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Sample records for a-lipoic acid prevents

  1. Folic acid and birth defect prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Preconceptional counseling. In: Cunningham FG, Leveno KL, Bloom SL, et al, eds. Williams Obstetrics. 24th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2014:chap 8. US Preventive Services Task Force. Folic acid for ...

  2. The analysis and assessment of the effect of selected endo- and exogenous substances on prevention and treatment of selected conditions and injuries within the musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Wiesław E; Obmiński, Zbigniew

    2017-04-12

    The aim of the presented report, prepared based on the results of the newest studies available in the reference sources, is the analysis and assessment of the important endo- and exogenous substances, whose role and significance in prevention and complex treatment of civilization-related diseases (including the pathological conditions and injuries of the musculoskeletal system) can be essential and significantly contribute to the improvement of the efficacy of the accepted treatment approach. Three substances, namely a-lipoic acid, y-linolenic acid and a-linoleic acid were subject to a detailed analysis and assessment.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  4. Use of topical tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid to prevent bleeding after major surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Ipema, Heather J; Tanzi, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the literature describing topical use of tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid for prevention of postoperative bleeding after major surgical procedures. Literature was retrieved through MEDLINE (1946-September 2011) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-September 2011) using the terms tranexamic acid, aminocaproic acid, antifibrinolytic, topical, and surgical. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All identified articles in English were evaluated. Clinical trials, case reports, and meta-analyses describing topical use of tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid to prevent postoperative bleeding were included. A total of 16 publications in the setting of major surgical procedures were included; the majority of data were for tranexamic acid. For cardiac surgery, 4 trials used solutions containing tranexamic acid (1-2.5 g in 100-250 mL of 0.9% NaCl), and 1 trial assessed a solution containing aminocaproic acid (24 g in 250 mL of 0.9% NaCl). These solutions were poured into the chest cavity before sternotomy closure. For orthopedic procedures, all of the data were for topical irrigation solutions containing tranexamic acid (500 mg-3 g in 50-100 mL of 0.9% NaCl) or for intraarticular injections of tranexamic acid (250 mg to 2 g in 20-50 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride, with or without carbazochrome sodium sulfate). Overall, use of topical tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid reduced postoperative blood loss; however, few studies reported a significant reduction in the number of packed red blood cell transfusions or units given, intensive care unit stay, or length of hospitalization. Topical application of tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid to decrease postsurgical bleeding after major surgical procedures is a promising strategy. Further data are needed regarding the safety of this hemostatic approach.

  5. [Folic acid: Primary prevention of neural tube defects. Literature Review].

    PubMed

    Llamas Centeno, M J; Miguélez Lago, C

    2016-03-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common congenital malformations of the nervous system, they have a multifactorial etiology, are caused by exposure to chemical, physical or biological toxic agents, factors deficiency, diabetes, obesity, hyperthermia, genetic alterations and unknown causes. Some of these factors are associated with malnutrition by interfering with the folic acid metabolic pathway, the vitamin responsible for neural tube closure. Its deficit produce anomalies that can cause abortions, stillbirths or newborn serious injuries that cause disability, impaired quality of life and require expensive treatments to try to alleviate in some way the alterations produced in the embryo. Folic acid deficiency is considered the ultimate cause of the production of neural tube defects, it is clear the reduction in the incidence of Espina Bifida after administration of folic acid before conception, this leads us to want to further study the action of folic acid and its application in the primary prevention of neural tube defects. More than 40 countries have made the fortification of flour with folate, achieving encouraging data of decrease in the prevalence of neural tube defects. This paper attempts to make a literature review, which clarify the current situation and future of the prevention of neural tube defects.

  6. Liquid Paraffin vs Hyaluronic Acid in Preventing Intraperitoneal Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Hanish; Singh, Vinod Prem

    2017-12-01

    Adhesion formation after abdominal and pelvic operations remains a challenging problem. Role of adjuvant barriers have been studied but there is no comparative study between liquid paraffin and hyaluronic acid as a barrier method. Hence, we planned to compare the effectiveness of 0.4 % hyaluronic acid and liquid paraffin in the prevention of postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions in rats. This prospective, randomized and controlled study was conducted in 60 adult Wistar albino rats. Surgical trauma by caecal abrasion and 1 g talcum powder was used in the rat model to induce adhesion formation. After trauma, 3 ml normal saline was instilled in the peritoneal cavity in control group ( n  = 20), 3 ml liquid paraffin was instilled in experimental group A ( n  = 20) and 3 ml 0.4 % hyaluronic acid was instilled in experimental group B ( n  = 20). Two weeks after laparotomy, repeat laparotomy was performed and the adhesions were scored according to Zuhlke classification. Liquid paraffin and hyaluronic acid both reduce the extent and grade of adhesions both macroscopically ( p  = 0.018, p  = 0.017) and microscopically ( p  = 0.019, p  = 0.019) respectively. Although there was significant reduction in adhesions by hyaluronic acid at certain specific sites as compared with liquid paraffin, its overall effectiveness in preventing postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions is not significantly different from liquid paraffin ( p  = 0.092, p  = 0.193) respectively. The presence of liquid paraffin and hyaluronic acid in the peritoneal cavity reduce postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions significantly in rats. However, there is no overall significant difference in the effectiveness of two groups. Dosage and safety of these chemicals in human beings remains to be established.

  7. Effect of ascorbic acid on prevention of hypercholesterolemia induced atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Ray, R; Snehlata; Das, N; Srivastava, L M

    2006-04-01

    The notion that oxidation of lipids and propagation of free radicals may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is supported by a large body of evidence. To circumvent the damage caused by oxygen free radicals, antioxidants are needed which provide the much needed neutralization of free radical by allowing the pairing of electrons. In this study we have investigated the effect of ascorbic acid, a water soluble antioxidant on the development of hypercholesterolemia induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Rabbits were made hypercholesterolemic and atherosclerotic by feeding 100 mg cholesterol/day. Different doses of ascorbic acid were administered to these rabbits. Low dose of ascorbic acid (0.5 mg/100 g body weight/day) did not have any significant effect on the percent of total area covered by atherosclerotic plaque. However, ascorbic acid when fed at a higher dose (15 mg/100 g body weight/day) was highly effective in reducing the atherogenecity. With this dose the percent of total surface area covered by atherosclerotic plaque was significantly less (p < 0.001). This suggests that use of ascorbic acid may have great promise in the prevention of hypercholesterolemia induced atherosclerosis.

  8. Once-yearly zoledronic acid in hip fracture prevention

    PubMed Central

    Demontiero, Oddom; Duque, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an escalating global problem. Hip fractures, the most catastrophic complication of osteoporosis, continue to cause significant mortality and morbidity despite increasing availability of effective preventative agents. Among these agents, oral bisphosphonates have been the first choice for the treatment and prevention of osteoporotic fractures. However, the use of oral bisphosphonates, especially in the older population, has been limited by their side effects and method of administration thus compromising their persistent use. The resultant low adherence by patients has undermined their full potential and has been associated with an increase in the incidence of fragility fractures. Recently, annual intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL) has been approved for osteoporosis. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated ZOL to be safe, have good tolerability and produce significant effect on bone mass and microarchitecture. Adherence has also been shown to be better with ZOL. Furthermore two large trials firmly demonstrated significant anti-osteoporotic effect (∼59% relative risk reduction of hip fractures) and mortality benefit (28% reduction in mortality) of ZOL in older persons with recent hip fractures. In this review, we report the current evidence on the use of ZOL for the prevention of hip fractures in the elderly. We also report the pharmacological characteristics and the advantages and disadvantages of ZOL in this particular group. PMID:19503777

  9. Kynurenic Acid Prevents Cytoskeletal Disorganization Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Mixed Cultures of Rat Striatum.

    PubMed

    Pierozan, Paula; Biasibetti-Brendler, Helena; Schmitz, Felipe; Ferreira, Fernanda; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina; Wyse, Angela T S

    2018-06-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite of tryptophan known to modulate a number of mechanisms involved in neural dysfunction. Although its activity in the brain has been widely studied, the effect of KYNA counteracting the actions of quinolinic acid (QUIN) remains unknown. The present study aims at describing the ability of 100 μM KYNA preventing cytoskeletal disruption provoked by QUIN in astrocyte/neuron/microglia mixed culture. KYNA totally preserved cytoskeletal organization, cell morphology, and redox imbalance in mixed cultures exposed to QUIN. However, KYNA partially prevented morphological alteration in isolated primary astrocytes and failed to protect the morphological alterations of neurons caused by QUIN exposure. Moreover, KYNA prevented QUIN-induced microglial activation and upregulation of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) and partially preserved tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level in mixed cultures. TNF-α level was also partially preserved in astrocytes. In addition to the mechanisms dependent on redox imbalance and microglial activation, KYNA prevented downregulation of connexin-43 and the loss of functionality of gap junctions (GJs), preserving cell-cell contact, cytoskeletal organization, and cell morphology in QUIN-treated cells. Furthermore, the toxicity of QUIN targeting the cytoskeleton of mixed cultures was not prevented by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801. We suggest that KYNA protects the integrity of the cytoskeleton of mixed cultures by complex mechanisms including modulating microglial activation preventing oxidative imbalance and misregulated GJs leading to disrupted cytoskeleton in QUIN-treated cells. This study contributed to elucidate the molecular basis of KYNA protection against QUIN toxicity.

  10. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents arterial calcification in klotho mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazufumi; Miura, Daiji; Saito, Yukihiro; Yunoki, Kei; Koyama, Yasushi; Satoh, Minoru; Kondo, Megumi; Osawa, Kazuhiro; Hatipoglu, Omer F; Miyoshi, Toru; Yoshida, Masashi; Morita, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The klotho gene was identified as an "aging-suppressor" gene that accelerates arterial calcification when disrupted. Serum and vascular klotho levels are reduced in patients with chronic kidney disease, and the reduced levels are associated with arterial calcification. Intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an n-3 fatty acid, reduces the risk of fatal coronary artery disease. However, the effects of EPA on arterial calcification have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of EPA on arterial calcification in klotho mutant mice. Four-week-old klotho mutant mice and wild-type (WT) mice were given a diet containing 5% EPA (EPA food, klotho and WT: n = 12, each) or not containing EPA (control food, klotho and WT: n = 12, each) for 4 weeks. Calcium volume scores of thoracic and abdominal aortas assessed by computed tomography were significantly elevated in klotho mice after 4 weeks of control food, but they were not elevated in klotho mice after EPA food or in WT mice. Serum levels of EPA and resolvin E1, an active metabolite of EPA, in EPA food-fed mice were significantly increased compared to those in control food-fed mice. An oxidative stress PCR array followed by quantitative PCR revealed that NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4), an enzyme that generates superoxide, gene expression was up-regulated in arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of klotho mice. Activity of NOX was also significantly higher in SMCs of klotho mice than in those of WT mice. EPA decreased expression levels of the NOX4 gene and NOX activity. GPR120, a receptor of n-3 fatty acids, gene knockdown by siRNA canceled effects of EPA on NOX4 gene expression and NOX activity in arterial SMCs of klotho mice. EPA prevents arterial calcification together with reduction of NOX gene expression and activity via GPR120 in klotho mutant mice.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acid supplement prevents development of intracranial atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiamei; Hafeez, Adam; Stevenson, James; Yang, Jianjie; Yin, Changbin; Li, Fengwu; Wang, Sainan; Du, Huishan; Ji, Xunming; Rafols, Jose A; Geng, Xiaokun; Ding, Yuchuan

    2016-10-15

    Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) is one of the most common causes of stroke worldwide and, in particular, has been implicated as a leading cause of recurrent ischemic stroke. We adapted a rat model of atherosclerosis to study brain intracranial atherosclerosis, and further investigated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA) in attenuating development of ICAS. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control normal-cholesterol or high-cholesterol diet groups with or without O3FA for up to 6weeks. During the first 2weeks, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 3mg/mL) was added to the drinking water of the high-cholesterol groups. The rats received supplementation with O3FA (5mg/kg/day) by gavages. Blood lipids including low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol (CHO), triglycerides (TG) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured at 3 and 6weeks. The lumen of middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the thickness of the vessel wall were assessed. Inflammatory molecular markers were assessed by Western blot. A high-cholesterol diet exhibited a significant increase in the classic blood markers (LDL, CHO, and TG) for atherosclerosis, as well as a decrease in HDL. These markers were found to be progressively more severe with time. Lumen stenosis and intimal thickening were increased in MCA. O3FA showed attenuation of blood lipids with an absence of morphological changes. O3FA significantly reduced the inflammatory marker CD68 in MCA and prevented monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression in the brain. O3FA similarly decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), markers affiliated with monocyte activity in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, O3FA significantly inhibited the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a marker for endothelial activation. Lastly, O3FA increased ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) protein expression via

  12. Cross-linked hyaluronic acid in pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Beniamino, P; Vadalà, M; Laurino, C

    2016-07-02

    Long-term bedridden patients are at high risk of acquring pressure ulcers (PUs). In this group of patients, prevention is necessary to cut the health costs, improve quality of life and reduce the mortality. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of a cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) as plastic bulking-agent filling and remodelling the deep dermis and subcutaneous space of the skin areas exposed to the risk of necrosis. Our work hypothesis has been to inflate a sub-dermal elastic cushion, filled with a natural ECM component, with the aim to induce a stronger tissue background resistant to the ulcerative process. All the patients had an increased risk of PUs, at the sacral, ileum or heel skin. Patients were being nursed accordingly to the standard orthopaedic ward management with a pressure relieveing air mattress. The standard protocol consisted in body mobilisation every 3 hours, 24 hours a day and accurate cleaning of the skin with liquid soap and water without any towel friction and without adding any cream or lotion for the skin protection. Our filling protocol enclosed: accurate disinfection of the skin to be injected with povidone-iodine solution, followed by a local anaesthesia with 28G 13 mm needle, injecting 1.5 ml of 1% xylocaine. Then slow, deep, subcutaneous injection of cross-linked HA was performed with a 18G long needle, in order to deliver a homogeneous, soft gel layer underneath and around the whitish erythematous skin edges at risk of ulceration. Patients' tolerability of the compound and adverse events were also recorded. There were 15 patients (78-94 years old) who participated in the study. All tolerated the procedure very well and no serious side effects were declared. No skin pressure ulceration was detected in the four weeks follow-up Conclusion: We have demonstrated the safety and tolerability of a cross-linked HA subdermal injection in PUs prevention. The compound stratifies in a soft, elastic, interstitial bulk into the deep dermis, thus

  13. Therapeutic efficacy of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on cyclosporine A induced renal alterations.

    PubMed

    Amudha, Ganapathy; Josephine, Anthony; Mythili, Yenjerla; Sundarapandiyan, Rajaguru; Varalakshmi, Palaninathan

    2007-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the possible beneficial effect of lipoic acid in preventing the renal damage induced by cyclosporine A in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain were divided into four groups and treated as follows. Two groups received cyclosporine A by oral gavage (25 mg/kg/body weight) for 21 days to induce nephrotoxicity, one of which simultaneously received lipoic acid treatment (20 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. A vehicle (olive oil) and a lipoic acid drug control were also included. Cyclosporine A induced renal damage was evident from the decreased activities of tissue marker enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase) and decreased activities of ATPases (Na+, K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+ ATPase). An apparent increase in the levels of serum constituents (urea, uric acid and creatinine) and urinary marker enzymes (N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase, cathepsin-D and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) along with significant decline in creatinine clearance were seen in the cyclosporine treated rats, which was reversed upon treatment with lipoic acid. Ultrastructural observations were also in agreement with the above abnormal changes. Lipoic acid effectively reverted these abnormal biochemical changes and minimized the morphological lesions in renal tissue. Hence, this study clearly exemplifies that lipoic acid might be an ideal choice against cyclosporine A induced cellular abnormalities.

  14. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  15. Synthetic Fatty Acids Prevent Plasmid-Mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Getino, María; Sanabria-Ríos, David J.; Fernández-López, Raúl; Campos-Gómez, Javier; Sánchez-López, José M.; Fernández, Antonio; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial conjugation constitutes a major horizontal gene transfer mechanism for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes among human pathogens. Antibiotic resistance spread could be halted or diminished by molecules that interfere with the conjugation process. In this work, synthetic 2-alkynoic fatty acids were identified as a novel class of conjugation inhibitors. Their chemical properties were investigated by using the prototype 2-hexadecynoic acid and its derivatives. Essential features of effective inhibitors were the carboxylic group, an optimal long aliphatic chain of 16 carbon atoms, and one unsaturation. Chemical modification of these groups led to inactive or less-active derivatives. Conjugation inhibitors were found to act on the donor cell, affecting a wide number of pathogenic bacterial hosts, including Escherichia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter spp. Conjugation inhibitors were active in inhibiting transfer of IncF, IncW, and IncH plasmids, moderately active against IncI, IncL/M, and IncX plasmids, and inactive against IncP and IncN plasmids. Importantly, the use of 2-hexadecynoic acid avoided the spread of a derepressed IncF plasmid into a recipient population, demonstrating the feasibility of abolishing the dissemination of antimicrobial resistances by blocking bacterial conjugation. PMID:26330514

  16. Effects of Low Level Radiation exposure on Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function: Mechanisms and Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    precursor cells in culture with uX-lipoic acid reverses the density dependent changes observed in culture; this compound may provide an effective means...inhibited growth of precursor cells in vitro; - Antioxidant treatment of neural precursor cells in culture with a-lipoic acid (ALA) reverses the...with a single lO-Gy dose, and tissues avidin-biotinylated pemxidase complex; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; DAB, 3,3’- were collected from 6 to

  17. Zoledronic Acid for the Treatment and Prevention of Primary and Secondary Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoli, René

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in therapies that can be administered less frequently and/or avoid gastrointestinal irritation. The efficacy of once-yearly zoledronic acid (5 mg) in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis has been evaluated in different patient populations. In the 3-year HORIZON-Pivotal Fracture Trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, zoledronic acid reduced the risk of vertebral and hip fracture by 70% and 41%, respectively, versus placebo. The efficacy of zoledronic acid in preventing subsequent fracture in patients with a hip fracture was evaluated in the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial. New vertebral and nonvertebral fractures were significantly reduced by treatment initiated within 90 days of incident hip fracture, without evidence of delayed fracture healing. Data from a 1-year study show that a single zoledronic acid 5-mg infusion is superior to oral risedronate 5 mg/day for treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Increases in bone mineral density and decreases in bone turnover markers were significantly greater with zoledronic acid than with risedronate. Two different treatment regimens of zoledronic acid were found to be more effective than placebo for prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women and reducing markers of bone turnover after 2 years. In conclusion, zoledronic acid 5 mg once-yearly infusion has demonstrated marked efficacy in the treatment and prevention of primary and secondary osteoporosis, with a combination of fracture risk reduction and prevention of bone loss at key sites. It is the only agent shown to reduce the incidence of fracture and mortality in patients with a previous low-trauma hip fracture. PMID:22870433

  18. Periconceptional folic acid prevents miscarriage in Irish families with neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J

    2011-03-01

    Miscarriages occur to excess in sibships with neural tube defects (NTDs) and among maternal versus paternal relatives in NTD families. Folic acid prevents most NTDs. Its potential to prevent miscarriages has been controversial. We evaluated the relationship of maternal line and periconceptional folic acid with miscarriage. First cousins in Irish families with NTDs were interviewed about pregnancy outcomes and the health of their offspring. Miscarriages were not more frequent among pregnancies of maternal versus paternal first cousins. Folic acid intake during early pregnancy significantly reduced the risk of miscarriage from 15.7 to 9.6%, for an adjusted odds ratio of 0.37 (95% confidence interval 0.19, 0.72, p = 0.005). Folic acid during pregnancy was associated with a reduction of approximately 60% in miscarriages. Miscarriages are common-one in every eight pregnancies in this study. If incorporated into pre-pregnancy counseling, these results could have significant public health impact.

  19. Fatty acid bile acid conjugates (FABACs)—New molecules for the prevention of cholesterol crystallisation in bile

    PubMed Central

    Gilat, T; Somjen, G; Mazur, Y; Leikin-Frenkel, A; Rosenberg, R; Halpern, Z; Konikoff, F.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Cholesterol gall stones are a frequent disease for which at present surgery is the usual therapy. Despite the importance of bile acids it has become evident that phospholipids are the main cholesterol solubilisers in bile. Even phospholipid components, such as fatty acids, have anticrystallising activity.
AIM—To synthesise fatty acid bile acid conjugates (FABACs) and study their effects on cholesterol crystallisation in bile in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS—FABACs were prepared by conjugation of cholic acid at position 3 with saturated fatty acids of variable chain length using an amide bond. Cholesterol crystallisation and its kinetics (crystal observation time, crystal mass) were studied in model bile, pooled enriched human bile, and fresh human bile using FABACs with saturated fatty acids of varying chain length (C-6 to C-22). Absorption of FABACs into blood and bile was tested in hamsters. Prevention of biliary cholesterol crystallisation in vivo was tested in hamsters and inbred mice.
RESULTS—FABACs strongly inhibited cholesterol crystallisation in model as well as native bile. The FABACs with longer acyl chains (C-16 to C-22) were more effective. At a concentration of 5 mM, FABACs almost completely inhibited cholesterol crystallisation in fresh human bile for 21 days. FABACs were absorbed and found in both portal and heart blood of hamsters. Levels in bile were 2-3 times higher than in blood, indicating active secretion. Appreciable levels were found in the systemic circulation 24-48 hours after a single administration. Ingested FABACs completely prevented the formation of cholesterol crystals in the gall bladders of hamsters and mice fed a lithogenic diet.
CONCLUSIONS—FABACs are potent inhibitors of cholesterol crystallisation in bile. They are absorbed and secreted into bile and prevent the earliest step of cholesterol gall stone formation in animals. These compounds may be of potential use in cholesterol gall stone disease in

  20. Ascorbic acid prevents vascular dysfunction induced by oral glucose load in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Sergio; Prior, Manlio; Rigoni, Anna; Zecchetto, Sara; Rulfo, Fanny; Arosio, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of oral glucose load on forearm circulatory regulation before and after ascorbic acid administration in healthy subjects. Microcirculation study with laser Doppler was performed at the hand in basal conditions, after ischemia and after acetylcholine and nitroprusside; strain gauge plethysmography was performed at basal and after ischemia. The tests were repeated in the same sequence 2 hour after oral administration of glucose (75 g). The subjects were randomised for administration of ascorbic acid (1 g bid) or placebo (sodium bicarbonate 1 g bid) for 10 days. After that, the tests were repeated before and after a new oral glucose load. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Macrocirculatory flux, pressure values and heart rate were unvaried throughout the study. The glucose load caused a reduction in the hyperemic peak flow with laser Doppler and plethysmography; it reduced flux recovery time and hyperemic curve area after ischemia; acetylcholine elicited a minor increase in flux with laser Doppler. The response to nitroprusside was unvaried after glucose load as compared to basal conditions. Treatment with ascorbic acid prevented the decrease in hyperemia after glucose, detected with laser Doppler and plethysmography. Ascorbic acid prevented the decreased response to acetylcholine after glucose, the response to nitroprusside was unaffected by ascorbic acid. Results after placebo were unvaried. Oral glucose load impairs endothelium dependent dilation and hyperaemia at microcirculation, probably via oxidative stress; ascorbic acid can prevent it. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In Barrett's esophagus patients and Barrett's cell lines, ursodeoxycholic acid increases antioxidant expression and prevents DNA damage by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sui; Huo, Xiaofang; Rezaei, Davood; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zhang, Xi; Yu, Chunhua; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Cheng, Edaire; Pham, Thai H; Wang, David H; Chen, Minhu; Souza, Rhonda F; Spechler, Stuart Jon

    2014-07-15

    Hydrophobic bile acids like deoxycholic acid (DCA), which cause oxidative DNA damage and activate NF-κB in Barrett's metaplasia, might contribute to carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus. We have explored mechanisms whereby ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, a hydrophilic bile acid) protects against DCA-induced injury in vivo in patients and in vitro using nonneoplastic, telomerase-immortalized Barrett's cell lines. We took biopsies of Barrett's esophagus from 21 patients before and after esophageal perfusion with DCA (250 μM) at baseline and after 8 wk of oral UDCA treatment. DNA damage was assessed by phospho-H2AX expression, neutral CometAssay, and phospho-H2AX nuclear foci formation. Quantitative PCR was performed for antioxidants including catalase and GPX1. Nrf2, catalase, and GPX1 were knocked down with siRNAs. Reporter assays were performed using a plasmid construct containing antioxidant responsive element. In patients, baseline esophageal perfusion with DCA significantly increased phospho-H2AX and phospho-p65 in Barrett's metaplasia. Oral UDCA increased GPX1 and catalase levels in Barrett's metaplasia and prevented DCA perfusion from inducing DNA damage and NF-κB activation. In cells, DCA-induced DNA damage and NF-κB activation was prevented by 24-h pretreatment with UDCA, but not by mixing UDCA with DCA. UDCA activated Nrf2 signaling to increase GPX1 and catalase expression, and protective effects of UDCA pretreatment were blocked by siRNA knockdown of these antioxidants. UDCA increases expression of antioxidants that prevent toxic bile acids from causing DNA damage and NF-κB activation in Barrett's metaplasia. Elucidation of this molecular pathway for UDCA protection provides rationale for clinical trials on UDCA for chemoprevention in Barrett's esophagus. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. In Barrett's esophagus patients and Barrett's cell lines, ursodeoxycholic acid increases antioxidant expression and prevents DNA damage by bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Sui; Huo, Xiaofang; Rezaei, Davood; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zhang, Xi; Yu, Chunhua; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Cheng, Edaire; Pham, Thai H.; Wang, David H.; Chen, Minhu; Spechler, Stuart Jon

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophobic bile acids like deoxycholic acid (DCA), which cause oxidative DNA damage and activate NF-κB in Barrett's metaplasia, might contribute to carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus. We have explored mechanisms whereby ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, a hydrophilic bile acid) protects against DCA-induced injury in vivo in patients and in vitro using nonneoplastic, telomerase-immortalized Barrett's cell lines. We took biopsies of Barrett's esophagus from 21 patients before and after esophageal perfusion with DCA (250 μM) at baseline and after 8 wk of oral UDCA treatment. DNA damage was assessed by phospho-H2AX expression, neutral CometAssay, and phospho-H2AX nuclear foci formation. Quantitative PCR was performed for antioxidants including catalase and GPX1. Nrf2, catalase, and GPX1 were knocked down with siRNAs. Reporter assays were performed using a plasmid construct containing antioxidant responsive element. In patients, baseline esophageal perfusion with DCA significantly increased phospho-H2AX and phospho-p65 in Barrett's metaplasia. Oral UDCA increased GPX1 and catalase levels in Barrett's metaplasia and prevented DCA perfusion from inducing DNA damage and NF-κB activation. In cells, DCA-induced DNA damage and NF-κB activation was prevented by 24-h pretreatment with UDCA, but not by mixing UDCA with DCA. UDCA activated Nrf2 signaling to increase GPX1 and catalase expression, and protective effects of UDCA pretreatment were blocked by siRNA knockdown of these antioxidants. UDCA increases expression of antioxidants that prevent toxic bile acids from causing DNA damage and NF-κB activation in Barrett's metaplasia. Elucidation of this molecular pathway for UDCA protection provides rationale for clinical trials on UDCA for chemoprevention in Barrett's esophagus. PMID:24852569

  3. Dexmedetomidine Prevents Excessive γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Function after Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dian-Shi; Kaneshwaran, Kirusanthy; Lei, Gang; Mostafa, Fariya; Wang, Junhui; Lecker, Irene; Avramescu, Sinziana; Xie, Yu-Feng; Chan, Nathan K; Fernandez-Escobar, Alejandro; Woo, Junsung; Chan, Darren; Ramsey, Amy J; Sivak, Jeremy M; Lee, C Justin; Bonin, Robert P; Orser, Beverley A

    2018-06-08

    Postoperative delirium is associated with poor long-term outcomes and increased mortality. General anesthetic drugs may contribute to delirium because they increase cell-surface expression and function of α5 subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, an effect that persists long after the drugs have been eliminated. Dexmedetomidine, an α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, prevents delirium in patients and reduces cognitive deficits in animals. Thus, it was postulated that dexmedetomidine prevents excessive function of α5 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Injectable (etomidate) and inhaled (sevoflurane) anesthetic drugs were studied using cultured murine hippocampal neurons, cultured murine and human cortical astrocytes, and ex vivo murine hippocampal slices. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptor function and cell-signaling pathways were studied using electrophysiologic and biochemical methods. Memory and problem-solving behaviors were also studied. The etomidate-induced sustained increase in α5 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor cell-surface expression was reduced by dexmedetomidine (mean ± SD, etomidate: 146.4 ± 51.6% vs. etomidate + dexmedetomidine: 118.4 ± 39.1% of control, n = 8 each). Dexmedetomidine also reduced the persistent increase in tonic inhibitory current in hippocampal neurons (etomidate: 1.44 ± 0.33 pA/pF, n = 10; etomidate + dexmedetomidine: 1.01 ± 0.45 pA/pF, n = 9). Similarly, dexmedetomidine prevented a sevoflurane-induced increase in the tonic current. Dexmedetomidine stimulated astrocytes to release brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which acted as a paracrine factor to reduce excessive α5 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function in neurons. Finally, dexmedetomidine attenuated memory and problem-solving deficits after anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine prevented excessive α5 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function after anesthesia. This novel α2 adrenergic receptor- and brain-derived neurotrophic factor

  4. Uric acid lowering to prevent kidney function loss in diabetes: the preventing early renal function loss (PERL) allopurinol study.

    PubMed

    Maahs, David M; Caramori, Luiza; Cherney, David Z I; Galecki, Andrzej T; Gao, Chuanyun; Jalal, Diana; Perkins, Bruce A; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Rossing, Peter; Mauer, Michael; Doria, Alessandro

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic kidney disease causes significant morbidity and mortality among people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Intensive glucose and blood pressure control have thus far failed to adequately curb this problem and therefore a major need for novel treatment approaches exists. Multiple observations link serum uric acid levels to kidney disease development and progression in diabetes and strongly argue that uric acid lowering should be tested as one such novel intervention. A pilot of such a trial, using allopurinol, is currently being conducted by the Preventing Early Renal Function Loss (PERL) Consortium. Although the PERL trial targets T1D individuals at highest risk of kidney function decline, the use of allopurinol as a renoprotective agent may also be relevant to a larger segment of the population with diabetes. As allopurinol is inexpensive and safe, it could be cost-effective even for relatively low-risk patients, pending the completion of appropriate trials at earlier stages.

  5. Prevention of acetic acid-induced colitis by desferrithiocin analogs in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Raymond J; Wiegand, Jan; Weimar, William R; Nguyen, John Nhut; Sninsky, Charles A

    2003-02-01

    Iron contributes significantly to the formation of reactive oxygen species via the Fenton reaction. Therefore, we assessed whether a series of desferrithiocin analogs, both carboxylic acids and hydroxamates, could (1) either promote or diminish the iron-mediated oxidation of ascorbate, (2) quench a model radical species, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+), and (3) when applied topically, prevent acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Surprisingly, most of the desferrithiocin analogs inhibited the Fenton reaction to an approximately equivalent degree; however, substantial differences were observed in the capacity of the analogs to scavenge the model radical cation. Four carboxylic acid desferrithiocin analogs and their respective N-methylhydroxamates were tested along with desferrioxamine and Rowasa, a currently accepted topical therapeutic agent for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in a rodent model of acetic acid-induced colitis. The colonic damage was quantitated by two independent measurements. Although neither radical scavenging nor prevention of Fenton chemistry was a definitive predictor of in vivo efficacy, the overall trend is that desferrithiocin analogs substituted with an N-methylhydroxamate in the place of the carboxylic acid are both better free radical scavengers and more active against acetic acid-induced colitis. These results represent an intriguing alternative avenue to the development of improved IBD therapeutic agents.

  6. Ferulic acid prevents cerebral ischemic injury-induced reduction of hippocalcin expression.

    PubMed

    Koh, Phil-Ok

    2013-07-01

    Intracellular calcium overload is a critical pathophysiological factor in ischemic injury. Hippocalcin is a neuronal calcium sensor protein that buffers intracellular calcium levels and protects cells from apoptotic stimuli. Ferulic acid exerts a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation activity. This study investigated whether ferulic acid contributes to hippocalcin expression during cerebral ischemia and glutamate exposure-induced neuronal cell death. Rats were immediately treated with vehicle or ferulic acid (100 mg/kg, i.v.) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Brain tissues were collected 24 h after MCAO and followed by assessment of cerebral infarct. Ferulic acid reduced MCAO-induced infarct regions. A proteomics approach elucidated a decrease in hippocalcin in MCAO-operated animals, ferulic acid attenuates the injury-induced decrease in hippocalcin expression. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses confirmed that ferulic acid prevents the injury-induced decrease in hippocalcin. In cultured HT22 hippocampal cells, glutamate exposure increased the intracellular Ca(2+) levels, whereas ferulic acid attenuated this increase. Moreover, ferulic acid attenuated the glutamate toxicity-induced decrease in hippocalcin expression. These findings can suggest the possibility that ferulic acid exerts a neuroprotective effect through modulating hippocalcine expression and regulating intracellular calcium levels. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Versus Docosahexaenoic Acid as Options for Vascular Risk Prevention: A Fish Story.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Arora, Rohit R; Singh, Mukesh; Khosla, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Vascular inflammation is a key component involved in the process of arthrosclerosis, which in turn increases the risk for cardiovascular injury. In the last 10 years, there have been many trials that looked at omega-3 fatty acids as a way to reduce cardiovascular risk. These trials observed the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the traditional lipid panel and found that both EPA and DHA reduce triglyceride (TG) level and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels but also increase the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In the 2 more recent trials, the MARINE and ANCHOR, EPA was given as an adjunct therapy to high-risk patients and not only was the traditional lipids measured but also examined the vascular inflammatory biomarkers. The results of these 2 trials not only showed reduction in cardiovascular risk because of reduction in vascular inflammation and reduction in the lipid panel but also showed that one of the MARINE-derived omega-3 fatty acid is superior to the other. Data search for omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular risk was performed, and articles were selected for review from 2006 to date. The research studies were all double-blind randomized trials except for one, which was a single-blind and focused on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the entire lipid panel. The participants received DHA/EPA and compared with a placebo group on the effect seen in the lipid panel. The first 7 studies looked at the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C; of the 7, 1 directly compared DHA and EPA, 2 focused on EPA, and 4 were directed towards DHA alone. The MARINE and ANCHOR trials were more recent and also looked at the same parameter but also monitored vascular inflammatory biomarkers and how they were affected by omega-3 fatty acids. A second data search was performed for vascular biomarkers and cardiovascular risk, and articles that focused on high-sensitivity C

  8. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

  9. Efficacy of homocysteine lowering therapy with folic acid in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng; Hong, Keun-Sik; Chang, Shen-Chih; Saver, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although lower serum homocysteine concentration is associated with a reduced risk of stroke in epidemiologic studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have yielded mixed findings regarding the effect of therapeutic homocysteine lowering on stroke prevention. We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs to assess the efficacy of folic acid supplementation in the prevention of stroke. Methods Salient trials were identified by formal literature search. Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as a measure of the association between folic acid supplementation and risk of stroke, pooling data across trials using a fixed-effects model. Results The search identified 13 RCTs of folic acid therapy to reduce homocysteine, enrolling 39,005 participants, in which stroke was reported as an outcome measure. Across all trials, folic acid supplementation was associated with a trend toward mild benefit that did not reach statistical significance in reducing the risk of stroke (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.03; p=0.16). The RR for non-secondary prevention trials was 0.89 (95% CI 0.79-0.99; p=0.03). In stratified analyses, a greater beneficial effect was seen in the trials testing combination therapy of folic acid plus vitamins B6 and B12 (RR 0.83, 0.71-0.97; p=0.02) and in the trials which disproportionately enrolled male patients (men/women > 2, RR 0.84, 0.74-0.94; p=0.003). Conclusions Folic acid supplementation did not demonstrate a major effect in averting stroke. However, potential mild benefits in primary stroke prevention, especially when folate is combined with B vitamins and in male patients, merit further investigation. PMID:20413740

  10. Folic acid awareness among female college students: neural tube defects prevention.

    PubMed

    Kari, Jameela A; Bardisi, Ekhlas S; Baitalmal, Rabaa M; Ageely, Ghofran A

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the level of awareness among female college students on the importance of preconception folic acid supplementation in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). We have also studied their response after educating them. This is a questionnaire-based study. Five hundreds questionnaires were distributed to the female students of the 3 colleges, namely, Humanities, Sciences, and Health in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in April 2008. The questions included an enquiry on their knowledge regarding the importance of folic acid preconception, and if they will implement what they learned after listening to lectures, delivered by the 4th year medical students, who were trained and supervised by the faculty members of the King Abdul-Aziz University. Two hundred and seventeen questionnaires were filled, and returned (43.4%). Mean age +/- SD was 20.96 +/- 2.25 years. Almost 88% were not aware of the importance of folic acid in preventing NTDs. After listening to the lecture, 82.9% thought that they will surely use folic acid preconception, and 98.6% will relay the important message about the importance of folic acid to others. There is a need to increase the awareness of the importance of folic acid among females' childbearing age. Medical students' involvement in educating college students was an effective way to increase their awareness. Similar educating programs are required, in order to reduce the high incidence of NTDs.

  11. Effects Sprayed Solution of Salicylic Acid to Prevent of Wilt Disease Caused by Fussarium oxysporium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Dina. Y. M.

    2018-05-01

    The current search aimed to detective the effect of sprayed solution of salicylic acid on plant and leaves of sweet green pepper (Capsicum annuum) for control the pathogen Fussarium oxysporium compering with control plant and leaves. Results indicated that, the spray of salicylic acid at concentration 0.5 g/L is effecting the fungal infection through prevent transport fungus F. oxysporum to the neighboring green pepper plant. The number of dead green pepper plant after sprayed with solution of salicylic acid and only water they were (4, 6, and 3) (8, 9, and 10) respectively. While the experimental infection of green pepper leaves after inoculated the fungus as local spot by scorching small spots of these leaves with the aid of hot nail. These spots were then exposed to the 0.5 g/L aqueous solution salicylic acid before and after the inoculation of the fungus. The spray of salicylic acid before 24 and 48 hour prevent the development of disease and make a good protection of the mention leaves from infection with this fungus, the diameter of leaves lesion (1,1.5 cm) respectively. while the ability of fungus to grow after 24 and 48 hour from salicylic acid treatment was markedly reduce as compared with control, such treatment show slow growth of pathogen infect.

  12. Are conjugated linolenic acid isomers an alternative to conjugated linoleic acid isomers in obesity prevention?

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jonatan; Arias, Noemi; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; del Puy Portillo, María

    2014-04-01

    Despite its benefits, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may cause side effects after long-term administration. Because of this and the controversial efficacy of CLA in humans, alternative biomolecules that may be used as functional ingredients have been studied in recent years. Thus, conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) has been reported to be a potential anti-obesity molecule which may have additional positive effects related to obesity. According to the results reported in obesity, CLNA needs to be given at higher doses than CLA to be effective. However, because of the few studies conducted so far, it is still difficult to reach clear conclusions about the potential use of these CLNAs in obesity and its related changes (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, or inflammation). Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Ellagic acid, sulforaphane, and ursolic acid in the prevention and therapy of breast cancer: current evidence and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jaman, Md Sadikuj; Sayeed, Md Abu

    2018-05-03

    Globally, breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women. Surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are currently available treatment options for breast cancer therapy. However, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are often associated with side effects and multidrug resistance, recurrence, and lack of treatment in metastasis are the major problems in the treatment of breast cancer. Recently, dietary phytochemicals have emerged as advantageous agents for the prevention and therapy of cancer due to their safe nature. Ellagic acid (EA), sulforaphane (SF), and ursolic acid (UA), which are found in widely consumed fruits and vegetables, have been shown to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation and to induce apoptosis. This review encompasses the role of EA, SF, and UA in the fight against breast cancer. Both in vitro and in vivo effects of these agents are presented.

  14. Cinnamic Acid and Its Derivatives: Mechanisms for Prevention and Management of Diabetes and Its Complications.

    PubMed

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2017-02-21

    With recent insight into the development of dietary supplements and functional foods, search of effective phytochemical compounds and their mechanisms involved in prevention and management of diabetes and its complications are now being assessed. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives occur naturally in high levels of plant-based foods. Among various biological activities, cinnamic acid and its derivatives are associated with a beneficial influence on diabetes and its complications. The aim of the review is to summarize the potential mechanisms of these compounds for prevention and management of diabetes and its complications. Based on several in vitro studies and animal models, cinnamic acid and its derivatives act on different mechanism of actions, including stimulation of insulin secretion, improvement of pancreatic β-cell functionality, inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, enhanced glucose uptake, increased insulin signaling pathway, delay of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption, and inhibition of protein glycation and insulin fibrillation. However, due to the limited intestinal absorption being a result of low bioavailability of cinnamic acid and its derivatives, current improvement efforts with entrapping into solid and liquid particles are highlighted. Further human clinical studies are needed to clarify the effects of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in diabetic patients.

  15. Cinnamic Acid and Its Derivatives: Mechanisms for Prevention and Management of Diabetes and Its Complications

    PubMed Central

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2017-01-01

    With recent insight into the development of dietary supplements and functional foods, search of effective phytochemical compounds and their mechanisms involved in prevention and management of diabetes and its complications are now being assessed. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives occur naturally in high levels of plant-based foods. Among various biological activities, cinnamic acid and its derivatives are associated with a beneficial influence on diabetes and its complications. The aim of the review is to summarize the potential mechanisms of these compounds for prevention and management of diabetes and its complications. Based on several in vitro studies and animal models, cinnamic acid and its derivatives act on different mechanism of actions, including stimulation of insulin secretion, improvement of pancreatic β-cell functionality, inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, enhanced glucose uptake, increased insulin signaling pathway, delay of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption, and inhibition of protein glycation and insulin fibrillation. However, due to the limited intestinal absorption being a result of low bioavailability of cinnamic acid and its derivatives, current improvement efforts with entrapping into solid and liquid particles are highlighted. Further human clinical studies are needed to clarify the effects of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in diabetic patients. PMID:28230764

  16. Prevention of volatile fatty acids production and limitation of odours from winery wastewaters by denitrification.

    PubMed

    Bories, André; Guillot, Jean-Michel; Sire, Yannick; Couderc, Marie; Lemaire, Sophie-Andréa; Kreim, Virginie; Roux, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the addition of nitrate to winery wastewaters to control the formation of VFA in order to prevent odours during storage and treatment was studied in batch bioreactors at different NO(3)/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratios and at full scale in natural evaporation ponds (2 x 7000 m(2)) by measuring olfactory intensity. In the absence of nitrate, butyric acid (2304 mgL(-1)), acetic acid (1633 mgL(-1)), propionic acid (1558 mgL(-1)), caproic acid (499 mgL(-1)) and valeric acid (298 mgL(-1)) were produced from reconstituted winery wastewater. For a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.4 gg(-1), caproic and valeric acids were not formed. The production of butyric and propionic acids was reduced by 93.3% and 72.5%, respectively, at a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.8, and by 97.4% and 100% at a ratio of NO(3)/COD=1.2 gg(-1). Nitrate delayed and decreased butyric acid formation in relation to the oxidoreduction potential. Studies in ponds showed that the addition of concentrated calcium nitrate (NITCAL) to winery wastewaters (3526 m(3)) in a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.8 inhibited VFA production, with COD elimination (94%) and total nitrate degradation, and no final nitrite accumulation. On the contrary, in ponds not treated with nitrate, malodorous VFA (from propionic to heptanoïc acids) represented up to 60% of the COD. Olfactory intensity measurements in relation to the butanol scale of VFA solutions and the ponds revealed the pervasive role of VFA in the odour of the untreated pond as well as the clear decrease in the intensity and not unpleasant odour of the winery wastewater pond enriched in nitrates. The results obtained at full scale underscored the feasibility and safety of the calcium nitrate treatment as opposed to concentrated nitric acid.

  17. Preventing iron(ii) precipitation in aqueous systems using polyacrylic acid: some molecular insights.

    PubMed

    Artola, Pierre-Arnaud; Rousseau, Bernard; Clavaguéra, Carine; Roy, Marion; You, Dominique; Plancque, Gabriel

    2018-06-22

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous iron(ii) systems in the presence of polyacrylic acid (PAA) under the extreme conditions that take place in the secondary coolant circuit of a nuclear power plant. The aim of this work is to understand how the oligomer can prevent iron(ii) deposits, and to provide molecular interpretation. We show how, to this end, not only the complexant ability is necessary, but also the chain length compared to iron(ii) concentration. When the chain is long enough, a hyper-complexation phenomenon occurs that can explain the specific capacity of the polymer to prevent iron(ii) precipitation.

  18. Wall teichoic acids prevent antibody binding to epitopes within the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Samir; Kim, Taehan; Lester, Evan; Deep, Deeksha; Spiegel, David A

    2016-01-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that produces a range of infections including cellulitis, pneumonia, and septicemia. The principle mechanism in antistaphylococcal host defense is opsonization with antibodies and complement proteins, followed by phagocytic clearance. Here we use a previously developed technique for installing chemical epitopes in the peptidoglycan cell wall to show that surface glycopolymers known as wall teichoic acids conceal cell wall epitopes, preventing their recognition and opsonization by antibodies. Thus, our results reveal a previously unrecognized immunoevasive role for wall teichoic acids in S. aureus: repulsion of peptidoglycan-targeted antibodies.

  19. The activity of ferulic and gallic acids in biofilm prevention and control of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Borges, Anabela; Saavedra, Maria J; Simões, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The activity of two phenolic acids, gallic acid (GA) and ferulic acid (FA) at 1000 μg ml(-1), was evaluated on the prevention and control of biofilms formed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. In addition, the effect of the two phenolic acids was tested on planktonic cell susceptibility, bacterial motility and adhesion. Biofilm prevention and control were tested using a microtiter plate assay and the effect of the phenolic acids was assessed on biofilm mass (crystal violet staining) and on the quantification of metabolic activity (alamar blue assay). The minimum bactericidal concentration for P. aeruginosa was 500 μg ml(-1) (for both phenolic acids), whilst for E. coli it was 2500 μg ml(-1) (FA) and 5000 μg ml(-1) (GA), for L. monocytogenes it was >5000 μg ml(-1) (for both phenolic acids), and for S. aureus it was 5000 μg ml(-1) (FA) and >5000 μg ml(-1) (GA). GA caused total inhibition of swimming (L. monocytogenes) and swarming (L. monocytogenes and E. coli) motilities. FA caused total inhibition of swimming (L. monocytogenes) and swarming (L. monocytogenes and E. coli) motilities. Colony spreading of S. aureus was completely inhibited by FA. The interference of GA and FA with bacterial adhesion was evaluated by the determination of the free energy of adhesion. Adhesion was less favorable when the bacteria were exposed to GA (P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes) and FA (P. aeruginosa and S. aureus). Both phenolics had preventive action on biofilm formation and showed a higher potential to reduce the mass of biofilms formed by the Gram-negative bacteria. GA and FA promoted reductions in biofilm activity >70% for all the biofilms tested. The two phenolic acids demonstrated the potential to inhibit bacterial motility and to prevent and control biofilms of four important human pathogenic bacteria. This study also emphasizes the potential of phytochemicals as an emergent source of biofilm

  20. Pretreatment of solid carbonaceous material with dicarboxylic aromatic acids to prevent scale formation

    DOEpatents

    Brunson, Roy J.

