Phaeton, Mukaro Joe; Stears, Michèle
The research reported on here is part of a larger study exploring the alignment of the intended, implemented and attained curriculum with regard to practical work in the Zimbabwean A-level Biology curriculum. In this paper we focus on the alignment between the intended and implemented A-Level Biology curriculum through the lens of teachers'…
Kingdon, J. M.; Hartley, D. J.
Candidates taking University of London Advanced Level Biology Examination submit their practical/field-work notebooks for assessment (contributing 10 percent to final grade). Describes research undertaken during the first operation examination, reviewing assessment method and analyzing and discussing moderation techniques. Indicates assessment and…
Gwimbi, Eric; Monk, Martin
Investigates the association between attitude towards the philosophy of science and academic qualification professional training. Analyzes responses from 33 A-level biology teachers to a questionnaire and reports from teachers in Harare on their school contexts. Suggests that the differential distribution of facilities and resources across school…
Whitney, L. Jack
Suggests that biology teachers can serve an important role in turning humankind from nuclear warfare to peaceful cooperation. Argues that the school should lead the world in teaching about the universal will to live exhibited by all organisms and about the insanity of nuclear armament. (DC)
The relationship between the structure and function of proteins is an important area in biochemistry. Pupils studying A-level Biology are introduced to the four levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and how these can be used to describe the progressive folding of a chain of amino acid residues to a final,…
Van Rooy, Wilhelmina
This thesis focuses on the espoused beliefs, values, and attitudes of experienced A-Level Biology teachers in relation to the teaching of controversial biological issues. Of major interest is the thinking behind what the teachers in this study regard as the possibilities and problems for the teaching of controversial issues given the teaching…
Wood, R.; Ferguson, Carolyn M.
Discusses a two-year assessment undertaken to evaluate the Nuffield A-Level chemistry course. Secondary teachers selected chemistry experiments for assessment purposes and assessed their students in manipulative skills, observational skills, interpretation skills, creative skills, and attitudes. (MLH)
Reiss, Michael J.
Recent years have seen a growth not only in biological knowledge but also, and more significantly for teacher education, in the types of knowledge manifested in biology. No longer, therefore, is it adequate for teachers to retain a Mertonian or a Popperian conception of science. Today's teachers of science need also to be able to help their…
The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate prospective biology teachers' conceptions of teaching biology and identify how these conceptions revealed their strategies for helping their future students' learning of biology. The study utilized drawings, narratives and interviews to investigate the nature of the prospective biology…
Teacher Centauri High School Teacher Honored as Colorado Outstanding Biology Teacher For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., May 2, 1997 -- Tracy Swedlund, biology teacher at Centauri High School in LaJara, was selected as Colorado's 1997 Outstanding Biology Teacher and will be
Simon, Eric J.
Presents facts about anthrax so that biology teachers can communicate them to others. Defines anthrax and the nature of bacterial spores. Discusses transmission and clinical presentation as well as prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Explores the use of anthrax as a biological warfare agent. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)
Brill, Gilat; Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat
Since biology is one of the most dynamic research fields within the natural sciences, the gap between the accumulated knowledge in biology and the knowledge that is taught in schools, increases rapidly with time. Our long-term objective is to develop means to bridge between the dynamics of biological discoveries and the biology teachers and…
Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert
Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution teaching can be particularly challenging for student teachers who are just beginning to gain pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge related to evolution teaching and who seek approval from university supervisors and cooperating teachers. Science teacher educators need to know how to best support student teachers as they broach the sometimes daunting task of teaching evolution within student teaching placements. This multiple case study report documents how three student teachers approached evolution instruction and what influenced their approaches. Data sources included student teacher interviews, field note observations for 4-5 days of evolution instruction, and evolution instructional artifacts. Data were analyzed using grounded theory approaches to develop individual cases and a cross-case analysis. Seven influences (state exams and standards, cooperating teacher, ideas about teaching and learning, concerns about evolution controversy, personal commitment to evolution, knowledge and preparation for teaching evolution, and own evolution learning experiences) were identified and compared across cases. Implications for science teacher preparation and future research are provided.
Keller, Dolores Elaine
Summarizes evidence that mammals are basically female, with masculine characteristics being imposed by hormonal changes in embryos or post-natally. Advocates the removal of male-dominant terminology in biological research and teaching. (AL)
In recent years, biodiversity has received a great deal of attention worldwide, especially in environmental education. The reasons for this attention are the increase of human activities on biodiversity and environmental problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate biology student teachers' conceptual frameworks regarding biodiversity.…
Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert
Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution…
Suto, Irenka; Elliott, Gill; Rushton, Nicky; Mehta, Sanjana
We explored teachers' views and students' experiences of going beyond the syllabus in Advanced (A) level Mathematics. Questionnaires were sent to teachers and students in a sample of 200 schools and colleges. Teachers were asked about the necessity, importance and benefits of additional teaching. Students were asked about the extra activities they…
Friedrichsen, Patricia J.; Linke, Nicholas; Barnett, Ellen
The social controversy surrounding the teaching of evolution puts pressure on secondary biology teachers to deemphasize or omit evolution from their curriculum. In this growing pressure, professional development can offer support to biology teachers. In this study, we surveyed secondary biology teachers in Missouri and report the data from…
Ndeke, Grace C. W.; Okere, Mark I. O.; Keraro, Fred N.
The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary school biology teachers' perceptions of scientific creativity. Cross-sectional survey research design was employed. The population of the study comprised all biology teachers in public secondary schools in Kericho and Kajiado counties in Kenya. A sample of 205 biology teachers' was selected…
Nehm, Ross H.; Kim, Sun Young; Sheppard, Keith
Despite considerable focus on evolution knowledge-belief relationships, little research has targeted populations with strong content backgrounds, such as undergraduate degrees in biology. This study (1) measured precertified biology and non-biology teachers' (n = 167) knowledge of evolution and the nature of science; (2) quantified teacher…
Douglas, Claudia B.; Lakes Matyas, Marsha; Butler Kahle, Jane
In 1982, the National Association of Biology Teachers surveyed its membership in order to assess the role and status of women in biology education. Items describing roles, salaries, assignments, professional activities, and sexual bias were included in the survey. This paper compares the responses of male and female biology educators, draws conclusions from the data, and suggests implications for the science education profession. Inequality in several professional areas was revealed. More women than men were single and reported no dependent children. Women exceeded men in both the lower and upper ends of the distribution of years of experience. However, the percentage of men exceeded that of women in most salary brackets beyond $20,000 and more men reported paid consulting opportunities. Men tended to teach at larger institutions and, at all academic levels, more men taught advanced classes. More men than women were involved with research activities. However, neither sex felt that the other one received preferential treatment in regard to salary and promotion. The majority of education administrators as well as science and biology faculties were male. However, the recent influx of women into science education positions may produce important changes. It is recommended that a comparative study be conducted in five years.
Jolly, Pauline E.; Strawitz, Barbara M.
Investigated the consequences of teacher-student cognitive style (field dependence- FD and independence- FI) matches and mismatches on student achievement in biology. Results suggest that whereas FI students may be taught by and achieve equally well with either FI or FD teachers, FD students are more successfully taught by FI teachers. (JN)
Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando
Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…
Searles, William E.; Ng, Raymond W. M.
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the level of agreement or disagreement between principals and teachers when using established criteria to measure the effectiveness of a biology teacher. To obtain information regarding their perceptions of an outstanding biology teacher, twenty-two principals and forty-one biology teachers were chosen randomly from English-speaking high schools within a 50 km radius of metropolitan Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The measuring instrument was a modified version of Dieter's questionnaire that evolved from his doctoral study of the National Association of Biology Teachers-Outstanding Biology Teacher Award Program. The data collected from the two populations were tested using one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) or by applying normal approximation. Results indicated that both the principals and teachers agree on the relative importance of most criteria, particularly those related to the teacher's classroom behavior and academic background in biology. From such results, it was possible to construct one stereotype of the outstanding biology teacher. A number of recommendations were made from the results of the study, which were directed to the (a) teachers and their professional organization, (b) principals and the school boards, (c) teacher training institutions, and (d) researchers in teacher evaluation.
Lindauer, Ivo E.; Queitzsch, Mary L.
Uses data from the National Center for Educational Statistics' Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) to present a profile of biology teachers. Discusses background of biology teachers, preparation in the physical and life sciences, who does the preparation, and expected future trends. Compares data with results reported for chemistry, earth science,…
The current study aims to determine biology student teachers' cognitive structure on the concept of "living thing" through revealing their conceptual framework. Qualitative research method was applied in this study. The data were collected from 44 biology student teachers. A free word association test was used as a data collection…
Kurt, Hakan; Ekici, Gulay; Aktas, Murat; Aksu, Ozlem
The purpose of the current study is to determine biology student teachers' cognitive structures on the concept of microscope. Qualitative research methodology has been applied in the study. The data were collected from biology student teachers. Free word association test and drawing-writing test were used to collect data. The data collected were…
Lin, Chen-Yung; Hu, Reping; Changlai, Miao-Li
The new 1-9 curriculum framework in Taiwan provides a remarkable change from previous frameworks in terms of the coverage of content and the powers of teachers. This study employs a modified repertory grid technique to investigate biology teachers' preferences with regard to six curriculum components. One hundred and eighty-five in-service and pre-service biology teachers were asked to determine which science curriculum components they liked and disliked most of all to include in their biology classes. The data show that the rank order of these science curriculum components, from top to bottom, was as follows: application of science, manipulation skills, scientific concepts, social/ethical issues, problem-solving skills, and the history of science. They also showed that pre-service biology teachers, as compared with in-service biology teachers, favored problem-solving skills significantly more than manipulative skills, while in-service biology teachers, as compared with pre-service biology teachers, favored manipulative skills significantly more than problem-solving skills. Some recommendations for ensuring the successful implementation of the Taiwanese 1-9 curriculum framework are also proposed.
Spurgin, C B
The majority of British medical schools now accept for their shortest courses students who have mathematics at A level in place of the former requirement of biology A level. Only a small fraction of the entry, less than one-fifth, enters this way, in spite of statements by most medical schools that they make no distinction between those with mathematics and those with biology when making conditional offers of places. There is no evidence that those without biology are at a disadvantage in the courses. If the prospects of entry without A level biology were better publicized medical schools would have a wider field of possibly abler entrants, and pupils entering sixth forms could defer for a year a choice between a medical (or dental) career and one involving physical science, engineering, or other mathematics-based university education.
In a sample of 107 biology teachers from Minnesota's public schools, most teachers claimed that they emphasize evolution and allocated little or no time to creationism in the classes. However, in a sample of 685 students from Minnesota's public schools, students claimed that their teachers allocated much less time to evolution and much more time…
The aim of the study is to determine the views of the prospective physics and chemistry teachers about the video-enhanced General Biology instruction. The participants included 19 second-year prospective teachers (10 in Physics and 9 in Chemistry Education) at Necatibey Faculty of Education, Balikesir University, Turkey in the 2011-2012 academic…
Lin, Chen-Yung; Hu, Reping; Changlai, Miao-Li
The new 1?9 curriculum framework in Taiwan provides a remarkable change from previous frameworks in terms of the coverage of content and the powers of teachers. This study employs a modified repertory grid technique to investigate biology teachers' preferences with regard to six curriculum components. One hundred and eighty-five in-service and…
Teachers of biology and related subjects are increasingly meeting objections from students and their parents to the teaching of evolution and the exclusion of what is called the theory of Intelligent Design. This paper attempts to draw together arguments and evidence which may be used by such teachers. Four lessons are drawn from the 1982…
Teaching and learning based on web or web-based learning is a concept which integrates information and technology in education. Teachers and instructors have to assist their learners to learn to function in this information environment. However, teacher trainers and instructors have limited experience in the integration of ICT by using web in…
BouJaoude, Saouma; Asghar, Anila; Wiles, Jason R.; Jaber, Lama; Sarieddine, Diana; Alters, Brian
This study investigated three questions: (1) What are Lebanese secondary school (Grade 9-12) biology teachers' and university biology professors' positions regarding biological evolution?, (2) How do participants' religious affiliations relate to their positions about evolutionary science?, and (3) What are participants' positions regarding…
Eiser, Simone; Knight, Bruce Allen
Increasingly, the general media cover new advancements and research in the field of biology. Stem cell research, emerging diseases and bioethics are some of the issues gaining public attention. The rate of increase of these new developments creates additional challenges to teachers of biology as they try to remain abreast of new information and…
Murphy, R. J. L.
This investigation studied the relationship between both GCE O-level examination grades and teachers' estimates of A-level examination grades, and actual A-level grades obtained by a sample of university applicants. Moderate levels of correlation were reported in both cases, although teachers' estimates appeared to be slightly better predictors.…
BouJaoude, Saouma; Asghar, Anila; Wiles, Jason R.; Jaber, Lama; Sarieddine, Diana; Alters, Brian
This study investigated three questions: (1) What are Lebanese secondary school (Grade 9-12) biology teachers' and university biology professors' positions regarding biological evolution?, (2) How do participants' religious affiliations relate to their positions about evolutionary science?, and (3) What are participants' positions regarding evolution education? Participants were 20 secondary school biology teachers and seven university biology professors. Seventy percent of the teachers and 60% of the professors were Muslim. Data came from semi-structured interviews with participants. Results showed that nine (Christian or Muslim Druze) teachers accepted the theory, five (four Muslim) rejected it because it contradicted religious beliefs, and three (Muslim) reinterpreted it because evolution did not include humans. Teachers who rejected or reinterpreted the evolutionary theory said that it should not be taught (three), evolution and creationism should be given equal time (two), or students should be allowed to take their own stand. Two professors indicated that they taught evolution explicitly and five said that they integrated it in other biology content. One Muslim professor said that she stressed 'the role of God in creation during instruction on evolution'. It seems that years of studying and teaching biology have not had a transformative effect on how a number of teachers and professors think about evolution.
Barquilla, Manuel B.
This mixed research, is a snapshot of some Filipino Biology teachers' knowledge structure and how their concepts of the five topics in Biology (Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, human reproductive system, Mendelian genetics and NonMendelian genetics) functions and develops inside a biology classroom. The study focuses on the six biology teachers and a total of 222 students in their respective classes. Of the Six (6) teachers, three (3) are under the Science curriculum and the other three (3) are under regular curriculum in both public and private schools in Iligan city and Lanao del Norte, Philippines. The study utilized classroom discourses, concept maps, interpretative case-study method, bracketing method, and concept analysis for qualitative part; the quantitative part uses a nonparametric statistical tool, Kendall's tau Coefficient for determining relationship and congruency while measures of central tendencies and dispersion (mean, and standard deviation) for concept maps scores interpretation. Knowledge Base of Biology teachers were evaluated by experts in field of specialization having a doctorate program (e.g. PhD in Genetics) and PhD Biology candidates. The data collection entailed seven (7) months immersion: one (1) month for preliminary phase for the researcher to gain teachers' and students' confidence and the succeeding six (6) months for main observation and data collection. The evaluation of teachers' knowledge base by experts indicated that teachers' knowledge of (65%) is lower than the minimum (75%) recommended by ABD-el-Khalick and Boujaoude (1997). Thus, the experts believe that content knowledge of the teachers is hardly adequate for their teaching assignment. Moreover, the teachers in this study do not systematically use reallife situation to apply the concepts they teach. They can identify concepts too abstract for their student; however, they seldom use innovative ways to bring the discussion to their students' level of readiness and
Green, A; Peters, T J; Webster, D J
This study determined the relationships of grades in A-level biology and chemistry with examination success or failure during the medical course. By inspection of medical student records, A-level grades at entry to medical school and examination performance were obtained for 128 (91%) of the students who sat their final MBBCh examination at the University of Wales College of Medicine in June 1988. The majority, 92 (72%), completed their medical school careers with no professional examination failures; 15 failed examinations just in the period up to 2nd MB; 11 failed examinations in the clinical period only and 10 failed examinations in both periods. Whereas grade achieved in A-level chemistry was not associated with undergraduate examination performance, students with a grade A or B in A-level biology were less likely to have problems than the others (21% compared with 47%; the difference of 26% has a 95% confidence interval of 7% to 44%). Specifically, there appears to be a strong relationship between a low grade in biology and difficulties in the preclinical examinations. Moreover, for those who have difficulties at this stage, this association continues later in the course.
Hermann, Ronald S.
In the US, there may be few scientific concepts that students maintain preconceived ideas about as strongly and passionately as they do with regard to evolution. At the confluence of a multitude of social, religious, political, and scientific factors lies the biology teacher. This phenomenological study provides insight into the salient aspects of teaching evolution as viewed by public high school biology teachers. Transcribed interviews were coded, and data were sorted resulting in key themes regarding teachers' views of evolution education. These themes are presented against the backdrop of extant literature on the teaching and learning of evolution. Suggestions for science teacher educators are presented such that we can modify teacher preparation programs to better prepare science teachers to meet the challenges of teaching evolution.
A battery of questionnaires and interviews with teachers and students experienced in RNAP, produced statistical data on many aspects of the course that leads to some guidelines and suggestions for better use of the course design and materials. The patterns described in this article relate to the responses of almost 200 teachers and about 100 students who were teaching and studying RNAP course during school year 1987/8. Though many of them criticised some aspects of the course, generally they were very enthusiastic about it and most of the information they gave us was accurate and reliable. The A-level physics teachers can choose either a `traditional' course or RNAP. We found that most of them don't like to change from one course to another. In the few cases it was done, the reasons generally were like `changing of school', `decreasing number of A-level physics students' or similar reasons. Most of RNAP teachers were keen about the course, its objectives and the way it prepares the students toward higher education as physicists or in other areas. Though pointing out its weaknesses, when comparing it with a `traditional' course, they stress much upon its advantages. We found a tendency to favour the course for the able student than for the weak or the average one. There was more than a feeling among teachers that the less motivated student can better succeed in a `traditional' course. This feeling became even stronger along the interviews where some teachers pointed out the high proportion of the selective schools doing RNAP, which made it more difficult (according to their feeling) for the average student to get an A or B grade. In some of the teachers' opinions RNAP is less suitable for girls who prefer a more `straightforward' course. It is interesting to point out that more than 50% of the students found the course more difficult than they expected it to be. Only 5% found it to be easier than they had suggested. Another point to think about is that almost one
Renner, John W.; And Others
Investigations in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This teaching guide is designed for use with the 18 biology investigations found in the student manual. These investigations focus on concepts related to:…
Developing the connection between biology and mathematics is one of the most important ways to shift the paradigms of both established science disciplines. However, adding some mathematic content to biology or biology content to mathematics is not enough but must be accompanied by development of suitable pedagogical models. I propose a model of pedagogical mathematical biological content knowledge as a feasible starting point for connecting biology and mathematics in schools and universities. The process of connecting these disciplines should start as early as possible in the educational process, in order to produce prepared minds that will be able to combine both disciplines at graduate and postgraduate levels of study. Because teachers are a crucial factor in introducing innovations in education, the first step toward such a goal should be the education of prospective and practicing elementary and secondary school teachers. PMID:20810951
Carlsen, William S.
This article describes the effects of science teacher subject-matter knowledge on classroom discourse at the level of individual utterances. It details one of three parallel analyses conducted in a year-long study of language in the classrooms of four new biology teachers. The conceptual framework of the study predicts that when teaching unfamiliar subject matter, teachers use a variety of discourse strategies to constrain student talk to a narrowly circumscribed topic domain. This article includes the results of an utterance-by-utterance analysis of teacher and student talk in a 30-lesson sample of science instruction. Data are broken down by classroom activity (e.g., lecture, laboratory, group work) for several measures, including mean duration of utterances, domination of the speaking floor by the teacher, frequency of teacher questioning, cognitive level of teacher questions, and student verbal participation. When teaching unfamiliar topics, the four teachers in this study tended to talk more often and for longer periods of time, ask questions frequently, and rely heavily on low cognitive level questions. The rate of student questions to the teacher varied with classroom activity. In common classroom communicative settings, student questions were less common when the teacher was teaching unfamiliar subject matter. The implications of these findings include a suggestion that teacher knowledge may be an important unconsidered variable in research on the cognitive level of questions and teacher wait-time.
Reinisch, Bianca; Krüger, Dirk
In research on the nature of science, there is a need to investigate the role and status of different scientific knowledge forms. Theories and models are two of the most important knowledge forms within biology and are the focus of this study. During interviews, preservice biology teachers (N = 10) were asked about their understanding of theories…
The aim of this study is to evaluate biology teachers' attitudes and belief levels on classroom control in terms of teachers' sense of efficacy. The screening model was used in the study. The study group was comprised of 135 biology teachers. In this study, Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) and The Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control…
Großschedl, Jörg; Harms, Ute; Kleickmann, Thilo; Glowinski, Ingrid
What learning opportunities in higher education promote the development of content knowledge (CK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and pedagogical knowledge (PK)? In order to investigate this question, a cross-sectional study with a total of 274 German preservice biology teachers (21.5% male, average age 22.8 years) was conducted in German…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
Factual and conceptual information dealing with the biology of human populations is offered in this guide for secondary science teachers. Instructional approaches are reviewed and suggestions are offered for use of the problem method approach, the discussion technique, and the project option. Information is organized into an introduction and five…
Köseoglu, Pinar; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar
The purpose of this study was to investigate epistemological predictors of nature of science understandings of 281 prospective biology teachers surveyed using the Epistemological Beliefs Scale Regarding Science and the Nature of Science Scale. The findings on multiple linear regression showed that understandings about definition of science and…
Tomilson, R W; Clack, G B; Pettingale, K W; Anderson, J; Ryan, K C
The performance of 209 students in the 2nd MBBS, first clinical year and final MBBS examinations has been compared retrospectively with their grades in chemistry, physics and biology at "A" level. The mean grade has also been determined for students from different social classes and secondary education. Significant differences in marks for biology were found between successful and not so successful students, especially in the pre-clinical part of the course. Significnat differences in marks and significant correlations were also found for physics but not to any great extent for chemistry. The relative role of these three basic sciences in the medical course is discussed. The suggestion is made that there is a need for a re-appraisal of the privleged position of chemistry and an unquestioned science requirement for entry to medical school.
Treagust, David F.
Research has indicated that most science classrooms are not intellectually demanding and place little emphasis on small group discussions and laboratory activities. However, successful science programs and competent science teaching that can provide models for other science teachers do exist. This study sought to document the teaching practices of two exemplary biology teachers of grades 11 and 12 by means of an interpretive research methodology. Both teachers had a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the content they were to teach and had a range of teaching strategies that could be used without a great deal of thought. Their expectations for student performance were high, consistent, and firm. Students were expected to complete a high level of academic work in discussions, in problem work, and in laboratory activities, and were encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning. A distinctive feature of these biology classes was the high level of managerial efficiency, where lessons were busy occasions for both teacher and students; students had little opportunity for off-task behavior. Both teachers actively monitored the behavior of both high- and low-ability students by moving around the room and speaking with individuals, while still maintaining control of the entire class. By manipulating questioning and the social environment, both teachers encouraged students to engage in work, gave effective praise to the whole class and to individuals, encouraged student input by referring to it, helped students to effectively use their time, and gave marks for completion of set work. Compared to research with less-successful teachers, these teaching behaviors contributed to exemplary practice.
Susanti, R.; Anwar, Y.; Ermayanti
This study aims to obtain portrayal images of science process skills among preservice biology teacher. This research took place in Sriwijaya University and involved 41 participants. To collect the data, this study used multiple choice test comprising 40 items to measure the mastery of science process skills. The data were then analyzed in descriptive manner. The results showed that communication aspect outperfomed the other skills with that 81%; while the lowest one was identifying variables and predicting (59%). In addition, basic science process skills was 72%; whereas for integrated skills was a bit lower, 67%. In general, the capability of doing science process skills varies among preservice biology teachers.
Ruiz-Gallardo, José Reyes; García Fernández, Beatriz; Mateos Jiménez, Antonio
In this study, we explore the competence of preservice teachers (n = 161) in labelling and creating new cross-sectional human diagrams, based on anatomy knowledge depicted in longitudinal sections. Using educational standards to assess visual literacy and ad hoc open questions, results indicate limited skills for both tasks. However, their competence is particularly poor creating diagrams, where shortcomings were observed not only in visual literacy but in content knowledge. We discuss the misconceptions detected during these assessments. Visual literacy training should be strengthened for these students, as it is a skill that is especially important for future teachers to use in learning, assessing, and reflecting on content in science education. This is particularly important in preservice teachers since they should be fluent in the use of visual teaching tools in teaching anatomy and other content in the biology curriculum.
Hermann, Ronald S.
In the US, there may be few scientific concepts that students maintain preconceived ideas about as strongly and passionately as they do with regard to evolution. At the confluence of a multitude of social, religious, political, and scientific factors lies the biology teacher. This phenomenological study provides insight into the salient aspects of…
Thomas, Hollie B.; And Others
A workshop of interested science teachers from the metropolitan area of Illinois sought to increase their awareness of the career opportunities for their students in the biological and agricultural occupations that exist locally. The main purpose of the project was to establish programs in the metropolitan areas designed to match the interests of…
Blancke, Stefaan; Boudry, Maarten; Braeckman, Johan; De Smedt, Johan; De Cruz, Helen
Creationists are becoming more active in Europe. We expect that European biology teachers will be more frequently challenged by students who introduce creationist misconceptions of evolutionary theory into the classroom. Moreover, research suggests that not all teachers are equally prepared to deal with them. To make biology teachers aware of what…
Yates, Tony Brett
In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma…
Stolworthy, Reed L.
The purpose of this study was to determine preservice secondary biology teachers' (N=18) ability to transmit knowledge of the subject to pupils through methodologies designed to translate theory into practice. The cooperating teachers (N=12) provided data regarding abilities demonstrated by the student teachers. The student teachers utilized the…
Rowley, Martin; Dalgarno, Elizabeth L.
A-level psychology teachers (N=109) responded to a questionnaire asking about their academic background, their experience of and views about A-level psychology. Teachers were also asked about the scientific status of psychology as a discipline and about the nature of science in general. Most respondents thought that the A-level course provides…
Martins, Ana Margarida; Vera-Licona, Paola; Laubenbacher, Reinhard
This article describes a mathematical biology workshop given to secondary school teachers of the Danville area in Virginia, USA. The goal of the workshop was to enable teams of teachers with biology and mathematics expertise to incorporate lesson plans in mathematical modelling into the curriculum. The biological focus of the activities is the…
Angle, Julie; Moseley, Christine
The purpose of this study was to compare teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary Biology I teachers whose students' mean scores on the statewide End-of-Instruction (EOI) Biology I test met or exceeded the state academic proficiency level (Proficient Group) to teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary Biology I teachers whose students' mean scores on the…
Reinisch, Bianca; Krüger, Dirk
In research on the nature of science, there is a need to investigate the role and status of different scientific knowledge forms. Theories and models are two of the most important knowledge forms within biology and are the focus of this study. During interviews, preservice biology teachers ( N = 10) were asked about their understanding of theories and models. They were requested to give reasons why they see theories and models as either tentative or certain constructs. Their conceptions were then compared to philosophers' positions (e.g., Popper, Giere). A category system was developed from the qualitative content analysis of the interviews. These categories include 16 conceptions for theories ( n tentative = 11; n certai n = 5) and 18 conceptions for models ( n tentative = 10; n certain = 8). The analysis of the interviews showed that the preservice teachers gave reasons for the tentativeness or certainty of theories and models either due to their understanding of the terms or due to their understanding of the generation or evaluation of theories and models. Therefore, a variety of different terminology, from different sources, should be used in learning-teaching situations. Additionally, an understanding of which processes lead to the generation, evaluation, and refinement or rejection of theories and models should be discussed with preservice teachers. Within philosophy of science, there has been a shift from theories to models. This should be transferred to educational contexts by firstly highlighting the role of models and also their connections to theories.
