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Sample records for a-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange

  1. BIG1, a brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein modulates ABCA1 trafficking and function

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sisi; Zhou, Chun; Neufeld, Edward; Wang, Yu-Hua; Xu, Suo-Wen; Lu, Liang; Wang, Ying; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Li, Dong; Li, Cuixian; Chen, Shaorui; Le, Kang; Huang, Heqing; Liu, Peiqing; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cell surface localization and intracellular trafficking of ATP-binding cassette transporter A-1 (ABCA1) are essential for its function. However, regulation of these activities is still largely unknown. Brefeldin A (BFA), a uncompetitive inhibitor of brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins (BIGs), disturbs the intracellular distribution of ABCA1, and thus inhibits cholesterol efflux. This study aimed to define the possible roles of BIGs in regulating ABCA1 trafficking and cholesterol efflux, and further to explore the potential mechanism. Methods and Results By vesicle immunoprecipitation, we found that BIG1 was associated with ABCA1 in vesicles preparation from rat liver. BIG1 depletion reduced surface ABCA1 on HepG2 cells and inhibited by 60% cholesterol release. In contrast, BIG1 over-expression increased surface ABCA1 and cholesterol secretion. With partial restoration of BIG1 through over-expression in BIG1-depleted cells, surface ABCA1 was also restored. Biotinylation and glutathione cleavage revealed that BIG1 siRNA dramatically decreased the internalization and recycling of ABCA1. This novel function of BIG1 was dependent on the guanine nucleotide-exchange activity and achieved through activation of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1). Conclusions BIG1, through its ability to activate ARF1, regulates cell surface levels and function of ABCA1, indicating a transcription-independent mechanism for controlling ABCA1 action. PMID:23220274

  2. BIG1, a brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein regulates neurite development via PI3K-AKT and ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Li, C; Li, D; Wang, Y; Shao, W; You, Y; Peng, J; Zhang, X; Lu, L; Shen, X

    2013-12-19

    The elongation of neuron is highly dependent on membrane trafficking. Brefeldin A (BFA)-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 1 (BIG1) functions in the membrane trafficking between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. BFA, an uncompetitive inhibitor of BIG1 can inhibit neurite outgrowth and polarity development. In this study, we aimed to define the possible role of BIG1 in neurite development and to further investigate the potential mechanism. By immunostaining, we found that BIG1 was extensively colocalized with synaptophysin, a marker for synaptic vesicles in soma and partly in neurites. The amount of both protein and mRNA of BIG1 were up-regulated during rat brain development. BIG1 depletion significantly decreased the neurite length and inhibited the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT). Inhibition of BIG1 guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) activity by BFA or overexpression of the dominant-negative BIG1 reduced PI3K and AKT phosphorylation, indicating regulatory effects of BIG1 on PI3K-AKT signaling pathway is dependent on its GEF activity. BIG1 siRNA or BFA treatment also significantly reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Overexpression of wild-type BIG1 significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, but the dominant-negative BIG1 had no effect on ERK phosphorylation, indicating the involvement of BIG1 in ERK signaling regulation may not be dependent on its GEF activity. Our result identified a novel function of BIG1 in neurite development. The newly recognized function integrates the function of BIG1 in membrane trafficking with the activation of PI3K-AKT and ERK signaling pathways which are critical in neurite development. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) as Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Randazzo, Paul A; Jian, Xiaoying; Chen, Pei-Wen; Zhai, Peng; Soubias, Olivier; Northup, John K

    2014-01-01

    The proteins that possess guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity, which include about ~800 G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs),1 15 Arf GEFs,2 81 Rho GEFs,3 8 Ras GEFs,4 and others for other families of GTPases,5 catalyze the exchange of GTP for GDP on all regulatory guanine nucleotide binding proteins. Despite their importance as catalysts, relatively few exchange factors (we are aware of only eight for ras superfamily members) have been rigorously characterized kinetically.5–13 In some cases, kinetic analysis has been simplistic leading to erroneous conclusions about mechanism (as discussed in a recent review14). In this paper, we compare two approaches for determining the kinetic properties of exchange factors: (i) examining individual equilibria, and; (ii) analyzing the exchange factors as enzymes. Each approach, when thoughtfully used,14,15 provides important mechanistic information about the exchange factors. The analysis as enzymes is described in further detail. With the focus on the production of the biologically relevant guanine nucleotide binding protein complexed with GTP (G•GTP), we believe it is conceptually simpler to connect the kinetic properties to cellular effects. Further, the experiments are often more tractable than those used to analyze the equilibrium system and, therefore, more widely accessible to scientists interested in the function of exchange factors. PMID:25332840

  4. Phosphorylation-dependent Regulation of Connecdenn/DENND1 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Kulasekaran, Gopinath; Nossova, Nadya; Marat, Andrea L.; Lund, Ingrid; Cremer, Christopher; Ioannou, Maria S.; McPherson, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Connecdenn 1/2 are DENN (differentially expressed in normal and neoplastic cells) domain-bearing proteins that function as GEFs (guanine nucleotide exchange factors) for the small GTPase Rab35. Disruption of connecdenn/Rab35 function leads to defects in the recycling of multiple cargo proteins from endosomes with altered cell function, yet the regulation of connecdenn GEF activity is unexplored. We now demonstrate that connecdenn 1/2 are autoinhibited such that the purified, full-length proteins have significantly less Rab35 binding and GEF activity than the isolated DENN domain. Both proteins are phosphorylated with prominent phosphorylation sites between residues 500 and 600 of connecdenn 1. A large scale proteomics screen revealed that connecdenn 1 is phosphorylated at residues Ser-536 and Ser-538 in an Akt-dependent manner in response to insulin stimulation of adipocytes. Interestingly, we find that an Akt inhibitor reduces connecdenn 1 interaction with Rab35 after insulin treatment of adipocytes. Remarkably, a peptide flanking Ser-536/Ser-538 binds the DENN domain of connecdenn 1, whereas a phosphomimetic peptide does not. Moreover, connecdenn 1 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins, and this interaction is also disrupted by Akt inhibition and by mutation of Ser-536/Ser-538. We propose that Akt phosphorylation of connecdenn 1 downstream of insulin activation regulates connecdenn 1 function through an intramolecular interaction. PMID:26055712

  5. Diverse roles of guanine nucleotide exchange factors in regulating collective cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yun-Yu; Rabadán, M. Angeles; Krishna, Shefali; Hall, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Efficient collective migration depends on a balance between contractility and cytoskeletal rearrangements, adhesion, and mechanical cell–cell communication, all controlled by GTPases of the RHO family. By comprehensive screening of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) in human bronchial epithelial cell monolayers, we identified GEFs that are required for collective migration at large, such as SOS1 and β-PIX, and RHOA GEFs that are implicated in intercellular communication. Down-regulation of the latter GEFs differentially enhanced front-to-back propagation of guidance cues through the monolayer and was mirrored by down-regulation of RHOA expression and myosin II activity. Phenotype-based clustering of knockdown behaviors identified RHOA-ARHGEF18 and ARHGEF3-ARHGEF28-ARHGEF11 clusters, indicating that the latter may signal through other RHO-family GTPases. Indeed, knockdown of RHOC produced an intermediate between the two phenotypes. We conclude that for effective collective migration, the RHOA-GEFs → RHOA/C → actomyosin pathways must be optimally tuned to compromise between generation of motility forces and restriction of intercellular communication. PMID:28512143

  6. In vitro guanine nucleotide exchange activity of DHR-2/DOCKER/CZH2 domains.

    PubMed

    Côté, Jean-François; Vuori, Kristiina

    2006-01-01

    Rho family GTPases regulate a large variety of biological processes, including the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Like other members of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, Rho GTPases cycle between a GDP-bound (inactive) and a GTP-bound (active) state, and, when active, the GTPases relay extracellular signals to a large number of downstream effectors. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) promote the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rho GTPases, thereby activating them. Most Rho-GEFs mediate their effects through their signature domain known as the Dbl Homology-Pleckstrin Homology (DH-PH) module. Recently, we and others identified a family of evolutionarily conserved, DOCK180-related proteins that also display GEF activity toward Rho GTPases. The DOCK180-family of proteins lacks the canonical DH-PH module. Instead, they rely on a novel domain, termed DHR-2, DOCKER, or CZH2, to exchange GDP for GTP on Rho targets. In this chapter, the experimental approach that we used to uncover the exchange activity of the DHR-2 domain of DOCK180-related proteins will be described.

  7. Expression of a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Ect2, in the developing mouse pituitary.

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Tsuji, T; Higashida, C; Takahashi, M; Higashida, H; Koizumi, K

    2010-05-01

    The pituitary gland is a highly mitotically active tissue after birth. Various cell types are known to undergo proliferation in the anterior pituitary. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating mitotic activity in this tissue. When searching for genes specifically expressed in the pituitary gland among those that we previously screened in Drosophila, we found epithelial cell-transforming gene 2 (Ect2). Ect2 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases, which is known to play an essential role in cytokinesis. Although there have been many cellular studies regarding the function of Ect2, the temporal and spatial expression patterns of Ect2 in vivo have not been determined. In the present study, we examined the postnatal developmental expression of Ect2 in the mouse pituitary. Enhanced Ect2 expression was detected in the mouse pituitary gland during the first 3 weeks after birth, which coincided well with the period of rapid pituitary expansion associated with increased growth rate. Immunostaining analysis showed that Ect2-expressing cells were distributed in the anterior and intermediate lobes, but not the posterior lobe, of the pituitary. These Ect2-expressing cells frequently incorporated the thymidine analogue, EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine), indicating that these cells were mitotically active. Taken together, the results demonstrate the functional role of Ect2 in postnatal proliferating cells in the two lobes of the pituitary, thereby suggesting roles in developmental growth of the mammalian pituitary.

  8. Roles of STEF/Tiam1, guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rac1, in regulation of growth cone morphology.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Naoki; Terao, Mami; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi; Hoshino, Mikio

    2003-09-01

    Rho family GTPases are suggested to be pivotal for growth cone behavior, but regulation of their activities in response to environmental cues remains elusive. Here, we describe roles of STEF and Tiam1, guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rac1, in neurite growth and growth cone remodeling. We reveal that, in primary hippocampal neurons, STEF/Tiam1 are localized within growth cones and essential for formation of growth cone lamellipodia, eventually contributing to neurite growth. Furthermore, experiments using a dominant-negative form demonstrate that STEF/Tiam1 mediate extracellular laminin signals to activate Rac1, promoting neurite growth in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. STEF/Tiam1 are revealed to mediate Cdc42 signal to activate Rac1 during lamellipodial formation. We also show that RhoA inhibits the STEF/Tiam1-Rac1 pathway. These data are used to propose a model that extracellular and intracellular information is integrated by STEF/Tiam1 to modulate the balance of Rho GTPase activities in the growth cone and, consequently, to control growth cone behavior.

  9. Clinical significance of increased guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav3 expression in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Yuan; Wang, Lu-Hai; Hseu, You-Cheng; Fang, Chia-Lang; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Kumar, K J Senthil; Tai, Chein; Uen, Yih-Huei

    2012-06-01

    Although gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, little is known on the molecular process of its development and progression. This study investigates the involvement of guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav3 in tumor progression and in the prognosis of human gastric cancer. The two patient cohorts in this study consisted of 167 gastric cancer cases from 1997 through 2001, documenting pathologic and clinical factors, as well as the clinical outcomes. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence were used to examine Vav3 expression in tumor and nontumor pairs of gastric tissues and gastric cell lines. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology was used to study the effects of Vav3 knockdown on the growth and spread of gastric cancer cells. Finally, xenograph proliferation was used to study the tumor growth. Overexpression of Vav3 was associated with the depth of invasion (P = 0.0004), nodal status (P = 0.0260), distant metastasis (P = 0.0003), stage (P = 0.0002), and vascular invasion (P = 0.0286); and correlated with poor disease-free survival (P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis shows that overexpression of Vav3 is an independent prognostic marker for gastric cancer (P = 0.033). Disrupting the expression of Vav3 using shRNA technology inhibited gastric cancer cell growth, spread, and xenograph proliferation. This study suggests that overexpression of Vav3 can be a useful marker for predicting the outcome of patients with gastric cancer and that Vav3 targeting can represent a potential modality for treating gastric cancer. 2012 AACR

  10. Structural outline of the detailed mechanism for elongation factor Ts-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange on elongation factor Tu.

    PubMed

    Thirup, Søren S; Van, Lan Bich; Nielsen, Tine K; Knudsen, Charlotte R

    2015-07-01

    Translation elongation factor EF-Tu belongs to the superfamily of guanine-nucleotide binding proteins, which play key cellular roles as regulatory switches. All G-proteins require activation via exchange of GDP for GTP to carry out their respective tasks. Often, guanine-nucleotide exchange factors are essential to this process. During translation, EF-Tu:GTP transports aminoacylated tRNA to the ribosome. GTP is hydrolyzed during this process, and subsequent reactivation of EF-Tu is catalyzed by EF-Ts. The reaction path of guanine-nucleotide exchange is structurally poorly defined for EF-Tu and EF-Ts. We have determined the crystal structures of the following reaction intermediates: two structures of EF-Tu:GDP:EF-Ts (2.2 and 1.8Å resolution), EF-Tu:PO4:EF-Ts (1.9Å resolution), EF-Tu:GDPNP:EF-Ts (2.2Å resolution) and EF-Tu:GDPNP:pulvomycin:Mg(2+):EF-Ts (3.5Å resolution). These structures provide snapshots throughout the entire exchange reaction and suggest a mechanism for the release of EF-Tu in its GTP conformation. An inferred sequence of events during the exchange reaction is presented. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of the kinetics of guanine nucleotide exchange on EF-Tu and EF-Ts: continuing uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Manchester, Keith L

    2004-01-30

    An analysis is made of the rate constants for the reactions involving the interactions of EF-Tu, EF-Ts, GDP, and GTP recently derived by Gromadski et al. [Biochemistry 41 (2002) 162]. Though their measured values appear to allow a reasonable rate of nucleotide exchange sufficient to support rates of protein synthesis in vivo, their data underestimate the thermodynamic barrier involved in nucleotide exchange and therefore cannot be considered definitive. A kinetic scheme consistent with the thermodynamic barrier can be achieved by modification of various rate constants, particularly of those involving the release of EF-Ts from EF-Tu.GTP.EF-Ts, but such constants are markedly different from what are experimentally observed. It thus remains impossible at present satisfactorily to model guanine nucleotide exchange on EF-Tu, catalysed by EF-Ts by a double displacement mechanism, with experimentally derived rate constants. Metabolic control analysis has been applied to determine the degree of flux control of the different steps in the pathway.

  12. Age-related guanine nucleotide exchange factor, mouse Zizimin2, induces filopodia in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We recently isolated and identified Zizimin2 as a functional factor that is highly expressed in murine splenic germinal center B cells after immunization with T-cell-dependent antigen. Zizimin2 was revealed to be a new family member of Dock (dedicator of cytokinesis), Dock11, which is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42, a low-molecular-weight GTPase. However, the molecular function of Zizimin2 in acquired immunity has not been elucidated. Results In this study, we show that the protein expression of Zizimin2, which is also restricted to lymphoid tissues and lymphocytes, is reduced in aged mice. Over-expression of full-length Zizimin2 induced filopodial formation in 293T cells, whereas expression of CZH2 domain inhibited it. Stimulation of Fcγ receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 triggered Zizimin2 up-regulation and Cdc42 activation in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Conclusions These data suggest that Zizimin2 is an immune-related and age-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor, which facilitates filopodial formation through activation of Cdc42, which results in activation of cell migration. PMID:22494997

  13. Andrographolide derivatives inhibit guanine nucleotide exchange and abrogate oncogenic Ras function

    PubMed Central

    Hocker, Harrison J.; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Chen, Chung-Ying K.; Rambahal, Nandini; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Shaari, Khozirah; Stanslas, Johnson; Hancock, John F.; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant signaling by oncogenic mutant rat sarcoma (Ras) proteins occurs in ∼15% of all human tumors, yet direct inhibition of Ras by small molecules has remained elusive. Recently, several small-molecule ligands have been discovered that directly bind Ras and inhibit its function by interfering with exchange factor binding. However, it is unclear whether, or how, these ligands could lead to drugs that act against constitutively active oncogenic mutant Ras. Using a dynamics-based pocket identification scheme, ensemble docking, and innovative cell-based assays, here we show that andrographolide (AGP)—a bicyclic diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata—and its benzylidene derivatives bind to transient pockets on Kirsten-Ras (K-Ras) and inhibit GDP–GTP exchange. As expected for inhibitors of exchange factor binding, AGP derivatives reduced GTP loading of wild-type K-Ras in response to acute EGF stimulation with a concomitant reduction in MAPK activation. Remarkably, however, prolonged treatment with AGP derivatives also reduced GTP loading of, and signal transmission by, oncogenic mutant K-RasG12V. In sum, the combined analysis of our computational and cell biology results show that AGP derivatives directly bind Ras, block GDP–GTP exchange, and inhibit both wild-type and oncogenic K-Ras signaling. Importantly, our findings not only show that nucleotide exchange factors are required for oncogenic Ras signaling but also demonstrate that inhibiting nucleotide exchange is a valid approach to abrogating the function of oncogenic mutant Ras. PMID:23737504

  14. Discovery of Aminopiperidine Indoles That Activate the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor SOS1 and Modulate RAS Signaling.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Jason R; Hodges, Timothy R; Daniels, R Nathan; Patel, Pratiq A; Kennedy, Jack Phillip; Howes, Jennifer E; Akan, Denis T; Burns, Michael C; Sai, Jiqing; Sobolik, Tammy; Beesetty, Yugandhar; Lee, Taekyu; Rossanese, Olivia W; Phan, Jason; Waterson, Alex G; Fesik, Stephen W

    2018-06-01

    Deregulated RAS activity, often the result of mutation, is implicated in approximately 30% of all human cancers. Despite this statistic, no clinically successful treatment for RAS-driven tumors has yet been developed. One approach for modulating RAS activity is to target and affect the activity of proteins that interact with RAS, such as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) son of sevenless homologue 1 (SOS1). Here, we report on structure-activity relationships (SAR) in an indole series of compounds. Using structure-based design, we systematically explored substitution patterns on the indole nucleus, the pendant amino acid moiety, and the linker unit that connects these two fragments. Best-in-class compounds activate the nucleotide exchange process at sub-micromolar concentrations in vitro, increase levels of active RAS-GTP in HeLa cells, and elicit signaling changes in the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway, resulting in a decrease in pERK1/2 T202/Y204 protein levels at higher compound concentrations.

  15. Calcium diacylglycerol guanine nucleotide exchange factor I (CalDAG-GEFI) gene mutations in a thrombopathic Simmental calf.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, M K; Schmutz, S M; French, P S

    2007-11-01

    Simmental thrombopathia is an inherited platelet disorder that closely resembles the platelet disorders described in Basset Hounds and Eskimo Spitz dogs. Recently, two different mutations in the gene encoding calcium diacylglycerol guanine nucleotide exchange factor I (CalDAG-GEFI) were described to be associated with the Basset Hound and Spitz thrombopathia disorders, and a third distinct mutation was identified in CalDAG-GEFI in thrombopathic Landseers of European Continental Type. The gene encoding CalDAG-GEFI was sequenced using DNA obtained from normal cattle and from a thrombopathic calf studied in Canada. The affected calf was found to have a nucleotide change (c.701 T>C), which would result in the substitution of a proline for a leucine within structurally conserved region two (SCR2) of the catalytic domain of the protein. This change is likely responsible for the thrombopathic phenotype observed in Simmental cattle and underscores the critical nature of this signal transduction protein in platelets.

  16. The PDZ domain of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor PDZGEF directs binding to phosphatidic acid during brush border formation.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Sarah V; Brouwer, Patricia M; van Slobbe, Eleonora S; Bos, Johannes L

    2014-01-01

    PDZGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap. It was recently found that PDZGEF contributes to establishment of intestinal epithelial polarity downstream of the kinase Lkb1. By binding to phosphatidic acid enriched at the apical membrane, PDZGEF locally activates Rap2a resulting in induction of brush border formation via a pathway that includes the polarity players TNIK, Mst4 and Ezrin. Here we show that the PDZ domain of PDZGEF is essential and sufficient for targeting PDZGEF to the apical membrane of polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Inhibition of PLD and consequently production of phosphatidic acid inhibitis targeting of PDZGEF to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, localization requires specific positively charged residues within the PDZ domain. We conclude that local accumulation of PDZGEF at the apical membrane during establishment of epithelial polarity is mediated by electrostatic interactions between positively charged side chains in the PDZ domain and negatively charged phosphatidic acid.

  17. The PDZ Domain of the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor PDZGEF Directs Binding to Phosphatidic Acid during Brush Border Formation

    PubMed Central

    Consonni, Sarah V.; Brouwer, Patricia M.; van Slobbe, Eleonora S.; Bos, Johannes L.

    2014-01-01

    PDZGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap. It was recently found that PDZGEF contributes to establishment of intestinal epithelial polarity downstream of the kinase Lkb1. By binding to phosphatidic acid enriched at the apical membrane, PDZGEF locally activates Rap2a resulting in induction of brush border formation via a pathway that includes the polarity players TNIK, Mst4 and Ezrin. Here we show that the PDZ domain of PDZGEF is essential and sufficient for targeting PDZGEF to the apical membrane of polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Inhibition of PLD and consequently production of phosphatidic acid inhibitis targeting of PDZGEF to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, localization requires specific positively charged residues within the PDZ domain. We conclude that local accumulation of PDZGEF at the apical membrane during establishment of epithelial polarity is mediated by electrostatic interactions between positively charged side chains in the PDZ domain and negatively charged phosphatidic acid. PMID:24858808

  18. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Ric-8A induces domain separation and Ras domain plasticity in Gαi1

    PubMed Central

    Van Eps, Ned; Thomas, Celestine J.; Hubbell, Wayne L.; Sprang, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are activated by exchange of GDP for GTP at the G protein alpha subunit (Gα), most notably by G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. Ric-8A is a soluble cytoplasmic protein essential for embryonic development that acts as both a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and a chaperone for Gα subunits of the i, q, and 12/13 classes. Previous studies demonstrated that Ric-8A stabilizes a dynamically disordered state of nucleotide-free Gα as the catalytic intermediate for nucleotide exchange, but no information was obtained on the structures involved or the magnitude of the structural fluctuations. In the present study, site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) together with double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy is used to provide global distance constraints that identify discrete members of a conformational ensemble in the Gαi1:Ric-8A complex and the magnitude of structural differences between them. In the complex, the helical and Ras-like nucleotide-binding domains of Gαi1 pivot apart to occupy multiple resolved states with displacements as large as 25 Å. The domain displacement appears to be distinct from that observed in Gαs upon binding of Gs to the β2 adrenergic receptor. Moreover, the Ras-like domain exhibits structural plasticity within and around the nucleotide-binding cavity, and the switch I and switch II regions, which are known to adopt different conformations in the GDP- and GTP-bound states of Gα, undergo structural rearrangements. Collectively, the data show that Ric-8A induces a conformationally heterogeneous state of Gαi and provide insight into the mechanism of action of a nonreceptor Gα GEF. PMID:25605908

  19. The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Tiam1 Affects Neuronal Morphology; Opposing Roles for the Small GTPases Rac and Rho

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Frank N.; Kain, Hendrie E.T.; van der Kammen, Rob A.; Michiels, Frits; Kranenburg, Onno W.; Collard, John G.

    1997-01-01

    The invasion-inducing T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) protein functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rac1. Differentiation-dependent expression of Tiam1 in the developing brain suggests a role for this GEF and its effector Rac1 in the control of neuronal morphology. Here we show that overexpression of Tiam1 induces cell spreading and affects neurite outgrowth in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. These effects are Rac-dependent and strongly promoted by laminin. Overexpression of Tiam1 recruits the α6β1 integrin, a laminin receptor, to specific adhesive contacts at the cell periphery, which are different from focal contacts. Cells overexpressing Tiam1 no longer respond to lysophosphatidic acid– induced neurite retraction and cell rounding, processes mediated by Rho, suggesting that Tiam1-induced activation of Rac antagonizes Rho signaling. This inhibition can be overcome by coexpression of constitutively active RhoA, which may indicate that regulation occurs at the level of Rho or upstream. Conversely, neurite formation induced by Tiam1 or Rac1 is further promoted by inactivating Rho. These results demonstrate that Rac- and Rho-mediated pathways oppose each other during neurite formation and that a balance between these pathways determines neuronal morphology. Furthermore, our data underscore the potential role of Tiam1 as a specific regulator of Rac during neurite formation and illustrate the importance of reciprocal interactions between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix during this process. PMID:9348295

  20. Arf6 guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, cytohesin-2, interacts with actinin-1 to regulate neurite extension.

    PubMed

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Maeda, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Junji; Tanoue, Akito

    2012-09-01

    Proper regulation of morphological changes in neuronal cells is essential for their differentiation. Complex signaling mechanisms mediate a variety of morphological changes such as formation of neurites. It is well established that a number of small GTPases control neurite behavior before the connection with the target tissue. However, their regulatory mechanisms remain to be fully understood. Here, we show that the Arf6 guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), cytohesin-2 (CYTH2), interacts with the cytoskeletal protein actinin-1 (ACTN1) and regulates neurite extension in N1E-115 cells used as the model. Knockdown of ACTN1, as well as that of CYTH2, in cells inhibits cellular Arf6 activity and neurite extension. The C-terminal polybasic region of CYTH2 participates in interacting directly with the EFh2 domain of ACTN1. Expression of CYTH2 mutant deficient of the EFh2 domain in cells also inhibits Arf6 activation and neurite extension. Furthermore, FRET analysis detects that the respective interactive region peptides, tagged with cell-permeable short peptides, greatly decrease Arf6 activation at growth cones in a time-dependent manner. Collectively, the signaling through CYTH2 and ACTN1 properly regulates neurite extension in N1E-115 cells, demonstrating the unexpected interaction of CYTH2 and ACTN1 in the regulation of cellular Arf6 activity involved in neurite extension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Rom2 in Cell Wall Integrity Maintenance of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Samantaray, Sweta; Neubauer, Michael; Helmschrott, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a mold and the causal agent of invasive aspergillosis, a systemic disease with high lethality. Recently, we identified and functionally characterized three stress sensors implicated in the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling of this pathogen, namely, Wsc1, Wsc3, and MidA. Here, we functionally characterize Rom2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor with essential function for the cell wall integrity of A. fumigatus. A conditional rom2 mutant has severe growth defects under repressive conditions and incorporates all phenotypes of the three cell wall integrity sensor mutants, e.g., the echinocandin sensitivity of the Δwsc1 mutant and the Congo red, calcofluor white, and heat sensitivity of the ΔmidA mutant. Rom2 interacts with Rho1 and shows a similar intracellular distribution focused at the hyphal tips. Our results place Rom2 between the cell surface stress sensors Wsc1, Wsc3, MidA, and Rho1 and their downstream effector mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module Bck1-Mkk2-MpkA. PMID:23264643

  2. Myosin II–interacting guanine nucleotide exchange factor promotes bleb retraction via stimulating cortex reassembly at the bleb membrane

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Meng; Wu, Di; Wei, Qize

    2018-01-01

    Blebs are involved in various biological processes such as cell migration, cytokinesis, and apoptosis. While the expansion of blebs is largely an intracellular pressure-driven process, the retraction of blebs is believed to be driven by RhoA activation that leads to the reassembly of the actomyosin cortex at the bleb membrane. However, it is still poorly understood how RhoA is activated at the bleb membrane. Here, we provide evidence demonstrating that myosin II–interacting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (MYOGEF) is implicated in bleb retraction via stimulating RhoA activation and the reassembly of an actomyosin network at the bleb membrane during bleb retraction. Interaction of MYOGEF with ezrin, a well-known regulator of bleb retraction, is required for MYOGEF localization to retracting blebs. Notably, knockout of MYOGEF or ezrin not only disrupts RhoA activation at the bleb membrane, but also interferes with nonmuscle myosin II localization and activation, as well as actin polymerization in retracting blebs. Importantly, MYOGEF knockout slows down bleb retraction. We propose that ezrin interacts with MYOGEF and recruits it to retracting blebs, where MYOGEF activates RhoA and promotes the reassembly of the cortical actomyosin network at the bleb membrane, thus contributing to the regulation of bleb retraction. PMID:29321250

  3. BLOC-3 Mutated in Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Is a Rab32/38 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor

    PubMed Central

    Gerondopoulos, Andreas; Langemeyer, Lars; Liang, Jin-Rui; Linford, Andrea; Barr, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a human disease characterized by partial loss of pigmentation and impaired blood clotting [1–3]. These symptoms are caused by defects in the biogenesis of melanosomes and platelet dense granules, often referred to as lysosome-related organelles [2]. Genes mutated in HPS encode subunits of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complexes (BLOCs). BLOC-1 and BLOC-2, together with the AP-3 clathrin adaptor complex, act at early endosomes to sort components required for melanin formation and melanosome biogenesis away from the degradative lysosomal pathway toward early stage melanosomes [4–6]. However the molecular functions of the Hps1-Hps4 complex BLOC-3 remain mysterious [7–9]. Like other trafficking pathways, melanosome biogenesis and transport of enzymes involved in pigmentation involves specific Rab GTPases, in this instance Rab32 and Rab38 [10–12]. We now demonstrate that BLOC-3 is a Rab32 and Rab38 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Silencing of the BLOC-3 subunits Hps1 and Hps4 results in the mislocalization of Rab32 and Rab38 and reduction in pigmentation. In addition, we show that BLOC-3 can promote specific membrane recruitment of Rab32/38. BLOC-3 therefore defines a novel Rab GEF family with a specific function in the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles. PMID:23084991

  4. A High-Throughput Assay for Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Based on the Transcreener GDP Assay.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Melvin; Schabdach, Amanda; Kumar, Meera; Zielinski, Tom; Donover, Preston S; Laury-Kleintop, Lisa D; Lowery, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Ras homologous (Rho) family GTPases act as molecular switches controlling cell growth, movement, and gene expression by cycling between inactive guanosine diphosphate (GDP)- and active guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound conformations. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) positively regulate Rho GTPases by accelerating GDP dissociation to allow formation of the active, GTP-bound complex. Rho proteins are directly involved in cancer pathways, especially cell migration and invasion, and inhibiting GEFs holds potential as a therapeutic strategy to diminish Rho-dependent oncogenesis. Methods for measuring GEF activity suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS) are limited. We developed a simple, generic biochemical assay method for measuring GEF activity based on the fact that GDP dissociation is generally the rate-limiting step in the Rho GTPase catalytic cycle, and thus addition of a GEF causes an increase in steady-state GTPase activity. We used the Transcreener GDP Assay, which relies on selective immunodetection of GDP, to measure the GEF-dependent stimulation of steady-state GTP hydrolysis by small GTPases using Dbs (Dbl's big sister) as a GEF for Cdc42, RhoA, and RhoB. The assay is well suited for HTS, with a homogenous format and far red fluorescence polarization (FP) readout, and it should be broadly applicable to diverse Rho GEF/GTPase pairs. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  5. The Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates cell polarity and endosomal membrane recycling in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Steenblock, Charlotte; Heckel, Tobias; Czupalla, Cornelia; Espírito Santo, Ana Isabel; Niehage, Christian; Sztacho, Martin; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-06-27

    The initial step of bone digestion is the adhesion of osteoclasts onto bone surfaces and the assembly of podosomal belts that segregate the bone-facing ruffled membrane from other membrane domains. During bone digestion, membrane components of the ruffled border also need to be recycled after macropinocytosis of digested bone materials. How osteoclast polarity and membrane recycling are coordinated remains unknown. Here, we show that the Cdc42-guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates these events through its Src-dependent interaction with different actin-based protein networks. At the plasma membrane, FGD6 couples cell adhesion and actin dynamics by regulating podosome formation through the assembly of complexes comprising the Cdc42-interactor IQGAP1, the Rho GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP10, and the integrin interactors Talin-1/2 or Filamin A. On endosomes and transcytotic vesicles, FGD6 regulates retromer-dependent membrane recycling through its interaction with the actin nucleation-promoting factor WASH. These results provide a mechanism by which a single Cdc42-exchange factor controlling different actin-based processes coordinates cell adhesion, cell polarity, and membrane recycling during bone degradation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. The leukemia-associated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor LARG is required for efficient replication stress signaling

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Ryan D; Staples, Christopher J; Patil, Abhijit A; Myers, Katie N; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J Mark; Boulton, Simon J; Collis, Spencer J

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified and characterized TELO2 as a human protein that facilitates efficient DNA damage response (DDR) signaling. A subsequent yeast 2-hybrid screen identified LARG; Leukemia-Associated Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (also known as Arhgef12), as a potential novel TELO2 interactor. LARG was previously shown to interact with Pericentrin (PCNT), which, like TELO2, is required for efficient replication stress signaling. Here we confirm interactions between LARG, TELO2 and PCNT and show that a sub-set of LARG co-localizes with PCNT at the centrosome. LARG-deficient cells exhibit replication stress signaling defects as evidenced by; supernumerary centrosomes, reduced replication stress-induced γH2AX and RPA nuclear foci formation, and reduced activation of the replication stress signaling effector kinase Chk1 in response to hydroxyurea. As such, LARG-deficient cells are sensitive to replication stress-inducing agents such as hydroxyurea and mitomycin C. Conversely we also show that depletion of TELO2 and the replication stress signaling kinase ATR leads to RhoA signaling defects. These data therefore reveal a level of crosstalk between the RhoA and DDR signaling pathways. Given that mutations in both ATR and PCNT can give rise to the related primordial dwarfism disorders of Seckel Syndrome and Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII) respectively, which both exhibit defects in ATR-dependent checkpoint signaling, these data also raise the possibility that mutations in LARG or disruption to RhoA signaling may be contributory factors to the etiology of a sub-set of primordial dwarfism disorders. PMID:25485589

  7. Myosin II-interacting guanine nucleotide exchange factor promotes bleb retraction via stimulating cortex reassembly at the bleb membrane.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Meng; Wu, Di; Wei, Qize

    2018-03-01

    Blebs are involved in various biological processes such as cell migration, cytokinesis, and apoptosis. While the expansion of blebs is largely an intracellular pressure-driven process, the retraction of blebs is believed to be driven by RhoA activation that leads to the reassembly of the actomyosin cortex at the bleb membrane. However, it is still poorly understood how RhoA is activated at the bleb membrane. Here, we provide evidence demonstrating that myosin II-interacting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (MYOGEF) is implicated in bleb retraction via stimulating RhoA activation and the reassembly of an actomyosin network at the bleb membrane during bleb retraction. Interaction of MYOGEF with ezrin, a well-known regulator of bleb retraction, is required for MYOGEF localization to retracting blebs. Notably, knockout of MYOGEF or ezrin not only disrupts RhoA activation at the bleb membrane, but also interferes with nonmuscle myosin II localization and activation, as well as actin polymerization in retracting blebs. Importantly, MYOGEF knockout slows down bleb retraction. We propose that ezrin interacts with MYOGEF and recruits it to retracting blebs, where MYOGEF activates RhoA and promotes the reassembly of the cortical actomyosin network at the bleb membrane, thus contributing to the regulation of bleb retraction. © 2018 Jiao et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Arf6 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Cytohesin-2 Binds to CCDC120 and Is Transported Along Neurites to Mediate Neurite Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Tago, Kenji; Sango, Kazunori; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Sanbe, Atsushi; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of neurite growth is complicated, involving continuous cytoskeletal rearrangement and vesicular trafficking. Cytohesin-2 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6, an Arf family molecular switch protein, controlling cell morphological changes such as neuritogenesis. Here, we show that cytohesin-2 binds to a protein with a previously unknown function, CCDC120, which contains three coiled-coil domains, and is transported along neurites in differentiating N1E-115 cells. Transfection of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for CCDC120 into cells inhibits neurite growth and Arf6 activation. When neurites start to extend, vesicles containing CCDC120 and cytohesin-2 are transported in an anterograde manner rather than a retrograde one. As neurites continue extension, anterograde vesicle transport decreases. CCDC120 knockdown inhibits cytohesin-2 localization into vesicles containing CCDC120 and diffuses cytohesin-2 in cytoplasmic regions, illustrating that CCDC120 determines cytohesin-2 localization in growing neurites. Reintroduction of the wild type CCDC120 construct into cells transfected with CCDC120 siRNA reverses blunted neurite growth and Arf6 activity, whereas the cytohesin-2-binding CC1 region-deficient CCDC120 construct does not. Thus, cytohesin-2 is transported along neurites by vesicles containing CCDC120, and it mediates neurite growth. These results suggest a mechanism by which guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6 is transported to mediate neurite growth. PMID:25326380

  9. The Structure of RalF, an ADP-Ribosylation Factor Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor from Legionella pneumophila, Reveals the Presence of a Cap over the Active Site

    SciTech Connect

    Amor,J.; Swails, J.; Zhu, X.

    2005-01-01

    The Legionella pneumophila protein RalF is secreted into host cytosol via the Dot/Icm type IV transporter where it acts to recruit ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) to pathogen-containing phagosomes in the establishment of a replicative organelle. The presence in RalF of the Sec7 domain, present in all Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors, has suggested that recruitment of Arf is an early step in pathogenesis. We have determined the crystal structure of RalF and of the isolated Sec7 domain and found that RalF is made up of two domains. The Sec7 domain is homologous to mammalian Sec7 domains. The C-terminal domain forms amore » cap over the active site in the Sec7 domain and contains a conserved folding motif, previously observed in adaptor subunits of vesicle coat complexes. The importance of the capping domain and of the glutamate in the 'glutamic finger,' conserved in all Sec7 domains, to RalF functions was examined using three different assays. These data highlight the functional importance of domains other than Sec7 in Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors to biological activities and suggest novel mechanisms of regulation of those activities.« less

  10. Defective Guanine Nucleotide Exchange in the Elongation Factor-like 1 (EFL1) GTPase by Mutations in the Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Protein*

    PubMed Central

    García-Márquez, Adrián; Gijsbers, Abril; de la Mora, Eugenio; Sánchez-Puig, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is orchestrated by the action of several accessory factors that provide time and directionality to the process. One such accessory factor is the GTPase EFL1 involved in the cytoplasmic maturation of the ribosomal 60S subunit. EFL1 and SBDS, the protein mutated in the Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SBDS), release the anti-association factor eIF6 from the surface of the ribosomal subunit 60S. Here we report a kinetic analysis of fluorescent guanine nucleotides binding to EFL1 alone and in the presence of SBDS using fluorescence stopped-flow spectroscopy. Binding kinetics of EFL1 to both GDP and GTP suggests a two-step mechanism with an initial binding event followed by a conformational change of the complex. Furthermore, the same behavior was observed in the presence of the SBDS protein irrespective of the guanine nucleotide evaluated. The affinity of EFL1 for GTP is 10-fold lower than that calculated for GDP. Association of EFL1 to SBDS did not modify the affinity for GTP but dramatically decreased that for GDP by increasing the dissociation rate of the nucleotide. Thus, SBDS acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for EFL1 promoting its activation by the release of GDP. Finally, fluorescence anisotropy measurements showed that the S143L mutation present in the Shwachman-Diamond syndrome altered a surface epitope for EFL1 and largely decreased the affinity for it. These results suggest that loss of interaction between these proteins due to mutations in the disease consequently prevents the nucleotide exchange regulation the SBDS exerts on EFL1. PMID:25991726

  11. GDP-bound and nucleotide-free intermediates of the guanine nucleotide exchange in the Rab5·Vps9 system.

    PubMed

    Uejima, Tamami; Ihara, Kentaro; Goh, Tatsuaki; Ito, Emi; Sunada, Mariko; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2010-11-19

    Many GTPases regulate intracellular transport and signaling in eukaryotes. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activate GTPases by catalyzing the exchange of their GDP for GTP. Here we present crystallographic and biochemical studies of a GEF reaction with four crystal structures of Arabidopsis thaliana ARA7, a plant homolog of Rab5 GTPase, in complex with its GEF, VPS9a, in the nucleotide-free and GDP-bound forms, as well as a complex with aminophosphonic acid-guanylate ester and ARA7·VPS9a(D185N) with GDP. Upon complex formation with ARA7, VPS9 wedges into the interswitch region of ARA7, inhibiting the coordination of Mg(2+) and decreasing the stability of GDP binding. The aspartate finger of VPS9a recognizes GDP β-phosphate directly and pulls the P-loop lysine of ARA7 away from GDP β-phosphate toward switch II to further destabilize GDP for its release during the transition from the GDP-bound to nucleotide-free intermediates in the nucleotide exchange reaction.

  12. Wsc1 and Mid2 Are Cell Surface Sensors for Cell Wall Integrity Signaling That Act through Rom2, a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for Rho1

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Bevin; Levin, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Wsc1 and Mid2 are highly O-glycosylated cell surface proteins that reside in the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They have been proposed to function as mechanosensors of cell wall stress induced by wall remodeling during vegetative growth and pheromone-induced morphogenesis. These proteins are required for activation of the cell wall integrity signaling pathway that consists of the small G-protein Rho1, protein kinase C (Pkc1), and a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. We show here by two-hybrid experiments that the C-terminal cytoplasmic domains of Wsc1 and Mid2 interact with Rom2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho1. At least with regard to Wsc1, this interaction is mediated by the Rom2 N-terminal domain. This domain is distinct from the Rho1-interacting domain, suggesting that the GEF can interact simultaneously with a sensor and with Rho1. We also demonstrate that extracts from wsc1 and mid2 mutants are deficient in the ability to catalyze GTP loading of Rho1 in vitro, providing evidence that the function of the sensor-Rom2 interaction is to stimulate nucleotide exchange toward this G-protein. In a related line of investigation, we identified the PMT2 gene in a genetic screen for mutations that confer an additive cell lysis defect with a wsc1 null allele. Pmt2 is a member of a six-protein family in yeast that catalyzes the first step in O mannosylation of target proteins. We demonstrate that Mid2 is not mannosylated in a pmt2 mutant and that this modification is important for signaling by Mid2. PMID:11113201

  13. The auto-inhibitory state of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5/TIM can be relieved by targeting its SH3 domain with rationally designed peptide aptamers.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Tan, De-Li; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lv, Feng-Lin; Wu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The short isoform of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5 is known as TIM, which plays diverse roles in, for example, tumorigenesis, neuronal development and Src-induced podosome formation through the activation of its substrates, the Rho family of GTPases. The activation is auto-inhibited by a putative helix N-terminal to the DH domain of TIM, which is stabilized by the intramolecular interaction of C-terminal SH3 domain with a poly-proline sequence between the putative helix and the DH domain. In this study, we systematically investigated the structural basis, energetic landscape and biological implication underlying TIM auto-inhibition by using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy analysis. The computational study revealed that the binding of SH3 domain to poly-proline sequence is the prerequisite for the stabilization of TIM auto-inhibition. Thus, it is suggested that targeting SH3 domain with competitors of the poly-proline sequence would be a promising strategy to relieve the auto-inhibitory state of TIM. In this consideration, we rationally designed a number of peptide aptamers for competitively inhibiting the SH3 domain based on modeled TIM structure and computationally generated data. Peptide binding test and guanine nucleotide exchange analysis solidified that these designed peptides can both bind to the SH3 domain potently and activate TIM-catalyzed RhoA exchange reaction effectively. Interestingly, a positive correlation between the peptide affinity and induced exchange activity was observed. In addition, separate mutation of three conserved residues Pro49, Pro52 and Lys54 - they are required for peptide recognition by SH3 domain -- in a designed peptide to Ala would completely abolish the capability of this peptide activating TIM. All these come together to suggest an intrinsic relationship between peptide binding to SH3 domain and the activation of TIM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de

  14. cAMP regulates DEP domain-mediated binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac1 to phosphatidic acid at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Sarah V; Gloerich, Martijn; Spanjaard, Emma; Bos, Johannes L

    2012-03-06

    Epac1 is a cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap. Upon cAMP binding, Epac1 undergoes a conformational change that results in its release from autoinhibition. In addition, cAMP induces the translocation of Epac1 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. This relocalization of Epac1 is required for efficient activation of plasma membrane-located Rap and for cAMP-induced cell adhesion. This translocation requires the Dishevelled, Egl-10, Pleckstrin (DEP) domain, but the molecular entity that serves as the plasma membrane anchor and the possible mechanism of regulated binding remains elusive. Here we show that Epac1 binds directly to phosphatidic acid. Similar to the cAMP-induced Epac1 translocation, this binding is regulated by cAMP and requires the DEP domain. Furthermore, depletion of phosphatidic acid by inhibition of phospholipase D1 prevents cAMP-induced translocation of Epac1 as well as the subsequent activation of Rap at the plasma membrane. Finally, mutation of a single basic residue within a polybasic stretch of the DEP domain, which abolishes translocation, also prevents binding to phosphatidic acid. From these results we conclude that cAMP induces a conformational change in Epac1 that enables DEP domain-mediated binding to phosphatidic acid, resulting in the tethering of Epac1 at the plasma membrane and subsequent activation of Rap.

  15. A Histidine pH sensor regulates activation of the Ras-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1.

    PubMed

    Vercoulen, Yvonne; Kondo, Yasushi; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Janssen, Axel B; White, Katharine A; Amini, Mojtaba; Barber, Diane L; Kuriyan, John; Roose, Jeroen P

    2017-09-27

    RasGRPs are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that are specific for Ras or Rap, and are important regulators of cellular signaling. Aberrant expression or mutation of RasGRPs results in disease. An analysis of RasGRP1 SNP variants led to the conclusion that the charge of His 212 in RasGRP1 alters signaling activity and plasma membrane recruitment, indicating that His 212 is a pH sensor that alters the balance between the inactive and active forms of RasGRP1. To understand the structural basis for this effect we compared the structure of autoinhibited RasGRP1, determined previously, to those of active RasGRP4:H-Ras and RasGRP2:Rap1b complexes. The transition from the autoinhibited to the active form of RasGRP1 involves the rearrangement of an inter-domain linker that displaces inhibitory inter-domain interactions. His 212 is located at the fulcrum of these conformational changes, and structural features in its vicinity are consistent with its function as a pH-dependent switch.

  16. Identification of a negative regulatory region for the exchange activity and characterization of T332I mutant of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 (ARHGEF10).

    PubMed

    Chaya, Taro; Shibata, Satoshi; Tokuhara, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Ichiro; Kogo, Mikihiko; Ohoka, Yoshiharu; Inagaki, Shinobu

    2011-08-26

    The T332I mutation in Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 (ARHGEF10) was previously found in persons with slowed nerve conduction velocities and thin myelination of peripheral nerves. However, the molecular and cellular basis of the T332I mutant is not understood. Here, we show that ARHGEF10 has a negative regulatory region in the N terminus, in which residue 332 is located, and the T332I mutant is constitutively active. An N-terminal truncated ARHGEF10 mutant, ARHGEF10 ΔN (lacking amino acids 1-332), induced cell contraction that was inhibited by a Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 and had higher GEF activity for RhoA than the wild type. The T332I mutant also showed the phenotype similar to the N-terminal truncated mutant. These data suggest that the ARHGEF10 T332I mutation-associated phenotype observed in the peripheral nerves is due to activated GEF activity of the ARHGEF10 T332I mutant.

  17. Identification of a Negative Regulatory Region for the Exchange Activity and Characterization of T332I Mutant of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 10 (ARHGEF10)*

    PubMed Central

    Chaya, Taro; Shibata, Satoshi; Tokuhara, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Ichiro; Kogo, Mikihiko; Ohoka, Yoshiharu; Inagaki, Shinobu

    2011-01-01

    The T332I mutation in Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 (ARHGEF10) was previously found in persons with slowed nerve conduction velocities and thin myelination of peripheral nerves. However, the molecular and cellular basis of the T332I mutant is not understood. Here, we show that ARHGEF10 has a negative regulatory region in the N terminus, in which residue 332 is located, and the T332I mutant is constitutively active. An N-terminal truncated ARHGEF10 mutant, ARHGEF10 ΔN (lacking amino acids 1–332), induced cell contraction that was inhibited by a Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 and had higher GEF activity for RhoA than the wild type. The T332I mutant also showed the phenotype similar to the N-terminal truncated mutant. These data suggest that the ARHGEF10 T332I mutation-associated phenotype observed in the peripheral nerves is due to activated GEF activity of the ARHGEF10 T332I mutant. PMID:21719701

  18. Regulated Localization Is Sufficient for Hormonal Control of Regulator of G Protein Signaling Homology Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (RH-RhoGEFs)*

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Angela M.; Gutowski, Stephen; Sternweis, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The regulator of G protein signaling homology (RH) Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) (p115RhoGEF, leukemia-associated RhoGEF, and PDZ-RhoGEF) contain an RH domain and are specific GEFs for the monomeric GTPase RhoA. The RH domains interact specifically with the α subunits of G12 heterotrimeric GTPases. Activated Gα13 modestly stimulates the exchange activity of both p115RhoGEF and leukemia-associated RhoGEF but not PDZ-RhoGEF. Because all three RH-RhoGEFs can localize to the plasma membrane upon expression of activated Gα13, cellular localization of these RhoGEFs has been proposed as a mechanism for controlling their activity. We use a small molecule-regulated heterodimerization system to rapidly control the localization of RH-RhoGEFs. Acute localization of the proteins to the plasma membrane activates RhoA within minutes and to levels that are comparable with activation of RhoA by hormonal stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors. The catalytic activity of membrane-localized RhoGEFs is not dependent on activated Gα13. We further show that the conserved RH domains can rewire two different RacGEFs to activate Rac1 in response to a traditional activator of RhoA. Thus, RH domains act as independent detectors for activated Gα13 and are sufficient to modulate the activity of RhoGEFs by hormones via mediating their localization to substrate, membrane-associated RhoA. PMID:24855647

  19. Coordinated regulation by two VPS9 domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors in small GTPase Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Yuta; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Shimazu, Sayuri

    The small GTPase Rab5 is reported to regulate various cellular functions, such as vesicular transport and endocytosis. VPS9 domain-containing proteins are thought to activate Rab5(s) by their guanine-nucleotide exchange activities. Numerous VPS9 proteins have been identified and are structurally conserved from yeast to mammalian cells. However, the functional relationships among VPS9 proteins in cells remain unclear. Only one Rab5 and two VPS9 proteins were identified in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome. Here, we examined the cellular function of two VPS9 proteins and the relationship between these proteins in cellular functions. Vps901-GFP and Vps902-GFP exhibited dotted signals in vegetative and differentiated cells.more » vps901 deletion mutant (Δvps901) cells exhibited a phenotype deficient in the mating process and responses to high concentrations of ions, such as calcium and metals, and Δvps901Δvps902 double mutant cells exhibited round cell shapes similar to ypt5-909 (Rab5 mutant allele) cells. Deletion of both vps901 and vps902 genes completely abolished the mating process and responses to various stresses. A lack of vacuole formation and aberrant inner cell membrane structures were also observed in Δvps901Δvps902 cells by electron microscopy. These data strongly suggest that Vps901 and Vps902 are cooperatively involved in the regulation of cellular functions, such as cell morphology, sexual development, response to ion stresses, and vacuole formation, via Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast cells. - Highlights: • Roles of Rab5 activator VPS9 proteins in cellular functions. • Cooperation between VPS9 proteins in Rab5 signaling pathway. • Roles of each VPS9 protein in Rab5 signaling pathway are discussed.« less

  20. Characterization of Synthetic-Lethal Mutants Reveals a Role for the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factor Cdc24p in Vacuole Function and Na(+) Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    White, W. H.; Johnson, D. I.

    1997-01-01

    Cdc24p is the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the Cdc42p GTPase, which controls cell polarity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify new genes that may affect cell polarity, we characterized six UV-induced csl (CDC24 synthetic-lethal) mutants that exhibited synthetic-lethality with cdc24-4(ts) at 23°. Five mutants were not complemented by plasmid-borne CDC42, RSR1, BUD5, BEM1, BEM2, BEM3 or CLA4 genes, which are known to play a role in cell polarity. The csl3 mutant displayed phenotypes similar to those observed with calcium-sensitive, Pet(-) vma mutants defective in vacuole function. CSL5 was allelic to VMA5, the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase subunit C, and one third of csl5 cdc24-4(ts) cells were elongated or had misshapen buds. A cdc24-4(ts) Δvma5::LEU2 double mutant did not exhibit synthetic lethality, suggesting that the csl5/vma5 cdc24-4(ts) synthetic-lethality was not simply due to altered vacuole function. The cdc24-4(ts) mutant, like Δvma5::LEU2 and csl3 mutants, was sensitive to high levels of Ca(2+) as well as Na(+) in the growth media, which did not appear to be a result of a fragile cell wall because the phenotypes were not remedied by 1 M sorbitol. Our results indicated that Cdc24p was required in one V-ATPase mutant and another mutant affecting vacuole morphology, and also implicated Cdc24p in Na(+) tolerance. PMID:9286667

  1. Coexpression of α6β4 Integrin and Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Net1 Identifies Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients at High Risk for Distant Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gilcrease, Michael Z.; Kilpatrick, Shannan K.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Zhou, Xiao; Nicolas, Marlo M.; Corley, Lynda J.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Tucker, Susan L.; Diaz, Leslie K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Frost, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    Preclinical data indicate that α6β4 integrin signaling through Ras homolog gene family, member A, plays an important role in tumor cell motility. The objective of this study was to determine whether the combined expression of α6β4 integrin and neuroepithelioma transforming gene 1 (Net1), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor specific for Ras homolog gene family member A, is associated with adverse clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Immunohistochemical expression of each protein was evaluated in a tumor tissue microarray prepared from the primary tumors of 94 node-positive patients with invasive breast carcinoma treated with total mastectomy and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy without radiation with a median follow-up of 12.5 years. Associations between staining results and multiple clinicopathologic variables were investigated. Although there was no significant association between α6β4 integrin or Net1 expression and clinical outcome when each marker was considered individually, coexpression of α6β4 and Net1 was associated with decreased distant metastasis–free survival (P = 0.030). In the subset of patients with hormone receptor–positive tumors, coexpression of α6β4 and Net1 was associated with a decrease in distant metastasis–free and overall survival (P < 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). Although an association between human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression and coexpression of α6β4 and Net1 (P = 0.008) was observed, coexpression of α6β4 and Net1 (hazard ratio, 1.63; P = 0.02) and lymphovascular invasion (hazard ratio, 2.35; P = 0.02) were the only factors independently associated with the development of distant metastasis in multivariate analysis. These findings suggest that coexpression of α6β4 integrin and Net1 could be a useful biomarker for aggressive disease in node-positive breast cancer patients. PMID:19124484

  2. Cdc42 and the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Ect2 and Trio Mediate Fn14-Induced Migration and Invasion of Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Shannon P.; Ennis, Matthew J.; Schumacher, Cassie A.; Zylstra-Diegel, Cassandra R.; Williams, Bart O.; Ross, Julianna T.D.; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Loftus, Joseph C.; Symons, Marc H.; Tran, Nhan L.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant glioblastomas are characterized by their ability to infiltrate into normal brain. We previously reported that binding of the multifunctional cytokine TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) to its receptor fibroblast growth factor–inducible 14 (Fn14) induces glioblastoma cell invasion via Rac1 activation. Here, we show that Cdc42 plays an essential role in Fn14-mediated activation of Rac1. TWEAK-treated glioma cells display an increased activation of Cdc42, and depletion of Cdc42 using siRNA abolishes TWEAK-induced Rac1 activation and abrogates glioma cell migration and invasion. In contrast, Rac1 depletion does not affect Cdc42 activation by Fn14, showing that Cdc42 mediates TWEAK-stimulated Rac1 activation. Furthermore, we identified two guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF), Ect2 and Trio, involved in TWEAK-induced activation of Cdc42 and Rac1, respectively. Depletion of Ect2 abrogates both TWEAK-induced Cdc42 and Rac1 activation, as well as subsequent TWEAK-Fn14–directed glioma cell migration and invasion. In contrast, Trio depletion inhibits TWEAK-induced Rac1 activation but not TWEAK-induced Cdc42 activation. Finally, inappropriate expression of Fn14 or Ect2 in mouse astrocytes in vivo using an RCAS vector system for glial-specific gene transfer in G-tva transgenic mice induces astrocyte migration within the brain, corroborating the in vitro importance of the TWEAK-Fn14 signaling cascade in glioblastoma invasion. Our results suggest that the TWEAK-Fn14 signaling axis stimulates glioma cell migration and invasion through two GEF-GTPase signaling units, Ect2-Cdc42 and Trio-Rac1. Components of the Fn14-Rho GEF-Rho GTPase signaling pathway present innovative drug targets for glioma therapy. PMID:22571869

  3. FgBud3, a Rho4-Interacting Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, Is Involved in Polarity Growth, Cell Division and Pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengkang; Luo, Zenghong; He, Dongdong; Su, Li; Yin, Hui; Wang, Guo; Liu, Hong; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Zonghua

    2018-01-01

    Rho GTPases are signaling macromolecules that are associated with developmental progression and pathogenesis of Fusarium graminearum . Generally, enzymatic activities of Rho GTPases are regulated by Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs). In this study, we identified a putative RhoGEF encoding gene ( FgBUD3 ) in F. graminearum database and proceeded further by using a functional genetic approach to generate FgBUD3 targeted gene deletion mutant. Phenotypic analysis results showed that the deletion of FgBUD3 caused severe reduction in growth of FgBUD3 mutant generated during this study. We also observed that the deletion of FgBUD3 completely abolished sexual reproduction and triggered the production of abnormal asexual spores with nearly no septum in ΔFgbud3 strain. Further results obtained from infection assays conducted during this research revealed that the FgBUD3 defective mutant lost its pathogenicity on wheat and hence, suggests FgBud3 plays an essential role in the pathogenicity of F. graminearum . Additional, results derived from yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that FgBud3 strongly interacted with FgRho4 compared to the interaction with FgRho2, FgRho3, and FgCdc42. Moreover, we found that FgBud3 interacted with both GTP-bound and GDP-bound form of FgRho4. From these results, we subsequently concluded that, the Rho4-interacting GEF protein FgBud3 crucially promotes vegetative growth, asexual and sexual development, cell division and pathogenicity in F. graminearum .

  4. Solo, a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is critical for hemidesmosome formation and acinar development in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Matsui, Tsubasa S; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Deguchi, Shinji; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2018-01-01

    Cell-substrate adhesions are essential for various physiological processes, including embryonic development and maintenance of organ functions. Hemidesmosomes (HDs) are multiprotein complexes that attach epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Formation and remodeling of HDs are dependent on the surrounding mechanical environment; however, the upstream signaling mechanisms are not well understood. We recently reported that Solo (also known as ARHGEF40), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor targeting RhoA, binds to keratin8/18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments, and that their interaction is important for force-induced actin and keratin cytoskeletal reorganization. In this study, we show that Solo co-precipitates with an HD protein, β4-integrin. Co-precipitation assays revealed that the central region (amino acids 330-1057) of Solo binds to the C-terminal region (1451-1752) of β4-integrin. Knockdown of Solo significantly suppressed HD formation in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Similarly, knockdown of K18 or treatment with Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), suppressed HD formation. As Solo knockdown or Y-27632 treatment is known to disorganize K8/K18 filaments, these results suggest that Solo is involved in HD formation by regulating K8/K18 filament organization via the RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway. We also showed that knockdown of Solo impairs acinar formation in MCF10A cells cultured in 3D Matrigel. In addition, Solo accumulated at the site of traction force generation in 2D-cultured MCF10A cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Solo plays a crucial role in HD formation and acinar development in epithelial cells by regulating mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and keratin filament organization.

  5. Solo, a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is critical for hemidesmosome formation and acinar development in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Tsubasa S.; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Deguchi, Shinji; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2018-01-01

    Cell-substrate adhesions are essential for various physiological processes, including embryonic development and maintenance of organ functions. Hemidesmosomes (HDs) are multiprotein complexes that attach epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Formation and remodeling of HDs are dependent on the surrounding mechanical environment; however, the upstream signaling mechanisms are not well understood. We recently reported that Solo (also known as ARHGEF40), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor targeting RhoA, binds to keratin8/18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments, and that their interaction is important for force-induced actin and keratin cytoskeletal reorganization. In this study, we show that Solo co-precipitates with an HD protein, β4-integrin. Co-precipitation assays revealed that the central region (amino acids 330–1057) of Solo binds to the C-terminal region (1451–1752) of β4-integrin. Knockdown of Solo significantly suppressed HD formation in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Similarly, knockdown of K18 or treatment with Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), suppressed HD formation. As Solo knockdown or Y-27632 treatment is known to disorganize K8/K18 filaments, these results suggest that Solo is involved in HD formation by regulating K8/K18 filament organization via the RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway. We also showed that knockdown of Solo impairs acinar formation in MCF10A cells cultured in 3D Matrigel. In addition, Solo accumulated at the site of traction force generation in 2D-cultured MCF10A cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Solo plays a crucial role in HD formation and acinar development in epithelial cells by regulating mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and keratin filament organization. PMID:29672603

  6. Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factors (RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4) Induce Sperm Membrane Depolarization and Acrosomal Exocytosis in Capacitated Stallion Sperm1

    PubMed Central

    McPartlin, L.A.; Visconti, P.E.; Bedford-Guaus, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Capacitation encompasses the molecular changes sperm undergo to fertilize an oocyte, some of which are postulated to occur via a cAMP-PRKACA (protein kinase A)-mediated pathway. Due to the recent discovery of cAMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factors RAPGEF3 and RAPGEF4, we sought to investigate the separate roles of PRKACA and RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4 in modulating capacitation and acrosomal exocytosis. Indirect immunofluorescence localized RAPGEF3 to the acrosome and subacrosomal ring and RAPGEF4 to the midpiece in equine sperm. Addition of the RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4-specific cAMP analogue 8-(p-chlorophenylthio)-2′-O-methyladenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8pCPT) to sperm incubated under both noncapacitating and capacitating conditions had no effect on protein tyrosine phosphorylation, thus supporting a PRKACA-mediated event. Conversely, activation of RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4 with 8pCPT induced acrosomal exocytosis in capacitated equine sperm at rates (34%) similar (P > 0.05) to those obtained in progesterone- and calcium ionophore-treated sperm. In the mouse, capacitation-dependent hyperpolarization of the sperm plasma membrane has been shown to recruit low voltage-activated T-type Ca2+ channels, which later open in response to zona pellucida-induced membrane depolarization. We hypothesized that RAPGEF3 may be inducing acrosomal exocytosis via depolarization-dependent Ca2+ influx, as RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4 have been demonstrated to play a role in the regulation of ion channels in somatic cells. We first compared the membrane potential (Em) of noncapacitated (−37.11 mV) and capacitated (−53.74 mV; P = 0.002) equine sperm. Interestingly, when sperm were incubated (6 h) under capacitating conditions in the presence of 8pCPT, Em remained depolarized (−32.06 mV). Altogether, these experiments support the hypothesis that RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4 activation regulates acrosomal exocytosis via its modulation of Em, a novel role for RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4 in the series of events required to

  7. Small-GTPase-associated signaling by the guanine nucleotide exchange factors CpDock180 and CpCdc24, the GTPase effector CpSte20, and the scaffold protein CpBem1 in Claviceps purpurea.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Andrea; Tillmann, Britta A M; Schürmann, Janine; Bölker, Michael; Tudzynski, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Monomeric GTPases of the Rho subfamily are important mediators of polar growth and NADPH (Nox) signaling in a variety of organisms. These pathways influence the ability of Claviceps purpurea to infect host plants. GTPase regulators contribute to the nucleotide loading cycle that is essential for proper functionality of the GTPases. Scaffold proteins gather GTPase complexes to facilitate proper function. The guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) CpCdc24 and CpDock180 activate GTPase signaling by triggering nucleotide exchange of the GTPases. Here we show that CpCdc24 harbors nucleotide exchange activity for both Rac and Cdc42 homologues. The GEFs partly share the cellular distribution of the GTPases and interact with the putative upstream GTPase CpRas1. Interaction studies show the formation of higher-order protein complexes, mediated by the scaffold protein CpBem1. Besides the GTPases and GEFs, these complexes also contain the GTPase effectors CpSte20 and CpCla4, as well as the regulatory protein CpNoxR. Functional characterizations suggest a role of CpCdc24 mainly in polarity, whereas CpDock180 is involved in stress tolerance mechanisms. These findings indicate the dynamic formation of small GTPase complexes and improve the model for GTPase-associated signaling in C. purpurea.

  8. The delta-subunit of murine guanine nucleotide exchange factor eIF-2B. Characterization of cDNAs predicts isoforms differing at the amino-terminal end.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R A; Krissansen, G W; Yong, R Y; Leung, E; Watson, J D; Dholakia, J N

    1994-12-02

    Protein synthesis in mammalian cells is regulated at the level of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eIF-2B, which catalyzes the exchange of eukaryotic initiation factor 2-bound GDP for GTP. We have isolated and sequenced cDNA clones encoding the delta-subunit of murine eIF-2B. The cDNA sequence encodes a polypeptide of 544 amino acids with molecular mass of 60 kDa. Antibodies against a synthetic polypeptide of 30 amino acids deduced from the cDNA sequence specifically react with the delta-subunit of mammalian eIF-2B. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequence shows significant homology with the yeast translational regulator Gcd2, supporting the hypothesis that Gcd2 may be the yeast homolog of the delta-subunit of mammalian eIF-2B. Primer extension studies and anchor polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed to determine the 5'-end of the transcript for the delta-subunit of eIF-2B. Results of these experiments demonstrate two different mRNAs for the delta-subunit of eIF-2B in murine cells. The isolation and characterization of two different full-length cDNAs also predicts the presence of two alternate forms of the delta-subunit of eIF-2B in murine cells. These differ at their amino-terminal end but have identical nucleotide sequences coding for amino acids 31-544.

  9. The Chromobacterium violaceum type III effector CopE, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1 and Cdc42, is involved in bacterial invasion of epithelial cells and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Miki, Tsuyoshi; Akiba, Kinari; Iguchi, Mirei; Danbara, Hirofumi; Okada, Nobuhiko

    2011-06-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by Chromobacterium pathogenicity islands 1 and 1a (Cpi-1/-1a) is critical for Chromobacterium violaceum pathogenesis. T3SS-dependent virulence is commonly characterized by type III effector virulence function, but the full repertoire of the effector proteins of Cpi-1/-1a T3SS is unknown. In this study, we showed that expression of Cpi-1/-1a T3SS is controlled by the master regulator CilA. We used transcriptional profiling with DNA microarrays to define CilA regulon and identified genes encoding T3SS effectors whose translocation into host cells was dependent on Cpi-1/-1a T3SS. From these effectors, we found that CopE (CV0296) has similarities to a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho GTPases in its C-terminal portion. The N-terminal portions (1-81 amino acids) of CopE and a CivB as a putative chaperone were required for its translocation. CopE specifically activates Rac1 and Cdc42 followed by the induction of actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. Interestingly, C. violaceum invades human epithelial HeLa cells in a Cpi-1/-1a-encoded T3SS- and CopE-dependent manner. Finally, C. violaceum strains lacking copE and expressing a CopE-G168V deficient in GEF activity were attenuated for virulence in mice, suggesting that CopE contributes to the virulence of this pathogen. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of mice deficient in Rapgef2 and Rapgef6, a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap small GTPases possessing the Ras/Rap-associating domain.

    PubMed

    Maeta, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Satoko; Ikutomo, Junji; Edamatsu, Hironori; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Tohru

    2018-05-10

    Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 define a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap small GTPases, characterized by the possession of the Ras/Rap-associating domain. Previous genomic analyses suggested their possible involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia. We recently demonstrated the development of an ectopic cortical mass (ECM), which resembles the human subcortical band heterotopia, in the dorsal telencephalon-specific Rapgef2 conditional knockout (Rapgef2-cKO) brains. Additional knockout of Rapgef6 in Rapgef2-cKO mice resulted in gross enlargement of the ECM whereas knockout of Rapgef6 alone (Rapgef6-KO) had no discernible effect on the brain morphology. Here, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to examine the effects of Rapgef2 or Rapgef6 deficiency on higher brain functions. Rapgef2-cKO mice exhibited hyperlocomotion phenotypes. They showed decreased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and the open-field tests as well as increased depression-like behavior in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. They also exhibited increased sociability especially in novel environments. They showed defects in cognitive function as evidenced by reduced learning ability in the Barnes circular maze test and by impaired working memory in the T maze tests. In contrast, although Rapgef6 and Rapgef2 share similarities in biochemical roles, Rapgef6-KO mice exhibited mild behavioral abnormalities detected with a number of behavioral tests, such as hyperlocomotion phenotype in the open-field test and the social interaction test with a novel environment and working-memory defects in the T-maze test. In conclusion, although there were differences in their brain morphology and the magnitude of the behavioral abnormalities, Rapgef2-cKO mice and Rapgef6-KO mice exhibited hyperlocomotion phenotype and working-memory defect, both of which could be recognized as schizophrenia-like behavior.

  11. Dissociation of Rac1(GDP)·RhoGDI Complexes by the Cooperative Action of Anionic Liposomes Containing Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate, Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, and GTP*

    PubMed Central

    Ugolev, Yelena; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Weinbaum, Carolyn; Pick, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    Rac plays a pivotal role in the assembly of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes. In resting cells, Rac is found in the cytosol in complex with Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI). NADPH oxidase assembly involves dissociation of the Rac·RhoGDI complex and translocation of Rac to the membrane. We reported that liposomes containing high concentrations of monovalent anionic phospholipids cause Rac·RhoGDI complex dissociation (Ugolev, Y., Molshanski-Mor, S., Weinbaum, C., and Pick, E. (2006) J. Biol. Chem.281 ,19204 -1921916702219). We now designed an in vitro model mimicking membrane phospholipid remodeling during phagocyte stimulation in vivo. We showed that liposomes of “resting cell membrane” composition (less than 20 mol % monovalent anionic phospholipids), supplemented with 1 mol % of polyvalent anionic phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) in conjunction with constitutively active forms of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rac, Trio, or Tiam1 and a non-hydrolyzable GTP analogue, cause dissociation of Rac1(GDP)·RhoGDI complexes, GDP to GTP exchange on Rac1, and binding of Rac1(GTP) to the liposomes. Complexes were not dissociated in the absence of GEF and GTP, and optimal dissociation required the presence of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in the liposomes. Dissociation of Rac1(GDP)·RhoGDI complexes was correlated with the affinity of particular GEF constructs, via the N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and involved GEF-mediated GDP to GTP exchange on Rac1. Phagocyte membranes enriched in PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 responded by NADPH oxidase activation upon exposure in vitro to Rac1(GDP)·RhoGDI complexes, p67phox, GTP, and Rac GEF constructs with affinity for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 at a level superior to that of native membranes. PMID:18505730

  12. Kinetics of Interaction between ADP-ribosylation Factor-1 (Arf1) and the Sec7 Domain of Arno Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, Modulation by Allosteric Factors, and the Uncompetitive Inhibitor Brefeldin A

    PubMed Central

    Rouhana, Jad; Padilla, André; Estaran, Sébastien; Bakari, Sana; Delbecq, Stephan; Boublik, Yvan; Chopineau, Joel; Pugnière, Martine; Chavanieu, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange of Arf1 is catalyzed by nucleotide exchange factors (GEF), such as Arno, which act through their catalytic Sec7 domain. This exchange is a complex mechanism that undergoes conformational changes and intermediate complex species involving several allosteric partners such as nucleotides, Mg2+, and Sec7 domains. Using a surface plasmon resonance approach, we characterized the kinetic binding parameters for various intermediate complexes. We first confirmed that both GDP and GTP counteract equivalently to the free-nucleotide binary Arf1-Arno complex stability and revealed that Mg2+ potentiates by a factor of 2 the allosteric effect of GDP. Then we explored the uncompetitive inhibitory mechanism of brefeldin A (BFA) that conducts to an abortive pentameric Arf1-Mg2+-GDP-BFA-Sec7 complex. With BFA, the association rate of the abortive complex is drastically reduced by a factor of 42, and by contrast, the 15-fold decrease of the dissociation rate concurs to stabilize the pentameric complex. These specific kinetic signatures have allowed distinguishing the level and nature as well as the fate in real time of formed complexes according to experimental conditions. Thus, we showed that in the presence of GDP, the BFA-resistant Sec7 domain of Arno can also associate to form a pentameric complex, which suggests that the uncompetitive inhibition by BFA and the nucleotide allosteric effect combine to stabilize such abortive complex. PMID:23255605

  13. Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factors during development

    PubMed Central

    Mulinari, Shai

    2010-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms is associated with extensive rearrangements of tissues and cell sheets. The driving force for these rearrangements is generated mostly by the actin cytoskeleton. In order to permit the reproducible development of a specific body plan, dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton must be precisely coordinated in space and time. GTP-exchange factors that activate small GTPases of the Rho family play an important role in this process. Here we review the role of this class of cytoskeletal regulators during important developmental processes such as epithelial morphogenesis, cytokinesis, cell migration, cell polarity, neuronal growth cone extension and phagocytosis in different model systems. PMID:21686118

  14. Spontaneous nucleotide exchange in low molecular weight GTPases by fluorescently labeled γ-phosphate-linked GTP analogs

    PubMed Central

    Korlach, Jonas; Baird, Daniel W.; Heikal, Ahmed A.; Gee, Kyle R.; Hoffman, Gregory R.; Webb, Watt W.