    1982-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with a pretreating agent selected from the group consisting of phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, pyromellitic acid and pyromellitic anhydride. The pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding phthalate and/or pyromellitate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1 to about 2 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 5.degree. to about 80.degree. C.

  1. Preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Khodr, Zeina G; Lupo, Philip J; Agopian, A J; Canfield, Mark A; Case, Amy P; Carmichael, Suzan L; Mitchell, Laura E

    2014-06-01

    Despite public health campaigns encouraging women to take a daily folic acid supplement, the proportion of reproductive age women, in the United States, who comply with this recommendation is less than optimal. The objective of this analysis was to identify predictors of preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use to define subgroups of women who may benefit from targeted folic acid campaigns. This study included 6570 mothers of live born infants from the control population of National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2005). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of preconceptional folic acid supplementation. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to define subgroups of women with different patterns of preconceptional folic acid supplementation. Race/ethnicity, education, age at delivery, nativity, employment, income, number of dependents, smoking, and birth control use were significantly associated with preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use. Based on a CART analysis, education, race/ethnicity, and age were the most distinguishing factors between women with different preconceptional supplementation patterns. Non-white women with <4 years of a college education were the least likely to use folic acid-containing supplements (11%). However, even in the most compliant subgroup (women with ≥4 years of college), only 60% of women supplemented with folic acid. These results demonstrate the need for continued efforts to increase folic acid supplementation among all reproductive aged women. However, the success of such efforts may be improved if maternal characteristics such as education, race/ethnicity, and age, are considered in the development of future interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The use of folic acid for the prevention of birth defects in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    García-Fragoso, Lourdes; García-García, Inés; Rivera, Cynthia E.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD) has been shown to vary by race/ethnicity, with the highest rates among women of Hispanic ethnicity. Women of reproductive age are advised to use folic acid to prevent NTD and other birth defects. Since 1994, Puerto Rico has a campaign to promote the use of folic acid and since 1998 there is fortification of enriched grain products. After fortification, there has been a reduction in the incidence of NTD in the island. The objective of this study is to assess the use of folic acid by women of reproductive age in Puerto Rico and determine factors associated to its use. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was answered by 964 women around the island. Results Folic acid consumption was reported by 30% of the participants, 21% reported to consume it at least 4 times per week, and only 14% consumed it the day before the survey. Knowledge about the recommendation for women to consume folic acid was reported by 97% of the participants. The use of folic acid was lower among women of lower education and lower social class. Women with higher education were 8.3 times more likely to consume folic acid. Conclusion The folic acid campaign has improved women’s knowledge about the recommendation for folic acid supplementation. Nevertheless, its use is lower than desired to continue reducing the incidence of birth defects in Puerto Rico. Education and social class continue to represent barriers to eliminate the disparities in the pre-conception health of our population. PMID:18646342

  3. Imbricatolic acid from Juniperus communis L. prevents cell cycle progression in CaLu-6 cells.

    PubMed

    De Marino, Simona; Cattaneo, Fabio; Festa, Carmen; Zollo, Franco; Iaccio, Annalisa; Ammendola, Rosario; Incollingo, Filomena; Iorizzi, Maria

    2011-11-01

    Imbricatolic acid was isolated from the methanolic extract of the fresh ripe berries of Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae) together with sixteen known compounds and a new dihydrobenzofuran lignan glycoside named juniperoside A. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and by comparison with the spectral data reported in literature. Imbricatolic acid was evaluated for its ability to prevent cell cycle progression in p53-null CaLu-6 cells. This compound induces the upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and their accumulation in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, as well as the degradation of cyclins A, D1, and E1. Furthermore, no significant imbricatolic acid-induced apoptosis was observed. Therefore, this plant-derived compound may play a role in the control of cell cycle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Ca2+ channel blockade prevents lysergic acid diethylamide-induced changes in dopamine and serotonin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Antkiewicz-Michaluk, L; Románska, I; Vetulani, J

    1997-07-30

    To investigate the effect of a single and multiple administration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on cerebral metabolism of dopamine and serotonin, male Wistar rats were treated with low and high doses (0.1 and 2.0 mg/kg i.p.) of LSD and the levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were assayed by HPLC in the nucleus accumbens, striatum and frontal cortex. Some rats received nifedipine, 5 mg/kg i.p., before each injection of LSD to assess the effect of a Ca2+ channel blockade. High-dose LSD treatment (8 x 2 mg/kg per day) caused a strong stimulation of dopamine metabolism in the nucleus accumbens and striatum, and serotonin metabolism in the nucleus accumbens: the changes were observed 24 (but not 1 h) after the last dose. The changes induced by the low-dose treatment (8 x 0.1 mg/kg per day) had a different pattern, suggesting the release of dopamine from vesicles to cytoplasm. Co-administration of nifedipine completely prevented the LSD-induced biochemical changes. The results suggest that Ca2+ channel blocking agents may prevent development of some behavioral consequences of chronically used LSD.

  5. [Colorectal cancer preventive effect of combined administration of phenolic acids and supercritical extracts from Angelica sinensis].

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu; Zhao, Bo-Chen; Kang, Qian; Liu, Jia; Chen, Cheng; Li, Bing-Shao; Xie, Yuan-Ping; Wu, Qing

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the colorectal cancer preventive effect of the combined administration of phenolic acids and supercritical extracts from Angelica sinensis. The AOM/DSS model in mice was adopted. Phenolic acids were administrated orally in the initial stage of the model at a dose of 1 g·kg⁻¹ BW, which was combined withtherectal administration with three doses of supercritical extracts (15, 30, 60 g·kg⁻¹ BW). PCNA, 8-oxoguaine, γ-H2AX, iNOS and COX-2 were tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays. The results showed that the combined administration of phenolic acids and supercritical extracts from A. sinensis suppressed the tumor growth and cell proliferation, and DNA damages and inflammatory responses were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the combined administration of phenolic acids and supercritical extracts from A. sinensis have a certain effect in preventing carcinogenesis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Effectiveness of acidic oxidative potential water in preventing bacterial infection in islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, M; Inoue, K; Gu, Y; Hoki, M; Haji, S; Ohyanagi, H

    1999-01-01

    At a number of points in the current procedures of islet isolation and islet culture after the harvesting of donor pancreata, microorganisms could potentially infect the islet preparation. Furthermore, the use of islets from multiple donors can compound the risks of contamination of individual recipients. Acidic oxidative potential water (also termed electrolyzed strong acid solution, function water, or acqua oxidation water), which was developed in Japan, is a strong acid formed on the anode in the electrolysis of water containing a small amount of sodium chloride. It has these physical properties: pH, from 2.3 to 2.7; oxidative-reduction potential, from 1,000 to 1,100 mV; dissolved chlorine, from 30 to 40 ppm; and dissolved oxygen, from 10 to 30 ppm. Because of these properties, acidic oxidative potential water has strong bactericidal effects on all bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), viruses including HIV, HBV, HCV, CMV, and fungi as a result of the action of the active oxygen and active chlorine that it contains. We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of acidic oxidative potential water irrigation on bacterial contamination on the harvesting of porcine pancreata from slaughterhouses for islet xenotransplantation by counting the number of pancreatic surface bacteria using the Dip-slide method, and on the results of islet culture; and to evaluate the direct effect on isolated islets when it is used to prevent bacterial contamination by the static incubation test and by morphological examination. Direct irrigation of the pancreas by acidic oxidative potential water was found to be very effective in preventing bacterial contamination, but direct irrigation of isolated islets slightly decreased their viability and function.

  7. Prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid: The Chinese experience.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ai-Guo

    2015-08-08

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations of the central nervous system that are caused by the closure failure of the embryonic neural tube by the 28(th) day of conception. Anencephaly and spina bifida are the two major subtypes. Fetuses with anencephaly are often stillborn or electively aborted due to prenatal diagnosis, or they die shortly after birth. Most infants with spina bifida are live-born and, with proper surgical treatment, can survive into adulthood. However, these children often have life-long physical disabilities. China has one of the highest prevalence of NTDs in the world. Inadequate dietary folate intake is believed to be the main cause of the cluster. Unlike many other countries that use staple fortification with folic acid as the public health strategy to prevent NTDs, the Chinese government provides all women who have a rural household registration and who plan to become pregnant with folic acid supplements, free of charge, through a nation-wide program started in 2009. Two to three years after the initiation of the program, the folic acid supplementation rate increased to 85% in the areas of the highest NTD prevalence. The mean plasma folate level of women during early and mid-pregnancy doubled the level before the program was introduced. However, most women began taking folic acid supplements when they knew that they were pregnant. This is too late for the protection of the embryonic neural tube. In a post-program survey of the women who reported folic acid supplementation, less than a quarter of the women began taking supplements prior to pregnancy, indicating that the remaining three quarters of the fetuses remained unprotected during the time of neural tube formation. Therefore, staple food fortification with folic acid should be considered as a priority in the prevention of NTDs.

  8. A specific amino acid formula prevents alcoholic liver disease in rodents.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Laura; Corsetti, Giovanni; Ruocco, Chiara; Ragni, Maurizio; Rossi, Fabio; Carruba, Michele O; Valerio, Alessandra; Nisoli, Enzo

    2018-05-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption promotes mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, defective protein metabolism, and fat accumulation in hepatocytes (liver steatosis). Inadequate amino acid metabolism is worsened by protein malnutrition, frequently present in alcohol-consuming patients, with reduced circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Here we asked whether dietary supplementation with a specific amino acid mixture, enriched in BCAAs (BCAAem) and able to promote mitochondrial function in muscle of middle-aged rodents, would prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and liver steatosis in Wistar rats fed on a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol (EtOH)-containing liquid diet. Supplementation of BCAAem, unlike a mixture based on the amino acid profile of casein, abrogated the EtOH-induced fat accumulation, mitochondrial impairment, and oxidative stress in liver. These effects of BCAAem were accompanied by normalization of leucine, arginine, and tryptophan levels, which were reduced in liver of EtOH-consuming rats. Moreover, although the EtOH exposure of HepG2 cells reduced mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial transcription factors, and respiratory chain proteins, the BCAAem but not casein-derived amino acid supplementation halted this mitochondrial toxicity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) expression, as well as endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) and mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways, were downregulated in the EtOH-exposed HepG2 cells. BCAAem reverted these molecular defects and the mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting that the mitochondrial integrity obtained with the amino acid supplementation could be mediated through a Sirt1-eNOS-mTOR pathway. Thus a dietary activation of the mitochondrial biogenesis and function by a specific amino acid supplement protects against the EtOH toxicity and preserves the liver integrity in mammals. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Dietary supplementation of a specific amino acid formula prevents both

  9. Targeting arachidonic acid pathway by natural products for cancer prevention and therapy.

    PubMed

    Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Sethi, Gautam; Reddanna, Pallu; Kalle, Arunasree M; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Dowluru, Kaladhar S V G K; Chintala, Ramakrishna; Duddukuri, Govinda Rao

    2016-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) pathway, a metabolic process, plays a key role in carcinogenesis. Hence, AA pathway metabolic enzymes phospholipase A 2 s (PLA 2 s), cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolic products, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been considered novel preventive and therapeutic targets in cancer. Bioactive natural products are a good source for development of novel cancer preventive and therapeutic drugs, which have been widely used in clinical practice due to their safety profiles. AA pathway inhibitory natural products have been developed as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against several cancers. Curcumin, resveratrol, apigenin, anthocyans, berberine, ellagic acid, eugenol, fisetin, ursolic acid, [6]-gingerol, guggulsteone, lycopene and genistein are well known cancer chemopreventive agents which act by targeting multiple pathways, including COX-2. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid and baicalein can be chemopreventive molecules against various cancers by inhibiting LOXs. Several PLA 2 s inhibitory natural products have been identified with chemopreventive and therapeutic potentials against various cancers. In this review, we critically discuss the possible utility of natural products as preventive and therapeutic agents against various oncologic diseases, including prostate, pancreatic, lung, skin, gastric, oral, blood, head and neck, colorectal, liver, cervical and breast cancers, by targeting AA pathway. Further, the current status of clinical studies evaluating AA pathway inhibitory natural products in cancer is reviewed. In addition, various emerging issues, including bioavailability, toxicity and explorability of combination therapy, for the development of AA pathway inhibitory natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against human malignancy are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajie; Ma, David W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA), however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research. PMID:25412153

  11. Clofibric and ethacrynic acids prevent experimental pyelonephritis by Escherichia coli in mice.

    PubMed

    Balagué, Claudia E; de Ruiz, Clara Silva; Rey, Rosario; de Duffard, Ana María Evangelista; Nader-Macías, María Elena

    2004-11-01

    Interfering Escherichia coli attachment to the urinary tract, using P-fimbriation inhibitors, can prevent pyelonephritis. Clofibric and ethacrynic acids are organic compounds structurally related, but with different pharmacological uses. These agents are potentially active in the urinary tract due to its elimination in an unaltered form by the renal route. This study described a pyelonephritogenic E. coli strain, grown in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of clofibric or ethacrynic acids (0.1 and 1 mM, respectively), which exhibits inhibition of P1 erythrocytes agglutination and a drastic decrease in fimbriation, using electron microscopy and quantitative analyses of superficial proteins (decrease to a 17-25% in comparison with the control). In vivo assays were performed using ascending urinary tract infection in mice. The treatment with therapeutic doses of the drugs, administered 2 days before the bacterial challenge and daily until the end of the experiment (22 days), abolished renal infection after 7-10 days of drug exposure. Within this period clofibric acid did not produce adverse effects on the renal parenchyma. However, ethacrynic acid caused pyelitis and tubular cellular desquamation. These results suggested that clofibric acid might be useful in the short-term prophylaxis of urinary tract infection.

  12. Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid prevents systemic immunosuppression in mice induced by UVB radiation.

    PubMed

    Moison, R M; Beijersbergen Van Henegouwen, G M

    2001-07-01

    Moison, R. M. W. and Beijersbergen van Henegouwen, G. M. J. Dietary Eicosapentaenoic Acid Prevents Systemic Immunosuppression in Mice Induced by UVB Radiation. Radiat. Res. 156, 36-44 (2001). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the immunosuppression induced by UVB radiation. Omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, e.g. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), can modulate immunoresponsiveness, but because of their susceptibility to ROS-induced damage, they can also challenge the epidermal antioxidant defense system. The influence of dietary supplementation with different omega-3 fatty acids on systemic immunosuppression induced in mice by UVB radiation was studied using the contact hypersensitivity response to trinitrochlorobenzene. In an attempt to study the mechanisms involved, UVB-radiation-induced changes in epidermal antioxidant status were also studied. Mice received high-fat (25% w/w) diets enriched with either oleic acid (control diet), EPA, DHA, or EPA + DHA (MaxEPA). Immunosuppression induced by UVB radiation was 53% in mice fed the oleic acid diet and 69% in mice fed the DHA diet. In contrast, immunosuppression was only 4% and 24% in mice fed the EPA and MaxEPA diets, respectively. Increased lipid peroxidation and decreased vitamin E levels (P < 0.05) were found in unirradiated mice fed the MaxEPA and DHA diets. For all diets, exposure to UVB radiation increased lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05), but levels of glutathione (P < 0.05) and vitamin C (P > 0.05) decreased only in the mice given fish oil. UVB irradiation did not influence vitamin E levels. In conclusion, dietary EPA, but not DHA, protects against UVB-radiation-induced immunosuppression in mice. The degree of protection appears to be related to the amount of EPA incorporated and the ability of the epidermis to maintain an adequate antioxidant level after irradiation.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent inflammation and metabolic disorder through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yiqing; Jiang, Wei; Spinetti, Thibaud; Tardivel, Aubry; Castillo, Rosa; Bourquin, Carole; Guarda, Greta; Tian, Zhigang; Tschopp, Jurg; Zhou, Rongbin

    2013-06-27

    Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) have potential anti-inflammatory activity in a variety of inflammatory human diseases, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that stimulation of macrophages with ω-3 FAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other family members, abolished NLRP3 inflammasome activation and inhibited subsequent caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion. In addition, G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 and their downstream scaffold protein β-arrestin-2 were shown to be involved in inflammasome inhibition induced by ω-3 FAs. Importantly, ω-3 FAs also prevented NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent inflammation and metabolic disorder in a high-fat-diet-induced type 2 diabetes model. Our results reveal a mechanism through which ω-3 FAs repress inflammation and prevent inflammation-driven diseases and suggest the potential clinical use of ω-3 FAs in gout, autoinflammatory syndromes, or other NLRP3 inflammasome-driven inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Unsaturated fatty acids prevent activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes/macrophages[S

    PubMed Central

    L'homme, Laurent; Esser, Nathalie; Riva, Laura; Scheen, André; Paquot, Nicolas; Piette, Jacques; Legrand-Poels, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in many obesity-associated diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and gouty arthritis, through its ability to induce interleukin (IL)-1β release. The molecular link between obesity and inflammasome activation is still unclear, but free fatty acids have been proposed as one triggering event. Here we reported opposite effects of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) compared with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) on NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes/macrophages. Palmitate and stearate, both SFAs, triggered IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1/ASC/NLRP3-dependent pathway. Unlike SFAs, the UFAs oleate and linoleate did not lead to IL-1β secretion. In addition, they totally prevented the IL-1β release induced by SFAs and, with less efficiency, by a broad range of NLRP3 inducers, including nigericin, alum, and monosodium urate. UFAs did not affect the transcriptional effect of SFAs, suggesting a specific effect on the NLRP3 activation. These results provide a new anti-inflammatory mechanism of UFAs by preventing the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and, therefore, IL-1β processing. By this way, UFAs might play a protective role in NLRP3-associated diseases. PMID:24006511

  15. A Peculiar Formula of Essential Amino Acids Prevents Rosuvastatin Myopathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    D'Antona, Giuseppe; Tedesco, Laura; Ruocco, Chiara; Corsetti, Giovanni; Ragni, Maurizio; Fossati, Andrea; Saba, Elisa; Fenaroli, Francesca; Montinaro, Mery; Carruba, Michele O.; Valerio, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Myopathy, characterized by mitochondrial oxidative stress, occurs in ∼10% of statin-treated patients, and a major risk exists with potent statins such as rosuvastatin (Rvs). We sought to determine whether a peculiar branched-chain amino acid-enriched mixture (BCAAem), found to improve mitochondrial function and reduce oxidative stress in muscle of middle-aged mice, was able to prevent Rvs myopathy. Results: Dietary supplementation of BCAAem was able to prevent the structural and functional alterations of muscle induced by Rvs in young mice. Rvs-increased plasma 3-methylhistidine (a marker of muscular protein degradation) was prevented by BCAAem. This was obtained without changes of Rvs ability to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood. Rather, BCAAem promotes de novo protein synthesis and reduces proteolysis in cultured myotubes. Morphological alterations of C2C12 cells induced by statin were counteracted by amino acids, as were the Rvs-increased atrogin-1 mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, BCAAem maintained mitochondrial mass and density and citrate synthase activity in skeletal muscle of Rvs-treated mice beside oxygen consumption and ATP levels in C2C12 cells exposed to statin. Notably, BCAAem assisted Rvs to reduce oxidative stress and to increase the anti-reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense system in skeletal muscle. Innovation and Conclusions: The complex interplay between proteostasis and antioxidant properties may underlie the mechanism by which a specific amino acid formula preserves mitochondrial efficiency and muscle health in Rvs-treated mice. Strategies aimed at promoting protein balance and controlling mitochondrial ROS level may be used as therapeutics for the treatment of muscular diseases involving mitochondrial dysfunction, such as statin myopathy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 595–608. PMID:27245589

  16. Oleanolic Acid Alters Multiple Cell Signaling Pathways: Implication in Cancer Prevention and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Žiberna, Lovro; Šamec, Dunja; Mocan, Andrei; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bishayee, Anupam; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Sureda, Antoni; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-03-16

    Nowadays, much attention has been paid to diet and dietary supplements as a cost-effective therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of a myriad of chronic and degenerative diseases. Rapidly accumulating scientific evidence achieved through high-throughput technologies has greatly expanded the understanding about the multifaceted nature of cancer. Increasingly, it is being realized that deregulation of spatio-temporally controlled intracellular signaling cascades plays a contributory role in the onset and progression of cancer. Therefore, targeting regulators of oncogenic signaling cascades is essential to prevent and treat cancer. A plethora of preclinical and epidemiological evidences showed promising role of phytochemicals against several types of cancer. Oleanolic acid, a common pentacyclic triterpenoid, is mainly found in olive oil, as well as several plant species. It is a potent inhibitor of cellular inflammatory process and a well-known inducer of phase 2 xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes. Main molecular mechanisms underlying anticancer effects of oleanolic acid are mediated by caspases, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, matrix metalloproteinases, pro-apoptotic Bax and bid, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt1/mechanistic target of rapamycin, reactive oxygen species/apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB, cluster of differentiation 1, CKD4, s6k, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, as well as aforementioned signaling pathways . In this work, we critically review the scientific literature on the molecular targets of oleanolic acid implicated in the prevention and treatment of several types of cancer. We also discuss chemical aspects, natural sources, bioavailability, and safety of this bioactive phytochemical.

  17. Intravenous ascorbic acid to prevent and treat cancer-associated sepsis?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The history of ascorbic acid (AA) and cancer has been marked with controversy. Clinical studies evaluating AA in cancer outcome continue to the present day. However, the wealth of data suggesting that AA may be highly beneficial in addressing cancer-associated inflammation, particularly progression to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multi organ failure (MOF), has been largely overlooked. Patients with advanced cancer are generally deficient in AA. Once these patients develop septic symptoms, a further decrease in ascorbic acid levels occurs. Given the known role of ascorbate in: a) maintaining endothelial and suppression of inflammatory markers; b) protection from sepsis in animal models; and c) direct antineoplastic effects, we propose the use of ascorbate as an adjuvant to existing modalities in the treatment and prevention of cancer-associated sepsis. PMID:21375761

  18. Prevention by lactic acid bacteria of the oxidation of human LDL.

    PubMed

    Terahara, M; Kurama, S; Takemoto, N

    2001-08-01

    Ether extracts of lactic acid bacteria were analyzed for prevention of the oxidation of erythrocyte membrane and human low-density lipoprotein in vivo. Streptococcus thermophilus 1131 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038, yogurt starters, were chosen as test-strains, and ether extracts of these cultures were used as samples. Both strain 1131 and strain 2038 produced radical scavengers and inhibited oxidation of erythrocyte membranes and low-density lipoproteins. The antioxidative activity of strain 2038 was higher than that of strain 1131.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO(3) prevents microbial growth on material surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zollfrank, Cordt; Gutbrod, Kai; Wechsler, Peter; Guggenbichler, Josef Peter

    2012-01-01

    Serious infectious complications of patients in healthcare settings are often transmitted by materials and devices colonised by microorganisms (nosocomial infections). Current strategies to generate material surfaces with an antimicrobial activity suffer from the consumption of the antimicrobial agent and emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens amongst others. Consequently, materials surfaces exhibiting a permanent antimicrobial activity without the risk of generating resistant microorganisms are desirable. This publication reports on the extraordinary efficient antimicrobial properties of transition metal acids such as molybdic acid (H(2)MoO(4)), which is based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO(3)). The modification of various materials (e.g. polymers, metals) with MoO(3) particles or sol-gel derived coatings showed that the modified materials surfaces were practically free of microorganisms six hours after contamination with infectious agents. The antimicrobial activity is based on the formation of an acidic surface deteriorating cell growth and proliferation. The application of transition metal acids as antimicrobial surface agents is an innovative approach to prevent the dissemination of microorganisms in healthcare units and public environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of Organic Acids in Hand Cleansers for Prevention of Rhinovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Ronald B.; Biedermann, Kim A.; Morgan, Jeffery M.; Keswick, Bruce; Ertel, Keith D.; Barker, Mark F.

    2004-01-01

    Direct hand-to-hand contact is an important mechanism of transmission of rhinovirus infection. The rhinoviruses are inactivated at a low pH. A survey of organic acids in vitro revealed that these compounds have antirhinoviral activity that persists for at least 3 h after application to the skin. In additional studies of salicylic acid (SA) and pyroglutamic acid (PGA), the hands of volunteers were contaminated with rhinovirus at defined times after application of the acid, and then volunteers attempted to inoculate the nasal mucosa with one hand and quantitative viral cultures were done on the other hand. In one study, 3.5% SA or 1% SA with 3.5% PGA was compared with controls 15 min after application to assess the efficacy of the inactivation of virus and prevention of infection. Virus was recovered from the hands of 28 out of 31 (90%) of the volunteers in the control group compared to 4 out of 27 (15%) and 0 out of 27 in the groups administered 3.5 and 1% SA, respectively (P < 0.05). Rhinovirus infection occurred in 10 out of 31 (32%) of the controls and 2 out of 27 (7%) of volunteers in both treatment groups (P < 0.05 compared with control). In a second study, the efficacy of 4% PGA was evaluated 15 min, 1 h, and 3 h after application. Significantly fewer volunteers had positive hand cultures at all time points compared with the control group, but the proportion that developed rhinovirus infection was not significantly reduced. These results suggest the feasibility of the prevention of rhinovirus transmission by hand treatments that are virucidal on contact and have activity that persists after application. PMID:15215114

  1. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Prevents TNF-α-Induced Gene Expression by Blocking Amino Acid Transport and Cellular Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yokomichi, Tomonobu; Morimoto, Kyoko; Oshima, Nana; Yamada, Yuriko; Fu, Liwei; Taketani, Shigeru; Ando, Masayoshi; Kataoka, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, induce the expression of a wide variety of genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) was identified to inhibit the cell-surface ICAM-1 expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Ursolic acid was found to inhibit the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 protein expression almost completely, whereas the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression and NF-κB signaling pathway were decreased only partially by ursolic acid. In line with these findings, ursolic acid prevented cellular protein synthesis as well as amino acid uptake, but did not obviously affect nucleoside uptake and the subsequent DNA/RNA syntheses. This inhibitory profile of ursolic acid was similar to that of the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain, but not the translation inhibitor, cycloheximide. Consistent with this notion, ursolic acid was found to inhibit the catalytic activity of Na+/K+-ATPase. Thus, our present study reveals a novel molecular mechanism in which ursolic acid inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase activity and prevents the TNF-α-induced gene expression by blocking amino acid transport and cellular protein synthesis. PMID:24970122

  2. Acetylsalicylic Acid and Eflornithine in Treating Patients at High Risk for Colorectal Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This phase II trial is studying how well giving acetylsalicylic acid together with eflornithine works in treating patients at high risk for colorectal cancer. Chemoprevention is the use of certain drugs to keep cancer from forming. The use of acetylsalicylic acid and eflornithine may prevent colorectal cancer. |

  3. Ascorbic Acid Prevents VEGF-induced Increases in Endothelial Barrier Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Ulker, Esad; Parker, William H.; Raj, Amita; Qu, Zhi-chao; May, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increases endothelial barrier permeability, an effect that may contribute to macular edema in diabetic retinopathy. Since vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, can tighten the endothelial permeability barrier, we examined whether it could prevent the increase in permeability due to VEGF in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). As previously observed, VEGF increased HUVEC permeability to radiolabeled inulin within 60 min in a concentration-dependent manner. Loading the cells with increasing concentrations of ascorbate progressively prevented the leakage caused by 100 ng/ml VEGF, with a significant inhibition at 13 μM and complete inhibition at 50 μM. Loading cells with 100 μM ascorbate also decreased basal generation of reactive oxygen species and prevented the increase caused by both 100 ng/ml VEGF. VEGF treatment decreased intracellular ascorbate by 25%, thus linking ascorbate oxidation to its prevention of VEGF-induced barrier leakage. The latter was blocked by treating the cells with 60 μM L-NAME (but not D-NAME) as well as by 30 μM sepiapterin, a precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin that is required for proper function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). These findings suggest that VEGF-induced barrier leakage uncouples eNOS. Ascorbate inhibition of the VEGF effect could thus be due either to scavenging superoxide or to peroxynitrite generated by the uncoupled eNOS, or more likely to its ability to recycle tetrahydrobiopterin, thus avoiding enzyme uncoupling in the first place. Ascorbate prevention of VEGF-induced increases in endothelial permeability opens the possibility that its repletion could benefit diabetic macular edema. PMID:26590088

  4. Injectable gentamicin-loaded thermo-responsive hyaluronic acid derivative prevents infection in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Ter Boo, Gert-Jan A; Arens, Daniel; Metsemakers, Willem-Jan; Zeiter, Stephan; Richards, R Geoff; Grijpma, Dirk W; Eglin, David; Moriarty, T Fintan

    2016-10-01

    Despite the use of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis, the surgical fixation of open fractures with osteosynthesis implants is associated with high infection rates. Antibiotic-loaded biomaterials (ALBs) are increasingly used in implant surgeries across medical specialties to deliver high concentrations of antibiotics to the surgical site and reduce the risk of implant-associated infection. ALBs which are either less or not restricted in terms of spatial distribution and which may be applied throughout complex wounds could offer improved protection against infection in open fracture care. A thermo-responsive hyaluronic acid derivative (hyaluronic acid-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (HApN)) was prepared by a direct amidation reaction between the tetrabutyl ammonium (TBA) salt of hyaluronic acid and amine-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pN). The degree of grafting, and gelation properties of this gel were characterized, and the composition was loaded with gentamicin. The rheological- and release properties of this gentamicin-loaded HApN composition were tested in vitro and its efficacy in preventing infection was tested in a rabbit model of osteosynthesis contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus. The gentamicin-loaded HApN composition was able to prevent bacterial colonization of the implant site as shown by quantitative bacteriology. This finding was supported by histopathological evaluation of the humeri samples where no bacteria were found in the stained sections. In conclusion, this gentamicin-loaded HApN hydrogel effectively prevents infection in a complex wound, simulating a contaminated fracture treated with plating osteosynthesis. Fracture fixation after trauma is associated with high infection rates. Antibiotic loaded biomaterials (ALBs) can provide high local concentrations without systemic side effects. However, the currently available ALBs have limited accessibility to contaminated tissues in open fractures because of predetermined shape. Thus, a novel

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Majkova, Zuzana; Layne, Joseph; Sunkara, Manjula

    Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6{omega}-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-neuroprostanes (NPs)more » were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), which concurrently abrogated A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A{sub 4}/J{sub 4} NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5{omega}-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection

  6. Nebulised amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle prophylaxis prevents invasive aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Shirkhani, Khojasteh; Teo, Ian; Armstrong-James, Darius; Shaunak, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus species are the major life threatening fungal pathogens in transplant patients. Germination of inhaled fungal spores initiates infection, causes severe pneumonia, and has a mortality of > 50%. This is leading to the consideration of pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent infection. We made a very low MWt amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle. It was not toxic to lung epithelial cells or monocyte-derived-macrophages in-vitro, or in an in-vivo transplant immuno-suppression mouse model of life threatening invasive aspergillosis. Three days of nebuliser based prophylaxis delivered the nanoparticle effectively to lung and prevented both fungal growth and lung inflammation. Protection from disease was associated with > 99% killing of the Aspergillus and a 90% reduction in lung TNF-α; the primary driver of tissue destructive immuno-pathology. This study provides in-vivo proof-of-principle that very small and cost-effective nanoparticles can be made simply, and delivered safely and effectively to lung by the aerosol route to prevent fungal infections. From the Clinical Editor Aspergillus is an opportunistic pathogen, which affects immunocompromised patients. One novel way to help fight against this infection is pre-exposure prophylaxis. The authors here made PMA based anionic hydrogels carrying amphotericin B, with mucoadhesive behavior. They showed that aerosol route of the drug was very effective in protecting against the disease in an in-vivo model and should provide a stepping-stone towards clinical trials in the future. PMID:25791815

  7. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  8. Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury by Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid in Rat and Cell Culture Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shunan; Abedin, Md. Joynal; Noppakun, Kajohnsak; Wang, Lawrence; Kaur, Tarundeep; Najafian, Behzad; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) has grave short- and long-term consequences. Often the onset of AKI is predictable, such as following surgery that compromises blood flow to the kidney. Even in such situations, present therapies cannot prevent AKI. As apoptosis is a major form of cell death following AKI, we determined the efficacy and mechanisms of action of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a molecule with potent anti-apoptotic and pro-survival properties, in prevention of AKI in rat and cell culture models. TUDCA is particularly attractive from a translational standpoint, as it has a proven safety record in animals and humans. Methodology/Principal Findings We chose an ischemia-reperfusion model in rats to simulate AKI in native kidneys, and a human kidney cell culture model to simulate AKI associated with cryopreservation in transplanted kidneys. TUDCA significantly ameliorated AKI in the test models due to inhibition of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and upregulation of survival pathways. Conclusions This study sets the stage for testing TUDCA in future clinical trials for prevention of AKI, an area that needs urgent attention due to lack of effective therapies. PMID:23152827

  9. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse.

  10. Randomized, Prospective Comparison of Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Prevention of Gallstones after Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Lindsay B; Chang, Craig; Pope, Janet; Kim, Yeonsoo; Liu, Pei; Yates, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have examined the role of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) for the prevention of cholelithiasis (gallstones) following rapid weight loss from restrictive diets, vertical band gastroplasty, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, to date, there have been no prospective, controlled studies examining the role of UDCA for the prevention of gallstones following sleeve gastrectomy (SG). This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of UDCA for prevention of gallstones after SG. Following SG, eligible patients were randomized to a control group who did not receive UDCA treatment or to a group who were prescribed 300 mg UDCA twice daily for 6 months. Gallbladder ultrasounds were performed preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Patients with positive findings preoperatively were excluded from the study. Compliance with UDCA was assessed. Between December 2011 and April 2013, 37 patients were randomized to the UDCA treatment arm and 38 patients were randomized to no treatment. At baseline, the two groups were similar. At 6 months, the UDCA group had a statistically significant lower incidence of gallstones (p = 0.032). Analysis revealed no significant difference in gallstones between the two groups at 1 year (p = 0.553 and p = 0.962, respectively). The overall gallstone formation rate was 29.8%. The incidence of gallstones is higher than previously estimated in SG patients. UDCA significantly lowers the gallstone formation rate at 6 months postoperatively.

  11. Complex cardiac defects after ethanol exposure during discrete cardiogenic events in zebrafish: Prevention with folic acid

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes a range of birth defects including various congenital heart defects (CHDs). Mechanisms of FASD-associated CHDs are not understood. Whether alcohol interferes with a single critical event or with multiple events in heart formation is not known. RESULTS Our zebrafish embryo experiments showed that ethanol interrupts different cardiac regulatory networks and perturbed multiple steps of cardiogenesis (specification, myocardial migration, looping, chamber morphogenesis and endocardial cushion formation). Ethanol exposure during gastrulation until cardiac specification or during myocardial midline migration did not produce severe or persistent heart development defects. However, exposure comprising gastrulation until myocardial precursor midline fusion or during heart patterning stages produced aberrant heart looping and defective endocardial cushions. Continuous exposure during entire cardiogenesis produced complex cardiac defects leading to severely defective myocardium, endocardium, and endocardial cushions. Supplementation of retinoic acid with ethanol partially rescued early heart developmental defects, but the endocardial cushions did not form correctly. In contrast, supplementation of folic acid rescued normal heart development, including the endocardial cushions. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that ethanol exposure interrupted divergent cardiac morphogenesis events causing heart defects. Folic acid supplementation was effective in preventing a wide spectrum of ethanol-induced heart developmental defects. PMID:23832875

  12. Novel dural closure technique using polyglactin acid sheet prevents cerebrospinal fluid leakage after spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Taku; Itoh, Yasunobu; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Higashiyama, Naoki; Shimada, Yoichi; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Mizoi, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    Extradural or subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is a common complication after spinal surgery and is associated with the risks of poor wound healing, meningitis, and pseudomeningocele. Numerous methods to prevent postoperative CSF leakage are available, but pressure-tight dural closure remains difficult, especially with synthetic surgical membranes. The efficacy of a novel dural closure technique was assessed by detecting extradural or subcutaneous CSF leakage on magnetic resonance imaging. The novel dural closure technique using absorbable polyglactin acid sheet and fibrin glue and the conventional procedure using only fibrin glue were evaluated retrospectively by identifying extradural or subcutaneous CSF leakage on magnetic resonance imaging scans in the acute (2-7 d) and chronic (3-6 mo) postoperative stages after spinal intradural surgery in 53 patients. The incidence of extradural and subcutaneous CSF leakage was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the acute (20%) and chronic (0%) stages using polyglactin acid sheet and fibrin glue in 15 patients compared with that in the acute (81%) and chronic (24%) stages using only fibrin glue in 38 patients. One patient in the fibrin glue-only group required repair surgery for cutaneous CSF leakage. The combination of polyglactin acid sheet and fibrin glue can achieve water-tight closure after spinal intradural surgery and can minimize the risk of intractable postoperative CSF leakage. This simple, economical technique is recommended for dural closure after spinal intradural surgery.

  13. Highly Conductive and Reliable Copper-Filled Isotropically Conductive Adhesives Using Organic Acids for Oxidation Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Dunying; Cheng, Yuanrong; Xiao, Fei

    2015-07-01

    The easy oxidation of copper is one critical obstacle to high-performance copper-filled isotropically conductive adhesives (ICAs). In this paper, a facile method to prepare highly reliable, highly conductive, and low-cost ICAs is reported. The copper fillers were treated by organic acids for oxidation prevention. Compared with ICA filled with untreated copper flakes, the ICA filled with copper flakes treated by different organic acids exhibited much lower bulk resistivity. The lowest bulk resistivity achieved was 4.5 × 10-5 Ω cm, which is comparable to that of commercially available Ag-filled ICA. After 500 h of 85°C/85% relative humidity (RH) aging, the treated ICAs showed quite stable bulk resistivity and relatively stable contact resistance. Through analyzing the results of x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, we found that, with the assistance of organic acids, the treated copper flakes exhibited resistance to oxidation, thus guaranteeing good performance.

  14. Rosmarinic acid prevents fibrillization and diminishes vibrational modes associated to β sheet in tau protein linked to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Alberto; Aguilar Sandoval, Felipe; Caballero, Leonardo; Machuca, Luis; Muñoz, Patricio; Caballero, Julio; Perry, George; Ardiles, Alejandro; Areche, Carlos; Melo, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a common tauopathy where fibril formation and aggregates are the hallmark of the disease. Efforts targeting amyloid-β plaques have succeeded to remove plaques but failed in clinical trials to improve cognition; thus, the current therapeutic strategy is at preventing tau aggregation. Here, we demonstrated that four phenolic diterpenoids and rosmarinic acid inhibit fibrillization. Since, rosmarinic acid was the most active compound, we observe morphological changes in atomic force microscopy images after treatment. Hence, rosmarinic acid leads to a decrease in amide regions I and III, indicating that rosmarinic acid prevents β-sheet assembly. Molecular docking study inside the steric zipper model of the hexapeptide 306 VQIVYK 311 involved in fibrillization and β sheet formation, suggests that rosmarinic acid binds to the steric zipper with similar chemical interactions with respect to those observed for orange G, a known pharmacofore for amyloid.

  15. Dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in allergy prevention and asthma treatment.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Linette E M

    2016-08-15

    The rise in non-communicable diseases, such as allergies, in westernized countries links to changes in lifestyle and diet. N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) present in marine oils facilitate a favorable milieu for immune maturation and may contribute to allergy prevention. N-3 LCPUFA can suppress innate and adaptive immune activation and induce epigenetic changes. Murine studies convincingly show protective effects of fish oil, a source of n-3 LCPUFA, in food allergy and asthma models. Observational studies in human indicate that high dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFA and low intake of n-6 PUFA may protect against the development of allergic disease early in life. High n-6 PUFA intake is also associated with an increased asthma risk while n-3 LCPUFA may be protective and reduce symptoms. The quality of the marine oil used has impact on efficacy of allergy prevention and several observations link in particular n-3 LCPUFA DHA to allergy suppression. Randomized controlled trials indicate that optimal timing, duration and dosage of n-3 LC-PUFA is required to exert an allergy protective effect. Supplementation during early pregnancy and lactation has shown promising results regarding allergy prevention. However these findings should be confirmed in a larger cohort. Although clinical trials in asthma patients reveal no consistent clinical benefits of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on lung function, it can suppress airway inflammation. Future food-pharma approaches may reveal whether adjunct therapy with dietary n-3 LCPUFA can improve allergy prevention or immunotherapy via support of allergen specific oral tolerance induction or contribute to the efficacy of drug therapy for asthma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jayong; Veeramachaneni, Sudipta; Liu, Chun; Mernitz, Heather; Russell, Robert M.; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby preventing ethanol-induced hepatocyte hyperproliferation. For 1 month, four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol (36% of the total calories) diet as follows: either ethanol alone (Alc group) or ethanol in combination with 0.1 mg/kg body wt of all-trans RA (Alc+RA group), 2 mg/kg body wt of VE (Alc+VE group), or both together (Alc+RA+VE group). Control rats were pair-fed a liquid diet with an isocaloric amount of maltodextrin instead of ethanol. The ethanol-fed groups had three-fold higher hepatic CYP2E1 levels, 50% lower hepatic RA levels, and significantly increased hepatocyte proliferation when compared with the controls. The ethanol-fed rats given VE had more than four-fold higher hepatic VE concentrations than did ethanol-fed rats without VE, but this did not prevent ethanol induction of CYP2E1, lower hepatic retinoid levels, or hepatocellular hyperproliferation. Further, VE supplementation could not prevent RA catabolism in liver microsomal fractions of the ethanol-fed rats in vitro. These results show that VE supplementation can neither inhibit ethanol-induced changes in RA catabolism nor prevent ethanol-induced hepatocyte hyperproliferation in the rat liver. PMID:19854382

  17. Resveratrol prevents insulin resistance caused by short-term elevation of free fatty acids in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandra; Park, Edward; Moore, Jessy; Faubert, Brandon; Breen, Danna M; Oprescu, Andrei I; Nahle, Ashraf; Kwan, Denise; Giacca, Adria; Tsiani, Evangelia

    2015-11-01

    Elevated levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA), which are commonly found in obesity, induce insulin resistance. FFA activate protein kinases including the proinflammatory IκBα kinase β (IKKβ), leading to serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and impaired insulin signaling. To test whether resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, prevents FFA-induced insulin resistance, we used a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with a tracer to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in overnight-fasted Wistar rats infused for 7 h with saline, Intralipid plus 20 U·mL(-1) heparin (IH; triglyceride emulsion that elevates FFA levels in vivo; 5.5 μL·min(-1)) with or without resveratrol (3 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1)), or resveratrol alone. Infusion of IH significantly decreased glucose infusion rate (GIR; P < 0.05) and peripheral glucose utilization (P < 0.05) and increased endogenous glucose production (EGP; P < 0.05) during the clamp compared with saline infusion. Resveratrol co-infusion, however, completely prevented the effects induced by IH infusion: it prevented the decreases in GIR (P < 0.05 vs. IH), peripheral glucose utilization (P < 0.05 vs. IH), and insulin-induced suppression of EGP (P < 0.05 vs. IH). Resveratrol alone had no effect. Furthermore, IH infusion increased serine (307) phosphorylation of IRS-1 in soleus muscle (∼30-fold, P < 0.001), decreased total IRS-1 levels, and decreased IκBα content, consistent with activation of IKKβ. Importantly, all of these effects were abolished by resveratrol (P < 0.05 vs. IH). These results suggest that resveratrol prevents FFA-induced hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance and, therefore, may help mitigate the health consequences of obesity.

  18. Ferulic acid prevents liver injury and increases the anti-tumor effect of diosbulbin B in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-ming; Sheng, Yu-chen; Ji, Li-li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2014-06-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the protection by ferulic acid against the hepatotoxicity induced by diosbulbin B and its possible mechanism, and further observe whether ferulic acid augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. The results show that ferulic acid decreases diosbulbin B-increased serum alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST) levels. Ferulic acid also decreases lipid peroxide (LPO) levels which are elevated in diosbulbin B-treated mice. Histological evaluation of the liver demonstrates hydropic degeneration in diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses this injury. Moreover, the activities of copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) are decreased in the livers of diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses these decreases. Further results demonstrate that the mRNA expressions of CuZn-SOD and CAT in diosbulbin B-treated mouse liver are significantly decreased, while ferulic acid prevents this decrease. In addition, ferulic acid also augments diosbulbin B-induced tumor growth inhibition compared with diosbulbin B alone. Taken together, the present study shows that ferulic acid prevents diosbulbin B-induced liver injury via ameliorating diosbulbin B-induced liver oxidative stress injury and augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity.

  19. Ferulic acid prevents liver injury and increases the anti-tumor effect of diosbulbin B in vivo *

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-ming; Sheng, Yu-chen; Ji, Li-li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2014-01-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the protection by ferulic acid against the hepatotoxicity induced by diosbulbin B and its possible mechanism, and further observe whether ferulic acid augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. The results show that ferulic acid decreases diosbulbin B-increased serum alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST) levels. Ferulic acid also decreases lipid peroxide (LPO) levels which are elevated in diosbulbin B-treated mice. Histological evaluation of the liver demonstrates hydropic degeneration in diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses this injury. Moreover, the activities of copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) are decreased in the livers of diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses these decreases. Further results demonstrate that the mRNA expressions of CuZn-SOD and CAT in diosbulbin B-treated mouse liver are significantly decreased, while ferulic acid prevents this decrease. In addition, ferulic acid also augments diosbulbin B-induced tumor growth inhibition compared with diosbulbin B alone. Taken together, the present study shows that ferulic acid prevents diosbulbin B-induced liver injury via ameliorating diosbulbin B-induced liver oxidative stress injury and augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. PMID:24903991

  20. Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid (TPOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Yutaka; Nishi, Daisuke; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Hamazaki, Kei; Matsumura, Kenta; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2013-01-05

    Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids after trauma might reduce subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, we have shown in an open trial that PTSD symptoms in critically injured patients can be reduced by taking omega-3 fatty acids, hypothesized to stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. The primary aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the secondary prevention of PTSD following accidental injury, as compared with placebo. This paper describes the rationale and protocol of this trial. The Tachikawa Project for Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (TPOP) is a double-blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial to assess whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can prevent PTSD symptoms among accident-injured patients consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit. We plan to recruit accident-injured patients and follow them prospectively for 12 weeks. Enrolled patients will be randomized to either the omega-3 fatty acid supplement group (1,470 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 147 mg eicosapentaenoic acid daily) or placebo group. Primary outcome is score on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). We will need to randomize 140 injured patients to have 90% power to detect a 10-point difference in mean CAPS scores with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation compared with placebo. Secondary measures are diagnosis of PTSD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, physiologic response in the experiment using script-driven imagery and acoustic stimulation, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, health-related quality of life, resilience, and aggression. Analyses will be by intent to treat. The trial was initiated on December 13 2008, with 104 subjects randomized by November 30 2012. This study promises to be the first trial to provide a novel prevention strategy for PTSD among

  1. Prevention

    Treesearch

    Barbara Illman; Gary Man

    2010-01-01

    Prevention is considered the most cost-effective element of the Forest Service Invasive Species Strategy (USDA Forest Service 2004). What makes prevention difficult is the desire to maximize free trade and the resulting benefits to society while, at the same time, protecting natural resources. The role of science is to first identify which commodities pose an...