Mthethwa-Kunene, Eunice; Onwu, Gilbert Oke; de Villiers, Rian
This study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and its development of four experienced biology teachers in the context of teaching school genetics. PCK was defined in terms of teacher content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of students' preconceptions and learning difficulties. Data sources of teacher knowledge base…
Voices of veteran junior high and high school biology teachers are seldom heard. Yet, the unique characteristics of this subject-matter may shed some light on veteran teachers' lives in school and their possible contribution to educational systems anywhere. Eight teachers were interviewed, aiming to arrive at their self-perceptions as veteran…
Förtsch, Christian; Werner, Sonja; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.
This study examined the effects of teachers' biology-specific dimensions of professional knowledge - pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and content knowledge (CK) - and cognitively activating biology instruction, as a feature of instructional quality, on students' learning. The sample comprised 39 German secondary school teachers whose lessons on the topic neurobiology were videotaped twice. Teachers' instruction was coded with regard to cognitive activation using a rating manual. Multilevel path analysis results showed a positive significant effect of cognitive activation on students' learning and an indirect effect of teachers' PCK on students' learning mediated through cognitive activation. These findings highlight the importance of PCK in preservice biology teachers' education. Items of the rating manual may be used to provide exemplars of concrete teaching situations during university seminars for preservice teacher education or professional development initiatives for in-service teachers.
McGregor Petgrave, Dahlia M.
Many teachers are not adequately prepared to help urban students who have trouble understanding conceptual ideas in biology because these students have little connection to the natural world. This study explored potential professional development strategies to help urban biology teachers use concept maps effectively with various topics in the biology curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to develop a substantive professional development model for urban biology teachers. Qualitative data were collected through 16 semi-structured interviews of professional developers experienced in working with concept maps in the urban context. An anonymous online survey was used to collect quantitative data from 56 professional developers and teachers to support the qualitative data. The participants were from New York City, recruited through the NY Biology-Chemistry Professional Development Mentor Network and the NY Biology Teachers' Association. According to the participants, map construction, classroom applications, lesson planning, action research, follow-up workshops, and the creation of learning communities are the most effective professional development strategies. The interviewees also proposed English language learning strategies such as picture maps, native word maps, and content reading materials with underlined words. This study contributes to social change by providing a professional development model to use in planning workshops for urban teachers. Urban teachers improve their own conceptual understanding of biology while learning how to implement concept mapping strategies in the classroom. Students whose teachers are better prepared to teach biology in a conceptual manner have the potential of growing into more scientifically literate citizens.
Approximately one-fourth of biology teachers in public schools include creationism in their biology courses. Most of these teachers 1) present creationism as a scientific alternative to evolution, and 2) present only the biblical (i.e., Christian) story of creation. State science-education standards, position statements from professional…
Förtsch, Christian; Werner, Sonja; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.
This study examined the effects of teachers' biology-specific dimensions of professional knowledge--pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and content knowledge (CK)--and cognitively activating biology instruction, as a feature of instructional quality, on students' learning. The sample comprised 39 German secondary school teachers whose lessons on…
Raad, Nawal Abou; Chatila, Hanadi
This paper investigates Lebanese grade 7 biology teachers' mathematical knowledge and skills, by exploring how they explain a visual representation in an activity depending on the mathematical concept "Function". Twenty Lebanese in-service biology teachers participated in the study, and were interviewed about their explanation for the…
Abimbola, I. O.; Dada, F. E.
This study examines ideas of pre-service teachers on goals of biology practical in three purposely selected Colleges of Education. To this end, A researcher designed questionnaire which was adapted titled "views of preservice teachers on biology practical" to elicit information, and findings of a survey administered to 405 preservice…
Steffen, Benjamin; Hößle, Corinna
Decision-making in socioscientific issues (SSI) constitutes a real challenge for both biology teachers and learners. The assessment of students' performances in SSIs constitutes a problem, especially for biology teachers. The study at hand was conducted in Germany and uses a qualitative approach following the research procedures of grounded theory…
The purpose of the study was to investigate the views of the prospective biology teachers about the field trip to Kazdagi National Park. Participants were 12 prospective Biology teachers studying in Necatibey Faculty of Education in Balikesir University, Turkey. A semi-structured interview form was used as a data collection instrument. Data were…
Hasenekoglu, Ismet; Timucin, Melih
The aim of this study is to collect and evaluate opinions of CAI experts and biology teachers about a high school level Computer Assisted Biology Instruction Material presenting computer-made modelling and simulations. It is a case study. A material covering "Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis" topic was developed as the…
Mthethwa-Kunene, Eunice; Oke Onwu, Gilbert; de Villiers, Rian
This study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and its development of four experienced biology teachers in the context of teaching school genetics. PCK was defined in terms of teacher content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of students' preconceptions and learning difficulties. Data sources of teacher knowledge base included teacher-constructed concept maps, pre- and post-lesson teacher interviews, video-recorded genetics lessons, post-lesson teacher questionnaire and document analysis of teacher's reflective journals and students' work samples. The results showed that the teachers' individual PCK profiles consisted predominantly of declarative and procedural content knowledge in teaching basic genetics concepts. Conditional knowledge, which is a type of meta-knowledge for blending together declarative and procedural knowledge, was also demonstrated by some teachers. Furthermore, the teachers used topic-specific instructional strategies such as context-based teaching, illustrations, peer teaching, and analogies in diverse forms but failed to use physical models and individual or group student experimental activities to assist students' internalization of the concepts. The finding that all four teachers lacked knowledge of students' genetics-related preconceptions was equally significant. Formal university education, school context, journal reflection and professional development programmes were considered as contributing to the teachers' continuing PCK development. Implications of the findings for biology teacher education are briefly discussed.
Ward-Penny, Robert; Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Johnston-Wilder, Peter
One-third of the current A-level mathematics curriculum is determined by choice, constructed out of "applied mathematics" modules in mechanics, statistics and decision mathematics. Although this choice arguably involves the most sizeable instance of choice in the current English school mathematics curriculum, and it has a significant…
Hewson, Peter W.; Tabachnick, B. Robert; Zeichner, Kenneth M.; Blomker, Kathryn B.; Meyer, Helen; Lemberger, John; Marion, Robin; Park, Hyun-Ju; Toolin, Regina
Introduces an issue that details a complex study of a science-teacher-education program whose goal was to graduate teachers who held conceptual change conceptions of teaching science and were disposed to put them into practice. Presents a conceptual framework for science-teacher education, and describes the context and major questions of the…
Hewson, Peter W.; Tabachnick, B. Robert; Zeichner, Kenneth M.; Lemberger, John
Summarizes a complex study of a science-teacher-education program whose goal was to graduate teachers who held conceptual change conceptions of teaching science and were disposed to put hem into practice. Concludes that there are influences on prospective teachers from their content coursework that have significant implications for how they view…
Madike, Victor N.
Inadequate student-teacher interactions in undergraduate courses have been linked to poor student performance. Researchers have noted that students' perceptions of student-teacher relationships may be an important factor related to student performance. The administration of a Mid-Atlantic community college prioritized increasing undergraduate biology student performance. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' biology achievement and their perceptions of interpersonal teaching behaviors and student-teacher interactions in introductory biology courses. Leary's theory on interpersonal communication and the systems communication theory of Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson served as the theoretical foundation. The Wubbel's Likert-scale questionnaire on student-teacher interactions was administered to 318 undergraduate biology students. Non-parametric Spearman's rank correlations revealed a significant direct correlation between students' grades and their perceptions of teachers' interpersonal teaching behaviors. The relationship between student achievement and students' perceptions of student-teacher interactions prompted the recommendation for additional study on the importance of student-teacher interactions in undergraduate programs. A recommendation for local practice included faculty development on strategies for improving student-teacher interactions. The study's implications for positive social change include increased understanding for administrators and instructors on the importance of teacher-student interactions at the community college level.
Jones, Paul L.; Blankenship, Jacob W.
The Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI Form) and the Biology Classroom Activity Checklist (BCAC) were used to determine the relationship between teachers' stated pupil control ideology and the extent to which their students reported the use of inquiry methods in the classroom. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of 168 teachers and…
Crook, Simon J.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Wilson, Rachel
Using a mixed-methods approach the authors compared the associated practices of senior physics teachers (n = 7) and students (n = 53) in a 1:1 laptop environment with those of senior biology teachers (n = 10) and students (n = 125) also in a 1:1 laptop environment, in seven high schools in Sydney, NSW, Australia. They found that the physics…
Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia
This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…
Topcu, Mustafa Sami
The purposes of the study were to assess preservice teachers' domain-specific epistemological beliefs and to investigate whether preservice teachers distinguish disciplinary differences (physics, chemistry, and biology) in domain-specific epistemological beliefs. Mixed-method research design guided the present research. The researcher explored…
Marcelos, Maria Fatima; Nagem, Ronaldo Luiz
This work discusses the use of Darwin's "Tree of Life" as a didactic analogy and metaphor in teaching evolution. It investigates whether biology teachers of pupils from 17 to 18 years old know Darwin's text "Tree of Life". In addition, it examines whether those teachers systematically employ either the analogies present in that…
Borgerding, Lisa A.
High school biology teachers face many challenges as they teach evolution. State standards for evolution may provide support for sound evolution instruction. This study attempts to build upon previous work by investigating teachers' views of evolution standards and their evolution practices in a state where evolution standards have been…
Ates, Hüseyin; Saylan, Asli
The purpose of this research was to examine pre-service science teachers' academic motivation and academic self-efficacy toward biology. The sample consisted of 369 pre-service science teachers who enrolled in the faculty of education of two universities in Turkey. Data were collected through Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) (Glynn & Koballa,…
Ismail, Nor Asma; Rubba, Peter A.
Determined degree to which Malaysian biology teachers (N=26) perceived they understood and used inquiry teaching. Data indicated that these teachers perceived they had a moderate amount of knowledge about inquiry and occasionally used the 21 inquiry-related behaviors assessed by "A Generic Problem Solving (Inquiry) Model" (Hungerford,…
Smith, Mike U.; Drake, Mary Ann
Discusses the teacher's role in helping students deal with homosexuality and suicide. Teachers can provide unbiased information about personal relevant biological issues; be good listeners and confidantes; and value each student without regard to race, gender, class, or sexual orientation. Provides useful information on addressing homosexuality in…
Maskan, A. Kadir
The purpose of this study is to determine the job satisfaction levels of the teachers participating in the study and to investigate whether their job satisfaction levels differ with respect to certain variables. The participants of the study were 297 science teachers (physics: 104, chemistry: 105, biology: 87 and 1 N/A) from secondary schools in…
Topsakal, Unsal Umdu; Oversby, John
In the present study, we have explored an aspect of teachers' perceptions of biology diagrams. The research was performed in Turkey. The data were gathered from 50 (25 female, 25 male) teachers of primary and secondary schools and 34 (18 female, 16 male) academic staff of different universities in Turkey. Some of the participants are science…
Thomas, Hollie B.; Jackson, Franklin D. R.
The attitudes of teachers in a metropolitan area toward starting programs in applied biological and agricultural occupations and other vocational areas were studied in order to establish a base line of attitudes with which program implementation must start. Specific objectives were to: (1) determine the attitude of teachers toward offering such…
Howarth, Richard T.
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is considered to be the unifying theory for all life sciences (American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS, 1990; National Academy of Sciences, 1998; National Research Council, NRC, 1996; National Science Teachers Association, NSTA, 2010a) and as such, the biology topic has been established as a central learning standard by the National Science Education Science Standards (NSES, 2005). The purpose of this study was to compare how Massachusetts and Texas high school biology teachers' attitudes toward the teaching of evolution differ as compared to other biology topics. Texas and Massachusetts are two states that exemplify standards based education yet differ dramatically in their histories surrounding the topic of evolution. A survey was conducted among 217 Massachusetts and 139 Texas in-service high school biology teachers to help provide a sense of the phenomena surrounding biology teachers in respect to how their attitudes towards the teaching of evolution are shaped. Additionally, an open-ended question was asked to help contextualize the results of the survey between teachers of these two states. The findings in this study suggest that community appears to be a powerful persuasive message and socialization experience that shapes the development of attitudes towards evolution for some educators, especially when it is highly intertwined with religion. For biology teachers in the state of Texas, the synergistic result of this relationship has resulted in statistically significant differences in regards to attitudes towards evolution as compared to teachers in Massachusetts. These findings yield implications regarding scientific literacy, student learning, assessment, the quality of science instruction, curriculum, undergraduate biology programs, and the needs of biology teachers in terms of professional development.
SELECTED ARTICLES THAT APPEARED IN "THE SCIENCE TEACHER" DURING THE PERIOD 1960-1966 ARE INCLUDED IN THIS SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCE FOR HIGH SCHOOL BIOLOGY TEACHERS. SUBDIVISIONS ARE (1) CONTENT BACKGROUND FOR TEACHERS, (2) CURRICULUM, AND (3) CLASSROOM IDEAS. CONTENT ARTICLES ARE PRIMARILY CONCERNED WITH THOSE ASPECTS OF BIOLOGY THAT ARE…
The ability of A level students to recognise and name common wild flowers was shown to be very poor. Trainee teachers performed little better and nearly a third of the practising A-level biology teachers tested were able to name only three or fewer wild flowers. Although opportunities exist at primary level for children to learn about the…
The demands of national educational reforms require high school biology teachers to provide high quality instruction to students with and without special needs. The reforms, however, do not provide teachers with adequate teaching strategies to meet the needs of all students in the same context. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand high school biology teachers' perspectives, practices, and challenges in relation to teaching students with special needs. This approach was used to develop a substantive model for high school biology teachers who are challenged with teaching students with and without special needs. Data were collected via in-depth interviews with 15 high school teachers in a Midwestern school district. The data were analyzed using open coding, axial coding, and selective coding procedures in accordance with the grounded theory approach. Essential model components included skills and training for teachers, classroom management strategies, teaching strategies, and student skills. The emergent substantive theory indicated that that teacher preparation and acquired skills greatly influence the effectiveness of inclusion implementation. Key findings also indicated the importance of using of a variety of instructional strategies and classroom management strategies that address students' special needs and their learning styles. This study contributes to social change by providing a model for teaching students and effectively implementing inclusion in regular science classrooms. Following further study, this model may be used to support teacher professional development and improve teaching practices that in turn may improve science literacy supported by the national educational reforms.
Dziubinski, Julian P.
Each year, around 250,000 16-year-olds in the United Kingdom finish their GCSEs and begin studying for their Advanced (A-) levels, many of them at further education (FE) college. Students study their A-level courses at FE college for a number of reasons, including a more mature relationship with teachers. As we approach the 64th anniversary of…
Gess-Newsome, Julie; Lederman, Norman G.
Current reform efforts in the teaching of high school biology demonstrate the need for a synthetic treatment of prominent concepts. There exists insufficient research that delineates the global content understandings--in this paper designated subject matter structures (SMS)--of biology teachers; or that assesses whether these SMS do, in fact,…
Ozay Kose, Esra
Evolution has not being well addressed in schools partly because it is a controversial topic in religious views. In the present study, it is explored to what extent Turkish secondary school biology teachers and students accommodate the theory of biological evolution with their religious beliefs. Two-hundred fifty secondary school students and…
Collaborative teaching, between special education and general education teachers working together, came about as a result of the No Child Left Behind and Individuals with Disabilities Education Acts. Despite the positive intentions of those acts, teachers are not always ready to teach collaboratively. Guided by the theories of fundamental change and inclusion, this study was based on a lack of understanding about collaborative teaching at 3 high schools. The research questions focused on the benefits, process, and concerns related to collaborative teaching. The perspectives of 4 special education and 8 regular education teachers in 3 urban, public high schools were collected through interviews and observations. Data were analyzed descriptively and inductively using coding, reconstruction, and interpretation of the underlying meanings. The findings revealed that teachers benefitted from being in these classrooms by having a reduced work load and shared responsibility; however, they needed more time for collaboration and modifying instruction, professional development, and stronger support. Students in these classrooms benefitted from social interactions with other students and by getting direct answers to questions. Based on these findings, a professional development training was created based on how collaborative teachers can work together to promote successful learning. This project study can have a positive impact by assisting collaborative teachers with support, communication, strategies for modifications and accommodations, and an enhanced experience, and additionally by improving the academic outcomes for their students.
Rohayati, E.; Diana, S. W.; Priyandoko, D.
Lesson plan have important role for biology teachers in teaching and learning process. The aim of this study was intended to gain an overview of lesson plan of biology teachers’ at Senior High Schools in Subang which were the members of biology teachers association in Subang. The research method was descriptive method. Data was collected from 30 biology teachers. The result of study showed that lesson plan profile in terms of subject’s identity had good category with 83.33 % of average score. Analysis on basic competence in fair category with 74.45 % of average score. The compatibility of method/strategy was in fair category with average score 72.22 %. The compatibility of instrument, media, and learning resources in fair category with 71.11 % of average score. Learning scenario was in good category with 77.00 % of average score. The compatibility of evaluation was in low category with 56.39 % of average score. It can be concluded that biology teachers in Subang were good enough in making lesson plan, however in terms of the compatibility of evaluation needed to be fixed. Furthermore, teachers’ training for biology teachers’ association was recommended to increasing teachers’ skill to be professional teachers.
Roviati, E.; Widodo, A.; Purwianingsih, W.; Riandi, R.
Inquiry laboratory activity and scientific argumentation in science education should be promoted and explicitly experienced by prospective biology teacher students in classes, including in microbiology courses. The goal of this study is to get information about perceptions of prospective biology teachers on scientific argumentation in microbiology inquiry lab activities. This study reported the result of a survey research to prospective biology teachers about how their perception about microbiology lab classes and their perception about inquiry and argumentation in microbiology lab activities should be. The participants of this study were 100 students of biology education department from an institute in Cirebon, West Java taking microbiology lecture during the fifth semester. The data were collected using questionnaire to explore the perceptions and knowledge of prospective biology teachers about microbiology, inquiry lab activities and argumentation. The result showed that students thought that the difficulties of microbiology as a subject were the lack of references and the way lecturer teaching. The students’ perception was that argumentation and inquiry should be implemented in microbiology courses and lab activities. Based on the data from questionnaire, It showed that prospective biology teacher students had very little knowledge about scientific argumentation and its implementation in science education. When the participants made arguments based on the problems given, they showed low quality of arguments.
Biology in Context ("bik") is a project that aims to improve biology teaching in lower secondary schools in Germany. Based on a theoretical framework derived from the National Educational Standards, four competence areas should be fostered in biology education: subject knowledge; inquiry acquisition; subject-related communication; and…
Kirima, Teresia Mugure; Kinyua, Susan Muthoni
This study examined teacher related factors influencing students' enrollment in Biology subject in public secondary schools in Meru Central Sub County in Kenya. The study utilized the descriptive survey research design on a target population of 9,859 respondents consisting of 9,748 Biology students, 62 trained Biology teachers and 49 Heads of…
Tidemand, Sofie; Nielsen, Jan Alexis
Previous research has documented that students who engage with socioscientific issues can acquire some of the complex competences and skills typically related to scientific literacy. But an emerging field of research on science teachers' understanding and use of socioscientific issues, has documented that a range of challenges hinders the uptake of socioscientific issues. In this study, we investigated the interpretation and implementation of socioscientific issues among Danish biology teachers. We conducted five in-depth group interviews and validated the emergent themes from the teachers' talk-in-interaction by distributing a questionnaire. Our findings suggest that the participating teachers generally harbour a content-centred interpretation of socioscientific issues which manifests itself in at least three separate ways. First, the teachers generally use socioscientific issues as a vehicle to teach factual biological content. Second, the teachers emphasised mastery of factual content in their assessment. Third, the teachers tended to reduce socioscientific issues to specific biological contents in a way may preclude students from engaging with the real socioscientific issue. Our findings are particularly significant for science educators, policy-makers and curriculum designers, as we argue that key aspects of this content-centred interpretation may be a coping strategy used to navigate a divided curriculum.
Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit
The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when scientists from all the above-mentioned disciplines had been involved in trying to support and develop the eugenics theories. It investigates pre- and postwar theories of the eugenics movement in the United States which were implemented successfully in Germany and a literature survey of the studies of societal issues related to these subjects. The sample consisted of 30 male and female biology teachers. Enclosed are teachers' answers in favor or against including debates about societal issues in their classrooms while teaching the disciplines mentioned above. Teachers' answers were analyzed in relation to three variables: years of teaching experience, gender, and religion faith. Data were collected from questionnaires and personal interviews and analyzed according to qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that amongst the teachers there is a medium to low level of awareness of societal issues, while mainly emphasizing scientific subjects in preparation of matriculation examinations. The majority of the teachers do not include societal issues in their teaching, but if students raise these issues, teachers claimed to address them. No differences in teachers' opinions to societal issues were found in relation to gender or religious faith. Teachers with more years of teaching experience tend to teach with a more Science, Technology, and Society (STS) approach than novice teachers. The results are discussed in relation to teachers' professional development and teaching strategies are suggested to be used in their classrooms based on a STS approach, which includes the societal issues as a main goal.
Bilica, Kimberly Lynn
The teaching of biological evolution in public science classrooms has been mitigated by a lingering and historic climate of controversy (Skoog, 1984; Skoog, 1979). This controversy has successfully stalled attempts to bring authentic science literacy to the American public (Bybee, 1997). The first encouraging signs of the abatement of this controversy occurred during the early 1990s when several prominent science organizations promoted evolution to its appropriate status as a central and unifying concept in biology (National Science Teachers Association, 1992; National Research Council, 1996; American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1990, 1993). The organizations acknowledged that not only should biological evolution be taught, evolution should stand as one of a select group of essential concepts upon which biology curricula should be built. Bandura's Social Learning theory (Bandura, 1997; Lumpe, Haney, & Czerniak, 2000) and Helms' Model of Identity (Helms, 1998) provide the theoretical basis for this study. Both Bandura and Helms explain the actions of teachers by examining the beliefs and values that influence their decisions. The models distinguish between two types of belief systems: capacity beliefs and context beliefs (Lumpe, et al, 2000; Helms, 1998). Both belief types influence and are influenced by individual actions. In this study, the action to be described is the decision that teachers make about the degree of emphasis on evolution in the classroom. The capacity beliefs that will be examined are teachers' beliefs about their capability to teach evolution. The contextual beliefs in this study are perceptions about students' capabilities to learn evolution, the status of evolution in science, the place of evolution in the biology classroom, the influence of textbooks, time, and community/school values. This study contributes to and extends the knowledge base established by studies of evolution education by exploring the relative amount of
Gundy, Morag S.
Studies indicate that teachers, and in particular science teachers in the senior high school grades, do not integrate laptop computers into their instruction to the extent anticipated by researchers. This technology has not spread easily to other teachers even with improved access to hardware and software, increased support, and a paradigm shift from teacher-centred to student-centred education. Although a number of studies have focused on the issues and problems related to the integration of laptops in classroom instruction, these studies, largely quantitative in nature, have tended to bypass the role teachers play in integrating laptop computers into their instruction. This thesis documents and describes the role of Ontario high school science teachers in the integration of laptop computers in the classroom. Ten teachers who have successfully integrated laptop computers into their biology courses participated in this descriptive study. Their perceptions of implementing laptops into their biology courses, key factors about the implementation process, and how the implementation was accomplished are examined. The study also identifies the conditions which they feel would allow this innovation to be implemented by other teachers. Key findings of the study indicate that teachers must initiate, implement and sustain an emergent and still evolving innovation; teacher perceptions change and continue to change with increased experience using laptops in the science classroom; changes in teaching approaches are significant as a result of the introduction of laptop technology; and, the teachers considered the acquisition and use of new teaching materials to be an important aspect of integrating laptop computers into instruction. Ongoing challenges for appropriate professional development, sharing of knowledge, skills and teaching materials are identified. The study provides a body of practical knowledge for biology teachers who are considering the integration of laptops into
Yilmaz, Mirac; Demirhan, Haydar
The different opinions on products and applications of gene technology (GT) draw attention to the training and education activities related to GT. The purpose of this study is to review some variables predicting the acceptance perception regarding GT, and to investigate their changes at levels. The prospective teachers' subjective knowledge and…
Simpson, Ronald Dale
The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the effects of teacher science support, as measured by the Science Support Scale (Tri-S scale), on student science support and (2) to gain normative data on the Science Support Scale as an instrument for use with high school students. Twenty-four 10th grade biology teachers were given the Tri-S scale…
Rozenszajn, Ronit; Yarden, Anat
Experienced teachers possess a unique teaching knowledge comprised of an inter-related set of knowledge and beliefs that gives direction and justification to a teacher's actions. This study examined the expansion of two components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of three in-service teachers in the course of a professional development program aimed at designing new teaching and learning materials suggested by the teachers themselves. The research presents an enlargement of previous PCK representations by focusing on a detailed representation of two main PCK domains: teaching and learning, including ten PCK components that emerged in the course of data analysis. This representation enabled revealing the unique PCK held by each teacher and to characterize the expansion of the two components of the participating teachers' PCK during the long-term professional development program. Retention of major parts of the expanded PCK a year after termination of the program implies that designing and implementing new teaching and learning materials based on the teachers' experiences, needs, and knowledge in a workshop format accompanied by biology and science education courses might provide a powerful means for PCK expansion. We recommend that designers of professional development programs be aware of the unique PCK held by each teacher in order to promote meaningful professional development of each teacher. Moreover, the PCK representations that were identified in the course of this study enabled clarifying the "orientation toward teaching science" category of PCK which appears to be unclear in current literature.