    2004-01-01

    Regulated guanosine nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis constitute the fundamental activities of low molecular weight GTPases. We show that three guanosine 5′-triphosphate analogs with BODIPY fluorophores coupled via the gamma phosphate bind to the GTPases Cdc42, Rac1, RhoA, and Ras and displace guanosine 5′-diphosphate with high intrinsic exchange rates in the presence of Mg2+ ions, thereby acting as synthetic, low molecular weight guanine nucleotide exchange factors. The accompanying large fluorescence enhancements (as high as 12-fold), caused by a reduction in guanine quenching of the environmentally sensitive BODIPY dye fluorescence on protein binding, allow for real-time monitoring of this spontaneous nucleotide exchange in the visible spectrum with high signal-to-noise ratios. Binding affinities increased with longer aliphatic linkers connecting the nucleotide and BODIPY fluorophore and were in the 10–100 nM range. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy showed an inverse relationship between linker length and fluorescence enhancement factors and differences in protein-bound fluorophore mobilities, providing optimization criteria for future applications of such compounds as efficient elicitors and reporters of nucleotide exchange. EDTA markedly enhanced nucleotide exchange, enabling rapid loading of GTPases with these probes. Differences in active site geometries, in the absence of Mg2+, caused qualitatively different reporting of the bound state by the different analogs. The BODIPY analogs also prevented the interaction of Cdc42 with p21 activated kinase. Together, these results validate the use of these analogs as valuable tools for studying GTPase functions and for developing potent synthetic nucleotide exchange factors for this important class of signaling molecules. PMID:14973186

  15. Function of the nucleotide exchange activity of vav1 in T cell development and activation.

    PubMed

    Saveliev, Alexander; Vanes, Lesley; Ksionda, Olga; Rapley, Jonathan; Smerdon, Stephen J; Rittinger, Katrin; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

    2009-12-15

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav1 is essential for transducing T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signals and therefore plays a critical role in the development and activation of T cells. It has been presumed that the GEF activity of Vav1 is important for its function; however, there has been no direct demonstration of this. Here, we generated mice expressing enzymatically inactive, but normally folded, Vav1 protein. Analysis of these mice showed that the GEF activity of Vav1 was necessary for the selection of thymocytes and for the optimal activation of T cells, including signal transduction to Rac1, Akt, and integrins. In contrast, the GEF activity of Vav1 was not required for TCR-induced calcium flux, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase D1, and cell polarization. Thus, in T cells, the GEF activity of Vav1 is essential for some, but not all, of its functions.

  16. Function of the Nucleotide Exchange Activity of Vav1 in T cell Development and Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Saveliev, Alexander; Vanes, Lesley; Ksionda, Olga; Rapley, Jonathan; Smerdon, Stephen J.; Rittinger, Katrin; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.

    2012-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav1 is essential for transducing T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signals and therefore plays a critical role in the development and activation of T cells. It has been presumed that the GEF activity of Vav1 is important for its function; however, there has been no direct demonstration of this. Here, we generated mice expressing enzymatically inactive, but normally folded, Vav1 protein. Analysis of these mice showed that the GEF activity of Vav1 was necessary for the selection of thymocytes and for the optimal activation of T cells, including signal transduction to Rac1, Akt, and integrins. In contrast, the GEF activity of Vav1 was not required for TCR-induced calcium flux, activation of extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase D1 (PKD1), and cell polarization. Thus, in T cells, the GEF activity of Vav1 is essential for some, but not all, of its functions. PMID:20009105

  17. A homogeneous quenching resonance energy transfer assay for the kinetic analysis of the GTPase nucleotide exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Kopra, Kari; Ligabue, Alessio; Wang, Qi; Syrjänpää, Markku; Blaževitš, Olga; Veltel, Stefan; van Adrichem, Arjan J; Hänninen, Pekka; Abankwa, Daniel; Härmä, Harri

    2014-07-01

    A quenching resonance energy transfer (QRET) assay for small GTPase nucleotide exchange kinetic monitoring is demonstrated using nanomolar protein concentrations. Small GTPases are central signaling proteins in all eukaryotic cells acting as a "molecular switches" that are active in the GTP-state and inactive in the GDP-state. GTP-loading is highly regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In several diseases, most prominently cancer, this process in misregulated. The kinetics of the nucleotide exchange reaction reports on the enzymatic activity of the GEF reaction system and is, therefore, of special interest. We determined the nucleotide exchange kinetics using europium-labeled GTP (Eu-GTP) in the QRET assay for small GTPases. After GEF catalyzed GTP-loading of a GTPase, a high time-resolved luminescence signal was found to be associated with GTPase bound Eu-GTP, whereas the non-bound Eu-GTP fraction was quenched by soluble quencher. The association kinetics of the Eu-GTP was measured after GEF addition, whereas the dissociation kinetics could be determined after addition of unlabeled GTP. The resulting association and dissociation rates were in agreement with previously published values for H-Ras(Wt), H-Ras(Q61G), and K-Ras(Wt), respectively. The broader applicability of the QRET assay for small GTPases was demonstrated by determining the kinetics of the Ect2 catalyzed RhoA(Wt) GTP-loading. The QRET assay allows the use of nanomolar protein concentrations, as more than 3-fold signal-to-background ratio was achieved with 50 nM GTPase and GEF proteins. Thus, small GTPase exchange kinetics can be efficiently determined in a HTS compatible 384-well plate format.

  18. Juvenile Hormone Regulation of Drosophila Epac - A Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for Rap1 Small GTPase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we utilized a microchip array encompassing probes for 14,010 genes of Drosophila melanogaster to analyze the effect of (10R) juvenile hormone III (JH) on genome-wide gene expression in Drosophila S2 cells. Treatment with JH yielded a collection of 32 gene transcripts that demonstrated a ...

  19. Bijective transformation circular codes and nucleotide exchanging RNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J; Seligmann, Hervé

    2014-04-01

    The C(3) self-complementary circular code X identified in genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is a set of 20 trinucleotides enabling reading frame retrieval and maintenance, i.e. a framing code (Arquès and Michel, 1996; Michel, 2012, 2013). Some mitochondrial RNAs correspond to DNA sequences when RNA transcription systematically exchanges between nucleotides (Seligmann, 2013a,b). We study here the 23 bijective transformation codes ΠX of X which may code nucleotide exchanging RNA transcription as suggested by this mitochondrial observation. The 23 bijective transformation codes ΠX are C(3) trinucleotide circular codes, seven of them are also self-complementary. Furthermore, several correlations are observed between the Reading Frame Retrieval (RFR) probability of bijective transformation codes ΠX and the different biological properties of ΠX related to their numbers of RNAs in GenBank's EST database, their polymerization rate, their number of amino acids and the chirality of amino acids they code. Results suggest that the circular code X with the functions of reading frame retrieval and maintenance in regular RNA transcription, may also have, through its bijective transformation codes ΠX, the same functions in nucleotide exchanging RNA transcription. Associations with properties such as amino acid chirality suggest that the RFR of X and its bijective transformations molded the origins of the genetic code's machinery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural landscape of the proline-rich domain of Sos1 nucleotide exchange factor.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Caleb B; Bhat, Vikas; Kurouski, Dmitry; Mikles, David C; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; Lednev, Igor K; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-01-01

    Despite its key role in mediating a plethora of cellular signaling cascades pertinent to health and disease, little is known about the structural landscape of the proline-rich (PR) domain of Sos1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Herein, using a battery of biophysical tools, we provide evidence that the PR domain of Sos1 is structurally disordered and adopts an extended random coil-like conformation in solution. Of particular interest is the observation that while chemical denaturation of PR domain results in the formation of a significant amount of polyproline II (PPII) helices, it has little or negligible effect on its overall size as measured by its hydrodynamic radius. Our data also show that the PR domain displays a highly dynamic conformational basin in agreement with the knowledge that the intrinsically unstructured proteins rapidly interconvert between an ensemble of conformations. Collectively, our study provides new insights into the conformational equilibrium of a key signaling molecule with important consequences on its physiological function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural Landscape of the Proline-Rich Domain of Sos1 Nucleotide Exchange Factor

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Caleb B.; Bhat, Vikas; Kurouski, Dmitry; Mikles, David C.; Deegan, Brian J.; Seldeen, Kenneth L.; Lednev, Igor K.; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-01-01

    Despite its key role in mediating a plethora of cellular signaling cascades pertinent to health and disease, little is known about the structural landscape of the proline-rich (PR) domain of Sos1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Herein, using a battery of biophysical tools, we provide evidence that the PR domain of Sos1 is structurally disordered and adopts an extended random coil-like conformation in solution. Of particular interest is the observation that while chemical denaturation of PR domain results in the formation of a significant amount of polyproline II (PPII) helices, it has little or negligible effect on its overall size as measured by its hydrodynamic radius. Our data also show that the PR domain displays a highly dynamic conformational basin in agreement with the knowledge that the intrinsically unstructured proteins rapidly interconvert between an ensemble of conformations. Collectively, our study provides new insights into the conformational equilibrium of a key signaling molecule with important consequences on its physiological function. PMID:23528987

  2. Nucleotide exchange and excision technology DNA shuffling and directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Speck, Janina; Stebel, Sabine C; Arndt, Katja M; Müller, Kristian M

    2011-01-01

    Remarkable success in optimizing complex properties within DNA and proteins has been achieved by directed evolution. In contrast to various random mutagenesis methods and high-throughput selection methods, the number of available DNA shuffling procedures is limited, and protocols are often difficult to adjust. The strength of the nucleotide exchange and excision technology (NExT) DNA shuffling described here is the robust, efficient, and easily controllable DNA fragmentation step based on random incorporation of the so-called 'exchange nucleotides' by PCR. The exchange nucleotides are removed enzymatically, followed by chemical cleavage of the DNA backbone. The oligonucleotide pool is reassembled into full-length genes by internal primer extension, and the recombined gene library is amplified by standard PCR. The technique has been demonstrated by shuffling a defined gene library of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase variants using uridine as fragmentation defining exchange nucleotide. Substituting 33% of the dTTP with dUTP in the incorporation PCR resulted in shuffled clones with an average parental fragment size of 86 bases and revealed a mutation rate of only 0.1%. Additionally, a computer program (NExTProg) has been developed that predicts the fragment size distribution depending on the relative amount of the exchange nucleotide.

  3. A Steric-inhibition model for regulation of nucleotide exchange via the Dock180 family of GEFs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingjian; Kinchen, Jason M; Rossman, Kent L; Grimsley, Cynthia; Hall, Matthew; Sondek, John; Hengartner, Michael O; Yajnik, Vijay; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2005-02-22

    CDM (CED-5, Dock180, Myoblast city) family members have been recently identified as novel, evolutionarily conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho-family GTPases . They regulate multiple processes, including embryonic development, cell migration, apoptotic-cell engulfment, tumor invasion, and HIV-1 infection, in diverse model systems . However, the mechanism(s) of regulation of CDM proteins has not been well understood. Here, our studies on the prototype member Dock180 reveal a steric-inhibition model for regulating the Dock180 family of GEFs. At basal state, the N-terminal SH3 domain of Dock180 binds to the distant catalytic Docker domain and negatively regulates the function of Dock180. Further studies revealed that the SH3:Docker interaction sterically blocks Rac access to the Docker domain. Interestingly, ELMO binding to the SH3 domain of Dock180 disrupted the SH3:Docker interaction, facilitated Rac access to the Docker domain, and contributed to the GEF activity of the Dock180/ELMO complex. Additional genetic rescue studies in C. elegans suggested that the regulation of the Docker-domain-mediated GEF activity by the SH3 domain and its adjoining region is evolutionarily conserved. This steric-inhibition model may be a general mechanism for regulating multiple SH3-domain-containing Dock180 family members and may have implications for a variety of biological processes.

  4. Structure of the nucleotide exchange factor eIF2B reveals mechanism of memory-enhancing molecule.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jordan C; Miller-Vedam, Lakshmi E; Anand, Aditya A; Jaishankar, Priyadarshini; Nguyen, Henry C; Renslo, Adam R; Frost, Adam; Walter, Peter

    2018-03-30

    Regulation by the integrated stress response (ISR) converges on the phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2 in response to a variety of stresses. Phosphorylation converts eIF2 from a substrate to a competitive inhibitor of its dedicated guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B, thereby inhibiting translation. ISRIB, a drug-like eIF2B activator, reverses the effects of eIF2 phosphorylation, and in rodents it enhances cognition and corrects cognitive deficits after brain injury. To determine its mechanism of action, we solved an atomic-resolution structure of ISRIB bound in a deep cleft within decameric human eIF2B by cryo-electron microscopy. Formation of fully active, decameric eIF2B holoenzyme depended on the assembly of two identical tetrameric subcomplexes, and ISRIB promoted this step by cross-bridging a central symmetry interface. Thus, regulation of eIF2B assembly emerges as a rheostat for eIF2B activity that tunes translation during the ISR and that can be further modulated by ISRIB. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence*

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L.; Embrey, Kevin J.; Golovanov, Alexander P.

    2016-01-01

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly 15N-labeled Ras as well as [13C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions. PMID:26565026

  6. Systematic asymmetric nucleotide exchanges produce human mitochondrial RNAs cryptically encoding for overlapping protein coding genes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2013-05-07

    GenBank's EST database includes RNAs matching exactly human mitochondrial sequences assuming systematic asymmetric nucleotide exchange-transcription along exchange rules: A→G→C→U/T→A (12 ESTs), A→U/T→C→G→A (4 ESTs), C→G→U/T→C (3 ESTs), and A→C→G→U/T→A (1 EST), no RNAs correspond to other potential asymmetric exchange rules. Hypothetical polypeptides translated from nucleotide-exchanged human mitochondrial protein coding genes align with numerous GenBank proteins, predicted secondary structures resemble their putative GenBank homologue's. Two independent methods designed to detect overlapping genes (one based on nucleotide contents analyses in relation to replicative deamination gradients at third codon positions, and circular code analyses of codon contents based on frame redundancy), confirm nucleotide-exchange-encrypted overlapping genes. Methods converge on which genes are most probably active, and which not, and this for the various exchange rules. Mean EST lengths produced by different nucleotide exchanges are proportional to (a) extents that various bioinformatics analyses confirm the protein coding status of putative overlapping genes; (b) known kinetic chemistry parameters of the corresponding nucleotide substitutions by the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (nucleotide DNA misinsertion rates); (c) stop codon densities in predicted overlapping genes (stop codon readthrough and exchanging polymerization regulate gene expression by counterbalancing each other). Numerous rarely expressed proteins seem encoded within regular mitochondrial genes through asymmetric nucleotide exchange, avoiding lengthening genomes. Intersecting evidence between several independent approaches confirms the working hypothesis status of gene encryption by systematic nucleotide exchanges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor GIV Promotes Activation of PI3K During Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Changsheng; Ear, Jason; Pavlova, Yelena; Mittal, Yash; Kufareva, Irina; Ghassemian, Majid; Abagyan, Ruben; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2014-01-01

    GIV (Gα-interacting vesicle-associated protein; also known as Girdin), enhances Akt activation downstream of multiple growth factor– and G-protein–coupled receptors to trigger cell migration and cancer invasion. Here we demonstrate that GIV is a tyrosine phosphoprotein that directly binds to and activates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Upon ligand stimulation of various receptors, GIV was phosphorylated at Tyr1764 and Tyr1798 by both receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases. These phosphorylation events enabled direct binding of GIV to the N- and C-terminal SH2 domains of p85α, a regulatory subunit of PI3K, stabilized receptor association with PI3K, and enhanced PI3K activity at the plasma membrane to trigger cell migration. Tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV and its association with p85α increased during metastatic progression of a breast carcinoma. These results suggest a mechanism by which multiple receptors activate PI3K through tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV, thereby making the GIVPI3K interaction a potential therapeutic target within the PI3K-Akt pathway. PMID:21954290

  8. Activated RhoA Is a Positive Feedback Regulator of the Lbc Family of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Frank; Carter, Angela M.; Dada, Olugbenga; Gutowski, Stephen; Hadas, Jana; Chen, Zhe; Sternweis, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    The monomeric Rho GTPases are essential for cellular regulation including cell architecture and movement. A direct mechanism for hormonal regulation of the RhoA-type GTPases is their modulation by the G12 and G13 proteins via RH (RGS homology) containing RhoGEFs. In addition to the interaction of the G protein α subunits with the RH domain, activated RhoA also binds to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of PDZRhoGEF. The latter interaction is now extended to all seven members of the homologous Lbc family of RhoGEFs which includes the RH-RhoGEFs. This is evinced by direct measurements of binding or through effects on selected signaling pathways in cells. Overexpression of these PH domains alone can block RhoA-dependent signaling in cells to various extents. Whereas activated RhoA does not modulate the intrinsic activity of the RhoGEFs, activated RhoA associated with phospholipid vesicles can facilitate increased activity of soluble RhoGEFs on vesicle-delimited substrate (RhoA-GDP). This demonstrates feasibility of the hypothesis that binding of activated RhoA to the PH domains acts as a positive feedback mechanism. This is supported by cellular studies in which mutation of this binding site on PH strongly attenuates the stimulation of RhoA observed by overexpression of five of the RhoGEF DH-PH domains. This mutation is even more dramatic in the context of full-length p115RhoGEF. The utilization of this mechanism by multiple RhoGEFs suggests that this regulatory paradigm may be a common feature in the broader family of RhoGEFs. PMID:23493395

  9. The putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor RicA mediates upstream signaling for growth and development in Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Nak-Jung; Park, Hee-Soo; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2012-11-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins) govern growth, development, and secondary metabolism in various fungi. Here, we characterized ricA, which encodes a putative GDP/GTP exchange factor for G proteins in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans and the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. In both species, ricA mRNA accumulates during vegetative growth and early developmental phases, but it is not present in spores. The deletion of ricA results in severely impaired colony growth and the total (for A. nidulans) or near (for A. fumigatus) absence of asexual sporulation (conidiation). The overexpression (OE) of the A. fumigatus ricA gene (AfricA) restores growth and conidiation in the ΔAnricA mutant to some extent, indicating partial conservation of RicA function in Aspergillus. A series of double mutant analyses revealed that the removal of RgsA (an RGS protein of the GanB Gα subunit), but not sfgA, flbA, rgsB, or rgsC, restored vegetative growth and conidiation in ΔAnricA. Furthermore, we found that RicA can physically interact with GanB in yeast and in vitro. Moreover, the presence of two copies or OE of pkaA suppresses the profound defects caused by ΔAnricA, indicating that RicA-mediated growth and developmental signaling is primarily through GanB and PkaA in A. nidulans. Despite the lack of conidiation, brlA and vosA mRNAs accumulated to normal levels in the ΔricA mutant. In addition, mutants overexpressing fluG or brlA (OEfluG or OEbrlA) failed to restore development in the ΔAnricA mutant. These findings suggest that the commencement of asexual development requires unknown RicA-mediated signaling input in A. nidulans.

  10. The Putative Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor RicA Mediates Upstream Signaling for Growth and Development in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Nak-Jung; Park, Hee-Soo; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun Chang

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins) govern growth, development, and secondary metabolism in various fungi. Here, we characterized ricA, which encodes a putative GDP/GTP exchange factor for G proteins in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans and the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. In both species, ricA mRNA accumulates during vegetative growth and early developmental phases, but it is not present in spores. The deletion of ricA results in severely impaired colony growth and the total (for A. nidulans) or near (for A. fumigatus) absence of asexual sporulation (conidiation). The overexpression (OE) of the A. fumigatus ricA gene (AfricA) restores growth and conidiation in the ΔAnricA mutant to some extent, indicating partial conservation of RicA function in Aspergillus. A series of double mutant analyses revealed that the removal of RgsA (an RGS protein of the GanB Gα subunit), but not sfgA, flbA, rgsB, or rgsC, restored vegetative growth and conidiation in ΔAnricA. Furthermore, we found that RicA can physically interact with GanB in yeast and in vitro. Moreover, the presence of two copies or OE of pkaA suppresses the profound defects caused by ΔAnricA, indicating that RicA-mediated growth and developmental signaling is primarily through GanB and PkaA in A. nidulans. Despite the lack of conidiation, brlA and vosA mRNAs accumulated to normal levels in the ΔricA mutant. In addition, mutants overexpressing fluG or brlA (OEfluG or OEbrlA) failed to restore development in the ΔAnricA mutant. These findings suggest that the commencement of asexual development requires unknown RicA-mediated signaling input in A. nidulans. PMID:23002107

  11. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-01-22

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly (15)N-labeled Ras as well as [(13)C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Control of the Ability of Profilin to Bind and Facilitate Nucleotide Exchange from G-actin*

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Houtman, Jon C. D.; Rubenstein, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    A major factor in profilin regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics is its facilitation of G-actin nucleotide exchange. However, the mechanism of this facilitation is unknown. We studied the interaction of yeast (YPF) and human profilin 1 (HPF1) with yeast and mammalian skeletal muscle actins. Homologous pairs (YPF and yeast actin, HPF1 and muscle actin) bound more tightly to one another than heterologous pairs. However, with saturating profilin, HPF1 caused a faster etheno-ATP exchange with both yeast and muscle actins than did YPF. Based on the -fold change in ATP exchange rate/Kd, however, the homologous pairs are more efficient than the heterologous pairs. Thus, strength of binding of profilin to actin and nucleotide exchange rate are not tightly coupled. Actin/HPF interactions were entropically driven, whereas YPF interactions were enthalpically driven. Hybrid yeast actins containing subdomain 1 (sub1) or subdomain 1 and 2 (sub12) muscle actin residues bound more weakly to YPF than did yeast actin (Kd = 2 μm versus 0.6 μm). These hybrids bound even more weakly to HPF than did yeast actin (Kd = 5 μm versus 3.2 μm). sub1/YPF interactions were entropically driven, whereas the sub12/YPF binding was enthalpically driven. Compared with WT yeast actin, YPF binding to sub1 occurred with a 5 times faster koff and a 2 times faster kon. sub12 bound with a 3 times faster koff and a 1.5 times slower kon. Profilin controls the energetics of its interaction with nonhybrid actin, but interactions between actin subdomains 1 and 2 affect the topography of the profilin binding site. PMID:18223293

  13. Unique Structural and Nucleotide Exchange Features of the Rho1 GTPase of Entamoeba histolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, Dustin E.; Wittchen, Erika S.; Qiu, Connie

    The single-celled human parasite Entamoeba histolytica possesses a dynamic actin cytoskeleton vital for its intestinal and systemic pathogenicity. The E. histolytica genome encodes several Rho family GTPases known to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. EhRho1, the first family member identified, was reported to be insensitive to the Rho GTPase-specific Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme, raising the possibility that it may be a misclassified Ras family member. Here, we report the crystal structures of EhRho1 in both active and inactive states. EhRho1 is activated by a conserved switch mechanism, but diverges from mammalian Rho GTPases in lacking a signature Rho insert helix. EhRho1 engagesmore » a homolog of mDia, EhFormin1, suggesting a role in mediating serum-stimulated actin reorganization and microtubule formation during mitosis. EhRho1, but not a constitutively active mutant, interacts with a newly identified EhRhoGDI in a prenylation-dependent manner. Furthermore, constitutively active EhRho1 induces actin stress fiber formation in mammalian fibroblasts, thereby identifying it as a functional Rho family GTPase. EhRho1 exhibits a fast rate of nucleotide exchange relative to mammalian Rho GTPases due to a distinctive switch one isoleucine residue reminiscent of the constitutively active F28L mutation in human Cdc42, which for the latter protein, is sufficient for cellular transformation. Nonconserved, nucleotide-interacting residues within EhRho1, revealed by the crystal structure models, were observed to contribute a moderating influence on fast spontaneous nucleotide exchange. Collectively, these observations indicate that EhRho1 is a bona fide member of the Rho GTPase family, albeit with unique structural and functional aspects compared with mammalian Rho GTPases.« less

  14. The C-terminal Helix of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Elongation Factor Ts Tunes EF-Tu Dynamics to Modulate Nucleotide Exchange.

    PubMed

    De Laurentiis, Evelina Ines; Mercier, Evan; Wieden, Hans-Joachim

    2016-10-28

    Little is known about the conservation of critical kinetic parameters and the mechanistic strategies of elongation factor (EF) Ts-catalyzed nucleotide exchange in EF-Tu in bacteria and particularly in clinically relevant pathogens. EF-Tu from the clinically relevant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa shares over 84% sequence identity with the corresponding elongation factor from Escherichia coli Interestingly, the functionally closely linked EF-Ts only shares 55% sequence identity. To identify any differences in the nucleotide binding properties, as well as in the EF-Ts-mediated nucleotide exchange reaction, we performed a comparative rapid kinetics and mutagenesis analysis of the nucleotide exchange mechanism for both the E. coli and P. aeruginosa systems, identifying helix 13 of EF-Ts as a previously unnoticed regulatory element in the nucleotide exchange mechanism with species-specific elements. Our findings support the base side-first entry of the nucleotide into the binding pocket of the EF-Tu·EF-Ts binary complex, followed by displacement of helix 13 and rapid binding of the phosphate side of the nucleotide, ultimately leading to the release of EF-Ts. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Approach for targeting Ras with small molecules that activate SOS-mediated nucleotide exchange.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michael C; Sun, Qi; Daniels, R Nathan; Camper, DeMarco; Kennedy, J Phillip; Phan, Jason; Olejniczak, Edward T; Lee, Taekyu; Waterson, Alex G; Rossanese, Olivia W; Fesik, Stephen W

    2014-03-04

    Aberrant activation of the small GTPase Ras by oncogenic mutation or constitutively active upstream receptor tyrosine kinases results in the deregulation of cellular signals governing growth and survival in ∼30% of all human cancers. However, the discovery of potent inhibitors of Ras has been difficult to achieve. Here, we report the identification of small molecules that bind to a unique pocket on the Ras:Son of Sevenless (SOS):Ras complex, increase the rate of SOS-catalyzed nucleotide exchange in vitro, and modulate Ras signaling pathways in cells. X-ray crystallography of Ras:SOS:Ras in complex with these molecules reveals that the compounds bind in a hydrophobic pocket in the CDC25 domain of SOS adjacent to the Switch II region of Ras. The structure-activity relationships exhibited by these compounds can be rationalized on the basis of multiple X-ray cocrystal structures. Mutational analyses confirmed the functional relevance of this binding site and showed it to be essential for compound activity. These molecules increase Ras-GTP levels and disrupt MAPK and PI3K signaling in cells at low micromolar concentrations. These small molecules represent tools to study the acute activation of Ras and highlight a pocket on SOS that may be exploited to modulate Ras signaling.

  16. The N54-αs Mutant Has Decreased Affinity for βγ and Suggests a Mechanism for Coupling Heterotrimeric G Protein Nucleotide Exchange with Subunit Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Cleator, John H; Wells, Christopher A; Dingus, Jane; Kurtz, David T; Hildebrandt, John D

    2018-05-01

    Ser54 of G s α binds guanine nucleotide and Mg 2+ as part of a conserved sequence motif in GTP binding proteins. Mutating the homologous residue in small and heterotrimeric G proteins generates dominant-negative proteins, but by protein-specific mechanisms. For α i/o , this results from persistent binding of α to βγ , whereas for small GTP binding proteins and α s this results from persistent binding to guanine nucleotide exchange factor or receptor. This work examined the role of βγ interactions in mediating the properties of the Ser54-like mutants of G α subunits. Unexpectedly, WT- α s or N54- α s coexpressed with α 1B -adrenergic receptor in human embryonic kidney 293 cells decreased receptor stimulation of IP3 production by a cAMP-independent mechanism, but WT- α s was more effective than the mutant. One explanation for this result would be that α s , like Ser47 α i/o , blocks receptor activation by sequestering βγ ; implying that N54- α S has reduced affinity for βγ since it was less effective at blocking IP3 production. This possibility was more directly supported by the observation that WT- α s was more effective than the mutant in inhibiting βγ activation of phospholipase C β 2. Further, in vitro synthesized N54- α s bound biotinylated- βγ with lower apparent affinity than did WT- α s The Cys54 mutation also decreased βγ binding but less effectively than N54- α s Substitution of the conserved Ser in α o with Cys or Asn increased βγ binding, with the Cys mutant being more effective. This suggests that Ser54 of α s is involved in coupling changes in nucleotide binding with altered subunit interactions, and has important implications for how receptors activate G proteins. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. A Role for an Hsp70 Nucleotide Exchange Factor in the Regulation of Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jennifer R.; Jiang, Jianwen; Oliphint, Paul A.; Jin, Suping; Gimenez, Luis E.; Busch, David J.; Foldes, Andrea E.; Zhuo, Yue; Sousa, Rui; Lafer, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmission requires a continuously available pool of synaptic vesicles (SVs) that can fuse with the plasma membrane and release their neurotransmitter contents upon stimulation. After fusion, SV membranes and membrane proteins are retrieved from the presynaptic plasma membrane by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Following the internalization of a clathrin coated vesicle (CCV), the vesicle must uncoat to replenish the pool of SVs. CCV uncoating requires ATP and is mediated by the ubiquitous molecular chaperone Hsc70. In vitro, depolymerized clathrin forms a stable complex with Hsc70*ADP. This complex can be dissociated by nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) that release ADP from Hsc70, allowing ATP to bind and induce disruption of the clathrin:Hsc70 association. Whether NEFs generally play similar roles in vesicle trafficking in vivo, and whether they play such roles in SV endocytosis in particular is unknown. To address this question we used information from recent structural and mechanistic studies of Hsp70:NEF and Hsp70:cochaperone interactions to design a NEF inhibitor. Using acute perturbations at giant reticulospinal synapses of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), we found that this NEF inhibitor inhibited SV endocytosis. When this inhibitor was mutated so it could no longer bind and inhibit Hsp110--a NEF that we find to be highly abundant in brain cytosol--its ability to inhibit SV endocytosis was eliminated. These observations indicate that the action of a NEF, most likely Hsp110, is normally required during SV trafficking to release clathrin from Hsc70 and make it available for additional rounds of endocytosis. PMID:23637191

  18. Hierarchical functional specificity of cytosolic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) nucleotide exchange factors in yeast.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Jennifer L; Verghese, Jacob; Gibney, Patrick A; Morano, Kevin A

    2014-05-09

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) molecular chaperones play critical roles in protein homeostasis. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cytosolic Hsp70 interacts with up to three types of nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) homologous to human counterparts: Sse1/Sse2 (Heat shock protein 110 (Hsp110)), Fes1 (HspBP1), and Snl1 (Bag-1). All three NEFs stimulate ADP release; however, it is unclear why multiple distinct families have been maintained throughout eukaryotic evolution. In this study we investigate NEF roles in Hsp70 cell biology using an isogenic combinatorial collection of NEF deletion mutants. Utilizing well characterized model substrates, we find that Sse1 participates in most Hsp70-mediated processes and is of particular importance in protein biogenesis and degradation, whereas Fes1 contributes to a minimal extent. Surprisingly, disaggregation and resolubilization of thermally denatured firefly luciferase occurred independently of NEF activity. Simultaneous deletion of SSE1 and FES1 resulted in constitutive activation of heat shock protein expression mediated by the transcription factor Hsf1, suggesting that these two factors are important for modulating stress response. Fes1 was found to interact in vivo preferentially with the Ssa family of cytosolic Hsp70 and not the co-translational Ssb homolog, consistent with the lack of cold sensitivity and protein biogenesis phenotypes for fes1Δ cells. No significant consequence could be attributed to deletion of the minor Hsp110 SSE2 or the Bag homolog SNL1. Together, these lines of investigation provide a comparative analysis of NEF function in yeast that implies Hsp110 is the principal NEF for cytosolic Hsp70, making it an ideal candidate for therapeutic intervention in human protein folding disorders.

  19. Disease Mutations in Rab7 Result in Unregulated Nucleotide Exchange and Inappropriate Activation

    SciTech Connect

    B McCray; E Skordalakes; J Taylor

    2011-12-31

    Rab GTPases are molecular switches that orchestrate vesicular trafficking, maturation and fusion by cycling between an active, GTP-bound form, and an inactive, GDP-bound form. The activity cycle is coupled to GTP hydrolysis and is tightly controlled by regulatory proteins. Missense mutations of the GTPase Rab7 cause a dominantly inherited axonal degeneration known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B through an unknown mechanism. We present the 2.8 A crystal structure of GTP-bound L129F mutant Rab7 which reveals normal conformations of the effector binding regions and catalytic site, but an alteration to the nucleotide binding pocket that is predicted to alter GTP binding. Throughmore » extensive biochemical analysis, we demonstrate that disease-associated mutations in Rab7 do not lead to an intrinsic GTPase defect, but permit unregulated nucleotide exchange leading to both excessive activation and hydrolysis-independent inactivation. Consistent with augmented activity, mutant Rab7 shows significantly enhanced interaction with a subset of effector proteins. In addition, dynamic imaging demonstrates that mutant Rab7 is abnormally retained on target membranes. However, we show that the increased activation of mutant Rab7 is counterbalanced by unregulated, GTP hydrolysis-independent membrane cycling. Notably, disease mutations are able to rescue the membrane cycling of a GTPase-deficient mutant. Thus, we demonstrate that disease mutations uncouple Rab7 from the spatial and temporal control normally imposed by regulatory proteins and cause disease not by a gain of novel toxic function, but by misregulation of native Rab7 activity.« less

  20. Interactions between Kar2p and Its Nucleotide Exchange Factors Sil1p and Lhs1p Are Mechanistically Distinct*

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Sarah J.; Lovell, Simon C.; de Keyzer, Jeanine; Stirling, Colin J.

    2010-01-01

    Kar2p, an essential Hsp70 chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, facilitates the transport and folding of nascent polypeptides within the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. The chaperone activity of Kar2p is regulated by its intrinsic ATPase activity that can be stimulated by two different nucleotide exchange factors, namely Sil1p and Lhs1p. Here, we demonstrate that the binding requirements for Lhs1p are complex, requiring both the nucleotide binding domain plus the linker domain of Kar2p. In contrast, the IIB domain of Kar2p is sufficient for binding of Sil1p, and point mutations within IIB specifically blocked Sil1p-dependent activation while remaining competent for activation by Lhs1p. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the interactions between Kar2p and its two nucleotide exchange factors can be functionally resolved and are thus mechanistically distinct. PMID:20430899

  1. Nucleotide Binding by Lhs1p Is Essential for Its Nucleotide Exchange Activity and for Function in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    de Keyzer, Jeanine; Steel, Gregor J.; Hale, Sarah J.; Humphries, Daniel; Stirling, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    Protein translocation and folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves two distinct Hsp70 chaperones, Lhs1p and Kar2p. Both proteins have the characteristic domain structure of the Hsp70 family consisting of a conserved N-terminal nucleotide binding domain and a C-terminal substrate binding domain. Kar2p is a canonical Hsp70 whose substrate binding activity is regulated by cochaperones that promote either ATP hydrolysis or nucleotide exchange. Lhs1p is a member of the Grp170/Lhs1p subfamily of Hsp70s and was previously shown to function as a nucleotide exchange factor (NEF) for Kar2p. Here we show that in addition to this NEF activity, Lhs1p can function as a holdase that prevents protein aggregation in vitro. Analysis of the nucleotide requirement of these functions demonstrates that nucleotide binding to Lhs1p stimulates the interaction with Kar2p and is essential for NEF activity. In contrast, Lhs1p holdase activity is nucleotide-independent and unaffected by mutations that interfere with ATP binding and NEF activity. In vivo, these mutants show severe protein translocation defects and are unable to support growth despite the presence of a second Kar2p-specific NEF, Sil1p. Thus, Lhs1p-dependent nucleotide exchange activity is vital for ER protein biogenesis in vivo. PMID:19759005

  2. ARF6 Activated by the LHCG Receptor through the Cytohesin Family of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Mediates the Receptor Internalization and Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Thompson, Aiysha; Kelly, Eamonn; López Bernal, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) is a Gs-coupled GPCR that is essential for the maturation and function of the ovary and testis. LHCGR is internalized following its activation, which regulates the biological responsiveness of the receptor. Previous studies indicated that ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)6 and its GTP-exchange factor (GEF) cytohesin 2 regulate LHCGR internalization in follicular membranes. However, the mechanisms by which ARF6 and cytohesin 2 regulate LHCGR internalization remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated the role of the ARF6 signaling pathway in the internalization of heterologously expressed human LHCGR (HLHCGR) in intact cells using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, siRNA and the expression of mutant proteins. We found that human CG (HCG)-induced HLHCGR internalization, cAMP accumulation and ARF6 activation were inhibited by Gallein (βγ inhibitor), Wortmannin (PI 3-kinase inhibitor), SecinH3 (cytohesin ARF GEF inhibitor), QS11 (an ARF GAP inhibitor), an ARF6 inhibitory peptide and ARF6 siRNA. However, Dynasore (dynamin inhibitor), the dominant negative mutants of NM23-H1 (dynamin activator) and clathrin, and PBP10 (PtdIns 4,5-P2-binding peptide) inhibited agonist-induced HLHCGR and cAMP accumulation but not ARF6 activation. These results indicate that heterotrimeric G-protein, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (PI3K), cytohesin ARF GEF and ARF GAP function upstream of ARF6 whereas dynamin and clathrin act downstream of ARF6 in the regulation of HCG-induced HLHCGR internalization and signaling. In conclusion, we have identified the components and molecular details of the ARF6 signaling pathway required for agonist-induced HLHCGR internalization. PMID:22523074

  3. Leukemia-associated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG) plays an agonist specific role in platelet function through RhoA activation

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Siying; Teixeira, Alexandra M.; Yin, Mingzhu; Xiang, Yaozu; Xavier-Ferruccio, Juliana; Zhang, Ping-xia; Hwa, John; Min, Wang; Krause, Diane S.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Leukemia-Associated RhoGEF (LARG) is highly expressed in platelets, which are essential for maintaining normal hemostasis. We studied the function of LARG in murine and human megakaryocytes and platelets with Larg knockout, shRNA-mediated knockdown and small molecule-mediated inhibition. We found that LARG is important for human, but not murine, megakaryocyte maturation. Larg KO mice exhibit macrothrombocytopenia, internal bleeding in the ovaries and prolonged bleeding times. KO platelets have impaired aggregation, α-granule release and integrin α2bβ3 activation in response to thrombin and thromboxane, but not to ADP. The same agonist-specific reductions in platelet aggregation occur in human platelets treated with a LARG inhibitor. Larg KO platelets have reduced RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation, suggesting that Larg plays an agonist-specific role in platelet signal transduction. Using 2 different in vivo assays, Larg KO mice are protected from in vivo thrombus formation. Together, these results establish that LARG regulates human megakaryocyte maturation, and is critical for platelet function in both humans and mice. PMID:27345948

  4. Leukaemia-associated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG) plays an agonist specific role in platelet function through RhoA activation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Siying; Teixeira, Alexandra M; Yin, Mingzhu; Xiang, Yaozu; Xavier-Ferrucio, Juliana; Zhang, Ping-Xia; Hwa, John; Min, Wang; Krause, Diane S

    2016-08-30

    Leukemia-Associated RhoGEF (LARG) is highly expressed in platelets, which are essential for maintaining normal haemostasis. We studied the function of LARG in murine and human megakaryocytes and platelets with Larg knockout (KO), shRNA-mediated knockdown and small molecule-mediated inhibition. We found that LARG is important for human, but not murine, megakaryocyte maturation. Larg KO mice exhibit macrothrombocytopenia, internal bleeding in the ovaries and prolonged bleeding times. KO platelets have impaired aggregation, α-granule release and integrin α2bβ3 activation in response to thrombin and thromboxane, but not to ADP. The same agonist-specific reductions in platelet aggregation occur in human platelets treated with a LARG inhibitor. Larg KO platelets have reduced RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation, suggesting that Larg plays an agonist-specific role in platelet signal transduction. Using two different in vivo assays, Larg KO mice are protected from in vivo thrombus formation. Together, these results establish that LARG regulates human megakaryocyte maturation, and is critical for platelet function in both humans and mice.

  5. The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Kalirin-7 Is a Novel Synphilin-1 Interacting Protein and Modifies Synphilin-1 Aggregate Transport and Formation

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Chun; Riess, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Synphilin-1 has been identified as an interaction partner of α-synuclein, a key protein in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). To further explore novel binding partners of synphilin-1, a yeast two hybrid screening was performed and kalirin-7 was identified as a novel interactor. We then investigated the effect of kalirin-7 on synphilin-1 aggregate formation. Coexpression of kalirin-7 and synphilin-1 caused a dramatic relocation of synphilin-1 cytoplasmic small inclusions to a single prominent, perinuclear inclusion. These perinuclear inclusions were characterized as being aggresomes according to their colocalization with microtubule organization center markers, and their formation was microtubule-dependent. Furthermore, kalirin-7 increased the susceptibility of synphilin-1 inclusions to be degraded as demonstrated by live cell imaging and quantification of aggregates. However, the kalirin-7-mediated synphilin-1 aggresome response was not dependent on the GEF activity of kalirin-7 since various dominant negative small GTPases could not inhibit the formation of aggresomes. Interestingly, the aggresome response was blocked by HDAC6 catalytic mutants and the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Moreover, kalirin-7 decreased the level of acetylated α-tubulin in response to TSA, which suggests an effect of kalirin-7 on HDAC6-mediated protein transportation and aggresome formation. In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that kalirin-7 leads to the recruitment of synphilin-1 into aggresomes in a HDAC6-dependent manner and also links kalirin-7 to microtubule dynamics. PMID:23284848

  6. Podocalyxin EBP50 Ezrin Molecular Complex Enhances the Metastatic Potential of Renal Cell Carcinoma Through Recruiting Rac1 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor ARHGEF7

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yung-Ho; Lin, Wei-Ling; Hou, Yi-Ting; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Shun, Chia-Tung; Chen, Chi-Ling; Wu, Yih-Yiing; Chen, Jen-Yau; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Jou, Tzuu-Shuh

    2010-01-01

    Podocalyxin was initially identified in glomerular podocytes to critically maintain the structural and functional integrity of the glomerular ultrafiltrative apparatus. Lately, it has emerged as a malignant marker in tumors arising from a variety of tissue origins. By immunohistochemistry, we identified that 9.6% of renal cell carcinoma patients overexpress this protein. This subset of patients had significantly shorter disease-specific and overall survivals, and, importantly, we established podocalyxin overexpression as an independent prognostic factor for latent distant metastasis with multivariate analysis. Podocalyxin down-regulation by small interfering RNA led to defective migration in model renal tubular cells, which was corrected by re-expression of podocalyxin. The activity of the small GTPase Rac1, a well-characterized modulator of cell migration, was diminished by podocalyxin knock-down. Conversely, podocalyxin overexpression in human embryonic kidney cells up-regulated Rac1 activity, which depended on a complex formed by podocalyxin, ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50, ezrin, and ARHGEF7, a Rac1 activator. Therefore, podocalyxin can serve as a biomarker to identify renal cell carcinoma patients with higher metastatic potential for more aggressive intervention at earlier clinical stages. PMID:20395446

  7. Polymerization of non-complementary RNA: systematic symmetric nucleotide exchanges mainly involving uracil produce mitochondrial RNA transcripts coding for cryptic overlapping genes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2013-03-01

    Usual DNA→RNA transcription exchanges T→U. Assuming different systematic symmetric nucleotide exchanges during translation, some GenBank RNAs match exactly human mitochondrial sequences (exchange rules listed in decreasing transcript frequencies): C↔U, A↔U, A↔U+C↔G (two nucleotide pairs exchanged), G↔U, A↔G, C↔G, none for A↔C, A↔G+C↔U, and A↔C+G↔U. Most unusual transcripts involve exchanging uracil. Independent measures of rates of rare replicational enzymatic DNA nucleotide misinsertions predict frequencies of RNA transcripts systematically exchanging the corresponding misinserted nucleotides. Exchange transcripts self-hybridize less than other gene regions, self-hybridization increases with length, suggesting endoribonuclease-limited elongation. Blast detects stop codon depleted putative protein coding overlapping genes within exchange-transcribed mitochondrial genes. These align with existing GenBank proteins (mainly metazoan origins, prokaryotic and viral origins underrepresented). These GenBank proteins frequently interact with RNA/DNA, are membrane transporters, or are typical of mitochondrial metabolism. Nucleotide exchange transcript frequencies increase with overlapping gene densities and stop densities, indicating finely tuned counterbalancing regulation of expression of systematic symmetric nucleotide exchange-encrypted proteins. Such expression necessitates combined activities of suppressor tRNAs matching stops, and nucleotide exchange transcription. Two independent properties confirm predicted exchanged overlap coding genes: discrepancy of third codon nucleotide contents from replicational deamination gradients, and codon usage according to circular code predictions. Predictions from both properties converge, especially for frequent nucleotide exchange types. Nucleotide exchanging transcription apparently increases coding densities of protein coding genes without lengthening genomes, revealing unsuspected functional DNA

  8. Transforming growth factor‐β enhances Rho‐kinase activity and contraction in airway smooth muscle via the nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF1

    PubMed Central

    Shaifta, Yasin; MacKay, Charles E.; Irechukwu, Nneka; O'Brien, Katie A.; Wright, David B.; Ward, Jeremy P. T.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Transforming growth‐factor‐β (TGF‐β) and RhoA/Rho‐kinase are independently implicated in the airway hyper‐responsiveness associated with asthma, but how these proteins interact is not fully understood.We examined the effects of pre‐treatment with TGF‐β on expression and activity of RhoA, Rho‐kinase and ARHGEF1, an activator of RhoA, as well as on bradykinin‐induced contraction, in airway smooth muscle.TGF‐β enhanced bradykinin‐induced RhoA translocation, Rho‐kinase‐dependent phosphorylation and contraction, but partially suppressed bradykinin‐induced RhoA activity (RhoA‐GTP content).TGF‐β enhanced the expression of ARHGEF1, while a small interfering RNA against ARHGEF1 and a RhoGEF inhibitor prevented the effects of TGF‐β on RhoA and Rho‐kinase activity and contraction, respectively.ARHGEF1 expression was also enhanced in airway smooth muscle from asthmatic patients and ovalbumin‐sensitized mice.ARHGEF1 is a key TGF‐β target gene, an important regulator of Rho‐kinase activity and therefore a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of asthmatic airway hyper‐responsiveness. Abstract Transforming growth factor‐β (TGF‐β), RhoA/Rho‐kinase and Src‐family kinases (SrcFK) have independently been implicated in airway hyper‐responsiveness, but how they interact to regulate airway smooth muscle contractility is not fully understood. We found that TGF‐β pre‐treatment enhanced acute contractile responses to bradykinin (BK) in isolated rat bronchioles, and inhibitors of RhoGEFs (Y16) and Rho‐kinase (Y27632), but not the SrcFK inhibitor PP2, prevented this enhancement. In cultured human airway smooth muscle cells (hASMCs), TGF‐β pre‐treatment enhanced the protein expression of the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF1, MLC20, MYPT‐1 and the actin‐severing protein cofilin, but not of RhoA, ROCK2 or c‐Src. In hASMCs, acute treatment with BK triggered subcellular translocation

  9. Binding of human nucleotide exchange factors to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) generates functionally distinct complexes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Jennifer N; Gestwicki, Jason E

    2014-01-17

    Proteins with Bcl2-associated anthanogene (BAG) domains act as nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) for the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). There are six BAG family NEFs in humans, and each is thought to link Hsp70 to a distinct cellular pathway. However, little is known about how the NEFs compete for binding to Hsp70 or how they might differentially shape its biochemical activities. Toward these questions, we measured the binding of human Hsp72 (HSPA1A) to BAG1, BAG2, BAG3, and the unrelated NEF Hsp105. These studies revealed a clear hierarchy of affinities: BAG3 > BAG1 > Hsp105 ≫ BAG2. All of the NEFs competed for binding to Hsp70, and their relative affinity values predicted their potency in nucleotide and peptide release assays. Finally, we combined the Hsp70-NEF pairs with cochaperones of the J protein family (DnaJA1, DnaJA2, DnaJB1, and DnaJB4) to generate 16 permutations. The activity of the combinations in ATPase and luciferase refolding assays were dependent on the identity and stoichiometry of both the J protein and NEF so that some combinations were potent chaperones, whereas others were inactive. Given the number and diversity of cochaperones in mammals, it is likely that combinatorial assembly could generate a large number of distinct permutations.

  10. 21 CFR 73.1329 - Guanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guanine. 73.1329 Section 73.1329 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1329 Guanine. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive guanine is...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1329 - Guanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guanine. 73.1329 Section 73.1329 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1329 Guanine. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive guanine is...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1329 - Guanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guanine. 73.1329 Section 73.1329 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1329 Guanine. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive guanine is...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2329 - Guanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2329 Guanine. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive guanine shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1329 (a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures of guanine may contain the following diluents: (i) For...

  14. Measurement of nucleotide exchange rate constants in single rabbit soleus myofibrils during shortening and lengthening using a fluorescent ATP analog.

    PubMed Central

    Shirakawa, I; Chaen, S; Bagshaw, C R; Sugi, H

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of displacement of a fluorescent nucleotide, 2'(3')-O-[N[2-[[Cy3]amido]ethyl]carbamoyl]-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Cy3-EDA-ATP), bound to rabbit soleus muscle myofibrils were studied using flash photolysis of caged ATP. Use of myofibrils from this slow twitch muscle allowed better resolution of the kinetics of nucleotide exchange than previous studies with psoas muscle myofibrils (, Biophys. J. 73:2033-2042). Soleus myofibrils in the presence of Cy3-EDA-nucleotides (Cy3-EDA-ATP or Cy3-EDA-ADP) showed selective fluorescence staining of the A-band. The K(m) for Cy3-EDA-ATP and the K(d) for Cy3-EDA-ADP binding to the myofibril A-band were 1.9 microM and 3.8 microM, respectively, indicating stronger binding of nucleotide to soleus cross-bridges compared to psoas cross-bridges (2.6 microM and 50 microM, respectively). After flash photolysis of caged ATP, the A-band fluorescence of the myofibril in the Cy3-EDA-ATP solution under isometric conditions decayed exponentially with a rate constant of 0.045 +/- 0.007 s(-1) (n = 32) at 10 degrees C, which was about seven times slower than that for psoas myofibrils. When a myofibril was allowed to shorten with a constant velocity, the nucleotide displacement rate constant increased from 0.066 s(-1) (isometric) to 0.14 s(-1) at 20 degrees C with increasing shortening velocity up to 0.1 myofibril length/s (V(max), the shortening velocity under no load was approximately 0. 2 myofibril lengths/s). The rate constant was not significantly affected by an isovelocity stretch of up to 0.1 myofibril lengths/s. These results suggest that the cross-bridge kinetics are not significantly affected at higher strain during lengthening but depend on the lower strain during shortening. These data also indicate that the interaction distance between a cross-bridge and the actin filament is at least 16 nm for a single cycle of the ATPase. PMID:10653804

  15. 21 CFR 73.1329 - Guanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in color additive mixtures for coloring externally... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1329 Guanine. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive guanine is the crystalline material obtained from fish scales and consists principally of the two purines...

  16. Quantitative analysis of the interactions between prenyl Rab9, GDP dissociation inhibitor-alpha, and guanine nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A D; Pfeffer, S R

    1995-05-12

    Rab9 is a Ras-like GTPase required for the transport of mannose 6-phosphate receptors between late endosomes and the trans Golgi network. Rab9 occurs in the cytosol as a complex with GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI), which we have shown delivers prenyl Rab9 to late endosomes in a functional form. We report here basal rate constants for guanine nucleotide dissociation and GTP hydrolysis for prenyl Rab9. Both rate constants were influenced in part by the hydrophobic environment of the prenyl group. Guanine nucleotide dissociation and GTP hydrolysis rates were lower in the presence of lipid; detergent stimulated intrinsic nucleotide exchange. GDI-alpha inhibited GDP dissociation from prenyl Rab9 by 2.4-fold. GDI-alpha associated with prenyl Rab9 with a KD of 60 nM in 0.1% Lubrol and 23 nM in 0.02% Lubrol. In 0.1% Lubrol, GDI-alpha inhibited GDP dissociation half maximally at 72 +/- 18 nM, consistent with the KD determinations. These data suggest that GDI-alpha associates with prenyl Rab9 with a KD of < or = 23 nM under physiological conditions. Finally, a previously uncharacterized minor form of GDI-alpha inhibited GDP dissociation from prenyl Rab9 by 1.9-fold and bound prenyl Rab9 with a KD of 67 nM in 0.1% Lubrol.

  17. 21 CFR 73.2329 - Guanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guanine. 73.2329 Section 73.2329 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring cosmetics generally, only those diluents listed under § 73.1001(a)(1); (ii) For coloring...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2329 - Guanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2329 Guanine. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The... coloring cosmetics generally, only those diluents listed under § 73.1001(a)(1); (ii) For coloring externally applied cosmetics, only those diluents listed in § 73.1001(b) and, in addition, nitrocellulose. (b...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2329 - Guanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2329 Guanine. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The... coloring cosmetics generally, only those diluents listed under § 73.1001(a)(1); (ii) For coloring externally applied cosmetics, only those diluents listed in § 73.1001(b) and, in addition, nitrocellulose. (b...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2329 - Guanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2329 Guanine. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The... coloring cosmetics generally, only those diluents listed under § 73.1001(a)(1); (ii) For coloring externally applied cosmetics, only those diluents listed in § 73.1001(b) and, in addition, nitrocellulose. (b...

  1. Flo11p-Independent Control of “Mat” Formation by Hsp70 Molecular Chaperones and Nucleotide Exchange Factors in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, Céline N.; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Kabani, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model for fungal biofilm formation due to its ability to adhere to plastic surfaces and to form mats on low-density agar petri plates. Mats are complex multicellular structures composed of a network of cables that form a central hub from which emanate multiple radial spokes. This reproducible and elaborate pattern is indicative of a highly regulated developmental program that depends on specific transcriptional programming, environmental cues, and possibly cell–cell communication systems. While biofilm formation and sliding motility were shown to be strictly dependent on the cell-surface adhesin Flo11p, little is known about the cellular machinery that controls mat formation. Here we show that Hsp70 molecular chaperones play key roles in this process with the assistance of the nucleotide exchange factors Fes1p and Sse1p and the Hsp40 family member Ydj1p. The disruption of these cofactors completely abolished mat formation. Furthermore, complex interactions among SSA genes were observed: mat formation depended mostly on SSA1 while minor defects were observed upon loss of SSA2; additional mutations in SSA3 or SSA4 further enhanced these phenotypes. Importantly, these mutations did not compromise invasive growth or Flo11p expression, suggesting that Flo11p-independent pathways are necessary to form mats. PMID:17947402

  2. Dynamic studies of H-Ras•GTPγS interactions with nucleotide exchange factor Sos reveal a transient ternary complex formation in solution

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Embrey, Kevin J.; Golovanov, Alexander P.

    2016-01-01

    The cycling between GDP- and GTP- bound forms of the Ras protein is partly regulated by the binding of Sos. The structural/dynamic behavior of the complex formed between activated Sos and Ras at the point of the functional cycle where the nucleotide exchange is completed has not been described to date. Here we show that solution NMR spectra of H-Ras∙GTPγS mixed with a functional fragment of Sos (SosCat) at a 2:1 ratio are consistent with the formation of a rather dynamic assembly. H-Ras∙GTPγS binding was in fast exchange on the NMR timescale and retained a significant degree of molecular tumbling independent of SosCat, while SosCat also tumbled largely independently of H-Ras. Estimates of apparent molecular weight from both NMR data and SEC-MALS revealed that, at most, only one H-Ras∙GTPγS molecule appears stably bound to Sos. The weak transient interaction between Sos and the second H-Ras∙GTPγS may provide a necessary mechanism for complex dissociation upon the completion of the native GDP → GTP exchange reaction, but also explains measurable GTP → GTP exchange activity of Sos routinely observed in in vitro assays that use fluorescently-labelled analogs of GTP. Overall, the data presents the first dynamic snapshot of Ras functional cycle as controlled by Sos. PMID:27412770

  3. Dynamic studies of H-Ras•GTPγS interactions with nucleotide exchange factor Sos reveal a transient ternary complex formation in solution.

    PubMed

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-07-14

    The cycling between GDP- and GTP- bound forms of the Ras protein is partly regulated by the binding of Sos. The structural/dynamic behavior of the complex formed between activated Sos and Ras at the point of the functional cycle where the nucleotide exchange is completed has not been described to date. Here we show that solution NMR spectra of H-Ras∙GTPγS mixed with a functional fragment of Sos (Sos(Cat)) at a 2:1 ratio are consistent with the formation of a rather dynamic assembly. H-Ras∙GTPγS binding was in fast exchange on the NMR timescale and retained a significant degree of molecular tumbling independent of Sos(Cat), while Sos(Cat) also tumbled largely independently of H-Ras. Estimates of apparent molecular weight from both NMR data and SEC-MALS revealed that, at most, only one H-Ras∙GTPγS molecule appears stably bound to Sos. The weak transient interaction between Sos and the second H-Ras∙GTPγS may provide a necessary mechanism for complex dissociation upon the completion of the native GDP → GTP exchange reaction, but also explains measurable GTP → GTP exchange activity of Sos routinely observed in in vitro assays that use fluorescently-labelled analogs of GTP. Overall, the data presents the first dynamic snapshot of Ras functional cycle as controlled by Sos.

  4. Structural analysis of the Sil1-Bip complex reveals the mechanism for Sil1 to function as a nucleotide-exchange factor

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Ming; Li, Jingzhi; Sha, Bingdong

    2013-01-16

    Sil1 functions as a NEF (nucleotide-exchange factor) for the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) Hsp70 (heat-shock protein of 70 kDa) Bip in eukaryotic cells. Sil1 may catalyse the ADP release from Bip by interacting directly with the ATPase domain of Bip. In the present study we show the complex crystal structure of the yeast Bip and the NEF Sil1 at the resolution of 2.3 {angstrom} (1 {angstrom} = 0.1 nm). In the Sil1-Bip complex structure, the Sil1 molecule acts as a 'clamp' which binds lobe IIb of the Bip ATPase domain. The binding of Sil1 causes the rotation of lobe IIb {approx}more » 13.5{sup o} away from the ADP-binding pocket. The complex formation also induces lobe Ib to swing in the opposite direction by {approx} 3.7{sup o}. These conformational changes open up the nucleotide-binding pocket in the Bip ATPase domain and disrupt the hydrogen bonds between Bip and bound ADP, which may catalyse ADP release. Mutation of the Sil1 residues involved in binding the Bip ATPase domain compromise the binding affinity of Sil1 to Bip, and these Sil1 mutants also abolish the ability to stimulate the ATPase activity of Bip.« less

  5. An unexpected role for the yeast nucleotide exchange factor Sil1 as a reductant acting on the molecular chaperone BiP

    PubMed Central

    Siegenthaler, Kevin D; Pareja, Kristeen A; Wang, Jie; Sevier, Carolyn S

    2017-01-01

    Unfavorable redox conditions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can decrease the capacity for protein secretion, altering vital cell functions. While systems to manage reductive stress are well-established, how cells cope with an overly oxidizing ER remains largely undefined. In previous work (Wang et al., 2014), we demonstrated that the chaperone BiP is a sensor of overly oxidizing ER conditions. We showed that modification of a conserved BiP cysteine during stress beneficially alters BiP chaperone activity to cope with suboptimal folding conditions. How this cysteine is reduced to reestablish 'normal' BiP activity post-oxidative stress has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that BiP's nucleotide exchange factor – Sil1 – can reverse BiP cysteine oxidation. This previously unexpected reductant capacity for yeast Sil1 has potential implications for the human ataxia Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome, where it is interesting to speculate that a disruption in ER redox-signaling (due to genetic defects in SIL1) may influence disease pathology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24141.001 PMID:28257000

  6. Structural Basis of Membrane Targeting by the Dock180 Family of Rho Family Guanine Exchange Factors (Rho-GEFs)*

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Bobkov, Andrey A.; Patel, Manishha; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Bankston, Laurie A.; Stec, Boguslaw; Vuori, Kristiina; Côté, Jean-Francois; Liddington, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The Dock180 family of atypical Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Rho-GEFs) regulate a variety of processes involving cellular or subcellular polarization, including cell migration and phagocytosis. Each contains a Dock homology region-1 (DHR-1) domain that is required to localize its GEF activity to a specific membrane compartment where levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) are up-regulated by the local activity of PtdIns 3-kinase. Here we define the structural and energetic bases of phosphoinositide specificity by the DHR-1 domain of Dock1 (a GEF for Rac1), and show that DHR-1 utilizes a C2 domain scaffold and surface loops to create a basic pocket on its upper surface for recognition of the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 head group. The pocket has many of the characteristics of those observed in pleckstrin homology domains. We show that point mutations in the pocket that abolish phospholipid binding in vitro ablate the ability of Dock1 to induce cell polarization, and propose a model that brings together recent mechanistic and structural studies to rationalize the central role of DHR-1 in dynamic membrane targeting of the Rho-GEF activity of Dock180. PMID:20167601

  7. Guanine- Formation During the Thermal Polymerization of Amino Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Caw, B. K.; Munoz, E. F.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Young, R. S.

    1964-01-01

    The action of heat on a mixture of amino acids was studied as a possible abiological pathway for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Guanine was detected. This result is significant in the context of chemical evolution.

  8. Capturing Transient Endoperoxide in the Singlet Oxygen Oxidation of Guanine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenchao; Liu, Jianbo

    2016-02-24

    The chemistry of singlet O2 toward the guanine base of DNA is highly relevant to DNA lesion, mutation, cell death, and pathological conditions. This oxidative damage is initiated by the formation of a transient endoperoxide through the Diels-Alder cycloaddition of singlet O2 to the guanine imidazole ring. However, no endoperoxide formation was directly detected in native guanine or guanosine, even at -100 °C. Herein, gas-phase ion-molecule scattering mass spectrometry was utilized to capture unstable endoperoxides in the collisions of hydrated guanine ions (protonated or deprotonated) with singlet O2 at ambient temperature. Corroborated by results from potential energy surface exploration, kinetic modeling, and dynamics simulations, various aspects of endoperoxide formation and transformation (including its dependence on guanine ionization and hydration states, as well as on collision energy) were determined. This work has pieced together reaction mechanisms, kinetics, and dynamics data concerning the early stage of singlet O2 induced guanine oxidation, which is missing from conventional condensed-phase studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Triplet expansion cytosine-guanine-guanine: Three cases of OMIM syndrome in the same family].

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Jesús; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Silvia; Fuertes-Rodrigo, Cristina; Monge-Galindo, Lorena; Peña-Segura, José Luis; López-Pisón, Francisco Javier

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic increase in the number of triplet repeats of cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) in the FMR1 gene mutation is responsible for three OMIM syndromes with a distinct clinical phenotype: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and two pathologies in adult carriers of the premutation (55-200 CGG repeats): Primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) and tremor-ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) associated with FXS. CGG mutation dynamics of the FMR1 gene were studied in DNA samples from peripheral blood from the index case and other relatives of first, second and third degree by TP-PCR, and the percentage methylation. Diagnosis of FXS was confirmed in three patients (21.4%), eight patients (57.1%) were confirmed in the premutation range transmitters, one male patient with full mutation/permutation mosaicism (7.1%) and two patients (14.3%) with normal study. Of the eight permutated patients, three had FXPOI and one male patient had FXTAS. Our study suggests the importance of making an early diagnosis of SXF in order to carry out a family study and genetic counselling, which allow the identification of new cases or premutated patients with FMR1 gene- associated syndromes (FXTAS, FXPOI). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. N-Sulfomethylation of guanine, adenine and cytosine with formaldehyde-bisulfite. A selective modification of guanine in DNA.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, H; Yamashita, Y; Yui, S; Yamagata, Y; Tomita, K; Negishi, K

    1982-10-25

    When guanine-, adenine- and cytosine-nucleosides and nucleotides were treated with formaldehyde and then with bisulfite, stable N-sulfomethyl compounds were formed. N2-Sulfomethylguanine, N6-sulfomethyladenine, N4-sulfomthylcytosine and N6-sulfomethyl-9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine were isolated as crystals and characterized. A guanine-specific sulfomethylation was brought about by treatment and denatured single-stranded DNA with formaldehyde and then with bisulfite at pH 7 and 4 degrees C. Since native double-stranded DNA was not modified by this treatment, this new method of modification is expected to be useful as a conformational probe for polynucleotides.

  11. N-Sulfomethylation of guanine, adenine and cytosine with formaldehyde-bisulfite. A selective modification of guanine in DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hayatsu, H; Yamashita, Y; Yui, S; Yamagata, Y; Tomita, K; Negishi, K

    1982-01-01

    When guanine-, adenine- and cytosine-nucleosides and nucleotides were treated with formaldehyde and then with bisulfite, stable N-sulfomethyl compounds were formed. N2-Sulfomethylguanine, N6-sulfomethyladenine, N4-sulfomthylcytosine and N6-sulfomethyl-9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine were isolated as crystals and characterized. A guanine-specific sulfomethylation was brought about by treatment and denatured single-stranded DNA with formaldehyde and then with bisulfite at pH 7 and 4 degrees C. Since native double-stranded DNA was not modified by this treatment, this new method of modification is expected to be useful as a conformational probe for polynucleotides. PMID:7177848

  12. Biocatalytic separation of N-7/N-9 guanine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil K; Sharma, Vivek K; Olsen, Carl E; Wengel, Jesper; Parmar, Virinder S; Prasad, Ashok K

    2010-11-19

    Vorbrüggen coupling of trimethylsilylated 2-N-isobutanoylguanine with peracetylated pentofuranose derivatives generally gives inseparable N-7/N-9 glycosyl mixtures. We have shown that the two isomers can be separated biocatalytically by Novozyme-435-mediated selective deacetylation of the 5'-O-acetyl group of peracetylated N-9 guanine nucleosides.

  13. Guanine base stacking in G-quadruplex nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplexes constitute a class of nucleic acid structures defined by stacked guanine tetrads (or G-tetrads) with guanine bases from neighboring tetrads stacking with one another within the G-tetrad core. Individual G-quadruplexes can also stack with one another at their G-tetrad interface leading to higher-order structures as observed in telomeric repeat-containing DNA and RNA. In this study, we investigate how guanine base stacking influences the stability of G-quadruplexes and their stacked higher-order structures. A structural survey of the Protein Data Bank is conducted to characterize experimentally observed guanine base stacking geometries within the core of G-quadruplexes and at the interface between stacked G-quadruplex structures. We couple this survey with a systematic computational examination of stacked G-tetrad energy landscapes using quantum mechanical computations. Energy calculations of stacked G-tetrads reveal large energy differences of up to 12 kcal/mol between experimentally observed geometries at the interface of stacked G-quadruplexes. Energy landscapes are also computed using an AMBER molecular mechanics description of stacking energy and are shown to agree quite well with quantum mechanical calculated landscapes. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a structural explanation for the experimentally observed preference of parallel G-quadruplexes to stack in a 5′–5′ manner based on different accessible tetrad stacking modes at the stacking interfaces of 5′–5′ and 3′–3′ stacked G-quadruplexes. PMID:23268444

  14. Recent gene duplication and subfunctionalization produced a mitochondrial GrpE, the nucleotide exchange factor of the Hsp70 complex, specialized in thermotolerance to chronic heat stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Catherine; Lin, Siou-ying; Chi, Wen-tzu; Charng, Yee-yung

    2012-02-01

    The duplication and divergence of heat stress (HS) response genes might help plants adapt to varied HS conditions, but little is known on the topic. Here, we examined the evolution and function of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial GrpE (Mge) proteins. GrpE acts as a nucleotide-exchange factor in the Hsp70/DnaK chaperone machinery. Genomic data show that AtMge1 and AtMge2 arose from a recent whole-genome duplication event. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that duplication and preservation of Mges occurred independently in many plant species, which suggests a common tendency in the evolution of the genes. Intron retention contributed to the divergence of the protein structure of Mge paralogs in higher plants. In both Arabidopsis and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Mge1 is induced by ultraviolet B light and Mge2 is induced by heat, which suggests regulatory divergence of the genes. Consistently, AtMge2 but not AtMge1 is under the control of HsfA1, the master regulator of the HS response. Heterologous expression of AtMge2 but not AtMge1 in the temperature-sensitive Escherichia coli grpE mutant restored its growth at 43°C. Arabidopsis T-DNA knockout lines under different HS regimes revealed that Mge2 is specifically required for tolerating prolonged exposure to moderately high temperature, as compared with the need of the heat shock protein 101 and the HS-associated 32-kD protein for short-term extreme heat. Therefore, with duplication and subfunctionalization, one copy of the Arabidopsis Mge genes became specialized in a distinct type of HS. We provide direct evidence supporting the connection between gene duplication and adaptation to environmental stress.

  15. Endogenous melatonin and oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Davanipour, Zoreh; Poulsen, Henrik E; Weimann, Allan; Sobel, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Background A significant body of literature indicates that melatonin, a hormone primarily produced nocturnally by the pineal gland, is an important scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species. Melatonin may also lower the rate of DNA base damage resulting from hydroxyl radical attack and increase the rate of repair of that damage. This paper reports the results of a study relating the level of overnight melatonin production to the overnight excretion of the two primary urinary metabolites of the repair of oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA. Methods Mother-father-daughter(s) families (n = 55) were recruited and provided complete overnight urine samples. Total overnight creatinine-adjusted 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s/Cr) has been shown to be highly correlated with total overnight melatonin production. Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine (8-oxoGua) results from the repair of DNA or RNA guanine via the nucleobase excision repair pathway, while urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) may possibly result from the repair of DNA guanine via the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Total overnight urinary levels of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua are therefore a measure of total overnight guanine DNA damage. 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry assay. The mother, father, and oldest sampled daughter were used for these analyses. Comparisons between the mothers, fathers, and daughters were calculated for aMT6s/Cr, 8-oxodG, and 8-oxoGua. Regression analyses of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua on aMT6s/Cr were conducted for mothers, fathers, and daughters separately, adjusting for age and BMI (or weight). Results Among the mothers, age range 42-80, lower melatonin production (as measured by aMT6s/CR) was associated with significantly higher levels of 8-oxodG (p < 0.05), but not with 8-oxoGua. Among the fathers, age range 46-80, lower melatonin production was associated with

  16. Endogenous melatonin and oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA.

    PubMed

    Davanipour, Zoreh; Poulsen, Henrik E; Weimann, Allan; Sobel, Eugene

    2009-10-18

    A significant body of literature indicates that melatonin, a hormone primarily produced nocturnally by the pineal gland, is an important scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species. Melatonin may also lower the rate of DNA base damage resulting from hydroxyl radical attack and increase the rate of repair of that damage. This paper reports the results of a study relating the level of overnight melatonin production to the overnight excretion of the two primary urinary metabolites of the repair of oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA. Mother-father-daughter(s) families (n = 55) were recruited and provided complete overnight urine samples. Total overnight creatinine-adjusted 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s/Cr) has been shown to be highly correlated with total overnight melatonin production. Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine (8-oxoGua) results from the repair of DNA or RNA guanine via the nucleobase excision repair pathway, while urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) may possibly result from the repair of DNA guanine via the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Total overnight urinary levels of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua are therefore a measure of total overnight guanine DNA damage. 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry assay. The mother, father, and oldest sampled daughter were used for these analyses. Comparisons between the mothers, fathers, and daughters were calculated for aMT6s/Cr, 8-oxodG, and 8-oxoGua. Regression analyses of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua on aMT6s/Cr were conducted for mothers, fathers, and daughters separately, adjusting for age and BMI (or weight). Among the mothers, age range 42-80, lower melatonin production (as measured by aMT6s/CR) was associated with significantly higher levels of 8-oxodG (p < 0.05), but not with 8-oxoGua. Among the fathers, age range 46-80, lower melatonin production was associated with marginally higher levels of

  17. Electron detachment of the hydrogen-bonded amino acid side-chain guanine complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Jiande; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2007-07-01

    The photoelectron spectra of the hydrogen-bonded amino acid side-chain-guanine complexes has been studied at the partial third order (P3) self-energy approximation of the electron propagator theory. The correlation between the vertical electron detachment energy and the charge distributions on the guanine moiety reveals that the vertical electron detachment energy (VDE) increases as the positive charge distribution on the guanine increases. The low VDE values determined for the negatively charged complexes of the guanine-side-chain-group of Asp/Glu suggest that the influence of the H-bonded anionic groups on the VDE of guanine could be more important than that of the anionic backbone structure. The even lower vertical electron detachment energy for guanine is thus can be expected in the H-bonded protein-DNA systems.

  18. Effects of Site-Specific Guanine C8-Modifications on an Intramolecular DNA G-Quadruplex

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Cheow Lim, Joefina Kim; Wen Lim, Jocelyn Mei; Amrane, Samir; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the fundamentals of G-quadruplex formation is important both for targeting G-quadruplexes formed by natural sequences and for engineering new G-quadruplexes with desired properties. Using a combination of experimental and computational techniques, we have investigated the effects of site-specific substitution of a guanine with C8-modified guanine derivatives, including 8-bromo-guanine, 8-O-methyl-guanine, 8-amino-guanine, and 8-oxo-guanine, within a well-defined (3 + 1) human telomeric G-quadruplex platform. The effects of substitutions on the stability of the G-quadruplex were found to depend on the type and position of the modification among different guanines in the structure. An interesting modification-dependent NMR chemical-shift effect was observed across basepairing within a guanine tetrad. This effect was reproduced by ab initio quantum mechanical computations, which showed that the observed variation in imino proton chemical shift is largely influenced by changes in hydrogen-bond geometry within the guanine tetrad. PMID:22004753

  19. Phosphodiester-mediated reaction of cisplatin with guanine in oligodeoxyribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Meghan A; Miller, Paul S

    2008-12-02

    The cancer chemotherapeutic agent cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) or cisplatin reacts primarily with guanines in DNA to form 1,2-Pt-GG and 1,3-Pt-GNG intrastrand cross-links and, to a lesser extent, G-G interstrand cross-links. Recent NMR evidence has suggested that cisplatin can also form a coordination complex with the phosphodiester internucleotide linkage of DNA. We have examined the effects of the phosphodiester backbone on the reactions of cisplatin with oligodeoxyribonucleotides that lack or contain a GTG sequence. Cisplatin forms a stable adduct with TpT that can be isolated by reversed phase HPLC. The cis-Pt-TpT adduct contains a single Pt, as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and is resistant to digestion by snake venom phosphodiesterase. Treatment of the adduct with sodium cyanide regenerates TpT. Similar adduct formation was observed when T(pT)(8) was treated with cisplatin, but not when the phosphodiester linkages of T(pT)(8) were replaced with methylphosphonate groups. These results suggest that the platinum may be coordinated with the oxygens of the thymine and possibly with those of the phosphodiester group. As expected, reaction of a 9-mer containing a GTG sequence with cisplatin yielded an adduct that contained a 1,3-Pt-GTG intrastrand cross-link. However, we found that the number and placement of phosphodiesters surrounding a GTG sequence significantly affected intrastrand cross-link formation. Increasing the number of negatively charged phosphodiesters in the oligonucleotide increased the amount of GTG platination. Surrounding the GTG sequence with nonionic methylphosphonate linkages inhibited or eliminated cross-link formation. These observations suggest that interactions between cisplatin and the negatively charged phosphodiester backbone may play an important role in facilitating platination of guanine nucleotides in DNA.