  2. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation prevents the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in arteries from orchidectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando, Diva M.; Rojas, Mibsam M.; García, Hugo S.

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency has been correlated with increased cardiovascular diseases, which in turn has been associated with increased oxidative stress. Several studies have considered cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) as oxidative stress biomarkers, since some of them play pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory roles. We have previously described the cardioprotective effects of a dosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplemented diet on the aortic and mesenteric artery function of orchidectomized rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether impaired gonadal function alters the formation of COPs, as well as the potential preventive role of a DHA-supplemented diet on that effect. For this purpose, aortic and mesenteric artery segments obtained from control and orchidectomized rats, fed with a standard or supplemented with DHA, were used. The content of the following COPs: 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol, 5,6β-epoxycholesterol, cholestanetriol and 25-hydroxycholesterol, were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results showed that orchidectomy increased the formation of COPs in arteries from orchidectomized rats, which may participate in the orchidectomy-induced structural and functional vascular alterations already reported. The fact that the DHA-supplemented diet prevented the orchidectomy-induced COPs increase confirms the cardiovascular protective actions of DHA, which could be of special relevance in mesenteric arterial bed, since it importantly controls the systemic vascular resistance. PMID:28968462

  3. Lactic acid bacteria from raw milk as potentially beneficial strains to prevent bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Espeche, M Carolina; Pellegrino, Matías; Frola, Ignacio; Larriestra, Alejandro; Bogni, Cristina; Nader-Macías, M E Fátima

    2012-02-01

    Bovine mastitis produces a wide variety of problems in the dairy farm. The treatment of this disease is based on the use of antibiotics which are not always effective. These drugs are also responsible for the presence of residues in the milk and the increase of antibiotic-resistant strains. Probiotic products were proposed as a valid alternative to antibiotic therapies and are also useful for the prevention of infectious syndromes. With the aim of designing a probiotic product to prevent bovine mastitis, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from foremilk samples from different dairy farms in Córdoba-Argentina. One hundred and seventeen LAB were isolated and their beneficial characteristics such as the production of inhibitory substances, surface properties and production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) were assessed. Most of them displayed low degree of hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, EPS negative phenotype and were identified as Enterococcus hirae and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Nine LAB strains inhibited three indicator bacteria. Some isolates were pre-selected and genetically identified according to the results obtained. Antibiotic resistance and virulence factors were studied for the assessment of the safety of the strains. The results obtained were compared to those reported previously from samples obtained in the North-western area of the country and some differences were found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Melatonin prevents hypochlorous acid-mediated cyanocobalamin destruction and cyanogen chloride generation.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Roohi; Maitra, Dhiman; Chatzicharalampous, Charalampos; Najeemuddin, Syed; Morris, Robert T; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2018-04-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a potent cytotoxic oxidant generated by the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and chloride (Cl - ). Elevated levels of HOCl play an important role in various pathological conditions through oxidative modification of several biomolecules. Recently, we have highlighted the ability of HOCl to mediate the destruction of the metal-ion derivatives of tetrapyrrole macrocyclic rings such as hemoproteins and vitamin B 12 (VB 12 ) derivatives. Destruction of cyanocobalamin, a common pharmacological form of VB 12 mediated by HOCl, results in the generation of toxic molecular products such as chlorinated derivatives, corrin ring cleavage products, the toxic blood agents cyanide (CN - ) and cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and redox-active free cobalt. Here, we show that melatonin prevents HOCl-mediated cyanocobalamin destruction, using a combination of UV-Vis spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, and colorimetric CNCl assay. Identification of several melatonin oxidation products suggests that the protective role of melatonin against HOCl-mediated cyanocobalamin destruction and subsequent CNCl generation is at the expense of melatonin oxidation. Collectively, this work highlights that, in addition to acting as an antioxidant and as a MPO inhibitor, melatonin can also prevent VB 12 deficiency in inflammatory conditions such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, among many others. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mechanism and energetics by which glutamic acid 242 prevents leaks in cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kaila, Ville R I; Verkhovsky, Michael I; Hummer, Gerhard; Wikström, Mårten

    2009-10-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is the terminal enzyme of aerobic respiration. The energy released from the reduction of molecular oxygen to water is used to pump protons across the mitochondrial or bacterial membrane. The pump function introduces a mechanistic requirement of a valve that prevents protons from flowing backwards during the process. It was recently found that Glu-242, a key amino acid in transferring protons to be pumped across the membrane and to the site of oxygen reduction, fulfils the function of such a valve by preventing simultaneous contact to the pump site and to the proton-conducting D-channel (Kaila V.R.I. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 2008). Here we have incorporated the valve model into the framework of the reaction mechanism. The function of the Glu valve is studied by exploring how the redox state of the surrounding metal centers, dielectric effects, and membrane potential, affects the energetics and leaks of this valve. Parallels are drawn between the dynamics of Glu-242 and the long-standing obscure difference between the metastable O(H) and stable O states of the binuclear center. Our model provides a suggestion for why reduction of the former state is coupled to proton translocation while reduction of the latter is not.

  6. Preventive dental management of osteonecrosis of the jaws related to zoledronic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Coello-Suanzes, J A; Rollon-Ugalde, V; Castaño-Seiquer, A; Lledo-Villar, E; Herce-Lopez, J; Infante-Cossio, P; Rollon-Mayordomo, A

    2018-02-07

    To evaluate the effect of preventive dental management on reducing the incidence and delaying the onset of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in patients treated with intravenous zoledronic acid (ZA). This single-center clinical study included 255 cancer patients monitored over a 6-year period. Patients received dental treatment prior (Group A) or after (Group B) the initiation of ZA therapy. Dental treatments performed, incidence proportion (IP) and incidence rate (IR) in both groups were analyzed using significance tests. BRONJ onset were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and log-rank test. Independent risk factors to develop BRONJ were evaluated using Cox regression analysis models. 37 patients suffered from BRONJ (IP=14.5%), 7.3% in group A and 36.5% in group B (p=0.000). The IR was 0.007 patients/month in group B and 0.004 in group A. BRONJ free survival at 3 years were 97% in group A and 66% in group B. Survival curves were significant (p=0.056) according to log-rank test. Multivariate Cox models showed that dental extractions (p=0.000) were significant. BRONJ occurred significantly in patients who underwent dental extractions after the initiation of ZA and did not accomplish a preventive dental program. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. TAUROURSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID PREVENTS HEARING LOSS AND HAIR CELL DEATH IN Cdh23erl/erl MICE

    PubMed Central

    HU, J.; XU, M.; YUAN, J.; LI, B.; Entenman, S.; YU, H.; ZHENG, Q.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss has long been the subject of experimental and clinical research for many years. The recently identified novel mutation of the Cdh23 gene, Cdh23erl/erl, was proven to be a mouse model of human autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB12). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a taurine-conjugated bile acid, has been used in experimental research and clinical applications related to liver disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and other diseases associated with apoptosis. Because hair cell apoptosis was implied to be the cellular mechanism leading to hearing loss in Cdh23erl/erl mice (erl mice), this study investigated TUDCA’s otoprotective effects in erl mice: preventing hearing impairment and protecting against hair cell death. Our results showed that systemic treatment with TUDCA significantly alleviated hearing loss and suppressed hair cell death in erl mice. Additionally, TUDCA inhibited apoptotic genes and caspase-3 activation in erl mouse cochleae. The data suggest that TUDCA could be a potential therapeutic agent for human DFNB12. PMID:26748055

  8. Nebulised amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle prophylaxis prevents invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Shirkhani, Khojasteh; Teo, Ian; Armstrong-James, Darius; Shaunak, Sunil

    2015-07-01

    Aspergillus species are the major life threatening fungal pathogens in transplant patients. Germination of inhaled fungal spores initiates infection, causes severe pneumonia, and has a mortality of >50%. This is leading to the consideration of pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent infection. We made a very low MWt amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle. It was not toxic to lung epithelial cells or monocyte-derived-macrophages in-vitro, or in an in-vivo transplant immuno-suppression mouse model of life threatening invasive aspergillosis. Three days of nebuliser based prophylaxis delivered the nanoparticle effectively to lung and prevented both fungal growth and lung inflammation. Protection from disease was associated with >99% killing of the Aspergillus and a 90% reduction in lung TNF-α; the primary driver of tissue destructive immuno-pathology. This study provides in-vivo proof-of-principle that very small and cost-effective nanoparticles can be made simply, and delivered safely and effectively to lung by the aerosol route to prevent fungal infections. Aspergillus is an opportunistic pathogen, which affects immunocompromised patients. One novel way to help fight against this infection is pre-exposure prophylaxis. The authors here made PMA based anionic hydrogels carrying amphotericin B, with mucoadhesive behavior. They showed that aerosol route of the drug was very effective in protecting against the disease in an in-vivo model and should provide a stepping-stone towards clinical trials in the future. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chlorogenic Acid Prevents Osteoporosis by Shp2/PI3K/Akt Pathway in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Hui Ling; Yao, Fen Fen; Ruan, Hui Bing; Xu, Jin; Song, Wei; Zhou, Yi Cheng; Wen, Shi Yao; Dai, Jiang Hua; Zhu, Mei Lan; Luo, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cortex Eucommiae is used worldwide in traditional medicine, various constituents of Cortex Eucommiae, such as chlorogenic acid (CGA), has been reported to exert anti-osteoporosis activity in China, but the mechanism about their contribution to the overall activity is limited. The aims of this study were to determine whether chlorogenic acid can prevent estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis and to analyze the mechanism of CGA bioactivity. The effect of CGA on estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis was performed in vivo. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly among a sham-operated group and five ovariectomy (OVX) plus treatment subgroups: saline vehicle, 17α-ethinylestradiol (E2), or CGA at 9, 27, or 45 mg/kg/d. The rats’ femoral metaphyses were evaluated by micro-computed tomography (μCT). The mechanism of CGA bioactivity was investigated in vitro. Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were treated with CGA, with or without phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. BMSCs proliferation and osteoblast differentiation were assessed with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and alkaline phosphatase, with or without Shp2 interfering RNA (RNAi). The results display that CGA at 27 and 45 mg/kg/day inhibited the decrease of bone mineral density (BMD) that induced by OVX in femur (p< 0.01), significantly promoted the levels of bone turnover markers, and prevented bone volume fraction (BV/TV), connectivity density (CoonD), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (all p< 0.01) to decrease and prevented the trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), structure model index (SMI)(both p< 0.01) to increase. CGA at 1 or 10 μM enhanced BMSC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. CGA at 0.1 to 10 μM increased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and cyclin D1. These effects were reversed by LY294002. CGA at 1 or 10 μM increased BMSC differentiation to osteoblasts (p< 0.01), Shp2 RNAi suppressed CGA-induced osteoblast

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  11. Ascorbic acid supplementation partially prevents the delayed reproductive development in juvenile male rats exposed to rosuvastatin since prepuberty.

    PubMed

    Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Figueiredo, Thamiris Moreira; Sanabria, Marciana; Dias, Ana Flávia Mota Gonçalves; Silva, Patrícia Villela E; Martins Junior, Airton da Cunha; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2017-10-01

    Dyslipidemias are occurring earlier in the population due to the increase of obesity and bad eating habits. Rosuvastatin inhibits the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, decreasing total cholesterol. Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant compound for male reproductive system. This study aimed to evaluate whether ascorbic acid supplementation may prevent the reproductive damage provoked by rosuvastatin administration at prepuberty. Male pups were distributed into six experimental groups that received saline solution 0.9%, 3 or 10mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin, 150mg/day of ascorbic acid, or 150mg/day of ascorbic acid associated with 3 or 10mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin from post-natal day (PND) 23 until PND53. Rosuvastatin-treated groups showed delayed puberty installation, androgen depletion and impairment on testicular and epididymal morphology. Ascorbic acid partially prevented these reproductive damages. In conclusion, rosuvastatin exposure is a probable risk to reproductive development and ascorbic acid supplementation may be useful to prevent the reproductive impairment of rosuvastatin exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementati...

  13. Inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis prevents adipocyte lipotoxicity on human osteoblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Alexandre; Wu, Xiying; Rivas, Daniel; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Duque, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Although increased bone marrow fat in age-related bone loss has been associated with lower trabecular mass, the underlying mechanism responsible remains unknown. We hypothesized that marrow adipocytes exert a lipotoxic effect on osteoblast function and survival through the reversible biosynthesis of fatty acids (FA) into the bone marrow microenvironment. We have used a two-chamber system to co-culture normal human osteoblasts (NHOst) with differentiating pre-adipocytes in the absence or presence of an inhibitor of FA synthase (cerulenin) and separated by an insert that allowed unidirectional trafficking of soluble factors only and prevented direct cell–cell contact. Supernatants were assayed for the presence of FA using mass spectophotometry. After 3 weeks in co-culture, NHOst showed significantly lower levels of differentiation and function based on lower mineralization and expression of alkaline phosphatase, osterix, osteocalcin and Runx2. In addition, NHOst survival was affected by the presence of adipocytes as determined by MTS-formazan and TUNEL assays as well as higher activation of caspases 3/7. These toxic effects were inhibited by addition of cerulenin. Furthermore, culture of NHOst with either adipocyte-conditioned media alone in the absence of adipocytes themselves or with the addition of the most predominant FA (stearate or palmitate) produced similar toxic results. Finally, Runx2 nuclear binding was affected by addition of either adipocyte conditioned media or FA into the osteogenic media. We conclude that the presence of FA within the marrow milieu can contribute to the age-related changes in bone mass and can be prevented by the inhibition of FA synthase. PMID:19382912

  14. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents high fat diet-induced metabolic disorders: Genomic and metabolomic analyses of underlying mechanism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously our lab demonstrated eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA)'s ability to prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity by decreasing insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and inflammation. In the current study, we used genomic and metabolomic approaches to further investigate the molecular basis for t...

  15. Citrulline and Nonessential Amino Acids Prevent Fructose-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; Beutheu, Stéphanie; Ventura, Gabrielle; Nubret, Esther; Sarfati, Gilles; Bergheim, Ina; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Fructose induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Citrulline (Cit) may exert a beneficial effect on steatosis. We compared the effects of Cit and an isonitrogenous mixture of nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) on fructose-induced NAFLD. Twenty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n = 4-6) to receive for 8 wk a 60% fructose diet, either alone or supplemented with Cit (1 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), or an isonitrogenous amount of NEAAs, or the same NEAA-supplemented diet with starch and maltodextrin instead of fructose (controls). Nutritional and metabolic status, liver function, and expression of genes of hepatic lipid metabolism were determined. Compared with controls, fructose led to NAFLD with significantly higher visceral fat mass (128%), lower lean body mass (-7%), insulin resistance (135%), increased plasma triglycerides (TGs; 67%), and altered plasma amino acid concentrations with decreased Arg bioavailability (-27%). This was corrected by both NEAA and Cit supplementation. Fructose caused a 2-fold increase in the gene expression of fatty acid synthase (Fas) and 70% and 90% decreases in that of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1a and microsomal TG transfer protein via a nearly 10-fold higher gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (Chrebp), and a 90% lower gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Ppara). NEAA or Cit supplementation led to a Ppara gene expression similar to controls and decreased those of Srebp1c and Chrebp in the liver by 50-60%. Only Cit led to Fas gene expression and Arg bioavailability similar to controls. In our rat model, Cit and NEAAs effectively prevented fructose-induced NAFLD. On the basis of literature data and our findings, we propose that NEAAs may exert their effects specifically on the liver, whereas Cit presumably acts at both the hepatic and whole-body level, in part via improved

  16. Should the dose of folic acid be adjusted for Mexican population? The pilot prevention program implemented in Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martinez de Villarreal, Laura E

    2017-12-11

    In 1980 Smithells et al. reported that the intake of folic acid (FA) prevents the recurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs) [1]. After this and several other studies were conducted, the intake of 400 micrograms of folic acid per day, at least three months before and three months during pregnancy for prevention of NTD, was proposed [2,3,4]. Other strategies were also developed to increase folate blood levels in woman of childbearing age such as promoting the consumption of folate rich foods and food fortification (flour and most recently rice) [5]. Nevertheless, results have not been as expected due to poor consumption of folic acid supplements [6]. As a result, in the year 2000, a novel strategy was developed in order to increase folate blood levels in Mexican women. The results of the strategy are presented, as well as, a discussion about how to personalize a program for different populations.

  17. {alpha}-Lipoic acid prevents lipotoxic cardiomyopathy in acyl CoA-synthase transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-8854; Naseem, R. Haris

    2006-05-26

    {alpha}-Lipoic acid ({alpha}-LA) mimics the hypothalamic actions of leptin on food intake, energy expenditure, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To determine if, like leptin, {alpha}-LA protects against cardiac lipotoxicity, {alpha}-LA was fed to transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of the acyl CoA synthase (ACS) gene. Untreated ACS-transgenic mice died prematurely with increased triacylglycerol content and dilated cardiomyopathy, impaired systolic function and myofiber disorganization, apoptosis, and interstitial fibrosis on microscopy. In {alpha}-LA-treated ACS-transgenic mice heart size, echocardiogram and TG content were normal. Plasma TG fell 50%, hepatic-activated phospho-AMPK rose 6-fold, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c declined 50%, and peroxisome proliferator-activatedmore » receptor-{gamma} cofactor-1{alpha} mRNA rose 4-fold. Since food restriction did not prevent lipotoxicity, we conclude that {alpha}-LA treatment, like hyperleptinemia, protects the heart of ACS-transgenic mice from lipotoxicity.« less

  18. Glycyrrhetinic acid prevents cutaneous scratching behavior in mice elicited by substance P or PAR-2 agonist.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Yuko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Tsukahara, Michiko; Hatta, Akira; Inoue, Hideo

    2011-11-16

    Although glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) has been used for the prevention of itch in chronic dermatitis, the mechanism underlying the antipruritic effects of GA is still unclear. Recently, several mediators other than histamine, such as substance P and tryptase, were found to participate in chronic itch. Here, we investigated the effect of GA on pruritus induced by various pruritic agents including histamine in mice. We also determined the level of leukotriene (LT)B(4) in mouse skin injected with substance P in an effort to uncover part of the antipruritic mechanism of GA. Scratching events were counted for 10 min after intradermal injection of histamine, substance P (100 nmol per site each), protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) agonistic peptide (50 nmol per site), or LTB(4) (0.03 nmol per site) with or without GA (4 nmol per site) into male ICR mice. Levels of LTB(4) in the skin after injection of substance P were determined by ELISA. GA did not suppress scratching behavior induced by histamine and LTB(4), but markedly and dose-dependently suppressed that induced by substance P and PAR-2 agonistic peptide. LTB(4) levels in skin elevated by substance P were lowered by GA. These data support the efficacy of GA in counteracting itch in chronic dermatitis because GA reduced scratching behavior induced by substance P and PAR-2 agonistic peptide. GA may exert antipruritic effects via inhibition of LTB(4) production in skin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction caused by an oral glucose load

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Lauren K.; Restaino, Robert M.; Neuringer, Martha; Manrique, Camila; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia leads to a transient impairment in endothelial function; however, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Previous work in cell culture models demonstrate that high glucose results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and, in animal studies, ER stress has been implicated as a cause of endothelial dysfunction. Herein we tested the hypothesis that acute oral administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 1500mg), a chemical chaperone known to alleviate ER stress, would prevent hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In 12 young healthy subjects (seven men, five women), brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed at baseline, 1 hour, and 2 hours post an oral glucose challenge. Subjects were tested on two separate visits in a single-blind randomized crossover design: after oral ingestion of TUDCA or placebo capsules. FMD was reduced from baseline during hyperglycemia under the placebo condition (−32% at 1 hr and −28% at 2 hr post oral glucose load; p<0.05 from baseline) but not under the TUDCA condition (−4% at 1 hr and +0.3% at 2 hr post oral glucose load; p>0.05 from baseline). Postprandial plasma glucose and insulin were not altered by TUDCA ingestion. Plasma oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine and TBARs remained unaltered throughout the oral glucose challenge in both conditions. These results suggest that hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction can be mitigated by oral administration of TUDCA, thus supporting the hypothesis that ER stress may contribute to endothelial dysfunction during postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:27503949

  20. Syringic Acid Extracted from Herba dendrobii Prevents Diabetic Cataract Pathogenesis by Inhibiting Aldose Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoyong; Chen, Dan; Yi, Yanchun; Qi, Hui; Gao, Xinxin; Fang, Hua; Gu, Qiong; Wang, Ling; Gu, Lianquan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Effects of Syringic acid (SA) extracted from dendrobii on diabetic cataract (DC) pathogenesis were explored. Methods. Both in vitro and in vivo DC lens models were established using D-gal, and proliferation of HLEC exposed to SA was determined by MMT assay. After 60-day treatment with SA, rat lens transparency was observed by anatomical microscopy using a slit lamp. SA protein targets were extracted and isolated using 2-DE and MALDI TOF/TOF. AR gene expression was investigated using qRT-PCR. Interaction sites and binding characteristics were determined by molecule-docking techniques and dynamic models. Results. Targeting AR, SA provided protection from D-gal-induced damage by consistently maintaining lens transparency and delaying lens turbidity development. Inhibition of AR gene expression by SA was confirmed by qRT-PCR. IC50 of SA for inhibition of AR activity was 213.17 μg/mL. AR-SA binding sites were Trp111, His110, Tyr48, Trp20, Trp79, Leu300, and Phe122. The main binding modes involved hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. The stoichiometric ratio of non-covalent bonding between SA and AR was 1.0 to 13.3. Conclusion. SA acts to prevent DC in rat lenses by inhibiting AR activity and gene expression, which has potential to be developed into a novel drug for therapeutic management of DC. PMID:23365598

  1. Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Role of zoledronic acid in oncolytic virotherapy: Promotion of antitumor effect and prevention of bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Yasuaki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Hasei, Joe; Osaki, Shuhei; Omori, Toshinori; Sugiu, Kazuhisa; Komatsubara, Tadashi; Uotani, Kouji; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Aki; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-09-01

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive malignant bone tumor that causes bone destruction. Although tumor-specific replicating oncolytic adenovirus OBP-301 induces an antitumor effect in an osteosarcoma tumor, it cannot prevent bone destruction. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is a clinically available agent that inhibits bone destruction. In this study, we investigated the potential of combination therapy with OBP-301 and ZOL against osteosarcomas with bone destruction. The antitumor activity of OBP-301 and ZOL in monotherapy or combination therapy was assessed using three human osteosarcoma cell lines (143B, MNNG/HOS, SaOS-2). The cytotoxic effect of OBP-301 and/or ZOL was measured by assay of cell apoptosis. The effect of OBP-301 and ZOL on osteoclast activation was investigated. The potential of combination therapy against tumor growth and bone destruction was analyzed using an orthotopic 143B osteosarcoma xenograft tumor model. OBP-301 and ZOL decreased the viability of human osteosarcoma cells. Combination therapy with OBP-301 and ZOL displayed a synergistic antitumor effect, in which OBP-301 promoted apoptosis through suppression of anti-apoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1). Combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor-mediated osteoclast activation, tumor growth and bone destruction compared to monotherapy. These results suggest that combination therapy of OBP-301 and ZOL suppresses osteosarcoma progression via suppression of MCL1 and osteoclast activation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. Efficacy of Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic acid)-Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid) Thermogel As a Barrier to Prevent Spinal Epidural Fibrosis in a Postlaminectomy Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Lin; Lin, Hong; Cao, Luping; Cheng, Ji'an; Dong, Jian; Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2017-04-01

    Experimental animal study. The authors conducted a study to determine the efficacy and safety of the poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) thermogel to prevent peridural fibrosis in an adult rat laminectomy model. Peridural fibrosis often occurs after spinal laminectomy. It might cause persistent back and/or leg pain postoperatively and make a reoperation more difficult and dangerous. Various materials have been used to prevent epidural fibrosis, but only limited success has been achieved. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was synthesized by us. Total L3 laminectomies were performed on 24 rats. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or chitosan (CHS) gel (a positive control group) was applied to the operative sites in a blinded manner. In the control group, the L3 laminectomy was performed and the defect was irrigated with the NS solution 3 times. All the rats were killed 4 weeks after the surgery. The cytotoxicity of this thermogel was evaluated in vitro and the result demonstrated that no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. The extent of epidural fibrosis, the area of epidural fibrosis, and the density of the fibroblasts and blood vessel were evaluated histologically. There were statistical differences among the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or CHS gel group compared with the control group. Although there was no difference between the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel and CHS gel, the efficiency of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was shown to be slightly improved compared with the CHS gel. The biocompatibility of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was proven well. The application of this thermogel effectively reduced epidural scarring and prevented the subsequent adhesion to the dura mater. No side effects were noted in the rats.

  4. Ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis for prevention of colon cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Imran; Choudhary, Abhishek; Arif, Murtaza; Matteson, Michelle L; Hammad, Hazem T; Puli, Srinivas R; Bechtold, Matthew L

    2012-04-01

    Colon cancer risk is high in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Ursodeoxycholic acid has been shown to have some promise as a chemopreventive agent. A meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid in the prevention of colonic neoplasia in patients with UC and PSC. Multiple databases were searched (January 2011). Studies examining the use of ursodeoxycholic acid vs. no ursodeoxycholic acid or placebo in adult patients with UC and PSC were included. Data were extracted in standard forms by two independent reviewers. Meta-analysis for the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid was performed by calculating pooled estimates of adenoma or colon cancer formation by odds ratio (OR) with random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed by calculating the I (2) measure of inconsistency. RevMan 5 was utilized for statistical analysis. Four studies (n = 281) met the inclusion criteria. The studies were of adequate quality. Ursodeoxycholic acid demonstrated no overall improvement in adenoma (OR 0.53; 95 % CI: 0.19-1.48, p = 0.23) or colon cancer occurrence (OR 0.50; 95 % CI: 0.18-1.43, p = 0.20) as compared to no ursodeoxycholic acid or placebo in patients with UC and PSC. Ursodeoxycholic acid use in patients with UC and PSC does not appear to decrease the risk of adenomas or colon cancer.

  5. Comparison between conjugated linoleic acid and essential fatty acids in preventing oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Dipasquale, D; Tröscher, A; Bernabucci, U

    2017-03-01

    Some in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated protective effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. However, only a few and conflicting studies have been conducted showing the antioxidant potential of essential fatty acids. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of CLA to other essential fatty acids on the thiol redox status of bovine mammary epithelia cells (BME-UV1) and their protective role against oxidative damage on the mammary gland by an in vitro study. The BME-UV1 cells were treated with complete medium containing 50 μM of cis-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, α-linolenic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid. To assess the cellular antioxidant response, glutathione, NADPH, and γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase activity were measured 48 h after addition of fatty acids (FA). Intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production were also assessed in cells supplemented with FA. Reactive oxygen species production after 3 h of H 2 O 2 exposure was assessed to evaluate and to compare the potential protection of different FA against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress. All FA treatments induced an intracellular GSH increase, matched by high concentrations of NADPH and an increase of γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase activity. Cells supplemented with FA showed a reduction in intracellular malondialdehyde levels. In particular, CLA isomers and linoleic acid supplementation showed a better antioxidant cellular response against oxidative damage induced by H 2 O 2 compared with other FA. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  6. 5-Aminosalicylic acid prevents oxidant mediated damage of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in colon epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, S; Doe, W; Buffinton, G

    1999-01-01

    Background—Reactive oxygen and nitrogen derived species produced by activated neutrophils have been implicated in the damage of mucosal proteins including the inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the active inflammatory lesion in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated the efficacy of currently used IBD therapeutics to prevent injury mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen derived species. 
Methods—GAPDH activity of human colon epithelial cells was used as a sensitive indicator of injury produced by reactive oxygen and nitrogen derived species. HCT116 cells (106/ml phosphate buffered saline; 37°C) were incubated in the presence of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), 6-mercaptopurine, methylprednisolone, or metronidazole before exposure to H2O2, HOCl, or NO in vitro. HCT116 cell GAPDH enzyme activity was determined by standard procedures. Cell free reactions between 5-ASA and HOCl were analysed by spectrophotometry and fluorimetry to characterise the mechanism of oxidant scavenging. 
Results—GAPDH activity of HCT116 cells was inhibited by the oxidants tested: the concentration that produced 50% inhibition (IC50) was 44.5 (2.1) µM for HOCl, 379.8 (21.3) µM for H2O2, and 685.8 (103.8) µM for NO (means (SEM)). 5-ASA was the only therapeutic compound tested to show efficacy (p<0.05) against HOCl mediated inhibition of enzyme activity; however, it was ineffective against H2O2 and NO mediated inhibition of GAPDH. Methylprednisolone, metronidazole, and the thiol-containing 6-mercaptopurine were ineffective against all oxidants. Studies at ratios of HOCl:5-ASA achievable in the mucosa showed direct scavenging to be the mechanism of protection of GAPDH activity. Mixing 5-ASA and HOCl before addition to the cells resulted in significantly greater protection of GAPDH activity than when HOCl was added to cells preincubated with 5-ASA. The addition of 5-ASA after HOCl exposure did not restore GAPDH activity

  7. n-3 Fatty acids combined with flavan-3-ols prevent steatosis and liver injury in a murine model of NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Vauzour, David; Rodriguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Rushbrook, Simon; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio R; Bevan, Damon; Davies, Susan; Tejera, Noemi; Mena, Pedro; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Del Rio, Daniele; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 25% of adults and at present no licensed medication has been approved. Despite its complex patho-physiology, dietary strategies aiming at delaying or preventing NAFLD have taken a reductionist approach, examining the impact of single components. Accumulating evidence suggests that n-3 LC-PUFAs are efficacious in regulating lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. In addition, plant derived flavonoids are also emerging as a dietary strategy for NAFLD prevention, with efficacy attributed to their insulin sensitising and indirect antioxidant effects. Based on knowledge of their complementary molecular targets, we aimed to demonstrate that the combination of n-3 LC-PUFA (n-3) and flavan-3-ols (FLAV) prevents NAFLD. In a high-fat high-fructose (HF/HFr) fed C57Bl/6J mouse model, the independent and interactive impact of n-3 and FLAV on histologically defined NAFLD, insulin sensitivity, weight gain, intestinal and hepatic gene expression, intestinal bile acids were examined. Only the combination of FLAV and n-3 (FLAVn-3) prevented steatosis as evidenced by a strong reduction in hepatocyte ballooning. While FLAV reduced body (-28-30%), adipose tissue (-45-50%) weights and serum insulin (-22-25%) as observed following an intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test, n-3 downregulated the expression of Srebf1 and the lipogenic genes (Acaca, Fasn). Significant impacts of interventions on intestinal bile acid metabolism, farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) signalling in the intestine and liver, and hepatic expression of fatty acid transporters (Fabp4, Vldlr, Cd36) were also evident. FLAVn-3 may be a novel intervention for NAFLD. Future research should aim to demonstrate its efficacy in the prevention and treatment of human NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tryptamine-Gallic Acid Hybrid Prevents Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug-induced Gastropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Chinmay; Bindu, Samik; Dey, Sumanta; Alam, Athar; Goyal, Manish; Iqbal, Mohd. Shameel; Sarkar, Souvik; Kumar, Rahul; Halder, Kamal Krishna; Debnath, Mita Chatterjee; Adhikari, Susanta; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the gastroprotective effect of SEGA (3a), a newly synthesized tryptamine-gallic acid hybrid molecule against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy with mechanistic details. SEGA (3a) prevents indomethacin (NSAID)-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS) and dysfunctions in gastric mucosal cells, which play a pathogenic role in inducing gastropathy. SEGA (3a) offers this mitoprotective effect by scavenging of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2˙̄) and intramitochondrial free iron released as a result of MOS. SEGA (3a) in vivo blocks indomethacin-mediated MOS, as is evident from the inhibition of indomethacin-induced mitochondrial protein carbonyl formation, lipid peroxidation, and thiol depletion. SEGA (3a) corrects indomethacin-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo by restoring defective electron transport chain function, collapse of transmembrane potential, and loss of dehydrogenase activity. SEGA (3a) not only corrects mitochondrial dysfunction but also inhibits the activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by indomethacin. SEGA (3a) inhibits indomethacin-induced down-regulation of bcl-2 and up-regulation of bax genes in gastric mucosa. SEGA (3a) also inhibits indometacin-induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in gastric mucosa. Besides the gastroprotective effect against NSAID, SEGA (3a) also expedites the healing of already damaged gastric mucosa. Radiolabeled (99mTc-labeled SEGA (3a)) tracer studies confirm that SEGA (3a) enters into mitochondria of gastric mucosal cell in vivo, and it is quite stable in serum. Thus, SEGA (3a) bears an immense potential to be a novel gastroprotective agent against NSAID-induced gastropathy. PMID:22157011

  9. Treatment and prevention of ARD using silica micro encapsulation[Acid Rock Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, P.; Rybock, J.; Wheaton, A.

    1999-07-01

    In response to the known drawbacks of liming and the ever-increasing regulatory demands on the mining industry, KEECO has developed a silica micro encapsulation (SME) process. SME is a cost-effective, high performance reagent that is utilized in conjunction with simple chemical delivery systems. By encapsulating metals in a silica matrix formation and rapidly precipitating them into a sand-like sludge, it offers all the advantages of liming without the negative drawbacks. Utilizing an injection technique via a high shear mixing device, a slurry form of the SME product called KB-1{trademark} was applied to ARD at the Bunker Hill Mine in Idahomore » and to ARD pumped from collection ponds at a remote mine site in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Flow rates at both sites ranged form 500 to 800 gallons per minute. Treated water from the Bunker Hill Mine operation achieved the site's NPDES criteria for all evaluated metals and US Drinking Water quality for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc with a dosage rate of 1.34 grams KB-1{trademark} per liter. Treated water from the Sierra Nevada project focused on the control of aluminum, arsenic, copper, iron and nickel. All water samples displayed a >99.5% reduction in these metals, as well as an 84%--87% reduction in the concentration of sulfate. Testing on sludge generated form both operations achieved TCLP Action Limits. The SME process is currently under evaluation as a means to coat the pyrite surfaces of newly generated mine tailings to prevent oxidation and future acid generation.« less

  10. Oral administration of γ-aminobutyric acid and γ-oryzanol prevents stress-induced hypoadiponectinemia.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Kazuyuki; Kiyotani, Yuka; Uchida, Asako; Nagasaka, Reiko; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Kanemoto, Shigeharu; Hori, Masatoshi; Ushio, Hideki

    2011-06-15

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and is found to associate partly with chronic stress at work in human. Adiponectin circulates in mammal blood mainly as a low molecular weight (LMW) trimer, hexamer, and a high molecular weight (HMW) multimers. Low circulating levels of adiponectin are related to metabolic syndrome. We have then investigated the influence of immobilization stress on plasma adiponectin concentrations in mice. Relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels were markedly reduced by immobilization stress (0.66±0.07 and 0.59±0.06 after 102 h, respectively), significantly different from the control values (p<0.01 and 0.05, respectively). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and γ-oryzanol abundantly contained in germinated brown rice have some physiological functions. We further investigated the effect of GABA, γ-oryzanol, GABA plus γ-oryzanol on adiponectin levels in mice subjected to immobilization stress. GABA and γ-oryzanol significantly increased the relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels under immobilization stress (1.10±0.11 and 0.99±0.19 after 102 h, respectively, for GABA; 1.08±0.17 and 1.15±0.17 after 102 h, respectively, for γ-oryzanol). Additionally, the co-administration of GABA and γ-oryzanol also increased both relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels (1.02±0.07 and 0.99±0.10 after 102 h, respectively) and was effective in an earlier phase from 30 to 54 h. The results indicate that the co-administration of GABA and γ-oryzanol might be effective in preventing stress-induced hypoadiponectinemia in mice and be also a promising tool for improving metabolic syndrome aggravated by chronic stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential of Sulphur-containing Amino Acids in the Prevention of Catecholamine-induced Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Adameova, Adriana; Tappia, Paramjit S; Hatala, Robert; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2018-01-30

    Various physiological and pathological stimuli can hypersensitize the sympathetic nervous system resulting in a substantial release of catecholamines (CA) and consequent alterations in excitation-contraction coupling and excitation-transcription coupling. It has been shown that oxidation products of CA, rather than CA themselves, are responsible for such adaptation to a new equilibrium. While chronic, sustained accumulation of CA and their toxic products are associated with the depression in cardiac contractile force and remodeling, acute excessive release of CA can result in brief oxidative bursts and serious damage leading in lethal arrhythmias. In response to such oxidative stress, dysregulation of ion homeostasis, activation of neurohumoral system, immune and inflammatory responses, are augmented. These events are inter-related, and as a complex promote electrical instability. Likewise, remodeling occurring after the loss of cardiomyocytes, induces the development of a proarrhythmogenic environment. Thus, CA oxidation products may be involved in triggering arrhythmias as a result of both changes in cardiac cell automaticity and conduction velocity. In contrast, sulphur-containing amino acids (S-AA), in particular taurine and its precursor cysteine have been shown to modulate redox state of the heart. However, the multiple anti-oxidant properties of S-AA are unlikely to be exclusively responsible for their anti-arrhythmic action. They also possess additional cytoprotective effects which can stabilize electrical activity of the heart. It is concluded that specific S-AA may attenuate deleterious effects of supraphysiological levels of CA and this could serve as an important mechanism for the treatment and/or prevention of arrhythmogenesis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Structured triacylglycerol containing behenic and oleic acids suppresses triacylglycerol absorption and prevents obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Makiko; Tachibana, Nobuhiko; Yamahira, Takashi; Seino, Satoshi; Izumisawa, Ayako; Sagi, Nobuo; Arishima, Toshiharu; Kohno, Mitsutaka; Takamatsu, Kiyoharu; Hirotsuka, Motohiko; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2010-07-24

    Dietary 1(3)-behenoyl-2,3(1)-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol (BOO) has been reported to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in vitro and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in humans. In the present study, the anti-obesity activities of BOO and its inhibitory effects on lymphatic triacylglycerol (TAG) absorption were investigated in rats. In Experiment 1, rats were fed either BOO or soybean oil (SO) diet for 6 weeks. In the BOO diet, 20% of SO was replaced with an experimental oil rich in BOO. In Experiments 2 and 3, rats cannulated in the thoracic duct were administered an emulsions containing trioleoylglycerol (OOO) or an oil mixture (OOO:BOO, 9:1). Tri[1-14C]oleoylglycerol (14C-OOO) was added to the emulsions administered in Experiment 3. No observable differences were detected in food intake or body weight gain between the BOO and SO groups in Experiment 1. Plasma and liver TAG concentrations and visceral fat weights were significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. The apparent absorption rate of fat was significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. In Experiment 2, the lymphatic recovery of oleic and behenic acids was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. In Experiment 3, the lymphatic recovery of 14C-OOO was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. These results suggest that BOO prevents deposition of visceral fat and hepatic TAG by lowering and delaying intestinal absorption of TAG.

  13. Role of ursodeoxycholic acid in the prevention of gallstone formation after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Emad; Emile, Sameh Hany; Elfeki, Hossam; Fikry, Mohamed; Abdelshafy, Mahmoud; Elshobaky, Ayman; Elgendy, Hesham; Thabet, Waleed; Youssef, Mohamed; Elghadban, Hosam; Lotfy, Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative cholelithiasis (CL) is a latent complication of bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in the prevention of CL after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). This was a retrospective analysis of the prospectively collected data of patients with morbid obesity who underwent LSG. Patients were subdivided into two groups: Group I, which did not receive prophylactic treatment with UCDA after LSG; and Group II, which received UCDA therapy for 6 months after LSG. Patients' characteristics, operation duration, weight loss data, and incidence of CL at 6 and 12 months postoperatively were collected. A total of 406 patients (124 males, 282 females) with a mean age of 32.1 ± 9.4 years were included. The mean baseline body mass index (BMI) was 50.1 ± 8.3 kg/m 2 . Group I comprised 159 patients, and Group II comprised 247 patients. The two groups showed comparable demographics, % excess weight loss (EWL), and decrease in BMI at 6 and 12 months after LSG. Eight patients (5%) developed CL in Group I, whereas no patients in Group II did (P = 0.0005). Preoperative dyslipidemia and rapid loss of excess weight within the first 3 months after LSG were the risk factors that significantly predicted CL postoperatively. The use of UCDA effectively reduced the incidence of CL after LSG in patients with morbid obesity. Dyslipidemia and rapid EWL in the first 3 months after LSG significantly predisposed patients to postoperative CL.

  14. Fluoxetine prevents the memory deficits and reduction in hippocampal cell proliferation caused by valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Welbat, Jariya Umka; Sangrich, Preeyanuch; Sirichoat, Apiwat; Chaisawang, Pornthip; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Prachaney, Parichat; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Wigmore, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a commonly used antiepileptic drug, has been reported to cause cognitive impairments in patients. In a previous study, using a rodent model, we showed that VPA treatment impaired cognition which was associated with a reduction in the cell proliferation required for hippocampal neurogenesis. The antidepressant fluoxetine has been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis and to reverse the memory deficits found in a number of pathological conditions. In the present study we investigated the protective effects of fluoxetine treatment against the impairments in memory and hippocampal cell proliferation produced by VPA. Male Sprague Dawley rats received daily treatment with fluoxetine (10mg/kg) by oral gavage for 21days. Some rats were co-administered with VPA (300mg/kg, twice daily i.p. injections) for 14days from day 8 to day 21 of the fluoxetine treatment. Spatial memory was tested using the novel object location (NOL) test. The number of proliferating cells present in the sub granular zone of the dentate gyrus was quantified using Ki67 immunohistochemistry at the end of the experiment. Levels of the receptor Notch1, the neurotrophic factor BDNF and the neural differentiation marker DCX were determined by Western blotting. VPA-treated rats showed memory deficits, a decrease in the number of proliferating cells in the sub granular zone and decreases in the levels of Notch1 and BDNF but not DCX compared to control animals. These changes in behavior, cell proliferation and Notch1 and BDNF were prevented in animals which had received both VPA and fluoxetine. Rats receiving fluoxetine alone did not show a significant difference in the number of proliferating cells or behavior compared to controls. These results demonstrated that the spatial memory deficits and reduction of cell proliferation produced by VPA can be ameliorated by the simultaneous administration of the antidepressant fluoxetine. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B

  15. Sodium Bicarbonate-Ascorbic Acid Combination for Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Catheterization.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Kota; Ashikaga, Takashi; Inagaki, Dai; Miyabe, Tomonori; Arai, Marina; Yoshida, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Satoshi; Nakada, Akihiro; Kawamura, Iwanari; Masuda, Shinichiro; Nagamine, Sho; Hojo, Rintaro; Aoyama, Yuya; Tsuchiyama, Takaaki; Fukamizu, Seiji; Shibui, Takashi; Sakurada, Harumizu

    2017-01-25

    Sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid have been proposed to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The present study evaluated the effect of their combined use on CIN incidence.Methods and Results:We prospectively enrolled 429 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD: baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) prior to elective coronary catheterization. CIN was defined as absolute (≥0.5 mg/dL) or relative (≥25%) increase in serum creatinine within 72 h. In the saline hydration (n=218) and combined sodium bicarbonate+ascorbic acid (n=211) groups, a total of 1,500-2,500 mL 0.9% saline was given before and after the procedure. In addition, the combination group received 20 mEq sodium bicarbonate and 3 g ascorbic acid i.v. before the procedure, followed by 2 g ascorbic acid after the procedure and a further 2 g after 12 h. There were no significant differences between the basic characteristics and contrast volume in the 2 groups. CIN occurred in 19 patients (8.7%) in the saline group, and in 6 patients (2.8%) in the combined treatment group (P=0.008). Combined sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid could prevent CIN following catheterization in CKD patients.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent early-life antibiotic exposure-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and later-life obesity.

    PubMed

    Kaliannan, K; Wang, B; Li, X-Y; Bhan, A K; Kang, J X

    2016-06-01

    Early-life antibiotic exposure can disrupt the founding intestinal microbial community and lead to obesity later in life. Recent studies show that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce body weight gain and chronic inflammation through modulation of the gut microbiota. We hypothesize that increased tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids may prevent antibiotic-induced alteration of gut microbiota and obesity later in life. Here, we utilize the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which can endogenously produce omega-3 fatty acids and thereby eliminates confounding factors of diet, to show that elevated tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce body weight gain and the severity of insulin resistance, fatty liver and dyslipidemia resulting from early-life exposure to azithromycin. These effects were associated with a reversal of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota in fat-1 mice. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and obesity, and suggest the potential utility of omega-3 supplementation as a safe and effective means for the prevention of obesity in children who are exposed to antibiotics.

  17. Effect of processing on folic acid fortified Baladi bread and its possible effect on the prevention of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Omar, Rasha M; Ismail, Hanaa M; El-Lateef, Bothyna M Abd; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Gomaa, Naglaa F; Sheta, Manal

    2009-07-01

    This paper studied the possible effect of folic acid in fortified Baladi bread on the prevention of colon cancer development in rats. Wheat flour samples (82% extraction rate) and soy bean flour were analyzed to determine their folic acid contents using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Unfortified and folic acid fortified Baladi breads were prepared. Samples from each step of bread preparation were analyzed for folic acid concentration. Protein, fat, ash, fibers and carbohydrates percentages were also determined. Rats were divided into five groups, four of them were injected subcutaneously with dimethylhydrazine (DMH). After 15 weeks, the rats were sacrificed for pathological examination. Results showed that the folic acid content in wheat flour (82% extraction rate) was found to be highly significantly lower than that in soybean flour. After baking, folic acid content in all breads was found to decrease significantly. The highest protein and fat contents were found in soybean flour fortified Baladi bread. The colons of rats of groups 3 (fed 5% soy flour fortified Baladi bread) and 5 (fed Baladi bread fortified with 5% soy flour+8 mg folic acid/kg wheat flour) were the mostly affected by DMH injection as premalignant changes were observed.

  18. Marine OMEGA-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mori, Trevor A

    2017-11-01

    Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA). The main dietary source of EPA and DHA for human consumption is fish, especially oily fish. There is considerable evidence that EPA and DHA are protective against cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), particularly in individuals with pre-existing disease. ω3 Fatty acids benefit multiple risk factors including blood pressure, blood vessel function, heart function and blood lipids, and they have antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. ω3 Fatty acids do not adversely interact with medications. Supplementation with ω3 fatty acids is recommended in individuals with elevated blood triglyceride levels and patients with coronary heart disease. A practical recommendation for the general population is to increase ω3 fatty acid intake by incorporating fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake. Health authorities recommend the general population should consume at least two oily fish meals per week. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Conclusions and recommendations from the symposium, Beyond Cholesterol: Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with n-3 Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Deckelbaum, Richard J; Leaf, Alexander; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Jacobson, Terry A; Harris, William S; Akabas, Sharon R

    2008-06-01

    After the symposium "Beyond Cholesterol: Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with n-3 Fatty Acids," faculty who presented at the conference submitted manuscripts relating to their conference topics, and these are presented in this supplement. The content of these manuscripts was reviewed, and 2 conference calls were convened. The objective was to summarize existing evidence, gaps in evidence, and future research needed to strengthen recommendations for specific intakes of n-3 fatty acids for different conditions relating to cardiovascular disease. The following 2 questions were the main items discussed. What are the roles of n-3 fatty acids in primary versus secondary prevention of coronary heart disease? What are the roles of n-3 fatty acids in hypertriglyceridemia, in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and in sudden cardiac death, cardiac arrhythmias, and vulnerable plaque? Each area was summarized by using 2 general categories: 1) current knowledge for which general consensus exists, and 2) recommendations for research and policy. Additional references for these conclusions can be found in the articles included in the supplement.