Marcelos, Maria Fátima; Nagem, Ronaldo Luiz
This work discusses the use of Darwin's `Tree of Life' as a didactic analogy and metaphor in teaching evolution. It investigates whether biology teachers of pupils from 17 to 18 years old know Darwin's text `Tree of Life'. In addition, it examines whether those teachers systematically employ either the analogies present in that text or other analogies between the tree and evolution, and whether they adopt a specific methodology for teaching with analogies and metaphors (A&M). The academic training of teachers regarding use of A&M is review briefly. A diagnostic study was carried out with biology teachers in a public school in the town of Contagem in the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil. The data were obtained through direct observation, questionnaires and a focus group. The teachers pointed out in the questionnaires that some details of Darwin's analogy are utilized as a resource. However, analysis of the data indicates that the `Tree of Life' text is not known or utilized in class. At the same time, the teachers state that they use aspects of the tree as a didactic resource to teach evolution and that its use facilitates the learning of content. The teachers have little knowledge of specific methodologies of teaching with analogies and metaphors, revealing that their training is incomplete in this area.
Nasution, W. R.; Sriyati, S.; Riandi, R.; Safitri, M.
The purpose of this study was to determine the mastery of Content Representation (CoRes) teachers related to the integration of technology and pedagogy in teaching Biology (TPACK). This research uses a descriptive method. The data were taken using instruments CoRes as the primary data and semi-structured interviews as supporting data. The subjects were biology teacher in class X MIA from four schools in Bandung. Teachers raised CoRes was analyzed using a scoring rubric CoRes with coding 1-3 then categorized into a group of upper, middle, or lower. The results showed that the two teachers in the lower category. This results means that the control of teachers in defining the essential concept in the CoRes has not been detailed and specific. Meanwhile, two other teachers were in the middle category. This means that the ability of teachers to determine the essential concepts in the CoRes are still inadequate so that still needs to be improved.
Rankin, W. T.; Lewis, Norma G.
Explains how to use bats to introduce different biological concepts such as classification and phylogeny, altruistic behavior, flight, coevolution, or physiological adaptations. Discusses common myths regarding bats and provides information on additional classroom materials. (YDS)
Kyzer, Peggy Mckewen
Organizations in science and science education call for students to have a thorough understanding of the theory of evolution. Yet many high school biology teachers do not teach evolution and/or include creationism in their instruction (National Academy of Science, 1998). Historically, the controversy surrounding evolution has created tension for teachers. This case study explored the sociocultural influences related to teaching evolution in three Southern 10th-grade public high school biology classrooms. It also explored the socially and culturally embedded influences on teachers' instructional goals and personal perspectives toward evolution as well as modification of instruction when evolution is taught. Theoretically framed using symbolic interactionism and sociocultural theory, data were collected between October 2003 and April 2004 and included classroom observations two to three times per week, artifacts, and in-depth interviews of the participating teachers, their science department chairpersons, their students, and a Protestant minister. The classroom teachers were unaware of the focus of the study until after evolution was taught. The analysis used in this study was an inductive, interpretative approach that allowed exploration of the sociocultural influences that affect how teachers teach evolution. The sociocultural influences and the lived experiences of each teacher created a continuum for teaching evolution. One of the participating teachers who was heavily involved in the community and one of its fundamentalist churches elected to avoid teaching evolution. Another participating teacher at the same school integrated the theory of evolution in every unit. The third teacher who taught in another school elected to teach evolution in a superficial manner to avoid conflict. The data revealed that the participating teachers' sociocultural situatedness influenced their decisions and instruction on evolution. The influence of strong religious beliefs within
Ravgiala, Rebekah Rae
Theories regarding the development of expertise hold implications for alternative and traditional certification programs and the teachers they train. The literature suggests that when compared to experts in the field of teaching, the behaviors of novices differ in ways that are directly attributed to their pedagogical content knowledge. However, few studies have examined how first and second year biology teachers entering the profession from traditional and alternative training differ in their demonstration of subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge. The research problem in this multicase, naturalistic inquiry investigated how subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge was manifested among first and second year biology teachers in the task of transforming subject matter into forms that are potentially meaningful to students when explicit formal training has been and has not been imparted to them as preservice teachers. Two first year and two second year biology teachers were the subjects of this investigation. Allen and Amber obtained their certification through an alternative summer training institute in consecutive years. Tiffany and Tricia obtained their certification through a traditional, graduate level training program in consecutive years. Both programs were offered at the same northeastern state university. Participants contributed to six data gathering techniques including an initial semi-structured interview, responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Science questionnaire (Hewson & Hewson, 1989), three videotaped biology lessons, evaluation of three corresponding lesson plans, and a final semi-structured interview conducted at the end of the investigation. An informal, end-of-study survey intended to offer participants an opportunity to disclose their thoughts and needs as first year teachers was also employed. Results indicate that while conceptions of teaching science may vary slightly among participants, there is no evidence to suggest that
Scantlebury, Kate; Butler Kahle, Jane
Teachers can perpetuate stereotypic cultural beliefs regarding girls' ability in, aptitude for, and suitability for science by their teaching practices and behaviors. As teachers have a major influence on girls' career choices their equitable teaching practices in the classroom are important to encourage all students, but especially girls, to continue with science. Researchers have studied science classrooms and have defined common strategies and practices that can help create an equitable classroom environment. The purpose of this study was to determine if high school biology student teachers could transfer learned equitable teaching strategies to actual teaching and the support conditions necessary for that transfer. Two support conditions were assessed: cooperating teacher and peer group support. Seven preservice teachers were placed into three groups. One group had both support conditions, the second group had only one condition (peer support), and the third group did not have either support condition. Both qualitative and quantitative data sources were collected. Results showed that preservice teachers could transfer learned equitable teaching into actual teaching practice. However, they were more successful in achieving the transfer if they were supervised by cooperating teachers who are sensitized to the issue of gender equity in education. Being involved in a peer support group was not as crucial to using the strategies as having a supportive cooperative teacher.
Boulay, Rachel; Parisky, Alex; Campbell, Chris
Molecular biology often uses participation in active research laboratories as a form of educational training. However, this approach to learning severely restricts access. As a way of addressing this need, the University of Hawaii launched a project to expand this model to include newly developed online training materials in addition to a hands-on laboratory experience. This paper further explores the process of material development and assessment plans. A pilot case study of a group of advanced biology teachers who embark on learning molecular biology over a four-month period through online training materials and working side-by-side with medical researchers in a laboratory is described. Teachers were positive in reporting about the many areas they gained instruction in although some feedback suggested that the initial online materials over-emphasised abstract concepts and laboratory techniques and did not adequately connect to the active research problems or local context of most interest to teachers and students. The experiences of the teachers are shared in an effort to gain insight on how teachers perceive their participation in the study.
Ahmed, Mulkah Adebisi; Moradeyo, Ismail; Abimbola, Isaac Olakanmi
The study investigated the Assessment of perceived academic and incentive needs of senior secondary school biology teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select two hundred and fifty (250) biology teachers from the three senatorial district of Kwara State. A questionnaire was prepared, validated and used…
Vener, Arthur M.; Krupka, Lawrence R.
Reports on a study to determine the level of knowledge college students possessed about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Concluded that overall enhancement of knowledge occurred among young adults and that mass media was partially responsible. Lists biological terms necessary for understanding the disease. (RT)
Verjovsky, Janet; Waldegg, Guillermina
This article explores the beliefs and practices of a high school biology teacher through three interrelated theoretical frameworks: common knowledge, collaborative learning, and communities of practice. The data were obtained from an in-depth case study of Maria, a biology teacher from a Mexican public high school that was participating in a 4-year international science project using collaborative learning and information and communication technology. Her beliefs and practices were explored by means of questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and nonparticipant observation of classes. Through the use of the three-component framework, the degrees of coherence between practice and beliefs that guide the teacher's daily behavior became apparent, as well as the difficulties of incorporating innovations due to institutional constraints.
Howarth, Richard T.
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is considered to be the unifying theory for all life sciences (American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS, 1990; National Academy of Sciences, 1998; National Research Council, NRC, 1996; National Science Teachers Association, NSTA, 2010a) and as such, the biology topic has been…
Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.
This book is the teacher's edition to the 1987 edition of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Green Version textbook. It contains directions for teaching with this version, a description of the accompanying materials, teaching strategies by chapters, lists of useful software, safety guidelines, a materials list, chemical safety information,…
Scheuch, Martin; Panhuber, Tanja; Winter, Silvia; Kelemen-Finan, Julia; Bardy-Durchhalter, Manfred; Kapelari, Suzanne
Citizen science is a rapidly growing emerging field in science and it is gaining importance in education. Therefore, this study was conducted to document the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of biology teachers who participated in a citizen science project involving observation of wild bees and identification of butterflies. In this paper,…
Evolution is the cornerstone of biological sciences, but anti-evolution teaching has become a global controversy since the introduction of evolutionary ideas into the United States high school science curricula in 1914. It is suggested that teachers' attitude toward and acceptance of the theory of evolution will influence their effect of teaching…
Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle; Park Rogers, Meredith
This study investigates a project-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching evolution to inform efforts in teacher preparation. Data analysis of a secondary biology educator teaching evolution through a PBL approach illuminated: (1) active student voice, which allowed students to reflect on their positioning on evolution and consider multiple…
Eija, Yli-Panula; Eila, Jeronen; Pongsakdi, Nonmanut
Individuals' perceptions of their knowledge can have an important role in shaping their cognition and influencing their behaviour. However, there has been a scarcity of studies in biology on how perceived knowledge relates to actual knowledge. The focus of this article is on quantitative results analysing and interpreting student teachers'…
This study investigated pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the physics, chemistry, and biology topics. These topics were the light and sound, the physical and chemical changes, and reproduction, growth, and evolution. Qualitative research design was utilized. Data were collected from 33 pre-service science teachers…
Hall, Donald A.
One of the primary goals in many teacher education programs is to design and to implement specific courses, strategies, and methods that promote positive attitude toward science and science teaching among elementary education majors. This paper describes the effects of a biology content course, patterned after innovative elementary school science…
Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit
The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…
Raimist, Roger J.
Designed to assist the teacher who wishes to use marine organisms for biological laboratory investigations, this manual includes general information on maintaining marine aquaria and collecting marine organisms as well as five tested laboratory exercises. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen consumption (giving techniques for…
This study was conducted within the scope of the General Biology Laboratory II course, which was taught in the Science Teaching Department in the Spring semester of the 2016-2017 academic year. The study group consisted of 40 teacher candidates in their second year in the Science Teaching Department at a state university in Konya. The purpose of…
Kurt, Hakan; Ekici, Gulay; Aktas, Murat; Aksu, Ozlem
In researches, the subject of respiration has been determined to be among subjects about whom participants from all educational levels struggle to form their cognitive structures and have many alternative conceptions. This research was carried out in order to determine biology student teachers' cognitive structures and alternative conceptions…
Kurt, Hakan; Ekici, Gulay; Aksu, Ozlem; Aktas, Murat
The purpose of this study is to determine biology student teachers' cognitive structure with regard to "Blood". Qualitative research method has been used. The free word association test and the draw-write technique have been used in collection of data. The data obtained have been evaluated and divided into categories based on content…
Yuruk, Nejla; Selvi, Meryem; Yakisan, Mehmet
Purpose of Study: The aim of this study is to investigate the nature of pre-service biology teachers' metaconceptual processes that were active as they participated in metaconceptual teaching activities. Methods: Several instructional activities, including poster drawing, concept mapping, group and class discussions, and journal writing, were…
Ardi, A.; Fadilah, M.; Ichsani, W.
This research aimed to reveal how the relationship between metacognitive ability and the test result of biology teacher competence in Sijunjung District. The population of this descriptive research were all high school biology teachers in Sijunjung District, and sample is all teachers who are members of the population, which is 23 biology teachers. The instrument used in this research are a questionnaire of research on teacher's metacognitive ability and document about teacher competence test result. The questionnaire was validated first by two lecturers of biology and one lecturer of English. Data analysis using Pearson Product Moment's. Based on the results of research and discussion that have been described, it can generally be concluded that there is a low relationship between metacognitive ability with competence test results of high school biology teachers in Sijunjung District. Partially, the relationship of metacognitive ability with the test result of professional competence of biology teacher showed significant result, with correlation coefficient 0,46 and t table 1,72 while titung 2,37. The contribution of metacognitive ability to the competence test result of the teacher is 21.6%, while the other 78.4% have not been revealed in this research.
Lebec, Michael Thomas
Due to discipline specific shortages, web-based learning has been proposed as a convenient way to upgrade the content knowledge of instructors interested in learning to teach science. Despite quantitative evidence that web-based instruction is equivalent to traditional methods, questions remain regarding its use. The efficiency and practicality of this approach with teachers in particular has not been extensively studied. This investigation examines learning in an online biology course designed to help teachers prepare for science certification exams. Research questions concern flow teachers learn biology in the online environment and how this setting influences the learning process. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies are employed in an attempt to provide a more complete perspective than typical studies of online learning. Concept maps, tests, and online discussion transcripts are compared as measures of assimilated knowledge, while interviews reflect participants' views on the course. Findings indicate that participants experienced gains in declarative knowledge, but little improvement with respect to conditional knowledge. Qualitative examination of concept maps demonstrates gaps in participants' understandings of key course ideas. Engagement in the use of online resources varied according to participants' attitudes towards online learning. Subjects also reported a lack of motivation to fully engage in the course due to busy teaching schedules and the absence of accountability.
Kruger, Mirko; Won, Mihye; Treagust, David F.
In the age of educational accountability, national and statewide measures are assumed to secure and improve the educational quality. However, educators often wonder how much a new accountability measure may improve the actual teaching and learning practices when the agents of change (teachers) are not active participants of such educational…
Perrault, Anne Marie
The purpose of this study was to examine biology teachers' perceptions of how their online information seeking practices influence their instructional planning. When teachers engage in activities to locate, evaluate, and use online information and resources, a myriad of inter-related and often inseparable consequences follows. These influences may be any combination of direct/indirect, desirable/undesirable, or anticipated/unanticipated (Rogers, 2003). This exploratory study collected baseline data regarding teachers' online practices and its influence on their practice. There were two phases of data collection in this study. Phase I was an online survey of more than seventy New York State biology teachers. The survey was intended to capture (1) a snapshot of the biology teachers' online information seeking practices during the summer and fall 2004, and (2) their perceptions regarding how their online practices influenced their instructional planning. In Phase II, ten study participants were interviewed in order to explore in greater detail the consequences of their online information seeking practices on their instructional planning. Four themes reflecting the consequences of teachers' information seeking practices emerged from the data analysis: Currency of Information; Sparking of Ideas and Gaining Personal Knowledge; Resource Management and the Role of Time; and Webs of Sharing. Each theme encompassed both the purposeful and the indirect actions by teachers to access knowledge and resources to refine and improve their instructional planning. This study's findings show that teachers are using a greater number and wider range of current and multi-modal resources than pre-Internet and they perceive this as an advantage in creating authentic, inquiry-based learning experiences. A notable discovery was of the under-use by teachers of educational online resources specifically designed to support teaching and learning activities (e.g., digital libraries, online
Goldenberg, Lauren B.; Culp, Katherine McMillan; Clements, Margaret; Pasquale, Marian; Anderson, Alice
One chronic challenge facing professional development providers is the need to convene and support groups of role-alike K-12 teachers who require similar kinds of discipline-and grade-level-specific training. Online courses have become an increasingly common way to meet this challenge. This article reports on a randomized control trial that tested…
Brown, Robert T., Ed.; Clark, Barbara G., Ed.
This guide contains a collection of laboratory and field inquiries designed to promote ecological awareness, sensitivity, and understanding. The activities compiled by 28 teachers are for use in teaching biology at the secondary level. They are presented in a "recipe" form to make it possible for teachers without prior experience or training to…
Dekker, Sanne; Jolles, Jelle
This study evaluated a new teaching module about "Brain and Learning" using a controlled design. The module was implemented in high school biology classes and comprised three lessons: (1) brain processes underlying learning; (2) neuropsychological development during adolescence; and (3) lifestyle factors that influence learning performance. Participants were 32 biology teachers who were interested in "Brain and Learning" and 1241 students in grades 8-9. Teachers' knowledge and students' beliefs about learning potential were examined using online questionnaires. Results indicated that before intervention, biology teachers were significantly less familiar with how the brain functions and develops than with its structure and with basic neuroscientific concepts (46 vs. 75% correct answers). After intervention, teachers' knowledge of "Brain and Learning" had significantly increased (64%), and more students believed that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory). This emphasizes the potential value of a short teaching module, both for improving biology teachers' insights into "Brain and Learning," and for changing students' beliefs about intelligence.
Bravo, Paulina; Cofré, Hernán
This work explores how pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) on evolution was modified by two biology teachers who participated in a professional development programme (PDP) that included a subsequent follow-up in the classroom. The PDP spanned a semester and included activities such as content updates, collaborative lesson planning, and the presentation of planned lessons. In the follow-up part, the lessons were videotaped and analysed, identifying strategies, activities, and conditions based on student learning about the theory of evolution. Data were collected in the first round with an interview before the training process, identifying these teachers' initial content representation (CoRe) for evolution. Then, a group interview was conducted after the lessons, and, finally, an interview of stimulated recall with each teacher was conducted regarding the subject taught to allow teachers to reflect on their practice (final CoRe). This information was analysed by the teachers and the researchers, reflecting on the components of the PCK, possible changes, and the rationale behind their actions. The results show that teachers changed their beliefs and knowledge about the best methods and strategies to teach evolution, and about students' learning obstacles and misconceptions on evolution. They realised how a review of their own practices promotes this transformation.
Smith, Wade Clay, Jr.
The primary goals of this dissertation were to determine the relationships between interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes. The instrument used to collect student perceptions of teacher interpersonal teaching behaviors was the Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI). The instrument used to assess student affective learning outcomes was the Biology Student Affective Instrument (BSAI). The interpersonal teaching behavior data were collected using students as the observers. 111 students in an urban influenced, rural high school answered the QTI and BSAI in September 1997 and again in April 1998. At the same time students were pre and post tested using the Biology End of Course Examination (BECE). The QTI has been used primarily in European and Oceanic areas. The instrument was also primarily used in educational stratified environment. This was the first time the BSAI was used to assess student affective learning outcomes. The BECE is a Texas normed cognitive assessment test and it is used by Texas schools districts as the end of course examination in biology. The interpersonal teaching behaviors model was tested to ascertain if predictive power in the USA and in a non-stratified educational environment. Findings indicate that the QTI is an adequate predictor of student achievement in biology. The results were not congruent with the non-USA data and results, this indicates that the QTI is a society/culturally sensitive instrument and the instrument needs to be normed to a particular society/culture before it is used to affect teachers' and students' educational environments.
Novikasari, Ifada; Darhim, Didi Suryadi
This study explored the characteristics of pre-service primary teachers (PSTs) influenced by mathematical belief and mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) PSTs'. A qualitative approach was used to investigate the levels of PSTs on mathematical belief and MKT. The two research instruments used in this study were an interview-based task and a…
Milano, Regina Nicole
The lack of resolution in the on-going animal dissection debate inspired this mixed methods study to identify Connecticut secondary biology teachers' dissection practices and the influences that lead to their adoption. Qualitative findings indicate past experiences, managing objections to dissection, school culture, goals of biology teaching and ethics as major influences on dissection practices with 58.4% (n=7) of the sample dissecting and 41.6% not dissecting (n=5). Quantitative findings reveal gender, standards and curriculum, advantages of dissection and experiences as a student as major influences on dissection practices with 71.9% (n=92) of the sample dissecting and 28.1% (n=36) not dissecting. The study concludes that dissection policies are necessary and imminent in Connecticut school districts. Furthermore, it advises teacher-initiated, qualitative and quantitative assessments to expose disparities between student dissection perspectives and their own, prior to conducting dissection. Finally, it provides suggestions for addressing potential differences including administrative involvement.
Kampourakis, Kostas; Silveira, Patricia; Strasser, Bruno J.
Research suggests that students tend to explain the origin of biological traits in terms of needs or purposes and/or as the direct product of genes, rather than as the outcome of evolutionary and developmental processes. We suggest that in order for students to be able to construct scientific explanations, it is important to clearly and explicitly…
Mutsune, Myra Kanaidza
Until 1982, achievement in A-level biology in Kenya was measured by an examination which consisted of four papers, three measuring theory work and one measuring practical skills. In 1982, a three paper examination was developed, the first two papers measuring theory and the third paper measuring practical skills. Based on the change in the test…
Deniz, Hasan; Donnelly, Lisa A.; Yilmaz, Irfan
In this study, using multiple regression analysis, we aimed to explore the factors related to acceptance of evolutionary theory among preservice Turkish biology teachers using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical lens. We aimed to determine the extent to which we can account for the variance in acceptance of evolutionary…
Günes, M. Handan
This study has been carried out with the aim of researching dominant learning styles of the students studying at the biology departments of the faculty of science or the faculty of arts and sciences as well as the dominant learning styles of the prospective biology teachers studying at the faculty of education of universities in Turkey, by taking…
Science content area literacy, particularly literacy development in college level biology, is the focus of this study. The study investigates the actions and activities of an instructor and six students over the course of 16 weeks. The study is in response to interest in the literate practices in science classes (NSES, 1996) and to the call for contextual studies that facilitate the learning of science (Borasi & Siegel, 1999; Moje, 1996; Nist & Holschuh, 1996; Prentiss, 1998). A collaborative study between the biology teacher and the researcher, this study investigates the practices believed to be effective for the development of biology literacy. Data sources, in the qualitative bounded case study (Bogdin & Biklin, 1982; Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Miles & Huberman, 1994), include: field notes of classroom observations, in-depth interviews (Seidman, 1992), class surveys, and literate artifacts. The data were coded and analyzed using a constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The six students reveal similarities and differences regarding the actions, patterns, practices and use of materials and their beliefs about effective practice in the development of biology literacy. The results indicate that a variety of actions and activities are needed to facilitate the development of biology literacy. The common themes to develop from the students' data about effective teacher actions are the following: (a) involves and engages students in inquiry learning through group projects, hands-on, and group discussions; (b) relates examples, experiences, and stories; (c) exhibits expertise; (d) encourages a relaxed classroom atmosphere; (e) facilitates and coaches students; and (f) credits creativity. Further, students report their teacher to be an expert, in terms of science knowledge and literate practices, and that her expertise contributes to their understanding of biology literacy. The teachers' data reveals three themes embedded in her classroom actions: science as
Hayat, M. S.; Rustaman, N. Y.
This study was to investigate the inquiry skills of biology pre-service teachers in one teachers college in Central Java in biotechnology lecture. The method used is a case study of 29 biology preservice teacher. Data were collected using observation sheets, questionnaires, and interview guidelines. Research findings collected through questionnaires show that most students are accustomed to asking questions and formulating biotechnology issues; Skilled in conducting experiments; Skilled in obtaining relevant information from various sources; As well as skilled at processing, analyzing and interpreting data. Based on observation: lectures are not dominated by lecturers, students are able to solve problems encountered and conduct investigations. Based on the interview towards lecturers: students are always actively involved in questioning, investigation, inquiry, problem solving and experimenting in lectures. Why do most students show good inquiry skills? Because students are accustomed to invited inquiry in biology lectures. The impact, the students become more ready to be invited to do more advanced inquiry, such as real-world application inquiry, because the skill of inquiry is essentially trained.
Großschedl, Jörg; Mahler, Daniela; Kleickmann, Thilo; Harms, Ute
Teachers' content-related knowledge is a key factor influencing the learning progress of students. Different models of content-related knowledge have been proposed by educational researchers; most of them take into account three categories: content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and curricular knowledge. As there is no consensus about the empirical separability (i.e. empirical structure) of content-related knowledge yet, a total of 134 biology teachers from secondary schools completed three tests which were to capture each of the three categories of content-related knowledge. The empirical structure of content-related knowledge was analyzed by Rasch analysis, which suggests content-related knowledge to be composed of (1) content knowledge, (2) pedagogical content knowledge, and (3) curricular knowledge. Pedagogical content knowledge and curricular knowledge are highly related (rlatent = .70). The latent correlations between content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (rlatent = .48)-and curricular knowledge, respectively (rlatent = .35)-are moderate to low (all ps < .001). Beyond the empirical structure of content-related knowledge, different learning opportunities for teachers were investigated with regard to their relationship to content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and curricular knowledge acquisition. Our results show that an in-depth training in teacher education, professional development, and teacher self-study are positively related to particular categories of content-related knowledge. Furthermore, our results indicate that teaching experience is negatively related to curricular knowledge, compared to no significant relationship with content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge.
White, Robert C.; And Others
The data show that biology teachers spend relatively little time on diseases of the cardiovascular system. Approximately one period per year is spent on each of eight given cardiovascular disease risk factors. (MP)
The work presented here represents a preliminary attempt to address the role of teachers in supporting students' learning on socio-scientific issues (SSI) by characterising pre-service biology teachers' perceptions and adaptation of curriculum and identifying factors that serve to mediate this process. A hundred and two undergraduate pre-service…
Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Athanasiou, Kyriacos
The self-efficacy beliefs of in-service elementary school teachers in Greece were examined in an attempt to evaluate their biology teaching skills. For this purpose, we constructed a valid and reliable instrument consisting of a Likert-type questionnaire that was distributed to the target population and to which 202 teachers responded. Results…
This study aimed to describe preservice and experienced secondary biology teachers' global and specific subject matter structures (SMSs) and elucidate the relationship between these structures and teaching experience. Teachers' global and specific SMSs respectively designate their conceptions and/or organization of their disciplines and of…
Journal of Biological Education, 2014
As education in England emerges from a major curriculum review (DfE 2013), the next few years will see significant changes in what is taught in schools and how this is assessed. As a core subject, under the current proposals, all students, from the beginning of primary school until age 16, will study science in some detail. Biology is an exciting,…
Teacher quality largely determines student outcomes and many argue for high quality teacher training and professional development (PD). Much PD has been heavily critiqued and what constitutes effective provision for teachers remains contested. Disenfranchisement of teachers, through neglect of prior expertise and failure to acknowledge teachers'…
Purwianingsih, W.; Muthmainnah, E.; Hidayat, T.
Genetics is one of the topics or subject matter in biology that are considered difficult. Student difficulties of understanding genetics, can be caused by lack of understanding this concept and the way of teachers teach. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) is a way to understand the complex relationships between teaching and content taught through the use of specific teaching approaches. The aims of study was to analyze genetic PCK ability profile of prospective biology teacher.13 student of sixth semester Biology education department who learned Kapita Selekta Biologi SMA course, participated in this study. PCK development was measured by CoRes (Content Representation). Before students fill CoRes, students are tested mastery genetic concepts through a multiple-choice test with three tier-test. Data was obtained from the prior CoRes and its revisions, as well as the mastery concept in pre and post test. Results showed that pre-test of genetic mastery concepts average on 55.4% (low category) and beginning of the writing CoRes, student get 43.2% (Pra PCK). After students get lecture and simulating learning, the post-test increased to 63.8% (sufficient category) and PCK revision is also increase 58.1% (growing PCK). It can be concluded that mastery of subject matter could affects the ability of genetic PCK.