  20. Lifetimes and reaction pathways of guanine radical cations and neutral guanine radicals in an oligonucleotide in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Shafirovich, Vladimir

    2012-03-14

    The exposure of guanine in the oligonucleotide 5'-d(TCGCT) to one-electron oxidants leads initially to the formation of the guanine radical cation G(•+), its deptotonation product G(-H)(•), and, ultimately, various two- and four-electron oxidation products via pathways that depend on the oxidants and reaction conditions. We utilized single or successive multiple laser pulses (308 nm, 1 Hz rate) to generate the oxidants CO(3)(•-) and SO(4)(•-) (via the photolysis of S(2)O(8)(2-) in aqueous solutions in the presence and absence of bicarbonate, respectively) at concentrations/pulse that were ∼20-fold lower than the concentration of 5'-d(TCGCT). Time-resolved absorption spectroscopy measurements following single-pulse excitation show that the G(•+) radical (pK(a) = 3.9) can be observed only at low pH and is hydrated within 3 ms at pH 2.5, thus forming the two-electron oxidation product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoG). At neutral pH, and single pulse excitation, the principal reactive intermediate is G(-H)(•), which, at best, reacts only slowly with H(2)O and lives for ∼70 ms in the absence of oxidants/other radicals to form base sequence-dependent intrastrand cross-links via the nucleophilic addition of N3-thymidine to C8-guanine (5'-G*CT* and 5'-T*CG*). Alternatively, G(-H)(•) can be oxidized further by reaction with CO(3)(•-), generating the two-electron oxidation products 8-oxoG (C8 addition) and 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2Ih, by C5 addition). The four-electron oxidation products, guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), appear only after a second (or more) laser pulse. The levels of all products, except 8-oxoG, which remains at a low constant value, increase with the number of laser pulses.

  1. Novel electrochemical sensor based on functionalized graphene for simultaneous determination of adenine and guanine in DNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke-Jing; Niu, De-Jun; Sun, Jun-Yong; Han, Cong-Hui; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Yan-Li; Xiong, Xiao-Qin

    2011-02-01

    A nano-material carboxylic acid functionalized graphene (graphene-COOH) was prepared and used to construct a novel biosensor for the simultaneous detection of adenine and guanine. The direct electrooxidation behaviors of adenine and guanine on the graphene-COOH modified glassy carbon electrode (graphene-COOH/GCE) were carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The results indicated that both adenine and guanine showed the increase of the oxidation peak currents with the negative shift of the oxidation peak potentials in contrast to that on the bare glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical parameters of adenine and guanine on the graphene-COOH/GCE were calculated and a simple and reliable electroanalytical method was developed for the detection of adenine and guanine, respectively. The modified electrode exhibited good behaviors in the simultaneous detection of adenine and guanine with the peak separation as 0.334V. The detection limit for individual determination of guanine and adenine was 5.0×10(-8)M and 2.5×10(-8)M (S/N=3), respectively. Furthermore, the measurements of thermally denatured single-stranded DNA were carried out and the value of (G+C)/(A+T) of single-stranded DNA was calculated as 0.80. The biosensor exhibited some advantages, such as simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Theoretical study of hydrated copper(II) interactions with guanine: a computational density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Pavelka, Matej; Shukla, Manoj K; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2008-01-17

    Optimization of the hydrated Cu(II)(N7-guanine) structures revealed a number of minima on the potential energy surface. For selected structures, energy decompositions together with the determination of electronic properties (partial charges and electron spin densities) were performed. In the complexes of guanine with the bare copper cation and that with the monoaqua ligated cation, an electron transfer from guanine to Cu(II) was observed, resulting in a Cu(I)-guanine(+) type of complex. Conformers with two aqua ligands are borderline systems characterized by a Cu partial charge of +0.7e and a similar value of the spin density (0.6e) localized on guanine. When tetracoordination of copper was achieved, only then the prevailing electron spin density is unambiguously localized on copper. The energetic preference of diaqua-Cu-(N7,O6-guanine) over triaqua-Cu-(N7-guanine) was found for the four-coordinate structures. However, the energy difference between these two conformations decreases with the number of water molecules present in the systems, and in complexes with five water molecules this preference is preserved only at DeltaG level where thermal and entropy terms are included.

  3. Mutagenic and cytotoxic properties of 6-thioguanine, S6-methylthioguanine, and guanine-S6-sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bifeng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2008-08-29

    Thiopurine drugs, including 6-thioguanine ((S)G), 6-mercaptopurine, and azathioprine, are widely employed anticancer agents and immunosuppressants. The formation of (S)G nucleotides from the thiopurine prodrugs and their subsequent incorporation into nucleic acids are important for the drugs to exert their cytotoxic effects. (S)G in DNA can be methylated by S-adenosyl-l-methionine to give S(6)-methylthioguanine (S(6)mG) and oxidized by UVA light to render guanine-S(6)-sulfonic acid ((SO3H)G). Here, we constructed single-stranded M13 shuttle vectors carrying a (S)G, S(6)mG, or (SO3H)G at a unique site and allowed the vectors to propagate in wild-type and bypass polymerase-deficient Escherichia coli cells. Analysis of the replication products by using the competitive replication and adduct bypass and a slightly modified restriction enzyme digestion and post-labeling assays revealed that, although none of the three thionucleosides considerably blocked DNA replication in all transfected E. coli cells, both S(6)mG and (SO3H)G were highly mutagenic, which resulted in G-->A mutation at frequencies of 94 and 77%, respectively, in wild-type E. coli cells. Deficiency in bypass polymerases does not result in alteration of mutation frequencies of these two lesions. In contrast to what was found from previous steady-state kinetic analysis, our data demonstrated that 6-thioguanine is mutagenic, with G-->A transition occurring at a frequency of approximately 10%. The mutagenic properties of 6-thioguanine and its derivatives revealed in the present study offered important knowledge about the biological implications of these thionucleosides.

  4. Genetic Separation of Hypoxanthine and Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase Activities by Deletion Mutations in Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Gots, Joseph S.; Benson, Charles E.; Shumas, Susan R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain proAB deletion mutants of Salmonella typhimurium were found to be simultaneously deleted in a gene required for the utilization of guanine and xanthine (designated gxu). These mutants were resistant to 8-azaguanine and when carrying an additional pur mutation were unable to use guanine or xanthine as a purine source. The defect was correlated with deficiencies in the uptake and phosphoribosyltransferase activities for guanine and xanthine. Hypoxanthine and adenine activities were unaltered. The deficiency was restored to normal by transduction to pro+ and in F′ merodiploids. PMID:4563984

  5. CD94/NKG2A inhibits NK cell activation by disrupting the actin network at the immunological synapse.

    PubMed

    Masilamani, Madhan; Nguyen, Connie; Kabat, Juraj; Borrego, Francisco; Coligan, John E

    2006-09-15

    An adequate immune response is the result of the fine balance between activation and inhibitory signals. The exact means by which inhibitory signals obviate activation signals in immune cells are not totally elucidated. Human CD94/NKG2A is an ITIM-containing inhibitory receptor expressed by NK cells and some CD8+ T cells that recognize HLA-E. We show that the engagement of this receptor prevents NK cell activation by disruption of the actin network and exclusion of lipid rafts at the point of contact with its ligand (inhibitory NK cell immunological synapse, iNKIS). CD94/NKG2A engagement leads to recruitment and activation of src homology 2 domain-bearing tyrosine phosphatase 1. This likely explains the observed dephosphorylation of guanine nucleotide exchange factor and regulator of actin, Vav1, as well as ezrin-radixin-moesin proteins that connect actin filaments to membrane structures. In contrast, NK cell activation by NKG2D induced Vav1 and ezrin-radixin-moesin phosphorylation. Thus, CD94/NKG2A prevents actin-dependent recruitment of raft-associated activation receptors complexes to the activating synapse. This was further substantiated by showing that inhibition of actin polymerization abolished lipid rafts exclusion at the iNKIS, whereas cholesterol depletion had no effect on actin disruption at the iNKIS. These data indicate that the lipid rafts exclusion at the iNKIS is an active process which requires an intact cytoskeleton to maintain lipid rafts outside the inhibitory synapse. The net effect is to maintain an inhibitory state in the proximity of the iNKIS, while allowing the formation of activation synapse at distal points within the same NK cell.

  6. Charge splitters and charge transport junctions based on guanine quadruplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Ruojie; Xiang, Limin; Liu, Chaoren; Balaeff, Alexander; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yueqi; Beratan, David N.; Tao, Nongjian; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2018-04-01

    Self-assembling circuit elements, such as current splitters or combiners at the molecular scale, require the design of building blocks with three or more terminals. A promising material for such building blocks is DNA, wherein multiple strands can self-assemble into multi-ended junctions, and nucleobase stacks can transport charge over long distances. However, nucleobase stacking is often disrupted at junction points, hindering electric charge transport between the two terminals of the junction. Here, we show that a guanine-quadruplex (G4) motif can be used as a connector element for a multi-ended DNA junction. By attaching specific terminal groups to the motif, we demonstrate that charges can enter the structure from one terminal at one end of a three-way G4 motif, and can exit from one of two terminals at the other end with minimal carrier transport attenuation. Moreover, we study four-way G4 junction structures by performing theoretical calculations to assist in the design and optimization of these connectors.

  7. Development of an ultra performance LC/MS method to quantify cisplatin 1,2 intrastrand guanine-guanine adducts

    PubMed Central

    Baskerville-Abraham, Irene M.; Boysen, Gunnar; Troutman, J. Mitchell; Mutlu, Esra; Collins, Leonard; deKrafft, Kathryn E.; Lin, Wenbin; King, Candice; Chaney, Stephen G.; Swenberg, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Platinum chemotherapeutic agents have been widely used in the treatment of cancer. Cisplatin was the first of the platinum based chemotherapeutic agents and therefore has been extensively studied as an anti-tumor agent since the late 1960s. Because this agent forms several DNA adducts, a highly sensitive and specific quantitative assay is needed to correlate the molecular dose of individual adducts with the effects of treatment. An ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) assay for quantification of 1,2 guanine-guanine intrastrand cisplatin adducts [CP-d(GpG)], using 15N10 CP-d(GpG) as an internal standard, was developed. The internal standard was characterized by MS/MS and its concentration was validated by ICP-MS. Samples containing CP-d(GpG) in DNA were purified by enzyme hydrolysis , centrifugal filtration and HPLC with fraction collection prior to quantification by UPLC-MS/MS in the selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode (m/z 412.5→248.1 for CP-d(GpG); m/z 417.5→253.1 for [15N10] CP-d(GpG)). Recovery of standards was >90% and quantification was unaffected by increasing concentrations of calf thymus DNA. This method utilizes 25 μg of DNA per injection. The limit of quantification was 3 fmol or 3.7 adducts per 108 nucleotides, which approaches the sensitivity of the 32P postlabeling method for this adduct. These data suggested that this method is suitable for in vitro and in vivo assessment of CP-d(GpG) adducts formed by cisplatin and carboplatin. Subsequently the method was applied to studies using ovarian carcinoma cell lines and C57/BL6 mice to illustrate that this method is capable of quantifying CP-d(GpG) adducts using biologically relevant systems and doses. The development of biomarkers to determine tissue-specific molecular dosimetry during treatment will lead to a more complete understanding of both therapeutic and adverse effects of cisplatin and carboplatin. This will support the refinement of therapeutic

  8. Computational Study of Oxidation of Guanine by Singlet Oxygen (1 Δg ) and Formation of Guanine:Lysine Cross-Links.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Bishnu; Munk, Barbara H; Burrows, Cynthia J; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2017-04-27

    Oxidation of guanine in the presence of lysine can lead to guanine-lysine cross-links. The ratio of the C4, C5 and C8 crosslinks depends on the manner of oxidation. Type II photosensitizers such as Rose Bengal and methylene blue can generate singlet oxygen, which leads to a different ratio of products than oxidation by type I photosensitizers or by one electron oxidants. Modeling reactions of singlet oxygen can be quite challenging. Reactions have been explored using CASSCF, NEVPT2, DFT, CCSD(T), and BD(T) calculations with SMD implicit solvation. The spin contamination in open-shell calculations were corrected by Yamaguchi's approximate spin projection method. The addition of singlet oxygen to guanine to form guanine endo- peroxide proceeds step-wise via a zwitterionic peroxyl intermediate. The subsequent barrier for ring closure is smaller than the initial barrier for singlet oxygen addition. Ring opening of the endoperoxide by protonation at C4-O is followed by loss of a proton from C8 and dehydration to produce 8-oxoG ox . The addition of lysine (modelled by methylamine) or water across the C5=N7 double bond of 8-oxoG ox is followed by acyl migration to form the final spiro products. The barrier for methylamine addition is significantly lower than for water addition and should be the dominant reaction channel. These results are in good agreement with the experimental results for the formation of guanine-lysine cross-links by oxidation by type II photosensitizers. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Design and synthesis of novel adenine fluorescence probe based on Eu(III) complexes with dtpa-bis(guanine) ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fengyun; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Dou, Xuekai; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Jun; Song, Youtao

    2017-05-01

    A novel adenine (Ad) fluorescence probe (EuIII-dtpa-bis(guanine)) was designed and synthesized by improving experimental method based on the Eu(III) complex and dtpa-bis(guanine) ligand. The dtpa-bis(guanine) ligand was first synthesized by the acylation action between dtpaa and guanine (Gu), and the corresponding Eu(III) complex was successfully prepared through heat-refluxing method with dtpa-bis(guanine) ligand. As a novel fluorescence probe, the EuIII-dtpa-bis(guanine) complex can detect adenine (Ad) with characteristics of strong targeting, high specificity and high recognition ability. The detection mechanism of the adenine (Ad) using this probe in buffer solution was studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy. When the EuIII-dtpa-bis(guanine) was introduced to the adenine (Ad) solution, the fluorescence emission intensity was significantly enhanced. However, adding other bases such as guanine (Gu), xanthine (Xa), hypoxanthine (Hy) and uric acid (Ur) with similar composition and structure to that of adenine (Ad) to the EuIII-dtpa-bis(guanine) solution, the fluorescence emission intensities are nearly invariable. Meanwhile, the interference of guanine (Gu), xanthine (Xa), hypoxanthine (Hy) and uric acid (Ur) on the detection of the adenine using EuIII-dtpa-bis(guanine) probe was also studied. It was found that presence of these bases does not affect the detection of adenine (Ad). A linear response of fluorescence emission intensities of EuIII-dtpa-bis(guanine) at 570 nm as a function of adenine (Ad) concentration in the range of 0.00-5.00 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 was observed. The detection limit is about 4.70 × 10- 7 mol L- 1.

  10. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosophoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Rosa J; Puig, Juan G

    2007-01-01

    Deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) activity is an inborn error of purine metabolism associated with uric acid overproduction and a continuum spectrum of neurological manifestations depending on the degree of the enzymatic deficiency. The prevalence is estimated at 1/380,000 live births in Canada, and 1/235,000 live births in Spain. Uric acid overproduction is present inall HPRT-deficient patients and is associated with lithiasis and gout. Neurological manifestations include severe action dystonia, choreoathetosis, ballismus, cognitive and attention deficit, and self-injurious behaviour. The most severe forms are known as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (patients are normal at birth and diagnosis can be accomplished when psychomotor delay becomes apparent). Partial HPRT-deficient patients present these symptoms with a different intensity, and in the least severe forms symptoms may be unapparent. Megaloblastic anaemia is also associated with the disease. Inheritance of HPRT deficiency is X-linked recessive, thus males are generally affected and heterozygous female are carriers (usually asymptomatic). Human HPRT is encoded by a single structural gene on the long arm of the X chromosome at Xq26. To date, more than 300 disease-associated mutations in the HPRT1 gene have been identified. The diagnosis is based on clinical and biochemical findings (hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria associated with psychomotor delay), and enzymatic (HPRT activity determination in haemolysate, intact erythrocytes or fibroblasts) and molecular tests. Molecular diagnosis allows faster and more accurate carrier and prenatal diagnosis. Prenatal diagnosis can be performed with amniotic cells obtained by amniocentesis at about 15–18 weeks' gestation, or chorionic villus cells obtained at about 10–12 weeks' gestation. Uric acid overproduction can be managed by allopurinol treatment. Doses must be carefully adjusted to avoid xanthine lithiasis. The lack of precise

  11. A DFT investigation on interactions between asymmetric derivatives of cisplatin and nucleobase guanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Truong Ba; Nhat, Pham Vu

    2017-07-01

    The interactions of hydrolysis products of cisplatin and its asymmetric derivatives cis- and trans-[PtCl2(iPram)(Mepz)] with guanine were studied using DFT methods. These interactions are dominated by electrostatic effects, namely hydrogen bond contributions and there exists a charge flow from H-atoms of ligands to the O-atoms of guanine. The replacement of NH3 moieties by larger functional groups accompanies with a moderate reaction between PtII and guanine molecule, diminishing the cytotoxicity of the drug. The asymmetric and symmetric NH2 stretching modes of complexes having strong hydrogen bond interactions are red shifted importantly as compared to complexes without presence of hydrogen bond interactions.

  12. Rapid and simple G-quadruplex DNA aptasensor with guanine chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sandy; Park, Lucienne; Chong, Richard; Kim, Young Teck; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2014-02-15

    Cost-effective and sensitive aptasensor with guanine chemiluminescence detection capable of simply quantifying thrombin in human serum was developed using thrombin aptamer (TBA), one of the G-quadruplex DNA aptamers, without expensive nanoparticles and complicated procedures. Guanines of G-quadruplex TBA-conjugated carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM) bound with thrombin do not react with 3,4,5-trimethoxylphenylglyoxal (TMPG) in the presence of tetra-n-propylammonium hydroxide (TPA), whereas guanines of free TBA- and TBA-conjugated 6-FAM immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide rapidly react with TMPG to emit light. Thus, guanine chemiluminescence in 5% human serum with thrombin was lower than that without thrombin when TBA-conjugated 6-FAM was added in two samples and incubated for 20 min. In other words, the brightness of guanine chemiluminescence was quenched due to the formation of G-quadruplex TBA-conjugated 6-FAM bound with thrombin in a sample. High-energy intermediate, capable of emitting dim light by itself, formed from the reaction between guanines of TBA and TMPG in the presence of TPA, transfers energy to 6-FAM to emit bright light based on the principle of chemiluminescence energy transfer (CRET). G-quadruplex TBA aptasensor devised using the rapid interaction between TBA-conjugated 6-FAM and thrombin quantified trace levels of thrombin without complicated procedures. The limit of detection (LOD = background + 3 × standard deviation) of G-quadruplex TBA aptasensor with good linear calibration curve, accuracy, precision, and recovery was as low as 12.3 nM in 5% human serum. Using the technology reported in this research, we expect that various types of G-quadruplex DNA aptasensors capable of specifically sensing a target molecule such as ATP, HIV, ochratoxin, potassium ions, and thrombin can be developed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidation kinetics of guanine in DNA molecules adsorbed onto indium tin oxide electrodes.

    PubMed

    Armistead, P M; Thorp, H H

    2001-02-01

    Oligonucleotides containing the guanine nucleobase were adsorbed onto ITO electrodes from mixtures of DMF and acetate buffer. Chronocoulometry and chronoamperometry were performed on the modified electrodes in both phosphate buffer and buffer containing low concentrations of the inorganic complex Ru(bpy)3(2+) (bpy = 2,2' bipyridine), which catalyzes guanine oxidation. The charge and current evolution with and without the catalyst were compared to the charge and current evolution for electrodes that were treated with identical oligonucleotides that were substituted at every guanine with the electrochemically inert nucleobase hypoxanthine. Chronocoulometry over 2.5 s shows that roughly 2 electrons per guanine were transferred to the electrode in both the presence and absence of Ru(bpy)3(2+), although at a slower rate for the uncatalyzed process. Chronoamperograms measured over 250 ms can be fit to a double exponential decay, with the intensity of the fast component roughly 6-20 times greater than that of the slow component. First- and second-order rate constants for catalytic and direct guanine oxidation were determined from the fast component. The maximum catalytic enhancement for immobilized guanine was found to be i(cat)/i(d) = 4 at 25 microM Ru(bpy)3(2+). The second-order rate constant for the catalyzed reaction was 1.3 x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), with an apparent dissociation constant of 8.8 microM. When compared to parallel studies in solution, a smaller value of the dissociation constant and a larger value of the second-order rate constant are observed, probably due to distortion of the immobilized DNA, an increase in the local negative charge due to the oxygen sites on the ITO surface, and redox cycling of the catalyst, which maintains the surface concentration of the active form.

  14. Spectral characterization of guanine C4-OH adduct: a radiation and quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Phadatare, Suvarna D; Sharma, Kiran Kumar K; Rao, B S M; Naumov, S; Sharma, Geeta K

    2011-11-24

    The reaction of hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) with guanine was investigated under restricted pH condition (pH 4.6) using pulse radiolysis technique. The time-resolved optical transient absorption spectra showed two peaks centered at 300 and 330 nm at 4 μs after the pulse which exhibited different reactivity toward molecular oxygen (O(2)). The peak at 300 nm was found to be relatively more stable than the peak at 330 nm. The peak corresponding to 330 nm decayed within 20 μs having a first order rate constant 4-7 × 10(4) s(-1) and was pH dependent. On longer time scale, the species decayed by a bimolecular process. The presence of O(2) did not affect its decay rate constant. The (•)OH reacts with guanine at pH 4.6 with a diffusion-controlled second order rate constant of ≥1 × 10(10) mol(-1) dm(3) s(-1). The reaction of Br(2)(•-), O(2)(•-), and 2-hydroxy-2-propyl radical with guanine was also investigated to differentiate among the one-electron oxidized, one-electron reduced species of guanine and the guanine-OH adducts formed in the reaction of (•)OH at pH 4.6. On the basis of the spectral characteristics and reactivity toward O(2), two guanine-OH adduct species were identified (i) the C4-OH adduct species absorbing at 330 nm which has not been reported so far and (ii) the C8-OH adduct species absorbing at 300 nm in agreement with the known literature absorption features. Quantum chemical calculations using BHandHLYP with 6-31+G(d,p) basis set and excited state calculations using TDDFT for all possible transients complement the assignment of the observed spectral peak at 330 nm to the C4-OH adduct of guanine. Furthermore, steady state radiolysis revealed the formation of 8-hydroxy-guanine whose precursor is known to be the C8-OH adduct species. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Coupling of guanine nucleotide inhibitory protein to somatostatin receptors on pancreatic acinar membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, C.; Matozaki, T.; Nagao, M.

    1987-09-01

    Guanine nucleotides and pertussis toxin were used to investigate whether somatostatin receptors interact with the guanine nucleotide inhibitory protein (NI) on pancreatic acinar membranes in the rat. Guanine nucleotides reduced /sup 125/I-(Tyr/sup 1/)somatostatin binding to acinar membranes up to 80%, with rank order of potency being 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p)>GTP>TDP>GMP. Scatchard analysis revealed that the decrease in somatostatin binding caused by Gpp(NH)p was due to the decrease in the maximum binding capacity without a significant change in the binding affinity. The inhibitory effect of Gpp(NH)p was partially abolished in the absence of Mg/sup 2 +/. When pancreatic acini were treated withmore » 1 ..mu..g/ml pertussis toxin for 4 h, subsequent /sup 125/I-(Tyr/sup 1/)somatostatin binding to acinar membranes was reduced. Pertussis toxin treatment also abolished the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on vasoactive intestinal peptide-stimulated increase in cellular content of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in the acini. The present results suggest that 1) somatostatin probably functions in the pancreas to regulate adenylate cyclase enzyme system via Ni, 2) the extent of modification of Ni is correlated with the ability of somatostatin to inhibit cAMP accumulation in acini, and 3) guanine nucleotides also inhibit somatostatin binding to its receptor.« less

  16. Guanine Plus Cytosine Contents of the Deoxyribonucleic Acids of Some Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: a Reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Skyring, G. W.; Jones, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    Guanine plus cytosine (GC) contents of the deoxyribonucleic acids of Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum have been used as a basis for classification. Some of these data have been incorrectly calculated, resulting in errors of as much as 5% GC. This situation has been corrected by a reanalysis of existing data and by the contribution of new data. PMID:5011245

  17. Improved bioactivity of G-rich triplex-forming oligonucleotides containing modified guanine bases

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Faye A; Lloyd, Janice A; Tiwari, Meetu Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Triplex structures generated by sequence-specific triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) have proven to be promising tools for gene targeting strategies. In addition, triplex technology has been highly utilized to study the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair, recombination and mutagenesis. However, triplex formation utilizing guanine-rich oligonucleotides as third strands can be inhibited by potassium-induced self-association resulting in G-quadruplex formation. We report here that guanine-rich TFOs partially substituted with 8-aza-7-deaza-guanine (PPG) have improved target site binding in potassium compared with TFOs containing the natural guanine base. We designed PPG-substituted TFOs to bind to a polypurine sequence in the supFG1 reporter gene. The binding efficiency of PPG-substituted TFOs to the target sequence was analyzed using electrophoresis mobility gel shift assays. We have determined that in the presence of potassium, the non-substituted TFO, AG30 did not bind to its target sequence, however binding was observed with the PPG-substituted AG30 under conditions with up to 140 mM KCl. The PPG-TFOs were able to maintain their ability to induce genomic modifications as measured by an assay for gene-targeted mutagenesis. In addition, these compounds were capable of triplex-induced DNA double strand breaks, which resulted in activation of apoptosis. PMID:25483840

  18. Exploring the Use of a Guanine-Rich Catalytic DNA for Sulfoxide Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Dellafiore, María A.; Montserrat, Javier M.; Iribarren, Adolfo M.

    2015-01-01

    A guanine-rich DNA oligonucleotide complexed with hemin was used to catalyze controlled oxygen transfer reactions to different sulfides for sulfoxide preparation in the presence of H2O2. Comparable activities were obtained when using fully modified L-DNA. In addition, oligonucleotide immobilization led to an active catalyst which could be successfully recovered and reused without loss of activity. PMID:26066510

  19. Scaffold-hopping from xanthines to tricyclic guanines: A case study of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Pissarnitski, Dmitri A.; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Cole, David

    2016-11-01

    Molecular modeling of unbound tricyclic guanine scaffolds indicated that they can serve as effective bioisosteric replacements of xanthines. This notion was further confirmed by a combination of X-ray crystallography and SAR studies, indicating that tricyclic guanine DPP4 inhibitors mimic the binding mode of xanthine inhibitors, exemplified by linagliptin. Realization of the bioisosteric relationship between these scaffolds potentially will lead to a wider application of cyclic guanines as xanthine replacements in drug discovery programs for a variety of biological targets. Newly designed DPP4 inhibitors achieved sub-nanomolar potency range and demonstrated oral activity in vivo in mouse glucose tolerance test.

  20. The A2 Adenosine Receptor: Guanine Nucleotide Modulation of Agonist Binding Is Enhanced by Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    NANOFF, CHRISTIAN; JACOBSON, KENNETH A.; STILES, GARY L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Agonist binding to the A2 adenosine receptor (A2AR) and its regulation by guanine nucleotides was studied using the newly developed radioligand 125l-2-[4-(2-{2-[(4-ammnophenyl)methylcarbonylamino]ethylaminnocarbonyl}ethyl)phenyl]ethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (1251-PAPA-APEC) and its photoaffinity analog 125l-azido-PAPA-APEC. A single protein of Mr 45,000, displaying the appropriate A2AR pharmacology, is Iabeled in membranes from bovine striatum, PC12 cells, and frog erythrocytes. In DDT1 MF2 cells the labeled protein has a slightly lower molecular weight. Incorporation of 125l-azido-PAPA-APEC into membranes from rabbit striatum, however, reveals two specifically labeled peptides (Mr ~47,O00 and 38,000), both of which display A2AR pharmacology. Inhibition of protease activity leads to a decrease in the amount of the Mr 38,000 protein, with only the Mr 47,000 protein remaining. This suggests that the Mr 38,000 peptide is a proteolytic product of the Mr 47,000 A2AR protein. In membranes containing the intact undigested A2AR protein, guanine nucleotides induce a small to insignificant decrease in agonist binding, which is atypical of stimulatory Gs-coupled receptors. This minimal effect is observed in rabbit striatal membranes prepared in the presence of protease inhibitors, as well as in the other tissues studied. Binding to rabbit stnatal membranes that possess the partially digested receptor protein, however, reveals a 50% reduction in maximal specific agonist binding upon addition of guanine nucleotides. Inhibition of proteolysis in rabbit striatum, on the other hand, results in a diminished ability of guanine nucleotides to regulate agonist binding. Thus, the enhanced effectiveness of guanine nucleotides in rabbit striatal membranes is associated with the generation of the Mr 38,000 peptide fragment. Guanosine 5′-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate reduces photoaffinity labeling by 55% in the Mr 38,000 protein, whereas the labeling is decreased by

  1. Guanine-based amphiphiles: synthesis, ion transport properties and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Domenica; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; Milano, Domenico; Tecilla, Paolo; Montesarchio, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    Novel amphiphilic guanine derivatives, here named Gua1 and Gua2, have been prepared through few, simple and efficient synthetic steps. In ion transport experiments through phospholipid bilayers, carried out to evaluate their ability to mediate H(+) transport, Gua2 showed high activity. When this compound was investigated for ion-selective transport activities, no major differences were observed in the behaviour with cations while, in the case of anions, selective activity was observed in the series I(-)>Br(-)>Cl(-)>F(-). The bioactivity of these guanine analogues has been evaluated on a panel of human tumour and non-tumour cell lines in preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity assays, showing a relevant antiproliferative profile for Gua2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Guanine nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain mediates the allosteric inhibition of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buey, Rubén M.; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Balsera, Mónica; Chagoyen, Mónica; de Pereda, José M.; Revuelta, José L.

    2015-11-01

    Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) plays key roles in purine nucleotide metabolism and cell proliferation. Although IMPDH is a widely studied therapeutic target, there is limited information about its physiological regulation. Using Ashbya gossypii as a model, we describe the molecular mechanism and the structural basis for the allosteric regulation of IMPDH by guanine nucleotides. We report that GTP and GDP bind to the regulatory Bateman domain, inducing octamers with compromised catalytic activity. Our data suggest that eukaryotic and prokaryotic IMPDHs might have developed different regulatory mechanisms, with GTP/GDP inhibiting only eukaryotic IMPDHs. Interestingly, mutations associated with human retinopathies map into the guanine nucleotide-binding sites including a previously undescribed non-canonical site and disrupt allosteric inhibition. Together, our results shed light on the mechanisms of the allosteric regulation of enzymes mediated by Bateman domains and provide a molecular basis for certain retinopathies, opening the door to new therapeutic approaches.

  3. Structure-wise discrimination of adenine and guanine by proteins on the basis of their nonbonded interactions.

    PubMed

    Usha, S; Selvaraj, S

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed the nonbonded interactions of the structurally similar moieties, adenine and guanine forming complexes with proteins. The results comprise (a) the amino acid-ligand atom preferences, (b) solvent accessibility of ligand atoms before and after complex formation with proteins, and (c) preferred amino acid residue atoms involved in the interactions. We have observed that the amino acid preferences involved in the hydrogen bonding interactions vary for adenine and guanine. The structural variation between the purine atoms is clearly reflected by their burial tendency in the solvent environment. Correlation of the mean amino acid preference values show the variation that exists between adenine and guanine preferences of all the amino acid residues. All our observations provide evidence for the discriminating nature of the proteins in recognizing adenine and guanine.

  4. Mapping three guanine oxidation products along DNA following exposure to three types of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Matter, Brock; Seiler, Christopher L; Murphy, Kristopher; Ming, Xun; Zhao, Jianwei; Lindgren, Bruce; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2018-06-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated during respiration, inflammation, and immune response can damage cellular DNA, contributing to aging, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The ability of oxidized DNA bases to interfere with DNA replication and transcription is strongly influenced by their chemical structures and locations within the genome. In the present work, we examined the influence of local DNA sequence context, DNA secondary structure, and oxidant identity on the efficiency and the chemistry of guanine oxidation in the context of the Kras protooncogene. A novel isotope labeling strategy developed in our laboratory was used to accurately map the formation of 2,2-diamino-4-[(2-deoxy-β-D-erythropentofuranosyl)amino]- 5(2 H)-oxazolone (Z), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (OG), and 8-nitroguanine (8-NO 2 -G) lesions along DNA duplexes following photooxidation in the presence of riboflavin, treatment with nitrosoperoxycarbonate, and oxidation in the presence of hydroxyl radicals. Riboflavin-mediated photooxidation preferentially induced OG lesions at 5' guanines within GG repeats, while treatment with nitrosoperoxycarbonate targeted 3'-guanines within GG and AG dinucleotides. Little sequence selectivity was observed following hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation. However, Z and 8-NO 2 -G adducts were overproduced at duplex ends, irrespective of oxidant identity. Overall, our results indicate that the patterns of Z, OG, and 8-NO 2 -G adduct formation in the genome are distinct and are influenced by oxidant identity and the secondary structure of DNA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Covalent Bonding of Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) to Terminal Guanine Residues within Duplex and Hairpin DNA Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Mantaj, Julia; Jackson, Paul J. M.; Karu, Kersti; Rahman, Khondaker M.; Thurston, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) are covalent-binding DNA-interactive agents with growing importance as payloads in Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs). Until now, PBDs were thought to covalently bond to C2-NH2 groups of guanines in the DNA-minor groove across a three-base-pair recognition sequence. Using HPLC/MS methodology with designed hairpin and duplex oligonucleotides, we have now demonstrated that the PBD Dimer SJG-136 and the C8-conjugated PBD Monomer GWL-78 can covalently bond to a terminal guanine of DNA, with the PBD skeleton spanning only two base pairs. Control experiments with the non-C8-conjugated anthramycin along with molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the C8-substituent of a PBD Monomer, or one-half of a PBD Dimer, may provide stability for the adduct. This observation highlights the importance of PBD C8-substituents, and also suggests that PBDs may bind to terminal guanines within stretches of DNA in cells, thus representing a potentially novel mechanism of action at the end of DNA strand breaks. PMID:27055050

  6. Magnetic Control of the Light Reflection Anisotropy in a Biogenic Guanine Microcrystal Platelet.

    PubMed

    Iwasaka, Masakazu; Mizukawa, Yuri; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2016-01-12

    Bioinspired but static optical devices such as lenses, retarders, and reflectors have had a significant impact on the designs of many man-made optical technologies. However, while numerous adaptive and flexible optical mechanisms are found throughout the animal kingdom, highly desirable biomimetic copies of these remarkable smart systems remain, in many cases, a distant dream. Many aquatic animals have evolved highly efficient reflectors based on multilayer stacks of the crystallized nucleic acid base guanine. With exceptional levels of spectral and intensity control, these reflectors represent an interesting design pathway towards controllable micromirror structures. Here we show that individual guanine crystals, with dimensions of 5 μm × 20 μm × 70 nm, can be magnetically controlled to act as individual micromirrors. By applying magnetic fields of 500 mT, the reflectivity of these crystals can be switched off and on for the change in reflectivity. Overall, the use of guanine represents a novel design scheme for a highly efficient and controllable synthetic organic micromirror array.

  7. Capturing the radical ion-pair intermediate in DNA guanine oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Jialong; Liu, Kunhui; Wu, Lidan; Zhao, Hongmei; Song, Di; Su, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Although the radical ion pair has been frequently invoked as a key intermediate in DNA oxidative damage reactions and photoinduced electron transfer processes, the unambiguous detection and characterization of this species remain formidable and unresolved due to its extremely unstable nature and low concentration. We use the strategy that, at cryogenic temperatures, the transient species could be sufficiently stabilized to be detectable spectroscopically. By coupling the two techniques (the cryogenic stabilization and the time-resolved laser flash photolysis spectroscopy) together, we are able to capture the ion-pair transient G+•⋯Cl− in the chlorine radical–initiated DNA guanine (G) oxidation reaction, and provide direct evidence to ascertain the intricate type of addition/charge separation mechanism underlying guanine oxidation. The unique spectral signature of the radical ion-pair G+•⋯Cl− is identified, revealing a markedly intense absorption feature peaking at 570 nm that is distinctive from G+• alone. Moreover, the ion-pair spectrum is found to be highly sensitive to the protonation equilibria within guanine-cytosine base pair (G:C), which splits into two resolved bands at 480 and 610 nm as the acidic proton transfers along the central hydrogen bond from G+• to C. We thus use this exquisite sensitivity to track the intrabase-pair proton transfer dynamics in the double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides, which is of critical importance for the description of the proton-coupled charge transfer mechanisms in DNA. PMID:28630924

  8. N7-(carboxymethyl)guanine-Lithium Crystalline Complex: A Bioinspired Solid Electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Dipak; Nagapradeep, N.; Zhu, Haijin; Forsyth, Maria; Verma, Sandeep; Bhattacharyya, Aninda J.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical device with components having direct significance to biological life processes is a potent futuristic strategy for the realization of all-round green and sustainable development. We present here synthesis design, structural analysis and ion transport of a novel solid organic electrolyte (G7Li), a compound reminiscent of ion channels, derived from regioisomeric N7-guanine-carboxylate conjugate and Li-ions. G7Li, with it’s in-built supply of Li+-ions, exhibited remarkably high lithium-ion transference number (= 0.75) and tunable room temperature ionic conductivity spanning three decades (≈10−7 to 10−3 Ω−1 cm−1) as a function of moisture content. The ionic conductivity show a distinct reversible transition around 80–100 °C, from a dual Li+ and H+ (<100 °C) to a pure Li+ conductor (>100 °C). Systematic studies reveal a transition from water-assisted Li-ion transport to Li hopping-like mechanism involving guanine-Li coordination. While as-synthesized G7Li has potential in humidity sensors, the anhydrous G7Li is attractive for rechargeable batteries. PMID:27091631

  9. Rates of Chemical Cleavage of DNA and RNA Oligomers Containing Guanine Oxidation Products

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The nucleobase guanine in DNA (dG) and RNA (rG) has the lowest standard reduction potential of the bases, rendering it a major site of oxidative damage in these polymers. Mapping the sites at which oxidation occurs in an oligomer via chemical reagents utilizes hot piperidine for cleaving oxidized DNA and aniline (pH 4.5) for cleaving oxidized RNA. In the present studies, a series of time-dependent cleavages of DNA and RNA strands containing various guanine lesions were examined to determine the strand scission rate constants. The guanine base lesions 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), 5-guanidinohydantoin (Gh), 2,2,4-triamino-2H-oxazol-5-one (Z), and 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2Ih) were evaluated in piperidine-treated DNA and aniline-treated RNA. These data identified wide variability in the chemical lability of the lesions studied in both DNA and RNA. Further, the rate constants for cleaving lesions in RNA were generally found to be significantly smaller than for lesions in DNA. The OG nucleotides were poorly cleaved in DNA and RNA; Sp nucleotides were slowly cleaved in DNA and did not cleave significantly in RNA; Gh and Z nucleotides cleaved in both DNA and RNA at intermediate rates; and 2Ih oligonucleotides cleaved relatively quickly in both DNA and RNA. The data are compared and contrasted with respect to future experimental design. PMID:25853314

  10. Electron microscopic visualization of complementary labeled DNA with platinum-containing guanine derivative.

    PubMed

    Loukanov, Alexandre; Filipov, Chavdar; Mladenova, Polina; Toshev, Svetlin; Emin, Saim

    2016-04-01

    The object of the present report is to provide a method for a visualization of DNA in TEM by complementary labeling of cytosine with guanine derivative, which contains platinum as contrast-enhanced heavy element. The stretched single-chain DNA was obtained by modifying double-stranded DNA. The labeling method comprises the following steps: (i) stretching and adsorption of DNA on the support film of an electron microscope grid (the hydrophobic carbon film holding negative charged DNA); (ii) complementary labeling of the cytosine bases from the stretched single-stranded DNA pieces on the support film with platinum containing guanine derivative to form base-specific hydrogen bond; and (iii) producing a magnified image of the base-specific labeled DNA. Stretched single-stranded DNA on a support film is obtained by a rapid elongation of DNA pieces on the surface between air and aqueous buffer solution. The attached platinum-containing guanine derivative serves as a high-dense marker and it can be discriminated from the surrounding background of support carbon film and visualized by use of conventional TEM observation at 100 kV accelerated voltage. This method allows examination of specific nucleic macromolecules through atom-by-atom analysis and it is promising way toward future DNA-sequencing or molecular diagnostics of nucleic acids by electron microscopic observation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Crosslinking reactions of 4-amino-6-oxo-2-vinylpyrimidine with guanine derivatives and structural analysis of the adducts

    PubMed Central

    Kusano, Shuhei; Ishiyama, Shogo; Lam, Sik Lok; Mashima, Tsukasa; Katahira, Masato; Miyamoto, Kengo; Aida, Misako; Nagatsugi, Fumi

    2015-01-01

    DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are the primary mechanism for the cytotoxic activity of many clinical anticancer drugs, and numerous strategies for forming ICLs have been developed. One such method is using crosslink-forming oligonucleotides (CFOs). In this study, we designed a 4-amino-6-oxo-2-vinylpyrimidine (AOVP) derivative with an acyclic spacer to react selectively with guanine. The AOVP CFO exhibited selective crosslinking reactivity with guanine and thymine in DNA, and with guanine in RNA. These crosslinking reactions with guanine were accelerated in the presence of CoCl2, NiCl2, ZnCl2 and MnCl2. In addition, we demonstrated that the AOVP CFO was reactive toward 8-oxoguanine opposite AOVP in the duplex DNA. The structural analysis of each guanine and 8-oxoguanine adduct in the duplex DNA was investigated by high-resolution NMR. The results suggested that AOVP reacts at the N2 amine in guanine and at the N1 or N2 amines in 8-oxoguanine in the duplex DNA. This study demonstrated the first direct determination of the adduct structure in duplex DNA without enzyme digestion. PMID:26245348

  12. Structural basis for profilin-mediated actin nucleotide exchange

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Jason C.; Borgstahl, Gloria E.O.

    2015-01-01

    Actin is a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein that is responsible for cellular scaffolding, motility and division. The ability of actin to form a helical filament is the driving force behind these cellular activities. Formation of a filament is dependent the successful exchange of actin’s ADP for ATP. Mammalian profilin is a small actin binding protein that catalyzes the exchange of nucleotide and facilitates the addition of an actin monomer to a growing filament. Here, crystal structures of profilin:actin have been determined showing an actively exchanging ATP. The structural analysis shows how the binding of profilin to the barbed end of actin causes a rotation of the small domain relative to the large domain. This conformational change is propagated to the ATP site and causes a shift in the nucleotide loops which in turn causes a repositioning of Ca2+ to its canonical position as the cleft closes around ATP. Reversing the solvent exposure of Trp-356 is also involved in cleft closure. In addition, secondary calcium binding sites were identified. PMID:22366544

  13. Structural Basis for Nucleotide Exchange in Heterotrimeric G Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Ron O.; Mildorf, Thomas J.; Hilger, Daniel; Manglik, Aashish; Borhani, David W.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Philippsen, Ansgar; Villanueva, Nicolas; Yang, Zhongyu; Lerch, Michael T.; Hubbell, Wayne L.; Kobilka, Brian K.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Shaw, David E.

    2016-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) relay diverse extracellular signals into cells by catalyzing nucleotide release from heterotrimeric G proteins, but the mechanism underlying this quintessential molecular signaling event has remained unclear. Here we use atomic-level simulations to elucidate the nucleotide-release mechanism. We find that the G protein α subunit Ras and helical domains—previously observed to separate widely upon receptor binding to expose the nucleotide-binding site—separate spontaneously and frequently even in the absence of a receptor. Domain separation is necessary but not sufficient for rapid nucleotide release. Rather, receptors catalyze nucleotide release by favoring an internal structural rearrangement of the Ras domain that weakens its nucleotide affinity. We use double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy and protein engineering to confirm predictions of our computationally determined mechanism. PMID:26089515

  14. Increased mobility and on/off ratio in organic field-effect transistors using low-cost guanine-pentacene multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Zheng, Yifan; Taylor, André D.; Yu, Junsheng; Katz, Howard E.

    2017-07-01

    Layer-by-layer deposited guanine and pentacene in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is introduced. Through adjusting the layer thickness ratio of guanine and pentacene, the tradeoff of two electronic parameters in OFETs, charge carrier mobility and current on/off ratio, was controlled. The charge mobility was enhanced by depositing pentacene over and between guanine layers and by increasing the proportion of pentacene in the layer-by-layer system, while the current on/off ratio was increased via the decreased off current induced by the guanine layers. The tunable device performance was mainly ascribed to the trap and dopant neutralizing properties of the guanine layers, which would decrease the density of free hydroxyl groups in the OFETs. Furthermore, the cost of the devices could be reduced remarkably via the adoption of low-cost guanine.

  15. Cloning and expression of the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene from Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, T E; Ullman, B

    1993-01-01

    The hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) enzyme of Trypanosoma brucei and related parasites provides a rational target for the treatment of African sleeping sickness and several other parasitic diseases. To characterize the T. brucei HGPRT enzyme in detail, the T. brucei hgprt was isolated within a 4.2 kb SalI-KpnI genomic insert and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 630 bp that encoded a protein of 210 amino acids with a M(r) = 23.4 kd. After gap alignment, the T. brucei HGPRT exhibited 21-23% amino acid sequence identity, mostly in three clustered regions, with the HGPRTs from human, S. mansoni, and P falciparum, indicating that the trypanosome enzyme was the most divergent of the group. Surprisingly, the T. brucei HGPRT was more homologous to the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) from the prokaryote V. harveyi than to the eukaryotic HGPRTs. Northern blot analysis revealed two trypanosome transcripts of 1.4 and 1.9 kb, each expressed to equivalent degrees in insect vector and mammalian forms of the parasite. The T. brucei hgprt was inserted into an expression plasmid and transformed into S phi 606 E. coli that are deficient in both HPRT and xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activities. Soluble, enzymatically active recombinant T. brucei HGPRT was expressed to high levels and purified to homogeneity by GTP-agarose affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant enzyme recognized hypoxanthine, guanine, and allopurinol, but not xanthine or adenine, as substrates and was inhibited by a variety of nucleotide effectors. The availability of a molecular clone encoding the T. brucei hgprt and large quantities of homogeneous recombinant HGPRT enzyme provides an experimentally manipulable molecular and biochemical system for the rational design of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of African sleeping sickness and other diseases of parasitic origin. Images PMID:8265360

  16. Silver (I) as DNA glue: Ag+-mediated guanine pairing revealed by removing Watson-Crick constraints

    PubMed Central

    Swasey, Steven M.; Leal, Leonardo Espinosa; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Pavlovich, James; Gwinn, Elisabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    Metal ion interactions with DNA have far-reaching implications in biochemistry and DNA nanotechnology. Ag+ is uniquely interesting because it binds exclusively to the bases rather than the backbone of DNA, without the toxicity of Hg2+. In contrast to prior studies of Ag+ incorporation into double-stranded DNA, we remove the constraints of Watson-Crick pairing by focusing on homo-base DNA oligomers of the canonical bases. High resolution electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry reveals an unanticipated Ag+-mediated pairing of guanine homo-base strands, with higher stability than canonical guanine-cytosine pairing. By exploring unrestricted binding geometries, quantum chemical calculations find that Ag+ bridges between non-canonical sites on guanine bases. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that the Ag+-mediated structuring of guanine homobase strands persists to at least 90 °C under conditions for which canonical guanine-cytosine duplexes melt below 20 °C. These findings are promising for DNA nanotechnology and metal-ion based biomedical science. PMID:25973536

  17. Silver (I) as DNA glue: Ag(+)-mediated guanine pairing revealed by removing Watson-Crick constraints.

    PubMed

    Swasey, Steven M; Leal, Leonardo Espinosa; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Pavlovich, James; Gwinn, Elisabeth G

    2015-05-14

    Metal ion interactions with DNA have far-reaching implications in biochemistry and DNA nanotechnology. Ag(+) is uniquely interesting because it binds exclusively to the bases rather than the backbone of DNA, without the toxicity of Hg(2+). In contrast to prior studies of Ag(+) incorporation into double-stranded DNA, we remove the constraints of Watson-Crick pairing by focusing on homo-base DNA oligomers of the canonical bases. High resolution electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry reveals an unanticipated Ag(+)-mediated pairing of guanine homo-base strands, with higher stability than canonical guanine-cytosine pairing. By exploring unrestricted binding geometries, quantum chemical calculations find that Ag(+) bridges between non-canonical sites on guanine bases. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that the Ag(+)-mediated structuring of guanine homobase strands persists to at least 90 °C under conditions for which canonical guanine-cytosine duplexes melt below 20 °C. These findings are promising for DNA nanotechnology and metal-ion based biomedical science.

  18. Fluorescent Sensing of Guanine and Guanosine Monophosphate with Conjugated Receptors Incorporating Aniline and Naphthyridine Moieties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-Hung; Phang, Riping; Fang, Jim-Min

    2016-04-15

    Ethyne-linked naphthyridine-aniline conjugated molecules are selective sensors of decylguanine in dichloromethane and guanosine monophosphate in water (Kass = 16,000 M(-1)). The 2-acetamido-1,8-naphthyridine moiety binds with guanine in a DAA-ADD triply hydrogen-bonded motif. The aniline moiety enhances an electron-donating effect, and the substituent is tuned to attain extra hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking, and electrostatic interactions. The proposed binding modes are supported by a Job plot, ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectral analyses.

  19. Acyclic phosph(on)ate inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Clinch, Keith; Crump, Douglas R.; Evans, Gary B.; Hazleton, Keith Z.; Mason, Jennifer M.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenic protozoa responsible for malaria lack enzymes for the de novo synthesis of purines and rely on purine salvage from the host. In Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) converts hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate and is essential for purine salvage making the enzyme an anti-malarial drug target. We have synthesized a number of simple acyclic aza-C- nucleosides and shown that some are potent inhibitors of Pf HGXPRT while showing excellent selectivity for the Pf versus the human enzyme. PMID:23810424

  20. Probing the structure of RecA-DNA filaments. Advantages of a fluorescent guanine analog.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Scott F; Roca, Alberto I; Lee, Andrew M; Xiao, Jie

    2007-04-23

    The RecA protein of Escherichia coli plays a crucial roles in DNA recombination and repair, as well as various aspects of bacterial pathogenicity. The formation of a RecA-ATP-ssDNA complex initiates all RecA activities and yet a complete structural and mechanistic description of this filament has remained elusive. An analysis of RecA-DNA interactions was performed using fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides. A direct comparison was made between fluorescein and several fluorescent nucleosides. The fluorescent guanine analog 6-methylisoxanthopterin (6MI) demonstrated significant advantages over the other fluorophores and represents an important new tool for characterizing RecA-DNA interactions.

  1. Monitoring one-electron photo-oxidation of guanine in DNA crystals using ultrafast infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, James P.; Poynton, Fergus E.; Keane, Páraic M.; Gurung, Sarah P.; Brazier, John A.; Cardin, David J.; Winter, Graeme; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur; Sazanovich, Igor V.; Towrie, Michael; Cardin, Christine J.; Kelly, John M.; Quinn, Susan J.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the molecular origins of diseases caused by ultraviolet and visible light, and also to develop photodynamic therapy, it is important to resolve the mechanism of photoinduced DNA damage. Damage to DNA bound to a photosensitizer molecule frequently proceeds by one-electron photo-oxidation of guanine, but the precise dynamics of this process are sensitive to the location and the orientation of the photosensitizer, which are very difficult to define in solution. To overcome this, ultrafast time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy was performed on photoexcited ruthenium polypyridyl-DNA crystals, the atomic structure of which was determined by X-ray crystallography. By combining the X-ray and TRIR data we are able to define both the geometry of the reaction site and the rates of individual steps in a reversible photoinduced electron-transfer process. This allows us to propose an individual guanine as the reaction site and, intriguingly, reveals that the dynamics in the crystal state are quite similar to those observed in the solvent medium.

  2. A multi-functional guanine derivative for studying the DNA G-quadruplex structure.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Takumi; Zhao, Pei-Yan; Bao, Hong-Liang; Xu, Yan

    2017-10-23

    In the present study, we developed a multi-functional guanine derivative, 8F G, as a G-quadruplex stabilizer, a fluorescent probe for the detection of G-quadruplex formation, and a 19 F sensor for the observation of the G-quadruplex. We demonstrate that the functional nucleoside bearing a 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene group at the 8-position of guanine stabilizes the DNA G-quadruplex structure and fluoresces following the G-quadruplex formation. Furthermore, we show that the functional sensor can be used to directly observe DNA G-quadruplexes by 19 F-NMR in living cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the nucleoside derivative simultaneously allows for three kinds of functions at a single G-quadruplex DNA. Our results suggest that the multi-functional nucleoside derivative can be broadly used for studying the G-quadruplex structure and serves as a powerful tool for examining the molecular basis of G-quadruplex formation in vitro and in living cells.

  3. Monitoring one-electron photo-oxidation of guanine in DNA crystals using ultrafast infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hall, James P; Poynton, Fergus E; Keane, Páraic M; Gurung, Sarah P; Brazier, John A; Cardin, David J; Winter, Graeme; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur; Sazanovich, Igor V; Towrie, Michael; Cardin, Christine J; Kelly, John M; Quinn, Susan J

    2015-12-01

    To understand the molecular origins of diseases caused by ultraviolet and visible light, and also to develop photodynamic therapy, it is important to resolve the mechanism of photoinduced DNA damage. Damage to DNA bound to a photosensitizer molecule frequently proceeds by one-electron photo-oxidation of guanine, but the precise dynamics of this process are sensitive to the location and the orientation of the photosensitizer, which are very difficult to define in solution. To overcome this, ultrafast time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy was performed on photoexcited ruthenium polypyridyl-DNA crystals, the atomic structure of which was determined by X-ray crystallography. By combining the X-ray and TRIR data we are able to define both the geometry of the reaction site and the rates of individual steps in a reversible photoinduced electron-transfer process. This allows us to propose an individual guanine as the reaction site and, intriguingly, reveals that the dynamics in the crystal state are quite similar to those observed in the solvent medium.

  4. New investigations of the guanine trichloro cuprate(II) complex crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabijanić, Ivana; Matković-Čalogović, Dubravka; Pilepić, Viktor; Ivanišević, Irena; Mohaček-Grošev, Vlasta; Sanković, Krešimir

    2017-01-01

    Crystals of the guanine trichloro cuprate(II) complex, (HGua)2[Cu2Cl6]·2H2O (HGua = protonated guanine), were prepared and analysed by spectroscopic (IR, Raman) and computational methods. A new single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted to obtain data with lower standard uncertainties than those in the previously published structure. Raman and IR spectroscopy and quantum-mechanical analysis gave us new insight into the vibrational states of the (HGua)2[Cu2Cl6]·2H2O crystal. The vibrational spectra of the crystal were assigned by performing a normal coordinate analysis for a free dimer with a centre of inversion as the only symmetry element. The stretching vibration observed at 279 cm-1 in the infrared spectrum corresponds to the N-Cu bond. The noncovalent interaction (NCI) plots and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analysis of the electron density obtained from periodic DFT calculations elucidated the interactions that exist within the crystal structure. Closed-shell ionic attractions, as well as weak and medium strength hydrogen bonds, prevailed in the crystal packing.

  5. Cytosolic Na+ Controls an Epithelial Na+ Channel Via the Go Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Regulatory Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komwatana, P.; Dinudom, A.; Young, J. A.; Cook, D. I.

    1996-07-01

    In tight Na+-absorbing epithelial cells, the rate of Na+ entry through amiloride-sensitive apical membrane Na+ channels is matched to basolateral Na+ extrusion so that cell Na+ concentration and volume remain steady. Control of this process by regulation of apical Na+ channels has been attributed to changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration or pH, secondary to changes in cytosolic Na+ concentration, although cytosolic Cl- seems also to be involved. Using mouse mandibular gland duct cells, we now demonstrate that increasing cytosolic Na+ concentration inhibits apical Na+ channels independent of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, pH, or Cl-, and the effect is blocked by GDP-β -S, pertussis toxin, and antibodies against the α -subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Go). In contrast, the inhibitory effect of cytosolic anions is blocked by antibodies to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Gi1/Gi2. It thus appears that apical Na+ channels are regulated by Go and Gi proteins, the activities of which are controlled, respectively, by cytosolic Na+ and Cl-.

  6. Polymerase recognition of 2-thio-iso-guanine·5-methyl-4-pyrimidinone (iGs·P)--A new DD/AA base pair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kye; Switzer, Christopher

    2016-02-15

    Polymerase specificity is reported for a previously unknown base pair with a non-standard DD/AA hydrogen bonding pattern: 2-thio-iso-guanine·5-methyl-4-pyrimidinone. Our findings suggest that atomic substitution may provide a solution for low fidelity previously associated with enzymatic copying of iso-guanine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Catalysis in human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase: Asp 137 acts as a general acid/base.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Grubmeyer, C

    1998-03-24

    Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRTase) catalyzes the reversible formation of IMP and GMP from their respective bases hypoxanthine (Hx) and guanine (Gua) and the phosphoribosyl donor 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). The net formation and cleavage of the nucleosidic bond requires removal/addition of a proton at the purine moiety, allowing enzymic catalysis to reduce the energy barrier associated with the reaction. The pH profile of kcat for IMP pyrophosphorolysis revealed an essential acidic group with pKa of 7.9 whereas those for IMP or GMP formation indicated involvement of essential basic groups. Based on the crystal structure of human HGPRTase, protonation/deprotonation is likely to occur at N7 of the purine ring, and Lys 165 or Asp 137 are each candidates for the general base/acid. We have constructed, purified, and kinetically characterized two mutant HGPRTases to test this hypothesis. D137N displayed an 18-fold decrease in kcat for nucleotide formation with Hx as substrate, a 275-fold decrease in kcat with Gua, and a 500-fold decrease in kcat for IMP pyrophosphorolysis. D137N also showed lower KD values for nucleotides and PRPP. The pH profiles of kcat for D137N were severely altered. In contrast to D137N, the kcat for K165Q was decreased only 2-fold in the forward reaction and was slightly increased in the reverse reaction. The Km and KD values showed that K165Q interacts with substrates more weakly than does the wild-type enzyme. Pre-steady-state experiments with K165Q indicated that the phosphoribosyl transfer step was fast in the forward reaction, as observed with the wild type. In contrast, D137N showed slower phosphoribosyl transfer chemistry, although guanine (3000-fold reduction) was affected much more than hypoxanthine (32-fold reduction). In conclusion, Asp137 acts as a general catalytic acid/base for HGPRTase and Lys165 makes ground-state interactions with substrates.

  8. The Guanine Cation Radical: Investigation of Deprotonation States by ESR and DFT

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Becker, David; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports ESR studies that identify the favored site of deprotonation of the guanine cation radical (G•+) in an aqueous medium at 77 K. Using ESR and UV-visible spectroscopy, one-electron oxidized guanine is investigated in frozen aqueous D2O solutions of 2′-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) at low temperatures at various pHs at which the guanine cation, G•+ (pH 3–5), singly deprotonated species, G(-H)• (pH 7–9) and doubly deprotonated species, G(-2H)•− (pH>11) are found. C-8-deuteration of dGuo to give 8-D-dGuo removes the major proton hyperfine coupling at C-8. This isolates the anisotropic nitrogen couplings for each of the three species and aids our analyses. These anisotropic nitrogen couplings were assigned to specific nitrogen sites by use of 15N substituted derivatives at N1, N2 N3 atoms in dGuo. Both ESR and UV-visible spectra are reported for each of the species: G•+, G(-H)•, and G(-2H)•−. The experimental anisotropic ESR hyperfine couplings are compared to those obtained from DFT calculations for the various tautomers of G(-H)•. Using the B3LYP/6–31G(d) method, the geometries and energies of G•+ and its singly deprotonated state in its two tautomeric forms, G(N1-H)• and G(N2-H)•, were investigated. In a non-hydrated state G(N2-H)• is found to be more stable than G(N1-H)• but on hydration with 7 water molecules G(N1-H)• is found to be more stable than G(N2-H)•. The theoretically calculated hyperfine coupling constants (HFCC) of G•+, G(N1-H)• and G(-2H)•− match the experimentally observed HFCCs best on hydration with 7 or more waters. For G(-2H)•−, the hyperfine coupling constant (HFCC) at the exocyclic nitrogen atom (N2) is especially sensitive to the number of hydrating water molecules; good agreement with experiment is not obtained until 9 or 10 waters of hydration are included. PMID:17125389

  9. Mechanism of epoxide hydrolysis in microsolvated nucleotide bases adenine, guanine and cytosine: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, Kunduchi P; Mohan, Neetha; Ajitha, Manjaly J; Suresh, Cherumuttathu H

    2011-07-21

    Six water molecules have been used for microsolvation to outline a hydrogen bonded network around complexes of ethylene epoxide with nucleotide bases adenine (EAw), guanine (EGw) and cytosine (ECw). These models have been developed with the MPWB1K-PCM/6-311++G(3df,2p)//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level of DFT method and calculated S(N)2 type ring opening of the epoxide due to amino group of the nucleotide bases, viz. the N6 position of adenine, N2 position of guanine and N4 position of cytosine. Activation energy (E(act)) for the ring opening was found to be 28.06, 28.64, and 28.37 kcal mol(-1) respectively for EAw, EGw and ECw. If water molecules were not used, the reactions occurred at considerably high value of E(act), viz. 53.51 kcal mol(-1) for EA, 55.76 kcal mol(-1) for EG and 56.93 kcal mol(-1) for EC. The ring opening led to accumulation of negative charge on the developing alkoxide moiety and the water molecules around the charge localized regions showed strong hydrogen bond interactions to provide stability to the intermediate systems EAw-1, EGw-1 and ECw-1. This led to an easy migration of a proton from an activated water molecule to the alkoxide moiety to generate a hydroxide. Almost simultaneously, a proton transfer chain reaction occurred through the hydrogen bonded network of water molecules and resulted in the rupture of one of the N-H bonds of the quaternized amino group. The highest value of E(act) for the proton transfer step of the reaction was 2.17 kcal mol(-1) for EAw, 2.93 kcal mol(-1) for EGw and 0.02 kcal mol(-1) for ECw. Further, the overall reaction was exothermic by 17.99, 22.49 and 13.18 kcal mol(-1) for EAw, EGw and ECw, respectively, suggesting that the reaction is irreversible. Based on geometric features of the epoxide-nucleotide base complexes and the energetics, the highest reactivity is assigned for adenine followed by cytosine and guanine. Epoxide-mediated damage of DNA is reported in the literature and the present results suggest that

  10. Hydroxyl Radical (OH•) Reaction with Guanine in an Aqueous Environment: A DFT Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Pottiboyina, Venkata; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of hydroxyl radical (OH•) with DNA accounts for about half of radiation-induced DNA damage in living systems. Previous literature reports point out that the reaction of OH• with DNA proceeds mainly through the addition of OH• to the C=C bond of the DNA bases. However, recently it has been reported that the principal reaction of OH• with dGuo (deoxyguanosine) is the direct hydrogen atom abstraction from its exocyclic amine group rather than addition of OH• to the C=C bond. In the present work, these two reaction pathways of OH• attack on guanine (G) in the presence of water molecules (aqueous environment) are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-31G* and 6-31++G** basis sets. The calculations show that the initial addition of the OH• at C4=C5 double bond of guanine is barrier free and the adduct radical (G-OH•) has only a small activation barrier of ca. 1 – 6 kcal/mol leading to the formation of a metastable ion-pair intermediate (G•+---OH−). The formation of ion-pair is a result of the highly oxidizing nature of the OH• in aqueous media. The resulting ion-pair (G•+---OH−) deprotonates to form H2O and neutral G radicals favoring G(N1-H)• with an activation barrier of ca. 5 kcal/mol. The overall process from the G(C4)-OH• (adduct) to G(N1-H)• and water is found to be exothermic in nature by more than 13 kcal/mol. (G-OH•), (G•+---OH−), and G(N1-H)• were further characterized by the CAM-B3LYP calculations of their UV-visible spectra and good agreement between theory and experiment is achieved. Our calculations for the direct hydrogen abstraction pathway from N1 and N2 sites of guanine by the OH• show that this is also a competitive route to produce G(N2-H)•, G(N1-H)• and H2O. PMID:22050033

  11. Ligand Selectivity Mechanism and Conformational Changes in Guanine Riboswitch by Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Free Energy Calculations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guodong; Ma, Aijing; Wang, Jihua

    2017-04-24

    Riboswitches regulate gene expression through direct and specific interactions with small metabolite molecules. Binding of a ligand to its RNA target is high selectivity and affinity and induces conformational changes of the RNA's secondary and tertiary structure. The structural difference of two purine riboswitches aptamers is caused by only one single mutation, where cytosine 74 in the guanine riboswitch is corresponding to a uracil 74 in adenine riboswitch. Here we employed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) and thermodynamic integration computational methodologies to evaluate the energetic and conformational changes of ligands binding to purine riboswitches. The snapshots used in MM-PBSA calculation were extracted from ten 50 ns MD simulation trajectories for each complex. These free energy results are in consistent with the experimental data and rationalize the selectivity of the riboswitches for different ligands. In particular, it is found that the loss in binding free energy upon mutation is mainly electrostatic in guanine (GUA) and riboswitch complex. Furthermore, new hydrogen bonds are found in mutated complexes. To reveal the conformational properties of guanine riboswitch, we performed a total of 6 μs MD simulations in both the presence and the absence of the ligand GUA. The MD simulations suggest that the conformation of guanine riboswitch depends on the distance of two groups in the binding pocket of ligand. The conformation is in a close conformation when U51-A52 is close to C74-U75.

  12. Examination of the effect of the annealing cation on higher order structures containing guanine or isoguanine repeats

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Sarah E.; Wang, Junmei; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    Isoguanine (2-oxo-6-amino-guanine), a natural but non-standard base, exhibits unique self-association properties compared to its isomer, guanine, and results in formation of different higher order DNA structures. In this work, the higher order structures formed by oligonucleotides containing guanine repeats or isoguanine repeats after annealing in solutions containing various cations are evaluated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The guanine-containing strand (G9) consistently formed quadruplexes upon annealing, whereas the isoguanine strand (Ig9) formed both pentaplexes and quadruplexes depending on the annealing cation. Quadruplex formation with G9 showed some dependence on the identity of the cation present during annealing with high relative quadruplex formation detected with six of ten cations. Analogous annealing experiments with Ig9 resulted in complex formation with all ten cations, and the majority of the resulting complexes were pentaplexes. CD results indicated most of the original complexes survived the desalting process necessary for ESI-MS analysis. In addition, several complexes, especially the pentaplexes, were found to be capable of cation exchange with ammonium ions. Ab initio calculations were conducted for isoguanine tetrads and pentads coordinated with all ten cations to predict the most energetically stable structures of the complexes in the gas phase. The observed preference of forming quadruplexes versus pentaplexes as a function of the coordinated cation can be interpreted by the calculated reaction energies of both the tetrads and pentads in combination with the distortion energies of tetrads. PMID:19746468

  13. Structural Transformation of Guanine Coordination Motifs in Water Induced by Metal ions and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Jin, Jing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Li

    2018-06-15

    The transformation effects of metal ions and temperature on the DNA bases guanine (G) metal-organic coordination motifs in water have been investigated by scanning tunneling microcopy (STM). The G molecules form an ordered hydrogen-bonded structure at the water- highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) interface. The STM observations reveal that the canonical G/9H form can be transformed into the G/(3H, 7H) tautomer by increasing the temperature of the G solution to 38.6oC. Moreover, metal ions bind with G molecules to form G4Fe13+, G3Fe32+ and the heterochiral intermixed G4Na1+ metal-organic networks after the introduction of the alkali-metal ions in cellular environment.

  14. An experimental and theoretical core-level study of tautomerism in guanine.

    PubMed

    Plekan, Oksana; Feyer, Vitaliy; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Vall-Llosera, Gemma; Prince, Kevin C; Trofimov, Alexander B; Zaytseva, Irina L; Moskovskaya, Tatyana E; Gromov, Evgeniy V; Schirmer, Jochen

    2009-08-20

    The core level photoemission and near edge X-ray photoabsorption spectra of guanine in the gas phase have been measured and the results interpreted with the aid of high level ab initio calculations. Tautomers are clearly identified spectroscopically, and their relative free energies and Boltzmann populations at the temperature of the experiment (600 K) have been calculated and compared with the experimental results and with previous calculations. We obtain good agreement between experiment and the Boltzmann weighted theoretical photoemission spectra, which allows a quantitative determination of the ratio of oxo to hydroxy tautomer populations. For the photoabsorption spectra, good agreement is found for the C 1s and O 1s spectra but only fair agreement for the N 1s edge.

  15. Surface-Enhanced Hyper-Raman Spectra of Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Using picosecond excitation at 1064 nm, surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering (SEHRS) spectra of the nucleobases adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil with two different types of silver nanoparticles were obtained. Comparing the SEHRS spectra with SERS data from the identical samples excited at 532 nm and with known infrared spectra, the major bands in the spectra are assigned. Due to the different selection rules for the one- and two-photon excited Raman scattering, we observe strong variation in relative signal strengths of many molecular vibrations obtained in SEHRS and SERS spectra. The two-photon excited spectra of the nucleobases are found to be very sensitive with respect to molecule–nanoparticle interactions. Using both the SEHRS and SERS data, a comprehensive vibrational characterization of the interaction of nucleobases with silver nanostructures can be achieved. PMID:28077982

  16. Acyclic Immucillin Phosphonates. Second-Generation Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Hypoxanthine- Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, Keith Z.; Ho, Meng-Chaio; Cassera, Maria B.

    We found that Plasmodium falciparum is the primary cause of deaths from malaria. It is a purine auxotroph and relies on hypoxanthine salvage from the host purine pool. Purine starvation as an antimalarial target has been validated by inhibition of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Hypoxanthine depletion kills Plasmodium falciparum in cell culture and in Aotus monkey infections. Hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) from P. falciparum is required for hypoxanthine salvage by forming inosine 5'-monophosphate, a branchpoint for all purine nucleotide synthesis in the parasite. We present a class of HGXPRT inhibitors, the acyclic immucillin phosphonates (AIPs), and cell permeable AIP prodrugs. The AIPsmore » are simple, potent, selective, and biologically stable inhibitors. The AIP prodrugs block proliferation of cultured parasites by inhibiting the incorporation of hypoxanthine into the parasite nucleotide pool and validates HGXPRT as a target in malaria.« less

  17. The formation of DNA sugar radicals from photoexcitation of guanine cation radicals.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Lata I; Pazdro, Robert; Huang, James; DeVreugd, Christopher; Becker, David; Sevilla, Michael D

    2004-05-01

    In this investigation of radical formation and reaction in gamma- irradiated DNA and model compounds, we report the conversion of the guanine cation radical (one-electron oxidized guanine, G(.+)) to the C1' sugar radical and another sugar radical at the C3' or C4' position (designated C3'(.)/C4'(.)) by visible and UV photolysis. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic investigations were performed on salmon testes DNA as well as 5'-dGMP, 3'-dGMP, 2'-deoxyguanosine and other nucleosides/nucleotides as model systems. DNA samples (25- 150 mg/ml D(2)O) were prepared with Tl(3+) or Fe(CN)(3-)(6) as electron scavengers. Upon gamma irradiation of such samples at 77 K, the electron-gain path in the DNA is strongly suppressed and predominantly G(.+) is found; after UV or visible photolysis, the fraction of the C1' sugar radical increases with a concomitant reduction in the fraction of G(.+). In model systems, 3'- dGMP(+.) and 5'-dGMP(+.) were produced by attack of Cl(.-)(2) on the parent nucleotide in 7 M LiCl glass. Subsequent visible photolysis of the 3'-dGMP(+.) (77 K) results predominantly in formation of C1'(.) whereas photolysis of 5'-dGMP(+.) results predominantly in formation of C3'(.)/C4'(.). We propose that sugar radical formation is a result of delocalization of the hole in the electronically excited base cation radical into the sugar ring, followed by deprotonation at specific sites on the sugar.

  18. Stability of the guanine endoperoxide intermediate: a computational challenge for density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Grüber, Raymond; Monari, Antonio; Dumont, Elise

    2014-12-11

    The addition of singlet molecular oxygen (1)O2 onto guanine is a most important and deleterious reaction in biological damage. We assess the efficiency of density functional theory for evaluating the respective stabilities of two intermediates that can form upon (1)O2 addition: a charge-separated adduct with a peroxide anion at the C8 position of guanine, and the corresponding cyclic endoperoxide across the 4,8-bond, of the imidazole ring. The reference post Hartree-Fock SCS-MP3/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/DZP++ level of theory provides an unambiguous assignment in favor of the endoperoxide intermediate, based on implicitly solvated structures, by -8.0 kcal·mol(-1). This value is taken as the reference for a systematic and extended benchmarck performed on 58 exchange--correlation functionals. While B3LYP remains commonly used for studying oxidative DNA lesions, we prove that the stability of the peroxide anion is overestimated by this functional, but also by other commonly used exchange-correlation functionals. The significant error (ca. +3 kcal·mol(-1) over a representative set of 58 functionals) arises from overdelocalization but also from the description of the dynamic correlation by the density functional. The significantly improved performance of several recently proposed functionals, including range-separated hybrids such as LC-BLYP, is outlined. We believe that our results will be of great help to further studies on the versatile chemistry of singlet oxygen-induced DNA damage, where complex reaction mechanisms are required to be depicted at a quantum level.

  19. Guanine nucleotide regulatory protein co-purifies with the D/sub 2/-dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Senogles, S.E.; Caron, M.G.

