hov, Johannes Roksund

    2017-06-01

    Trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO) is produced in the liver from trimethylamine, which is exclusively generated by gut bacteria. The objective of this article is to investigate the relationship between TMAO and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and its clinical characteristics. Serum TMAO was measured in 305 PSC patients, 90 ulcerative colitis patients and 99 healthy controls. In PSC patients with normal liver function ( n  = 197), TMAO was higher in patients reaching liver transplantation or death during follow-up than those who did not, with an optimal TMAO cut-off of 4.1 µM (AUC = 0.64, p  < 0.001). PSC patients with high TMAO (>4.1 µM, n  = 77) exhibited shorter transplantation-free survival than patients with low TMAO ( n  = 120, log-rank test: p  < 0.0001). High TMAO (>4.1 µM) was associated with reduced transplantation-free survival (HR 1.87, p  = 0.011), independently of the Mayo risk score (HR 1.74, p  < 0.001). Overall, PSC patients demonstrated reduced TMAO values compared with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls, mainly caused by PSC patients with reduced liver function (INR > 1.2), suggesting impaired oxidation of trimethylamine to TMAO. PSC patients with and without inflammatory bowel disease had similar TMAO levels. In PSC patients with normal liver function, elevated TMAO was associated with shorter transplantation-free survival, potentially reflecting clinically relevant metabolic changes resulting from dietary interactions with the gut microbiota.

  13. Protective effects of hydrogen enriched saline on liver ischemia reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a key trigger for the inflammatory reaction during liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Hydrogen treatment was recently associated with down-regulation of the expression of HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines during sepsis and myocardial IRI, but it is not known whether hydrogen has an effect on HMGB1 in liver IRI. Methods A rat model of 60 minutes 70% partial liver ischemia reperfusion injury was used. Hydrogen enriched saline (2.5, 5 or 10 ml/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 10 minutes before hepatic reperfusion. Liver injury was assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme levels and histological changes. We also measured malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 8-hydroxy-guanosine (8-OH-G) levels as markers of the peroxidation injury induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6, and high mobility group box B1 protein (HMGB1) were measured as markers of post ischemia-reperfusion inflammation. Results Hydrogen enriched saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of liver injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion. The treatment group showed reduced serum ALT activity and markers of lipid peroxidation and post ischemia reperfusion histological changes were reduced. Hydrogen enriched saline treatment inhibited HMGB1 expression and release, reflecting a reduced local and systemic inflammatory response to hepatic ischemia reperfusion. Conclusion These results suggest that, in our model, hydrogen enriched saline treatment is protective against liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. This effect may be mediated by both the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of the solution. PMID:24410860

  14. Oxidative stress of brain and liver is increased by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) exposure of rats during pregnancy and the development of newborns.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ömer; Kahya, Mehmet Cemal; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    An excessive production of reactive oxygen substances (ROS) and reduced antioxidant defence systems resulting from electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure may lead to oxidative brain and liver damage and degradation of membranes during pregnancy and development of rat pups. We aimed to investigate the effects of Wi-Fi-induced EMR on the brain and liver antioxidant redox systems in the rat during pregnancy and development. Sixteen pregnant rats and their 48 newborns were equally divided into control and EMR groups. The EMR groups were exposed to 2.45GHz EMR (1h/day for 5 days/week) from pregnancy to 3 weeks of age. Brain cortex and liver samples were taken from the newborns between the first and third weeks. In the EMR groups, lipid peroxidation levels in the brain and liver were increased following EMR exposure; however, the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and vitamin A, vitamin E and β-carotene concentrations were decreased in the brain and liver. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C concentrations in the brain were also lower in the EMR groups than in the controls; however, their concentrations did not change in the liver. In conclusion, Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver of developing rats was the result of reduced GSH-Px, GSH and antioxidant vitamin concentrations. Moreover, the brain seemed to be more sensitive to oxidative injury compared to the liver in the development of newborns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Proanthocyanidins Attenuation of Chronic Lead-Induced Liver Oxidative Damage in Kunming Mice via the Nrf2/ARE Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Long, Miao; Liu, Yi; Cao, Yu; Wang, Nan; Dang, Meng; He, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    Lead is harmful for human health and animals. Proanthocyanidins (PCs), a natural antioxidant, possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against lead-induced liver damage have not been clarified. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of PCs on the hepatotoxicity of male Kunming mice induced by chronic lead exposure. A total of 70 healthy male Kunming mice were averagely divided into four groups: control group, i.e., the group exposed to lead, the group treated with PCs, and the group co-treated with lead and PCs. The mice exposed to lead were given water containing 0.2% lead acetate. Mice treated in the PCs and PCs lead co-treated groups were given PC (100 mg/kg) in 0.9% saline by oral gavage. Lead exposure caused a significant elevation in the liver function parameters, lead level, lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The induction of oxidative stress and histological alterations in the liver were minimized by co-treatment with PCs. Meanwhile, the number of Transferase-Mediated Deoxyuridine Triphosphate-Biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells was significantly reduced in the PCs/lead co-treated group compared to the lead group. In addition, the lead group showed an increase in the expression level of Bax, while the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased. Furthermore, the lead group showed an increase in the expression level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related genes and protein (GRP78 and CHOP). Co-treated with PCs significantly reversed these expressions in the liver. PCs were, therefore, demonstrated to have protective, antioxidant, and anti-ER stress and anti-apoptotic activities in liver damage caused by chronic lead exposure in the Kunming mouse. This may be due to the ability of PCs to enhance the ability of liver tissue to protect against oxidative stress via the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, resulting in decreasing ER stress and apoptosis of

  16. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy.more » Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth

  17. Short-term exposure to nonylphenol induces pancreatic oxidative stress and alters liver glucose metabolism in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Jubendradass, R; D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Mathur, P P

    2011-01-01

    Nonylphenol is known to have estrogenic properties and has been reported to cause health hazards to animals and humans. The effects of nonylphenol on pancreas are not clearly elucidated. In this study, we sought to evaluate the effects of nonylphenol on the oxidative status of pancreas and consequential effects of nonylphenol on some of the end points of carbohydrate metabolism in the female rats. Rats were administered nonylphenol orally at the doses of 1.5, 15, and 150 mg/kg of body weight per day for 7 days. After 24 h of last dosing, the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The activities of pancreatic superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly decreased with a concomitant increase in the levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation. Nonylphenol increased plasma insulin levels with a concomitant decrease in the levels of plasma glucose as compared to the control groups of rats. A dose-dependent increase in the activities of liver hexokinase and phosphofructokinase was recorded along with decreased activity of glycogen phosphorylase in liver. Western blot analysis revealed a significant decrease in the levels of GLUT-2. These results show that nonylphenol causes oxidative stress in pancreas and impairs liver glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Anti-oxidative protection against iron overload-induced liver damage in mice by Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rhitajit; Hazra, Bibhabasu; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2013-02-01

    In view of the contribution of iron deposition in the oxidative pathologic process of liver disease, the potential of 70% methanolic extract of C. cajan leaf (CLME) towards antioxidative protection against iron-overload-induced liver damage in mice has been investigated. DPPH radical scavenging and protection of Fenton reaction induced DNA damage was conducted in vitro. Post oral administration of CLME to iron overloaded mice, the levels of antioxidant and serum enzymes, hepatic iron, serum ferritin, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline contents were measured, in comparison to deferasirox treated mice. Oral treatment of the plant extract effectively lowered the elevated levels of liver iron, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline. There was notable increment in the dropped levels of hepatic antioxidants. The dosage of the plant extract not only made the levels of serum enzymes approach normal value, but also counteracted the overwhelmed serum ferritin level. The in vitro studies indicated potential antioxidant activity of CLME. The histopathological observations also substantiated the ameliorative function of the plant extract. Accordingly, it is suggested that Cajanus cajan leaf can be a useful herbal remedy to suppress oxidative damage caused by iron overload.

  19. Nitric oxide regulates tumor cell cross-talk with stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment of the liver.

    PubMed

    Decker, Ningling Kang; Abdelmoneim, Soha S; Yaqoob, Usman; Hendrickson, Helen; Hormes, Joe; Bentley, Mike; Pitot, Henry; Urrutia, Raul; Gores, Greg J; Shah, Vijay H

    2008-10-01

    Tumor progression is regulated through paracrine interactions between tumor cells and stromal cells in the microenvironment, including endothelial cells and myofibroblasts. Nitric oxide (NO) is a key molecule in the regulation of tumor-microenvironment interactions, although its precise role is incompletely defined. By using complementary in vitro and in vivo approaches, we studied the effect of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)-derived NO on liver tumor growth and metastasis in relation to adjacent stromal myofibroblasts and matrix because liver tumors maintain a rich, vascular stromal network enriched with phenotypically heterogeneous myofibroblasts. Mice with an eNOS deficiency developed liver tumors more frequently in response to carcinogens compared with control animals. In a surgical model of pancreatic cancer liver metastasis, eNOS overexpression in the tumor microenvironment attenuated both the number and size of tumor implants. NO promoted anoikis of tumor cells in vitro and limited their invasive capacity. Because tumor cell anoikis and invasion are both regulated by myofibroblast-derived matrix, we explored the effect of NO on tumor cell protease expression. Both microarray and Western blot analysis revealed eNOS-dependent down-regulation of the matrix protease cathepsin B within tumor cells, and silencing of cathepsin B attenuated tumor cell invasive capacity in a similar manner to that observed with eNOS overexpression. Thus, a NO gradient within the tumor microenvironment influences tumor progression through orchestrated molecular interactions between tumor cells and stroma.

  20. Acute exposure to waterborne cadmium induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the brain, ovary and liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lv, Zhen-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. The mechanisms underlying Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish remain largely unknown. In this study, adult female zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 1mgL -1 Cd for 24h and 96h, and the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by Cd were evaluated in the brain, liver and ovary. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in a time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in the brain and liver. The increase may result from the disturbance of genes including copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Although ROS, NO and MDA were not significantly affected by Cd in the ovary, the up-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, iNOS, and COX-2 was observed. Exposure to Cd induced a sharp increase in the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the brain, liver and ovary, possibly contributing to activate inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we also found a dramatic increase in mRNA levels of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) at 24h in the liver and ovary. The corresponding changes in the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1a and Keap1b) and the inhibitor of κBα (IκBαa and IκBαb) may contribute to regulate the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 and NF-κB, respectively. Contrarily, mRNA levels of Nrf2, NF-κB, Keap1, Keap1b, IκBαa and IκBαb remained stable at 24 and 96h in the brain. Taken together, we demonstrated Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish, possibly through transcriptional regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB and gene modifications at transcriptional, translational, post-translational levels, which would greatly extend our understanding on the Cd

  1. The intake of high fat diet with different trans fatty acid levels differentially induces oxidative stress and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trans-fatty acids (TFA) are known as a risk factor for coronary artery diseases, insulin resistance and obesity accompanied by systemic inflammation, the features of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the effects on the liver induced by lipids and also few studies are focused on the effect of foods rich in TFAs on hepatic functions and oxidative stress. This study investigates whether high-fat diets with different TFA levels induce oxidative stress and liver dysfunction in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12/group): C receiving standard-chow; Experimental groups that were fed high-fat diet included 20% fresh soybean oil diet (FSO), 20% oxidized soybean oil diet (OSO) and 20% margarine diet (MG). Each group was kept on the treatment for 4 weeks. Results A liver damage was observed in rats fed with high-fat diet via increase of liver lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). The intake of oxidized oil led to higher levels of lipid peroxidation and a lower concentration of plasma antioxidants in comparison to rats fed with FSO. The higher inflammatory response in the liver was induced by MG diet. Liver histopathology from OSO and MG groups showed respectively moderate to severe cytoplasm vacuolation, hypatocyte hypertrophy, hepatocyte ballooning, and necroinflammation. Conclusion It seems that a strong relationship exists between the consumption of TFA in the oxidized oils and lipid peroxidation and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The extent of the peroxidative events in liver was also different depending on the fat source suggesting that feeding margarine with higher TFA levels may represent a direct source of oxidative stress for the organism. The present study provides evidence for a direct effect of TFA on NAFLD. PMID:21943357

  2. Thymidine kinase 2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion in mouse liver leads to defect β-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoshan; Kannisto, Kristina; Curbo, Sophie; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Hultenby, Kjell; Isetun, Sindra; Gåfvels, Mats; Karlsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency in humans causes mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease and search for treatment options, we previously generated and described a TK2 deficient mouse strain (TK2(-/-)) that progressively loses its mtDNA. The TK2(-/-) mouse model displays symptoms similar to humans harboring TK2 deficient infantile fatal encephalomyopathy. Here, we have studied the TK2(-/-) mouse model to clarify the pathological role of progressive mtDNA depletion in liver for the severe outcome of TK2 deficiency. We observed that a gradual depletion of mtDNA in the liver of the TK2(-/-) mice was accompanied by increasingly hypertrophic mitochondria and accumulation of fat vesicles in the liver cells. The levels of cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acids were elevated and there was accumulation of long chain acylcarnitines in plasma of the TK2(-/-) mice. In mice with hepatic mtDNA levels below 20%, the blood sugar and the ketone levels dropped. These mice also exhibited reduced mitochondrial β-oxidation due to decreased transport of long chain acylcarnitines into the mitochondria. The gradual loss of mtDNA in the liver of the TK2(-/-) mice causes impaired mitochondrial function that leads to defect β-oxidation and, as a result, insufficient production of ketone bodies and glucose. This study provides insight into the mechanism of encephalomyopathy caused by TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion that may be used to explore novel therapeutic strategies.

  3. Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced mtDNA Depletion in Mouse Liver Leads to Defect β-Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    von Döbeln, Ulrika; Hultenby, Kjell; Isetun, Sindra; Gåfvels, Mats; Karlsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency in humans causes mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease and search for treatment options, we previously generated and described a TK2 deficient mouse strain (TK2−/−) that progressively loses its mtDNA. The TK2−/− mouse model displays symptoms similar to humans harboring TK2 deficient infantile fatal encephalomyopathy. Here, we have studied the TK2−/− mouse model to clarify the pathological role of progressive mtDNA depletion in liver for the severe outcome of TK2 deficiency. We observed that a gradual depletion of mtDNA in the liver of the TK2−/− mice was accompanied by increasingly hypertrophic mitochondria and accumulation of fat vesicles in the liver cells. The levels of cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acids were elevated and there was accumulation of long chain acylcarnitines in plasma of the TK2−/− mice. In mice with hepatic mtDNA levels below 20%, the blood sugar and the ketone levels dropped. These mice also exhibited reduced mitochondrial β-oxidation due to decreased transport of long chain acylcarnitines into the mitochondria. The gradual loss of mtDNA in the liver of the TK2−/− mice causes impaired mitochondrial function that leads to defect β-oxidation and, as a result, insufficient production of ketone bodies and glucose. This study provides insight into the mechanism of encephalomyopathy caused by TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion that may be used to explore novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23505564

  4. High Dietary Iron and Radiation Exposure Increase Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Blood and Liver of Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Theriot, Corey A.; Wu, Honglu; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and increased iron (Fe) status independently cause oxidative damage that can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. During space flight astronauts are exposed to both increased radiation and increased Fe stores. Increased body Fe results from a decrease in red blood cell mass and the typically high Fe content of the food system. In this study we investigated the combined effects of radiation exposure (0.375 Gy of Cs-137 every other day for 16 days for a total of 3 Gy) and high dietary Fe (650 mg Fe/kg diet compared to 45 mg Fe/kg for controls) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Liver and serum Fe were significantly increased in the high dietary Fe groups. Likewise, radiation treatment increased serum ferritin and Fe concentrations. These data indicate that total body Fe stores increase with both radiation exposure and excess dietary Fe. Hematocrit decreased in the group exposed to radiation, providing a possible mechanism for the shift in Fe indices after radiation exposure. Markers of oxidative stress were also affected by both radiation and high dietary Fe, evidenced by increased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and serum catalase as well as decreased serum GPX. We thus found preliminary indications of synergistic effects of radiation exposure and increased dietary Fe, warranting further study. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Project.

  5. Heme oxygenase-1 upregulated by Ginkgo biloba extract: potential protection against ethanol-induced oxidative liver damage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ping; Li, Ke; Song, Fangfang; Zhou, Shaoliang; Sun, Xiufa; Zhang, Xiping; Nüssler, Andreas K; Liu, Liegang

    2007-08-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and HO-1 induction is suggested to protect hepatocytes from ethanol hepatotoxicity. Here, we present the data to explore the hepatoprotective effect and underlying mechanism(s) of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB), a naturally occurring HO-1 inducer, against ethanol-induced oxidative damage. Ethanol-fed (2.4 g/kg) male rats were pretreated by EGB (48 or 96 mg/kg) for 90 days. Liver damage was evaluated by histopathology and serum aminotransferase assay. Hepatic redox parameters were measured by spectrophotometry. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression was determined by RT-PCR and flow cytometry on mRNA and protein level, respectively. Our results showed that EGB, especially at high dose, ameliorated ethanol-induced macrovesicular steatosis and parenchymatous degeneration in hepatocytes, and decreased serum aminotransferases level. Furthermore, EGB reduced ethanol-derived glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation, and inhibited the inactivation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, although EGB itself had no influence on such parameters. Importantly, EGB induced hepatic microsomal HO-1 on mRNA, protein expression and enzymatic activity, which is paralleled to the EGB-derived hepatoprotective effect. Hence, HO-1 upregulation by EGB may enhance the antioxidative capacity against the ethanol-induced oxidative stress and maintain the cellular redox balance.

  6. Oxidative Inactivation of Liver Mitochondria in High Fructose Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats: Effect of Glycyrrhizin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sil, Rajarshi; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a serious health problem in the present world. Glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid saponin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, has been reported to ameliorate the primary complications and hepatocellular damage in rats with the syndrome. In this study, we have explored metabolic syndrome-induced changes in liver mitochondrial function and effect of glycyrrhizin against the changes. Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats by high fructose (60%) diet for 6 weeks. The rats were then treated with glycyrrhizin (50 mg/kg body weight) by single intra-peritoneal injection. After 2 weeks of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed to collect liver tissue. Elevated mitochondrial ROS, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl, and decreased reduced glutathione content indicated oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome. Loss of mitochondrial inner membrane cardiolipin was observed. Mitochondrial complex I activity did not change but complex IV activity decreased significantly. Mitochondrial MTT reduction ability, membrane potential, phosphate utilisation and oxygen consumption decreased in metabolic syndrome. Reduced mitochondrial aconitase activity and increased aconitase carbonyl content suggested oxidative damage of the enzyme. Elevated Fe(2+) ion level in mitochondria might be associated with increased ROS generation in metabolic syndrome. Glycyrrhizin effectively attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress and aconitase degradation, and improved electron transport chain activity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Investigation of styrene in the liver perfusion/cell culture system. No indication of styrene-7,8-oxide as the principal mutagenic metabolite produced by the intact rat liver.

    PubMed

    Beije, B; Jenssen, D

    1982-03-01

    Mutagenic effect of styrene and styrene-7,8-oxide was studied with the isolated perfused rat liver as metabolizing system and Chinese hamster V79 cells as genetic target cells. Styrene-7,8-oxide which is mutagenic per se was rapidly metabolized by the perfused rat liver. Thus no mutagenic effect was detected neither in the perfusion medium nor in the bile. However when styrene was added to the perfusion system, an increase in V79 mutants was observed regardless of where in the circulating perfusion medium the V79 cells were placed: the same effect was obtained with V79 cells close to the liver as well as at a distance from the liver. No mutagenic effect was observed in the bile. Simultaneous analysis of the styrene-7,8-oxide concentration in the perfusion medium, suggest that this metabolite is not the cause of the mutagenic effect observed during perfusion with styrene. The effect of the two test compounds on some liver functions was also studied. Both styrene and styrene-7,8-oxide changed the bile flow without affecting bile acid secretion: styrene caused a reduction in bile flow as compared to control perfusions and styrene-7,8-oxide increased the bile flow. Styrene, but not styrene-7,8-oxide, reduced gluconeogenesis from lactate. Styrene had no effect on the liver's capacity to incorporate amino acids into plasma proteins, whereas styrene-7,8-oxide reduced the amino acid incorporation. The microsomal cytochrome P-450 content was not affected by the two test compounds. No alteration in microsomal N- and C-oxygenation of N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) was observed with styrene-7,8-oxide or the lower styrene dose used (240 mumol), whereas the higher styrene concentration (480 mumol) reduced N-oxygenation and thus also the total DNA metabolism. It is suggested that the results on styrene and styrene-7,8-oxide found here using the liver perfusion/cell culture system mimic the metabolism expected to be found in the intact animal, thus indicating that styrene-7,8-oxide is

  8. Postnatal High-Fat Diet Increases Liver Steatosis and Apoptosis Threatened by Prenatal Dexamethasone through the Oxidative Effect

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Jen; Tang, Kuo-Shu; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Tain, You-Lin; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chu, En-Wei; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate cellular apoptosis in prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure and a postnatal high fat diet in rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at gestational days 14 to 21 were administered saline (vehicle) or dexamethasone and weaned onto either a normal fat diet or a high fat diet for 180 days; in total four experimental groups were designated, i.e., vehicle treated group (VEH), dexamethasone treated group (DEX), vehicle treated plus high-fat diet (VHF), and dexamethasone treated plus high-fat diet (DHF). Chronic effects of prenatal liver programming were assessed at postnatal day 180. The apoptotic pathways involved proteins were analyzed by Western blotting for their expressions. Apoptosis and liver steatosis were also examined by histology. We found that liver steatosis and apoptosis were increased in the DHF, DEX, and VHF treated groups, and that the DHF treated group was increased at higher levels than the DEX and VHF treated groups. The expression of leptin was decreased more in the DHF treated group than in the DEX and VHF treated groups. Decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, manganese superoxide dismutase and increased malondialdehyde expression levels were seen in DHF treated group relative to the DEX treated group. The DHF treated group exhibited higher levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis and liver steatosis than the DEX treated group. These results indicate that the environment of high-fat diet plays an important role in the development of liver injury after prenatal stress. PMID:26978357

  9. Phenolic Content of Hypodaphnis Zenkeri and Its Antioxidant Effects against Fenton Reactions’ Mediated Oxidative Injuries on Liver Homogenate

    PubMed Central

    Moukette Moukette, Bruno; Pieme, Constant Anatole; Nya Biapa, Prosper Cabral; Njimou, Jacques Romain; Ama Moor, Vicky Jocelyne; Stoller, Marco; Bravi, Marco; Ngogang, Jeanne Yonkeu

    2014-01-01

    Under oxidative stress conditions, endogenous antioxidant defenses are unable to completely inactivate the free radicals generated by an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This state causes serious cell damage leading to a variety of human diseases. Natural antioxidants can protect cells against oxidative stress. Hypaodaphnis zenkeri (H. zenkiri) is a plant consumed as a spice in the Cameroonian diet, and its bark has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. The present study aims at investigating the antioxidant activity, which includes free radical scavenging and protective properties of an extract from H. Zenkiri against oxidative damage on a liver homogenate. The free radical assays determined the scavenging activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), nitrite oxide (NO) and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals and the enzymes, whose protection was to be considered in the liver homogenate, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The antioxidative activities were studied using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), reductive activity, and phosphomolybdenum antioxidant power (PAP) methods. In addition, the phenolic contents of the extracts were examined. The results showed that these extracts demonstrated significant scavenging properties and antioxidant activities, with the hydro-ethanolic extract of the bark of H. zenkeri (EEH) being the most potent. This extract had the highest total polyphenol (21.77 ± 0.05 mg caffeic acid (CAE)/g dried extract (DE)) and flavonoids (3.34 ± 0.13 mg quercetin (QE)/g dried extract) content. The same extract had significantly greater protective effects on enzyme activities compared to other extracts. The high performance liquied chromatography (HPLC) profile showed higher levels of caffeic acid, OH-tyrosol acid, and rutin in the leaves compared to the bark of H. zenkeri. In conclusion, the ethanolic

  10. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Obese Adolescents with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Çekmez, Ferhat; Kurku, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common chronic liver diseases in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of oxidative stress with insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in obese adolescents with NAFLD. Methods: Forty-six obese adolescents (23 girls and 23 boys, mean age: 12.8±2.2 years) and 29 control subjects (15 girls and 14 boys, mean age: 12.7±2.7 years) were enrolled in the study. The obese subjects were divided into two groups (NAFLD group and non-NAFLD group) based on the elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>30 IU/L) and the presence or absence of liver steatosis detected by ultrasonography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) from fasting samples. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) level measurements (REL Assay Diagnostics) were done in all participants. The ratio of TOS to TAS was regarded as an oxidative stress index (OSI), an indicator of the degree of OS. Results: Fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR values in the NAFLD group were significantly higher than in the non-NAFLD and control groups. TAS measurements were decreased in both obese groups (NAFLD and non-NAFLD) in comparison with the control group. TOS and OSI measurements were higher in the NAFLD group than in the non-NAFLD and control groups. OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.67, p=0.01) and HOMA-IR (r=0.71, p=0.02) in the NAFLD obese group. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study, elevated OS markers in obese adolescents with NAFLD were associated with insulin resistance. This data suggest that an antioxidant therapy might have a potential for treating NAFLD associated with insulin resistance. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23367495

  11. Association between insulin resistance and oxidative stress parameters in obese adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Pirgon, Özgür; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Çekmez, Ferhat; Kurku, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common chronic liver diseases in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of oxidative stress with insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in obese adolescents with NAFLD. Forty-six obese adolescents (23 girls and 23 boys, mean age: 12.8 ± 2.2 years) and 29 control subjects (15 girls and 14 boys, mean age: 12.7 ± 2.7 years) were enrolled in the study. The obese subjects were divided into two groups (NAFLD group and non-NAFLD group) based on the elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>30 IU/L) and the presence or absence of liver steatosis detected by ultrasonography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) from fasting samples. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) level measurements (REL Assay Diagnostics) were done in all participants. The ratio of TOS to TAS was regarded as an oxidative stress index (OSI), an indicator of the degree of OS. Fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR values in the NAFLD group were significantly higher than in the non-NAFLD and control groups. TAS measurements were decreased in both obese groups (NAFLD and non-NAFLD) in comparison with the control group. TOS and OSI measurements were higher in the NAFLD group than in the non-NAFLD and control groups. OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.67, p=0.01) and HOMA-IR (r=0.71, p=0.02) in the NAFLD obese group. In this cross-sectional study, elevated OS markers in obese adolescents with NAFLD were associated with insulin resistance. This data suggest that an antioxidant therapy might have a potential for treating NAFLD associated with insulin resistance.

  12. Elemental Zinc Is Inversely Associated with C-Reactive Protein and Oxidative Stress in Chronic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Giash; Hossain, Mohammad Salim; Rahman, Md Atiqur; Uddin, A H M Mazbah; Bhuiyan, Md Shafiullah

    2017-08-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) is associated with the destruction of liver parenchyma cell. It is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in most of the developed countries. Oxidative stress and altered levels of different trace elements in serum have been documented for different diseases including inflammation and many liver diseases. This study aims to evaluate the serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant vitamin C, C-reactive protein (CRP), and zinc (Zn) in CLD patients and to establish a correlation among the study parameters with the severity of inflammatory conditions of CLD. In this study, CLD patients and healthy volunteers were recruited. Total cholesterol and triglyceride were determined by colorimeter using enzymatic method. Serum non-enzymatic antioxidant vitamin C, reactive oxygen species nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by UV-spectrophotometric method. Trace element (Zn) levels were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Independent sample t test and Pearson's correlation test were performed for statistical analysis using the statistical software package SPSS, Version 20. Studies showed that the MDA (p < 0.001), NO (p < 0.001), and CRP levels were significantly higher in CLD patients than in control subjects. The antioxidant vitamin C (p < 0.001) and trace element zinc (p < 0.001) were comparatively lower in the CLD patients than in control subjects. Elemental Zn showed an inverse relationship with MDA, NO, and CRP but positively correlated with antioxidant capacity, whereas MDA showed a positive correlation with CRP level. Thus, we conclude that attenuated level of Zn and antioxidant in serum play an important role in the inflammatory status of CLD patients by elevating the concentration of MDA, NO, and CRP.

  13. Methanol exposure does not produce oxidatively damaged DNA in lung, liver or kidney of adult mice, rabbits or primates

    SciTech Connect

    McCallum, Gordon P.; Siu, Michelle; Sweeting, J. Nicole

    2011-01-15

    In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests indicate methanol (MeOH) is not mutagenic, but carcinogenic potential has been claimed in one controversial long-term rodent cancer bioassay that has not been replicated. To determine whether MeOH could indirectly damage DNA via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mechanisms, we treated male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys with MeOH (2.0 g/kg ip) and 6 h later assessed oxidative damage to DNA, measured as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) by HPLC with electrochemical detection. We found no MeOH-dependent increases in 8-oxodG in lung, liver or kidney of any species. Chronic treatment of CD-1 micemore » with MeOH (2.0 g/kg ip) daily for 15 days also did not increase 8-oxodG levels in these organs. These results were corroborated in DNA repair-deficient oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) knockout (KO) mice, which accumulated 8-oxodG in lung, kidney and liver with age, but exhibited no increase following MeOH, despite a 2-fold increase in renal 8-oxodG in Ogg1 KO mice following treatment with a ROS-initiating positive control, the renal carcinogen potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}; 100 mg/kg ip). These observations suggest that MeOH exposure does not promote the accumulation of oxidatively damaged DNA in lung, kidney or liver, and that environmental exposure to MeOH is unlikely to initiate carcinogenesis in these organs by DNA oxidation.« less

  14. Induction of rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase by thiazole and pyrazine: hydrolysis of 2-cyanoethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, S G; Kedderis, G L; Batra, R; Novak, R F

    1993-08-01

    Liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is active in the detoxification of epoxide-containing carcinogens. The effects of thiazole and pyrazine, constituents of tobacco and tobacco smoke as well as of a variety of foods, on the expression and regulation of mEH were examined in rats (200 mg/kg body wt/day, i.p., 1-3 days). Immunoblot analyses using rabbit anti-rat mEH antibody revealed a significant increase in mEH levels in hepatic microsomes isolated from either thiazole- or pyrazine-treated animals. Another protein (approximately 43 kd) cross-reacting with polyclonal mEH antibody was found to be increased concomitantly following pyrazine treatment. Northern and slot blot analyses showed substantial increases in mEH mRNA following either thiazole or pyrazine treatment. The level of mEH mRNA increased 17-fold at 24 h following thiazole treatment, relative to control. Approximately 20- and 16-fold increases in mEH mRNA were also observed at 48 and 72 h respectively following treatment with pyrazine. The level of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified mEH DNA derived from poly(A)+ RNA was clearly elevated following either thiazole or pyrazine treatment relative to that from untreated animals. Both sense and antisense strands of PCR-amplified mEH DNA were cloned into an M13mp19 phage vector in order to examine the nucleotide sequences of PCR-amplified mEH DNA derived from the poly(A)+ RNA isolated from thiazole- or pyrazine-treated animals. Sequence analyses revealed that the sequence of PCR-amplified DNA from the induced mRNA was identical to that published for mEH cDNA. Epoxide hydrolase activity toward the hydrolysis of 2-cyanoethylene oxide (CEO), the epoxide metabolite of the rat carcinogen acrylonitrile, was not significant in hepatic microsomes from untreated rats, but was substantially induced by treatment with thiazole or pyrazine. Microsomal hydrolysis activity was heat-sensitive and potently inhibited by 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, indicating that

  15. In Vitro Toxicity of Cadmium Oxide Particles in BRL 3A Rat Liver Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    cadmium oxide? What is the cellular toxicity of cadmium oxide particles? What is the effect of cell density on cadmium oxide toxicity? 1.5...cells observed, though in some cases, the percent of control cells was less than 2%. Approximately twice as many experiments as what is shown in this...question was answered in the literature review: 1. What is the cellular toxicity of cadmium oxide particles? 2. What is the effect of cell density on

  16. Oxidative stress and inflammation: liver responses and adaptations to acute and regular exercise.

    PubMed

    Pillon Barcelos, Rômulo; Freire Royes, Luiz Fernando; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier; Bresciani, Guilherme

    2017-02-01

    The liver is remarkably important during exercise outcomes due to its contribution to detoxification, synthesis, and release of biomolecules, and energy supply to the exercising muscles. Recently, liver has been also shown to play an important role in redox status and inflammatory modulation during exercise. However, while several studies have described the adaptations of skeletal muscles to acute and chronic exercise, hepatic changes are still scarcely investigated. Indeed, acute intense exercise challenges the liver with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation onset, whereas regular training induces hepatic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory improvements. Acute and regular exercise protocols in combination with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory supplementation have been also tested to verify hepatic adaptations to exercise. Although positive results have been reported in some acute models, several studies have shown an increased exercise-related stress upon liver. A similar trend has been observed during training: while synergistic effects of training and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplementations have been occasionally found, others reported a blunting of relevant adaptations to exercise, following the patterns described in skeletal muscles. This review discusses current data regarding liver responses and adaptation to acute and regular exercise protocols alone or combined with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory supplementation. The understanding of the mechanisms behind these modulations is of interest for both exercise-related health and performance outcomes.

  17. Ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress are required for unfolded protein response activation and steatosis in zebrafish with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsedensodnom, Orkhontuya; Vacaru, Ana M.; Howarth, Deanna L.; Yin, Chunyue; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Secretory pathway dysfunction and lipid accumulation (steatosis) are the two most common responses of hepatocytes to ethanol exposure and are major factors in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, the mechanisms by which ethanol elicits these cellular responses are not fully understood. Recent data indicates that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in response to secretory pathway dysfunction can cause steatosis. Here, we examined the relationship between alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, secretory pathway stress and steatosis using zebrafish larvae. We found that ethanol was immediately internalized and metabolized by larvae, such that the internal ethanol concentration in 4-day-old larvae equilibrated to 160 mM after 1 hour of exposure to 350 mM ethanol, with an average ethanol metabolism rate of 56 μmol/larva/hour over 32 hours. Blocking alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (Cyp2e1), the major enzymes that metabolize ethanol, prevented alcohol-induced steatosis and reduced induction of the UPR in the liver. Thus, we conclude that ethanol metabolism causes ALD in zebrafish. Oxidative stress generated by Cyp2e1-mediated ethanol metabolism is proposed to be a major culprit in ALD pathology. We found that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in larvae exposed to ethanol, whereas inhibition of the zebrafish CYP2E1 homolog or administration of antioxidants reduced ROS levels. Importantly, these treatments also blocked ethanol-induced steatosis and reduced UPR activation, whereas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acted as a pro-oxidant that synergized with low doses of ethanol to induce the UPR. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress are conserved mechanisms required for the development of steatosis and hepatic dysfunction in ALD, and that these processes contribute to ethanol-induced UPR activation and secretory pathway stress in hepatocytes. PMID

  18. Effects of Nanoparticle Size on Cellular Uptake and Liver MRI with PVP-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Bu, Lihong; Xie, Jin; Chen, Kai; Cheng, Zhen; Li, Xingguo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nanoparticle size (30–120 nm) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hepatic lesions in vivo has been systematically examined using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (PVP-IOs). Such biocompatible PVP-IOs with different sizes were synthesized by a simple one-pot pyrolysis method. These PVP-IOs exhibited good crystallinity and high T2 relaxivities, and the relaxivity increased with the size of the magnetic nanoparticles. It was found that cellular uptake changed with both size and surface physiochemical properties, and that PVP-IO-37 with a core size of 37 nm and hydrodynamic particle size of 100 nm exhibited higher cellular uptake rate and greater distribution than other PVP-IOs and Feridex. We systematically investigated the effect of nanoparticle size on MRI of normal liver and hepatic lesions in vivo. The physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticles influenced their pharmacokinetic behavior, which ultimately determined their ability to accumulate in the liver. The contrast enhancement of PVP-IOs within the liver was highly dependent on the overall size of the nanoparticles, and the 100 nm PVP-IO-37 nanoparticles exhibited the greatest enhancement. These results will have implications in designing engineered nanoparticles that are optimized as MR contrast agents or for use in therapeutics. PMID:21043459

  19. Effects of Lycium barbarum aqueous and ethanol extracts on high-fat-diet induced oxidative stress in rat liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Cui, BoKang; Liu, Su; Lin, XiaoJun; Wang, Jun; Li, ShuHong; Wang, QiBo; Li, ShengPing

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of aqueous extract of Lycium barbarum (LBAE) and ethanol extract of Lycium barbarum (LBEE) on blood lipid levels, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver tissue antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed a high fat diet (HF). The rats were randomly divided into seven groups of ten rats each and fed a different diet for eight weeks as follows: One group (NC group) was fed a standard diet, one group was fed a high-fat diet (HF group), one group was fed a high-fat diet and orally fed with 20 mg/kg b.w. simvastatin (HF + simvastatin group), and the other group was fed the high fat diet and orally fed with 50 mg/kg b.w. or 100 mg/kg b.w. LBAE (HF + LBAE), or 50 mg/kg b.w. or 100 mg/kg b.w. LBEE (HF + LBEE), respectively. After eight weeks, the HF diet caused deleterious metabolic effects. Rats fed the HF diet alone showed increased hepatocellular enzyme activities in plasma, a significant decline in antioxidant enzyme activities, and elevated liver lipid peroxidation indices. LBAE and LBEE administration significantly reduced liver damage and oxidative changes, and brought back the antioxidants and lipids towards normal levels. These data suggest that these antioxidants protect against toxicity parameters in HF rats.

  20. N-Hydroxylation of 4-Aminobiphenyl by CYP2E1 Produces Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Chemically Induced Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Sugamori, Kim S.; Tung, Aveline; McPherson, J. Peter; Grant, Denis M.