Daly, Anthony L.; Baird, Jo-Anne; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Meadows, Michelle
This paper describes an exploration into a reform of the A-level qualification in England in 2008; namely, the introduction of the "stretch and challenge" policy. This policy was initiated by the exams regulator and determined that exam papers should be redesigned to encourage the application of higher order thinking skills, both in the…
Teachers are the most important factor in student learning (National Research Council, 1996); yet little is known about the specialized knowledge held by experienced teachers. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to make explicit the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching diffusion and osmosis held by experienced biology teachers and, second, to reveal how topic-specific PCK informs teacher practice. The Magnusson et al. (1999) PCK model served as the theoretical framework for the study. The overarching research question was: When teaching lessons on osmosis and diffusion, how do experienced biology teachers draw upon their topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge? Data sources included observations of two consecutive lessons, three semi-structured interviews, lesson plans, and student handouts. Data analysis indicated five of the six teachers held a constructivist orientation to science teaching and engaged students in explorations of diffusion and osmosis prior to introducing the concepts to students. Explanations for diffusion and osmosis were based upon students' observations and experiences during explorations. All six teachers used representations at the molecular, cellular, and plant organ levels to serve as foci for explorations of diffusion and osmosis. Three potential learning difficulties identified by the teachers included: (a) understanding vocabulary terms, (b) predicting the direction of osmosis, and (c) identifying random molecular motion as the driving force for diffusion and osmosis. Participants used student predictions as formative assessments to reveal misconceptions before instruction and evaluate conceptual understanding during instruction. This study includes implications for teacher preparation, research, and policy.
The aim of this article is to investigate and analyse the cultural boundaries of school biology, and to a certain extent the natural science subjects in general, in two Swedish curriculum reforms, from the viewpoint of the Swedish Association of Biology Teachers (ABT). Thomas Gieryn's concept of boundary-work is thus used in analysing how the ABT…
Barnett, Ellen; Friedrichsen, Patricia J.
Research suggests discipline-specific, educative mentoring can help preservice teachers develop more sophisticated pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). However, there are few studies examining the nature of mentors' practice and how mentors influence preservice teacher's (PST) PCK. The purpose of this case study was to describe the strategies used by a secondary biology mentor teacher to support the development of a PST's PCK. The primary data sources were the transcripts of audio-recorded, daily meetings between the mentor and the PST during two curriculum units: DNA/Protein Synthesis and Evolution. The mentor influenced the PST's teaching orientation by repeatedly comparing teacher- and student-centered approaches, asking him to consider how students learn, and asking him to self-assess whether his instruction aligned with his teaching beliefs. The mentor helped the PST develop topic-specific knowledge of instructional strategies by sharing strategies she used previously, modeling critical reflection, and inviting him to critically reflect on his own instructional strategies. Topic-specific knowledge of students' understanding of science was developed by discussing common student misconceptions revealed in students' conversations and by sharing the results of test-item analysis from previous unit tests. The mentor helped develop the PST's topic-specific knowledge of assessment by helping him critically analyze and revise previous examinations to better align with the current curriculum units. Topic-specific knowledge of curricula was developed by jointly grappling with decisions about concept sequencing within units. The study includes implications for research, science teacher education, and professional development for mentors.
Kusnadi, K.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Redjeki, S.; Aryantha, I. N. P.
The implementation of the inquiry laboratory based project to enhance scientific inquiry literacy of prospective biology teachers in Microbiology course has been done. The inquiry lab based project was designed by three stages were debriefing of basic microbiology lab skills, guided inquiry and free inquiry respectively. The Study was quasi experimental with control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects were prospective biology teachers consists of 80 students. The scientific inquiry literacy instrument refers to ScInqLiT by Wenning. The results showed that there was significant difference of scientific inquiry literacy posttest scores between experiment and control (α 0,05) and was obtained N-gain score was 0.49 (medium) to experiment and 0.24 (low) to control. Based on formative assessment showed that development of student’s scientific attitude, research and microbiology lab skills during conducting project were increased. Student’s research skills especially in identification of variables, constructing a hypothesis, communicating and concluding were increased. During implementation of inquiry project also showed that they carried out mind and hands-on and so collaborative group investigation lab activities. Our findings may aid in reforming higher-education, particularly in microbiology laboratory activities to better promote scientific inquiry literacy, scientific attitude, research and laboratory skills.
With the advent of computers into scholastic classrooms, virtual dissection has become a potential educational tool in high school biology lab settings. Utilizing non-experimental survey research methodology, this study attempted to identify factors that may influence high school biology teachers to use or not to use a virtual dissection. A 75-item research survey instrument consisting of both demographic background and Likert style questions was completed by 215 high school members of the National Association of Biology Teachers. The survey responses provided data to answer the research questions concerning the relationship between the likelihood of a high school biology teacher using a virtual dissection and a number of independent variables from the following three categories: (a) demographics, (b) attitude and experience, and (c) resources and support. These data also allowed for the determination of a demographic profile of the sample population. The demographic profile showed the sample population of high school biology teachers to be two-thirds female, mature, highly educated and very experienced. Analysis of variance and Pearson product moment correlational statistics were used to determine if there was a relationship between high school biology teachers' likelihood to use a virtual dissection and the independent variables. None of the demographic or resource and support independent variables demonstrated a strong relationship to the dependent variable of teachers' likelihood to use a virtual dissection. Three of the attitude and experience independent variables showed a statistically significant (p < .05) relationship to teachers' likelihood to use a virtual dissection: attitude toward virtual dissection, previous use of a virtual dissection and intention to use a real animal dissection. These findings may indicate that teachers are using virtual dissection as a supplement rather than a substitute. It appears that those concerned with promoting virtual
Koksal, Mustafa Serdar
The degree to which pre-service teachers learn biology is related to both motivational factors of self-regulation and factors regarding epistemological beliefs. At the same time, self-regulation and epistemological beliefs are also associated with one another. Based on this relationship, the purpose of this study was to investigate the…
Schellenberger, Lauren Brownback
Group processing is a key principle of cooperative learning in which small groups discuss their strengths and weaknesses and set group goals or norms. However, group processing has not been well-studied at the post-secondary level or from a qualitative or mixed methods perspective. This mixed methods study uses a phenomenological framework to examine the experience of group processing for students in an undergraduate biology course for preservice teachers. The effect of group processing on students' attitudes toward future group work and group processing is also examined. Additionally, this research investigated preservice teachers' plans for incorporating group processing into future lessons. Students primarily experienced group processing as a time to reflect on past performance. Also, students experienced group processing as a time to increase communication among group members and become motivated for future group assignments. Three factors directly influenced students' experiences with group processing: (1) previous experience with group work, (2) instructor interaction, and (3) gender. Survey data indicated that group processing had a slight positive effect on students' attitudes toward future group work and group processing. Participants who were interviewed felt that group processing was an important part of group work and that it had increased their group's effectiveness as well as their ability to work effectively with other people. Participants held positive views on group work prior to engaging in group processing, and group processing did not alter their atittude toward group work. Preservice teachers who were interviewed planned to use group work and a modified group processing protocol in their future classrooms. They also felt that group processing had prepared them for their future professions by modeling effective collaboration and group skills. Based on this research, a new model for group processing has been created which includes extensive
Aiemsum-ang, Napapan; Yuenyong, Chokchai
This paper aimed to investigate the existing ideas of nature of science (NOS) teaching in Thailand biology classroom. The study reported the existing ideas of nature of science (NOS) teaching of one biology teacher Mrs. Mali who had been teaching for 6 years at in a school in Khon Kaen city. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. Tools of interpretation included 2 months of classroom observation, interviewing, and questionnaire of NOS. The findings revealed Mali held good understanding of the nature of science in the aspect of the use of evidence, the aspect of knowledge inquiry through different observation and deduction, the aspect of creativity and imagination influencing science knowledge inquiry, and the aspect of changeable scientific knowledge. Her biology teaching indicated that she used both the deficient nature of science approach and the implicit nature of science approach. The implicit nature of science approach was applied mostly in 7 periods and only 2 periods were arranged using the deficient nature of science approach. The paper has implication for professional development and pre-service program on NOS teaching in Thailand.
Barquilla, Manuel B.
This study is a qualitative-quantitative research, where the main concern is to investigate Content knowledge representation of Filipino Teachers in their schema (proposition, linear ordering and imagery) of some biology topics. The five biology topics includes: Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, human reproductive system, Mendelian genetics and NonMendelian genetics. The study focuses on the six (6) biology teachers and a total of 222 students in their respective classes. Of the Six (6) teachers, three (3) are under the Science curriculum and three (3) under regular curriculum in both public and private schools in Iligan city and Lanao del Norte, Philippines. The study utilizes interpretative case-study method, bracketing method, and concept analysis for qualitative part. For quantitative, it uses a nonparametric statistical tool, Kendall's Tau to determine congruence of students and teachers' concept maps and paired t-test for testing the significant differences of pre-and post-instruction concept maps to determine the effects of students' conceptual understanding before and after the teacher's representation of their schema that requires the teachers' thinking processes. The data were cross-validated with two or more techniques used in the study. The data collection entailed seven (7) months immersion: one (1) month for preliminary phase for the researcher to gain teachers' and students' confidence and the succeeding six (6) months for main observation and data collection. Results indicate that the teacher utilize six methods to construct meaning of concepts, three methods of representing classification, four methods to represent relationships, seven methods to represent transformation and three methods to represent causation in planning and implementing the lessons. They often modify definitions in the textbook and express these in lingua franca to be better understood by the students. Furthermore, the teachers' analogs given to student are sometimes far
For the past 15 years Kansas State University has offered a course in modern physics for students who are not majoring in physics. This course carries a prerequisite of one physics course so that the students have a basic introduction in classical topics. The majors of students range from liberal arts to engineering. Future secondary science teachers whose first area of teaching is not physics can use the course as part of their study of science. The course has evolved from a lecture format to one which is highly interactive and uses a combination of hands-on activities, tutorials and visualizations, particularly the Visual Quantum Mechanics materials. Another course encourages biology students to continue their physics learning beyond the introductory course. Modern Miracle Medical Machines introduces the basic physics which underlie diagnosis techniques such as MRI and PET and laser surgical techniques. Additional information is available at http://www.phys.ksu.edu/perg/
Haskell, Deborah Harris
As teachers implement the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) many have to reform the instructional methods they have used throughout their careers. This case study examines the transformation of Laurie, a 20-year teacher, during her first year of change from a "traditional" textbook/lecture style of teaching to a facilitator of an inquiry-based classroom. Implementing change requires not only pedagogical expertise, but also the belief that the modifications can be made and that the outcomes are significant. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory as a framework, changes in Laurie's self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and motivation are followed throughout the transition. During her first year of change, Laurie used worksheets, small group activities, and guided inquiry activities, all strategies in which she had high self-efficacy and experienced positive student outcomes. She rarely used class forums, authentic assessment, and formative assessment. Factors that influenced her change were experiential professional development opportunities that allowed her to practice inquiry-based techniques, a change in her teaching environment from college prep chemistry to tech prep biology, autonomy regarding classroom decisions, and reflective decision making as she learned through experience. Using a standards-based biology textbook increased her self-efficacy toward using inquiry-based practices. The textbook format of embedding text in activities rather than adding activities to the text resulted in an increase of the number and frequency of activities done. Facilitating the textbook's Guided Inquiries and Extended Inquiries helped Laurie gain experience with inquiry-based methods. She also realized that when building from the students' concrete experiences, her students were able to attain higher-level thinking skills. The study revealed six factors contributing to Laurie's change process: (a) experiential professional development, (b) motivation for change
Eckes, Alexander; Großmann, Nadine; Wilde, Matthias
The transition from elementary school to the upper grades can lead to ambiguous feelings toward the new, male teachers. This study investigated whether collaborative animal care in biology lessons affects students' feelings of relatedness toward their biology teachers positively during the first year after the school transition. Four hundred twenty fifth graders (M age = 10.5 years, SD age = 0.6 years) of higher types of tracking participated. We designed one experimental group that involved caring for the living animals to be used in the upcoming lessons, and two control groups. The first control group included lessons with living animals, but did not include prior care of those animals, and the second incorporated neither living animals nor prior care. All groups received biology lessons with the same content. To examine the effects of caretaking, we used an adapted version of the scale "relatedness" (Ryan 1982). In both control groups, boys showed lower relatedness toward female teachers and girls toward male teachers, respectively. Collaborative mice care promoted equal relatedness across all gender combinations among teachers and students.
Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.
This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…
Kurt, Hakan; Ekici, Gülay; Aktas, Murat; Aksu, Özlem
The aim of the current study is to investigate student biology teachers' cognitive structures related to "diffusion" through the free word-association test and the drawing-writing technique. As the research design of the study, the qualitative research method was applied. The data were collected from 44 student biology teachers. The free…
Sickel, Aaron J.; Friedrichsen, Patricia
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has become a useful construct to examine science teacher learning. Yet, researchers conceptualize PCK development in different ways. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to use three analytic lenses to understand the development of three beginning biology teachers' PCK for teaching natural selection simulations. We observed three early-career biology teachers as they taught natural selection in their respective school contexts over two consecutive years. Data consisted of six interviews with each participant. Using the PCK model developed by Magnusson et al. (1999), we examined topic-specific PCK development utilizing three different lenses: (1) expansion of knowledge within an individual knowledge base, (2) integration of knowledge across knowledge bases, and (3) knowledge that explicitly addressed core concepts of natural selection. We found commonalities across the participants, yet each lens was also useful to understand the influence of different factors (e.g., orientation, subject matter preparation, and the idiosyncratic nature of teacher knowledge) on PCK development. This multi-angle approach provides implications for considering the quality of beginning science teachers' knowledge and future research on PCK development. We conclude with an argument that explicitly communicating lenses used to understand PCK development will help the research community compare analytic approaches and better understand the nature of science teacher learning.
Matic-Strametz, Mirjana; Strametz, Reinhard; Bohrt, Kevin; Ochsendorf, Falk; Weberschock, Tobias
Consumers increasingly demand to take part in healthcare decisions as described by the concept of shared decision making. In order to ensure this happens the patient must be able to critically appraise the healthcare information provided, which is called critical health literacy. Critical health literacy can be taught to patients at the onset of their disease to enable them to obtain information about interventions and alternatives. For the primary prevention of common diseases like hypertension or diabetes mellitus, though, it is necessary to empower consumers to critically appraise medical information since this information is routinely presented in the mass media. This might be achieved through educational intervention programmes at school. The study was designed as a prospective controlled trial with students in training to become biology teachers at Siegen University (Germany). The intervention group received a short-term educational intervention (24 units) in human biology based on the principles of Evidence-based Medicine (EbM) and Good Scientific Practice (GSP) combined with elements of problem-based learning. The control group received a short-term intervention in human biology of equal duration, but without the elements of EbM and GSP. Knowledge and skills were evaluated by validated questionnaires and case studies in a pre-, interim, and post-interventional test in both groups. In addition, biology trainee teachers in the intervention group also planned and conducted a one-hour problem-based learning session with high school students, which was evaluated by video. The increase in knowledge (7.9±3.8 points vs. 2.7±2.5 points, p≤0.001) and appraisal skills (24.1±6.7 points vs. 14.6±6.3, p≤0.001) after the intervention was relevant and significant compared to baseline results and also compared to the control group that did not show any significant progress in knowledge (3.9±2.4 points vs. 2.7±1.7) and appraisal skills (16.2±5.9 points vs. 14.4±5
Silverman, Philip M.
We examine the science and pedagogy behind a historical approach to the professional development of pre-college science (primarily biology) teachers. Our intention is to reach professional scientists, who, as a group, are uniquely qualified to provide experience and insights essential to this approach. The underlying research for this article has…
Sickel, Aaron J.; Friedrichsen, Patricia
The purpose of this three-year case study was to understand how a beginning biology teacher (Alice) designed and taught a 5E unit on natural selection, how the unit changed when she took a position in a different school district, and why the changes occurred. We examined Alice's developing beliefs about science teaching and learning,…
Eilon, Batia; Kliachko, Sarah
Today, forums constitute an integral part of almost all online courses in teacher education colleges. In many of these courses the forum serves for sharing opinions, attitudes, and feelings by the learners rather than for scaffolding cognitive processes. The forum in the "Human Biology and Health" course for prospective elementary-school science…
Adedoyin, A. O.; Bello, G.
This study investigated the conceptions of the nature of science held by pre-service undergraduate biology teachers in South-West, Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined the influence of their gender on their conceptions of the nature of science. The study was a descriptive research of the survey method. The population for the study comprised…
Gnanakkan, Dionysius Joseph
This multiple case-study investigated how high school biology teachers used modern learning technologies (probes, interactive simulations and animations, animated videos) in their classrooms and why they used the learning technologies. Another objective of the study was to assess whether the use of learning technologies alleviated misconceptions…
Scott, G. W.; Furnell, J.; Murphy, C. M.; Goulder, R.
Biology teachers in a UK university expressed a majority view that student learning autonomy increases with progression through university. A minority suggested that pre-existing diversity in learning autonomy was more important and that individuals not cohorts differ in their learning autonomy. They suggested that personal experience prior to…
An opportunity for teachers to join 80 outstanding biological sciences undergraduates in a series of practical sessions and lectures at the 2010 Gatsby Plant Science Summer School has inspired the development of teaching and learning resources for use in schools. Plant scientists have a crucial role to play in society and it is hoped that the…
Frumin, Kim; Dede, Chris; Fischer, Christian; Foster, Brandon; Lawrenz, Frances; Eisenkraft, Arthur; Fishman, Barry; Jurist Levy, Abigail; McCoy, Ayana
Over the past decade, the field of teacher professional learning has coalesced around core characteristics of high quality professional development experiences (e.g. Borko, Jacobs, & Koellner, 2010. Contemporary approaches to teacher professional development. In P. L. Peterson, E. Baker, & B. McGaw (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education (Vol. 7, pp. 548-556). Oxford: Elsevier.; Darling-Hammond, Hyler, & Gardner, 2017. Effective teacher professional development. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute). Many countries have found these advances of great interest because of a desire to build teacher capacity in science education and across the full curriculum. This paper continues this progress by examining the role and impact of an online professional development community within the top-down, large-scale curriculum and assessment revision of Advanced Placement (AP) Biology, Chemistry, and Physics. This paper is part of a five-year, longitudinal, U.S. National Science Foundation-funded project to study the relative effectiveness of various types of professional development in enabling teachers to adapt to the revised AP course goals and exams. Of the many forms of professional development our research has examined, preliminary analyses indicated that participation in the College Board's online AP Teacher Community (APTC) - where teachers can discuss teaching strategies, share resources, and connect with each other - had positive, direct, and statistically significant association with teacher self-reported shifts in practice and with gains in student AP scores (Fishman et al., 2014). This study explored how usage of the online APTC might be useful to teachers and examined a more robust estimate of these effects. Findings from the experience of AP teachers may be valuable in supporting other large-scale curriculum changes, such as the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards or Common Core Standards, as well as parallel curricular shifts in other countries.
El-Hani, Charbel N.; Greca, Ileana M.
Teachers' professional development is a key factor in improving science education, but it shows limited impact when only a small number of teachers is reached, or when it focuses on only one aspect of teachers' development, such as learning science content, and is disconnected from teachers' practice. In order to increase the impact of our work on…
Gnanakkan, Dionysius Joseph
This multiple case-study investigated how high school biology teachers used modern learning technologies (probes, interactive simulations and animations, animated videos) in their classrooms and why they used the learning technologies. Another objective of the study was to assess whether the use of learning technologies alleviated misconceptions in Biology documented by American Association for the Advancement of Science. The sample consisted of eight teachers: four rural public school teachers, two public selective enrollment school teachers, and two private school teachers. Each teacher was followed for two Units of instruction. Data collected included classroom observations, field notes, student assignments and tests, teacher interviews, and pre-and post-misconception assessments. Paired t-tests were done to analyze the pre-post test data at a significance level of 0.05 and the qualitative data was analyzed using the constant comparative method. Each case study was characterized and then a cross-case analyses was done to find common themes across the different cases. Teachers were found to use the learning technologies as a tool to supplement instruction to visualize abstract processes, collect data, and explore abstract concepts and processes. Teachers were found to situate learning, use scaffolding and questioning and make students work in collaborative groups. The genetics, photosynthesis, and evolution misconceptions were better alleviated than cellular respiration. Student work that was collected demonstrated a superficial understanding of the concepts under discussion even when they had misconceptions. The teachers used the learning technologies in their classrooms for a variety of reasons: visual illustrations, time-saving measure to collect data, best way to collect data, engaging and fun for students and the interactive nature of the visualization tools and models. The study's findings had many implications for research, professional development
Micklos, David A.
This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms Ã¢ÂÂ which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, andmore » computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrÃÂ©e to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nationÃ¢ÂÂs oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales
David. A Micklos
This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms – which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, andmore » computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrée to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nation’s oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales of human
Meyer, Helen; Tabachnick, B. Robert; Hewson, Peter W.; Lemberger, John; Park, Hyun-Ju
Discusses three prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of teaching science and selected portions of their knowledge base in life science. Explores how these teachers' conceptions, along with their teaching actions, developed during the course of a teacher-education program. Contains 21 references. (Author/WRM)
Breslyn, Wayne; McGinnis, J. Randy
Teachers' use of inquiry has been studied largely without regard for the disciplines in which teachers practice. As a result, there is no theoretical understanding of the possible role of discipline in shaping teachers' conceptions and enactment of inquiry. In this mixed-methods study, conceptions and enactment of inquiry for 60 National Board…
Flanagan, Jean C.; Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Roseman, Jo Ellen
AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) is collaborating with BSCS (Biological Sciences Curriculum Study) in the development of a curriculum unit for eighth grade students that connects fundamental chemistry and biology concepts to better prepare them for high school biology. Recognizing that teachers play an influential role in…
Gungor, Sema Nur; Ozkan, Muhlis
This study examines the subjects and concepts in biology perceived to be difficult to learn and teach by 759 pre-service biology teachers registered in the pedagogical formation program at Uludag University Faculty of Education in the academic year of 2005-2016, as well as the associations that word "biology" first calls to their mind.…
This study followed a small but diverse group of biology teachers through the first two years of the pilot for a new Advanced Level Biology course--Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. SNAB aims to modernise A-level Biology using real world contexts and examples as the starting point, promoting conceptual understanding rather than factual recall,…
Adegboye, Motunrayo Catherine; Bello, Ganiyu; Abimbola, Isaac O.
There is a sustained public outcry against the persistent abysmal performance of students in biology and other science subjects at the Senior School Certificate Examinations conducted by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and the National Examinations Council (NECO). Biology is a unique science discipline with peculiar philosophical…
Werner, Sonja; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.
To obtain a general understanding of science, model use as part of National Education Standards is important for instruction. Model use can be characterized by three aspects: (1) the characteristics of the model, (2) the integration of the model into instruction, and (3) the use of models to foster scientific reasoning. However, there were no empirical results describing the implementation of National Education Standards in science instruction concerning the use of models. Therefore, the present study investigated the implementation of different aspects of model use in German biology instruction. Two biology lessons on the topic neurobiology in grade nine of 32 biology teachers were videotaped (N = 64 videos). These lessons were analysed using an event-based coding manual according to three aspects of model described above. Rasch analysis of the coded categories was conducted and showed reliable measurement. In the first analysis, we identified 68 lessons where a total of 112 different models were used. The in-depth analysis showed that special aspects of an elaborate model use according to several categories of scientific reasoning were rarely implemented in biology instruction. A critical reflection of the used model (N = 25 models; 22.3%) and models to demonstrate scientific reasoning (N = 26 models; 23.2%) were seldom observed. Our findings suggest that pre-service biology teacher education and professional development initiatives in Germany have to focus on both aspects.
Cofré, Hernán; Cuevas, Emilia; Becerra, Beatriz
Despite the importance of the theory of evolution (TE) to scientific knowledge, a number of misconceptions continue to be found among biology teachers. In this context, the first objective of this study was to identify the impact of professional development programme (PDP) on teachers' understanding of nature of science (NOS) and evolution and on…
Sickel, Aaron J.; Friedrichsen, Patricia
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has become a useful construct to examine science teacher learning. Yet, researchers conceptualize PCK development in different ways. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to use three analytic lenses to understand the development of three beginning biology teachers' PCK for teaching natural selection…
Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam
This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week…
Kwasu, I. A.; Abubakar; Ema, E.
This paper presents a profile on how teachers in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state Nigeria utilise animated instructional resource (AIR) in the teaching of biology. A structured questionnaire used to generate data on the availability, accessibility and application of the AIR for classroom instruction by teachers. The instrument for data…
Marbach-Ad, Gili; Hunt Rietschel, Carly
In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings. Our data reveal that the change process is somewhat unpredictable, requiring patience and persistence during inevitable challenges that arise for instructors and students. For example, the change process requires instructors to adopt a teacher-facilitator role as opposed to an expert role, to cover fewer course topics in greater depth, and to give students a degree of control over their own learning. Students must adjust to taking responsibility for their own learning, working collaboratively, and relinquishing the anonymity afforded by lecture-based teaching. We suggest implications for instructors wishing to change their teaching and administrators wishing to encourage adoption of learner-centered teaching at their institutions. PMID:27856550
Barnett, Ellen; Friedrichsen, Patricia J.
Research suggests discipline-specific, educative mentoring can help preservice teachers develop more sophisticated pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). However, there are few studies examining the nature of mentors' practice and "how" mentors influence preservice teacher's (PST) PCK. The purpose of this case study was to describe the…
Snakes are controversial animals emblazoned by legends, but also endangered as a result of human prejudice and fear. The author investigated gender and age-related differences in attitudes to and knowledge of snakes comparing samples of school children and pre-service teachers. It was found that although pre-service teachers had better knowledge…
Friedrichsen, Patricia J.; Abell, Sandra K.; Pareja, Enrique M.; Brown, Patrick L.; Lankford, Deanna M.; Volkmann, Mark J.
Alternative certification programs (ACPs) have been proposed as a viable way to address teacher shortages, yet we know little about how teacher knowledge develops within such programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate prior knowledge for teaching among students entering an ACP, comparing individuals with teaching experience to those…
Marbach-Ad, Gili; Hunt Rietschel, Carly
In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings. Our data reveal that the change process is somewhat unpredictable, requiring patience and persistence during inevitable challenges that arise for instructors and students. For example, the change process requires instructors to adopt a teacher-facilitator role as opposed to an expert role, to cover fewer course topics in greater depth, and to give students a degree of control over their own learning. Students must adjust to taking responsibility for their own learning, working collaboratively, and relinquishing the anonymity afforded by lecture-based teaching. We suggest implications for instructors wishing to change their teaching and administrators wishing to encourage adoption of learner-centered teaching at their institutions. © 2016 G. Marbach-Ad and C. H. Rietschel. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
The environmental education curriculum in this package emphasizes biological diversity. The curriculum contains 10 units--each dealing with a specific concept relating to biological diversity. Each unit contains hands-on activities designed to make children aware of the importance of maintaining a biologically diverse world. Some activities are…
Prasetya, A. T.; Ridlo, S.