    1986-05-01

    The D/sub 2/-dopamine receptor from bovine anterior pituitary was purified approx.1000 fold by affinity chromatography on CMOS-Sepharose. Reconstitution of the affinity-purified receptor into phospholipid vesicles revealed the presence of high and low affinity agonist sites as detected by N-n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) competition experiments with /sup 3/H-spiperone. High affinity agonist binding could be converted to the low affinity form by guanine nucleotides, indicating the presence of an endogenous guanine nucleotide binding protein (N protein) in the affinity-purified D/sub 2/ receptor preparations. Furthermore, this preparation contained an agonist-sensitive GTPase activity which was stimulated 2-3 fold over basal by 10 ..mu..M NPA. /sup 35/S-GTP..gamma..Smore » binding to these preparations revealed a stoichiometry of 0.4-0.7 mole N protein/mole receptor, suggesting the N protein may be specifically coupled with the purified D/sub 2/-dopamine receptor and not present as a contaminant. Pertussis toxin treatment of the affinity purified receptor preparations prevented high affinity agonist binding, as well as agonist stimulation of the GTPase activity, presumably by inactivating the associated N protein. Pertussis toxin lead to the ADP-ribosylation of a protein of 39-40K on SDS-PAGE. These findings indicate that an endogenous N protein, N/sub i/ or N/sub o/, co-purifies with the D/sub 2/-dopamine receptor which may reflect a precoupling of this receptor with an N protein within the membranes.« less

  20. The flash-quench technique in protein-DNA electron transfer: reduction of the guanine radical by ferrocytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Stemp, E D; Barton, J K

    2000-08-21

    Electron transfer from a protein to oxidatively damaged DNA, specifically from ferrocytochrome c to the guanine radical, was examined using the flash-quench technique. Ru(phen)2dppz2+ (dppz = dipyridophenazine) was employed as the photosensitive intercalator, and ferricytochrome c (Fe3+ cyt c), as the oxidative quencher. Using transient absorption and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopies, we examined the electron-transfer reactions following photoexcitation of the ruthenium complex in the presence of poly(dA-dT) or poly(dG-dC). The luminescence-quenching titrations of excited Ru(phen)2dppz2+ by Fe3+ cyt c are nearly identical for the two DNA polymers. However, the spectral characteristics of the long-lived transient produced by the quenching depend strongly upon the DNA. For poly(dA-dT), the transient has a spectrum consistent with formation of a [Ru(phen)2dppz3+, Fe2+ cyt c] intermediate, indicating that the system regenerates itself via electron transfer from the protein to the Ru(III) metallointercalator for this polymer. For poly(dG-dC), however, the transient has the characteristics expected for an intermediate of Fe2+ cyt c and the neutral guanine radical. The characteristics of the transient formed with the GC polymer are consistent with rapid oxidation of guanine by the Ru(III) complex, followed by slow electron transfer from Fe2+ cyt c to the guanine radical. These experiments show that electron holes on DNA can be repaired by protein and demonstrate how the flash-quench technique can be used generally in studying electron transfer from proteins to guanine radicals in duplex DNA.

  1. Investigation of base pairs containing oxidized guanine using ab initio method and ABEEMσπ polarizable force field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Dongxia; Gong, Lidong; Yang, Zhongzhi

    2014-02-01

    The integrity of the genetic information is constantly threatened by oxidizing agents. Oxidized guanines have all been linked to different types of cancers. Theoretical approaches supplement the assorted experimental techniques, and bring new sight and opportunities to investigate the underlying microscopic mechanics. Unfortunately, there is no specific force field to DNA system including oxidized guanines. Taking high level ab initio calculations as benchmark, we developed the ABEEMσπ fluctuating charge force field, which uses multiple fluctuating charges per atom. And it was applied to study the energies, structures and mutations of base pairs containing oxidized guanines. The geometries were obtained in reference to other studies or using B3LYP/6-31+G* level optimization, which is more rational and timesaving among 24 quantum mechanical methods selected and tested by this work. The energies were determined at MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level with BSSE corrections. Results show that the constructed potential function can accurately simulate the change of H-bond and the buckled angle formed by two base planes induced by oxidized guanine, and it provides reliable information of hydrogen bonding, stacking interaction and the mutation processes. The performance of ABEEMσπ polarizable force field in predicting the bond lengths, bond angles, dipole moments etc. is generally better than those of the common force fields. And the accuracy of ABEEMσπ PFF is close to that of the MP2 method. This shows that ABEEMσπ model is a reliable choice for further research of dynamics behavior of DNA fragment including oxidized guanine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase hydrolyze guanine nucleotides and increase extracellular guanosine levels under serum restriction.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Camila Braz; Durgante, Juliano; de Oliveira, Rafael Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Victor Hugo Jacks Mendes; Rodrigues, Luiz Frederico; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Dos Santos, Odelta; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the aethiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The purinergic signaling pathway is mediated by extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides that are involved in many biological effects as neurotransmission, immunomodulation and inflammation. Extracellular nucleotides can be hydrolyzed by a family of enzymes known as ectonucleotidases including the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) family which hydrolyses nucleosides triphosphate and diphosphate as preferential substrates and ecto-5'-nucleotidase which catalyzes the conversion of monophosphates into nucleosides. In T. vaginalis the E-NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities upon adenine nucleotides have already been characterized in intact trophozoites but little is known concerning guanine nucleotides and nucleoside. These enzymes may exert a crucial role on nucleoside generation, providing the purine sources for the synthesis de novo of these essential nutrients, sustaining parasite growth and survival. In this study, we investigated the hydrolysis profile of guanine-related nucleotides and nucleoside in intact trophozoites from long-term-grown and fresh clinical isolates of T. vaginalis. Knowing that guanine nucleotides are also substrates for T. vaginalis ectoenzymes, we evaluated the profile of nucleotides consumption and guanosine uptake in trophozoites submitted to a serum limitation condition. Results show that guanine nucleotides (GTP, GDP, GMP) were substrates for T. vaginalis ectonucleotidases, with expected kinetic parameters for this enzyme family. Different T. vaginalis isolates (two from the ATCC and nine fresh clinical isolates) presented a heterogeneous hydrolysis profile. The serum culture condition increased E-NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities with high consumption of extracellular GTP generating enhanced GDP, GMP and guanosine levels as demonstrated by HPLC, with final

  3. Highly sensitive bacteria quantification using immunomagnetic separation and electrochemical detection of guanine-labeled secondary beads.

    PubMed

    Jayamohan, Harikrishnan; Gale, Bruce K; Minson, Bj; Lambert, Christopher J; Gordon, Neil; Sant, Himanshu J

    2015-05-22

    In this paper, we report the ultra-sensitive indirect electrochemical detection of E. coli O157:H7 using antibody functionalized primary (magnetic) beads for capture and polyguanine (polyG) oligonucleotide functionalized secondary (polystyrene) beads as an electrochemical tag. Vacuum filtration in combination with E. coli O157:H7 specific antibody modified magnetic beads were used for extraction of E. coli O157:H7 from 100 mL samples. The magnetic bead conjugated E. coli O157:H7 cells were then attached to polyG functionalized secondary beads to form a sandwich complex (magnetic bead/E. coli secondary bead). While the use of magnetic beads for immuno-based capture is well characterized, the use of oligonucleotide functionalized secondary beads helps combine amplification and potential multiplexing into the system. The antibody functionalized secondary beads can be easily modified with a different antibody to detect other pathogens from the same sample and enable potential multiplexing. The polyGs on the secondary beads enable signal amplification up to 10⁸ guanine tags per secondary bead (7.5 x 10⁶ biotin-FITC per secondary bead, 20 guanines per oligonucleotide) bound to the target (E. coli). A single-stranded DNA probe functionalized reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode was used to bind the polyGs on the secondary beads. Fluorescent imaging was performed to confirm the hybridization of the complex to the electrode surface. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to quantify the amount of polyG involved in the hybridization event with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)3(2+)) as the mediator. The amount of polyG signal can be correlated to the amount of E. coli O157:H7 in the sample. The method was able to detect concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 down to 3 CFU/100 mL, which is 67 times lower than the most sensitive technique reported in literature. The signal to noise ratio for this work was 3. We also demonstrate the use of the

  4. Rat L (long interspersed repeated DNA) elements contain guanine-rich homopurine sequences that induce unpairing of contiguous duplex DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Usdin, K; Furano, A V

    1988-01-01

    The L family (long interspersed repeated DNA) of mobile genetic elements is a persistent feature of the mammalian genome. In rats, this family contains approximately equal to 40,000 members and accounts for approximately equal to 10% of the haploid genome. We demonstrate here that the guanine-rich homopurine stretches located at the right end of L-DNA induce oligonucleotide uptake by contiguous duplex DNA. The uptake is dependent on negative supercoiling and the length of the homopurine stretch and occurs even when the L-DNA homopurine stretches are introduced into a different DNA environment. The bound oligomer primes DNA synthesis when DNA polymerase and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates are added, resulting in a faithful copy of the template to which the oligonucleotide had bound. The implications of this property of the L-DNA guanine-rich homopurine stretches in the amplification, recombination, and dispersal of L elements is discussed. Images PMID:2837766

  5. Detection of Guanine and Adenine Using an Aminated Reduced Graphene Oxide Functional Membrane-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Xiao, Bao-Lin; Geng, Fang-Yong; Hong, Jun; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    A new electrochemical sensor based on a Nafion, aminated reduced graphene oxide and chitosan functional membrane-modified glassy carbon electrode was proposed for the simultaneous detection of adenine and guanine. Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrochemical methods were utilized for the additional characterization of the membrane materials. The prepared electrode was utilized for the detection of guanine (G) and adenine (A). The anodic peak currents to G and A were linear in the concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 120 μM and 0.2 to 110 μM, respectively. The detection limits were found to be 0.1 μM and 0.2 μM, respectively. Moreover, the modified electrode could also be used to determine G and A in calf thymus DNA. PMID:28718793

  6. Structure of Radicals from X-irradiated Guanine Derivatives: An Experimental and Computational Study of Sodium Guanosine Dihydrate Single Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Jayatilaka, Nayana; Nelson, William H.

    2008-01-01

    In sodium guanosine dihydrate single crystals, the guanine moiety is deprotonated at N1 due to growth from high-pH (>12) solutions. EPR and ENDOR study of crystals x-irradiated at 10 K detected evidence for three radical forms. Radical R1,characterized by two proton and two nitrogen hyperfine interactions, was identified as the product of net hydrogenation at N7 of the N1-deprotonated guanine unit. R1 exhibited an unusually distorted structure leading to net positive isotropic components of the hydrogen couplings. Radical R2, characterized by one proton and one nitrogen hyperfine coupling was identified as the primary electron loss product. This product is equivalent to that of deprotonation at N1 by the guanine cation and represents the first ENDOR characterization of that product. Radical R3, characterized by a single hydrogen hyperfine coupling, was identified as the product of net dehydrogenation at C1 of the ribose moiety. The identification of radicals R1-R3 was supported by DFT calculations on several possible structures using the B3LYP/6-311G(2df,p)//6-31G(d,p) approach. Radical R4, detected after warming the crystals to room temperature, was identified as the well-known product of net hydrogenation of C8 of the (N1-deprotonated) guanine component. Radical R1, evidently formed by protonation of the primary electron addition product, was present as roughly 60% of the total radicals detected at 10 K. Radical R2 was present as roughly 27% of the total yield, and the concentration of R3 contributed the remaining 13%. R3 is evidently the product of oneelectron oxidation followed by deprotonation; thus, the balance of oxidation and reduction products is approximately equal within experimental uncertainty. PMID:17249824

  7. Ball with hair: modular functionalization of highly stable G-quadruplex DNA nano-scaffolds through N2-guanine modification

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Christopher Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Functionalized nanoparticles have seen valuable applications, particularly in the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents in biological systems. However, the manufacturing of such nano-scale systems with the consistency required for biological application can be challenging, as variation in size and shape have large influences in nanoparticle behavior in vivo. We report on the development of a versatile nano-scaffold based on the modular functionalization of a DNA G-quadruplex. DNA sequences are functionalized in a modular fashion using well-established phosphoramidite chemical synthesis with nucleotides containing modification of the amino (N2) position of the guanine base. In physiological conditions, these sequences fold into well-defined G-quadruplex structures. The resulting DNA nano-scaffolds are thermally stable, consistent in size, and functionalized in a manner that allows for control over the density and relative orientation of functional chemistries on the nano-scaffold surface. Various chemistries including small modifications (N2-methyl-guanine), bulky aromatic modifications (N2-benzyl-guanine), and long chain-like modifications (N2-6-amino-hexyl-guanine) are tested and are found to be generally compatible with G-quadruplex formation. Furthermore, these modifications stabilize the G-quadruplex scaffold by 2.0–13.3 °C per modification in the melting temperature, with concurrent modifications producing extremely stable nano-scaffolds. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by functionalizing nano-scaffolds for use within the biotin–avidin conjugation approach. PMID:28499037

  8. Ball with hair: modular functionalization of highly stable G-quadruplex DNA nano-scaffolds through N2-guanine modification.

    PubMed

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2017-06-20

    Functionalized nanoparticles have seen valuable applications, particularly in the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents in biological systems. However, the manufacturing of such nano-scale systems with the consistency required for biological application can be challenging, as variation in size and shape have large influences in nanoparticle behavior in vivo. We report on the development of a versatile nano-scaffold based on the modular functionalization of a DNA G-quadruplex. DNA sequences are functionalized in a modular fashion using well-established phosphoramidite chemical synthesis with nucleotides containing modification of the amino (N2) position of the guanine base. In physiological conditions, these sequences fold into well-defined G-quadruplex structures. The resulting DNA nano-scaffolds are thermally stable, consistent in size, and functionalized in a manner that allows for control over the density and relative orientation of functional chemistries on the nano-scaffold surface. Various chemistries including small modifications (N2-methyl-guanine), bulky aromatic modifications (N2-benzyl-guanine), and long chain-like modifications (N2-6-amino-hexyl-guanine) are tested and are found to be generally compatible with G-quadruplex formation. Furthermore, these modifications stabilize the G-quadruplex scaffold by 2.0-13.3 °C per modification in the melting temperature, with concurrent modifications producing extremely stable nano-scaffolds. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by functionalizing nano-scaffolds for use within the biotin-avidin conjugation approach. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Studies by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopies of Bonding Dynamics at the Graphene/Guanine Interface - A Proposal for High Mobility, Organic Graphene Field Effect Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0034 Studies by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopies of Bonding Dynamics at the Graphene /Guanine...Interface – A Proposal for High Mobility, Organic Graphene Field Effect Transistors Eva Campo BANGOR UNIVERSITY COLLEGE ROAD BANGOR...April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Studies by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopies of Bonding Dynamics at the Graphene /Guanine Interface - A

  10. Mutation at a distance caused by homopolymeric guanine repeats in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Michael J.; Yu, Yen-Hsin; Guo, Jheng-Fen; Chong, Shin Yen; Kao, Cheng-Fu; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Mutation provides the raw material from which natural selection shapes adaptations. The rate at which new mutations arise is therefore a key factor that determines the tempo and mode of evolution. However, an accurate assessment of the mutation rate of a given organism is difficult because mutation rate varies on a fine scale within a genome. A central challenge of evolutionary genetics is to determine the underlying causes of this variation. In earlier work, we had shown that repeat sequences not only are prone to a high rate of expansion and contraction but also can cause an increase in mutation rate (on the order of kilobases) of the sequence surrounding the repeat. We perform experiments that show that simple guanine repeats 13 bp (base pairs) in length or longer (G13+) increase the substitution rate 4- to 18-fold in the downstream DNA sequence, and this correlates with DNA replication timing (R = 0.89). We show that G13+ mutagenicity results from the interplay of both error-prone translesion synthesis and homologous recombination repair pathways. The mutagenic repeats that we study have the potential to be exploited for the artificial elevation of mutation rate in systems biology and synthetic biology applications. PMID:27386516

  11. QuadBase2: web server for multiplexed guanine quadruplex mining and visualization

    PubMed Central

    Dhapola, Parashar; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    DNA guanine quadruplexes or G4s are non-canonical DNA secondary structures which affect genomic processes like replication, transcription and recombination. G4s are computationally identified by specific nucleotide motifs which are also called putative G4 (PG4) motifs. Despite the general relevance of these structures, there is currently no tool available that can allow batch queries and genome-wide analysis of these motifs in a user-friendly interface. QuadBase2 (quadbase.igib.res.in) presents a completely reinvented web server version of previously published QuadBase database. QuadBase2 enables users to mine PG4 motifs in up to 178 eukaryotes through the EuQuad module. This module interfaces with Ensembl Compara database, to allow users mine PG4 motifs in the orthologues of genes of interest across eukaryotes. PG4 motifs can be mined across genes and their promoter sequences in 1719 prokaryotes through ProQuad module. This module includes a feature that allows genome-wide mining of PG4 motifs and their visualization as circular histograms. TetraplexFinder, the module for mining PG4 motifs in user-provided sequences is now capable of handling up to 20 MB of data. QuadBase2 is a comprehensive PG4 motif mining tool that further expands the configurations and algorithms for mining PG4 motifs in a user-friendly way. PMID:27185890

  12. Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Palella, T.D.; Silverman, L.J.; Schroll, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolationmore » of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.« less

  13. Quenching of light flickering in synthetic guanine crystals in aqueous solutions under strong static magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mootha, A.; Takanezawa, Y.; Iwasaka, M.

    2018-05-01

    The present study focused on the vibration of micro crystal particles of guanine due to Brownian motion. The organic particle has a refractive index of 1.83 and caused a flickering of light. To test the possibility of using magnetic properties under wet conditions, changes in the frequency of particle vibration by applying magnetic fields were investigated. At first, we found that the exposure at 5 T inhibited the flickering light intensities and the particle vibration slightly decreased. Next, we carried out a high speed camera measurement of the Brownian motion of the particle with a time resolution of 100 flame per second (fps) with and without magnetic field exposures. It was revealed that the vibrational speed of synthetic particles was enhanced at 500 mT. Detailed analyses of the particle vibration by changing the direction of magnetic fields versus the light source revealed that the Brownian motion's vibrational frequency was entrained under magnetic fields at 500 mT, and an increase in vibration speed to 20Hz was observed. Additional measurements of light scattering fluctuation using photo-detector and analyses on auto-correlation also confirmed this speculation. The studied Brownian vibration may be influenced by the change in mechanical interactions between the vibration particles and surrounding medium. The discovered phenomena can be applied for molecular and biological interactions in future studies.

  14. Guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3 is a potential prognosis indicator of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Dong, Shuang; Hu, Jiangfeng; Duan, Bensong; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ruiyun; Zhou, Hongmei; Sheng, Haihui; Gao, Hengjun; Li, Shunlong; Zhang, Xianwen

    2015-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3 (GNL3) is a GIP-binding nuclear protein that has been reported to be involved in various biological processes, including cell proliferation, cellular senescence and tumorigenesis. This study aimed to investigate the expression level of GNL3 in gastric cancer and to evaluate the relationship between its expression and clinical variables and overall survival of gastric cancer patients. The expression level of GNL3 was examined in 89 human gastric cancer samples using immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. GNL3 in gastric cancer tissues was significantly upregulated compared with paracancerous tissues. GNL3 expression in adjacent non-cancerous tissues was associated with sex and tumor size. Survival analyses showed that GNL3 expression in both gastric cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were not related to overall survival. However, in the subgroup of patients with larger tumor size (≥ 6 cm), a close association was found between GNL3 expression in gastric cancer tissues and overall survival. GNL3-positive patients had a shorter survival than GNL3-negative patients. Our study suggests that GNL3 might play an important role in the progression of gastric cancer and serve as a biomarker for poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients.

  15. Mapping Structurally Defined Guanine Oxidation Products along DNA Duplexes: Influence of Local Sequence Context and Endogenous Cytosine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA oxidation by reactive oxygen species is nonrandom, potentially leading to accumulation of nucleobase damage and mutations at specific sites within the genome. We now present the first quantitative data for sequence-dependent formation of structurally defined oxidative nucleobase adducts along p53 gene-derived DNA duplexes using a novel isotope labeling-based approach. Our results reveal that local nucleobase sequence context differentially alters the yields of 2,2,4-triamino-2H-oxal-5-one (Z) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (OG) in double stranded DNA. While both lesions are overproduced within endogenously methylated MeCG dinucleotides and at 5′ Gs in runs of several guanines, the formation of Z (but not OG) is strongly preferred at solvent-exposed guanine nucleobases at duplex ends. Targeted oxidation of MeCG sequences may be caused by a lowered ionization potential of guanine bases paired with MeC and the preferential intercalation of riboflavin photosensitizer adjacent to MeC:G base pairs. Importantly, some of the most frequently oxidized positions coincide with the known p53 lung cancer mutational “hotspots” at codons 245 (GGC), 248 (CGG), and 158 (CGC) respectively, supporting a possible role of oxidative degradation of DNA in the initiation of lung cancer. PMID:24571128

  16. Pressure-tuning infrared and Raman microscopy study of the DNA bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung Yun; Butler, Ian S

    2013-12-01

    Diamond-anvil cell, pressure-tuning infrared (IR), and Raman microspectroscopic measurements have been undertaken to examine the effects of high pressures up to about 45 kbar on the vibrational spectra of the four DNA bases, adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Small structural changes were evident for all the four bases, viz., for adenine and cytosine at 28-31 kbar; for guanine at 16-19 kbar; and for thymine at 25-26 kbar. These changes are most likely associated with alterations in the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions. The pressure dependences of the main peaks observed in the IR spectra of the two phases of guanine lie in the -0.07-0.66 (low-pressure phase) and 0.06-0.91 (high-pressure phase) cm⁻¹/kbar ranges. Also, in the Raman spectra of this nucleoside base, the dν/dP values range from -0.07-0.31 (low-pressure phase) to 0.08-0.50 (high-pressure phase) cm⁻¹/kbar. Similar ranges of dν/dP values were obtained for the other three nucleoside bases.

  17. Guanine limitation results in CodY-dependent and -independent alteration of Staphylococcus aureus physiology and gene expression.

    PubMed

    King, Alyssa N; Borkar, Samiksha; Samuels, David J; Batz, Zachary; Bulock, Logan; Sadykov, Marat R; Bayles, Kenneth W; Brinsmade, Shaun R

    2018-04-30

    In Staphylococcus aureus , the global transcriptional regulator CodY modulates the expression of hundreds of genes in response to the availability of GTP and the branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). CodY DNA-binding activity is high when GTP and ILV are abundant. When GTP and ILV are limited, CodY's affinity for DNA drops, altering expression of CodY regulated targets. In this work, we investigated the impact of guanine nucleotides on S. aureus physiology and CodY activity by constructing a guaA null mutant (Δ guaA ). De novo biosynthesis of guanine monophosphate is abolished due to the guaA mutation; thus, the mutant cells require exogenous guanosine for growth. We also found that CodY activity was reduced when we knocked out guaA , activating the Agr two-component system and increasing secreted protease activity. Notably, in a rich, complex medium, we detected an increase in alternative sigma factor B activity in the Δ guaA mutant, which results in a 5-fold increase in production of the antioxidant pigment staphyloxanthin. Under biologically relevant flow conditions, Δ guaA cells failed to form robust biofilms when limited for guanine or guanosine. RNA-seq analysis of S. aureus transcriptome during growth in guanosine-limited chemostats revealed substantial CodY-dependent and -independent alteration of gene expression profiles. Importantly, these changes increase production of proteases and δ-toxin, suggesting that S. aureus exhibits a more invasive lifestyle when limited for guanosine. Further, gene-products upregulated under GN limitation, including those necessary for lipoic acid biosynthesis and sugar transport, may prove to be useful drug targets for treating Gram-positive infections. Importance Staphylococcus aureus infections impose a serious economic burden on healthcare facilities and patients because of the emergence of strains resistant to last-line antibiotics. Understanding the physiological processes governing

  18. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein regulation of melatonin receptors in lizard brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkees, S.A.; Carlson, L.L.; Reppert, S.M.

    Melatonin receptors were identified and characterized in crude membrane preparations from lizard brain by using {sup 125}I-labeled melatonin ({sup 125}I-Mel), a potent melatonin agonist. {sup 125}I-Mel binding sites were saturable; Scatchard analysis revealed high-affinity and lower affinity binding sites, with apparent K{sub d} of 2.3 {plus minus} 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} M and 2.06 {plus minus} 0.43 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} M, respectively. Binding was reversible and inhibited by melatonin and closely related analogs but not by serotonin or norepinephrine. Treatment of crude membranes with the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-thio)triphosphate (GTP({gamma}S)), significantly reduced the number of high-affinity receptors and increasedmore » the dissociation rate of {sup 125}I-Mel from its receptor. Furthermore, GTP({gamma}S) treatment of ligand-receptor complexes solubilized by Triton X-100 also led to a rapid dissociation of {sup 125}I-Mel from solubilized ligand-receptor complexes. Gel filtration chromatography of solubilized ligand-receptor complexes revealed two major peaks of radioactivity corresponding to M{sub r} > 400,000 and M{sub r} ca. 110,000. This elution profile was markedly altered by pretreatment with GTP({gamma}S) before solubilization; only the M{sub r} 110,000 peak was present in GTP({gamma}S)-pretreated membranes. The results strongly suggest that {sup 125}I-mel binding sites in lizard brain are melatonin receptors, with agonist-promoted guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupling and that the apparent molecular size of receptors uncoupled from G proteins is about 110,000.« less

  19. The selective phosphorylation of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Receptor-activated signal transduction pathways regulate the responsiveness of cells to external stimuli. These transduction pathways themselves are subject to regulation, most commonly by phosphorylation. Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G Proteins), as requisite signal transducing elements for many plasma membrane receptors, are considered likely targets for regulation by phosphorylation. Protein kinase C (PKC) has been shown to phosphorylate the {alpha} subunit of G{sub i} and other G proteins in solution. However, the occurrence of the phosphorylation of G{sub 1} within intact cells in response to activation of PKC has not been rigorously demonstrated. In this thesis, the extent to which themore » {alpha} subunits of G{sub i} undergo phosphorylation within human platelets in response to activation of PKC was examined by means of radiolabeling and immunoprecipitation. Incubation of platelets with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a potent activator of PKC, promoted the phosphorylation of several proteins within saponin-permeabilized and intact platelets incubated with ({gamma}{sup 32}P)ATP and ({sup 32}P)H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, respectively. None of the phosphoproteins, however, were precipitated by either of two antisera containing antibodies differing in specificities for epitopes within G{sub i{alpha}}-despite precipitation of a substantial fraction of the subunit itself. In contrast, other antisera, containing antibodies specific for the recently describe G{sub z{alpha}}, or antibodies for both G{sub z{alpha}} and G{sub i{alpha}}, precipitated a 40-kDa phosphoprotein.« less

  20. Deciphering the photochemical mechanisms describing the UV-induced processes occurring in solvated guanine monophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Altavilla, Salvatore F.; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Nenov, Artur; Conti, Irene; Rivalta, Ivan; Garavelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The photophysics and photochemistry of water-solvated guanine monophosphate (GMP) are here characterized by means of a multireference quantum-chemical/molecular mechanics theoretical approach (CASPT2//CASSCF/AMBER) in order to elucidate the main photo-processes occurring upon UV-light irradiation. The effect of the solvent and of the phosphate group on the energetics and structural features of this system are evaluated for the first time employing high-level ab initio methods and thoroughly compared to those in vacuo previously reported in the literature and to the experimental evidence to assess to which extent they influence the photoinduced mechanisms. Solvated electronic excitation energies of solvated GMP at the Franck-Condon (FC) region show a red shift for the ππ* La and Lb states, whereas the energy of the oxygen lone-pair nπ* state is blue-shifted. The main photoinduced decay route is promoted through a ring-puckering motion along the bright lowest-lying La state toward a conical intersection (CI) with the ground state, involving a very shallow stationary point along the minimum energy pathway in contrast to the barrierless profile found in gas-phase, the point being placed at the end of the minimum energy path (MEP) thus endorsing its ultrafast deactivation in accordance with time-resolved transient and photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. The role of the nπ* state in the solvated system is severely diminished as the crossings with the initially populated La state and also with the Lb state are placed too high energetically to partake prominently in the deactivation photo-process. The proposed mechanism present in solvated and in vacuo DNA/RNA chromophores validates the intrinsic photostability mechanism through CI-mediated non-radiative processes accompanying the bright excited-state population toward the ground state and subsequent relaxation back to the FC region. PMID:25941671

  1. Spiroiminodihydantoin lesions derived from guanine oxidation: structures, energetics, and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei; Shafirovich, Vladimir; Shapiro, Robert; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Broyde, Suse

    2005-04-26

    Reactive oxygen species present in the cell generate DNA damage. One of the major oxidation products of guanine in DNA, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, formed by loss of two electrons, is among the most extensively studied base lesions. The further removal of two electrons from this product can yield spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) R and S stereoisomers. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that the Sp stereoisomers are highly mutagenic, causing G --> T and G --> C transversions. Hence, they are of interest as examples of endogenous DNA damage that may initiate cancer. To interpret the mutagenic properties of the Sp lesions, an understanding of their structural properties is needed. To elucidate these structural effects, we have carried out computational investigations at the level of the Sp-modified base and nucleoside. At the base level, quantum mechanical geometry optimization studies have revealed exact mirror image symmetry of the R and S stereoisomers, with a near-perpendicular geometry of the two rings. At the nucleoside level, an extensive survey of the potential energy surface by molecular mechanics calculations using AMBER has provided three-dimensional potential energy maps. These maps reveal that the range and flexibility of the glycosidic torsion angles are significantly more restricted in both stereoisomeric adducts than in unmodified 2'-deoxyguanosine. The structural and energetic results suggest that the unusual geometric, steric, and hydrogen bonding properties of these lesions underlie their mutagenicity. In addition, stereoisomer-specific differences indicate the possibility that their processing by cellular replication and repair enzymes may be differentially affected by their absolute configuration.

  2. Amyloid Precursor Protein Translation Is Regulated by a 3’UTR Guanine Quadruplex

    PubMed Central

    Sharoni, Michal; Olson, Kalee; Sebastian, Neeraj P.; Ansaloni, Sara; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Akins, Michael R.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Saunders, Aleister J.

    2015-01-01

    A central event in Alzheimer’s disease is the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides generated by the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP overexpression leads to increased Aβ generation and Alzheimer’s disease in humans and altered neuronal migration and increased long term depression in mice. Conversely, reduction of APP expression results in decreased Aβ levels in mice as well as impaired learning and memory and decreased numbers of dendritic spines. Together these findings indicate that therapeutic interventions that aim to restore APP and Aβ levels must do so within an ideal range. To better understand the effects of modulating APP levels, we explored the mechanisms regulating APP expression focusing on post-transcriptional regulation. Such regulation can be mediated by RNA regulatory elements such as guanine quadruplexes (G-quadruplexes), non-canonical structured RNA motifs that affect RNA stability and translation. Via a bioinformatics approach, we identified a candidate G-quadruplex within the APP mRNA in its 3’UTR (untranslated region) at residues 3008–3027 (NM_201414.2). This sequence exhibited characteristics of a parallel G-quadruplex structure as revealed by circular dichroism spectrophotometry. Further, as with other G-quadruplexes, the formation of this structure was dependent on the presence of potassium ions. This G-quadruplex has no apparent role in regulating transcription or mRNA stability as wild type and mutant constructs exhibited equivalent mRNA levels as determined by real time PCR. Instead, we demonstrate that this G-quadruplex negatively regulates APP protein expression using dual luciferase reporter and Western blot analysis. Taken together, our studies reveal post-transcriptional regulation by a 3’UTR G-quadruplex as a novel mechanism regulating APP expression. PMID:26618502

  3. Vacuum-Ultraviolet photoionization studies of the microhydrationof DNA bases (Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine and Thymine)

    SciTech Connect

    Belau, L.; Wilson, K.R.; Leone, S.R.

    2007-01-22

    In this work, we report on a photoionization study of the microhydration of the four DNA bases. Gas-phase clusters of water with DNA bases [guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and thymine (T)] are generated via thermal vaporization of the bases and expansion of the resultant vapor in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single-photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves are recorded for the DNA bases and the following water (W) clusters: G, GW{sub n} (n = 1-3);more » C, CW{sub n} (n = 1-3); A, AW{sub n} (n = 1,2); and T, TW{sub n} (n = 1-3). Appearance energies (AE) are derived from the onset of these PIE curves (all energies in eV): G (8.1 {+-} 0.1), GW (8.0 {+-} 0.1), GW{sub 2} (8.0 {+-} 0.1), and GW{sub 3} (8.0); C (8.65 {+-} 0.05), CW (8.45 {+-} 0.05), CW{sub 2} (8.4 {+-} 0.1), and CW{sub 3} (8.3 {+-} 0.1); A (8.30 {+-} 0.05), AW (8.20 {+-} 0.05), and AW{sub 2} (8.1 {+-} 0.1); T (8.90 {+-} 0.05); and TW (8.75 {+-} 0.05), TW{sub 2} (8.6 {+-} 0.1), and TW{sub 3} (8.6 {+-} 0.1). The AEs of the DNA bases decrease slightly with the addition of water molecules (up to three) but do not converge to values found for photoinduced electron removal from DNA bases in solution.« less

  4. Vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization studies of the microhydration of DNA bases (guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine).

    PubMed

    Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R; Leone, Stephen R; Ahmed, Musahid

    2007-08-09

    In this work, we report on a photoionization study of the microhydration of the four DNA bases. Gas-phase clusters of water with DNA bases [guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and thymine (T)] are generated via thermal vaporization of the bases and expansion of the resultant vapor in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single-photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves are recorded for the DNA bases and the following water (W) clusters: G, GWn (n = 1-3); C, CWn (n = 1-3); A, AWn (n = 1,2); and T, TWn (n = 1-3). Appearance energies (AE) are derived from the onset of these PIE curves (all energies in eV): G (8.1 +/- 0.1), GW (8.0 +/- 0.1), GW2 (8.0 +/- 0.1), and GW3 (8.0); C (8.65 +/- 0.05), CW (8.45 +/- 0.05), CW2 (8.4 +/- 0.1), and CW3 (8.3 +/- 0.1); A (8.30 +/- 0.05), AW (8.20 +/- 0.05), and AW2 (8.1 +/- 0.1); T (8.90 +/- 0.05); and TW (8.75 +/- 0.05), TW2 (8.6 +/- 0.1), and TW3 (8.6 +/- 0.1). The AEs of the DNA bases decrease slightly with the addition of water molecules (up to three) but do not converge to values found for photoinduced electron removal from DNA bases in solution.

  5. Evolution of complete proteomes: guanine-cytosine pressure, phylogeny and environmental influences blend the proteomic architecture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Guanine-cytosine (GC) composition is an important feature of genomes. Likewise, amino acid composition is a distinct, but less valued, feature of proteomes. A major concern is that it is not clear what valuable information can be acquired from amino acid composition data. To address this concern, in-depth analyses of the amino acid composition of the complete proteomes from 63 archaea, 270 bacteria, and 128 eukaryotes were performed. Results Principal component analysis of the amino acid matrices showed that the main contributors to proteomic architecture were genomic GC variation, phylogeny, and environmental influences. GC pressure drove positive selection on Ala, Arg, Gly, Pro, Trp, and Val, and adverse selection on Asn, Lys, Ile, Phe, and Tyr. The physico-chemical framework of the complete proteomes withstood GC pressure by frequency complementation of GC-dependent amino acid pairs with similar physico-chemical properties. Gln, His, Ser, and Val were responsible for phylogeny and their constituted components could differentiate archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Environmental niche was also a significant factor in determining proteomic architecture, especially for archaea for which the main amino acids were Cys, Leu, and Thr. In archaea, hyperthermophiles, acidophiles, mesophiles, psychrophiles, and halophiles gathered successively along the environment-based principal component. Concordance between proteomic architecture and the genetic code was also related closely to genomic GC content, phylogeny, and lifestyles. Conclusions Large-scale analyses of the complete proteomes of a wide range of organisms suggested that amino acid composition retained the trace of GC variation, phylogeny, and environmental influences during evolution. The findings from this study will help in the development of a global understanding of proteome evolution, and even biological evolution. PMID:24088322

  6. Electron attachment to the guanine-cytosine nucleic acid base pair and the effects of monohydration and proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Jaeger, Heather M; Compaan, Katherine R; Schaefer, Henry F

    2012-05-17

    The guanine-cytosine (GC) radical anion and its interaction with a single water molecule is studied using ab initio and density functional methods. Z-averaged second-order perturbation theory (ZAPT2) was applied to GC radical anion for the first time. Predicted spin densities show that the radical character is localized on cytosine. The Watson-Crick monohydrated GC anion is compared to neutral GC·H2O, as well as to the proton-transferred analogue on the basis of structural and energetic properties. In all three systems, local minima are identified that correspond to water positioned in the major and minor grooves of macromolecular DNA. On the anionic surface, two novel structures have water positioned above or below the GC plane. On the neutral and anionic surfaces, the global minimum can be described as water interacting with the minor groove. These structures are predicted to have hydration energies of 9.7 and 11.8 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Upon interbase proton-transfer (PT), the anionic global minimum has water positioned in the major groove, and the hydration energy increases to 13.4 kcal mol(-1). PT GC·H2O(•-) has distonic character; the radical character resides on cytosine, while the negative charge is localized on guanine. The effects of proton transfer are further investigated through the computed adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of GC and monohydrated GC, and the vertical detachment energies (VDE) of the corresponding anions. Monohydration increases the AEAs and VDEs by only 0.1 eV, while proton-transfer increases the VDEs substantially (0.8 eV). The molecular charge distribution of monohydrated guanine-cytosine radical anion depends heavily on interbase proton transfer.

  7. Reactions of guanine with methyl chloride and methyl bromide: O6-methylation versus charge transfer complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Mishra, P. C.; Suhai, S.

    Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31+G* and B3LYP/AUG-cc-pVDZ levels was employed to study O6-methylation of guanine due to its reactions with methyl chloride and methyl bromide and to obtain explanation as to why the methyl halides cause genotoxicity and possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Geometries of the various isolated species involved in the reactions, reactant complexes (RCs), and product complexes (PCs) were optimized in gas phase. Transition states connecting the reactant complexes with the product complexes were also optimized in gas phase at the same levels of theory. The reactant complexes, product complexes, and transition states were solvated in aqueous media using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) of the self-consistent reaction field theory. Zero-point energy (ZPE) correction to total energy and the corresponding thermal energy correction to enthalpy were made in each case. The reactant complexes of the keto form of guanine with methyl chloride and methyl bromide in water are appreciably more stable than the corresponding complexes involving the enol form of guanine. The nature of binding in the product complexes was found to be of the charge transfer type (O6mG+ · X-, X dbond Cl, Br). Binding of HCl, HBr, and H2O molecules to the PCs obtained with the keto form of guanine did not alter the positions of the halide anions in the PCs, and the charge transfer character of the PCs was also not modified due to this binding. Further, the complexes obtained due to the binding of HCl, HBr, and H2O molecules to the PCs had greater stability than the isolated PCs. The reaction barriers involved in the formation of PCs were found to be quite high (?50 kcal/mol). Mechanisms of genotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis caused by the methyl halides appear to involve charge transfer-type complex formation. Thus the mechanisms of these processes involving the methyl halides appear to be quite different from those that involve the

  8. Development of a bacterial screen for novel hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase substrates.

    PubMed

    Shivashankar, K; Subbayya, I N; Balaram, H

    2001-10-01

    The lack of de novo purine biosynthesis in many parasitic protozoans makes the enzymes in the salvage of purines attractive chemotherapeutic targets. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) is a key enzyme for purine salvage and bacterial complementation screens for HGPRT inhibitors are known. The low KMS for purine bases makes purine analogs unattractive as competitive inhibitors for this enzyme. Despite the availability of many crystal structures of HGPRTs, it is only recently that selective inhibitors of the enzyme have been developed. Therefore, novel purine analogs which act as substrates for the HGPRT reaction and thereby inhibit downstream enzymes or get incorporated into the nucleotide pool are an attractive altenative for drug design. We have used a combination of two E. coli strains Sphi606 (ara, deltapro-gpt-lac, thi, hpt) and Sphi609 (ara, deltapro-gpt-lac, thi, hpt, pup, purH,J, strA) to identify inhibitors and substrates of HGPRT. E. coli Sphi609 is deficient in both de novo synthesis as well as salvage enzymes of purine nucleotide synthesis, while E. coli Sphi606 is deficient in salvage enzymes only. Hence, expression of functional HGPRTs in E. coli Sphi606 grown in minimal medium makes it susceptible to HGPRT substrates, which inhibit downstream processes. Growth of E. coli Sphi609 in minimal medium can be made conditional for the expression of a functional HGPRT and this growth would be susceptible to both HGPRT substrate analogs and inhibitors. A substance that strictly acts as an inhibitor will affect growth of transformed E. coli Sphi609 only. For this purpose, we compared the human and P. falciparum enzymes with known HGPRT substrate analogs. Our data with 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine and allopurinol show that these compounds act by being substrates for HGPRT. Our results with allopurinol suggest that it is a better substrate for P. falciparum HGXPRT than the human enzyme. Therefore, species-specific substrates can be tested

  9. Mode of action of (R)-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine against herpesviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, D M; Alderton, W K; Ellis, M R; Parmar, V; Miller, W H; Roberts, G B; Fyfe, J A; Gaillard, R; Ertl, P; Snowden, W

    1995-01-01

    The activity, metabolism, and mode of action of (R)-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine (H2G) against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) were studied. Compared to acyclovir (ACV), H2G has superior activity against VZV (50% inhibitory concentration of 2.3 microM) and Epstein-Barr virus (50% inhibitory concentration of 0.9 microM), comparable activity against HSV-1, and weaker activity against HSV-2. The antiviral effect on HSV-1 showed persistence after removal of compound. H2G was metabolized to its mono-, di- and triphosphate derivatives in virus-infected cells, with H2G-triphosphate being the predominant product. Only small amounts of H2G-triphosphate were detected in uninfected cells (1 to 10 pmol/10(6) cells), whereas the level in HSV-1-infected cells reached 1,900 pmol/10(6) cells. H2G was a substrate for all three viral thymidine kinases and could also be phosphorylated by mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase. The intracellular half-life of H2G-triphosphate varied in uninfected (2.5 h) and infected (HSV-1, 14 h; VZV, 3.7 h) cells but was always longer than the half-life of ACV-triphosphate (1 to 2 h). H2G-triphosphate inhibited HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV DNA polymerases competitively with dGTP (Ki of 2.8, 2.2, and 0.3 microM, respectively) but could not replace dGTP as a substrate in a polymerase assay. H2G was not an obligate chain terminator but would only support limited DNA chain extension. Only very small amounts of radioactivity, which were too low to be identified by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the digested DNA, could be detected in purified DNA from uninfected cells incubated with [3H]H2G. Thus, H2G acts as an anti-herpesvirus agent, particularly potent against VZV, by formation of high concentrations of relatively stable H2G-triphosphate, which is a potent inhibitor of the viral DNA polymerases. PMID:7486922

  10. Simultaneous protection of organic p- and n-channels in complementary inverter from aging and bias-stress by DNA-base guanine/Al2O3 double layer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junyeong; Hwang, Hyuncheol; Min, Sung-Wook; Shin, Jae Min; Kim, Jin Sung; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Lee, Hee Sung; Im, Seongil

    2015-01-28

    Although organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have various advantages of lightweight, low-cost, mechanical flexibility, and nowadays even higher mobility than amorphous Si-based FET, stability issue under bias and ambient condition critically hinder its practical application. One of the most detrimental effects on organic layer comes from penetrated atmospheric species such as oxygen and water. To solve such degradation problems, several molecular engineering tactics are introduced: forming a kinetic barrier, lowering the level of molecule orbitals, and increasing the band gap. However, direct passivation of organic channels, the most promising strategy, has not been reported as often as other methods. Here, we resolved the ambient stability issues of p-type (heptazole)/or n-type (PTCDI-C13) OFETs and their bias-stability issues at once, using DNA-base small molecule guanine (C5H5N5O)/Al2O3 bilayer. The guanine protects the organic channels as buffer/and H getter layer between the channels and capping Al2O3, whereas the oxide capping resists ambient molecules. As a result, both p-type and n-type OFETs are simultaneously protected from gate-bias stress and 30 days-long ambient aging, finally demonstrating a highly stable, high-gain complementary-type logic inverter.

  11. Multiscale QM/MM molecular dynamics study on the first steps of guanine damage by free hydroxyl radicals in solution.

    PubMed

    Abolfath, Ramin M; Biswas, P K; Rajnarayanam, R; Brabec, Thomas; Kodym, Reinhard; Papiez, Lech

    2012-04-19

    Understanding the damage of DNA bases from hydrogen abstraction by free OH radicals is of particular importance to understanding the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. Previous studies address the problem with truncated DNA bases as ab initio quantum simulations required to study such electronic-spin-dependent processes are computationally expensive. Here, for the first time, we employ a multiscale and hybrid quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical simulation to study the interaction of OH radicals with a guanine-deoxyribose-phosphate DNA molecular unit in the presence of water, where all of the water molecules and the deoxyribose-phosphate fragment are treated with the simplistic classical molecular mechanical scheme. Our result illustrates that the presence of water strongly alters the hydrogen-abstraction reaction as the hydrogen bonding of OH radicals with water restricts the relative orientation of the OH radicals with respect to the DNA base (here, guanine). This results in an angular anisotropy in the chemical pathway and a lower efficiency in the hydrogen-abstraction mechanisms than previously anticipated for identical systems in vacuum. The method can easily be extended to single- and double-stranded DNA without any appreciable computational cost as these molecular units can be treated in the classical subsystem, as has been demonstrated here. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. Constructing a novel 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine electrochemical sensor and application in evaluating the oxidative damages of DNA and guanine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhipan; Liu, Xiuhui; Liu, Yuelin; Wu, Guofan; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2016-12-15

    8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is commonly identified as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage. In this work, a novel and facile 8-OHdG sensor was developed based on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). It exhibited good electrochemical responses toward the oxidation of 8-OHdG, and the linear ranges were 5.63×10(-8)-6.08×10(-6)M and 6.08×10(-6)-1.64×10(-5)M, with the detection limit of 1.88×10(-8)M (S/N=3). Moreover, the fabricated sensor was applied for the determination of 8-OHdG generated from damaged DNA and guanine, respectively, and the oxidation currents of 8-OHdG increased along with the damaged DNA and guanine within certain concentrations. These results could be used to evaluate the DNA damage, and provide useful information on diagnosing diseases caused by mutation and deficiency of the immunity system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A compositional segmentation of the human mitochondrial genome is related to heterogeneities in the guanine mutation rate

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, David C.; Boys, Richard J.; Henderson, Daniel A.; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2003-01-01

    We applied a hidden Markov model segmentation method to the human mitochondrial genome to identify patterns in the sequence, to compare these patterns to the gene structure of mtDNA and to see whether these patterns reveal additional characteristics important for our understanding of genome evolution, structure and function. Our analysis identified three segmentation categories based upon the sequence transition probabilities. Category 2 segments corresponded to the tRNA and rRNA genes, with a greater strand-symmetry in these segments. Category 1 and 3 segments covered the protein- coding genes and almost all of the non-coding D-loop. Compared to category 1, the mtDNA segments assigned to category 3 had much lower guanine abundance. A comparison to two independent databases of mitochondrial mutations and polymorphisms showed that the high substitution rate of guanine in human mtDNA is largest in the category 3 segments. Analysis of synonymous mutations showed the same pattern. This suggests that this heterogeneity in the mutation rate is partly independent of respiratory chain function and is a direct property of the genome sequence itself. This has important implications for our understanding of mtDNA evolution and its use as a ‘molecular clock’ to determine the rate of population and species divergence. PMID:14530452

  14. Development of a novel biosensing system based on the structural change of a polymerized guanine-quadruplex DNA nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yo; Yoshida, Wataru; Savory, Nasa; Han, Sung Woong; Tera, Masayuki; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Nakamura, Chikashi; Sode, Koji; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2011-08-15

    By inserting an adenosine aptamer into an aptamer that forms a G-quadruplex, we developed an adaptor molecule, named the Gq-switch, which links an electrode with flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) that is capable of transferring electron to a electrode directly. First, we selected an FADGDH-binding aptamer and identified that its sequence is composed of two blocks of consecutive six guanine bases and it forms a polymerized G-quadruplex structure. Then, we inserted a sequence of an adenosine aptamer between the two blocks of consecutive guanine bases, and we found it also bound to adenosine. Then we named it as Gq-switch. In the absence of adenosine, the Gq-switch-FADGDH complex forms a 30-nm high bulb-shaped structure that changes in the presence of adenosine to give an 8-nm high wire-shaped structure. This structural change brings the FADGDH sufficiently close to the electrode for electron transfer to occur, and the adenosine can be detected from the current produced by the FADGDH. Adenosine was successfully detected with a concentration dependency using the Gq-switch-FADGDH complex immobilized Au electrode by measuring response current to the addition of glucose. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Free terminal amines in DNA-binding peptides alter the product distribution from guanine radicals produced by single electron oxidation.

    PubMed

    Konigsfeld, Katie M; Lee, Melissa; Urata, Sarah M; Aguilera, Joe A; Milligan, Jamie R

    2012-03-01

    Electron deficient guanine radical species are major intermediates produced in DNA by the direct effect of ionizing irradiation. There is evidence that they react with amine groups in closely bound ligands to form covalent crosslinks. Crosslink formation is very poorly characterized in terms of quantitative rate and yield data. We sought to address this issue by using oligo-arginine ligands to model the close association of DNA and its binding proteins in chromatin. Guanine radicals were prepared in plasmid DNA by single electron oxidation. The product distribution derived from them was assayed by strand break formation after four different post-irradiation incubations. We compared the yields of DNA damage produced in the presence of four ligands in which neither, one, or both of the amino and carboxylate termini were blocked with amides. Free carboxylate groups were unreactive. Significantly higher yields of heat labile sites were observed when the amino terminus was unblocked. The rate of the reaction was characterized by diluting the unblocked amino group with its amide blocked derivative. These observations provide a means to develop quantitative estimates for the yields in which these labile sites are formed in chromatin by exposure to ionizing irradiation.

  16. Sensitive detection of mercury and copper ions by fluorescent DNA/Ag nanoclusters in guanine-rich DNA hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jun; Ling, Jian; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Bai, Hui-Ping; Zheng, Liyan; Cao, Qiu-E.; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we designed a new fluorescent oligonucleotides-stabilized silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) probe for sensitive detection of mercury and copper ions. This probe contains two tailored DNA sequence. One is a signal probe contains a cytosine-rich sequence template for AgNCs synthesis and link sequence at both ends. The other is a guanine-rich sequence for signal enhancement and link sequence complementary to the link sequence of the signal probe. After hybridization, the fluorescence of hybridized double-strand DNA/AgNCs is 200-fold enhanced based on the fluorescence enhancement effect of DNA/AgNCs in proximity of guanine-rich DNA sequence. The double-strand DNA/AgNCs probe is brighter and stable than that of single-strand DNA/AgNCs, and more importantly, can be used as novel fluorescent probes for detecting mercury and copper ions. Mercury and copper ions in the range of 6.0-160.0 and 6-240 nM, can be linearly detected with the detection limits of 2.1 and 3.4 nM, respectively. Our results indicated that the analytical parameters of the method for mercury and copper ions detection are much better than which using a single-strand DNA/AgNCs.

  17. Guanine oxidation signal enhancement in DNA via a polyacrylonitrile nanofiber-coated and cyclic voltammetry-treated pencil graphite electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aladag Tanik, Nilay; Demirkan, Elif; Aykut, Yakup

    2018-07-01

    This study investigated the electrochemical detection of specific nucleic acid hybridization sequences using a nanofiber-coated pencil graphite biosensor. The biosensor was developed to detect Val66Met single point mutations in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, which is frequently observed in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and bipolar disorder. The oxidation signal of the most electroactive and stable DNA base, i.e., guanine, was used at approximately +1.0 V. Pencil graphite electrode (PGE) surfaces were coated with polyacrylonitrile nanofibers by electrospinning. Cyclic voltammetry was applied to the nanofiber-coated PGE to pretreat its surfaces. The application of cyclic voltammetry to the nanofiber-coated PGE surfaces before attaching the probe yielded a four fold increase in the oxidation signal for guanine compared with that using the untreated and uncoated PGE surface. The signal reductions were 70% for hybridization, 10% for non-complementary binding, and 14% for a single mismatch compared with the probe. The differences in full match, non-complementary, and mismatch binding indicated that the biosensor selectively detected the target, and that it was possible to determine hybridization in about 65 min. The detection limit was 0.19 μg/ml at a target concentration of 10 ppm.

  18. Higher order structural effects stabilizing the reverse Watson–Crick Guanine-Cytosine base pair in functional RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Mohit; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The G:C reverse Watson–Crick (W:W trans) base pair, also known as Levitt base pair in the context of tRNAs, is a structurally and functionally important base pair that contributes to tertiary interactions joining distant domains in functional RNA molecules and also participates in metabolite binding in riboswitches. We previously indicated that the isolated G:C W:W trans base pair is a rather unstable geometry, and that dicationic metal binding to the Guanine base or posttranscriptional modification of the Guanine can increase its stability. Herein, we extend our survey and report on other H-bonding interactions that can increase the stability of this base pair. To this aim, we performed a bioinformatics search of the PDB to locate all the occurencies of G:C trans base pairs. Interestingly, 66% of the G:C trans base pairs in the PDB are engaged in additional H-bonding interactions with other bases, the RNA backbone or structured water molecules. High level quantum mechanical calculations on a data set of representative crystal structures were performed to shed light on the structural stability and energetics of the various crystallographic motifs. This analysis was extended to the binding of the preQ1 metabolite to a preQ1-II riboswitch. PMID:24121683

  19. Rotation of Guanine Amino Groups in G-Quadruplexes: A Probe for Local Structure and Ligand Binding.

    PubMed

    Adrian, Michael; Winnerdy, Fernaldo Richtia; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2017-08-22

    Nucleic acids are dynamic molecules whose functions may depend on their conformational fluctuations and local motions. In particular, amino groups are dynamic components of nucleic acids that participate in the formation of various secondary structures such as G-quadruplexes. Here, we present a cost-efficient NMR method to quantify the rotational dynamics of guanine amino groups in G-quadruplex nucleic acids. An isolated spectrum of amino protons from a specific tetrad-bound guanine can be extracted from the nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy spectrum based on the close proximity between the intra-residue imino and amino protons. We apply the method in different structural contexts of G-quadruplexes and their complexes. Our results highlight the role of stacking and hydrogen-bond interactions in restraining amino-group rotation. The measurement of the rotation rate of individual amino groups could give insight into the dynamic processes occurring at specific locations within G-quadruplex nucleic acids, providing valuable probes for local structure, dynamics, and ligand binding. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quadruplexes of human telomere dG{sub 3}(TTAG{sub 3}){sub 3} sequences containing guanine abasic sites

    SciTech Connect

    Skolakova, Petra; Bednarova, Klara; Vorlickova, Michaela

    Research highlights: {yields} Loss of a guanine base does not hinder the formation of G-quadruplex of human telomere sequence. {yields} Each depurination strongly destabilizes the quadruplex of dG{sub 3}(TTAG{sub 3}){sub 3} in NaCl and KCl. {yields} Conformational change of the abasic analogs of dG{sub 3}(TTAG{sub 3}){sub 3} is inhibited in KCl. {yields} The effects abasic sites may affect telomere-end structures in vivo. -- Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate how the loss of a guanine base affects the structure and stability of the three-tetrad G-quadruplex of 5'-dG{sub 3}(TTAG{sub 3}){sub 3}, the basic quadruplex-forming unit of the human telomere DNA.more » None of the 12 possible abasic sites hindered the formation of quadruplexes, but all reduced the thermodynamic stability of the parent quadruplex in both NaCl and KCl. The base loss did not change the Na{sup +}-stabilized intramolecular antiparallel architecture, based on CD spectra, but held up the conformational change induced in dG{sub 3}(TTAG{sub 3}){sub 3} in physiological concentration of KCl. The reduced stability and the inhibited conformational transitions observed here in vitro for the first time may predict that unrepaired abasic sites in G-quadruplexes could lead to changes in the chromosome's terminal protection in vivo.« less

  1. Crystal Structures of Two Archaeal 8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylases Provide Structural Insight into Guanine/8-Oxoguanine Distinction

    SciTech Connect

    Faucher, Frédérick; Duclos, Stéphanie; Bandaru, Viswanath

    Among the four DNA bases, guanine is particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage and the most common oxidative product, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), is the most prevalent lesion observed in DNA molecules. Fortunately, 8-oxoG is recognized and excised by the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (Ogg) of the base excision repair pathway. Ogg enzymes are divided into three separate families, namely, Ogg1, Ogg2, and archaeal GO glycosylase (AGOG). To date, structures of members of both Ogg1 and AGOG families are known but no structural information is available for members of Ogg2. Here we describe the first crystal structures of two archaeal Ogg2: Methanocaldococcus janischii Oggmore » and Sulfolobus solfataricus Ogg. A structural comparison with OGG1 and AGOG suggested that the C-terminal lysine of Ogg2 may play a key role in discriminating between guanine and 8-oxoG. This prediction was substantiated by measuring the glycosylase/lyase activity of a C-terminal deletion mutant of MjaOgg.« less

  2. Mould-devouring mites differ in guanine excretion from dust-eating Acari, a possible error source in mite allergen exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Kort, H S; Schober, G; Koren, L G; Scharringa, J

    1997-08-01

    Measurement of guanine in dust proved a good assessment of mite allergen exposure. Exposure to mite allergens may lead to atopic inflictions. In a semi-natural test system the development of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) and Glycyphagus domesticus (De Geer), and the presence of their guanine excretion, was examined in a dust-soiled and mouldy environment. Mites were counted after heat-escape, and guanine was detected by means of capillary zone electrophoresis. For each species, 50 mites randomly taken, were inoculated on soiled test-surfaces of 10 x 10 cm. Rough wooden board, gypsum board, tufted carpet, and a self-made mattress representing wall surfaces and home-textiles, respectively, were used. Eight weeks after inoculation with mites only, the surfaces were all mould ridden, and mite and guanine measurements were taken. The Spearman rank correlation test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used in statistical analysis. The confidence limit was set at 1%. Among the various test-surfaces, no differences were found regarding total mite numbers and amount of guanine present (P > 0.01). For the dust-eating mite D. pteronyssinus, total mite numbers correlated with the amount of guanine present (P = 0.002) on all inoculated surfaces, indicating feeding on the protein-rich dust. For the mould devouring mite G. domesticus, however, no such correlation was found (P = 0.72). Apparently, they mainly consumed fungal carbohydrates during this experiment. The allergological relevance of storage mites has been under discussion for the last 25 years. In humid homes, these mites will feed almost exclusively on fungi and may produce allergenic or irritating substances different from those arising on protein-rich laboratory media used in allergen extract production or present in carpets, bedding and furniture.

  3. HIV1 V3 loop hypermutability is enhanced by the guanine usage bias in the part of env gene coding for it.

    PubMed

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich

    2009-01-01

    Guanine is the most mutable nucleotide in HIV genes because of frequently occurring G to A transitions, which are caused by cytosine deamination in viral DNA minus strands catalyzed by APOBEC enzymes. Distribution of guanine between three codon positions should influence the probability for G to A mutation to be nonsynonymous (to occur in first or second codon position). We discovered that nucleotide sequences of env genes coding for third variable regions (V3 loops) of gp120 from HIV1 and HIV2 have different kinds of guanine usage biases. In the HIV1 reference strain and 100 additionally analyzed HIV1 strains the guanine usage bias in V3 loop coding regions (2G>1G>3G) should lead to elevated nonsynonymous G to A transitions occurrence rates. In the HIV2 reference strain and 100 other HIV2 strains guanine usage bias in V3 loop coding regions (3G>2G>1G) should protect V3 loops from hypermutability. According to the HIV1 and HIV2 V3 alignment, insertion of the sequence enriched with 2G (21 codons in length) occurred during the evolution of HIV1 predecessor, while insertion of the different sequence enriched with 3G (19 codons in length) occurred during the evolution of HIV2 predecessor. The higher is the level of 3G in the V3 coding region, the lower should be the immune escaping mutation occurrence rates. This hypothesis was tested in this study by comparing the guanine usage in V3 loop coding regions from HIV1 fast and slow progressors. All calculations have been performed by our algorithms "VVK In length", "VVK Dinucleotides" and "VVK Consensus" (www.barkovsky.hotmail.ru).

  4. Mechanisms of formation of 8-oxoguanine due to reactions of one and two OH* radicals and the H2O2 molecule with guanine: A quantum computational study.

    PubMed

    Jena, N R; Mishra, P C

    2005-07-28

    Mechanisms of formation of the mutagenic product 8-oxoguanine (8OG) due to reactions of guanine with two separate OH* radicals and with H2O2 were investigated at the B3LYP/6-31G, B3LYP/6-311++G, and B3LYP/AUG-cc-pVDZ levels of theory. Single point energy calculations were carried out with the MP2/AUG-cc-pVDZ method employing the optimized geometries at the B3LYP/AUG-cc-pVDZ level. Solvent effect was treated using the PCM and IEF-PCM models. Reactions of two separate OH* radicals and H2O2 with the C2 position of 5-methylimidazole (5MI) were investigated taking 5MI as a model to study reactions at the C8 position of guanine. The addition reaction of an OH* radical at the C8 position of guanine is found to be nearly barrierless while the corresponding adduct is quite stable. The reaction of a second OH* radical at the C8 position of guanine leading to the formation of 8OG complexed with a water molecule can take place according to two different mechanisms, involving two steps each. According to one mechanism, at the first step, 8-hydroxyguanine (8OHG) complexed with a water molecule is formed ,while at the second step, 8OHG is tautomerized to 8OG. In the other mechanism, at the first step, an intermediate complexed (IC) with a water molecule is formed, the five-membered ring of which is open, while at the second step, the five-membered ring is closed and a hydrogen bonded complex of 8OG with a water molecule is formed. The reaction of H2O2 with guanine leading to the formation of 8OG complexed with a water molecule can also take place in accordance with two different mechanisms having two steps each. At the first step of one mechanism, H2O2 is dissociated into two OH* groups that react with guanine to form the same IC as that formed in the reaction with two separate OH* radicals, and the subsequent step of this mechanism is also the same as that of the reaction of guanine with two separate OH* radicals. At the first step of the other mechanism of the reaction of

  5. Mapping the binding site of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ in DNA: systematic analysis of the reactivity of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ with guanines in different DNA sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Benasutti, M.; Ejadi, S.; Whitlow, M.D.

    The mutagenic and carcinogenic chemical aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) reacts almost exclusively at the N(7)-position of guanine following activation to its reactive form, the 8,9-epoxide (AFB/sub 1/ oxide). In general N(7)-guanine adducts yield DNA strand breaks when heated in base, a property that serves as the basis for the Maxam-Gilbert DNA sequencing reaction specific for guanine. Using DNA sequencing methods, other workers have shown that AFB/sub 1/ oxide gives strand breaks at positions of guanines; however, the guanine bands varied in intensity. This phenomenon has been used to infer that AFB/sub 1/ oxide prefers to react with guanines inmore » some sequence contexts more than in others and has been referred to as sequence specificity of binding. Herein, data on the reaction of AFB/sub 1/ oxide with several synthetic DNA polymers with different sequences are presented, and (following hydrolysis) adduct levels are determine by high-pressure liquid chromatography. These results reveal that for AFB/sub 1/ oxide (1) the N(7)-guanine adduct is the major adduct found in all of the DNA polymers, (2) adduct levels vary in different sequences, and, thus, sequence specificity is also observed by this more direct method, and (3) the intensity of bands in DNA sequencing gels is likely to reflect adduct levels formed at the N(7)-position of guanine. Knowing this, a reinvestigation of the reactivity of guanines in different DNA sequences using DNA sequencing methods was undertaken. Methods are developed to determine the X (5'-side) base and the Y (3'-side) base are most influential in determining guanine reactivity. These rules in conjunction with molecular modeling studies were used to assess the binding sites that might be utilized by AFB/sub 1/ oxide in its reaction with DNA.« less

  6. Nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis. The alkylation of N-7 of guanine of nucleic acids of the rat by diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and ethyl methanesulphonate

    PubMed Central

    Swann, P. F.; Magee, P. N.

    1971-01-01

    1. The extent of ethylation of N-7 of guanine in the nucleic acids of rat tissue in vivo by diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and ethyl methanesulphonate was measured. 2. All compounds produced measurable amounts of 7-ethyl-guanine. 3. A single dose of diethylnitrosamine or N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea produced tumours of the kidney in the rat. Three doses of ethyl methanesulphonate produced kidney tumours, but a single dose did not. 4. A single dose of diethylnitrosamine produced twice as much ethylation of N-7 of guanine in DNA of kidney as did N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. A single dose of both compounds induced kidney tumours, although of a different histological type. 5. A single dose of ethyl methanesulphonate produced ten times as much ethylation of N-7 of guanine in kidney DNA as did N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea without producing tumours. 6. The relevance of these findings to the hypothesis that alkylation of a cellular component is the mechanism of induction of tumours by nitroso compounds is discussed. PMID:5145908

  7. Fingerprints of Both Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen Isomers of the Isolated (Cytosine-Guanine)H+ Pair.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Ortiz, Andrés F; Rossa, Maximiliano; Berthias, Francis; Berdakin, Matías; Maitre, Philippe; Pino, Gustavo A

    2017-11-16

     Gas phase protonated guanine-cytosine (CGH + ) pair was generated using an electrospray ionization source from solutions at two different pH (5.8 and 3.2). Consistent evidence from MS/MS fragmentation patterns and differential ion mobility spectra (DIMS) point toward the presence of two isomers of the CGH + pair, whose relative populations depend strongly on the pH of the solution. Gas phase infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in the 900-1900 cm -1 spectral range further confirms that the Watson-Crick isomer is preferentially produced (91%) at pH = 5.8, while the Hoogsteen isomer predominates (66%) at pH = 3.2). These fingerprint signatures are expected to be useful for the development of new analytical methodologies and to trigger isomer selective photochemical studies of protonated DNA base pairs.

  8. Protein–protein interactions and selection: yeast-based approaches that exploit guanine nucleotide-binding protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Jun; Fukuda, Nobuo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2010-05-01

    For elucidating protein–protein interactions, many methodologies have been developed during the past two decades. For investigation of interactions inside cells under physiological conditions, yeast is an attractive organism with which to quickly screen for hopeful candidates using versatile genetic technologies, and various types of approaches are now available.Among them, a variety of unique systems using the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) signaling pathway in yeast have been established to investigate the interactions of proteins for biological study and pharmaceutical research. G-proteins involved in various cellular processes are mainly divided into two groups: small monomeric G-proteins,and heterotrimeric G-proteins. In this minireview, we summarize the basic principles and applications of yeast-based screening systems, using these two types of G-protein, which are typically used for elucidating biological protein interactions but are differentiated from traditional yeast two-hybrid systems.

  9. Magnetically-assembled micro/mesopixels exhibiting light intensity enhancement in the (012) planes of fish guanine crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikashige, T.; Iwasaka, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a new method was investigated to form light-reflecting dots at the micrometer scale using the magnetic orientations of biogenic guanine crystals obtained from fish skin and scales. The crystal platelets, possessing average dimensions of 5 μm×20 μm×100 nm, were dispersed in water and observed during exposure to vertical magnetic fields up to 5 T. The magnetic field direction was parallel to Earth's gravity, and allowed the narrowest edges of the crystals to be observed at the micrometer scale for the first time. The magnetic orientation process was initiated under conditions where the crystal platelets in water were laid on a glass substrate or where the platelets had random orientations. In the former case, the crystal platelets followed a two-stage magnetic orientation process where, in the first step, the platelet widths were aligned in the magnetic field direction. The second step required rotation of the ˜20-μm-long plates with respect to the Earth's gravity, where application of a 5 T magnetic field enabled their orientation. Real-time images of the magnetically aligning platelets provided new evidence that the crystal platelets also emitted reflected light from a very narrow window at two crystal planes (i.e., (0 1 ¯ 2 ¯ ) and (0 1 ¯ 2 )). In the latter case with random platelet orientation, spatially-condensed light-reflecting dots appeared while the guanine crystal platelets were floating and maintaining their orientation. The technique developed for controlling light-reflecting microscale objects in an aqueous medium can be applied to produce a type of microfluidic optical tool.

  10. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of human ADP-ribosylation factors: Two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Bobak, D.A.; Nightingale, M.S.; Murtagh, J.J.

    1989-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance the enzymatic activities of cholera toxin. Two ARF cDNAs, ARF1 and ARF3, were cloned from a human cerebellum library. Based on deduced amino acid sequences and patterns of hybridization of cDNA and oligonucleotide probes with mammalian brain poly(A){sup +} RNA, human ARF1 is the homologue of bovine ARF1. Human ARF3, which differs from bovine ARF1 and bovine ARF2, appears to represent a newly identified third type of ARF. Hybridization patterns of human ARF cDNA and clone-specific oligonucleotides with poly(A){sup +} RNA are consistent with the presence of at least two,more » and perhaps four, separate ARF messages in human brain. In vitro translation of ARF1, ARF2, and ARF3 produced proteins that behaved, by SDS/PAGE, similar to a purified soluble brain ARF. Deduced amino acid sequences of human ARF1 and ARF3 contain regions, similar to those in other G proteins, that are believed to be involved in GTP binding and hydrolysis. ARFS also exhibit a modest degree of homology with a bovine phospholipase C. The observations reported here support the conclusion that the ARFs are members of a multigene family of small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Definition of the regulation of ARF mRNAs and of function(s) of recombinant ARF proteins will aid in the elucidation of the physiologic role(s) of ARFs.« less

  11. DAMGO binding to mouse brain membranes: influence of salts, guanine nucleotides, substance P, and substance P fragments.

    PubMed

    Krumins, S A; Kim, D C; Igwe, O J; Larson, A A

    1993-01-01

    Substance P (SP) appears to mediate many processes of the central nervous system, including pain. This report deals with modulation of opioid binding in the mouse brain by SP and SP fragments, as well as by salts and guanine nucleotides. Binding studies of the selective mu opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, MePhe4,Gly(ol)5]enkephalin (DAMGO) to mouse brain membrane preparations demonstrated that guanine nucleotide modulation of DAMGO binding affinity was modified by SP. However, SP had little or no influence on inhibition of DAMGO binding induced by salts, such as MgCl2, CaCl2, or NaCl. By replacing GTP with GppNHp, SP (0.1 nM) produced multiple affinity forms of the DAMGO receptor, while at a higher concentration (10 nM), SP lost its influence on DAMGO binding. Furthermore, 0.1 nM SP changed DAMGO binding parameters in a medium containing NaCl, CaCl2, and GppNHp such that the high- and low-affinity conformations of the receptor converted to a single site following the addition of SP to the incubation medium. While the C-terminal SP fragment SP(5-11) was without effect, the N-terminal SP fragments SP(1-9) and SP(1-7) appeared to imitate SP in modifying GppNHp-modulated DAMGO binding. These results suggest that SP functions as a modulator of opioid binding at the mu receptor and it appears that the N-terminus of SP plays a role in the modulatory process.

  12. pH-Dependent Singlet O2 Oxidation Kinetics of Guanine and 9-Methylguanine: An Online Mass Spectrometry and Spectroscopy Study Combined with Theoretical Exploration.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenchao; Sun, Yan; Zhou, Wenjing; Liu, Jianbo

    2018-01-11

    We report a kinetic and mechanistic study on the title reactions, in which 1 O 2 was generated by the reaction of H 2 O 2 with Cl 2 and bubbled into an aqueous solution of guanine and 9-methylguanine (9MG) at different pH values. Oxidation kinetics and product branching ratios were measured using online electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with absorption and emission spectrophotometry, and product structures were determined by collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry. Experiments revealed strong pH dependence of the reactions. The oxidation of guanine is noticeable only in basic solution, while the oxidation of 9MG is weak in acidic solution, increases in neutral solution, and becomes intensive in basic solution. 5-Guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) were detected as the major oxidation products of guanine and 9MG, and Sp became dominant in basic solution. A reaction intermediate was captured in mass spectra, and assigned to gem-diol on the basis of CID measurements. This intermediate served as the precursor for the formation of Gh. After taking into account solution compositions at each pH, first-order oxidation rate constants were extracted for individual species: that is, 3.2-3.6 × 10 7 M -1 s -1 for deprotonated guanine, and 1.2 × 10 6 and 4.6-4.9 × 10 7 M -1 s -1 for neutral and deprotonated 9MG, respectively. Guided by approximately spin-projected density-functional-theory-calculated reaction potential energy surfaces, the kinetics for the initial 1 O 2 addition to guanine and 9MG was evaluated using transition state theory (TST). The comparison between TST modeling and experiment confirms that 1 O 2 addition is rate-limiting for oxidation, which forms endoperoxide and peroxide intermediates as determined in previous measurements of the same systems in the gas phase.

  13. Stable isotope labeling-mass spectrometry analysis of methyl- and pyridyloxobutyl-guanine adducts of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in p53-derived DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Mathur; Wang, Gang; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2005-02-15

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is a primary target in smoking-induced lung cancer. Interestingly, p53 mutations observed in lung tumors of smokers are concentrated at guanine bases within endogenously methylated (Me)CG dinucleotides, e.g., codons 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273 ((Me)C = 5-methylcytosine). One possible mechanism for the increased mutagenesis at these sites involves targeted binding of metabolically activated tobacco carcinogens to (Me)CG sequences. In the present work, a stable isotope labeling HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS approach was employed to analyze the formation of guanine lesions induced by the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) within DNA duplexes representing p53 mutational "hot spots" and surrounding sequences. Synthetic DNA duplexes containing p53 codons 153-159, 243-250, and 269-275 were prepared, where (Me)C was incorporated at all physiologically methylated CG sites. In each duplex, one of the guanine bases was replaced with [1,7,NH(2)-(15)N(3)-2-(13)C]-guanine, which served as an isotope "tag" to enable specific quantification of guanine lesions originating from that position. After incubation with NNK diazohydroxides, HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis was used to determine the yields of NNK adducts at the isotopically labeled guanine and at unlabeled guanine bases elsewhere in the sequence. We found that N7-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine and N7-[4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)but-1-yl]guanine lesions were overproduced at the 3'-guanine bases within polypurine runs, while the formation of O(6)-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine and O(6)-[4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)but-1-yl]-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts was specifically preferred at the 3'-guanine base of 5'-GG and 5'-GGG sequences. In contrast, the presence of 5'-neighboring (Me)C inhibited O(6)-guanine adduct formation. These results indicate that the N7- and O(6)-guanine adducts of NNK are not overproduced at the endogenously methylated CG dinucleotides within the p53 tumor suppressor gene

  14. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study on order-disorder transition in Langmuir-Blodgett films of 7-(2-octadecyloxycarbonylethyl)guanine before and after recognition to cytidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Wangen; Luo, Xuzhong; Wu, Sanxie; Liang, Yingqiu

    2004-01-01

    Order-disorder transitions of 9-monolayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of 7-(2-octadecyloxycarbonylethyl)guanine (ODCG) before and after recognition to cytidine were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The different order-disorder transitions suggest that molecular recognition between ODCG and cytidine influence these two LB films on the order-disorder process of alkyl tailchain. Cleavage of the multi-hydrogen bonds was also observed by the infrared spectroscopy at elevated temperature.