    2015-01-01

    4-Aminobiphenyl (ABP) is a trace component of cigarette smoke and hair dyes, a suspected human carcinogen and a potent rodent liver carcinogen. Postnatal exposure of mice to ABP results in a higher incidence of liver tumors in males than in females, paralleling the sex difference in human liver cancer incidence. A traditional model of ABP tumorigenesis involves initial CYP1A2-mediated N-hydroxylation, which eventually leads to production of mutagenic ABP-DNA adducts that initiate tumor growth. However, several studies have found no correlation between sex or CYP1A2 function and the DNA-damaging, mutagenic, or tumorigenic effects of ABP. Oxidative stress may be an important etiological factor for liver cancer, and it has also been linked to ABP exposure. The goals of this study were to identify novel enzyme(s) that contribute to ABP N-oxidation, and to investigate a potential role for oxidative stress in ABP liver tumorigenicity. Isozyme-selective inhibition experiments using liver microsomes from wild-type and genetically modified mice identified CYP2E1 as a major ABP N-hydroxylating enzyme. The N-hydroxylation of ABP by transiently expressed CYP2E1 produced oxidative stress in cultured mouse hepatoma cells. In vivo postnatal exposure of mice to a tumorigenic dose of ABP also produced oxidative stress in male wild-type mice, but not in male Cyp2e1(−/−) mice or in female mice. However, a stronger NRF2-associated antioxidant response was observed in females. Our results identify CYP2E1 as a novel ABP-N-oxidizing enzyme, and suggest that sex differences in CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to ABP may contribute to the observed sex difference in tumor incidence. PMID:25601990

  1. Dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. supplementation alleviates liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under high ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jingfei; He, Jintian; Bai, Kaiwen; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress induced by high ambient temperature is a major concern in commercial broiler production. To evaluate the effects of dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) supplementation on growth performance and liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under heat stress, a total of 320 22-day-old male broilers were randomly allotted into five groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the control group were housed at 22 ± 1 °C and fed the basal diet. Broilers in the HS, HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3 groups were fed basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 g/kg EA, respectively, and reared under cyclic high temperature (34 ± 1 °C for 8 h/day and 22 ± 1 °C for 16 h/day). Broilers fed EA diets had higher final body weight, average daily body weight gain, and average daily feed intake, as well as liver concentration of reduced glutathione, activities of antioxidant enzymes, abilities to inhibit hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3), and lower liver concentrations of reactive oxygen metabolites, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) than HS group ( P < 0.05). EA treatment downregulated the mRNA levels of heat shock proteins 70 and 90, upregulated the mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) and heme oxygenase 1 (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3) in liver of heat-treated broilers ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, EA alleviated heat stress-induced growth depression and liver oxidative injury in broilers, possibly through improving the antioxidant capacity and regulating the pertinent mRNA expression. The appropriate inclusion level of EA in broiler diet is 1.00-1.25 g/kg.

  2. An analysis of the effects of Mn{sup 2+} on oxidative phosphorylation in liver, brain, and heart mitochondria using state 3 oxidation rate assays

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas_gunter@urmc.rochester.ed; Gerstner, Brent, E-mail: brent_gerstner@urmc.rochester.ed; Lester, Tobias, E-mail: Tlester200@gmail.co

    2010-11-15

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity is partially mediated by reduced ATP production. We have used oxidation rate assays-a measure of ATP production-under rapid phosphorylation conditions to explore sites of Mn{sup 2+} inhibition of ATP production in isolated liver, brain, and heart mitochondria. This approach has several advantages. First, the target tissue for Mn toxicity in the basal ganglia is energetically active and should be studied under rapid phosphorylation conditions. Second, Mn may inhibit metabolic steps which do not affect ATP production rate. This approach allows identification of inhibitions that decrease this rate. Third, mitochondria from different tissues contain different amounts of themore » components of the metabolic pathways potentially resulting in different patterns of ATP inhibition. Our results indicate that Mn{sup 2+} inhibits ATP production with very different patterns in liver, brain, and heart mitochondria. The primary Mn{sup 2+} inhibition site in liver and heart mitochondria, but not in brain mitochondria, is the F{sub 1}F{sub 0} ATP synthase. In mitochondria fueled by either succinate or glutamate + malate, ATP production is much more strongly inhibited in brain than in liver or heart mitochondria; moreover, Mn{sup 2+} inhibits two independent sites in brain mitochondria. The primary site of Mn-induced inhibition of ATP production in brain mitochondria when succinate is substrate is either fumarase or complex II, while the likely site of the primary inhibition when glutamate plus malate are the substrates is either the glutamate/aspartate exchanger or aspartate aminotransferase.« less

  3. Effect of Pelargonium reniforme roots on alcohol-induced liver damage and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Adewusi, Emmanuel Adekanmi; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2010-09-01

    Ethnobotanical surveys conducted on Pelargonium reniforme Curtis (Geraniaceae) have shown that the aqueous root extracts are used to treat alcohol-induced liver damage. We evaluated the antioxidant properties of the extract and its effects on alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity using Wistar rats. Alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity studies were carried out by observing the effect of the aqueous root extract on some liver marker enzymes, bilirubin, and total protein after liver damage. The levels of some phenolic compounds were determined by standard methods. Also, the reducing power of the plant extract and its ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS*+) radicals were determined to evaluate its antioxidant activity. The results obtained show that the plant extract possessed significant antioxidant activity. It had a significant level of phenolic compounds, scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+ radicals effectively, and demonstrated good reducing power. This may indicate that the plant contained compounds which can remove toxic metabolites following alcohol abuse. Serum analysis of animals treated with only ethanol showed a significant increase in the levels of liver marker enzymes and total and unconjugated bilirubin, while a significant decrease was observed in the levels of conjugated bilirubin and total proteins. Administration of the plant extract restored the levels of these markers to normal levels, and this indicates the ability of the plant extract to restore normal functioning of a damaged liver. The study shows that P. reniforme is a potential source of antioxidants and compounds which are useful in treating alcoholic liver damage.

  4. Effect of nutritional status on oxidative stress in an ex vivo perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Michaela; Nuyens, Vincent; Seidel, Laurence; Albert, Adelin; Boogaerts, Jean G

    2005-11-01

    Normothermic ischemia-reperfusion is a determinant in liver injury occurring during surgical procedures, ischemic state, and multiple organ failure. The preexisting nutritional status of the liver might contribute to the extent of tissue injury and primary nonfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the role of starvation on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in normal rat livers. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: one had free access to food, the other was fasted for 16 h. The portal vein was cannulated, and the liver was removed and perfused in a closed ex vivo system. Two modes of perfusion were applied in each series of rats, fed and fasting. In the ischemia-reperfusion mode, the experiment consisted of perfusion for 15 min, warm ischemia for 60 min, and reperfusion during 60 min. In the nonischemia mode, perfusion was maintained during the 135-min study period. Five rats were included in each experimental condition, yielding a total of 20 rats. Liver enzymes, potassium, glucose, lactate, free radicals, i.e., dienes and trienes, and cytochrome c were analyzed in perfusate samples. The proportion of glycogen in hepatocytes was determined in tissue biopsies. Transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, potassium, and free radical concentrations were systematically higher in fasting rats in both conditions, with and without ischemia. Cytochrome c was higher after reperfusion in the fasting rats. Glucose and lactate concentrations were greater in the fed group. The glycogen content decreased in both groups during the experiment but was markedly lower in the fasting rats. In fed rats, liver injury was moderate, whereas hepatocytes integrity was notably impaired both after continuous perfusion and warm ischemia in fasting animals. Reduced glycogen store in hepatocytes may explain reduced tolerance.

  5. Protective effects of rosuvastatin and vitamin E against fipronil-mediated oxidative damage and apoptosis in rat liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdeen, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Fipronil (FPN) is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is extensively used in agriculture and veterinary applications. However, FPN is also a potent environmental toxicant to animals and humans. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the protective role of rosuvastatin (ROSU) and vitamin E (Vit E) against FPN-induced hepatorenal toxicity in albino rats. Seven groups with eight rats each were used for this purpose; these groups included the control vehicle group that received corn oil, the Vit E group (1000 mg/kg, orally), the ROSU group (10 mg/kg, orally), the FPN group (20 mg/kg, orally), the FPN-ROSU group, the FPN-Vit E group, and the FPN-Vit E-ROSU group. The results revealed that FPN significantly increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine. In addition, there were substantial increases in the liver and kidney contents of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, along with significant decreases in glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. FPN also caused histological changes and increased the expression of caspase-3 in the liver and kidney tissues. However, administration of ROSU and Vit E alone or in combination ameliorated the FPN-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis, possibly through their antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In Situ Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Rat Fatty Liver Induced by a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Isabel; Boncompagni, Eleonora; Tarantola, Eleonora; Gruppi, Cristian; Bertone, Vittorio; Ferrigno, Andrea; Milanesi, Gloria; Vaccarone, Rita; Tira, M. Enrica; Vairetti, Mariapia

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious health problem in developed countries. We documented the effects of feeding with a NAFLD-inducing, methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet, for 1–4 weeks on rat liver oxidative stress, with respect to a control diet. Glycogen, neutral lipids, ROS, peroxidated proteins, and SOD2 were investigated using histochemical procedures; ATP, GSH, and TBARS concentrations were investigated by biochemical dosages, and SOD2 expression was investigated by Western Blotting. In the 4-week-diet period, glycogen stores decreased whereas lipid droplets, ROS, and peroxidated proteins expression (especially around lipid droplets of hepatocytes) increased. SOD2 immunostaining decreased in poorly steatotic hepatocytes but increased in the thin cytoplasm of macrosteatotic cells; a trend towards a quantitative decrease of SOD expression in homogenates occurred after 3 weeks. ATP and GSH values were significantly lower for rats fed with the MCD diet with respect to the controls. An increase of TBARS in the last period of the diet is in keeping with the high ROS production and low antioxidant defense; these TBARS may promote protein peroxidation around lipid droplets. Since these proteins play key roles in lipid mobilization, storage, and metabolism, this last information appears significant, as it points towards a previously misconsidered target of NAFLD-associated oxidative stress that might be responsible for lipid dysfunction. PMID:26881047

  7. [Isoflavone genistein-8-c-glycoside prevents the oxidative damages in structure and function of rat liver microsomal membranes].

    PubMed

    Zavodnik, L B

    2003-01-01

    Bioflavonoids (polyhydroxyphenols) are ubiquitous components of plants, fruits and vegetables; these compounds are efficient scavengers of free oxygen radicals and peroxides. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and radioprotective effects of genistein-8-C-glicoside (G8CG), an isoflavone, isolated from the flowers of Lipinus luteusl L. G8CG prevents dose-dependently the destruction of the cytochrome P-450 and its conversion to an inactive form cytochrome P-420, inhibits membrane lipid peroxidation and membrane SH-group oxidation in isolated rat liver microsomal membranes under tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. Single whole-body gamma-irradiation (1 Gy) of rats results in blood plasma and liver microsomal membrane lipid peroxidation, impairments of microsomal membrane structure and function. Rat treatment with G8CG (75 mg/kg) developed the clear protective effect, stabilized membrane structure and improved the parameters of the monooxygenase function. We can conclude that G8CG can be used as antioxidant and radioprotective agent.

  8. In Situ Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Rat Fatty Liver Induced by a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Isabel; Boncompagni, Eleonora; Tarantola, Eleonora; Gruppi, Cristian; Bertone, Vittorio; Ferrigno, Andrea; Milanesi, Gloria; Vaccarone, Rita; Tira, M Enrica; Vairetti, Mariapia

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious health problem in developed countries. We documented the effects of feeding with a NAFLD-inducing, methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet, for 1-4 weeks on rat liver oxidative stress, with respect to a control diet. Glycogen, neutral lipids, ROS, peroxidated proteins, and SOD2 were investigated using histochemical procedures; ATP, GSH, and TBARS concentrations were investigated by biochemical dosages, and SOD2 expression was investigated by Western Blotting. In the 4-week-diet period, glycogen stores decreased whereas lipid droplets, ROS, and peroxidated proteins expression (especially around lipid droplets of hepatocytes) increased. SOD2 immunostaining decreased in poorly steatotic hepatocytes but increased in the thin cytoplasm of macrosteatotic cells; a trend towards a quantitative decrease of SOD expression in homogenates occurred after 3 weeks. ATP and GSH values were significantly lower for rats fed with the MCD diet with respect to the controls. An increase of TBARS in the last period of the diet is in keeping with the high ROS production and low antioxidant defense; these TBARS may promote protein peroxidation around lipid droplets. Since these proteins play key roles in lipid mobilization, storage, and metabolism, this last information appears significant, as it points towards a previously misconsidered target of NAFLD-associated oxidative stress that might be responsible for lipid dysfunction.

  9. Protectin D1 reduces concanavalin A-induced liver injury by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis and NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Meng, Shanshan; Yan, Bingdi; Yu, Jinyan; Liu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Protectin D1 (PD1) is a bioactive product generated from docosahexaenoic acid, which may exert anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its anti‑inflammatory activity on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of PD1 against Con A‑induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms via intravenous injection of PD1 prior to Con A administration. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups as follows: Control group, Con A group (30 mg/kg), 20 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group and 10 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group. PD1 pretreatment was demonstrated to significantly inhibit elevated plasma aminotransferase levels, high mobility group box 1 and liver necrosis, which were observed in Con A‑induced hepatitis. Furthermore, compared with the Con A group, PD1 pretreatment prevented the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α, interferon‑γ and interleukin‑2, ‑1β and ‑6. In addition, pretreatment with PD1 markedly downregulated cluster of differentiation (CD)4+, CD8+ and natural killer T (NKT) cell infiltration in the liver. PD1 pretreatment was observed to suppress the messenger RNA and protein expression levels of NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 and Toll‑like receptor (TLR) 4 in liver tissue samples. Further data indicated that PD1 pretreatment inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) signaling pathway and chemokine (C‑X3‑C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1)/chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1) axis by preventing phosphorylation of nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, α and NF‑κB in Con A‑induced liver injury. Therefore, these results suggest that PD1 administration protects mice against Con A‑induced liver injury via

  10. N-acetylcysteine modulates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant vitamin concentrations in liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Koçkar, M Cem; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Celik, Omer; Tola, H Tahsin; Bayram, Dilek; Koyu, Ahmet

    2010-12-02

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent, and is widely used in cancer treatment. The most common side effect of DOX was indicated on cardiovascular system by experimental studies. There are some studies suggesting oxidative stress-induced toxic changes on liver related to DOX administration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) relieves oxidative stress in DOX- induced liver injury in rat. Twenty-four male rats were equally divided into three groups. First group was used as a control. Second group received single dose of DOX. NAC for 10 days was given to constituting the third group after giving one dose of DOX. After 10 days of the experiment, liver tissues were taken from all animals. Lipid peroxidation (LP) levels were higher in the DOX group than in control whereas LP levels were lower in the DOX+NAC group than in control. Vitamin C and vitamin E levels were lower in the DOX group than in control whereas vitamin C and vitamin E levels were higher in the DOX+NAC group than in the DOX group. Reduced glutathione levels were higher in the DOX+NAC group than in control and DOX group. Glutathione peroxidase, vitamin A and β-carotene values were not changed in the three groups by DOX and NAC administrations. In histopathological evaluation of DOX group, there were mononuclear cell infiltrations, vacuolar degeneration, hepatocytes with basophilic nucleus and sinusoidal dilatations. The findings were totally recovered by NAC administration. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine induced modulator effects on the doxorubicin-induced hepatoxicity by inhibiting free radical production and supporting the antioxidant vitamin levels. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY LIVER TISSUE SLICES FROM PHENOBARBITAL-PRETREATED MICE IS CONGENER-SPECIFIC AND ATROPSELECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianai; Duffel, Michael; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models are powerful tools to study the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); however, studies of the oxidation of chiral PCB congeners to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in mice have not been reported. Here we investigate the atropselective oxidation of chiral PCB 91 (2,2',3,4',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 95 (2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 132 (2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl), PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) and PCB 149 (2,2',3,4',5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl) to OH-PCBs in liver tissue slices prepared from female mice. The metabolite profile of PCB 136 typically followed the rank order 5-OH-PCB > 4-OH-PCB > 4,5-OH-PCB, and metabolite levels increased with PCB concentration and incubation time. A similar OH-PCB profile was observed with the other PCB congeners, with 5-OH-PCB:4-OH-PCB ratios ranging from 2 to 12. More 5-OH-PCB 136 was formed in liver tissue slices obtained from animals pretreated with phenobarbital (P450 2B inducer) or, to a lesser extent, dexamethasone (P450 2B and 3A enzyme inducer) compared to tissue slices prepared from vehicle-pretreated animals. The apparent rate of 5-OH-PCBs formation followed the approximate rank order PCB 149 > PCB 91 > PCB 132 ~ PCB 136 > PCB 95. Atropselective gas chromatography revealed a congener-specific atropisomeric enrichment of major OH-PCB metabolites. Comparison of our results with published OH-PCB patterns and chiral signatures (i.e., the direction and extent of the atropisomeric enrichment) from rat liver microsomal revealed drastic differences between both species, especially following induction of P450 2B enzymes. These species differences in the metabolism of chiral PCBs should be considered in developmental neurotoxicity studies of PCBs. PMID:24107130

  12. Malvidin and cyanidin derivatives from açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) counteract UV-A-induced oxidative stress in immortalized fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Petruk, Ganna; Illiano, Anna; Del Giudice, Rita; Raiola, Assunta; Amoresano, Angela; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Piccoli, Renata; Monti, Daria Maria

    2017-07-01

    UV-A radiations are known to induce cellular oxidative stress, leading to premature skin aging. Consumption of açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Martius) is known to have many health benefits due to its high level of antioxidants. Herein, we analyzed the ability of phenolic compounds extracted from this fruit to attenuate UV-A-induced oxidative stress in immortalized fibroblast. A methanol/water açai extract was fractionated by HPLC and each fraction tested for anti-oxidant stress activity. Immortalized fibroblasts were pre-incubated with açai fractions and then exposed to UV-A radiations. Açai extract was found to be able to strongly protect cells from oxidative stress. In particular, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, GSH depletion, lipid peroxidation and no increase in the phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in the oxidative stress pathway was observed in cells pre-incubated with the extract and then irradiated by UV-A. Mass spectrometry analyses of HPLC fractionated extract led us to the identification of malvidin and cyanidin derivatives as the most active molecules able to counteract the negative effects induced by UV-A irradiation. Our results indicate, for the first time, that açai fruit is a valuable natural source for malvidin and cyanidin to be used as anti-stress molecules and represent good candidates for dietary intervention in the prevention of age related skin damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. NADPH oxidase is not an essential mediator of oxidative stress or liver injury in murine MCD diet-induced steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Aileen; Leclercq, Isabelle A; Williams, Jacqueline; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2007-02-01

    Hepatic oxidative stress is a key feature of metabolic forms of steatohepatitis, but the sources of pro-oxidants are unclear. The NADPH oxidase complex is critical for ROS generation in inflammatory cells; loss of any one component (e.g., gp91phox) renders NADPH oxidase inactive. We tested whether activated inflammatory cells contribute to oxidant stress in steatohepatitis. gp91phox-/- and wildtype (wt) mice were fed a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet. Serum ALT, hepatic triglycerides, histopathology, lipid peroxidation, activation of NF-kappaB, expression of NF-kappaB-regulated genes and macrophage chemokines were measured. After 10 days of MCD dietary feeding, gp91phox-/- and wt mice displayed equivalent hepatocellular injury. After 8 weeks, there were fewer activated macrophages in livers of gp91phox-/- mice than controls, despite similar mRNA levels for MCP and MIP chemokines, but fibrosis was similar. NF-kappaB activation and increased expression of ICAM-1, TNF-alpha and COX-2 mRNA were evident in both genotypes, but in gp91phox-/- mice, expression of these genes was confined to hepatocytes. A functional NADPH oxidase complex does not contribute importantly to oxidative stress in this model and therefore is not obligatory for induction or perpetuation of dietary steatohepatitis.

  14. Insight into the oxidative stress induced by lead and/or cadmium in blood, liver and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Matović, Vesna; Buha, Aleksandra; Ðukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Bulat, Zorica

    2015-04-01

    Besides being important occupational hazards, lead and cadmium are nowadays metals of great environmental concern. Both metals, without any physiological functions, can induce serious adverse health effects in various organs and tissues. Although Pb and Cd are non-redox metals, one of the important mechanisms underlying their toxicity is oxidative stress induction as a result of the generation of reactive species and/or depletion of the antioxidant defense system. Considering that the co-exposure to both metals is a much more realistic scenario, the effects of these metals on oxidative status when simultaneously present in the organism have become one of the contemporary issues in toxicology. This paper reviews short and long term studies conducted on Pb or Cd-induced oxidative stress in blood, liver and kidneys as the most prominent target organs of the toxicity of these metals and proposes the possible molecular mechanisms of the observed effects. The review is also focused on the results obtained for the effects of the combined treatment with Pb and Cd on oxidative status in target organs and on the mechanisms of their possible interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fructose-induced inflammation, insulin resistance and oxidative stress: A liver pathological triad effectively disrupted by lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Castro, María Cecilia; Massa, María Laura; Arbeláez, Luisa González; Schinella, Guillermo; Gagliardino, Juan J; Francini, Flavio

    2015-09-15

    Fructose administration induces hepatic oxidative stress, insulin resistance, inflammatory and metabolic changes. We tested their potential pathogenic relationship and whether these alterations can be prevented by R/S-α-lipoic acid. Wistar rats received during 21days a commercial diet or the same diet supplemented with 10% fructose in drinking water without/with R/S-α-lipoic acid injection. After this period, we measured a) serum glucose, triglyceride, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin glucose ratio (IGR) and Matsuda indexes and b) liver oxidative stress, inflammatory markers and insulin signaling pathway components. Fructose fed rats had hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, higher HOMA-IR, IGR and lower Matsuda indices compared to control animals, together with increased oxidative stress markers, TNFα, IL1β and PAI-1 gene expression, and TNFα and COX-2 protein content. Whereas insulin receptor level was higher in fructose fed rats, their tyrosine-residue phosphorylation was lower. IRS1/IRS2 protein levels and IRS1 tyrosine-phosphorylation rate were lower in fructose fed rats. All changes were prevented by R/S-α-lipoic acid co-administration. Fructose-induced hepatic oxidative stress, insulin resistance and inflammation form a triad that constitutes a vicious pathogenic circle. This circle can be effectively disrupted by R/S-α-lipoic acid co-administration, thus suggesting mutual positive interaction among the triad components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effects of Nano-elemental selenium against chromium-vi-induced oxidative stress in broiler liver.

    PubMed

    Xueting, L; Rehman, M U; Zhang, H; Tian, X; Wu, X; Shixue; Mehmood, K; Zhou, D

    2018-01-01

    The valuable role of selenium in mitigation of oxidative stress and heavy metal toxicity is well-known. Thus, the aim of the current study on broiler chickens was to examine whether nano elemental selenium (Nano-Se) supplementation can reduce the effects of chromium VI (K2Cr2O7) toxicity. For this purpose, a total of 150, one-day-old broiler chickens were allotted to five groups with three replicates: control group (standard diet), poisoned group (K2Cr2O7 via drinking water), protection group (K2Cr2O7 + Nano- Se), cure group (K2Cr2O7 for initial 2 weeks and then Nano-Se), and prevention group (opposite to the cure group). The broilers were detected by the activities of marker enzymes and oxidative stress markers including, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively. The (K2Cr2O7 administration caused histopathological damage in the liver of the chickens. Moreover, changes in serum biochemical indicators and oxidative stress parameters were also observed. Nano-Se supplementation increased the levels of GSH-px but reduced the activities of SOD, MDA, GGT, ALT and AST in the experimental groups (P less than 0.05). Our results showed that Nano-Se plays a protective role by preventing the oxidative stress induced by the chromium VI in broiler chickens.

  17. Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors and antioxidant vitamins on free radical lipid oxidation in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Lankin, V Z; Ivanova, M V; Konovalova, G G; Tikhaze, A K; Kaminnyi, A I; Kukharchuk, V V

    2007-04-01

    We studied the effects of two inhibitors of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, simvastatin and lovastatin, on the lag phase of ascorbate-dependent lipid oxidation in rat liver. Oxidizability of liver biological membranes significantly increased in intact animals and rats with induced hypercholesterolemia after peroral administration of these statins. The lag phase of ascorbate-dependent lipid oxidation in liver biomembranes decreased by 2.1 times in hypercholesterolemic rats. In animals of the lovastatin group this parameter decreased by 4.4 times compared to the control. In intact rats receiving simvastatin, the lag phase of oxidation in biomembranes from the liver decreased practically by 2 times. At the same time, in animals receiving simvastatin in combination with antioxidant vitamins (vitamins E and C, provitamin A) and selenium, the period of induction of oxidation increased by 3.3 times. Our results indicate that beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors produce a prooxidant effect on the liver, which can be prevented by administration of antioxidant agents.

  18. Preexposure to Olive Oil Polyphenols Extract Increases Oxidative Load and Improves Liver Mass Restoration after Hepatectomy in Mice via Stress-Sensitive Genes

    PubMed Central

    Marinić, Jelena; Broznić, Dalibor; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols can act as oxidants in some conditions, inducing redox-sensitive genes. We investigated the effect of preexposure to the olive oil polyphenols extract (PFE) on time-dependent changes in the hepatic oxidative state in a model of liver regeneration—a process in which oxidative stress associated with the metabolic overload accounts for the early events that contribute to the onset of liver self-repair. Liver regeneration was induced by one-third hepatectomy in mice. Prior to hepatectomy, mice were intraperitoneally given either PFE (50 mg/kg body weight) or saline for seven consecutive days, while respective controls received vehicle alone. Redox state-regulating enzymes and thiol proteins along with the mRNA levels of Nrf2 gene and its targets γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and heme oxygenase-1 were determined at different time intervals after hepatectomy. The liver mass restoration was calculated to assess hepatic regeneration. The resulting data demonstrate the effectiveness of preexposure to PFE in stimulating liver regeneration in a model of a small tissue loss which may be ascribed to the transient increase in oxidant load during the first hours after hepatectomy and associated induction of stress response gene-profiles under the control of Nrf2. PMID:26925195

  19. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M.; Arruda, Sandra F.; Dourado, Lívia P. S.; da Cunha, Marcela S. B.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  20. Antioxidants in liver health

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Grajales, Sael; Muriel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals (FR). However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leads to deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases. PMID:26261734

  1. Role of nitric oxide and KATP channel in the protective effect mediated by nicorandil in bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Yasmin S; Ahmed, Lamiaa A; Salem, Hesham A; Agha, Azza M

    2018-05-01

    Liver fibrosis is one of the most serious conditions affecting patients worldwide. In the present study, the role of nitric oxide and KATP channel was investigated for the first time in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil in bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day) was given orally 24 h after bile duct ligation for 14 days till the end of the experiment. Nicorandil group showed marked improvement in liver function tests, hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory markers as well as inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expressions. Furthermore, nicorandil administration led to significant decrement of phosphorylated protein kinase C, fibrosis and hepatic stellate cells activation as indicated by decreased alpha smooth muscle actin expression. Oral co-administration of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day) (a KATP channel blocker) with nicorandil mostly showed similar improvement though not reaching to that of nicorandil group. However, co-adminstration of L-NAME (15 mg/kg/day) (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) completely abolished the protective effects of nicorandil and produced more or less similar results to that of untreated bile duct ligated group. In conclusion, nicorandil is an effective therapy against the development of bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats where nitric oxide plays a more prominent role in the protective effect of nicorandil than KATP channel opening. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Regio- and Stereo-Selective Oxidation of a Cardiovascular Drug, Metoprolol, Mediated by Cytochrome P450 2D and 3A Enzymes in Marmoset Livers.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Ishii, Sakura; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    A β -blocker, metoprolol, is one of the in vivo probes for human cytochrome P450 (P450) 2D6. Investigation of nonhuman primate P450 enzymes helps to improve the accuracy of the extrapolation of pharmacokinetic data from animals into humans. Common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ) are a potential primate model for preclinical research, but the detailed roles of marmoset P450 enzymes in metoprolol oxidation remain unknown. In this study, regio- and stereo-selectivity of metoprolol oxidations by a variety of P450 enzymes in marmoset and human livers were investigated in vitro. Although liver microsomes from cynomolgus monkeys and rats preferentially mediated S -metoprolol O -demethylation and R -metoprolol α -hydroxylation, respectively, those from humans, marmosets, minipigs, and dogs preferentially mediated R -metoprolol O -demethylation, in contrast to the slow rates of R - and S -metoprolol oxidation in mouse liver microsomes. R - and S -metoprolol O -demethylation activities in marmoset livers were strongly inhibited by quinidine and ketoconazole, and were significantly correlated with bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation activities and also with P450 2D and 3A4 contents, which is different from the case in human livers that did not have any correlations with P450 3A-mediated midazolam 1'-hydroxylation. Recombinant human P450 2D6 enzyme and marmoset P450 2D6/3A4 enzymes effectively catalyzed R -metoprolol O -demethylation, comparable to the activities of human and marmoset liver microsomes, respectively. These results indicated that the major roles of P450 2D enzymes for the regio- and stereo-selectivity of metoprolol oxidation were similar between human and marmoset livers, but the minor roles of P450 3A enzymes were unique to marmosets. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Toxicological Profiling of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Liver Context Reveals Pyroptosis in Kupffer Cells and Macrophages versus Apoptosis in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Sun, Bingbing; Chang, Chong Hyun; Liao, Yu-Pei; Jiang, Wen; Jiang, Jinhong; Liu, Xiangsheng; Wang, Xiang; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2018-04-24

    The liver and the mononuclear phagocyte system are a frequent target for engineered nanomaterials, either as a result of particle uptake and spread from primary exposure sites or systemic administration of therapeutic and imaging nanoparticles. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the toxicological impact of 29 metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), some commonly used in consumer products, in transformed or primary Kupffer cells (KCs) and hepatocytes. We not only observed differences between KCs and hepatocytes, but also differences in the toxicological profiles of transition-metal oxides (TMOs, e. g., Co 3 O 4 ) versus rare-earth oxide (REO) NPs ( e. g., Gd 2 O 3 ). While pro-oxidative TMOs induced the activation of caspases 3 and 7, resulting in apoptotic cell death in both cell types, REOs induced lysosomal damage, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, caspase 1 activation, and pyroptosis in KCs. Pyroptosis was accompanied by cell swelling, membrane blebbing, IL-1β release, and increased membrane permeability, which could be reversed by knockdown of the pore forming protein, gasdermin D. Though similar features were not seen in hepatocytes, the investigation of the cytotoxic effects of REO NPs could also be seen to affect macrophage cell lines such as J774A.1 and RAW 264.7 cells as well as bone marrow-derived macrophages. These phagocytic cell types also demonstrated features of pyroptosis and increased IL-1β production. Collectively, these findings demonstrate important mechanistic considerations that can be used for safety evaluation of metal oxides, including commercial products that are developed from these materials.

  4. Aging-associated oxidative stress inhibits liver progenitor cell activation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei; Zhou, Hong; Dang, Shipeng; Shi, Yufang; Hao, Li; Luo, Qingquan; Jin, Min; Zhou, Qianjun; Zhang, Yanyun

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have discovered aging-associated changes of adult stem cells in various tissues and organs, which potentially contribute to the organismal aging. However, aging-associated changes of liver progenitor cells (LPCs) remain elusive. Employing young (2-month-old) and old (24-month-old) mice, we found diverse novel alterations in LPC activation during aging. LPCs in young mice could be activated and proliferate upon liver injury, whereas the counterparts in old mice failed to respond and proliferate, leading to the impaired liver regeneration. Surprisingly, isolated LPCs from young and old mice did not exhibit significant difference in their clonogenic and proliferative capacity. Later, we uncovered that the decreased activation and proliferation of LPCs were due to excessive reactive oxygen species produced by neutrophils infiltrated into niche, which was resulted from chemokine production from activated hepatic stellate cells during aging. This study demonstrates aging-associated changes in LPC activation and reveals critical roles for the stem cell niche, including neutrophils and hepatic stellate cells, in the negative regulation of LPCs during aging. PMID:28458256

  5. Aging-associated oxidative stress inhibits liver progenitor cell activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yiji; Wang, Xue; Wang, Bei; Zhou, Hong; Dang, Shipeng; Shi, Yufang; Hao, Li; Luo, Qingquan; Jin, Min; Zhou, Qianjun; Zhang, Yanyun

    2017-04-29

    Recent studies have discovered aging-associated changes of adult stem cells in various tissues and organs, which potentially contribute to the organismal aging. However, aging-associated changes of liver progenitor cells (LPCs) remain elusive. Employing young (2-month-old) and old (24-month-old) mice, we found diverse novel alterations in LPC activation during aging. LPCs in young mice could be activated and proliferate upon liver injury, whereas the counterparts in old mice failed to respond and proliferate, leading to the impaired liver regeneration. Surprisingly, isolated LPCs from young and old mice did not exhibit significant difference in their clonogenic and proliferative capacity. Later, we uncovered that the decreased activation and proliferation of LPCs were due to excessive reactive oxygen species produced by neutrophils infiltrated into niche, which was resulted from chemokine production from activated hepatic stellate cells during aging. This study demonstrates aging-associated changes in LPC activation and reveals critical roles for the stem cell niche, including neutrophils and hepatic stellate cells, in the negative regulation of LPCs during aging.

  6. Choline and Fructooligosaccharide: Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Cardiac Fat Deposition, and Oxidative Stress Markers

    PubMed Central

    Borges Haubert, Nadia Juliana Beraldo Goulart; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Carvalho Cunha, Selma Freire; Suen, Vivian Marques Miguel; Padovan, Gilberto Joao; Jordao, Alceu Afonso; Marchini Alves, Claudia Maria Meirelles; Marchini, Julio Flavio Meirelles; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats with choline and fructooligosaccharide (FOS). The healthy control group received standard diet. The other three groups consisted of animals with NAFLD. Group Estr received standard diet; group Echo received standard diet plus choline (3 g/100 g diet); and group Efos received standard diet plus FOS (10 g/100 g diet). Food intake, weight, urinary nitrogen, urinary ammonia, total cholesterol, serum triacylglyceride, liver and heart weights, tissue nitrogen, tissue fat, vitamin E, TBARS, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in hepatic and heart tissue. Choline and FOS treatments resulted in total mean fat reduction in liver and heart tissue of 0.2 and 1.7 g, respectively. Both treatments were equally effective in reducing hepatic and cardiac steatosis. There were no differences in the TBARS level among experimental and control groups, indicating that the proposed treatments had no added protection against free radicals. While all experimental groups had increased vitamin E and GSH levels, choline treatment led to a significant increase compared to control. PMID:25987847

  7. Protective effects of selenium on acrylamide toxicity in the liver of the rat. Effects on the oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Teodor, V; Cuciureanu, Magdalena; Filip, Cristiana; Zamosteanu, Nina; Cuciureanu, Rodica

    2011-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA), obtained for the first time by Moureu in Germany in 1893, is presently used as polyacrylamide in water treatment and wastewater treatment, paper and pulp processing, mineral processing, crude-oil production processes. Acrylamide is a chemical product formed when frying, roasting, grilling or baking carbohydrate-rich foods at temperatures above 120 degrees C. Acrylamide is thus found in a number of foods, such as bread, crisps, French fries and coffee. Tobacco smoking also generates substantial amounts of acrylamide. Acrylamide administration is associated with significant increase of oxidative stress parameters; acrylamide caused disturbances in the oxidative status and enzyme activities and the effect was pronounced with the high doses. This study investigates the effect of selenium (as sodium selenite and as a selenium dietary supplements--Celnium) on the oxidative stress in Wistar rats which received high doses of acrylamide. The administration of sodium selenite and selenium dietary supplements (Celnium) significantly increased GSH and GPx levels and decreased MDA compared to group which received only acrylamide. Our results show that sodium selenite and selenium dietary supplements (Celnium) can partially prevent the biochemical changes in the liver of the rats which received high doses of acrylamide.

  8. Induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation by a microbial catabolite of cholic acid in rat liver and cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Nishimaki-Mogami, T; Takahashi, A; Toyoda, K; Hayashi, Y

    1993-01-01

    The capability of (4R)-4-(2,3,4,6,6a beta,7,8,9,9a alpha,9b beta-decahydro-6a beta-methyl-3-oxo-1H-cyclopental[f]quinolin-7 beta-yl)valeric acid (DCQVA), a catabolite of cholic acid produced by enterobacteria, to induce peroxisome proliferation in vivo and in vitro was studied. Rats given 0.3% DCQVA in the diet for 2 weeks showed marked increases in peroxisomal beta-oxidation, mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase and microsomal laurate omega-oxidation activities in the liver compared with control rats given the diet without DCQVA. Cultured rat hepatocytes treated with DCQVA for 72 h also exhibited greatly enhanced beta-oxidation activity. The increased activity was concentration-dependent and the effective concentrations were comparable with those of clofibric acid that produced the same degree of induction in the assay. The results demonstrate that DCQVA is a potent peroxisome proliferator that occurs naturally in rat intestine. PMID:8216219

  9. Peroxisomal β-oxidation regulates whole body metabolism, inflammatory vigor, and pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Fernandez, Maria E.; Giles, Daniel A.; Stankiewicz, Traci E.; Sheridan, Rachel; Karns, Rebekah; Cappelletti, Monica; Lampe, Kristin; Mukherjee, Rajib; Sina, Christian; Sallese, Anthony; Bridges, James P.; Hogan, Simon P.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Hoebe, Kasper

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a metabolic predisposition for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), represents a disease spectrum ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis to cirrhosis. Acox1, a rate-limiting enzyme in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, regulates metabolism, spontaneous hepatic steatosis, and hepatocellular damage over time. However, it is unknown whether Acox1 modulates inflammation relevant to NAFLD pathogenesis or if Acox1-associated metabolic and inflammatory derangements uncover and accelerate potential for NAFLD progression. Here, we show that mice with a point mutation in Acox1 (Acox1Lampe1) exhibited altered cellular metabolism, modified T cell polarization, and exacerbated immune cell inflammatory potential. Further, in context of a brief obesogenic diet stress, NAFLD progression associated with Acox1 mutation resulted in significantly accelerated and exacerbated hepatocellular damage via induction of profound histological changes in hepatocytes, hepatic inflammation, and robust upregulation of gene expression associated with HCC development. Collectively, these data demonstrate that β-oxidation links metabolism and immune responsiveness and that a better understanding of peroxisomal β-oxidation may allow for discovery of mechanisms central for NAFLD progression. PMID:29563328

  10. Uric acid induces hepatic steatosis by generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress: potential role in fructose-dependent and -independent fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Lanaspa, Miguel A; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G; Choi, Yea-Jin; Cicerchi, Christina; Kanbay, Mehmet; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Li, Nanxing; Marek, George; Duranay, Murat; Schreiner, George; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kang, Duk-Hee; Sautin, Yuri Y; Johnson, Richard J

    2012-11-23

    Uric acid is an independent risk factor in fructose-induced fatty liver, but whether it is a marker or a cause remains unknown. Hepatocytes exposed to uric acid developed mitochondrial dysfunction and increased de novo lipogenesis, and its blockade prevented fructose-induced lipogenesis. Rather than a consequence, uric acid induces fatty liver Hyperuricemic people are more prone to develop fructose-induced fatty liver. Metabolic syndrome represents a collection of abnormalities that includes fatty liver, and it currently affects one-third of the United States population and has become a major health concern worldwide. Fructose intake, primarily from added sugars in soft drinks, can induce fatty liver in animals and is epidemiologically associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans. Fructose is considered lipogenic due to its ability to generate triglycerides as a direct consequence of the metabolism of the fructose molecule. Here, we show that fructose also stimulates triglyceride synthesis via a purine-degrading pathway that is triggered from the rapid phosphorylation of fructose by fructokinase. Generated AMP enters into the purine degradation pathway through the activation of AMP deaminase resulting in uric acid production and the generation of mitochondrial oxidants. Mitochondrial oxidative stress results in the inhibition of aconitase in the Krebs cycle, resulting in the accumulation of citrate and the stimulation of ATP citrate lyase and fatty-acid synthase leading to de novo lipogeneis. These studies provide new insights into the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation under normal and diseased states.