  20. Potential preventive role of lactic acid bacteria against aflatoxin M₁ immunotoxicity and genotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Jebali, Rania; Haous, Zohra; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a mycotoxin produced by numerous Aspergillus species in pre- or post-harvest cereals and milk. Exposure to AFM1 imparts potent economic losses in the livestock industry. Toxicologically, it also causes severe immune system problems. The aims of this study were to evaluate a new AFM1-binding/degrading microorganism for biologic detoxification, to examine its ability to degrade AFM1 in liquid medium, and to evaluate its potential for in vivo preventative effects against AFM1-induced immunotoxicity and genotoxicity in mice. Lactobacillus plantarum MON03 (LP) isolated from Tunisian artisanal butter was found to display significant binding ability to AFM1 in PBS (93%) within 24 h of incubation. Further, the LP was able to tolerate gastric acidity, bile salts, and adhere efficiently to Caco-3 cells in vitro. The in vivo study used Balb/c mice that received either vehicle (control), LP only (at 1 × 10(9)CFU/L, ∼1 mg/kg bw), AFM1 (100 mg/kg bw), or AFM1 + LP daily for 15 days (by gavage); two other groups received a single dose of colchicine (4 mg/kg) or mitomycin C (1 mg/kg) as positive controls for induction of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations, respectively. The results showed that, compared to in control mice, AFM1 treatment led to significantly decreased body weight gains, and caused cytotoxic/genotoxic effects as indicated by increases in frequencies of polychromatic erythrocytes, as well as those with micronucleation (PCEMN) and chromosomal aberrations, among bone marrow cells. The concurrent administration of LP with AFM1 strongly reduced the adverse effects of AFM1 on each parameter. Mice receiving AFM1 + LP co-treatment displayed no significant differences in the assayed parameters as compared to the control mice. By itself, the bacteria caused no adverse effects. Based on the data, it is concluded that the test bacteria could potentially be beneficial in the detoxification of AFM1-contaminated foods and feeds

  1. Cyclin A2 and CDK2 as Novel Targets of Aspirin and Salicylic acid: a Potential Role in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Ai, Guoqiang; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Sadhu, Satya S.; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2015-01-01

    Data emerging from the past 10 years have consolidated the rationale for investigating the use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; however, the mechanisms leading to its anti-cancer effects are still being elucidated. We hypothesized that aspirin’s chemopreventive actions may involve cell cycle regulation through modulation of the levels or activity of cyclin A2/cyclin dependent kinase-2 (CDK2). In this study, HT-29 and other diverse panel of cancer cells were used to demonstrate that both aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decreased cyclin A2 (CCNA2) and CDK2 protein and mRNA levels. The down regulatory effect of either drugs on cyclin A2 levels was prevented by pretreatment with lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomes, suggesting the involvement of 26S proteasomes. In-vitro kinase assays showed that lysates from cells treated with salicylic acid had lower levels of CDK2 activity. Importantly, three independent experiments revealed that salicylic acid directly binds to CDK2. Firstly, inclusion of salicylic acid in naïve cell lysates, or in recombinant CDK2 preparations, increased the ability of the anti-CDK2 antibody to immunoprecipitate CDK2, suggesting that salicylic acid may directly bind and alter its conformation. Secondly, in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS)-CDK2 fluorescence assays, pre-incubation of CDK2 with salicylic acid, dose-dependently quenched the fluorescence due to ANS. Thirdly, computational analysis using molecular docking studies identified Asp145 and Lys33 as the potential sites of salicylic acid interactions with CDK2. These results demonstrate that aspirin and salicylic acid down-regulate cyclin A2/CDK2 proteins in multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a novel target and mechanism of action in chemoprevention. Implications Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the anti-proliferative actions of aspirin are mediated through cyclin A2/CDK2. PMID:26685215

  2. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate prevents murine dietary steatohepatitis caused by trans-fatty acid plus fructose.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Maki; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Saito, Hiroaki; Arai, Kumiko; Kusama, Hiromi; Uchiyama, Akira; Yamashina, Shunhei; Ikejima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2015-11-01

    Excess consumption of trans-fatty acid could increase the risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, treatment targeting trans-fatty acid-induced NASH has not been examined. Here we focused on the influence of trans-fatty acid intake on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hepatocytes, so we investigated the effect of the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), on trans-fatty acid-caused steatohepatitis using diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Elaidic acid (EA, trans-fatty acid) alone did not cause definitive liver injury. In contrast, EA plus low-dose fructose induced extensive apoptosis in hepatocytes with severe fat accumulation. EA plus fructose significantly increased ER stress markers such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and phosphorylated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), while PBA significantly reduced this response. In vitro, EA promoted expression of GRP78 and phosphorylation of eIF2α in primary-cultured hepatocytes. EA also increased hepatocellular susceptibility to low-dose tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Treatment with PBA significantly reduced these responses. In conclusion, EA potentiates susceptibly to non-hazardous dose of fructose, and increases ER and oxidative stress. PBA improved steatohepatitis induced by EA plus fructose through amelioration of ER stress. Therefore, ER stress-targeted therapy using a chemical chaperone is a promising novel strategy for trans-fatty acid-induced steatohepatitis.

  3. Iso-α-acids, bitter components of beer, prevent obesity-induced cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Ayabe, Tatsuhiro; Ohya, Rena; Kondo, Keiji; Ano, Yasuhisa

    2018-03-19

    Dementia and cognitive decline have become worldwide public health problems, and it was recently reported that life-style related diseases and obesity are key risk factors in dementia. Iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter components of beer, have been reported to have various physiological functions via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In this report, we demonstrated that daily intake of iso-α-acids suppresses inflammations in the hippocampus and improves cognitive decline induced by high fat diet (HFD). Body weight, epididymal fat weight, and plasma triglyceride levels were increased in HFD-fed mice, and significantly decreased in iso-α-acids supplemented HFD-fed mice. HFD feeding enhances the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α, which was significantly suppressed by iso-α-acids administration. HFD-induced neuroinflammation caused lipid peroxidation, neuronal loss, and atrophy in hippocampus, and those were not observed in iso-α-acids-treated mice. Furthermore, iso-α-acids intake significantly improved cognitive decline induced by HFD-feeding. Iso-α-acids are food derived components that suppressing both lipid accumulation and brain inflammation, thus iso-α-acids might be beneficial for the risk of dementia increased by obesity and lifestyle-related diseases.

  4. Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Song [Fort Collins, CO; Fallgren, Paul H [Laramie, WY; Morris, Jeffrey M [Laramie, WY

    2012-01-31

    Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

  5. Ferulic acid exhibits antiepileptogenic effect and prevents oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in the kindling model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Parichehr; Arbabi, Elham; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2017-06-15

    Some conventional antiepileptic drugs induce oxidative stress and cognitive impairment which may limit their clinical applications. Ferulic acid is a phenolic phytochemical with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties that prompted us to evaluate its therapeutic potential in epilepsy which is usually associated with oxidative stress and cognitive decline. Male Wistar rats received 30mg/kg of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) intraperitoneally (i.p.) once every alternate day until the development of kindling. The locomotor activity, elevated plus maze, and passive avoidance tests were performed. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the determination of brain malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione. The effects of pre-treatment with ferulic acid (25, 50, 75, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) against PTZ-kindled seizures, cognitive impairment, and oxidative stress were investigated. Kindling was developed 34.18±1.54days after PTZ treatment which was associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), myoclonic jerks, cognitive deficit, and oxidative stress. Ferulic acid at doses of 75 and 100mg/kg significantly reduced the seizure score, number of myoclonic jerks, cognitive decline and oxidative stress. Spontaneous locomotor activity did not significantly differ between the groups. Ferulic acid exhibits antiepileptogenic effect and prevents oxidative stress and cognitive impairment induced by PTZ kindling. Therefore, this phenolic phytochemical appears as a promising adjuvant for antiepileptic drugs. Meanwhile, further experimental and clinical studies are required to provide insights into the cellular/molecular mechanism(s) underlying the action of ferulic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Supplementation of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol is useful to preventing bone loss linked to oxidative stress in elderly.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramos, M; Vargas, L Alberto; Fortoul Van der Goes, T I; Cervantes-Sandoval, A; Mendoza-Nunez, V M

    2010-06-01

    To determine the effect of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on oxidative stress and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly people. A double-blind, controlled clinical assay was carried out in a sample of 90 elderly subjects divided into three age-paired random groups with 30 subjects in each group. Group Tx0 received placebo, group Tx1 received 500 mg of ascorbic acid and 400 IU of alpha-tocopherol, whereas group Tx2 received 1,000 mg of ascorbic acid and 400 IU of alpha-tocopherol, for a 12-month period. We measured thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutation peroxidase (GPx); BMD was obtained on DXA of hip and spine before and after the 12-month treatment period with supplementation of vitamins C and E. We found a positive correlation between hip-BMD and SOD (r = 0.298, p < 0.05) and GPx (r = 0.214, p < 0.05). Also, a significantly lower decrease of LPO (p < 0.05) was observed as linked with hip bone loss in the Tx2 group than in the Tx0 group. Our findings suggest that that administration of 1,000 mg of ascorbic acid together with 400 IU of alpha-tocopherol could be useful in preventing or aiding in the treatment of age-related osteoporosis.

  7. Hexanoic Acid Treatment Prevents Systemic MNSV Movement in Cucumis melo Plants by Priming Callose Deposition Correlating SA and OPDA Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Navarro, Jose A; Serra-Soriano, Marta; Finiti, Iván; García-Agustín, Pilar; Pallás, Vicente; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Unlike fungal and bacterial diseases, no direct method is available to control viral diseases. The use of resistance-inducing compounds can be an alternative strategy for plant viruses. Here we studied the basal response of melon to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) and demonstrated the efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx) priming, which prevents the virus from systemically spreading. We analysed callose deposition and the hormonal profile and gene expression at the whole plant level. This allowed us to determine hormonal homeostasis in the melon roots, cotyledons, hypocotyls, stems and leaves involved in basal and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) to MNSV. Our data indicate important roles of salicylic acid (SA), 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic-isoleucine, and ferulic acid in both responses to MNSV. The hormonal and metabolites balance, depending on the time and location associated with basal and Hx-IR, demonstrated the reprogramming of plant metabolism in MNSV-inoculated plants. The treatment with both SA and OPDA prior to virus infection significantly reduced MNSV systemic movement by inducing callose deposition. This demonstrates their relevance in Hx-IR against MNSV and a high correlation with callose deposition. Our data also provide valuable evidence to unravel priming mechanisms by natural compounds.

  8. Hexanoic Acid Treatment Prevents Systemic MNSV Movement in Cucumis melo Plants by Priming Callose Deposition Correlating SA and OPDA Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Navarro, Jose A.; Serra-Soriano, Marta; Finiti, Iván; García-Agustín, Pilar; Pallás, Vicente; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Unlike fungal and bacterial diseases, no direct method is available to control viral diseases. The use of resistance-inducing compounds can be an alternative strategy for plant viruses. Here we studied the basal response of melon to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) and demonstrated the efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx) priming, which prevents the virus from systemically spreading. We analysed callose deposition and the hormonal profile and gene expression at the whole plant level. This allowed us to determine hormonal homeostasis in the melon roots, cotyledons, hypocotyls, stems and leaves involved in basal and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) to MNSV. Our data indicate important roles of salicylic acid (SA), 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic-isoleucine, and ferulic acid in both responses to MNSV. The hormonal and metabolites balance, depending on the time and location associated with basal and Hx-IR, demonstrated the reprogramming of plant metabolism in MNSV-inoculated plants. The treatment with both SA and OPDA prior to virus infection significantly reduced MNSV systemic movement by inducing callose deposition. This demonstrates their relevance in Hx-IR against MNSV and a high correlation with callose deposition. Our data also provide valuable evidence to unravel priming mechanisms by natural compounds. PMID:29104580

  9. The rationale for preventing cancer cachexia: targeting excessive fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chao-Nan

    2016-07-21

    Cachexia commonly occurs at the terminal stage of cancer and has largely unclear molecular mechanisms. A recent study published in Nature Medicine, entitled "Excessive fatty acid oxidation induces muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia," reveals that cachectic cancer cells can secrete multiple cytokines that induce excessive fatty acid oxidation, which is responsible for muscle loss in cancer cachexia. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation using etomoxir can increase muscle mass and body weight in cancer cachexia animal models. The usage of stable cachexia animal models is also discussed in this research highlight.

  10. Preventive effect of α-lipoic acid on prepulse inhibition deficits in a juvenile two-hit model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Deslauriers, J; Racine, W; Sarret, P; Grignon, S

    2014-07-11

    Some pathophysiological models of schizophrenia posit that prenatal inflammation sensitizes the developing brain to second insults in early life and enhances brain vulnerability, thereby increasing the risk of developing the disorder during adulthood. We previously developed a two-hit animal model, based on the well-established prenatal immune challenge with poly-inosinic/cytidylic acid (polyI:C), followed by juvenile restraint stress (RS). We observed an additive disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle in juvenile mice submitted to both insults. Previous studies have also reported that oxidative stress is associated with pathophysiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. We report here that PPI disruption in our two-hit animal model of schizophrenia is associated with an increase in oxidative stress. These findings led us to assess whether α-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, can prevent both increase in oxidative status and PPI deficits in our juvenile in vivo model of schizophrenia. In the offspring submitted to prenatal injection of polyI:C and to RS, treatment with α-lipoic acid prevented the development of PPI deficits 24h after the last period of RS. α-Lipoic acid also improved PPI performance in control mice. The reversal effect of α-lipoic acid pretreatment on these behavioral alterations was further accompanied by a normalization of the associated oxidative status and dopaminergic and GABAergic abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. Based on our double insult paradigm, these results support the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of PPI deficits, a well-known behavior associated with schizophrenia. These findings form the basis of future studies aiming to unravel mechanistic insights of the putative role of antioxidants in the treatment of schizophrenia, especially during the prodromal stage. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of denosumab versus zoledronic acid for preventing skeletal-related events in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Cristino, Joaquim; Finek, Jíndřich; Jandova, Petra; Kolek, Martin; Pásztor, Bálint; Giannopoulou, Christina; Qian, Yi; Brezina, Tomas; Lothgren, Mickael

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the subcutaneous RANKL inhibitor, denosumab, vs the intravenous bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid, for the prevention of skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with prostate cancer, breast cancer, and other solid tumors (OST) in the Czech Republic. A lifetime Markov model was developed to compare the effects of denosumab and zoledronic acid on costs (including drug costs and administration, patient management, SREs, and adverse events), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from a national payer perspective. Different discount rates, time horizons, SRE rates, distributions, and nature (asymptomatic vs all SREs), and the inclusion of treatment discontinuation were considered in scenario analyses. The robustness of the model was tested using deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Across tumor types, denosumab was associated with fewer SREs, improved QALYs, and higher total costs over a lifetime. The incremental cost per QALY gained for denosumab vs zoledronic acid was 382,673 CZK for prostate cancer, 408,450 CZK for breast cancer, and 608,133 CZK for OST. Incremental costs per SRE avoided for the same tumor type were 54,007 CZK, 51,765 CZK, and 94,426 CZK, respectively. In scenario analyses, the results remained similar to baseline, when different discount rates and time horizons were considered. At a non-official willingness-to-pay threshold of 1.2 million CZK, the probabilities of denosumab being cost-effective vs zoledronic acid were 0.64, 0.67, and 0.49 for prostate cancer, breast cancer, and OST, respectively. The SRE rates used were obtained from clinical trials; studies suggest rates may be higher in clinical practice. Additional evidence on real-world SRE rates could further improve the accuracy of the modeling. Compared with zoledronic acid, denosumab provides a cost-effective treatment option for the prevention of SREs in patients with prostate cancer

  12. Acyl coenzyme A thioesterase 7 regulates neuronal fatty acid metabolism to prevent neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jessica M; Wong, G William; Wolfgang, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Numerous neurological diseases are associated with dysregulated lipid metabolism; however, the basic metabolic control of fatty acid metabolism in neurons remains enigmatic. Here we have shown that neurons have abundant expression and activity of the long-chain cytoplasmic acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesterase 7 (ACOT7) to regulate lipid retention and metabolism. Unbiased and targeted metabolomic analysis of fasted mice with a conditional knockout of ACOT7 in the nervous system, Acot7(N-/-), revealed increased fatty acid flux into multiple long-chain acyl-CoA-dependent pathways. The alterations in brain fatty acid metabolism were concomitant with a loss of lean mass, hypermetabolism, hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and behavioral hyperexcitability in Acot7(N-/-) mice. These failures in adaptive energy metabolism are common in neurodegenerative diseases. In agreement, Acot7(N-/-) mice exhibit neurological dysfunction and neurodegeneration. These data show that ACOT7 counterregulates fatty acid metabolism in neurons and protects against neurotoxicity.

  13. Parenteral safflower oil emulsion (Liposyn 10%): safety and effectiveness in treating or preventing essential fatty acid deficiency in surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bivins, B A; Rapp, R P; Record, K; Meng, H C; Griffen, W O

    1980-01-01

    The safety and effectiveness of a 10% safflower oil emulsion in treating or preventing essential fatty acid deficiency was tested in a prospective study of 15 surgical patients requiring total parenteral nutrition for two to four weeks. Three dosage regimens were evaluated including: Group I: 4% of calories as linoleate daily (five patients), Group II: 4% of calories as linoleate every other day (two patients), and Group III: 8% of calories every other day (eight patients). Patients were monitored for laboratory changes from baseline specifically in those areas where previous fat emulsions have caused serious deviations. No significant changes were noted in hematologic parameters, coagulation studies, cholesterol and triglyceride serum levels. Although there were sporadic mild deviations in liver function changes in several patients, no clinically significant adverse effects could be directly attributed to infusion of the fat emulsion. Three patients had baseline triene/tetraene ratios of 0.4 or greater, indicative of essential fatty/acid deficiency, and these ratios dropped to less than 0.4 within eight days of beginning therapy with the parenteral fat emulsion. The remaining 12 patients maintained a normal triene/tetraene ratio of less than 0.4 throughout the 28 day study period. All three dosage regimens were considered effective for treatment and prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6767452

  14. Alterations in the lenticular protein profile in experimental selenite-induced cataractogenesis and prevention by ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Muniyan; Geraldine, Pitchairaj; Thomas, Philip A

    2011-08-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress underlies age-related formation of cataract, and that antioxidants retard cataractogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate whether ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol with antioxidant properties, prevents alterations in the lenticular protein profile in an experimental model of selenite cataract. Alterations in lenticular protein were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and image analysis. Eluted αA-crystallin spots were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis was also performed to confirm the differential expression of certain crystallins and cytoskeletal proteins. In cataractous lenses, 2DE and image analysis revealed approximately 45 and 60 prominent spots in soluble and insoluble protein fractions respectively. Analysis of the pI and molecular weight of protein spots revealed differences in the expression of crystallin proteins in soluble and insoluble fractions. Western blot analysis confirmed changes in the expression of αA- and βB1- crystallins in both soluble and insoluble protein fractions, while mass spectrometry confirmed the degradation of αA-crystallin in selenite cataractous lenses. Western blot analysis also confirmed the occurrence of altered expression of certain cytoskeletal proteins in insoluble fractions. However, the lenticular protein profile in lenses from selenite-challenged, ellagic acid-treated rats was essentially similar to that noted in lenses from normal rats. The present study confirms the importance of structural and cytoskeletal proteins in the maintenance of lenticular transparency; the results also suggest that ellagic acid prevents lenticular protein alterations induced by selenite in an experimental setting.

  15. Does folic acid supplementation prevent or promote colorectal cancer? Results from model-based predictions.

    PubMed

    Luebeck, E Georg; Moolgavkar, Suresh H; Liu, Amy Y; Boynton, Alanna; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2008-06-01

    Folate is essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA replication, and methyl group supply. Low-folate status has been associated with increased risks of several cancer types, suggesting a chemopreventive role of folate. However, recent findings on giving folic acid to patients with a history of colorectal polyps raise concerns about the efficacy and safety of folate supplementation and the long-term health effects of folate fortification. Results suggest that undetected precursor lesions may progress under folic acid supplementation, consistent with the role of folate role in nucleotide synthesis and cell proliferation. To better understand the possible trade-offs between the protective effects due to decreased mutation rates and possibly concomitant detrimental effects due to increased cell proliferation of folic acid, we used a biologically based mathematical model of colorectal carcinogenesis. We predict changes in cancer risk based on timing of treatment start and the potential effect of folic acid on cell proliferation and mutation rates. Changes in colorectal cancer risk in response to folic acid supplementation are likely a complex function of treatment start, duration, and effect on cell proliferation and mutations rates. Predicted colorectal cancer incidence rates under supplementation are mostly higher than rates without folic acid supplementation unless supplementation is initiated early in life (before age 20 years). To the extent to which this model predicts reality, it indicates that the effect on cancer risk when starting folic acid supplementation late in life is small, yet mostly detrimental. Experimental studies are needed to provide direct evidence for this dual role of folate in colorectal cancer and to validate and improve the model predictions.

  16. Novel application of proton pump inhibitor for the prevention of colitis-induced colorectal carcinogenesis beyond acid suppression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Jae; Lee, Jeong Sang; Hong, Kyung Sook; Chung, Jun Won; Kim, Ju Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2010-08-01

    Colitis-associated cancers arise in the setting of chronic inflammation wherein an "inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma" sequence prevails. Based on our previous findings in which the proton pump inhibitor could impose significant levels of anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and selective apoptosis induction beyond gastric acid suppression, we investigated whether omeprazole could prevent the development of colitis-associated cancer in a mouse model induced by repeated bouts of colitis. Omeprazole, 10 mg/kg, was given i.p. all through the experimental periods for colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Molecular changes regarding inflammation and carcinogenesis were compared between control groups and colitis-associated cancer groups treated with omeprazole in addition to chemopreventive outcome. Nine of 12 (75.0%) mice in the control group developed multiple colorectal tumors, whereas tumors were noted in only 3 of 12 (25.0%) mice treated with daily injections of omeprazole. The cancer-preventive results of omeprazole treatment was based on significant decreases in the levels of nitric oxide, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, and interleukin-6 accompanied with attenuated expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-11, and MT1-MMMP were significantly decreased in mice treated with omeprazole in accordance with significant decreases in the number of beta-catenin-accumulated crypts. A significant induction of apoptosis was observed in tumor tissue treated with omeprazole. Omeprazole could block the trophic effect of gastrin in colon epithelial cells. The significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antimutagenic activities of omeprazole played a cancer-preventive role against colitis-induced carcinogenesis, and our novel in vivo evidence is suggestive of chemopreventive action independent of gastric acid suppression. 2010 AACR.

  17. Ursolic Acid and Chronic Disease: An Overview of UA's Effects On Prevention and Treatment of Obesity and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mancha-Ramirez, Anna M; Slaga, Thomas J

    Chronic diseases pose a worldwide problem and are only continuing to increase in incidence. Two major factors contributing to the increased incidence in chronic disease are a lack of physical activity and poor diet. As the link between diet and lifestyle and the increased incidence of chronic disease has been well established in the literature, novel preventive, and therapeutic methods should be aimed at naturally derived compounds such as ursolic acid (UA), the focus of this chapter. As chronic diseases, obesity and cancer share the common thread of inflammation and dysregulation of many related pathways, the focus here will be on these two chronic diseases. Significant evidence in the literature supports an important role for natural compounds such as UA in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases like obesity and cancer, and here we have highlighted many of the ways UA has been shown to be a beneficial and versatile phytochemical.

  18. Ursodeoxycholic Acid in the Prevention of Gallstone Formation After Bariatric Surgery: an Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Magouliotis, Dimitrios E; Tasiopoulou, Vasiliki S; Svokos, Alexis A; Svokos, Konstantina A; Chatedaki, Christina; Sioka, Eleni; Zacharoulis, Dimitris

    2017-11-01

    We aim to review the available literature on obese patients treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in order to prevent gallstone formation after bariatric surgery. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus databases, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria incorporating 1355 patients. Random-effects meta-analysis showed a lower incidence of gallstone formation in patients taking UDCA. Subgroup analysis reported fewer cases of gallstone disease in the UDCA group in relation to different bariatric procedures, doses of administered UDCA, and time from bariatric surgery. Adverse events were similar in both groups. Fewer patients required cholecystectomy in UDCA group. No deaths were reported. The administration of UDCA after bariatric surgery seems to prevent gallstone formation.

  19. Gallic acid prevents nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy in rat by blocking oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmay; Bindu, Samik; Dey, Sumanta; Alam, Athar; Goyal, Manish; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Maity, Pallab; Adhikari, Susanta S; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2010-07-15

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced oxidative stress plays a critical role in gastric mucosal cell apoptosis and gastropathy. NSAIDs induce the generation of hydroxyl radical ((*)OH) through the release of free iron, which plays an important role in developing gastropathy. Thus, molecules having both iron-chelating and antiapoptotic properties will be beneficial in preventing NSAID-induced gastropathy. Gallic acid (GA), a polyphenolic natural product, has the capacity to chelate free iron. Here, we report that GA significantly prevents, as well as heals, NSAID-induced gastropathy. In vivo, GA blocks NSAID-mediated mitochondrial oxidative stress by preventing mitochondrial protein carbonyl formation, lipid peroxidation, and thiol depletion. In vitro, GA scavenges free radicals and blocks (*)OH-mediated oxidative damage. GA also attenuates gastric mucosal cell apoptosis in vivo as well as in vitro in cultured gastric mucosal cells as evident from the TUNEL assay. GA prevents NSAID-induced activation of caspase-9, a marker for the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, and restores NSAID-mediated collapse of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and dehydrogenase activity. Thus, the inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress by GA is associated with the inhibition of NSAID-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells, which are responsible for gastric injury or gastropathy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Melatonin Prevents Myeloperoxidase Heme Destruction and the Generation of Free Iron Mediated by Self-Generated Hypochlorous Acid

    PubMed Central

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N.; Ali, Iyad; Najafi, Tohid; Maitra, Dhiman; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Saed, Ghassan M.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2015-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) formed during catalysis is able to destroy the MPO heme moiety through a feedback mechanism, resulting in the accumulation of free iron. Here we show that the presence of melatonin (MLT) can prevent HOCl-mediated MPO heme destruction using a combination of UV-visible photometry, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-specific electrode, and ferrozine assay techniques. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that MPO heme protection was at the expense of MLT oxidation. The full protection of the MPO heme requires the presence of a 1:2 MLT to H2O2 ratio. Melatonin prevents HOCl–mediated MPO heme destruction through multiple pathways. These include competition with chloride, the natural co-substrate; switching the MPO activity from a two electron oxidation to a one electron pathway causing the buildup of the inactive Compound II, and its subsequent decay to MPO-Fe(III) instead of generating HOCl; binding to MPO above the heme iron, thereby preventing the access of H2O2 to the catalytic site of the enzyme; and direct scavenging of HOCl. Collectively, in addition to acting as an antioxidant and MPO inhibitor, MLT can exert its protective effect by preventing the release of free iron mediated by self-generated HOCl. Our work may establish a direct mechanistic link by which MLT exerts its antioxidant protective effect in chronic inflammatory diseases with MPO elevation. PMID:25835505

  1. Prevention of peritendinous adhesions with electrospun ibuprofen-loaded poly(L-lactic acid)-polyethylene glycol fibrous membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shen; Hu, Changmin; Li, Fengfeng; Li, Xu-jun; Cui, Wenguo; Fan, Cunyi

    2013-02-01

    Physical barriers are commonly used to reduce peritendinous adhesion after injury. However, the inflammatory response to surgery cannot be prevented. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of ibuprofen-loaded poly(l-lactic acid)-polyethylene glycol (PELA) diblock copolymer fibrous membranes in preventing adhesion formation and reduce inflammation. Electrospun PELA fibrous membranes underwent mechanical testing and were characterized by morphology, surface wettability, drug release, and degradation. Results of an in vitro drug release study showed that a burst release was followed by sustained release from fibrous membranes with high initial ibuprofen content. Fewer L929 mouse fibroblasts adhered to and proliferated on the ibuprofen-loaded PELA fibrous membrane compared with tissue culture plates or PELA fibrous membrane without ibuprofen. In a chicken model of flexor digitorum profundus tendon surgery, the ibuprofen-loaded PELA fibrous membranes prevented tissue adhesion and significantly reduced inflammation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ibuprofen-loaded PELA fibrous membranes prevent peritendinous adhesion formation better than membranes that do not contain ibuprofen, through anti-adhesion and anti-inflammatory actions.

  2. [Pleural covering method of polyglycolic acid felt with sodium alginate water solution for prevention of postoperative pulmonary fistula].

    PubMed

    Ohta, S; Hirose, M; Ishibashi, H

    2008-07-01

    Sodium alginate is the main ingredient of the seaweed, and its water solution has moderate viscosity. The areas of the pleural defect and around the suture line were covered with polyglycolic acid felt by using 5% sodium alginate water solution in 41 patients who underwent pulmonary resection from November 2006 to April 2007. 28 patients were lung cancer, 6 patients were pulmonary metastasis, and 7 patients were pneumothorax. The duration of the postoperative air leakage was 0.7 days on average. Neither side effect nor complication was observed. This method is cheap, safe, and effective for prevention for postoperative pulmonary fistula.

  3. Prevention of UV-induced skin damages by 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid in hairless mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing-Ji; Kim, Eun Ju; Oh, In Kyung; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Park, Chi-Hyun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2010-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have shown that some omega-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and dodecahexaenoic acid (DHA), have protective effects on acute and chronic UV-induced changes. However, the effects of other omega-3 PUFAs including 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (20:3) (ETA) on UV-induced skin damages are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the cutaneous photoprotective effects of ETA in hairless mice in vivo. Female HR-1 hairless mice were topically treated with vehicle (ethanol:polyethylene glycol=30:70) only, 0.1% ETA, or 1% ETA once a day for 3 successive days after one time UV irradiation (200 mJ/cm(2)) on dorsal skins. Skin biopsy was carried out on the fourth day (72 hr after UV irradiation). We found that topical treatment with ETA attenuated UV-induced epidermal and dermal thickness and infiltration of inflammatory cells, and impairment of skin barrier function. In addition, ETA suppressed the expression of IL-1beta, COX-2, and MMP-13 induced by UV irradiation. Our results show that the topical application of ETA protects against UV-induced skin damage in hairless mice and suggest that ETA can be a potential agent for preventing and/or treating UV-induced inflammation and photoaging.

  4. Transcutaneous application of oil and prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, E J; Gibson, R A; Simmer, K

    1993-01-01

    The topical application of vegetable oil was assessed as an alternative means of providing essential fatty acids (EFA) to parentally fed preterm infants who were not receiving lipid. Three infant pairs ranging in gestational age from 26-32 weeks were studied. Safflower oil or safflower oil esters (1 g linoleic acid/kg/day) were applied to available areas daily. All infants rapidly developed biochemical EFA deficiency. The plasma fatty acid profiles were similar in infants with or without topical oil, and all returned to normal once parenteral lipid was introduced. We found no evidence to suggest that the transdermal route is of use in the nutritional management of preterm infants. PMID:8439192

  5. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: do formulation, dosage & comparator matter?

    PubMed

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Meier, Pascal; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Multiple trials over the past two decades testing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have shown substantial benefits for reducing major coronary heart disease (CHD) events, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) death, sudden cardiac death (SCD), and stroke. However, recent trials testing omega-3s have generally failed to confirm these benefits. While increased fish and fish oil intake among the general population, increased use of optimal medical therapy (including statins, aspirin, and modern antihypertensive medications) probably make it more challenging for fish oil supplementation to show additional benefits, there might be further explanations in the formulation, dosage, and comparator used in these recent omega-3 trials.

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuronmore » loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.« less

  7. Effect of Smoking and Folate Levels on the Efficacy of Folic Acid Therapy in Prevention of Stroke in Hypertensive Men.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziyi; Li, Jianping; Yu, Yaren; Li, Youbao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Lishun; Song, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Yu; Tang, Genfu; He, Mingli; Xu, Xiping; Cai, Yefeng; Dong, Qiang; Yin, Delu; Huang, Xiao; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Binyan; Hou, Fan Fan; Wang, Xiaobin; Qin, Xianhui; Huo, Yong

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether the efficacy of folic acid therapy in the primary prevention of stroke is jointly affected by smoking status and baseline folate levels in a male population in a post hoc analysis of the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial). Eligible participants of the CSPPT were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment of a combined enalapril 10-mg and folic acid 0.8-mg tablet or an enalapril 10-mg tablet alone. In total, 8384 male participants of the CSPPT were included in the current analyses. The primary outcome was first stroke. The median treatment duration was 4.5 years. In the enalapril-alone group, the first stroke risk varied by baseline folate levels and smoking status (never versus ever). Specifically, there was an inverse association between folate levels and first stroke in never smokers ( P for linear trend=0.043). However, no such association was found in ever smokers. A test for interaction between baseline folate levels and smoking status on first stroke was significant ( P =0.045). In the total sample, folic acid therapy significantly reduced the risk of first stroke in never smokers with folate deficiency (hazard risk, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.83) and in ever smokers with normal folate levels (hazard risk, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.99). Baseline folate levels and smoking status can interactively affect the risk of first stroke. Our data suggest that compared with never smokers, ever smokers may require a higher dosage of folic acid to achieve a greater beneficial effect on stroke. Our findings need to be confirmed by future randomized trials. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Tranexamic acid for the prevention and management of orthopedic surgical hemorrhage: current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Christopher; Park, Sam Si-Hyeong; Davey, J Roderick

    2015-01-01

    Total joint arthroplasty can be associated with major blood loss and require subsequent blood transfusions for postoperative anemia. Measures to effectively and safely decrease blood loss and reduce the need for blood transfusions would help improve patient safety and lower health care costs. A possible pharmacological option to reduce surgical blood loss in total joint arthroplasty is the use of tranexamic acid. Abundant literature has shown that intravenous and/or topical administration of tranexamic acid is effective in reducing blood loss and blood transfusions, with no increased risk of venous thromboembolic events or other complications. PMID:26345147

  9. Cyclic GMP signaling in cardiomyocytes modulates fatty acid trafficking and prevents triglyceride accumulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While the balance between carbohydrates and fatty acids for energy production appears to be crucial for cardiac homeostasis, much remains to be learned about the molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship. Given the reported benefits of cGMP signaling on the myocardium, we investigated the im...

  10. Acyl Coenzyme A Thioesterase 7 Regulates Neuronal Fatty Acid Metabolism To Prevent Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jessica M.; Wong, G. William

    2013-01-01

    Numerous neurological diseases are associated with dysregulated lipid metabolism; however, the basic metabolic control of fatty acid metabolism in neurons remains enigmatic. Here we have shown that neurons have abundant expression and activity of the long-chain cytoplasmic acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesterase 7 (ACOT7) to regulate lipid retention and metabolism. Unbiased and targeted metabolomic analysis of fasted mice with a conditional knockout of ACOT7 in the nervous system, Acot7N−/−, revealed increased fatty acid flux into multiple long-chain acyl-CoA-dependent pathways. The alterations in brain fatty acid metabolism were concomitant with a loss of lean mass, hypermetabolism, hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and behavioral hyperexcitability in Acot7N−/− mice. These failures in adaptive energy metabolism are common in neurodegenerative diseases. In agreement, Acot7N−/− mice exhibit neurological dysfunction and neurodegeneration. These data show that ACOT7 counterregulates fatty acid metabolism in neurons and protects against neurotoxicity. PMID:23459938

  11. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby ...

  12. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine

    drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  13. Roles of amino acids in preventing and treating intestinal diseases: recent studies with pig models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulan; Wang, Xiuying; Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong; Qiu, Yinsheng; Wu, Guoyao; Hu, Chien-An Andy

    2017-08-01

    Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering. Our interests have been using amino acids as therapeutics in pig and human disease models. Amino acids not only play an important role in protein biosynthesis, but also exert significant physiological effects in regulating immunity, anti-oxidation, redox regulation, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and animal behavior. Recent studies in pigs have shown that specific dietary amino acids can improve intestinal integrity and function under normal and pathological conditions that protect the host from different diseases. In this review, we summarize several pig models in intestinal diseases and how amino acids can be used as therapeutics in treating pig and human diseases.

  14. Preventing neural tube defects. Survey of preconceptional use of folic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Neimanis, I. M.; Paterson, J. M.; Bain, E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of women who take daily folic acid supplements in the month before conception and to identify factors associated with supplement use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey by self-administered questionnaire. SETTING: Tertiary care teaching hospital in Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred eighty-four (43%) of 1132 women who delivered normal babies between November 1997 and March 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reports of daily vitamin supplement use in the month before pregnancy and after pregnancy, and having heard or read about the need to take folic acid before pregnancy; sources of information about folic acid; factors associated with preconceptional vitamin use. RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of respondents reported taking vitamins before conception (use ranged from 21% for those with unplanned pregnancies to 40% for those with planned pregnancies); 80% after conception. Of all respondents, 63% were aware of the need for preconceptional folic acid. Key information sources were family doctors and the mass media: the media were more important before conception, doctors after. Being older (30 years or more), having post-secondary education, and having a planned pregnancy were associated with knowing about the benefits of folic acid; knowledge, regular exercise, perceived good health, and planned pregnancy were associated with preconceptional use of vitamins. CONCLUSIONS: Even in this sample of well educated, English-speaking women, only one third took vitamin supplements before conception, which indicates that current educational efforts do not reach most women early enough. A coordinated, multi-pronged strategy that targets and involves physicians and capitalizes on opportunities to work with schools, public health outlets, and the media is needed. PMID:10424271

  15. Lipoic acid prevents suppression of connective tissue proliferation in the rat liver induced by n-3 PUFAs. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Arend, A; Zilmer, M; Vihalemm, T; Selstam, G; Sepp, E

    2000-01-01

    As previously shown, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) suppress connective tissue proliferation in the rat liver wound concurrent with an elevated level of lipid peroxidation. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of alpha-lipoic acid (LA), a natural anti-oxidant, on these effects of n-3 PUFAs. Rats were fed with a commercial pellet diet (control group) or with diets enriched with 10% of sunflower oil (n-6 group) or 10% of fish oil (n-3 group) for 8 weeks followed by addition of LA to the same diets for 10 days. Then a liver thermic wound was induced and the administration of LA was continued for 6 days. The proliferation of the connective tissue, the level of lipid peroxidation and their peroxidizability and the content of prostaglandins E2 and F2alpha were measured in the liver wounds. LA prevented the suppression of connective tissue proliferation in the healing wound induced by n-3 PUFAs, avoided the increase in peroxidation of lipids, reduced peroxidizability of lipids and modulated the decrease in PGE2 and PGF2alpha. The results indicate that dietary LA may prevent the suppression of liver wound healing induced by n-3 PUFAs.

  16. Ascorbic acid prevents cellular uptake and improves biocompatibility of chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Elshoky, Hisham A; Salaheldin, Taher A; Ali, Maha A; Gaber, Mohamed H

    2018-04-11

    Chitosan nanoparticles have many applications, such as gene and drug delivery, due to their biocompatibility. Chitosan nanoparticles are currently produced by dissolution in acetic acid that affects the biocompatibility at acidic pH. Here, we synthesized and characterized chitosan (CS) and ascorbate chitosan (AsCS) nanoparticles and investigated their cytotoxic effects, internalization, and distribution in the human colon carcinoma cell line using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The CS and AsCS nanoparticles were spherical with average particle sizes of 44±8.4nm and 87±13.6nm, respectively. CS nanoparticles were taken up by the cells and showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity. By contrast, AsCS nanoparticles were not internalized and showed no cytotoxicity. Therefore, AsCS nanoparticles are more biocompatible than CS nanoparticles and may be more suitable for extracellular drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention of coronary heart disease: the role of essential fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    There are 2 classes of essential fatty acids (EFA), the linoleic (n-6) and linolenic (n-3). They are required for the glycerophosphatides (phospholipids) of cellular membranes; the transport and oxidation of cholesterol; the formation of prostaglandins. In deficiency of EFA, cellular membranes are imperfectly formed which causes increased susceptibility to various insults and increased permeability. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) transport cholesterol mainly as cholesteryl linoleate and supply EFA to tissue. A relative deficiency of EFA (i.e. a high ratio in the body of non-EFA such as long-chain saturated fatty acids to EFA) causes an increase in plasma cholesterol. EFAs cause decreased aggregation of platelets. Atherosclerosis is not caused by increased aggregation of platelets, and can be prevalent in a population in which coronary thrombosis is rare. PMID:7465462

  18. Corrosion prevention of cold rolled steel using water dispersible lignosulfonic acid doped polyaniline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention provides coatings useful for preventing corrosion of metals. The coatings comprise a film-forming resin and conductive polymers comprising linearly conjugated .pi.-systems and residues of sulfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid or derivatives of solfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid. The invention also provides a latex formulation of the coatings, and articles of manufacture comprising a metal substrate and a coating in contact with the metal substrate.

  19. Corrosion Prevention of Cold Rolled Steel Using Water Dispersible Lignosulfonic Acid Doped Polyaniline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention provides coatings useful for preventing corrosion of metals. The coatings comprise a film-forming resin and conductive polymers comprising linearly conjugated x-systems and residues of sulfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid or derivatives of solfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid. The invention also provides a latex formulation of the coatings, and articles of manufacture comprising a metal substrate and a coating in contact with the metal substrate.

  20. CORROSION PREVENTION OF COLD ROLLED STEEL USING WATER DISPERSIBLE LIGNOSULFONIC ACID DOPED POLYANILINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The invention provides coatings useful for preventing corrosion of metals. The coatings comprise a film-forming resin and conductive polymers comprising linearly conjugated pi-systems and residues of sulfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid or derivatives of sulfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid. The invention also provides a latex formulation of the coatings, and articles of manufacture comprising a metal substrate and a coating in contact with the metal substrate.

  1. Ebselen inhibits hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase binding to nucleic acid and prevents viral replication.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Weiner, Warren S; Schroeder, Chad E; Simpson, Denise S; Hanson, Alicia M; Sweeney, Noreena L; Marvin, Rachel K; Ndjomou, Jean; Kolli, Rajesh; Isailovic, Dragan; Schoenen, Frank J; Frick, David N

    2014-10-17

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is both a protease, which cleaves viral and host proteins, and a helicase that separates nucleic acid strands, using ATP hydrolysis to fuel the reaction. Many antiviral drugs, and compounds in clinical trials, target the NS3 protease, but few helicase inhibitors that function as antivirals have been reported. This study focuses on the analysis of the mechanism by which ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3-one), a compound previously shown to be a HCV antiviral agent, inhibits the NS3 helicase. Ebselen inhibited the abilities of NS3 to unwind nucleic acids, to bind nucleic acids, and to hydrolyze ATP, and about 1 μM ebselen was sufficient to inhibit each of these activities by 50%. However, ebselen had no effect on the activity of the NS3 protease, even at 100 times higher ebselen concentrations. At concentrations below 10 μM, the ability of ebselen to inhibit HCV helicase was reversible, but prolonged incubation of HCV helicase with higher ebselen concentrations led to irreversible inhibition and the formation of covalent adducts between ebselen and all 14 cysteines present in HCV helicase. Ebselen analogues with sulfur replacing the selenium were just as potent HCV helicase inhibitors as ebselen, but the length of the linker between the phenyl and benzisoselenazol rings was critical. Modifications of the phenyl ring also affected compound potency over 30-fold, and ebselen was a far more potent helicase inhibitor than other, structurally unrelated, thiol-modifying agents. Ebselen analogues were also more effective antiviral agents, and they were less toxic to hepatocytes than ebselen. Although the above structure-activity relationship studies suggest that ebselen targets a specific site on NS3, we were unable to confirm binding to either the NS3 ATP binding site or nucleic acid binding cleft by examining the effects of ebselen on NS3 proteins lacking key cysteines.

  2. Innovative Approach to Prevent Acid Drainage from Uranium Mill Tailings Based on the Application of Na-Ferrate (VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, H.M.; Reinhart, D.; Lettie, L.

    2006-07-01

    The operation of uranium mining and milling plants gives rise to huge amounts of wastes from both mining and milling operations. When pyrite is present in these materials, the generation of acid drainage can take place and result in the contamination of underground and surface waters through the leaching of heavy metals and radionuclides. To solve this problem, many studies have been conducted to find cost-effective solutions to manage acid mine drainage; however, no adequate strategy to deal with sulfide-ric h wastes is currently available. Ferrate (VI) is a powerful oxidizing agent in aqueous media. Under acidic conditions, the redoxmore » potential of the Ferrate (VI) ion is the highest of any other oxidant used in wastewater treatment processes. The standard half cell reduction potential of ferrate (VI) has been determined as +2.20 V to + 0.72 V in acidic and basic solutions, respectively. Ferrate (VI) exhibits a multitude of advantageous properties, including higher reactivity and selectivity than traditional oxidant alternatives, as well as disinfectant, flocculating, and coagulant properties. Despite numerous beneficial properties in environmental applications, ferrate (VI) has remained commercially unavailable. Starting in 1953, different methods for producing a high purity, powdered ferrate (VI) product were developed. However, producing this dry, stabilized ferrate (VI) product required numerous process steps which led to excessive synthesis costs (over $20/lb) thereby preventing bulk industrial use. Recently a novel synthesis method for the production of a liquid ferrate (VI) based on hypochlorite oxidation of ferric ion in strongly alkaline solutions has been discovered (USPTO 6,790,428; September 14, 2004). This on-site synthesis process dramatically reduces manufacturing cost for the production of ferrate (VI) by utilizing common commodity feedstocks. This breakthrough means that for the first time ferrate (VI) can be an economical alternative to

  3. Interleukin-1β Inhibits Insulin Signaling and Prevents Insulin-Stimulated System A Amino Acid Transport in Primary Human Trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Irving L. M. H.; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promotes insulin resistance in tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle; however the influence of IL-1β on placental insulin signaling is unknown. We recently reported increased IL-1β protein expression in placentas of obese mothers, which could contribute to insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells. Cultured trophoblasts isolated from term placentas were treated with physiological concentrations of IL-1β (10 pg/ml) for 24 hours. IL-1β increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser307 (inhibitory) and decreased total IRS-1 protein abundance but did not affect insulin receptor β expression. Furthermore, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Tyr612, activation site) and Akt (Thr308) and prevented insulin-stimulated increase in PI3K/p85 and Grb2 protein expression. IL-1β alone stimulated cRaf (Ser338), MEK (Ser221) and Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation. The inflammatory pathways nuclear factor kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which are involved in insulin resistance, were also activated by IL-1β treatment. Moreover, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated System A, but not System L amino acid uptake, indicating functional impairment of insulin signaling. In conclusion, IL-1β inhibited the insulin signaling pathway by inhibiting IRS-1 signaling and prevented insulin-stimulated System A transport, thereby promoting insulin resistance in cultured PHT cells. These findings indicate that conditions which lead to increased systemic maternal or placental IL-1β levels may attenuate the effects of maternal insulin on placental function and consequently fetal growth. PMID:23891856

  4. Interleukin-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-12-05

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promotes insulin resistance in tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle; however the influence of IL-1β on placental insulin signaling is unknown. We recently reported increased IL-1β protein expression in placentas of obese mothers, which could contribute to insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells. Cultured trophoblasts isolated from term placentas were treated with physiological concentrations of IL-1β (10pg/ml) for 24h. IL-1β increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser307 (inhibitory) and decreased total IRS-1 protein abundance but did not affect insulin receptor β expression. Furthermore, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Tyr612, activation site) and Akt (Thr308) and prevented insulin-stimulated increase in PI3K/p85 and Grb2 protein expression. IL-1β alone stimulated cRaf (Ser338), MEK (Ser221) and Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation. The inflammatory pathways nuclear factor kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which are involved in insulin resistance, were also activated by IL-1β treatment. Moreover, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated System A, but not System L amino acid uptake, indicating functional impairment of insulin signaling. In conclusion, IL-1β inhibited the insulin signaling pathway by inhibiting IRS-1 signaling and prevented insulin-stimulated System A transport, thereby promoting insulin resistance in cultured PHT cells. These findings indicate that conditions which lead to increased systemic maternal or placental IL-1β levels may attenuate the effects of maternal insulin on placental function and consequently fetal growth. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Prevention of fatal arrhythmias in high-risk subjects by fish oil n-3 fatty acid intake.