  15. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study on order-disorder transition in Langmuir-Blodgett films of 7-(2-octadecyloxycarbonylethyl)guanine before and after recognition to cytidine.

    PubMed

    Miao, Wangen; Luo, Xuzhong; Wu, Sanxie; Liang, Yingqiu

    2004-01-01

    Order-disorder transitions of 9-monolayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of 7-(2-octadecyloxycarbonylethyl)guanine (ODCG) before and after recognition to cytidine were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The different order-disorder transitions suggest that molecular recognition between ODCG and cytidine influence these two LB films on the order-disorder process of alkyl tailchain. Cleavage of the multi-hydrogen bonds was also observed by the infrared spectroscopy at elevated temperature.

  16. Ligand-mediated and tertiary interactions cooperatively stabilize the P1 region in the guanine-sensing riboswitch

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Riboswitches are genetic regulatory elements that control gene expression depending on ligand binding. The guanine-sensing riboswitch (Gsw) binds ligands at a three-way junction formed by paired regions P1, P2, and P3. Loops L2 and L3 cap the P2 and P3 helices and form tertiary interactions. Part of P1 belongs to the switching sequence dictating the fate of the mRNA. Previous studies revealed an intricate relationship between ligand binding and presence of the tertiary interactions, and between ligand binding and influence on the P1 region. However, no information is available on the interplay among these three main regions in Gsw. Here we show that stabilization of the L2-L3 region by tertiary interactions, and the ligand binding site by ligand binding, cooperatively influences the structural stability of terminal base pairs in the P1 region in the presence of Mg2+ ions. The results are based on molecular dynamics simulations with an aggregate simulation time of ~10 μs across multiple systems of the unbound state of the Gsw aptamer and a G37A/C61U mutant, and rigidity analyses. The results could explain why the three-way junction is a central structural element also in other riboswitches and how the cooperative effect could become contextual with respect to intracellular Mg2+ concentration. The results suggest that the transmission of allosteric information to P1 can be entropy-dominated. PMID:28640851

  17. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines

    PubMed Central

    López-Cruz, Roberto I.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A.; Real-Valle, Roberto A.; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements. PMID:27375492

  18. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A; Real-Valle, Roberto A; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements.

  19. Anti-herpesvirus activity of the acyclic nucleoside 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine.

    PubMed Central

    Smee, D F; Martin, J C; Verheyden, J P; Matthews, T R

    1983-01-01

    The antiherpetic effects of a novel purine acyclic nucleoside, 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (DHPG), were compared with those of acyclovir in cell cultures and in mice. The modes of action of DHPG and acyclovir were similar in that herpes thymidine kinase phosphorylated each compound, and both agents selectively inhibited viral over host cell DNA synthesis. In 50% plaque reduction assays in Vero cells, the drugs inhibited herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 thymidine kinase-positive strains at 0.2 to 2.4 microM. DHPG was markedly more active than acyclovir against human cytomegalovirus (50% inhibitory doses were 7 and 95 microM, respectively). Each nucleoside inhibited uninfected cell macromolecule synthesis and cell proliferation at concentrations far above those required to inhibit herpes simplex virus replication. Although the two compounds had many similarities in their behavior in vitro, the important difference was the superior performance of DHPG against herpesvirus-induced encephalitis and vaginitis in vivo. Thus, mortality in mice infected with herpesvirus type 2 was reduced 50% by daily doses of 7 to 10 mg of DHPG/kg, whereas an equally effective daily dose of acyclovir was approximately 500 mg/kg. DHPG at a daily dose of 50 mg/kg was also superior to acyclovir at 100 mg/kg per day in its inhibition of herpetic vaginal lesions in mice. PMID:6307132

  20. Slow ligand-induced conformational switch increases the catalytic rate in Plasmodium falciparum hypoxanthine guanine xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sourav; Karmakar, Tarak; Prahlada Rao, Vasudeva S; Nagappa, Lakshmeesha K; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Balaram, Hemalatha

    2015-05-01

    P. falciparum (Pf) hypoxanthine guanine xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) exhibits a unique mechanism of activation where the enzyme switches from a low activity (unactivated) to a high activity (activated) state upon pre-incubation with substrate/products. Xanthine phosphoribosylation by unactivated PfHGXPRT exhibits a lag phase, the duration of which reduces with an increase in concentration of the enzyme or substrate, PRPP·Mg(2+). Activated PfHGXPRT does not display the lag phase and exhibits a ten-fold drop in the Km value for PRPP·Mg(2+). These observations suggest the involvement of ligand-mediated oligomerization and conformational changes in the process of activation. The dipeptide Leu-Lys in the PPi binding site of human and T. gondii HG(X)PRT that facilitates PRPP·Mg(2+) binding by isomerization from trans to cis conformation is conserved in PfHGXPRT. Free energy calculations using the well-tempered metadynamics technique show the ligand-free enzyme to be more stable when this dipeptide is in the trans conformation than in the cis conformation. The high rotational energy barrier observed for the conformational change from experimental and computational studies permits delineation of the activation mechanism.

  1. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene-guanine adducts in single-stranded DNA using the α-hemolysin nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Rukshan T.; Fleming, Aaron M.; Johnson, Robert P.; Burrows, Cynthia J.; White, Henry S.

    2015-02-01

    The carcinogenic precursor benzo[a]pyrene (BP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is released into the environment through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Metabolism of BP in the human body yields a potent alkylating agent (benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, BPDE) that reacts with guanine (G) in DNA to form an adduct implicated in cancer initiation. We report that the α-hemolysin (αHL) nanopore platform can be used to detect a BPDE adduct to G in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Translocation of a 41-mer poly-2‧-deoxycytidine strand with a centrally located BPDE adduct to G through αHL in 1 M KCl produces a unique multi-level current signature allowing the adduct to be detected. This readily distinguishable current modulation was observed when the BPDE-adducted DNA strand translocated from either the 5‧ or 3‧ directions. This study suggests that BPDE adducts and other large aromatic biomarkers can be detected with αHL, presenting opportunities for the monitoring, quantification, and sequencing of mutagenic compounds from cellular DNA samples.

  2. Free energy profiles for two ubiquitous damaging agents: methylation and hydroxylation of guanine in B-DNA.

    PubMed

    Grüber, R; Aranda, J; Bellili, A; Tuñón, I; Dumont, E

    2017-06-07

    DNA methylation and hydroxylation are two ubiquitous reactions in DNA damage induction, yet insights are scarce concerning the free energy of activation within B-DNA. We resort to multiscale simulations to investigate the attack of a hydroxyl radical and of the primary diazonium onto a guanine embedded in a solvated dodecamer. Reaction free energy profiles characterize two strongly exergonic processes, yet allow unprecedented quantification of the barrier towards this damage reaction, not higher than 6 kcal mol -1 and sometimes inexistent, and of the exergonicities. In the case of the [G(C8)-OH]˙ intermediate, we challenge the functional dependence of such simulations: recently-proposed functionals, such as M06-2X and LC-BLYP, agree on a ∼4 kcal mol -1 barrier, whereas the hybrid GGA B3LYP functional predicts a barrier-less pathway. In the long term, multiscale approaches can help build up a unified panorama of DNA lesion induction. These results stress the importance of DFT/MM-MD simulations involving new functionals towards the sound modelling of biomolecule damage even in the ground state.

  3. Genetic evidence for the essential role of PfNT1 in the transport and utilization of xanthine, guanine, guanosine and adenine by Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    El Bissati, Kamal; Downie, Megan J; Kim, Seong-Kyoun; Horowitz, Michael; Carter, Nicola; Ullman, Buddy; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

    2008-10-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is unable to synthesize the purine ring de novo and is therefore wholly dependent upon purine salvage from the host for survival. Previous studies have indicated that a P. falciparum strain in which the purine transporter PfNT1 had been disrupted was unable to grow on physiological concentrations of adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine. We have now used an episomally complemented pfnt1Delta knockout parasite strain to confirm genetically the functional role of PfNT1 in P. falciparum purine uptake and utilization. Episomal complementation by PfNT1 restored the ability of pfnt1Delta parasites to transport and utilize adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine as purine sources. The ability of wild-type and pfnt1Delta knockout parasites to transport and utilize the other physiologically relevant purines adenine, guanine, guanosine and xanthine was also examined. Unlike wild-type and complemented P. falciparum parasites, pfnt1Delta parasites could not proliferate on guanine, guanosine or xanthine as purine sources, and no significant transport of these substrates could be detected in isolated parasites. Interestingly, whereas isolated pfnt1Delta parasites were still capable of adenine transport, these parasites grew only when adenine was provided at high, non-physiological concentrations. Taken together these results demonstrate that, in addition to hypoxanthine, inosine and adenosine, PfNT1 is essential for the transport and utilization of xanthine, guanine and guanosine.

  4. Effect of ionic strength and cationic DNA affinity binders on the DNA sequence selective alkylation of guanine N7-positions by nitrogen mustards

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.A.; Forrow, S.M.; Souhami, R.L.

    Large variations in alkylation intensities exist among guanines in a DNA sequence following treatment with chemotherapeutic alkylating agents such as nitrogen mustards, and the substituent attached to the reactive group can impose a distinct sequence preference for reaction. In order to understand further the structural and electrostatic factors which determine the sequence selectivity of alkylation reactions, the effect of increase ionic strength, the intercalator ethidium bromide, AT-specific minor groove binders distamycin A and netropsin, and the polyamine spermine on guanine N7-alkylation by L-phenylalanine mustard (L-Pam), uracil mustard (UM), and quinacrine mustard (QM) was investigated with a modification of the guanine-specificmore » chemical cleavage technique for DNA sequencing. The result differed with both the nitrogen mustard and the cationic agent used. The effect, which resulted in both enhancement and suppression of alkylation sites, was most striking in the case of netropsin and distamycin A, which differed from each other. DNA footprinting indicated that selective binding to AT sequences in the minor groove of DNA can have long-range effects on the alkylation pattern of DNA in the major groove.« less

  5. A label-free electrochemical sensor for detection of mercury(II) ions based on the direct growth of guanine nanowire.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan Li; Gao, Zhong Feng; Jia, Jing; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2016-05-05

    A simple, sensitive and label-free electrochemical sensor is developed for detection of Hg(2+) based on the strong and stable T-Hg(2+)-T mismatches. In the presence of Mg(2+), the parallel G-quadruplex structures could be specifically recognized and precipitated in parallel conformation. Therefore, the guanine nanowire was generated on the electrode surface, triggering the electrochemical H2O2-mediated oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). In this research, a new method of signal amplification for the quantitative detection of Hg(2+) was described based on the direct growth of guanine nanowire via guanine nanowire. Under optimum conditions, Hg(2+) was detected in the range of 100 pM-100 nM, and the detection limit is 33 pM. Compared to the traditional single G-quadruplex label unit, this electrochemical sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Hg(2+). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidative generation of guanine radicals by carbonate radicals and their reactions with nitrogen dioxide to form site specific 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole lesions in oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Avrum; Mock, Steven; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Shafirovich, Vladimir

    2003-08-01

    A simple photochemical approach is described for synthesizing site specific, stable 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole (NIm) adducts in single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides containing single and multiple guanine residues. The DNA sequences employed, 5'-d(ACC CG(1)C G(2)TC CG(3)C G(4)CC) and 5'-d(ACC CG(1)C G(2)TC C), were a portion of exon 5 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, including the codons 157 (G(2)) and 158 (G(3)) mutation hot spots in the former sequence with four Gs and the codon 157 (G(2)) mutation hot spot in the latter sequence with two Gs. The nitration of oligodeoxynucleotides was initiated by the selective photodissociation of persulfate anions to sulfate radicals induced by UV laser pulses (308 nm). In aqueous solutions, of bicarbonate and nitrite anions, the sulfate radicals generate carbonate anion radicals and nitrogen dioxide radicals by one electron oxidation of the respective anions. The guanine residue in the oligodeoxynucleotide is oxidized by the carbonate anion radical to form the neutral guanine radical. While the nitrogen dioxide radicals do not react with any of the intact DNA bases, they readily combine with the guanine radicals at either the C8 or the C5 positions. The C8 addition generates the well-known 8-nitroguanine (8-nitro-G) lesions, whereas the C5 attack produces unstable adducts, which rapidly decompose to NIm lesions. The maximum yields of the nitro products (NIm + 8-nitro-G) were typically in the range of 20-40%, depending on the number of guanine residues in the sequence. The ratio of the NIm to 8-nitro-G lesions gradually decreases from 3.4 in the model compound, 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetylguanosine, to 2.1-2.6 in the single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides and to 0.8-1.1 in the duplexes. The adduct of the 5'-d(ACC CG(1)C G(2)TC C) oligodeoxynucleotide containing the NIm lesion in codon 157 (G(2)) was isolated in HPLC-pure form. The integrity of this adduct was established by a detailed analysis of exonuclease digestion

  7. Formation of diastereomeric benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-guanine adducts in p53 gene-derived DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Matter, Brock; Wang, Gang; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2004-06-01

    G --> T transversion mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are characteristic of smoking-related lung tumors, suggesting that these genetic changes may result from exposure to tobacco carcinogens. It has been previously demonstrated that the diol epoxide metabolites of bay region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in tobacco smoke, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), preferentially bind to the most frequently mutated guanine nucleotides within p53 codons 157, 158, 248, and 273 [Denissenko, M. F., Pao, A., Tang, M., and Pfeifer, G. P. (1996) Science 274, 430-432]. However, the methodology used in that work (ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction in combination with the UvrABC endonuclease incision assay) cannot establish the chemical structures and stereochemical identities of BPDE-guanine lesions. In the present study, we employ a stable isotope-labeling HPLC-MS/MS approach [Tretyakova, N., Matter, B., Jones, R., and Shallop, A. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 9535-9544] to analyze the formation of diastereomeric N(2)-BPDE-dG lesions within double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides representing p53 lung cancer mutational hotspots and their surrounding DNA sequences. (15)N-labeled dG was placed at defined positions within DNA duplexes containing 5-methylcytosine at all physiologically methylated sites, followed by (+/-)-anti-BPDE treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the adducted DNA to 2'-deoxynucleosides. Capillary HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS was used to establish the amounts of (-)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG, (+)-cis-N(2)-BPDE-dG, (-)-cis-N(2)-BPDE-dG, and (+)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG originating from the (15)N-labeled bases. We found that all four N(2)-BPDE-dG diastereomers were formed preferentially at the methylated CG dinucleotides, including the frequently mutated p53 codons 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273. The contributions of individual diastereomers to the total adducts number at a given site varied between 70.8 and 92.9% for (+)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG, 5.6 and 16.7% for

  8. Phosducin-like protein: an ethanol-responsive potential modulator of guanine nucleotide-binding protein function.

    PubMed

    Miles, M F; Barhite, S; Sganga, M; Elliott, M

    1993-11-15

    Acute and chronic exposure to ethanol produces specific changes in several signal transduction cascades. Such alterations in signaling are thought to be a crucial aspect of the central nervous system's adaptive response, which occurs with chronic exposure to ethanol. We have recently identified and isolated several genes whose expression is specifically induced by ethanol in neural cell cultures. The product of one of these genes has extensive sequence homology to phosducin, a phosphoprotein expressed in retina and pineal gland that modulates trimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) function by binding to G-protein beta gamma subunits. We identified from a rat brain cDNA library an isolate encoding the phosducin-like protein (PhLP), which has 41% identity and 65% amino acid homology to phosducin. PhLP cDNA is expressed in all tissues screened by RNA blot-hybridization analysis and shows marked evolutionary conservation on Southern hybridization. We have identified four forms of PhLP cDNA varying only in their 5' ends, probably due to alternative splicing. This 5'-end variation generates two predicted forms of PhLP protein that differ by 79 aa at the NH2 terminus. Treatment of NG108-15 cells for 24 hr with concentrations of ethanol seen in actively drinking alcoholics (25-100 mM) causes up to a 3-fold increase in PhLP mRNA levels. Induction of PhLP by ethanol could account for at least some of the widespread alterations in signal transduction and G-protein function that are known to occur with chronic exposure to ethanol.

  9. Antinociceptive effects of intracerebroventricular administration of guanine-based purines in mice: evidences for the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André P; Böhmer, Ana Elisa; Leke, Renata; Schallenberger, Cristhine; Antunes, Catiele; Pereira, Mery Stéfani L; Wofchuk, Susana T; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Souza, Diogo O

    2008-10-09

    It is well known that adenine-based purines exert multiple effects on pain transmission. However, less attention has been given to the potential effects of guanine-based purines (GBPs) on pain transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) guanosine and GMP on mice pain models. Mice received an i.c.v. injection of vehicle (saline or 10 muM NaOH), guanosine (5 to 400 nmol), or GMP (240 to 960 nmol). Additional groups were also pre-treated with i.c.v. injection of the A(1)/A(2A) antagonist caffeine (15 nmol), the non-selective opioid antagonist naloxone (12.5 nmol), or the 5'-nucleotidase inhibitor AOPCP (1 nmol). Measurements of CSF purine levels and cortical glutamate uptake were performed after treatments. Guanosine and GMP produced dose-dependent antinociceptive effects. Neither caffeine nor naloxone affected guanosine antinociception. Pre-treatment with AOPCP completely prevented GMP antinociception, indicating that conversion of GMP to guanosine is required for its antinociceptive effects. Intracerebroventricular administration of guanosine and GMP induced, respectively, a 180- and 1800-fold increase on CSF guanosine levels. Guanosine was able to prevent the decrease on cortical glutamate uptake induced by intraplantar capsaicin. This study provides new evidence on the mechanism of action of GBPs, with guanosine and GMP presenting antinociceptive effects in mice. This effect seems to be independent of adenosine and opioid receptors; it is, however, at least partially associated with modulation of the glutamatergic system by guanosine.

  10. Folding of guanine quadruplex molecules-funnel-like mechanism or kinetic partitioning? An overview from MD simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Šponer, Jiří; Bussi, Giovanni; Stadlbauer, Petr; Kührová, Petra; Banáš, Pavel; Islam, Barira; Haider, Shozeb; Neidle, Stephen; Otyepka, Michal

    2017-05-01

    Guanine quadruplexes (GQs) play vital roles in many cellular processes and are of much interest as drug targets. In contrast to the availability of many structural studies, there is still limited knowledge on GQ folding. We review recent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of the folding of GQs, with an emphasis paid to the human telomeric DNA GQ. We explain the basic principles and limitations of all types of MD methods used to study unfolding and folding in a way accessible to non-specialists. We discuss the potential role of G-hairpin, G-triplex and alternative GQ intermediates in the folding process. We argue that, in general, folding of GQs is fundamentally different from funneled folding of small fast-folding proteins, and can be best described by a kinetic partitioning (KP) mechanism. KP is a competition between at least two (but often many) well-separated and structurally different conformational ensembles. The KP mechanism is the only plausible way to explain experiments reporting long time-scales of GQ folding and the existence of long-lived sub-states. A significant part of the natural partitioning of the free energy landscape of GQs comes from the ability of the GQ-forming sequences to populate a large number of syn-anti patterns in their G-tracts. The extreme complexity of the KP of GQs typically prevents an appropriate description of the folding landscape using just a few order parameters or collective variables. We reconcile available computational and experimental studies of GQ folding and formulate basic principles characterizing GQ folding landscapes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "G-quadruplex" Guest Editor: Dr. Concetta Giancola and Dr. Daniela Montesarchio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutation analysis of inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha (GNAI) loci in young and familial pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Demir, Hande; Donner, Iikki; Kivipelto, Leena; Kuismin, Outi; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; De Menis, Ernesto; Karhu, Auli

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are neoplasms of the anterior pituitary lobe and account for 15-20% of all intracranial tumors. Although most pituitary tumors are benign they can cause severe symptoms related to tumor size as well as hypopituitarism and/or hypersecretion of one or more pituitary hormones. Most pituitary adenomas are sporadic, but it has been estimated that 5% of patients have a familial background. Germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) predispose to hereditary pituitary neoplasia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that AIP mutations predispose to pituitary tumorigenesis through defective inhibitory GTP binding protein (Gαi) signaling. This finding prompted us to examine whether germline loss-of-function mutations in inhibitory guanine nucleotide (GTP) binding protein alpha (GNAI) loci are involved in genetic predisposition of pituitary tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first time GNAI genes are sequenced in order to examine the occurrence of inactivating germline mutations. Thus far, only somatic gain-of-function hot-spot mutations have been studied in these loci. Here, we have analyzed the coding regions of GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 in a set of young sporadic somatotropinoma patients (n = 32; mean age of diagnosis 32 years) and familial index cases (n = 14), thus in patients with a disease phenotype similar to that observed in AIP mutation carriers. In addition, expression of Gαi proteins was studied in human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and non-functional pituitary tumors. No pathogenic germline mutations affecting the Gαi proteins were detected. The result suggests that loss-of-function mutations of GNAI loci are rare or nonexistent in familial pituitary adenomas.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides bound to gelatine nanoparticles as immunotherapy for canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, I; Geh, K J; Hubert, M; Winter, G; Weber, K; Classen, J; Klinger, C; Mueller, R S

    2017-07-29

    Cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) are a promising new immunotherapeutic treatment option for canine atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this uncontrolled pilot study was to evaluate clinical and immunological effects of gelatine nanoparticle (GNP)-bound CpG ODN (CpG GNP) on atopic dogs. Eighteen dogs with AD were treated for 8 weeks (group 1, n=8) or 18 weeks (group 2, n=10). Before inclusion and after 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks (group 1+2), 8 weeks, 12 weeks and 16 weeks (group 2) 75 µg CpG ODN/dog (bound to 1.5 mg GNP) were injected subcutaneously. Pruritus was evaluated daily by the owner. Lesions were evaluated and serum concentrations and mRNA expressions of interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, interleukin (IL) 10 and IL-4 (only mRNA expression) were determined at inclusion and after 8 weeks (group 1+2) and 18 weeks (group 2). Lesions and pruritus improved significantly from baseline to week 8. Mean improvements from baseline to week 18 were 23 per cent and 44 per cent for lesions and pruritus, respectively, an improvement of ≥50 per cent was seen in six out of nine and three out of six dogs, respectively. IL-4 mRNA expression decreased significantly. The results of this study show a clinical improvement of canine AD with CpG GNP comparable to allergen immunotherapy. Controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Increased PRPP synthetase activity in cultured rat hepatoma cells containing mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Graf, L H; McRoberts, J A; Harrison, T M; Martin, D W

    1976-07-01

    Nine independently derived clones of mutagenized rat hepatoma cells selected for resistance to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) or 6-thioguanine (6-ThioG) have been isolated. Each has severely reduced catalytic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and seven of them possess significantly increased activities of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase. The degrees of elevations of PRPP synthetase activities do not correlate with the degrees of deficiencies of HPRT activities. The cells from one of these clones, 1020/12, posses 40% of the normal HPRT catalytic activity and overproduce purines. We have extensively examined the cells from this clone. Immunotration studies of 1020/12 cells indicate that there is a mutation in the structural gene for HPRT. Although they possess increased specific catalytic activities of the enzyme. PRPP synthetase, the catalytic parameters, heat stability, and isoelectric pH of PRPP synthetase from 1020/12 cells are indistinguishable from those of the enzyme from wild-type cells. The cause of purine overproduction by 1020/12 cells appears to be the elevated PRPP synthetase activity, rather than a PRPP "sparing" effect stemming from reduced HPRT activity. Support for this idea is provided by the observation that the complete loss of HPRT activity in a clone derived from 1020/12 cells does not further enhance the levels of PRPP synthetase or purine overproduction. We propose that the elevated levels of PRPP synthetase activity in these HPRT deficient cells result from a mutational event in the structural gene for HPRT, and that this causes the disruption of a previously undescribed regulatory function of this gene on the expression of the PRPP synthetase gene.

  14. Intramolecular electrocatalysis of 8-oxo-guanine oxidation: secondary structure control of electron transfer in osmium-labeled oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Rebecca C; Tierney, Mark T; Ropp, Patricia A; Berg, Eric E; Grinstaff, Mark W; Thorp, H Holden

    2003-10-06

    A phosphoramidite containing Os(bpy)(3)(2+) (Os; bpy, 2,2'-bipyridine) with a three-carbon linker was synthesized and used to prepare oligonucleotides with the Os redox catalyst appended to the 5'-end. The electrogenerated Os(III) is capable of oxidizing 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine (8G), but 8G is not electrochemically reactive at indium tin oxide electrodes because of poor electrode kinetics for the direct reaction. The hairpin-forming oligonucleotide Os-5'-ATG TCA GAT TAG CAG GCC TGA CAT 8G was synthesized and characterized by thermal denaturation and native gel electrophoresis both in the hairpin form and when hybridized to its Watson-Crick complement. The redox potential in both forms of the appended Os(III/II) couple was 0.63 V (all potentials vs Ag/AgCl), which is identical to that for the free complex. The diffusion coefficients of the hairpin form (10.2 x 10(-)(7) cm(2)/s) and the duplex form (8.7 x 10(-)(7) cm(2)/s) were consistent with values expected from studies of noncovalently bound redox labels, which suggest that the measured diffusion coefficient should be that of the appended DNA molecule. The oligonucleotide was designed such that in the duplex form, the 8G is far from the Os(III/II) couple, but in the hairpin form, the 8G is situated close to the redox center. For the duplex form, cyclic voltammetry studies showed that mediated oxidation of the 8G nucleobase occurred only through bimolecular reaction of the electrogenerated Os(III) of one duplex with the 8G of another duplex. However, in the hairpin form, intramolecular electron transfer from 8G to Os(III) in the same molecule was apparent in both chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry.

  15. Unique active site promotes error-free replication opposite an 8-oxo-guanine lesion by human DNA polymerase iota

    PubMed Central

    Kirouac, Kevin N.; Ling, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The 8-oxo-guanine (8-oxo-G) lesion is the most abundant and mutagenic oxidative DNA damage existing in the genome. Due to its dual coding nature, 8-oxo-G causes most DNA polymerases to misincorporate adenine. Human Y-family DNA polymerase iota (polι) preferentially incorporates the correct cytosine nucleotide opposite 8-oxo-G. This unique specificity may contribute to polι’s biological role in cellular protection against oxidative stress. However, the structural basis of this preferential cytosine incorporation is currently unknown. Here we present four crystal structures of polι in complex with DNA containing an 8-oxo-G lesion, paired with correct dCTP or incorrect dATP, dGTP, and dTTP nucleotides. An exceptionally narrow polι active site restricts the purine bases in a syn conformation, which prevents the dual coding properties of 8-oxo-G by inhibiting syn/anti conformational equilibrium. More importantly, the 8-oxo-G base in a syn conformation is not mutagenic in polι because its Hoogsteen edge does not form a stable base pair with dATP in the narrow active site. Instead, the syn 8-oxo-G template base forms the most stable replicating base pair with correct dCTP due to its small pyrimidine base size and enhanced hydrogen bonding with the Hoogsteen edge of 8-oxo-G. In combination with site directed mutagenesis, we show that Gln59 in the finger domain specifically interacts with the additional O8 atom of the lesion base, which influences nucleotide selection, enzymatic efficiency, and replication stalling at the lesion site. Our work provides the structural mechanism of high-fidelity 8-oxo-G replication by a human DNA polymerase. PMID:21300901

  16. Role of Bacillus subtilis Error Prevention Oxidized Guanine System in Counteracting Hexavalent Chromium-Promoted Oxidative DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Escobar, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Corona, J. Félix

    2014-01-01

    Chromium pollution is potentially detrimental to bacterial soil communities, compromising carbon and nitrogen cycles that are essential for life on earth. It has been proposed that intracellular reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] may cause bacterial death by a mechanism that involves reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced DNA damage; the molecular basis of the phenomenon was investigated in this work. Here, we report that Bacillus subtilis cells lacking a functional error prevention oxidized guanine (GO) system were significantly more sensitive to Cr(VI) treatment than cells of the wild-type (WT) strain, suggesting that oxidative damage to DNA is involved in the deleterious effects of the oxyanion. In agreement with this suggestion, Cr(VI) dramatically increased the ROS concentration and induced mutagenesis in a GO-deficient B. subtilis strain. Alkaline gel electrophoresis (AGE) analysis of chromosomal DNA of WT and ΔGO mutant strains subjected to Cr(VI) treatment revealed that the DNA of the ΔGO strain was more susceptible to DNA glycosylase Fpg attack, suggesting that chromium genotoxicity is associated with 7,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxo-G) lesions. In support of this notion, specific monoclonal antibodies detected the accumulation of 8-oxo-G lesions in the chromosomes of B. subtilis cells subjected to Cr(VI) treatment. We conclude that Cr(VI) promotes mutagenesis and cell death in B. subtilis by a mechanism that involves radical oxygen attack of DNA, generating 8-oxo-G, and that such effects are counteracted by the prevention and repair GO system. PMID:24973075

  17. Mutation Analysis of Inhibitory Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein Alpha (GNAI) Loci in Young and Familial Pituitary Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Hande; Donner, Iikki; Kivipelto, Leena; Kuismin, Outi; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; De Menis, Ernesto; Karhu, Auli

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are neoplasms of the anterior pituitary lobe and account for 15–20% of all intracranial tumors. Although most pituitary tumors are benign they can cause severe symptoms related to tumor size as well as hypopituitarism and/or hypersecretion of one or more pituitary hormones. Most pituitary adenomas are sporadic, but it has been estimated that 5% of patients have a familial background. Germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) predispose to hereditary pituitary neoplasia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that AIP mutations predispose to pituitary tumorigenesis through defective inhibitory GTP binding protein (Gαi) signaling. This finding prompted us to examine whether germline loss-of-function mutations in inhibitory guanine nucleotide (GTP) binding protein alpha (GNAI) loci are involved in genetic predisposition of pituitary tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first time GNAI genes are sequenced in order to examine the occurrence of inactivating germline mutations. Thus far, only somatic gain-of-function hot-spot mutations have been studied in these loci. Here, we have analyzed the coding regions of GNAI1 , GNAI2, and GNAI3 in a set of young sporadic somatotropinoma patients (n = 32; mean age of diagnosis 32 years) and familial index cases (n = 14), thus in patients with a disease phenotype similar to that observed in AIP mutation carriers. In addition, expression of Gαi proteins was studied in human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and non-functional pituitary tumors. No pathogenic germline mutations affecting the Gαi proteins were detected. The result suggests that loss-of-function mutations of GNAI loci are rare or nonexistent in familial pituitary adenomas. PMID:25291362

  18. Gelation-driven component selection in the generation of constitutional dynamic hydrogels based on guanine-quartet formation

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasachary, Nampally; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    The guanosine hydrazide 1 yields a stable supramolecular hydrogel based on the formation of a guanine quartet (G-quartet) in presence of metal cations. The effect of various parameters (concentration, nature of metal ion, and temperature) on the properties of this gel has been studied. Proton NMR spectroscopy is shown to allow a molecular characterization of the gelation process. Hydrazide 1 and its assemblies can be reversibly decorated by acylhydrazone formation with various aldehydes, resulting in formation of highly viscous dynamic hydrogels. When a mixture of aldehydes is used, the dynamic system selects the aldehyde that leads to the most stable gel. Mixing hydrazides 1, 9 and aldehydes 6, 8 in 1:1:1:1 ratio generated a constitutional dynamic library containing the four acylhydrazone derivatives A, B, C, and D. The library constitution displayed preferential formation of the acylhydrazone B that yields the strongest gel. Thus, gelation redirects the acylhydrazone distribution in the dynamic library as guanosine hydrazide 1 scavenges preferentially aldehyde 8, under the pressure of gelation because of the collective interactions in the assemblies of G-quartets B, despite the strong preference of the competing hydrazide 9 for 8. Gel formation and component selection are thermoreversible. The process amounts to gelation-driven self-organization with component selection and amplification in constitutional dynamic hydrogels based on G-quartet formation and reversible covalent connections. The observed self-organization and component selection occur by means of a multilevel self-assembly involving three dynamic processes, two of supramolecular and one of reversible covalent nature. They extend constitutional dynamic chemistry to phase-organization and phase-transition events. PMID:15840720

  19. Gelation-driven component selection in the generation of constitutional dynamic hydrogels based on guanine-quartet formation.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasachary, Nampally; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2005-04-26

    The guanosine hydrazide 1 yields a stable supramolecular hydrogel based on the formation of a guanine quartet (G-quartet) in presence of metal cations. The effect of various parameters (concentration, nature of metal ion, and temperature) on the properties of this gel has been studied. Proton NMR spectroscopy is shown to allow a molecular characterization of the gelation process. Hydrazide 1 and its assemblies can be reversibly decorated by acylhydrazone formation with various aldehydes, resulting in formation of highly viscous dynamic hydrogels. When a mixture of aldehydes is used, the dynamic system selects the aldehyde that leads to the most stable gel. Mixing hydrazides 1, 9 and aldehydes 6, 8 in 1:1:1:1 ratio generated a constitutional dynamic library containing the four acylhydrazone derivatives A, B, C, and D. The library constitution displayed preferential formation of the acylhydrazone B that yields the strongest gel. Thus, gelation redirects the acylhydrazone distribution in the dynamic library as guanosine hydrazide 1 scavenges preferentially aldehyde 8, under the pressure of gelation because of the collective interactions in the assemblies of G-quartets B, despite the strong preference of the competing hydrazide 9 for 8. Gel formation and component selection are thermoreversible. The process amounts to gelation-driven self-organization with component selection and amplification in constitutional dynamic hydrogels based on G-quartet formation and reversible covalent connections. The observed self-organization and component selection occur by means of a multilevel self-assembly involving three dynamic processes, two of supramolecular and one of reversible covalent nature. They extend constitutional dynamic chemistry to phase-organization and phase-transition events.

  20. Aptamer/Au nanoparticles/cobalt sulfide nanosheets biosensor for 17β-estradiol detection using a guanine-rich complementary DNA sequence for signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Ji-Zong; Cao, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yan-Ming

    2015-05-15

    We have developed a sensitive sensing platform for 17β-estradiol by combining the aptamer probe and hybridization reaction. In this assay, 2-dimensional cobalt sulfide nanosheet (CoS) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method with L-cysteine as sulfur donor. An electrochemical aptamer biosensor was constructed by assembling a thiol group tagged 17β-estradiol aptamer on CoS and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified electrode. Methylene blue was applied as a tracer and a guanine-rich complementary DNA sequence was designed to bind with the unbound 17β-estradiol aptamer for signal amplification. The binding of guanine-rich DNA to the aptamer was inhibited when the aptamer captured 17β-estradiol. Using guanine-rich DNA in the assay greatly amplified the redox signal of methylene blue bound to the detection probe. The CoS/AuNPs film formed on the biosensor surface appeared to be a good conductor for accelerating the electron transfer. The method demonstrated a high sensitivity of detection with the dynamic concentration range spanning from 1.0×10(-9) to 1.0×10(-12) M and a detection limit of 7.0×10(-13) M. Besides, the fabricated biosensor exhibited good selectivity toward 17β-estradiol even when interferents were presented at 100-fold concentrations. Our attempt will extend the application of the CoS nanosheet and this signal amplification assay to biosensing areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure of Low-Lying Excited States of Guanine in DNA and Solution: Combined Molecular Mechanics and High-Level Coupled Cluster Studies

    DOE PAGES

    Kowalski, Karol; Valiev, Marat

    2007-01-01

    High-level ab-initio equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods with singles, doubles, and noniterative triples are used, in conjunction with the combined quantum mechanical molecular mechanics approach, to investigate the structure of low-lying excited states of the guanine base in DNA and solvated environments. Our results indicate that while the excitation energy of the first excited state is barely changed compared to its gas-phase counterpart, the excitation energy of the second excited state is blue-shifted by 0.24 eV.

  2. Specific replacement of Q base in the anticodon of tRNA by guanine catalyzed by a cell-free extract of rabbit reticulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, N; Harada, F; Nishimura, S

    1976-01-01

    Guanylation of tRNA by a lysate of rabbit reticulocytes was reported previously by Farkas and Singh. This reaction was investigated further using 18 purified E. coli tRNAs as acceptors.Results showed that only tRNATyr, tRNAHis, tRNAAsn and tRNAAsp which contain the modified nucleoside Q in the anticodon acted as acceptors. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences in the guanylated tRNA showed that guanine specifically replaced Q base in these tRNAs. Images PMID:792816

  3. Role of guanine nucleotides in the vinblastine-induced self-association of tubulin: effects of guanosine alpha,beta-methylenetriphosphate and guanosine alpha,beta-methylenediphosphate.

    PubMed

    Vulevic, B; Lobert, S; Correia, J J

    1997-10-21

    It is now well established that guanine nucleotides are allosteric effectors of the vinca alkaloid-induced self-association of tubulin. GDP enhances self-association for vinblastine-, vincristine- and vinorelbine-induced spiral assembly relative to GTP by 0.90 +/- 0.17 kcal/mol [Lobert et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 6806-6814]. Since chemical modifications of the vinca alkaloid structure are known to modulate the overall affinity of drug binding, it is very likely that, by Wyman linkage, chemical modifications of guanine nucleotide allosteric effectors also modulate drug binding. Here we compare the effects of the GTP and GDP alpha,beta-methylene analogues GMPCPP and GMPCP on vinblastine-induced tubulin association in 10 and 100 mM piperazine-N,N'-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid) (Pipes), 1 mM MgSO4, and 2 mM [ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)]tetraacetic acid (EGTA), pH 6. 9, at different temperatures. We found that GMPCPP perfectly mimics GTP in its effect on spiral assembly under all ionic strength and temperature conditions. However, GMPCP in 10 mM Pipes behaves not as a GDP analogue, but as a GTP analogue. In 100 mM Pipes, GMPCP has characteristics that are intermediate between GDP and GTP. These data suggest that the alpha,beta methylene group in GMPCP and GMPCPP is sufficient to produce a GTP-like effect on vinblastine-induced tubulin self-assembly. This is consistent with previous observations that GMPCP-tubulin will assemble into microtubules in a 2 M glycerol and 100 mM Pipes buffer [Vulevic & Correia (1997) Biophys. J. 72, 1357-1375]. Our results demonstrate that an alpha,beta methylene modification of the guanine nucleotide phosphate moiety can induce a salt-dependent conformational change in the tubulin heterodimer that favors the GTP-tubulin structure. This has important implications for understanding allosteric interactions that occur in the binding of guanine nucleotides to tubulin.

  4. Hydration effects on the photoionization energy of 2‧-deoxyguanosine 5‧-phosphate and activation barriers for guanine methylation by carcinogenic methane diazonium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Daniel R.; Hamann, Haley A.; Harte, Katherine A.; Papadantonakis, George A.

    2017-07-01

    Results from DFT calculations indicate that states originating from gas-phase ionization of the phosphate and the base are degenerate in syn-5‧-dGMP- and that bulk hydration lowers the base-localized ionization energy by <0.5 eV. Local ionization maps show that micro-hydration leads to the formation of donor and acceptor hydrogen bonds and the ionization energy decreases or increases in each case respectively. The SN2 transition states of the methylation reactions of guanine with methane diazonium ions are lower at the N7 than at the O6 sites and they are influenced by local ionization energy and steric interference.

  5. Binding effects of Mn²⁺ and Zn²⁺ ions on the vibrational properties of guanine-cytosine base pairs in the Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen configurations.

    PubMed

    Morari, Cristian; Bogdan, Diana; Muntean, Cristina M

    2012-11-01

    The binding effects of Mn²⁺ and Zn²⁺ ions on the vibrational properties of guanine-cytosine base pairs have been performed using density functional theory investigations. The calculations were carried out on Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen configurations of the base pairs. We have found, that in Watson-Crick configuration, the metal is coordinated to N7 atom of guanine while, in the case of Hoogsteen configuration, the coordination is at N3 atom of guanine. We have pointed out the vibrational bands that can be used to detect the presence of metallic ions in the Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen structures. Our results show that the vibrational amplitudes of metallic atoms are strong for wavenumbers lower than 600 cm⁻¹. Also, we predict that the distinction between Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen configurations can be seen around 85, 170 and 310 cm⁻¹.

  6. Oxidized Guanine Base Lesions Function in 8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase-1-mediated Epigenetic Regulation of Nuclear Factor κB-driven Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lang; Hao, Wenjing; Ba, Xueqing

    2016-01-01

    A large percentage of redox-responsive gene promoters contain evolutionarily conserved guanine-rich clusters; guanines are the bases most susceptible to oxidative modification(s). Consequently, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is one of the most abundant base lesions in promoters and is primarily repaired via the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OOG1)-initiated base excision repair pathway. In view of a prompt cellular response to oxidative challenge, we hypothesized that the 8-oxoG lesion and the cognate repair protein OGG1 are utilized in transcriptional gene activation. Here, we document TNFα-induced enrichment of both 8-oxoG and OGG1 in promoters of pro-inflammatory genes, which precedes interaction of NF-κB with its DNA-binding motif. OGG1 bound to 8-oxoG upstream from the NF-κB motif increased its DNA occupancy by promoting an on-rate of both homodimeric and heterodimeric forms of NF-κB. OGG1 depletion decreased both NF-κB binding and gene expression, whereas Nei-like glycosylase-1 and -2 had a marginal effect. These results are the first to document a novel paradigm wherein the DNA repair protein OGG1 bound to its substrate is coupled to DNA occupancy of NF-κB and functions in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. PMID:27756845

  7. Tautomeric selectivity of the excited-state lifetime of guanine/cytosine base pairs: The role of electron-driven proton-transfer processes

    PubMed Central

    Sobolewski, Andrzej L.; Domcke, Wolfgang; Hättig, C.

    2005-01-01

    The UV spectra of three different conformers of the guanine/cytosine base pair were recorded recently with UV-IR double-resonance techniques in a supersonic jet [Abo-Riziq, A., Grace, L., Nir, E., Kabelac, M., Hobza, P. & de Vries, M. S. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 20–23]. The spectra provide evidence for a very efficient excited-state deactivation mechanism that is specific for the Watson–Crick structure and may be essential for the photostability of DNA. Here we report results of ab initio electronic-structure calculations for the excited electronic states of the three lowest-energy conformers of the guanine/cytosine base pair. The calculations reveal that electron-driven interbase proton-transfer processes play an important role in the photochemistry of these systems. The exceptionally short lifetime of the UV-absorbing states of the Watson–Crick conformer is tentatively explained by the existence of a barrierless reaction path that connects the spectroscopic 1π π * excited state with the electronic ground state via two electronic curve crossings. For the non-Watson–Crick structures, the photochemically reactive state is located at higher energies, resulting in a barrier for proton transfer and, thus, a longer lifetime of the UV-absorbing 1π π * state. The computational results support the conjecture that the photochemistry of hydrogen bonds plays a decisive role for the photostability of the molecular encoding of the genetic information in isolated DNA base pairs. PMID:16330778

  8. The effect of S-substitution at the O6-guanine site on the structure and dynamics of a DNA oligomer containing a G:T mismatch

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The effect of S-substitution on the O6 guanine site of a 13-mer DNA duplex containing a G:T mismatch is studied using molecular dynamics. The structure, dynamic evolution and hydration of the S-substituted duplex are compared with those of a normal duplex, a duplex with S-substitution on guanine, but no mismatch and a duplex with just a G:T mismatch. The S-substituted mismatch leads to cell death rather than repair. One suggestion is that the G:T mismatch recognition protein recognises the S-substituted mismatch (GS:T) as G:T. This leads to a cycle of futile repair ending in DNA breakage and cell death. We find that some structural features of the helix are similar for the duplex with the G:T mismatch and that with the S-substituted mismatch, but differ from the normal duplex, notably the helical twist. These differences arise from the change in the hydrogen-bonding pattern of the base pair. However a marked feature of the S-substituted G:T mismatch duplex is a very large opening. This showed considerable variability. It is suggested that this enlarged opening would lend support to an alternative model of cell death in which the mismatch protein attaches to thioguanine and activates downstream damage-response pathways. Attack on the sulphur by reactive oxygen species, also leading to cell death, would also be aided by the large, variable opening. PMID:28910418

  9. Oxidatively Generated Guanine(C8)-Thymine(N3) Intrastrand Cross-links in Double-stranded DNA Are Repaired by Base Excision Repair Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Talhaoui, Ibtissam; Shafirovich, Vladimir; Liu, Zhi; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Akishev, Zhiger; Matkarimov, Bakhyt T.; Gasparutto, Didier; Geacintov, Nicholas E.; Saparbaev, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Oxidatively generated guanine radical cations in DNA can undergo various nucleophilic reactions including the formation of C8-guanine cross-links with adjacent or nearby N3-thymines in DNA in the presence of O2. The G*[C8-N3]T* lesions have been identified in the DNA of human cells exposed to oxidative stress, and are most likely genotoxic if not removed by cellular defense mechanisms. It has been shown that the G*[C8-N3]T* lesions are substrates of nucleotide excision repair in human cell extracts. Cleavage at the sites of the lesions was also observed but not further investigated (Ding et al. (2012) Nucleic Acids Res. 40, 2506–2517). Using a panel of eukaryotic and prokaryotic bifunctional DNA glycosylases/lyases (NEIL1, Nei, Fpg, Nth, and NTH1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases (Apn1, APE1, and Nfo), the analysis of cleavage fragments by PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS show that the G*[C8-N3]T* lesions in 17-mer duplexes are incised on either side of G*, that none of the recovered cleavage fragments contain G*, and that T* is converted to a normal T in the 3′-fragment cleavage products. The abilities of the DNA glycosylases to incise the DNA strand adjacent to G*, while this base is initially cross-linked with T*, is a surprising observation and an indication of the versatility of these base excision repair proteins. PMID:25903131

  10. Cyclosporine a inhibits apoptosis of rat gingival epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ma, Su; Liu, Peihong; Li, Yanwu; Hou, Lin; Chen, Li; Qin, Chunlin

    2014-08-01

    The use of cyclosporine A (CsA) induces hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in a site-specific response manner, but the molecular mechanism via which the lesion occurs is unclear. The present research aims to investigate the site-specific effect of CsA on the apoptosis of gingival epithelium associated with gingival hyperplasia. Forty Wistar rats were divided into CsA-treated and non-treated groups. Paraffin-embedded sections of mandibular first molars were selected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry analyses of bcl-2 and caspase-3, and the staining of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The area of the whole gingival epithelium and the length of rete pegs were measured, and the number of bcl-2- and caspase-3-positive cells in the longest rete peg were counted. The analysis of variance for factorial designs and Fisher least significant difference test for post hoc analysis were used to determine the significance levels. In CsA-treated rats, bcl-2 expression was significantly upregulated, whereas caspase-3 expression was downregulated, along with a reduced number of TUNEL-positive cells. The site-specific distribution of bcl-2 was consistent with the site-specific hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in CsA-treated rats. CsA inhibited gingival epithelial apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and common pathway. The antiapoptotic protein bcl-2 might play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the site-specific hyperplasia of gingival epithelium induced by CsA. There were mechanistic differences in the regulation of apoptosis for cells in the attached gingival epithelium, free gingival epithelium, and junctional epithelium.

  11. Relative Stability of the La and Lb Excited States in Adenine and Guanine: Direct Evidence from TD-DFT Calculations of MCD Spectra.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Fabrizio; Improta, Roberto; Fahleson, Tobias; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-06-05

    The relative position of La and Lb ππ* electronic states in purine nucleobases is a much debated topic, since it can strongly affect our understanding of their photoexcited dynamics. To assess this point, we calculated the absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of adenine, guanine, and their nucleosides in gas-phase and aqueous solution, exploiting recent developments in MCD computational technology within time-dependent density functional theory. MCD spectroscopy allows us to resolve the intense S0→ La transition from the weak S0→ Lb transition. The spectra obtained in water solution, by using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals and describing solvent effect by cluster models and by the polarizable continuum model (PCM), are in very good agreement with the experimental counterparts, thus providing direct and unambiguous evidence that the energy ordering predicted by TD-DFT, La < Lb, is the correct one.

  12. Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum (Didelphis virginiana) erythrocytes: V. Utilization of hypoxanthine for the synthesis of adenine and guanine nucleotides in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Bethlenfalvay, N.C.; White, J.C.; Chadwick, E.

    1990-06-01

    High pressure liquid radiochromatography was used to test the ability of opossum erythrocytes to incorporate tracer amounts of (G-{sup 3}H) hypoxanthine (Hy) into ({sup 3}H) labelled triphosphates of adenine and guanine. In the presence of supraphysiologic (30 mM) phosphate which is optimal for PRPP synthesis, both ATP and GTP are extensively labelled. When physiologic (1 mM) medium phosphate is used, red cells incubated under an atmosphere of nitrogen accumulate ({sup 3}H) ATP in a linear fashion suggesting ongoing PRPP synthesis in red cells whose hemoglobin is deoxygenated. In contrast, a lesser increase of labelled ATP is observed in cells incubatedmore » under oxygen, suggesting that conditions for purine nucleotide formation from ambient Hy are more favorable in the venous circulation.« less

  13. Molecular recognition of 7-(2-octadecyloxycarbonylethyl)guanine to cytidine at the air/water interface and LB film studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Miao, Wangen; Luo, Xuzhong; Liang, Yingqiu

    2003-03-15

    Monolayer behavior of a nucleolipid amphiphile, 7-(2-octadecyloxycarbonylethyl)guanine (ODCG), on aqueous cytidine solution was investigated by means of surface-molecular area (pi-A) isotherms. It indicates that molecular recognition by hydrogen bonding is present between ODCG monolayer and the cytidine in subphase. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmission spectroscopic result indicates that the cytidine molecules in the subphase can be transferred onto solid substrates by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique as a result of the formation of Watson-Crick base-pairing at the air/water interface. Investigation by rotating polarized FTIR transmission also suggests that the headgroup recognition of this amphiphile to the dissolved cytidine influence the orientation of the tailchains. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Molecular recognition of 7-(2-octadecyloxycarbonylethyl)guanine to cytidine at the air/water interface and LB film studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Wangen; Luo, Xuzhong; Liang, Yingqiu

    2003-03-01

    Monolayer behavior of a nucleolipid amphiphile, 7-(2-octadecyloxycarbonylethyl)guanine (ODCG), on aqueous cytidine solution was investigated by means of surface-molecular area ( π- A) isotherms. It indicates that molecular recognition by hydrogen bonding is present between ODCG monolayer and the cytidine in subphase. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmission spectroscopic result indicates that the cytidine molecules in the subphase can be transferred onto solid substrates by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique as a result of the formation of Watson-Crick base-pairing at the air/water interface. Investigation by rotating polarized FTIR transmission also suggests that the headgroup recognition of this amphiphile to the dissolved cytidine influence the orientation of the tailchains.

  15. Oxidatively Generated Guanine(C8)-Thymine(N3) Intrastrand Cross-links in Double-stranded DNA Are Repaired by Base Excision Repair Pathways.

    PubMed

    Talhaoui, Ibtissam; Shafirovich, Vladimir; Liu, Zhi; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Akishev, Zhiger; Matkarimov, Bakhyt T; Gasparutto, Didier; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Saparbaev, Murat

    2015-06-05

    Oxidatively generated guanine radical cations in DNA can undergo various nucleophilic reactions including the formation of C8-guanine cross-links with adjacent or nearby N3-thymines in DNA in the presence of O2. The G*[C8-N3]T* lesions have been identified in the DNA of human cells exposed to oxidative stress, and are most likely genotoxic if not removed by cellular defense mechanisms. It has been shown that the G*[C8-N3]T* lesions are substrates of nucleotide excision repair in human cell extracts. Cleavage at the sites of the lesions was also observed but not further investigated (Ding et al. (2012) Nucleic Acids Res. 40, 2506-2517). Using a panel of eukaryotic and prokaryotic bifunctional DNA glycosylases/lyases (NEIL1, Nei, Fpg, Nth, and NTH1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases (Apn1, APE1, and Nfo), the analysis of cleavage fragments by PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS show that the G*[C8-N3]T* lesions in 17-mer duplexes are incised on either side of G*, that none of the recovered cleavage fragments contain G*, and that T* is converted to a normal T in the 3'-fragment cleavage products. The abilities of the DNA glycosylases to incise the DNA strand adjacent to G*, while this base is initially cross-linked with T*, is a surprising observation and an indication of the versatility of these base excision repair proteins. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. 15N nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the tautomerism of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine, and other C8-substituted guanine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Cho, B P; Kadlubar, F F; Culp, S J; Evans, F E

    1990-01-01

    The favored tautomeric and ionic structures were examined for the oxidative DNA damage adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and its RNA analogue 8-hydroxyguanosine by 15N NMR spectroscopy. In addition, 15N chemical shifts and coupling constants from 13 different guanine nucleosides, including a wide variety of C8 substitutions (OH, SH, Br, OCH2C6H5, OCH3, SCH3, and SO2CH3), have been analyzed with respect to their tautomeric structures. A -98.5-Hz proton-nitrogen coupling constant observed for the N7 resonance of 8-hydroxyguanosine in dimethyl sulfoxide was evidence for 8-keto substitution, which is contrary to the structure implied by the generally used nomenclature. The pH dependence of 15N NMR spectra of 8-hydroxyguanosine in aqueous solution showed downfield shifts of the N1 and N7 resonances that were greater than 50 ppm, which indicated the conversion from a neutral 6,8-diketo to a 6-enolate-8-keto (pKa1 = 8.6) and finally to a 6,8-dienolate structure (pKa2 = 11.7). There was no evidence of an 8-enol substituent in the absence of ionization. It is proposed that the syn conformation of these oxidized bases in duplex DNA and RNA can be further stabilized by abnormal hydrogen bonding or mispairing that involves N7-H. The combined data show that 15N NMR is a sensitive probe to examine tautomerism of the guanine ring system. The analysis indicates that the change from a single to a double bond for the C8 substituent, and the accompanying removal of the normal double bond between N7 and C8 on the imidazole ring system, has no detectable effect on the tautomerism at the N1-O6 site of the pyrimidine ring system for both the 8-keto and 8-thio substitutions. In addition, large differences in electronegativity of the C8 substituents do not alter the N1-O6 tautomerism.

  17. Anti-herpesvirus activity profile of 4'-thioarabinofuranosyl purine and uracil nucleosides and activity of 1-beta-D-2'-fluoro-4'-thioarabinofuranosyl guanine and 2,6-diaminopurine against clinical isolates of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Machida, H; Ashida, N; Miura, S; Endo, M; Yamada, K; Kitano, K; Yoshimura, Y; Sakata, S; Ijichi, O; Eizuru, Y

    1998-08-01

    Newly synthesized 4'-thio- and 2'-fluoro-4'-thioarabinofuranosyl purine and pyrimidine nucleosides were compared with the corresponding 4'-oxo type arabinosyl nucleosides for anti-herpesvirus and anti-cell proliferative potencies. 4'-Thioarabinosyl- and 2'-fluoro-4'-thioarabinofuranosyl 5-substituted uracils had selective antiviral activities, but were not superior to 4'-oxo nucleosides, except for the activity of 5-ethyl-uracil 4'-thio nucleosides against herpes simplex virus. Furthermore, 4'-thio substituted derivatives of sorivudine (BV-araU) and related compounds, and 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-arabinosyluracil exhibited reduced activity against varicella-zoster virus compared with the parent compounds. The 4'-thioarabinosyluracils, except for 5-methyluracil derivatives, were inactive against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). 4'-Thioarabinofuranosyl guanine and diaminopurine had the most potent anti-HCMV and anti-proliferative activities, whereas arabinosyl guanine and diaminopurine had only marginal antiviral activity. 2'-Fluoro-4'-thioarabinofuranosyl derivatives of guanine (4'-thio-FaraG) and 2,6-diaminopurine (4'-thio-FaraDAP), however, had particularly high activity against all herpesviruses tested with anti-proliferative activity equipotent to that of arabinosyl guanine and diaminopurine. 4'-Thio- and 2'-fluoro-4'-thioarabinofuranosyladenines exhibited biological activities similar to that of arabinosyladenine. Both 4'-thio-FaraG and 4'-thio-FaraDAP had a 6-fold lower ED50 than ganciclovir against clinical isolates of HCMV. A ganciclovir-resistant isolate, obtained from a patient who had received long-term ganciclovir-treatment, was susceptible to 4'-thio-FaraG and 4'-thio-FaraDAP.

  18. Solvent effect on the intermolecular proton transfer of the Watson and Crick guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine base pairs: a polarizable continuum model study.

    PubMed

    Romero, Eduardo E; Hernandez, Florencio E

    2018-01-03

    Herein we present our results on the study of the double proton transfer (DPT) mechanism in the adenine-thymine (AT) and guanine-cytosine (GC) base pairs, both in gas phase and in solution. The latter was modeled using the polarizable continuum method (PCM) in different solvents. According to our DFT calculations, the DPT may occur for both complexes in a stepwise mechanism in condensate phase. In gas phase only the GC base pair exhibits a concerted DPT mechanism. Using the Wigner's tunneling corrections to the transition state theory we demonstrate that such corrections are important for the prediction of the rate constants of both systems in gas and in condensate phase. We also show that (i) as the polarity of the medium decreases the equilibrium constant of the DPT reaction increases in both complexes, and (ii) that the equilibrium constant in the GC complex is four orders of magnitude larger than in AT. This observation suggests that the spontaneous mutations in DNA base pairs are more probable in GC than in AT.

  19. The influence of anharmonic and solvent effects on the theoretical vibrational spectra of the guanine-cytosine base pairs in Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen configurations.

    PubMed

    Bende, Attila; Muntean, Cristina M

    2014-03-01

    The theoretical IR and Raman spectra of the guanine-cytosine DNA base pairs in Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen configurations were computed using DFT method with M06-2X meta-hybrid GGA exchange-correlation functional, including the anharmonic corrections and solvent effects. The results for harmonic frequencies and their anharmonic corrections were compared with our previously calculated values obtained with the B3PW91 hybrid GGA functional. Significant differences were obtained for the anharmonic corrections calculated with the two different DFT functionals, especially for the stretching modes, while the corresponding harmonic frequencies did not differ considerable. For the Hoogtseen case the H⁺ vibration between the G-C base pair can be characterized as an asymmetric Duffing oscillator and therefore unrealistic anharmonic corrections for normal modes where this proton vibration is involved have been obtained. The spectral modification due to the anharmonic corrections, solvent effects and the influence of sugar-phosphate group for the Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pair configurations, respectively, were also discussed. For the Watson-Crick case also the influence of the stacking interaction on the theoretical IR and Raman spectra was analyzed. Including the anharmonic correction in our normal mode analysis is essential if one wants to obtain correct assignments of the theoretical frequency values as compared with the experimental spectra.

  20. Novel repair activities of AlkA (3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II) and endonuclease VIII for xanthine and oxanine, guanine lesions induced by nitric oxide and nitrous acid

    PubMed Central

    Terato, Hiroaki; Masaoka, Aya; Asagoshi, Kenjiro; Honsho, Akiko; Ohyama, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Toshinori; Yamada, Masaki; Makino, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Ide, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Nitrosation of guanine in DNA by nitrogen oxides such as nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid leads to formation of xanthine (Xan) and oxanine (Oxa), potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic lesions. In the present study, we have examined the repair capacity of DNA N-glycosylases from Escherichia coli for Xan and Oxa. The nicking assay with the defined substrates containing Xan and Oxa revealed that AlkA [in combination with endonuclease (Endo) IV] and Endo VIII recognized Xan in the tested enzymes. The activity (Vmax/Km) of AlkA for Xan was 5-fold lower than that for 7-methylguanine, and that of Endo VIII was 50-fold lower than that for thymine glycol. The activity of AlkA and Endo VIII for Xan was further substantiated by the release of [3H]Xan from the substrate. The treatment of E.coli with N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine increased the Xan-excising activity in the cell extract from alkA+ but not alkA– strains. The alkA and nei (the Endo VIII gene) double mutant, but not the single mutants, exhibited increased sensitivity to nitrous acid relative to the wild type strain. AlkA and Endo VIII also exhibited excision activity for Oxa, but the activity was much lower than that for Xan. PMID:12434002

  1. Nonsynonymous Polymorphism in Guanine Monophosphate Synthetase Is a Risk Factor for Unfavorable Thiopurine Metabolite Ratios in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rebecca L; Wallace, Mary C; Seinen, Margien L; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; Krishnaprasad, Krupa; Jones, Gregory T; van Rij, Andre M; Baird, Angela; Lawrance, Ian C; Prosser, Ruth; Bampton, Peter; Grafton, Rachel; Simms, Lisa A; Studd, Corrie; Bell, Sally J; Kennedy, Martin A; Halliwell, Jacob; Gearry, Richard B; Radford-Smith, Graham; Andrews, Jane M; McHugh, Patrick C; Barclay, Murray L

    2018-05-16

    Up to 20% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who are refractory to thiopurine therapy preferentially produce 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) at the expense of 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN), resulting in a high 6-MMP:6-TGN ratio (>20). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether genetic variability in guanine monophosphate synthetase (GMPS) contributes to preferential 6-MMP metabolizer phenotype. Exome sequencing was performed in a cohort of IBD patients with 6-MMP:6-TGN ratios of >100 to identify nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs). In vitro assays were performed to measure GMPS activity associated with these nsSNPs. Frequency of the nsSNPs was measured in a cohort of 530 Caucasian IBD patients. Two nsSNPs in GMPS (rs747629729, rs61750370) were detected in 11 patients with very high 6-MMP:6-TGN ratios. The 2 nsSNPs were predicted to be damaging by in silico analysis. In vitro assays demonstrated that both nsSNPs resulted in a significant reduction in GMPS activity (P < 0.05). The SNP rs61750370 was significantly associated with 6-MMP:6-TGN ratios ≥100 (odds ratio, 5.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-25.12; P < 0.031) in a subset of 264 Caucasian IBD patients. The GMPS SNP rs61750370 may be a reliable risk factor for extreme 6MMP preferential metabolism.

  2. Overoxidized polyimidazole/graphene oxide copolymer modified electrode for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid, guanine and adenine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Ling; Wei, Shaping; Chen, Shihong; Ou, Xin; Lu, Qiyi

    2014-07-15

    In the present work, a novel strategy based on overoxidized polyimidazole (PImox) and graphene oxide (GO) copolymer modified electrode was proposed for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), guanine (G) and adenine (A). The copolymer was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Due to the synergistic effects between PImox and GO, the proposed electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical catalytic activities and high selectivity and sensitivity toward the oxidation of AA, DA, UA, G and A. The peak separations between AA and DA, AA and UA, UA and G, and G and A were 140 mV, 200 mV, 380 mV and 300 mV, respectively. The linear response ranges for AA, DA, UA, G and A were 75-2275 μM, 12-278 μM, 3.6-249.6 μM, 3.3-103.3 μM and 9.6-215 μM, respectively, and corresponding detection limits were 18 μM, 0.63 μM, 0.59 μM, 0.48 μM and 1.28 μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Purine salvage in the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona, and generation of hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient clones for positive-negative selection of transgenic parasites.

    PubMed

    Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Zhang, Zijing; Howe, Daniel K

    2014-09-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite that causes severe neurological disease in horses and marine mammals. The Apicomplexa are all obligate intracellular parasites that lack purine biosynthesis pathways and rely on the host cell for their purine requirements. Hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HXGPRT) and adenosine kinase (AK) are key enzymes that function in two complementary purine salvage pathways in apicomplexans. Bioinformatic searches of the S. neurona genome revealed genes encoding HXGPRT, AK and all of the major purine salvage enzymes except purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Wild-type S. neurona were able to grow in the presence of mycophenolic acid (MPA) but were inhibited by 6-thioxanthine (6-TX), suggesting that the pathways involving either HXGPRT or AK are functional in this parasite. Prior work with Toxoplasma gondii demonstrated the utility of HXGPRT as a positive-negative selection marker. To enable the use of HXGPRT in S. neurona, the SnHXGPRT gene sequence was determined and a gene-targeting plasmid was transfected into S. neurona. SnHXGPRT-deficient mutants were selected with 6-TX, and single-cell clones were obtained. These Sn∆HXG parasites were susceptible to MPA and could be complemented using the heterologous T. gondii HXGPRT gene. In summary, S. neurona possesses both purine salvage pathways described in apicomplexans, thus allowing the use of HXGPRT as a positive-negative drug selection marker in this parasite.

  4. The use of primary rat hepatocytes to achieve metabolic activation of promutagens in the Chinese hamster ovary/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase mutational assay.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, E; Couch, D B; Tillery, D

    1982-01-01

    A method is described in which primary rat hepatocytes have been cocultured with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to provide metabolic activation of promutagens in the Chinese hamster ovary/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) mutational assay. Single cell hepatocyte suspensions were prepared from male Fischer-344 rats using the in situ collagenase perfusion technique. Hepatocytes were allowed to attach for 1.5 hours in tissue culture dishes containing an approximately equal number of CHO cells in log growth. The cocultures were exposed to promutagens for up to 20 hours in serum-free medium. The survival and 6-thioguanine-resistant fraction of treated CHO cells were then determined as in the standard CHO/HGPRT assay. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(A)P) were found to produce increases in the mutant fractions of treated CHO cells as a function of concentration. The time required for optimum expression of the mutant phenotype following exposure to DMBA and AFB1 was approximately 8 days. Primary cell-mediated mutagenesis may be useful in elucidating metabolic pathways important in the production and detoxification of genotoxic products in vivo.

  5. Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor is essential for Rab1 function in budding from the endoplasmic reticulum and transport through the Golgi stack

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab1 is required for vesicular traffic from the ER to the cis-Golgi compartment, and for transport between the cis and medial compartments of the Golgi stack. In the present study, we examine the role of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) in regulating the function of Rab1 in the transport of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) in vitro. Incubation in the presence of excess GDI rapidly (t1/2 < 30 s) extracted Rab1 from membranes, inhibiting vesicle budding from the ER and sequential transport between the cis-, medial-, and trans-Golgi cisternae. These results demonstrate a direct role for GDI in the recycling of Rab proteins. Analysis of rat liver cytosol by gel filtration revealed that a major pool of Rab1 fractionates with a molecular mass of approximately 80 kD in the form of a GDI-Rab1 complex. When the GDI-Rab1 complex was depleted from cytosol by use of a Rab1-specific antibody, VSV-G failed to exit the ER. However, supplementation of depleted cytosol with a GDI-Rab1 complex prepared in vitro from recombinant forms of Rab1 and GDI efficiently restored export from the ER, and transport through the Golgi stack. These results provide evidence that a cytosolic GDI-Rab1 complex is required for the formation of non-clathrin-coated vesicles mediating transport through the secretory pathway. PMID:8089173

  6. Mechanisms of the Formation of Adenine, Guanine, and Their Analogues in UV-Irradiated Mixed NH3:H2O Molecular Ices Containing Purine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Partha P.; Stein, Tamar; Head-Gordon, Martin; Lee, Timothy J.

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the formation mechanisms of the nucleobases adenine and guanine and the nucleobase analogues hypoxanthine, xanthine, isoguanine, and 2,6-diaminopurine in a UV-irradiated mixed 10:1 H2O:NH3 ice seeded with precursor purine by using ab initio and density functional theory computations. Our quantum chemical investigations suggest that a multistep reaction mechanism involving purine cation, hydroxyl and amino radicals, together with water and ammonia, explains the experimentally obtained products in an independent study. The relative abundances of these products appear to largely follow from relative thermodynamic stabilities. The key role of the purine cation is likely to be the reason why purine is not functionalized in pure ammonia ice, where cations are promptly neutralized by free electrons from NH3 ionization. Amine group addition to purine is slightly favored over hydroxyl group attachment based on energetics, but hydroxyl is much more abundant due to higher abundance of H2O. The amino group is preferentially attached to the 6 position, giving 6-aminopurine, that is, adenine, while the hydroxyl group is preferentially attached to the 2 position, leading to 2-hydroxypurine. A second substitution by hydroxyl or amino group occurs at either the 6 or the 2 position depending on the first substitution. Given that H2O is far more abundant than NH3 in the experimentally studied ices (as well as based on interstellar abundances), xanthine and isoguanine are expected to be the most abundant bi-substituted photoproducts.

  7. A new nucleoside analog, 9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxyl]methyl]guanine, highly active in vitro against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, K O; Galloway, K S; Kennell, W L; Ogilvie, K K; Radatus, B K

    1982-01-01

    A novel nucleoside analog, 9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl]-guanine (BIOLF-62), was found to have potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 at concentrations well below cytotoxic levels. For example, the Patton strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 was susceptible at concentrations 140- to 2,900-fold below that which inhibited cell division by 50%, depending upon the cell line used for assay. Different herpesvirus strains varied considerably in their susceptibility to the drug, as did results obtained with the same virus strain in different cell lines. BIOLF-62 compared favorably with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and acyclovir with respect to ratios of viral to cell inhibitory drug concentrations. Patterns of drug resistance to herpesvirus mutants suggested that the primary mode of action of BIOLF-62 is different from that of known antiviral compounds. Human adenovirus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus were inhibited by this drug but at concentrations within the cell inhibitory range. Vaccinia virus and human cytomegalovirus were not inhibited at high drug concentrations. PMID:6289741

  8. MS-CASPT2 study of hole transfer in guanine-indole complexes using the generalized Mulliken-Hush method: effective two-state treatment.

    PubMed

    Butchosa, C; Simon, S; Blancafort, L; Voityuk, A

    2012-07-12

    Because hole transfer from nucleobases to amino acid residues in DNA-protein complexes can prevent oxidative damage of DNA in living cells, computational modeling of the process is of high interest. We performed MS-CASPT2 calculations of several model structures of π-stacked guanine and indole and derived electron-transfer (ET) parameters for these systems using the generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) method. We show that the two-state model commonly applied to treat thermal ET between adjacent donor and acceptor is of limited use for the considered systems because of the small gap between the ground and first excited states in the indole radical cation. The ET parameters obtained within the two-state GMH scheme can deviate significantly from the corresponding matrix elements of the two-state effective Hamiltonian based on the GMH treatment of three adiabatic states. The computed values of diabatic energies and electronic couplings provide benchmarks to assess the performance of less sophisticated computational methods.

  9. Multi-level Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics Study of Ring Opening Process of Guanine Damage by Hydroxyl Radical in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Qiong; Niu, Meixing; Wang, Dunyou

    2017-08-10

    Combining multi-level quantum mechanics theories and molecular mechanics with an explicit water model, we investigated the ring opening process of guanine damage by hydroxyl radical in aqueous solution. The detailed, atomic-level ring-opening mechanism along the reaction pathway was revealed in aqueous solution at the CCSD(T)/MM levels of theory. The potentials of mean force in aqueous solution were calculated at both the DFT/MM and CCSD(T)/MM levels of the theory. Our study found that the aqueous solution has a significant effect on this reaction in solution. In particular, by comparing the geometries of the stationary points between in gas phase and in aqueous solution, we found that the aqueous solution has a tremendous impact on the torsion angles much more than on the bond lengths and bending angles. Our calculated free-energy barrier height 31.6 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T)/MM level of theory agrees well with the one obtained based on gas-phase reaction profile and free energies of solvation. In addition, the reaction path in gas phase was also mapped using multi-level quantum mechanics theories, which shows a reaction barrier at 19.2 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T) level of theory, agreeing very well with a recent ab initio calculation result at 20.8 kcal/mol.

  10. The G-BHQ synergistic effect: Improved double quenching molecular beacons based on guanine and Black Hole Quencher for sensitive simultaneous detection of two DNAs.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dongshan; Li, Fengquan; Wu, Chenyi; Shi, Boan; Zhai, Kun

    2017-11-01

    We designed two double quenching molecular beacons (MBs) with simple structure based on guanine (G base) and Black Hole Quencher (BHQ), and developed a new analytical method for sensitive simultaneous detection of two DNAs by synchronous fluorescence analysis. In this analytical method, carboxyl fluorescein (FAM) and tetramethyl-6-carboxyrhodamine (TAMRA) were respectively selected as fluorophore of two MBs, Black Hole Quencher 1 (BHQ-1) and Black Hole Quencher 2 (BHQ-2) were respectively selected as organic quencher, and three continuous nucleotides with G base were connected to organic quencher (BHQ-1 and BHQ-2). In the presence of target DNAs, the two MBs hybridize with the corresponding target DNAs, the fluorophores are separated from organic quenchers and G bases, leading to recovery of fluorescence of FAM and TAMRA. Under a certain conditions, the fluorescence intensities of FAM and TAMRA all exhibited good linear dependence on their concentration of target DNAs (T1 and T2) in the range from 4 × 10 -10 to 4 × 10 -8 molL -1 (M). The detection limit (3σ, n = 13) of T1 was 3 × 10 -10 M and that of T2 was 2×10 -10 M, respectively. Compared with the existing analysis methods for multiplex DNA with MBs, this proposed method based on double quenching MBs is not only low fluorescence background, short analytical time and low detection cost, but also easy synthesis and good stability of MB probes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A guanine-ethylthioethyl-glutathione adduct as a major DNA lesion in the skin and in organs of mice exposed to sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Batal, Mohamed; Rebelo-Moreira, Silvestre; Hamon, Nadège; Bayle, Pierre-Alain; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Boudry, Isabelle; Douki, Thierry

    2015-02-17

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an old chemical warfare but it remains a threat to both militaries and civilians. SM mainly targets skin, eyes and lungs and diffuses to internal organs. At the molecular level, SM is able to damage DNA through the formation of monoadducts and biadduct. Glutathione (GSH) is another critical target of SM in cells since it is part of the detoxification mechanism against alkylating agents. In the present work, we investigated whether SM could form covalent bonds simultaneously with a DNA base and the sulfhydryl group of GSH. The expected guanine adduct, S-[2-(N7-guanyl)-ethylthioethyl]-glutathione (N7Gua-ETE-GSH), was synthesized and detected in several tissues of SKH-1 mice exposed to 60mg/kg of SM in the dorsal-lumbar region. N7Gua-ETE-GSH was detected in all organs studied, except in the liver. The tissue exhibiting the highest levels of N7Gua-ETE-GSH was skin, followed by brain, lungs, kidneys and spleen. N7Gua-ETE-GSH was detected in skin, brain and lungs as long as two weeks after exposure. The persistence was less in other organs. The observation of the formation of N7Gua-ETE-GSH in vivo confirms the variety of damages induced by SM in DNA. It also provides another example of the formation of DNA adducts involving glutathione following in vivo exposure to bifunctional alkylating compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein in. cap alpha. /sub 1/-adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization in DDT/sub 1/ MF-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cornett, L.E.; Norris, J.S.