  11. A small-molecule inhibitor of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) protects liver from toxin-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and injury.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaomeng; Li, Xinzhi; Jia, Linna; Chen, Deheng; Hou, Hai; Rui, Liangyou; Zhao, Yujun; Chen, Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Potent and selective chemical probes are valuable tools for discovery of novel treatments for human diseases. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) is a key trigger in the development of liver injury and fibrosis. Whether inhibition of NIK activity by chemical probes ameliorates liver inflammation and injury is largely unknown. In this study, a small-molecule inhibitor of NIK, B022, was found to be a potent and selective chemical probe for liver inflammation and injury. B022 inhibited the NIK signaling pathway, including NIK-induced p100-to-p52 processing and inflammatory gene expression, both in vitro and in vivo Furthermore, in vivo administration of B022 protected against not only NIK but also CCl 4 -induced liver inflammation and injury. Our data suggest that inhibition of NIK is a novel strategy for treatment of liver inflammation, oxidative stress, and injury.-Ren, X., Li, X., Jia, L., Chen, D., Hou, H., Rui, L., Zhao, Y., Chen, Z. A small-molecule inhibitor of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) protects liver from toxin-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and injury. © FASEB.

  12. Liver antioxidant stores protect the brain from electromagnetic radiation (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced oxidative stress in rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Hasan; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çelik, Ömer; Yüksel, Murat; Pastacı, Nural; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2014-12-01

    The present study determined the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on oxidative stress in the brain and liver as well as the element levels in growing rats from pregnancy to 6 weeks of age. Thirty-two rats and their offspring were equally divided into three different groups: the control, 900 MHz, and 1800 MHz groups. The 900 MHz and 1800 MHz groups were exposed to EMR for 60 min/d during pregnancy and neonatal development. At the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, brain samples were obtained. Brain and liver glutathione peroxidase activities, as well as liver vitamin A and β-carotene concentrations decreased in the EMR groups, although brain iron, vitamin A, and β-carotene concentrations increased in the EMR groups. In the 6th week, selenium concentrations in the brain decreased in the EMR groups. There were no statistically significant differences in glutathione, vitamin E, chromium, copper, magnesium, manganese, and zinc concentrations between the three groups. EMR-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver was reduced during the development of offspring. Mobile phone-induced EMR could be considered as a cause of oxidative brain and liver injury in growing rats.

  13. Toxic metabolites, MAPK and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathways involved in oxidative toxicity in mice liver after chronic exposure to Mequindox.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianying; Lei, Zhixin; Huang, Anxiong; Wu, Qinghua; Xie, Shuyu; Awais, Ihsan; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-02-03

    Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic antimicrobial agent of quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide group (QdNOs). The liver is regarded as the toxicity target of QdNOs, and the role of N → O group-associated various toxicities mediated by QdNOs is well recognized. However, the mechanism underlying the in vivo effects of MEQ on the liver, and whether the metabolic pathway of MEQ is altered in response to the pathophysiological conditions still remain unclear. We now provide evidence that MEQ triggers oxidative damage in the liver. Moreover, using LC/MS-ITTOF analysis, two metabolites of MEQ were detected in the liver, which directly confirms the potential connection between N → O group reduction metabolism of MEQ and liver toxicity. The gender difference in MEQ-induced oxidative stress might be due to adrenal toxicity and the generation of M4 (2-isoethanol 1-desoxymequindox). Furthermore, up-regulation of the MAPK and Nrf2-Keap1 family and phase II detoxifying enzymes (HO-1, GCLC and NQO1) were also observed. The present study demonstrated for the first time the protein peroxidation and a proposal metabolic pathway after chronic exposure of MEQ, and illustrated that the MAPK, Nrf2-Keap1 and NF-кB signaling pathways, as well as the altered metabolism of MEQ, were involved in oxidative toxicity mediated by MEQ in vivo.

  14. Toxic metabolites, MAPK and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathways involved in oxidative toxicity in mice liver after chronic exposure to Mequindox

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianying; Lei, Zhixin; Huang, Anxiong; Wu, Qinghua; Xie, Shuyu; Awais, Ihsan; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-01-01

    Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic antimicrobial agent of quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide group (QdNOs). The liver is regarded as the toxicity target of QdNOs, and the role of N → O group-associated various toxicities mediated by QdNOs is well recognized. However, the mechanism underlying the in vivo effects of MEQ on the liver, and whether the metabolic pathway of MEQ is altered in response to the pathophysiological conditions still remain unclear. We now provide evidence that MEQ triggers oxidative damage in the liver. Moreover, using LC/MS-ITTOF analysis, two metabolites of MEQ were detected in the liver, which directly confirms the potential connection between N → O group reduction metabolism of MEQ and liver toxicity. The gender difference in MEQ-induced oxidative stress might be due to adrenal toxicity and the generation of M4 (2-isoethanol 1-desoxymequindox). Furthermore, up-regulation of the MAPK and Nrf2-Keap1 family and phase II detoxifying enzymes (HO-1, GCLC and NQO1) were also observed. The present study demonstrated for the first time the protein peroxidation and a proposal metabolic pathway after chronic exposure of MEQ, and illustrated that the MAPK, Nrf2-Keap1 and NF-кB signaling pathways, as well as the altered metabolism of MEQ, were involved in oxidative toxicity mediated by MEQ in vivo. PMID:28157180

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of grape seed oil against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in liver of γ-irradiated rat.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amel F M; Salem, Asmaa A M; Eassawy, Mamdouh M T

    2016-07-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and ionizing radiation are well known environmental pollutants that generate free radicals and induce oxidative stress. The liver is the primary and major target organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs, toxic chemicals and affected by irradiation. This study investigated the effect of grape seed oil (GSO) on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in γ-irradiated rats (7Gy). CCl4-intoxicated rats exhibited an elevation of ALT, AST activities, IL-6 and TNF-α level in the serum. Further, the levels of MDA, NO, NF-κB and the gene expression of CYP2E1, iNOS and Caspase-3 were increased, and SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST activities and GSH content were decreased. Furthermore, silent information regulator protein 1 (SIRT1) gene expression was markedly down-regulated. Additionally, alterations of the trace elements; copper, manganese, zinc and DNA fragmentation was observed in the hepatic tissues of the intoxicated group. These effects were augmented in CCl4-intoxicated-γ-irradiated rats. However, the administration of GSO ameliorated these parameters. GSO exhibit protective effects on CCl4 induced acute liver injury in γ-irradiated rats that could be attributed to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. The induction of the antioxidant enzymes activities, down-regulation of the CYP2E1, iNOS, Caspase-3 and NF-κB expression, up-regulation of the trace elements concentration levels and activation of SIRT1 gene expression are responsible for the improvement of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status in the hepatic tissues and could be claimed to be the hepatoprotective mechanism of GSO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effect of Allium neapolitanum Cyr. versus Allium sativum L. on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Nencini, Cristina; Franchi, Gian Gabriele; Cavallo, Federica; Micheli, Lucia

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of Allium neapolitanum Cyr., a spontaneous species of the Italian flora, compared with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on liver injury induced by ethanol in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were orally treated with fresh Allium homogenates (leaves or bulbs, 250 mg/kg) daily for 5 days, whereas controls received vehicle only. At the end of the experimental 5-day period, the animals received an acute ethanol dose (6 mL/kg, i.p.) 2 hours before the last Allium administration and were sacrificed 6 hours after ethanol administration. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AA), and reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione in liver tissue were determined. Administration of both Allium species for 5 days (leaves or bulbs) led to no statistical variation of nonenzymatic parameters versus the control group; otherwise Allium treatment caused an increase of GSH and AA levels compared with the ethanol group and a diminution of MDA levels, showing in addition that A. neapolitanum bulb had the best protective effect. Regarding to enzymatic parameters, GR and CAT activities were enhanced significantly compared with the ethanol group, whereas SOD activity showed a trend different from other parameters estimated. However, the treatment with both Allium species followed by acute ethanol administration reestablished the nonenzymatic parameters similar to control values and enhanced the activities of the enzymes measured. These results suggest that fresh Allium homogenates (leaves or bulbs) possess antioxidant properties and provide protection against ethanol-induced liver injury.

  17. Subchronic toxicity of Nile tilapia with different exposure routes to Microcystis aeruginosa: Histopathology, liver functions, and oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, H M R; Khashaba, A M Abou

    2017-08-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms ( Microcystis aeruginosa contains microcystins [MCs]) have been reported to induce clinicopathological alterations as well as different oxidative stress in aquatic biota. Three-week subchronic exposure experiment was carried out on Nile tilapia, to determine their effects on fish behavior, tissues, liver functions, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation. Fish were exposed to four main treatments; orally fed diet plus toxic cells of M. aeruginosa (containing 3500 µg/g MC-LR), immersion in 500 µg MC-LR/L, intraperitoneal injection of M. aeruginosa MC-LR with a dose of 0.1 ml of extracted toxin at a dose of 200 μg/kg bwt, and the fourth one served as a control group, then the fish were sacrificed at the end of 3 rd week of exposure. The results revealed no recorded mortality with obvious behavioral changes and an enlarged liver with the congested gall bladder. Histopathology demonstrated fragmentation, hyalinization, and necrosis of the subcutaneous musculature marked fatty degeneration, and vacuolation of hepatopancreatic cells with adhesion of the secondary gill lamellae associated with severe leukocytic infiltration. Furthermore, liver functions enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidase, and catalase enzymes) were significantly increased in all treatments starting from the 2 nd week as compared to the control levels. In this context, the study addresses the possible toxicological impacts of toxic M. aeruginosa contain MC-LR to Nile tilapia, and the results investigated that MC-LR is toxic to Nile tilapia in different routes of exposure as well as different doses.

  18. Biochemical and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats submitted to different protocols of anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Dornelles, Guilherme Lopes; Bueno, Andressa; de Oliveira, Juliana Sorraila; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; França, Raqueli Teresinha; da Silva, Cássia Bagolin; Machado, Márcia Silveira Netto; Petry, Letícia do Santos; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Lhamas, Cibele Lima; de Andrade, Cinthia Melazzo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different protocols (P1, P2, and P3) of boldenone undecylenate (BU) and stanozolol (ST) on markers of liver and kidney function and variables of oxidative stress in these organs. For this, 54 male Wistar rats were divided into nine groups of six animals each. Each animal received intramuscularly 5.0 mg kg -1 of BU or ST once a week for 4 weeks (P1); 2.5 mg kg -1 of BU or ST once a week for 8 weeks (P2); and 1.25 mg kg -1 of BU or ST once a week for 12 weeks (P3). For each protocol, a control group was used, and they received 0.1 ml of olive oil intramuscularly. Blood and fragments of liver and kidney were collected for alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, albumin, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, triglycerides, urea, reactive oxygen species, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total thiols, and glutathione evaluation. The results show that the BU in doses of 5 (day 30) and 2.5 mg kg -1 (day 60) changes the ALT seric activity, possibly showing a hepatotoxic effect. High doses of BU may lead to increased levels of cholesterol (protocol P1) possibly due to inhibition of the normal steroid biosynthesis process. All protocols used caused changes in the redox balance of the organs studied (except in the liver, protocol P2), which indicates that these drugs might be harmful even at low doses.

  19. Subchronic toxicity of Nile tilapia with different exposure routes to Microcystis aeruginosa: Histopathology, liver functions, and oxidative stress biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Latif, H. M. R.; Khashaba, A. M. Abou

    2017-01-01

    Background: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (Microcystis aeruginosa contains microcystins [MCs]) have been reported to induce clinicopathological alterations as well as different oxidative stress in aquatic biota. Aim: Three-week subchronic exposure experiment was carried out on Nile tilapia, to determine their effects on fish behavior, tissues, liver functions, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation. Materials and Methods: Fish were exposed to four main treatments; orally fed diet plus toxic cells of M. aeruginosa (containing 3500 µg/g MC-LR), immersion in 500 µg MC-LR/L, intraperitoneal injection of M. aeruginosa MC-LR with a dose of 0.1 ml of extracted toxin at a dose of 200 μg/kg bwt, and the fourth one served as a control group, then the fish were sacrificed at the end of 3rd week of exposure. Results: The results revealed no recorded mortality with obvious behavioral changes and an enlarged liver with the congested gall bladder. Histopathology demonstrated fragmentation, hyalinization, and necrosis of the subcutaneous musculature marked fatty degeneration, and vacuolation of hepatopancreatic cells with adhesion of the secondary gill lamellae associated with severe leukocytic infiltration. Furthermore, liver functions enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidase, and catalase enzymes) were significantly increased in all treatments starting from the 2nd week as compared to the control levels. Conclusion: In this context, the study addresses the possible toxicological impacts of toxic M. aeruginosa contain MC-LR to Nile tilapia, and the results investigated that MC-LR is toxic to Nile tilapia in different routes of exposure as well as different doses. PMID:28919690

  20. Ginseng essence, a medicinal and edible herbal formulation, ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Weng, Ching-Yi; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2017-07-01

    Ginseng essence (GE) is a formulation comprising four medicinal and edible herbs including ginseng ( Panax ginseng ), American ginseng ( Panax quinquefolius ), lotus seed ( Nelumbo nucifera ), and lily bulb ( Lilium longiflorum ). This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective effect of GE against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver injury in rats. We treated Wistar rats daily with low, medium, and high [0.625 g/kg body weight (bw), 1.25 g/kg bw, and 3.125 g/kg bw, respectively] doses of GE for 9 wk. After the 1 st wk of treatment, rats were administered 20% CCl 4 (1.5 mL/kg bw) two times a week to induce liver damage until the treatment ended. Serum biochemical analysis indicated that GE ameliorated the elevation of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and albumin decline in CCl 4 -treated rats. Moreover, CCl 4 -induced accumulation of hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride was inhibited. The hepatoprotective effects of GE involved enhancing the hepatic antioxidant defense system including glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S -transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. In addition, histological analysis using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that GE inhibited CCl 4 -induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of alpha-smooth muscle actin indicated that CCl 4 -triggered activation of hepatic stellate cells was reduced. These findings demonstrate that GE improves CCl 4 -induced liver inflammation and fibrosis by attenuating oxidative stress. Therefore, GE could be a promising hepatoprotective herbal formulation for future development of phytotherapy.

  1. Bisphenol A induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in lymphoblasts from children with autism and unaffected siblings.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kulbir; Chauhan, Ved; Gu, Feng; Chauhan, Abha

    2014-11-01

    Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. Although there is no single identifiable cause for autism, roles for genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in autism. Extensive evidence suggests increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in autism. In this study, we examined whether bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental risk factor for autism by studying its effects on oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in the lymphoblasts. When lymphoblastoid cells from autistic subjects and age-matched unaffected sibling controls were exposed to BPA, there was an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in both groups. A further subdivision of the control group into two subgroups-unaffected nontwin siblings and twin siblings-showed significantly higher ROS levels without any exposure to BPA in the unaffected twin siblings compared to the unaffected nontwin siblings. ROS levels were also significantly higher in the autism vs the unaffected nontwin siblings group. The effect of BPA on three important mtDNA genes-NADH dehydrogenase 1, NADH dehydrogenase 4, and cytochrome b-was analyzed to observe any changes in the mitochondria after BPA exposure. BPA induced a significant increase in the mtDNA copy number in the lymphoblasts from the unaffected siblings group and in the unaffected twin siblings group vs the unaffected nontwin siblings. In all three genes, the mtDNA increase was seen in 70% of the subjects. These results suggest that BPA exposure results in increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the autistic subjects as well as the age-matched sibling control subjects, particularly unaffected twin siblings. Therefore, BPA may act as an environmental risk factor for autism in genetically susceptible children by inducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of liver parameters and oxidative stress in chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis in Erbil governorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakey, Musher Ismail Salih; Abdoulrahman, Kamaran Kaiani

    2017-09-01

    The present study aims to evaluate iron related parameters in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on hemodialysis (HD). The study was carried out in Kidney Dialysis Center of Hawler Teaching Hospital in Erbil governorate. This study comprised (76) patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis and 41 healthy subjects as a control group of same ages. All hemodialysis patients were taking erythropoietin. The blood samples were taken from the patients before and after the process of hemodialysis for liver parameters and oxidative stress estimations. The results of this study showed lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total bilirubin, total protein and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), while higher levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), direct bilirubin and malondialdeyhde (MDA) before analysis was seen. Hemodialysis causes increasing in AST, ALT, albumin, total bilirubin, total protein and decreasing in ALP, direct bilirubin MDA and TAC.

  3. The Effect of Coenzyme A on the Metabolic Oxidation of LabeledFatty Acids: Rate Studies, Instrumentation, and Liver Fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, B.M.; Hughes, Ann M.; Kirk, Martha R.

    The effect of pantothenic acid deficiency on the rate of C{sup 14}O{sub 2} excretion and on distribution of radioactivity in liver fractions has been studied in rats given sodium acetate-2-C{sup 14} and sodium heptanoate-7-C{sup 14} The rate of excretion of breath C{sub 14}O has been measured by use of a method in which a sensitive ionization chamber and electrometer directly and continuously record carbon-14 excretion. The labeled fatty acids are more rapidly metabolized to C{sup 14}O{sub 2} in PAD rats than in normal rats. CoA depresses the C{sup 14}O excretion 2 in both normal and PAD rats in experiments withmore » either labeled acid. There are differences in the oxidation of these two fatty acids, and the differences are consistent with postulated metabolic schemes. CoA increases radioactivity deposited in the fat of the liver, but does not appreciably change the radioactivity incorporated in the protein and nonsaponifiable lipid fractions.« less

  4. Temperature dependence of rat liver mitochondrial respiration with uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by fatty acids. Influence of inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Samartsev, V N; Chezganova, S A; Polishchuk, L S; Paydyganov, A P; Vidyakina, O V; Zeldi, I P

    2003-06-01

    The respiration rate of liver mitochondria in the course of succinate oxidation depends on temperature in the presence of palmitate more strongly than in its absence (in state 4). In the Arrhenius plot, the temperature dependence of the palmitate-induced stimulation of respiration has a bend at 22 degrees C which is characterized by transition of the activation energy from 120 to 60 kJ/mol. However, a similar dependence of respiration in state 4 is linear over the whole temperature range and corresponds to the activation energy of 17 kJ/mol. Phosphate partially inhibits the uncoupling effect of palmitate. This effect of phosphate is increased on decrease in temperature. In the presence of phosphate the temperature dependence in the Arrhenius plot also has a bend at 22 degrees C, and the activation energy increases from 128 to 208 kJ/mol in the range from 13 to 22 degrees C and from 56 to 67 kJ/mol in the range from 22 to 37 degrees C. Mersalyl (10 nmol/mg protein), an inhibitor of the phosphate carrier, similarly to phosphate, suppresses the uncoupling effect of laurate, and the effects of mersalyl and phosphate are not additive. The recoupling effects of phosphate and mersalyl seem to show involvement of the phosphate carrier in the uncoupling effect of fatty acids in liver mitochondria. Possible mechanisms of involvement of the phosphate carrier in the uncoupling effect of fatty acids are discussed.

  5. Ability of natural astaxanthin from shrimp by-products to attenuate liver oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sila, Assaâd; Kamoun, Zeineb; Ghlissi, Zohra; Makni, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef; Sahnoun, Zouhaier; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. The present study was undertaken, in vivo, to examine the protective effect of astaxanthin extracted from the shell waste of deep-water pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) against oxidative stress of alloxanic adult male rats. Alloxan treatment revealed a significant elevation in plasma glycemia and lipid parameters such as total lipid, total cholesterol and triglycerides compared to the control group (C). In addition, liver malonaldialdehyde levels (MDA), an index of lipid peroxidation, significantly increased compared to control group. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels decreased significantly compared to control group. Moreover, diabetic rats presented a significant increase in the activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in plasma, indicating considerable hepatocellular injury. Astaxanthin treatment restores these parameters near to control values. Histological studies on the liver tissue of alloxan and astaxanthin treated rats confirmed the protective effects of astaxanthin. The results revealed that astaxanthin may be helpful in preventing diabetic complications in adult rats by reversing hepatotoxicity. It can be one of the ingredients in a number of healthy products. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Lactobacillus GG treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced intestinal oxidative stress, gut leakiness, and liver injury in a rat model of alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Christopher B; Farhadi, Ashkan; Jakate, Shriram M; Tang, Yueming; Shaikh, Maliha; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2009-03-01

    Because only 30% of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease (ALD), a factor other than heavy alcohol consumption must be involved in the development of alcohol-induced liver injury. Animal and human studies suggest that bacterial products, such as endotoxins, are the second key co-factors, and oxidant-mediated gut leakiness is one of the sources of endotoxemia. Probiotics have been used to prevent and treat diseases associated with gut-derived bacterial products and disorders associated with gut leakiness. Indeed, "probiotic"Lactobacillus rhamnosus has been successfully used to treat alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. However, the mechanism of action involved in the potential beneficial effects of L. rhamnosus in alcohol liver injury is not known. We hypothesized that probiotics could preserve normal barrier function in an animal model of ALD by preventing alcohol-induced oxidative stress and thus prevent the development of hyperpermeability and subsequent alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with alcohol twice daily (8 gm/kg) for 10 weeks. In addition, alcoholic rats were also treated with once daily gavage of either 2.5 x 10(7) live L. rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin (LGG) or vehicle (V). Intestinal permeability (baseline and at 10 weeks) was determined using a sugar bolus and GC analysis of urinary sugars. Intestinal and liver tissues were analyzed for markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, livers were assessed histologically for severity of ASH and total fat (steatosis). Alcohol+LGG (ALC+LGG)-fed rats had significantly (P< or =.05) less severe ASH than ALC+V-fed rats. L. rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin also reduced alcohol-induced gut leakiness and significantly blunted alcohol-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in both intestine and the liver. L. rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin probiotic gavage significantly ameliorated ASH in rats. This improvement was associated with reduced markers of intestinal and liver

  7. Melatonin ameliorates oxidative stress, modulates death receptor pathway proteins, and protects the rat cerebrum against bisphenol-A-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Othman, Azza I; Al-Abdan, Monera A; El-Sayed, Aml A

    2014-12-15

    Epidemiological reports have indicated a correlation between the increasing of bisphenol-A (BPA) levels in the environment and the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, the protective effect of melatonin on oxidative stress and the death receptor apoptotic proteins in the cerebrum of the bisphenol-A-treated rats were examined. Adult male rats were orally administered melatonin (10mg/kg bw) concurrently with BPA (50mg/kg bw) 3 days a week for 6 weeks. BPA exposure resulted in significant elevations of oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increased malondialdehyde level and the decreased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in the cerebrum. BPA caused an upregulation of p53 and CD95-Fas and activation of capsases-3 and 8, resulting in cerebral cell apoptosis. Melatonin significantly attenuated the BPA-evoked brain oxidative stress, modulated apoptotic-regulating proteins and protected against apoptosis. These data suggest that melatonin modulated important steps in the death receptor apoptotic pathway which likely related to its redox control properties. Melatonin is a promising pharmacological agent for preventing the potential neurotoxicity of BPA following occupational or environmental exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effect of American Ginseng Capsule on the liver oxidative injury and the Nrf2 protein expression in rats exposed by electromagnetic radiation of frequency of cell phone].

    PubMed

    Luo, Ya-ping; Ma, Hui-Rong; Chen, Jing-Wei; Li, Jing-Jing; Li, Chun-xiang

    2014-05-01

    To observe the effect of American Ginseng Capsule (AGC) on the liver oxidative injury and the Nrf2 protein expression in the liver tissue of rats exposed by 900 MHz cell phone electromagnetic radiation. Totally 40 male SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the model group, the Shuifei Jibin Capsule (SJC) group, and the AGC group,10 in each group. Rats in the normal control group were not irradiated. Rats in the rest three groups were exposed by imitated 900 MHz cellular phone for 4 h in 12 consecutive days. Meanwhile, rats in the SJC group and the AGC group were intragastrically administrated with suspension of SJC and AGC (1 mL/200 g body weight) respectively. Normal saline was administered to rats in the normal control group and the model group. The histolomorphological changes of the liver tissue were observed by HE staining. Contents of malonic dialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX)were detected by colorimetry. The Nrf2 protein expression of hepatocytes was detected by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. Compared with the normal control group, hepatocyte nucleus was atrophied or partially disappeared, the contents of liver MDA and Nrf2 protein obviously increased (P <0. 05, P <0. 01); contents of liver SOD and GSH decreased (P <0. 05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, karyopyknosis was obviously attenuated and approached to the normal level in the SJC group and the AGC group. The contents of liver MDA and Nrf2 protein expression decreased (P <0. 05), and the contents of liver SOD, GSH, and GSH-PX obviously increased (P < 0.05) in the SJC group. The contents of liver MDA and the Nrf2 protein expression decreased (P < 0.05), and contents of SOD and GSH obviously increased in the AGC group (P <0.01, P <0.05). The electromagnetic radiation induced by 900 MHz cell phone could affect the expression of Nrf2 protein, induce oxidative injury, and induce abnormal

  9. Syzyguim guineense Extracts Show Antioxidant Activities and Beneficial Activities on Oxidative Stress Induced by Ferric Chloride in the Liver Homogenate

    PubMed Central

    Pieme, Constant Anatole; Ngoupayo, Joseph; Khou-Kouz Nkoulou, Claude Herve; Moukette Moukette, Bruno; Njinkio Nono, Borgia Legrand; Ama Moor, Vicky Jocelyne; Ze Minkande, Jacqueline; Yonkeu Ngogang, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging property and the beneficial effects of extracts of various parts of Syzygium guineense in reducing oxidative stress damage in the liver. The effects of extracts on free radicals were determined on radicals DPPH, ABTS, NO and OH followed by the antioxidant properties using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and hosphomolybdenum (PPMB). The phytochemical screening of these extracts was performed by determination of the phenolic content. The oxidative damage inhibition in the liver was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase. Overall, the bark extract of the ethanol/water or methanol showed the highest radical scavenging activities against DPPH, ABTS and OH radicals compared to the other extracts. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolic compounds towards the antioxidant activities. However, the methanol extract of the root demonstrated the highest protective effects of SOD and CAT against ferric chloride while the hydro-ethanol extract of the leaves exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that antioxidant properties of S. guineense extracts could be attributed to phenolic compounds revealed by phytochemical studies. Thus, the present results indicate clearly that the extracts of S. guineense possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. The antioxidant properties of the bark extract may thus sustain its various biological activities. PMID:26785075

  10. Oxidant/antioxidant status in lambs and sheep with liver and lung cystic echinococcosis diagnosed by ultrasonography and necropsy.

    PubMed

    Sagkan-Ozturk, A; Durgut, R; Ozturk, O H

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in sheep and lambs with cyctic eccinocoocosis (CE) diagnosed by ultrasonography and necropsy findings. A total of 9 sheep and 17 lambs with CE were used in this study and the findings were compared to those of 6 healthy control sheep. Ultrasonography were used for the diagnosis of CE in sheep and lambs, and necropsy was performed to check the presence of cysts in liver and lungs. Serum TOS and TAC were measured by a novel colorimetric method. The TOS-to-TAC ratios were also calculated as OSI values. Serum biochemical profiles were determined by conventional measurement methods as well. The mean values for TOS, TAC and OSI were significantly (p<0.001) lower in sheep and lambs with CE when compared with those of the control sheep, and they were also significantly lower in lambs with CE in comparison to the mean values obtained in sheep with CE. The levels of serum albumin, total cholesterol, creatinine, and triglycerides in lambs with CE were found out to decrease significantly (p<0.001) when compared with those of both sheep with EC and the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of other serum parameters. In addition, when clinically and some biochemical values were evaluated, CE was found to be more severe in lambs than in sheep. It was concluded that although common diagnostic cyst detection is performed by postmortem examination, ultrasonography could successfully be used in conjunction with serum biochemical profile detection and serum TOS, TAC and OSI measurements for diagnosis of cysts in liver and lungs of severely infected living sheep and lambs. Serum albumin, total cholesterol, creatinine, total protein and triglycerides might be used as indicators in sheep and particularly in lambs for the diagnosis of CE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Garlic essential oil protects against obesity-triggered nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through modulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Tseng, Hui-Chun; Lin, Shuw-Yuan; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2014-06-25

    This study investigated the protective properties of garlic essential oil (GEO) and its major organosulfur component (diallyl disulfide, DADS) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet (HFD) with/without GEO (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) or DADS (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. GEO and DADS dose-dependently exerted antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects by reducing HFD-induced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, and serum biochemical parameters. Administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg GEO and 20 mg/kg DADS significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, accompanied by elevated antioxidant capacity via inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 expression during NAFLD development. The anti-NAFLD effects of GEO and DADS were mediated through down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, as well as stimulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. These results demonstrate that GEO and DADS dose-dependently protected obese mice with long-term HFD-induced NAFLD from lipid accumulation, inflammation, and oxidative damage by ameliorating lipid metabolic disorders and oxidative stress. The dose of 20 mg/kg DADS was equally as effective in preventing NAFLD as 50 mg/kg GEO containing the same amount of DADS, which demonstrates that DADS may be the main bioactive component in GEO.

  12. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Oxidative stress in the brain, liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; Abou El-Ala, Kawther S; Ali, Atef A

    2016-02-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the oxidative stress of nanoalumina (aluminium oxide nanoparticles, Al2O3-NPs) with a diameter <13 nm (9.83 ± 1.61 nm) as assessed by the perturbations in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the brain, liver and kidney of male albino rats, after 2 days of single acute dose (3.9 or 6.4 or 8.5 g/kg) injection and a sublethal dose of 1.3 g/kg once in 2 days for a period of 28 days. According to two-way analysis of variance, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH) and LPO were significantly affected by the injected doses, organs and their interactions. On the other hand, in sublethal experiments, these parameters were affected by the experimental periods, organs and their interactions. Regression analysis confirmed that the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH levels in the brain, liver and kidney were inversely proportional with the acute doses, the experimental periods, and aluminium accumulated in these tissues, whereas the levels of LPO exhibited a positive relationship. Correlation coefficient indicated that oxidative stress mainly depends on aluminium accumulated in the studied organs, followed by injected doses and the experimental periods. In comparison with the corresponding controls, the acute and sublethal doses of Al2O3-NPs caused significant inhibition of the brain, hepatic and renal SOD, CAT, GPx activities and a severe marked reduction in the concentrations of GSH that were associated with a significant elevation in the levels of malondialdehyde (an indicator of LPO). In conclusion, our data indicated that rats injected with nanoalumina suffered from the oxidative stresses that were dose and time dependent. In addition, Al2O3-NPs released into the biospheres could be potentiating a risk to the environment and causing hazard effects on living organisms, including mammals. © The Author

  13. Reduction of oxidative stress in liver cancer patients by oral green tea polyphenol tablets during hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    BABA, YASUTAKA; SONODA, JUN-ICHIRO; HAYASHI, SADAO; TOSUJI, NANAKO; SONODA, SHUNRO; MAKISUMI, KANRO; NAKAJO, MASAYUKI

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAI) using an implanted port system is the standard regimen for primary and metastatic liver cancers (MLCs). However, there have been few studies concerning HAI-induced oxidative stress and damage to the liver or other organs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) to reduce the oxidative stress or increase the biological antioxidative potential in HAI-treated patients. A total of 19 patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or MLC from colorectal malignancy were eligible for HAI with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5FU). The study subjects were randomly assigned to either a 3 or a 6 oral GTP tablets per day group. Each tablet had a GTP content equivalent to 79 mg of epigallocatechin-3-gallate. The oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the levels of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidative potential (BAP) values in patient plasma using the Free Radical Analytical System 4 (FRAS4), and correlating the results with clinical laboratory data for the patients. The levels of d-ROMs were significantly reduced by the oral intake of 6 GTP tablets for 6–9 months (P=0.0463) but were not significantly reduced by the oral intake of 3 GTP tablets daily. BAP values remained constant in the 3 and 6 tablet groups for 6–9 months during the follow-up study. The total serum bilirubin (T-bil) levels increased significantly at 3 (P=0.028) and 9 (P=0.0151) months and the red blood cell (RBC) count decreased at 6 months (P=0.0458) after intake for the 6 GTP tablet group. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels increased significantly at 9 months (P=0.0298). Cholinesterase (ChE) decreased significantly at 9 (P= 0.0127) and 12 (P= 0.0207) months after intake for the 3 GTP tablet group. The results indicate that the daily intake of 6 GTP tablets containing 474 mg polyphenols significantly reduces HAI-induced oxidative stress in HCC or

  14. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  15. Beta-carotene and lutein protect HepG2 human liver cells against oxidant-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Martin, K R; Failla, M L; Smith, J C

    1996-09-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies support a strong inverse relationship between consumption of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables and the incidence of some degenerative diseases. One proposed mechanism of protection by carotenoids centers on their putative antioxidant activity, although direct evidence in support of this contention is limited at the cellular level. The antioxidant potential of beta-carotene (BC) and lutein (LUT), carotenoids with or without provitamin A activity, respectively, was evaluated using the human liver cell line HepG2. Pilot studies showed that a 90-min exposure of confluent cultures to 500 mumol/L tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) at 37 degrees C significantly (P < 0.05) increased lipid peroxidation and cellular leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and decreased the uptake of 3H-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and 3H-2-deoxyglucose. Protein synthesis, mitochondrial activity and glucose oxidation were not affected by TBHP treatment, suggesting that the plasma membrane was the primary site of TBHP-induced damage. Overnight incubation of cultures with > or = 1 mumol/L dl-alpha-tocopherol protected cells against oxidant-induced changes. In parallel studies, overnight incubation of HepG2 in medium containing micelles with either BC or LUT (final concentrations of 1.1 and 10.9 mumol/L, respectively), the cell content of the carotenoids increased from < 0.04 to 0.32 and 3.39 nmol/mg protein, respectively. Carotenoid-loaded cells were partially or completely protected against oxidant-induced changes in lipid peroxidation, LDH release and amino acid and deoxyglucose transport. These data demonstrate that BC and LUT or their metabolites protect HepG2 cells against oxidant-induced damage and that the protective effect is independent of provitamin A activity.

  16. Protective effects of Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang), and its major component mangiferin, on iron-induced oxidative damage to rat serum and liver.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Barrios, Mariela Forrellat; Curti, Carlos; Hernández, Ivones; Merino, Nelson; Lemus, Yeny; Martínez, Ioanna; Riaño, Annia; Delgado, René

    2008-01-01

    In vivo preventive effects of a Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang) or its major component mangiferin on iron overload injury have been studied in rats given respectively, 50, 100, 250 mg kg(-1) body weight of Vimang, or 40 mg kg(-1) body weight of mangiferin, for 7 days prior to, and for 7 days following the administration of toxic amounts of iron-dextran. Both Vimang or mangiferin treatment prevented iron overload in serum as well as liver oxidative stress, decreased serum and liver lipid peroxidation, serum GPx activity, and increased serum and liver GSH, serum SOD and the animals overall antioxidant condition. Serum iron concentration was decreased although at higher doses, Vimang tended to increase it; percent tranferrin saturation, liver weight/body mass ratios, liver iron content was decreased. Treatment increased serum iron-binding capacity and decreased serum levels of aspartate-amine transferase (ASAT) and alanine-amine transferase (ALAT), as well as the number of abnormal Kupffer cells in iron-loaded livers. It is suggested that besides acting as antioxidants, Vimang extract or its mangiferin component decrease liver iron by increasing its excretion. Complementing earlier in vitro results from our group, it appears possible to support the hypothesis that Vimang and mangiferin present therapeutically useful effects in iron overload related diseases.

  17. Blood cell oxidative stress precedes hemolysis in whole blood-liver slice co-cultures of rat, dog, and human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Vickers, Alison E.M., E-mail: vickers_alison@allergan.co; Sinclair, John R.; Fisher, Robyn L.

    A novel in vitro model to investigate time-dependent and concentration-dependent responses in blood cells and hemolytic events is studied for rat, dog, and human tissues. Whole blood is co-cultured with a precision-cut liver slice. Methimazole (MMI) was selected as a reference compound, since metabolism of its imidazole thione moiety is linked with hematologic disorders and hepatotoxicity. An oxidative stress response occurred in all three species, marked by a decline in blood GSH levels by 24 h that progressed, and preceded hemolysis, which occurred at high MMI concentrations in the presence of a liver slice with rat (>= 1000 muM atmore » 48 h) and human tissues (>= 1000 muM at 48 h, >= 750 muM at 72 h) but not dog. Human blood-only cultures exhibited a decline of GSH levels but minimal to no hemolysis. The up-regulation of liver genes for heme degradation (Hmox1 and Prdx1), iron cellular transport (Slc40a1), and GSH synthesis and utilization (mGST1 and Gclc) were early markers of the oxidative stress response. The up-regulation of the Kupffer cell lectin Lgals3 gene expression indicated a response to damaged red blood cells, and Hp (haptoglobin) up-regulation is indicative of increased hemoglobin uptake. Up-regulation of liver IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression suggested an activation of an inflammatory response by liver endothelial cells. In summary, MMI exposure led to an oxidative stress response in blood cells, and an up-regulation of liver genes involved with oxidative stress and heme homeostasis, which was clearly separate and preceded frank hemolysis.« less

  18. Pre- vs. post-treatment with melatonin in CCl4-induced liver damage: Oxidative stress inferred from biochemical and pathohistological studies.