The purpose of this study is to test the learning motivation of science instruments and compare the learning motivation of science from chemistry and biology teacher candidates. Kuesioner Motivasi Sains (KMS) in Indonesian adoption of the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ II) consisting of 25 items with a 5-point Likert scale. The number of respondents for the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) test was 312. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), determinant, Bartlett’s Sphericity, Measures of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) tests against KMS using SPSS 20.0, and Lisrel 8.51 software indicate eligible indications. However testing of Communalities obtained results that there are 4 items not qualified, so the item is discarded. The second test, all parameters of eligibility and has a magnitude of Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), P-Value for the Test of Close Fit (RMSEA <0.05), Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) was good. The new KMS with 21 valid items and composite reliability of 0.9329 can be used to test the level of learning motivation of science which includes Intrinsic Motivation, Sefl-Efficacy, Self-Determination, Grade Motivation and Career Motivation for students who master the Indonesian language. KMS trials of chemistry and biology teacher candidates obtained no significant difference in the learning motivation between the two groups.
Georgia Univ., Athens. Coll. of Education.
This is a teacher's guide for a learning module designed to integrate environmental education into ninth- and tenth-grade chemistry classes. This module and a companion social studies module were pilot tested in Gwinnett County, Georgia in 1975-76. The module is divided into four parts. Part one provides a broad overview of unit content and…
The present research aims to determine whether or not pre-service science teachers in Turkey are resistant to learning about the theory of evolution (TOE), and to understand the reasons for their acceptance or rejection of this theory. Following an intervention process, essay documents were collected from each participant ("N" = 113) and…
Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between United States (US) preservice middle school science teacher characteristics, their attitude toward a specific animal and their belief concerning the likelihood of incorporating information about that specific animal into their future science classroom. The study participants…
Becoming a teacher involves a continual process of identity development and negotiation. Expectations and norms for particular pedagogies impact and inform this development. In inquiry based classes, instructors are expected to act as learning facilitators rather than information providers. For novice inquiry instructors, developing a teacher…
Çimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Ursavas, Nazihan
The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which student teachers understand digestion and the digestive system and, subsequently, their ways of thinking, as reflected in their problem solving approaches and the justification schemes that they used to validate their claims. For this purpose, clinical interviews were conducted with 10…
Denis Çeliker, Huriye
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of designing problem-based experiments (DPBE) on the level of metacognitive skills of prospective science teachers. For this purpose, pre test-post test design, without control group, was used in the research. The research group of the study comprised 113 second-grade prospective science…
Tidemand, Sofie; Nielsen, Jan Alexis
Previous research has documented that students who engage with socioscientific issues can acquire some of the complex competences and skills typically related to scientific literacy. But an emerging field of research on science teachers' understanding and use of socioscientific issues, has documented that a range of challenges hinders the uptake…
Brinkman, Fred; Mulder, Jan
An experimental lesson is described in which student teachers verbalized preconceptions about a natural object (mushrooms) and completed personal response activities about a poem entitled "Mushrooms." The approach stimulated enhanced awareness of mushrooms and more questions about growth and reproduction. Possible applications in…
Großschedl, Jörg; Mahler, Daniela; Kleickmann, Thilo; Harms, Ute
Teachers' content-related knowledge is a key factor influencing the learning progress of students. Different models of content-related knowledge have been proposed by educational researchers; most of them take into account three categories: content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and curricular knowledge. As there is no consensus about…
Lee, Tom E.; And Others
This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…
da Silva, Paloma Rodrigues; de Andrade, Mariana A. Bologna Soares; de Andrade Caldeira, Ana Maria
Biology is a science that involves study of the diversity of living organisms. This diversity has always generated questions and has motivated cultures to seek plausible explanations for the differences and similarities between types of organisms. In biology teaching, these issues are addressed by adopting an evolutionary approach. The aim of this…
Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.
The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…
Essex, Marilyn J.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Burk, Linnea R.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Boyce, W. Thomas
The moderating effects of biological sensitivity to context (physiological and behavioral stress reactivity) on the association between the early teacher-child relationship and the development of adolescent mental health problems were examined in a community sample of 96 children. Grade 1 measures of biological sensitivity to context included physiological (i.e., slope of mean arterial pressure across a 20-30 min stress protocol) and behavioral (i.e., temperamental inhibition/disinhibition) markers. Grade 1 measures of the teacher-child relationship included positive (i.e., closeness) and negative (i.e., conflict) qualities. Mental health symptoms were assessed at Grades 1 and 7. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicated substantial association of the teacher-child relationship with the development of adolescent mental health symptoms, especially for more reactive children. In addition to teacher-child relationship main effects, all four reactivity × teacher-child relationship interaction terms were statistically significant when controlling for Grade 1 symptom severity, suggesting that both physiological and behavioral reactivity moderate the association of both adverse and supportive aspects of the teacher-child relationship with Grade 7 symptom severity over and above Grade 1 severity. There were important differences depending on which stress reactivity measure was considered. The importance of these findings for recent theoretical arguments regarding biological sensitivity to context and differential susceptibility is discussed. PMID:21262045
Avsar Erumit, Banu
This qualitative study employed a case study design (Creswell, 2014) with a high school biology teacher to examine a) the types of discourse patterns that a high school teacher was using in evolution and human genetics units, b) the purposes and cognitive features of the teacher's questions, their impact on students' subsequent responses, and the types of teacher follow ups occurred in these two units, and c) the factors that I thought might be somehow influencing the teaching and learning of these two topics in this classroom. The findings showed that lecture and recitation were the two most frequently used discourse types in the two units. Guided discussion and guided small group work in which students' ideas and questions were more welcomed than in lecture and recitation, were used only in the evolution unit, which was also unit in which the teacher used hands-on activities. In the human genetics unit, he only used worksheet-based activities, which he called paper and pencil labs. Teacher questions were posed mainly to assess the correctness of students' factual knowledge, remind them of previously covered information, and check with students to clarify the meaning of their utterances or their progress on a task. The two primary types of cognitive processes associated with students' responses were recall information and evaluate teacher's questions, mostly with a short response. The most frequently heard voice in the classroom was teacher's. Whole class interactions did not feature equal participation as some much more engaged students dominated. The results of the teacher questionnaires. teacher interviews, teacher debriefings, and lesson observations showed that Evan had an informed understanding of NOS, a high level of acceptance of evolution, and adequate understanding of evolution. The factors that seemed to negatively influence his teaching and students' engagement in that classroom included but not limited to the teacher's lack of experience in teaching
Dekker, Sanne; Jolles, Jelle
This study evaluated a new teaching module about “Brain and Learning” using a controlled design. The module was implemented in high school biology classes and comprised three lessons: (1) brain processes underlying learning; (2) neuropsychological development during adolescence; and (3) lifestyle factors that influence learning performance. Participants were 32 biology teachers who were interested in “Brain and Learning” and 1241 students in grades 8–9. Teachers' knowledge and students' beliefs about learning potential were examined using online questionnaires. Results indicated that before intervention, biology teachers were significantly less familiar with how the brain functions and develops than with its structure and with basic neuroscientific concepts (46 vs. 75% correct answers). After intervention, teachers' knowledge of “Brain and Learning” had significantly increased (64%), and more students believed that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory). This emphasizes the potential value of a short teaching module, both for improving biology teachers' insights into “Brain and Learning,” and for changing students' beliefs about intelligence. PMID:26648900
Taylor, Neil; Tulip, David
Outlines three activities for different areas of biology that can serve as motivators for students or as demonstrations. Each activity is easy to organize and uses available materials. Topics include evolution, anaerobic respiration, and heat loss. (DDR)
Lawson, Anton E.; Snitgen, Donald A.
Assessed the effect of a one-semester college biology course on the development of students (N=72) ability to reason formally and interactions among intelligence, cognitive style, and cognitive level. Includes implications for science instruction. (SK)
Pavez, José M.; Vergara, Claudia A.; Santibañez, David; Cofré, Hernán
A number of authors have recognized the importance of understanding the nature of science (NOS) for scientific literacy. Different instructional strategies such as decontextualized, hands-on inquiry, and history of science (HOS) activities have been proposed for teaching NOS. This article seeks to understand the contribution of HOS in enhancing biology teachers' understanding of NOS, and their perceptions about using HOS to teach NOS. These teachers ( N = 8), enrolled in a professional development program in Chile are, according to the national curriculum, expected to teach NOS, but have no specific NOS and HOS training. Teachers' views of NOS were assessed using the VNOS-D+ questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of two modules about science instruction and NOS. Both the pre- and the post-test were accompanied by interviews, and in the second session we collected information about teachers' perceptions of which interventions had been more significant in changing their views on NOS. Finally, the teachers also had to prepare a lesson plan for teaching NOS that included HOS. Some of the most important study results were: significant improvements were observed in teachers' understanding of NOS, although they assigned different levels of importance to HOS in these improvements; and although the teachers improved their understanding of NOS, most had difficulties in planning lessons about NOS and articulating historical episodes that incorporated NOS. The relationship between teachers' improved understanding of NOS and their instructional NOS skills is also discussed.
Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn
As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the twenty-first century skills of digital age literacy, inventive thinking, high productivity, and effective communication techniques of the students exposed to a MEGA. Three factors, as they pertained to these skills, emerged from classroom observations. Interaction with the teacher, discussion with peers, and engagement/time-on-task while playing the MEGA suggested that students playing an educational video game exhibited all of the projected twenty-first century skills while being engrossed in the embedded science content.
Integrating mathematics into science classrooms has been part of the conversation in science education for a long time. However, studies on student learning after incorporating mathematics in to the science classroom have shown mixed results. Understanding the mixed effects of including mathematics in science has been hindered by a historical focus on characteristics of integration tangential to student learning (e.g., shared elements, extent of integration). A new framework is presented emphasizing the epistemic role of mathematics in science. An epistemic role of mathematics missing from the current literature is identified: use of mathematics to represent scientific mechanisms, Mechanism Connected Mathematics (MCM). Building on prior theoretical work, it is proposed that having students develop mathematical equations that represent scientific mechanisms could elevate their conceptual understanding and quantitative problem solving. Following design and implementation of an MCM unit in inheritance, a large-scale quantitative analysis of pre and post implementation test results showed MCM students, compared to traditionally instructed students) had significantly greater gains in conceptual understanding of mathematically modeled scientific mechanisms, and their ability to solve complex quantitative problems. To gain insight into the mechanism behind the gain in quantitative problem solving, a small-scale qualitative study was conducted of two contrasting groups: 1) within-MCM instruction: competent versus struggling problem solvers, and 2) within-competent problem solvers: MCM instructed versus traditionally instructed. Competent MCM students tended to connect their mathematical inscriptions to the scientific phenomenon and to switch between mathematical and scientifically productive approaches during problem solving in potentially productive ways. The other two groups did not. To address concerns about teacher capacity presenting barriers to scalability of MCM
Oztas, Fulya; Oztas, Haydar
Misconceptions are a barrier to understanding biology hence, to promote meaningful learning, it is necessary to overcome these difficulties with the help of different instructional methods rather than traditional instructional methods. Therefore it could be very interesting to find out "how students' prior knowledge of genetics affects…
Pennock, Phyllis Haugabook; Schwartz, Renee' S.
This action research project describes the methods an African-American female instructor used when introducing biology-related video clips with a multicultural component to predominantly white pre-service elementary students. Studies show that introducing multiculturalism into classrooms is crucial for students and teachers. Multicultural…
Usen, Onodiong Mfreke
The study examined the relationship between teachers' utilization of school facilities and academic achievement of student nurses in Human Biology in schools of Nursing in Akwa Ibom State. Four (4) specific objectives, four (4) research questions and four (4) null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto survey design was…
This study examines how the implementation of a novel curriculum, that emphasizes the use of published scientific data and media to learn about human impact and ecological function, influenced ninth-grade biology teacher (N - 36) dispositions toward using data and media in their ecology and human impact lesson plans. It explores how integration of…
Schneider, Christoph; Pakzad, Ursula; Schlüter, Kisten
Teachers' pedagogical beliefs are thought to play a prominent role in determining teacher behavior. In contrast to other professions, pedagogical beliefs of teachers and students in teacher education are widely influenced by personal experiences gained in school, which has been referred to as "apprenticeship of observation" (Lortie,…
Srisawat, Akkarawat; Aiemsum-ang, Napapan; Yuenyong, Chokchai
This study was conducted on the effect of understanding and instruction of the nature of science of Ms. Wanida, a pre-service student under science education program in biology, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University. Wanida was a teaching practicum student majoring in biology at Khon Kaen University Demonstration School (Modindaeng). She was teaching biology for 38 Grade 10 students. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. The study aimed to examine 1) Wanida's understanding of the nature of science, 2) Wanida's instruction of the nature of science, 3 students' understanding of the nature of science from Wanida's instruction, and 4) the effects of Wanida's understanding and instruction of the nature of science on students' understanding of the nature of science from Wanida's instruction. Tools of interpretation included teaching observation, a semi-structured interview, open-ended questionnaire, and an observation record form for the instruction of the nature of science. The data obtained was interpreted, encoded, and classified, using the descriptive statistics. The findings indicated that Wanida held good understanding of the nature of science. She could apply the deficient nature of science approach mostly, followed by the implicit nature of science approach. Unfortunately, she could not show her teaching as explicit nature of science. However, her students' the understanding of the nature of science was good.
Rozenszajn, Ronit; Yarden, Anat
Experienced teachers possess a unique teaching knowledge comprised of an inter-related set of knowledge and beliefs that gives direction and justification to a teacher's actions. This study examined the expansion of two components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of three in-service teachers in the course of a professional development…
Beyer, Carrie J.; Delgado, Cesar; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Krajcik, Joseph
Reform efforts have emphasized the need to support teachers' learning about reform-oriented practices. Educative curriculum materials are one potential vehicle for promoting teacher learning about these practices. Educative curriculum materials include supports that are intended to promote both student "and" teacher learning. However, little is…
Research about the effect of Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) strategy on Plant Anatomy Course, which aims to improve anatomic competencies of prospective student’s biology teacher, has been done. This study used a quasi-experimental pre-test post-test control group design. The draft includes a group of students who were given a pre-test which is then followed by observing the PAL treatment process and post-test. The other students group (control) was given the pre-test and post-test only. The PAL program began with a discussion between the lecturer and the tutor about the pretest results and then discussion between the tutors and their tutees in the class about the responses items. After that, all students were assigned to answer a set of response items, and then did the posttest. The results showed that the PAL strategy can increase student’s anatomic literacy significantly and can increase student’s anatomic lab skills no significantly. Thus the PAL strategy implementation has a potential to improve student’s anatomic competencies. The generally students weaknesses were they lack practice in interpreting of research results in the graphs form and rarely shared about anatomic lab skills. All students respond positively to the PAL strategy.
The effect of student-centered and teacher-centered instruction with and without conceptual advocacy on biology students' misconceptions, achievement, attitudes toward science, and cognitive retention
Gallop, Roger Graham
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of student-centered and teacher-centered instructional strategies with and without conceptual advocacy (CA) on ninth-grade biology students' misconceptions (MIS), biology achievement (ACH), attitudes toward science (ATT), and cognitive retention of scientific method and measurement, spontaneous generation, and characteristics of living things. Students were purposively selected using intact classes and assigned to one of four treatment groups (i.e., student-centered instruction without CA, student-centered instruction with CA, teacher-centered instruction with CA, and teacher-centered instruction without CA). A modified quasi-experimental design was used in which students were not matched in the conventional sense but instead, groups were shown to be equivalent on the dependent measure via a pretest. A 5-day treatment implementation period addressed science conceptions under investigation. The treatment period was based on the number of class periods teachers at the target school actually spend teaching the biological concepts under investigation using traditional instruction. At the end of the treatment period, students were posttested using the Concepts in Biology instrument and Science Questionnaire. Eight weeks after the posttest, these instruments were administered again as a delayed posttest to determine cognitive retention of the correct biological conceptions and attitudes toward science. MANCOVA and follow-up univariate ANCOVA results indicated that student-centered instruction without CA (i.e., Group 1) did not have a significant effect on students' MIS, ACH, and ATT (F = .029, p = .8658; F = .002, p =.9688, F = .292, p = .5897, respectively). On the other hand, student-centered instruction with CA (i.e., Group 2) had a significant effect on students' MIS and ACH (F =10.33, p = .0016 and F = 10.17, p = .0017, respectively), but did not on ATT (F = .433, p = .5117). Teacher-centered instruction with
School Science Review, 1973
Some helpful ideas are proposed for use by biology teachers. Topics included are Food Webs,'' Key to Identification of Families,'' Viruses,'' Sieve Tube,'' Woodlice,'' Ecology of Oak Leaf Roller Moth,'' and Model Making.'' (PS)
School Science Review, 1972
Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)
School Science Review, 1972
Twelve new experiments in biology are described by teachers for use in classrooms. Broad areas covered include enzyme action, growth regulation, microscopy, respiration, germination, plant succession, leaf structure and blood structure. Explanations are detailed. (PS)
Cofré, Hernán; Cuevas, Emilia; Becerra, Beatriz
Despite the importance of the theory of evolution (TE) to scientific knowledge, a number of misconceptions continue to be found among biology teachers. In this context, the first objective of this study was to identify the impact of professional development programme (PDP) on teachers' understanding of nature of science (NOS) and evolution and on the acceptance of this theory. Its second objective was to study the relationship among these variables. Three instruments were used to quantify these variables: the Views of the Nature of Science Version D (VNOS D+), the Assessing Contextual Reasoning about Natural Selection (ACORN), and the Measure of Acceptance of Theory of Evolution (MATE). The results indicate that the PDP had a positive impact on teachers, significantly improving their understanding of the NOS and natural selection, as well as their acceptance of the TE. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the understanding of the NOS obtained by teachers in the first part of the PDP and the understanding and acceptance of evolution that these teachers showed at the end of the programme was determined. However, no relationship between an understanding of the NOS and gains in the understanding and acceptance of evolution was found.
Qablan, Ahmad; Al-Ruz, Jamal Abu; Theodora, Debaz; Al-Momani, Ibrahim
Many researchers emphasize the significance of employing inquiry learning in shaping preservice elementary teachers' tendencies to teach science. Using an interpretive research methodology, this study examined the influence of employing an inquiry-based teaching approach on teaching biology to preservice elementary teachers at the Hashemite…
Frumin, Kim; Dede, Chris; Fischer, Christian; Foster, Brandon; Lawrenz, Frances; Eisenkraft, Arthur; Fishman, Barry; Jurist Levy, Abigail; McCoy, Ayana
Over the past decade, the field of teacher professional learning has coalesced around core characteristics of high quality professional development experiences (e.g. Borko, Jacobs, & Koellner, 2010. Contemporary approaches to teacher professional development. In P. L. Peterson, E. Baker, & B. McGaw (Eds.), "International encyclopedia…
Conference teacher program were to enable participating teachers to: (1) understand basic human anatomy and physiology content. (2) understand appropriate...teaching methodology for American Indian students. (3) engage in classroom activities that focus on human anatomy and physiology which can be transferred and applied to their own classrooms.
Mangahas, Ana Marie E.
This mixed method study explored Christian teachers' beliefs in religious schools on evolution, their attitudes toward evolution, and their perceptions on the effect of those beliefs on the teaching of evolutionary content. Teachers (N = 52) from Association for Christian Schools International (ACSI) accredited schools in California and Hawaii…
Wieringa, Nienke; Janssen, Fred J. J. M.; Van Driel, Jan H.
In science education in the Netherlands new, context-based, curricula are being developed. As in any innovation, the outcome will largely depend on the teachers who design and implement lessons. Central to the study presented here is the idea that teachers, when designing lessons, use rules-of-thumb: notions of what a lesson should look like if…
In this study, Turkish prospective elementary science teachers' understanding of photosynthesis and cellular respiration has been analysed within the contexts of ecosystem knowledge, organism knowledge and interconnection knowledge (IK). In the analysis, concept maps developed by 74 prospective teachers were used. The study was carried out with…
Pombo, Lucia; Costa, Nilza
In this paper we report a large-scale study designed to evaluate the impact of masters courses on the professional development of science school teachers and, consequently, on the improvement of the quality of science education. The underlying assumption of this study is that masters teachers are widely recognized as assuming a relevant role to…
Stasinakis, Panagiotis K.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos
Evolution Teaching (ET) among in-service teachers in Greece was examined in an attempt to evaluate their Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Evolution teaching is a problematic issue. For this purpose, we constructed a questionnaire that was distributed to the target population and to which 181 teachers responded. We used quantitative method to…
Troyer, Donald L.; And Others
This is a reference book of curriculum and multimedia materials, equipment and supplies, professional references, and auxiliary resource material. This sourcebook attempts to meet the needs of the classroom biology teacher and is a direct response to the many questions and concerns of both biology teachers and those preparing to become teachers.…
Batiza, Ann Finney; Gruhl, Mary; Zhang, Bo; Harrington, Tom; Roberts, Marisa; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Knopp, Jonathan; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Hagedorn, Eric; Marcey, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Nelson, Dave
Biological energy flow has been notoriously difficult to teach. Our approach to this topic relies on abiotic and biotic examples of the energy released by moving electrons in thermodynamically spontaneous reactions. A series of analogical model-building experiences was supported with common language and representations including manipulatives. These materials were designed to help learners understand why electrons move in a hydrogen explosion and hydrogen fuel cell, so they could ultimately understand the rationale for energy transfer in the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. High school biology teachers attended a 2-wk Students Understanding eNergy (SUN) workshop during a randomized controlled trial. These treatment group teachers then took hydrogen fuel cells, manipulatives, and other materials into their regular biology classrooms. In this paper, we report significant gains in teacher knowledge and self-efficacy regarding biological energy transfer in the treatment group versus randomized controls. Significant effects on treatment group teacher knowledge and self-efficacy were found not only post–SUN workshop but even 1 yr later. Teacher knowledge was measured with both a multiple-choice exam and a drawing with a written explanation. Teacher confidence in their ability to teach biological energy transfer was measured by a modified form of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument, In-Service A. Professional development implications regarding this topic are discussed. PMID:23737635
Batiza, Ann Finney; Gruhl, Mary; Zhang, Bo; Harrington, Tom; Roberts, Marisa; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Knopp, Jonathan; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Hagedorn, Eric; Marcey, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Nelson, Dave
Biological energy flow has been notoriously difficult to teach. Our approach to this topic relies on abiotic and biotic examples of the energy released by moving electrons in thermodynamically spontaneous reactions. A series of analogical model-building experiences was supported with common language and representations including manipulatives. These materials were designed to help learners understand why electrons move in a hydrogen explosion and hydrogen fuel cell, so they could ultimately understand the rationale for energy transfer in the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. High school biology teachers attended a 2-wk Students Understanding eNergy (SUN) workshop during a randomized controlled trial. These treatment group teachers then took hydrogen fuel cells, manipulatives, and other materials into their regular biology classrooms. In this paper, we report significant gains in teacher knowledge and self-efficacy regarding biological energy transfer in the treatment group versus randomized controls. Significant effects on treatment group teacher knowledge and self-efficacy were found not only post-SUN workshop but even 1 yr later. Teacher knowledge was measured with both a multiple-choice exam and a drawing with a written explanation. Teacher confidence in their ability to teach biological energy transfer was measured by a modified form of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument, In-Service A. Professional development implications regarding this topic are discussed.
Sorgo, Andrej; Ambrožič-Dolinšek, Jana
The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, opinions, and attitudes toward, as well as readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among prospective primary and secondary Slovene teachers. Our findings are that prospective teachers want to take an active role in rejecting or supporting individual GMOs and are aware of the importance of education about genetically modified organism (GMO) items and their potential significance for society. Through cluster analysis, we recognized four clusters of GMOs, separated by degree of genetically modified acceptability. GM plants and microorganisms which are recognized as useful are accepted. They are undecided about organisms used in research or medicine and reject organisms used for food consumption and for fun. There are only weak correlations between knowledge and attitudes and knowledge and acceptance of GMOs, and a strong correlation between attitudes and acceptance. The appropriate strategies and actions for improving university courses in biotechnology are discussed. Copyright © 2010 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Marcus, Leanne; Plumeri, Julia; Baker, Gary M; Miller, Jon S
A previously published classroom teaching method for helping students visualize and understand Michaelis-Menten kinetics (19) was used as an anticipatory set with high school and middle school science teachers in an Illinois Math and Science Partnership Program. As part of the activity, the teachers were asked to collect data by replicating the method and to analyze and report the data. All concluded that the rate data they had collected were hyperbolic. As part of a guided inquiry plan, teachers were then prompted to reexamine the method and evaluate its efficacy as a teaching strategy for developing specific kinetic concepts. After further data collection and analysis, the teachers discovered that their data trends were not, in fact, hyperbolic, which led to several teacher-developed revisions aimed at obtaining a true hyperbolic outcome. This article outlines the inquiry process that led to these revisions and illustrates their alignment with several key concepts, such as rapid equilibrium kinetics. Instructional decisions were necessary at several key points, and these are discussed.
Vee diagrams have been a metacognitive tool to help in learning the nature and structure of knowledge by reflecting on the scientific process and making knowledge much more explicit to learners during the practical work. This study aimed to assess pre-service science teachers' understanding some aspects of NOS by analyzing their reflections on the…
DuBrul, E.F.; Lewis N.; Mesteller, P.
Many of the goals and performance objectives for elementary science deal with hands-on experiences such as observing the characteristics of living things, sorting and classifying, and measuring and recording data. Ideal environments for learning episodes that can foster these objectives are zoos and parks or nature preserves. This poster describes a program that uses the University faculty, local master elementary teachers, and Zoo staff and facilities to: (1) educate K-6 teachers about zoology, ecology, and evolution, (2) provide practical, on-site learning exercises as examples of how teachers can develop zoo visits that will be true learning experiences, (3) help themore » participants develop zoo-related exercises of classroom use, (4) show the participants the behind-the scenes work that goes on at a zoo, and (5) establish a close rapport between the teachers and a large group of professional resource persons. We present the results of evaluations and follow-up interviews, and we note the key features of this program and suggest how our experience may be used by other partnerships.« less
Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly Hunt
In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology…
Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn
As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the…
Flinders, David J.
Educational researchers and teacher educators are often concerned with immediate and practical questions. How can health teachers help youth avoid substance abuse? Should a high school biology teacher show Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth," or is that film too political for a science classroom? What sports should be included in a physical…
Schmelzing, Stephan; van Driel, Jan H.; Jüttner, Melanie; Brandenbusch, Stefanie; Sandmann, Angela; Neuhaus, Birgit J.