    PubMed

    Leaf, Alexander; Albert, Christine M; Josephson, Mark; Steinhaus, David; Kluger, Jeffrey; Kang, Jing X; Cox, Benjamin; Zhang, Hui; Schoenfeld, David

    2005-11-01

    The long-chain n-3 fatty acids in fish have been demonstrated to have antiarrhythmic properties in experimental models and to prevent sudden cardiac death in a randomized trial of post-myocardial infarction patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that these n-3 fatty acids might prevent potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias in high-risk patients. Four hundred two patients with implanted cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with either a fish oil or an olive oil daily supplement for 12 months. The primary end point, time to first ICD event for ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT or VF) confirmed by stored electrograms or death from any cause, was analyzed by intention to treat. Secondary analyses were performed for "probable" ventricular arrhythmias, "on-treatment" analyses for all subjects who had taken any of their oil supplements, and "on-treatment" analyses only of those subjects who were on treatment for at least 11 months. Compliance with double-blind treatment was similar in the 2 groups; however, the noncompliance rate was high (35% of all enrollees). In the primary analysis, assignment to treatment with the fish oil supplement showed a trend toward a prolonged time to the first ICD event (VT or VF) or of death from any cause (risk reduction of 28%; P=0.057). When therapies for probable episodes of VT or VF were included, the risk reduction became significant at 31%; P=0.033. For those who stayed on protocol for at least 11 months, the antiarrhythmic benefit of fish oil was improved for those with confirmed events (risk reduction of 38%; P=0.034). Although significance was not achieved for the primary end point, this study provides evidence that for individuals at high risk of fatal ventricular arrhythmias, regular daily ingestion of fish oil fatty acids may significantly reduce potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias.

  6. What California sea lions exposed to domoic acid might teach us about autism: lessons for predictive and preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Lahvis, Garet Paul

    2017-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares many biological and behavioral similarities with the deleterious effects of domoic acid (DA) exposure. DA is produced by marine algae and most commonly by species of Pseudo-nitzschia . Humans and marine mammals can be exposed to DA when they consume whole fish or shellfish. The mammalian fetus is highly sensitive to the deleterious effects of DA exposure. Both ASD and exposures to toxic levels of DA feature repetitive behaviors, challenges with social interaction, and seizures. They can also share a commonality in brain anatomy and function, particularly the balance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. The current article is relevant to predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine for three reasons. First, shellfish consumption may be a risk factor for ASD and the regulatory limit for DA should be adjusted to prevent this possibility. Human contributions to increased algal production of DA in coastal waters should be identified and reduced. Second, evaluations of sentinel species wild and free-roaming in the environment, though typically outside the purview of biomedical research, should be much more fully employed to gain insights to risk factors for human disease. To better identify and prevent disease, biomedical researchers should study wild populations. Third, studies of DA exposure highlight the possibility that glutamate additives to processed foods may also have deleterious impacts on human brain development and behavior.

  7. Combined use of ursodeoxycholic acid and bosentan prevents liver toxicity caused by endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan monotherapy: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomoki; Ozaki, Yoshio; Son, Yonsu; Nishizawa, Tohru; Amuro, Hideki; Tanaka, Akihiro; Tamaki, Takeshi; Nomura, Shosaku

    2014-07-11

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a fatal disease characterized by progressive remodeling of the pulmonary arteries and an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Up to 50% of patients with systemic sclerosis have pulmonary arterial hypertension, which significantly affects the prognosis. The endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan is used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and shows a great beneficial effect. However, the most frequent side effect of bosentan is liver toxicity, which often requires dose reduction and discontinuation. We report two cases (a 64-year-old Japanese woman and a 69-year old Japanese woman) of systemic sclerosis, both with severe Raynaud's phenomenon and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Both patients had initially received bosentan monotherapy, which caused liver toxicity as indicated by increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase. After dose reduction or discontinuation of bosentan, these liver function abnormalities were normalized and the patients subsequently received retreatment with a combination of bosentan and ursodeoxycholic acid. The results of liver function tests did not show any abnormalities after this combination therapy. These reports suggest the usefulness of ursodeoxycholic acid for preventing liver toxicity caused by bosentan. Thus, the addition of ursodeoxycholic acid to the treatment protocol is expected to be useful when liver toxicity emerges as a side effect of bosentan.

  8. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity prevented owing to the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Thrash-Williams, Bessy; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Ahuja, Manuj; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Methamphetamine (Schedule-II drug, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration) is one of the most abused illicit drug following cocaine, marijuana, and heroin in the USA. There are numerous health impairments and substantial economic burden caused by methamphetamine abuse. Salicylic acid, potent anti-inflammatory drug and a known neuroprotectant has shown to protect against toxicity-induced by other dopaminergic neurotoxins. Hence, in this study we investigated the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid against methamphetamine-induced toxicity in mice. The current study investigated the effects of sodium salicylate and/or methamphetamine on oxidative stress, monoamine oxidase, mitochondrial complex I & IV activities using spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods. Behavioral analysis evaluated the effect on movement disorders-induced by methamphetamine. Monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels were evaluated using high pressure liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. Methamphetamine caused significant generation of reactive oxygen species and decreased complex-I activity leading to dopamine depletion. Striatal dopamine depletion led to significant behavioral changes associated with movement disorders. Sodium salicylate (50 & 100mg/kg) significantly scavenged reactive oxygen species, blocked mitochondrial dysfunction and exhibited neuroprotection against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. In addition, sodium salicylate significantly blocked methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes related to movement abnormalities. One of the leading causative theories in nigral degeneration associated with movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease is exposure to stimulants, drugs of abuse, insecticide and pesticides. These neurotoxic substances can induce dopaminergic neuronal insult by oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Salicylic acid due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects could provide neuroprotection against the

  9. Primary prevention of neural-tube defects and some other congenital abnormalities by folic acid and multivitamins: history, missed opportunity and tasks

    PubMed Central

    Bártfai, Zoltán; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    The history of intervention trials of periconception folic acid with multivitamin and folic acid supplementation in women has shown a recent breakthrough in the primary prevention of structural birth defects, namely neural-tube defects and some other congenital abnormalities. Recently, some studies have demonstrated the efficacy of this new method in reducing congenital abnormalities with specific origin; for example, in the offspring of diabetic and epileptic mothers, and in pregnancy with high fever. The benefits and drawbacks of four possible uses of periconception folate/folic acid and multivitamin supplementation are discussed: we believe there has been a missed opportunity to implement this preventive approach in medical practice. The four methods are as follows: (i) dietary intake of folate and other vitamins, (ii) periconception folic acid/multivitamin supplementation, (iii) food fortification with folic acid, and (iv) the combination of oral contraceptives with 6S-5-methytetrahydrofolate (‘folate’). PMID:25083211

  10. Ursolic acid protects monocytes against metabolic stress-induced priming and dysfunction by preventing the induction of Nox4☆

    PubMed Central

    Ullevig, Sarah L.; Kim, Hong Seok; Nguyen, Huynh Nga; Hambright, William S.; Robles, Andrew J.; Tavakoli, Sina; Asmis, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Aims Dietary supplementation with ursolic acid (UA) prevents monocyte dysfunction in diabetic mice and protects mice against atherosclerosis and loss of renal function. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism by which UA prevents monocyte dysfunction induced by metabolic stress. Methods and results Metabolic stress sensitizes or “primes” human THP-1 monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages to the chemoattractant MCP-1, converting these cells into a hyper-chemotactic phenotype. UA protected THP-1 monocytes and peritoneal macrophages against metabolic priming and prevented their hyper-reactivity to MCP-1. UA blocked the metabolic stress-induced increase in global protein-S-glutathionylation, a measure of cellular thiol oxidative stress, and normalized actin-S-glutathionylation. UA also restored MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP1) protein expression and phosphatase activity, decreased by metabolic priming, and normalized p38 MAPK activation. Neither metabolic stress nor UA supplementation altered mRNA or protein levels of glutaredoxin-1, the principal enzyme responsible for the reduction of mixed disulfides between glutathione and protein thiols in these cells. However, the induction of Nox4 by metabolic stress, required for metabolic priming, was inhibited by UA in both THP-1 monocytes and peritoneal macrophages. Conclusion UA protects THP-1 monocytes against dysfunction by suppressing metabolic stress-induced Nox4 expression, thereby preventing the Nox4-dependent dysregulation of redox-sensitive processes, including actin turnover and MAPK-signaling, two key processes that control monocyte migration and adhesion. This study provides a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and athero- and renoprotective properties of UA and suggests that dysfunctional blood monocytes may be primary targets of UA and related compounds. PMID:24494201

  11. Chlorogenic Acid Prevents Alcohol-induced Brain Damage in Neonatal Rat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zikang; Li, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation evaluates the neuroprotective effect of chlorogenic acid (CA) in alcohol-induced brain damage in neonatal rats. Ethanol (12 % v/v, 5 g/kg) was administered orally in the wistar rat pups on postnatal days (PD) 7-9. Chlorogenic acid (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered continuously from PD 6 to 28. Cognitive function was estimated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. However, activity of acetylcholinesterase, inflammatory mediators, parameters of oxidative stress and activity of caspase-3 enzyme was estimated in the tissue homogenate of cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ethanol-exposed pups. It has been observed that treatment with CA attenuates the altered cognitive function in ethanol-exposed pups. There was a significant decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in the CA treated group compared to the negative control group. However, treatment with CA significantly ameliorates the increased oxidative stress and concentration of inflammatory mediators in the brain tissues of ethanol-exposed pups. Activity of caspase-3 enzyme was also found significantly decreased in the CA treated group compared to the negative control group. The present study concludes that CA attenuates the neuronal damage induced in alcohol exposed neonatal rat by decreasing the apoptosis of neuronal cells.

  12. Chlorogenic Acid Prevents Alcohol-induced Brain Damage in Neonatal Rat

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zikang; Li, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The present investigation evaluates the neuroprotective effect of chlorogenic acid (CA) in alcohol-induced brain damage in neonatal rats. Ethanol (12 % v/v, 5 g/kg) was administered orally in the wistar rat pups on postnatal days (PD) 7-9. Chlorogenic acid (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered continuously from PD 6 to 28. Cognitive function was estimated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. However, activity of acetylcholinesterase, inflammatory mediators, parameters of oxidative stress and activity of caspase-3 enzyme was estimated in the tissue homogenate of cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ethanol-exposed pups. It has been observed that treatment with CA attenuates the altered cognitive function in ethanol-exposed pups. There was a significant decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in the CA treated group compared to the negative control group. However, treatment with CA significantly ameliorates the increased oxidative stress and concentration of inflammatory mediators in the brain tissues of ethanol-exposed pups. Activity of caspase-3 enzyme was also found significantly decreased in the CA treated group compared to the negative control group. The present study concludes that CA attenuates the neuronal damage induced in alcohol exposed neonatal rat by decreasing the apoptosis of neuronal cells. PMID:29318034

  13. Immunomodulatory activities of alpha lipoic acid with a special focus on its efficacy in preventing miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Monastra, Giovanni; De Grazia, Sara; Cilaker Micili, Serap; Goker, Asli; Unfer, Vittorio

    2016-12-01

    Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is an essential mitochondrial co-factor and, as a free molecule, it can exert multi-level immunomodulatory functions. Both ALA and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), are believed to be able to chelate heavy metals, to regenerate essential antioxidants and to repair important molecules damaged by oxidation. The largest part of the effects of ALA/DHLA couple can be explained by a specific stimulatory activity on Nrf2-dependent gene transcription and by the inhibition of NF-kB activity. These features have prompted its use as a drug for several diseases. Areas covered: This article surveys the main features of ALA/DHLA and its therapeutic effects. Its complex and differentiated function cannot simply be reduced to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and detoxifying action. We highlight its capability to finely modulate several physiological pathways when unbalanced. In particular, we focus our attention on pregnancy, in relation to ALA administration by oral route and by a new formulation for vaginal delivery, in patients with threatened miscarriage. Expert opinion: Future efforts should be devoted to explaining carefully ALA/DHLA mechanism of action to reactivate the physiological balance when modified during pregnancy. On the other hand, ALA safety in pregnant women and its pharmacokinetics by vaginal route, have to be studied in depth. Moreover, ALA efficacy has to be confirmed in a much larger sample of patients.

  14. Knowledge and periconceptional use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects in ethnic communities in the United Kingdom: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peake, Jordana N; Copp, Andrew J; Shawe, Jill

    2013-07-01

    It is widely accepted that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid can prevent a significant proportion of neural tube defects (NTDs). The present study evaluated how folic acid knowledge and periconceptional use for NTD prevention varies by ethnicity in the United Kingdom (U.K.). A literature search was conducted to identify studies that included assessment of folic acid knowledge or use in U.K. women of different ethnicities. Only research and referenced sources published after 1991, the year of the landmark Medical Research Council's Vitamin Study, were included. A meta-analysis was performed of studies that assessed preconceptional folic acid use in Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Five studies met the inclusion criteria for assessment of knowledge and/or use of folic acid supplements in U.K. women including non-Caucasians. The available evidence indicates that South Asians specifically have less knowledge and lower periconceptional use of folic acid than Caucasians; one study found that West Indian and African women also had lower folic acid uptake. A synthesis of results from three of the studies, in a meta-analysis, shows that Caucasians are almost three times more likely to take folic acid before conception than non-Caucasians. From the limited evidence available, U.K. women of non-Caucasian ethnicity appear to have less knowledge and a lower uptake of folic acid supplementation than Caucasians during the periconceptional period. Implementing targeted, innovative education campaigns together with a mandatory fortification policy, including the fortification of ethnic minority foods, will be required for maximum prevention of folic acid-preventable NTDs across different ethnic groups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Abscisic acid and osmoticum prevent germination of developing alfalfa embryos, but only osmoticum maintains the synthesis of developmental proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, N; Coulter, K M; Derek Bewley, J

    1990-10-01

    Developing seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) acquire the ability to germinate during the latter stages of development, the maturation drying phase. Isolated embryos placed on Murashige and Skoog medium germinate well during early and late development, but poorly during mid-development; however, when placed on water they germinate well only during the latter stage of development. Germination of isolated embryos is very slow and poor when they are incubated in the presence of surrounding seed structures (the endosperm or seed coat) taken from the mid-development stages. This inhibitory effect is also achieved by incubating embryos in 10(-5) M abscisic acid (ABA). Endogenous ABA attains a high level during mid-development, especially in the endosperm. Seeds developing in pods treated with fluridone (1-methyl-3-phenyl-5[3-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl]-4(1H)-pyridinone) contain low levels of ABA during mid-development, and the endosperm and seed coat only weakly inhibit the germination of isolated embryos. However, intact seeds from fluridone-treated pods do not germinate viviparously, which is indicative that ABA alone is not responsible for maintaining seeds in a developing state. Application of osmoticum (e.g. 0.35 M sucrose) to isolated developing embryos prevents their germination. Also, in the developing seed in situ the osmotic potential is high. Thus internal levels of osmoticum may play a role in preventing germination of the embryo and maintaining development. Abscisic acid and osmoticum impart distinctly different metabolic responses on developing embryos, as demonstrated by their protein-synthetic capacity. Only in the presence of osmoticum do embryos synthesize proteins which are distinctly recognizable as those synthesized by developing embryos in situ, i.e. when inside the pod. Abscisic acid induces the synthesis of a few unique proteins, but these arise even in mature embryos treated with ABA. Thus while both osmoticum and ABA prevent precocious

  16. Role of zoledronic acid in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Räkel, Agnès; Boucher, Andrée; Ste-Marie, Louis-Georges

    2011-01-01

    Taken once a year, intravenous zoledronic acid (Zol) (Reclast® or Aclasta®) is a third-generation nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that is effective compared with placebo in reducing the risk of fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and recent low-trauma hip fracture. In glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, there is no significant difference between Zol and risedronate for new fractures. Improvements in bone mineral density and early reduction of bone remodeling markers are observed in postmenopausal osteoporosis, recent low-trauma hip fracture, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Given that Zol is generally well tolerated and very convenient, it is an interesting therapeutic option for aging patients who take multiple oral drugs, who have adherence or gastrointestinal tolerance issues, and who have an indication for oral bisphosphonates. Zol is not recommended for patients with severe renal impairment. Vitamin D deficiency should be corrected before the administration of Zol. PMID:21594000

  17. Role of zoledronic acid in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Räkel, Agnès; Boucher, Andrée; Ste-Marie, Louis-Georges

    2011-01-01

    Taken once a year, intravenous zoledronic acid (Zol) (Reclast® or Aclasta®) is a third-generation nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that is effective compared with placebo in reducing the risk of fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and recent low-trauma hip fracture. In glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, there is no significant difference between Zol and risedronate for new fractures. Improvements in bone mineral density and early reduction of bone remodeling markers are observed in postmenopausal osteoporosis, recent low-trauma hip fracture, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Given that Zol is generally well tolerated and very convenient, it is an interesting therapeutic option for aging patients who take multiple oral drugs, who have adherence or gastrointestinal tolerance issues, and who have an indication for oral bisphosphonates. Zol is not recommended for patients with severe renal impairment. Vitamin D deficiency should be corrected before the administration of Zol.

  18. Preventing disease transmission by deceased tissue donors by testing blood for viral nucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Strong, D Michael; Nelson, Karen; Pierce, Marge; Stramer, Susan L

    2005-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) has reduced the risk of transmitting infectious disease through blood transfusion. Currently NAT for HIV-1 and HCV are FDA licensed and performed by nearly all blood collection facilities, but HBV NAT is performed under an investigational study protocol. Residual risk estimates indicate that NAT could potentially reduce disease transmission through transplanted tissue. However, tissue donor samples obtained post-mortem have the potential to produce an invalid NAT result due to inhibition of amplification reactions by hemolysis and other factors. The studies reported here summarize the development of protocols to allow NAT of deceased donor samples with reduced rates of invalid results. Using these protocols, inventories from two tissue centers were tested with greater than 99% of samples producing a valid test result.

  19. Efficacy of hyaluronic acid and hydroxyethyl starch in preventing adhesion following endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Jong; Shin, Jae-Min; Lee, Eun Jung; Park, Il-Ho; Lee, Heung-Man; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2017-10-01

    Adhesion is a major complication of endoscopic sinus surgery that may lead to recurrence of chronic rhinosinusitis, necessitating revision surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyaluronic acid and hydroxyethyl starch (HA-HES) relative to hyaluronic acid and carboxymethylcellulose (HA-CMC) with regard to anti-adhesion effect. In this multi-center, prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled study, 77 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral endoscopic sinus surgery were enrolled between March 2014 and March 2015. HA-HES and HA-CMC were applied to randomly assigned ethmoidectomized cavities after the removal of middle meatal packing. At the 1st, 2nd and 4th weeks after surgery, the presence and grades of adhesion, edema, and infection were, respectively, examined via endoscopy by a blinded assessor. The incidence and grades of adhesion at the 2-week follow-up were significantly less in the HA-CMC group than in the HA-HES group (p < 0.05). However, with the exception of week 2, there were no significant differences in the incidence or grades of adhesion, edema, and infection between the two groups. When the primary endpoint-the presence of adhesion at the 4-week follow-up-was compared between two groups, the incidence of adhesion in HA-HES group at the 4-week follow-up was 32% and in HA-CMC was 41.3%, indicating that HA-HES was not inferior to HA-CMC in terms of anti-adhesive effect. No severe adverse reactions were noted during the study period. In conclusion, HA-HES is a safe substitutional anti-adhesion agent that has equivalent effect as HA-CMC after endoscopic sinus surgery.

  20. Implementing preventive iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in some Western Pacific countries: possibilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Smitasiri, Suttilak; Solon, Florentino S

    2005-12-01

    Lack of effective implementation mechanisms is identified as a major obstacle in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia. This paper discusses experiences gained from implementing iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia. The understanding of contextual elements is proposed as a foundation for planning interventions. Moreover, it is suggested that a social marketing framework should provide a way of thinking about how to influence related behaviors. The application of a social marketing framework applied using a "5 P's" approach: public relations and collaboration, product, price, place, and promotion, is described, as well as enabling factors (possibilities) and inhibiting factors (challenges) of this approach. Although a program to improve iron nutrition among women of reproductive age may not be simple to implement, it is essential to enhancing health, human development, and economic advancement in developing countries.

  1. Prevention of alcoholic fatty liver and mitochondrial dysfunction in the rat by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Olsson, Nils U.; Salem, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims We reported that reduced dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as arachidonic (AA,20:4n6, omega-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA,22:6n3, omega-3) acids led to alcohol-induced fatty liver and fibrosis. This study was aimed at studying the mechanisms by which a DHA/AA-supplemented diet prevents alcohol-induced fatty liver. Methods Male Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol or control liquid-diet with or without DHA/AA for 9 weeks. Plasma transaminase levels, liver histology, oxidative/nitrosative stress markers, and activities of oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins were evaluated. Results Chronic alcohol administration increased the degree of fatty liver but fatty liver decreased significantly in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. Alcohol exposure increased oxidative/nitrosative stress with elevated levels of ethanol-inducible CYP2E1, nitric oxide synthase, nitrite and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide. However, these increments were normalized in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. The number of oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins was markedly increased following alcohol exposure but significantly reduced in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. The suppressed activities of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in ethanol-exposed rats were also recovered in animals fed the ethanol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. Conclusions Addition of DHA/AA prevents alcohol-induced fatty liver and mitochondrial dysfunction in an animal model by protecting various mitochondrial enzymes most likely through reducing oxidative/nitrosative stress. PMID:18571270

  2. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid prevents ultraviolet A-induced damage and matrix metalloproteinases expression in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinfen; Lai, Wei; Zhu, Guoxing; Wan, Miaojian; Chen, Jian; Tai, Yan; Lu, Chun

    2013-10-01

    10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) is a major fatty acid component of royal jelly, which has been reported to have a variety of beneficial pharmacological characteristics. However, the effects of 10-HDA on skin photoageing and its potential mechanism of action are unclear. We investigated the protective effects of 10-HDA on ultraviolet (UV) A-induced damage in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). We then explored the inhibitory effects of 10-HDA on UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression and elucidated the signalling pathways controlling MMPs inhibition. Primary human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to UVA. Cell proliferation, cellular senescent state and collagen content were analysed using CCK-8, senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining and Sircol collagen assay, respectively. Fluorometric assays were performed to detect the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells. The mRNA levels of MMP-1, MMP-3 and type I (α1) collagen were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot was applied to detect the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, JNK and p38 MAPK. HDFs treated with 10-HDA were significantly protected from UVA-induced cytotoxicity, ROS, cellular senescence and stimulated collagen production. Moreover, 10-HDA suppressed the UVA-induced expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 at both the transcriptional and protein levels. Treatment with 10-HDA also reduced the UVA-induced activation of the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. The data obtained in this study provide evidence that 10-HDA could prevent UVA-induced damage and inhibit MMP-1 and MMP-3 expressions. Therefore, 10-HDA may be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skin photoageing. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Choline prevents fetal overgrowth and normalizes placental fatty acid and glucose metabolism in a mouse model of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Nam, Juha; Greenwald, Esther; Jack-Roberts, Chauntelle; Ajeeb, Tamara T; Malysheva, Olga V; Caudill, Marie A; Axen, Kathleen; Saxena, Anjana; Semernina, Ekaterina; Nanobashvili, Khatia; Jiang, Xinyin

    2017-11-01

    Maternal obesity increases placental transport of macronutrients, resulting in fetal overgrowth and obesity later in life. Choline participates in fatty acid metabolism, serves as a methyl donor and influences growth signaling, which may modify placental macronutrient homeostasis and affect fetal growth. Using a mouse model of maternal obesity, we assessed the effect of maternal choline supplementation on preventing fetal overgrowth and restoring placental macronutrient homeostasis. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF, 60% kcal from fat) diet or a normal (NF, 10% kcal from fat) diet with a drinking supply of either 25 mM choline chloride or control purified water, respectively, beginning 4 weeks prior to mating until gestational day 12.5. Fetal and placental weight, metabolites and gene expression were measured. HF feeding significantly (P<.05) increased placental and fetal weight in the HF-control (HFCO) versus NF-control (NFCO) animals, whereas the HF choline-supplemented (HFCS) group effectively normalized placental and fetal weight to the levels of the NFCO group. Compared to HFCO, the HFCS group had lower (P<.05) glucose transporter 1 and fatty acid transport protein 1 expression as well as lower accumulation of glycogen in the placenta. The HFCS group also had lower (P<.05) placental 4E-binding protein 1 and ribosomal protein s6 phosphorylation, which are indicators of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 activation favoring macronutrient anabolism. In summary, our results suggest that maternal choline supplementation prevented fetal overgrowth in obese mice at midgestation and improved biomarkers of placental macronutrient homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Total prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly would reduce child mortality in India: Implications in achieving Target 3.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2018-03-15

    The potential to reduce child mortality by preventing folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FAP SBA) is inadequately appreciated. To quantify possible reduction in FAP SBA-associated child mortality in low- and middle-income countries, we conducted an analysis to demonstrate in India, a country with more than 25 million births and 1.2 million under-five deaths each year, the decrease in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would occur through total prevention of FAP SBA. We estimated the percent reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would have occurred in India in 2015 had all of FAP SBA been prevented. We also estimated the contributions of these reductions toward India's Sustainable Development Goals on child mortality indicators. We considered the overall prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in India as 5 per 1,000 live births, of which 90% were preventable with effective folic acid intervention. In the year 2015, folic acid interventions would have prevented about 116,070 cases of FAP SBA and 101,565 under-five deaths associated with FAP SBA. Prevention of FAP SBA would have reduced annually, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality by 10.2%, 8.9%, and 8.3%, respectively. These reductions would have contributed 18.5% and 17.2% to the reductions in neonatal and under-five mortality, respectively, needed by India to achieve its 2030 Sustainable Developmental Goal Target 3.2 addressing preventable child mortality. Total prevention of FAP SBA clearly has a significant potential for immediate reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in India, and similarly other countries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Role of amino acid supplementation in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates - a review of current evidences.

    PubMed

    Garg, Bhawan Deep; Kabra, Nandkishor S

    2018-09-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common acute and fatal gastrointestinal emergency in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates with mortality range from 15 to 30%. NEC is likely due to multifactorial process such as oxidative injury, ischemic necrosis, and over-reactive inflammatory response to intestinal microbes. To evaluate the role of amino acid supplementation for reduction of neonatal NEC in preterm neonates. The literature search was done for various randomized control trial (RCT) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Index Copernicus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Thomson Reuters (ESCI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) and other database. This review included 15 RCTs that fulfilled inclusion criteria. The total neonates enrolled in these different RCT are 3424 (amino acid group 1711 and control 1713). Almost all participating neonates were of VLBW or extremely low birth weight (ELBW). In two trials, birth weight was between 1500-2000 grams. The intervention was started within first few days after birth and continued up to 30th day of postnatal age in most of the trials. In two trials, intervention was continued up to 120th day of postnatal age. Arginine, glutamine and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) were used at the dose of 1.5 mol/kg/day (261 mg/kg/day), 0.3 grams/kg/day and 16-32 mg/kg/day, respectively. Role of amino acid in the prevention of neonatal NEC is not exclusively supported by the current evidence. Only three studies were able to show reduction in the incidence of NEC with amino acid supplementation (arginine, glutamine), and the remaining studies did not report any positive effect. Amino acid supplementation was not associated with significant reduction in mortality due to any causes. However, arginine supplementation was associated with significant reduction in mortality due to NEC. Two studies on glutamine were reported significant reduction in

  6. Prevention of symptomatic vasospasm by continuous cisternal irrigation with mock-CSF containing ascorbic acid and Mg(2+).

    PubMed

    Satoh, Akira; Sugiyama, Tatsuya; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Takeshi; Neki, Hiroaki; Morikawa, Eiharu

    2010-01-01

    Symptomatic vasospasm (SVS) is still a major cause of poor outcome in cases undergoing early surgical intervention for ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Among the numbers of therapeutic trials to prevent and ameliorate neurological deterioration due to SVS, removal or quenching of oxy-hemoglobin (OxyHb) from subarachnoid colts and administration of Mg(2+) (Mg) have especially been expected to be effective. In this report the authors investigated the effect of continuous cisternal irrigation (CCI) with mock CSF containing ascorbic acid (ASA) and Mg, performed after early surgery for ruptured aneurysm. Sixty-three cases which had received CCI were retrospectively compared with 40 control cases as to the incidence of SVS and outcome. Incidence of SVS was significantly less frequent (P < 0.05) in the CCI group (11%) than in the control group (25%). Severe and definitive SVS requiring additional specific treatment occurred only in 3.2% of the CCI group, while 22.5% in the control (P < 0.01). Overall outcome at discharge was significantly better in the CCI group than in the control (P < 0.01). Postoperative CCI with ASA and Mg was definitively effective in preventing SVS and in lessening severity of SVS if it occurs.

  7. Training for cervical cancer prevention programs in low-resource settings: focus on visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, P D; Lauterbach, M; Sellors, J W; Sankaranarayanan, R

    2005-05-01

    The modern approach to cervical cancer prevention, characterized by use of cytology and multiple visits for diagnosis and treatment, has frequently proven challenging and unworkable in low-resource settings. Because of this, the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) has made it a priority to investigate and assess alternative approaches, particularly the use of visual screening methods, such as visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), for precancer and cancer detection and the use of cryotherapy as a precancer treatment method. As a result of ACCP experience in providing training to nurses and doctors in these techniques, it is now widely agreed that training should be competency based, combining both didactic and hands-on approaches, and should be done in a clinical setting that resembles the service-delivery conditions at the program site. This article reviews ACCP experiences and perceptions about the essentials of training in visual inspection and cryotherapy and presents some lessons learned with regard to training in these techniques in low-resource settings.

  8. Chlorogenic acid prevents acetaminophen-induced liver injury: the involvement of CYP450 metabolic enzymes and some antioxidant signals*

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Chun; Sheng, Yu-chen; Jiang, Ping; Wei, Hai; Ji, Li-li

    2015-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a polyphenolic compound, is abundant in fruits, dietary vegetables, and some medicinal herbs. This study investigated the prevention of CGA against acetaminophen (AP)-induced hepatotoxicity and its engaged mechanisms. CGA reversed the decreased cell viability induced by AP in L-02 cells in vitro. In addition, CGA reduced the AP-induced increased serum levels of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) in vivo. The effect of CGA on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymatic (CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4) activities showed that CGA caused very little inhibition on CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 enzymatic activities, but not CYP3A4. The measurement of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione (GSH) levels showed that CGA prevented AP-induced liver oxidative stress injury. Further, CGA increased the AP-induced decreased mRNA expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx) 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, epoxide hydrolase (Ephx) 2, and polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide K (Polr2k), and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In summary, CGA ameliorates the AP-induced liver injury probably by slightly inhibiting CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 enzymatic properties. In addition, cellular important antioxidant signals such as Prx1, 2, 3, 5, 6, Ephx2, Polr2k, and Nrf2 also contributed to the protection of CGA against AP-induced oxidative stress injury. PMID:26160718

  9. In Vitro Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Milk as Potential Probiotic Strains to Prevent Bovine Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Matías S; Frola, Ignacio D; Natanael, Berardo; Gobelli, Dino; Nader-Macias, María E F; Bogni, Cristina I

    2018-01-02

    Bovine mastitis causes economic losses on dairy farms worldwide. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in animal health are an alternative tool to avoid antibiotic therapy on the prevention of bovine mastitis. In previous studies, 12 LAB isolated from bovine milk were selected taking into account some of the following characteristics: hydrophobicity, auto aggregative capability, inhibition of indicator pathogens, hydrogen peroxide, and capsular polysaccharide production. These LAB were considered because of their beneficial properties. In this work, we also analyzed the antimicrobial activity and the co-aggregation against mastitis causing bacteria, auto-inhibition, adhesion to bovine teat canal epithelial cells (BTCEC), and growth kinetic curves for the 12 LAB. Two of them, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CRL 1655 and Lactobacillus perolens CRL 1724, were selected because they had an interesting pattern of adhesion to BTEC, the inhibition of pathogens and the co-aggregation with the 100% of the assayed pathogens. They showed a predictable difference in the PFGE genomic pattern bands. The kinetic growth of these two strains was similar between them and with the rest of the assayed LAB. The strains selected in the present study showed indispensable characteristics for their inclusion in a probiotic formulation to be used at dry-off period for the prevention of bovine mastitis.

  10. Cottonseed meal, dehydrated grass and ascorbic acid as dietary factors preventing toxicity of vanadium for the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, L.R.; Lawrence, W.W.

    1971-01-01

    Studies have been conducted which show that the replacement of 5% sucrose in a sucrose-fish meal diet for chicks with degossypolized cottonseed meal prevents the toxicity of 20 ppm added vanadium. The addition of 5% dehydrated grass to the same ration markedly reduced the toxicity symptoms. No such reduction in vanadium toxicity resulted when soybean meal, corn gluten meal, meat meal, fish meal, casein, isolated soybean protein, zein or wheat gluten were added to the ration. No evidence was found that the gossypol remaining in the cottonseed meal was the detoxifying agent. The addition of 0.25 to 0.50% ascorbic acidmore » to the sucrose-fish meal basal ration prevented the toxic symptoms resulting from the addition of 20 ppm vanadium derived from HN/sub 4/VO/sub 3/. The vanadium derived from VOSO/sub 4/ and VOCl/sub 2/ (vanadium valence 4) was as toxic as vanadium derived from HN/sub 4/VO/sub 3/ (V = valence 5). This leads one to question that the action of ascorbic acid in reducing vanadium toxicity is through its property of a reducing agent which might change the vanadium in VH/sub 4/VO/sub 3/ to a lower valence, presumably less toxic.« less

  11. Periconceptional use of folic acid and risk of miscarriage - findings of the Oral Cleft Prevention Program in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vila-Nova, Camila; Wehby, George L; Queirós, Fernanda C; Chakraborty, Hrishkesh; Félix, Temis M; Goco, Norman; Moore, Janet; Gewehr, Eduardo V; Lins, Lorene; Affonso, Carla M C; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2013-07-01

    We report on the risk of miscarriage with high- and low-dosage periconceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation from a double-blind randomized clinical trial for prevention of orofacial cleft recurrence in Brazil. Women at risk of recurrence of orofacial clefts in their offspring were randomized into high (4 mg/day) and low (0.4 mg/day) doses of FA supplementation. The women received the study pills before pregnancy, and supplementation continued throughout the first trimester. Miscarriage rates were compared between the two FA groups and with the population rate. A total of 268 pregnancies completed the study protocol, with 141 in the 4.0-mg group and 127 in the 0.4-mg group. The miscarriage rate was 14.2% in the low-dose FA group (0.4 mg/day) and 11.3% for the high-dose group (4 mg/day) (P=0.4877). These miscarriage rates are not significantly different from the miscarriage rate in the Brazilian population, estimated to be around 14% (P=0.311). These results indicate that high-dose FA does not increase miscarriage risk in this population and add further information to the literature on the safety of high FA supplementation for prevention of birth defect recurrence.

  12. Retinoic Acid Is Essential for Th1 Cell Lineage Stability and Prevents Transition to a Th17 Cell Program

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Chrysothemis C.; Esterhazy, Daria; Sarde, Aurelien; London, Mariya; Pullabhatla, Venu; Osma-Garcia, Ines; al-Bader, Raya; Ortiz, Carla; Elgueta, Raul; Arno, Matthew; de Rinaldis, Emanuele; Mucida, Daniel; Lord, Graham M.; Noelle, Randolph J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary CD4+ T cells differentiate into phenotypically distinct T helper cells upon antigenic stimulation. Regulation of plasticity between these CD4+ T-cell lineages is critical for immune homeostasis and prevention of autoimmune disease. However, the factors that regulate lineage stability are largely unknown. Here we investigate a role for retinoic acid (RA) in the regulation of lineage stability using T helper 1 (Th1) cells, traditionally considered the most phenotypically stable Th subset. We found that RA, through its receptor RARα, sustains stable expression of Th1 lineage specifying genes, as well as repressing genes that instruct Th17-cell fate. RA signaling is essential for limiting Th1-cell conversion into Th17 effectors and for preventing pathogenic Th17 responses in vivo. Our study identifies RA-RARα as a key component of the regulatory network governing maintenance and plasticity of Th1-cell fate and defines an additional pathway for the development of Th17 cells. PMID:25769610

  13. Ferulic acid promotes survival and differentiation of neural stem cells to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gu, Lintao; Cui, Xinhua; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jia; Li, Xuezhong

    2017-11-15

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have exhibited promising potential in therapies against neuronal hearing loss. Ferulic acid (FA) has been widely reported to enhance neurogenic differentiation of different stem cells. We investigated the role of FA in promoting NSC transplant therapy to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. NSCs were isolated from mouse cochlear tissues to establish in vitro culture, which were then treated with FA. The survival and differentiation of NSCs were evaluated. Subsequently, neurite outgrowth and excitability of the in vitro neuronal network were assessed. Gentamicin was used to induce neuronal hearing loss in mice, in the presence and absence of FA, followed by assessments of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product optoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) amplitude. FA promoted survival, neurosphere formation and differentiation of NSCs, as well as neurite outgrowth and excitability of in vitro neuronal network. Furthermore, FA restored ABR threshold shifts and DPOAE in gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss mouse model in vivo. Our data, for the first time, support potential therapeutic efficacy of FA in promoting survival and differentiation of NSCs to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate useful in preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis? A multicenter case control analysis.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Giorgio; Calagna, Gloria; Adile, Giorgio; Polito, Salvatore; Saitta, Salvatore; Speciale, Patrizia; Palomba, Stefano; Perino, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Adile, Biagio

    2015-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in the female population and, over a lifetime, about half of women have at least one episode of UTI requiring antibiotic therapy. The aim of the current study was to compare two different strategies for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis: intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus chondroitin sulfate (CS), and antibiotic prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. This was a retrospective review of two different cohorts of women affected by recurrent bacterial cystitis. Cases (experimental group) were women who received intravesical instillations of a sterile solution of high concentration of HA + CS in 50 mL water with calcium chloride every week during the 1(st) month and then once monthly for 4 months. The control group included women who received traditional therapy for recurrent cystitis based on daily antibiotic prophylaxis using sulfamethoxazole 200 mg plus trimethoprim 40 mg for 6 weeks. Ninety-eight and 76 patients were treated with experimental and control treatments, respectively. At 12 months after treatment, 69 and 109 UTIs were detected in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The proportion of patients free from UTIs was significantly higher in the experimental than in the control group (36.7% vs. 21.0%; p = 0.03). Experimental treatment was well tolerated and none of the patients stopped it. The intravesical instillation of HA + CS is more effective than long-term antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A Prevention of Pre-eclampsia with the Use of Acetylsalicylic Acid and Low-molecular Weight Heparin - Molecular Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Darmochwal-Kolarz, Dorota; Kolarz, Bogdan; Korzeniewski, Michal; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Patro-Malysza, Jolanta; Mierzynski, Radzisław; Przegalinska-Kałamucka, Monika; Oleszczuk, Jan

    Pre-eclampsia appears to be the main cause for the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia are more likely to be threatened with conditions which potentially may be lethal, such as: disseminated intravascular coagulation, cerebral hemorrhage, liver and renal failure. Pregnancy complicated with pre-eclampsia is also associated with a greater risk for iatrogenic prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, premature abruption of placenta, and even intrauterine fetal death. In the majority of cases the reasons for arterial hypertension among pregnant women remain obscure. For the past decades, there were many abortive attempts in the use of some microelements, vitamins or specific diets, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, for the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia. Recently, it has been shown that a prevention of pre-eclampsia with the use of a lowmolecular- weight heparins (LMWHs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) could considerably reduce the frequency of preeclampsia. In this review, we present the studies concerning the applications of LMWHs and aspirin in the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia and some important data about the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions of LMWHs and ASA.

  16. [Recurrent urinary tract infections: prevention of recurrence with intravesical instillations of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Tornero Ruiz, Jesús Ignacio; Martínez Gómez, Gloria; Escudero Bregante, José Félix; Gómez Gómez, Guillermo Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our study is to demonstrate that intravesical administration of the association chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA), according to our treatment schedule, is a benefit for women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI), not only from a clinical point of view, but also reducing recurrences. This is a study of 28 women diagnosed with RUTI, with a positive culture, and compatible symptoms;frethey underwent treatment according to the protocol of intravesical instillations of the combination CS 2%-1 gr + HA 1.6%-800 mg. To evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, symptoms improvement, reduction of the number of episodes of urinary tract infection and quality of life were considered. In our series, we can observe an improvement of the quality of life assessed by PG-I, 66% after 12 months. It was seen that 55.6% of the patient's urine cultures became negative, while 44.4% had episodes of urinary infection, but with lower baseline symptoms intensity. Patients included in the protocol of instillation improved significantly their quality of life; in addition, to a considerable extent new urinary infections were not presented, being milder when they presented.

  17. Prevention of valproic acid-induced neural tube defects by sildenafil citrate.

    PubMed

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2015-08-15

    This study was undertaken to test the effects of sildenafil citrate (SC), a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on valproic acid (VPA)-induced teratogenesis. On gestation day (GD) 8, ICR (CD-1) mice were treated by gastric intubation with SC at 0 (vehicle), 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10mg/kg. One hour later, animals received a teratogenic dose of VPA (600mg/kg) or vehicle. Developmental endpoints were evaluated near the end of gestation. Twenty-eighth percent of fetuses exposed to VPA had neural tube defects (exencephaly). Pretreatment with SC at 2.5, 5.0 or 10mg/kg significantly reduced the rate of VPA-induced exencephaly to 15.9%, 13.7%, and 10.0%, respectively. Axial skeletal defects were observed in 75.8% of VPA-exposed fetuses. Pre-treatment with SC at 10mg/kg, but not at lower doses, significantly decreased the rate of skeletally affected fetuses to 61.6%. These results show that SC, which prolongs nitric oxide (NO) signaling action protects from VPA-induced teratogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fusarium head blight control and prevention of mycotoxin contamination in wheat with botanicals and tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Musa, Tomke; Schwab, Fabienne; Jenny, Eveline; Bucheli, Thomas D; Wettstein, Felix E; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2014-02-26

    Suspensions or solutions with 1% of Chinese galls (Galla chinensis, GC) or 1% of tannic acid (TA), inhibited germination of conidia or mycelium growth of Fusarium graminearum (FG) by 98%-100% or by 75%-80%, respectively, whereas dried bark from buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA) showed no effect at this concentration. In climate chamber experiments where the wheat variety "Apogee" was artificially inoculated with FG and F. crookwellense (FCr) and treated with 5% suspensions of TA, GC and FA, the deoxynivalenol (DON) content in grains was reduced by 81%, 67% and 33%, respectively. In field experiments with two commercial wheat varieties and artificial or semi-natural inoculations, mean DON reductions of 66% (TA) and 58% (FA), respectively, were obtained. Antifungal toxicity can explain the high efficacies of TA and GC but not those of FA. The Fusarium head blight (FHB) and mycotoxin reducing effect of FA is probably due to elicitation of resistance in wheat plants. With semi-natural inoculation, a single FA application in the first half of the flowering period performed best. However, we assume that applications of FA at the end of ear emergence and a treatment, triggered by an infection period, with TA or GC during flowering, might perform better than synthetic fungicides.

  19. Fusarium Head Blight Control and Prevention of Mycotoxin Contamination in Wheat with Botanicals and Tannic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Musa, Tomke; Schwab, Fabienne; Jenny, Eveline; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Suspensions or solutions with 1% of Chinese galls (Galla chinensis, GC) or 1% of tannic acid (TA), inhibited germination of conidia or mycelium growth of Fusarium graminearum (FG) by 98%–100% or by 75%–80%, respectively, whereas dried bark from buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA) showed no effect at this concentration. In climate chamber experiments where the wheat variety “Apogee” was artificially inoculated with FG and F. crookwellense (FCr) and treated with 5% suspensions of TA, GC and FA, the deoxynivalenol (DON) content in grains was reduced by 81%, 67% and 33%, respectively. In field experiments with two commercial wheat varieties and artificial or semi-natural inoculations, mean DON reductions of 66% (TA) and 58% (FA), respectively, were obtained. Antifungal toxicity can explain the high efficacies of TA and GC but not those of FA. The Fusarium head blight (FHB) and mycotoxin reducing effect of FA is probably due to elicitation of resistance in wheat plants. With semi-natural inoculation, a single FA application in the first half of the flowering period performed best. However, we assume that applications of FA at the end of ear emergence and a treatment, triggered by an infection period, with TA or GC during flowering, might perform better than synthetic fungicides. PMID:24577585

  20. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents E22Q Alzheimer’s Aβ toxicity in human cerebral endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Viana, R. J. S.; Nunes, A. F.; Castro, R. E.; Ramalho, R. M.; Meyerson, J.; Fossati, S.; Ghiso, J.; Rostagno, A.

    2009-01-01

    The vasculotropic E22Q mutant of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is associated with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis Dutch type. The cellular mechanism(s) of toxicity and nature of the AβE22Q toxic assemblies are not completely understood. Comparative assessment of structural parameters and cell death mechanisms elicited in primary human cerebral endothelial cells by AβE22Q and wild-type Aβ revealed that only AβE22Q triggered the Bax mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. AβE22Q neither matched the fast oligomerization kinetics of Aβ42 nor reached its predominant β-sheet structure, achieving a modest degree of oligomerization with a secondary structure that remained a mixture of β and random conformations. The endogenous molecule tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) was a strong modulator of AβE22Q-triggered apoptosis but did not significantly change the secondary structures and fibrillogenic propensities of Aβ peptides. These data dissociate the pro-apoptotic properties of Aβ peptides from their distinct mechanisms of aggregation/fibrillization in vitro, providing new perspectives for modulation of amyloid toxicity. PMID:19189048

  1. [Prevention of migraine with flunarizine and acetylsalicylic acid. A double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Pothmann, R

    1987-09-01

    30 children between 7 and 17 years suffering from at least 2 attacks/month of common or classical migraine since more than 1 year were studied. After clinical exclusion of symptomatic headache 4 weeks were documented by means of a migraine diary. Prophylaxis with Calcium entry blocker Flunarizine (Sibelium) or Thromboxane A inhibitor Acetylsalicylic acid (ASS) was carried out in a double blind design for 3 months. Medication was given as one dosage in the evening: 2-5 mg/kg KG ASS or 5-10 mg Flunarizine. Documented attack frequency and duration were controlled at monthly physical examinations. Final results showed no differences in significant reduction of attack frequency or symptoms between both different therapeutic principals. 72.4% (ASS 73.3%; Flunarizine 71.4%) of patients were attack-free or had at least a 50% reduction. Migraine frequency of initially 7-8 was reduced to 1-2 attacks/month. Duration remained constant in both groups (1-3 h). Side effects were slight body weight gain or abdominal pain after intake, prophylaxis had not to be interrupted therefore. Longtime prognosis is not yet possible because the time of observation is too short so far. Both substances are definitely useful and have few side effects in childhood migraine. If the response to one is insufficient the other substance should be tried.