    PubMed

    Ničković, Vanja P; Novaković, Tatjana; Lazarević, Slavica; Šulović, Ljiljana; Živković, Zorica; Živković, Jovan; Mladenović, Bojan; Stojanović, Nikola M; Petrović, Vladmir; Sokolović, Dušan T

    2018-06-01

    The present study was designed to compare the ameliorating potential of pre- and post-treatments with melatonin, a potent natural antioxidant, in the carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver damage model by tracking changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic liver tissue defense parameters, as well as in the occurring pathohistological changes. Rats from two experimental groups were treated with melatonin before and after CCl 4 administration, while the controls, negative and positive, received vehicle/melatonin and CCl 4 , respectively. Serum levels of transaminases, alkaline phosphates, γ-GT, bilirubin, and albumin, as well as a wide panel of oxidative stress-related parameters in liver tissue, were determined in all experimental animals. Liver tissue specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and further evaluated for morphological changes. Both pre- and post-treatment with melatonin prevented a CCl 4 -induced increase in serum (ALT, AST, and γ-GT) and tissue (MDA and XO) liver damage markers and a decrease in the tissue total antioxidant capacity, in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. The intensity of pathological changes, hepatocyte vacuolar degeneration, necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration, was suppressed by the treatment with melatonin. In conclusion, melatonin, especially as a post-intoxication treatment, attenuated CCl 4 -induced liver oxidative damage, increased liver antioxidant capacities and improved liver microscopic appearance. The results are of interest due to the great protective potential of melatonin that was even demonstrated to be stronger if applied after the tissue damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. Hormonal and dietary control of the oxidative and non-oxidative reactions of the cycle in liver

    PubMed Central

    Novello, F.; Gumaa, J. A.; McLean, Patricia

    1969-01-01

    1. Measurements were made of the non-oxidative reactions of the pentose phosphate cycle in liver (transketolase, transaldolase, ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase and ribose 5-phosphate isomerase activities) in a variety of hormonal and nutritional conditions. In addition, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activities were measured for comparison with the oxidative reactions of the cycle; hexokinase, glucokinase and phosphoglucose isomerase activities were also included. Starvation for 2 days caused significant lowering of activity of all the enzymes of the pentose phosphate cycle based on activity in the whole liver. Re-feeding with a high-carbohydrate diet restored all the enzyme activities to the range of the control values with the exception of that of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which showed the well-known `overshoot' effect. Re-feeding with a high-fat diet also restored the activities of all the enzymes of the pentose phosphate cycle and of hexokinase; glucokinase activity alone remained unchanged. Expressed as units/g. of liver or units/mg. of protein hexokinase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, transketolase and pentose phosphate isomerase activities were unchanged by starvation; both 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase activities decreased faster than the liver weight or protein content. 2. Alloxan-diabetes resulted in a decrease of approx. 30–40% in the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, ribose 5-phosphate isomerase, ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase and transketolase; in contrast with this glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, transaldolase and phosphoglucose isomerase activities were unchanged. Treatment of alloxan-diabetic rats with protamine–zinc–insulin for 3 days caused a very marked increase to above normal levels of activity in all the enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway except ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase, which was restored to the control value

  20. Using a liver cell culture from Epinephelus coioides as a model to evaluate the nonylphenol-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Derakhshesh, Negin; Movahedinia, AbdolAli; Salamat, Negin; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Bayati, Vahid

    2017-09-15

    The present study aimed to use primary liver cell culture derived from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, to assess the toxic effects of nonylphenol (NP) on the hepatocyte viability and the liver antioxidant system. E. coioides was selected due to its commercial importance. NP was used in this study because of its high potential of producing oxidative stress due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). A liver of E. coioides was digested with PBS containing 0.1% collagenase IV. The digested cells were moved to Leibovitz L-15 culture medium with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100IUmL -1 penicillin, 100μgmL -1 streptomycin. Aliquots of cell suspension were seeded as a monolayer into sterile 25cm 2 tissue culture flasks and incubated at 30°C for 14days. The medium, containing non-attached cells, was removed after 24 to 48h and a new medium was added. The IC50 of 10 -4 molL -1 was determined for nonylphenol using MTT assay. Cells were then incubated with L-15 medium containing 10 -5 , 2×10 -5 , 3×10 -5 molL -1 of NP and samples were taken after 6, 12 and 24h of incubation for analysis of LPO, SOD, CAT, GPx, LDH, AST, ALT, and ALP. Based on the results, the lowest concentration of NP was not markedly cytotoxic to primary hepatocytes and the cell sensitivity to NP increased dose-dependently. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx decreased significantly, while activities of LPO, LDH, AST, ALT and ALP, increased significantly in a dose-related pattern in NP-treated cells. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP could induce the oxidative stress in cultivated hepatocytes of E. coioides during a short-term exposure. NP toxicity is mainly due to the induction of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), which lead to cell membrane disruption, damage of cellular metabolism, and interference with cellular macromolecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus Cortex on Recovery from the Forced Swimming Test and Fatty Acid β-Oxidation in the Liver and Skeletal Muscle of mice.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    The root and stem barks of Eleutherococcus senticosus have been used to treat emotional and physical fatigue in China, Russia, Korea, and Japan. The effects of E. senticosus on recovery from physical fatigue and the expenditure of energy currently remain unclear. We herein examined the effects of E. senticosus extract on recovery from physical fatigue after the forced swimming test as well as fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver and skeletal muscle of mice. 1) Physical fatigue; E. senticosus extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) was administered orally to ICR male mice for 7 consecutive days. After swimming had been performed for 15 min, each mouse was placed on the cover of a 100-mm culture plate, and the time for each mouse to move away from the cover was measured. 2) Fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver and skeletal muscle; E. senticosus extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg) was administered orally twice daily to C57BL/6J male mice for 21 consecutive days. The initial and final body and liver weight were measured, and then fatty acid β-oxidation activity in the liver and skeletal muscle was measured by methods using [1- 14 C] palmitic acid. Recovery times after forced swimming were shorter in E. senticosus extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg)-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. The body and liver weight had no effect by the oral administration of E. senticosus extract, vitamin mixture and L-carnitine. Fatty acid β-oxidation activity in skeletal muscle was increased by E. senticosus extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg). E. senticosus may enhance recovery from physical fatigue induced by forced swimming by accelerating energy changes through fatty acid β-oxidation in skeletal muscle.

  2. Protective effect of Chlorogenic acid against methotrexate induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in rat liver: An experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nemat; Rashid, Summya; Nafees, Sana; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Shahid, Ayaz; Majed, Ferial; Sultana, Sarwat

    2017-06-25

    Methotrexate (MTX) is a drug which is used to treat different types of cancers but hepatotoxicity limits its clinical use. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most abundant naturally occurring polyphenols in the human diet. Here, we assessed the effect of CGA against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity and investigated the underlying possible mechanisms in Wistar Rats. Rats were pre-treated with CGA (50 or 100 mg kg/b.w) and administered a single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg, b.w.). MTX caused hepatotoxicity as evidenced by significant increase in serum toxicity markers, histopathological changes. decreased activities of anti-oxidant armory (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR) and GSH content. MTX significantly causes upregulation of iNOS, Cox-2, Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 expressions, it causes higher caspase 3, 9 activities. However CGA pretreatment alleviates the hepatotoxicity by decreasing the oxidative stress. CGA inhibited Cox-2, iNOS, Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspases 3, 9 mediated inflammation and apoptosis, and improve the histology induced by MTX. Thus, these findings demonstrated the hepatoprotective nature of CGA by attenuating the pro-inflammatory and apoptotic mediators and improving antioxidant competence in hepatic tissue. These results imply that CGA has perfective effect against MTX-induced liver injury. Hence CGA supplementation might be helpful in abrogation of MTX toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction regulates the expression of antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes in stressed rat's liver.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Maznah; Al-Naqeeb, Ghanya; Mamat, Wan Abd Aziz Bin; Ahmad, Zalinah

    2010-03-24

    Gamma-oryzanol (OR), a phytosteryl ferulate mixture extracted from rice bran oil, has a wide spectrum of biological activities in particular, it has antioxidant properties. The regulatory effect of gamma-oryzanol rich fraction (ORF) extracted and fractionated from rice bran using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) in comparison with commercially available OR on 14 antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes was determined in rat liver. Rats were subjected to a swimming exercise program for 10 weeks to induce stress and were further treated with either ORF at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg or OR at 100 mg/kg in emulsion forms for the last 5 weeks of the swimming program being carried out. The GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System (GeXPS) was used to study the multiplex gene expression of the selected genes. Upon comparison of RNA expression levels between the stressed and untreated group (PC) and the unstressed and untreated group (NC), seven genes were found to be down-regulated, while seven genes were up-regulated in PC group compared to NC group. Further treatment of stressed rats with ORF at different doses and OR resulted in up-regulation of 10 genes and down regulation of four genes compared to the PC group. Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction showed potential antioxidant activity greater than OR in the regulation of antioxidants and oxidative stress gene markers.

  4. Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction regulates the expression of antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes in stressed rat's liver

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gamma-oryzanol (OR), a phytosteryl ferulate mixture extracted from rice bran oil, has a wide spectrum of biological activities in particular, it has antioxidant properties. Methods The regulatory effect of gamma-oryzanol rich fraction (ORF) extracted and fractionated from rice bran using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) in comparison with commercially available OR on 14 antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes was determined in rat liver. Rats were subjected to a swimming exercise program for 10 weeks to induce stress and were further treated with either ORF at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg or OR at 100 mg/kg in emulsion forms for the last 5 weeks of the swimming program being carried out. The GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System (GeXPS) was used to study the multiplex gene expression of the selected genes. Results Upon comparison of RNA expression levels between the stressed and untreated group (PC) and the unstressed and untreated group (NC), seven genes were found to be down-regulated, while seven genes were up-regulated in PC group compared to NC group. Further treatment of stressed rats with ORF at different doses and OR resulted in up-regulation of 10 genes and down regulation of four genes compared to the PC group. Conclusions Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction showed potential antioxidant activity greater than OR in the regulation of antioxidants and oxidative stress gene markers. PMID:20331906

  5. Oxidative and apoptotic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin modulated by piperonyl butoxide in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Piner, Petek; Uner, Nevin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of pyrethroid pesticide lambda-cyhalothrin in the presence of piperonyl butoxide as a modulator in the liver of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus. LC(50) (96h) value of lambda-cyhalothrin was determined as 2.901μg/L for O. niloticus. The fish were exposed to 0.48μg/L (1/6 of the 96-h LC(50)) lambda-cyhalothrin and 10μg/L piperonyl butoxide for 96-h and 15-d. tGSH, GSH, GSSG, Hsp70 and TBARS contents, GPx, GR, GST and caspase-3 enzymes activities were determined. Lambda-cyhalothrin caused increases in tGSH, GSH, TBARS contents, and GST activity. Piperonyl butoxide treatment with lambda-cyhalothrin caused significant increases in tGSH GSH, Hsp70, TBARS contents, and GPx and GST activities while caspase-3 activity was decreased. The results of the present study revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin caused oxidative stress which upregulated GSH and GSH-related enzymes. Piperonyl butoxide increased the oxidative stress potential and apoptotic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of metallothioneins I and II related to oxidative stress in the liver of aluminium-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Imen; Chaabane, Mariem; Elwej, Awatef; Boudawara, Ons; Abdelhedi, Sameh; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahya; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-10-01

    Hepatotoxicity, induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ), has been well studied but there are no reports about liver metallothionein (MT) genes induction. Therefore, it is of interest to establish the mechanism involving the relation between MT gene expression levels and the oxidative stress status in hepatic cells of aluminium-treated rats. Aluminium (Al) was administered to rats in their drinking water at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for three weeks. AlCl 3 provoked hepatotoxicity objectified by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyls (PCO) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), non-protein thiols (NPSH) and vitamin C. CAT and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were decreased while Mn-SOD gene expression, total Metallothionein content and MT I and MT II genes induction were increased. There are changes in plasma of some trace elements, albumin levels, transaminases, LDH and ALP activities. All these changes were supported by histopathological observations.

  7. Bazhen Decoction Protects against Acetaminophen Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Apoptosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Erqun; Fu, Juanli; Xia, Xiaomin; Su, Chuanyang; Song, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Bazhen decoction is a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal decoction, but the scientific validation of its therapeutic potential is lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate corresponding anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis activities of Bazhen decoction, using acetaminophen-treated mice as a model system. A total of 48 mice were divided into four groups. Group I, negative control, treated with vehicle only. Group II, fed with 500 mg/kg/day Bazhen decoction for 10 continuous days. Group III, received a single dose of 900 mg/kg acetaminophen. Group IV, fed with 500 mg/kg/day Bazhen decoction for 10 continuous days and a single dose of 900 mg/kg acetaminophen 30 min before last Bazhen decoction administration. Bazhen decoction administration significantly decrease acetaminophen-induced serum ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, TNF-α, IL-1β, ROS, TBARS and protein carbonyl group levels, as well as GSH depletion and loss of MMP. Bazhen decoction restore SOD, CAT, GR and GPx activities and depress the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, NF-κB, IL-1β and IL-6, respectively. Moreover, Bazhen decoction down-regulate acetaminophen-induced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9. These results suggest the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis properties of Bazhen decoction towards acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice. PMID:25222049

  8. Oxidation Stability of Pig Liver Pâté with Increasing Levels of Natural Antioxidants (Grape and Tea)

    PubMed Central

    Pateiro, Mirian; Lorenzo, José M.; Vázquez, José A.; Franco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the addition of increasing levels of the natural antioxidants tea (TEA) and grape seed extracts (GRA) on the physiochemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés. In addition, a synthetic antioxidant and a control batch were used, thus a total of eight batches of liver pâté were prepared: CON, BHT, TEA (TEA50, TEA200 and TEA1000) and GRA (GRA50, GRA200 and GRA1000). Pâté samples were analyzed following 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of storage. Color parameters were affected by storage period and level of antioxidant extract. Samples with TEA200 and GRA1000 levels of extracts showed lower total color difference between 0 and 24 weeks. At the end of storage period, the lower TBARs values were obtained in samples with the highest concentration on natural extract. Overall, the evolution of volatile compounds showed an increase in those ones that arise from the lipid oxidation and samples with TEA1000 extract showed the lowest values. PMID:26785340

  9. Effects of glucomannan/spirulina-surimi on liver oxidation and inflammation in Zucker rats fed atherogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; López-Gasco, Patricia; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, María José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Cholesterolemia is associated with pro-oxidative and proinflammatory effects. Glucomannan- or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched surimis were included in cholesterol-enriched high-saturated diets to test the effects on lipemia; antioxidant status (glutathione status, and antioxidant enzymatic levels, expressions and activities); and inflammation biomarkers (endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in Zucker fa/fa rats. Groups of eight rats each received diet containing squid-surimi (C), squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HC), glucomannan-squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HG), or glucomannan-spirulina-squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HGS) over a period of 7 weeks. HC diet induced severe hyperlipemia, hepatomegalia, increased inflammation markers, and impaired antioxidant status significantly (at least p < 0.05) vs. C diet. HG diet decreased lipemia and liver size and normalized antioxidant status to C group levels, but increased TNF-α with respect to HC diet (p < 0.05). In general terms, 3 g/kg of spirulina in diet maintained the positive results observed in the HG diet but, in addition, increased inflammation index [eNOS/(eNOS + iNOS)] and decreased plasma TNF-α (both p < 0.05). In conclusion, glucomannan plus a small amount of spirulina blocks negative effects promoted by hypercholesterolemic diets. Although more studies are needed, present results suggest the utility of including glucomannan and/or spirulina as functional ingredients into fish derivates to be consumed by people on metabolic syndrome risk.

  10. Biomarker analysis of liver cells exposed to surfactant-wrapped and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).

    PubMed

    Henderson, W Matthew; Bouchard, Dermont; Chang, Xiaojun; Al-Abed, Souhail R; Teng, Quincy

    2016-09-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have great potential in industrial, consumer, and mechanical applications, based partly on their unique structural, optical and electronic properties. CNTs are commonly oxidized or treated with surfactants to facilitate aqueous solution processing, and these CNT surface modifications also increase possible human and ecological exposures to nanoparticle-contaminated waters. To determine the exposure outcomes of oxidized and surfactant-wrapped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on biochemical processes, metabolomics-based profiling of human liver cells (C3A) was utilized. Cells were exposed to 0, 10, or 100ng/mL of MWCNTs for 24 and 48h; MWCNT particle size distribution, charge, and aggregation were monitored concurrently during exposures. Following MWCNT exposure, cellular metabolites were extracted, lyophilized, and buffered for (1)H NMR analysis. Acquired spectra were subjected to both multivariate and univariate analysis to determine the consequences of nanotube exposure on the metabolite profile of C3A cells. Resulting scores plots illustrated temporal and dose-dependent metabolite responses to all MWCNTs tested. Loadings plots coupled with t-test filtered spectra identified metabolites of interest. XPS analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl functionalities on both MWCNTs surfaces. Metal content analysis by ICP-AES indicated that the total mass concentration of the potentially toxic impurities in the exposure experiments were extremely low (i.e. [Ni]≤2×10(-10)g/mL). Preliminary data suggested that MWCNT exposure causes perturbations in biochemical processes involved in cellular oxidation as well as fluxes in amino acid metabolism and fatty acid synthesis. Dose-response trajectories were apparent and spectral peaks related to both dose and MWCNT dispersion methodologies were determined. Correlations of the significant changes in metabolites will help to identify potential biomarkers associated with carbonaceous

  11. Jinlida reduces insulin resistance and ameliorates liver oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yixuan; Song, An; Zang, Shasha; Wang, Chao; Song, Guangyao; Li, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yajun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Wang, Yun; Duan, Liyuan

    2015-03-13

    Jinlida (JLD) is a compound preparation formulated on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine and is officially approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of JLD treatment, in comparison to metformin treatment, on ameliorating insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats and to reveal its anti-oxidant properties. Rats were fed with standard or high-fat diet for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the high-fat fed rats were subdivided into five groups and orally fed with JLD or metformin for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin, blood lipid and antioxidant enzymes were measured. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique were carried out to measure insulin sensitivity. Gene expression of the major signaling pathway molecules that regulate glucose uptake, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase beta (AKT), and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2), were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The totle and phosphorylation expression of IRS-1, AKT, JNK and p38MAPK were determined by Western blot. Treatment with JLD effectively ameliorated the high-fat induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. Similar to metformin, the high insulin resistance in high-fat fed rats was significantly decreased by JLD treatment. JLD displayed anti-oxidant effects, coupled with up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. The attenuation of hepatic oxidative stress by JLD treatment was associated with reduced phosphorylation protein levels of JNK and p38MAPK. Treatment with JLD could moderate glucose and lipid metabolism as well as reduce hepatic oxidative stress, most likely through the JNK and p38MAPK pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased hepatic mitochondrial FA oxidation reduces plasma and liver TG levels and is associated with regulation of UCPs and APOC-III in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Carine; Bjørndal, Bodil; Rossmann, Christine Renate; Tusubira, Deusdedit; Svardal, Asbjørn; Røsland, Gro Vatne; Tronstad, Karl Johan; Hallström, Seth; Berge, Rolf Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic mitochondrial function, APOC-III, and LPL are potential targets for triglyceride (TG)-lowering drugs. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment with the compound 2-(tridec-12-yn-1-ylthio)acetic acid (1-triple TTA), the hepatic mitochondrial FA oxidation increased more than 5-fold in male Wistar rats. Gene expression analysis in liver showed significant downregulation of APOC-III and upregulation of LPL and the VLDL receptor. This led to lower hepatic (53%) and plasma (73%) TG levels. Concomitantly, liver-specific biomarkers related to mitochondrial biogenesis and function (mitochondrial DNA, citrate synthase activity, and cytochrome c and TFAM gene expression) were elevated. Interestingly, 1-triple TTA lowered plasma acetylcarnitine levels, whereas the concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate was increased. The hepatic energy state was reduced in 1-triple TTA-treated rats, as reflected by increased AMP/ATP and decreased ATP/ADP ratios, whereas the energy state remained unchanged in muscle and heart. The 1-triple TTA administration induced gene expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)2 and UCP3 in liver. In conclusion, the 1-triple TTA-mediated clearance of blood TG may result from lowered APOC-III production, increased hepatic LPL gene expression, mitochondrial FA oxidation, and (re)uptake of VLDL facilitating drainage of FAs to the liver for β-oxidation and production of ketone bodies as extrahepatic fuel. The possibility that UCP2 and UCP3 mediate a moderate degree of mitochondrial uncoupling should be considered. PMID:28473603

  13. Low-ω3 Fatty Acid and Soy Protein Attenuate Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver and Injury by Regulating the Opposing Lipid Oxidation and Lipogenic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Gordillo, Karina; Shah, Ruchi; Varatharajalu, Ravi; Garige, Mamatha; Leckey, Leslie C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic ethanol-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-beta (PGC1β) affect hepatic lipid oxidation and lipogenesis, respectively, leading to fatty liver injury. Low-ω3 fatty acid (Low-ω3FA) that primarily regulates PGC1α and soy protein (SP) that seems to have its major regulatory effect on PGC1β were evaluated for their protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli control or ethanol liquid diets with high or low ω3FA fish oil and soy protein. Low-ω3FA and SP opposed the actions of chronic ethanol by reducing serum and liver lipids with concomitant decreased fatty liver. They also prevented the downregulation of hepatic Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and PGC1α and their target fatty acid oxidation pathway genes and attenuated the upregulation of hepatic PGC1β and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and their target lipogenic pathway genes via the phosphorylation of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Thus, these two novel modulators attenuate ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and consequent liver injury potentially by regulating the two opposing lipid oxidation and lipogenic pathways. PMID:28074114

  14. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... fully working livers after a successful transplant. The donor liver is transported in a cooled salt-water (saline) ... Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant Images Donor liver attachment Liver transplant - series References Carrion AF, Martin ...

  15. Peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation as detected by H2O2 production in intact perfused rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, E C; Fährenkemper, T; Rabe, U; Graf, P; Sies, H

    1981-01-01

    1. H2O2 formation associated with the metabolism of added fatty acids was quantitatively determined in isolated haemoglobin-free perfused rat liver (non-recirculating system) by two different methods. 2. Organ spectrophotometry of catalase Compound I [Sies & Chance (1970) FEBS Lett. 11, 172-176] was used to detect H2O2 formation (a) by steady-state titration with added hydrogen donor, methanol or (b) by comparison of fatty-acid responses with those of the calibration compound, urate. 3. In the use of the peroxidatic reaction of catalase, [14C]methanol was added as hydrogen donor at an optimal concentration of 1 mM in the presence of 0.2 mM-L-methionine, and 14CO2 production rates were determined. 4. Results obtained by the different methods were similar. 5. The yield of H2O2 formation, expressed as the rate of H2O2 formation in relation to the rate of fatty-acid supply, was less than 1.0 in all cases, indicating that, regardless of chain length, less than one acetyl unit was formed per mol of added fatty acid by the peroxisomal system. In particular, the standard substrate used with isolated peroxisomal preparations (C16:0 fatty acid) gave low yield (close to zero). Long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids exhibit a relatively high yield of H2O2 formation. 6. The hypolipidaemic agent bezafibrate led to slightly increased yields for most of the acids tested, but the yield with oleate was decreased to one-half the original yield. 7. It is concluded that in the intact isolated perfused rat liver the assayable capacity for peroxisomal beta-oxidation is used to only a minor degree. However, the observed rates of H2O2 production with fatty acids can account for a considerable share of the endogenous H2O2 production found in the intact animal. PMID:7317011

  16. Oxidative metabolism of 1-nitropyrene by rabbit liver microsomes and purified microsomal cytochrome P-450 isozymes.

    PubMed

    Howard, P C; Reed, K A; Koop, D R

    1988-08-01

    Rabbit liver (male) microsomal metabolism of 10 microM [4,5,9,10-3H]-1-nitropyrene (1NP) was investigated. The total metabolism was not appreciably different with rates of 4.44 +/- 0.45, 3.98 +/- 0.19, 3.90 +/- 0.16, and 3.75 +/- 0.27 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for microsomes from phenobarbital, Aroclor-1254, ethanol-treated, and untreated rabbits. However, a more noticeable difference was found in the formation of specific metabolites. Phenobarbital treatment induced changes which favored 1-nitropyrene-3-ol formation, and Aroclor-1254 and ethanol-induced changes which favored 1-nitropyren-6-ol and 1-nitropyren-8-ol formation. 1NP was incubated with untreated microsomes and alpha-naphthoflavone, an inhibitor of rabbit cytochrome P-450 form 6 at low concentrations (less than 1 microM), and an activator of form 3c at high concentrations. The presence of alpha-naphthoflavone changed the profile of metabolites while not affecting the total metabolism. Using purified isozymes of rabbit P-450, we found the constitutive form 3b metabolized 1NP at the highest rate with a catalytic activity of 26.8 nmol/min/nmol P-450. Forms 2 and 6 exhibited rates of 2 and 2.2 nmol/min/nmol P-450. Forms 3a, 3c, and 4 had rates about 50- to 300-fold lower than form 3b. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify the metabolites when the incubations were carried out in the presence of purified rabbit epoxide hydrolase. With form 6, 54% of the metabolites were accounted for as 1-nitropyren-3-ol, while with form 3b, 73% of the metabolites were 1-nitropyren-6-ol and 1-nitropyren-8-ol. The K-region dihydrodiols were formed by forms 2 and 3b, but not by forms 3c or 6. These results demonstrate that 1NP is a preferential substrate for form 3b, and that a preponderance of the metabolism with untreated rabbit liver microsomes can be attributed to this isozyme.

  17. Effect of ethanol on the palmitate-induced uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Samartsev, V N; Belosludtsev, K N; Chezganova, S A; Zeldi, I P

    2002-11-01

    The effect of ethanol on the uncoupling activity of palmitate and recoupling activities of carboxyatractylate and glutamate was studied in liver mitochondria at various Mg2+ concentrations and medium pH values (7.0, 7.4, and 7.8). Ethanol taken at concentration of 0.25 M had no effect on the uncoupling activity of palmitic acid in the presence of 2 mM MgCl2 and decreased the recoupling effects of carboxyatractylate and glutamate added to mitochondria either just before or after the fatty acid. However, ethanol did not modify the overall recoupling effect of carboxyatractylate and glutamate taken in combination. The effect of ethanol decreased as medium pH was decreased to 7.0. Elevated concentration of Mg2+ (up to 8 mM) inhibits the uncoupling effect of palmitate. Ethanol eliminates substantially the recoupling effect of Mg2+ under these conditions, but does not influence the recoupling effects of carboxyatractylate and glutamate. It is inferred that ADP/ATP and aspartate/glutamate antiporters are involved in uncoupling function as single uncoupling complex with the common fatty acid pool. Fatty acid molecules gain the ability to migrate under the action of ethanol: from ADP/ATP antiporter to aspartate/glutamate antiporter on addition of carboxyatractylate and in opposite direction on addition of glutamate. Possible mechanisms of fatty acid translocation from one transporter to another are discussed.

  18. The association effect of insulin and clonazepam on oxidative stress in liver of an experimental animal model of diabetes and depression.

    PubMed

    Wayhs, Carlos Alberto Yasin; Tortato, Caroline; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Pasquali, Matheus Augusto; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Nin, Maurício Schüler; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2013-05-01

    It is known that oxidative stress occurs in peripheral blood in an experimental animal model of diabetes and depression, and acute treatment with insulin and clonazepam (CNZ) has a protective effect on oxidative stress in this model. This study evaluated the effect of insulin plus CNZ on oxidative stress parameters in the liver of diabetic male rats induced with streptozotocin (STZ) and subjected to forced swimming test (FST). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of STZ 60 mg/kg in male Wistar rats. Insulin (4 IU/kg) plus CNZ acute i.p. treatment (0.25 mg/kg) was administered 24, 5 and 1 h before the FST. Nondiabetic control rats received i.p. injections of saline (1 mL/kg). Protein oxidative damage was evaluated by carbonyl formation and the antioxidant redox parameters were analyzed by the measurements of enzymatic activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glyoxalase I (GLO). Glycemia levels also were determined. Our present study has shown an increase in carbonyl content from diabetic rats subjected to FST (2.04 ± 0.55), while the activity of catalase (51.83 ± 19.02) and SOD (2.30 ± 1.23) were significantly decreased in liver from these animals, which were reverted by the treatment. Also, the activity of GLO (0.15 ± 0.02) in the liver of the animals was decreased. Our findings showed that insulin plus CNZ acute treatment ameliorate the antioxidant redox parameters and protect against protein oxidative damage in the liver of diabetic rats subjected to FST.

  19. Biochemically and histopathologically comparative review of thiamine’s and thiamine pyrophosphate’s oxidative stress effects generated with methotrexate in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Demiryilmaz, Ismail; Sener, Ebru; Cetin, Nihal; Altuner, Durdu; Suleyman, Bahadir; Albayrak, Fatih; Akcay, Fatih; Suleyman, Halis

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Oxidative liver injury occurring with methotrexate restricts its use in the desired dose. Therefore, whether or not thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate, whose antioxidant activity is known, have protective effects on oxidative liver injury generated with methotrexate was comparatively researched in rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches. Material/Methods Thiamine pyrophosphate+methotrexate, thiamine+methotrexate, and methotrexate were injected intraperitoneally in rats for 7 days. After this period, all animals’ livers were excised, killing them with high-dose anesthesia, and histopathologic and biochemical investigations were made. Result Biochemical results demonstrated a significant elevation in level of oxidant parameters such as MDA and MPO, and a reduction in antioxidant parameters such as GSH and SOD in the liver tissue of the methotrexate group. Also, the quantity of 8-OHdG/dG, a DNA injury product, was higher in the methotrexate group with high oxidant levels and low antioxidant levels, and the quantity of 8-OHdG/dG was in the thiamine pyrophosphate group with low oxidant levels and high antioxidant levels. In the thiamine and control groups, the 8-OHdG/dG rate was 1.48±0.35 pmol/L (P>0.05) and 0.55±0.1 pmol/L (P<0.0001). Thiamine pyrophosphate significantly decreased blood AST, ALT and LDH, but methotrexate and thiamine did not decrease the blood levels of AST, ALT and LDH. Histopathologically, although centrilobular necrosis, apoptotic bodies and inflammation were monitored in the methotrexate group, the findings in the thiamine pyrophosphate group were almost the same as in the control group. Conclusions Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be effective in methotrexate hepatotoxicity, but thiamine was ineffective. PMID:23197226

  20. Ginger extract modulates Pb-induced hepatic oxidative stress and expression of antioxidant gene transcripts in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Omnia Ismail; El-Nahas, Abeer Fekry; El-Sayed, Yasser Said; Ashry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Spices and herbs are recognized sources of natural antioxidants that can protect from oxidative stress, thus play an important role in chemoprevention of liver diseases. Ginger is used worldwide primarily as a spicy condiment. This study evaluated the ability of ginger extract (GE) to ameliorate oxidative-hepatic toxicity induced by lead acetate (PbAc) in rats. Five groups of animals were used: group I kept as control; groups II, IV, and V received PbAc (1 ppm in drinking water daily for 6 weeks, and kept for an additional 2 weeks without PbAc exposure); group III treated orally with GE (350 mg/kg body weight, 4 d per week) for 6 weeks; group IV (protective) received GE for 2 weeks before and simultaneously with PbAc; and group V (treatment) received GE for 2 weeks after PbAc exposure. GC-MS analysis of GE revealed its content of gingerol (7.09%), quercetin (3.20%), dl-limonene (0.96%), and zingiberene (0.18%). Treatment of PbAc-treated rats with GE has no effect on hepatic Pb concentrations. However, it maintained serum aspartate aminotransferase level, increased hepatic glutathione (157%), glutathione S-transferase (GST) (228%), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (138%) and catalase (CAT) (112%) levels, and reduced hepatic malondialdehyde (80%). Co-treatment of PbAc group with GE upregulated mRNA expression of antioxidant genes: GST-α1 (1.4-fold), GPx1 (1.8-fold), and CAT (8-fold), while post-treatment with GE upregulated only mRNA expression of GPx1 (1.5-fold). GE has an antioxidant protective efficacy against PbAc-induced hepatotoxicity, which appears more effective than its therapeutic application. However, the changes in antioxidant gene expression were not reflected at the protein level.

  1. Polydatin attenuates d-galactose-induced liver and brain damage through its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lie-Qiang; Xie, You-Liang; Gui, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Xie; Mo, Zhi-Zhun; Sun, Chao-Yue; Li, Cai-Lan; Luo, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Su, Zi-Ren; Xie, Jian-Hui

    2016-11-09

    Accumulating evidence has shown that chronic injection of d-galactose (d-gal) can mimic natural aging, with accompanying liver and brain injury. Oxidative stress and apoptosis play a vital role in the aging process. In this study, the antioxidant ability of polydatin (PD) was investigated using four established in vitro systems. An in vivo study was also conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of PD on d-gal-induced liver and brain damage. The results showed that PD had remarkable in vitro free radical scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH˙), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS + ˙) radical ions, and hydroxyl and superoxide anions. Results in vivo indicated that, in a group treated with d-gal plus PD, PD remarkably decreased the depression of body weight and organ indexes, reduced the levels of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alleviated alterations in liver and brain histopathology. PD also significantly decreased the level of MDA and elevated SOD, GSH-Px, CAT activity and T-AOC levels in the liver and brain. In addition, the levels of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum were markedly reduced after PD treatment. Western blotting results revealed that PD treatment noticeably attenuated the d-gal-induced elevation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and caspase-3 protein expression in liver and brain. Overall, our findings indicate that PD treatment could effectively attenuate d-gal-induced liver and brain damage, and the mechanism might be associated with decreasing the oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis caused by d-gal. PD holds good potential for further development into a promising pharmaceutical candidate for the treatment of age-associated diseases.