One main focus of teacher education research concentrates on teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). It has been shown that teachers' PCK correlates with teaching effectiveness as well as with students' achievement gains. Teachers' PCK should be analyzed as one of the main important components to evaluate professional…
With the rapid growth of online courses in higher education institutions, research on quality of learning for online courses is needed. However, there is a notable lack of research in the cited literature providing evidence that online distance education promotes the quality of independent learning to which it aspires. Previous studies focused on academic outcomes and technology applications which do not monitor students' learning processes, such as their approaches to learning. Understanding students' learning processes and factors influencing quality of learning will provide valuable information for instructors and institutions in providing quality online courses and programs. The purpose of this study was to identify and investigate college biology teachers' approaches to teaching and students' learning styles, and to examine the impact of approaches to teaching and learning styles on students' approaches to learning via online instruction. Data collection included eighty-seven participants from five online biology courses at a community college in the southern area of Texas. Data analysis showed the following results. First, there were significant differences in approaches to learning among students with different learning styles. Second, there was a significant difference in students' approaches to learning between classes using different approaches to teaching. Three, the impact of learning styles on students' approaches to learning was not influenced by instructors' approaches to teaching. Two conclusions were obtained from the results. First, individuals with the ability to perceive information abstractly might be more likely to adopt deep approaches to learning than those preferring to perceive information through concrete experience in online learning environments. Second, Teaching Approach Inventory might not be suitable to measure approaches to teaching for online biology courses due to online instructional design and technology limitations. Based on
Van Rooy, Wilhelmina
Describes the development and implementation of a senior high school biology lesson concerned with organ transplantation. Discusses the teacher's rationale and techniques for using controversial issues in science teaching. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/WRM)
Grobman, Arnold B.
Political and social implications of biological research, with particular reference to consequences for education, are discussed in this collection of papers presented at the 1969 convention of the National Association of Biology Teachers. Commentary papers by a panel of three, including at least one high school biology teacher and one expert in…
This study aimed to gain an overview of misconceptions on the concept of photosynthesis and respiration. The study involved 58 students from Biology Education of Sriwijaya University. Collecting data used written test of 16 questions, which are 10 questions of multiple choice and 6 of choice with reason. The results showed that:photosynthesis occurs continuously (37.9%), energy used for photosynthesis are light and heat energy (34.5%), plants take CO2to respiration (47%), plants carry on respiration in the absence of light for photosynthesis (22.4%), respiration in plants occurs only in leaf cells (76.4%), and only animals that take O2 of photosynthesis to respiration (68.9%). The conclusion: 1) on the concept of photosynthesis is still prevailing misconceptions about the concept of the place and time of the occurrence of photosynthesis in plants, the role of the sun in photosynthesis, energy is required in the form of photosynthesis, and the role of photosynthesis for the plant. 2) on the concept of respiration is still prevailing misconceptions about the place of the respiration in plants, gas necessary for respiration of plants, and the plants perform respiration time, as well as the cycle of CO2 and O2 that occurs in nature.
Hung, Nguyen Manh, Ed.
This volume contains 32 biology self-study learning packets designed primarily for Indochinese students in grades 9 to 12. The materials could be used by "English as a Second Language" teachers who may/may not speak one of the Indochinese languages, or by mainstream teachers who have a number of low-English-proficiency Indochinese students in…
Kiarie, Simon M.
The teachers' perceptions on environmental education play a key role on how students learn, retain and apply the knowledge, attitudes and skills in changing their perceptions of their environment. This also enhances their achievement in environmental education. This study was designed to investigate the effects of teachers' perceptions on…
Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler
A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean,…
Sorgo, Andrej; Ambrozic-Dolinsek, Jana
The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, opinions, and attitudes toward, as well as readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among prospective primary and secondary Slovene teachers. Our findings are that prospective teachers want to take an active role in rejecting or supporting individual GMOs and are aware of…
Audet, Richard H.
In October 1981, an article appeared in "The American Biology Teacher" with the catchy title, "Bio-Bull." In it, author, Dale Carlson, described a powerful form of communication that he employed successfully in his community college classes. Each week students received what he called a "Bio-Bull" that included current biological topics,…
The rapidly changing field of bioinformatics is fuelling the need for suitably trained personnel with skills in relevant biological "sub-disciplines" such as proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics, etc. But because of the complexity--and sheer weight of data--associated with these new areas of biology, many school teachers feel…
Sanders, Linda R., Ed.
One of the most valuable resources for obtaining exemplary instructional materials for the classroom is teachers. This booklet contains numerous laboratory activities compiled from submissions by recipients of the National Association of Biology Teachers' Outstanding Biology Teacher Award (1989-92). Topics are sorted into the following sections:…
This article examines why teachers should be evaluated, how teacher evaluation is perceived, and how teacher evaluation can be approached, focusing on the improvement of teacher competency rather than defining a teacher as "good" or "bad." Since the primary professional activity of a teacher is teaching, the major concern of teacher evaluation is…
Danielsson, Anna T.; Andersson, Kristina; Gullberg, Annica; Hussénius, Anita; Scantlebury, Kathryn
In this article we explore the places pre- and primary school (K-6) student teachers associate with their science learning experiences and how they view the relationship between these places and science. In doing so, we use `place' as an analytical entry point to deepen the understanding of pre- and primary school student teachers' relationship to science. Inspired by theories from human geography we firstly explore how the university science classroom can be conceptualised as a meeting place, where trajectories of people as well as artefacts come together, using this conceptualisation as the stepping stone for arguing the importance of the place-related narrations of science the students bring to this classroom. We thereafter analyse how a sense of place, including affective dimensions, is reflected in Swedish student teachers' science learning narratives (collected in the form of an essay assignment where the student teachers' reflected upon their in and out of school science learning experiences). The empirical material consists of 120 student essays. The most prominent feature of the empirical material as a whole is the abundance of affective stories about the student teachers' experiences in natural environments, often expressing a strong sense of belonging to, and identification with, a particular place. However, the student narratives also give voice to an ambivalent valuing of the affective experiences of natural environments. Sometimes such affective experiences are strongly delineated from what the students consider actual science knowledge, on other occasions, students, in a somewhat contradictious way, stress natural environments as the authentic place for doing science, in contrast to the perceived in-authenticity of teaching science in the classroom. When student teachers explicitly discuss the classroom as a place, this was almost without exception with strong negative emotions, experiences of outsideness and alienation.
Virtual, on-line, frog dissection vs. conventional laboratory dissection: A comparison of student achievement and teacher perceptions among honors, general ability, and foundations-level high school biology classes
Kopec, Ronald H.
Dissecting animal specimens has long been a tradition in biology classes. Objections by students, based on religious or ethical grounds, have been raised regarding the dissections of animals in classroom laboratories. A number of states now have legal proceedings or statewide policies requiring that alternatives to the actual dissection of laboratory animal specimens be permitted in their school districts. Alternatives to actual dissections have been developed in recent years. For a variety of reasons, performing an actual or conventional animal dissection may not be a desirable option. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a virtual On-line frog dissection compares with an actual laboratory dissection. What were the perceptions of the teacher's using it? How does student achievement compare among three the different ability levels on a pre and posttest regarding basic frog anatomy? Is a virtual On-line dissection a suitable alternative for students who, for whatever reason, do not participate in the actual laboratory experience? The subjects consisted of 218 biology students among three different ability levels, in a Northeastern suburban high school. Approximately half of the student groups participated in a virtual On-line dissection, the other half in an actual laboratory dissection. A pretest of basic frog anatomy was administered to the students two days before and the posttest one day after their dissection experience. Data were analyzed using matched pairs t-Tests, Analysis of Variance, Tukey HSD, and Squared Curvilinear Coefficients. Survey questionnaires were administered to the teachers after the dissection experiences were completed. There were no significant differences found in achievement between the virtual and conventional dissection groups. There were significant differences found in achievement score means among the three ability levels. There was no significant interaction between gender and achievement. Perceptions of the teacher
Wang, Tzu-Hua; Wang, Wei-Lung; Wang, Kuo-Hua; Huang, Shih-Chieh
The study attempted to adapt two web tools, FFS system (Frontpage Feedback System) and WATA system (Web-based Assessment and Test Analysis System), to construct a Hi-FAME (High Feedback-Assessment-Multimedia-Environment) Model in WBI (Web-based Instruction) to facilitate pre-service teacher training. Participants were 30 junior pre-service…
Sen, Ceylan; Sezen Vekli, Gülsah
The aim of this study is to determine the influence of inquiry-based teaching approach on pre-service science teachers' laboratory self-efficacy perceptions and scientific process skills. The quasi experimental model with pre-test-post-test control group design was used as an experimental design in this research. The sample of this study included…
This article discusses the use of assessment by teachers to replace external marking. It shows how professional participation and moderation can provide reliability in summative assessment, even in public examinations for older students. It draws on historical experiences of assessment for A-level English literature.
Carson, S. McB.
In response to the increasing social concern for the quality of the environment and its conservation, and the need to ensure that all pupils in their final years of schooling be brought to share that concern, teachers in Hertfordshire, England, have constructed an 'A' level curriculum or syllabus of environmental studies for the sixth form. Based…
Feng, Li; Sass, Tim R.
There is growing concern among policy makers over the quality of the teacher workforce in general, and the distribution of effective teachers across schools. The impact of teacher attrition on overall teacher quality will depend on the effectiveness of teachers who leave the profession. Likewise, teacher turnover may alleviate or worsen inequities…
Mills, Jada Jamerson
There is a need for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education to be taught effectively in elementary schools. In order to achieve this, teacher preparation programs should graduate confident, content strong teachers to convey knowledge to elementary students. This study used interdisciplinary collaboration between the School of Education and the College of Liberal Arts through a Learning-by-Teaching method (LdL): Lernen durch Lernen in German. Pre-service teacher (PST) achievement levels of understanding science concepts based on pretest and posttest data, quality of lesson plans developed, and enjoyment of the class based on the collaboration with science students. The PSTs enrolled in two treatment sections of EDEL 404: Science in the Elementary Classroom collaborated with science students enrolled in BISC 327: Introductory Neuroscience to enhance their science skills and create case-based lesson plans on neurothology topics: echolocation, electrosensory reception, steroid hormones, and vocal learning. The PSTs enrolled in the single control section of EDEL 404 collaborated with fellow elementary education majors to develop lesson plans also based on the same selected topics. Qualitative interviews of education faculty, science faculty, and PSTs provided depth to the quantitative findings. Upon lesson plan completion, in-service teachers also graded the two best and two worst plans for the treatment and control sections and a science reviewer graded the plans for scientific accuracy. Statistical analyses were conducted for hypotheses, and one significant hypothesis found that PSTs who collaborated with science students had more positive science lesson plan writing attitudes than those who did not. Despite overall insignificant statistical analyses, all PSTs responded as more confident after collaboration. Additionally, interviews provided meaning and understanding to the insignificant statistical results as well as scientific accuracy of
The numbers are in, and they are not rosy. According to the "Schools and Staffing Survey," 64,954 public schools reported vacancies during the 2003-04 school year. Projections suggest teacher attrition rates will continue to soar, while student enrollments climb. American schools have an urgent challenge: the retention of teachers.…
Aikman, John H.; And Others
Field studies for grade nine and ten biology students are developed in this teacher and student guide for outdoor education. A small section is devoted to teacher pre-planning and final sections are concerned with equipment, audio-visual resources, and a large booklist. Twenty-three investigations related to earth science and biology topics are…
Karakaya, Ferhat; Yilmaz, Mehmet
The purpose of the present research is to determine science teachers' and biology teachers' awareness levels of environmental ethics in relation to different variables. The "Environmental Ethics Awareness Scale" developed by Özer and Keles (2016) was used in the research. The research is consisted of 237 people, including 130 science…
Bahret, Mary Jean; And Others
Objectives, topics/understandings to be taught, and teachers notes are provided for the seven units in this Regents biology syllabus. Units and major topic areas include: (1) unity and diversity among living things (concept of life, diversity/unity of life); (2) maintenance in living things (nutrition, transport, respiration, excretion,…
Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.
This biology guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design, containing a series of episodes (minilessons) that emphasize experimentation and discussion relating to environmental…
Frame, Kathy, Ed.; Hays, Rachel, Ed.; Mack, Alison, Ed.
This publication encourages student involvement in biological research through student research with the cooperation of teachers and scientists. The contents of the book are divided into two sections. The first section introduces students to research investigations and includes: (1) "How the Investigations Are Set Up and the Rationale Behind…
Gruson, Brigitte; Marlot, Corinne
This article, based upon the field of comparative didactics, seeks to contribute to the identification of generic and specific features in the teaching and learning process. More particularly, its aim was to examine, through the study of two different school subjects: biology and English as a second language, how "passive didactic…
Burns, Joseph C.; Okey, James R.
This study investigated the effects of analogy-based and conventional lecture-based instructional strategies on the achievement of four classes of high school biology students (N=123). Prior to treatment, students were assessed for cognitive ability and prior knowledge of the analogy vehicle. The analogy-based treatment consisted of teacher…
Weld, Jeffrey; Funk, Lucas
Inquiry Into Life Science is a content biology course expressly for the fulfillment of the General Education life science laboratory course requirement of elementary education majors at this university. The course is modeled on the Teaching Standards and Content Standards of the National Science Education Standards [National Research Council.…
Lennox, John; Duke, Michael
Discusses the history of the use of pesticides and biological control. Introduces the concept of biological control as illustrated in the use of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and highlights laboratory demonstrations of Koch's postulates. Includes an exercise that offers the student and teacher several integrated learning…
Dill, Isaac; Dill, Vicky
A third grader describes Ms. Gonzalez, his favorite teacher, who left to accept a more lucrative teaching assignment. Ms. Gonzalez' butterflies unit covered everything from songs about social butterflies to paintings of butterfly wings, anatomy studies, and student haiku poems and biographies. Students studied biology by growing popcorn plants…
NEWEST, or NASA Educational Workshops for Elementary School Teachers, is a two-week honors program for teachers, sponsored by NASA, the National Science Teachers Association, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the International Technology Education-Association. A total of 25 teachers from the United States and U.S. State Department schools in Europe are chosen to work with NASA and other federal agency science and engineering professionals. Pictured, participants make hot air balloons as part of their activities.
Can changes in teacher pay encourage more able individuals to enter the teaching profession? So far, studies of the impact of pay on the aptitude distribution of teachers have provided mixed evidence on the extent to which altering teacher salaries represents a feasible solution to the teacher quality problem. One possible reason is that these…
Oztap, Haydar; Ozay, Esra; Oztap, Fulya
This study examines the difficulties biology teachers face when teaching cell division in the secondary schools of the central part of the Erzurum province in Turkey. During this research, a questionnaire was distributed to a total of 36 secondary school biology teachers. Findings of the study indicate biology teachers perceive cell division as…
GROBMAN, ARNOLD B.; AND OTHERS
INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS AND PRINCIPALS IMPLEMENTING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY (BSCS) BIOLOGY IN THE SCHOOL PROGRAM IS INCLUDED IN THIS GUIDE. THE RATIONALE AND CONTENT OF THE BSCS VERSIONS ARE EXPLAINED. PHYSICAL FACILITIES, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, AND LABORATORY MATERIALS THAT FACILITATE TEACHING BSCS BIOLOGY ARE ANALYZED. ADMINISTRATIVE…
Potvin, Geoff; Hazari, Zahra; Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.
In this study, the evaluation of high school biology, chemistry, and physics teachers by their students is examined according to the gender of the student and the gender of the teacher. Female teachers are rated significantly lower than male teachers by male students in all three disciplines, whereas female students underrate female teachers only…
Fitz-Gibbon, Carol T.
Results of the first year of the ongoing Confidential, Measurement-Based, Self-Evaluation Project that examines variables related to A-level English and Mathematics achievement in 10 comprehensive schools in the United Kingdom are presented. A-level results were found to be strongly predicted by teacher assessments and by prior O-level achievement…
After outlining the astrophysical options now available in A-level physics syllabuses, this paper notes some of the particular challenges facing A-level teachers and students who chose these options and describes a project designed to support them. The paper highlights some key features of the project that could readily be incorporated into other areas of physics curriculum development.
Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science.
Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.
This issue collects three articles concerning reading-teacher training. "Language, Failure, and Panda Bears" by Patricia M. Cunningham calls attention to dialect difficulties in the classroom and provides ideas for teacher training programs and for public schools to solve this problem. William H. Rupley, in "Improving Teacher Effectiveness in…
Darr, Ralph F., Jr.
This paper focuses primarily on the more prominent teacher characteristics research published in the latter half of the 1980s. Literature on the characteristics of elementary, secondary, and college-level teachers is reviewed. Demographic data suggest that today's public school teachers are older and more experienced, and have more years of…
Eight conference papers on language teacher development are presented, including: "Mosaics of Teacher Development and Socialization" (Andrew Barfield, Paul A. Beaufait, Sean Conley, Tim Murphey, Katsura Haruko), a panel presentation on aspects of and experiments in teacher development; "Questions About Teaching? Answers from…
Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker, then president of the American Federation of Teachers, endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Fast-forward two decades from Shanker's then-radical proposition and there are nearly 80 teacher-governed…
Flannery, Maura C.
Provides examples of media coverage on interferon, herpes, and starch blockers, suggesting that biology teachers can put such coverage into broader perspective by answering student questions, explaining details, and sensitizing them to the limitations of the media. Includes resources to help teachers with this task. (JN)
Bennett, William D.; Park, Soonhye
In teaching science, the beliefs of teachers may come into conflict and inhibit the implementation of reformed teaching practice. An experienced biology teacher, Mr. Hobbs, was found to have two different sets of epistemological beliefs while his classroom practice was predominantly teacher-centered. A case study was then performed in order to…
Woese, Carl R
Biology today is at a crossroads. The molecular paradigm, which so successfully guided the discipline throughout most of the 20th century, is no longer a reliable guide. Its vision of biology now realized, the molecular paradigm has run its course. Biology, therefore, has a choice to make, between the comfortable path of continuing to follow molecular biology's lead or the more invigorating one of seeking a new and inspiring vision of the living world, one that addresses the major problems in biology that 20th century biology, molecular biology, could not handle and, so, avoided. The former course, though highly productive, is certain to turn biology into an engineering discipline. The latter holds the promise of making biology an even more fundamental science, one that, along with physics, probes and defines the nature of reality. This is a choice between a biology that solely does society's bidding and a biology that is society's teacher.
Simmie, Geraldine Mooney
From October to December 2005, six biology associates were employed to progress the connection between curriculum implementation and the continuing professional development of teachers at regional level. The associates worked with one hundred biology teachers in Teacher Design Teams (TDTs) and together they produced eighteen innovative classroom…
Robinson, Mike; Crowther, David
Questions whether biology majors are more environmental science literate than chemistry majors, preservice science teachers, and a general population sample of 1,492 students. Indicates that preservice science teachers are significantly more environmental science literate than chemistry majors, but not more science literate than biology majors.…
The purpose of this paper is to identify tensions in teacher-student interaction in a high school biology laboratory. Using micro-analytic analysis of classroom talk, the interaction between the students and a teacher working in the biology laboratory session on "Reproduction in Plants" is studied. The two tensions highlighted here are…
Scheuch, Klaus; Haufe, Eva; Seibt, Reingard
Almost 800,000 teachers were working in Germany in the 2012-13 school year. A determination of the most common medical problems in this large occupational group serves as the basis for measures that help maintain teachers' health and their ability to work in their profession. We present our own research findings, a selective review of the literature, and data derived from the German statutory health insurance scheme concerning medical disability, long-term illness, and inability to work among teachers. Compared to the general population, teachers have a more healthful lifestyle and a lower frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (except hypertension). Like non-teachers, they commonly suffer from musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases. Mental and psychosomatic diseases are more common in teachers than in non-teachers, as are nonspecific complaints such as exhaustion, fatigue, headache, and tension. It is commonly said that 3-5% of teachers suffer from "burnout," but reliable data on this topic are lacking, among other reasons because the term has no standard definition. The percentage of teachers on sick leave is generally lower than the overall percentage among statutory insurees; it is higher in the former East Germany than in the former West Germany. The number of teachers taking early retirement because of illness has steadily declined from over 60% in 2001 and currently stands at 19%, with an average age of 58 years, among tenured teachers taking early retirement. The main reasons for early retirement are mental and psychosomatic illnesses, which together account for 32-50% of cases. Although German law mandates the medical care of persons in the teaching professions by occupational physicians, this requirement is implemented to varying extents in the different German federal states. Teachers need qualified, interdisciplinary occupational health care with the involvement of their treating physicians.
This study is done to have preservice science teachers chance to implement inquiry before expecting them to implement inquiry in their classrooms and to develop the preservice science teachers' inquiry skills and self-efficacy of science. The study group is composed of preservice science teachers who chose the 2nd grade Biology Laboratory course…
Hashweh, Maher Z.
An analysis of science teacher's knowledge of specific biology and physics topics and the effects of this knowledge on their planning for instruction and on simulated teaching are discussed in this report. Six experienced secondary school teachers participated in the study. Each teacher's knowledge of a biology topic and a physics topic was…
Anastasiou, Clifford J.
Reports on dietary substances which act against cancer-causing agents. Indicates that adapting a lifestyle which combines reduced fat intake with increased fiber-containing foods will reduce the risk of some common cancers. Provides teaching strategies and activities to help students analyze their lifestyles for a reduction in cancer risk. (RT)
This book is part of the series "Explorations in Science" which contains enrichment activities for the general science curriculum. Each book in the series contains innovative and traditional projects for both the bright and average, the self-motivated, and those who find activity motivating. Each activity is self-contained and provides everything…
Flores, Merced, Comp.
Developed by experienced migrant education teachers incorporating Sight and Sound Program concepts, this volume presents predrafted individual short-term Plan/Records for secondary level chemistry, biology, and physics, plus step-by-step directions for their use by Oregon resource teachers, classroom teachers, and aides. The approach assumes that…
Klemetson, S. L.
Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)
John C. Stennis Space Center educators and area teachers partnered together during a professional development workshop Oct. 20 to learn about the LEGO Bricks in Space curriculum issued by NASA. The curriculum is designed to encourage students in areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The Stennis Space Center Educator Resource Center hosted the workshop to equip teachers of grades 3-12.
USA Today, 1985
Teacher burnout is characterized by three factors: emotional exhaustion and fatigue; negative, cynical attitudes towards students; and the loss of feelings of accomplishment on the job. Important predictors of burnout include a lack of participation in decision-making, inappropriate job expectations, a lack of teacher autonomy, and role conflict.…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (West Germany). Inst. for Education.
This publication examines an in-service teacher training program in Beirut, Lebanon sponsored by the Unesco Institute of Education and set up by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). The program provides professional training for unqualified Palestine refugee teachers working in schools…
Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…
Rebecca E. Ibach
There are numerous biological degradations that wood is exposed to in various environments. Biological damage occurs when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Biological organisms, such as bacteria, mold, stain, decay fungi, insects, and marine borers, depend heavily on temperature and moisture conditions to grow. A higher...
Kijkuakul, Sirinapa; Yutakom, Naruemon; Roadrangka, Vantipa
This study examined a Thai biology teacher's creative tensions when she was challenged to adopt a new teaching approach to photosynthesis with her class. The teacher was purposively selected on her need of professional growth. Data from observations and interviews documented the tensions. The data indicated that the biology teacher experienced…
The papers presented in this second volume were either written specially for it, or were published in leading biology teaching periodicals of the world in 1966 and 1967. The first section deals with the principles of biology teaching, its purpose, its implication in everyday life, and the social responsibilities of its teachers. The second section…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.
This teacher's guide aims to develop an understanding among students in grades 5-9 about the biological effects of drug use. The guide provides background information on the anatomy of the brain, nerve cells and neurotransmission, and the effects of drugs on the brain. Drugs described in this guide include marijuana, opiates, inhalants,…
Ames Public Schools, IA.
More than 100 outdoor education and field science projects are compiled in this teacher's resource book. Designed for use in grades K-9, the activities cover the areas of field taxonomy, laboratory taxonomy, autecology, synecology, adaptation, economic biology, conservation, museum methods, culturing, zoo keeping, gardening, and woodcraft. Each…
Hecht, Jeffrey B.; Roberts, Nicole K.; Schoon, Perry L.; Fansler, Gigi
This research used three groups in a quasi-experimental approach to assess the combined impact of teacher teaming and computer technology on student grade point averages (GPAs). Ninth-grade students' academic achievement in each of four different subject areas (algebra, biology, world cultures, and English) was studied. Two separate treatments…
Sinha, Somnath; Hanuscin, Deborah; Rebello, Carina; Muslu, Nilay; Cheng, Ya-Wen
"Leadership in Freshman Physics" is an NSF-funded professional development program designed to support 9th grade teacher leaders in the successful implementation of a "Physics First" or curriculum sequence that places physics prior to biology and chemistry. Leadership is viewed as an essential component in the initial success…
Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo
The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…
Walker, Susan S.; Crummett, Dan
This teacher and student guide for aquaculture contains 15 units of instruction that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to aquaculture; (2) the aquatic environment; (3) fundamental fish biology; (4) marketing; (5) site selection; (6) facility design and layout; (7) water quality management; (8) fish health management; (9) commercial…
Bennett, William D.; Park, Soonhye
In teaching science, the beliefs of teachers may come into conflict and inhibit the implementation of reformed teaching practice. An experienced biology teacher, Mr. Hobbs, was found to have two different sets of epistemological beliefs while his classroom practice was predominantly teacher-centered. A case study was then performed in order to investigate the underlying issues that contributed to his classroom practice. Data sources included preliminary and follow-up interviews and classroom observations. Data analysis indicated that factors that prevented the epistemological conflict from reaching a resolution included Mr. Hobbs' beliefs about learning, contextual teaching factors, personal experiences as a student, and views of the nature of science. The findings from this case indicate that science teachers possess complex belief systems that are not immediately obvious to either the teacher or science teacher educators, and science teacher educators need to address teacher beliefs when they encourage teachers to implement reformed teaching practices.
Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
This article examines Finnish cooperating physics teachers' conceptions of teacher knowledge in physics. Six experienced teachers were interviewed. The data was analyzed to form categories concerning the basis of teacher knowledge, and the tradition of German Didaktik and Shulman's theory of teacher knowledge were used in order to understand the…
Kagoda, Alice Merab; Sentongo, John
Practicing teachers are partners in preparation of teacher trainees. However, little is known about their perceptions of the teacher trainees they receive every year in their schools. Ninety three practicing teachers from twenty schools participated in this study. The objectives were to find out the practicing teachers' perceptions of teacher…
Notes how important it is that any critical writing assignments should take into account the individual reading, and that the teacher's role is to steer discussion that stems from a class of individual readings. Explores some of the aspects of Jane Austen's novel "Emma" to which students readily respond. (HTH)
Mississippi educators participated in a variety of hands-on activities, including rocketry, robotics, and NASA's BEST (Beginning Engineering, Science, and Technology) during a pair of during a pair of professional development workshops conducted by Stennis Space Center educators in June. On June 14, Stennis educators presented workshops to 96 kindergarten-through-12th-grade science teachers and eight Jackson State University faculty, as part of JSU's Project MAST (Mississippi Academy for Science Teaching) Project. On June 21, educators presented workshops in Starkville to 43 fourth-through-eighth-grade science teachers as part of Mississippi State University's Advancing Teachers of Middle School Science initiative.
Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Boulder, CO.
SUPPLEMENTARY TEST QUESTIONS FOR USE BY SECONDARY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES CURRICULUM STUDY GREEN VERSION BIOLOGY TEACHERS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF EXAMINATIONS ARE CONTAINED IN THIS EXPERIMENTAL MANUAL. THE ITEMS WERE PREPARED BY THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES CURRICULUM STUDY TEST CONSTRUCTION COMMITTEE IN RESPONSE TO TEACHER REQUESTS FOR SHORT-RANGE TESTS.…
Gayford, Christopher G.
Reports on environmental studies/science at General Certificate of Examination (GCE) ordinary ("0") and advanced ("A") levels. Questionnaires were used to survey teachers (focusing on their professional training and why they teach environmental studies/science courses) and to determine the relationship between environmental…
The major purpose of this study was to investigate the views of students, parents and teachers regarding the rapid growth of ordinary "O" and advanced "A" level education systems and its implications for Pakistan. The main objective of study was to identify the importance of and social acceptance of "O" and…
For the past 30 years, school-based assessment (SBA) has been a major feature of GCSEs and A levels, the main school examinations in England. SBA has allowed teachers to allocate marks to their students for the level of skills that they show in their work. Such skills include for example, experimental techniques in science, performance in drama…
Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert
There is a general doubt on whether teacher evaluation can contribute to teachers' professional development. Recently, standards-based teacher evaluation has been introduced in many countries to improve teaching practice. This study wants to investigate which teacher evaluation procedural, leadership, and teacher characteristics can stimulate…
Hughes, Phillip, Ed.
This book is the first in a series on teachers and teaching, a result of the Australian Council for Educational Research program of research on teachers. The theme, teachers in society, has been constructed around three broad areas: the context of teaching, teacher education, and teachers' work. The book is divided into 8 chapters as follows: (l)…
A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.
School Science Review, 1982
Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)
School Science Review, 1982
Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…
School Science Review, 1983
Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,…
Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Taber, Keith S.
The results from a study to explore pre-service teachers' understanding of ionization energy, a topic that features in A-level (grade 11 and 12) chemistry courses. in Singapore , is described. A previous study using a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic test has shown that Singapore A-level students have considerable difficulty understanding the…
MacKenzie, Ann Haley
For many biology classes, the year begins with the study of characteristics of life. Many biology teachers have their students read lists from biology books and then have examinations about those characteristics. However, it is doubtful if students really understand what those characteristics mean "in terms of the life of an organism." They may…
The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.
Frazier, Wendy M.; Sterling, Donna R.
The start of a new school year is a challenging and exciting time for any teacher--and a time when beginning teachers particularly need our support. Working with new science teachers in the New Science Teachers' Support Network (NSTSN) has shown the authors that veteran teachers have the greatest impact on beginning teacher's success. The NSTSN is…
Tapilouw, Marisa Christina; Firman, Harry; Redjeki, Sri; Chandra, Didi Teguh
Teacher training is one form of continuous professional development. Before organizing teacher training (material, time frame), a survey about teacher's need has to be done. Science teacher's perception about science learning in the classroom, the most difficult learning model, difficulties of lesson plan would be a good input for teacher training program. This survey conducted in June 2016. About 23 science teacher filled in the questionnaire. The core of questions are training participation, the most difficult science subject matter, the most difficult learning model, the difficulties of making lesson plan, knowledge of integrated science and problem based learning. Mostly, experienced teacher participated training once a year. Science training is very important to enhance professional competency and to improve the way of teaching. The difficulties of subject matter depend on teacher's education background. The physics subject matter in class VIII and IX are difficult to teach for most respondent because of many formulas and abstract. Respondents found difficulties in making lesson plan, in term of choosing the right learning model for some subject matter. Based on the result, inquiry, cooperative, practice are frequently used in science class. Integrated science is understood as a mix between Biology, Physics and Chemistry concepts. On the other hand, respondents argue that problem based learning was difficult especially in finding contextual problem. All the questionnaire result can be used as an input for teacher training program in order to enhanced teacher's competency. Difficult concepts, integrated science, teaching plan, problem based learning can be shared in teacher training.
Gill, Tim; Bell, John F.
There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced Level (A-level) in a particular year. Each factor of interest was entered into a separate model, while accounting for prior attainment and gender (both well-known predictors of A-level uptake). We found that factors associated with greater probability of uptake included better attainment in physics (or combined science) and maths qualifications at age 16 in comparison to other subjects, and (for girls only) attending an independent or grammar school. While it is difficult to address these factors directly, the results imply that more needs to be done to improve relative performance at General Certificate of Secondary Education, perhaps by increasing the supply of specialist physics teachers at this level and to overcome the perception (especially among girls) that physics is a particularly difficult subject.
... Sheets A Brief Guide to Genomics About NHGRI Research About the International HapMap Project Biological Pathways Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes Cloning Comparative Genomics DNA Microarray Technology DNA Sequencing Deoxyribonucleic Acid ( ...
Tomazic, Iztok; Vidic, Tatjana
The concepts of diffusion and osmosis cross the disciplinary boundaries of physics, chemistry and biology. They are important for understanding how biological systems function. Since future (pre-service) science teachers in Slovenia encounter both concepts at physics, chemistry and biology courses during their studies, we assessed the first-,…
Pamuk, Barış Onder; Yılmaz, Hamiyet; Topcuoglu, Tugba; Bilgir, Oktay; Çalan, Ozlem; Pamuk, Gulseren; Ertugrul, Derun Taner
OBJECTIVE: Fetuin-A is a protein secreted from the liver that inhibits arterial calcification deposition and can contribute to insulin resistance. Hyperthyroidism is also associated with insulin resistance. It is not known whether hyperthyroidism has an effect on fetuin-A levels. METHODS: We measured fetuin-A levels and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance before hyperthyroidism treatment was initiated and after euthyroidism was achieved. A total of 42 patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism were enrolled in this study. Fetuin-A, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose, free T3 (fT3), free T4 (fT4), and thyrotropin were measured before and after euthyroidism was established. RESULTS: Basal fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, insulin, c-peptide, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, fT3, fT4 and fetuin-A levels were significantly decreased after euthyroidism was achieved (Table 1. Basal fasting blood glucose (r:0.407, p:0.008), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r:0.523, p<0.0001), insulin (r:0.479, p:0.001), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (r:0.541, p<0.0001), fT3 (r:0.492, p:0.001) and fT4 (r:0.473, p:0.002) were positively correlated with basal fetuin-A levels. Basal thyrotropin levels were significantly negatively correlated (r:-0.553, p<0.0001) with basal fetuin-A levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that hyperthyroidism influences fetuin-A levels. PMID:23644859
Pamuk, Bariş Onder; Yilmaz, Hamiyet; Topcuoglu, Tugba; Bilgir, Oktay; Çalan, Ozlem; Pamuk, Gulseren; Ertugrul, Derun Taner
Fetuin-A is a protein secreted from the liver that inhibits arterial calcification deposition and can contribute to insulin resistance. Hyperthyroidism is also associated with insulin resistance. It is not known whether hyperthyroidism has an effect on fetuin-A levels. We measured fetuin-A levels and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance before hyperthyroidism treatment was initiated and after euthyroidism was achieved. A total of 42 patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism were enrolled in this study. Fetuin-A, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose, free T3 (fT3), free T4 (fT4), and thyrotropin were measured before and after euthyroidism was established. Basal fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, insulin, c-peptide, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, fT3, fT4 and fetuin-A levels were significantly decreased after euthyroidism was achieved (Table 1). Basal fasting blood glucose (r:0.407, p:0.008), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r:0.523, p<0.0001), insulin (r:0.479, p:0.001), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (r:0.541, p<0.0001), fT3 (r:0.492, p:0.001) and fT4 (r:0.473, p:0.002) were positively correlated with basal fetuin-A levels. Basal thyrotropin levels were significantly negatively correlated (r:-0.553, p<0.0001) with basal fetuin-A levels. Our findings suggest that hyperthyroidism influences fetuin-A levels.
This article is an investigation into G. E. M. Anscombe's suggestion that there can be cases where belief takes a personal object, through an examination of the role that the activity of teaching plays in Anscombe's discussion. By contrasting various kinds of "teachers" that feature in her discussion, it is argued that the best way of…
Noon, Elizabeth F.
Elsa Bunting, an elementary teacher, and her principal, Don Forrester, got along fine. But then Elsa was injured and was left with a 30 percent hearing disability. Forrester thought she should resign because of her handicap. Presents both points of view and the solution to the problem through proper counseling. (Editor/RK)
This essay presents a list of 11 qualities that outstanding teachers possess, including: (1) flexibility (being able to change plans at a moment's notice and make adjustments accordingly); (2) enthusiasm and energy (showing a drive to excite students and model positive behavior); (3) empathy (acting understanding and compassionate of parents as…
Noon, Elizabeth F.
Norma Kuder's teaching career was in jeopardy. Her personal life had been a mess for a long time, and it affected her teaching. Her principal believed that Norma didn't belong in teaching, and he warned her that her contract might not be renewed. Discusses how intelligent action by the school counselor, the principal, and fellow teachers saved a…
Linsky, Ronald B.; Schnitger, Ronald L.
This guide provides teachers with copies of the materials given to students participating in the oceanography program of the Orange County Floating Laboratory Program and provides information concerning colleges and universities offering courses in oceanography and marine science, source of films, and sources of publications concerning the Navy's…
The John C. Stennis Space Center Educator Resource Center hosted an Oct. 20 workshop to equip teachers of grades 3 through 12 in using the LEGO Bricks in Space curriculum issued by NASA. Participants in the professional development workshop built their own LEGO simple machine prototypes and explored the engineering principles that make them work (on Earth and in space).
Millard, Joseph E.
Teachers may be evaluated (1) according to their skills and attitudes, (2) by observing their behavior, (3) observing the students' behavior and achievement, and (4) by a combination of means. Some systems, summative and formative, now enjoying rather wide popularity are described in this document. IOTA (Instrument for Observation of Teaching…
Broderick, Patricia; Raymond, Allen
Reviews nine teaching aids: (1) "Our World" (Troll); (2) "Comprehensive School Health Education" (Meeks Heit Publishing); (3) "America at School" (Pleasant Company); (4) "Tomie, Tomie, Tomie" (Val Hornburg); (5) "Frog Pondering" (Frog Publications); (6) "TalentEd" (Teacher Ideas Press); (7) "Scholastic Voyages of Discovery" (Scholastic); (8) "Nose…
Gallagher, Suzanne Renick; Coon, William; Donley, Kristin; Scott, Abby; Goldberg, Debra S.
Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community and biology teachers who would like to acquaint their students with updated approaches in the discipline. We present a first attempt to correct this absence by introducing a computational biology element to teach genetic evolution into advanced biology classes in two local high schools. Our primary goal was to show students how computation is used in biology and why a basic understanding of computation is necessary for research in many fields of biology. This curriculum is intended to be taught by a computational biologist who has worked with a high school advanced biology teacher to adapt the unit for his/her classroom, but a motivated high school teacher comfortable with mathematics and computing may be able to teach this alone. In this paper, we present our curriculum, which takes into consideration the constraints of the required curriculum, and discuss our experiences teaching it. We describe the successes and challenges we encountered while bringing this unit to high school students, discuss how we addressed these challenges, and make suggestions for future versions of this curriculum.We believe that our curriculum can be a valuable seed for further development of computational activities aimed at high school biology students. Further, our experiences may be of value to others teaching computational biology at this level. Our curriculum can be obtained at http://ecsite.cs.colorado.edu/?page_id=149#biology or by contacting the authors. PMID:22046118
Gallagher, Suzanne Renick; Coon, William; Donley, Kristin; Scott, Abby; Goldberg, Debra S
Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community and biology teachers who would like to acquaint their students with updated approaches in the discipline. We present a first attempt to correct this absence by introducing a computational biology element to teach genetic evolution into advanced biology classes in two local high schools. Our primary goal was to show students how computation is used in biology and why a basic understanding of computation is necessary for research in many fields of biology. This curriculum is intended to be taught by a computational biologist who has worked with a high school advanced biology teacher to adapt the unit for his/her classroom, but a motivated high school teacher comfortable with mathematics and computing may be able to teach this alone. In this paper, we present our curriculum, which takes into consideration the constraints of the required curriculum, and discuss our experiences teaching it. We describe the successes and challenges we encountered while bringing this unit to high school students, discuss how we addressed these challenges, and make suggestions for future versions of this curriculum.We believe that our curriculum can be a valuable seed for further development of computational activities aimed at high school biology students. Further, our experiences may be of value to others teaching computational biology at this level. Our curriculum can be obtained at http://ecsite.cs.colorado.edu/?page_id=149#biology or by contacting the authors.
The author gives a critical and hystorical review of the existing in biology theories which on the molecular and electronic levels explain a number of mechanisms of vital phenomena such as excitation, muscle contraction etc. The author discusses in the hystorical aspect the problem of formation of electronic and biological semi-conductivity (as the author names it) called to explain the vital mechanisms. He shows is which way this theory can explain the process of excitation.
The role of a teacher as an action researcher in Croatia is still insufficiently appreciated and promoted in initial teachers' training, school students learning and in the employed teachers' professional post-qualification development. In this country, teachers are most frequently perceived as mediators or technicians whose task is to prepare and…
Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.
In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…
Maclean, Rupert, Ed.; McKenzie, Phillip, Ed.
This book focuses on career patterns and promotion of Australian school teachers. Following an introduction by the editors, the book is divided into 4 parts: Part 1, entitled "Understanding Teachers' Careers" includes 2 chapters: (l) "Teachers' Careers: A Conceptual Framework" (Rupert Maclean); and (2) "Teachers' Work: A…
Thirteen teachers and a teacher educator describe a year-long graduate program for experienced teachers in which they learned from each other how to become better teachers. The program, which was situated at Harvard's Graduate School of Education, included an integrative seminar, three required courses, and two elective courses. This book is…
Redmon, Robert J.
A cohort of students in a teacher preparation program completed questionnaires measuring their feelings of teacher self efficacy at three points in the program. Results suggest that pre-service teachers' feelings of self efficacy do improve as a result of their participation in such programs. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table. Teacher Efficacy…
Jackson, C. Kirabo; Rockoff, Jonah E.; Staiger, Douglas O.
The emergence of large longitudinal data sets linking students to teachers has led to rapid growth in the study of teacher effects on student outcomes by economists over the past decade. One large literature has documented wide variation in teacher effectiveness that is not well explained by observable student or teacher characteristics. A second…
Addi-Raccah, Audrey; Arviv-Elyashiv, Rinate
School decentralization, which has reshaped power relations in the educational system, has empowered teachers and parents. Taking Abbott's approach to professions, the authors examine teachers' perceptions of the implications of parents' empowerment for teacher--parent relations. In-depth interviews with homeroom teachers in affluent urban…
The purpose of this research is to comparatively investigate the efficacy levels of pre-service science (Science, Biology, Physics, and Chemistry) teachers enrolled at the Undergraduate Program of Science Teacher Education and Pedagogical Formation Program. A total of 275 pre-service teachers who were studying in different programmes in the…
Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle
This paper explores how a learning theory enriched a collaborative teacher inquiry discourse where lesson study was adopted as the educational action research model to promote teacher professional development. Four Grade 9-10 biology teachers in Singapore drew from variation theory to collaboratively plan and teach new genetics content as part of…
This document, which is based on the findings of a study of 10 further education (FE) colleges throughout the United Kingdom, is intended to help FE colleges review and enhance their curriculum for 16- to 19-year-old students in General Certificate of Education (GCE) A-level (Advanced Level) courses. Discussed first are the following reasons for…
Stencel, John E.
Describes the use of a biology guidebook which contains a course outline, syllabus, reading list, handouts, and sample tests all bound together in booklet form for better organization and teacher effectiveness. (RT)
Cutter, Mary Ann G.; Drexler, Edward; Gottesman, Kay S.; Goulding, Philip G.; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Micikas, Lynda B.; Mural, Richard J.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Zola, John
This module, for high school teachers, is the second of two modules about the Human Genome Project (HGP) produced by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS). The first section of this module provides background information for teachers about the structure and objectives of the HGP, aspects of the science and technology that underlie the…
Abbott, M. R.
Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.
There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.
Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM
A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the web-aided cooperative learning environment on biology preservice teachers' motivation and on their self-efficacy beliefs in biology teaching. The study was carried out with 30 biology preservice teachers attending a state university in Turkey. In the study, the pretest-posttest…
Robustness is a ubiquitously observed property of biological systems. It is considered to be a fundamental feature of complex evolvable systems. It is attained by several underlying principles that are universal to both biological organisms and sophisticated engineering systems. Robustness facilitates evolvability and robust traits are often selected by evolution. Such a mutually beneficial process is made possible by specific architectural features observed in robust systems. But there are trade-offs between robustness, fragility, performance and resource demands, which explain system behaviour, including the patterns of failure. Insights into inherent properties of robust systems will provide us with a better understanding of complex diseases and a guiding principle for therapy design.
The author presents an analysis of 178 students who left Solihull Sixth form College between 1975 and 1981 to do a degree in physics (approximately one third) or engineering (approximately two thirds) at university or polytechnic. The first table is an analysis of physics A-level grade and degree performance; the second table an analysis of the points total for physics A-level plus maths A-level (five for A, four for B, etc.), against degree performances, and the final table an analysis of the points total for physics A-level plus maths A-level plus third A-level (again five for A, four for B, etc.), against degree performance.
Leaman, Heather; DiLucchio, Connie
In this qualitative study, two teacher educators and course instructors in a Masters of Education (M.Ed.) program explored beginning teacher researchers' use of multimedia to support action research. Fifty-eight teachers (36 in spring 2010 and 22 in spring 2011) completed teacher research as the capstone in their M.Ed. program. Teachers utilized…
School communities are challenged to find ways to identify good teachers and give other teachers a chance to learn from them. The New Mexico World Class Teacher Project is encouraging teachers to pursue certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. This process sharpens teachers' student assessment skills and encourages…
Hargreaves, Andy, Ed.; Fullan, Michael G., Ed.
The 12 chapters in this book interpret teacher development in relation to self-development, teacher reflection, teacher biographies, cultures of teaching, teacher careers, teachers' work, gender identity, and classroom practice. The collection begins with an introductory chapter (Andy Hargreaves and Michael G. Fullan) and continues with 11…
Beishuizen, J J; Hof, E; van Putten, C M; Bouwmeester, S; Asscher, J J
Good teachers have been studied ever since Plato described how Socrates taught by asking questions of his audience. Recent findings shed light on two characteristics of good teachers: their personality and their ability. However, more attention has been paid to teachers' practices and opinions than to students' views. The study reported here attempted to deepen our understanding of what students think about good teachers. Students of four age groups (7, 10, 13, and 16 years of age) and teachers from primary and secondary schools were asked to write an essay on the good teacher. The correspondence between conceptual items in the essays was investigated by determining the extent to which they were used in the same essays to describe good teachers. Correspondence analysis revealed two dimensions. The first dimension reflected the preference of students and teachers for describing the good teacher in terms of either personality or ability characteristics. The second dimension was interpreted as an orientation in the essays towards either attachment to, detachment from or commitment to school and teachers. Students and teachers were compared to establish the amount of (dis)agreement about what makes a good teacher. Primary school students described good teachers primarily as competent instructors, focusing on transfer of knowledge and skills, whereas secondary school students emphasised relational aspects of good teachers. Teachers, however, considered good teachers in the first place a matter of establishing personal relationships with their students. Consequently, primary school students and teachers disagreed about the characteristics of good teachers. In secondary education, disagreements between teachers and students were relatively small. The research method of collecting free essays and utilising correspondence analysis to represent conceptual items and groups of participants seems promising as long as a theoretical framework is available to interpret the
School Science Review, 1980
Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in biology and environmental education instruction, including, among others, sampling in ecology using an overhead projector, the slide finder as an aid to microscopy, teaching kidney function, and teaching wildlife conservation-sand dune systems. (SK)
Dominiecki, Mary E.
University of Colorado's Virtual Student Fellowship available at and developed by Bakemeier, Richard F. This website is designed to give students applying for a fellowship an overview of basic topics in biology and how they are used by cancer researchers to develop new treatments.
School Science Review, 1976
Describes nine biology experiments, including osmosis, genetics; oxygen content of blood, enzymes in bean seedlings, preparation of bird skins, vascularization in bean seedlings, a game called "sequences" (applied to review situations), crossword puzzle for human respiration, and physiology of the woodlouse. (CS)
School Science Review, 1979
Organized by topic is a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Described are experiments for measuring rate of water uptake in a shoot; questions to aid students in designing experiments; rise of overhead projection to demonstrate osmosis and blood cell counting; and microbial manufacture of vinegar. (CS)
Baldock, R. N.
Provides many useful suggestions and cautions for planning and executing a biology field excursion. Specific procedures are outlined for investigating land communities and coastal areas, and a number of follow-up laboratory activities are described. The appendix provides an extensive bibliography with useful comments on the literature. (JR)
School Science Review, 1983
Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…
Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.
A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)
School Science Review, 1984
Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)
Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.
Describes activities which utilize plastic drink bottles and are designed to foster the development of a wide range of biological and ecological concepts. Includes instructions for making a model compost column and presents a model that illustrates open versus closed ecosystems. (DDR)
The current research is a descriptive study in which a survey model was used. The research involved chemistry (n = 26), physics (n = 27), and biology (n = 29) teachers working in Science High Schools and Anatolian High Schools in Turkey. An inventory that consisted of seven questions was designed to ascertain what teachers' think about the…
A study of 508 secondary teachers of biology, physics, chemistry, earth science, or life science shows that teachers who use new curricula have more favorable attitudes toward inquiry strategies and that years of experience in using new programs is positively related to more favorable attitudes toward inquiry strategies. (MLH)
Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana
Teachers' efforts to re-consider adolescence as a historically-situated social category exposes how dominant biological and psychological discourses of adolescence position youth who do not fit "proper" expectations of adolescence as abject. In this seven-month study with experienced White and Black teachers working with poor youth of…
Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy
This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…
Ültay, Neslihan; Donmez Usta, Necla
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prospective teachers' ability to write context-based problems about the concepts in radioactivity unit. Methodology: The study is carried out in a university in Turkey with 21 prospective teachers in physics, chemistry and biology in 2014-2015 fall terms. In the study, data are collected…
Önen, Aysem Seda; Altundag, Canan; Mustafaoglu, F. Merve
In this study, the attitudes of physics, chemistry and biology teachers towards constructivist approach were investigated in terms of participants' demographic information (e.g. subject area, professional seniority, education, participation to in-service training or not…). In total, 1958 teachers, who are working at high schools of Turkish…
Griffith, Joyce A.; Brem, Sarah K.
Understanding what teachers need to be more comfortable and confident in their profession is crucial to the future of effective teachers and scientific literacy in public schools. This study focuses on the experiences of Arizona biology teachers in teaching evolution, using a clinical model of stress to identify sources of pressure, the resulting stresses, and coping strategies they employ to alleviate these stresses. We conducted focus groups, one-on-one interviews, and written surveys with 15 biology teachers from the Phoenix area. On the basis of their responses, teachers were clustered into three categories: Conflicted, who struggle with their own beliefs and the possible impact of their teaching, Selective, who carefully avoid difficult topics and situations, and Scientists, who see no place for controversial social issues in their science classroom. Teachers from each group felt that they could be more effective in teaching evolution if they possessed the most up-to-date information about evolution and genomics, a safe space in which to reflect on the possible social and personal implications with their peers, and access to richer lesson plans for teaching evolution that include not only science but personal stories regarding how the lessons arose, and what problems and opportunities they created.
Mathematics plays an important part in physics at all levels. At A-level, physics candidates who do not study A-level mathematics would seem to be at a disadvantage. This article presents statistical evidence to support this widely held belief.
Godin, Elizabeth A.; Kwiek, Nicole; Sikes, Suzanne S.; Halpin, Myra J.; Weinbaum, Carolyn A.; Burgette, Lane F.; Reiter, Jerome P.; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.
We developed the Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership (APEP), a set of modules designed to integrate a topic of interest (alcohol) with concepts in chemistry and biology for high school students. Chemistry and biology teachers (n = 156) were recruited nationally to field-test APEP in a controlled study. Teachers obtained professional…
van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.
Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…
Black, Suzanne, Ed.; Moore, Randy, Ed.; Haugen, Heidi, Ed.
This selected collection of How-To-Do-It articles published in the American Biology Teacher during the past six years presents experiments that can be conducted safely under properly trained and responsible teacher supervision. Contents include: (1) "General Biology and the Nature of Science"; (2) "Cells and Molecules"; (3) "Microbes and Fungi";…
van der Zande, Paul; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Brekelmans, Mieke; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Vermunt, Jan D.
Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…
Gora, Kathleen; Hinson, Janice
Many principals want to provide effective professional development to assist teachers with technology integration, but they don't know where to begin. Sometimes teachers participate in professional development opportunities offered by local school districts, but these one-size-fits-all experiences seldom address teachers' specific needs or skill…
Many scientists who research biological control also teach at universities or more informally through cooperative outreach. The purpose of this paper is to review biological control activities for the classroom in four refereed journals, The American Biology Teacher, Journal of Biological Education...
Çimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet
Anxiety and self-efficacy are among the factors that impact students' performance in biology. The current study aims to investigate high school students' perception of biology anxiety and self-efficacy, in relation to gender, grade level, interest in biology, negative experience associated with biology classes, and teachers' approaches in the…
Docking, R. A.; Docking, E.
Reports on a case study of inservice training conducted to enhance the teacher/student relationship and reduce teacher anxiety. Found significant improvements in attitudes, classroom management activities, and lower anxiety among teachers. (MD)
Outlines the experiences of a teacher in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Teacher At Sea Program in which teachers are placed on NOAA vessels to work with professional scientists doing critical, real world research. (DDR)
Schroeder, Sascha; Richter, Tobias; McElvany, Nele; Hachfeld, Axinja; Baumert, Jurgen; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Horz, Holger; Ullrich, Mark
This study investigated the relations between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and students' self-reported engagement in learning from texts with instructional pictures. Participants were the biology, geography, and German teachers of 46 classes (Grades 5-8) and their students. Teachers' instructional behaviors and students' engagement in learning…
Janssen, Noortje; Lazonder, Ard W.
Lesson plans are a potentially powerful means to facilitate teachers' use of technology in the classroom. This study investigated which supplementary information is preferred by teachers when integrating a new technology into the classroom. Forty-six high school biology teachers (23 pre-service and 23 in-service) received a technology-infused…
Orbe, Joymie R.; Espinosa, Allen A.; Datukan, Janir T.