    1987-11-01

    In this study the mechanisms involved in ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization at the level of the plasma membrane were investigated. Stimulation of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux from saponin-permeabilized DDT/sub 1/ MF-2 cells was observed with the addition of either the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine and guanosine-5'-triphosphate or the nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide guanylyl-imidodiphosphate. In the presence of (/sup 32/P) NAD, pertussis toxin was found to catalyze ADP-ribosylation of a M/sub r/ = 40,500 (n = 8) peptide in membranes prepared from DDT/sub 1/, MF-2 cells, possibly the ..cap alpha..-subunit of N/sub i/. However, stimulation ofmore » unidirectional /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux by phenylephrine was not affected by previous treatment of cells with 100 ng/ml pertussis toxin. These data suggest that the putative guanine nucleotide-binding protein which couples the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptor to Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization in DDT/sub 1/ MF-2 cells is not a pertussis toxin substrate and may possibly be an additional member of guanine nucleotide binding protein family.« less

  13. The Juxtamembrane and carboxy-terminal domains of Arabidopsis PRK2 are critical for ROP-induced growth in pollen tubes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polarized growth of pollen tubes is a critical step for successful reproduction in angiosperms and is controlled by ROP GTPases. Spatiotemporal activation of ROP (Rho GTPases of plants) necessitates a complex and sophisticated regulatory system, in which guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RopGEFs)...

  14. Endogenous 5-methylcytosine protects neighboring guanines from N7 and O6-methylation and O6-pyridyloxobutylation by the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone.

    PubMed

    Ziegel, Rebecca; Shallop, Anthony; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2004-01-20

    All CG dinucleotides along exons 5-8 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene contain endogenous 5-methylcytosine (MeC). These same sites (e.g., codons 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273) are mutational hot spots in smoking-induced lung cancer. Several groups used the UvrABC endonuclease incision assay to demonstrate that methylated CG dinucleotides of the p53 gene are the preferred binding sites for the diol epoxides of bay region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In contrast, effects of endogenous cytosine methylation on the distribution of DNA lesions induced by tobacco-specific nitrosamines, e.g., 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), have not been elucidated. In the work presented here, a stable isotope labeling HPLC-ESI-MS/MS approach was employed to analyze the reactivity of the N7 and O6 positions of guanines within hemimethylated and fully methylated CG dinucleotides toward NNK-derived methylating and pyridyloxobutylating species. 15N3-labeled guanine bases were placed within synthetic DNA sequences representing endogenously methylated p53 codons 154, 157, and 248, followed by treatment with acetylated precursors to NNK diazohydroxides. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis was used to determine the relative yields of N7- and O6-guanine adducts at the 15N3-labeled position. In all cases, the presence of MeC inhibited the formation of N7-methylguanine, O6-methylguanine, and O6-pyridyloxobutylguanine at a neighboring G, with the greatest decrease observed in fully methylated dinucleotides and at guanines preceded by MeC. Furthermore, the O6-Me-dG/N7-Me-G molar ratios were decreased in the presence of the 5'-neighboring MeC, suggesting that the observed decline in O6-alkylguanine adduct yields is, at least partially, a result of an altered reactivity pattern in methylated CG dinucleotides. These results indicate that, unlike N2-guanine adducts of PAH diol epoxides, NNK-induced N7- and O6-alkylguanine adducts are not preferentially formed at the endogenously

  15. Modeling of Toxicity-Relevant Electrophilic Reactivity for Guanine with Epoxides: Estimating the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB) Parameter as a Predictor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Chenchen; Ji, Li; Liu, Weiping

    2016-05-16

    According to the electrophilic theory in toxicology, many chemical carcinogens in the environment and/or their active metabolites are electrophiles that exert their effects by forming covalent bonds with nucleophilic DNA centers. The theory of hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB), which states that a toxic electrophile reacts preferentially with a biological macromolecule that has a similar hardness or softness, clarifies the underlying chemistry involved in this critical event. Epoxides are hard electrophiles that are produced endogenously by the enzymatic oxidation of parent chemicals (e.g., alkenes and PAHs). Epoxide ring opening proceeds through a SN2-type mechanism with hard nucleophile DNA sites as the major facilitators of toxic effects. Thus, the quantitative prediction of chemical reactivity would enable a predictive assessment of the molecular potential to exert electrophile-mediated toxicity. In this study, we calculated the activation energies for reactions between epoxides and the guanine N7 site for a diverse set of epoxides, including aliphatic epoxides, substituted styrene oxides, and PAH epoxides, using a state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) method. It is worth noting that these activation energies for diverse epoxides can be further predicted by quantum chemically calculated nucleophilic indices from HSAB theory, which is a less computationally demanding method than the exacting procedure for locating the transition state. More importantly, the good qualitative/quantitative correlations between the chemical reactivity of epoxides and their bioactivity suggest that the developed model based on HSAB theory may aid in the predictive hazard evaluation of epoxides, enabling the early identification of mutagenicity/carcinogenicity-relevant SN2 reactivity.

  16. GTP analogues promote release of the alpha subunit of the guanine nucleotide binding protein, Gi2, from membranes of rat glioma C6 BU1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, G; Mullaney, I; Unson, C G; Marshall, L; Spiegel, A M; McArdle, H

    1988-01-01

    The major pertussis-toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein of rat glioma C6 BU1 cells corresponded immunologically to Gi2. Antibodies which recognize the alpha subunit of this protein indicated that it has an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa and a pI of 5.7. Incubation of membranes of these cells with guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate, or other analogues of GTP, caused release of this polypeptide from the membrane in a time-dependent manner. Analogues of GDP or of ATP did not mimic this effect. The GTP analogues similarly caused release of the alpha subunit of Gi2 from membranes of C6 cells in which this G-protein had been inactivated by pretreatment with pertussis toxin. The beta subunit was not released from the membrane under any of these conditions, indicating that the release process was a specific response to the dissociation of the G-protein after binding of the GTP analogue. Similar nucleotide profiles for release of the alpha subunits of forms of Gi were noted for membranes of both the neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cell line NG108-15 and of human platelets. These data provide evidence that: (1) pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins, in native membranes, do indeed dissociate into alpha and beta gamma subunits upon activation; (2) the alpha subunit of 'Gi-like' proteins need not always remain in intimate association with the plasma membrane; and (3) the alpha subunit of Gi2 can still dissociate from the beta/gamma subunits after pertussis-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3140801

  17. Immunostimulation by cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides in combination with IL-2 can improve the success rate of karyotype analysis in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaolan; Chen, Jiadi; Huang, Huifang

    2016-07-01

    To assess whether immunostimulatory cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) combined with interleukin-2 (IL-2) improves the number of mitotic metaphases and the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Bone marrow specimens were collected from 36 patients with CLL. CLL cells were cultured with CpG-ODN type DSP30 plus IL-2 for 72 h, following which R-banding analysis was conducted. Conventional culture without the immunostimulant served as the control group. The incidence of genetic abnormalities was measured by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using a panel of five specific probes: D13S25 (13q14.3), RB1 (13q14), P53 (17p13), ATM (11q22.3) and CSP12 (trisomy 12, +12). In the control group, chromosome analysis achieved a success rate of only 22.2, and 11.1% of abnormal karyotypes were detected. After immunostimulation with DSP30 plus IL-2, chromosome analysis achieved a success rate of up to 91.6, and 41.6% of abnormal karyotypes were detected. FISH analysis detected 77.7% of abnormalities. FISH combined with CpG-ODN DSP30 plus IL-2 improved the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in CLL to 83.3%. CpG-ODN DSP30 combined with IL-2 is effective in improving the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in CLL cells. This combination with FISH analysis is conducive to increasing the detection rate of genetic abnormalities in CLL.

  18. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  19. Carbocations from Oxidized Metabolites of Benzo[a]anthracene. A Computational Study of Their Methylated and Fluorinated Derivatives and Guanine Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Borosky, Gabriela L.; Laali, Kenneth K.

    2008-01-01

    Structure-reactivity relationships and substituent effects on carbocation stability in benzo[a] anthracene (BA) derivatives have been studied computationally at the B3LYP/6-31G* and MP2/6-31G** levels. Bay-region carbocations are formed by O-protonation of the 1,2-epoxides in barrierless processes. This process is energetically more favored as compared to carbocation generation via zwitterion formation/O-protonation, via single electron oxidation to generate a radical cation, or via benzylic hydroxylation. Relative carbocation stabilities were determined in the gas phase and in water as solvent (PCM method). Charge delocalization mode in the BA carbocation framework was deduced from NPA-derived changes in charges, and substitution by methyl or fluorine was studied at different positions selected on basis of the carbocation charge density. A bay-region methyl group produces structural distortion with consequent deviation from planarity of the aromatic system, which destabilizes the epoxide, favoring ring opening. Whereas fluorine substitution at sites bearing significant positive charge leads to carbocation stabilization by fluorine p-π back-bonding, a fluorine atom at a ring position which presented negative charge density leads to inductive destabilization. Methylated derivatives are less sensitive to substituent effects as compared to the fluorinated analogues. Although the solvent decreases the exothermicity of the epoxide ring opening reactions due to greater stabilization of the reactants, it provokes no changes in relative reactivities. Relative energies in the resulting bay-region carbocations are examined taking into account the available biological activity data on these compounds. In selected cases, quenching of bay-region carbocations was investigated by analyzing relative energies (in the gas phase and in water) and geometries of their guanine adducts formed via covalent bond formation with the exocyclic amino group and with the N-7. PMID:16841957

  20. A guanine insert in OsBBS1 leads to early leaf senescence and salt stress sensitivity in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dong-Dong; Yang, Cheng-Cong; Qin, Ran; Alamin, Md; Yue, Er-Kui; Jin, Xiao-Li; Shi, Chun-Hai

    2018-06-01

    A rice receptor-like kinase gene OSBBS1/OsRLCK109 was identified; this gene played vital roles in leaf senescence and the salt stress response. Early leaf senescence can cause negative effects on rice yield, but the underlying molecular regulation is not fully understood. bilateral blade senescence 1 (bbs1), an early leaf senescence mutant with a premature senescence phenotype that occurs mainly performing at the leaf margins, was isolated from a rice mutant population generated by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) treatment. The mutant showed premature leaf senescence beginning at the tillering stage and exhibited severe symptoms at the late grain-filling stage. bbs1 showed accelerated dark-induced leaf senescence. The OsBBS1 gene was cloned by a map-based cloning strategy, and a guanine (G) insertion was found in the first exon of LOC_Os03g24930. This gene encodes a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase and was named OsRLCK109 in a previous study. Transgenic LOC_Os03g24930 knockout plants generated by a CRISPR/Cas9 strategy exhibited similar early leaf senescence phenotypes as did the bbs1 mutant, which confirmed that LOC_Os03g24930 was the OsBBS1 gene. OsBBS1/OsRLCK109 was expressed in all detected tissues and was predominantly expressed in the main vein region of mature leaves. The expression of OsBBS1 could be greatly induced by salt stress, and the bbs1 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress. In conclusion, this is the first identification of OsRLCKs participating in leaf senescence and playing critical roles in the salt stress response in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

  1. Robust Production, Crystallization, Structure Determination, and Analysis of [Fe-S] Proteins: Uncovering Control of Electron Shuttling and Gating in the Respiratory Metabolism of Molybdopterin Guanine Dinucleotide Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Lin; Tainer, John A

    2018-01-01

    [Fe-S] clusters are essential cofactors in all domains of life. They play many biological roles due to their unique abilities for electron transfer and conformational control. Yet, producing and analyzing Fe-S proteins can be difficult and even misleading if not done anaerobically. Due to unique redox properties of [Fe-S] clusters and their oxygen sensitivity, they pose multiple challenges and can lose enzymatic activity or cause their component proteins to be structurally disordered due to [Fe-S] cluster oxidation and loss in air. Here we highlight tested protocols and strategies enabling efficient and stable [Fe-S] protein production, purification, crystallization, X-ray diffraction data collection, and structure determination. From multiple high-resolution anaerobic crystal structures, we furthermore analyze exemplary data defining [Fe-S] clusters, substrate entry, and product exit for the functional oxidation states of type II molybdo-bis(molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide) (Mo-bisMGD) enzymes. Notably, these enzymes perform electron shuttling between quinone pools and specific substrates to catalyze respiratory metabolism. The identified structure-activity relationships for this enzyme class have broad implications germane to perchlorate environments on Earth and Mars extending to an alternative mechanism underlying metabolic origins for the evolution of the oxygen atmosphere. Integrated structural analyses of type II Mo-bisMGD enzymes unveil novel distinctive shared molecular mechanisms for dynamic control of substrate entry and product release gated by hydrophobic residues. Collective findings support a prototypic model for type II Mo-bisMGD enzymes including insights for a fundamental molecular mechanistic understanding of selectivity and regulation by a conformationally gated channel with general implications for [Fe-S] cluster respiratory enzymes. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of the Active Site Guanine in the glmS Ribozyme Self-Cleavage Mechanism: Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Free Energy Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The glmS ribozyme catalyzes a self-cleavage reaction at the phosphodiester bond between residues A-1 and G1. This reaction is thought to occur by an acid–base mechanism involving the glucosamine-6-phosphate cofactor and G40 residue. Herein quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy simulations and pKa calculations, as well as experimental measurements of the rate constant for self-cleavage, are utilized to elucidate the mechanism, particularly the role of G40. Our calculations suggest that an external base deprotonates either G40(N1) or possibly A-1(O2′), which would be followed by proton transfer from G40(N1) to A-1(O2′). After this initial deprotonation, A-1(O2′) starts attacking the phosphate as a hydroxyl group, which is hydrogen-bonded to deprotonated G40, concurrent with G40(N1) moving closer to the hydroxyl group and directing the in-line attack. Proton transfer from A-1(O2′) to G40 is concomitant with attack of the scissile phosphate, followed by the remainder of the cleavage reaction. A mechanism in which an external base does not participate, but rather the proton transfers from A-1(O2′) to a nonbridging oxygen during nucleophilic attack, was also considered but deemed to be less likely due to its higher effective free energy barrier. The calculated rate constant for the favored mechanism is in agreement with the experimental rate constant measured at biological Mg2+ ion concentration. According to these calculations, catalysis is optimal when G40 has an elevated pKa rather than a pKa shifted toward neutrality, although a balance among the pKa’s of A-1, G40, and the nonbridging oxygen is essential. These results have general implications, as the hammerhead, hairpin, and twister ribozymes have guanines at a similar position as G40. PMID:25526516

  3. Downregulation of guanine nucleotide-binding protein beta 1 (GNB1) is associated with worsened prognosis of clearcell renal cell carcinoma and is related to VEGF signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Chi, H; Min, L; Junhua, Z

    2017-01-01

    Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by genetic abnormalities, while the role of Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein Beta 1 (GNB1) in ccRCC has not been studied. We thus aimed to evaluate the expression and prognostic value of GNB1 in ccRCC. A two-stage study (exploration and validation) was conducted using in silico and immunohistochemical (IHC) scoring of ccRCC samples from our institute, to evaluate the association between GNB1 expression and clinicopathological parameters of ccRCC patients. Pathway analyses were performed for genes coexpressed with GNB1 using the KOBAS platform to profile the function of GNB1 and IHC validation. In the exploration stage, data from TCGA ccRCC dataset were reproduced, which contained 537 patients with ccRCC and found that downregulation of GNB1 was significantly associated with worse prognosis. IHC staining from the Human Protein Atlas showed significantly downregulation of GNB1 in ccRCC tissue compared with normal kidney. Pathway analysis showed significantly altered vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways among which expressions of 3 genes (WASF2, NRP1, and HIP1) were significantly associated with GNB1 expression, respectively. In the validation stage, included were 80 ccRCC samples and GNB1 expression was scored using IHC positivity. GNB1 expression was negatively associated with tumor stage, lymph node invasion, metastasis, older age, and increased tumor grade. Female gender and receiving neoadjuvant therapy were also associated with decreased GNB1 expression. The expressions of WASF2, NRP1 and HIP1 were also studied and found that they were significantly associated with GNB1. GNB1 was downregulated in ccRCC. Decreased GNB1 expression was associated with worsened disease characteristics and prognosis. GNB1 was related with VEGF signaling in ccRCC, implying a therapeutic potential of this factor.

  4. Cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides containing GACGTT motifs enhance the immune responses elicited by keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigen in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chun-Yen; Lee, Shang-Chun; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Lin, Yu-Ming; Shen, Perng-Chi; Yu, Chi; Lee, Kuo-Hua; Zhao, Xin; Lee, Jai-Wei

    2011-10-01

    Adjuvants are important components of vaccine formulations. Effective adjuvants line innate and adaptive immunity by signaling through pathogen recognition receptors. Synthetic cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) have been shown to have potentials as adjuvants for vaccines. However, the immunostimulatory effect of CpG is species-specific and depends on the sequence of CpG motifs. A CpG ODN (2135), containing 3 identical copies of GTCGTT motif, was previously reported to have the strongest effects on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Based on the sequence of 2135, we replaced the GTCGTT motif with 11 other sequences containing CG and investigated their effects on bovine lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the CpG ODNs containing 3 copies of GACGTT motif had the highest lymphocyte stimulation index (7.91±1.18), which was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of 2135 (4.25±0.56). The CpG ODNs containing 3 copies of GACGTT motif also significantly increased the mRNA expression of interferon (IFN)-α, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-21 in bovine PBMC. When dairy cows were immunized with the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen formulated with CpG ODNs containing 3 copies of GACGTT, production of KLH-specific antibodies in serum and in milk whey was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced. IFN-γ in whole blood stimulated by KLH was also significantly (P<0.05) increased in cows immunized with KLH plus CpG ODNs. Our results indicate that CpG ODNs containing 3 copies of the GACGTT motifs is a potential adjuvant for bovine vaccines.

  5. The pattern of expression of guanine nucleotide-binding protein β3 (GNB3) in the retina is conserved across vertebrate species

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Eric R.; Bongini, Rachel E.; Code, Kimberly A.; Zelinka, Christopher; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Fischer, Andy J.

    2010-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein β3 (GNB3) is an isoform of the β subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein second messenger complex that is commonly associated with transmembrane receptors. The presence of GNB3 in photoreceptors, and possibly bipolar cells, has been confirmed in murine, bovine and primate retinas (Lee et al., 1992, Peng et al., 1992, Huang et al., 2003). Studies have indicated that a mutation in the GNB3 gene causes progressive retinopathy and globe enlargement (RGE) in chickens. The goals of this study were to 1) examine the expression pattern of GNB3 in wild-type and RGE mutant chickens, 2) characterize the types of bipolar cells that express GNB3 and 3) examine whether the expression of GNB3 in the retina is conserved across vertebrate species. We find that chickens homozygous for the RGE allele completely lack GNB3 protein. We find that the pattern of expression of GNB3 in the retina is highly conserved across vertebrate species, including teleost fish (Carassius auratus), frogs (Xenopus laevis), chickens (Gallus domesticus), mice (Mus musculata), guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), dogs (Canis familiaris) and non-human primates (Macaca fasicularis). Regardless of the species, we find that GNB3 is expressed by Islet1-positive cone ON-bipolar cells and by cone photoreceptors. In some vertebrates, GNB3-immunoreactivity was observed in both rod and cone photoreceptors. A protein-protein alignment of GNB3 across different vertebrates, from fish to humans, indicates a high degree (>92%) of sequence conservation. Given that analogous types of retinal neurons express GNB3 in different species, we propose that the functions and the mechanisms that regulate the expression of GNB3 are highly conserved. PMID:20538044

  6. Role of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins--ras-family or trimeric proteins or both--in Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, M C; Iizuka, K; Nixon, G; Browne, J P; Hall, A; Eccleston, J F; Sugai, M; Kobayashi, S; Somlyo, A V; Somlyo, A P

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) involved in the agonist- and guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[gamma-S])-induced increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity of 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation and contraction in smooth muscle. A constitutively active, recombinant val14p21rhoA.GTP expressed in the baculovirus/Sf9 system, but not the protein expressed without posttranslational modification in Escherichia coli, induced at constant Ca2+ (pCa 6.4) a slow contraction associated with increased MLC20 phosphorylation from 19.8% to 29.5% (P < 0.05) in smooth muscle permeabilized with beta-esein. The effect of val14p21rhoA.GTP was inhibited by ADP-ribosylation of the protein and was absent in smooth muscle extensively permeabilized with Triton X-100. ADP-ribosylation of endogenous p21rho with epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor (EDIN) inhibited Ca2+ sensitization induced by GTP [in rabbit mesenteric artery (RMA) and rabbit ileum smooth muscles], by carbachol (in rabbit ileum), and by endothelin (in RMA), but not by phenylephrine (in RMA), and only slowed the rate without reducing the amplitude of contractions induced in RMA by 1 microM GTP[gamma-S] at constant Ca2+ concentrations. AlF(4-)-induced Ca2+ sensitization was inhibited by both guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[beta-S]) and by EDIN. EDIN also inhibited, to a lesser extent, contractions induced by Ca2+ alone (pCa 6.4) in both RMA and rabbit ileum. ADP-ribosylation of trimeric G proteins with pertussis toxin did not inhibit Ca2+ sensitization. We conclude that p21rho may play a role in physiological Ca2+ sensitization as a cofactor with other messengers, rather than as a sole direct inhibitor of smooth muscle MLC20 phosphatase. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8577766

  7. The signaling pathway of Campylobacter jejuni-induced Cdc42 activation: Role of fibronectin, integrin beta1, tyrosine kinases and guanine exchange factor Vav2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Host cell invasion by the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered as one of the primary reasons of gut tissue damage, however, mechanisms and key factors involved in this process are widely unclear. It was reported that small Rho GTPases, including Cdc42, are activated and play a role during invasion, but the involved signaling cascades remained unknown. Here we utilised knockout cell lines derived from fibronectin-/-, integrin-beta1-/-, focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-/- and Src/Yes/Fyn-/- deficient mice, and wild-type control cells, to investigate C. jejuni-induced mechanisms leading to Cdc42 activation and bacterial uptake. Results Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, GTPase pulldowns, G-Lisa and gentamicin protection assays we found that each studied host factor is necessary for induction of Cdc42-GTP and efficient invasion. Interestingly, filopodia formation and associated membrane dynamics linked to invasion were only seen during infection of wild-type but not in knockout cells. Infection of cells stably expressing integrin-beta1 variants with well-known defects in fibronectin fibril formation or FAK signaling also exhibited severe deficiencies in Cdc42 activation and bacterial invasion. We further demonstrated that infection of wild-type cells induces increasing amounts of phosphorylated FAK and growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR) during the course of infection, correlating with accumulating Cdc42-GTP levels and C. jejuni invasion over time. In studies using pharmacological inhibitors, silencing RNA (siRNA) and dominant-negative expression constructs, EGFR, PDGFR and PI3-kinase appeared to represent other crucial components upstream of Cdc42 and invasion. siRNA and the use of Vav1/2-/- knockout cells further showed that the guanine exchange factor Vav2 is required for Cdc42 activation and maximal bacterial invasion. Overexpression of certain mutant constructs indicated that Vav2 is a linker molecule between Cdc42 and

  8. (3H)WB4101 labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor subtype in rat brain. Guanine nucleotide and divalent cation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, A.B.; Battaglia, G.; Creese, I.

    1985-12-01

    In the presence of a 30 nM prazosin mask, (/sup 3/H)-2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl) aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane ((/sup 3/H)WB4101) can selectively label 5-HT1 serotonin receptors. Serotonin exhibits high affinity (Ki = 2.5 nM) and monophasic competition for (/sup 3/H) WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. We have found a significant correlation (r = 0.96) between the affinities of a number of serotonergic and nonserotonergic compounds at (/sup 3/H)WB4101-binding sites in the presence of 30 nM prazosin and (/sup 3/H) lysergic acid diethylamide ((/sup 3/H)LSD)-labeled 5-HT1 serotonin receptors in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex. Despite similar pharmacological profiles, distribution studies indicate that, in the presence of 5more » mM MgSO4, the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 is significantly lower than the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)LSD in various brain regions. WB4101 competition for (/sup 3/H) LSD-labeled 5-HT1 receptors fits best to a computer-derived model assuming two binding sites, with the KH for WB4101 being similar to the KD of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding derived from saturation experiments. This suggests that (/sup 3/H)WB4101 labels only one of the subtypes of the 5-HT1 serotonin receptors labeled by (/sup 3/H)LSD. The selective 5-HT1A serotonin receptor antagonist, spiperone, and the selective 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline, exhibit high affinity and monophasic competition for (/sup 3/H)WB4101 but compete for multiple (/sup 3/H)LSD 5-HT1 binding sites. These data indicate that (/sup 3/H)WB4101 selectively labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, whereas (/sup 3/H) LSD appears to label both the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT1B serotonin receptor subtypes. The divalent cations, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were found to markedly increase the affinity and Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. Conversely, the guanine nucleotides guanylylimidodiphosphate and GTP, but not the adenosine nucleotide ATP, markedly reduce the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding.« less

  9. G-Quadruplex Folds of the Human Telomere Sequence Alter the Site Reactivity and Reaction Pathway of Guanine Oxidation Compared to Duplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Aaron M.; Burrows, Cynthia J.

    2013-01-01

    Telomere shortening occurs during oxidative and inflammatory stress with guanine (G) as the major site of damage. In this work, a comprehensive profile of the sites of oxidation and structures of products observed from G-quadruplex and duplex structures of the human telomere sequence was studied in the G-quadruplex folds (hybrid (K+), basket (Na+), and propeller (K+ + 50% CH3CN)) resulting from the sequence 5’-(TAGGGT)4T-3’ and in an appropriate duplex containing one telomere repeat. Oxidations with four oxidant systems consisting of riboflavin photosensitization, carbonate radical generation, singlet oxygen, and the copper Fenton-like reaction were analyzed under conditions of low product conversion to determine relative reactivity. The one-electron oxidants damaged the 5’-G in G-quadruplexes leading to spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and 2,2,4-triamino-2H-oxazol-5-one (Z) as major products as well as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) and 5-guanidinohydantoin (Gh) in low relative yields, while oxidation in the duplex context produced damage at the 5’- and middle-Gs of GGG sequences and resulted in Gh being the major product. Addition of the reductant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to the reaction did not alter the riboflavin-mediated damage sites, but decreased Z by 2-fold and increased OG by 5-fold, while not altering the hydantoin ratio. However, NAC completely quenched the CO3•− reactions. Singlet oxygen oxidations of the G-quadruplex showed reactivity at all Gs on the exterior faces of G-quartets and furnished the product Sp, while no oxidation was observed in the duplex context under these conditions, and addition of NAC had no effect. Because a long telomere sequence would have higher-order structures of G-quadruplexes, studies were also conducted with 5’-(TAGGGT)8-T-3’, and it provided similar oxidation profiles to the single G-quadruplex. Lastly, CuII/H2O2-mediated oxidations were found to be indiscriminate in the damage patterns, and 5-carboxamido-5

  10. Regulation of follitropin-sensitive adenylate cyclase by stimulatory and inhibitory forms of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in immature rat Sertoli cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    Studies have been designed to examine the role of guanine nucleotides in mediating FSH-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in Sertoli cell plasma membranes. Analysis of ({sup 3}H)GDP binding to plasma membranes suggested a single high affinity site with a K{sub d} = 0.24 uM. Competition studies indicated that GTP{sub {gamma}}S was 7-fold more potent than GDP{sub {beta}}S. Bound GDP could be released by FSH in the presence of GTP{sub {gamma}}S, but not by FSH alone. Adenylate cyclase activity was enhanced 5-fold by FSH in the presence of GTP. Addition of GDP{sub {beta}}S to the activated enzyme (FSH plus GTP) resulted inmore » a time-dependent decay to basal activity within 20 sec. GDP{sub {beta}}S competitively inhibited GTP{sub {gamma}}S-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a K{sub i} = 0.18 uM. Adenylate cyclase activity was also demonstrated to be sensitive to the nucleotide bound state. In the presence of FSH, only the GTP{sub {gamma}}S-bound form persisted even if GDP{sub {beta}}S previously occupied all available binding sites. Two membrane proteins, M{sub r} = 43,000 and 48,000, were ADP{centered dot}ribosylated using cholera toxin and labeling was enhanced 2 to 4-fold by GTP{sub {gamma}}S but not by GDP{sub {beta}}S. The M{sub r} = 43,000 and 48,000 proteins represented variant forms of G{sub S}. A single protein of M{sub r} = 40,000 (G{sub i}) was ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin in vitro. GTP inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with an IC{sub 50} = 0.1 uM. The adenosine analog, N{sup 6}{centered dot}phenylisopropyl adenosine enhanced GTP inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by an additional 15%. GTP-dependent inhibition of forskolin-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity was abolished in membranes prepared from Sertoli cells treated in culture with pertussis toxin.« less

  11. pH-Modulated Watson-Crick duplex-quadruplex equilibria of guanine-rich and cytosine-rich DNA sequences 140 base pairs upstream of the c-kit transcription initiation site.

    PubMed

    Bucek, Pavel; Jaumot, Joaquim; Aviñó, Anna; Eritja, Ramon; Gargallo, Raimundo

    2009-11-23

    Guanine-rich regions of DNA are sequences capable of forming G-quadruplex structures. The formation of a G-quadruplex structure in a region 140 base pairs (bp) upstream of the c-kit transcription initiation site was recently proposed (Fernando et al., Biochemistry, 2006, 45, 7854). In the present study, the acid-base equilibria and the thermally induced unfolding of the structures formed by a guanine-rich region and by its complementary cytosine-rich strand in c-kit were studied by means of circular dichroism and molecular absorption spectroscopies. In addition, competition between the Watson-Crick duplex and the isolated structures was studied as a function of pH value and temperature. Multivariate data analysis methods based on both hard and soft modeling were used to allow accurate quantification of the various acid-base species present in the mixtures. Results showed that the G-quadruplex and i-motif coexist with the Watson-Crick duplex over the pH range from 3.0 to 6.5, approximately, under the experimental conditions tested in this study. At pH 7.0, the duplex is practically the only species present.

  12. Unique spectrum of activity of 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]-guanine against herpesviruses in vitro and its mode of action against herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y C; Huang, E S; Lin, J C; Mar, E C; Pagano, J S; Dutschman, G E; Grill, S P

    1983-01-01

    A guanosine analog, 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine (DHPG), was found to inhibit herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus replication by greater than 50% at concentrations that do not inhibit cell growth in culture. The potency of the drug against all of these viruses is greater than that of 9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine (acyclovir). DHPG was active against HSV-1 growth during the early phase of virus replication and had no activity when added at a later time after infection. Its antiviral activity was irreversible. Thymidine partially neutralized its action. The anti-HSV-1 activity of DHPG was dependent on the induction and the properties of virus-induced thymidine kinase. Virus variants that induced altered virus thymidine kinase and became resistant to acyclovir were still as sensitive to DHPG as the parental virus. DHPG is active against five different HSV variants with induced altered DNA polymerase and resistance to acyclovir. PMID:6302704

  13. Platelet cytosolic 44-kDa protein is a substrate of cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation and is not recognized by antisera against the. alpha. subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Molina Y Vedia, L.M.; Reep, B.R.; Lapetina, E.G.

    1988-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation induced by cholera toxin and pertussis toxin was studied in particulate and cytosolic fractions of human platelets. Platelets were disrupted by a cycle of freezing and thawing in the presence of a hyposmotic buffer containing protease inhibitors. In both fractions, the A subunit of cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates two proteins with molecular masses of 42 and 44 kDa, whereas pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylates a 41-kDa polypeptide. Two antisera against the {alpha} subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein recognize only the 42-kDa polypeptide. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of the 42- and 44-kDa proteins is reduced by pretreatment of platelets with iloprost,more » a prostacyclin analog. The 44-kDa protein, which is substrate of cholera toxin, could be extracted completely from the membrane and recovered in the cytosolic fraction when the cells were disrupted by Dounce homogenization and the pellet was extensively washed. A 44-kDa protein can also be labeled with 8-azidoguanosine 5{prime}-({alpha}-{sup 32}P)triphosphate in the cytosol and membranes. These finding indicate that cholera and pertussis toxins produced covalent modifications of proteins present in particulate and cytosolic platelet fractions. Moreover, the 44-kDa protein might be an {alpha} subunit of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein that is not recognized by available antisera.« less

  14. DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα)-encoding (GNAS) genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genes which are epigenetically regulated via genomic imprinting can be potential targets for artificial selection during animal breeding. Indeed, imprinted loci have been shown to underlie some important quantitative traits in domestic mammals, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In this candidate gene study, we have identified novel associations between six validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 97.6 kb region within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha gene (GNAS) domain on bovine chromosome 13 and genetic merit for a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian sires. The mammalian GNAS domain consists of a number of reciprocally-imprinted, alternatively-spliced genes which can play a major role in growth, development and disease in mice and humans. Based on the current annotation of the bovine GNAS domain, four of the SNPs analysed (rs43101491, rs43101493, rs43101485 and rs43101486) were located upstream of the GNAS gene, while one SNP (rs41694646) was located in the second intron of the GNAS gene. The final SNP (rs41694656) was located in the first exon of transcripts encoding the putative bovine neuroendocrine-specific protein NESP55, resulting in an aspartic acid-to-asparagine amino acid substitution at amino acid position 192. Results SNP genotype-phenotype association analyses indicate that the single intronic GNAS SNP (rs41694646) is associated (P ≤ 0.05) with a range of performance traits including milk yield, milk protein yield, the content of fat and protein in milk, culled cow carcass weight and progeny carcass conformation, measures of animal body size, direct calving difficulty (i.e. difficulty in calving due to the size of the calf) and gestation length. Association (P ≤ 0.01) with direct calving difficulty (i.e. due to calf size) and maternal calving difficulty (i.e. due to the maternal pelvic width size) was also observed at the rs43101491 SNP. Following

  15. DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα)-encoding (GNAS) genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Klaudia M; Magee, David A; Berkowicz, Erik W; Berry, Donagh P; Howard, Dawn J; Mullen, Michael P; Evans, Ross D; Machugh, David E; Spillane, Charles

    2011-01-07

    Genes which are epigenetically regulated via genomic imprinting can be potential targets for artificial selection during animal breeding. Indeed, imprinted loci have been shown to underlie some important quantitative traits in domestic mammals, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In this candidate gene study, we have identified novel associations between six validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 97.6 kb region within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha gene (GNAS) domain on bovine chromosome 13 and genetic merit for a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian sires. The mammalian GNAS domain consists of a number of reciprocally-imprinted, alternatively-spliced genes which can play a major role in growth, development and disease in mice and humans. Based on the current annotation of the bovine GNAS domain, four of the SNPs analysed (rs43101491, rs43101493, rs43101485 and rs43101486) were located upstream of the GNAS gene, while one SNP (rs41694646) was located in the second intron of the GNAS gene. The final SNP (rs41694656) was located in the first exon of transcripts encoding the putative bovine neuroendocrine-specific protein NESP55, resulting in an aspartic acid-to-asparagine amino acid substitution at amino acid position 192. SNP genotype-phenotype association analyses indicate that the single intronic GNAS SNP (rs41694646) is associated (P ≤ 0.05) with a range of performance traits including milk yield, milk protein yield, the content of fat and protein in milk, culled cow carcass weight and progeny carcass conformation, measures of animal body size, direct calving difficulty (i.e. difficulty in calving due to the size of the calf) and gestation length. Association (P ≤ 0.01) with direct calving difficulty (i.e. due to calf size) and maternal calving difficulty (i.e. due to the maternal pelvic width size) was also observed at the rs43101491 SNP. Following adjustment for

  16. NMR solution structure of an N2-guanine DNA adduct derived from the potent tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: Intercalation from the minor groove with ruptured Watson-Crick base pairing

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yijin; Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Lin, Chin H.; Cai, Yuqin; Rodriguez, Fabian A.; Sayer, Jane M.; Jerina, Donald M.; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The most potent tumorigen identified among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is the non-planar fjord region dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). It is metabolically activated in vivo through the widely-studied diol epoxide (DE) pathway to form covalent adducts with DNA bases, predominantly guanine and adenine. The (+)-11S,12R,13R,14S DE enantiomer forms adducts via its C14-position with the exocyclic amino group of guanine. Here, we present the first NMR solution structure of a DB[a,l]P-derived adduct, the 14R (+)-trans-anti-DB[a,l]P–N2-dG (DB[a,l]P-dG) lesion in double-stranded DNA. In contrast to the stereochemically identical benzo[a]pyrene-derived N2-dG adduct (B[a]P-dG) in which the B[a]P rings reside in the B-DNA minor groove on the 3’-side of the modifed deoxyguanosine, in the DB[a,l]P-derived adduct the DB[a,l]P rings intercalate into the duplex on the 3’-side of the modified base from the sterically crowded minor groove. Watson-Crick base pairing of the modified guanine with the partner cytosine is broken, but these bases retain some stacking with the bulky DB[a,l]P ring system. This new theme in PAH DE - DNA adduct conformation differs from: (1) the classical intercalation motif where Watson-Crick base-pairing is intact at the lesion site, and (2) the base-displaced intercalation motif in which the damaged base and its partner are extruded from the helix . The structural considerations that lead to the intercalated conformation of the DB[a,l]P-dG lesion in contrast to the minor groove alignment of the B[a]P-dG adduct, and the implications of the DB[a,l]P-dG conformational motif for the recognition of such DNA lesions by the human nucleotide excision repair apparatus, are discussed. PMID:23121427

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of an N(2)-guanine DNA adduct derived from the potent tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: intercalation from the minor groove with ruptured Watson-Crick base pairing.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yijin; Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Lin, Chin H; Cai, Yuqin; Rodriguez, Fabian A; Sayer, Jane M; Jerina, Donald M; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2012-12-04

    The most potent tumorigen identified among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is the nonplanar fjord region dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). It is metabolically activated in vivo through the widely studied diol epoxide (DE) pathway to form covalent adducts with DNA bases, predominantly guanine and adenine. The (+)-11S,12R,13R,14S DE enantiomer forms adducts via its C14 position with the exocyclic amino group of guanine. Here, we present the first nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of a DB[a,l]P-derived adduct, the 14R-(+)-trans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG (DB[a,l]P-dG) lesion in double-stranded DNA. In contrast to the stereochemically identical benzo[a]pyrene-derived N(2)-dG adduct (B[a]P-dG) in which the B[a]P rings reside in the B-DNA minor groove on the 3'-side of the modifed deoxyguanosine, in the DB[a,l]P-derived adduct the DB[a,l]P rings intercalate into the duplex on the 3'-side of the modified base from the sterically crowded minor groove. Watson-Crick base pairing of the modified guanine with the partner cytosine is broken, but these bases retain some stacking with the bulky DB[a,l]P ring system. This new theme in PAH DE-DNA adduct conformation differs from (1) the classical intercalation motif in which Watson-Crick base pairing is intact at the lesion site and (2) the base-displaced intercalation motif in which the damaged base and its partner are extruded from the helix. The structural considerations that lead to the intercalated conformation of the DB[a,l]P-dG lesion in contrast to the minor groove alignment of the B[a]P-dG adduct, and the implications of the DB[a,l]P-dG conformational motif for the recognition of such DNA lesions by the human nucleotide excision repair apparatus, are discussed.

  18. On the Formation and Properties of Interstrand DNA-DNA Cross-links Forged by Reaction of an Abasic Site With the Opposing Guanine Residue of 5′-CAp Sequences in Duplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kevin M.; Price, Nathan E.; Wang, Jin; Fekry, Mostafa I.; Dutta, Sanjay; Seiner, Derrick R.; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S.

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that the aldehyde residue of an abasic (Ap) site in duplex DNA can generate an interstrand cross-link via reaction with a guanine residue on the opposing strand. This finding is intriguing because the highly deleterious nature of interstrand cross-links suggests that even small amounts of Ap-derived cross-links could make a significant contribution to the biological consequences stemming from the generation of Ap sites in cellular DNA. Incubation of 21-bp duplexes containing a central 5′-CAp sequence under conditions of reductive amination (NaCNBH3, pH 5.2) generated much higher yields of cross-linked DNA than reported previously. At pH 7, in the absence of reducing agents, these Ap-containing duplexes also produced cross-linked duplexes that were readily detected on denaturing polyacrylamide gels. Cross-link formation was not highly sensitive to reaction conditions and, once formed, the cross-link was stable to a variety of work-up conditions. Results of multiple experiments including MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, gel mobility, methoxyamine capping of the Ap aldehyde, inosine-for-guanine replacement, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and LCMS/MS were consistent with a cross-linking mechanism involving reversible reaction of the Ap aldehyde residue with the N2-amino group of the opposing guanine residue in 5′-CAp sequences to generate hemiaminal, imine, or cyclic hemiaminal cross-links (7-10) that were irreversibly converted under conditions of reductive amination (NaCNBH3/pH 5.2) to a stable amine linkage. Further support for the importance of the exocyclic N2-amino group in this reaction was provided by an experiment showing that installation of a 2-aminopurine-thymine base pair at the cross-linking site produced high yields (15-30%) of a cross-linked duplex at neutral pH, in the absence of NaCNBH3. PMID:23215239

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry for the analysis of modified bases in DNA: 7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine, the major ethylene oxide-DNA adduct.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, L; Laurent, C; De Pauw, E

    1997-05-15

    A method was developed for the analysis of 7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (7HEG), the major DNA adduct formed after exposure to ethylene oxide (EO). The method is based on DNA neutral thermal hydrolysis, adduct micro-concentration, and final characterization and quantification by HPLC coupled to single-ion monitoring electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC/SIR-ESMS). The method was found to be selective, sensitive, and easy to handle with no need for enzymatic digestion or previous sample derivatization. Detection limit was found to be close to 1 fmol of adduct injected (10(-10) M), thus allowing the detection of approximately three modified bases on 10(8) intact nucleotides in blood sample analysis. Quantification results are shown for 7HEG after calf thymus DNA and blood exposure to various doses of EO, in both cases obtaining clear dose-response relationships.

  20. Impact of ritonavir dose and schedule on CYP3A inhibition and venetoclax clinical pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Freise, Kevin J; Hu, Beibei; Salem, Ahmed Hamed

    2018-04-01

    Venetoclax is a selective BCL-2 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It is predominately metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. The study objective was to determine the effect of different dosage regimens of ritonavir, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of venetoclax in 20 healthy subjects. In cohorts 1 and 2, subjects received single 10 mg doses of venetoclax in periods 1 and 2 and a single 50- or 100-mg dose of ritonavir in period 2. In cohort 3, subjects received 10-mg venetoclax doses on day 1 of period 1 and days 1 and 11 of period 2, and 50 mg ritonavir daily on days 1 to 14 of period 2. Single doses of 50 and 100 mg ritonavir increased the venetoclax maximum concentration (C max ) 2.3- to 2.4-fold compared to venetoclax alone and the area under the curve (AUC) 6.1- and 8.1-fold, respectively. Daily 50 mg ritonavir resulted in a 2.4- and 7.9-fold increase in venetoclax C max and AUC, respectively. Administration of 50 mg ritonavir daily saturated CYP3A inhibition and completely inhibited the formation of the major venetoclax metabolite M27. Time-dependent CYP3A inhibition with daily 50 mg ritonavir was offset by ritonavir CYP3A induction, resulting in a limited net increase in CYP3A inhibition with multiple doses. After completion of the dose ramp-up, venetoclax dose reductions of at least 75% are recommended when administered concomitantly with strong CYP3A inhibitors to maintain venetoclax exposures within the established therapeutic window for CLL treatment.

  1. From lin-benzoguanines to lin-benzohypoxanthines as ligands for Zymomonas mobilis tRNA-guanine transglycosylase: replacement of protein-ligand hydrogen bonding by importing water clusters.

    PubMed

    Barandun, Luzi Jakob; Immekus, Florian; Kohler, Philipp C; Tonazzi, Sandro; Wagner, Björn; Wendelspiess, Severin; Ritschel, Tina; Heine, Andreas; Kansy, Manfred; Klebe, Gerhard; Diederich, François

    2012-07-23

    The foodborne illness shigellosis is caused by Shigella bacteria that secrete the highly cytotoxic Shiga toxin, which is also formed by the closely related enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). It has been shown that tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT) is essential for the pathogenicity of Shigella flexneri. Herein, the molecular recognition properties of a guanine binding pocket in Zymomonas mobilis TGT are investigated with a series of lin-benzohypoxanthine- and lin-benzoguanine-based inhibitors that bear substituents to occupy either the ribose-33 or the ribose-34 pocket. The three inhibitor scaffolds differ by the substituent at C(6) being H, NH(2), or NH-alkyl. These differences lead to major changes in the inhibition constants, pK(a) values, and binding modes. Compared to the lin-benzoguanines, with an exocyclic NH(2) at C(6), the lin-benzohypoxanthines without an exocyclic NH(2) group have a weaker affinity as several ionic protein-ligand hydrogen bonds are lost. X-ray cocrystal structure analysis reveals that a new water cluster is imported into the space vacated by the lacking NH(2) group and by a conformational shift of the side chain of catalytic Asp102. In the presence of an N-alkyl group at C(6) in lin-benzoguanine ligands, this water cluster is largely maintained but replacement of one of the water molecules in the cluster leads to a substantial loss in binding affinity. This study provides new insight into the role of water clusters at enzyme active sites and their challenging substitution by ligand parts, a topic of general interest in contemporary structure-based drug design. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Huperzine A inhibits immediate addictive behavior but not behavioral sensitization following repeated morphine administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinling; Tian, Lin; Cui, Ruisi; Li, Xinwang

    2017-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are regarded as promising therapeutic agents to treat addiction. The current study aimed to examine the effects of huperzine A, a cholinesterase inhibitor, on behavioral sensitization induced by repeated morphine administration and relapse induced by contextual conditioning. The present study also assessed whether the state-dependency hypothesis may explain the results. Adult rats were divided into four groups (n=8) and intraperitoneally injected with 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 mg/kg huperzine A or saline (1 ml/kg, control), for 5 days. The effect of repeated huperzine A administration alone on locomotor activity was assessed. For the experiments that analyzed the development of morphine-induced sensitization, 40 rats were divided into five groups (n=8): Saline+Saline, Saline+Morphine, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg huperzine A+Morphine. Following a withdrawal period of 7 days, all animals were administered saline or morphine, as appropriate. To test the state-dependency hypothesis, the rats in the Saline+Morphine group were injected with saline and morphine, while the other three groups were administered different doses of huperzine A and morphine. To examine the effect of huperzine A on the expression of morphine-induced sensitization, the rats in huperzine A+Morphine groups were injected with appropriate concentrations of huperzine A, and morphine. The current results indicated that the administration of huperzine A alone did not affect locomotor activity, while higher doses of huperzine A inhibited the addictive behavior induced by morphine at the development phase. Additionally, huperzine A administration during the expression phase of morphine sensitization did not inhibit the relapse induced by administration of saline. Furthermore, 0.4 mg/kg huperzine A inhibited the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Therefore, the results of the current study do not support the state-dependency hypothesis.

  3. Protein phosphatase 2A inhibition enhances radiation sensitivity and reduces tumor growth in chordoma.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shuyu; Song, Hua; Zhang, Wei; Seldomridge, Ashlee; Jung, Jinkyu; Giles, Amber J; Hutchinson, Marsha-Kay; Cao, Xiaoyu; Colwell, Nicole; Lita, Adrian; Larion, Mioara; Maric, Dragan; Abu-Asab, Mones; Quezado, Martha; Kramp, Tamalee; Camphausen, Kevin; Zhuang, Zhengping; Gilbert, Mark R; Park, Deric M

    2018-05-18

    Standard therapy for chordoma consists of surgical resection followed by high-dose irradiation. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine phosphatase involved in signal transduction, cell cycle progression, cell differentiation, and DNA repair. LB100 is a small-molecule inhibitor of PP2A designed to sensitize cancer cells to DNA damage from irradiation and chemotherapy. A recently completed phase I trial of LB100 in solid tumors demonstrated its safety. Here, we show the therapeutic potential of LB100 in chordoma. Three patient-derived chordoma cell lines were used: U-CH1, JHC7, and UM-Chor1. Cell proliferation was determined with LB100 alone and in combination with irradiation. Cell cycle progression was assessed by flow cytometry. Quantitative γ-H2AX immunofluorescence and immunoblot evaluated the effect of LB100 on radiation-induced DNA damage. Ultrastructural evidence for nuclear damage was investigated using Raman imaging and transmission electron microscopy. A xenograft model was established to determine potential clinical utility of adding LB100 to irradiation. PP2A inhibition in concert with irradiation demonstrated in vitro growth inhibition. The combination of LB100 and radiation also induced accumulation at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, the stage most sensitive to radiation-induced damage. LB100 enhanced radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Animals implanted with chordoma cells and treated with the combination of LB100 and radiation demonstrated tumor growth delay. Combining LB100 and radiation enhanced DNA damage-induced cell death and delayed tumor growth in an animal model of chordoma. PP2A inhibition by LB100 treatment may improve the effectiveness of radiation therapy for chordoma.

  4. Progesterone-induced miR-133a inhibits the proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, J-L; Yuan, D-Z; Zhao, Y-B; Nie, L; Lei, Y; Liu, M; Long, Y; Zhang, J-H; Blok, L J; Burger, C W; Yue, L-M

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the role of miR-133a in progesterone actions, explore the regulative mechanism of the progesterone receptor, and investigate the effects of miR-133a on the progesterone-inhibited proliferation of mouse endometrial epithelial cells. The expression of miR-133a induced by progesterone was detected by quantitative real-time PCR both in vivo and in vitro. Ishikawa subcell lines stably transfected with progesterone receptor subtypes were used to determine the receptor mechanism of progesterone inducing miR-133a. Specific miR-133a mimics or inhibitors were transfected into mouse uteri and primary cultured endometrial epithelial cells to overexpress or downregulate the miR-133a. The roles of miR-133a in the cell cycle and proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells were analysed by flow cytometry and Edu incorporation analysis. The protein levels of cyclinD2 in uterine tissue sections and primary cultured endometrial epithelial cells were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Progesterone could induce miR-133a expression in a PRB-dependent manner in endometrial epithelial cells. miR-133a inhibited endometrial epithelial cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at the G 1 -S transition. Moreover, miR-133a acted as an inhibitor in downregulating cyclinD2 in endometrial epithelial cells. We showed for the first time that progesterone-induced miR-133a inhibited the proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells by downregulating cyclinD2. Our research indicated an important mechanism for progesterone inhibiting the proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells by inducing special miRNAs to inhibit positive regulatory proteins in the cell cycle. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Huperzine A inhibits immediate addictive behavior but not behavioral sensitization following repeated morphine administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinling; Tian, Lin; Cui, Ruisi; Li, Xinwang

    2017-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are regarded as promising therapeutic agents to treat addiction. The current study aimed to examine the effects of huperzine A, a cholinesterase inhibitor, on behavioral sensitization induced by repeated morphine administration and relapse induced by contextual conditioning. The present study also assessed whether the state-dependency hypothesis may explain the results. Adult rats were divided into four groups (n=8) and intraperitoneally injected with 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 mg/kg huperzine A or saline (1 ml/kg, control), for 5 days. The effect of repeated huperzine A administration alone on locomotor activity was assessed. For the experiments that analyzed the development of morphine-induced sensitization, 40 rats were divided into five groups (n=8): Saline+Saline, Saline+Morphine, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg huperzine A+Morphine. Following a withdrawal period of 7 days, all animals were administered saline or morphine, as appropriate. To test the state-dependency hypothesis, the rats in the Saline+Morphine group were injected with saline and morphine, while the other three groups were administered different doses of huperzine A and morphine. To examine the effect of huperzine A on the expression of morphine-induced sensitization, the rats in huperzine A+Morphine groups were injected with appropriate concentrations of huperzine A, and morphine. The current results indicated that the administration of huperzine A alone did not affect locomotor activity, while higher doses of huperzine A inhibited the addictive behavior induced by morphine at the development phase. Additionally, huperzine A administration during the expression phase of morphine sensitization did not inhibit the relapse induced by administration of saline. Furthermore, 0.4 mg/kg huperzine A inhibited the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Therefore, the results of the current study do not support the state-dependency hypothesis. PMID:28413513

  6. Mixed adenine/guanine quartets with three trans-a2 Pt(II) (a=NH(3) or MeNH(2)) cross-links: linkage and rotational isomerism, base pairing, and loss of NH(3).

    PubMed

    Albertí, Francisca M; Rodríguez-Santiago, Luis; Sodupe, Mariona; Mirats, Andrea; Kaitsiotou, Helena; Sanz Miguel, Pablo J; Lippert, Bernhard

    2014-03-17

    Of the numerous ways in which two adenine and two guanines (N9 positions blocked in each) can be cross-linked by three linear metal moieties such as trans-a2 Pt(II) (with a=NH3 or MeNH2 ) to produce open metalated purine quartets with exclusive metal coordination through N1 and N7 sites, one linkage isomer was studied in detail. The isomer trans,trans,trans-[{Pt(NH3 )2 (N7-9-EtA-N1)2 }{Pt(MeNH2 )2 (N7-9-MeGH)}2 ][(ClO4 )6 ]⋅3H2 O (1) (with 9-EtA=9-ethyladenine and 9-MeGH=9-methylguanine) was crystallized from water and found to adopt a flat Z-shape in the solid state as far as the trinuclear cation is concerned. In the presence of excess 9-MeGH, a meander-like construct, trans,trans,trans-[{Pt(NH3 )2 (N7-9-EtA-N1)2 }{Pt(MeNH2 )2 (N7-9-MeGH)2 }][(ClO4 )6 ]⋅[(9-MeGH)2 ]⋅7 H2 O (2) is formed, in which the two extra 9-MeGH nucleobases are hydrogen bonded to the two terminal platinated guanine ligands of 1. Compound 1, and likewise the analogous complex 1 a (with NH3 ligands only), undergo loss of an ammonia ligand and formation of NH4 (+) when dissolved in [D6 ]DMSO. From the analogy between the behavior of 1 and 1 a it is concluded that a NH3 ligand from the central Pt atom is lost. Addition of 1-methylcytosine (1-MeC) to such a DMSO solution reveals coordination of 1-MeC to the central Pt. In an analogous manner, 9-MeGH can coordinate to the central Pt in [D6 ]DMSO. It is proposed that the proton responsible for formation of NH4 (+) is from one of the exocyclic amino groups of the two adenine bases, and furthermore, that this process is accompanied by a conformational change of the cation from Z-form to U-form. DFT calculations confirm the proposed mechanism and shed light on possible pathways of this process. Calculations show that rotational isomerism is not kinetically hindered and that it would preferably occur previous to the displacement of NH3 by DMSO. This displacement is the most energetically costly step, but it is compensated by the proton

  7. Isotope Dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Quantitation of Urinary N7-(1-Hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) Guanine Adducts in Humans and Their Use as Biomarkers of Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene.

    PubMed

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Boldry, Emily J; Patel, Yesha M; Walker, Vernon; Stepanov, Irina; Stram, Daniel; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2017-02-20

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial and environmental chemical classified as a known human carcinogen. Occupational exposure to BD in the polymer and monomer industries is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. BD is present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires, raising concern about potential exposure of the general population to this carcinogen. Following inhalation exposure, BD is bioactivated to 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB). If not detoxified, EB is capable of modifying guanine and adenine bases of DNA to form nucleobase adducts, which interfere with accurate DNA replication and cause cancer-initiating mutations. We have developed a nanoLC/ESI + -HRMS 3 methodology for N7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) adducts in human urine (limit of detection: 0.25 fmol/mL urine; limit of quantitation: 1.0 fmol/mL urine). This new method was successfully used to quantify EB-GII in urine of F344 rats treated with 0-200 ppm of BD, occupationally exposed workers, and smokers belonging to two different ethnic groups. EB-GII amounts increased in a dose-dependent manner in urine of laboratory rats exposed to 0, 62.5, or 200 ppm of BD. Urinary EB-GII levels were significantly increased in workers occupationally exposed to 0.1-2.2 ppm of BD (1.25 ± 0.51 pg/mg of creatinine) as compared to administrative controls exposed to <0.01 ppm of BD (0.22 ± 0.08 and pg/mg of creatinine) (p = 0.0024), validating the use of EB-GII as a biomarker of human exposure to BD. EB-GII was also detected in smokers' urine with European American smokers excreting significantly higher amounts of EB-GII than African American smokers (0.48 ± 0.09 vs 0.12 ± 0.02 pg/mg of creatinine, p = 3.1 × 10 -7 ). Interestingly, small amounts of EB-GII were observed in animals and humans with no known exposure to BD, providing preliminary evidence for its endogenous formation. Urinary EB-GII adduct levels and urinary mercapturic acids of BD (MHBMA, DHBMA) were compared

  8. Vav1: Friend and Foe of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fukun; Zheng, Yi

    2017-12-01

    A recent study shows that the protumorigenic guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav1 functions as a tumor suppressor in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) through its ability to complex with the Cbl-b ubiquitin ligase and the intracellular domain of Notch1 (ICN1) and to promote ICN1 degradation. Vav1can act as a double-edged sword in tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EVA1A inhibits GBM cell proliferation by inducing autophagy and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Xue; Kan, Shifeng; Liu, Zhen

    Eva-1 homolog A (EVA1A) is a novel lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein involved in autophagy and apoptosis. In this study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus 5-EVA1A vector (Ad5-EVA1A) to overexpress EVA1A in glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines and evaluated its anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo. We found that overexpression of EVA1A in three GBM cell lines (U251, U87 and SHG44) resulted in a suppression of tumor cell growth via activation of autophagy and induction of cell apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. EVA1A-mediated autophagy was associated with inactivation of the mTOR/RPS6KB1 signaling pathway. Furthermore in vivo, overexpression ofmore » EVA1A successfully inhibited tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice. Our data suggest that EVA1A-induced autophagy and apoptosis play a role in suppressing the development of GBM and their up-regulation may be an effective method for treating this form of cancer. - Highlights: • Overexpression of EVA1A suppresses GBM cell growth. • EVA1A induces autophagy through the mTOR/RPS6KB1 pathway. • EVA1A induces GBM cell apoptosis. • EVA1A inhibits the development of GBM in vivo.« less

  10. Withaferin-A Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Blocking STAT3 Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bu Young; Kim, Bong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Withania somnifera (known as Ashwagandha) is a medicinal plant used in the ayurvedic medicines in India. Withaferin-A, a withanolide derived from the leaf extract of W. somnifera, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity against various cancer cells, such as leukemia, breast cancer and colon cancer cells. Methods: We investigated the anti-cancer effects of withaferin-A on the proliferation and migration of human colorectal cancer (HCT116) cells. And we evaluated the effects of withaferin-A on the transcriptional activity of STAT3 and the growth of HCT116 cells in xenograft mouse tumor model. Results: In the present study, we found that withaferin-A inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCT116 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of HCT116 cells with withaferin-A attenuated interleukin-6-induced activation of STAT3, which has been implicated in the development and progression of colon cancer. To examine the effect of withaferin-A on HCT116 cells proliferation in vivo, we generated HCT116 cells xenograft tumors in Balb/c nude mice and treated the tumor bearing mice with or without withaferin-A intraperitoneally. Treatment with withaferin-A exhibited significant decrease in the volume and weight of tumors as compared to untreated controls. Conclusions: The present study suggests that withaferin-A holds the potential to be developed as a small molecule inhibitor of STAT3 for the treatment of HCT116. PMID:26473157

  11. Withaferin-A Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Blocking STAT3 Transcriptional Activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bu Young; Kim, Bong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Withania somnifera (known as Ashwagandha) is a medicinal plant used in the ayurvedic medicines in India. Withaferin-A, a withanolide derived from the leaf extract of W. somnifera, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity against various cancer cells, such as leukemia, breast cancer and colon cancer cells. We investigated the anti-cancer effects of withaferin-A on the proliferation and migration of human colorectal cancer (HCT116) cells. And we evaluated the effects of withaferin-A on the transcriptional activity of STAT3 and the growth of HCT116 cells in xenograft mouse tumor model. In the present study, we found that withaferin-A inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCT116 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of HCT116 cells with withaferin-A attenuated interleukin-6-induced activation of STAT3, which has been implicated in the development and progression of colon cancer. To examine the effect of withaferin-A on HCT116 cells proliferation in vivo, we generated HCT116 cells xenograft tumors in Balb/c nude mice and treated the tumor bearing mice with or without withaferin-A intraperitoneally. Treatment with withaferin-A exhibited significant decrease in the volume and weight of tumors as compared to untreated controls. The present study suggests that withaferin-A holds the potential to be developed as a small molecule inhibitor of STAT3 for the treatment of HCT116.

  12. The separate and combined effects of monoamine oxidase A inhibition and nicotine on resting state EEG.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dylan M; Fisher, Derek; Blier, Pierre; Ilivitsky, Vadim; Knott, Verner

    2016-01-01

    While nicotine is often associated with the neuropsychological effects of tobacco smoke, the robust monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition observed in chronic smokers is also likely to play a role. Electroencephalographically-indexed alterations in baseline neural oscillations by nicotine have previously been reported in both smokers and non-smokers, however, little is known about the effects of MAO inhibition in combination with nicotine on resting state EEG. In a sample of 24 healthy non-smoking males, the effects of 6 mg nicotine gum, as well as MAO-A inhibition via 75 mg moclobemide, were investigated in separate and combined conditions over four separate test sessions. Drug effects were observed in the alpha2, beta2, and theta band frequencies. Nicotine increased alpha2 power, and moclobemide decreased beta2 power. Theta power was decreased most robustly by the combination of both drugs. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the nicotinic and MAO inhibiting properties of tobacco may differentially influence fast-wave oscillations (alpha2 and beta2), while acting in synergy to influence theta oscillations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Oroxylin A Inhibits Allergic Airway Inflammation in Ovalbumin (OVA)-Induced Asthma Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, De-Gang; Diao, Bao-Zhong; Zhou, Wen; Feng, Jia-Long

    2016-04-01

    Oroxylin A, a natural flavonoid isolated from the medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory property. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of oroxylin A on allergic inflammation in OVA-induced asthma murine model. BABL/c mice were sensitized and airway-challenged with OVA to induce asthma. Oroxylin A (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 1 h before the OVA treatment on day 21 to 23. The results showed that oroxylin A attenuated OVA-induced lung histopathologic changes, airway hyperresponsiveness, and the number of inflammatory cells. Oroxylin A also inhibited the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and OVA-specific IgE in BALF. Furthermore, oroxylin A significantly inhibited OVA-induced NF-κB activation. In conclusion, these results suggested that oroxylin A inhibited airway inflammation in OVA-induced asthma murine model by inhibiting NF-κB activation. These results suggested that oroxylin A was a potential therapeutic drug for treating allergic asthma.

  14. Increased GABA(A) inhibition of the RVLM after hindlimb unloading in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, Julia A.; Heesch, Cheryl M.; Hasser, Eileen M.

    2002-01-01

    Attenuated baroreflex-mediated increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats apparently are due to changes within the central nervous system. We hypothesized that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is increased after hindlimb unloading. Responses to bilateral microinjection of the GABA(A) antagonist (-)-bicuculline methiodide (BIC) into the RVLM were examined before and during caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) inhibition in Inactin-anesthetized control and HU rats. Increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and RSNA in response to BIC in the RVLM were significantly enhanced in HU rats. Responses to bilateral CVLM blockade were not different. When remaining GABA(A) inhibition in the RVLM was blocked by BIC during CVLM inhibition, the additional increases in MAP and RSNA were significantly greater in HU rats. These data indicate that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of RVLM neurons is augmented after hindlimb unloading. Effects of input from the CVLM were unaltered. Thus, after cardiovascular deconditioning in rodents, the attenuated increase in sympathetic nerve activity in response to hypotension is associated with greater GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of RVLM neurons originating at least in part from sources other than the CVLM.

  15. Botulinum toxin type A inhibits rat pyloric myoelectrical activity and substance P release in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Song, Yan-Feng; Zhu, Chun-Min; Wang, Yin-Chun; Xie, Gui-Lin

    2007-02-01

    The effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) on rat pyloric myoelectrical activity in vivo and the content and distribution of substance P (SP) in pylorus were investigated, respectively, with electromyography, radioimmunoassay, and immunohistochemistry. A pair of electrodes for recording pyloric myoelectrical activity and a guide cannula for drug injection were implanted into the pylorus. The changes of pyloric myoelectrical activity were recorded followed vehicle, 10, 20, and 40 U/kg body mass of BTX-A injection. Pyloric tissues were dissected for radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry after recording. The 3 dosages of BTX-A injections caused the reduction of slow wave of pyloric myoelectrical activity in amplitude but not in frequency and the diminishment of spike activity in amplitude and spike burst. The inhibitory effect of 20 U/kg BTX-A was significantly different from that of 10 U/kg (p<0.05), but not from the effect of 40 U/kg administration (p>0.05). After BTX-A intrasphincteric injection, SP content was reduced in the pylorus, and cell number of SP-immunoreactivity was decreased more in myenteric nerve plexus of circular muscle and in mucosa of pylori. In conclusion, BTX-A inhibits pyloric myoelectrical slow activity in amplitude and spike activity and weakens pyloric smooth muscle contractility depending on threshold of dose or concentration. BTX-A-induced inhibition of pyloric myoelectrical activity implies a mechanism of inhibiting SP release from the autonomic and enteric nervous terminals in the pylorus.

  16. Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibition and Associated Antioxidant Activity in Plant Extracts with Potential Antidepressant Actions

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and is involved in mood disorders, depression, oxidative stress, and adverse pharmacological reactions. This work studies the inhibition of human MAO-A by Hypericum perforatum, Peganum harmala, and Lepidium meyenii, which are reported to improve and affect mood and mental conditions. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO is determined in plant extracts for the first time. H. perforatum inhibited human MAO-A, and extracts from flowers gave the highest inhibition (IC50 of 63.6 μg/mL). Plant extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS and contained pseudohypericin, hypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, hyperfirin, and flavonoids. Hyperforin did not inhibit human MAO-A and hypericin was a poor inhibitor of this isoenzyme. Quercetin and flavonoids significantly contributed to MAO-A inhibition. P. harmala seed extracts highly inhibited MAO-A (IC50 of 49.9 μg/L), being a thousand times more potent than H. perforatum extracts owing to its content of β-carboline alkaloids (harmaline and harmine). L. meyenii root (maca) extracts did not inhibit MAO-A. These plants may exert protective actions related to antioxidant effects. Results in this work show that P. harmala and H. perforatum extracts exhibit antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO (i.e., lower production of H2O2). PMID:29568754

  17. Surface amplification of pencil graphite electrode with polypyrrole and reduced graphene oxide for fabrication of a guanine/adenine DNA based electrochemical biosensors for determination of didanosine anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi-Maleh, Hassan; Bananezhad, Asma; Ganjali, Mohammad R.; Norouzi, Parviz; Sadrnia, Abdolhossein

    2018-05-01

    Didanosine is nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors with many side effects such as nausea and vomiting, stomach pain, tingling, burning and numbness and determination of this drug is very important in biological samples. This paper presents a DNA biosensor for determination of didanosine (DDI) in pharmaceutical samples. A pencil graphite electrode modified with conductive materials such as polypyrrole (PPy) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (PGE/PPy/rGO) was used for this goal. The double-stranded DNA was successfully immobilized on PGE/PPy/rGO. The PGE/PPy/rGO was characterized by microscopic and electrochemical methods. Then, the interaction of DDI with DNA was identified by decreases in the oxidation currents of guanine and adenine by differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method. The dynamic range of DDI identified in the range of 0.02-50.0 μM and this electrode provided a low limit of detection (LOD = 8.0 nM) for DDI. The PGE/PPy/rGO loaded with ds-DNA was utilized for the measurement of DDI in real samples and obtained data were compared with HPLC method. The statistical tests such as F-test and t-test were used for confirming ability of PGE/PPy/rGO loaded with ds-DNA for analysis of DDI in real samples.

  18. Insights into the structural basis of N2 and O6 substituted guanine derivatives as cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitors: prediction of the binding modes and potency of the inhibitors by docking and ONIOM calculations.

    PubMed

    Alzate-Morales, Jans H; Caballero, Julio; Vergara Jague, Ariela; González Nilo, Fernando D

    2009-04-01

    N2 and O6 substituted guanine derivatives are well-known as potent and selective CDK2 inhibitors. The ability of molecular docking using the program AutoDock3 and the hybrid method ONIOM, to obtain some quantum chemical descriptors with the aim to successfully rank these inhibitors, was assessed. The quantum chemical descriptors were used to explain the affinity, of the series studied, by a model of the CDK2 binding site. The initial structures were obtained from docking studies and the ONIOM method was applied with only a single point energy calculation on the protein-ligand structure. We obtained a good correlation model between the ONIOM derived quantum chemical descriptor "H-bond interaction energy" and the experimental biological activity, with a correlation coefficient value of R = 0.80 for 75 compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that both methodologies are used in conjunction in order to obtain a correlation model. The model suggests that electrostatic interactions are the principal driving force in this protein-ligand interaction. Overall, the approach was successful for the cases considered, and it suggests that could be useful for the design of inhibitors in the lead optimization phase of drug discovery.

  19. Preclinical activity of combined HDAC and KDM1A inhibition in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Melissa M.; Johnson, Blake; Venkatarayan, Avinashnarayan; Flores, Elsa R.; Zhang, Jianping; Su, Xiaoping; Barton, Michelle; Lang, Frederick; Chandra, Joya

    2015-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of brain cancer. Our previous studies demonstrated that combined inhibition of HDAC and KDM1A increases apoptotic cell death in vitro. However, whether this combination also increases death of the glioma stem cell (GSC) population or has an effect in vivo is yet to be determined. Therefore, we evaluated the translational potential of combined HDAC and KDM1A inhibition on patient-derived GSCs and xenograft GBM mouse models. We also investigated the changes in transcriptional programing induced by the combination in an effort to understand the induced molecular mechanisms of GBM cell death. Methods Patient-derived GSCs were treated with the combination of vorinostat, a pan-HDAC inhibitor, and tranylcypromine, a KDM1A inhibitor, and viability was measured. To characterize transcriptional profiles associated with cell death, we used RNA-Seq and validated gene changes by RT-qPCR and protein expression via Western blot. Apoptosis was measured using DNA fragmentation assays. Orthotopic xenograft studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of the combination on tumorigenesis and to validate gene changes in vivo. Results The combination of vorinostat and tranylcypromine reduced GSC viability and displayed efficacy in the U87 xenograft model. Additionally, the combination led to changes in apoptosis-related genes, particularly TP53 and TP73 in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions These data support targeting HDACs and KDM1A in combination as a strategy for GBM and identifies TP53 and TP73 as being altered in response to treatment. PMID:25795306

  20. Hypoxia-activated chemotherapeutic TH-302 enhances the effects of VEGF-A inhibition and radiation on sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Yoon, C; Lee, H-J; Park, D J; Lee, Y-J; Tap, W D; Eisinger-Mathason, T S K; Hart, C P; Choy, E; Simon, M C; Yoon, S S

    2015-06-30

    Human sarcomas with a poor response to vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) inhibition and radiation therapy (RT) have upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-1α target genes. This study examines the addition of the hypoxia-activated chemotherapy TH-302 to VEGF-A inhibition and RT (a.k.a. trimodality therapy). Trimodality therapy was examined in two xenograft models and in vitro in tumour endothelial cells and sarcoma cell lines. In both mouse models, VEGF-A inhibition and radiation showed greater efficacy than either therapy alone in slowing sarcoma growth. When TH-302 was added, this trimodality therapy completely blocked tumour growth with tumours remaining dormant for over 3 months after cessation of therapy. Trimodality therapy caused 2.6- to 6.2-fold more endothelial cell-specific apoptosis than bimodality therapies, and microvessel density and HIF-1α activity were reduced to 11-13% and 13-20% of control, respectively. When trimodality therapy was examined in vitro, increases in DNA damage and apoptosis were much more pronounced in tumour endothelial cells compared with that in sarcoma cells, especially under hypoxia. The combination of TH-302, VEGF-A inhibition, and RT is highly effective in preclinical models of sarcoma and is associated with increased DNA damage and apoptosis in endothelial cells and decreased HIF-1α activity.