  2. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) attenuates alcohol-induced liver injury in rats by alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianyu; Zhang, Jianjun; Wang, Chun; Qu, Shengsheng; Zhu, Yingli; Yang, Zhihui; Wang, Linyuan

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (EO) on alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). A total of 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (10 rats per group), including alcohol group (alcohol intake), EO group (alcohol + EO puree intake) and control group (distilled water intake). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the levels of cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in the serum as well as the liver tissue levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were measured. Histopathological changes in liver tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR analysis was performed for detecting the expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and CD68. The results indicated that EO intake significantly decreased ALT, AST, ALP, TG and CHO as well as the hepatic index in alcohol-treated rats. In addition, EO treatment relieved alcohol-induced oxidative stress by decreasing the levels of MDA and TG, and increasing the activity of SOD and GSH levels. In addition, the expression of TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-8, NF-κB and CD-68 in the liver were decreased by EO treatment. Furthermore, EO intake alleviated the histopathological liver damage, including severe steatosis and abundant infiltrated inflammatory cells. In conclusion, EO alleviated alcohol-induced liver injury in rats by alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  3. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) attenuates alcohol-induced liver injury in rats by alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jianyu; Zhang, Jianjun; Wang, Chun; Qu, Shengsheng; Zhu, Yingli; Yang, Zhihui; Wang, Linyuan

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (EO) on alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). A total of 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (10 rats per group), including alcohol group (alcohol intake), EO group (alcohol + EO puree intake) and control group (distilled water intake). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the levels of cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in the serum as well as the liver tissue levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were measured. Histopathological changes in liver tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR analysis was performed for detecting the expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and CD68. The results indicated that EO intake significantly decreased ALT, AST, ALP, TG and CHO as well as the hepatic index in alcohol-treated rats. In addition, EO treatment relieved alcohol-induced oxidative stress by decreasing the levels of MDA and TG, and increasing the activity of SOD and GSH levels. In addition, the expression of TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-8, NF-κB and CD-68 in the liver were decreased by EO treatment. Furthermore, EO intake alleviated the histopathological liver damage, including severe steatosis and abundant infiltrated inflammatory cells. In conclusion, EO alleviated alcohol-induced liver injury in rats by alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory response. PMID:29399060

  4. The Activation by Glucose of Liver Membrane Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Synthesis and Translocation of Glucose transporter-4 in the Production of Insulin in the Mice Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Suman; Ghosh, Rajeshwary; Maiti, Smarajit; Khan, Gausal Azam; Sinha, Asru K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Glucose has been reported to have an essential role in the synthesis and secretion of insulin in hepatocytes. As the efflux of glucose is facilitated from the liver cells into the circulation, the mechanism of transportation of glucose into the hepatocytes for the synthesis of insulin was investigated. Methods Grated liver suspension (GLS) was prepared by grating intact liver from adult mice by using a grater. Nitric oxide (NO) was measured by methemoglobin method. Glucose transporter-4 (Glut-4) was measured by immunoblot technique using Glut-4 antibody. Results Incubation of GLS with different amounts of glucose resulted in the uptake of glucose by the suspension with increased NO synthesis due to the stimulation of a glucose activated nitric oxide synthase that was present in the liver membrane. The inhibition of glucose induced NO synthesis resulted in the inhibition of glucose uptake. Glucose at 0.02M that maximally increased NO synthesis in the hepatocytes led to the translocation and increased synthesis of Glut-4 by 3.3 fold over the control that was inhibited by the inhibition of NO synthesis. The glucose induced NO synthesis was also found to result in the synthesis of insulin, in the presence of glucose due to the expression of both proinsulin genes I and II in the liver cells. Conclusion It was concluded that glucose itself facilitated its own transportation in the liver cells both via Glut-4 and by the synthesis of NO which had an essential role for insulin synthesis in the presence of glucose in these cells. PMID:24349154

  5. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DAN damage in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes inmore » the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. - Highlights: • DPAA, an environmental neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis in rats. • DPAA is an activator of AhR signaling pathway. • DPAA promoted oxidative DNA damage in rat livers. • AhR target gene CYP 1B1 might be involved in the metabolism of DPAA.« less

  6. Benzydamine N-oxidation as an index reaction reflecting FMO activity in human liver microsomes and impact of FMO3 polymorphisms on enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Elke; Roots, Ivar; Brockmöller, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    Aims The role of flavin containing monooxygenases (FMO) on the disposition of many drugs has been insufficiently explored. In vitro and in vivo tests are required to study FMO activity in humans. Benzydamine (BZD) N-oxidation was evaluated as an index reaction for FMO as was the impact of genetic polymorphisms of FMO3 on activity. Methods BZD was incubated with human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant enzymes. Human liver samples were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. Results BZD N-oxide formation rates in HLM followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (mean Km = 64.0 μm, mean Vmax = 6.9 nmol mg−1 protein min−1; n = 35). N-benzylimidazole, a nonspecific CYP inhibitor, and various CYP isoform selective inhibitors did not affect BZD N-oxidation. In contrast, formation of BZD N-oxide was almost abolished by heat treatment of microsomes in the absence of NADPH and strongly inhibited by methimazole, a competitive FMO inhibitor. Recombinant FMO3 and FMO1 (which is not expressed in human liver), but not FMO5, showed BZD N-oxidase activity. Respective Km values for FMO3 and FMO1 were 40.4 μm and 23.6 μm, and respective Vmax values for FMO3 and FMO1 were 29.1 and 40.8 nmol mg−1 protein min−1. Human liver samples (n = 35) were analysed for six known FMO3 polymorphisms. The variants I66M, P135L and E305X were not detected. Samples homozygous for the K158 variant showed significantly reduced vmax values (median 2.7 nmol mg−1 protein min−1) compared to the carriers of at least one wild type allele (median 6.2 nmol mg−1 protein min−1) (P<0.05, Mann–Whitney- U-test). The V257M and E308G substitutions had no effect on enzyme activity. Conclusions BZD N-oxidation in human liver is mainly catalysed by FMO3 and enzyme activity is affected by FMO3 genotype. BZD may be used as a model substrate for human liver FMO3 activity in vitro and may be further developed as an in vivo probe reflecting FMO3 activity. PMID:11136294

  7. Low Plasma Zinc Is Associated with Higher Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Faster Liver Fibrosis Development in the Miami Adult Studies in HIV Cohort.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Sabrina S; Campa, Adriana; Li, Yinghui; Fleetwood, Christina; Stewart, Tiffanie; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Baum, Marianna K

    2017-04-01

    Background: Oxidative stress and reduced antioxidants may be a trigger for liver fibrogenesis. Reducing oxidative stress through higher antioxidant concentration may be a potential antifibrotic target. Objective: We aimed to investigate longitudinally whether plasma zinc, an antioxidant, is related to mitochondrial oxidative stress and the progression of liver fibrosis in the Miami Adult Studies in HIV (MASH) cohort. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 487 predominantly African American HIV-monoinfected and HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected adults with a mean ± SD age of 47.08 ± 7.67 y from the MASH cohort and followed for a median of 34 mo. Blood was collected for plasma zinc and measures were used to calculate the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score (aspartate amino transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and platelets). Plasma zinc deficiency was defined as <0.75 mg/L. Total DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) was determined. Adjusted mixed models were used to assess the relations between zinc, stage of liver disease, and oxidative stress over time and compared between HIV and HIV/HCV groups. Results: Zinc concentrations (β: -0.368, SE = 0.172; P = 0.033) and deficiency were associated with lower FIB-4 scores over time (β: 0.381, SE = 0.118; P = 0.001). Compared with those who were not zinc deficient, zinc-deficient participants had an increased risk of having more-progressed liver disease (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.16; P = 0.012). Higher mtDNA 8-oxo-dG was associated with zinc deficiency (β: 0.049, SE = 0.024; P = 0.044) and higher FIB-4 scores over time (β: 0.597, SE = 0.168, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Lower plasma zinc concentrations were associated with liver fibrosis progression and mitochondrial oxidative stress in the HIV and HIV/HCV groups. Zinc may play a role in the impact of liver disease outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Low Plasma Zinc Is Associated with Higher Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Faster Liver Fibrosis Development in the Miami Adult Studies in HIV Cohort1234

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Sabrina S; Campa, Adriana; Li, Yinghui; Fleetwood, Christina; Stewart, Tiffanie; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Baum, Marianna K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress and reduced antioxidants may be a trigger for liver fibrogenesis. Reducing oxidative stress through higher antioxidant concentration may be a potential antifibrotic target. Objective: We aimed to investigate longitudinally whether plasma zinc, an antioxidant, is related to mitochondrial oxidative stress and the progression of liver fibrosis in the Miami Adult Studies in HIV (MASH) cohort. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 487 predominantly African American HIV-monoinfected and HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)–coinfected adults with a mean ± SD age of 47.08 ± 7.67 y from the MASH cohort and followed for a median of 34 mo. Blood was collected for plasma zinc and measures were used to calculate the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score (aspartate amino transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and platelets). Plasma zinc deficiency was defined as <0.75 mg/L. Total DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) was determined. Adjusted mixed models were used to assess the relations between zinc, stage of liver disease, and oxidative stress over time and compared between HIV and HIV/HCV groups. Results: Zinc concentrations (β: −0.368, SE = 0.172; P = 0.033) and deficiency were associated with lower FIB-4 scores over time (β: 0.381, SE = 0.118; P = 0.001). Compared with those who were not zinc deficient, zinc-deficient participants had an increased risk of having more-progressed liver disease (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.16; P = 0.012). Higher mtDNA 8-oxo-dG was associated with zinc deficiency (β: 0.049, SE = 0.024; P = 0.044) and higher FIB-4 scores over time (β: 0.597, SE = 0.168, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Lower plasma zinc concentrations were associated with liver fibrosis progression and mitochondrial oxidative stress in the HIV and HIV/HCV groups. Zinc may play a role in the impact of liver disease outcomes. PMID:28228506

  9. Direct measurement of the initial proton extrusion to oxygen uptake ratio accompanying succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Setty, O H; Shrager, R I; Bunow, B; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L; Hendler, R W

    1986-01-01

    The problem of obtaining very early ratios for the H+/O stoichiometry accompanying succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria was attacked using new techniques for direct measurement rather than extrapolations based on data obtained after mixing and the recovery of the electrode from initial injection of O2. Respiration was quickly initiated in a thoroughly mixed O2-containing suspension of mitochondria under a CO atmosphere by photolysis of the CO-cytochrome c oxidase complex-. Fast responding O2 and pH electrodes were used to collect data every 10 ms. The response time for each electrode was experimentally measured in each experiment and suitable corrections for electrode relaxations were made. With uncorrected data obtained after 0.8 s, the extrapolation back to zero time on the basis of single-exponential curve fitting confirmed values close to 8.0 as previously reported (Costa et al., 1984). The data directly obtained, however, indicate an initial burst in H+/O ratio that peaked to values of approximately 20 to 30 prior to 50 ms and which was no longer evident after 0.3 s. Newer information and considerations that place all extrapolation methods in question are discussed. PMID:3019443

  10. Silymarin attenuated hepatic steatosis through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Ni, Xunjun; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin, which derived from the milk thistle plant (silybum marianum), has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. Considering the therapeutic potential to liver disease, we tested efficacy of silymarin on hepatic steatosis with a high fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and investigated possible effects on lipid metabolic pathways. In our study, silymarin could attenuate the hepatic steatosis, which was proved by both Oil Red O staining and hepatic triglyceride (TG) level determination. Furthermore, compared with INT-747, a potent and selective FXR agonist, silymarin could preserve plasmatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to a higher level and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to a lower level, which benefited more to the circulation system. Through real-time PCR analysis, we clarified a vital protective role of silymarin in mRNA regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. It was also shown that silymarin had no effects on body weight, food intake, and liver transaminase. Taken together, silymarin could attenuate hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of NAFLD through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, and benefit to the circulation system. All these findings shed new light on NAFLD treatment.

  11. Protective Effects of Crocus Sativus L. Extract and Crocin against Chronic-Stress Induced Oxidative Damage of Brain, Liver and Kidneys in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic stress has been reported to induce oxidative damage of the brain. A few studies have shown that Crocus Sativus L., commonly known as saffron and its active constituent crocin may have a protective effect against oxidative stress. The present work was designed to study the protective effects of saffron extract and crocin on chronic – stress induced oxidative stress damage of the brain, liver and kidneys. Methods: Rats were injected with a daily dose of saffron extract (30 mg/kg, IP) or crocin (30 mg/kg, IP) during a period of 21 days following chronic restraint stress (6 h/day). In order to determine the changes of the oxidative stress parameters following chronic stress, the levels of the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA), the total antioxidant reactivity (TAR), as well as antioxidant enzyme activities glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in the brain, liver and kidneys tissues after the end of chronic stress. Results: In the stressed animals that receiving of saline, levels of MDA, and the activities of GPx, GR, and SOD were significantly higher (P<0.0001) and the TAR capacity were significantly lower than those of the non-stressed animals (P<0.0001). Both saffron extract and crocin were able to reverse these changes in the stressed animals as compared with the control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: These observations indicate that saffron and its active constituent crocin can prevent chronic stress–induced oxidative stress damage of the brain, liver and kidneys and suggest that these substances may be useful against oxidative stress. PMID:25671180

  12. Cromoglycate, not ketotifen, ameliorated the injured effect of warm ischemia/reperfusion in rat liver: role of mast cell degranulation, oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokine, and inducible nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    El-Shitany, Nagla A; El-Desoky, Karema

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (ISCH/REP) is a major clinical problem that is considered to be the most common cause of postoperative liver failure. Recently, mast cells have been proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of ISCH/REP in many organs. In contrast, the role played by mast cells during ISCH/REP-induced liver damage has remained an issue of debate. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of mast cells in order to search for an effective therapeutic agent that could protect against fatal ISCH/REP-induced liver damage. A model of warm ISCH/REP was induced in the liver of rats. Four groups of rats were used in this study: Group I: SHAM (normal saline, intravenously [iv]); Group II: ISCH/REP; Group III: sodium cromoglycate + ISCH/REP (CROM + ISCH/REP), and Group IV: ketotifen (KET) + ISCH/REP (KET + ISCH/REP). Liver damage was assessed both histopathologically and biochemically. Mast cell degranulation was assessed histochemically. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), the formation of nitric oxide (NO), and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were determined. The results of this study revealed increased mast cell degranulation in the liver during the acute phase of ISCH/REP. Moreover, CROM, but not KET, decreased the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactic dehydrogenase and maintained normal liver tissue histology. Both CROM and KET protected against mast cell degranulation in the liver. In addition, both CROM and KET decreased IL-6 and TNF-α. However, CROM, but not KET, decreased MDA formation and increased GSH. Furthermore, KET, but not CROM, increased both NO formation and iNOS expression. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated mast cell degranulation in warm ISCH/REP in the liver of rats. More importantly, CROM, but not KET, ameliorated the effect of ISCH

  13. Protective effects of azelaic acid against high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in liver, kidney and heart of C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Muthulakshmi, Shanmugam; Saravanan, Ramalingam

    2013-05-01

    Excess fat intake induces hyperinsulinaemia, increases nutrient uptake and lipid accumulation, amplifies ROS generation, establishes oxidative stress and morphological changes leading to tissue injury in the liver, kidney and heart of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The effect of azelaic acid (AzA), a C9 α,ω-dicarboxylic acid, against HFD-induced oxidative stress was investigated by assaying the activities and levels of antioxidants and oxidative stress markers in the liver, kidney and heart of C57BL/6J mice. Mice were segregated into two groups, one fed standard diet (NC) and the other fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. HFD-fed mice were subjected to intragastric administration of AzA (80 mg/kg BW)/RSG (10 mg/kg BW) during 11-15 weeks. Glucose, insulin, triglycerides, hepatic and nephritic markers were analysed in the plasma and the activity of enzymatic, non-enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation markers were examined in the plasma/erythrocytes, liver, kidney and heart of normal and experimental mice. We inferred significant decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with significant increase in glucose, insulin, hepatic and nephritic markers, triglycerides and lipid peroxidation markers in HFD-fed mice. Administration of AzA could positively restore the levels of plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, hepatic and nephritic markers to near normal. AzA increased the levels of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants with significant reduction in the levels of lipid peroxidation markers. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and heart substantiated these results. Hence, we put forward that AzA could counteract the potential injurious effects of HFD-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice.

  14. Polyphenols from hawthorn peels and fleshes differently mitigate dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in association with modulation of liver injury in high fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Li, Wenfeng; Huang, Di; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-09-25

    Hawthorn ingestion is linked to health benefits due to the various polyphenols. The present study investigated the differential effects of polyphenols-enriched extracts from hawthorn fruit peels (HPP) and fleshes (HFP) against liver injury induced by high-fructose diet in mice. It was found that the main species of polyphenols in hawthorn was chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, rutin and hyperoside, and their contents in HPP were all higher than those in HFP. Administration of HPP was better than HFP to alleviate liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis, reflected by the reduction of ALT, AST and ALP activities, as well as the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in mice. Meanwhile, HPP was also more effective than HFP to mitigate liver inflammation and oxidative stress by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6) release, and elevating antioxidant enzyme activities and PPARα expression, while reducing Nrf-2 and ARE expression in mice. Interestingly, HPP-treated mice also showed the lower levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and Apo-B, and the higher levels of HDL-C and Apo-A1 than HFP-treated mice via reducing FAS express. These results together with the histopathology of the liver with H&E and oil red O staining suggest that hawthorn fruit, especially its peel, is an excellent source of natural polyphenolic chemopreventive agents in the treatment of liver disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contribution of aldehyde oxidizing enzymes on the metabolism of 3,4-dimethoxy-2-phenylethylamine to 3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid by guinea pig liver slices.

    PubMed

    Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I

    2006-01-01

    3,4-Dimethoxy-2-phenylethylamine is catalyzed to its aldehyde derivative by monoamine oxidase B, but the subsequent oxidation into the corresponding acid has not yet been studied. Oxidation of aromatic aldehydes is catalyzed mainly by aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase. The present study examines the metabolism of 3,4-dimethoxy-2-phenylethylamine in vitro and in freshly prepared and cryopreserved guinea pig liver slices and the relative contribution of different aldehyde-oxidizing enzymes was estimated by pharmacological means. 3,4-Dimethoxy-2- phenylethylamine was converted into the corresponding aldehyde when incubated with monoamine oxidase and further oxidized into the acid when incubated with both, monoamine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase. In freshly prepared and cryopreserved liver slices, 3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid was the main metabolite of 3,4-dimethoxy-2- phenylethylamine. 3,4-Dimethoxyphenylacetic acid formation was inhibited by 85% from disulfiram (aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor) and by 75-80% from isovanillin (aldehyde oxidase inhibitor), whereas allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) inhibited acid formation by only 25-30%. 3,4- Dimethoxy-2-phenylethylamine is oxidized mainly to its acid, via 3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetaldehyde, by aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase with a lower contribution from xanthine oxidase.

  16. High-salt in addition to high-fat diet may enhance inflammation and fibrosis in liver steatosis induced by oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Yuzaburo; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Irie, Rie; Tejima, Kazuaki; Matsui, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Sayoko; Wang, Hong; Mu, ShengYu; Hirohama, Daigoro; Ando, Katsuyuki; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Yatomi, Yutaka; Fujita, Toshiro; Shimosawa, Tatsuo

    2015-02-13

    It is widely known that salt is an accelerating factor for the progression of metabolic syndrome and causes cardiovascular diseases, most likely due to its pro-oxidant properties. We hypothesized that excessive salt intake also facilitates the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is frequently associated with metabolic syndrome. We examined the exacerbating effect of high-salt diet on high-fat diet-induced liver injury in a susceptible model to oxidative stress, apoE knockout and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) transgenic mice. High-salt diet led to NASH in high-fat diet-fed LOX-1 transgenic/apoE knockout mice without affecting high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia or hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Additionally, a high-salt and high-fat diet stimulated oxidative stress production and inflammatory reaction to a greater extent than did a high-fat diet in the liver of LOX-1 transgenic/apoE knockout mice. We demonstrated that high-salt diet exacerbated NASH in high-fat diet-fed LOX-1 transgenic /apoE knockout mice and that this effect was associated with the stimulation of oxidative and inflammatory processes; this is the first study to suggest the important role of excessive salt intake in the development of NASH.

  17. Age-related effect of aerobic exercise training on antioxidant and oxidative markers in the liver challenged by doxorubicin in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Leicht, Anthony S

    2018-05-16

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the oxidant and antioxidant status of liver tissue challenged by doxorubicin and to examine the possible protective effects of aerobic exercise on doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Seventy-two rats were divided into three age groups (Young, Adult, and Elderly) with three treatment subgroups consisting of eight rats per age group: doxorubicin, aerobic exercise + doxorubicin, and aerobic exercise + saline. The experimental groups performed regular treadmill running for 3 weeks. Doxorubicin was administered by i.p. injection at a dosage of 20 mg kg -1 while the aerobic exercise + saline group received saline of a comparable volume. Heat shock protein 70, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, and protein carbonyl were determined from the liver homogenates following the intervention period. Treatment with doxorubicin induced hepatotoxicity in all groups with lower values of oxidative stress in young compared with the older groups. The inclusion of aerobic exercise training significantly increased heat shock protein 70 and antioxidant enzyme levels (glutathione peroxidase) whereas it decreased oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl) for all age groups. These results suggest that aerobic exercise training may be a potential, non-drug strategy to modulate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity through its positive impact on antioxidant levels and oxidative stress biomarkers.

  18. Effects of gallic acid on delta - aminolevulinic dehydratase activity and in the biochemical, histological and oxidative stress parameters in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lizielle Souza; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; Lopes, Thauan Faccin; Reichert, Karine Paula; de Oliveira, Juliana Sorraila; da Silva Pereira, Aline; Baldissareli, Jucimara; da Costa Krewer, Cristina; Morsch, Vera Maria; Chitolina Schetinger, Maria Rosa; Spanevello, Roselia Maria

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterised by hyperglycaemia associated with the increase of oxidative stress. Gallic acid has potent antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gallic acid on the biochemical, histological and oxidative stress parameters in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Male rats were divided in groups: control, gallic acid, diabetic and diabetic plus gallic acid. DM was induced in the animals by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65mg/kg). Gallic acid (30mg/kg) was administered orally for 21days. Our results showed an increase in reactive species levels and lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in the liver and kidney of the diabetic animals (P<0.05). Gallic acid treatment showed protective effects in these parameters evaluated, and also prevented a decrease in the activity of catalase and glutathione S-transferase, and vitamin C levels in the liver of diabetic rats. In addition, gallic acid reduced the number of nuclei and increased the area of the core in hepatic tissue, and increased the glomerular area in renal tissue. These results indicate that gallic acid can protect against oxidative stress-induced damage in the diabetic state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Filipendula ulmaria extracts attenuate cisplatin-induced liver and kidney oxidative stress in rats: In vivo investigation and LC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Katanić, Jelena; Matić, Sanja; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Kretschmer, Nadine; Boroja, Tatjana; Mihailović, Vladimir; Stanković, Vesna; Stanković, Nevena; Mladenović, Milan; Stanić, Snežana; Mihailović, Mirjana; Bauer, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Filipendula ulmaria, known as meadowsweet, is a perennial herb found in wild and cultivated habitats in Europe and Asia. Usage of F. ulmaria in traditional medicine is based on diuretic, astringent, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory properties of this plant. Exposure to cisplatin at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg caused significant increase in serum parameters of liver and kidneys function and tissue oxidative stress markers along with some histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues of experimental rats, as well as high level of genotoxicity. Administration of F. ulmaria extracts in three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) for 10 days resulted in a reduction of oxidative stress in tissues and decrease of serum parameters. Moreover, tested extracts attenuated the genotoxicity of cisplatin in reverse dose-dependent manner. F. ulmaria extracts had no in vitro cytotoxic activity at all applied concentrations (IC 50  > 50 μg/mL). Tested extracts, rich in polyphenolic compounds, attenuate cisplatin-induced liver and kidney oxidative stress, reduce tissue damage, and enhance the antioxidative status of experimental animals during cisplatin application. Therefore, F. ulmaria extracts may be used as supportive agent for the prevention and amelioration of cisplatin side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin and its metabolites induce liver injury through the activation of oxidative stress and proinflammatory gene expression in rats following acute and subchronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Aouey, Bakhta; Derbali, Mohamed; Chtourou, Yassine; Bouchard, Michèle; Khabir, Abdelmajid; Fetoui, Hamadi

    2017-02-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) [α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo-propanecarboxylate] is a synthetic type II pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in residential and agricultural areas. The potential hepatotoxicity of pyrethroids remains unclear and could easily be assessed by measuring common clinical indicators of liver disease. To understand more about the potential risks for humans associated with LTC exposure, male adult rats were orally exposed to 6.2 and 31.1 mg/kg bw of LTC for 7, 30, 45, and 60 days. Histopathological changes and alterations of main parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the liver were evaluated. Further, lambda-cyhalothrin metabolites [3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (CFMP), 4-hydroxyphenoxybenzoic acid (4-OH-3-PBA), and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA)] in the liver tissues were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadripole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-Q-ToF). Results revealed that LTC exposure significantly increased markers of hepatic oxidative stress in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, and this was associated with an accumulation of CFMP and 3-PBA in the liver tissues. In addition, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-6 and IL-1β) gene expressions were significantly increased in the liver of exposed rats compared to controls. Correlation analyses revealed that CFMP and 3-PBA metabolite levels in the liver tissues were significantly correlated with the indexes of oxidative stress, redox status, and inflammatory markers in rats exposed to lambda-cyhalothin. Overall, this study provided novel evidence that hepatic damage is likely due to increased oxidative stress and inflammation under the condition of acute and subchronic exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin and that LTC metabolites (CFMP and 3-PBA) could be used as

  1. Reperfusion does not induce oxidative stress but sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress in livers of rats subjected to traumatic-hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Duvigneau, Johanna Catharina; Kozlov, Andrey V; Zifko, Clara; Postl, Astrid; Hartl, Romana T; Miller, Ingrid; Gille, Lars; Staniek, Katrin; Moldzio, Rudolf; Gregor, Wolfgang; Haindl, Susanne; Behling, Tricia; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl

    2010-03-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to accompany reperfusion and to mediate dysfunction of the liver after traumatic-hemorrhagic shock (THS). Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been suggested as an additional factor. This study investigated whether reperfusion after THS leads to increased oxidative and/or ER stress in the liver. In a rat model, including laparotomy, bleeding until decompensation, followed by inadequate or adequate reperfusion phase, three time points were investigated: 40 min, 3 h, and 18 h after shock. The reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and its scavenging capacity (superoxide dismutase 2), the nitrotyrosine formation in proteins, and the lipid peroxidation together with the status of endogenous antioxidants (alpha-tocopherylquinone-alpha-tocopherol ratio) were investigated as markers for oxidative or nitrosylative stress. Mitochondrial function and cytochrome P450 isoform 1A1 activity were analyzed as representatives for hepatocyte function. Activation of the inositol-requiring enzyme 1/X-box binding protein pathway and up-regulation of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein were recorded as ER stress markers. Plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and Bax/Bcl-XL messenger RNA (mRNA) ratio were used as indicators for hepatocyte damage and apoptosis induction. Oxidative or nitrosylative stress markers or representatives of hepatocyte function were unchanged during and short after reperfusion (40 min, 3 h after shock). In contrast, ER stress markers were elevated and paralleled those of hepatocyte damage. Incidence for sustained ER stress and subsequent apoptosis induction were found at 18 h after shock. Thus, THS or reperfusion induces early and persistent ER stress of the liver, independent of oxidative or nitrosylative stress. Although ER stress was not associated with depressed hepatocyte function, it may act as an early trigger of protracted cell death, thereby contributing to delayed organ failure after THS.

  2. Effects of disturbed liver growth and oxidative stress of high-fat diet-fed dams on cholesterol metabolism in offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyoung; Kim, Juhae; Kwon, Young Hye

    2016-08-01

    Changes in nutritional status during gestation and lactation have detrimental effects on offspring metabolism. Several animal studies have shown that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) can predispose the offspring to development of obesity and metabolic diseases, however the mechanisms underlying these transgenerational effects are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effect of maternal HFD consumption on metabolic phenotype and hepatic expression of involved genes in dams to determine whether any of these parameters were associated with the metabolic outcomes in the offspring. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD: 10% calories from fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD: 45% calories from fat) for three weeks before mating, and during pregnancy and lactation. Dams and their male offspring were studied at weaning. Dams fed an HFD had significantly higher body and adipose tissue weights and higher serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels than dams fed an LFD. Hepatic lipid levels and mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including LXRα, SREBP-2, FXR, LDLR, and ABCG8 were significantly changed by maternal HFD intake. Significantly lower total liver DNA and protein contents were observed in dams fed an HFD, implicating the disturbed liver adaptation in the pregnancy-related metabolic demand. HFD feeding also induced significant oxidative stress in serum and liver of dams. Offspring of dams fed an HFD had significantly higher serum cholesterol levels, which were negatively correlated with liver weights of dams and positively correlated with hepatic lipid peroxide levels in dams. Maternal HFD consumption induced metabolic dysfunction, including altered liver growth and oxidative stress in dams, which may contribute to the disturbed cholesterol homeostasis in the early life of male mice offspring.

  3. Protective effects of dietary avocado oil on impaired electron transport chain function and exacerbated oxidative stress in liver mitochondria from diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Gallegos-Corona, Marco Alonso; Sánchez-Briones, Luis Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Campos-García, Jesús; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Electron transport chain (ETC) dysfunction, excessive ROS generation and lipid peroxidation are hallmarks of mitochondrial injury in the diabetic liver, with these alterations also playing a role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Enhanced mitochondrial sensitivity to lipid peroxidation during diabetes has been also associated to augmented content of C22:6 in membrane phospholipids. Thus, we aimed to test whether avocado oil, a rich source of C18:1 and antioxidants, attenuates the deleterious effects of diabetes on oxidative status of liver mitochondria by decreasing unsaturation of acyl chains of membrane lipids and/or by improving ETC functionality and decreasing ROS generation. Streptozocin-induced diabetes elicited a noticeable increase in the content of C22:6, leading to augmented mitochondrial peroxidizability index and higher levels of lipid peroxidation. Mitochondrial respiration and complex I activity were impaired in diabetic rats with a concomitant increase in ROS generation using a complex I substrate. This was associated to a more oxidized state of glutathione, All these alterations were prevented by avocado oil except by the changes in mitochondrial fatty acid composition. Avocado oil did not prevented hyperglycemia and polyphagia although did normalized hyperlipidemia. Neither diabetes nor avocado oil induced steatosis. These results suggest that avocado oil improves mitochondrial ETC function by attenuating the deleterious effects of oxidative stress in the liver of diabetic rats independently of a hypoglycemic effect or by modifying the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial membranes. These findings might have also significant implications in the progression of NAFLD in experimental models of steatosis.

  4. Silibinin Capsules improves high fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hamsters through modifying hepatic de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chun-Xue; Deng, Jing-Na; Yan, Li; Liu, Yu-Ying; Fan, Jing-Yu; Mu, Hong-Na; Sun, Hao-Yu; Wang, Ying-Hong; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-08-17

    Silibinin Capsules (SC) is a silybin-phospholipid complex with silybin as the bioactive component. Silybin accounts for 50-70% of the seed extract of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.. As a traditional medicine, silybin has been used for treatment of liver diseases and is known to provide a wide range of hepatoprotective effects. High fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a worldwide health problem. This study was to investigate the role of SC in NAFLD with focusing on its underlying mechanism and likely target. Male hamsters (Cricetidae) received HFD for 10 weeks to establish NAFLD model. NAFLD was assessed by biochemical assays, histology and immunohistochemistry. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and western blot were conducted to gain insight into the mechanism. Hamsters fed HFD for 10 weeks developed fatty liver accompanying with increased triglyceride (TG) accumulation, enhancing de novo lipogenesis, increase in fatty acid (FA) uptake and reducing FA oxidation and TG lipolysis, as well as a decrease in the expression of phospho-adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase α (p-AMPKα) and Sirt 1. SC treatment at 50mg/kg silybin and 100mg/kg silybin for 8 weeks protected hamsters from development of fatty liver, reducing de novo lipogenesis and increasing FA oxidation and p-AMPKα expression, while having no effect on FA uptake and TG lipolysis. SC protected against NAFLD in hamsters by inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and promotion of FA oxidation, which was likely mediated by activation of AMPKα. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cav-1 deficiency promotes liver fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mice by regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation responses.

    PubMed

    Ji, De-Gang; Zhang, Yan; Yao, Song-Mei; Zhai, Xu-Jie; Zhang, Li-Rong; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Li, Hui

    2018-06-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), as a membrane protein involved in the formation of caveolae, binds steroid receptors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, limiting its translocation and activation. In the present study, we investigated the role of Cav-1 in the progression of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in murine animals. Therefore, the wild type (WT) and Cav-1-knockout (Cav-1 -/- ) mice were used in our study and subjected to CCl 4 . The results indicated that CCl 4 induced the decrease of Cav-1 expression in liver tissue samples. And Cav-1 -/- intensified CCl 4 -triggered hepatic injury, evidenced by the stronger hepatic histological alterations, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and liver terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. CCl 4 led to oxidative stress, supported by the reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels, as well as enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) and O 2 - levels in liver samples. And the process was intensified by Cav-1 -/- . Additionally, CCl 4 -caused hepatic inflammation was aggregated by Cav-1 -/- via further increasing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, CCl 4 -caused fibrosis was strengthened by Cav-1 -/- , which was evidenced by the up-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen alpha 1 type 1 (Col1A1), lysyl oxidase (Lox) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in liver tissues. Similar results were observed in TGF-β1-stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and LX-2 cells without Cav-1 expressions that in vitro, suppressing Cav-1 further accelerated TGF-β1-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis development. In conclusion, our results indicated that Cav-1 played an important role in CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury, which may be used as potential therapeutic target for hepatic fibrosis treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Graphene oxide/polyethyleneglycol composite coated stir bar for sorptive extraction of fluoroquinolones from chicken muscle and liver.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenying; He, Man; Wu, Xiaoran; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-10-30

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an ideal adsorbent for polar and less polar compounds due to its hexagonal carbon network structure with oxygen-containing groups, while its strong hydrophilicity and water solubility limited its application in sample pretreatment techniques. Herein, GO was composited with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) or polyaniline (PAN) through intermolecular interactions to improve its stability, and the GO/PEG and GO/PAN composite coated stir bars were prepared by sol-gel technique. Compared with GO/PAN composite and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated stir bar, the prepared GO/PEG composite coated stir bar exhibited higher extraction efficiency for five fluoroquinolones (FQs). Based on it, a method of GO/PEG composite coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) was proposed. The factors influencing SBSE, such as sample pH, salt effect, stirring rate, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time, were optimized, and the analytical performance of the developed SBSE-HPLC-FLD method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) for five FQs were in the range of 0.0045-0.0079μgL(-1), and the enrichment factors (EFs) were in the range of 41.5-65.5-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 100-fold). The reproducibility was also investigated at concentrations of 0.05μgL(-1) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) were found to be in the range of 4.6-12.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of FQs in chicken muscle and chicken liver samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Precision-Cut Liver Slices of Salmo salar as a tool to investigate the oxidative impact of CYP1A-mediated PCB 126 and 3-methylcholanthrene metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Beck, Michaël; Jaspart, Mélanie; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Rees, Jean-François

    2011-02-01

    Fish isolated cell systems have long been used to predict in vivo toxicity of man-made chemicals. In present study, we tested the suitability of Precision-Cut Liver Slices (PCLS) as an alternative to these models that allows the evaluation of a global tissue response to toxicants, to investigate oxidative stress response to cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction in fish liver. PCLS of Salmo salar were exposed for 21 h to increasing doses of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and Polychlorobiphenyl 126 (PCB 126). 3-MC (25 μM) strongly induced CYP1A transcription. In dose-response analysis (25-100 μM), EROD activity was strongly increased at intermediate 3-MC concentrations. We found the counter-intuitive decline of EROD at the highest 3-MC doses to result from reversible competition with ethoxyresorufin. No increases of H(2)O(2) production, antioxidant enzymes activities or oxidative damage to lipids were found with 3-MC treatments. PCLS subjected to PCB 126 (2-200 nM) showed increased contamination levels and a parallel increased CYP1A mRNA synthesis and EROD activity. H(2)O(2) production tended to increase but no oxidative damage to lipids was found. As antioxidant enzymes activities declined at the highest PCB 126 dose, it is suggested that longer incubation periods could be required to generate oxidative stress in PCLS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protective activity of Panduratin A against Thioacetamide-induced oxidative damage: demonstration with in vitro experiments using WRL-68 liver cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chalcone Panduratin A (PA) has been known for its antioxidant property, but its merits against oxidative damage in liver cells has yet to be investigated. Hence, the paper aimed at accomplishing this task with normal embryonic cell line WRL-68. Methods PA was isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda rhizomes and its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) activities were measured in comparison with that of the standard reference drug Silymarin (SI). Oxidative damage was induced by treating the cells with 0.04 g/ml of toxic thioacetamide for 60 minutes followed by treatment with 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml concentrations of either PA or SI. The severities of oxidative stress in the control and experimental groups of cells were measured by Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Results PA exhibited an acceptable DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities close to that of Silymarin. Treating the injured cells with PA significantly reduced the MDA level and increased the cell viability, comparable to SI. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly elevated in the PA-treated cells in a dose dependent manner and again similar to SI. Conclusion Collectively, data suggested that PA has capacity to protect normal liver cells from oxidative damage, most likely via its antioxidant scavenging ability. PMID:24156366

  9. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using new negative per-oral contrast agent based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for extrahepatic biliary duct visualization in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Polakova, Katerina; Mocikova, Ingrid; Purova, Dana; Tucek, Pavel; Novak, Pavel; Novotna, Katerina; Izak, Niko; Bielik, Radoslav; Zboril, Radek; Miroslav, Herman

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is often used for imaging of the biliary tree and is required by surgeons before liver transplantation. Advanced liver cirrhosis and ascites in patients however present diagnostic problems for MRCP. The aim of this study was to find out if the use of our negative per-oral contrast agent containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) in MRCP is helpful for imaging of hepatobiliary tree in patients with liver cirrhosis. Forty patients with liver cirrhosis were examined on a 1.5 T MR unit using standard MRCP protocol. Twenty patients (group A) underwent MRCP after administration of per-oral SPIO contrast agent 30 min before examination. In group B, twenty patients were examined without per-oral bowel preparation. Ascites was present in eleven patients from group A and in thirteen patients in group B. Four radiologists analyzed MR images for visibility and delineation of the biliary tree. χ 2 tests were used for comparison of the visibility of intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ducts in patients with and without ascites. Better extrahepatic biliary duct visualization and visibility of extraluminal pathologies in patients with ascites was proved after administration of SPIO contrast agent. No statistically significant difference between group A and B was found for visualization of extrahepatic biliary ducts in patients without ascites. Delineation of intrahepatic biliary ducts was independent on bowel preparation. Application of our negative per-oral SPIO contrast agent before MRCP improves the visualization of extrahepatic biliary ducts in patients with ascites which is helpful during the liver surgery, mainly in liver transplantation.

  10. Cardamom powder supplementation prevents obesity, improves glucose intolerance, inflammation and oxidative stress in liver of high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Alam, Mohammad Nazmul; Ulla, Anayt; Sumi, Farzana Akther; Subhan, Nusrat; Khan, Trisha; Sikder, Bishwajit; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2017-08-14

    Cardamom is a well-known spice in Indian subcontinent, used in culinary and traditional medicine practices since ancient times. The current investigation was untaken to evaluate the potential benefit of cardamom powder supplementation in high carbohydrate high fat (HCHF) diet induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats (28 rats) were divided into four different groups such as Control, Control + cardamom, HCHF, HCHF + cardamom. High carbohydrate and high fat (HCHF) diet was prepared in our laboratory. Oral glucose tolerance test, organs wet weight measurements and oxidative stress parameters analysis as well as liver marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were assayed on the tissues collected from the rats. Plasma lipids profiles were also measured in all groups of animals. Moreover, histological staining was also performed to evaluate inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in liver. The current investigation showed that, HCHF diet feeding in rats developed glucose intolerance and increased peritoneal fat deposition compared to control rats. Cardamom powder supplementation improved the glucose intolerance significantly (p > 0.05) and prevented the abdominal fat deposition in HCHF diet fed rats. HCHF diet feeding in rats also developed dyslipidemia, increased fat deposition and inflammation in liver compared to control rats. Cardamom powder supplementation significantly prevented the rise of lipid parameters (p > 0.05) in HCHF diet fed rats. Histological assessments confirmed that HCHF diet increased the fat deposition and inflammatory cells infiltration in liver which was normalized by cardamom powder supplementation in HCHF diet fed rats. Furthermore, HCHF diet increased lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant enzymes activities and increased advanced protein oxidation product level significantly (p > 0.05) both in plasma and liver tissue which were modulated by

  11. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury in rats and mice: Comparison of protein adducts, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the mechanism of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Williams, C. David; Xie, Yuchao

    2012-11-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the West. In mice, APAP hepatotoxicity can be rapidly induced with a single dose. Because it is both clinically relevant and experimentally convenient, APAP intoxication has become a popular model of liver injury. Early data demonstrated that rats are resistant to APAP toxicity. As a result, mice are the preferred species for mechanistic studies. Furthermore, recent work has shown that the mechanisms of APAP toxicity in humans are similar to mice. Nevertheless, some investigators still use rats. New mechanistic information from the last forty years invites amore » reevaluation of the differences between these species. Comparison may provide interesting insights and confirm or exclude the rat as an option for APAP studies. To this end, we treated rats and mice with APAP and measured parameters of liver injury, APAP metabolism, oxidative stress, and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Consistent with earlier data, we found that rats were highly resistant to APAP toxicity. Although overall APAP metabolism was similar in both species, mitochondrial protein adducts were significantly lower in rats. Accordingly, rats also had less oxidative stress. Finally, while mice showed extensive activation and mitochondrial translocation of JNK, this could not be detected in rat livers. These data support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is critical for the development of necrosis after APAP treatment. Because mitochondrial damage also occurs in humans, rats are not a clinically relevant species for studies of APAP hepatotoxicity. Highlights: ► Acetaminophen overdose causes severe liver injury only in mice but not in rats. ► APAP causes hepatic GSH depletion and protein adduct formation in rats and mice. ► Less protein adducts were measured in rat liver mitochondria compared to mouse. ► No oxidant stress, peroxynitrite formation or JNK activation was present in rats

  12. Extra Virgin Olive Oil Reduced Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and Cholesterol Oxidation in Rodent Liver: Is This Accounted for Hydroxytyrosol-Fatty Acid Conjugation?