  2. Epsilon aminocaproic acid prevents bleeding in severely thrombocytopenic patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Antun, Ana G; Gleason, Shannon; Arellano, Martha; Langston, Amelia A; McLemore, Morgan L; Gaddh, Manila; el Rassi, Fuad; Bernal-Mizrachi, Leon; Galipeau, Jacques; Heffner, Leonard T; Winton, Elliott F; Khoury, Hanna J

    2013-11-01

    Despite prophylactic platelet transfusions, bleeding remains a significant problem in thrombocytopenic patients. The antifibrinolytic agent epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) was administered to 44 chronically (median duration, 273 days) and severely (platelet count, 8 × 10(9)/L; range, 1 × 10(9)/L-19 × 10(9)/L) thrombocytopenic patients with hematological malignancies. Prophylactic EACA at a dose of 1 g twice daily was orally administered for a median duration of 47 days (range, 7 days-209 days) until the platelet count recovered to > 30; × 10(9) /L. Platelets were only transfused if bleeding occurred. While receiving EACA, 59% of the patients did not bleed, 25% had 19 episodes of spontaneously resolving minor bleeding that did not require platelet transfusion, and 16% received a median of 4 platelet transfusions (range, 1 transfusion-8 transfusions) for 1 major traumatic and 9 spontaneous grade 2 to grade 3 bleeding (based on the World Health Organization classification of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura). No EACA toxicities were noted, and venous thromboses were not observed. EACA is well tolerated and is associated with a low risk of major bleeding in patients with hematological malignancies who are experiencing chronic severe thrombocytopenia. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  3. Epsilon aminocaproic acid for the prevention of delayed postoperative bleeding in retired racing greyhounds undergoing gonadectomy.

    PubMed

    Marín, Liliana M; Iazbik, M Cristina; Zaldivar-Lopez, Sara; Guillaumin, Julien; McLoughlin, Mary A; Couto, C Guillermo

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) on the prevalence of postoperative bleeding in retired racing Greyhounds (RRG), and to assess its effects on selected thrombelastography (TEG) and fibrinolysis variables. Double-blinded, prospective, randomized study. 100 RRG had elective ovariohysterectomy or orchiectomy and were administered EACA or placebo for 3 days after surgery. TEG variables were analyzed preoperatively and 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. Thirty percent (15/50) of RRG in the placebo group had delayed postoperative bleeding starting 36-48 hours after surgery compared with 10% (5/50) in the EACA group (P = .012). On the TEG variables, the slopes for R and K time were significantly different between treatment groups (P <.05); the R and K time decreased over time in the EACA group after surgery whereas they increased in the placebo group. The angle, maximal amplitude (MA), and G slopes were also significantly different between treatment groups (P = .001, .001, and .006, respectively). The angle, MA, and G increased postoperatively over time in the EACA group and decreased in the placebo group. All these changes are supportive of hypercoagulability associated with EACA administration. Postoperative administration of EACA significantly decreased the prevalence of postoperative bleeding in RRG undergoing surgery by increasing the clot strength. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Constitutive activation of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase prevents abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Merlot, Sylvain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Fenzi, Francesca; Valon, Christiane; Costa, Miguel; Piette, Laurie; Vavasseur, Alain; Genty, Bernard; Boivin, Karine; Müller, Axel; Giraudat, Jérôme; Leung, Jeffrey

    2007-07-11

    Light activates proton (H(+))-ATPases in guard cells, to drive hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane to initiate stomatal opening, allowing diffusion of ambient CO(2) to photosynthetic tissues. Light to darkness transition, high CO(2) levels and the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) promote stomatal closing. The overall H(+)-ATPase activity is diminished by ABA treatments, but the significance of this phenomenon in relationship to stomatal closure is still debated. We report two dominant mutations in the OPEN STOMATA2 (OST2) locus of Arabidopsis that completely abolish stomatal response to ABA, but importantly, to a much lesser extent the responses to CO(2) and darkness. The OST2 gene encodes the major plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase AHA1, and both mutations cause constitutive activity of this pump, leading to necrotic lesions. H(+)-ATPases have been traditionally assumed to be general endpoints of all signaling pathways affecting membrane polarization and transport. Our results provide evidence that AHA1 is a distinct component of an ABA-directed signaling pathway, and that dynamic downregulation of this pump during drought is an essential step in membrane depolarization to initiate stomatal closure.

  5. Estimate of the potential impact of folic acid fortification of corn masa flour on the prevention of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Sarah C; Devine, Owen; Mai, Cara; Hamner, Heather C; Reefhuis, Jennita; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Dowling, Nicole F; Honein, Margaret A

    2013-10-01

    Hispanics in the US have a higher prevalence of neural tube defect (NTD) -affected pregnancies than non-Hispanic whites, and lower median total folic acid (FA) intake. FA fortification of corn masa flour (CMF) is a policy-level intervention for NTD prevention; however, the impact on NTD prevalence has not been estimated. We developed a model to estimate the percentage reduction in prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly (NTDs) that could occur with FA fortification of CMF. Model inputs included estimates of the percentage reduction in United States NTD prevalence attributed to FA fortification of enriched cereal grain products (1995-1996 vs. 1998-2002), the increase in median FA intake after enriched cereal grain product fortification, and the estimated increase in median FA intake that could occur with CMF fortification at the same level as enriched cereal grain products (140 μg/100 g). We used Monte Carlo simulation to quantify uncertainty. We stratified analyses by racial/ethnic group and rounded results to the nearest 10. We estimated CMF fortification could prevent 30 Hispanic infants from having spina bifida (95% uncertainty interval: 0, 80) and 10 infants from having anencephaly (95% uncertainty interval: 0, 40) annually. The estimated impact among non-Hispanic whites and blacks was smaller. CMF fortification with FA could prevent from 0 to 120 infants, with the most likely value of approximately 40, from having spina bifida or anencephaly among Hispanics, the population most likely to benefit from the proposed intervention. While this estimated reduction is unlikely to be discernible using current birth defect surveillance methods, it still suggests an important benefit to the target population. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents ventricular conduction slowing and arrhythmia by restoring T-type calcium current in fetuses during cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Oladipupo; Alvarez-Laviada, Anita; Schultz, Francisca; Ibrahim, Effendi; Trauner, Michael; Williamson, Catherine; Glukhov, Alexey V; Gorelik, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Increased maternal serum bile acid concentrations in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) are associated with fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been shown to demonstrate anti-arrhythmic properties via preventing ICP-associated cardiac conduction slowing and development of reentrant arrhythmias, although the cellular mechanism is still being elucidated. High-resolution fluorescent optical mapping of electrical activity and electrocardiogram measurements were used to characterize effects of UDCA on one-day-old neonatal and adult female Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. ICP was modelled by perfusion of taurocholic acid (TC, 400μM). Whole-cell calcium currents were recorded from neonatal rat and human fetal cardiomyocytes. TC significantly prolonged the PR interval by 11.0±3.5% (P<0.05) and slowed ventricular conduction velocity (CV) by 38.9±5.1% (P<0.05) exclusively in neonatal and not in maternal hearts. A similar CV decline was observed with the selective T-type calcium current (ICa,T) blocker mibefradil 1μM (23.0±6.2%, P<0.05), but not with the L-type calcium current (ICa,L) blocker nifedipine 1μM (6.9±6.6%, NS). The sodium channel blocker lidocaine (30μM) reduced CV by 60.4±4.5% (P<0.05). UDCA co-treatment was protective against CV slowing induced by TC and mibefradil, but not against lidocaine. UDCA prevented the TC-induced reduction in the ICa,T density in both isolated human fetal (-10.2±1.5 versus -5.5±0.9 pA/pF, P<0.05) and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (-22.3±1.1 versus -9.6±0.8 pA/pF, P<0.0001), whereas UDCA had limited efficacy on the ICa,L. Our findings demonstrate that ICa,T plays a significant role in ICP-associated fetal cardiac conduction slowing and arrhythmogenesis, and is an important component of the fetus-specific anti-arrhythmic activity of UDCA.

  7. Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents ventricular conduction slowing and arrhythmia by restoring T-type calcium current in fetuses during cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, Oladipupo; Alvarez-Laviada, Anita; Schultz, Francisca; Ibrahim, Effendi; Trauner, Michael; Williamson, Catherine; Glukhov, Alexey V.

    2017-01-01

    Background Increased maternal serum bile acid concentrations in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) are associated with fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been shown to demonstrate anti-arrhythmic properties via preventing ICP-associated cardiac conduction slowing and development of reentrant arrhythmias, although the cellular mechanism is still being elucidated. Methods High-resolution fluorescent optical mapping of electrical activity and electrocardiogram measurements were used to characterize effects of UDCA on one-day-old neonatal and adult female Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. ICP was modelled by perfusion of taurocholic acid (TC, 400μM). Whole-cell calcium currents were recorded from neonatal rat and human fetal cardiomyocytes. Results TC significantly prolonged the PR interval by 11.0±3.5% (P<0.05) and slowed ventricular conduction velocity (CV) by 38.9±5.1% (P<0.05) exclusively in neonatal and not in maternal hearts. A similar CV decline was observed with the selective T-type calcium current (ICa,T) blocker mibefradil 1μM (23.0±6.2%, P<0.05), but not with the L-type calcium current (ICa,L) blocker nifedipine 1μM (6.9±6.6%, NS). The sodium channel blocker lidocaine (30μM) reduced CV by 60.4±4.5% (P<0.05). UDCA co-treatment was protective against CV slowing induced by TC and mibefradil, but not against lidocaine. UDCA prevented the TC-induced reduction in the ICa,T density in both isolated human fetal (−10.2±1.5 versus −5.5±0.9 pA/pF, P<0.05) and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (−22.3±1.1 versus −9.6±0.8 pA/pF, P<0.0001), whereas UDCA had limited efficacy on the ICa,L. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that ICa,T plays a significant role in ICP-associated fetal cardiac conduction slowing and arrhythmogenesis, and is an important component of the fetus-specific anti-arrhythmic activity of UDCA. PMID:28934223

  8. Comparative stability of the bioresorbable ferric crosslinked hyaluronic acid adhesion prevention solutions.

    PubMed

    Luu, Hoan-My Do; Chen, Angela; Isayeva, Irada S

    2013-08-01

    The Intergel® ferric crosslinked hyaluronate (FeHA) adhesion prevention solution (APS) (FDA) is associated with serious post-operative complications (Henley, http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/features/gynecare-intergel/intergel-timeline.html, 2007; FDA, 2003; Roman et al., Fertil Steril 2005, 83 Suppl 1:1113-1118; Tang et al., Ann Surg 2006;243(4):449-455; Wiseman, Fertil Steril 2006;86(3):771; Wiseman, Fertil Steril 2006;85(4):e7). This prompted us to examine the in situ stability of crosslinked HA materials to hyaluronidase lyase degradation. Variables such as ferric ionic crosslink density, HA concentration, gel geometry, and molecular weight (MW) of HA polymer were studied. Various formulations of the crosslinked "in house" [Isayeva et al., J Biomed Mater Res: Part B - Appl Biomater 2010, 95B (1):9-18] FeHA (0.5%, w/v; 30, 50, 90% crosslinked), the Intergel® FeHA (0.5%, w/v; 90%), and the non-crosslinked HA (0.05-0.5%, w/v) were degraded at a fixed activity of hyaluronidase lyase from Streptomyces hyalurolyticus (Hyase) at 37°C over time according to the method [Payan et al., J Chrom B: Biomed Sci Appl 1991;566(1):9-18]. Under our conditions, the data show that the crosslink density affects degradation the most, followed by HA concentration and then gel geometry. We found that MW has no effect. Our results are one possible explanation of the observations that the Intergel® FeHA APS (0.5%, w/v; 90%) material persisted an order of magnitude longer than expected [t1/2 = 500 hrs vs. t1/2 = 50 hrs (FDA; Johns et al., Fertil Steril 1997;68(1):37-42)]. These data also demonstrate the sensitivity of the in vitro hyaluronidase assay to predict the in situ stability of crosslinked HA medical products as previously reported [Sall et al., Polym Degrad Stabil 2007;92(5):915-919]. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Is prophylactic tranexamic acid administration effective and safe for postpartum hemorrhage prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunbo; Gong, Yuping; Dong, Lingling; Xie, Bingying; Dai, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: To assess the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing blood loss and lowering transfusion needs for patients undergoing caesarean section (CS) or vaginal delivery (VD). Methods: An electronic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, Cochrane library, Scopus, Central, and Clinical trials.gov was performed to identify studies that evaluating the usage of TA in CS or VD. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed and data extraction was performed. Results: Finally, 25 articles with 4747 participants were included. Our findings indicated TA resulted in a reduced intra-, postoperative, and total blood loss by a mean volume of 141.25 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] −186.72 to −95.79, P < 0.00001), 36.42 mL (95% CI −46.50 to −26.34, P < 0.00001), and 154.25 mL (95% CI −182.04 to −126.47, P < 0.00001) in CS. TA administration in VD was associated with a reduced intra-, postoperative, and total blood loss by a mean volume of 22.88 mL (95% CI −50.54 to 4.77, P = 0.10), 41.24 mL (95% CI −55.50 to −26.98, P < 0.00001), and 84.79 mL (95% CI −109.93 to −59.65, P < 0.00001). In addition, TA could lower the occurrence rate of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and severe PPH, and reduce the risk of blood transfusions. No increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after CS or VD was associated with TA usage, while the minor side effects were more common. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that intravenous TA for patients undergoing CS was effective and safe. Although prophylactic TA administration is associated with reduced PPH, current existing data are insufficient to draw definitive recommendations about its clinical significance due to the poor to moderate quality of the included literatures. Thus, high-quality randomized controlled trials with larger samples are needed to validate our findings. PMID:28072700

  10. Omega 3 fatty acids for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Harrison, Roger A; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Moore, Helen; Worthington, Helen V; Ness, Andrew; Capps, Nigel; Smith, George Davey; Riemersma, Rudolph; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that omega 3 (W3, n-3 or omega-3) fats from oily fish and plants are beneficial to health. Objectives To assess whether dietary or supplemental omega 3 fatty acids alter total mortality, cardiovascular events or cancers using both RCT and cohort studies. Search methods Five databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to February 2002. No language restrictions were applied. Bibliographies were checked and authors contacted. Selection criteria RCTs were included where omega 3 intake or advice was randomly allocated and unconfounded, and study duration was at least six months. Cohorts were included where a cohort was followed up for at least six months and omega 3 intake estimated. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for inclusion, data extracted and quality assessed independently in duplicate. Random effects meta-analysis was performed separately for RCT and cohort data. Main results Forty eight randomised controlled trials (36,913 participants) and 41 cohort analyses were included. Pooled trial results did not show a reduction in the risk of total mortality or combined cardiovascular events in those taking additional omega 3 fats (with significant statistical heterogeneity). Sensitivity analysis, retaining only studies at low risk of bias, reduced heterogeneity and again suggested no significant effect of omega 3 fats. Restricting analysis to trials increasing fish-based omega 3 fats, or those increasing short chain omega 3s, did not suggest significant effects on mortality or cardiovascular events in either group. Subgroup analysis by dietary advice or supplementation, baseline risk of CVD or omega 3 dose suggested no clear effects of these factors on primary outcomes. Neither RCTs nor cohorts suggested increased relative risk of cancers with higher omega 3 intake but estimates were imprecise so a clinically important effect could not be excluded. Authors’ conclusions It is not clear that dietary

  11. Preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, Abhro Jyoti; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats. Rats were pretreated with p-coumaric acid (8 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 7 days and then injected with isoproterenol (100mg/kg body weight) on 8th and 9th day to induce myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol was indicated by increased level of cardiac sensitive marker and elevated ST-segments in the electrocardiogram. Also, the levels/concentrations of serum and heart cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were increased in myocardial infarcted rats. Isoproterenol also increased the levels of serum low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. It also enhanced the activity of liver 3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl-Coenzyme-A reductase. p-Coumaric acid pretreatment revealed preventive effects on all the biochemical parameters and electrocardiogram studied in myocardial infarcted rats. The in vitro study confirmed the free radical scavenging property of p-coumaric acid. Thus, p-coumaric acid prevented cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in lipids, lipoproteins, and electrocardiogram, by virtue of its antihypertrophic, antilipidemic, and free radical scavenging effects in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Prevention of intrauterine adhesion with auto-crosslinked hyaluronic acid gel: a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Songshu; Wan, Yajun; Zou, Fangjun; Ye, Mingzhu; Deng, Henan; Ma, Jiezhi; Wei, Yingying; Tan, Chen; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of auto-crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for preventing intrauterine adhesion (IUA) after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. A prospective, randomized, double blinded and controlled clinical trial (level I) was performed. According to American Fertility Society (AFS) scoring system, 120 patients (treatment group: 60 cases, control group: 60 cases) with moderate to severe IUA were enrolled. Upon completion of adhesiolysis, a Foley balloon catheter was first introduced into the uterine cavity and then 3 ml of auto-crosslinked HA gel for patients in the treatment group; patients in the control group, however, only received Foley balloon catheter. Second-look hysteroscopic examination was performed to all patients at 3 months postoperatively for evaluation of IUA. Primary endpoint was the reduction rate of IUA at 3 months after surgery. The secondary endpoints include total AFS score, score of each individual AFS category. At 3 months after surgery, auto-crosslinked HA gel resulted in significantly higher effective rate for reduction of adhesion, the effective rate were 76% (42/55) and 48% (27/56) respectively (P = 0.000 9); the total AFS score of treatment group was 2.1 ± 1.1, and significantly lower than that of control group (3.7 ± 2.5, P = 0.000 8). Application of auto-crosslinked HA gel after surgery significantly enhanced the improvement for each individual patient with regard to their adhesive type and menstrual pattern (P = 0.037 8, P = 0.000 4). The treatment group had significantly lower proportion of patients with moderate to severe adhesive stages than that of control group [13% (7/55) versus 38% (21/56), P = 0.000 6]. No adverse events and complications were observed. Auto-crosslinked HA gel coule be able to reduce IUA, decrease adhesion severity, and improve menopause postoperatively. This absorbable auto-crosslinked HA gel is proposed as a barrier for preventing IUA after intrauterine procedures.

  13. Preventive effects of Schistosoma japonicum ova on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis and bacterial translocation in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Shuncai; Jiang, Li; Jiang, Jie; Liu, Hongchun

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the preventive effects of Schistosoma japonicum ova on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis and bacterial translocation in mice. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group; TNBS(+)Ova(-) group; and TNBS(+)Ova(+) group. Mice of the TNBS(+)Ova(+) group were exposed to 10 000 freeze-killed S. japonicum ova by i.p. injection on day 1 and day 11. On day 15, mice were challenged with TNBS to induce colitis. The following variables were assessed: colon pathological changes; serum expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10); expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in colon; IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TLR4 mRNA expression in colon; and the bacterial translocation rate. Compared to TNBS(+)Ova(-) group, the colonic inflammation in the TNBS(+)Ova(+) group were relieved. A highly significant elevation of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were observed in the TNBS-induced colitis group. After exposure to the eggs, IFN-gamma was significantly decreased, while TNF-alpha was similar to that of the TNBS(+)ova(-) group. No obvious variation was seen in IL-10 expression in TNBS-induced colitis, compared to the controls. Exposure to the eggs led to a significant upregulation of IL-10 expression. TLR4 expression was elevated after injected with TNBS and was downregulated in the eggs group. Less intestinal bacterial translocation frequency was observed when exposed to eggs. S. japonicum ova can prevent the TNBS-induced colitis and reduce the bacterial translocation frequency in mice. The mechanisms were supposed to be due to the regulation of T-helper cell 1/2 balance and TLR4 expression.

  14. Zoledronic acid prevents the tumor-promoting effects of mesenchymal stem cells via MCP-1 dependent recruitment of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Hua; Du, Yang; Mao, Duo; Wang, Zhong-Liang; He, Zhen-Qiang; Qiu, Jing-Dan; Ma, Xi-Bo; Shang, Wen-Ting; Ding, Dan; Tian, Jie

    2015-09-22

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) has been tested in clinical trials as an additive therapy for early-stage breast cancer. However, the mechanism by which ZA exerts its antitumor activity is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the prevention of tumor growth by ZA is through regulating the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)-monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1)-macrophages axis in the tumor microenvironment. To address this issue, MDA-MB-231-FLUC human breast cancer cells were cultured and injected either alone, or coupled with MSC into the mammary fat pads of nude mice. MSC were treated with either ZA or untreated. Tumor growth was determined by using an in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in tumor tissues were immunohistochemically analyzed by using CD206 antibody. The effects of ZA on the cytokine related gene expression of MSC were assessed by using real-time PCR. In this study, we found that ZA-treated mice showed a significant delay in tumor growth. In addition, our data revealed that ZA weakened the ability of MSC to promote tumor growth by impairing TAMs recruitment and tumor vascularization. Furthermore, it was found that ZA decreased MCP-1 expression of MSC, and therefore reduced the recruitment of TAMs to the tumor sites and hence inhibited the tumor growth. Altogether, our study demonstrated ZA can prevent the tumor-promoting effects of MSC. The antitumor effects of ZA were caused by decreasing the MCP-1 expression of MSC, which further decreased the infiltration of TAMs into tumor sites, and therefore inhibited the tumor growth.

  15. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (Fish Oil) Supplementation and the Prevention of Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Siscovick, David S; Barringer, Thomas A; Fretts, Amanda M; Wu, Jason H Y; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Costello, Rebecca B; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Jacobson, Terry A; Engler, Mary B; Alger, Heather M; Appel, Lawrence J; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-04-11

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementation for the primary prevention of clinical cardiovascular events in the general population have not been examined, RCTs have assessed the role of supplementation in secondary prevention among patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes, patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, and those with prevalent coronary heart disease. In this scientific advisory, we take a clinical approach and focus on common indications for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements related to the prevention of clinical cardiovascular events. We limited the scope of our review to large RCTs of supplementation with major clinical cardiovascular disease end points; meta-analyses were considered secondarily. We discuss the features of available RCTs and provide the rationale for our recommendations. We then use existing American Heart Association criteria to assess the strength of the recommendation and the level of evidence. On the basis of our review of the cumulative evidence from RCTs designed to assess the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on clinical cardiovascular events, we update prior recommendations for patients with prevalent coronary heart disease, and we offer recommendations, when data are available, for patients with other clinical indications, including patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes and those with high risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. [Case-control study on polymer polylactic acid absorbable medical film for preventing acromion adhesion after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair].

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Xu, Huan; Xing, Hai-Lin; Zheng, Rong-Zong; Ying, Jin-He

    2018-03-25

    To study effect of shoulder joint function after rotator cuff repair of polylactic acid absorbable membrane. From September 2015 to December 2016, 50 patients diagnosed with rotator cuff tear were selected and divided into treatment group and control group. There were 25 patients in control group, including 12 males and 13 females, with an average age of (48.7±3.5) years old, who received simple arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. There were 25 patients in treatment group, including 11 males and 14 females, with an average age of(49.2±4.1) years old, who performed arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with implanting polylactic acid absorbable membraneon shoulder of rotator cuff. Preoperative and postoperative VAS score, ASES score and UCLA score were recorded and compared between two groups. At 6 months after operation, preoperative VAS score in control group was 5.48±1.12, and decreased as 1.28±0.84 after operation; ASES score before operation was 52.24±4.64, and improved to 86.92±3.20 after operation;preoperative UCLA score improved from 14.36±1.89 before operation to 30.72±1.28 after operation. In treatment group, VAS score decreased from 5.36±1.32 before operation to 1.40±0.71 after operation;preoperative ASES score was 51.04±4.09, and improved to 88.96±2.79 after operation; UCLA score improved from 15.12±1.81 before operation to 32.12±1.33 after operation. There was no significant difference in VAS score between two groups, and ASES score, UCLA score in treatment group was obviously better than control group. Application of polylactic acid absorbable medical membrane could obviously improve shoulder function, and effectively prevent acromion adhesion after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Copyright© 2018 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  17. Oral docosahexaenoic acid in the prevention of exudative age-related macular degeneration: the Nutritional AMD Treatment 2 study.

    PubMed

    Souied, Eric H; Delcourt, Cécile; Querques, Giuseppe; Bassols, Ana; Merle, Bénédicte; Zourdani, Alain; Smith, Theodore; Benlian, Pascale

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched oral supplementation in preventing exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The Nutritional AMD Treatment 2 study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel, comparative study. Two hundred sixty-three patients 55 years of age or older and younger than 85 years with early lesions of age-related maculopathy and visual acuity better than 0.4 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution units in the study eye and neovascular AMD in the fellow eye. Patients were assigned randomly to receive either 840 mg/day DHA and 270 mg/day eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from fish oil capsules or the placebo (olive oil capsules) for 3 years. The primary outcome measure was time to occurrence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the study eye. Secondary outcome measures in the study eye were: incidence of CNV developing in patients, changes in visual acuity, occurrence and progression of drusen, and changes in EPA plus DHA level in red blood cell membrane (RBCM). Time to occurrence and incidence of CNV in the study eye were not significantly different between the DHA group (19.5±10.9 months and 28.4%, respectively) and the placebo group (18.7±10.6 months and 25.6%, respectively). In the DHA group, EPA plus DHA levels increased significantly in RBCM (+70%; P<0.001), suggesting that DHA easily penetrated cells, but this occurred unexpectedly also in the placebo group (+9%; P = 0.007). In the DHA-allocated group, patients steadily achieving the highest tertile of EPA plus DHA levels in RBCM had significantly lower risk (-68%; P = 0.047; hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.99) of CNV developing over 3 years. No marked changes from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity, drusen progression, or geographic atrophy in the study eye were observed throughout the study in either group. In patients with unilateral exudative AMD, 3 years of oral DHA-enriched supplementation had the same

  18. Homozygous Resistance to Thyroid Hormone β: Can Combined Antithyroid Drug and Triiodothyroacetic Acid Treatment Prevent Cardiac Failure?

    PubMed

    Moran, Carla; Habeb, Abdelhadi M; Kahaly, George J; Kampmann, Christoph; Hughes, Marina; Marek, Jan; Rajanayagam, Odelia; Kuczynski, Adam; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Morsy, Mofeed; Offiah, Amaka C; Poole, Ken; Ward, Kate; Lyons, Greta; Halsall, David; Berman, Lol; Watson, Laura; Baguley, David; Mollon, John; Moore, Anthony T; Holder, Graham E; Dattani, Mehul; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2017-09-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone β (RTH β ) due to homozygous THRB defects is exceptionally rare, with only five kindreds reported worldwide. Cardiac dysfunction, which can be life-threatening, is recognized in the disorder. Here we describe the clinical, metabolic, ophthalmic, and cardiac findings in a 9-year-old boy harboring a biallelic THRB mutation (R243Q), along with biochemical, physiologic, and cardiac responses to carbimazole and triiodothyroacetic acid (TRIAC) therapy. The patient exhibits recognized features (goiter, nonsuppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, upper respiratory tract infections, hyperactivity, low body mass index) of heterozygous RTH β , with additional characteristics (dysmorphic facies, winging of scapulae) and more markedly elevated thyroid hormone levels, associated with the homozygous form of the disorder. Notably, an older sibling with similar clinical features and probable homozygous RTH β had died of cardiac failure at age 13 years. Features of early dilated cardiomyopathy in our patient prompted combination treatment with carbimazole and TRIAC. Careful titration of therapy limited elevation in TSH levels and associated increase in thyroid volume. Subsequently, sustained reduction in thyroid hormones with normal TSH levels was reflected in lower basal metabolic rate, gain of lean body mass, and improved growth and cardiac function. A combination of antithyroid drug and TRIAC therapy may prevent thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy and its decompensation in homozygous or even heterozygous RTH β in which life-threatening hyperthyroid features predominate.

  19. Retinoic acid prevents immunogenicity of milk lipocalin Bos d 5 through binding to its immunodominant T-cell epitope.

    PubMed

    Hufnagl, Karin; Ghosh, Debajyoti; Wagner, Stefanie; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Dahdah, Lamia; Bianchini, Rodolfo; Braun, Nina; Steinborn, Ralf; Hofer, Martin; Blaschitz, Marion; Roth, Georg A; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Pacios, Luis F; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2018-01-25

    The major cow's milk allergen Bos d 5 belongs to the lipocalin protein family, with an intramolecular pocket for hydrophobic ligands. We investigated whether Bos d 5 when loaded with the active vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA), would elicit differential immune responses compared to the unloaded state. By in silico docking an affinity energy of -7.8 kcal/mol was calculated for RA into Bos d 5. Loading of RA to Bos d 5 could be achieved in vitro, as demonstrated by ANS displacement assay, but had no effect on serum IgE binding in tolerant or challenge-positive milk allergic children. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that RA binds to the immunodominant T-cell epitope region of Bos d 5. In accordance, Bos d 5 significantly suppressed the CD3+ CD4+ cell numbers, proliferative response and IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ secretion from stimulated human PBMCs only when complexed with RA. This phenomenon was neither associated with apoptosis of T-cells nor with the activation of Foxp3+ T-cells, but correlated likely with enhanced stability to lysosomal digestion due to a predicted overlap of Cathepsin S cleavage sites with the RA binding site. Taken together, proper loading of Bos d 5 with RA may suppress its immunogenicity and prevent its allergenicity.

  20. The excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist MK-801 prevents the hypersensitivity induced by spinal cord ischemia in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, J.X.; Xu, X.J.; Aldskogius, H.

    1991-08-01

    Protection by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 against transient spinal cord ischemia-induced hypersensitivity was studied in rats. The spinal ischemia was initiated by vascular occlusion resulting from the interaction between the photosensitizing dye Erythrosin B and an argon laser beam. The hypersensitivity, termed allodynia, where the animals reacted by vocalization to nonnoxious mechanical stimuli in the flank area, was consistently observed during several days after induction of the ischemia. Pretreatment with MK-801 (0.1-0.5 mg/kg, iv) 10 min before laser irradiation dose dependently prevented the occurrence of allodynia. The neuroprotective effect of MK-801 was not reduced by maintaining normal body temperaturemore » during and after irradiation. There was a significant negative correlation between the delay in the administration of MK-801 after irradiation and the protective effect of the drug. Histological examination revealed slight morphological damage in the spinal cord in 38% of control rats after 1 min of laser irradiation without pretreatment with MK-801. No morphological abnormalities were observed in rats after pretreatment with MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg). The present results provide further evidence for the involvement of excitatory amino acids, through activation of the NMDA receptor, in the development of dysfunction following ischemic trauma to the spinal cord.« less

  1. Application of hyaluronic acid/sodium alginate-based microparticles to prevent tissue adhesion in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Back, Ja Hoon; Cho, Wan Jin; Kim, Jun Ho; Park, Il Kyu; Kwon, Sung Won

    2016-04-01

    Postsurgical adhesion formation is a concern in every field of surgery. We evaluated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid/sodium alginate-based microparticle anti-adhesive agents (MP) for the prevention of postsurgical adhesion formation in a standardized rabbit model. To evaluate the anti-adhesion effect, a uterus-abdominal wall abrasion model was created in rabbits. On the surface of the injured uterus, an anti-adhesive agent, Interceed(®) or MP, was applied (positive control and study groups, respectively; n = 10 each). In another group of 10 animals, neither agent was applied (negative control group). The adhesion levels were graded 3 weeks after surgery. Acute and chronic toxicity was also evaluated. The grade of adhesion was significantly lower in the MP group than in the negative control and positive control groups. No evidence of acute or chronic toxicity induced by this material was found in blood and tissue analysis. MP shows potential as an effective novel type of resorbable biomaterial to reduce postoperative adhesion. The easy placement and handling of this material make the MP powder attractive as a tissue adhesion barrier.

  2. Partial prevention of long-term femoral bone loss in aged ovariectomized rats supplemented with choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid.

    PubMed

    Calomme, M; Geusens, P; Demeester, N; Behets, G J; D'Haese, P; Sindambiwe, J B; Van Hoof, V; Vanden Berghe, D

    2006-04-01

    Silicon (Si) deficiency in animals results in bone defects. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA) was found to have a high bioavailability compared to other Si supplements. The effect of ch-OSA supplementation was investigated on bone loss in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Wistar rats (n = 58, age 9 months) were randomized in three groups. One group was sham-operated (sham, n = 21), and bilateral OVX was performed in the other two groups. OVX rats were supplemented orally with ch-OSA over 30 weeks (OVX1, n = 20; 1 mg Si/kg body weight daily) or used as controls (OVX0, n = 17). The serum Si concentration and the 24-hour urinary Si excretion of supplemented OVX rats was significantly higher compared to sham and OVX controls. Supplementation with ch-OSA significantly but partially reversed the decrease in Ca excretion, which was observed after OVX. The increase in bone turnover in OVX rats tended to be reduced by ch-OSA supplementation. ch-OSA supplementation increased significantly the femoral bone mineral content (BMC) in the distal region and total femoral BMC in OVX rats, whereas lumbar BMC was marginally increased. Femoral BMD was significantly increased at two sites in the distal region in OVX rats supplemented with ch-OSA compared to OVX controls. Total lumbar bone mineral density was marginally increased by ch-OSA supplementation. In conclusion, ch-OSA supplementation partially prevents femoral bone loss in the aged OVX rat model.

  3. Gallic acid prevents isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis through regulation of JNK2 signaling and Smad3 binding activity

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Yuhee; Jin, Li; Kee, Hae Jin; Piao, Zhe Hao; Cho, Jae Yeong; Kim, Gwi Ran; Choi, Sin Young; Lin, Ming Quan; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid, a type of phenolic acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects in inflammation, vascular calcification, and metabolic diseases. The present study was aimed at determining the effect and regulatory mechanism of gallic acid in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by isoproterenol (ISP) in mice and primary neonatal cardiomyocytes. Gallic acid pretreatment attenuated concentric cardiac hypertrophy. It downregulated the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and beta-myosin heavy chain in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, it prevented interstitial collagen deposition and expression of fibrosis-associated genes. Upregulation of collagen type I by Smad3 overexpression was observed in cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells but not in cardiac fibroblasts. Gallic acid reduced the DNA binding activity of phosphorylated Smad3 in Smad binding sites of collagen type I promoter in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Furthermore, it decreased the ISP-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) protein in mice. JNK2 overexpression reduced collagen type I and Smad3 expression as well as GATA4 expression in H9c2 cells and cardiac fibroblasts. Gallic acid might be a novel therapeutic agent for the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis by regulating the JNK2 and Smad3 signaling pathway. PMID:27703224

  4. A novel once daily microparticulate dosage form comprising lansoprazole to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: preparation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the lansoprazole (LPZ)-loaded microparticles to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The microparticulate delivery system was prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a matrix polymer followed by enteric coated with Eudragit S100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate HP55 using spray drying method. The enteric coated microparticles were stable in gastric pH condition. In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated that enteric coated microparticles sustained release of LPZ and promoted ulcer healing activity. In other words, the microparticulate dosage form provided effective drug concentration for a longer period as compared to conventional extended release dosage form, and showed sufficient anti-acid secretion activity to treat acid related disorders including the enrichment of nocturnal acid breakthrough event based on a once daily administration.

  5. Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents selenite-induced oxidative stress and alleviates cataract formation: In vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Hui-Ping; Wei, Shu-Qin; Gao, Xiang-Chun; Yu, Nan-Nan; Hu, Wan-Zhen; Bi, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidative and anticataractogenic potential effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on selenite-induced cataract in vitro and in vivo. Methods Enucleated rat lenses were incubated in M199 medium alone (Group I), with 200 μM selenite (Group II), or with 200 μM selenite and 500 μM UDCA (Group III). Selenite was administered on the third day and UDCA treatment was from the second to the fifth day. The development of cataracts was observed under an inverted microscope. Total antioxidative capabilities (T-AOC), mean activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total sulfhydryl content were analyzed in lenticular samples. In vivo, cataracts were induced in 12-day-old pups by single subcutaneous injections of sodium selenite. The test groups received 180 mg/kg bodyweight/day of UDCA intraperitoneally on postpartum days 11–16 or 0.5% UDCA drops four times daily on postpartum days 11–25. Results In vitro, morphological examination of the lenses revealed dense vacuolization and opacification in Group II, minimal vacuolization in 12.5% of Group III, and no opacification in 87.5% of Group III. In Group I, all lenses were clear. UDCA significantly (p<0.05) restored GSH and total sulfhydryl, and decreased MDA levels. T-AOC and the mean activities of the antioxidant enzymes were elevated following treatment with UDCA. In vivo, 0.5% UDCA drops resulted in only 20% nuclear cataract development and 180 mg/kg of UDCA intraperitoneally led to 50% development, compared to 100% in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions UDCA prevents selenite toxicity and cataractogenesis by maintaining antioxidant status and GSH, protecting the sulfhydryl group, and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in lenses. PMID:22275806

  6. Randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial of omega 3 fatty acids for prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Lustberg, Maryam B; Orchard, Tonya S; Reinbolt, Raquel; Andridge, Rebecca; Pan, Xueliang; Belury, Martha; Cole, Rachel; Logan, Amanda; Layman, Rachel; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Wesolowski, Robert; Berger, Michael; Patterson, Elaine; Loprinzi, Charles; Shapiro, Charles L; Yee, Lisa

    2018-02-01

    Aromatase inhibitor (AI)-induced joint symptoms negatively impact drug adherence and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Mechanisms underlying symptoms may include inflammation. It is hypothesized that n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory properties and may reduce symptoms. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing 4.3 g/day n - 3 PUFA supplements vs placebo for 24 weeks in postmenopausal breast cancer patients starting adjuvant AIs. Primary endpoints were adherence and tolerability; secondary outcomes included inflammatory cytokines and symptoms assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory short form (BPI-SF) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment-Endocrine Symptoms (FACT-ES) at 0, 12, and 24 weeks. Forty-four women were randomized, of which 35 completed the study. Adherence was ≥ 88% based on these 35 patients with pill counts as well as change in red blood cell (RBC) n - 3 PUFAs. Common toxicities included grade 1 flatulence (55% of both groups) and belching (45% of n - 3 group). Mean pain severity scores (BPI-SF) did not change significantly by time or treatment arm. Quality of life, based on FACT-ES scores, significantly decreased within placebo (p = 0.04), but not the n - 3 group (p = 0.58), with a trend toward between-group differences (p = 0.06) at 12 weeks, but no significant differences at 24 weeks. RBC n - 3 levels were strongly positively correlated with FACT-ES at 12 weeks, but attenuated at 24 weeks. High-dose n - 3 PUFA supplementation is feasible and well tolerated when administered with AIs. Additional studies are needed to evaluate efficacy in prevention of joint symptoms.

  7. Evaluation of preventive and control measures for lead exposure in a South African lead-acid battery recycling smelter.

    PubMed

    Dyosi, Sindiswa

    2007-10-01

    In South Africa, new lead regulations released in February 2002 served as motivation for a cross-sectional study investigating the effectiveness of preventive and control measures implemented in a lead smelter that recycles lead-acid batteries. Twenty-two workers were observed and interviewed. Structured questionnaires were used to gather workers' personal information, perception about their work environment, health risks, and work practices. Retrospective data from air monitoring and medical surveillance programs were obtained from the plant's records. The smelter implemented a number of control measures for lead exposure, including engineering controls, administrative controls, and, as a last resort, personal protective equipment. Engineering controls were rated the best control measure and included local exhaust ventilation systems and wet methods. Positive pressure systems were used in the offices and laboratory. The local exhaust ventilation system was rated the best engineering control measure. Although control measures were used, areas such as smelting and refinery had average lead in air levels above 0.15 mg/m(3), the occupational exposure limit for lead. This was a concern especially with regard to the smelting area because those workers had the second highest mean blood lead levels; workers in the battery breaking area had the highest. Regular use of personal protective equipment by some workers in the "lead exposure zones" was not observed. Although the mean blood lead levels had been below 40 micro g/dL for more than 90% of the workers since 2001, more than 70% of workers reported concerns about their health while working in the smelter. Even though control measures were implemented, they were not adequate because in some areas lead in air exceeded the occupational exposure limit. Therefore, improvement of existing measures and regular monitoring of personal protective equipment use were included in the recommendations given to the smelter.

  8. Ammonia-induced oxidative damage in neurons is prevented by resveratrol and lipoic acid with participation of heme oxygenase 1.

    PubMed

    Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Flores, Marianne Pires; Leite, Marina Concli; Quincozes-Santos, André; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia is a metabolite that, at high concentrations, is implicated in neurological disorders, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE), which is associated with acute or chronic liver failure. Astrocytes are considered the primary target of ammonia toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS) because glutamine synthetase (GS), responsible for ammonia metabolism in CNS, is an astrocytic enzyme. Thus, neuronal dysfunction has been associated as secondary to astrocytic impairment. However, we demonstrated that ammonia can induce direct effects on neuronal cells. The cell viability was decreased by ammonia in SH-SY5Y cells and cerebellar granule neurons. In addition, ammonia induced increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased GSH intracellular content, the main antioxidant in CNS. As ammonia neurotoxicity is strongly associated with oxidative stress, we also investigated the potential neuroprotective roles of the antioxidants, resveratrol (RSV) and lipoic acid (LA), against ammonia toxicity in cerebellar granule neurons. RSV and LA were able to prevent the oxidative damage induced by ammonia, maintaining the levels of ROS production and GSH close to basal values. Both antioxidants also decreased ROS production and increased GSH content under basal conditions (in the absence of ammonia). Moreover, we showed that heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), a protein associated with protection against stress conditions, is involved in the beneficial effects of RSV and LA in cerebellar granule neurons. Thus, this study reinforces the neuroprotective effects of RSV and LA. Although more studies in vivo are required, RSV and LA could represent interesting therapeutic strategies for the management of HE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. S-adenosyl methionine prevents ASD like behaviors triggered by early postnatal valproic acid exposure in very young mice.

    PubMed

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Tfilin, Matanel; Ergaz, Zivanit; Yanai, Joseph; Szyf, Moshe; Turgeman, Gadi

    2018-01-16

    A common animal model of ASD is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA), inducing epigenetic changes and oxidative stress. We studied the possible preventive effect of the methyl donor for epigenetic enzymatic reactions, S-adenosine methionine (SAM), on ASD like behavioral changes and on redox potential in the brain and liver in this model. ICR albino mice were injected on postnatal day 4 with one dose of 300 mg/kg of VPA, with normal saline (controls) or with VPA and SAM that was given orally for 3 days at the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. From day 50, we carried out neurobehavioral tests and assessment of the antioxidant status of the prefrontal cerebral cortex, liver assessing SOD and CAT activity, lipid peroxidation and the expression of antioxidant genes. Mice injected with VPA exhibited neurobehavioral deficits typical of ASD that were more prominent in males. Changes in the activity of SOD and CAT increased lipid peroxidation and changes in the expression of antioxidant genes were observed in the prefrontal cortex of VPA treated mice, more prominent in females, while ASD like behavior was more prominent in males. There were no changes in the redox potential of the liver. The co-administration of VPA and SAM alleviated most ASD like neurobehavioral symptoms and normalized the redox potential in the prefrontal cortex. Early postnatal VPA administration induces ASD like behavior that is more severe in males, while the redox status changes are more severe in females; SAM corrects both. VPA-induced ASD seems to result from epigenetic changes, while the redox status changes may be secondary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Inhibition of NF-κB prevents the acidic bile-induced oncogenic mRNA phenotype, in human hypopharyngeal cells

    PubMed Central

    Vageli, Dimitra P.; Doukas, Sotirios G.; Sasaki, Clarence T.

    2018-01-01

    Bile-containing gastro-duodenal reflux has been clinically considered an independent risk factor in hypopharyngeal carcinogenesis. We recently showed that the chronic effect of acidic bile, at pH 4.0, selectively induces NF-κB activation and accelerates the transcriptional levels of genes, linked to head and neck cancer, in normal hypopharyngeal epithelial cells. Here, we hypothesize that NF-κB inhibition is capable of preventing the acidic bile-induced and cancer-related mRNA phenotype, in treated normal human hypopharyngeal cells. In this setting we used BAY 11-7082, a specific and well documented pharmacologic inhibitor of NF-κB, and we observed that BAY 11-7082 effectively inhibits the acidic bile-induced gene expression profiling of the NF-κB signaling pathway (down-regulation of 72 out of 84 analyzed genes). NF-κB inhibition significantly prevents the acidic bile-induced transcriptional activation of NF-κB transcriptional factors, RELA (p65) and c-REL, as well as genes related to and commonly found in established HNSCC cell lines. These include anti-apoptotic bcl-2, oncogenic STAT3, EGFR, ∆Np63, TNF-α and WNT5A, as well as cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. Our findings are consistent with our hypothesis demonstrating that NF-κB inhibition effectively prevents the acidic bile-induced cancer-related mRNA phenotype in normal human hypopharyngeal epithelial cells supporting an understanding that NF-κB may be a critical link between acidic bile and early preneoplastic events in this setting. PMID:29464041

  11. Preventive effect of a high fluoride toothpaste and arginine-carbonate toothpaste on dentinal tubules exposure followed by acid challenge: a dentine permeability evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Considering the current high use of high fluoride toothpastes, the aim of the study was to quantify alterations in the root dentine permeability submitted to treatment with a high fluoride toothpaste and 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste as a preventive treatment for dentinal tubules exposure followed by acid challenge. Methods Thirty-third molars were sectioned below the cementoenamel. The root segments were connected to a hydraulic pressure apparatus to measure dentine permeability after the following sequential steps (n = 10 per group): I) Baseline; II) treatment with phosphoric acid for 30 s (maximum permeability); III) Toothbrushing (1 min) according to the experimental groups (G1- control; G2- 5000 ppm fluoride toothpaste; G3- 8% arginine-calcium carbonate toothpaste); IV) acid challenge for 5 min (orange juice). The data were converted into percentage, considering stage II as 100%. Results The results have shown a statistically significant decreasing on dentine permeability after treatment with toothpaste (Friedman test and Dunn’s post hoc test). Comparison among groups demonstrated a high increasing on dentine permeability when acid challenge was performed after toothbrushing with distilled water (control group) (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post hoc test). Conclusion The toothpaste treatment may provide sufficient resistance on dentine surface, preventing dentinal tubules exposure after acid challenge. PMID:24958423

  12. Gradual cessation of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment may prevent rebound acid secretion, measured by the alkaline tide method, in dyspepsia and reflux patients.