  1. The nucleotide exchange factor MGE exerts a key function in the ATP-dependent cycle of mt-Hsp70-Tim44 interaction driving mitochondrial protein import.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H C; Westermann, B; Neupert, W; Brunner, M

    1996-01-01

    Import of preproteins into the mitochondrial matrix is driven by the ATP-dependent interaction of mt-Hsp70 with the peripheral inner membrane import protein Tim44 and the preprotein in transit. We show that Mge1p, a co-chaperone of mt-Hsp70, plays a key role in the ATP-dependent import reaction cycle in yeast. Our data suggest a cycle in which the mt-Hsp70-Tim44 complex forms with ATP: Mge1p promotes assembly of the complex in the presence of ATP. Hydrolysis of ATP by mt-Hsp70 occurs in complex with Tim44. Mge1p is then required for the dissociation of the ADP form of mt-Hsp70 from Tim44 after release of inorganic phosphate but before release of ADP. ATP hydrolysis and complex dissociation are accompanied by tight binding of mt-Hsp70 to the preprotein in transit. Subsequently, the release of mt-Hsp70 from the polypeptide chain is triggered by Mge1p which promotes release of ADP from mt-Hsp70. Rebinding of ATP to mt-Hsp70 completes the reaction cycle. Images PMID:8918457

  2. A novel missense variant (Gln220Arg) of GNB4 encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein, subunit beta-4 in a Japanese family with autosomal dominant motor and sensory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Miura, Shiroh; Morikawa, Takuya; Fujioka, Ryuta; Noda, Kazuhito; Kosaka, Kengo; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Shibata, Hiroki

    2017-09-01

    Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease F (CMTDIF) is an autosomal dominant hereditary form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) caused by variations in the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, subunit beta-4 gene (GNB4). We examined two Japanese familial cases with CMT. Case 1 was a 49-year-old male whose chief complaint was slowly progressive gait disturbance and limb dysesthesia that appeared at the age of 47. On neurological examination, he showed hyporeflexia or areflexia, distal limb muscle weakness, and distal sensory impairment with lower dominancy. Nerve conduction studies demonstrated demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy with reduced action potentials in the lower limbs. Case 2 was an 80-year-old man, Case 1's father, who reported difficulty in riding a bicycle at the age of 76. On neurological examination, he showed areflexia in the upper and lower limbs. Distal sensory impairment in the lower limbs was also observed. Nerve conduction studies revealed mainly axonal involvement. Exome sequencing identified a novel heterozygous nonsynonymous variant (NM_021629.3:c.659T > C [p.Gln220Arg]) in GNB4 exon 8, which is known to be responsible for CMT. Sanger sequencing confirmed that both patients are heterozygous for the variation, which causes an amino acid substitution, Gln220Arg, in the highly conserved region of the WD40 domain of GNB4. The frequency of this variant in the Exome Aggregation Consortium Database was 0.000008247, and we confirmed its absence in 502 Japanese control subjects. We conclude that this novel GNB4 variant is causative for CMTDIF in these patients, who represent the first record of the disease in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5′-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  4. ADHD impacted by sulfotransferase (SULT1A) inhibition from artificial food colors and plant-based foods.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Five recent reviews have analyzed trials on the association between artificial food colors and ADHD; the 50 underlying studies and the reviews in aggregate were inconclusive. Recent work has shown human in vivo SULT1A inhibition leading to incremental catecholamines, and an inverted-U relationship between brain catecholamines and proper functioning of the prefrontal cortex where ADHD behavior can arise. This study re-examined the same underlying trials for evidence that SULT1A inhibitors were in the placebos and other inactive foods, that these "inactive" materials were symptomatic, and that ADHD symptoms exhibited an inverted-U response to SULT1A inhibition. Nearly all the underlying diets, and many placebos and delivery vehicles, were found to contain SULT1A inhibitors. Eight publications provided evidence of ADHD symptoms caused by the "inactive" materials containing SULT1A inhibitors. Ten studies showed additional SULT1A inhibitors reducing the symptoms of some subjects. SULT1A inhibitors in foods, including natural substances and artificial food colors, have a role in ADHD that can both worsen or improve symptoms. Mechanistically, SULT1A enzymes normally deactivate catecholamines, especially dopamine formed in the intestines; SULT1A inhibition can influence brain catecholamines through the intermediary of plasma tyrosine levels, which are influenced by dopamine inhibition of intestinal tyrosine hydroxylase. Biochemical measurements focused on SULT1A activity and plasma tyrosine concentrations are proposed for future work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of sup 45 Ca sup 2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells does not require activation of cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding proteins or adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    We have previously reported that FSH stimulates flux of 45Ca2+ into cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we show that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin (CT)- or pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein or activation of adenylate cyclase (AC). Significant stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx was observed within 1 min, and maximal response (3.2-fold over basal levels) was achieved within 2 min after exposure to FSH. FSH-stimulated elevations in cellular cAMP paralleled increases in 45Ca2+ uptake, suggesting a possible coupling of AC activation to 45Ca2+more » influx. (Bu)2cAMP, however, was not able to enhance 45Ca2+ uptake over basal levels at a final concentration of 1000 microM, although a concentration-related increase in androstenedione conversion to estradiol was evident. Exposure of Sertoli cells to CT (10 ng/ml) consistently stimulated basal levels of androstenedione conversion to estradiol but had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake. Similarly, CT had no effect on FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake, but potentiated FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis. PT (10 ng/ml) augmented basal and FSH-stimulated estradiol secretion without affecting 45Ca2+ influx. The adenosine analog N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, which binds to Gi-coupled adenosine receptors on Sertoli cells, inhibited FSH-stimulated androgen conversion to estradiol in a dose-related (1-1000 nM) manner, but FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx remained unchanged. Our results show that in contrast to FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis, the flux of 45Ca2+ into Sertoli cells in response to FSH is not mediated either directly or indirectly by CT- or PT-sensitive G protein, nor does it require activation of AC. Our data further suggest that the FSH receptor itself may function as a calcium channel.« less

  6. How does the long G·G* Watson-Crick DNA base mispair comprising keto and enol tautomers of the guanine tautomerise? The results of a QM/QTAIM investigation.

    PubMed

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-08-14

    The double proton transfer (DPT) in the long G·G* Watson-Crick base mispair (|C6N1(G*)N1C6(G)| = 36.4°; C1 symmetry), involving keto and enol tautomers of the guanine (G) nucleobase, along two intermolecular neighboring O6H···O6 (8.39) and N1···HN1 (6.14 kcal mol(-1)) H-bonds that were established to be slightly anti-cooperative, leads to its transformation into the G*·G base mispair through a single transition state (|C6N1N1C6| = 37.1°; C1), namely to the interconversion into itself. It was shown that the G·G* ↔ G*·G tautomerisation via the DPT is assisted by the third specific contact, that sequentially switches along the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) in an original way: (G)N2H···N2(G*) H-bond (-25.13 to -10.37) → N2···N2 van der Waals contact (-10.37 to -9.23) → (G)N2···HN2(G*) H-bond (-9.23 to 0.79) → (G*)N2···HN2(G) H-bond (0.79 to 7.35 Bohr). The DPT tautomerisation was found to proceed through the asynchronous concerted mechanism by employing the QM/QTAIM approach and the methodology of the scans of the geometric, electron-topological, energetic, polar and NBO properties along the IRC. Nine key points, that can be considered as part of the tautomerisation repertoire, have been established and analyzed in detail. Furthermore, it was shown that the G·G* or G*·G base mispair is a thermodynamically and dynamically stable structure with a lifetime of 8.22 × 10(-10) s and all 6 low-frequency intermolecular vibrations are able to develop during this time span. Lastly, our results highlight the importance of the G·G* ↔ G*·G DPT tautomerisation, which can have implications for biological and chemical sensing applications.

  7. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of an N2-Guanine Adduct Derived from the Tumorigen Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in DNA: Impact of Adduct Stereochemistry, Size, and Local DNA Sequence on Solution Conformations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The dimensions and arrangements of aromatic rings (topology) in adducts derived from the reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diol epoxide metabolites with DNA influence the distortions and stabilities of double-stranded DNA, and hence their recognition and processing by the human nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is a highly tumorigenic six-ring PAH, which contains a nonplanar and aromatic fjord region that is absent in the structurally related bay region five-ring PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The PAH diol epoxide–DNA adducts formed include the stereoisomeric 14S and 14Rtrans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N2-dG and the stereochemically analogous 10S- and 10R-B[a]P-N2-dG (B[a]P-dG) guanine adducts. However, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution studies of the 14S-DB[a,l]P-N2-dG adduct in DNA have not yet been presented. Here we have investigated the 14S-DB[a,l]P-N2-dG adduct in two different sequence contexts using NMR methods with distance-restrained molecular dynamics simulations. In duplexes with dC opposite the adduct deleted, a well-resolved base-displaced intercalative adduct conformation can be observed. In full duplexes, in contrast to the intercalated 14R stereoisomeric adduct, the bulky DB[a,l]P residue in the 14S adduct is positioned in a greatly widened and distorted minor groove, with significant disruptions and distortions of base pairing at the lesion site and two 5′-side adjacent base pairs. These unique structural features are significantly different from those of the stereochemically analogous but smaller B[a]P-dG adduct. The greater size and different topology of the DB[a,l]P aromatic ring system lead to greater structurally destabilizing DNA distortions that are partially compensated by stabilizing DB[a,l]P-DNA van der Waals interactions, whose combined effects impact the NER response to the adduct. These structural results broaden our understanding of the structure–function relationship in NER. PMID

  8. High-throughput screening identifies small molecules that bind to the RAS:SOS:RAS complex and perturb RAS signaling.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michael C; Howes, Jennifer E; Sun, Qi; Little, Andrew J; Camper, DeMarco V; Abbott, Jason R; Phan, Jason; Lee, Taekyu; Waterson, Alex G; Rossanese, Olivia W; Fesik, Stephen W

    2018-05-01

    K-RAS is mutated in approximately 30% of human cancers, resulting in increased RAS signaling and tumor growth. Thus, RAS is a highly validated therapeutic target, especially in tumors of the pancreas, lung and colon. Although directly targeting RAS has proven to be challenging, it may be possible to target other proteins involved in RAS signaling, such as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS). We have previously reported on the discovery of small molecules that bind to SOS1, activate SOS-mediated nucleotide exchange on RAS, and paradoxically inhibit ERK phosphorylation (Burns et al., PNAS, 2014). Here, we describe the discovery of additional, structurally diverse small molecules that also bind to SOS1 in the same pocket and elicit similar biological effects. We tested >160,000 compounds in a fluorescence-based assay to assess their effects on SOS-mediated nucleotide exchange. X-Ray structures revealed that these small molecules bind to the CDC25 domain of SOS1. Compounds that elicited high levels of nucleotide exchange activity in vitro increased RAS-GTP levels in cells, and inhibited phospho ERK levels at higher treatment concentrations. The identification of structurally diverse SOS1 binding ligands may assist in the discovery of new molecules designed to target RAS-driven tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A inhibits the interferon-β signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Lei, Caoqi; Xu, Zhisheng; Yang, Fan; Liu, Huanan; Zhu, Zixiang; Li, Shu; Liu, Xiangtao; Shu, Hongbing; Zheng, Haixue

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of FMD, which affects cloven-hoofed animals. The pathophysiology of FMDV has not been fully understood and the evasion of host innate immune system is still unclear. Here, the FMDV non-structural protein 3A was identified as a negative regulator of virus-triggered IFN-β signaling pathway. Overexpression of the FMDV 3A inhibited Sendai virus-triggered activation of IRF3 and the expressions of RIG-I/MDA5. Transient transfection and co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that FMDV 3A interacts with RIG-I, MDA5 and VISA, which is dependent on the N-terminal 51 amino acids of 3A. Furthermore, 3A also inhibited the expressions of RIG-I, MDA5, and VISA by disrupting their mRNA levels. These results demonstrated that 3A inhibits the RLR-mediated IFN-β induction and uncovered a novel mechanism by which the FMDV 3A protein evades the host innate immune system. PMID:26883855

  10. Cyclosporin A inhibits the propagation of influenza virus by interfering with a late event in the virus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Itsuki; Harazaki, Kazuhiro; Inase, Naohiko; Takaku, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Masato; Yamamoto, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a global public health problem that causes a serious respiratory disease. Influenza virus frequently undergoes amino acid substitutions, which result in the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. To control influenza viruses that are resistant to currently available drugs, it is essential to develop new antiviral drugs with a novel molecular target. Here, we report that cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits the propagation of influenza virus in A549 cells by interfering with a late event in the virus life cycle. CsA did not affect adsorption, internalization, viral RNA replication, or synthesis of viral proteins in A549 cells, but inhibited the step(s) after viral protein synthesis, such as assembly or budding. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of the expression of the major CsA targets, namely cyclophilin A (CypA), cyclophilin B (CypB), and P-glycoprotein (Pgp), did not inhibit influenza virus propagation. These results suggest that CsA inhibits virus propagation by mechanism(s) independent of the inhibition of the function of CypA, CypB, and Pgp. CsA may target an unknown molecule that works as a positive regulator in the propagation of influenza virus. Our findings would contribute to the development of a novel anti-influenza virus therapy and clarification of the regulatory mechanism of influenza virus multiplication.

  11. Is the DPT tautomerization of the long A·G Watson-Crick DNA base mispair a source of the adenine and guanine mutagenic tautomers? A QM and QTAIM response to the biologically important question.

    PubMed

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Zhurakivsky, Roman O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-03-05

    Herein, we first address the question posed in the title by establishing the tautomerization trajectory via the double proton transfer of the adenine·guanine (A·G) DNA base mispair formed by the canonical tautomers of the A and G bases into the A*·G* DNA base mispair, involving mutagenic tautomers, with the use of the quantum-mechanical calculations and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). It was detected that the A·G ↔ A*·G* tautomerization proceeds through the asynchronous concerted mechanism. It was revealed that the A·G base mispair is stabilized by the N6H···O6 (5.68) and N1H···N1 (6.51) hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) and the N2H···HC2 dihydrogen bond (DH-bond) (0.68 kcal·mol(-1) ), whereas the A*·G* base mispair-by the O6H···N6 (10.88), N1H···N1 (7.01) and C2H···N2 H-bonds (0.42 kcal·mol(-1) ). The N2H···HC2 DH-bond smoothly and without bifurcation transforms into the C2H···N2 H-bond at the IRC = -10.07 Bohr in the course of the A·G ↔ A*·G* tautomerization. Using the sweeps of the energies of the intermolecular H-bonds, it was observed that the N6H···O6 H-bond is anticooperative to the two others-N1H···N1 and N2H···HC2 in the A·G base mispair, while the latters are significantly cooperative, mutually strengthening each other. In opposite, all three O6H···N6, N1H···N1, and C2H···N2 H-bonds are cooperative in the A*·G* base mispair. All in all, we established the dynamical instability of the А*·G* base mispair with a short lifetime (4.83·10(-14) s), enabling it not to be deemed feasible source of the A* and G* mutagenic tautomers of the DNA bases. The small lifetime of the А*·G* base mispair is predetermined by the negative value of the Gibbs free energy for the A*·G* → A·G transition. Moreover, all of the six low-frequency intermolecular vibrations cannot develop during this lifetime that additionally confirms the aforementioned results. Thus, the A*·G* base mispair cannot be

  12. MiR-130a inhibition protects rat cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-triggered apoptosis by targeting Smad4.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanshi; Du, Yingrong; Cao, Junxian; Gao, Qianping; Li, Hongjuan; Chen, Yangjun; Lu, Nihong

    2018-02-05

    Cardiomyocyte death facilitates the pathological process underlying ischemic heart diseases, such as myocardial infarction. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs play a critical role in the pathological process underlying myocardial infarction by regulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the relevance of miR-130a in regulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the mechanism of regulation is still uncertain. This study aimed to explore the regulatory effect of miR-130a on hypoxic cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The expression of miR-130a was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cell survival was determined by the MTT assay. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was performed to determine the severity of hypoxia-induced cell injury. Apoptosis was assessed via caspase-3 analysis. Protein expression level was determined by Western blotting. The genes targeted by miR-130a were predicted using bioinformatics and were validated via the dual-luciferase reporter assay. We found that miR-130a expression was greatly increased in hypoxic cardiac myocytes, and that the downregulation of miR-130a effectively shielded cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-triggered apoptosis. The results of our bioinformatic analysis predicted the Smad4 gene to be the target of miR-130a. This finding was validated through the Western blot assay, dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, and qRT-PCR. MiR-130a inhibition significantly promoted the activation of Smad4 in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Interestingly, knockdown of Smad4 markedly reversed the protective effects induced by miR-130a inhibition. Moreover, we found that the inhibition of miR-130a promoted the activation of TGF-β signaling. Blocking Smad4 signaling significantly abrogated the protective effects of miR-130a inhibition. Overall, these findings indicate that inhibition of miR-130a, which targets the Smad4 gene, shields cardiac myocytes from hypoxic apoptosis. This study offers a novel perspective of the

  13. Mechanisms of Tanshinone II a inhibits malignant melanoma development through blocking autophagy signal transduction in A375 cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Xianping; Liu, Baoguo; Liu, Zhijun

    2017-05-22

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the high degree of malignancy and early prone to blood and lymph node metastasis. There is not cured for MM. Tan II A has been reported to reduce cancer cell proliferation. But the mechanism by which Tan II A inhibited melanoma growth are not well characterized. We sought to explore the possible mechanism by which Tan II A regulated cell proliferation through autophagy signaling pathway in A375 cells. We tested the effects of Tan II A on melanoma A375, MV3, M14, and other human cell lines including Hacat and HUVEC cells in cell culture model. Cell proliferation was assessed by using methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Cell migration ability melanoma A375 was monitored by using cell scratch assay. Transwell chamber experimental was performed to assess the effect of Tan II A on A375 melanoma cell invasion ability. The autophagy body was examined by using flow cytometry. The expression of autophagy-associated protein beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3)-II, as well as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)、protein kinase B (Akt)、mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)、p70S6K1 signaling pathways were detected by using Western blotting. The effects of Tan II A on tumor progression was also examined in melanoma A375 induced tumor in mouse model. We found that Tan IIA inhibited melanoma A375, MV3, and M14 cell proliferation in dose and time dependent manner. Tan II A reduced CXCL12-induced A375 cell invasive ability and migration in a dose dependent manner. Tan IIA promoted autophagic body production and increased autophagy-associated protein beclin-1 and LC3-II expression in A375 cells. However, Tan IIA reduced the phosphorylation of PI3K, P-AKT, P-mTOR, and P-p7036k1. We also confirmed that Tan II A reduced melanoma A375 induced tumor volume and weight in mouse model. We concluded that Tan II A reduced A375 cells proliferation by activation of autophagy production, blocked PI3K- Akt - mTOR - p70S6K1

  14. Epigenetic silencing of miR-137 contributes to early colorectal carcinogenesis by impaired Aurora-A inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Chuan; Liu, Yao-Wen; Chen, Ying-Jen; Tseng, Joseph T.; Kang, Jui-Wen; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Lin, Bo-Wen; Hung, Liang-Yi

    2016-01-01

    MicorRNA-137 is silenced in human colorectal cancer tissues and colon polyps. Our study showed that the decreased expression of miR-137 is significantly different in various types of polyp which maintain different potentials to lead to CRC development. The expression of miR-137 gradually decreases during the process of colorectal carcinogenesis. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis indicates that the loss of miR-137 expression in colon polyps can serve as a biomarker to predict the predisposition of colorectal carcinogenesis. By cell model and xenograft animal model, the enforced expression of miR-137 in colorectal cancer cells can inhibit cell proliferation and tumor formation, induce G2/M arrest, and lead to apoptosis. The expression pattern of miR-137 and Aurora-A or PTGS2 is negatively correlated in human colorectal cancer tissues and colon polyps. Those effects induced by overexpressed miR-137 can be rescued by the overexpression of Aurora-A. In summary, our study suggests that the loss of miR-137 expression in colon polyps can serve as a biomarker to predict the tendency toward to CRC formation through the impaired inhibitory effect of Aurora-A. The investigation of the regulatory mechanism of miR-137-mediated Aurora-A inhibition may shed new light on the early prognosis of cancer therapy for CRC in the future. PMID:27764771

  15. Withaferin A inhibits JAK/STAT3 signaling and induces apoptosis of human renal carcinoma Caki cells.

    PubMed

    Um, Hee Jung; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Dong Eun; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2012-10-12

    Withaferin A, the active component of Withania somnifera, causes cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor cell lines. In this study, we show that withaferin A inhibits constitutive and IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 (on Tyr705), but not IFN-γ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation. Withaferin A-induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation is associated with a reduction in Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) activity. Withaferin A also down-regulates the expression of STAT3 regulated genes such as Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, cyclin D1 and survivin. The apoptotic effect of withaferin A in Caki human renal cancer cells was investigated. Withaferin A induced dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in Caki cells, as measured by FACS analysis and PARP cleavage. Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 attenuated withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study provides strong evidence that down-regulation of the STAT3 signaling pathway mediates withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The separate and combined effects of monoamine oxidase A inhibition and nicotine on the mismatch negativity event related potential.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dylan M; Fisher, Derek; Blier, Pierre; Ilivitsky, Vadim; Knott, Verner

    2015-10-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) auditory event-related potential (ERP) has been extensively studied as a potential biomarker for abnormal auditory processing in schizophrenia (SZ), a population which exhibits abnormally high smoking rates. The relationship between nicotinic activation and cognition in SZ may be related to underlying nicotinic and NMDA receptor dysfunction within the disease. However, transient cognitive improvements via smoking in patients may also result from monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition, achieved through tobacco smoke. In 24 healthy non-smoking males, we investigated the separate and combined effects of nicotine and MAO-A inhibition via moclobemide (75mg) on the optimal-5 variation of the MMN paradigm. No significant drug effects were observed in our total sample, however, stratification of individuals into low (N=12) and high (N=12) baseline MMN amplitude groups revealed increases in duration MMN amplitude relative to placebo by nicotine, as well as moclobemide, but not after the combination of the two. Because previous research has shown there was no effect of monoamine modulation on MMN, this study shows an unexpected effect of moclobemide on duration MMN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cyclosporin A inhibits hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus entry by cyclophilin-independent interference with the NTCP receptor.

    PubMed

    Nkongolo, Shirin; Ni, Yi; Lempp, Florian A; Kaufman, Christina; Lindner, Thomas; Esser-Nobis, Katharina; Lohmann, Volker; Mier, Walter; Mehrle, Stefan; Urban, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis D are global health problems caused by the human hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus. The myristoylated preS1 domain of the large envelope protein mediates specific binding to hepatocytes by sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP). NTCP is a bile salt transporter known to be inhibited by cyclosporin A. This study aimed to characterize the effect of cyclosporin A on HBV/HDV infection. HepaRG cells, primary human hepatocytes, and susceptible NTCP-expressing hepatoma cell lines were applied for infection experiments. The mode of action of cyclosporin A was studied by comparing the effect of different inhibitors, cyclophilin A/B/C-silenced cell lines as well as NTCP variants and mutants. Bile salt transporter and HBV receptor functions were investigated by taurocholate uptake and quantification of HBVpreS binding. Cyclosporin A inhibited hepatitis B and D virus infections during and--less pronounced--prior to virus inoculation. Binding of HBVpreS to NTCP was blocked by cyclosporin A concentrations at 8 μM. An NTCP variant deficient in HBVpreS binding but competent for bile salt transport showed resistance to cyclosporin A. Silencing of cyclophilins A/B/C did not abrogate transporter and receptor inhibition. In contrast, tacrolimus, a cyclophilin-independent calcineurin inhibitor, was inactive. HBV and HDV entry via sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide is inhibited by cyclosporin A. The interaction between the drug and the viral receptor is direct and overlaps with a functional binding site of the preS1 domain, which mediates viral entry. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyclosporin A Inhibits Rotavirus Replication and Restores Interferon-Beta Signaling Pathway In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    He, Haiyang; Wu, Yuzhang

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children. Currently, there is no specific drug available against rotavirus, largely due to the lack of an ideal target molecule which has hampered drug development. Our previous studies have revealed that cyclosporin A (CsA) might be potentially useful as an anti-RV drug. We therefore used both cellular and mouse models to study the immunological safety and effectiveness of CsA as an anti-RV drug. We found that CsA treatment of HT-29 cells before, during, and after viral infection efficiently inhibited Wa strain RV replication and restored IFN-β expression in a HT-29 cell line model. Exploring the underlying mechanisms showed that CsA promoted Interferon Regulatory Factor-5 (IRF-5) expression (a key positive regulator of the type I IFN signaling pathway), but not IRF-1, IRF-3, or IRF-7. Additionally, CsA inhibited SOCS-1 expression (the key negative regulator of IFN-α/β), but not SOCS-2 or SOCS-3. The antiviral effect of CsA was confirmed in an RV-infected neonatal mouse model by evaluation of antigen clearance and assessment of changes in intestinal tissue pathology. Also, no differences in T cell frequency or proliferation between the CsA- and vehicle-treated groups were observed. Thus, both our in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that CsA, through modulating the expression of key regulators in IFN signaling pathway, promote type I IFN-based intracellular innate immunity in RV host cells. These findings suggest that CsA may be a useful candidate to develop a new anti-RV strategy, although further evaluation and characterization of CsA on RV-induced diarrhea are warranted. PMID:23990993

  19. GZ-793A inhibits the neurochemical effects of methamphetamine via a selective interaction with the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Justin R; Siripurapu, Kiran B; Horton, David B; Zheng, Guangrong; Crooks, Peter A; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2017-01-15

    Lobeline and lobelane inhibit the behavioral and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine via an interaction with the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). However, lobeline has high affinity for nicotinic receptors, and tolerance develops to the behavioral effects of lobelane. A water-soluble analog of lobelane, R-N-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-2,6-cis-di-(4-methoxyphenethyl)piperidine hydrochloride (GZ-793A), also interacts selectively with VMAT2 to inhibit the effects of methamphetamine, but does not produce behavioral tolerance. The current study further evaluated the mechanism underlying the GZ-793A-mediated inhibition of the neurochemical effects of methamphetamine. In contrast to lobeline, GZ-793A does not interact with the agonist recognition site on α4β2 * and α7 * nicotinic receptors. GZ-793A (0.3-100µM) inhibited methamphetamine (5µM)-evoked fractional dopamine release from rat striatal slices, and did not evoke dopamine release in the absence of methamphetamine. Furthermore, GZ-793A (1-100µM) inhibited neither nicotine (30µM)-evoked nor electrical field-stimulation-evoked (100Hz/1min) fractional dopamine release. Unfortunately, GZ-793A inhibited [ 3 H]dofetilide binding to human-ether-a-go-go related gene channels expressed on human embryonic kidney cells, and further, prolonged action potentials in rabbit cardiac Purkinje fibers, suggesting the potential for GZ-793A to induce ventricular arrhythmias. Thus, GZ-793A selectively inhibits the neurochemical effects of methamphetamine and lacks nicotinic receptor interactions; however, development as a pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine use disorders will not be pursued due to its potential cardiac liabilities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Withaferin A inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules by inactivation of Akt and NF-kappaB in human pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung Hwa; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2009-05-01

    We here investigated the functional effect of withaferin A on airway inflammation and its action mechanism. Withaferin A inhibited the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human lung epithelial A549 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), resulting in the suppression of leukocyte adhesion to lung epithelial A549 cells. In addition, withaferin A inhibited TNF-alpha-induced expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) protein and mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Withaferin A prevented DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. It also inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which are upstream in the regulation of adhesion molecules by TNF-alpha. Furthermore, withaferin A inhibited U937 monocyte adhesion to A549 cells stimulated by TNF-alpha, suggesting that it may inhibit the binding of these cells by regulating the expression of critical adhesion molecules by TNF-alpha. Taken together, these results suggest that withaferin A inhibits cell adhesion through inhibition of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, at least in part, by blocking Akt and down-regulating NF-kappaB activity.

  1. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is recognized by ECT2 during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an unique posttranslational modification and required for spindle assembly and function during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show the evidence that PAR is recognized by ECT2, a key guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mitosis. The BRCT domain of ECT2 directly binds to PAR both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that α-tubulin is PARylated during mitosis. PARylation of α-tubulin is recognized by ECT2 and recruits ECT2 to mitotic spindle for completing mitosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which PAR regulates mitosis.

  2. Into the linker's DENN: A tyrosine's control of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Steve

    2017-04-28

    The small GTP-binding protein Rab12 plays an important role in the initiation of starvation-induced macroautophagy (autophagy) and is activated by the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor DENND3. However, the molecular mechanism by which DENND3 becomes activated has remained elusive. Xu and McPherson now identify a novel mechanism of DENND3 intramolecular binding that is regulated by the phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. SciTech Connect

    Gelb, Bruce D; Tartaglia, Marco; Pennacchio, Len

    Diagnostic and therapeutic applications for Noonan Syndrome are described. The diagnostic and therapeutic applications are based on certain mutations in a RAS-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor gene SOS1 or its expression product. The diagnostic and therapeutic applications are also based on certain mutations in a serine/threonine protein kinase gene RAF1 or its expression product thereof. Also described are nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, probes, and primers related to RAF1 or SOS1, and variants thereof, as well as host cells expressing such variants.

  4. Cadherin-11 regulates protrusive activity in Xenopus cranial neural crest cells upstream of Trio and the small GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Kashef, Jubin; Köhler, Almut; Kuriyama, Sei; Alfandari, Dominique; Mayor, Roberto; Wedlich, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Xenopus Cadherin-11 (Xcad-11) is expressed when cranial neural crest cells (CNC) acquire motility. However, its function in stimulating cell migration is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Xcad-11 initiates filopodia and lamellipodia formation, which is essential for CNC to populate pharyngeal pouches. We identified the cytoplasmic tail of Xcad-11 as both necessary and sufficient for proper CNC migration as long as it was linked to the plasma membrane. Our results showing that guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)-Trio binds to Xcad-11 and can functionally substitute for it like constitutively active forms of RhoA, Rac, and cdc42 unravel a novel cadherin function. PMID:19528317

  5. Cadherin-11 regulates protrusive activity in Xenopus cranial neural crest cells upstream of Trio and the small GTPases.

    PubMed

    Kashef, Jubin; Köhler, Almut; Kuriyama, Sei; Alfandari, Dominique; Mayor, Roberto; Wedlich, Doris

    2009-06-15

    Xenopus Cadherin-11 (Xcad-11) is expressed when cranial neural crest cells (CNC) acquire motility. However, its function in stimulating cell migration is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Xcad-11 initiates filopodia and lamellipodia formation, which is essential for CNC to populate pharyngeal pouches. We identified the cytoplasmic tail of Xcad-11 as both necessary and sufficient for proper CNC migration as long as it was linked to the plasma membrane. Our results showing that guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)-Trio binds to Xcad-11 and can functionally substitute for it like constitutively active forms of RhoA, Rac, and cdc42 unravel a novel cadherin function.

  6. CB1 Receptor Antagonist SR141716A Inhibits Ca2+-Induced Relaxation in CB1 Receptor–Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bukoski, Richard D.; Bátkai, Sándor; Járai, Zoltán; Wang, Yanlin; Offertaler, Laszlo; Jackson, William F.; Kunos, George

    2006-01-01

    Mesenteric branch arteries isolated from cannabinoid type 1 receptor knockout (CB1−/−) mice, their wild-type littermates (CB1+/+ mice), and C57BL/J wild-type mice were studied to test the hypothesis that murine arteries undergo high sensitivity Ca2+-induced relaxation that is CB1 receptor dependent. Confocal microscope analysis of mesenteric branch arteries from wild-type mice showed the presence of Ca2+ receptor–positive periadventitial nerves. Arterial segments of C57 control mice mounted on wire myographs contracted in response to 5 μmol/L norepinephrine and responded to the cumulative addition of extracellular Ca2+ with a concentration-dependent relaxation that reached a maximum of 72.0±6.3% of the prerelaxation tone and had an EC50 for Ca2+ of 2.90±0.54 mmol/L. The relaxation was antagonized by precontraction in buffer containing 100 mmol/L K+ and by pretreatment with 10 mmol/L tetraethylammonium. Arteries from CB1−/− and CB1+/+ mice also relaxed in response to extracellular Ca2+ with no differences being detected between the knockout and their littermate controls. SR141716A, a selective CB1 antagonist, caused concentration-dependent inhibition of Ca2+-induced relaxation in both the knockout and wild-type strains (60% inhibition at 1 μmol/L). O-1918, a cannabidiol analog, had a similar blocking effect in arteries of both wild-type and CB1−/− mice at 10 μmol/L. In contrast, 1 μmol/L SR144538, a cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist, or 50 μmol/L 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid, a gap junction blocker, were without effect. SR141716A (1 to 30 μmol/L) was also assessed for nonspecific actions on whole-cell K+ currents in isolated vascular smooth muscle cells. SR141716A inhibited macroscopic K+ currents at concentrations higher than those required to inhibit Ca2+-induced relaxation, and appeared to have little effect on currents through large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels. These data indicate that arteries of the mouse relax in response to

  7. Poly-l-cysteine/electrospun copper oxide nanofibers-zinc oxide nanoparticles nanocomposite as sensing element of an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of adenine and guanine in biological samples and evaluation of damage to dsDNA and DNA purine bases by UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Majid; Sayyar Ardaki, Masoomeh

    2017-09-15

    A new nanocomposite film constructed of poly-l-cysteine/zinc oxide nanoparticles-electrospun copper oxide nanofibers (PLC/ZnO-NPs-CuO-NFs) was prepared on the surface of the graphite electrode (GE). The novel electrode was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of guanine (G) and adenine (A), two of the most important components of DNA and RNA. The PLC/ZnO-NPs-CuO-NFs/GE enhanced the anodic peak currents of the purine bases conspicuously and could determine them sensitively and separately in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at the physiological pH (7.0). The synthesized nanofibers, nanoparticles and nanocomposite were characterized by different methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). Under the optimum operating conditions, linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.05-6.78 and 0.01-3.87 μM with a detection limit of 12.48 and 1.25 nM for G and A, respectively. The proposed method was applied to quantify A and G in three different DNA samples with satisfactory results. In addition, damage to human blood double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and DNA purine bases (liberated in previously hydrolyzed human blood dsDNA) caused by UV-C and UV-B were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the proposed biosensing platform not only provides a novel and sensitive approach to detecting DNA damage, but also can be used for simultaneous determination of purine bases and major products of DNA oxidative damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure-based design of competitive ligands to target Spon2 in gastric cancer: An integration of molecular modeling and in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenglei; Yu, Zhichao; Nai, Shumei; Shi, Ruiyue; Tang, Qinhong; Zhang, Haiyang; Ye, Lijuan; Wang, Lisheng; Hong, Yincai

    2017-10-01

    Spon2 is a proto-oncogene matrix protein that plays an essential role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer. The protein has recently been found to function as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor through the activation of RhoGTPase. Here, computational modeling and bioinformatics analysis were employed to investigate the molecular mechanism and biological implication underlying Spon2 autoinhibition. It is revealed that the binding of PxxP motif to SH domain can stabilize the intramolecular interaction between the N-terminal helix and DH domain of Spon2, thus shifting the protein into an autoinhibitory state. Here, we proposed releasing Spon2 autoinhibition by targeting SH domain with competitive peptide ligands. To verify this notion, the PxxP sequence was adopted as the start to derive an array of efficient SH binders by using a structure-based rational design strategy, which were then substantiated with fluorescence spectroscopy analysis and guanine nucleotide exchange test. Consequently, the obtained peptide ligands were determined to have a moderate or high affinity for SH domain; they can also enhance Spon2 exchange activity by 1.2-6.1 folds, exhibiting a significant correlation with their SH-binding affinity (Pearson's coefficient=0.92). In addition, neutral substitution of conserved residues in a high-affinity peptide ligand can largely reduce its Spon2-activating potency, confirming that the designed peptide activates Spon2 by competitively disrupting SH-PxxP interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. G protein βγ11 complex translocation is induced by Gi, Gq and Gs coupling receptors and is regulated by the α subunit type

    PubMed Central

    Azpiazu, Inaki; Akgoz, Muslum; Kalyanaraman, Vani; Gautam, N.

    2008-01-01

    G protein activation by Gi/Go coupling M2 muscarinic receptors, Gq coupling M3 receptors and Gs coupling β2 adrenergic receptors causes rapid reversible translocation of the G protein γ11 subunit from the plasma membrane to the Golgi complex. Co-translocation of the β1 subunit suggests that γ11 translocates as a βγ complex. Pertussis toxin ADP ribosylation of the αi subunit type or substitution of the C terminal domain of αo with the corresponding region of αs inhibits γ11 translocation demonstrating that α subunit interaction with a receptor and its activation are requirements for the translocation. The rate of γ11 translocation is sensitive to the rate of activation of the G protein α subunit. α subunit types that show high receptor activated rates of guanine nucleotide exchange in vitro support high rates of γ11 translocation compared to α subunit types that have a relatively lower rate of guanine nucleotide exchange. The results suggest that the receptor induced translocation of γ11 is controlled by the rate of cycling of the G protein through active and inactive forms. They also demonstrate that imaging of γ11 translocation can be used as a non-invasive tool to measure the relative activities of wild type or mutant receptor and α subunit types in a live cell. PMID:16242307

  10. Lipid binding defects and perturbed synaptogenic activity of a Collybistin R290H mutant that causes epilepsy and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Schemm, Rudolf; Grubmüller, Helmut; Brose, Nils

    2015-03-27

    Signaling at nerve cell synapses is a key determinant of proper brain function, and synaptic defects--or synaptopathies--are at the basis of many neurological and psychiatric disorders. In key areas of the mammalian brain, such as the hippocampus or the basolateral amygdala, the clustering of the scaffolding protein Gephyrin and of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors at inhibitory neuronal synapses is critically dependent upon the brain-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Collybistin (Cb). Accordingly, it was discovered recently that an R290H missense mutation in the diffuse B-cell lymphoma homology domain of Cb, which carries the guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, leads to epilepsy and intellectual disability in human patients. In the present study, we determined the mechanism by which the Cb(R290H) mutation perturbs inhibitory synapse formation and causes brain dysfunction. Based on a combination of biochemical, cell biological, and molecular dynamics simulation approaches, we demonstrate that the R290H mutation alters the strength of intramolecular interactions between the diffuse B-cell lymphoma homology domain and the pleckstrin homology domain of Cb. This defect reduces the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding affinity of Cb, which limits its normal synaptogenic activity. Our data indicate that impairment of the membrane lipid binding activity of Cb and a consequent defect in inhibitory synapse maturation represent a likely molecular pathomechanism of epilepsy and mental retardation in humans. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jinqi; Cook, Aaron A.; Bergmeier, Wolfgang

    The dynamic regulation of ERK1 and -2 (ERK1/2) is required for precise signal transduction controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the activation of ERK1/2 are not completely understood. In this study, we show that phosphorylation of RasGRP2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), inhibits its ability to activate the small GTPase Rap1 that ultimately leads to decreased activation of ERK1/2 in cells. ERK2 phosphorylates RasGRP2 at Ser394 located in the linker region implicated in its autoinhibition. These studies identify RasGRP2 as a novel substrate of ERK1/2 and define a negative-feedback loop that regulates the BRaf–MEK–ERKmore » signaling cascade. This negative-feedback loop determines the amplitude and duration of active ERK1/2. -- Highlights: •ERK2 phosphorylates the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP2 at Ser394. •Phosphorylated RasGRP2 has decreased capacity to active Rap1b in vitro and in cells. •Phosphorylation of RasGRP2 by ERK1/2 introduces a negative-feedback loop into the BRaf-MEK-ERK pathway.« less

  12. Cell Proliferation and Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling in Non-small Cell Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines Are Dependent on Rin1

    PubMed Central

    Tomshine, Jin C.; Severson, Sandra R.; Wigle, Dennis A.; Sun, Zhifu; Beleford, Daniah A. T.; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Horazdovsky, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    Rin1 is a Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor that plays an important role in Ras-activated endocytosis and growth factor receptor trafficking in fibroblasts. In this study, we show that Rin1 is expressed at high levels in a large number of non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, including Hop62, H650, HCC4006, HCC827, EKVX, HCC2935, and A549. Rin1 depletion from A549 cells resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation that was correlated to a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Expression of wild type Rin1 but not the Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor-deficient Rin1 (Rin1Δ) complemented the Rin1 depletion effects, and overexpression of Rin1Δ had a dominant negative effect on cell proliferation. Rin1 depletion stabilized the cell surface levels of EGFR, suggesting that internalization was necessary for robust signaling in A549 cells. In support of this conclusion, introduction of either dominant negative Rab5 or dominant negative dynamin decreased A549 proliferation and EGFR signaling. These data demonstrate that proper internalization and endocytic trafficking are critical for EGFR-mediated signaling in A549 cells and suggest that up-regulation of Rin1 in A549 cell lines may contribute to their proliferative nature. PMID:19570984

  13. EGF receptor uses SOS1 to drive constitutive activation of NFκB in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    De, Sarmishtha; Dermawan, Josephine Kam Tai; Stark, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) is a central event in the responses of normal cells to inflammatory signals, and the abnormal constitutive activation of NFκB is important for the survival of most cancer cells. In nonmalignant human cells, EGF stimulates robust activation of NFκB. The kinase activity of the EGF receptor (EGFR) is required, because the potent and specific inhibitor erlotinib blocks the response. Down-regulating EGFR expression or inhibiting EGFR with erlotinib impairs constitutive NFκB activation in several different types of cancer cells and, conversely, increased activation of NFκB leads to erlotinib resistance in these cells. We conclude that EGF is an important mediator of NFκB activation in cancer cells. To explore the mechanism, we selected an erlotinib-resistant cell line in which the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless 1 (SOS1), well known to be important for EGF-dependent signaling to MAP kinases, is overexpressed. Increased expression of SOS1 increases NFκB activation in several different types of cancer cells, and ablation of SOS1 inhibits EGF-induced NFκB activation in these cells, indicating that SOS1 is a functional component of the pathway connecting EGFR to NFκB activation. Importantly, the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of SOS1 is not required for NFκB activation. PMID:25071181

  14. GDP-GTP exchange processes of G{alpha}i1 protein are accelerated/decelerated depending on the type and the concentration of added detergents.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Makoto; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2009-12-01

    Although detergents have been widely used in G-protein studies to increase solubility and stability of the protein, we noticed that detergents modulate the nucleotide-binding properties of G-proteins. Hence, we analysed the effects of detergents on guanine nucleotide exchange reactions of Galpha(i1). Lubrol PX, a non-ionic detergent, which has been widely used in nucleotide dissociation/binding assays, was found to accelerate both GDP dissociation and GTPgammaS binding from/to Galpha in parallel at above its critical micelle concentration (cmc). Sodium cholate, an anionic detergent, which have been used to extract G-proteins from animal tissues, decelerated and accelerated GDP dissociation below and above its cmc, respectively. Surprisingly, micellar cholate decelerated GTPgammaS binding, and the binding rate constant was decreased by three orders of magnitude in the presence of 2% cholate. These results demonstrate that the guanine nucleotide exchange reactions of Galpha(i1) are drastically modulated by detergents differently depending on the type and the state (monomeric or micellar) of the detergents and that dissociation of GDP from Galpha(i1) does not necessarily lead to immediate binding of GTP to Galpha(i1) in some cases. These effects of detergents on G-proteins must be taken into account in G-protein experiments.

  15. Lipid Binding Defects and Perturbed Synaptogenic Activity of a Collybistin R290H Mutant That Causes Epilepsy and Intellectual Disability*

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Schemm, Rudolf; Grubmüller, Helmut; Brose, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Signaling at nerve cell synapses is a key determinant of proper brain function, and synaptic defects—or synaptopathies—are at the basis of many neurological and psychiatric disorders. In key areas of the mammalian brain, such as the hippocampus or the basolateral amygdala, the clustering of the scaffolding protein Gephyrin and of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors at inhibitory neuronal synapses is critically dependent upon the brain-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Collybistin (Cb). Accordingly, it was discovered recently that an R290H missense mutation in the diffuse B-cell lymphoma homology domain of Cb, which carries the guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, leads to epilepsy and intellectual disability in human patients. In the present study, we determined the mechanism by which the CbR290H mutation perturbs inhibitory synapse formation and causes brain dysfunction. Based on a combination of biochemical, cell biological, and molecular dynamics simulation approaches, we demonstrate that the R290H mutation alters the strength of intramolecular interactions between the diffuse B-cell lymphoma homology domain and the pleckstrin homology domain of Cb. This defect reduces the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding affinity of Cb, which limits its normal synaptogenic activity. Our data indicate that impairment of the membrane lipid binding activity of Cb and a consequent defect in inhibitory synapse maturation represent a likely molecular pathomechanism of epilepsy and mental retardation in humans. PMID:25678704

  16. Deciphering the molecular and functional basis of Dbl family proteins: a novel systematic approach toward classification of selective activation of the Rho family proteins.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Mamta; Dvorsky, Radovan; Ahmadian, Mohammad Reza

    2013-02-08

    The diffuse B-cell lymphoma (Dbl) family of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors is a direct activator of the Rho family proteins. The Rho family proteins are involved in almost every cellular process that ranges from fundamental (e.g. the establishment of cell polarity) to highly specialized processes (e.g. the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells). Abnormal activation of the Rho proteins is known to play a crucial role in cancer, infectious and cognitive disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the existence of 74 Dbl proteins and 25 Rho-related proteins in humans, which are largely uncharacterized, has led to increasing complexity in identifying specific upstream pathways. Thus, we comprehensively investigated sequence-structure-function-property relationships of 21 representatives of the Dbl protein family regarding their specificities and activities toward 12 Rho family proteins. The meta-analysis approach provides an unprecedented opportunity to broadly profile functional properties of Dbl family proteins, including catalytic efficiency, substrate selectivity, and signaling specificity. Our analysis has provided novel insights into the following: (i) understanding of the relative differences of various Rho protein members in nucleotide exchange; (ii) comparing and defining individual and overall guanine nucleotide exchange factor activities of a large representative set of the Dbl proteins toward 12 Rho proteins; (iii) grouping the Dbl family into functionally distinct categories based on both their catalytic efficiencies and their sequence-structural relationships; (iv) identifying conserved amino acids as fingerprints of the Dbl and Rho protein interaction; and (v) defining amino acid sequences conserved within, but not between, Dbl subfamilies. Therefore, the characteristics of such specificity-determining residues identified the regions or clusters conserved within the Dbl subfamilies.

  17. The immunosuppressives FK 506 and cyclosporin A inhibit the generation of protein factors binding to the two purine boxes of the interleukin 2 enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brabletz, T; Pietrowski, I; Serfling, E

    1991-01-01

    Like Cyclosporin A (CsA), the macrolide FK 506 is a potent immunosuppressive that inhibits early steps of T cell activation, including the synthesis of Interleukin 2 (II-2) and numerous other lymphokines. The block of II-2 synthesis occurs at the transcriptional level. At concentrations that block T cell activation, FK 506 and CsA inhibit the proto-enhancer activity of Purine boxes of the II-2 promoter and the generation of lymphocyte-specific factors binding to the Purine boxes. Under the same conditions, the DNA binding of other II-2 enhancer factors remains unaffected by both compounds. These results support the view that FK 506 and CsA, which both inhibit the activity of peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerases, suppress T cell activation by a similar, if not identical mechanism. Images PMID:1707162

  18. The immunosuppressives FK 506 and cyclosporin A inhibit the generation of protein factors binding to the two purine boxes of the interleukin 2 enhancer.

    PubMed

    Brabletz, T; Pietrowski, I; Serfling, E

    1991-01-11

    Like Cyclosporin A (CsA), the macrolide FK 506 is a potent immunosuppressive that inhibits early steps of T cell activation, including the synthesis of Interleukin 2 (II-2) and numerous other lymphokines. The block of II-2 synthesis occurs at the transcriptional level. At concentrations that block T cell activation, FK 506 and CsA inhibit the proto-enhancer activity of Purine boxes of the II-2 promoter and the generation of lymphocyte-specific factors binding to the Purine boxes. Under the same conditions, the DNA binding of other II-2 enhancer factors remains unaffected by both compounds. These results support the view that FK 506 and CsA, which both inhibit the activity of peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerases, suppress T cell activation by a similar, if not identical mechanism.

  19. Optimization of drug-drug interaction study design: comparison of minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic models on prediction of CYP3A inhibition by ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Mao, Jialin; Chien, Jenny Y; Hall, Stephen D

    2013-07-01

    Ketoconazole is a potent CYP3A inhibitor used to assess the contribution of CYP3A to drug clearance and quantify the increase in drug exposure due to a strong inhibitor. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to evaluate treatment regimens resulting in maximal CYP3A inhibition by ketoconazole but have reached different conclusions. We compare two PBPK models of the ketoconazole-midazolam interaction, model 1 (Chien et al., 2006) and model 2 implemented in Simcyp (version 11), to predict 16 published treatment regimens. With use of model 2, 41% of the study point estimates of area under the curve (AUC) ratio and 71% of the 90% confidence intervals were predicted within 1.5-fold of the observed, but these increased to 82 and 100%, respectively, with model 1. For midazolam, model 2 predicted a maximal midazolam AUC ratio of 8 and a hepatic fraction metabolized by CYP3A (f(m)) of 0.97, whereas model 1 predicted 17 and 0.90, respectively, which are more consistent with observed data. On the basis of model 1, ketoconazole (400 mg QD) for at least 3 days and substrate administration within 2 hours is required for maximal CYP3A inhibition. Ketoconazole treatment regimens that use 200 mg BID underestimate the systemic fraction metabolized by CYP3A (0.86 versus 0.90) for midazolam. The systematic underprediction also applies to CYP3A substrates with high bioavailability and long half-lives. The superior predictive performance of model 1 reflects the need for accumulation of ketoconazole at enzyme site and protracted inhibition. Model 2 is not recommended for inferring optimal study design and estimation of fraction metabolized by CYP3A.

  20. Phosphodiesterase 5a Inhibition with Adenoviral Short Hairpin RNA Benefits Infarcted Heart Partially through Activation of Akt Signaling Pathway and Reduction of Inflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Li, Longhu; Zhao, Dong; Jin, Zhe; Zhang, Jian; Paul, Christian; Wang, Yigang

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference therapy targeting phosphodiesterase 5a after myocardial infarction (MI) has been shown to mitigate post-MI heart failure. We investigated the mechanisms that underpin the beneficial effects of PDE5a inhibition through shRNA on post-MI heart failure. An adenoviral vector with an shRNA sequence inserted was adopted for the inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5a (Ad-shPDE5a) in vivo and in vitro. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by left coronary artery ligation, and immediately after that, the Ad-shPDE5a was injected intramyocardially around the MI region and border areas. Four weeks post-MI, the Ad-shPDE5a-treated mice showed significant mitigation of the left ventricular (LV) dilatation and dysfunction compared to control mice. Infarction size and fibrosis were also significantly reduced in Ad-shPDE5a-treated mice. Additionally, Ad-shPDE5a treatment decreased the MI-induced inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β1, which was confirmed in vitro in Ad-shPDE5a transfected myofibroblasts cultured under oxygen glucose deprivation. Finally, Ad-shPDE5a treatment was found to activate the myocardial Akt signaling pathway in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. These findings indicate that PDE5a inhibition by Ad-shPDE5a via the Akt signal pathway could be of significant value in the design of future therapeutics for post-MI heart failure.

  1. Germline Missense Mutations Affecting KRAS Isoform B Are Associated with a Severe Noonan Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Claudio; Pantaleoni, Francesca; Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Stella, Lorenzo; Vasta, Isabella; Sarkozy, Anna; Digilio, Cristina; Palleschi, Antonio; Pizzuti, Antonio; Grammatico, Paola; Zampino, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gelb, Bruce D.; Tartaglia, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a developmental disorder characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heart disease, and multiple skeletal and hematologic defects. NS is an autosomal dominant trait and is genetically heterogeneous. Gain of function of SHP-2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase that positively modulates RAS signaling, is observed in nearly 50% of affected individuals. Here, we report the identification of heterozygous KRAS gene mutations in two subjects exhibiting a severe NS phenotype with features overlapping those of cardiofaciocutaneous and Costello syndromes. Both mutations were de novo and affected exon 6, which encodes the C-terminal portion of KRAS isoform B but does not contribute to KRAS isoform A. Structural analysis indicated that both substitutions (Val152Gly and Asp153Val) perturb the conformation of the guanine ring–binding pocket of the protein, predicting an increase in the guanine diphosphate/guanine triphosphate (GTP) dissociation rate that would favor GTP binding to the KRASB isoform and bypass the requirement for a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. PMID:16773572

  2. Application of HPLC to study the kinetics of a branched bi-enzyme system consisting of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and xanthine oxidase--an important biochemical system to evaluate the efficiency of the anticancer drug 6-mercaptopurine in ALL cell line.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sukirti; Paul, Manash K; Balaram, Hemalatha; Mukhopadhyay, Anup Kumar

    2007-05-01

    The thiopurine antimetabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) is an important chemotherapeutic drug in the conventional treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). 6MP is mainly catabolized by both hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) to form thioinosinic monophosphate (TIMP) (therapeutically active metabolite) and 6-thiouric acid (6TUA) (inactive metabolite), respectively. The activity of both the enzymes varies among ALL patients governing the active and the inactive metabolite profile within the immature lymphocytes. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the kinetic nature of the branched bi-enzyme system acting on 6MP and to quantitate TIMP and 6TUA formed when the two enzymes are present in equal and variable ratios. The quantification of the branched kinetics using spectrophotometric method presents problem due to the closely apposed lambda(max) of the substrates and products. Hence, employing an HPLC method, the quantification of the products was done with the progress of time. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of substrate was found to be 10nM and for products as 50 nM. The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 1 nM for the substrate and the products. The method exhibited linearity in the range of 0.01-100 microM for 6MP and 0.05-100 microM for both 6TUA and TIMP. The amount of TIMP formed was higher than that of 6TUA in the bi-enzyme system when both the enzymes were present in equivalent enzymatic ratio. It was further found that enzymatic ratios play an important role in determining the amounts of TIMP and 6TUA. This method was further validated using actively growing T-ALL cell line (Jurkat) to study the branched kinetics, wherein it was observed that treatment of 50 microM 6MP led to the generation of 12 microM TIMP and 0.8 microM 6TUA in 6 h at 37 degrees C.

  3. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K.; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J.; Montemayor, Michelle M. Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest on the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribo analogue of cladribine possessed activity, but was least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, only cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active. PMID:26556315

  4. Cladribine Analogues via O⁶-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J; Montemayor, Michelle M Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K

    2015-10-09

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious, clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest in the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O⁶-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities, and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribose analogue of cladribine showed activity, but was the least active among the C6-NH₂-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active.

  5. MicroRNA-449a Inhibition Protects H9C2 Cells Against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Injury by Targeting the Notch-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing; Wu, Qianfu; Lv, Rong; Huang, Li; Xu, Banglong; Wang, Xianbao; Chen, Aihua; He, Fei

    2018-05-07

    The present study aimed to detect the expression of miR-449a and investigate the effect of miR-449a on cell injury in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/ reoxygenation (H/R) and its underlying mechanisms. The expression of miR-449a was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in both neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and H9C2 cells. For gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, H9C2 cells were transfected with either miR-449a mimics or miR-449a inhibitor. The target gene of miR-449a was confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by both flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide and transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Necrosis was confirmed by the detection of lactate dehydrogenase release. The cell viability was measured using the methylthiotetrazole method. The protein levels of Notch-1, Notch-1 intracellular domain, hairy and enhancer of split-1 (Hes-1), and apoptosis-related genes were measured by Western blot analysis. MiR-449a was significantly upregulated in both neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and H9C2 cells subjected to H/R. However, H/R-induced cell apoptosis and necrosis were markedly reduced by miR-449a inhibition. By targeting Notch-1, miR-449a regulated the Notch-1/ Hes-1 signaling pathway. The blockade of the Notch signaling pathway partly abolished the protective effect of miR-449a suppression against H/R injury, whereas the overexpression of Notch-1 intracellular domain partly reversed the effect of miR-449a overexpression on H/R-induced cell injury. The present study suggested that miR-449a inhibition protected H9C2 cells against H/R-induced cell injury by targeting the Notch-1 signaling pathway, providing a novel insight into the molecular basis of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and a potential therapeutic target. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Cyclosporin A inhibits nucleotide excision repair via downregulation of the xeroderma pigmentosum group A and G proteins, which is mediated by calcineurin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kuschal, Christiane; Thoms, Kai-Martin; Boeckmann, Lars; Laspe, Petra; Apel, Antje; Schön, Michael P; Emmert, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits nucleotide excision repair (NER) in human cells, a process that contributes to the skin cancer proneness in organ transplant patients. We investigated the mechanisms of CsA-induced NER reduction by assessing all xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) genes (XPA-XPG). Western blot analyses revealed that XPA and XPG protein expression was reduced in normal human GM00637 fibroblasts exposed to 0.1 and 0.5 μm CsA. Interestingly, the CsA treatment reduced XPG, but not XPA, mRNA expression. Calcineurin knockdown in GM00637 fibroblasts using RNAi led to similar results suggesting that calcineurin-dependent signalling is involved in XPA and XPG protein regulation. CsA-induced reduction in NER could be complemented by the overexpression of either XPA or XPG protein. Likewise, XPA-deficient fibroblasts with stable overexpression of XPA (XP2OS-pCAH19WS) did not show the inhibitory effect of CsA on NER. In contrast, XPC-deficient fibroblasts overexpressing XPC showed CsA-reduced NER. Our data indicate that the CsA-induced inhibition of NER is a result of downregulation of XPA and XPG protein in a calcineurin-dependent manner. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Tributyltin induces a G2/M cell cycle arrest in human amniotic cells via PP2A inhibition-mediated inactivation of the ERK1/2 cascades.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Guo, Zonglou; Xu, Lihong

    2014-03-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the cell cycle alterations induced by tributyltin (TBT), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, remain elusive. In this study, cell cycle progression and some key regulators in G2/M phase were investigated in human amniotic cells treated with TBT. Furthermore, protein phosphatase (PP) 2A and the ERK cascades were examined. The results showed that TBT caused a G2/M cell cycle arrest that was accompanied by a decrease in the total cdc25C protein level and an increase in the p-cdc2 level in the nucleus. TBT caused a decrease in PP2A activity and inhibited the ERK cascade by inactivating Raf-1, resulting in the dephosphorylation of MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and c-Myc. Taken together, TBT leads to a G2/M cell cycle arrest in FL cells, an increase in p-cdc2 and a decrease in the levels of total cdc25C protein, which may be caused by the PP2A inhibition-mediated inactivation of the ERK1/2 cascades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ikarisoside A inhibits acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis by suppressing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ion channels in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojia; Toyohira, Yumiko; Horisita, Takafumi; Satoh, Noriaki; Takahashi, Keita; Zhang, Han; Iinuma, Munekazu; Yoshinaga, Yukari; Ueno, Susumu; Tsutsui, Masato; Sata, Takeyoshi; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki

    2015-12-01

    Ikarisoside A is a natural flavonol glycoside derived from plants of the genus Epimedium, which have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine as tonics, antirheumatics, and aphrodisiacs. Here, we report the effects of ikarisoside A and three other flavonol glycosides on catecholamine secretion and synthesis in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. We found that ikarisoside A (1-100 μM), but not icariin, epimedin C, or epimedoside A, concentration-dependently inhibited the secretion of catecholamines induced by acetylcholine, a physiological secretagogue and agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Ikarisoside A had little effect on catecholamine secretion induced by veratridine and 56 mM K(+). Ikarisoside A (1-100 μM) also inhibited (22)Na(+) influx and (45)Ca(2+) influx induced by acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner similar to that of catecholamine secretion. In Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, ikarisoside A (0.1-100 μM) directly inhibited the current evoked by acetylcholine. It also suppressed (14)C-catecholamine synthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by acetylcholine at 1-100 μM and 10-100 μM, respectively. The present findings suggest that ikarisoside A inhibits acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis by suppression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ion channels in bovine adrenal medullary cells.

  9. Next generation bone tissue engineering: non-viral miR-133a inhibition using collagen-nanohydroxyapatite scaffolds rapidly enhances osteogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencía Castaño, Irene; Curtin, Caroline M.; Duffy, Garry P.; O'Brien, Fergal J.

    2016-06-01

    Bone grafts are the second most transplanted materials worldwide at a global cost to healthcare systems valued over $30 billion every year. The influence of microRNAs in the regenerative capacity of stem cells offers vast therapeutic potential towards bone grafting; however their efficient delivery to the target site remains a major challenge. This study describes how the functionalisation of porous collagen-nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) scaffolds with miR-133a inhibiting complexes, delivered using non-viral nHA particles, enhanced human mesenchymal stem cell-mediated osteogenesis through the novel focus on a key activator of osteogenesis, Runx2. This study showed enhanced Runx2 and osteocalcin expression, as well as increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition, thus demonstrating a further enhanced therapeutic potential of a biomaterial previously optimised for bone repair applications. The promising features of this platform offer potential for a myriad of applications beyond bone repair and tissue engineering, thus presenting a new paradigm for microRNA-based therapeutics.

  10. MiR-let-7a inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by down-regulating PKM2 in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Man; Zhao, Xinying; Yuan, Xiaolei; Jiang, Jing; Li, Peiling

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, miRNA has been reported as a crucial modulator in some biology progressions. This work aims to assess the expression and role of miR-let-7a and pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 (PKM2) in CC tissues and cell lines. Here, we identified that miR-let-7a expression was decreased in CC tissues, and SiHa and HeLa cells (all P < 0.001), however, PKM2 expression was increased in these samples. Statistically, miR-let-7a was inversely associated with PKM2 mRNA or protein (p = 0.013, p = 0.015, respectively). In-vitro assays revealed that ectopic miR-let-7a expression repressed SiHa and HeLa cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and enhanced SiHa and HeLa cell apoptosis. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays revealed the 3′-UTR of PKM2 was identified a target of miR-let-7a, by which miR-let-7a affected the expression of PKM2 in SiHa and HeLa cells. Besides, PKM2 plasmids partially abrogated the inhibitory effects of miR-let-7a, while si-PKM2 enhanced the inhibitory effects of miR-let-7a. In vivo, miR-let-7a mimics indeed repressed tumor growth in mice xenograft model. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that miR-let-7a inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion by down-regulation of PKM2 in cervical cancer. miR-let-7a/PKM2 pathway may be a useful therapeutic target for CC patients. PMID:28415668

  11. Protein phosphatase 2A inhibition and subsequent cytoskeleton reorganization contributes to cell migration caused by microcystin-LR in human laryngeal epithelial cells (Hep-2).

    PubMed

    Wang, Beilei; Liu, Jinghui; Huang, Pu; Xu, Kailun; Wang, Hanying; Wang, Xiaofeng; Guo, Zonglou; Xu, Lihong

    2017-03-01

    The major toxic mechanism of Microcystin-LR is inhibition of the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), resulting in a series of cytotoxic effects. Our previous studies have demonstrated that microcystin-LR (MCLR) induced very different molecular effects in normal cells and the tumor cell line SMMC7721. To further explore the MCLR toxicity mechanism in tumor cells, human laryngeal epithelial cells (Hep-2) was examined in this study. Western blot, immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and transwell migration assay were used to detect the effects of MCLR on PP2A activity, PP2A substrates, cytoskeleton, and cell migration. The results showed that the protein level of PP2A subunits and the posttranslational modification of the catalytic subunit were altered and that the binding of the AC core enzyme as well as the binding of PP2A/C and α4, was also affected. As PP2A substrates, the phosphorylation of MAPK pathway members, p38, ERK1/2, and the cytoskeleton-associated proteins, Hsp27, VASP, Tau, and Ezrin were increased. Furthermore, MCLR induced reorganization of the cytoskeleton and promoted cell migration. Taken together, direct covalent binding to PP2A/C, alteration of the protein levels and posttranslational modification, as well as the binding of subunits, are the main pattern for the effects of MCLR on PP2A in Hep-2. A dose-dependent change in p-Tau and p-Ezrin due to PP2A inhibition may contribute to the changes in the cytoskeleton and be related to the cell migration in Hep-2. Our data provide a comprehensive exposition of the MCLR mechanism on tumor cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 890-903, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. miR-20a inhibition using locked nucleic acid (LNA) technology and its effects on apoptosis of human macrophages infected by Toxoplasma gondii RH strain.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Jafari, Narjes; Pagheh, Abdol Sattar; Hashemi, Nooshin; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    2018-05-22

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous and infectious parasite that multiplies in any nucleated cell of warm-blooded animals and humans worldwide. This parasite has intricate mechanisms to reciprocate host-cell apoptosis to exist in the host cell. So far, the details of the parasite interactions with host cells are not well known. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the small noncoding RNAs that are now considered as a key mechanism of gene regulation. They are important in physiological and pathological processes such as apoptosis. In this study a Real Time quantitative PCR technique was used to evaluate the levels of miR-20a of miRNAs family in human macrophage during T. gondii infection to determine the role of miR-20a in apoptosis. Then, the inhibition of miR-20a function through interaction with transfection of Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) antisense oligomer was studied. Furthermore, it was examined whether miR-20a is involved in apoptosis of human macrophages with T. gondii infected cells using flow cytometry. We found that miR-20a expression is up-regulated in human macrophages following T. gondii infection. After LNA anti miR-20a oligomer transfection, miR-20a inhibition was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Flow cytometry results showed that LNA anti-miR20a oligomer increased apoptosis. In agreement with this result, we found that specific LNA oligonucleotides prevent the functional activity of miR-20a and promotion of human macrophages apoptosis with T. gondii infection by inhibition of this miRNAs gene. Also, the results support the concept that LNA oligomer antisense may be used as a therapeutic implement for blocking detrimental miRNAs overexpressed in infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Essential requirement for PP2A inhibition by the oncogenic receptor c-KIT suggests PP2A reactivation as a strategy to treat c-KIT+ cancers

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kathryn G.; Smith, Amanda M.; McDougall, Fiona; Carpenter, Helen; Horan, Martin; Neviani, Paolo; Powell, Jason A.; Thomas, Daniel; Guthridge, Mark A.; Perrotti, Danilo; Sim, Alistair T.R.; Ashman, Leonie K.; Verrills, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), systemic mastocytosis, and some acute myeloid leukemias (AML). Whilst juxtamembrane mutations commonly detected in GIST are sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the kinase domain mutations frequently encountered in systemic mastocytosis and AML confer resistance and are largely unresponsive to targeted inhibition by the existing agent imatinib. In this study we show that myeloid cells expressing activated c-KIT mutants that are imatinib-sensitive (V560G) or –resistant (D816V) can inhibit the tumor suppressor activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). This effect was associated with reduced expression of PP2A structural (A) and regulatory subunits (B55α; B56α; B56γ and B56δ). Overexpression of PP2A-Aα in D816V c-KIT cells induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation. In addition, pharmacological activation of PP2A by FTY720 reduced proliferation, inhibited clonogenic potential and induced apoptosis of mutant c-KIT+ cells, whilst having no effect on WT c-KIT cells or empty vector controls. FTY720 treatment caused dephosphorylation of the D816V c-KIT receptor and its downstream signaling targets pAkt, pSTAT5 and pERK1/2. Additionally, in vivo administration of FTY720 delayed the growth of V560G and D816V c-KIT tumors, inhibited splenic and bone marrow infiltration, and prolonged survival. Our findings show that PP2A inhibition is essential for c-KIT-mediated tumorigenesis, and that reactivating PP2A may offer an attractive strategy to treat drug-resistant c-KIT+ cancers. PMID:20551067

  14. Modulation of mGlu2 Receptors, but Not PDE10A Inhibition Normalizes Pharmacologically-Induced Deviance in Auditory Evoked Potentials and Oscillations in Conscious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahnaou, Abdallah; Biermans, Ria; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H.

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of cognitive impairments represents a high medical need in the development of new antipsychotics. Aberrant EEG gamma oscillations and reductions in the P1/N1 complex peak amplitude of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) are neurophysiological biomarkers for schizophrenia that indicate disruption in sensory information processing. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase (i.e. PDE10A) and activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) signaling are believed to provide antipsychotic efficacy in schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether this occurs with cognition-enhancing potential. The present study used the auditory paired click paradigm in passive awake Sprague Dawley rats to 1) model disruption of AEP waveforms and oscillations as observed in schizophrenia by peripheral administration of amphetamine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist phencyclidine (PCP); 2) confirm the potential of the antipsychotics risperidone and olanzapine to attenuate these disruptions; 3) evaluate the potential of mGluR2 agonist LY404039 and PDE10 inhibitor PQ-10 to improve AEP deficits in both the amphetamine and PCP models. PCP and amphetamine disrupted auditory information processing to the first click, associated with suppression of the P1/N1 complex peak amplitude, and increased cortical gamma oscillations. Risperidone and olanzapine normalized PCP and amphetamine-induced abnormalities in AEP waveforms and aberrant gamma/alpha oscillations, respectively. LY404039 increased P1/N1 complex peak amplitudes and potently attenuated the disruptive effects of both PCP and amphetamine on AEPs amplitudes and oscillations. However, PQ-10 failed to show such effect in either models. These outcomes indicate that modulation of the mGluR2 results in effective restoration of abnormalities in AEP components in two widely used animal models of psychosis, whereas PDE10A inhibition does not. PMID:26808689

  15. The microRNA miR-34a inhibits prostate cancer stem cells and metastasis by directly repressing CD44.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Kelnar, Kevin; Liu, Bigang; Chen, Xin; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Li, Hangwen; Patrawala, Lubna; Yan, Hong; Jeter, Collene; Honorio, Sofia; Wiggins, Jason F; Bader, Andreas G; Fagin, Randy; Brown, David; Tang, Dean G

    2011-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), or tumor-initiating cells, are involved in tumor progression and metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate both normal stem cells and CSCs, and dysregulation of miRNAs has been implicated in tumorigenesis. CSCs in many tumors--including cancers of the breast, pancreas, head and neck, colon, small intestine, liver, stomach, bladder and ovary--have been identified using the adhesion molecule CD44, either individually or in combination with other marker(s). Prostate CSCs with enhanced clonogenic and tumor-initiating and metastatic capacities are enriched in the CD44(+) cell population, but whether miRNAs regulate CD44(+) prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer metastasis remains unclear. Here we show, through expression analysis, that miR-34a, a p53 target, was underexpressed in CD44(+) prostate cancer cells purified from xenograft and primary tumors. Enforced expression of miR-34a in bulk or purified CD44(+) prostate cancer cells inhibited clonogenic expansion, tumor regeneration, and metastasis. In contrast, expression of miR-34a antagomirs in CD44(-) prostate cancer cells promoted tumor development and metastasis. Systemically delivered miR-34a inhibited prostate cancer metastasis and extended survival of tumor-bearing mice. We identified and validated CD44 as a direct and functional target of miR-34a and found that CD44 knockdown phenocopied miR-34a overexpression in inhibiting prostate cancer regeneration and metastasis. Our study shows that miR-34a is a key negative regulator of CD44(+) prostate cancer cells and establishes a strong rationale for developing miR-34a as a novel therapeutic agent against prostate CSCs.

  16. Bioactivity-Guided Identification and Cell Signaling Technology to Delineate the Lactate Dehydrogenase A Inhibition Effects of Spatholobus suberectus on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Dongmei; Han, Shouwei; Wang, Neng; Mo, Feizhi; Loo, Tjing Yung; Shen, Jiangang; Huang, Hui; Chen, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis is an important feature of cancer cells. In recent years, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is emerging as a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Seeking LDH-A inhibitors from natural resources has been paid much attention for drug discovery. Spatholobus suberectus (SS) is a common herbal medicine used in China for treating blood-stasis related diseases such as cancer. This study aims to explore the potential medicinal application of SS for LDH-A inhibition on breast cancer and to determine its bioactive compounds. We found that SS manifested apoptosis-inducing, cell cycle arresting and anti-LDH-A activities in both estrogen-dependent human MCF-7 cells and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 cell. Oral herbal extracts (1 g/kg/d) administration attenuated tumor growth and LDH-A expression in both breast cancer xenografts. Bioactivity-guided fractionation finally identified epigallocatechin as a key compound in SS inhibiting LDH-A activity. Further studies revealed that LDH-A plays a critical role in mediating the apoptosis-induction effects of epigallocatechin. The inhibited LDH-A activities by epigallocatechin is attributed to disassociation of Hsp90 from HIF-1α and subsequent accelerated HIF-1α proteasome degradation. In vivo study also demonstrated that epigallocatechin could significantly inhibit breast cancer growth, HIF-1α/LDH-A expression and trigger apoptosis without bringing toxic effects. The preclinical study thus suggests that the potential medicinal application of SS for inhibiting cancer LDH-A activity and the possibility to consider epigallocatechin as a lead compound to develop LDH-A inhibitors. Future studies of SS for chemoprevention or chemosensitization against breast cancer are thus warranted. PMID:23457597

  17. Structure of Shigella IpgB2 in Complex with Human RhoA

    PubMed Central

    Klink, Björn U.; Barden, Stephan; Heidler, Thomas V.; Borchers, Christina; Ladwein, Markus; Stradal, Theresia E. B.; Rottner, Klemens; Heinz, Dirk W.

    2010-01-01

    A common theme in bacterial pathogenesis is the manipulation of eukaryotic cells by targeting the cytoskeleton. This is in most cases achieved either by modifying actin, or indirectly via activation of key regulators controlling actin dynamics such as Rho-GTPases. A novel group of bacterial virulence factors termed the WXXXE family has emerged as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for these GTPases. The precise mechanism of nucleotide exchange, however, has remained unclear. Here we report the structure of the WXXXE-protein IpgB2 from Shigella flexneri and its complex with human RhoA. We unambiguously identify IpgB2 as a bacterial RhoA-GEF and dissect the molecular mechanism of GDP release, an essential prerequisite for GTP binding. Our observations uncover that IpgB2 induces conformational changes on RhoA mimicking DbI- but not DOCK family GEFs. We also show that dissociation of the GDP·Mg2+ complex is preceded by the displacement of the metal ion to the α-phosphate of the nucleotide, diminishing its affinity to the GTPase. These data refine our understanding of the mode of action not only of WXXXE GEFs but also of mammalian GEFs of the DH/PH family. PMID:20363740

  18. Mapping allosteric connections from the receptor to the nucleotide-binding pocket of heterotrimeric G proteins

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, William M.; Van Eps, Ned; Preininger, Anita M.; Hubbell, Wayne L.; Hamm, Heidi E.