As the Philippines moves towards implementing the K-12 curriculum, there has been a mismatch in teacher preparation in science. The present teacher education curriculum prepares science teachers to specialise in a specific field (e.g. integrated science, biology, chemistry, and physics). However, in the K-12 curriculum, they are required to teach…
Kramer, David W.
Ways in which students are allowed to choose, based on their curiosity at the moment, which way they will move through a lesson are described. Available software for interactive biology programs and available authoring software for developing interactive programs by teachers and students are listed. (KR)
Described is the subject of biological scaling for physics teachers including examples and in-depth reading. Topics are elements of scaling, terminal velocities, Lilliputian and Brobdingnagian, brain evolution, dolphin echolocation, surface tension, gravity change, food and oxygen, and seeing. Ten references on physics and size, and ten questions…
Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.
Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.
vicinity of the enzyme , searching for the active site; (iii) find the active site and position the substrate at it, triggering the catalysis . As the...visualization options. The Lysozyme example is used to introduce the concepts of how enzymes work, and use a view option to visualize the surface of the... enzyme , its active site and its substrate. It is also in this example that we introduce the Foldit Biology notion of a ‘protein state’. Each protein
Batiza, Ann Finney; Gruhl, Mary; Zhang, Bo; Harrington, Tom; Roberts, Marisa; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Knopp, Jonathan; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Hagedorn, Eric; Marcey, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Nelson, Dave
Biological energy flow has been notoriously difficult to teach. Our approach to this topic relies on abiotic and biotic examples of the energy released by moving electrons in thermodynamically spontaneous reactions. A series of analogical model-building experiences was supported with common language and representations including manipulatives.…
Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.
This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the naturemore » of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.« less
This study investigated Ontario science and biology teachers' practices and attitudes toward animal dissection and dissection alternatives. The data was collected through a mixed methods approach involving online surveys (n = 153) and subsequent telephone interviews (n = 9) with secondary school science and biology teachers. The findings indicate…
McLaughlin, Jacqueline S.
Today's high school students and biology teachers alike face challenges arising from constantly-changing environments. From global warming to species reduction to energy policy, the issues the students will face will have immediate and long-lasting implications. At the same time, biology teachers are charged with achieving legislated standards,…
Bayley, Cheryl Ann
Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.
Henry, Gary T; Fortner, C Kevin; Bastian, Kevin C
Because of the current high proportion of novice high-school teachers, many students' mastery of science and mathematics depends on the effectiveness of early-career teachers. In this study, which used value-added models to analyze high-school teachers' effectiveness in raising test scores on 1.05 million end-of-course exams, we found that the effectiveness of high-school science and mathematics teachers increased substantially with experience but exhibited diminishing rates of return by their fourth year; that teachers of algebra 1, algebra 2, biology, and physical science who continued to teach for at least 5 years were more effective as novice teachers than those who left the profession earlier; and that novice teachers of physics, chemistry, physical science, geometry, and biology exhibited steeper growth in effectiveness than did novice non-science, technology, engineering, and mathematics teachers.
Webster, Collin Andrew; Webster, Liana; Cribbs, Jason; Wellborn, Benjamin; Lineberger, Matthew Blake; Doan, Rob
The current National Initial Standards for Physical Education Teacher Education state that preservice teachers should achieve and maintain a level of health-related fitness consistent with that expected of K12 learners. However, little research has addressed the relevance of teacher fitness to effective physical education teaching. This study…
Mushayikwa, Emmanuel; Lubben, Fred
Self-direction has been identified as a potential key to the success of professional development of teachers, especially those working in deprived environments. This paper develops a model for self-directed professional development using interview data from 55 Zimbabwean A-level Science and Mathematics teachers. It focuses on teachers' decisions…
LeBlanc, Patrice R.; Shelton, Maria M.
Examined how five teacher leaders perceived themselves and others as they worked in their leadership roles. Interviews with five practicing teacher leaders indicated that their simultaneous needs for achievement and affiliation created a conflict in the school workplace that had negative outcomes. Important supports for teacher leadership included…
Franklin, Cheryl A.; Snow-Gerono, Jennifer
This article reports research conducted to describe the perceptions of mentor teachers in elementary schools who work with preservice teachers in local school-university partnerships. Teachers shared how their lives in elementary schools/classrooms have changed as a result of new standardized testing requirements. Results focus on how…
Hardman, Steve; Tippetts, Zachary
Presents information about what should be communicated to substitute teachers and why it is important, focusing on the substitute teacher's role, classroom management tools, curriculum management, and preparing students for the substitute teacher by creating bridges that will help minimize the sense of separation students feel when they have a…
Gellert, Laura M.; Gonzalez, Lidia
One increasingly popular way of supporting new teachers is through the use of mentoring. New teachers are often paired with mentors as one of a number of supports meant to aid new teachers as they begin their career. The various types of mentoring range from school based mentors assigned by the school to specialty mentors, such as math coaches.…
Marchant, Gregory J.; David, Kristine A.; Rodgers, Deborah; German, Rachel L.
Current accountability trends suggest an increasing role in state mandates regarding teacher evaluation. With various evaluation models and components serving as the basis for quality teaching, teacher education programs need to recognize the role teacher evaluation plays and incorporate aspects where appropriate. This article makes that case and…
American Institutes for Research, 2017
As interest in teacher leadership has grown, many leading organizations have developed tools and guidance to support schools, districts, and teacher leaders themselves. In collaboration and consultation with the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest Educator Effectiveness Research Alliance, REL Midwest and the Center on Great Teachers and…
Norris, Jason; van der Mars, Hans; Kulinna, Pamela; Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Kwon, Jayoun; Hodges, Michael
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of current PE teachers' perceptions of teacher evaluation systems. Method: A mixed methods approach was used and two sources of data collection were used: (a) a short survey of PE teachers (n = 22) in one urban school district and (b) a formal semistructured interview with 10…
Torkar, Gregor; Bajd, Barbara
This article explores trainee teachers' conceptions and ideas about endangered bird species and their protection. The study involved 191 students majoring in kindergarten education, primary school natural science or secondary school biology education at the University of Ljubljana Faculty of Education, Slovenia. Data analyses showed that the…
Mchazlett, Dwight Henry, Jr.
This record of study (ROS) explores the perceptions of three high school biology teachers who implemented a form of the Japanese originated Lesson Study Professional Development (LS PD) model. Additionally, this ROS reports on the perceptions of the internal stakeholders with regard to the model's viability as a potential solution to a proposed…
Sheldon, Daniel S., Ed.; Penick, John E., Ed.
This monograph is the first attempt to collect and share some of the teaching techniques, activities, and ideas of former recipients of the Outstanding Biology Teacher Award. The lessons are organized into topical themes to facilitate their incorporation into standard curriculum. The manual is divided into two main sections, "Labs" and "Ideas."…
The purpose of the study was to develop an educational software evaluation form to provide an evaluation and selection instrument of educational software that met the requirements of some balance between mechanics, content and pedagogy that is user friendly. The subjects for the study comprised a group of 32 biology teachers working in secondary…
National Safety Council, Washington, DC. Environmental Health Center.
This guide, designed for fourth- through sixth-grade classrooms, contains information teachers will need to teach an educational unit on indoor air quality. It draws on a variety of students' skills, including science, vocabulary, reasoning, math, and basic biology. Each lesson comes with suggested activities that highlight and reinforce what is…
Beck, Robert H.; And Others
In a recent project involving two midwestern high schools, vocational and academic teachers participated in a project promoting interaction and mutual reinforcement. Innovative matches were found in agriculture and biology exchange classes, a technology outreach program, a study of world protein distribution, and a furniture marketing project. The…
Bybee, Rodger W.
This monograph provides a framework for biology teachers who are rethinking and redesigning their programs. The major focus is on the human ecology perspective in biology programs. The first chapter attempts to define and clarify human ecology through historical review. The second chapter provides support, based on a survey of citizens…
Bryant, John; la Velle, Linda Baggott
Points out the importance of awareness among biologists and biology teachers of the ethical and social implications of their work. Describes the bioethics module established at the University of Exeter mainly targeting students majoring in biology and science education. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/YDS)
To offer students biological field experiences, teachers should use their own basic skills, be enthusiastic motivators, participate in community programs/courses/workshops to acquire additional skills/knowledge for outdoor biological education, plan outdoor excursions with safety considerations in mind, and use available resources for classroom…
Horak, Virginia M.
The activity developed in an integrated high school course that was team-taught by both mathematics and science teachers examines linear equations developed from relationships in biology. These equations provide students with opportunities to see the way mathematics could be used to describe biological relationships, and then apply to solve…
Davis, Mary Pitt
This document provides biology experiments designed for students who have completed a first year biology course. This self contained laboratory booklet contains four sections. In section 1, "Instrumentation in the Study of Cells," discussion sections and suggestions for teacher demonstrations are provided. It also includes some basic materials…
Saxena, Astha; Behari, Alka
The present paper delves into the classroom dynamics of Biology classrooms taking into account teaching learning processes associated with some of the ethical issues in Biological Sciences. Argumentation and debate appear to be the major transactional approaches adopted by teachers for dealing with these issues. The classroom discourses emanating…
Discusses types of students and materials and resources used in O- and A-level environmental studies and environmental science courses. Indicates that these subjects are very susceptable to the attitudes of teachers (as shown by their willingness to produce satisfactory materials) and by the motivation of students. (JN)
Horrell, David G.; O'Donnell, Karen; Tollerton, David
Existing GCSE and A-level syllabuses include modules on religion and the media, but these have not been widely or well studied for a variety of reasons. The modules may be considered difficult to teach well, and teachers have few good resources to use in comparison with more popular topics such as medical or environmental ethics. The newly…
Jane Facey was unsatisfied with the way in which her A-Level students responded to typical assessment practice. This would normally involve their teacher marking their work and then providing them with written feedback. In looking to move beyond this, Facey drew upon a wide range of research and practice which has sought to develop the way in…
Paek, Pamela L.; Braun, Henry; Trapani, Catherine; Ponte, Eva; Powers, Don
This report analyzes the relationship of Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) teacher practices and student performance on AP Biology and AP U.S. History Exams. Using a national survey of AP teachers, the study developed four models for each subject with public school teachers only and both public and nonpublic school teachers, using two standards of…
Evans, Steve; Wade, Neil
This article summarises the practical requirements for new science A-levels in biology, chemistry and physics for first teaching from September 2015. It discusses the background to how the new approach was reached and how OCR has seen this taking shape in our assessment models. The opportunities presented by this new approach to practical…
Mchazlett, Dwight Henry, Jr.
This record of study (ROS) explores the perceptions of three high school biology teachers who implemented a form of the Japanese originated Lesson Study Professional Development (LS PD) model. Additionally, this ROS reports on the perceptions of the internal stakeholders with regard to the model's viability as a potential solution to a proposed problem of practice where there was a lack of quality professional development for secondary biology teachers. The audience of internal stakeholders includes district administrators, high school teachers, and science teachers from the elementary and middle school grade levels. Participants of this study collaboratively explored the problem of practice in the fall semester of 2015, then implemented the LS PD model in the spring semester. The participants completed three cycles of LS that focused on collaboratively designing research-based lessons, teaching the lessons with peer observations, revising and re-teaching the lessons with peer observations, and reflecting on the participants' growth experiences. Four research questions were addressed: (a) What are the perceptions of the participants in regard to their own professional growth as a result of participating in the LS initiative? (b) What improvements to the LS PD model might facilitate future implementation? and (c) What are the perceptions of the LS dissemination audience toward LS as a viable solution to a lack of quality PD for secondary biology teachers? Results of the study suggested that LS PD may be a viable solution to the proposed problem of practice where there is a lack of quality professional development for secondary biology teachers. Long-term implications posit that LS PD can be adapted and scaled up to benefit all content areas and grade levels.
Jones, Brian K.
New teachers are often too overwhelmed by their new responsibilities to be the effective teachers they wish to be. Brian K. Jones, a new teacher who loves his job but still thinks of quitting at least once a month, says that teachers need a more comprehensive system of supports before and after they enter the classroom. Such a system would include…
Teachers transform lives, and the ripple effect goes on for years. Three pertinent questions are asked in this paper: Where does this power come from? What is its source? and What makes teachers so special? Two aspects of these questions are the multiplicity of identities that coexist within each teacher and the passion inside teachers that…
Ervay, Stuart; And Others
Although some laypresons, teacher educators, and administrators favor current teacher centers in both concept and practice, others hesitate to endorse any movement that gives teachers added opportunities for self-determination and administrative involvement. A bicameral teacher center, with separate chambers for administrators and classroom…
Harding, Kelly; Parsons, Jim
In this paper, the authors review current practices in pre-service teacher education. They suggest that radical improvements are possible and that, if practiced, would help mediate many of the pressures young teachers face. To do so, the authors: 1) outline the experiences of young teachers to consider how teachers might thrive in a difficult…
Vannest, Kimberly J.; Soares, Denise A.; Harrison, Judith R.; Brown, Leanne; Parker, Richard I.
Studies on special education teacher time use (TTU) have indicated that special education teachers spend small percentages of their day teaching. The authors examined goal setting and self-monitoring to change the time use of 4 teachers. In terms of TTU, each teacher articulated goals for increasing some tasks (e.g., instruction) and decreasing…
Singh, Delar K.; Stoloff, David
In the recent years, teacher quality has become a top priority of our national education policy. There is empirical evidence that suggests that teacher inputs have impact on student outcomes. It is also believed that teacher dispositions are as crucial for student achievement as a teacher's pedagogical and content knowledge/skills. The National…
Singh, Delar K.; Stoloff, David L.
Teacher quality has become a top priority of our national agenda. There is empirical evidence that suggests that teacher inputs have impact on student outcomes. It is also believed that teacher dispositions are as crucial for student achievement as a teacher's pedagogical and content knowledge/skills. The National Council for Accreditation of…
National Education Association, Washington, DC.
In this book, beginning teachers from around the country share their favorite chapters from the National Education Association's "Teacher-to-Teacher" books. Each story illustrates step-by-step how teachers tackle a specific restructuring challenge, describing what worked and what did not work in the process. Each chapter includes diagrams,…
Education Statistics Quarterly, 2000
Examines changes in teacher salaries from 1971 to 1998 among teachers in different age groups. Also compares teacher salaries with the salaries of all bachelor's degree recipients. The annual median salaries (in constant 1998 dollars) of full-time teachers decreased between 1971 and 1998 by about $500-$700 per year on average in each age group.…
Berl, Patricia Scallan
In this article, the author discusses the consequences of losing mature teachers due to voluntary separation or retirement and the mindset of a mature teacher that is different from younger teachers in a number of ways. Mature teachers are colleagues over 45 years of age possessing significant experience in the field. Future trends in teacher…
Lauer, Patricia A.; Dean, Ceri B.
This Teacher Quality Toolkit aims to support the continuum of teacher learning by providing tools that institutions of higher education, districts, and schools can use to improve both preservice and inservice teacher education. The toolkit incorporates McREL?s accumulated knowledge and experience related to teacher quality and standards-based…
Authenticity is often touted as an important virtue for teachers. But what do we mean when we say that a teacher ought to be "authentic"? Research shows that discussions of teacher authenticity frequently refer to other character traits or simply to teacher effectiveness, but authenticity is a unique concept with a long philosophical…
Gretka, Kristen L.
The duties teachers are expected to implement continue to increase. Many times teachers are responsible for instructing students and creating curriculum. With the duties multiplying, teachers' frustrations intensify. The purpose of the project was to explore the teachers' feelings about the district's current language arts curriculum, and identify…
Cruickshank, Donald R.
This book provides an overview of the modal curriculum in teacher education, summarizing 29 teacher education reform proposals and examining six instructional approaches to teacher education. Chapter 1 describes the modal teacher preparation curriculum (general studies, content studies, professional education, integrative studies, and guidelines…
Teter, Richard B.
The purpose of this research and development study was to design and develop an affordable, computer-based, pre-service teacher assessment and reporting system to allow teacher education institutions and supervising teachers to efficiently enter evaluation criteria, record pre-service teacher evaluations, and generate evaluation reports. The…
English language is a fast-growing and popular subject at A level, but the majority of qualified secondary teachers in the UK have subject expertise and backgrounds in literature. This paper reports on interviews with seven secondary English teachers who discuss the strategies they used when taking on the responsibility of A-level English language…
This paper describes patterns of participation and attainment in A-level physics, chemistry and biology from 1961 to 2009. The A level has long been seen as an important gateway qualification for higher level study, particularly in the sciences. This long-term overview examines how recruitment to these three subjects has changed in the context of…
Biological membranes allow life as we know it to exist. They form cells and enable separation between the inside and outside of an organism, controlling by means of their selective permeability which substances enter and leave. By allowing gradients of ions to be created across them, membranes also enable living organisms to generate energy. In addition, they control the flow of messages between cells by sending, receiving and processing information in the form of chemical and electrical signals. This essay summarizes the structure and function of membranes and the proteins within them, and describes their role in trafficking and transport, and their involvement in health and disease. Techniques for studying membranes are also discussed. PMID:26504250
Mei, Chiew Wye; Siraj, Saedah
This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted on the direct users of the Business Studies curriculum in Malaysia to uncover the perceived gap between what was experienced with what was wanted. Interviews were used to examine the needs of the Form Six (equivalent to "A" level) Business Studies teachers and students. Findings…
Liu, Ning; Neuhaus, Birgit Jana
Given the globalization of science education and the different cultures between China and Germany, we tried to compare and explain the differences on teacher questions and real life instances in biology lessons between the two countries from a culture-related perspective. 22 biology teachers from China and 21 biology teachers from Germany participated in this study. Each teacher was videotaped for one lesson on the unit blood and circulatory system. Before the teaching unit, students' prior knowledge was tested with a pretest. After the teaching unit, students' content knowledge was tested with a posttest. The aim of the knowledge tests here was for the better selection of the four samples for qualitative comparison in the two countries. The quantitative analysis showed that more lower-order teacher questions and more real life instances that were introduced after learning relevant concepts were in Chinese lessons than in German lessons. There were no significant differences in the frequency of higher-order questions or real life instances that were introduced before learning concepts. Qualitative analysis showed that both German teachers guided students to analyze the reasoning process of Landsteiner experiment, but nor Chinese teachers did that. The findings reflected the subtle influence of culture on classroom teaching. Relatively, Chinese biology teachers focused more on learning content and the application of the content in real life; German biology teachers emphasized more on invoking students' reasoning and divergent thinking.
Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C
Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.
Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas
It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…
Ryan, Michael; Taylor, Monica; Barone, Amanda; Della Pesca, Leslie; Durgana, Sona; Ostrowski, Kelly; Piccirillo, Tonianne; Pikaard, Kelly
Too often, because of the static nature of schools and the dominant existence of high-stakes testing, professional learning for teachers is determined by administrators or policy and is facilitated by those who are not part of the school community using prepackaged programs. These initiatives run counter to authentic teacher inquiry where teachers…
Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia
This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…
Muraya, Daniel Ngaru; Kimamo, Githui
Performance in Biology at secondary school level in Kenya remains poor and one reason is the teaching approach adopted by teachers with teacher-centered approaches being pre-dominant. This study sought to determine the effect of cooperative learning approach on mean achievement scores in Biology of secondary school students.…
Larkin, Douglas B.; Perry-Ryder, Gail M.
We present the case of Michael, a prospective high school biology teacher, to explore the implications of teacher resistance and avoidance to the topic of evolution. This case is drawn from a year-long qualitative research study that examined Michael's process of learning to teach high school biology and describes how his avoidance of evolution in…
Hacieminoglu, Esme; Ali, Mohamed Moustafa; Oztas, Fulya; Yager, Robert E.
The purpose of this study is to compare changes in attitudes of students about their study of biology in the classes thought by five biology teachers who experienced an Iowa Chautauqua workshop with and two non-Chautauqua teachers who had no experience with any professional development program. The results indicated that there are significant…
The purpose of this study was to determine if a teacher's Professional Growth and Effectiveness System (PGES) rating is an effective indicator for student achievement. Participants in the study were 9th through 12th grade English 10, Biology, U.S. History and Algebra 2 teachers and students enrolled in their courses. The teacher participants'…
Balli, Sandra J.
Teacher education research has long understood that pre-service teachers' beliefs about teaching are well established by the time they enroll in a teacher education program. Based on the understanding that teacher memories help shape pre-service teachers' beliefs, teacher educators have sought ways to both honor such memories and facilitate a…
Iscan, Canay Demirhan
This study aimed to identify the views of experienced class teachers and class teacher candidates on values education. It conducted standard open-ended interviews with experienced class teachers and teacher candidates. The study group comprised 9 experienced class teachers from different socio-economic levels and 9 teacher candidates with…
Mason, Kevin O.
Many researchers in the field of teacher education have proposed the formation of partnerships between teachers and teacher educators, without explicitly stating what additional roles teachers might play in the teacher preparation process. This article describes how some pre-service teacher education programmes have increased the involvement of…
Nicholson, Daniel J
Biological atomism postulates that all life is composed of elementary and indivisible vital units. The activity of a living organism is thus conceived as the result of the activities and interactions of its elementary constituents, each of which individually already exhibits all the attributes proper to life. This paper surveys some of the key episodes in the history of biological atomism, and situates cell theory within this tradition. The atomistic foundations of cell theory are subsequently dissected and discussed, together with the theory's conceptual development and eventual consolidation. This paper then examines the major criticisms that have been waged against cell theory, and argues that these too can be interpreted through the prism of biological atomism as attempts to relocate the true biological atom away from the cell to a level of organization above or below it. Overall, biological atomism provides a useful perspective through which to examine the history and philosophy of cell theory, and it also opens up a new way of thinking about the epistemic decomposition of living organisms that significantly departs from the physicochemical reductionism of mechanistic biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clark, Lisa Davis
Public educational institutions are facing the problem of a shortage of experienced, certified, skilled teachers in the areas of special education, English as a Second Language, mathematics, biology or life science, bilingual education, and music. This shortage compounds difficulties in serving students in these areas. Reasons for this shortage…
Pop-Pacurar, Irina; Ciascai, Liliana
What is the quality of the Romanian biology textbooks? The article gives answers to this question by watching the evolution of a textbook and by suggesting an exercise for analyzing and assessing the alternative biology textbooks. The opportunity of this analysis has been offered to students, future teachers of biology, around the time when they…
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.
This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Three integrated learning activities for science/biology and healthful living are presented. The science/biology goal is understanding the biology of humans. Healthful living goals include analyzing drug and alcohol use…
Bodzin, Alec M.; Waller, Patricia L.; Edwards, Lana; Darlene Kale, Santoro
A Web-integrated biology program is used to explore how to best assist inclusive high school students to learn biology with inquiry-based activities. Classroom adaptations and instructional strategies teachers may use to assist in promoting biology learning with inclusive learners are discussed.
Koseoglu, Pinar; Efendioglu, Akin
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of multimedia-based biology teaching (Mbio) and teacher-centered biology (TCbio) instruction approaches on learners' biology achievements, as well as their views towards learning approaches. During the research process, an experimental design with two groups, TCbio (n = 22) and Mbio (n =…
Puttick, Gillian; Drayton, Brian; Cohen, Eliza
We analyzed the practitioner literature on lab-based instruction in biology in "The American Biology Teacher" between 2007 and 2012. We investigated what laboratory learning looks like in biology classrooms, what topics are addressed, what instructional methods and activities are described, and what is being learned about student…
Boulay, Rachel; van Raalte, Lisa
Commitment to the STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) pipeline is slowly declining despite the need for professionals in the medical field. Addressing this, the John A. Burns School of Medicine developed a summer teacher-training program with a supplemental technology-learning component to improve science teachers' knowledge and skills of Molecular Biology. Subsequently, students' skills, techniques, and application of molecular biology are impacted. Science teachers require training that will prepare them for educating future professionals and foster interest in the medical field. After participation in the program and full access to the virtual material, twelve high school science teachers completed a final written reflective statement to evaluate their experiences. Using thematic analysis, knowledge and classroom application were investigated in this study. Results were two-fold: teachers identified difference areas of gained knowledge from the teacher-training program and teachers' reporting various benefits in relation to curricula development after participating in the program. It is concluded that participation in the program and access to the virtual material will impact the science community by updating teacher knowledge and positively influencing students' experience with science.
McDiarmid, G. Williamson; Larson, Eric; Hill, Alexandra
This report examines the demand for teachers, teacher turnover, and teacher education in Alaska. Surveys were conducted with school district personnel directors, directors of Alaska teacher education programs, teachers who exited Alaska schools in 2001, and rural and urban instructional aides. Alaska is facing teacher shortages, but these are…
Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.
Orlander, Auli Arvola; Wickman, Per-Olof
This is a study of teaching about the human body. It is based on transcribed material from interviews with 15-year-old students and teachers about their experiences of sex education and from recordings of classroom interactions during a dissection. The analysis is focused on the relationship between what students are supposed to learn about the biological body and their expressed experiences and meaning making of bodies in the schoolwork. The results indicate that the negotiations associated with the encounters between the bodies of the classroom (student, teacher, and animal bodies) are important for what directions meaning making takes and what students are afforded to learn about bodies, biologically as well as in terms of values. We suggest that these negotiations should be taken into account at schools, be regarded as an important part of the learning processes in science education and in that way open up for new possibilities for students' meaning making.
Van Dyke, Aaron R; Gatazka, Daniel H; Hanania, Mariah M
Chemical biology derives intellectual vitality from its scientific interface: applying chemical strategies and perspectives to biological questions. There is a growing need for chemical biologists to synergistically integrate their research programs with their educational activities to become holistic teacher-scholars. This review examines how course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are an innovative method to achieve this integration. Because CUREs are course-based, the review first offers strategies for creating a student-centered learning environment, which can improve students' outcomes. Exemplars of CUREs in chemical biology are then presented and organized to illustrate the five defining characteristics of CUREs: significance, scientific practices, discovery, collaboration, and iteration. Finally, strategies to overcome common barriers in CUREs are considered as well as future innovations in chemical biology education.
Teachers participate in the Rocketry Engineering Design Challenge during the 2017 GE Foundation High School STEM Integration Conference at the Center for Space Education at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. High school teachers from across the country took part in the week-long conference, which is designed to explore effective ways for teachers, schools and districts from across the country to integrate STEM throughout the curriculum. The conference is a partnership between GE Foundation and the National Science Teachers Association.
Although teacher education programs spend very little time on the development of listening skills, the importance of listening to communicative effectiveness can hardly be exaggerated. As good listeners, teachers: (1) establish a classroom environment conducive to learning; (2) make better pedagogical decisions based on good listening skills; and…
Coe, Robert; Aloisi, Cesare; Higgins, Steve; Major, Lee Elliot
This document is a summary of the report "What Makes Great Teaching". It argues that improved teacher development will positively impact on pupil attainment, particular those from disadvantaged backgrounds. "Developing Teachers" presents five policy recommendations which have been signed by 17 of Britain's leading headteachers…