    PubMed

    Niv, Yaron

    2011-09-01

    Gastro esophageal reflux disease and ulcer related or non-ulcer dyspepsia, attacks 20% of the Western population. These millions of patients are treated continuously with PPI for different periods, many for many years. Recently, rebound acid hypersecretion was recognized as a major clinical event after cessation of PPI therapy. Sustained hypergastrinemia due to daily PPI therapy causes increased acid-secretory capacity that appears when the drug is stopped. The transient increase in blood and urinary pH following gastric secretion has been termed the alkaline tide phenomenon. Carbonic acid, formed in the presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, neutralizes intracellular hydroxyl ions produced as a result of luminal acid secretion. The bicarbonate generated is removed from the cell via the baso-lateral chloride bicarbonate exchanger. We have shown in several studies that this phenomenon parallels acid secretion. Thus, stimulation of acid secretion with test meal increased base excess maximally after 45 min and these changes parallel peak acid output measured in gastric aspirate. We hypothesize that gradual step down cessation of PPI will prevent this clinical relevant event. By measuring alkaline tide after PPI cessation we may prove this hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of mechanochemical modification on prevention of toxic ability of humic acids towards phenanthrene in aquatic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhovtsova, N. S.; Maltseva, E. V.; Glyzina, T. S.; Ovchinnikova, I. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the research work is to quantify interaction between phenanthrene with modified humic acids in aquatic environment. The changes in the structure and properties of humic acids after modifications were studied with 1H NMR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration methods. Our research demonstrates that the application of thiourea as a modified agent increases the binding capacity of humic acids towards phenanthrene.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status.

    PubMed

    Hofacer, Rylon; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Magrisso, I Jack; Benoit, Stephen C; McNamara, Robert K

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would normalize this response. Adult rats fed the n-3-free diet during perinatal development exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte, liver, and frontal cortex LCn-3 fatty acid composition and reciprocal elevations in LC omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition compared with controls (CONs) and repleted rats. Liver Fads2, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5, mRNA expression was significantly greater in n-3-deficient (DEF) rats compared with CONs and was partially normalized in repleted rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, an index of delta6-desturase activity, was significantly greater in DEF rats compared with CON and repleted rats and was positively correlated with Fads2 mRNA expression among all rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, but not Fads2 mRNA expression, was also positively correlated with erythrocyte and frontal cortex LCn-6 fatty acid compositions. Neither Fads1 or Fads2 mRNA expression was altered in brain cortex of DEF rats. These results confirm previous findings that liver, but not brain, delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices are negatively regulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Low permeability to oxygen of a new barrier film prevents butyric acid bacteria spore formation in farm corn silage.

    PubMed

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E

    2008-11-01

    The outgrowth of Clostridium spore-forming bacteria causes late blowing in cheeses. Recently, the role of air diffusion during storage and feed-out and the role of aerobic deterioration has been shown to indirectly favor butyric acid bacteria (BAB) growth and to determine the presence of high concentrations of BAB spores in farm tank milk. A new oxygen barrier (OB) film was tested and compared with conventional polyethylene (ST). The objective was to verify whether the OB film could prevent BAB spore formation in whole-crop corn silage during storage on 2 commercial farms with different potential silage spoilage risks. Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts along the length so that half the feed-out face would be covered with ST film and the other half with OB film. Plastic net bags with freshly chopped corn were buried in the upper layer and in the central part (CORE) of the bunkers. The silos were opened in summer and fed out at different removal rates (19 vs. 33 cm/d). Herbage at ensiling, silage at unloading, and silage after air exposure (6 and 15 d) were analyzed for pH, nitrate, BAB spores, yeasts, and molds. The BAB spores in herbages at ensiling were 2.84 log(10) most probable number (MPN)/g, with no differences between treatments or farms. Nitrate was below the detection limit on farm 1 and exceeded 2,300 mg/kg of fresh matter on farm 2. At unloading, the BAB spores in the ST silage on farm 1 were greater than 5 log(10) MPN/g, whereas in the CORE and the OB silages, they were approximately 2 log(10) MPN/g. The ST silage had the greatest pH (5.89), the greatest mold count (5.07 log(10) cfu/g), and the greatest difference between silage temperature and ambient temperature (dT(section-ambient)). On farm 2, the ST silage had the greatest concentration of BAB spores (2.19 log(10) MPN/g), the greatest pH (4.05), and the least nitrate concentration compared with the CORE and the OB silages. Pooled data on BAB spores collected from aerobically

  16. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghyun; Jo, Kyuhyung; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kim, Chan-Sik; Kim, Jin Sook

    2016-01-01

    Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE) against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling)-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs) binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells. PMID:27657123

  17. Prospective Randomized Trial of Enoxaparin, Pentoxifylline and Ursodeoxycholic Acid for Prevention of Radiation-Induced Liver Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Seidensticker, Max; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Damm, Robert; Mohnike, Konrad; Pech, Maciej; Sangro, Bruno; Hass, Peter; Wust, Peter; Kropf, Siegfried; Gademann, Günther; Ricke, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Targeted radiotherapy of liver malignancies has found to be effective in selected patients. A key limiting factor of these therapies is the relatively low tolerance of the liver parenchyma to radiation. We sought to assess the preventive effects of a combined regimen of pentoxifylline (PTX), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and low-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on focal radiation-induced liver injury (fRILI). Methods and Materials Patients with liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma who were scheduled for local ablation by radiotherapy (image-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy) were prospectively randomized to receive PTX, UDCA and LMWH for 8 weeks (treatment) or no medication (control). Focal RILI at follow-up was assessed using functional hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A minimal threshold dose, i.e. the dose to which the outer rim of the fRILI was formerly exposed to, was quantified by merging MRI and dosimetry data. Results Results from an intended interim-analysis made a premature termination necessary. Twenty-two patients were included in the per-protocol analysis. Minimal mean hepatic threshold dose 6 weeks after radiotherapy (primary endpoint) was significantly higher in the study treatment-group compared with the control (19.1 Gy versus 14.6 Gy, p = 0.011). Qualitative evidence of fRILI by MRI at 6 weeks was observed in 45.5% of patients in the treatment versus 90.9% of the control group. No significant differences between the groups were observed at the 12-week follow-up. Conclusions The post-therapeutic application of PTX, UDCA and low-dose LMWH significantly reduced the extent and incidence fRILI at 6 weeks after radiotherapy. The development of subsequent fRILI at 12 weeks (4 weeks after cessation of PTX, UDCA and LMWH during weeks 1–8) in the treatment group was comparable to the control group thus supporting the observation that the agents mitigated fRILI. Trial Registration EU clinical

  18. Long Chain Fatty Acid Acylated Derivatives of Quercetin-3-O-Glucoside as Antioxidants to Prevent Lipid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N.; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H.P. Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA), oleic acid (OLA), linoleic acid (LNA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL), in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G. PMID:25384198

  19. Long chain fatty acid acylated derivatives of quercetin-3-o-glucoside as antioxidants to prevent lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-11-06

    Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA), oleic acid (OLA), linoleic acid (LNA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL), in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G.

  20. Iso-α-acids, Bitter Components of Beer, Prevent Inflammation and Cognitive Decline Induced in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Dohata, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Hoshi, Ayaka; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Takashima, Akihiko; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-03

    Alongside the rapid growth in aging populations worldwide, prevention and therapy for age-related memory decline and dementia are in great demand to maintain a long, healthy life. Here we found that iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter compounds in beer, enhance microglial phagocytosis and suppress inflammation via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In normal mice, oral administration of iso-α-acids led to a significant increase both in CD11b and CD206 double-positive anti-inflammatory type microglia ( p < 0.05) and in microglial phagocytosis in the brain. In Alzheimer's model 5xFAD mice, oral administration of iso-α-acids resulted in a 21% reduction in amyloid β in the cerebral cortex as observed by immunohistochemical analysis, a significant reduction in inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and chemokines including macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in the cerebral cortex ( p < 0.05) and a significant improvement in a novel object recognition test ( p < 0.05), as compared with control-fed 5xFAD mice. The differences in iso-α-acid-fed mice were due to the induction of microglia to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. The present study is the first to report that amyloid β deposition and inflammation are suppressed in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by a single component, iso-α-acids, via the regulation of microglial activation. The suppression of neuroinflammation and improvement in cognitive function suggests that iso-α-acids contained in beer may be useful for the prevention of dementia. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Iso-α-acids, Bitter Components of Beer, Prevent Inflammation and Cognitive Decline Induced in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Dohata, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Hoshi, Ayaka; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Takashima, Akihiko; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Alongside the rapid growth in aging populations worldwide, prevention and therapy for age-related memory decline and dementia are in great demand to maintain a long, healthy life. Here we found that iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter compounds in beer, enhance microglial phagocytosis and suppress inflammation via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In normal mice, oral administration of iso-α-acids led to a significant increase both in CD11b and CD206 double-positive anti-inflammatory type microglia (p < 0.05) and in microglial phagocytosis in the brain. In Alzheimer's model 5xFAD mice, oral administration of iso-α-acids resulted in a 21% reduction in amyloid β in the cerebral cortex as observed by immunohistochemical analysis, a significant reduction in inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and chemokines including macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in the cerebral cortex (p < 0.05) and a significant improvement in a novel object recognition test (p < 0.05), as compared with control-fed 5xFAD mice. The differences in iso-α-acid-fed mice were due to the induction of microglia to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. The present study is the first to report that amyloid β deposition and inflammation are suppressed in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by a single component, iso-α-acids, via the regulation of microglial activation. The suppression of neuroinflammation and improvement in cognitive function suggests that iso-α-acids contained in beer may be useful for the prevention of dementia. PMID:28087694

  2. Acetylsalicylic Acid Compared to Placebo in Treating High-Risk Patients With Subsolid Lung Nodules | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies acetylsalicylic acid compared to placebo in treating high-risk patients with subsolid lung nodules. A nodule is a growth or lump that may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Chemoprevention is the use of drugs to keep cancer from forming or coming back. The use of acetylsalicylic acid may keep cancer from forming in patients

  3. Potential for Dietary ω-3 Fatty Acids to Prevent Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Reduce the Risk of Primary Liver Cancer123

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B; Depner, Christopher M; Tripathy, Sasmita; Lytle, Kelli A

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in parallel with central obesity, and its prevalence is anticipated to increase as the obesity epidemic remains unabated. NAFLD is now the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and is defined as excessive lipid accumulation in the liver, that is, hepatosteatosis. NAFLD ranges in severity from benign fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and NASH is characterized by hepatic injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. NASH can progress to cirrhosis, and cirrhosis is a risk factor for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevention of NASH will lower the risk of cirrhosis and NASH-associated HCC. Our studies have focused on NASH prevention. We developed a model of NASH by using mice with the LDL cholesterol receptor gene ablated fed the Western diet (WD). The WD induces a NASH phenotype in these mice that is similar to that seen in humans and includes robust induction of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. With the use of transcriptomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic approaches, we examined the capacity of 2 dietary ω-3 (n–3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω-3; DHA), to prevent WD-induced NASH. Dietary DHA was superior to EPA at attenuating WD-induced changes in plasma lipids and hepatic injury and at reversing WD effects on hepatic metabolism, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. The outcome of these studies suggests that DHA may be useful in preventing NASH and reducing the risk of HCC. PMID:26567194

  4. Optimal conjugation of catechol group onto hyaluronic acid in coronary stent substrate coating for the prevention of restenosis.

    PubMed

    Lih, Eugene; Choi, Seul Gi; Ahn, Dong June; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2016-01-01

    Although endovascular stenting has been used as an interventional therapy to treat cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases, it is associated with recurrent vascular diseases following stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. In this study, a metallic stent was coated with dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid with different ratios of catechol group to improve hemocompatibility and re-endothelialization. Especially, we were interested in how much amount of catechol group is appropriate for the above-mentioned purposes. Therefore, a series of dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid conjugates with different ratios of catechol group were synthesized via a carbodiimide coupling reaction. Dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid conjugates were characterized with 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the amount of catechol group in dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid was measured by ultraviolet spectrometer. Co-Cr substrates were polished and coated with various dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid conjugates under pH 8.5. Dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid amounts on the substrate were quantified by micro-bicinchoninic acid assay. Surface characteristics of dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic-acid-coated Co-Cr were evaluated by water contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The hemocompatibility of the surface-modified substrates was assessed by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion tests. Adhesion and activation of platelets were confirmed with scanning electron microscopy and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured on the substrates, and the viability, adhesion, and proliferation were investigated through cell counting kit-8 assay and fluorescent images. Obtained results demonstrated that optimal amounts of catechol group (100 µmol) in the dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid existed in terms of various properties such as hemocompatibility and cellular responses.

  5. Topical Hyaluronic acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis after Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Oh, Julia L.; Arriaga, Lisa; Munsell, Mark F.; Kelly, Patrick; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Yu, T. Kuan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of ≥ grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation (RT) compared with best supportive care. Materials and Methods Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast RT to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel, on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast, and the control gel to the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of ≥grade 2 dermatitis. Results The study closed early based on a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed significantly higher rate of ≥grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel (61.5% [40/65] vs. 47.7% [31/65], P = 0.027). Only one patient developed grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than petrolatum gel at the end of RT (42% vs. 14%, P = 0.003). Conclusion We found no benefit from use of a topical hyaluronic acid-based gel for reducing the development of grade ≥2 dermatitis after adjuvant RT for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop. PMID:22172912

  6. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A randomized controlled experimental study of the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid for the prevention of adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model.

    PubMed

    Oz, Murat; Cetinkaya, Nilufer; Bas, Sevda; Korkmaz, Elmas; Ozgu, Emre; Terzioglu, Gokay Serdar; Buyukkagnici, Umran; Akbay, Serap; Caydere, Muzaffer; Gungor, Tayfun

    2016-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been known to possess an efficacy in tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PRP on post-operative adhesion formation in an experimental rat study. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, hyaluronic acid, and PRP treatment groups and operated on for uterine horn adhesion modeling. Blood was collected to produce a PRP with platelet counts of 688 × 10(3)/μL, and 1 ml of either hyaluronic acid gel or PRP was administered over the standard lesions, while the control group received no medication. The evaluation of post-operative adhesions was done on the 30th post-operative day. The location, extent, type, and tenacity of adhesions as well as total adhesion scores, tissue inflammation, fibrosis and transforming growth factor-1beta (TGF-1β) expressions were evaluated. The total adhesion score was significantly lower in the PRP group (3.2 ± 1.5) compared with the hyaluronic acid (5.0 ± 1.3) and control (8.1 ± 1.7) groups. The extent of the adhesions was significantly lower in the PRP group. There was no significant difference in the type and tenacity of adhesions between the hyaluronic acid and the PRP group. The level of inflammation was significantly higher in the control group than the others, while there was no difference between the PRP and hyaluronic acid groups. TGF-1β expression was significantly lesser in the PRP group than the control and hyaluronic acid groups. PRP is more effective than hyaluronic acid treatment in preventing post-operative adhesion formation in an experimental rat uterine horn adhesion model.

  8. Efficacy of folic acid therapy in primary prevention of stroke among adults with hypertension in China: the CSPPT randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yong; Li, Jianping; Qin, Xianhui; Huang, Yining; Wang, Xiaobin; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Binyan; Chen, Dafang; He, Mingli; Fu, Jia; Cai, Yefeng; Shi, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Yimin; Sun, Ningling; Li, Xiaoying; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Jian'an; Yang, Xinchun; Yang, Tianlun; Xiao, Chuanshi; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Qiang; Zhu, Dingliang; Wang, Xian; Ge, Junbo; Zhao, Lianyou; Hu, Dayi; Liu, Lisheng; Hou, Fan Fan

    2015-04-07

    Uncertainty remains about the efficacy of folic acid therapy for the primary prevention of stroke because of limited and inconsistent data. To test the primary hypothesis that therapy with enalapril and folic acid is more effective in reducing first stroke than enalapril alone among Chinese adults with hypertension. The China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, a randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted from May 19, 2008, to August 24, 2013, in 32 communities in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in China. A total of 20,702 adults with hypertension without history of stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) participated in the study. Eligible participants, stratified by MTHFR C677T genotypes (CC, CT, and TT), were randomly assigned to receive double-blind daily treatment with a single-pill combination containing enalapril, 10 mg, and folic acid, 0.8 mg (n = 10,348) or a tablet containing enalapril, 10 mg, alone (n = 10,354). The primary outcome was first stroke. Secondary outcomes included first ischemic stroke; first hemorrhagic stroke; MI; a composite of cardiovascular events consisting of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke; and all-cause death. During a median treatment duration of 4.5 years, compared with the enalapril alone group, the enalapril-folic acid group had a significant risk reduction in first stroke (2.7% of participants in the enalapril-folic acid group vs 3.4% in the enalapril alone group; hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93), first ischemic stroke (2.2% with enalapril-folic acid vs 2.8% with enalapril alone; HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64-0.91), and composite cardiovascular events consisting of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke (3.1% with enalapril-folic acid vs 3.9% with enalapril alone; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69-0.92). The risks of hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.65-1.34), MI (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.60-1.82), and all-cause deaths (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.81-1.10) did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment groups. There were no

  9. Chlorpromazine-induced perturbations of bile acids and free fatty acids in cholestatic liver injury prevented by the Chinese herbal compound Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiaoling; Yang, Fan; Tang, Xiaowen; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ying; Xiong, Yinhua; Wang, Zhengtao; Yang, Li

    2015-04-16

    Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT), a commonly used as a traditional chinese medicine for liver disease. Several studies indicated that YCHT may improving hepatic triglyceride metabolism and anti-apoptotic response as well as decreasing oxidative stress .However, little is known about the role of YCHT in chlorpromazine (CPZ) -induced chlolestatic liver injury. Therefore, we aimed to facilitate the understanding of the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver injury and evaluate the effect of Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) on chlorpromazine (CPZ)-induced cholestatic liver injury in rats based on the change of bile acids (BAs) and free fatty acids (FFAs) alone with the biochemical indicators and histological examination. We conducted an experiment on CPZ-induced cholestatic liver injury in Wistar rats with and without YCHT for nine consecutive days. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TBIL), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured to evaluate the protective effect of YCHT against chlorpromazine (CPZ)-induced cholestatic liver injury. Histopathology of the liver tissue showed that pathological injuries were relieved after YCHT pretreatment. In addition, ultra-performance lipid chromatography coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to determine the content of bile acids, free fatty acids, respectively. Obtained data showed that YCHT attenuated the effect of CPZ-induced cholestatic liver injury, which was manifested by the serum biochemical parameters and histopathology of the liver tissue. YCHT regulated the lipid levels as indicated by the reversed serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C. YCHT also regulated the disorder of BA and FFA metabolism by CPZ induction. Results indicated that YCHT exerted a protective effect on CPZ-induced cholestasis liver injury. The variance of

  10. Preventing AVF thrombosis: the rationale and design of the Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED) study.

    PubMed

    Irish, Ashley; Dogra, Gursharan; Mori, Trevor; Beller, Elaine; Heritier, Stephane; Hawley, Carmel; Kerr, Peter; Robertson, Amanda; Rosman, Johan; Paul-Brent, Peta-Anne; Starfield, Melissa; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Cass, Alan

    2009-01-21

    Haemodialysis (HD) is critically dependent on the availability of adequate access to the systemic circulation, ideally via a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The Primary failure rate of an AVF ranges between 20-54%, due to thrombosis or failure of maturation. There remains limited evidence for the use of anti-platelet agents and uncertainty as to choice of agent(s) for the prevention of AVF thrombosis. We present the study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial examining whether the use of the anti-platelet agents, aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids, either alone or in combination, will effectively reduce the risk of early thrombosis in de novo AVF. The study population is adult patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD) currently on HD or where HD is planned to start within 6 months in whom a planned upper or lower arm AVF is to be the primary HD access. Using a factorial-design trial, patients will be randomised to aspirin or matching placebo, and also to omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo, resulting in four treatment groups (aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid). Randomisation will be achieved using a dynamic balancing method over the two stratification factors of study site and upper versus lower arm AVF. The medication will be commenced pre-operatively and continued for 3 months post surgery. The primary outcome is patency of the AVF at three months after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will include functional patency at six and twelve months, primary patency time, secondary (assisted) patency time, and adverse events, particularly bleeding. This multicentre Australian and New Zealand study has been designed to determine whether the outcome of surgery to create de novo AVF can be improved by the use of aspirin and/or omega-3 fatty acids. Recently a placebo-controlled trial has shown that

  11. Beyond the role of dietary protein and amino acids in the prevention of diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Petzke, Klaus J; Freudenberg, Anne; Klaus, Susanne

    2014-01-20

    High-protein diets have been shown to prevent the development of diet-induced obesity and can improve associated metabolic disorders in mice. Dietary leucine supplementation can partially mimic this effect. However, the molecular mechanisms triggering these preventive effects remain to be satisfactorily explained. Here we review studies showing a connection between high protein or total amino nitrogen intake and obligatory water intake. High amino nitrogen intake may possibly lower lipid storage, and prevent insulin resistance. Suggestions are made for further systematical studies to explore the relationship between water consumption, satiety, and energy expenditure. Moreover, these examinations should better distinguish between leucine-specific and unspecific effects. Research in this field can provide important information to justify dietary recommendations and strategies in promoting long-term weight loss and may help to reduce health problems associated with the comorbidities of obesity.

  12. Oleanolic acid and its synthetic derivatives for the prevention and therapy of cancer: Preclinical and clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Muthu K.; Dai, Xiaoyun; Kumar, Alan Prem; Tan, Benny KH; Sethi, Gautam; Bishayee, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA, 3β-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid) is a ubiquitous pentacyclic multifunctional triterpenoid, widely found in several dietary and medicinal plants. Natural and synthetic OA derivatives can modulate multiple signaling pathways including nuclear factor-κB, AKT, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, mammalian target of rapamycin, caspases, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a variety of tumor cells. Importantly, synthetic derivative of OA, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), and its C-28 methyl ester (CDDO-Me) and C28 imidazole (CDDO-Im) have demonstrated potent antiangiogenic and antitumor activities in rodent cancer models. These agents are presently under evaluation in phase I studies in cancer patients. This review summarizes the diverse molecular targets of OA and its derivatives and also provides clear evidence on their promising potential in preclinical and clinical situations. PMID:24486850

  13. Enteral diets enriched with medium-chain triglycerides and N-3 fatty acids prevent chemically induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Ogiku, Masahito; Tsuchiya, Masato; Ishii, Kenichi; Hara, Michio

    2010-11-01

    The specific purpose of this study was to evaluate the significant effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and N-3 fatty acids on chemically induced experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed liquid diets enriched with N-6 fatty acid (control diets), N-3 fatty acid (MCT- diets), and N-3 fatty acid and MCT (MCT+ diets) for 2 weeks and then were given an intracolonic injection of TNBS. Serum and tissue samples were collected 5 days after ethanol or TNBS enema. The severity of colitis was evaluated pathologically, and tissue myeloperoxidase activity was measured in colonic tissues. Furthermore, protein levels for inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in colonic tissues. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the colon by TNBS enema was markedly attenuated by the MCT+ diet among the 3 diets studied. Furthermore, the induction of chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 also was blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets. As a result, MPO activities in the colonic tissue also were blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets compared with those fed the control diets or the MCT- diets. Furthermore, the MCT+ diet improved chemically induced colitis significantly among the 3 diets studied. Diets enriched with both MCTs and N-3 fatty acids may be effective for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease as antiinflammatory immunomodulating nutrients. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Depression: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD. Low erythrocyte EPA+DHA composition may also be associated with increased risk for suicide and cardiovascular disease, two primary causes of excess premature mortality in MDD. While controversial, dietary EPA+DHA supplementation may have antidepressant properties and may augment the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant medications. Neuroimaging and rodent neurodevelopmental studies further suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid intake or biostatus can recapitulate central pathophysiological features associated with MDD. Prospective findings suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus increases risk for depressive symptoms in part by augmenting pro-inflammatory responsivity. When taken collectively, these translational findings provide a strong empirical foundation in support of dietary LCn-3 fatty acid deficiency as a modifiable risk factor for MDD. This review provides an overview of this translational evidence and then discusses future directions including strategies to translate this evidence into routine clinical screening and treatment algorithms. PMID:27766299

  15. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded single-site control study comparing blood loss prevention of tranexamic acid (TXA) to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) for corrective spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kushagra; Errico, Thomas J; Vaz, Kenneth M; Lonner, Baron S

    2010-04-06

    Multilevel spinal fusion surgery has typically been associated with significant blood loss. To limit both the need for transfusions and co-morbidities associated with blood loss, the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents has been proposed. While there is some literature comparing the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) in cardiac procedures, there is currently no literature directly comparing TXA to EACA in orthopedic surgery. Here we propose a prospective, randomized, double-blinded control study evaluating the effects of TXA, EACA, and placebo for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS), and adult deformity (AD) via corrective spinal surgery. Efficacy will be determined by intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. Other clinical outcomes that will be compared include transfusion rates, preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic values, and length of hospital stay after the procedure. The primary goal of the study is to determine perioperative blood loss as a measure of the efficacy of TXA, EACA, and placebo. Based on current literature and the mechanism by which the medications act, we hypothesize that TXA will be more effective at reducing blood loss than EACA or placebo and result in improved patient outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00958581.

  16. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded single-site control study comparing blood loss prevention of tranexamic acid (TXA) to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) for corrective spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Multilevel spinal fusion surgery has typically been associated with significant blood loss. To limit both the need for transfusions and co-morbidities associated with blood loss, the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents has been proposed. While there is some literature comparing the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) in cardiac procedures, there is currently no literature directly comparing TXA to EACA in orthopedic surgery. Methods/Design Here we propose a prospective, randomized, double-blinded control study evaluating the effects of TXA, EACA, and placebo for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS), and adult deformity (AD) via corrective spinal surgery. Efficacy will be determined by intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. Other clinical outcomes that will be compared include transfusion rates, preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic values, and length of hospital stay after the procedure. Discussion The primary goal of the study is to determine perioperative blood loss as a measure of the efficacy of TXA, EACA, and placebo. Based on current literature and the mechanism by which the medications act, we hypothesize that TXA will be more effective at reducing blood loss than EACA or placebo and result in improved patient outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00958581 PMID:20370916

  17. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Takaaki, E-mail: hasegawat@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) aftermore » injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.« less

  18. Arsenic is associated with reduced effect of folic acid in myelomeningocele prevention: a case control study in Bangladesh

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Arsenic induces neural tube defects in several animal models, but its potential to cause neural tube defects in humans is unknown. Our objective was to investigate the associations between maternal arsenic exposure, periconceptional folic acid supplementation, and risk of posterior neura...

  19. Does a high dietary acid content cause bone loss, and can bone loss be prevented with an alkaline diet?

    PubMed

    Hanley, David A; Whiting, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    A popular concept in nutrition and lay literature is that of the role of a diet high in acid or protein in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. A diet rich in fruit and vegetable intake is thought to enhance bone health as the result of its greater potassium and lower "acidic" content than a diet rich in animal protein and sodium. Consequently, there have been a number of studies of diet manipulation to enhance potassium and "alkaline" content of the diet to improve bone density or other parameters of bone health. Although acid loading or an acidic diet featuring a high protein intake may be associated with an increase in calciuria, the evidence supporting a role of these variables in the development of osteoporosis is not consistent. Similarly, intervention studies with a more alkaline diet or use of supplements of potassium citrate or bicarbonate have not consistently shown a bone health benefit. In the elderly, inadequate protein intake is a greater problem for bone health than protein excess. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cryopreservation prevents iron-initiated highly unsaturated fatty acid loss during storage of human blood on chromatography paper at -20°C.

    PubMed

    Metherel, Adam H; Stark, Ken D

    2015-03-01

    Fingertip prick whole blood collection on chromatography paper is amenable to high-throughput fatty acid (FA) profiling for large clinical and field studies. However, sample storage is problematic because highly unsaturated FAs (HUFAs) in erythrocytes rapidly degrade in samples stored at -20°C. The aim of the current study was to determine the mechanism of HUFA degradation and to develop prevention protocols. Free fatty acid (FFA) standards and whole blood reference material from a single participant were used to examine sample storage at -20°C for up to 90 d in triplicate. Iron chelation with deferoxamine (0-5000 μg), antioxidant protection with butylated hydroxytoluene (50 μg), cryopreservation with glycerol, and blood drying were examined using whole blood on chromatography strips. Biological replicate blood samples from additional participants (n = 6) with a range of ω-3 (n-3) HUFA concentrations were similarly assessed. FFAs were relatively stable when stored on chromatography strips at -20°C. Glycerol treatment prevented HUFA degradation in whole blood reference material for 30 d (45 ± 0.4 to 46.8 ± 0.1, means ± SDs) compared to untreated saline controls (45.9 ± 1.0 to 6.8 ± 0.2). Pretreatment of paper for blood spots with deferoxamine and drying blood before storage slowed, but not entirely prevented, HUFA degradation over 30 d to 22% and 19% below baseline, respectively, compared to 86-92% in the controls. Protection against HUFA degradation with blood drying and glycerol treatment was confirmed in the biological replicate study and confirmed by prevention of cell lysis. HUFA degradation during storage at -20°C appears to be due to hemolysis and subsequent iron-initiated peroxidation. This degradation may be prevented by glycerol, iron chelation, and/or dried blood spotting. A more thorough understanding of methods to prevent degradation during storage is critical with increasing use of FA profiling in large clinical studies. © 2015 American

  1. Hydroxy decenoic acid down regulates gtfB and gtfC expression and prevents Streptococcus mutans adherence to the cell surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid is the most active and unique component to the royal jelly that has antimicrobial properties. Streptococcus mutans is associated with pathogenesis of oral cavity, gingivoperiodontal diseases and bacteremia following dental manipulations. In the oral cavity, S. mutans colonize the soft tissues including tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa. When considering the role of supragingival dental plaque in caries, the proportion of acid producing bacteria (particularly S. mutans), has direct relevance to the pathogenicity of the plaque. The genes that encode glucosyltransferases (gtfs) especially gtfB and gtfC are important in S. mutans colonization and pathogenesis. This study investigated the hydroxy-decenoic acid (HDA) effects on gtfB and gtfC expression and S. mutans adherence to cells surfaces. Methods Streptococcus mutans was treated by different concentrations of HPLC purified HDA supplied by Iran Beekeeping and Veterinary Association. Real time RT-PCR and western blot assays were conducted to evaluate gtfB and gtfC genes transcription and translation before and after HDA treatment. The bacterial attachment to the cell surfaces was evaluated microscopically. Results 500 μg ml-1 of HDA inhibited gtfB and gtfC mRNA transcription and its expression. The same concentration of HDA decreased 60% the adherence of S. mutans to the surface of P19 cells. Conclusion Hydroxy-decenoic acid prevents gtfB and gtfC expression efficiently in the bactericide sub-concentrations and it could effectively reduce S. mutans adherence to the cell surfaces. In the future, therapeutic approaches to affecting S. mutans could be selective and it’s not necessary to put down the oral flora completely. PMID:22839724

  2. Hydroxy decenoic acid down regulates gtfB and gtfC expression and prevents Streptococcus mutans adherence to the cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Behnam; Ghaderi, Shahrooz; Rezapoor-Lactooyi, Alireza; Amiri, Niusha; Verdi, Javad; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza

    2012-07-28

    10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid is the most active and unique component to the royal jelly that has antimicrobial properties. Streptococcus mutans is associated with pathogenesis of oral cavity, gingivoperiodontal diseases and bacteremia following dental manipulations. In the oral cavity, S. mutans colonize the soft tissues including tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa. When considering the role of supragingival dental plaque in caries, the proportion of acid producing bacteria (particularly S. mutans), has direct relevance to the pathogenicity of the plaque. The genes that encode glucosyltransferases (gtfs) especially gtfB and gtfC are important in S. mutans colonization and pathogenesis. This study investigated the hydroxy-decenoic acid (HDA) effects on gtfB and gtfC expression and S. mutans adherence to cells surfaces. Streptococcus mutans was treated by different concentrations of HPLC purified HDA supplied by Iran Beekeeping and Veterinary Association. Real time RT-PCR and western blot assays were conducted to evaluate gtfB and gtfC genes transcription and translation before and after HDA treatment. The bacterial attachment to the cell surfaces was evaluated microscopically. 500 μg ml-1 of HDA inhibited gtfB and gtfC mRNA transcription and its expression. The same concentration of HDA decreased 60% the adherence of S. mutans to the surface of P19 cells. Hydroxy-decenoic acid prevents gtfB and gtfC expression efficiently in the bactericide sub-concentrations and it could effectively reduce S. mutans adherence to the cell surfaces. In the future, therapeutic approaches to affecting S. mutans could be selective and it's not necessary to put down the oral flora completely.

  3. Tranexamic Acid versus Placebo to Prevent Blood Transfusion during Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer (TACT): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Breau, Rodney H; Lavallée, Luke T; Cnossen, Sonya; Witiuk, Kelsey; Cagiannos, Ilias; Momoli, Franco; Bryson, Gregory; Kanji, Salmaan; Morash, Christopher; Turgeon, Alexis; Zarychanski, Ryan; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Knoll, Greg; Fergusson, Dean A

    2018-05-02

    Radical cystectomy for bladder cancer is associated with a high risk of needing red blood cell transfusion. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during cardiac and orthopedic surgery, but no study has yet evaluated tranexamic acid use during cystectomy. A randomized, double-blind (surgeon-, anesthesiologist-, patient-, data-monitor-blinded), placebo-controlled trial of tranexamic acid during cystectomy was initiated in June 2013. Prior to incision, the intervention arm participants receive a 10 mg/kg loading dose of intravenously administered tranexamic acid, followed by a 5 mg/kg/h maintenance infusion. In the control arm, the patient receives an identical volume of normal saline that is indistinguishable from the intervention. The primary outcome is any blood transfusion from the start of surgery up to 30 days post operative. There are no strict criteria to mandate the transfusion of blood products. The decision to transfuse is entirely at the discretion of the treating physicians who are blinded to patient allocation. Physicians are allowed to utilize all resources to make transfusion decisions, including serum hemoglobin concentration and vital signs. To date, 147 patients of a planned 354 have been randomized to the study. This protocol reviews pertinent data relating to blood transfusion during radical cystectomy, highlighting the need to identify methods for reducing blood loss and preventing transfusion in patients receiving radical cystectomy. It explains the clinical rationale for using tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss during cystectomy, and outlines the study methods of our ongoing randomized controlled trial. Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR) Protocol: MOP-342559; ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT01869413. Registered on 5 June 2013.

  4. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Pharmacological Inhibition of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Prevents Excitotoxic Damage in the Rat Striatum: Possible Involvement of CB1 Receptors Regulation.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Portillo, Gabriela; Rangel-López, Edgar; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Chavarría, Anahí; Castellanos, Pilar; Elmazoglu, Zubeyir; Karasu, Çimen; Túnez, Isaac; Pedraza, Gibrán; Königsberg, Mina; Santamaría, Abel

    2018-05-25

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) actively participates in several physiological processes within the central nervous system. Among such, its involvement in the downregulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) through a modulatory input at the cannabinoid receptors (CBr) has been established. After its production via the kynurenine pathway (KP), quinolinic acid (QUIN) can act as an excitotoxin through the selective overactivation of NMDAr, thus participating in the onset and development of neurological disorders. In this work, we evaluated whether the pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) by URB597, and the consequent increase in the endogenous levels of anandamide, can prevent the excitotoxic damage induced by QUIN. URB597 (0.3 mg/kg/day × 7 days, administered before, during and after the striatal lesion) exerted protective effects on the QUIN-induced motor (asymmetric behavior) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation) alterations in rats. URB597 also preserved the structural integrity of the striatum and prevented the neuronal loss (assessed as microtubule-associated protein-2 and glutamate decarboxylase localization) induced by QUIN (1 μL intrastriatal, 240 nmol/μL), while modified the early localization patterns of CBr1 (CB1) and NMDAr subunit 1 (NR1). Altogether, these findings support the concept that the pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid system plays a neuroprotective role against excitotoxic insults in the central nervous system.

  6. Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Prevent Vascular Dysfunction and Attenuate Cytochrome P4501A1 Expression by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin.

    PubMed

    Wiest, Elani F; Walsh-Wilcox, Mary T; Rothe, Michael; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen; Walker, Mary K

    2016-11-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) found in fish protect against cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, many individuals avoid fish consumption due to concerns about pollutants. We tested the hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs would prevent vascular dysfunction induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). C57Bl/6 male mice were fed a chow or n-3 PUFA diet for 10 weeks and were exposed to vehicle or 300 ng/kg/d TCDD during the final 2 weeks on each diet. Aortic vasoconstriction mediated by arachidonic acid (AA) ± SKF525 (P450 inhibitor) or SQ29548 (thromboxane/prostanoid [TP] receptor antagonist) was assessed. RBC fatty acids and expression of n-3 and n-6 PUFA metabolites were analyzed. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1B1, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) expression was measured. TCDD significantly increased AA-mediated vasoconstriction on a chow diet by increasing the contribution of P450s and TP receptor to the constriction response. In contrast, the n-3 PUFA diet prevented the TCDD-induced increase in AA vasoconstriction and normalized the contribution of P450s and TP receptor. Although TCDD increased the levels of AA vasoconstrictors on the chow diet, this increase was prevent by the n-3 PUFA diet. Additionally, the n-3 PUFA diet significantly increased the levels of n-3 PUFA-derived vasodilators and TCDD increased these levels further. Interestingly, the n-3 PUFA diet significantly attenuated CYP1A1 induction by TCDD without a significant effect on AHR expression. These data suggest that n-3 PUFAs can prevent TCDD-induced vascular dysfunction by decreasing vasoconstrictors, increasing vasodilators, and attenuating CYP1A1 induction, which has been shown previously to contribute to TCDD-induced vascular dysfunction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Lipid profiling following intake of the omega 3 fatty acid DHA identifies the peroxidized metabolites F4-neuroprostanes as the best predictors of atherosclerosis prevention.

    PubMed

    Gladine, Cécile; Newman, John W; Durand, Thierry; Pedersen, Theresa L; Galano, Jean-Marie; Demougeot, Céline; Berdeaux, Olivier; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Mazur, Andrzej; Comte, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic effects of omega 3 fatty acids, namely eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) are well recognized but the impact of dietary intake on bioactive lipid mediator profiles remains unclear. Such a profiling effort may offer novel targets for future studies into the mechanism of action of omega 3 fatty acids. The present study aimed to determine the impact of DHA supplementation on the profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) oxygenated metabolites and to investigate their contribution to atherosclerosis prevention. A special emphasis was given to the non-enzymatic metabolites knowing the high susceptibility of DHA to free radical-mediated peroxidation and the increased oxidative stress associated with plaque formation. Atherosclerosis prone mice (LDLR(-/-)) received increasing doses of DHA (0, 0.1, 1 or 2% of energy) during 20 weeks leading to a dose-dependent reduction of atherosclerosis (R(2) = 0.97, p = 0.02), triglyceridemia (R(2) = 0.97, p = 0.01) and cholesterolemia (R(2) = 0.96, p<0.01). Targeted lipidomic analyses revealed that both the profiles of EPA and DHA and their corresponding oxygenated metabolites were substantially modulated in plasma and liver. Notably, the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes, a specific class of DHA peroxidized metabolites, was strongly correlated with the hepatic DHA level. Moreover, unbiased statistical analysis including correlation analyses, hierarchical cluster and projection to latent structure discriminate analysis revealed that the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes was the variable most negatively correlated with the plaque extent (p<0.001) and along with plasma EPA-derived diols was an important mathematical positive predictor of atherosclerosis prevention. Thus, oxygenated n-3 PUFAs, and F4-neuroprostanes in particular, are potential biomarkers of DHA-associated atherosclerosis prevention. While these may contribute to the anti-atherogenic effects of DHA

  8. Mitoprotective antioxidant EUK-134 stimulates fatty acid oxidation and prevents hypertrophy in H9C2 cells.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Sreeja; Nair, R Renuka

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is an important contributory factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases like hypertension-induced hypertrophy. Mitochondrion is the major source of reactive oxygen species. Hence, protecting mitochondria from oxidative damage can be an effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention of hypertensive heart disease. Conventional antioxidants are not likely to be cardioprotective, as they cannot protect mitochondria from oxidative damage. EUK-134 is a salen-manganese complex with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. The possible role of EUK-134, a mitoprotective antioxidant, in the prevention of hypertrophy of H9C2 cells was examined. The cells were stimulated with phenylephrine (50 μM), and hypertrophy was assessed based on cell volume and expression of brain natriuretic peptide and calcineurin. Enhanced myocardial lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content, accompanied by nuclear factor-kappa B gene expression, confirmed the presence of oxidative stress in hypertrophic cells. Metabolic shift was evident from reduction in the expression of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was confirmed by the reduced expression of mitochondria-specific antioxidant peroxiredoxin-3 and enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production. Compromised mitochondrial function was apparent from reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment with EUK-134 (10 μM) was effective in the prevention of hypertrophic changes in H9C2 cells, reduction of oxidative stress, and prevention of metabolic shift. EUK-134 treatment improved the oxidative status of mitochondria and reversed hypertrophy-induced reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Supplementation with EUK-134 is therefore identified as a novel approach to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and lends scope for the development of EUK-134 as a therapeutic agent in the management of human cardiovascular disease.

  9. Single-Stranded Nucleic Acids Bind to the Tetramer Interface of SAMHD1 and Prevent Formation of the Catalytic Homotetramer.

    PubMed

    Seamon, Kyle J; Bumpus, Namandjé N; Stivers, James T

    2016-11-08

    Sterile alpha motif and HD domain protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a unique enzyme that plays important roles in nucleic acid metabolism, viral restriction, and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Although much attention has been focused on its dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity in viral restriction and disease, SAMHD1 also binds to single-stranded RNA and DNA. Here we utilize a UV cross-linking method using 5-bromodeoxyuridine-substituted oligonucleotides coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify the binding site for single-stranded nucleic acids (ssNAs) on SAMHD1. Mapping cross-linked amino acids on the surface of existing crystal structures demonstrated that the ssNA binding site lies largely along the dimer-dimer interface, sterically blocking the formation of the homotetramer required for dNTPase activity. Surprisingly, the disordered C-terminus of SAMHD1 (residues 583-626) was also implicated in ssNA binding. An interaction between this region and ssNA was confirmed in binding studies using the purified SAMHD1 583-626 peptide. Despite a recent report that SAMHD1 possesses polyribonucleotide phosphorylase activity, we did not detect any such activity in the presence of inorganic phosphate, indicating that nucleic acid binding is unrelated to this proposed activity. These data suggest an antagonistic regulatory mechanism in which the mutually exclusive oligomeric state requirements for ssNA binding and dNTP hydrolase activity modulate these two functions of SAMHD1 within the cell.

  10. Anacardic Acids from Cashew Nuts Prevent Behavioral Changes and Oxidative Stress Induced by Rotenone in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Medeiros-Linard, Cybelle Façanha Barreto; Andrade-da-Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira; Augusto, Ricielle Lopes; Sereniki, Adriana; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Sales; Perreira, Renata de Cássia Ribas; de Souza, Francisco Thiago Correia; Braz, Glauber Ruda Feitoza; Lagranha, Claudia Jacques; de Souza, Ivone Antônia; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves; Smailli, Soraya S; Lafayette, Simone Sette Lopes

    2018-03-08

    Anacardic acids (AAs) are alkyl phenols mainly presenting in cashew nuts. The antioxidant effects of these compounds have been an area of interest in recent research, with findings suggesting potential therapeutic use for certain diseases. Nevertheless, none of these studies were performed in order to test the hypothesis of whether anacardic acids are capable of preventing behavioral changes and oxidative stress induced by the pesticide rotenone in experimental model of Parkinson's disease. In our research, adult male rats were treated orally with AAs (1, 3, 10, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) 1 h before rotenone (3 mg/kg; s.c.) for five consecutive days. The behavioral testing strategies, including tests for general locomotor activity (open field), motor coordination (rotarod), and spatial memory performance (elevated T-maze), were carried out. Lipoperoxidation levels and total superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) activity, as well as cytoplasmic and mitochondrial SOD gene expression, were assessed in the substantia nigra (SN), striatum, and cerebral cortex. The results showed that AAs dose-dependently prevented the rotenone-induced learning and motor impairment from 10 mg/kg/day. AAs also precluded rotenone-induced lipoperoxidation in all doses, acting directly on the mitochondria, and improved the t-SOD activity in the doses 25-100 mg/kg/day. AAs per se (100 mg/kg/day) increased SOD gene expression and t-SOD activity. Our findings indicate that the oral administration of AAs prevents rotenone-induced behavioral changes and oxidative stress, in part due to a modulatory action on the mitochondria and SOD gene expression. These data suggest that AAs have promising neuroprotective action against degenerative changes in Parkinson's disease.

  11. Safflower and olive oil dietary treatments rescue aberrant embryonic arachidonic acid and nitric oxide metabolism and prevent diabetic embryopathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Higa, R; White, V; Martínez, N; Kurtz, M; Capobianco, E; Jawerbaum, A

    2010-04-01

    Aberrant arachidonic acid and nitric oxide (NO) metabolic pathways are involved in diabetic embryopathy. Previous works have found diminished concentrations of PGE(2) and PGI(2) in embryos from diabetic rats, and that PGI(2) is capable of increasing embryonic PGE(2) concentrations through the activation of the nuclear receptor PPARdelta. PPARdelta activators are lipid molecules such as oleic and linoleic acids, present in high concentrations in olive and safflower oils, respectively. The aim of this study was to analyze the capability of dietary supplementation with either 6% olive or 6% safflower oils to regulate PGE(2), PGI(2) and NO concentrations in embryos and deciduas from control and diabetic rats during early organogenesis. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) 1 week before mating. Animals were fed with the oil-supplemented diets from Days 0.5 to 10.5 of gestation. PGI(2) and PGE(2) were measured by EIA and NO through the evaluation of its stable metabolites nitrates-nitrites in 10.5 day embryos and deciduas. We found that the olive and safflower oil-supplemented treatments highly reduced resorption and malformation rates in diabetic animals, and that they were able to prevent maternal diabetes-induced alterations in embryonic and decidual PGI(2) and PGE(2) concentrations. Moreover, these dietary treatments prevented NO overproduction in embryos and deciduas from diabetic rats. These data indicate that in maternal diabetes both the embryo and the decidua benefit from the olive and safflower oil supplementation probably through mechanisms that involve the rescue of aberrant prostaglandin and NO generation and that prevent developmental damage during early organogenesis.