    2007-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins function as molecular relays that mediate signal transduction from heptahelical receptors in the cell membrane to intracellular effector proteins. Crystallographic studies have demonstrated that guanine nucleotide exchange on the Gα subunit causes specific conformational changes in three key “switch” regions of the protein, which regulate binding to Gβγ subunits, receptors, and effector proteins. In the present study, nitroxide side chains were introduced at sites within the switch I region of Gαi to explore the structure and dynamics of this region throughout the G protein cycle. EPR spectra obtained for each of the Gα(GDP), Gα(GDP)βγ heterotrimer and Gα(GTPγS) conformations are consistent with the local environment observed in the corresponding crystal structures. Binding of the heterotrimer to activated rhodopsin to form the nucleotide-free (empty) complex, for which there is no crystal structure, causes prominent changes relative to the heterotrimer in the structure of switch I and contiguous sequences. The data identify a putative pathway of allosteric changes triggered by receptor binding and, together with previously published data, suggest elements of a mechanism for receptor-catalyzed nucleotide exchange. PMID:17463080

  19. Rho proteins of plants--functional cycle and regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Elena; Fricke, Inka; Schaefer, Antje; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Berken, Antje

    2011-11-01

    Rho-related ROP proteins are molecular switches that essentially regulate a wide variety of processes. Of central interest is their influence on the plant cytoskeleton by which they affect vital processes like cell division, growth, morphogenesis, and pathogen defense. ROPs switch between GTP- and GDP-bound conformations by strictly regulated nucleotide exchange and GTP-hydrolysis, and only the active GTP-form interacts with downstream effectors to ultimately provoke a biological response. However, the mode of action of the engaged regulators and effectors as well as their upstream and downstream interaction partners have long been largely unknown. As opposed to analogous systems in animals and fungi, plants use specific GTPase activating proteins (RopGAPs) with a unique domain composition and novel guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RopGEFs) with a probable link to cell surface receptors. Moreover, plants comprise novel effector molecules and adapters connecting ROPs to mostly unknown downstream targets on the route to the cytoskeleton. This review aims to summarize recent knowledge on the molecular mechanisms and reaction cascades involved in ROP dependent cytoskeletal rearrangements, addressing the structure and function of the unusual RopGAPs, RopGEFs and effectors, and the upstream and downstream pathways linking ROPs to cell receptor-like kinases, actin filaments, and microtubules. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Binding of the Ras activator son of sevenless to insulin receptor substrate-1 signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Baltensperger, K; Kozma, L M; Cherniack, A D; Klarlund, J K; Chawla, A; Banerjee, U; Czech, M P

    1993-06-25

    Signal transmission by insulin involves tyrosine phosphorylation of a major insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) and exchange of Ras-bound guanosine diphosphate for guanosine triphosphate. Proteins containing Src homology 2 and 3 (SH2 and SH3) domains, such as the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), bind tyrosine phosphate sites on IRS-1 through their SH2 regions. Such complexes in COS cells were found to contain the heterologously expressed putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor encoded by the Drosophila son of sevenless gene (dSos). Thus, GRB2, p85, or other proteins with SH2-SH3 adapter sequences may link Sos proteins to IRS-1 signaling complexes as part of the mechanism by which insulin activates Ras.

  1. A sequence variant in human KALRN impairs protein function and coincides with reduced cortical thickness

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Theron A.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.; Cobia, Derin J.; Cahill, Michael; Xie, Zhong; Sweet, Robert A.; Duan, Jubao; Gejman, Pablo V.; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G.; Penzes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic spine pathology is a key feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor kalirin-7 is critical for spine morphogenesis on cortical pyramidal neurons. Here we identify a rare coding variant in the KALRN gene region that encodes the catalytic domain, in a schizophrenia patient and his sibling with major depressive disorder. The D1338N substitution significantly diminished the protein's ability catalyze the activation of Rac1. Contrary to wild-type kalirin-7, kalirin-7-D1338N failed to increase spine size and density. Both subjects carrying the polymorphism displayed reduced cortical volume in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), a region implicated in schizophrenia. Consistent with this, mice with reduced kalirin expression showed reduced neuropil volume in the rodent homolog of the STS. These data suggest that single amino acid changes in proteins involved in dendritic spine function can have significant effects on the structure and function of the cerebral cortex. PMID:25224588

  2. A sequence variant in human KALRN impairs protein function and coincides with reduced cortical thickness.

    PubMed

    Russell, Theron A; Blizinsky, Katherine D; Cobia, Derin J; Cahill, Michael E; Xie, Zhong; Sweet, Robert A; Duan, Jubao; Gejman, Pablo V; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G; Penzes, Peter

    2014-09-16

    Dendritic spine pathology is a key feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor kalirin-7 is critical for spine morphogenesis on cortical pyramidal neurons. Here we identify a rare coding variant in the KALRN gene region that encodes the catalytic domain, in a schizophrenia patient and his sibling with major depressive disorder. The D1338N substitution significantly diminished the protein's ability to catalyse the activation of Rac1. Contrary to wild-type kalirin-7, kalirin-7-D1338N failed to increase spine size and density. Both subjects carrying the polymorphism displayed reduced cortical volume in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), a region implicated in schizophrenia. Consistent with this, mice with reduced kalirin expression showed reduced neuropil volume in the rodent homologue of the STS. These data suggest that single amino acid changes in proteins involved in dendritic spine function can have significant effects on the structure and function of the cerebral cortex.

  3. GIV/Girdin transmits signals from multiple receptors by triggering trimeric G protein activation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Ghosh, Pradipta; Farquhar, Marilyn G

    2015-03-13

    Activation of trimeric G proteins has been traditionally viewed as the exclusive job of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This view has been challenged by the discovery of non-receptor activators of trimeric G proteins. Among them, GIV (a.k.a. Girdin) is the first for which a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity has been unequivocally associated with a well defined motif. Here we discuss how GIV assembles alternative signaling pathways by sensing cues from various classes of surface receptors and relaying them via G protein activation. We also describe the dysregulation of this mechanism in disease and how its targeting holds promise for novel therapeutics. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Trio combines with dock to regulate Pak activity during photoreceptor axon pathfinding in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Newsome, T P; Schmidt, S; Dietzl, G; Keleman, K; Asling, B; Debant, A; Dickson, B J

    2000-04-28

    Correct pathfinding by Drosophila photoreceptor axons requires recruitment of p21-activated kinase (Pak) to the membrane by the SH2-SH3 adaptor Dock. Here, we identify the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Trio as another essential component in photoreceptor axon guidance. Regulated exchange activity of one of the two Trio GEF domains is critical for accurate pathfinding. This GEF domain activates Rac, which in turn activates Pak. Mutations in trio result in projection defects similar to those observed in both Pak and dock mutants, and trio interacts genetically with Rac, Pak, and dock. These data define a signaling pathway from Trio to Rac to Pak that links guidance receptors to the growth cone cytoskeleton. We propose that distinct signals transduced via Trio and Dock act combinatorially to activate Pak in spatially restricted domains within the growth cone, thereby controlling the direction of axon extension.

  5. cAMP signalling in the vasculature: the role of Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Owain Llŷr; Dart, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    The second messenger cAMP plays a central role in mediating vascular smooth muscle relaxation in response to vasoactive transmitters and in strengthening endothelial cell-cell junctions that regulate the movement of solutes, cells and macromolecules between the blood and the surrounding tissue. The vasculature expresses three cAMP effector proteins: PKA (protein kinase A), CNG (cyclic-nucleotide-gated) ion channels, and the most recently discovered Epacs (exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP). Epacs are a family of GEFs (guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors) for the small Ras-related GTPases Rap1 and Rap2, and are being increasingly implicated as important mediators of cAMP signalling, both in their own right and in parallel with the prototypical cAMP target PKA. In the present paper, we review what is currently known about the role of Epac within blood vessels, particularly with regard to the regulation of vascular tone, endothelial barrier function and inflammation.

  6. Par3 integrates Tiam1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling to change apical membrane identity

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Travis R.; Bryant, David M.; Mostov, Keith E.; Engel, Joanne N.

    2017-01-01

    Pathogens can alter epithelial polarity by recruiting polarity proteins to the apical membrane, but how a change in protein localization is linked to polarity disruption is not clear. In this study, we used chemically induced dimerization to rapidly relocalize proteins from the cytosol to the apical surface. We demonstrate that forced apical localization of Par3, which is normally restricted to tight junctions, is sufficient to alter apical membrane identity through its interactions with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1. We further show that PI3K activity is required upstream of Rac1, and that simultaneously targeting PI3K and Tiam1 to the apical membrane has a synergistic effect on membrane remodeling. Thus, Par3 coordinates the action of PI3K and Tiam1 to define membrane identity, revealing a signaling mechanism that can be exploited by human mucosal pathogens. PMID:27881661

  7. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates actin cytoskeleton via Tiam1-Rac1 cascade during spine formation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Nobunari; Kurisu, Junko; Kengaku, Mineko

    2010-12-01

    The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway has essential roles in several processes during development of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Here, we report that Shh regulates dendritic spine formation in hippocampal pyramidal neurons via a novel pathway that directly regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Shh signaling molecules Patched (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo) are expressed in several types of postmitotic neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Knockdown of Smo induces dendritic spine formation in cultured hippocampal neurons independently of Gli-mediated transcriptional activity. Smo interacts with Tiam1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, via its cytoplasmic C-terminal region. Inhibition of Tiam1 or Rac1 activity suppresses spine induction by Smo knockdown. Shh induces remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton independently of transcriptional activation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate a novel Shh pathway that regulates the actin cytoskeleton via Tiam1-Rac1 activation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanism of SOS PR-domain autoinhibition revealed by single-molecule assays on native protein from lysate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Kwang; Low-Nam, Shalini T; Chung, Jean K; Hansen, Scott D; Lam, Hiu Yue Monatrice; Alvarez, Steven; Groves, Jay T

    2017-04-28

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Son of Sevenless (SOS) plays a critical role in signal transduction by activating Ras. Here we introduce a single-molecule assay in which individual SOS molecules are captured from raw cell lysate using Ras-functionalized supported membrane microarrays. This enables characterization of the full-length SOS protein, which has not previously been studied in reconstitution due to difficulties in purification. Our measurements on the full-length protein reveal a distinct role of the C-terminal proline-rich (PR) domain to obstruct the engagement of allosteric Ras independently of the well-known N-terminal domain autoinhibition. This inhibitory role of the PR domain limits Grb2-independent recruitment of SOS to the membrane through binding of Ras·GTP in the SOS allosteric binding site. More generally, this assay strategy enables characterization of the functional behaviour of GEFs with single-molecule precision but without the need for purification.

  9. Cell elongation is an adaptive response for clearing long chromatid arms from the cleavage plane

    PubMed Central

    Kotadia, Shaila; Montembault, Emilie; Sullivan, William

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell cleavage to ensure correct transmission of the genome to daughter cells. Here we identify a novel mechanism by which Drosophila melanogaster neuronal stem cells coordinate sister chromatid segregation with cleavage furrow ingression. Cells adapted to a dramatic increase in chromatid arm length by transiently elongating during anaphase/telophase. The degree of cell elongation correlated with the length of the trailing chromatid arms and was concomitant with a slight increase in spindle length and an enlargement of the zone of cortical myosin distribution. Rho guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (Pebble)–depleted cells failed to elongate during segregation of long chromatids. As a result, Pebble-depleted adult flies exhibited morphological defects likely caused by cell death during development. These studies reveal a novel pathway linking trailing chromatid arms and cortical myosin that ensures the clearance of chromatids from the cleavage plane at the appropriate time during cytokinesis, thus preserving genome integrity. PMID:23185030

  10. Activator-inhibitor coupling between Rho signaling and actin assembly make the cell cortex an excitable medium

    PubMed Central

    Bement, William M.; Leda, Marcin; Moe, Alison M.; Kita, Angela M.; Larson, Matthew E.; Golding, Adriana E.; Pfeuti, Courtney; Su, Kuan-Chung; Miller, Ann L.; Goryachev, Andrew B.; von Dassow, George

    2016-01-01

    Animal cell cytokinesis results from patterned activation of the small GTPase Rho, which directs assembly of actomyosin in the equatorial cortex. Cytokinesis is restricted to a portion of the cell cycle following anaphase onset in which the cortex is responsive to signals from the spindle. We show that shortly after anaphase onset oocytes and embryonic cells of frogs and echinoderms exhibit cortical waves of Rho activity and F-actin polymerization. The waves are modulated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity and require the Rho GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor), Ect2. Surprisingly, during wave propagation, while Rho activity elicits F-actin assembly, F-actin subsequently inactivates Rho. Experimental and modeling results show that waves represent excitable dynamics of a reaction diffusion system with Rho as the activator and F-actin the inhibitor. We propose that cortical excitability explains fundamental features of cytokinesis including its cell cycle regulation. PMID:26479320

  11. Regulating the Regulator: Post-Translational Modification of Ras

    PubMed Central

    Ahearn, Ian M.; Haigis, Kevin; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Philips, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Ras proteins are monomeric GTPases that act as binary molecular switches to regulate a wide range of cellular processes. The exchange of GTP for GDP on Ras is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which regulate the activation state of Ras without covalently modifying it. In contrast, post-translational modifications (PTMs) of Ras proteins direct them to various cellular membranes and, in some cases, modulate GTP–GDP exchange. Important Ras PTMs include the constitutive and irreversible remodelling of its C-terminal CAAX motif by farnesylation, proteolysis and methylation, reversible palmitoylation, and conditional modifications including phosphorylation, peptidyl-proly isomerisation, mono- and di-ubiquitination, nitrosylation, ADP ribosylation and glucosylation. PMID:22189424

  12. Every day I'm rufflin': Calcium sensing and actin dynamics in the growth factor-independent membrane ruffling of professional phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Schlam, Daniel; Canton, Johnathan

    2017-04-03

    Professional phagocytes continuously extend dynamic, actin-driven membrane protrusions. These protrusions, often referred to as membrane ruffles, serve a critical role in the essential phagocyte processes of macropinocytosis and phagocytosis. Small GTPases, such as RAC1/2, spatially and temporally regulate membrane ruffle formation. We have recently shown that extracellular calcium regulates the elaboration of membrane ruffles primarily through the synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) at the plasma membrane. RAC1/2 guanine nucleotide exchange factors harbouring polybasic stretches are recruited by PtdOH to sites of ruffle formation. Here we discuss our findings and offer perspectives on how the regulation of dynamic actin structures at the plasma membrane by small GTPases is a critical component of phagocyte function.

  13. Machineries regulating the activity of the small GTPase Arf6 in cancer cells are potential targets for developing innovative anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yohei; Miura, Yuki; Kanaho, Yasunori

    2017-01-01

    The Small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) functions as the molecular switch in cellular signaling pathways by cycling between GDP-bound inactive and GTP-bound active form, which is precisely regulated by two regulators, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Numerous studies have shown that these machineries play critical roles in tumor angiogenesis/growth and cancer cell invasion/metastasis through regulating the cycling of Arf6. Here, we summarize accumulating knowledge for involvement of Arf6 GEFs/GAPs and small molecule inhibitors of Arf6 signaling/cycling in cancer progression, and discuss possible strategies for developing innovative anti-cancer drugs targeting Arf6 signaling/cycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Withaferin A inhibits iNOS expression and nitric oxide production by Akt inactivation and down-regulating LPS-induced activity of NF-kappaB in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung Hwa; Lee, Tae-Jin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2008-12-03

    Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production is thought to have beneficial immunomodulatory effects in acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. In Raw 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic inflammation, withaferin A inhibited LPS-induced expression of both iNOS protein and mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. To investigate the mechanism by which withaferin A inhibits iNOS gene expression, we examined activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt in Raw 264.7 cells. We did not observe any significant changes in the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in cells treated with LPS alone or LPS plus withaferin A. However, LPS-induced Akt phosphorylation was markedly inhibited by withaferin A, while the phosphorylation of p42/p44 extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) was slightly inhibited by withaferin A treatment. Withaferin A prevented IkappaB phosphorylation, blocking the subsequent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and inhibiting its DNA binding activity. LPS-induced p65 phosphorylation, which is mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt pathways, was attenuated by withaferin A treatment. Moreover, LPS-induced NO production and NF-kappaB activation were inhibited by SH-6, a specific inhibitor of Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that withaferin A inhibits inflammation through inhibition of NO production and iNOS expression, at least in part, by blocking Akt and subsequently down-regulating NF-kappaB activity.

  15. Cell adhesion controlled by adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR124/ADGRA2 is mediated by a protein complex comprising intersectins and Elmo-Dock.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vásquez, Magda Nohemí; Adame-García, Sendi Rafael; Hamoud, Noumeira; Chidiac, Rony; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Gratton, Jean Philippe; Côté, Jean-François; Vázquez-Prado, José

    2017-07-21

    Developmental angiogenesis and the maintenance of the blood-brain barrier involve endothelial cell adhesion, which is linked to cytoskeletal dynamics. GPR124 (also known as TEM5/ADGRA2) is an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor family member that plays a pivotal role in brain angiogenesis and in ensuring a tight blood-brain barrier. However, the signaling properties of GPR124 remain poorly defined. Here, we show that ectopic expression of GPR124 promotes cell adhesion, additive to extracellular matrix-dependent effect, coupled with filopodia and lamellipodia formation and an enrichment of a pool of the G protein-coupled receptor at actin-rich cellular protrusions containing VASP, a filopodial marker. Accordingly, GPR124-expressing cells also displayed increased activation of both Rac and Cdc42 GTPases. Mechanistically, we uncover novel direct interactions between endogenous GPR124 and the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors Elmo/Dock and intersectin (ITSN). Small fragments of either Elmo or ITSN1 that bind GPR124 blocked GPR124-induced cell adhesion. In addition, Gβγ interacts with the C-terminal tail of GPR124 and promotes the formation of a GPR124-Elmo complex. Furthermore, GPR124 also promotes the activation of the Elmo-Dock complex, as measured by Elmo phosphorylation on a conserved C-terminal tyrosine residue. Interestingly, Elmo and ITSN1 also interact with each other independently of their GPR124-recognition regions. Moreover, endogenous phospho-Elmo and ITSN1 co-localize with GPR124 at lamellipodia of adhering endothelial cells, where GPR124 expression contributes to polarity acquisition during wound healing. Collectively, our results indicate that GPR124 promotes cell adhesion via Elmo-Dock and ITSN. This constitutes a previously unrecognized complex formed of atypical and conventional Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rac and Cdc42 that is putatively involved in GPR124-dependent angiogenic responses. © 2017 by The American Society for

  16. Viperin targets flavivirus virulence by inducing assembly of non-infectious capsid particles.

    PubMed

    Vonderstein, Kirstin; Nilsson, Emma; Hubel, Philipp; Nygård Skalman, Lars; Upadhyay, Arunkumar; Pasto, Jenny; Pichlmair, Andreas; Lundmark, Richard; Överby, Anna K

    2017-10-18

    Efficient antiviral immunity requires interference with virus replication at multiple layers targeting diverse steps in the viral life cycle. Here we describe a novel flavivirus inhibition mechanism that results in interferon-mediated obstruction of tick-borne encephalitis virus particle assembly, and involves release of malfunctional membrane associated capsid (C) particles. This mechanism is controlled by the activity of the interferon-induced protein viperin, a broad spectrum antiviral interferon stimulated gene. Through analysis of the viperin-interactome, we identified the Golgi Brefeldin A resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF1), as the cellular protein targeted by viperin. Viperin-induced antiviral activity as well as C-particle release was stimulated by GBF1 inhibition and knock down, and reduced by elevated levels of GBF1. Our results suggest that viperin targets flavivirus virulence by inducing the secretion of unproductive non-infectious virus particles, by a GBF1-dependent mechanism. This yet undescribed antiviral mechanism allows potential therapeutic intervention. Importance The interferon response can target viral infection on almost every level, however, very little is known about interference of flavivirus assembly. Here we show that interferon, through the action of viperin, can disturb assembly of tick-borne encephalitis virus. The viperin protein is highly induced after viral infection and exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral activity. However, the mechanism of action is still elusive and appear to vary between the different viruses, indicating that cellular targets utilized by several viruses might be involved. In this study we show that viperin induce capsid particle release by interacting and inhibiting the function of the cellular protein Golgi Brefeldin A resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF1). GBF1 is a key protein in the cellular secretory pathway and essential in the life cycle of many viruses, also targeted by

  17. Differential regulation of the Rac1 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) BCR during oxygen/glucose deprivation in hippocampal and cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katharine R; Rajgor, Dipen; Hanley, Jonathan G

    2017-12-08

    Brain ischemia causes oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in neurons, triggering a cascade of events leading to synaptic accumulation of glutamate. Excessive activation of glutamate receptors causes excitotoxicity and delayed cell death in vulnerable neurons. Following global cerebral ischemia, hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are more vulnerable to injury than their cortical counterparts, but the mechanisms that underlie this difference are unclear. Signaling via Rho-family small GTPases, their upstream guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) is differentially dysregulated in response to OGD/ischemia in hippocampal and cortical neurons. Increased Rac1 activity caused by OGD/ischemia contributes to neuronal death in hippocampal neurons via diverse effects on NADPH oxidase activity and dendritic spine morphology. The Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1 mediates an OGD-induced increase in Rac1 activity in hippocampal neurons; however, the identity of an antagonistic GAP remains elusive. Here we show that the Rac1 GAP breakpoint cluster region (BCR) associates with NMDA receptors (NMDARs) along with Tiam1 and that this protein complex is more abundant in hippocampal compared with cortical neurons. Although total BCR is similar in the two neuronal types, BCR is more active in hippocampal compared with cortical neurons. OGD causes an NMDAR- and Ca 2+ -permeable AMPAR-dependent deactivation of BCR in hippocampal but not cortical neurons. BCR knockdown occludes OGD-induced Rac1 activation in hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, disrupting the Tiam1-NMDAR interaction with a fragment of Tiam1 blocks OGD-induced Tiam1 activation but has no effect on the deactivation of BCR. This work identifies BCR as a critical player in Rac1 regulation during OGD in hippocampal neurons. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Fusel Alcohols Regulate Translation Initiation by Inhibiting eIF2B to Reduce Ternary Complex in a Mechanism That May Involve Altering the Integrity and Dynamics of the eIF2B Body

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Eleanor J.; Campbell, Susan G.; Griffiths, Christian D.; Reid, Peter J.; Slaven, John W.; Harrison, Richard J.; Sims, Paul F.G.; Pavitt, Graham D.; Delneri, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of eIF2-GDP to the GTP-bound form constitutes a core essential, regulated step in eukaryotic translation. This reaction is mediated by eIF2B, a heteropentameric factor with important links to human disease. eIF2 in the GTP-bound form binds to methionyl initiator tRNA to form a ternary complex, and the levels of this ternary complex can be a critical determinant of the rate of protein synthesis. Here we show that eIF2B serves as the target for translation inhibition by various fusel alcohols in yeast. Fusel alcohols are endpoint metabolites from amino acid catabolism, which signal nitrogen scarcity. We show that the inhibition of eIF2B leads to reduced ternary complex levels and that different eIF2B subunit mutants alter fusel alcohol sensitivity. A DNA tiling array strategy was developed that overcame difficulties in the identification of these mutants where the phenotypic distinctions were too subtle for classical complementation cloning. Fusel alcohols also lead to eIF2α dephosphorylation in a Sit4p-dependent manner. In yeast, eIF2B occupies a large cytoplasmic body where guanine nucleotide exchange on eIF2 can occur and be regulated. Fusel alcohols impact on both the movement and dynamics of this 2B body. Overall, these results confirm that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B, is targeted by fusel alcohols. Moreover, they highlight a potential connection between the movement or integrity of the 2B body and eIF2B regulation. PMID:20444979

  19. Engagement of the small GTPase Rab31 protein and its effector, early endosome antigen 1, is important for trafficking of the ligand-bound epidermal growth factor receptor from the early to the late endosome.

    PubMed

    Chua, Christelle En Lin; Tang, Bor Luen

    2014-05-02

    Rab31 is a member of the Rab5 subfamily of Rab GTPases. Although localized largely to the trans-Golgi network, it shares common guanine nucleotide exchange factors and effectors with other Rab5 subfamily members that have been implicated in endocytic membrane traffic. We investigated whether Rab31 also has a role in the trafficking of the ligand-bound EGF receptor (EGFR) internalized through receptor-mediated endocytosis. We found that loss of Rab31 inhibits, but overexpression enhances, EGFR trafficking to the late endosomes and that the effect of Rab31 silencing could be specifically rescued by overexpression of a silencing-resistant form of Rab31. Rab31 was found to interact with the EGFR by coimmunoprecipitation and affinity pulldown analyses, and the primarily trans-Golgi network-localized Rab31 has increased colocalization with the EGFR in A431 cells 30 min after pulsing with EGF. A glycerol gradient sedimentation assay suggested that Rab31 is sequestered into a high molecular weight complex after stimulation with EGF, as was early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1), a factor responsible for endosomal tethering and fusion events. We found that loss of EEA1 reduced the interaction between Rab31 and the EGFR and abrogated the effect of Rab31 overexpression on the trafficking of the EGFR. Likewise, loss of GAPex5, a Rab31 guanine nucleotide exchange factor that has a role in ubiquitination and degradation of the EGFR, reduced the interaction of Rab31 with the EGFR and its effect on EGFR trafficking. Taken together, our results suggest that Rab31 is an important regulator of endocytic trafficking of the EGFR and functions in an EGFR trafficking complex that includes EEA1 and GAPex5.

  20. Engagement of the Small GTPase Rab31 Protein and Its Effector, Early Endosome Antigen 1, Is Important for Trafficking of the Ligand-bound Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor from the Early to the Late Endosome*

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Christelle En Lin; Tang, Bor Luen

    2014-01-01

    Rab31 is a member of the Rab5 subfamily of Rab GTPases. Although localized largely to the trans-Golgi network, it shares common guanine nucleotide exchange factors and effectors with other Rab5 subfamily members that have been implicated in endocytic membrane traffic. We investigated whether Rab31 also has a role in the trafficking of the ligand-bound EGF receptor (EGFR) internalized through receptor-mediated endocytosis. We found that loss of Rab31 inhibits, but overexpression enhances, EGFR trafficking to the late endosomes and that the effect of Rab31 silencing could be specifically rescued by overexpression of a silencing-resistant form of Rab31. Rab31 was found to interact with the EGFR by coimmunoprecipitation and affinity pulldown analyses, and the primarily trans-Golgi network-localized Rab31 has increased colocalization with the EGFR in A431 cells 30 min after pulsing with EGF. A glycerol gradient sedimentation assay suggested that Rab31 is sequestered into a high molecular weight complex after stimulation with EGF, as was early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1), a factor responsible for endosomal tethering and fusion events. We found that loss of EEA1 reduced the interaction between Rab31 and the EGFR and abrogated the effect of Rab31 overexpression on the trafficking of the EGFR. Likewise, loss of GAPex5, a Rab31 guanine nucleotide exchange factor that has a role in ubiquitination and degradation of the EGFR, reduced the interaction of Rab31 with the EGFR and its effect on EGFR trafficking. Taken together, our results suggest that Rab31 is an important regulator of endocytic trafficking of the EGFR and functions in an EGFR trafficking complex that includes EEA1 and GAPex5. PMID:24644286

  1. Proinflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α Increased Telomerase Activity through NF-κB/STAT1/STAT3 Activation, and Withaferin A Inhibited the Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seyung S; Wu, Yong; Okobi, Quincy; Adekoya, Debbie; Atefi, Mohammad; Clarke, Orette; Dutta, Pranabananda; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2017-01-01

    There are increasing evidences of proinflammatory cytokine involvement in cancer development. Here, we found that two cytokines, IL-6 and TNF- α , activated colorectal cancer cells to be more invasive and stem-like. Combined treatment of IL-6 and TNF- α phosphorylated transcription factors STAT3 in a synergistic manner. STAT3, STAT1, and NF- κ B physically interacted upon the cytokine stimulation. STAT3 was bound to the promoter region of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). IL-6 and TNF- α stimulation further enhanced STAT3 binding affinity. Stem cell marker Oct-4 was upregulated in colorectal cancer cells upon IL-6 and TNF- α stimulation. Withaferin A, an anti-inflammatory steroidal lactone, inhibited the IL-6- and TNF- α -induced cancer cell invasion and decreased colonosphere formation. Notably, withaferin A inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and abolished the STAT3, STAT1, and NF- κ B interactions. Oct-4 expression was also downregulated by withaferin A inhibition. The binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter region and telomerase activity showed reduction with withaferin A treatments. Proinflammatory cytokine-induced cancer cell invasiveness is mediated by a STAT3-regulated mechanism in colorectal cancer cells. Our data suggest that withaferin A could be a promising anticancer agent that effectively inhibits the progression of colorectal cancer.

  2. Proinflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α Increased Telomerase Activity through NF-κB/STAT1/STAT3 Activation, and Withaferin A Inhibited the Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Okobi, Quincy; Adekoya, Debbie; Atefi, Mohammad; Clarke, Orette; Dutta, Pranabananda; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2017-01-01

    There are increasing evidences of proinflammatory cytokine involvement in cancer development. Here, we found that two cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, activated colorectal cancer cells to be more invasive and stem-like. Combined treatment of IL-6 and TNF-α phosphorylated transcription factors STAT3 in a synergistic manner. STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB physically interacted upon the cytokine stimulation. STAT3 was bound to the promoter region of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation further enhanced STAT3 binding affinity. Stem cell marker Oct-4 was upregulated in colorectal cancer cells upon IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation. Withaferin A, an anti-inflammatory steroidal lactone, inhibited the IL-6- and TNF-α-induced cancer cell invasion and decreased colonosphere formation. Notably, withaferin A inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and abolished the STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB interactions. Oct-4 expression was also downregulated by withaferin A inhibition. The binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter region and telomerase activity showed reduction with withaferin A treatments. Proinflammatory cytokine-induced cancer cell invasiveness is mediated by a STAT3-regulated mechanism in colorectal cancer cells. Our data suggest that withaferin A could be a promising anticancer agent that effectively inhibits the progression of colorectal cancer. PMID:28676732

  3. The SH2 and SH3 domains of mammalian Grb2 couple the EGF receptor to the Ras activator mSos1.

    PubMed

    Rozakis-Adcock, M; Fernley, R; Wade, J; Pawson, T; Bowtell, D

    1993-05-06

    Many tyrosine kinases, including the receptors for hormones such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), nerve growth factor and insulin, transmit intracellular signals through Ras proteins. Ligand binding to such receptors stimulates Ras guanine-nucleotide-exchange activity and increases the level of GTP-bound Ras, suggesting that these tyrosine kinases may activate a guanine-nucleotide releasing protein (GNRP). In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, genetic studies have shown that Ras activation by tyrosine kinases requires the protein Sem-5/drk, which contains a single Src-homology (SH) 2 domain and two flanking SH3 domains. Sem-5 is homologous to the mammalian protein Grb2, which binds the autophosphorylated EGF receptor and other phosphotyrosine-containing proteins such as Shc through its SH2 domain. Here we show that in rodent fibroblasts, the SH3 domains of Grb2 are bound to the proline-rich carboxy-terminal tail of mSos1, a protein homologous to Drosophila Sos. Sos is required for Ras signalling and contains a central domain related to known Ras-GNRPs. EGF stimulation induces binding of the Grb2-mSos1 complex to the autophosphorylated EGF receptor, and mSos1 phosphorylation. Grb2 therefore appears to link tyrosine kinases to a Ras-GNRP in mammalian cells.

  4. C3G dynamically associates with nuclear speckles and regulates mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Shakyawar, Dhruv Kumar; Muralikrishna, Bhattiprolu; Radha, Vegesna

    2018-05-01

    C3G (Crk SH3 domain binding guanine nucleotide releasing factor) (Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1), essential for mammalian embryonic development, is ubiquitously expressed and undergoes regulated nucleocytoplasmic exchange. Here we show that C3G localizes to SC35-positive nuclear speckles and regulates splicing activity. Reversible association of C3G with speckles was seen on inhibition of transcription and splicing. C3G shows partial colocalization with SC35 and is recruited to a chromatin and RNase-sensitive fraction of speckles. Its presence in speckles is dependent on intact cellular actin cytoskeleton and is lost on expression of the kinase Clk1. Rap1, a substrate of C3G, is also present in nuclear speckles, and inactivation of Rap signaling by expression of GFP-Rap1GAP alters speckle morphology and number. Enhanced association of C3G with speckles is seen on glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta inhibition or differentiation of C2C12 cells to myotubes. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockdown of C3G resulted in altered splicing activity of an artificial gene as well as endogenous CD44. C3G knockout clones of C2C12 as well as MDA-MB-231 cells showed reduced protein levels of several splicing factors compared with control cells. Our results identify C3G and Rap1 as novel components of nuclear speckles and a role for C3G in regulating cellular RNA splicing activity.

  5. RasGRP3 limits Toll-like receptor-triggered inflammatory response in macrophages by activating Rap1 small GTPase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Songqing; Chen, Taoyong; Yu, Zhou; Zhu, Xuhui; Yang, Mingjin; Xie, Bin; Li, Nan; Cao, Xuetao; Wang, Jianli

    2014-08-14

    Host immune cells can detect and destruct invading pathogens via pattern-recognition receptors. Small Rap GTPases act as conserved molecular switches coupling extracellular signals to various cellular responses, but their roles as regulators in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling have not been fully elucidated. Here we report that Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein 3 (RasGRP3), a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor activating Ras and Rap1, limits production of proinflammatory cytokines (especially IL-6) in macrophages by activating Rap1 on activation by low levels of TLR agonists. We demonstrate that RasGRP3, a dominant member of RasGRPs in macrophages, impairs TLR3/4/9-induced IL-6 production and relieves dextrane sulphate sodium-induced colitis and collagen-induced arthritis. In RasGRP3-deficient RAW264.7 cells obtained by CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, TLR3/4/9-induced activation of Rap1 was inhibited while ERK1/2 activation was enhanced. Our study suggests that RasGRP3 limits inflammatory response by activating Rap1 on low-intensity pathogen infection, setting a threshold for preventing excessive inflammatory response.

  6. Cyclosporin A inhibits CD11a/CD18 adhesion molecules due to inhibition of TNFα and IL-1β levels in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan

    PubMed Central

    Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Medeiros, Yara Santos

    2008-01-01

    The mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan is characterized by a significant enhancement of cell migration due to neutrophils 4 h after pleurisy induction. Forty-eight hours after pleurisy induction, a significant increase in cell migration due to mononuclear cells occurs. Recently, studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that cyclosporine A (CsA) inhibits leukocyte migration in the pleural cavity and lungs in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. In the present work we evaluated whether CsA was able to downregulate CD11a/CD18 adhesion molecule in the lungs, as well as TNFα and IL-1β levels in the fluid leakage of the pleural cavity in this model. Our results showed that CsA significantly decreased CD11a/CD18 in the lungs, as well as TNFα and IL-1β levels in the fluid leakage of the pleural cavity 4 h and 48 h after pleurisy induction. It is our hypothesis that the inhibitory effect elicited by CsA upon these adhesion molecules may be also be attributed to the downregulation of TNFα and IL-1β cytokines. PMID:19262158

  7. Substituent effect of N-benzylated gramine derivatives that prevent the PP2A inhibition and dissipate the neuronal Ca2+ overload, as a multitarget strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Dorleta; Arribas, Raquel L; Viejo, Lucia; Lajarin-Cuesta, Rocio; de Los Rios, Cristobal

    2018-05-15

    Following the premises of the multitarget-directed ligands approach for the drug R&D against neurodegenerative diseases, where Alzheimer's disease (AD) outstands, we have synthesized and evaluated analogues of the gramine derivative ITH12657 (1-benzyl-5-methyl-3-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl-1H-indole, 2), which had shown important neuroprotective properties, such as blocking effect of voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels (VGCC), and prevention of phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition. The new analogues present different substitutions at the pending phenyl ring, what slightly modified their pharmacological characteristics. The VGCC blockade was enhanced in derivatives possessing nitro groups, while the pro-PP2A feature was ameliorated by the presence of fluorine. Chlorine atoms supplied good activities over the two biological targets aimed; nevertheless that substitution provoked loss of viability at 100-fold higher concentrations (10 μM), what discards them for a deeper pharmacological study. Overall, the para-fluorine derivative of ITH12657 was the most promising candidate for further preclinical assays. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MCLR-induced PP2A inhibition and subsequent Rac1 inactivation and hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeleton-associated proteins are involved in cytoskeleton rearrangement in SMMC-7721 human liver cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Jinghui; Lin, Shuyan; Wang, Beilei; Xing, Mingluan; Guo, Zonglou; Xu, Lihong

    2014-10-01

    Cyanobacteria-derived toxin microcystin-LR (MCLR) has been widely investigated in its effects on normal cells, there is little information concerning its effects on cancer cells. In the present study, the SMMC-7721 human liver cancer cell line treated with MCLR was used to investigate the change of PP2A, cytoskeleton rearrangement, phosphorylation levels of PP2A substrates that related with cytoskeleton stability and explored underlying mechanisms. Here, we confirmed that MCLR entered into SMMC-7721 cells, bound to PP2A/C subunit and inhibited the activity of PP2A. The upregulation of phosphorylation of the PP2A/C subunit and PP2A regulation protein α4, as well as the change in the association of PP2A/C with α4, were responsible for the decrease in PP2A activity. Another novel finding is that the rearrangement of filamentous actin and microtubules led by MCLR may attribute to the increased phosphorylation of HSP27, VASP and cofilin due to PP2A inhibition. As a result of weakened interactions with PP2A and alterations in its subcellular localization, Rac1 may contribute to the cytoskeletal rearrangement induced by MCLR in SMMC-7721 cells. The current paper presents the first report demonstrating the characteristic of PP2A in MCLR exposed cancer cells, which were more susceptible to MCLR compared with the normal cell lines we previously found, which may be owing to the absence of some type of compensatory mechanisms. The hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeleton-associated proteins and Rac1 inactivation which were induced by inhibition of PP2A are shown to be involved in cytoskeleton rearrangement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GIV/Girdin activates Gαi and inhibits Gαs via the same motif

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vijay; Bhandari, Deepali; Leyme, Anthony; Aznar, Nicolas; Midde, Krishna K.; Lo, I-Chung; Ear, Jason; Niesman, Ingrid; López-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Blanco-Canosa, Juan Bautista; von Zastrow, Mark; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Farquhar, Marilyn G.; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein α subunit (Gα)-interacting vesicle-associated protein (GIV), a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), transactivates Gα activity-inhibiting polypeptide 1 (Gαi) proteins in response to growth factors, such as EGF, using a short C-terminal motif. Subsequent work demonstrated that GIV also binds Gαs and that inactive Gαs promotes maturation of endosomes and shuts down mitogenic MAPK–ERK1/2 signals from endosomes. However, the mechanism and consequences of dual coupling of GIV to two G proteins, Gαi and Gαs, remained unknown. Here we report that GIV is a bifunctional modulator of G proteins; it serves as a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) for Gαs using the same motif that allows it to serve as a GEF for Gαi. Upon EGF stimulation, GIV modulates Gαi and Gαs sequentially: first, a key phosphomodification favors the assembly of GIV–Gαi complexes and activates GIV’s GEF function; then a second phosphomodification terminates GIV’s GEF function, triggers the assembly of GIV–Gαs complexes, and activates GIV’s GDI function. By comparing WT and GIV mutants, we demonstrate that GIV inhibits Gαs activity in cells responding to EGF. Consequently, the cAMP→PKA→cAMP response element-binding protein signaling axis is inhibited, the transit time of EGF receptor through early endosomes are accelerated, mitogenic MAPK–ERK1/2 signals are rapidly terminated, and proliferation is suppressed. These insights define a paradigm in G-protein signaling in which a pleiotropically acting modulator uses the same motif both to activate and to inhibit G proteins. Our findings also illuminate how such modulation of two opposing Gα proteins integrates downstream signals and cellular responses. PMID:27621449

  10. A KRAS GTPase K104Q Mutant Retains Downstream Signaling by Offsetting Defects in Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Samantha; George, Samuel D.; Kuhlmann, Nora; Garvey, Leslie; Huynh, Minh; Bagni, Rachel K.; Lammers, Michael; Der, Channing J.; Campbell, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    The KRAS GTPase plays a critical role in the control of cellular growth. The activity of KRAS is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), and also post-translational modification. Lysine 104 in KRAS can be modified by ubiquitylation and acetylation, but the role of this residue in intrinsic KRAS function has not been well characterized. We find that lysine 104 is important for GEF recognition, because mutations at this position impaired GEF-mediated nucleotide exchange. Because the KRAS K104Q mutant has recently been employed as an acetylation mimetic, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate its in vitro and cell-based properties. Herein, we found that KRAS K104Q exhibited defects in both GEF-mediated exchange and GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis, consistent with NMR-detected structural perturbations in localized regions of KRAS important for recognition of these regulatory proteins. Despite the partial defect in both GEF and GAP regulation, KRAS K104Q did not alter steady-state GTP-bound levels or the ability of the oncogenic KRAS G12V mutant to cause morphologic transformation of NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and of WT KRAS to rescue the growth defect of mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in all Ras genes. We conclude that the KRAS K104Q mutant retains both WT and mutant KRAS function, probably due to offsetting defects in recognition of factors that up-regulate (GEF) and down-regulate (GAP) RAS activity. PMID:28154176

  11. A KRAS GTPase K104Q Mutant Retains Downstream Signaling by Offsetting Defects in Regulation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guowei; Kistler, Samantha; George, Samuel D; Kuhlmann, Nora; Garvey, Leslie; Huynh, Minh; Bagni, Rachel K; Lammers, Michael; Der, Channing J; Campbell, Sharon L

    2017-03-17

    The KRAS GTPase plays a critical role in the control of cellular growth. The activity of KRAS is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), and also post-translational modification. Lysine 104 in KRAS can be modified by ubiquitylation and acetylation, but the role of this residue in intrinsic KRAS function has not been well characterized. We find that lysine 104 is important for GEF recognition, because mutations at this position impaired GEF-mediated nucleotide exchange. Because the KRAS K104Q mutant has recently been employed as an acetylation mimetic, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate its in vitro and cell-based properties. Herein, we found that KRAS K104Q exhibited defects in both GEF-mediated exchange and GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis, consistent with NMR-detected structural perturbations in localized regions of KRAS important for recognition of these regulatory proteins. Despite the partial defect in both GEF and GAP regulation, KRAS K104Q did not alter steady-state GTP-bound levels or the ability of the oncogenic KRAS G12V mutant to cause morphologic transformation of NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and of WT KRAS to rescue the growth defect of mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in all Ras genes. We conclude that the KRAS K104Q mutant retains both WT and mutant KRAS function, probably due to offsetting defects in recognition of factors that up-regulate (GEF) and down-regulate (GAP) RAS activity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. A structural study of the complex between neuroepithelial cell transforming gene 1 (Net1) and RhoA reveals a potential anticancer drug hot spot.

    PubMed

    Petit, Alain-Pierre; Garcia-Petit, Christel; Bueren-Calabuig, Juan A; Vuillard, Laurent M; Ferry, Gilles; Boutin, Jean A

    2018-06-08

    The GTPase RhoA is a major player in many different regulatory pathways. RhoA catalyzes GTP hydrolysis, and its catalysis is accelerated when RhoA forms heterodimers with proteins of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) family. Neuroepithelial cell transforming gene 1 (Net1) is a RhoA-interacting GEF implicated in cancer, but the structural features supporting the RhoA/Net1 interaction are unknown. Taking advantage of a simple production and purification process, here we solved the structure of a RhoA/Net1 heterodimer with X-ray crystallography at 2-Å resolution. Using a panel of several techniques, including molecular dynamics simulations, we characterized the RhoA/Net1 interface. Moreover, deploying an extremely simple peptide-based scanning approach, we found that short peptides (penta- to nonapeptides) derived from the protein/protein interaction region of RhoA could disrupt the RhoA/Net1 interaction and thereby diminish the rate of nucleotide exchange. The most inhibitory peptide, EVKHF, spanning residues 102-106 in the RhoA sequence, displayed an IC 50 of ∼100 μm without further modifications. The peptides identified here could be useful in further investigations of the RhoA/Net1 interaction region. We propose that our structural and functional insights might inform chemical approaches for transforming the pentapeptide into an optimized pseudopeptide that antagonizes Net1-mediated RhoA activation with therapeutic anticancer potential. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. INCREASED 8-HYDROXY GUANINE CONTENT OF CHLOROPLAST DNA FROM OZONE TREATED PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanism of ozone-mediated plant injury is not know but has been postulated to involve oxygen free radicals. Hydroxyl free radicals react with DNA causing formation of many products, one of which is 8-hydroxyguanine. By using high performance liquid chromatography with elect...

  14. Functional reconstitution of prostaglandin E receptor from bovine adrenal medulla with guanine nucleotide binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Negishi, M.; Ito, S.; Yokohama, H.

    1988-05-15

    Prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PEG/sub 2/) was found to bind specifically to a 100,000 x g pellet prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. The PGE receptor was associated with a GTP-binding protein (G-protein) and could be covalently cross-linked with this G-protein by dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) in the 100,000 x g pellet. In order to characterize the G-protein associated with the PGE receptor and reconstitute these proteins in phospholipid vesicles, the authors purified the G-protein to apparent homogeneity from the 100,000 x g pellet. The G-protein served as a substrate of pertussis toxin but differed in its ..cap alpha.. subunit from two known pertussismore » toxin substrate G-proteins (G/sub i/ and G/sub 0/) purified from bovine brain. The molecular weight of the ..cap alpha.. subunit was 40,000, which is between those of G/sub i/ and G/sub 0/. The purified protein was also distinguished immunologically from G/sub i/ and G/sub 0/ and was referred to as G/sub am/. Reconstitution of the PGE receptor with pure C/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G/sub 0/ in phospholipid vesicles resulted in a remarkable restoration of (/sup 3/H)PGE/sub 2/ binding activity in a GTP-dependent manner. The efficiency of these three G-proteins in this capacity was roughly equal. When pertussis toxin- or N-ethylmaleimide-treated G-proteins, instead of the native ones, were reconstituted into vesicles, the restoration of binding activity was no longer observed. These results indicate that the PGE receptor can couple functionally with G/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G/sub 0/ in phospholipid vesicles and suggest that G/sub am/ may be involved in signal transduction of the PGE receptor in bovine adrenal medulla.« less

  15. Manipulation of a DNA aptamer-protein binding site through arylation of internal guanine residues.

    PubMed

    Van Riesen, Abigail J; Fadock, Kaila L; Deore, Prashant S; Desoky, Ahmed; Manderville, Richard A; Sowlati-Hashjin, Shahin; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2018-05-23

    Chemically modified aptamers have the opportunity to increase aptamer target binding affinity and provide structure-activity relationships to enhance our understanding of molecular target recognition by the aptamer fold. In the current study, 8-aryl-2'-deoxyguanosine nucleobases have been inserted into the G-tetrad and central TGT loop of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) to determine their impact on antiparallel G-quadruplex (GQ) folding and thrombin binding affinity. The aryl groups attached to the dG nucleobase vary greatly in aryl ring size and impact on GQ stability (∼20 °C change in GQ thermal melting (Tm) values) and thrombin binding affinity (17-fold variation in dissociation constant (Kd)). At G8 of the central TGT loop that is distal from the aptamer recognition site, the probes producing the most stable GQ structure exhibited the strongest thrombin binding affinity. However, within the G-tetrad, changes to the electron density of the dG component within the modified nucleobase can diminish thrombin binding affinity. Detailed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the modified TBA (mTBA) and mTBA-protein complexes demonstrate how the internal 8-aryl-dG modification can manipulate the interactions between the DNA nucleobases and the amino acid residues of thrombin. These results highlight the potential of internal fluorescent nuclobase analogs (FBAs) to broaden design options for aptasensor development.

  16. An artificial guanine that binds cytidine through the cooperative interaction of metal coordination and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Mancin, Fabrizio; Chin, Jik

    2002-09-18

    Cd(II) complex of L binds selectively to cytidine in DMSO with an equilibrium constant of 117 M-1 (where LH is 2-aminomethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline). In contrast, the Zn(II) complex of L does not bind appreciably to any of the four nucleobases under the same condition used for the Cd(II) complex.

  17. A Theoretical Study of the Mechanism of the Alkylation of Guanine by N- Nitroso Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Later, Loveless isolated an 0 6 - methylated product from treatment with MNU and was the first to suggest a relevance of O6 alkylation 11 to the...replication. The ultimate metabolite involved in the alkylation reaction has generally been thought to be an alkyldiazonium ion or, its decomposition... Methylation of Formamide by the Methyldiazonium Ion .................... 60 Table 3.10: Intrinsic Barriers for Degenerate SN 2 Reactions .......... 66 Table

  18. Oxymatrine induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells through guanine nucleotide depletion.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Su, Bao-Shan; Chang, Li-Hua; Gao, Qing; Chen, Kun-Lun; An, Peng; Huang, Chen; Yang, Jun; Li, Zong-Fang

    2014-02-01

    Oxymatrine is an alkaloid obtained primarily from Sophora roots and has been shown to show anticancer effects in various cancers. However, the cellular and molecular effects of this agent on cervical cancer have been poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the antitumor effect of oxymatrine on a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Our results showed that application of oxymatrine significantly inhibited the cell growth and tumorigenesis in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis through caspase-dependent pathways as determined using flow cytometry and TUNEL staining analysis. To define the proteins potentially related to the mechanisms of action, proteomic analysis was utilized to detect proteins altered by oxymatrine. As the downregulated gene, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase type II (IMPDH2) was responsible for oxymatrine-induced mitochondrial-related apoptosis. Moreover, oxymatrine depleted intracellular guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) levels by effective IMPDH inhibition. Functional analyses further showed that oxymatrine and tiazofurin, an inhibitor of IMPDH2, sensitized resistant HeLa/DDP cells to cisplatin. In addition, the expression of IMPDH2 in cervical cancer was significantly higher than that in the normal cervical epithelium. Taken together, these findings suggest that targeting of IMPDH2 by potential pharmacological inhibitors, oxymatrine in combination with chemotherapy, might be a promising means of overcoming chemoresistance in cervical cancer with high IMPDH2 expression, and may thus provide new insights into the mechanism of oxyamtrine-induced anticancer effects.

  19. DNA Lesions Caused by ROS and RNOS: A Review of Interactions and Reactions Involving Guanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Mishra, P. C.

    DNA is constantly attacked by a large number of endogenous and exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS), and alkylating agents which produce a wide variety of modifications of its constituents, particularly the bases. Some of these modifications (lesions) are hazardous to normal cell functioning, and are implicated in several lethal conditions including chronic inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis, aging, mutation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders, such as the Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  20. Different effects of guanine nucleotides (GDP and GTP) on protein-mediated mitochondrial proton leak.

    PubMed

    Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the influence of GDP and GTP on isolated mitochondria respiring under conditions favoring oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and under conditions excluding this process, i.e., in the presence of carboxyatractyloside, an adenine nucleotide translocase inhibitor, and/or oligomycin, an FOF1-ATP synthase inhibitor. Using mitochondria isolated from rat kidney and human endothelial cells, we found that the action of GDP and GTP can differ diametrically depending on the conditions. Namely, under conditions favoring OXPHOS, both in the absence and presence of linoleic acid, an activator of uncoupling proteins (UCPs), the addition of 1 mM GDP resulted in the state 4 (non-phosphorylating respiration)-state 3 (phosphorylating respiration) transition, which is characteristic of ADP oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, the addition of 1 mM GTP resulted in a decrease in the respiratory rate and an increase in the membrane potential, which is characteristic of UCP inhibition. The stimulatory effect of GDP, but not GTP, was also observed in inside-out submitochondrial particles prepared from rat kidney mitochondria. However, the effects of GDP and GTP were more similar in the presence of OXPHOS inhibitors. The importance of these observations in connection with the action of UCPs, adenine nucleotide translocase (or other carboxyatractyloside-sensitive carriers), carboxyatractyloside- and purine nucleotide-insensitive carriers, as well as nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDPK) are considered. Because the measurements favoring oxidative phosphorylation better reflect in vivo conditions, our study strongly supports the idea that GDP cannot be considered a significant physiological inhibitor of UCP. Moreover, it appears that, under native conditions, GTP functions as a more efficient UCP inhibitor than GDP and ATP.

  1. Different Effects of Guanine Nucleotides (GDP and GTP) on Protein-Mediated Mitochondrial Proton Leak

    PubMed Central

    Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M.; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the influence of GDP and GTP on isolated mitochondria respiring under conditions favoring oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and under conditions excluding this process, i.e., in the presence of carboxyatractyloside, an adenine nucleotide translocase inhibitor, and/or oligomycin, an FOF1-ATP synthase inhibitor. Using mitochondria isolated from rat kidney and human endothelial cells, we found that the action of GDP and GTP can differ diametrically depending on the conditions. Namely, under conditions favoring OXPHOS, both in the absence and presence of linoleic acid, an activator of uncoupling proteins (UCPs), the addition of 1 mM GDP resulted in the state 4 (non-phosphorylating respiration)-state 3 (phosphorylating respiration) transition, which is characteristic of ADP oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, the addition of 1 mM GTP resulted in a decrease in the respiratory rate and an increase in the membrane potential, which is characteristic of UCP inhibition. The stimulatory effect of GDP, but not GTP, was also observed in inside-out submitochondrial particles prepared from rat kidney mitochondria. However, the effects of GDP and GTP were more similar in the presence of OXPHOS inhibitors. The importance of these observations in connection with the action of UCPs, adenine nucleotide translocase (or other carboxyatractyloside-sensitive carriers), carboxyatractyloside- and purine nucleotide-insensitive carriers, as well as nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDPK) are considered. Because the measurements favoring oxidative phosphorylation better reflect in vivo conditions, our study strongly supports the idea that GDP cannot be considered a significant physiological inhibitor of UCP. Moreover, it appears that, under native conditions, GTP functions as a more efficient UCP inhibitor than GDP and ATP. PMID:24904988

  2. Base Excision Repair Facilitates a Functional Relationship Between Guanine Oxidation and Histone Demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianfeng; Braganza, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Appropriately controlled epigenetic regulation is critical for the normal development and health of an organism. Misregulation of epigenetic control via deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation or histone methylation has been associated with cancer and chromosomal instability syndromes. Recent Advances: The main function of the proteins in the base excision repair (BER) pathway is to repair DNA single-strand breaks and deamination, oxidation, and alkylation-induced DNA base damage that may result from chemotherapy, environmental exposure, or byproducts of cellular metabolism. Recent studies have suggested that one or more BER proteins may also participate in epigenetic regulation to facilitate gene expression modulation via alteration of the state of DNA methylation or via a reaction coupled to histone modification. BER proteins have also been reported to play an essential role in pluripotent stem cell reprogramming. Critical Issues: One emerging function for BER in epigenetic regulation is the repair of base lesions induced by hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) enzymatic activity (LSD1/LSD2-coupled BER) for transcriptional regulation. Future Directions: To shed light on this novel role of BER, this review focuses on the repair of oxidative lesions in nuclear DNA that are induced during LSD1-mediated histone demethylation. Further, we highlight current studies suggesting a role for BER proteins in transcriptional regulation of gene expression via BER-coupled active DNA demethylation in mammalian cells. Such efforts to address the role of BER proteins in epigenetic regulation could broaden cancer therapeutic strategies to include epigenetic modifiers combined with BER inhibitors. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2429–2443. PMID:23311711

  3. Derivatization of DNAs with Selenium at 6-Position of Guanine for Function and Crystal Structure Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Salon, J.; Jiang, J; Sheng, J

    2008-01-01

    To investigate nucleic acid base pairing and stacking via atom-specific mutagenesis and crystallography, we have synthesized for the first time the 6-Se-deoxyguanosine phosphoramidite and incorporated it into DNAs via solid-phase synthesis with a coupling yield over 97%. We found that the UV absorption of the Se-DNAs red-shifts over 100 nm to 360 nm ({Epsilon} = 2.3 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1} cm{sup -1}), the Se-DNAs are yellow colored, and this Se modification is relatively stable in water and at elevated temperature. Moreover, we successfully crystallized a ternary complex of the Se-G-DNA, RNA and RNase H. The crystal structure determination andmore » analysis reveal that the overall structures of the native and Se-modified nucleic acid duplexes are very similar, the selenium atom participates in a Se-mediated hydrogen bond (Se H-N), and the {sup Se}G and C form a base pair similar to the natural G-C pair though the Se-modification causes the base-pair to shift (approximately 0.3 {angstrom}). Our biophysical and structural studies provide new insights into the nucleic acid flexibility, duplex recognition and stability. Furthermore, this novel selenium modification of nucleic acids can be used to investigate chemogenetics and structure of nucleic acids and their protein complexes.« less

  4. Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Meisheng; Tran, V.T.; Fong, H.K.W.

    1991-05-01

    The expression of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was analyzed by RNA blot hybridization and cDNA amplification. Both adult and fetal human RPE cells contain mRNA for multiple G protein {alpha} subunits (G{alpha}) including G{sub s}{alpha}, G{sub i-1}{alpha}, G{sub i-2}{alpha}, G{sub i-3}{alpha}, and G{sub z}{alpha} (or G{sub x}{alpha}), where G{sub s} and G{sub i} are proteins that stimulate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase, respectively, and G{sub z} is a protein that may mediate pertussis toxin-insensitive events. Other G{alpha}-related mRNA transcripts were detected in fetal RPE cells by low-stringency hybridization to G{sub i-2}{alpha} and G{sub s}{alpha}more » protein-coding cDNA probes. The diversity of G proteins in RPE cells was further studied by cDNA amplification with reverse transcriptase and the polymerase chain reaction. This approach revealed that, besides the above mentioned members of the G{alpha} gene family, at least two other G{alpha} subunits are expressed in RPE cells. Human retinal cDNA clones that encode one of the additional G{alpha} subunits were isolated and characterized. The results indicate that this G{alpha} subunit belongs to a separate subfamily of G proteins that may be insensitive to inhibition by pertussis toxin.« less

  5. Coupling between p210bcr-abl and Shc and Grb2 adaptor proteins in hematopoietic cells permits growth factor receptor-independent link to ras activation pathway.

    PubMed

    Tauchi, T; Boswell, H S; Leibowitz, D; Broxmeyer, H E

    1994-01-01

    Enforced expression of p210bcr-abl transforms interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent hematopoietic cell lines to growth factor-independent proliferation. It has been demonstrated that nonreceptor tyrosine kinase oncogenes may couple to the p21ras pathway to exert their transforming effect. In particular, p210bcr-abl was recently found to effect p21ras activation in hematopoietic cells. In this context, experiments were performed to evaluate a protein signaling pathway by which p210bcr-abl might regulate p21ras. It was asked whether Shc p46/p52, a protein containing a src-homology region 2 (SH2) domain, and known to function upstream from p21ras, might form specific complexes with p210bcr-abl and thus, possibly alter p21ras activity by coupling to the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Sos/CDC25) through the Grb2 protein-Sos complex. This latter complex has been previously demonstrated to occur ubiquitously. We found that p210bcr-abl formed a specific complex with Shc and with Grb2 in three different murine cell lines transfected with a p210bcr-abl expression vector. There appeared to be a higher order complex containing Shc, Grb2, and bcr-abl proteins. In contrast to p210bcr-abl transformed cells, in which there was constitutive tight association between Grb2 and Shc, binding between Grb2 and Shc was Steel factor (SLF)-dependent in a SLF-responsive, nontransformed parental cell line. The SLF-dependent association between Grb2 and Shc in nontransformed cells involved formation of a complex of Grb2 with c-kit receptor after SLF treatment. Thus, p210bcr-abl appears to function in a hematopoietic p21ras activation pathway to allow growth factor-independent coupling between Grb2, which exists in a complex with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Sos), and p21ras. Shc may not be required for Grb2-c-kit interaction, because it fails to bind strongly to c-kit.

  6. StarD13 is a tumor suppressor in breast cancer that regulates cell motility and invasion

    PubMed Central

    HANNA, SAMER; KHALIL, BASSEM; NASRALLAH, ANITA; SAYKALI, BECHARA A.; SOBH, RANIA; NASSER, SELIM; EL-SIBAI, MIRVAT

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in women around the world. In general, the more aggressive the tumor, the more rapidly it grows and the more likely it metastasizes. Members of the Rho subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins (GTPases) play a central role in breast cancer cell motility and metastasis. The switch between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound state is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine-nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs). We studied the role of StarD13, a recently identified Rho-GAP that specifically inhibits the function of RhoA and Cdc42. We aimed to investigate its role in breast cancer proliferation and metastasis. The levels of expression of this Rho-GAP in tumor tissues of different grades were assayed using immunohistochemistry. We observed that, while the level of StarD13 expression decreases in cancer tissues compared to normal tissues, it increases as the grade of the tumor increased. This was consistent with the fact that although StarD13 was indeed a tumor suppressor in our breast cancer cells, as seen by its effect on cell proliferation, it was needed for cancer cell motility. In fact, StarD13 knockdown resulted in an inhibition of cell motility and cells were not able to detach their tail and move forward. Our study describes, for the first time, a tumor suppressor that plays a positive role in cancer motility. PMID:24627003

  7. Analysis of a minimal Rho-GTPase circuit regulating cell shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, William R.; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2016-08-01

    Networks of Rho-family GTPases regulate eukaryotic cell polarization and motility by controlling assembly and contraction of the cytoskeleton. The mutually inhibitory Rac-Rho circuit is emerging as a central, regulatory hub that can affect the shape and motility phenotype of eukaryotic cells. Recent experimental manipulation of the amounts of Rac and Rho or their regulators (guanine nucleotide-exchange factors, GTPase-activating proteins, guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors) have been shown to bias the prevalence of these different states and promote transitions between them. Here we show that part of this data can be understood in terms of inherent Rac-Rho mutually inhibitory dynamics. We analyze a spatio-temporal mathematical model of Rac-Rho dynamics to produce a detailed set of predictions of how parameters such as GTPase rates of activation and total amounts affect cell decisions (such as Rho-dominated contraction, Rac-dominated spreading, and spatially segregated Rac-Rho polarization). We find that in some parameter regimes, a cell can take on any of these three fates depending on its environment or stimuli. We also predict how experimental manipulations (corresponding to parameter variations) can affect cell shapes observed. Our methods are based on local perturbation analysis (a kind of nonlinear stability analysis), and an approximation of nonlinear feedback by sharp switches. We compare the Rac-Rho model to an even simpler single-GTPase (‘wave-pinning’) model and demonstrate that the overall behavior is inherent to GTPase properties, rather than stemming solely from network topology.

  8. Admixture Mapping of Subclinical Atherosclerosis and Subsequent Clinical Events Among African Americans in Two Large Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shendre, Aditi; Wiener, Howard; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Zhi, Degui; Limdi, Nita A.; Overton, Edgar T.; Wassel, Christina L.; Divers, Jasmin; Rotter, Jerome I.; Post, Wendy S.; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2017-01-01

    Background Local ancestry may contribute to the disproportionate burden of subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) among admixed African Americans (AAs) compared to other populations, suggesting a rationale for admixture mapping. Methods and Results We estimated local European ancestry (LEA) using Local Ancestry Inference in adMixed Populations using Linkage Disequilibrium (LAMP-LD) and evaluated the association with common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cCIMT) using multivariable linear regression analysis among 1,554 AAs from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We conducted secondary analysis to examine the significant cCIMT-LEA associations with clinical CVD events. We observed genome-wide significance in relation to cCIMT association with the secretion regulating guanine nucleotide exchange factor (SERGEF) gene (β=0.0137, P=2.98×10−4), also associated with higher odds of stroke (odds ratio (OR)=1.71, P=0.02). Several regions, in particular Ca2+-dependent secretion activator 1 (CADPS) gene region identified in MESA were also replicated in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort. We observed other cCIMT-LEA regions associated with other clinical events, most notably the regions harboring creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2 (CKMT2) and Ras protein specific guanine nucleotide releasing factor 2 (RASGRF2) genes with all clinical events except stroke, the leucine rich repeat containing 3B (LRRC3B) gene with myocardial infarction, the protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) gene with stroke, and the lipoma high mobility group protein I-C (HMGIC) fusion partner-like 2 (LHFPL2) gene with hard and all coronary heart disease. Conclusions We identified several novel LEA regions, in addition to previously identified genomic regions, associated with cCIMT and CVD events among African Americans. PMID:28408707

  9. An Allele of Sequoia Dominantly Enhances a Trio Mutant Phenotype to Influence Drosophila Larval Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Liebl, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    The transition of Drosophila third instar larvae from feeding, photo-phobic foragers to non-feeding, photo-neutral wanderers is a classic behavioral switch that precedes pupariation. The neuronal network responsible for this behavior has recently begun to be defined. Previous genetic analyses have identified signaling components for food and light sensory inputs and neuropeptide hormonal outputs as being critical for the forager to wanderer transition. Trio is a Rho-Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor integrated into a variety of signaling networks including those governing axon pathfinding in early development. Sequoia is a pan-neuronally expressed zinc-finger transcription factor that governs dendrite and axon outgrowth. Using pre-pupal lethality as an endpoint, we have screened for dominant second-site enhancers of a weakly lethal trio mutant background. In these screens, an allele of sequoia has been identified. While these mutants have no obvious disruption of embryonic central nervous system architecture and survive to third instar larvae similar to controls, they retain forager behavior and thus fail to pupariate at high frequency. PMID:24376789

  10. An allele of sequoia dominantly enhances a trio mutant phenotype to influence Drosophila larval behavior.

    PubMed

    Dean, Kathryn E; Fields, April; Geer, Marcus J; King, Eric C; Lynch, Brian T; Manohar, Rohan R; McCall, Julianne R; Palozola, Katherine C; Zhang, Yan; Liebl, Eric C

    2013-01-01

    The transition of Drosophila third instar larvae from feeding, photo-phobic foragers to non-feeding, photo-neutral wanderers is a classic behavioral switch that precedes pupariation. The neuronal network responsible for this behavior has recently begun to be defined. Previous genetic analyses have identified signaling components for food and light sensory inputs and neuropeptide hormonal outputs as being critical for the forager to wanderer transition. Trio is a Rho-Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor integrated into a variety of signaling networks including those governing axon pathfinding in early development. Sequoia is a pan-neuronally expressed zinc-finger transcription factor that governs dendrite and axon outgrowth. Using pre-pupal lethality as an endpoint, we have screened for dominant second-site enhancers of a weakly lethal trio mutant background. In these screens, an allele of sequoia has been identified. While these mutants have no obvious disruption of embryonic central nervous system architecture and survive to third instar larvae similar to controls, they retain forager behavior and thus fail to pupariate at high frequency.

  11. GNOM regulates root hydrotropism and phototropism independently of PIN-mediated auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Teppei; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Fujii, Nobuharu; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2014-02-01

    Plant roots exhibit tropisms in response to gravity, unilateral light and moisture gradients. During gravitropism, an auxin gradient is established by PIN auxin transporters, leading to asymmetric growth. GNOM, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor of ARF GTPase (ARF-GEF), regulates PIN localization by regulating subcellular trafficking of PINs. Therefore, GNOM is important for gravitropism. We previously isolated mizu-kussei2 (miz2), which lacks hydrotropic responses; MIZ2 is allelic to GNOM. Since PIN proteins are not required for root hydrotropism in Arabidopsis, the role of GNOM in root hydrotropism should differ from that in gravitropism. To examine this possibility, we conducted genetic analysis of gnom(miz2) and gnom trans-heterozygotes. The mutant gnom(miz2), which lacks hydrotropic responses, was partially recovered by gnom(emb30-1), which lacks GEF activity, but not by gnom(B4049), which lacks heterotypic domain interactions. Furthermore, the phototropic response of gnom trans-heterozygotes differed from that of the pin2 mutant allele eir1-1. Moreover, defects in the polarities of PIN2 and auxin distribution in a severe gnom mutant were recovered by gnom(miz2). Therefore, an unknown GNOM-mediated vesicle trafficking system may mediate root hydrotropism and phototropism independently of PIN trafficking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trio’s Rho-specific GEF domain is the missing Gαq effector in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Stacey L.; Lutz, Susanne; Charlie, Nicole K.; Vettel, Christiane; Ailion, Michael; Coco, Cassandra; Tesmer, John J.G.; Jorgensen, Erik M.; Wieland, Thomas; Miller, Kenneth G.

    2007-01-01

    The Gαq pathway is essential for animal life and is a central pathway for driving locomotion, egg laying, and growth in Caenorhabditis elegans, where it exerts its effects through EGL-8 (phospholipase Cβ [PLCβ]) and at least one other effector. To find the missing effector, we performed forward genetic screens to suppress the slow growth and hyperactive behaviors of mutants with an overactive Gαq pathway. Four suppressor mutations disrupted the Rho-specific guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domain of UNC-73 (Trio). The mutations produce defects in neuronal function, but not neuronal development, that cause sluggish locomotion similar to animals lacking EGL-8 (PLCβ). Strains containing null mutations in both EGL-8 (PLCβ) and UNC-73 (Trio RhoGEF) have strong synthetic phenotypes that phenocopy the arrested growth and near-complete paralysis of Gαq-null mutants. Using cell-based and biochemical assays, we show that activated C. elegans Gαq synergizes with Trio RhoGEF to activate RhoA. Activated Gαq and Trio RhoGEF appear to be part of a signaling complex, because they coimmunoprecipitate when expressed together in cells. Our results show that Trio’s Rho-specific GEF domain is a major Gαq effector that, together with PLCβ, mediates the Gαq signaling that drives the locomotion, egg laying, and growth of the animal. PMID:17942708

  13. RhoG regulates anoikis through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaki, Nao; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2007-08-01

    In normal epithelial cells, cell-matrix interaction is required for cell survival and proliferation, whereas disruption of this interaction causes epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis called anoikis. Here we show that the small GTPase RhoG plays an important role in the regulation of anoikis. HeLa cells are capable of anchorage-independent cell growth and acquire resistance to anoikis. We found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of RhoG promoted anoikis in HeLa cells. Previous studies have shown that RhoG activates Rac1 and induces several cellular functions including promotion of cell migration through its effector ELMO and the ELMO-binding protein Dock180 that function as amore » Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. However, RhoG-induced suppression of anoikis was independent of the ELMO- and Dock180-mediated activation of Rac1. On the other hand, the regulation of anoikis by RhoG required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, and constitutively active RhoG bound to the PI3K regulatory subunit p85{alpha} and induced the PI3K-dependent phosphorylation of Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that RhoG protects cells from apoptosis caused by the loss of anchorage through a PI3K-dependent mechanism, independent of its activation of Rac1.« less

  14. FLCN: The causative gene for Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura S; Linehan, W Marston

    2018-01-15

    Germline mutations in the novel tumor suppressor gene FLCN are responsible for the autosomal dominant inherited disorder Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome that predisposes to fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts and spontaneous pneumothorax, and an increased risk for developing kidney tumors. Although the encoded protein, folliculin (FLCN), has no sequence homology to known functional domains, x-ray crystallographic studies have shown that the C-terminus of FLCN has structural similarity to DENN (differentially expressed in normal cells and neoplasia) domain proteins that act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for small Rab GTPases. FLCN forms a complex with folliculin interacting proteins 1 and 2 (FNIP1, FNIP2) and with 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This review summarizes FLCN functional studies which support a role for FLCN in diverse metabolic pathways and cellular processes that include modulation of the mTOR pathway, regulation of PGC1α and mitochondrial biogenesis, cell-cell adhesion and RhoA signaling, control of TFE3/TFEB transcriptional activity, amino acid-dependent activation of mTORC1 on lysosomes through Rag GTPases, and regulation of autophagy. Ongoing research efforts are focused on clarifying the primary FLCN-associated pathway(s) that drives the development of fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts and kidney tumors in BHD patients carrying germline FLCN mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetics of Lipid-Storage Management in Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Schmökel, Verena; Memar, Nadin; Wiekenberg, Anne; Trotzmüller, Martin; Schnabel, Ralf; Döring, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Lipids play a pivotal role in embryogenesis as structural components of cellular membranes, as a source of energy, and as signaling molecules. On the basis of a collection of temperature-sensitive embryonic lethal mutants, a systematic database search, and a subsequent microscopic analysis of >300 interference RNA (RNAi)–treated/mutant worms, we identified a couple of evolutionary conserved genes associated with lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The genes include cpl-1 (cathepsin L–like cysteine protease), ccz-1 (guanine nucleotide exchange factor subunit), and asm-3 (acid sphingomyelinase), which is closely related to the human Niemann-Pick disease–causing gene SMPD1. The respective mutant embryos accumulate enlarged droplets of neutral lipids (cpl-1) and yolk-containing lipid droplets (ccz-1) or have larger genuine lipid droplets (asm-3). The asm-3 mutant embryos additionally showed an enhanced resistance against C band ultraviolet (UV-C) light. Herein we propose that cpl-1, ccz-1, and asm-3 are genes required for the processing of lipid-containing droplets in C. elegans embryos. Owing to the high levels of conservation, the identified genes are also useful in studies of embryonic lipid storage in other organisms. PMID:26773047

  16. Unsolved mysteries of Rag GTPase signaling in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Riko; De Virgilio, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) plays a central role in controlling eukaryotic cell growth by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic processes to the nutritional status of organisms and individual cells. Amino acids represent essential and primordial signals that modulate TORC1 activity through the conserved Rag family GTPases. These assemble, as part of larger lysosomal/vacuolar membrane-associated complexes, into heterodimeric sub-complexes, which typically comprise two paralogous Rag GTPases of opposite GTP-/GDP-loading status. The TORC1-stimulating/inhibiting states of these heterodimers are controlled by various guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and GTPase-activating protein (GAP) complexes, which are remarkably conserved in various eukaryotic model systems. Among the latter, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been instrumental for the elucidation of basic aspects of Rag GTPase regulation and function. Here, we discuss the current state of the respective research, focusing on the major unsolved issues regarding the architecture, regulation, and function of the Rag GTPase containing complexes in yeast. Decoding these mysteries will undoubtedly further shape our understanding of the conserved and divergent principles of nutrient signaling in eukaryotes.

  17. Unsolved mysteries of Rag GTPase signaling in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Riko; De Virgilio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) plays a central role in controlling eukaryotic cell growth by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic processes to the nutritional status of organisms and individual cells. Amino acids