    PubMed

    Lee, Yiu Yiu; Crauste, Céline; Wang, Hualin; Leung, Ho Hang; Vercauteren, Joseph; Galano, Jean-Marie; Oger, Camille; Durand, Thierry; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung

    2016-10-17

    The effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced oxidative stress in rats were determined by the generation of isoprostanoids. These are known to be robust biomarkers to evaluate nonenzymatic and free radical related oxidation. Other oxidative stress biomarkers such as hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products (HETEs) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were also determined. The rodents received a control diet, high-fat diet (20% w/w) composed of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), corn oil (CO), or lard, and high-fat diets with CCl 4 insult throughout the experimental period. The EVOO diet was found to suppress the formation of isoprostanoids and COPs compared to that of the control. EVOO also had a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity compared to those of CO and lard and may be contributed to by the hydroxytyrosol component conjugated to fatty acids (HT-FA). This is the first study to identify HT-FA in EVOO, and it was 4-fold higher than that of olive oil, whereas none was found in corn oil. Furthermore, the EVOO diet showed reduced liver lipid vesicles in CCl 4 treated rats compared to that of the control. However, liver toxicity measurements of AST (aspartate transaminase) and ALT (alanine transaminase) activities showed augmentation with CCl 4 treatment but were not alleviated by the diets given. Our findings suggest that EVOO is a daily functional food capable of enhancing the antioxidant system for liver protection; the effect is potentially attributed to the phenolic and lipophenolic (phenol conjugated by fatty acids) content.

  13. Silymarin modulates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress, Bcl-xL and p53 expression while preventing apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Nirav; Joseph, Cecil; Corcoran, George B.

    2010-06-01

    The emergence of silymarin (SMN) as a natural remedy for liver diseases, coupled with its entry into NIH clinical trial, signifies its hepatoprotective potential. SMN is noted for its ability to interfere with apoptotic signaling while acting as an antioxidant. This in vivo study was designed to explore the hepatotoxic potential of Doxorubicin (Dox), the well-known cardiotoxin, and in particular whether pre-exposures to SMN can prevent hepatotoxicity by reducing Dox-induced free radical mediated oxidative stress, by modulating expression of apoptotic signaling proteins like Bcl-xL, and by minimizing liver cell death occurring by apoptosis or necrosis. Groups of male ICR micemore » included Control, Dox alone, SMN alone, and Dox with SMN pre/co-treatment. Control and Dox groups received saline i.p. for 14 days. SMN was administered p.o. for 14 days at 16 mg/kg/day. An approximate LD{sub 50} dose of Dox, 60 mg/kg, was administered i.p. on day 12 to animals receiving saline or SMN. Animals were euthanized 48 h later. Dox alone induced frank liver injury (> 50-fold increase in serum ALT) and oxidative stress (> 20-fold increase in malondialdehyde [MDA]), as well as direct damage to DNA (> 15-fold increase in DNA fragmentation). Coincident genomic damage and oxidative stress influenced genomic stability, reflected in increased PARP activity and p53 expression. Decreases in Bcl-xL protein coupled with enhanced accumulation of cytochrome c in the cytosol accompanied elevated indexes of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Significantly, SMN exposure reduced Dox hepatotoxicity and associated apoptotic and necrotic cell death. The effects of SMN on Dox were broad, including the ability to modulate changes in both Bcl-xL and p53 expression. In animals treated with SMN, tissue Bcl-xL expression exceeded control values after Dox treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrated that SMN (i) reduced, delayed onset, or prevented toxic effects of Dox which are typically

  14. Rutin exhibits hepatoprotective effects in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by reducing hepatic lipid levels and mitigating lipid-induced oxidative injuries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingsheng; Pan, Ran; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Fuli; Hu, Linfeng; Ding, Bin; Zhu, Linwensi; Xia, Yongliang; Dou, Xiaobing

    2017-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive accumulation of hepatic lipids and oxidative injury of hepatocytes. Rutin is a natural flavonoid with significant roles in combating cellular oxidative stress and regulating lipid metabolism. The current study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying rutin's hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Rutin treatment was applied to male C57BL/6 mice maintained on a high-fat diet and HepG2 cells challenged with oleic acid. Hepatic lipid accumulation was evaluated by triglyceride assay and Oil Red O staining. Oxidative hepatic injury was assessed by malondialdehyde assay, superoxide dismutase assay and reactive oxygen species assay. The expression levels of various lipogenic and lipolytic genes were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. In addition, liver autophagy was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In both fat-challenged murine liver tissues and HepG2 cells, rutin treatment was shown to significantly lower triglyceride content and the abundance of lipid droplets. Rutin was also found to reduce cellular malondialdehyde level and restore superoxide dismutase activity in hepatocytes. Among the various lipid-related genes, rutin treatment was able to restore the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) and its downstream targets, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and 2 (CPT-1 and CPT-2), while suppressing those of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), diglyceride acyltransfase 1 and 2 (DGAT-1 and 2), as well as acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, rutin was shown to repress the autophagic function of liver tissues by down-regulating key autophagy biomarkers, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The experimental data demonstrated that rutin could reduce triglyceride content and mitigate oxidative injuries in fat

  15. Effects of Long-Chain and Medium-Chain Fatty Acids on Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress in Human Liver Cells with Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baogui; Li, Lumin; Fu, Jing; Yu, Ping; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling

    2016-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with obesity-related metabolic complications, which caused by excess energy intake and physical inactivity apart from genetic defects. The mechanisms that promote disease progression from NAFLD to further liver injury are still unclear. We hypothesize that the progression involved "2nd hit" is strongly influenced by the type of fatty acids in diets. Flow cytometric analysis showed that medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) markedly decreased the percentage of late apoptotic and necrotic cells compared with long-chain fatty acid (LCFA), and MCFA inhibited the activities of caspase-3 and -9 in human liver cells with steatosis. Western blot analysis found that the levels of inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1-β, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were substantially reduced by MCFA compared with LCFA. Proteomic analysis further showed that LCFA inhibited the expression of antioxidant enzymes, and increased the expression of proteins associated with oxidative stress. It was found that LCFA (palmitate), not MCFA induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory responses in the hepatic cells with steatosis. In conclusion, reasonable selection of dietary fats has potential to translate therapeutically by ameliorating disease progression in patients with NAFLD. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. A hot water extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa) suppresses acute ethanol-induced liver injury in mice by inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Uchio, Ryusei; Higashi, Yohei; Kohama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Kengo; Hirao, Takashi; Muroyama, Koutarou; Murosaki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is a widely used spice that has various biological effects, and aqueous extracts of turmeric exhibit potent antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Bisacurone, a component of turmeric extract, is known to have similar effects. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ethanol-induced liver injury. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of a hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) or bisacurone on acute ethanol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered WEC (20 mg/kg body weight; BW) or bisacurone (60 µg/kg BW) at 30 min before a single dose of ethanol was given by oral administration (3·0 g/kg BW). Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased in ethanol-treated mice, while the increase of these enzymes was significantly suppressed by prior administration of WEC. The increase of alanine aminotransferase was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bisacurone. Compared with control mice, animals given WEC had higher hepatic tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as lower hepatic tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TNF-α protein and IL-6 mRNA. These results suggest that oral administration of WEC may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing hepatic oxidation and inflammation, at least partly through the effects of bisacurone.

  17. The impact of urban environment on oxidative damage (TBARS) and antioxidant systems in lungs and liver of great tits, Parus major.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, C; Sturve, J; Almroth, B C; Andersson, S

    2009-01-01

    A direct negative link between human health and urban pollution levels generated by increased internal levels of oxyradicals is well established. The impact of urban environment on the physiology of wild birds is however, poorly investigated. Here we compare oxidative damage (i.e., lipid peroxidation, measured as TBARS) and different antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT)) in lungs of urban and rural great tits, Parus major. In addition, we investigated enzymatic (i.e., CAT) and non-enzymatic (i.e., carotenoids) antioxidant levels in liver tissue. There was no significant difference in lipid peroxidation in lungs between the environments. Among the antioxidant enzymes measured in lungs, only CAT showed a tendency towards increased activity in the urban environment. In contrast, CAT in livers was highly non-significant. However, there was a significantly higher concentration of dietary carotenoids (i.e., lutein (Lut) and zeaxanthin (Zx)) in urban males, along with a sex-specific difference in composition (Lut:Zx ratio) between the environments. Taken together, these results suggest that great tit lungs and livers do not seem to be negatively affected, regarding oxidative stress, by living in an urban environment.

  18. Baicalin Ameliorates Liver Injury Induced by Chronic plus Binge Ethanol Feeding by Modulating Oxidative Stress and Inflammation via CYP2E1 and NRF2 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    He, Ping; Wu, Yafeng; Shun, Jianchao; Liang, Yaodong; Cheng, Mingliang

    2017-01-01

    Alcoholic liver injury leads to serious complication including death. The potential role of baicalin at the transcription level in mice model of alcohol injury is not known yet. In this study, we examined the effect of baicalin against chronic plus binge ethanol model in mice and understanding the mechanism of protection. Liver function, histology, steatosis, inflammation, NF-κB activity, oxidative stress sources, nuclear translocation of NRF2 transcription factor, and cell death were assessed. Treatment with baicalin ameliorated ethanol-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death. Baicalin attenuated ethanol-induced proinflammatory molecules such as TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-2, and MCP-1 and reversed redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB activation. Baicalin also modulated Kupffer cell activation in vitro. Baicalin inhibited ethanol-induced expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating enzymes NOX2, p67phox, xanthine oxidase, and iNOS in addition to CYP2E1 activities. Baicalin also enhanced ethanol-induced NRF2 nuclear translocation and increased downstream target gene HO-1 as antioxidant defense. Finally, baicalin reduced significant apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Our study suggests that baicalin ameliorates chronic plus binge ethanol-induced liver injury involving molecular crosstalk of multiple pathways at the transcriptional level and through upregulation of antioxidant defense mechanism. PMID:28951767

  19. Protective action of the immunomodulator ginsan against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury via control of oxidative stress and the inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Ji-Young; Kim, Mi-Hyoung; Kim, Hyung-Doo

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate immunomodulator ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced liver injury. BALB/c mice were injected i.p. with ginsan 24 h prior to CCl{sub 4} administration. Serum liver enzyme levels, histology, expression of antioxidant enzymes, and several cytokines/chemokines were subsequently evaluated. Ginsan treatment markedly suppressed the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and hepatic histological necrosis increased by CCl{sub 4} treatment. Ginsan inhibited CCl{sub 4} induced lipid peroxidation through the cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) downregulation. The hepatoprotective effect of ginsan was attributed to induction ofmore » anti-oxidant protein contents, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as well as restoration of the hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentration. The marked increase of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IFN-gamma) and chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-2beta, KC) in CCl{sub 4} treated mice was additionally attenuated by ginsan, thereby preventing leukocyte infiltration and local inflammation. Our results suggest that ginsan effectively prevent liver injury, mainly through downregulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response.« less

  20. Tissue-specific induction of oxidative stress in goldfish by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: mild in brain and moderate in liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Matviishyn, Tetiana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Husak, Viktor V; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on free radical-related processes in tissues of goldfish given 96 h exposures to 1, 10 or 100 mg/L of 2,4-D as well as 96 h recovery from the 100 mg/L treatment. In liver, 2,4-D exposure increased levels of protein carbonyls and lipid peroxides by 36-53% and 24-43%, respectively, but both parameters reverted during recovery, whereas in brain glutathione status improved in response to 2,4-D. Lipid peroxide content in kidney was enhanced by 40-43% after exposure to 2,4-D with a decrease during recovery. Exposure to 2,4-D also reduced liver acetylcholinesterase activity by 31-41%. The treatment increased catalase activity in brain, but returned it to initial levels after recovery. In kidney, exposure to 100 mg/L of 2,4-D caused a 33% decrease of superoxide dismutase activity. Thus, goldfish exposure to 2,4-D induced moderate oxidative stress in liver and kidney and mild oxidative stress in brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pomegranate protects liver against cecal ligation and puncture-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats through TLR4/NF-κB pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Makled, Mirhan N; El-Awady, Mohammed S; Abdelaziz, Rania R; Atwan, Nadia; Guns, Emma T; Gameil, Nariman M; Shehab El-Din, Ahmed B; Ammar, Elsayed M

    2016-04-01

    Acute liver injury secondary to sepsis is a major challenge in intensive care unit. This study was designed to investigate potential protective effects of pomegranate against sepsis-induced acute liver injury in rats and possible underlying mechanisms. Pomegranate was orally given (800mg/kg/day) for two weeks before sepsis induction by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Pomegranate improved survival and attenuated liver inflammatory response, likely related to downregulation of mRNA expression of toll like recptor-4, reduced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB subunit p65, decreased mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduction in myeloperoxidase activity and mRNA expression. Pomegranate also decreased CLP-induced oxidative stress as reflected by decreased malondialdehyde content, and increased reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity. These results confirm the antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects of pomegranate in CLP-induced acute liver injury mediated through inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB pathway, lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the combination of metformin hydrochloride and melatonin on oxidative stress before and during pregnancy, and biochemical and histopathological analysis of the livers of rats after treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Ana Janaina Jeanine M.; Unit of Medical and Health Sciences, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande; Peixoto, Christina A.

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a combination of metformin hydrochloride and melatonin on oxidative stress together with a biochemical and histopathological analysis of the livers of Wistar rats induced with PCOS. The results indicated that a combination of the drugs was more effective in the reduction of plasmatic levels of liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, nitric oxide and total glutathione, and decreased the inflammatory response and histopathological damage, producing results that were significantly similar to animals from the control group. A mixture of the drugs produced more effective results against liver toxicity caused bymore » PCOS, encouraging the normalization of biochemical parameters. During pregnancy, there was reduced oxidative stress compared to monotherapeutic use of these drugs. Interestingly, the combination of the drugs caused a physiological reaction similar to responses identified in healthy rats without induction of the PCOS control group. However, the clinical and physiological effectiveness of the combination should be further explored, especially with respect to the possible side effects on offspring. - Highlights: • Studies have documented increased oxidative stress in patients with PCOS. • It has been noted that women with PCOS have a high prevalence of liver alterations. • Liver disease in pregnancy may be pre-existing increasing the newborn mortality. • Metformin/melatonin associated reduced oxidative stress in liver in pregnant rats. • Association of metformin/melatonin normalizes hepatic biochemical parameters.« less

  3. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  4. Effects of Melatonin, Aluminum Oxide, and Polymethylsiloxane Complex on the Expression of LYVE-1 in the Liver of Mice with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Michurina, S V; Ishchenko, I Yu; Arkhipov, S A; Klimontov, V V; Rachkovskaya, L N; Konenkov, V I; Zavyalov, E L

    2016-12-01

    The effects of melatonin, aluminum oxide, and polymethylsiloxane complex on the expression of LYVE-1 (lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor) in the liver were studied in db/db mice with experimental obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The complex or placebo was administered daily by gavage from week 8 to week 16 of life. The animals receiving the complex exhibited enhanced, in comparison with the placebo group, immunohistochemical LYVE-1+ staining of endothelial cells in sinusoids. Enhanced expression of LYVE-1 was associated with less pronounced dilatation of interlobular arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels. Thee findings suggest a protective effect of the complex towards structural changes in the liver of mice with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  5. Improvement in Serum Biochemical Alterations and Oxidative Stress of Liver and Pancreas following Use of Royal Jelly in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on serum biochemical alterations and oxidative stress status in liver and pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats. In this experimental study, thirty two male Wistar rats were divided into the following four groups (n=8/group): i. Control (C), ii. Diabetic (D), iii. Royal jelly (R), and iv. Royal jelly-treated diabetic (D/R) groups. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The RJ [100 mg/kg body weight (BW)] was administered orally for 42 days. Blood samples were used to determine serum levels of insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), total protein (TP), albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and fasting blood glucose (FBG). Also, the antioxidant status was evaluated by determining the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in liver and pancreas. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with P<0.05 as the significant level. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed a significant elevation in the serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and FBG, whereas there was a significant decrease in serum levels of insulin, albumin, HDL-c and TP (P<0.05). Treatment of the diabetic rats with RJ restored the changes of the above parameters to their normal levels (P<0.05). In addition, RJ significantly improved reduced levels of FRAP and CAT as well as high MDA level in liver and pancreas (P<0.05). RJ improves oxidative damage induced by STZ in the liver and pancreas of rats; therefore, it can be considered as an effective and alternative treatment for diabetes.

  6. Chiral separation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) enantiomers using batch chromatography with peak shaving recycling and its effects on oxidative stress status in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Tiago C; Bósio, Graziela C; Cassiano, Neila M; Cass, Quezia B; Moreau, Regina L M

    2013-01-25

    This work reports the multimiligram separation of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) enantiomers using batch chromatography with peak shaving recycling. The effect of both enantiomers compared to the racemic mixture was examined on the oxidative stress status of rat liver. The enantiomeric purification was performed using a based cyclodextrin chiral selector and methanol:ammonium acetate buffer (pH 6.0, 100mM) (30:70, v/v) as mobile phase. The average mass rate obtained was 40.0mg/day, providing 45.0mg of the (R)-(-)-MDMA (e.r. 99.0%) and 75.0mg (e.r. 96.0%) of (S)-(+)-MDMA. Racemic MDMA and both enantiomers were administered per orally to Wistar rats and oxidative stress status parameters, as liver total glutathione levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in liver were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in hepatic glutathione content in the racemic MDMA and the (R)-(-)-MDMA-treated rats when compared to the control and to (S)-(+)-MDMA. These results demonstrate that the R-enantiomer is the enantiomer that contributes to the depletion of hepatic glutathione induced by the racemic mixture. The high reactivity of the R-enantiomer of MDMA in the liver can also be observed in animals treated with (R)-(-)-MDMA. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) by (R)-(-)-MDMA was significantly higher when compared to the other treated groups and control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement in Serum Biochemical Alterations and Oxidative Stress of Liver and Pancreas following Use of Royal Jelly in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on serum biochemical alterations and oxidative stress status in liver and pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, thirty two male Wistar rats were divided into the following four groups (n=8/group): i. Control (C), ii. Diabetic (D), iii. Royal jelly (R), and iv. Royal jelly-treated diabetic (D/R) groups. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The RJ [100 mg/kg body weight (BW)] was administered orally for 42 days. Blood samples were used to determine serum levels of insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), total protein (TP), albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and fasting blood glucose (FBG). Also, the antioxidant status was evaluated by determining the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in liver and pancreas. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with P<0.05 as the significant level. Results STZ-induced diabetic rats showed a significant elevation in the serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and FBG, whereas there was a significant decrease in serum levels of insulin, albumin, HDL-c and TP (P<0.05). Treatment of the diabetic rats with RJ restored the changes of the above parameters to their normal levels (P<0.05). In addition, RJ significantly improved reduced levels of FRAP and CAT as well as high MDA level in liver and pancreas (P<0.05). Conclusion RJ improves oxidative damage induced by STZ in the liver and pancreas of rats; therefore, it can be considered as an effective and alternative treatment for diabetes. PMID:27602318

  8. The effects of N-acetylcysteine and epigallocatechin-3-gallate on liver tissue protein oxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels after the exposure to radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Ozgur, Elcin; Sahin, Duygu; Tomruk, Arin; Guler, Goknur; Sepici Dinçel, Aylin; Altan, Nilgun; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2015-02-01

    The widespread and sustained use of mobile and cordless phones causes unprecedented increase of radiofrequency radiation (RFR). The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-modulated RFR (average whole body Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of 0.4 W/kg, 10 or 20 min daily for consecutive 7 days) to the liver tissue of guinea pigs and the protective effects of antioxidant treatments. Adult male guinea pigs were randomly divided into nine groups as: Group I (sham/saline), Group II (sham/EGCG), Group III (sham/NAC), Group IV (10-min RF-exposure/saline), Group V (20-min RF-exposure/saline), Group VI (10-min RF-exposure/EGCG), Group VII (20-min RF-exposure/EGCG), Group VIII (10-min RF-exposure/NAC), and Group IX (20-min RF-exposure/NAC). Protein oxidation (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were evaluated after the exposure and the treatments with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Significant decreases in the activities of SOD were observed in the liver of guinea pigs after RFR exposure. Protein damage did not change due to RFR exposure. On the other hand, only NAC treatment induced increased PCO levels, whereas EGCG treatment alone elevated the level of AOPP. Due to antioxidants having pro-oxidant behavior, the well decided doses and treatment timetables of NAC and ECGC are needed.

  9. Use of recovered frying oils in chicken and rabbit feeds: effect on the fatty acid and tocol composition and on the oxidation levels of meat, liver and plasma.

    PubMed

    Tres, A; Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Nuchi, C D; Magrinyà, N; Codony, R

    2013-03-01

    The addition of some fat co- and by-products to feeds is usual nowadays; however, the regulations of their use are not always clear and vary between countries. For instance, the use of recycled cooking oils is not allowed in the European Union, but they are used in other countries. However, oils recovered from industrial frying processes could show satisfactory quality for this purpose. Here we studied the effects of including oils recovered from the frying industry in rabbit and chicken feeds (at 30 and 60 g/kg, respectively) on the fatty acid (FA) and tocol (tocopherol + tocotrienol) compositon of meat, liver and plasma, and on their oxidative stability. Three dietary treatments (replicated eight times) were compared: fresh non-used oil (LOX); oil discarded from the frying industry, having a high content of secondary oxidation compounds (HOX); and an intermediate level (MOX) obtained by mixing 50 : 50 of LOX and HOX. The FA composition of oil diets and tissues was assessed by GC, their tocol content by HPLC, the thiobarbituric acid value was used to assess tissue oxidation status, and the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange method was used to assess the susceptibility of tissues to oxidation. Our results indicate that FA composition of rabbit and chicken meat, liver and plasma was scarcely altered by the addition of recovered frying oils to feed. Differences were encountered in the FA composition between species, which might be attributed mainly to differences in the FA digestion, absorption and metabolism between species, and to some physiological dietary factors (i.e. coprophagy in rabbits that involves fermentation with FA structure modification). The α-tocopherol (αT) content of tissues was reduced in response to the lower αT content in the recovered frying oil. Differences in the content of other tocols were encountered between chickens and rabbits, which might be attributable to the different tocol composition of their feeds, as well as to species

  10. Sesquiterpenoids from the root of Panax Ginseng protect CCl4-induced acute liver injury by anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capabilities in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weidong; Wang, Shijie; Liu, Jinping; Cai, Enbo; Zhu, Hongyan; He, Zhongmei; Gao, Yugang; Li, Pingya; Zhao, Yan

    2018-06-01

    The oxidative stress and inflammatory response play an important role in carbon tetracholoride (CCl 4 )-induced acute liver injury. In this work, sesquiterpenoids from the root of Panax Ginseng (SPG) were prepared, and then the hepatoprotective effects of SPG against CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury were investigated and the underlying mechanism was explored in mice. All mice were divided into four groups: the control, CCl 4 and SPG (2.5 and 10 mg/kg, dissolved in soybean oil, i.g.) groups. All mice were given continuous administration for 7 days, and injected with CCl 4 (0.1 mL/10 g body weight 0.2% CCl 4 solution in soybean oil, i.p.) 1 h after the end of the administration except the control group. Mice were sacrificed 24 h post-CCl 4 injection. The results indicated that SPG significantly reduced the increasement of serum AST and ALT levels induced by CCl 4 -treatment. And the histopathological analysis revealed that SPG treated mice had normal liver architecture and no necrosis. The decreased activities of SOD, GSH and CAT, and increased MDA level were inhibited by SPG treatment. At the same time, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly decreased by SPG treatment. SPG treatment also reduced the heptic protein expressions of NF-κB p65, COX-2, MAPK p38, ERK and JNK in the liver. These fingdings demonstrated that SPG exhibited strong hepatoprective effect on the CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury, which was related to anti-oxidantive and anti-inflammatory capabilities; and the anti-inflammatory effect of SPG might mediated by the NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways. Taken together, SPG might be a potential material for drug and functional food development against chemical hepatic injury. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roversi, Katiane; Benvegnú, Dalila M.; Roversi, Karine; Trevizol, Fabíola; Vey, Luciana T.; Elias, Fabiana; Fracasso, Rafael; Motta, Mariana H.; Ribeiro, Roseane F.; dos S. Hausen, Bruna; Moresco, Rafael N.; Garcia, Solange C.; da Silva, Cristiane B.; Burger, Marilise E.

    2015-04-01

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups ( n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  12. Alterations in microsomal electron transport, oxidative N-demethylation and azo-dye cleavage in carbon tetrachloride and dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Smuckler, E. A.; Arrhenius, E.; Hultin, T.

    1967-01-01

    The effect of administration of carbon tetrachloride and dimethylnitrosamine in vivo on hepatic microsomal function related to drug metabolism was measured. It was found that the capacity of isolated microsomes to demethylate dimethylaniline was diminished during the first hour after carbon tetrachloride poisoning and during the second hour after dimethylnitrosamine poisoning. Thereafter the microsomes from carbon tetrachloride-poisoned livers showed a continuous decline in activity so that at 24hr. there was little residual capacity to undertake demethylation. Microsomes from dimethylnitrosamine-poisoned animals were not different from controls at 24hr. During the first 3hr. there was a transient rise in the accumulation of the N-oxide intermediate in carbon tetrachloride-poisoned livers, with a subsequent fall to below control values. In dimethylnitrosamine poisoning there was a parallel decrease in N-oxide accumulation with decreased demethylation. In the latter part of the first 24hr. the ratio of N-oxide accumulation to demethylation was increased in both instances. At 2hr. after poisoning with either compound there was no evidence of altered NADPH2-dependent neotetrazolium reduction or lipid peroxidation. NADPH2-dependent azo-dye cleavage was decreased. There was no difference in microsomal cytochrome b5 content, but there was a decrease in the amount of cytochrome P-450. This latter change was correlated with the decreased capacity for NADPH2-dependent oxidative demethylation. It is suggested that dimethylnitrosamine is associated with a defect in microsomal NADPH2-dependent electron transport at the level of cytochrome P-450. In addition to affecting cytochrome P-450, carbon tetrachloride is associated with a second severe block involving the release of formaldehyde from the N-oxide intermediate. PMID:6040018

  13. Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory Biomarkers, and Toxicity in Mouse Lung and Liver After Inhalation Exposure to 100% Biodiesel or Petroleum Diesel Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Shvedova, Anna A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Murray, Ashley R.; Kisin, Elena R.; Khaliullin, Timur; Hatfield, Meghan K.; Tkach, Alexey V.; Krantz, Q. T.; Nash, David; King, Charly; Gilmour, M. Ian; Gavett, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, soy biodiesel (BD) has become a first alternative energy source that is economically viable and meets requirements of the Clean Air Act. Due to lower mass emissions and reduced hazardous compounds compared to diesel combustion emissions (CE), BD exposure is proposed to produce fewer adverse health effects. However, considering the broad use of BD and its blends in different industries, this assertion needs to be supported and validated by mechanistic and toxicological data. Here, adverse effects were compared in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation exposure (0, 50, 150, or 500 μg/m3; 4 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 4 wk) to CE from 100% biodiesel (B100) and diesel (D100). Compared to D100, B100 CE produced a significant accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins (carbonyls), an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reduction of protein thiols, a depletion of antioxidant gluthatione (GSH), a dose-related rise in the levels of biomarkers of tissue damage (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) in lungs, and inflammation (myeloperoxidase, MPO) in both lungs and liver. Significant differences in the levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interferon (IFN) γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected in lungs and liver upon B100 and D100 CE exposures. Overall, the tissue damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and cytokine response were more pronounced in mice exposed to BD CE. Further studies are required to understand what combustion products in BD CE accelerate oxidative and inflammatory responses. PMID:24156694

  14. Protective effect of Allium sativum (garlic) aqueous extract against lead-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain, liver, and kidney.

    PubMed

    Manoj Kumar, V; Henley, A K; Nelson, C J; Indumati, O; Prabhakara Rao, Y; Rajanna, S; Rajanna, B

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative activity of Allium sativum against lead-induced oxidative stress in the brain, liver, and kidney of male rats. Four groups of male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were taken: group 1 received 1000 mg/L sodium acetate and group 2 was given 1000 mg/L lead acetate through drinking water for 2 weeks. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum and 500 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum, respectively, by oral intubation for a period of 2 weeks along with lead acetate. The rats were sacrificed after treatment and the brain, liver, and kidney were isolated on ice. In the brain, four important regions namely the hippocampus, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and brain stem were separated and used for the present investigation. Blood was also drawn by cardiac puncture and preserved in heparinized vials at 4 °C for estimation of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity. The results showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP), total protein carbonyl content (TPCC), and lead in the selected brain regions, liver, and kidney of lead-exposed group compared with their respective controls. Blood delta-ALAD activity showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the lead-exposed rats. However, the concomitant administration of A. sativum resulted in tissue-specific recovery of oxidative stress parameters namely ROS, LPP, and TPCC. A. sativum treatment also restored the blood delta-ALAD activity back to control. Overall, our results indicate that A. sativum administration could be an effective antioxidant treatment strategy for lead-induced oxidative insult.

  15. Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response by ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia provides protection against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in liver by upregulation of glutathione metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2015-03-01

    Objective The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia (SAE) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain were grouped into four: (1) control, (2) alcohol (4 g/kg body weight), (3) SAE (50 mg/100 g body weight), and (4) alcohol (4 g/kg body weight) + SAE (50 mg/100 g body weight). Alcohol and SAE were given orally each day by gastric intubation. The duration of treatment was 90 days. Results The activities of toxicity markers in liver and serum increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats and to a lesser extent in the group administered SAE + alcohol. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase and the reactive oxygen species level were increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats but attenuated in the SAE co-administered group. Oxidative stress was increased in alcohol-treated rats as evidenced by the lowered activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased level of reduced glutathione (GSH), increased lipid peroxidation products, and decreased expression of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthase in liver. The co-administration of SAE with alcohol almost reversed these changes. The activity of glutathione-S-transferase and translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus in the liver was increased in both the alcohol and alcohol + SAE groups, but the maximum changes were observed in the latter group. Discussion The SAE most likely elicits its antioxidant potential by reducing oxidative stress, enhancing the translocation of Nrf2 to nucleus and thereby regulating glutathione metabolism, leading to enhanced GSH content.

  16. The phytochemical, EGCG, extends lifespan by reducing liver and kidney function damage and improving age-associated inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yucun; Na, Lixin; Feng, Rennan; Gong, Liya; Zhao, Yue; Li, Qiang; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2013-12-01

    It is known that phytochemicals have many potential health benefits in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term consumption of the phytochemical, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on body growth, disease protection, and lifespan in healthy rats. 68 male weaning Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control and EGCG groups. Variables influencing lifespan such as blood pressure, serum glucose and lipids, inflammation, and oxidative stress were dynamically determined from weaning to death. The median lifespan of controls was 92.5 weeks. EGCG increased median lifespan to 105.0 weeks and delayed death by approximately 8-12 weeks. Blood pressure and serum glucose and lipids significantly increased with age in both groups compared with the levels at 0 week. However, there were no differences in these variables between the two groups during the whole lifespan. Inflammation and oxidative stress significantly increased with age in both groups compared with 0 week and were significantly lower in serum and liver and kidney tissues in the EGCG group. Damage to liver and kidney function was significantly alleviated in the EGCG group. In addition, EGCG decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of transcription factor NF-κB and increased the upstream protein expressions of silent mating type information regulation two homolog one (SIRT1) and forkhead box class O 3a (FOXO3a). In conclusion, EGCG extends lifespan in healthy rats by reducing liver and kidney damage and improving age-associated inflammation and oxidative stress through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling by activating the longevity factors FoxO3a and SIRT1. © 2013 the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Curcumin alleviates lipopolysaccharide induced sepsis and liver failure by suppression of oxidative stress-related inflammation via PI3K/AKT and NF-κB related signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenhui; Qian, Kejian; Xiong, Jibin; Ma, Ke; Wang, Aizhong; Zou, Yan

    2016-10-01

    In many liver disorders, oxidative stress-related inflammation and apoptosis are important pathogenic components, finally resulting in acute liver failure. Erythropoietin and its analogues are well known to influence the interaction between apoptosis and inflammation in brain and kidney. The study is to clarify the effect of curcumin, a natural plant phenolic food additive, on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced acute liver injury of mice with endotoxemia and associated molecular mechanism from inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress levels. And curcumin, lowered serum cytokines, including Interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and improved liver apoptosis through suppressing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway and inhibiting Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/Caspase expression, and decreased oxidative stress-associated protein expression, mainly involving 2E1 isoform of cytochrome P450/nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/reactive oxygen species (CYP2E/Nrf2/ROS) signaling pathway, as well as liver nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced mice. Moreover, curcumin regulated serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), accelerated liver antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) levels, and inhibited activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (P38/JNK) cascade in the livers of LPS-induced rats. Thus, curcumin treatment attenuates LPS-induced PI3K/AKT and CYP2E/Nrf2/ROS signaling and liver injury. Strategies to inhibit inflammation and apoptosis signaling may provide alternatives to the current clinical approaches to improve oxidative responses of endotoxemia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and ameliorative effects of gallic acid on fluoxetine-induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Karimi-Khouzani, Omid; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Amini, Sayed Asadollah

    2017-08-01

    Fluoxetine-induced liver damage is a cause of chronic liver disease. In the present study the hepatoprotective effects of gallic acid against fluoxetine-induced liver damage were examined. Forty-eight male rats were divided into six groups as follow: group 1, the control group; group 2, rats receiving fluoxetine (24mg/kg bw daily, po) without treatment; group 3, rats receiving 24mg/kg bw fluoxetine, treated with 50mg/kg bw silymarin and groups 4, 5, and 6 in which gallic acid (50, 100, and 200mg/kg bw, po, respectively) was prescribed after the consumption of fluoxetine. The histopathological changes of hepatic tissues were checked out. Fluoxetine caused a significant increase in the levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), lipid profiles, urea, fasting blood sugar (FBS), creatinine (Cr), protein carbonyl (PC) content, malondialdehyde (MDA), and liver TNF-α as an inflammatory element. Also, the obtained results of group 2 revealed a significant decline in ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), liver catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and vitamin C levels. The treatment with gallic acid showed significant ameliorations in abnormalities of fluoxetine-induced liver injury as represented by the improvement of hepatic CAT, SOD activities, vitamin C levels, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes, in addition to the recovery of antioxidant defense system status. Gallic acid has inhibitory effects on fluoxetine-induced liver damage. The effect of gallic acid is derived from free radical scavenging properties and the anti-inflammatory effect related to TNF-α. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  19. A complex of antioxidant vitamins effectively inhibits free-radical oxidation of LDL phospholipids in blood plasma and membrane structures of the liver and myocardium.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, G G; Lisina, M O; Tikhaze, A K; Lankin, V Z

    2003-02-01

    Antioxidant effect of a complex preparation including antioxidant vitamins C, E, provitamin A and selenium was studied on the model of Cu(2+)-initiated free-radical oxidation of LDL isolated from human blood plasma. The antioxidant effect of combined administration of alpha-tocopherol+ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol+beta-carotene is far more pronounced that the antioxidant effect of individual components of these cocktails. Moreover, in the model system the combined action of all antioxidant components completely inhibited free-radical oxidation of LDL. A 30-day course of peroral administration of antioxidant vitamin cocktail and selenium to rats pronouncedly enhanced the antioxidant potential of liver and completely suppressed free-radical processes in the myocardium. It is suggested that preparations containing antioxidant vitamins and selenium can be perspective for prevention and complex therapy of atherosclerosis.

  20. [Effect of L-arginine and the nitric oxide synthase blocker L-NNA on calcium capacity in rat liver mitochondria with differing resistance to hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Kurhaliuk, N M; Ikkert, O V; Vovkanych, L S; Horyn', O V; Hal'kiv, M O; Hordiĭ, S K

    2001-01-01

    The effect of L-arginine and blockator of nitric oxide synthase L-NNA on processes of calcium mitochondrial capacity in liver with different resistance to hypoxia in the experiments with Wistar rats has been studied using the followrng substrates of energy support: succinic, alpha-ketoglutaric acids, alpha-ketolutarate and inhibitor succinatedehydrogenase malonate. As well we used substrates mixtures combination providing for activation of aminotransferase mechanism: glutamate and piruvate, glutamate and malate. It has been shown that L-arginine injection increases calcium mitochondrial capacity of low resistant rats using as substrates the succinate and alpha-ketoglutarate to control meanings of high resistance rats. Effects of donors nitric oxide on this processes limit NO-synthase inhibitor L-NNA.

  1. Cytotoxicity and the induction of the stress protein Hsp 70 in Chang liver cells in response to zearalenone-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungkyoung; Kang, Changgeun; Yoo, Yong-San; Hah, Do-Yun; Kim, Chung Hui; Kim, Euikyung; Kim, Jong Shu

    2013-09-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) has been implicated in several cases of mycotoxicosis in farm animals and humans. The toxic effects of ZEN have been well characterized, but little is known regarding the mechanisms of ZEN toxicity, including the involvement of the oxidative stress pathway. Using Chang liver cells as a model, the aim of this study was to determine if ZEN could elevate the expression of the heat shock protein Hsp 70, induce cytotoxicity and modulate the levels of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). In addition, the cytoprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) pre-treatment were assessed. Finally, the involvement of oxidative stress in ZEN-induced toxicity was confirmed. The results of this study demonstrated that ZEN-induced Hsp 70 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manners. This effect occurred at low-ZEN concentrations, and could therefore be considered a biomarker of ZEN-induced toxicity. The cytotoxicity was reduced when Chang liver cells were exposed to sub-lethal heat shock prior to ZEN treatment, demonstrating a cytoprotective effect of Hsp 70. This cytoprotective effect suggested that Hsp 70 might play a key role in the cellular defense mechanism. When cells were pre-treated with NACA prior to ZEN treatment, the cells were also protected from toxicity. This NACA cytoprotective effect suggested the involvement of oxidative stress in ZEN-induced toxicity, and this mechanism was supported by reduced Hsp 70 expression, inhibited cytolethality, increased GSH levels and decreased TBARS formation when cells were pre-treated with NACA prior to ZEN exposure. Our data clearly demonstrated that ZEN induced cytotoxicity in Chang liver cells by inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing GSH levels and increasing TBARS formation in a dose-dependent manner. ZEN also, induced Hsp 70 expression, and the side effects of ZEN were significantly alleviated by pre-treatment with NACA. Oxidative stress is likely to be one of the

  2. PNPLA3 variant and portal/periportal histological pattern in patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a possible role for oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Guido; Pastori, Daniele; Baratta, Francesco; Overi, Diletta; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Polimeni, Licia; Di Costanzo, Alessia; Pannitteri, Gaetano; Carnevale, Roberto; Del Ben, Maria; Arca, Marcello; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2017-11-17

    Pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is influenced by predisposing genetic variations, dysmetabolism, systemic oxidative stress, and local cellular and molecular cross-talks. Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene I148M variant is a known determinant of NAFLD. Aims were to evaluate whether PNPLA3 I148M variant was associated with a specific histological pattern, hepatic stem/progenitor cell (HpSC) niche activation and serum oxidative stress markers. Liver biopsies were obtained from 54 NAFLD patients. The activation of HpSC compartment was evaluated by the extension of ductular reaction (DR); hepatic stellate cells, myofibroblasts (MFs), and macrophages were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Systemic oxidative stress was assessed measuring serum levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp) and 8-isoprostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ). PNPLA3 carriers showed higher steatosis, portal inflammation and HpSC niche activation compared to wild-type patients. DR was correlated with NAFLD activity score (NAS) and fibrosis score. Serum 8-iso-PGF 2α were significantly higher in I148M carriers compared to non-carriers and were correlated with DR and portal inflammation. sNox2-dp was correlated with NAS and with HpSC niche activation. In conclusion, NAFLD patients carrying PNPLA3 I148M are characterized by a prominent activation of HpSC niche which is associated with a more aggressive histological pattern (portal fibrogenesis) and increased oxidative stress.

  3. Nano-encapsulation of Dietary Phytoconstituent Capsaicin on Emulsome: Evaluation of Anticancer Activity Through the Measurement of Liver Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    PubMed

    Giri, Tapan K; Pramanik, Kaustav; Barman, Tapan K; Maity, Subhasis

    2017-01-01

    Excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen leads to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Capsaicin (CAP), a pungent component found in red pepper can prevent oxidative stress. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the protective effects of CAP loaded nano-emulsomes (EML) against the oxidative stress of rat livers induced through sodium fluoride (NaF). EML was prepared by thin film hydration method that is development of thin lipid film followed by hydration and sonication. EML was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. EML was evaluated for drug entrapment, in vitro drug release, and in vivo study. In vitro drug release study of optimized formulation showed that 50% of CAP was released within 50.21 min while 85% CAP was released in 227.4 min. Single oral dose of free CAP and CAP loaded EML were given to rats 2 hour after NaF administration. Membrane of hepatic cells was damaged by NaF and it was judged by the estimation of lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and catalase activity. The administration of CAP loaded EML 2 hr after NAF consumption showed significant decrease in ROS level compared to free CAP. EML containing CAP was more effective in comparison to free CAP in controlling the lipid peroxidation that is thiobarbituric acid substance augmentation in liver by the treatment of NaF. The administration of CAP loaded EML showed significant increase in catalase activity compared to free CAP administration. The results clearly demonstrated that CAP loaded EML may be accepted as an effective therapeutic formulation in preventing oxidative damage. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Oxidative stress response of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) to mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in liver, kidney, and brain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, David J.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioindicators of oxidative stress were examined in prebreeding and breeding adult and chick Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and in prebreeding adult Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in San Francisco Bay, California. Highest total mercury (THg) concentrations (mean±standard error;μg/g dry wt) in liver (17.7±1.7), kidney (20.5±1.9), and brain (3.0±0.3) occurred in breeding adult Forster's terns. The THg concentrations in liver were significantly correlated with hepatic depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG):GSH ratio, and decreased hepatic gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in adults of both tern species. Prefledging Forster's tern chicks with one-fourth the hepatic THg concentration of breeding adults exhibited effects similar to adults. Total mercury-related renal GSSG increased in adults and chicks. In brains of prebreeding adults, THg was correlated with a small increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity, suggestive of a compensatory response. Brain THg concentrations were highest in breeding adult Forster's terns and brain tissue exhibited increased lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, loss of protein bound thiols (PBSH), and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, GSSG reductase (GSSGrd), and G-6-PDH. In brains of Forster's tern chicks there was a decrease in total reduced thiols and PBSH. Multiple indicator responses also pointed to greater oxidative stress in breeding Forster's terns relative to prebreeding terns, attributable to the physiological stress of reproduction. Some biondicators also were related to age and species, including thiol concentrations. Enzymes GGT, G-6-PDH, and GSSGred activities were related to species. Our results indicate that THg concentrations induced oxidative stress in terns, and suggest that histopathological, immunological, and behavioral effects may occur in terns as reported in other species.

  5. Effect of exposure and withdrawal of 900-MHz-electromagnetic waves on brain, kidney and liver oxidative stress and some biochemical parameters in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ragy, Merhan Mamdouh

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of mobile phones in daily life with increasing adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), emitted from mobile on some physiological processes, cause many concerns about their effects on human health. Therefore, this work was designed to study the effects of exposure to mobile phone emits 900-MHz EMR on the brain, liver and kidney of male albino rats. Thirty male adult rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 each) as follows: control group (rats without exposure to EMR), exposure group (exposed to 900-MHz EMR for 1 h/d for 60 d) and withdrawal group (exposed to 900-MHz electromagnetic wave for 1 h/d for 60 d then left for 30 d without exposure). EMR emitted from mobile phone led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and significant decrease total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in brain, liver and kidneys tissues. The sera activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, creatinine and corticosterone were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while serum catecholamines were insignificantly higher in the exposed rats. These alterations were corrected by withdrawal. In conclusion, electromagnetic field emitting from mobile phone might produce impairments in some biochemicals changes and oxidative stress in brain, liver and renal tissue of albino rats. These alterations were corrected by withdrawal.

  6. Evaluation of the bioactive extract of actinomyces isolated from the Egyptian environment against aflatoxin B1-induce cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress in the liver of rats.

    PubMed

    El-Nekeety, Aziza A; Salman, Asmaa S; Hathout, Amal S; Sabry, Bassem A; Abdel-Aziem, Sekena H; Hassan, Nabila S; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the bioactive compounds of actinomyces (ACT) isolated from the Egyptian environment (D-EGY) and to evaluate their protective activity against AFB 1 in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Six groups of animals were treated orally for 3 weeks included: C, the control group, T1, AFB 1 -treated group (80 μg/kg b.w), T2 and T3, the groups received ACT extract at low (25 mg/kg b.w) or high (50 mg/kg b.w) doses, T4 and T5, the groups received AFB 1 plus the low or high dose of ACT extract. Blood, bone marrow and tissue samples were collected for different analyses and histological examination. The results revealed the identification of 40 components, representing 99.98%. Treatment with AFB 1 disturbs liver function parameters, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant gene expressions, DNA fragmentation and induced severe histological changes. ACT extract at the low or high doses did not induce significant changes in all the tested parameters or histological picture of the liver. Moreover, ACT extract succeeded to induce a significant protection against the toxicity of AFB 1 . It could be concluded that the bioactive compounds in ACT are promise candidate for the development of food additive or drugs for the protection and treatment of liver disorders in the endemic area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Discrepant effects of α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate on oxidative stress and energy metabolism in the livers and kidneys of mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Wang, Dezhen; Miao, Jiyan; Liu, Chang; Wang, Yao; Teng, Miaomiao; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Wentao

    2018-08-01

    Endosulfan, an organochloride pesticide, has been used for many commercial purposes. Endosulfan is composed of two isomers, α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan. In biological and soil systems, endosulfan is metabolized into endosulfan sulfate. In this study, the different toxicological effects of α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate on the livers and kidneys of mice were comprehensively investigated. The results demonstrated that both endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate disturbed the hepatic and renal antioxidant systems. Furthermore, 1 H NMR metabolomics analysis revealed that endogenous metabolites involved in oxidative stress and energy metabolism were altered after exposure to these compounds. In the liver, the changes in hepatic endogenous metabolites and the induction of hepatic CYP450 mRNA isoforms were similar among mice treated with the three compounds, and the sulfate metabolite was the exclusive exogenous compound detected. Therefore, the metabolism of α- and β-endosulfan to endosulfan sulfate is likely the main cause of toxicological effects in the livers of mice. However, in kidneys, the changes in the metabolome and in CYP450 mRNA expression induced by α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan were stereoselective. Additionally, endosulfan sulfate, which induced a significant increase of renal Cyp3a11, showed a more robust disturbance of renal metabolites than either of the two isomers. These findings revealed that more attention should be given to the toxicological evaluation of endosulfan sulfate in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 6-Gingerol-Rich Fraction from Zingiber officinale Prevents Hematotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Kidney and Liver of Rats Exposed to Carbendazim.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Mariama; Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a globally marketed flavoring agent and cooking spice with a long history of human health benefits. The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) is often detected in fruits and vegetables for human nutrition and has been reported to elicit toxic effects in different experimental animal models. The present study investigated the protective effects of 6-Gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from ginger on hematotoxicity and hepatorenal damage in rats exposed to CBZ. CBZ was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg alone or simultaneously administered with 6-GRF at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, whereas control rats received corn oil alone at 2 mL/kg for 14 days. Hematological examination showed that CBZ-mediated toxicity to the total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets counts were normalized to the control values in rats cotreated with 6-GRF. Moreover, administration of CBZ significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase as well as glutathione level in the livers and kidneys of rats compared with control. However, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde were markedly elevated in kidneys and livers of CBZ-treated rats compared with control. The significant elevation in the plasma indices of renal and hepatic dysfunction in CBZ-treated rats was confirmed by light microscopy. Coadministration of 6-GRF exhibited chemoprotection against CBZ-mediated hematotoxicity, augmented antioxidant status, and prevented oxidative damage in the kidney and liver of rats.

  9. Carvedilol Improves Inflammatory Response, Oxidative Stress and Fibrosis in the Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Rats by Regulating Kuppfer Cells and Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Renata Ferreira de Carvalho; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Miguel, Emilio de Castro; Guedes, Paulo Marcos Matta; de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and antifibrotic effects of carvedilol (CARV) in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury. Methods Liver injury was induced by gavage administration of alcohol (7 g/kg) for 28 consecutive days. Eighty Wistar rats were pretreated with oral CARV at 1, 3, or 5 mg/kg or with saline 1 h before exposure to alcohol. Liver homogenates were assayed for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level as well as for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and liver triglyceride (TG) levels were also assayed. Immunohistochemical analyses of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B/ligand (RANK/RANKL), suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS1), the Kupffer cell marker IBA-1 (ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1) expression were performed. Confocal microscopy analysis of IL-1β and NF-κB expression and real-time quantitative PCR analysis for TNFα, PCI, PCIII, and NF-κB were performed. Results CARV treatment (5 mg/kg) during the alcohol exposure protocol was associated with reduced steatosis, hepatic cord degeneration, fibrosis and necrosis, as well as reduced levels of AST (p < 0.01), ALT (p < 0.01), TG (p < 0.001), MPO (p < 0.001), MDA (p < 0.05), and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α, both p < 0.05), and increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (p < 0.001) and GSH (p < 0.05), compared to the alcohol-only group. Treatment with CARV 5 mg/kg also reduced expression levels of COX-2, RANK, RANKL, IBA-1, and ICAM-1 (all p < 0.05), while increasing expression of SOCS1, SOD-1, and GPx-1 (all p < 0.05) and decreasing expression of IL-1β and NF-κB (both, p < 0.05). Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that mRNA production of TNF

  10. Kinetics of Ethylene and Ethylene Oxide in Subcellular Fractions of Lungs and Livers of Male B6C3F1 Mice and Male Fischer 344 Rats and of Human Livers

    PubMed Central

    Csanády, György András; Kessler, Winfried; Klein, Dominik; Pankratz, Helmut; Pütz, Christian; Richter, Nadine; Filser, Johannes Georg

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene (ET) is metabolized in mammals to the carcinogenic ethylene oxide (EO). Although both gases are of high industrial relevance, only limited data exist on the toxicokinetics of ET in mice and of EO in humans. Metabolism of ET is related to cytochrome P450-dependent mono-oxygenase (CYP) and of EO to epoxide hydrolase (EH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Kinetics of ET metabolism to EO and of elimination of EO were investigated in headspace vessels containing incubations of subcellular fractions of mouse, rat, or human liver or of mouse or rat lung. CYP-associated metabolism of ET and GST-related metabolism of EO were found in microsomes and cytosol, respectively, of each species. EH-related metabolism of EO was not detectable in hepatic microsomes of rats and mice but obeyed saturation kinetics in hepatic microsomes of humans. In ET-exposed liver microsomes, metabolism of ET to EO followed Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics. Mean values of Vmax [nmol/(min·mg protein)] and of the apparent Michaelis constant (Km [mmol/l ET in microsomal suspension]) were 0.567 and 0.0093 (mouse), 0.401 and 0.031 (rat), and 0.219 and 0.013 (human). In lung microsomes, Vmax values were 0.073 (mouse) and 0.055 (rat). During ET exposure, the rate of EO production decreased rapidly. By modeling a suicide inhibition mechanism, rate constants for CYP-mediated catalysis and CYP inactivation were estimated. In liver cytosol, mean GST activities to EO expressed as Vmax/Km [μl/(min·mg protein)] were 27.90 (mouse), 5.30 (rat), and 1.14 (human). The parameters are most relevant for reducing uncertainties in the risk assessment of ET and EO. PMID:21785163

  11. Ethanol oxidation and the inhibition by drugs in human liver, stomach and small intestine: Quantitative assessment with numerical organ modeling of alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yu-Chou; Lee, Shou-Lun; Lai, Ching-Long; Lee, Yung-Pin; Lee, Shiao-Pieng; Chiang, Chien-Ping; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2016-10-25

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is the principal enzyme responsible for metabolism of ethanol. Human ADH constitutes a complex isozyme family with striking variations in kinetic function and tissue distribution. Liver and gastrointestinal tract are the major sites for first-pass metabolism (FPM). Their relative contributions to alcohol FPM and degrees of the inhibitions by aspirin and its metabolite salicylate, acetaminophen and cimetidine remain controversial. To address this issue, mathematical organ modeling of ethanol-oxidizing activities in target tissues and that of the ethanol-drug interactions were constructed by linear combination of the corresponding numerical rate equations of tissue constituent ADH isozymes with the documented isozyme protein contents, kinetic parameters for ethanol oxidation and the drug inhibitions of ADH isozymes/allozymes that were determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate at pH 7.5 and 25 °C containing 0.5 mM NAD(+). The organ simulations reveal that the ADH activities in mucosae of the stomach, duodenum and jejunum with ADH1C*1/*1 genotype are less than 1%, respectively, that of the ADH1B*1/*1-ADH1C*1/*1 liver at 1-200 mM ethanol, indicating that liver is major site of the FPM. The apparent hepatic KM and Vmax for ethanol oxidation are simulated to be 0.093 ± 0.019 mM and 4.0 ± 0.1 mmol/min, respectively. At 95% clearance in liver, the logarithmic average sinusoidal ethanol concentration is determined to be 0.80 mM in accordance with the flow-limited gradient perfusion model. The organ simulations indicate that higher therapeutic acetaminophen (0.5 mM) inhibits 16% of ADH1B*1/*1 hepatic ADH activity at 2-20 mM ethanol and that therapeutic salicylate (1.5 mM) inhibits 30-31% of the ADH1B*2/*2 activity, suggesting potential significant inhibitions of ethanol FPM in these allelotypes. The result provides systematic evaluations and predictions by computer simulation on potential ethanol FPM in target tissues and hepatic

  12. The protective effect of vildagliptin in chronic experimental cyclosporine A-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbeeny, Nagla A; Nader, Manar A

    2016-03-01

    The study examined the effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, vildagliptin, in cyclosporine (CsA)-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 4 groups treated for 28 days: control (vehicle), vildagliptin (10 mg/kg, orally), CsA (20 mg/kg, s.c.), and CsA-vildagliptin group. Liver function was assessed by measuring serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (γGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and albumin, and histopathological changes of liver were examined. Oxidative stress markers were evaluated. Assessment of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity in hepatic nuclear extract, serum DPP-4, and expression of Bax and Bcl2 were also done. CsA-induced hepatotoxicity was evidenced by increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, and γGT; a decrease in serum albumin; and a significant alteration in hepatic architecture. Also, significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) levels, increased expression Bax proteins with deceased expression of Bcl2, and increased hepatic activity of NF-κB and serum DPP-4 level were observed upon CsA treatment. Vildagliptin significantly improved all altered parameters induced by CsA administration. Vildagliptin has the potential to protect the liver against CsA-induced hepatotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress, DPP-4 activity, apoptosis, and inflammation.

  13. 5-HMF Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in CCl4-Plus-Alcohol-Induced Mice by Suppression of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Xin-Yue; Hu, Jun-Nan; Wang, Zi; Wei, Sheng-Nan; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Ying-Ping; Li, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) and alcohol. Male ICR mice were treated with CCl 4 dissolved in olive oil (10% v/v, 2.5 μg/L) intraperitoneally (i.p.), and given at a dose of 2.5×10 -5 mg/kg B.W. twice a week for 7 wk. Concurrently, mice received drinking water with or without alcohol. The mice in treatment groups and positive control group were gavaged with 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg B.W.) or Huganpian (350 mg/kg B.W.) daily starting in the fourth week and lasting for 4 wk. The blood samples were analyzed for biochemical markers of hepatic injury and tissue samples were subjected for estimation of liver antioxidants and histopathological studies. The concentrations of HA (hyaluronic acid), LN (laminin), CIV (collagen type IV), and MDA (malondialdehyde), as well as the serum levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase) were markedly reduced by 5-HMF. On the other hand, enzymatic antioxidants SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase) and GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF. Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF treatment noticeably prevented hepatocyte apoptosis, fatty degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration on liver fibrosis induced by CCl 4 and alcohol. Hoechst 33258 staining also revealed hepatocyte apoptosis. 5-HMF could exert protective effects against liver injury and reduce liver fibrosis induced by CCl 4 and alcohol in mice.

  14. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Li; Guo, Yun; Zheng, Changqing

    2014-05-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenolic compound present in green tea and has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of EGCG against concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms. EGCG (5 mg/kg) was administered orally by gavage to mice twice daily for 10 days before an intravenous injection of ConA. We found that EGCG effectively rescued lethality, improved hepatic pathological damage, and decreased serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in ConA-challenged mice. Furthermore, EGCG also significantly prevented the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-6 in serum, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and restored glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver tissues from ConA-challenged mice. Finally, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and TLR9 protein in liver tissues were significantly inhibited by EGCG pretreatment. Taken together, our data suggest that EGCG possesses hepatoprotective properties against ConA-induced liver injury through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. © 2013.

  16. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of hydrogen-rich water alleviate ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Pin; Chuang, Wen-Chen; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chen, Chih-Yen

    2017-07-21

    To investigate the effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) treatment on prevention of ethanol (EtOH)-induced early fatty liver in mice. In vitro reduction of hydrogen peroxide by HRW was determined with a chemiluminescence system. Female mice were randomly divided into five groups: control, EtOH, EtOH + silymarin, EtOH + HRW and EtOH + silymarin + HRW. Each group was fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing EtOH or isocaloric maltose dextrin (control diet). Silymarin was used as a positive control to compare HRW efficacy against chronic EtOH-induced hepatotoxicity. HRW was freshly prepared and given at a dosage of 1.2 mL/mouse trice daily. Blood and liver tissue were collected after chronic-binge liquid-diet feeding for 12 wk. The in vitro study showed that HRW directly scavenged hydrogen peroxide. The in vivo study showed that HRW increased expression of acyl ghrelin, which was correlated with food intake. HRW treatment significantly reduced EtOH-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerol and total cholesterol levels, hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6. HRW attenuated malondialdehyde level, restored glutathione depletion and increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in the liver. Moreover, HRW reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels but increased IL-10 and IL-22 levels. HRW protects against chronic EtOH-induced liver injury, possibly by inducing acyl ghrelin to suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and induce IL-10 and IL-22, thus activating antioxidant enzymes against oxidative stress.

  17. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of hydrogen-rich water alleviate ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Pin; Chuang, Wen-Chen; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chen, Chih-Yen

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) treatment on prevention of ethanol (EtOH)-induced early fatty liver in mice. METHODS In vitro reduction of hydrogen peroxide by HRW was determined with a chemiluminescence system. Female mice were randomly divided into five groups: control, EtOH, EtOH + silymarin, EtOH + HRW and EtOH + silymarin + HRW. Each group was fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing EtOH or isocaloric maltose dextrin (control diet). Silymarin was used as a positive control to compare HRW efficacy against chronic EtOH-induced hepatotoxicity. HRW was freshly prepared and given at a dosage of 1.2 mL/mouse trice daily. Blood and liver tissue were collected after chronic-binge liquid-diet feeding for 12 wk. RESULTS The in vitro study showed that HRW directly scavenged hydrogen peroxide. The in vivo study showed that HRW increased expression of acyl ghrelin, which was correlated with food intake. HRW treatment significantly reduced EtOH-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerol and total cholesterol levels, hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6. HRW attenuated malondialdehyde level, restored glutathione depletion and increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in the liver. Moreover, HRW reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels but increased IL-10 and IL-22 levels. CONCLUSION HRW protects against chronic EtOH-induced liver injury, possibly by inducing acyl ghrelin to suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and induce IL-10 and IL-22, thus activating antioxidant enzymes against oxidative stress. PMID:28785146

  18. Amelioration of CCl4-induced liver injury in rats by selenizing Astragalus polysaccharides: Role of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Mohammed; Liu, Dandan; Abdulrahim, Yassin; Liu, Yunhuan; Qian, Gang; Khan, Alamzeb; Gan, Fang; Huang, Kehe

    2017-10-01

    Selenizing Astragalus polysaccharides (sAPS) were prepared by nitric acid-sodium selenite method. Effect of sAPS on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in the rat. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups as follows: control group; CCl 4 group; CCl 4 +Astragalus polysaccharides group; CCl 4 +sodium selenite group and CCl 4 +selenizing Astragalus polysaccharides group. The results showed that sAPS significantly decreased the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase in the serum, malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline content in liver (P<0.01), and increased the levels of total protein, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in liver of rats induced by CCl 4. In addition, expression levels of antioxidant-related genes (GPX1, SOD1, and Nrf2) were significantly increased following supplementation of the sAPS (P<0.01). Furthermore, sAPS effectively ameliorated CCl 4 induced hepatic necrosis and inflammation, and it also reduced the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and NFκB (P<0.01) . Moreover, sAPS significantly decreased the expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen 1, TGF-β1, but increased the Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio in rats administered CCl 4 (P<0.01). Taken together, it could be concluded that sAPS could increase the activities of Astragalus polysaccharides and sodium selenite to protect the liver from damage by attenuating hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrogenesis, and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatic stellate cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative cleavage of the octyl side chain of 1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide (OPB-2045) in rat and dog liver preparations.

    PubMed

    Umehara, K; Kudo, S; Hirao, Y; Morita, S; Uchida, M; Odomi, M; Miyamoto, G

    2000-08-01

    The metabolism of 1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide (OPB-2045), a new potent biguanide antiseptic, was investigated using rat and dog liver preparations to elucidate the mechanism of OPB-2045 metabolite formation, in which the octyl side chain is reduced to four, five, or six carbon atoms. Chemical structures of metabolites were characterized by 1H NMR, fast atom bombardment/mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Three main metabolites were observed during incubation of OPB-2045 with rat liver S9: 2-octanol (M-1), 3-octanol (M-2), and 4-octanol (M-3). In the incubation of OPB-2045 with dog liver S9, eight metabolites were observed, seven of which being M-1, M-2, M-3, 2-octanone (M-4), threo-2,3-octandiol (M-5), erythro-2,3-octandiol (M-6), and 1,2-octandiol (M-7). M-5 and M-6 were further biotransformed to a ketol derivative and C-C bond cleavage metabolite (hexanoic acid derivative), an in vivo end product, in the incubation with dog liver microsomes. The reactions required NADPH as a cofactor and were significantly inhibited by the various inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (i.e., CO, n-octylamine, SKF 525-A, metyrapone, and alpha-naphthoflavone). The results indicate that the degraded products of OPB-2045 are produced by C-C bond cleavage after monohydroxylation, dihydroxylation, and ketol formation at the site of the octyl side chain with possible involvement of cytochrome P450 systems. This aliphatic C-C bond cleavage by sequential oxidative reactions may play an important role in the metabolism of other drugs or endogenous compounds that possess aliphatic chains.

  20. Liver-Specific Knockdown of IGF-1 Decreases Vascular Oxidative Stress Resistance by Impairing the Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Response: A Novel Model of Vascular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bailey-Downs, Lora C.; Mitschelen, Matthew; Sosnowska, Danuta; Toth, Peter; Pinto, John T.; Ballabh, Praveen; Valcarcel-Ares, M.Noa; Farley, Julie; Koller, Akos; Henthorn, Jim C.; Bass, Caroline; Sonntag, William E.; Csiszar, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that age-related dysfunction of NF-E2–related factor-2 (Nrf2)–driven pathways impairs cellular redox homeostasis, exacerbating age-related cellular oxidative stress and increasing sensitivity of aged vessels to oxidative stress–induced cellular damage. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 decline during aging, which significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases in humans. To test the hypothesis that adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency impairs Nrf2-driven pathways in the vasculature, we utilized a novel mouse model with a liver-specific adeno-associated viral knockdown of the Igf1 gene using Cre-lox technology (Igf1f/f + MUP-iCre-AAV8), which exhibits a significant decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels (∼50%). In the aortas of IGF-1–deficient mice, there was a trend for decreased expression of Nrf2 and the Nrf2 target genes GCLC, NQO1 and HMOX1. In cultured aorta segments of IGF-1–deficient mice treated with oxidative stressors (high glucose, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and H2O2), induction of Nrf2-driven genes was significantly attenuated as compared with control vessels, which was associated with an exacerbation of endothelial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress, and apoptosis, mimicking the aging phenotype. In conclusion, endocrine IGF-1 deficiency is associated with dysregulation of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses in the vasculature, which likely promotes an adverse vascular phenotype under pathophysiological conditions associated with oxidative stress (eg, diabetes mellitus, hypertension) and results in accelerated vascular impairments in aging. PMID:22021391

  1. Hepatoprotective Effects of Sophoricoside against Fructose-Induced Liver Injury via Regulating Lipid Metabolism, Oxidation, and Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfeng; Lu, Yalong

    2018-02-01

    The dried fruit of Sophora japonica L. is a traditional Chinese herb tea rich in sophoricoside that is an isoflavone glycoside. The aim of current study was to investigate the hepatic protective effect of sophoricoside in high fructose (HF) diet fed mice. Healthy male mice were fed 30% fructose water and treated 80 and 160 mg/kg·bw sophoricoside continuously for 8 wk. Our data showed that administration of sophoricoside at 80 and 160 mg/kg·bw observably decreased the body weight and liver weight in HF-fed mice. It was found that the treatment of sophoricoside decreased the hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B levels, and elevated the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A1 levels. Moreover, the administration of sophoricoside decreased the HF-caused elevations of hepatic malonaldehyde, interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, while increased the HF-induced decreases of hepatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Meanwhile, serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were reduced by treatment of sophoricoside in HF-fed mice. Histopathology of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and oil red O staining of liver tissues also confirmed the beneficial effects of sophoricoside against liver injury induced by HF-diet in mice. These findings indicated that sophoricoside may be a novel natural isoflavone for alleviating HF-induced liver injury. Fruit of Sophora japonica L. is a traditional herb tea and it recently becomes popular in China. Sophoricoside is an isoflavone glycoside (Genistein-4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) isolated from S. japonical L, and it possessed differential effects on the body health. The ingestion of sophoricoside or sophora fruit tea may be a novel strategy to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Active form of vitamin D ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by alleviating oxidative stress in a high-fat diet rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chong-Gui; Liu, Ya-Xin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Bao-Ping; Qu, Hui-Qi; Wang, Bao-Li; Zhu, Mei

    2017-07-28

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment using the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) could protect against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats and ameliorate oxidative stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and treated with standard chow, HFD, or HFD plus intraperitoneal injection of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 (5 μg/kg body weight, twice per week), respectively, for 16 weeks. Serum lipid profiles, hepatic function, intrahepatic lipid, and calcium levels were determined. Hepatic histology was examined using hematoxylin/eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Oil Red O staining. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and F2α-isoprostane content. Expression of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and downstream target genes was analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment improved the serum lipid profile, reduced intrahepatic lipid levels, and attenuated hepatic steatosis and inflammation in HFD rats. Furthermore, MDA and F2α-isoprostane levels in liver tissue were reduced by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 administration. Although 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 did not regulate the expression of Nrf2 mRNA, it did induce Nrf2 nuclear translocation. The expression of Nrf2 target genes, including Gclc, Nqo1, Sod2, and Cat, was up-regulated by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . We conclude that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 protects against HFD-induced NAFLD by attenuating oxidative stress, inducing NRF2 nuclear translocation, and up-regulating the expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Extract of Bauhinia vahlii Shows Antihyperglycemic Activity, Reverses Oxidative Stress, and Protects against Liver Damage in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elbanna, Ahmed H.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Mahrous, Engy A.; Khaleel, Amal E.; Elalfy, Taha S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have affirmed the effectiveness of some Bauhinia plants as antihyperglycemic agents. Objective: We investigated the possible effect of Bauhinia vahlii leaves extract in reducing hyperglycemia and reversing signs of organ damage associated with diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ) rat model. Materials and Methods: Both polar fraction of the B. vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) and nonpolar fraction (n-hexane extract) were evaluated in vitro for α-glucosidase inhibition and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging potential. DEE was selected for further in vivo studies and was administered at two doses, i.e., 150 or 300 mg/kg to STZ-diabetic rats for 4 weeks. Results: Only DEE exhibited in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities and its oral administration at both dose levels resulted in significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, signs of oxidative stress as indicated by hepatic reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels were completely reversed. In addition, histopathological examination and measurement of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels showed that DEE protected the liver from signs of liver pathogenesis when compared to diabetic untreated animals and those treated with metformin. Phytochemical analysis of DEE showed high flavonoids content with quercitrin as the major constituent along with other quercetin glycosides. Conclusion: This study strongly highlights the possible beneficial effect of B. vahlii leaves extract in relieving hyperglycemia and liver damage in STZ-diabetic rats and recommends further investigation of the value of quercetin derivatives in controlling diabetes and ameliorating liver damage associated with it. SUMMARY The polar fraction of the Bauhinia vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) exhibited both in vitro antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay and

  4. Enhancing hepatic fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a choline-deficient diet: a follow-up report on long-term effects of oxidative stress in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroya; Kanno, Keishi; Ikuta, Takuya; Arihiro, Koji; Sugiyama, Akiko; Kishikawa, Nobusuke; Tazuma, Susumu

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported a model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), fed a choline-deficient (CD) diet for 5 weeks, that hepatic steatosis but not fibrosis is developed through oxidative stress. To determine the relationship between hypertension and hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD, we examined whether long-term CD diet leads to hepatic fibrosis through oxidative stress. Eight-week-old male SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs) were fed a CD diet for 5 or 20 weeks, then liver histology and hepatic expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, fibrosis, and oxidative stress were assessed. Oxidative stress was assessed by hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels. After 5 weeks on CD diet, prominent hepatic steatosis and decrease in expression of genes for lipid metabolism were observed in SHRs as compared with WKYs. SHRs on a CD diet demonstrated a downregulated expression of genes for antioxidants, along with significant increases in hepatic TBARS. After 20 weeks on CD diet, SHRs demonstrated severe liver fibrosis and upregulated expressions of genes for fibrosis when compared with WKY. Hypertension precipitated hepatic steatosis, and further, acts as an enhancer in NAFLD progression to liver fibrosis through oxidative stress. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  5. p62/SQSTM1-Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde that prevents oxidative stress but promotes liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Koji; Yamachika, Shinichiro; He, Feng; Karin, Michael

    2016-08-01

    p62/SQSTM1 is a multifunctional signaling hub and autophagy adaptor with many binding partners, which allow it to activate mTORC1-dependent nutrient sensing, NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses, and the NRF2-activated antioxidant defense. p62 recognizes polyubiquitin chains via its C-terminal domain and binds to LC3 via its LIR motif, thereby promoting the autophagic degradation of ubiquitinated cargos. p62 accumulates in many human liver diseases, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), where it is a component of Mallory-Denk bodies and intracellular hyaline bodies. Chronic p62 elevation contributes to HCC development by preventing oncogene-induced senescence and death of cancer-initiating cells and enhancing their proliferation. In this review, we discuss p62-mediated signaling pathways and their roles in liver pathophysiology, especially NASH and HCC. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. p62/SQSTM1- Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde that prevents oxidative stress but promotes liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Koji; Yamachika, Shinichiro; He, Feng; Karin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    p62/SQSTM1 is a multifunctional signaling hub and autophagy adaptor with many binding partners, which allow it to activate mTORC1-dependent nutrient sensing, NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses and the NRF2-activated antioxidant defense. p62 recognizes polyubiquitin chains via its C-terminal domain and binds to LC3 via its LIR motif, thereby promoting the autophagic degradation of ubiquitinated cargos. p62 accumulates in many human liver diseases, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), where it is a component of Mallory-Denk bodies and intracellular hyaline bodies. Chronic p62 elevation contributes to HCC development by preventing oncogene-induced senescence and death of cancer-initiating cells and enhancing their proliferation. In this review, we discuss p62-mediated signaling pathways and their roles in liver pathophysiology, especially NASH and HCC. PMID:27404485

  7. Nitroaryl-1,4-dihydropyridines as antioxidants against rat liver microsomes oxidation induced by iron/ascorbate, nitrofurantoin and naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Letelier, María Eugenia; Entrala, Paz; López-Alarcón, Camilo; González-Lira, Víctor; Molina-Berríos, Alfredo; Cortés-Troncoso, Juan; Jara-Sandoval, José; Santander, Paola; Núñez-Vergara, Luis

    2007-12-01

    1,4-Dihydropyridines (DHPs) used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, are calcium channel antagonists and also antioxidant agents. These drugs are metabolized through cytochrome P(450) oxidative system, majority localized in the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum. Several lipophilic drugs generate oxidative stress to be metabolized by this cellular system. Thus, DHP antioxidant properties may prevent the oxidative stress associated with hepatic biotransformation of drugs. In this work, we tested the antioxidant capacity of several synthetic nitro-phenyl-DHPs. These compounds (I-IV) inhibited the microsomal lipid peroxidation, UDPGT oxidative activation and microsomal thiols oxidation; all phenomena induced by Fe(3+)/ascorbate, a generator system of oxygen free radicals. As the same manner, these compounds inhibited the oxygen consumption induced by Cu(2+)/ascorbate in the absence of microsomes. Furthermore, compound III (2,6-dimethyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridin-3,5-ethyl-dicarboxylate) and compound V (N-ethyl-2,6-dimethyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridin-3,5-methyl-dicarboxylate) inhibited the microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by Nitrofurantoin and naphthalene in the presence of NADPH. Oxidative stress induced on endoplasmic reticulum may alter the biotransformation of drugs, so, modifying their plasmatic concentrations and therapeutic effects. When drugs which are activated by biotransformation are administered together with antioxidant drugs, such as DHPs, oxidative stress induced in situ may be prevented.

  8. Protective role of silymarin and D-penicillamine against lead-induced liver toxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Seyedeh Missagh; Najafzadeh, Hossein; Bahmei, Sadegh

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to assess hepatotoxicity and alterations in liver antioxidant defence in acute lead (Pb) exposure and the protective effects of silymarin in comparison to D-penicillamine in rats. Forty eight Albino rats were divided in eight groups and received the following treatments in a 10-day experiment - group 1: normal saline as control; group 2: 25-mg/kg Pb acetate, intraperitoneally (IP) for the last 5 days; group 3: 100-mg/kg D-penicillamine, IP for the last 5 days; group 4: 200-mg/kg silymarin, orally for 10 days; and groups 5, 6, 7 and 8: in addition to Pb, they received D-penicillamine, for the last 5 days, silymarin for 10 days, a combination of silymarin for 10 days and D-penicillamine for the last 5 days and silymarin for the last 5 days, respectively. Pb acetate exposure induced significant elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme activities in group 2 compared to control group. Significant reductions in serum total protein and albumin in all Pb-exposed groups and in serum glucose in groups 2, 6 and 8 were also observed. Liver tissue superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly lower in groups 2 and 8 compared to control group. Silymarin pretreatment and D-penicillamine administration in groups 5, 7 and 8 could significantly lower ALP, ALT and AST and improve liver antioxidant enzymes. Thus, acute Pb exposure induced hepatotoxicity with suppression of liver antioxidant defence system and silymarin, as an antioxidant could alleviate this effect.

  9. [Effect of total alkaloids of Rubus alceaefolius on oxidative stress in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haiyin; Zhao, Jinyan; Liu, Yan; Zheng, Yuqing; Wu, Juan; Hong, Zhenfeng

    2011-09-01

    To study the effects of total alkaloids of Rubus alceaefolius (RAP) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats and explore its possible mechanisms. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, model group, compound methionine and choline bitartrate tablets (CMCB)group and three RAP groups treated respectively with low, middle and high dose of RAP. The NAFLD model was induced by feeding fat-rich food. NAFLD rats were administrated with 0.35 g x kg(-1) CMCB and 0.36, 0.72, 1.44 g x kg(-1) RAP for 4 weeks respectively. The weight index of liver was measured. Hepatic histolog ical changes were observed. The concentration in serum of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino tranferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined. The mRNA expressions of SOD, MDA, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in hepatic tissue were detected. Compared with the model group, degree of steatosis of hepatic lobule was improved, the weight index of liver was decreased, serum levels of ALT, AST, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were significantly lower in the high and middle dose RAP group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The levels of SOD and MDA in hepatic tissue were lower in the high dose RAP group (P < 0.05). The mRNA expressions of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in hepatic tissue were decreased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). RAP can protect liver in experimental NAFLD, and its possible mechanisms may be concerned with clearing the oxygen free radical, reducing the product of lipid peroxidation, inhibiting the release of inflammatory cytokines and reducing nflammatory response.

  10. Increased oxidative stress associated with the severity of the liver disease in various forms of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun Filiz; Horoz, Mehmet; Aslan, Mehmet; Celik, Hakim; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-10-31

    Oxidative stress can be defined as an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity. There is limited information about the oxidative status in subjects with hepatitis B virus infection. We aimed to evaluate the oxidative status in patients with various clinical forms of chronic hepatitis B infection. Seventy-six patients with hepatitis B virus infection, in whom 33 with chronic hepatitis, 31 inactive carriers and 12 with cirrhosis, and 16 healthy subjects were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurement, and calculation of oxidative stress index were performed in all participants. Total antioxidant response was significantly lower in cirrhotics than inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (p = 0.008 and p = 0.008, respectively). Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index was significantly higher in cirrhotic (p < 0.001, both) and chronic hepatitis B subjects (p < 0.001, both) than inactive HbsAg carriers and controls. Total antioxidant response was comparable in chronic hepatitis B subjects, inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6). Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were also comparable in inactive HBsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6). Serum alanine amino transferase level was positively correlated with total peroxide level and oxidative stress index only in chronic hepatitis B subjects (p = 0.002, r = 0.519 and p = 0.008, r = 0.453, respectively). Oxidative stress occurs secondarily to increased total lipid peroxidation and inadequate total antioxidant response and is related to severity of the disease and replication status of virus in hepatitis B infection.

  11. Increased oxidative stress associated with the severity of the liver disease in various forms of hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun Filiz; Horoz, Mehmet; Aslan, Mehmet; Celik, Hakim; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress can be defined as an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity. There is limited information about the oxidative status in subjects with hepatitis B virus infection. We aimed to evaluate the oxidative status in patients with various clinical forms of chronic hepatitis B infection. Methods Seventy-six patients with hepatitis B virus infection, in whom 33 with chronic hepatitis, 31 inactive carriers and 12 with cirrhosis, and 16 healthy subjects were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurement, and calculation of oxidative stress index were performed in all participants. Results Total antioxidant response was significantly lower in cirrhotics than inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (p = 0.008 and p = 0.008, respectively). Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index was significantly higher in cirrhotic (p < 0.001, both) and chronic hepatitis B subjects (p < 0.001, both) than inactive HbsAg carriers and controls. Total antioxidant response was comparable in chronic hepatitis B subjects, inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6). Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were also comparable in inactive HBsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6). Serum alanine amino transferase level was positively correlated with total peroxide level and oxidative stress index only in chronic hepatitis B subjects (p = 0.002, r = 0.519 and p = 0.008, r = 0.453, respectively). Conclusion Oxidative stress occurs secondarily to increased total lipid peroxidation and inadequate total antioxidant response and is related to severity of the disease and replication status of virus in hepatitis B infection. PMID:16262897

  12. Rhododendron oldhamii leaf extract improves fatty liver syndrome by increasing lipid oxidation and decreasing the lipogenesis pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Ling; Lin, Lei-Chen; Tung, Yu-Tang; Ho, Shang-Tse; Chen, Yao-Li; Lin, Chi-Chen; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2017-01-01

    Some members of Rhododendron genus are traditionally used as medicinal plants for arthritis, acute and chronic bronchitis, asthma, pain, inflammation, rheumatism, hypertension and metabolic diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the protective effects of R. oldhamii leaf extract on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in vivo and in vitro . In this study, the effects of R. oldhamii leaf extract on inhibiting the free fatty acid (FFA)-induced accumulation of fat in HepG2 cells and on improving fatty liver syndrome in mice with high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD were investigated. For the in vitro assay, HepG2 cells were treated with FFAs (oleate/palmitate = 2:1) with or without treatment with R. oldhamii leaf ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction to observe lipid accumulation using Nile red and oil red O stains. For the in vivo assay, C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to three groups ( n = 5), including the normal diet group, the HFD group and the HFD+EtOAc group. After 11 weeks, body weight, serum biochemical indices and the mRNA expressions of the liver tissue, as well as the outward appearance, weight and histopathological analysis of liver and adipose tissues were evaluated. Among the fractions derived from R. oldhamii leaf, the EtOAc fraction exhibited a strong fat-accumulation inhibitory activity. Following reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), four specific phytochemicals, including (2 R , 3 R )-astilbin (AS), hyposide (HY), guaijaverin (GU) and quercitrin (QU), were isolated and identified from the EtOAc fraction of R. oldhamii leaf extract. Among them, AS and HY showed excellent fat-accumulation inhibitory activity. Thus, the EtOAc fraction of R. oldhamii leaf and its derived phytochemicals have great potential in preventing FFA-induced fat accumulation. In addition, the EtOAc fraction of R. oldhamii leaf significantly improved fatty liver syndrome and reduced total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in HFD

  13. INDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND ASSOCIATED TOXICITY IN LIVERS OF HARDHEAD CATFISH, ARIUS FELIS, FROM CONTROL AND EPIZOOTIC SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earlier work with a live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen, Edwardsiella ictaluri, demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the head kidney, paralleling enteric septicemia (Hawke et al. 1981; Schoor and Plumb 1994). However, another study exposing...

  14. Biomarker analysis of liver cells exposed to surfactant-wrapped and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have great potential in industrial, consumer, and mechanical applications, based partly on their unique structural, optical and electronic properties. CNTs are commonly oxidized or treated with surfactants to facilitate aqueous solution processing, and the...

  15. Quantitative histochemistry for macrophage biodistribution on mice liver and spleen after the administration of a pharmacological-relevant dose of polyacrylic acid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Freitas, Marisa; Marisa Costa, Vera; Arturo Lopez-Quintela, Manuel; Rivas, José; Freitas, Paulo; Carvalho, Félix; Fernandes, Eduarda; Silva, Paula

    2017-03-01

    Understanding in vivo biodistribution of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs), and the involvement of the phagocyte system in this process, is crucial for the assessment of their potential health risk. In the present study, the histochemical expression of iron in liver and spleen sections of CD-1 mice (aged 8 weeks) was quantified, 24 h after intravenous administration of polyacrylic acid-coated IONs (PAA-coated IONs) (8, 20, 50 mg/kg). Organ sections were stained with Perls' Prussian blue for iron detection, followed by the quantification of iron deposition with ImageJ software. Our study revealed the existence of a linear dose-dependent increase of iron deposition in macrophages of both organs. Exposed animals showed hepatic iron deposition in all zones, although most marked in periportal region. In the spleen, no iron was detected in the white splenic pulp of both control and treated animals. When compared with control mice, a positive correlation between histochemical detection of iron and PAA-coated ION doses was observed in splenic red pulp of animals. The results confirmed our assumption that liver and spleen are involved in the clearance pathways of PAA-coated IONs from the blood. Excess iron was cytotoxic at the highest dose of PAA-coated IONs tested, but no significant morphologic alterations were observed for the lower doses. Clusters of early necrotic hepatocytes were observed in the hepatic periportal region of mice injected with the higher dose (50 mg/kg) of PAA-coated IONs. Further studies are necessary to determine if liver and spleen macrophages will degrade these IONs, or eventually exocytose both the degraded and intact ones.

  16. Apigenin protects against alcohol-induced liver injury in mice by regulating hepatic CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress and PPARα-mediated lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Jin-Cheng; Zhou, Rui-Jun; Zhao, Xi; Liu, Mei; Ye, Hua; Xie, Mei-Lin

    2017-09-25

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver injury, and there are currently no ideal pharmacological reagents that can prevent or reverse this disease. Apigenin is one of the most common flavonoids present in numerous plants and has many beneficial effects. But whether or not apigenin may protect against alcohol-induced liver injury remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect and potential mechanisms. The experimental mice were given 56% erguotou wine or simultaneously given apigenin 150-300 mg/kg by gavage for 30 days. The results showed that in the apigenin-treated mice, the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and nuclear factor kappa B proteins as well as contents of hepatic malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were reduced, while the levels of hepatic reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase were increased, especially in the 300 mg/kg group. A significant change in hepatic steatosis was also observed in the apigenin 300 mg/kg group. Apigenin pretreatment could increase the expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 proteins, and decrease the expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase proteins. These findings demonstrated that apigenin might exert a protective effect on alcohol-induced liver injury, and its mechanisms might be related to the regulations of hepatic CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress and PPARα-mediated lipogenic gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Meyer, Samantha; Aboua, Yapo G.; Goboza, Mediline

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg) aqueous solution was administered (daily) orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue. PMID:27403200

  18. Oxidative and ER stress-dependent ASK1 activation in steatotic hepatocytes and Kupffer cells sensitizes mice fatty liver to ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Imarisio, Chiara; Alchera, Elisa; Bangalore Revanna, Chandrashekar; Valente, Guido; Follenzi, Antonia; Trisolini, Elena; Boldorini, Renzo; Carini, Rita

    2017-11-01

    Steatosis intensifies hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury increasing hepatocyte damage and hepatic inflammation. This study evaluates if this process is associated to a differential response of steatotic hepatocytes (HP) and Kupffer cells (KC) to I/R injury and investigates the molecular mechanisms involved. Control or steatotic (treated with 50 μmol palmitic acid, PA) mouse HP or KC were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). C57BL/6 mice fed 9 week with control or High Fat diet underwent to partial hepatic IR. PA increased H/R damage of HP and further activated the ASK1-JNK axis stimulated by ER stress during H/R. PA also induced the production of oxidant species (OS), and OS prevention nullified the capacity of PA to increase H/R damage and ASK1/JNK stimulation. ASK1 inhibition prevented JNK activation and entirely protected HP damage. In KC, PA directly activated ER stress, ASK1 and p38 MAPK and increased H/R damage. However, in contrast to HP, ASK1 inhibition further increased H/R damage by preventing p38 MAPK activation. In mice liver, steatosis induced the expression of activated ASK1 in only KC, whereas I/R exposure of steatotic liver activated ASK1 expression also in HP. "In vivo", ASK1 inhibition prevented ASK1, JNK and p38 MAPK activation and protected I/R damage and expression of inflammatory markers. Lipids-induced ASK1 stimulation differentially affects HP and KC by promoting cytotoxic or protective signals. ASK1 increases H/R damage of HP by stimulating JNK and protects KC activating p38MAPK. These data support the potentiality of the therapeutic employment of ASK1 inhibitors that can antagonize the damaging effects of I/R upon fatty liver surgery by the contextual reduction of HP death and of KC-mediated reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Properties of glutathione release observed during reduction of organic hydroperoxide, demethylation of aminopyrine and oxidation of some substances in perfused rat liver, and their implications for the physiological function of catalase.

    PubMed Central

    Oshino, N; Chance, B

    1977-01-01

    The enhanced reduction of t-butyl hydroperoxide by glutathione peroxidase is accompanied by a decrease in the cellular concentration of both glutathione and NADPH in isolated liver cells, resulting in the release of GSSG (oxidized glutathione) from the perfused rat liver. This phenomenon, first reported by H. Sies, C. Gerstenecker, H. Menzel & L. Flohé (1972) (FEBS Lett. 27, 171-175), can be observed under a variety of conditions, not only with the acceleration of the glutathione peroxidase reaction by organic peroxides, but also during the oxidation of glycollate and benzylamine, during demethylation of aminopyrine in the liver of the phenobarbital-pretreated rat and during oxidation of uric acid in the liver of the starved rat pretreated with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. The rate of release of GSSG is altered markedly by changes in the metabolic conditions which affect the rate of hepatic NADPH generation. Thus, regardless of whether achieved by enhanced oxidation of glutathione by glutathione peroxidase or by oxidation of NADPH through other metabolic pathways, an increase in the cellular concentration of GSSG appears to facilitate its release. It has been found that, in addition to the hexose monophosphate shunt, the mitochondrial NADH-NADP+ transhydrogenase reaction plays an important role in supplying reducing equivalents to the glutathione peroxidase reaction and in maintaining the cellular oxidation-reduction state of the nicotinamide nucleotides. Spectrophotometric analysis of the steady-state concentration of the catalase-H2O2 intermediate with simultaneous measurement of the rate of release of GSSG leads to the conclusion that intracellular compartmentation of catalase in the peroxisomes and glutathione peroxidase in the cytosol and mitochondria distinguishes the reactivities of these enzymes one from the other, and facilitates their effective cooperation in hydroperoxide metabolism in the liver. PMID:17386

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of the hepatic response to stress in the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis): Insights into lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and liver steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Jorge E.; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Maldonado, Jonathan; Bastias-Molina, Macarena; Silva, Herman; Meneses, Claudio; Gallardo-Escarate, Cristian; Molina, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts exhibit a broad divergence in their adaptive response to stress, depending on the magnitude, duration, and frequency of stressors and the species receiving the stimulus. We have previously reported that the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis), an important marine farmed fish, shows a physiological response to stress that results in increased skeletal muscle atrophy mediated by over-expression of components of the ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal systems. To better understand the systemic effects of stress on the red cusk-eel metabolism, the present study assessed the transcriptomic hepatic response to repetitive handling-stress. Using high-throughput RNA-seq, 259 up-regulated transcripts were found, mostly associated with angiogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and triacylglyceride catabolism. Conversely, 293 transcripts were down-regulated, associated to cholesterol biosynthesis, PPARα signaling, fatty acid biosynthesis, and glycolysis. This gene signature was concordant with hepatic metabolite levels and hepatic oxidative damage. Moreover, the increased plasmatic levels of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AP (alkaline phosphatase), as well as liver histology suggest stress-induced liver steatosis. This study offers an integrative molecular and biochemical analysis of the hepatic response to handling-stress, and reveals unknown aspects of lipid metabolism in a non-model teleost. PMID:28448552

  1. Effects of the continuous administration of an Agaricus blazei extract to rats on oxidative parameters of the brain and liver during aging.

    PubMed

    de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis B; Soares, Andréia A; Natali, Maria R M; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane M; Bracht, Adelar

    2014-11-13

    An investigation of the effects of an aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei, a medicinal mushroom, on the oxidative state of the brain and liver of rats during aging (7 to 23 months) was conducted. The treatment consisted in the daily intragastric administration of 50 mg/kg of the extract. The A. blazei treatment tended to maintain the ROS contents of the brain and liver at lower levels, but a significant difference was found only at the age of 23 months and in the brain. The TBARS levels in the brain were maintained at lower levels by the A. blazei treatment during the whole aging process with a specially pronounced difference at the age of 12 months. The total antioxidant capacity in the brain was higher in treated rats only at the age of 12 months. Compared with previous studies in which old rats (21 months) were treated during a short period of 21 days with 200 mg/kg, the effects of the A. blazei extract in the present study tended to be less pronounced. The results also indicate that the long and constant treatment presented a tendency of becoming less effective at ages above 12 months.

  2. Investigation of oxidative stress in blood, brain, kidney, and liver after oxime antidote HI-6 application in a mouse experimental model.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Sobotka, Jakub; Svobodova, Hana; Stetina, Rudolf

    2011-07-01

    Oxime reactivator HI-6 (asoxime, in some sources) is a potent antidote suitable for treatment of intoxication by nerve agents. Despite the fact that HI-6 is considered for practical application in emergency situations, the impact of HI-6 on patients' bodies has not been established yet. The present experiment was carried out in order to estimate whether HI-6 would be able to trigger or protect from oxidative stress in a BALB/c mice model. HI-6 was applied in doses ranging from 0.2 to 20% of LD₅₀. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione reductase (GR) were assayed in the blood, liver, kidney, and brain of treated animals. It was found that HI-6 does not increase GR or TBARS. On the contrary, TBARS levels in the brain and liver were found to be significantly decreased in HI-6-treated animals. Pertinent antioxidant properties of HI-6 were excluded by the FRAP method. Endogenous antioxidants were unchanged, with the exception of the kidney. Low-molecular-weight antioxidants assayed by the FRAP method were significantly decreased in kidneys of animals treated with HI-6. However, GSH partially recovered the loss of the other low-molecular-weight antioxidants and was significantly increased in the kidney of HI-6-exposed mice. HI-6 potential to produce nephropathy is hypothesized. The achieved conclusions were quite surprising and showed a complex impact of HI-6 on the body.

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside from Carthamus tinctorius L. on CCl4-induced oxidative liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Tang, Changyun; Zhang, Hao

    2015-06-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a traditional medicinal and edible herb with a long history of use in China. In this study, a model of hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in mice was used to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (K-3-R) and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside (K-3-G), two kaempferol glycosides isolated from C. tinctorius L. K-3-R and K-3-G, at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, were given orally to male mice once/d for 7 days before they received CCl 4 intraperitoneally. Our results showed that K-3-R and K-3-G treatment increased the level of total protein (TP) and prevented the CCl 4 -induced increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Additionally, mice treated with K-3-R and K-3-G had significantly restored glutathione (GSH) levels and showed normal catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, compared to CCl 4 -treated mice. K-3-R and K-3-G also mitigated the CCl 4 -induced liver histological alteration, as indicated by histopathological evaluation. These findings demonstrate that K-3-R and K-3-G have protective effects against acute CCl 4 -induced oxidative liver damage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Food selection based on total antioxidant capacity can modify antioxidant intake, systemic inflammation, and liver function without altering markers of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Valtueña, Silvia; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Franzini, Laura; Bianchi, Marta A; Ardigò, Diego; Del Rio, Daniele; Piatti, PierMarco; Scazzina, Francesca; Zavaroni, Ivana; Brighenti, Furio

    2008-05-01

    It is unknown whether diets with a high dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) can modify oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, or liver dysfunction, all of which are risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of high- and low-TAC (HT and LT, respectively) diets on markers of antioxidant status, systemic inflammation, and liver dysfunction. In a crossover intervention, 33 healthy adults (19 men, 14 women) received the HT and LT diets for 2 wk each. Dietary habits were checked with a 3-d food record during both diet periods and the washout period. Fruit and vegetable, macronutrient, dietary fiber, and alcohol intakes did not differ significantly between the 2 diets, whereas dietary TAC, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid were significantly (P < 0.001) higher during the HT diet. Plasma alpha-tocopherol rose during the HT and decreased during the LT diet (P < 0.02 for difference) without changes in markers of oxidative stress except plasma malondialdehyde, which decreased unexpectedly during the LT diet (P < 0.05). Plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations decreased during the HT compared with the LT diet (mean +/- SEM for pre-post changes: -0.72 +/- 0.37 compared with 1.05 +/- 0.60 mg/L, P < 0.01; -1.73 +/- 1.02 compared with 2.33 +/- 2.58 U/L, P < 0.01; -2.12 +/- 1.45 compared with 5.15 +/- 2.98 U/L, P < 0.05; and 1.36 +/- 1.34 compared with 5.06 +/- 2.00 U/L, P < 0.01, respectively). Selecting foods according to their TAC markedly affects antioxidant intake and modulates hepatic contribution to systemic inflammation without affecting traditional markers of antioxidant status.

  5. Protective Effects of Selenium, Vitamin E, and Purple Carrot Anthocyanins on D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Blood, Liver, Heart and Kidney Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Yunlong; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Yong; Qin, Yan; Deng, Zeyuan; Li, Hongyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of selenium (Se), vitamin E (Vit E) and anthocyanins from purple carrots and their combination against the oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in rats. A total of 80 male rats were equally divided into 11 groups, one of which acted as control (I) just receiving intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline. The remaining ten groups (II-XI) were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day for 42 consecutive days. Rats in groups III-XI were treated with antioxidants via gavage per day as follows: group III: Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), IV: Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), V: Se-enriched yeast (SeY), VI: Vit E as α-tocopherol acetate, VII: anthocyanin from purple carrots (APC), VIII: APC + Vit E, IX: SeMSC + APC+ Vit E, X: Na2SeO3 + APC + Vit E, XI: SeY + Ant + Vit E. The results showed that the rats treated with antioxidants (III-XI) showed significant decreases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (PCO) compared with the D-galactose-treated group (II) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood. Moreover, there were significant increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood of antioxidant-treated animals (III-XI) than those in control group (I). In addition, the combined treatments of two or three antioxidants showed greater antioxidant activities than those of individual treatments, suggesting the synergistic antioxidant effects of Se, Vit E, and APC. In conclusion, all the antioxidants exhibited protective effects against D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in rats, and these antioxidants showed a synergistic effect.

  6. Sex-related difference in the inductions by perfluoro-octanoic acid of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, microsomal 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase and cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolase in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Y; Uy-Yu, N; Kozuka, H

    1989-01-01

    Inductions by perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFOA) of hepatomegaly, peroxisomal beta-oxidation, microsomal 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase and cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolase were compared in liver between male and female rats. Marked inductions of these four parameters were seen concurrently in liver of male rats, whereas the inductions in liver of female rats were far less pronounced. The sex-related difference in the response of rat liver to PFOA was much more marked than that seen with p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (clofibric acid) or 2,2'-(decamethylenedithio)diethanol (tiadenol). Hormonal manipulations revealed that this sex-related difference in the inductions is strongly dependent on sex hormones, namely that testosterone is necessary for the inductions, whereas oestradiol prevented the inductions by PFOA. PMID:2570571

  7. Liver Hemangioma

    MedlinePlus

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  8. XYLITOL IMPROVES ANTI-OXIDATIVE DEFENSE SYSTEM IN SERUM, LIVER, HEART, KIDNEY AND PANCREAS OF NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MODEL OF RATS.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Shahidul

    2017-05-01

    The present study investigated the anti-oxidative effects of xylitol both in vitro and in vivo in normal and type 2 diabetes (T2D) rat model. Free radical scavenging and ferric reducing potentials of different concentrations of xylitol were investigated in vitro. For in vivo study, six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, namely: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic Control (DBC), Normal Xylitol (NXYL) and Diabetic Xylitol (DXYL). T2D was induced in the DBC and DXYL groups. After the confirmation of diabetes, a 10% xylitol solution was supplied instead of drinking water to NXYL and DXYL, while normal drinking water was supplied to NC and DBC ad libitum. After five weeks intervention period, the animals were sacri- ficed and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities were determined in the liver, heart, kidney, pancreatic tissues and serum samples. Xylitol exhibited significant (p < 0.05) in vitro nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing activities. In vivo study revealed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in TBARS concentrations in the xylitol consuming groups compared to their respective controls. Significant (p < 0.05) increase in GSH levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in analyzed tissues and serum of xylitol-fed animals compared to their respective controls. Results of this study indicate that xylitol has strong anti-oxidative potential against T2D-associated oxidative stress. Hence, xylitol can be used as a potential supplement in diabetic foods and food products.

  9. Trout-skin gelatin-based edible films containing phenolic antioxidants: effect on physical properties and oxidative stability of cod-liver oil model food.

    PubMed

    Tammineni, Nageshwar; Unlü, Gülhan; Rasco, Barbara; Powers, Joseph; Sablani, Shyam; Nindo, Caleb

    2012-11-01

    Trout-skin (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gelatin-based films containing antioxidants (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 50 and 250 ppm w/w) and green tea powder (1% and 20% w/w of gelatin) were tested for tensile strength, elastic modulus, and elongation, and oxygen and water vapor transmission rates, in vitro antioxidant activity using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay and effect on stabilizing cod-liver oil held under mild thermal abuse conditions. Cod-liver oil overlaid with films was stored at 40 °C for 20 d and analyzed for peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Antioxidant activity was retained in films containing green tea powder, but was reduced (P < 0.05) in EGCG films (20 d, 23 °C). Water vapor transmission rate of the films incorporated with antioxidants did not change significantly (P > 0.05), but the oxygen transmission rate for films with 50 ppm EGCG and 20% green tea powder was significant (P < 0.05). Other physical properties varied with antioxidant incorporation. The TBARS and PV of control oil increased from 0.05 ± 0.01 to 4.71 ± 0.30 g MDA/kg oil and from 3.6 ± 0.2 to 178.3 ± 24.5 millieq peroxides/kg oil, respectively, after 20 d. For cod-liver oil covered with control or antioxidant-containing films, TBARS remained below 0.37 g MDA/kg oil and PV below 7 millieq peroxides/kg oil. Incorporation of antioxidants to the films did not reduce oil oxidation (P > 0.05) at the levels tested and this was confirmed by activation energy calculations. The rate of oil oxidation was more dependent upon the inherent oxygen barrier property of the films than the presence of antioxidants. This research has the potential to enhance the utilization of fish skins, a valuable food processing by-product, as edible films with natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life of foods. The film physical properties and barrier to oxygen and water are investigated. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Effects of a dietary antioxidant blend and vitamin E on fatty acid profile, liver function, and inflammatory response in broiler chickens fed a diet high in oxidants.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Zhao, J; Corl, B A; LeRoith, T; Dalloul, R A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of a dietary antioxidant blend and vitamin E on fatty acid profile, inflammatory response, and liver function. Cobb 500 male broilers (n = 1,200, d 0) were randomly distributed into 6 treatments with 10 replicate floor pens. Treatments included (1) a high-oxidant diet, with vitamin E at 10 IU/kg, 3% oxidized oil, 3% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) source (HO); (2) the HO diet with vitamin E at 200 IU/kg (VE); (3) the HO diet with an antioxidant blend at 135 mg/kg (AOX); (4) the HO diet with both vitamin E at 200 IU/kg and an antioxidant blend at 135 mg/kg (VE+AOX); (5) standard control (SC); and (6) a positive control, which was the SC diet with an antioxidant blend at 135 mg/kg. The concentrations of 20:4, 20:5, 22:5, 22:6, and all the n-3 fatty acids were greater in the abdominal fat of HO, VE, AOX, and VE+AOX birds than SC and positive control birds on d 21 and 42 (P < 0.001). Compared with HO treatment, AOX and VE+AOX preserved the deposition of PUFA better (P < 0.001). The HO birds had greater concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase on d 21 and 42, and γ-glutamyl transferase on d 21, whereas AOX and VE+AOX chickens had restored γ-glutamyl transferase concentration (P < 0.01). The inflammation scores of abdominal fat of AOX and VE+AOX birds were lower than the HO on d 21 (P < 0.001). Compared with SC, the VE and VE+AOX birds exhibited greater vacuole scores on d 21 and 42 (P < 0.01). The lower vacuoles score in SC was associated with a greater expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor -γ and -α (P < 0.05). The expression of inflammatory genes in the liver did not differ among treatments. In conclusion, the AOX and AOX+VE diets were effective in preserving PUFA in the abdominal fat, moderately improved liver function, and reduced inflammation in fat. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Promising toxicological biomarkers for the diagnosis of liver injury types: Bile acid metabolic profiles and oxidative stress marker as screening tools in drug development.

    PubMed

    Masubuchi, Noriko; Nishiya, Takayoshi; Imaoka, Masako; Mizumaki, Kiyoko; Okazaki, Osamu

    2016-08-05

    Promising biomarkers were identified in adult male Crl:CD (SD) rats for the screening of new chemical entities for their potential to cause liver injury. We examined the serum biochemistry, liver histopathology, and bile acid profiles by LC-MS/MS, and the mRNA expression of transporters and CYPs by an RT-PCR after the following treatments to male Crl:CD (SD) rats: (a) bile duct ligation (BDL); (b) a single oral dose of 150 mg/kg α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT); and (c) repeated oral doses of a novel pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid derivative (abbreviated as PCA) at 30, 300, and 1000 mg/kg. The serum total bile acid levels and bilirubin concentrations were found to be elevated in all of the groups. However, the bile acid component profiles of the PCA group differed significantly from BDL and ANIT models: deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, and sulfated bile acids were upregulated in a dose-dependent manner only in the PCA group. In addition, the PCA group demonstrated high levels of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression, whereas the profiles of the mRNA levels of the hepatic transporters and CYPs of all groups were found to be similar. The histopathological findings, for both the BDL and ANIT groups, were of bile duct hyperplasia, hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis. In contrast, only bile duct hyperplasia and hepatocyte degeneration were observed in the PCA group, even at a lethal dose. These results indicated that PCA induced a cholestatic condition and the increase of oxidative stress markers implies that this will also lead hepatocellular injury. In conclusion, the serum bile acid components and sulfated bile acid levels, and the expression of oxidative stress markers could provide information that aids in the diagnosis of liver injury type and helps to elucidate the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. These findings can be extrapolated into our clinical investigation. The analysis of these crucial biomarkers is likely to be a useful screening tool in the lead

  12. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Delta agent (hepatitis D) Drug-induced cholestasis Fatty liver disease Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C ... abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Images Fatty liver, CT scan Liver with disproportional fattening, CT scan ...

  13. Effects of high-fat diets on hepatic fatty acid oxidation in the rat. Isolation of rat liver peroxisomes by vertical-rotor centrifugation by using a self-generated, iso-osmotic, Percoll gradient.

    PubMed Central

    Neat, C E; Thomassen, M S; Osmundsen, H

    1981-01-01

    1. Rat liver peroxisomal fractions were isolated in iso-osmotic Percoll gradients by using vertical-rotor centrifugation. The fractions obtained with rats given various dietary treatments were characterized. 2. The effect on peroxisomal beta-oxidation of feeding 15% by wt. of dietary fat for 3 weeks was investigated. High-fat diets caused induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, but diets rich in very-long-chain mono-unsaturated fatty acids produced a more marked induction. 3. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation induced by diets rich in very-long-chain mono-unsaturated fatty acids can oxidize such acids. Trans-isomers of mono-unsaturated fatty acids are oxidized at rates that are faster than, or similar to, those obtained with corresponding cis-isomers. 4. Rates of oxidation of [14-14C]erucic acid by isolated rat hepatocytes isolated from rats fed on high-fat diets increased with the time on those diets in a fashion very similar to that previously reported for peroxisomal beta-oxidation [see Neat, Thomassen & Osmundsen (1980) Biochem, J. 186, 369-371]. 5. Total liver capacities for peroxisomal beta-oxidation (expressed as acetyl groups produced per min) were estimated to range from 10 to 30% of mitochondrial capacities, depending on dietary treatment and fatty acid substrate. A role is proposed for peroxisomal beta-oxidation in relation to the metabolism of fatty acids that are poorly oxidized by mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and, in general, as regards oxidation of fatty acids during periods of sustained high hepatic influx of fatty acids. PMID:6272750

  14. Kinetic analysis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the liver of body-temperature-controlled mice using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging and an empirical mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kenya; Assanai, Purapan; Takata, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Nozomi; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Nishiura, Motoko

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for analyzing the kinetic behavior of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in the murine liver under control of body temperature using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and an empirical mathematical model (EMM). First, we investigated the influence of body temperature on the kinetic behavior of SPIONs in the liver by controlling body temperature using our temperature-control system. Second, we investigated the kinetic behavior of SPIONs in the liver when mice were injected with various doses of GdCl3, while keeping the body temperature at 36°C. Finally, we investigated it when mice were injected with various doses of zymosan, while keeping the body temperature at 36°C. We also investigated the effect of these substances on the number of Kupffer cells by immunohistochemical analysis using the specific surface antigen of Kupffer cells (CD68). To quantify the kinetic behavior of SPIONs in the liver, we calculated the upper limit of the relative enhancement (A), the rates of early contrast uptake (α) and washout or late contrast uptake (β), the parameter related to the slope of early uptake (q), the area under the curve (AUC), the maximum change of transverse relaxation rate (ΔR2) (ΔR2(max)), the time to ΔR2(max) (Tmax), and ΔR2 at the last time point (ΔR2(last)) from the time courses of ΔR2 using the EMM. The β and Tmax values significantly decreased and increased, respectively, with decreasing body temperature, suggesting that the phagocytic activity of Kupffer cells is significantly affected by body temperature. The AUC, ΔR2(max), and ΔR2(last) values decreased significantly with increasing dose of GdCl3, which was consistent with the change in the number of CD68-positive cells. They increased with increasing dose of zymosan, which was also consistent with the change in the number of CD68-positive cells. These results suggest that AUC, ΔR2(max), and ΔR2

  15. Varying effects of calcium on the oxidation of palmitate and alpha-ketoglutarate in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated in KCl-based and sucrose-based media.

    PubMed

    Borrebaek, B; Dolva, K; Singh, B

    1984-01-01

    Isolated mitochondria from rat liver were incubated in the presence of [U-14C]palmitate, ATP, CoA, carnitine, EGTA (ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N'-tetraacetic acid) and varying amounts of calcium. When a KC1-based incubation medium was used, the oxidation of palmitate was inhibited when the concentration of free calcium was increased from about 0.1-10 microM. When a sucrose-based incubation medium was used, the basal rate of palmitate oxidation was about half of that observed with the KC1-medium and calcium had a stimulatory effect. With the KC1-medium the rate of oxygen consumption was inhibited by calcium with alpha-ketoglutarate as well as palmitate as the respiratory substrate. No inhibitory effect of calcium was observed with succinate or beta-hydroxybutyrate. With the KC1-medium and with alpha-ketoglutarate as the respiratory substrate, state 3 respiration but not state 4 respiration was inhibited by calcium. When the sucrose-medium was used, state 3 respiration was first inhibited by calcium, but this inhibition was gradually relieved and the respiratory rate finally became higher than it was before calcium addition.

  16. NMR data (ppm) from liver cells exposed to surfactant-wrapped (SDS) and oxidized (-OH) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have great potential in industrial, consumer, and mechanical applications, based partly on their unique structural, optical and electronic properties. CNTs are commonly oxidized or treated with surfactants to facilitate aqueous solution processing, and these CNT surface modifications also increase possible human and ecological exposures to nanoparticle-contaminated waters. To determine the exposure outcomes of oxidized and surfactant-wrapped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on biochemical processes, metabolomics based profiling of human liver cells (C3A) was utilized. Cells were exposed to 0, 10, or 100 ng/mL of MWCNTs for 24 and 48 hr. MWCNT particle size distribution, charge, and aggregation were monitored concurrently during exposures. Following MWCNT exposure, cellular metabolites were extracted, lyophilized, and buffered for 1H NMR analysis. Acquired spectra were subjected to both multivariate and univariate analysis to determine the consequences of nanotube exposure on the metabolite profile of C3A cells. Resulting scores plots illustrated temporal and dose-dependent metabolite responses to all MWCNTs tested. Loadings plots coupled with t-test filtered spectra identified metabolites of interest. XPS analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl functionalities on both MWCNTs surfaces. Metal content analysis by ICP-AES indicated that the total mass concentration of the potentially toxic impurities in the exposure exper

  17. Alteration of lipid status and lipid metabolism, induction of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic herbicide in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Tayeb, Wafa; Nakbi, Amel; Cheraief, Imed; Miled, Abdelhedi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic herbicide (2,4-D) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins concentrations, hepatic lipid peroxidation, fatty acid composition and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each: control group and three 2,4-D-treated groups G1, G2 and G3 were administered 15, 75 and 150 mg/kg/BW/d 2,4-D by gavage for 28 d, respectively. Results showed that 2,4-D caused significant negative changes in the biochemical parameters investigated. The malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in 2,4-D-treated groups. Fatty acid composition of the liver was also significantly changed with 2,4-D exposure. Furthermore, the hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly affected. Finally, 2,4-D at the studied doses modifies lipidic status, disrupt lipid metabolism and induce hepatic oxidative stress. In conclusion, at higher doses, 2,4-D may play an important role in the development of vascular disease via metabolic disorder of lipoproteins, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

  18. Triterpenic acids-enriched fraction from Cyclocarya paliurus attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease via improving oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Ge; Sheng, Xue-Ping; Huang, Ya-Ping; Wang, Yi-Ting; Jiang, Cui-Hua; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhi-Qi

    2018-08-01

    The effects of triterpenic acids-enriched fraction from Cyclocarya paliurus (CPT) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated using in vivo and in vitro models. In high fat diet-induced Wister rats, CPT significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels. Moreover, CPT restored mitochondrial membrane potential dysfunction, decreased cytochrome P450 enzyme 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, improved nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase1 (HO-1) expression. In free fatty acids-induced HepG2 cells, CPT dramatically decreased ROS content, increased mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) and mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase (Complex IV) levels. Furthermore, CPT could upregulate HO-1, quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) expression, and increase Nrf2 translocation from cytoplasm-to-nucleus. The results indicated CPT could protect mitochondria function and improve oxidative stress by activating Nrf2. Therefore, it can be inferred that CPT may be a potential agent against NAFLD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary Effects of Oxidized Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Intact EPA on Hepatic Steatosis Induced by a High-sucrose Diet and Liver-X-receptor α Agonist in Mice.

    PubMed

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), improve lipid metabolism. The beneficial effects of PUFA-derived oxidation products have been increasingly reported. However, EPA is easily oxidized in food products and in the human body, generating various derivatives of oxidized EPA (oxEPA), such that these oxidation products may partially contribute to EPA's effect. We previously reported that oxEPA was more potent than intact EPA in reducing liver-X-receptor α (LXRα)-induced cellular triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation. However, the in vivo hypolipidemic effects of oxEPA remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of EPA and oxEPA on hepatic steatosis in mice induced by a high-sucrose diet and a synthetic LXRα agonist, TO-901317. Both EPA and oxEPA reduced TG accumulation in the liver and plasma biomarkers of liver injury. Furthermore, they suppressed the expression of lipogenic genes, but not β-oxidation genes, in a similar pattern as the biomarkers. Our results suggest that oxEPA and intact EPA suppress de novo lipogenesis to ameliorate hepatic steatosis.

  20. Real-time imaging of oxidative and nitrosative stress in the liver of live animals for drug-toxicity testing

    PubMed Central

    Shuhendler, Adam J.; Pu, Kanyi; Cui, Lina; Uetrecht, Jack P.

    2014-01-01

    Current drug-safety assays for hepatotoxicity rely on biomarkers with low predictive power. The production of radical species, specifically reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), has been proposed as an early unifying event linking the bioactivation of drugs to hepatotoxicity and as a more direct and mechanistic indicator of hepatotoxic potential. Here we present a nanosensor for rapid, real-time in vivo imaging of drug-induced ROS and RNS for direct evaluation of acute hepatotoxicity. By combining fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET), our semiconducting polymer–based nanosensor simultaneously and differentially detects RNS and ROS using two optically independent channels. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity and its remediation are imaged longitudinally in mice following systemic challenge with acetaminophen or isoniazid. Dose-dependent ROS and RNS activity is detected in the liver within minutes of drug challenge, preceding histological changes, protein nitration and DNA double strand break induction. PMID:24658645

  1. Pomegranate juice prevents development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Noori, Maryam; Jafari, Bahar; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2017-06-01

    The effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) on the risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been reported previously; however, the effects on NAFLD and its prevention have not yet been clarified. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of PJ consumption with respect to the prevention of NAFLD/NASH development. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high-fat, high sugar diet (model group); a high-fat, high sugar diet plus PJ (model+PJ); or a chow diet ad libitum for 7 weeks. Serum levels of fasting glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, liver enzymes, insulin and hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α and tissue growth factor-β gene expression were determined. Hepatic histology was examined by hemotoxylin and eosin staining. The model+PJ group had significantly lower hepatic steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation and portal inflammation (P < 0.001); lower hepatic pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic gene expression (P < 0.001); and lower plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.026), aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.041), insulin (P < 0.001)