  12. Creatine supplementation prevents fatty liver in rats fed choline-deficient diet: a burden of one-carbon and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Deminice, Rafael; de Castro, Gabriela Salim Ferreira; Francisco, Lucas Vieira; da Silva, Lilian Eslaine Costa Mendes; Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan; Teodoro, Bruno Gonzaga; Dos Reis Silveira, Leonardo; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on liver fat accumulation in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups of 8 based on 4 weeks of feeding an AIN-93 control diet (C), a choline-deficient diet (CDD) or a CDD supplemented with 2% Cr. The CDD diet was AIN-93 without choline. The CDD significantly increased plasma homocysteine and TNFα concentration, as well as ALT activity. In liver, the CDD enhanced concentrations of total fat (55%), cholesterol (25%), triglycerides (87%), MDA (30%), TNFα (241%) and decreased SAM concentrations (25%) and the SAM/SAH ratio (33%). Cr supplementation prevented all these metabolic changes, except for hepatic SAM and the SAM/SAH ratio. However, no changes in PEMT gene expression or liver phosphatidylcholine levels were observed among the three experimental groups, and there were no changes in hepatic triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA level. On the contrary, Cr supplementation normalized expression of the transcription factors PPARα and PPARγ that were altered by the CDD. Further, the downstream targets and fatty acids metabolism genes, UCP2, LCAD and CPT1a, were also normalized in the Cr group as compared to CDD-fed rats. Cr supplementation prevented fat liver accumulation and hepatic injures in rats fed with a CDD for 4 weeks. Our results demonstrated that one-carbon metabolism may have a small role in mitigating hepatic fat accumulation by Cr supplementation. The modulation of key genes related to fatty acid oxidation pathway suggests a new mechanism by which Cr prevents liver fat accumulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Octadecyl Chains Immobilized onto Hyaluronic Acid Coatings by Thiol-ene "Click Chemistry" Increase the Surface Antimicrobial Properties and Prevent Platelet Adhesion and Activation to Polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Felgueiras, Helena P; Wang, L M; Ren, K F; Querido, M M; Jin, Q; Barbosa, M A; Ji, J; Martins, M C L

    2017-03-08

    Infection and thrombus formation are still the biggest challenges for the success of blood contact medical devices. This work aims the development of an antimicrobial and hemocompatible biomaterial coating through which selective binding of albumin (passivant protein) from the bloodstream is promoted and, thus, adsorption of other proteins responsible for bacterial adhesion and thrombus formation can be prevented. Polyurethane (PU) films were coated with hyaluronic acid, an antifouling agent, that was previously modified with thiol groups (HA-SH), using polydopamine as the binding agent. Octadecyl acrylate (C18) was used to attract albumin since it resembles the circulating free fatty acids and albumin is a fatty acid transporter. Thiol-ene "click chemistry" was explored for C18 immobilization on HA-SH through a covalent bond between the thiol groups from the HA and the alkene groups from the C18 chains. Surfaces were prepared with different C18 concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 20%) and successful immobilization was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle determinations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The ability of surfaces to bind albumin selectively was determined by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Albumin adsorption increased in response to the hydrophobic nature of the surfaces, which augmented with C18 saturation. HA-SH coating reduced albumin adsorption to PU. C18 immobilized onto HA-SH at 5% promoted selective binding of albumin, decreased Staphylococcus aureus adhesion and prevented platelet adhesion and activation to PU in the presence of human plasma. C18/HA-SH coating was established as an innovative and promising strategy to improve the antimicrobial properties and hemocompatibility of any blood contact medical device.

  14. Effectiveness of the addition of alkaline materials at surface coal mines in preventing or abating acid mine drainage--Part 2. Mine site case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Keith; Smith, Michael W.; Beam, Richard L.; Cravotta,, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of preventing or ameliorating acid mine drainage (AMD) through the application of alkaline additives is evaluated for eight surface coal mines in Pennsylvania. Many of the mine sites had overburden characteristics that made prediction of post‐mining water quality uncertain. Alkaline materials were applied at rates ranging from 42 to greater than 1,000 tons as calcium carbonate per acre. In addition, two sites that were mined and reclaimed without alkaline additives are included for comparative purposes. Overburden sulfur concentration and "neutralization potential" (NP) data for multiple strata at each mine site were used to compute the cumulative, mass‐weighted "maximum potential acidity" (MPA) and "net neutralization potential" (NNP = NP ‐ MPA) by using three different calculation methods. Post‐reclamation water‐quality data were used to compute the net alkalinity (= alkalinity ‐ acidity). The most conservative determination of NNP, whereby MPA is calculated by multiplying the total sulfur concentration, in weight percent, by 62.5 instead of 31.25, yielded the best agreement with net alkalinity (patching signs on NNP and net alkalinity). The error in prediction using each method was that the reclaimed overburden was computed to be alkaline overall (NNP > 0), but the post‐reclamation water was acid (net alkalinity < 0). In general, alkaline addition rates were probably insufficient to neutralize, or too late to prevent, acid production in the mine spoil. At six of the seven mine sites that had overburden with insufficient NP relative to MPA (NNP < 0), the addition of alkaline materials failed to create alkaline mine drainage; AMD was formed or persisted. A control site which also had insufficient alkaline material, but did not incorporate alkaline additives, generated severe AMD. Two sites that had substantial, natural alkaline overburden produced alkaline drainage. Although the addition rates appear to be inadequate, other factors

  15. Topical hyaluronic acid vs. standard of care for the prevention of radiation dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer: single-blind randomized phase III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H; Strom, Eric A; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Oh, Julia L; Arriaga, Lisa; Munsell, Mark F; Kelly, Patrick; Hoffman, Karen E; Smith, Benjamin D; Buchholz, Thomas A; Yu, T Kuan

    2012-07-15

    To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of ≥ Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of ≥ Grade 2 dermatitis. The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of ≥ Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only one patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid-based gel for reducing the development of ≥ Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Topical Hyaluronic Acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of {>=}Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half ormore » the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis. Results: The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only 1ne patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid-based gel for reducing the development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop.« less

  17. Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Floyd H.; Dutta, Rahul; Reynolds, Lindsay M.; Sergeant, Susan; Mathias, Rasika A.; Seeds, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) 18 carbon (18C-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes) to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20)-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids) play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Methods: This review summarizes: (1) the biosynthesis, metabolism and roles of LC-PUFAs; (2) the potential impact of rapidly altering the intake of dietary LA and ALA; (3) the genetics and evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthesis; (4) Gene–diet interactions that may lead to excess levels of n-6 LC-PUFAs and deficiencies of n-3 LC-PUFAs; and (5) opportunities for precision nutrition approaches to personalize n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation for individuals and populations. Conclusions: The rapid nature of transitions in 18C-PUFA exposure together with the genetic variation in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway found in different populations make mal-adaptations a likely outcome of our current nutritional environment. Understanding this genetic variation in the context of 18C-PUFA dietary exposure should enable the development of individualized n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation regimens to prevent and manage human disease. PMID:29068398

  18. Antimicrobial medium- and long-chain free fatty acids prevent PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Sternkopf Lillebæk, Eva Maria; Lambert Nielsen, Stine; Scheel Thomasen, Rikke; Færgeman, Nils J; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of the invasive disease listeriosis. Infection by L. monocytogenes involves bacterial crossing of the intestinal barrier and intracellular replication in a variety of host cells. The PrfA protein is the master regulator of virulence factors required for bacterial entry, intracellular replication and cell-to-cell spread. PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes occurs primarily in the blood and during intracellular infection. In contrast, PrfA does not play a significant role in regulation of virulence gene expression in the intestinal environment. In the gastrointestinal phase of infection, the bacterium encounters a variety of antimicrobial agents, including medium- and long-chain free fatty acids that are commonly found in our diet and as active components of bile. Here we show that subinhibitory concentrations of specific antimicrobial free fatty acids act to downregulate transcription of PrfA-activated virulence genes. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect is also evident in cells encoding a constitutively active variant of PrfA. Collectively, our data suggest that antimicrobial medium- and long-chain free fatty acids may act as signals to prevent PrfA-mediated activation of virulence genes in environments where PrfA activation is not required, such as in food and the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ... Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis ...

  20. Retrospective Assessment of Cost Savings From Prevention: Folic Acid Fortification and Spina Bifida in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Scott D; Berry, Robert J; Mick Tilford, J; Kucik, James E; Waitzman, Norman J

    2016-05-01

    Although fortification of food with folic acid has been calculated to be cost saving in the U.S., updated estimates are needed. This analysis calculates new estimates from the societal perspective of net cost savings per year associated with mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products in the U.S. that was implemented during 1997-1998. Estimates of annual numbers of live-born spina bifida cases in 1995-1996 relative to 1999-2011 based on birth defects surveillance data were combined during 2015 with published estimates of the present value of lifetime direct costs updated in 2014 U.S. dollars for a live-born infant with spina bifida to estimate avoided direct costs and net cost savings. The fortification mandate is estimated to have reduced the annual number of U.S. live-born spina bifida cases by 767, with a lower-bound estimate of 614. The present value of mean direct lifetime cost per infant with spina bifida is estimated to be $791,900, or $577,000 excluding caregiving costs. Using a best estimate of numbers of avoided live-born spina bifida cases, fortification is estimated to reduce the present value of total direct costs for each year's birth cohort by $603 million more than the cost of fortification. A lower-bound estimate of cost savings using conservative assumptions, including the upper-bound estimate of fortification cost, is $299 million. The estimates of cost savings are larger than previously reported, even using conservative assumptions. The analysis can also inform assessments of folic acid fortification in other countries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. All-trans retinoic acid stimulates gene expression of the cardioprotective natriuretic peptide system and prevents fibrosis and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of obese ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Manolescu, Daniel-Constantin; Jankowski, Marek; Danalache, Bogdan A; Wang, Donghao; Broderick, Tom L; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Gutkowska, Jolanta

    2014-10-01

    In hypertensive rodents, retinoic acid (RA) prevents adverse cardiac remodelling and improves myocardial infarction outcome, but its role in obesity-related changes of cardiac tissue are unclear. We hypothesized that all-trans RA (ATRA) treatment will improve the cardioprotective oxytocin-natriuretic peptides (OT-NP) system, preventing apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice, a mouse model of obesity and insulin resistance. Female 9-week-old B6.V-Lep/J ob/ob mice (n = 16) were divided into 2 groups: 1 group (n = 8) treated with 100 μg of ATRA dissolved in 100 μL of corn oil (vehicle) delivered daily (∼2 μg·g body weight(-1)·day(-1)) by stomach intubation for 16 days, and 1 group (n = 8) that received the vehicle alone. A group of nonobese littermate mice (n = 9) served as controls. Ob/ob mice exhibited obesity, hyperglycaemia, and downregulation of the cardiac OT-NP system, including the mRNA for the transcription factor GATA4, OT receptor and brain NP, and the protein expression for endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Hearts from ob/ob mice also demonstrated increased apoptosis and collagen accumulation. ATRA treatment induced weight loss and decreased adipocytes diameter in the visceral fat, thus reducing visceral obesity, which is associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease. RA treatment was associated with a reduction in hyperglycemia and a normalization of the OT-NP system's expression in the hearts of ob/ob mice. Furthermore, ATRA treatment prevented apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice. The present study indicates that ATRA treatment was effective in restoring the cardioprotective OT-NP system and in preventing abnormal cardiac remodelling in the ob/ob mice.

  2. Formate supplementation enhances folate-dependent nucleotide biosynthesis and prevents spina bifida in a mouse model of folic acid-resistant neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Sudiwala, Sonia; De Castro, Sandra C P; Leung, Kit-Yi; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E; Mills, Kevin; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2016-07-01

    The curly tail mouse provides a model for neural tube defects (spina bifida and exencephaly) that are resistant to prevention by folic acid. The major ct gene, responsible for spina bifida, corresponds to a hypomorphic allele of grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) but the frequency of NTDs is strongly influenced by modifiers in the genetic background. Moreover, exencephaly in the curly tail strain is not prevented by reinstatement of Grhl3 expression. In the current study we found that expression of Mthfd1L, encoding a key component of mitochondrial folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM), is significantly reduced in ct/ct embryos compared to a partially congenic wild-type strain. This expression change is not attributable to regulation by Grhl3 or the genetic background at the Mthfd1L locus. Mitochondrial FOCM provides one-carbon units as formate for FOCM reactions in the cytosol. We found that maternal supplementation with formate prevented NTDs in curly tail embryos and also resulted in increased litter size. Analysis of the folate profile of neurulation-stage embryos showed that formate supplementation resulted in an increased proportion of formyl-THF and THF but a reduction in proportion of 5-methyl THF. In contrast, THF decreased and 5-methyl THF was relatively more abundant in the liver of supplemented dams than in controls. In embryos cultured through the period of spinal neurulation, incorporation of labelled thymidine and adenine into genomic DNA was suppressed by supplemental formate, suggesting that de novo folate-dependent biosynthesis of nucleotides (thymidylate and purines) was enhanced. We hypothesise that reduced Mthfd1L expression may contribute to susceptibility to NTDs in the curly tail strain and that formate acts as a one-carbon donor to prevent NTDs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents TCDD-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response by modulating MAP kinases and redox-sensitive transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Kalaiselvi; Krishnaswamy, Rajashree; Paramasivan, Poornima; Chih-Yang, Huang; Vishwanadha, Vijaya Padma

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Oxidative stress and subsequent activation of inflammatory responses is a widely accepted consequence of exposure to environmental toxins. TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a well-known environmental toxin, exerts its toxicity through many signalling mechanisms, with liver being the principal organ affected. However, an effective antidote to TCDD-induced toxicity is unknown. The present study evaluated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an n3 fatty acid, on TCDD-induced toxicity. Experimental Approach In cultures of HepG2 cells, the EPA/AA ratio was determined using gas chromatography, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant status, [Ca2+]i, nuclear migration of two redox-sensitive transcription factors, NF-κB p65 and Nrf-2, expression of MAP kinase (p-Erk, p-p38), NF-κB p65, COX-2 and Nrf-2. Cellular changes in ΔΨm, acidic vesicular organelle formation, cell cycle analysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis were performed. Key Results EPA offered significant cytoprotection by increasing EPA/AA ratios in cell membranes, inhibiting ROS generation, enhancing antioxidant status and modulating nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive transcription factors (NF-κB p65 and Nrf-2) and expression of NF-κB p65, COX-2 and Nrf-2. Furthermore, TCDD-induced upstream events of MAPK phosphorylation, the increase in [Ca2+]i levels and cell surface changes in microvilli were significantly inhibited by EPA. EPA treatment maintained ΔΨm and prevented formation of acidic vesicular organelles. Conclusion and Implications The present study demonstrates for the first time some underlying molecular mechanisms of cytoprotection exerted by EPA against TCDD-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:26177858

  4. In Vitro-In Vivo Dose Response of Ursolic Acid, Sulforaphane, PEITC, and Curcumin in Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Christina N; Li, Wenji; Zhang, Chengyue; Wu, Renyi; Su, Shan; Wang, Chao; Gao, Linbo; Yin, Ran; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2017-12-20

    According to the National Center of Health Statistics, cancer was the culprit of nearly 600,000 deaths in 2016 in the USA. It is by far one of the most heterogeneous diseases to treat. Treatment for metastasized cancers remains a challenge despite modern diagnostics and treatment regimens. For this reason, alternative approaches are needed. Chemoprevention using dietary phytochemicals such as triterpenoids, isothiocyanates, and curcumin in the prevention of initiation and/or progression of cancer poses a promising alternative strategy. However, significant challenges exist in the extrapolation of in vitro cell culture data to in vivo efficacy in animal models and to humans. In this review, the dose at which these phytochemicals elicit a response in vitro and in vivo of a multitude of cellular signaling pathways will be reviewed highlighting Nrf2-mediated antioxidative stress, anti-inflammation, epigenetics, cytoprotection, differentiation, and growth inhibition. The in vitro-in vivo dose response of phytochemicals can vary due, in part, to the cell line/animal model used, the assay system of the biomarker used for the readout, chemical structure of the functional analog of the phytochemical, and the source of compounds used for the treatment study. While the dose response varies across different experimental designs, the chemopreventive efficacy appears to remain and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of triterpenoids, isothiocyanates, and curcumin in cancer prevention and in health in general.

  5. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Prevents Amyloid-β Peptide–Induced Neuronal Death Via a Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase–Dependent Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Solá, Susana; Castro, Rui E; Laires, Pedro A; Steer, Clifford J; Rodrigues, Cecília MP

    2003-01-01

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an endogenous bile acid, modulates cell death by interrupting classic pathways of apoptosis. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, where a significant loss of neuronal cells is thought to occur by apoptosis. In this study, we explored the cell death pathway and signaling mechanisms involved in Aβ-induced toxicity and further investigated the anti-apoptotic effect(s) of TUDCA. Our data show significant induction of apoptosis in isolated cortical neurons incubated with Aβ peptide. Apoptosis was associated with translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, followed by cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. In addition, there was almost immediate but weak activation of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositide 3′-OH kinase (PI3K) pathway with wortmannin did not markedly affect Aβ-induced cell death, suggesting that this signaling pathway is not crucial for Aβ-mediated toxicity. Notably, co-incubation with TUDCA significantly modulated each of the Aβ-induced apoptotic events. Moreover, wortmannin decreased TUDCA protection against Aβ-induced apoptosis, reduced Akt phosphorylation, and increased Bax translocation to mitochondria. Together, these findings indicate that Aβ-induced apoptosis of cortical neurons proceeds through a Bax mitochondrial pathway. Further, the PI3K signaling cascade plays a role in regulating the anti-apoptotic effects of TUDCA. PMID:15208744

  6. The toxicity of N-methyl-alpha-methyldopamine to freshly isolated rat hepatocytes is prevented by ascorbic acid and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Márcia; Remião, Fernando; Milhazes, Nuno; Borges, Fernanda; Fernandes, Eduarda; Carvalho, Félix; Bastos, Maria Lourdes

    2004-08-05

    In the past decade, clinical evidence has increasingly shown that the liver is a target organ for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") toxicity. The aims of the present in vitro study were: (1) to evaluate and compare the hepatotoxic effects of MDMA and one of its main metabolites, N-methyl-alpha-methyldopamine (N-Me-alpha-MeDA) and (2) to investigate the ability of antioxidants, namely ascorbic acid and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), to prevent N-Me-alpha-MeDA-induced toxic injury, using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Cell suspensions were incubated with MDMA or N-Me-alpha-MeDA in the final concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mM for 3 h. To evaluate the potential protective effects of antioxidants, cells were preincubated with ascorbic acid in the final concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5 mM, or NAC in the final concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM for 15 min before treatment with 1.6 mM N-Me-alpha-MeDA for 3 h (throughout this incubation period the cells were exposed to both compounds). The toxic effects were evaluated by measuring the cell viability, glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ATP, and the cellular activities of GSH peroxidase (GPX), GSSG reductase (GR), and GSH S-transferase (GST). MDMA induced a concentration- and time-dependent GSH depletion, but had a negligible effect on cell viability, ATP levels, or on the activities of GR, GPX, and GST. In contrast, N-Me-alpha-MeDA was shown to induce not only a concentration- and time-dependent depletion of GSH, but also a depletion of ATP levels accompanied by a loss in cell viability, and decreases in the antioxidant enzyme activities. For both compounds, GSH depletion was not accompanied by increases in GSSG levels, which seems to indicate GSH depletion by adduct formation. Importantly, the presence of ascorbic acid (0.5 mM) or NAC (1 mM) prevented cell death and GSH depletion induced by N-Me-alpha-MeDA. The results provide evidence that MDMA and its metabolite N

  7. Longitudinal associations of serum fatty acid composition with type 2 diabetes risk and markers of insulin secretion and sensitivity in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Takkunen, Markus J; Schwab, Ursula S; de Mello, Vanessa D F; Eriksson, Johan G; Lindström, Jaana; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti I J

    2016-04-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations of serum fatty acid composition with type 2 diabetes, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity over several years. We conducted a prospective cohort study derived from the randomized Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Total serum fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography in 407 overweight, middle-aged people with impaired glucose tolerance at baseline (1993-1998) and annually during the intervention period (1994-2000). Longitudinal associations of 20 fatty acids and three desaturase activities (Δ5 (20:4n-6/20:3n-6, D5D), Δ6 (18:3n-6/18:2n-6, D6D), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-1)) with type 2 diabetes incidence, and estimates of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda), secretion (ratio of insulin and glucose concentrations) and β-cell function (disposition index) by an oral glucose tolerance test were analyzed using Cox regression and linear mixed models. We validated estimated D5D and D6D using a known FADS1 gene variant, rs174550. The baseline proportions of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and D5D were associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes during a median follow-up of 11 years (HR per 1SD: 0.72, 0.74, 0.73, 0.78, respectively, P ≤ 0.01). These long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and D5D were associated with higher insulin sensitivity in subsequent years but not with disposition index. Saturated, monounsaturated and trans fatty acids and 18:3n-3, 18:2n-6, SCD-1 and D6D were inconsistently associated with type 2 diabetes or related traits. Serum long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and D5D predicted lower type 2 diabetes incidence in people at a high risk of diabetes attending to an intervention study; a putative mechanism behind these associations was higher insulin sensitivity.

  8. A randomized controlled trial of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or aspirin for colorectal adenoma prevention during colonoscopic surveillance in the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (The seAFOod Polyp Prevention Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The naturally-occurring omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces colorectal adenoma (polyp) number and size in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. The safety profile and potential cardiovascular benefits associated with ω-3 PUFAs make EPA a strong candidate for colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention, alone or in combination with aspirin, which itself has recognized anti-CRC activity. Colorectal adenoma number and size are recognized as biomarkers of future CRC risk and are established as surrogate end-points in CRC chemoprevention trials. Design The seAFOod Polyp Prevention Trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial ‘efficacy’ study, which will determine whether EPA prevents colorectal adenomas, either alone or in combination with aspirin. Participants are 55–73 year-old patients, who have been identified as ‘high risk’ (detection of ≥5 small adenomas or ≥3 adenomas with at least one being ≥10 mm in diameter) at screening colonoscopy in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). Exclusion criteria include the need for more than one repeat endoscopy within the three-month BCSP screening period, malignant change in an adenoma, regular use of aspirin or non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, regular use of fish oil supplements and concomitant warfarin or anti-platelet agent therapy. Patients are randomized to either EPA-free fatty acid 1 g twice daily or identical placebo AND aspirin 300 mg once daily or identical placebo, for approximately 12 months. The primary end-point is the number of participants with one or more adenomas detected at routine one-year BCSP surveillance colonoscopy. Secondary end-points include the number of adenomas (total and ‘advanced’) per patient, the location (left versus right colon) of colorectal adenomas and the number of participants re-classified as ‘intermediate risk’ for future

  9. A randomized controlled trial of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or aspirin for colorectal adenoma prevention during colonoscopic surveillance in the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (The seAFOod Polyp Prevention Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hull, Mark A; Sandell, Anna C; Montgomery, Alan A; Logan, Richard F A; Clifford, Gayle M; Rees, Colin J; Loadman, Paul M; Whitham, Diane

    2013-07-29

    The naturally-occurring omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces colorectal adenoma (polyp) number and size in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. The safety profile and potential cardiovascular benefits associated with ω-3 PUFAs make EPA a strong candidate for colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention, alone or in combination with aspirin, which itself has recognized anti-CRC activity. Colorectal adenoma number and size are recognized as biomarkers of future CRC risk and are established as surrogate end-points in CRC chemoprevention trials. The seAFOod Polyp Prevention Trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial 'efficacy' study, which will determine whether EPA prevents colorectal adenomas, either alone or in combination with aspirin. Participants are 55-73 year-old patients, who have been identified as 'high risk' (detection of ≥5 small adenomas or ≥3 adenomas with at least one being ≥10 mm in diameter) at screening colonoscopy in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). Exclusion criteria include the need for more than one repeat endoscopy within the three-month BCSP screening period, malignant change in an adenoma, regular use of aspirin or non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, regular use of fish oil supplements and concomitant warfarin or anti-platelet agent therapy. Patients are randomized to either EPA-free fatty acid 1 g twice daily or identical placebo AND aspirin 300 mg once daily or identical placebo, for approximately 12 months. The primary end-point is the number of participants with one or more adenomas detected at routine one-year BCSP surveillance colonoscopy. Secondary end-points include the number of adenomas (total and 'advanced') per patient, the location (left versus right colon) of colorectal adenomas and the number of participants re-classified as 'intermediate risk' for future surveillance. Exploratory end-points include levels of

  10. Preparation and characterization of a new gellan gum and sulphated hyaluronic acid hydrogel designed for epidural scar prevention.

    PubMed

    Cencetti, Claudia; Bellini, Davide; Longinotti, Cristina; Martinelli, Andrea; Matricardi, Pietro

    2011-02-01

    Postsurgical adhesions are a common problem in clinical practice, causing nerve compression, pain and discomfort. A new hydrogel based on gellan gum and sulphated hyaluronic acid was synthesized, with the aim to create an effective barrier for epidural scar formation. Physico-chemical properties of the gel were analyzed, and preliminary biocompatibility data (i.e. cytotoxicity) have been collected in view of its potential clinical use. The characterization of the new material demonstrated that the hydrogel, due to its high-viscosity, could effectively act as a barrier with a long in situ residence time. In addition, the hydrogel can be easily extruded from a syringe and its structure exhibits excellent stabilizing properties. Furthermore, biological assays showed that this gel is suitable for further preclinical development.

  11. Implantation of hyaluronic acid hydrogel prevents the pain phenotype in a rat model of intervertebral disc injury

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Daisuke; Dockery, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Painful intervertebral disc degeneration is mediated by inflammation that modulates glycosylation and induces hyperinnervation and sensory sensitization, which result in discogenic pain. Hyaluronic acid (HA) used as a therapeutic biomaterial can reduce inflammation and pain, but the effects of HA therapy on glycosylation and pain associated with disc degeneration have not been previously determined. We describe a novel rat model of pain induced by intervertebral disc injury, with validation of the pain phenotype by morphine treatment. Using this model, we assessed the efficacy of HA hydrogel for the alleviation of pain, demonstrating that it reduced nociceptive behavior, an effect associated with down-regulation of nociception markers and inhibition of hyperinnervation. Furthermore, HA hydrogel altered glycosylation and modulated key inflammatory and regulatory signaling pathways, resulting in attenuation of inflammation and regulation of matrix components. Our results suggest that HA hydrogel is a promising clinical candidate for the treatment of back pain caused by degenerated discs. PMID:29632893

  12. Biodegradable and thermosensitive monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) hydrogel as a barrier for prevention of post-operative abdominal adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shao Zhi; Li, Zhi; Fan, Jun Ming; Meng, Xiao Hang; Shi, Kun; Qu, Ying; Yang, Ling Lin; Wu, Jing Bo; Fan, Juan; Luot, Feng; Qian, Zhi Yong

    2014-03-01

    Post-operative peritoneal adhesions are serious consequences of abdominal or pelvic surgery and cause severe bowel obstruction, chronic pelvic pain and infertility. In this study, a novel nano-hydrogel system based on a monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (MPEG-PLA) di-block copolymer was studied for its ability to prevent abdominal adhesion in rats. The MPEG-PLA hydrogel at a concentration of 40% (w/v) was injected and was able to adhere to defect sites at body temperature. The ability of the hydrogel to inhibit adhesion of post-operative tissues was evaluated by utilizing a rat model of abdominal sidewall-cecum abrasion. It was possible to heal wounded tissue through regeneration of neo-peritoneal tissues ten days after surgery. Our data showed that this hydrogel system is equally as effective as current commercialized anti-adhesive products.

  13. Telmisartan prevents hepatic fibrosis and enzyme-altered lesions in liver cirrhosis rat induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haiyan; Yamamoto, Naoki; Uchida, Koichi; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2007-12-28

    Rennin-angiotensin system is involved in liver fibrogenesis through activating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Telmisartan (Tel) is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, could function as a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activator. Here we studied the effect of Tel on liver fibrosis, pre-neoplastic lesions in vivo and primary HSCs in vitro. In vivo study, we used the choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined (CDAA)-diet induced rat NASH model. The rats were fed the CDAA diet for 8 weeks to induce liver fibrosis and pre-neoplastic lesions, and then co-administrated with Tel for another 10 weeks. Tel prevented liver fibrogenesis and pre-neoplastic lesions by down-regulating TGFbeta1 and TIMP-1, 2 and increasing MMP-13 expression. Tel inhibited HSCs activation and proliferation. These results suggested that Tel could be a promising drug for NASH related liver fibrosis.

  14. A novel cost-effectiveness model of prescription eicosapentaenoic acid extrapolated to secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the United States.

    PubMed

    Philip, Sephy; Chowdhury, Sumita; Nelson, John R; Benjamin Everett, P; Hulme-Lowe, Carolyn K; Schmier, Jordana K

    2016-10-01

    Given the substantial economic and health burden of cardiovascular disease and the residual cardiovascular risk that remains despite statin therapy, adjunctive therapies are needed. The purpose of this model was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of high-purity prescription eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) omega-3 fatty acid intervention in secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in statin-treated patient populations extrapolated to the US. The deterministic model utilized inputs for cardiovascular events, costs, and utilities from published sources. Expert opinion was used when assumptions were required. The model takes the perspective of a US commercial, third-party payer with costs presented in 2014 US dollars. The model extends to 5 years and applies a 3% discount rate to costs and benefits. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the influence of various input parameters on costs and outcomes. Using base case parameters, EPA-plus-statin therapy compared with statin monotherapy resulted in cost savings (total 5-year costs $29,393 vs $30,587 per person, respectively) and improved utilities (average 3.627 vs 3.575, respectively). The results were not sensitive to multiple variations in model inputs and consistently identified EPA-plus-statin therapy to be the economically dominant strategy, with both lower costs and better patient utilities over the modeled 5-year period. The model is only an approximation of reality and does not capture all complexities of a real-world scenario without further inputs from ongoing trials. The model may under-estimate the cost-effectiveness of EPA-plus-statin therapy because it allows only a single event per patient. This novel model suggests that combining EPA with statin therapy for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in the US may be a cost-saving and more compelling intervention than statin monotherapy.

  15. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical approaches for preventing liver carcinogenesis: chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma using acyclic retinoid and branched-chain amino acids.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masahito; Shirakami, Yohei; Hanai, Tatsunori; Imai, Kenji; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Takai, Koji; Shiraki, Makoto; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    The poor prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with its high rate of recurrence in the cirrhotic liver. Therefore, more effective strategies need to be urgently developed for the chemoprevention of this malignancy. The malfunction of retinoid X receptor α, a retinoid receptor, due to phosphorylation by Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase is closely associated with liver carcinogenesis and may be a promising target for HCC chemoprevention. Acyclic retinoid (ACR), a synthetic retinoid, can prevent HCC development by inhibiting retinoid X receptor α phosphorylation and improve the prognosis for this malignancy. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which are used to improve protein malnutrition in patients with liver cirrhosis, can also reduce the risk of HCC in obese cirrhotic patients. In experimental studies, both ACR and BCAA exert suppressive effects on HCC development and the growth of HCC cells. In particular, combined treatment with ACR and BCAA cooperatively inhibits the growth of HCC cells. Furthermore, ACR and BCAA inhibit liver tumorigenesis associated with obesity and diabetes, both of which are critical risk factors for HCC development. These findings suggest that pharmaceutical and nutraceutical approaches using ACR and BCAA may be promising strategies for preventing HCC and improving the prognosis of this malignancy. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Abscisic acid triggers whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms to increase fruit calcium uptake and prevent blossom end rot development in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Sergio Tonetto; Shackel, Kenneth A; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2011-05-01

    Calcium (Ca) uptake into fruit and leaves is dependent on xylemic water movement, and hence presumably driven by transpiration and growth. High leaf transpiration is thought to restrict Ca movement to low-transpiring tomato fruit, which may increase fruit susceptibility to the Ca-deficiency disorder, blossom end rot (BER). The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of reduced leaf transpiration in abscisic acid (ABA)-treated plants on fruit and leaf Ca uptake and BER development. Tomato cultivars Ace 55 (Vf) and AB2 were grown in a greenhouse environment under Ca-deficit conditions and plants were treated weekly after pollination with water (control) or 500 mg l(-1) ABA. BER incidence was completely prevented in the ABA-treated plants and reached values of 30-45% in the water-treated controls. ABA-treated plants had higher stem water potential, lower leaf stomatal conductance, and lower whole-plant water loss than water-treated plants. ABA treatment increased total tissue and apoplastic water-soluble Ca concentrations in the fruit, and decreased Ca concentrations in leaves. In ABA-treated plants, fruit had a higher number of Safranin-O-stained xylem vessels at early stages of growth and development. ABA treatment reduced the phloem/xylem ratio of fruit sap uptake. The results indicate that ABA prevents BER development by increasing fruit Ca uptake, possibly by a combination of whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms.

  17. Rheology as a Tool to Predict the Release of Alpha-Lipoic Acid from Emulsions Used for the Prevention of Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges; Chiari-Andréo, Bruna Galdorfini; Marto, Joana Marques; Moraes, Jemima Daniela Dias; Leone, Beatriz Alves; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Ribeiro, Helena Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The availability of an active substance through the skin depends basically on two consecutive steps: the release of this substance from the vehicle and its subsequent permeation through the skin. Hence, studies on the specific properties of vehicles, such as their rheological behavior, are of great interest in the field of dermatological products. Recent studies have shown the influence of the rheological features of a vehicle on the release of drugs and active compounds from the formulation. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the rheological features of two different emulsion formulations on the release of alpha-lipoic acid. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) was chosen for this study because of its antioxidant characteristics, which could be useful for the prevention of skin diseases and aging. The rheological and mechanical behavior and the in vitro release profile were assayed. The results showed that rheological features, such as viscosity, thixotropy, and compliance, strongly influenced the release of ALA from the emulsion and that the presence of a hydrophilic polymer in one of the emulsions was an important factor affecting the rheology and, therefore, the release of ALA. PMID:26788510

  18. Peritoneal adhesion prevention with a biodegradable and injectable N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-aldehyde hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a rat repeated-injury model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linjiang; Li, Ling; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Li; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion is one of the serious issues because it induces severe clinical disorders. In this study, we prepared biodegradable and injectable hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (AHA), and assessed its anti-adhesion effect in a rigorous and severe recurrent adhesion model which is closer to clinical conditions. The flexible hydrogel, which gelated in 66 seconds at 37 °C, was cross-linked by the schiff base derived from the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in AHA. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed the hydrogel was non-toxic. In vitro and in vivo degradation examinations demonstrated the biodegradable and biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel. The hydrogel discs could prevent the invasion of fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts encapsulated in the porous 3-dimensional hydrogels could grow and proliferate well. Furthermore, the hydrogel was applied to evaluate the anti-adhesion efficacy in a more rigorous recurrent adhesion model. Compared with normal saline group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, the NOCC-AHA hydrogel exhibited significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion. Compared to control group, the blood and abdominal lavage level of tPA was increased in NOCC-AHA hydrogel group. These findings suggested that NOCC-AHA hydrogel had a great potential to serve as an anti-adhesion candidate. PMID:27869192

  19. NAFLD and Atherosclerosis Are Prevented by a Natural Dietary Supplement Containing Curcumin, Silymarin, Guggul, Chlorogenic Acid and Inulin in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Amato, Antonella; Caldara, Gaetano-Felice; Nuzzo, Domenico; Baldassano, Sara; Picone, Pasquale; Rizzo, Manfredi; Mulè, Flavia; Di Carlo, Marta

    2017-05-13

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) confers an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. NAFDL is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance, which in turn lead to atherosclerotic lesions. In the present study, the impact of a natural dietary supplement (NDS) containing Curcuma longa , silymarin, guggul, chlorogenic acid and inulin on NAFLD and atherosclerosis was evaluated, and the mechanism of action was examined. C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFD for 16 weeks; half of the mice were simultaneously treated with a daily oral administration (os) of the NDS. NAFLD and atherogenic lesions in aorta and carotid artery (histological analysis), hepatic expression of genes involved in the NAFLD (PCR array), hepatic angiotensinogen (AGT) and AT₁R mRNA expression (real-time PCR) and plasma angiotensin (ANG)-II levels (ELISA) were evaluated. In the NDS group, steatosis, aortic lesions or carotid artery thickening was not observed. PCR array showed upregulation of some genes involved in lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory activity (Cpt2, Ifng) and downregulation of some genes involved in pro-inflammatory response and in free fatty acid up-take (Fabp5, Socs3). Hepatic AGT, AT₁R mRNA and ANG II plasma levels were significantly lower with respect to the untreated-group. Furthermore, NDS inhibited the dyslipidemia observed in the untreated animals. Altogether, these results suggest that NDS prevents NAFLD and atherogenesis by modulating the expression of different genes involved in NAFLD and avoiding RAS imbalance.

  20. Folic acid prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces myocardial fibrosis in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Tang, Renqiao; Ouyang, Shengrong; Ma, Feifei; Liu, Zhuo; Wu, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) is an antioxidant that can reduce reactive oxygen species generation and can blunt cardiac dysfunction during ischemia. We hypothesized that FA supplementation prevents cardiac fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction induced by obesity. Six-week-old C57BL6/J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), normal diet (ND), or an HFD supplemented with folic acid (FAD) for 14 weeks. Cardiac function was measured using a transthoracic echocardiographic exam. Phenotypic analysis included measurements of body and heart weight, blood glucose and tissue homocysteine (Hcy) content, and heart oxidative stress status. HFD consumption elevated fasting blood glucose levels and caused obesity and heart enlargement. FA supplementation in HFD-fed mice resulted in reduced fasting blood glucose, heart weight, and heart tissue Hcy content. We also observed a significant cardiac systolic dysfunction when mice were subjected to HFD feeding as indicated by a reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening. However, FAD treatment improved cardiac function. FA supplementation protected against cardiac fibrosis induced by HFD. In addition, HFD increased malondialdehyde concentration of the heart tissue and reduced the levels of antioxidant enzyme, glutathione, and catalase. HFD consumption induced myocardial oxidant stress with amelioration by FA treatment. FA supplementation significantly lowers blood glucose levels and heart tissue Hcy content and reverses cardiac dysfunction induced by HFD in mice. These functional improvements of the heart may be mediated by the alleviation of oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis.

  1. Peritoneal adhesion prevention with a biodegradable and injectable N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-aldehyde hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a rat repeated-injury model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linjiang; Li, Ling; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Li; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang

    2016-11-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion is one of the serious issues because it induces severe clinical disorders. In this study, we prepared biodegradable and injectable hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (AHA), and assessed its anti-adhesion effect in a rigorous and severe recurrent adhesion model which is closer to clinical conditions. The flexible hydrogel, which gelated in 66 seconds at 37 °C, was cross-linked by the schiff base derived from the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in AHA. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed the hydrogel was non-toxic. In vitro and in vivo degradation examinations demonstrated the biodegradable and biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel. The hydrogel discs could prevent the invasion of fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts encapsulated in the porous 3-dimensional hydrogels could grow and proliferate well. Furthermore, the hydrogel was applied to evaluate the anti-adhesion efficacy in a more rigorous recurrent adhesion model. Compared with normal saline group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, the NOCC-AHA hydrogel exhibited significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion. Compared to control group, the blood and abdominal lavage level of tPA was increased in NOCC-AHA hydrogel group. These findings suggested that NOCC-AHA hydrogel had a great potential to serve as an anti-adhesion candidate.

  2. High Protein Intake Does Not Prevent Low Plasma Levels of Conditionally Essential Amino Acids in Very Preterm Infants Receiving Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Colin; Burgess, Laura

    2017-03-01

    We have shown that increasing protein intake using a standardized, concentrated, added macronutrients parenteral (SCAMP) nutrition regimen improves head growth in very preterm infants (VPIs) compared with a control parenteral nutrition (PN) regimen. VPIs are at risk of conditionally essential amino acid (CEAA) deficiencies because of current neonatal PN amino acid (AA) formulations. We hypothesized that the SCAMP regimen would prevent low plasma levels of CEAAs. To compare the plasma AA profiles at approximately day 9 of life in VPIs receiving SCAMP vs a control PN regimen. VPIs (<29 weeks' gestation) were randomized to receive SCAMP (30% more PN AA) or a control regimen. Data were collected to measure parenteral and enteral protein, energy, and individual AA intake and the first plasma AA profile. Plasma profiles of the 20 individual protogenic AA levels were measured using ion exchange chromatography. Plasma AA profiles were obtained at median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 9 (8-10) days in both SCAMP (n = 59) and control (n = 67) groups after randomizing 150 VPIs. Median (IQR) plasma levels of individual essential AAs were higher than the reference population mean (RPM) in both groups, especially for threonine. SCAMP infants had higher plasma levels of essential AAs than did the controls. Median (IQR) plasma levels of glutamine, arginine, and cysteine (CEAAs) were lower than the RPM in both groups. Plasma AA levels in PN-dependent VPIs indicate there is an imbalance in essential and CEAA provision in neonatal PN AA formulations that is not improved by increasing protein intake.

  3. Chlorogenic acid prevents inflammatory responses in IL‑1β‑stimulated human SW‑1353 chondrocytes, a model for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-Cui; Zhang, Yanmin; Dai, Bing-Ling; Ma, Yu-Jiao; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Yi; Yang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), which is a natural compound found in various plants, has been reported to exert notable anti‑inflammatory activities. The present study investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of CGA on interleukin (IL)‑1β‑induced osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes. An in vitro OA‑like chondrocyte model was established using IL‑1β‑stimulated human SW‑1353 chondrocytes. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay. Nitric oxide (NO) and IL‑6 production were evaluated by Griess reaction and ELISA, respectively. The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX‑2), collagen II, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑13, p65 nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and inhibitor‑κBα were detected by western blot analysis. The results indicated that CGA reversed IL‑1β‑induced increases in iNOS/NO, IL‑6, MMP‑13 and COX‑2/PGE2 production, and reversed the IL‑1β‑mediated downregulation of collagen II. In addition, the data suggested that CGA was capable of inhibiting the IL‑1β‑induced inflammatory response, at least partially via the NF‑κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, CGA may be considered a suitable candidate agent in the treatment of OA.

  4. Preventive effects of dexmedetomidine on the liver in a rat model of acid-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sen, Velat; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Şen, Hadice Selimoğlu; Ece, Aydın; Uluca, Unal; Söker, Sevda; Doğan, Erdal; Kaplan, İbrahim; Deveci, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether dexmedetomidine improves acute liver injury in a rat model. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats weighing 300-350 g were allocated randomly to four groups. In group 1, normal saline (NS) was injected into the lungs and rats were allowed to breathe spontaneously. In group 2, rats received standard ventilation (SV) in addition to NS. In group 3, hydrochloric acid was injected into the lungs and rats received SV. In group 4, rats received SV and 100 µg/kg intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine before intratracheal HCl instillation. Blood samples and liver tissue specimens were examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical methods. Acute lung injury (ALI) was found to be associated with increased malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant activity (TOA), oxidative stress index (OSI), and decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Significantly decreased MDA, TOA, and OSI levels and significantly increased TAC levels were found with dexmedetomidine injection in group 4 (P < 0.05). The highest histologic injury scores were detected in group 3. Enhanced hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and reduced CD68 expression were found in dexmedetomidine group compared with the group 3. In conclusion, the presented data provide the first evidence that dexmedetomidine has a protective effect on experimental liver injury induced by ALI.

  5. Mild and Short-Term Caloric Restriction Prevents Obesity-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Young Zucker Rats without Changing in Metabolites and Fatty Acids Cardiac Profile

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; García-Prieto, Concha F.; Pulido-Olmo, Helena; Velasco-Martín, Juan P.; Villa-Valverde, Palmira; Fernández-Valle, María E.; Boscá, Lisardo; Fernández-Velasco, María; Regadera, Javier; Somoza, Beatriz; Fernández-Alfonso, María S.

    2017-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) ameliorates cardiac dysfunction associated with obesity. However, most of the studies have been performed under severe CR (30–65% caloric intake decrease) for several months or even years in aged animals. Here, we investigated whether mild (20% food intake reduction) and short-term (2-weeks) CR prevented the obese cardiomyopathy phenotype and improved the metabolic profile of young (14 weeks of age) genetically obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Heart weight (HW) and HW/tibia length ratio was significantly lower in fa/fa rats after 2 weeks of CR than in counterparts fed ad libitum. Invasive pressure measurements showed that systolic blood pressure, maximal rate of positive left ventricle (LV) pressure, LV systolic pressure and LV end-diastolic pressure were all significantly higher in obese fa/fa rats than in lean counterparts, which were prevented by CR. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the increase in LV end-systolic volume, stroke volume and LV wall thickness observed in fa/fa rats was significantly lower in animals on CR diet. Histological analysis also revealed that CR blocked the significant increase in cardiomyocyte diameter in obese fa/fa rats. High resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of the LV revealed a global decrease in metabolites such as taurine, creatine and phosphocreatine, glutamate, glutamine and glutathione, in obese fa/fa rats, whereas lactate concentration was increased. By contrast, fatty acid concentrations in LV tissue were significantly elevated in obese fa/fa rats. CR failed to restore the LV metabolomic profile of obese fa/fa rats. In conclusion, mild and short-term CR prevented an obesity-induced cardiomyopathy phenotype in young obese fa/fa rats independently of the cardiac metabolic profile. PMID:28203206

  6. Short-term memory impairment after isoflurane in mice is prevented by the α5 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor inverse agonist L-655,708.

    PubMed

    Saab, Bechara J; Maclean, Ashley J B; Kanisek, Marijana; Zurek, Agnieszka A; Martin, Loren J; Roder, John C; Orser, Beverley A

    2010-11-01

    Memory blockade is an essential component of the anesthetic state. However, postanesthesia memory deficits represent an undesirable and poorly understood adverse effect. Inhibitory α5 subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptors (α5GABAA) are known to play a critical role in memory processes and are highly sensitive to positive modulation by anesthetics. We postulated that inhibiting the activity of α5GABAA receptors during isoflurane anesthesia would prevent memory deficits in the early postanesthesia period. Mice were pretreated with L-655,708, an α5GABAA receptor-selective inverse agonist, or vehicle. They were then exposed to isoflurane for 1 h (1.3%, or 1 minimum alveolar concentration, or air-oxygen control). Then, either 1 or 24 h later, mice were conditioned in fear-associated contextual and cued learning paradigms. In addition, the effect of L-655,708 on the immobilizing dose of isoflurane was studied. Motor coordination, sedation, anxiety, and the concentration of isoflurane in the brain at 5 min, 1 h, and 24 h after isoflurane were also examined. Motor and sensory function recovered within minutes after termination of isoflurane administration. In contrast, a robust deficit in contextual fear memory persisted for at least 24 h. The α5GABAA receptor inverse agonist, L-655,708, completely prevented memory deficits without changing the immobilizing dose of isoflurane. Trace concentrations of isoflurane were measured in the brain 24 h after treatment. Memory deficits occurred long after the sedative, analgesic, and anxiolytic effects of isoflurane subsided. L-655,708 prevented memory deficit, suggesting that an isoflurane interaction at α5GABAA receptors contributes to memory impairment during the early postanesthesia period.

  7. [Analysis of the fatty acid profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet in the context of some diet-related diseases prevention].

    PubMed

    Kornek, Agata; Kucharska, Alicja; Kamela, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Research increasingly provide evidence that vegetarian diet can have a positive impact on health. The aim of this study was to analyze the fatty acid profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet and prove which of them is more optimal in the context of some diet-related diseases prevention. The study involved 83 women (47 vegetarians and 36 non-vegetarians). Estimates of the supply of individual fatty acids in the diet was based on analysis of 3-day dietary records (calculations in a computer program DIETA 5). Found: - in vegan diet significantly lower percentage of energy from SFA than in lactoovovegetarian diet and non-vegetarian diet (5,2% vs 11,2% i 11,9%), - in vegan and lactoovovegetarian diet - significantly higher percentage of energy from PUFA than in non-vegetarian diet (9,2% i 7,8% vs 5,0%), - in vegan and lactoovovegetarian diet - significantly higher percentage of energy from LA than in non-vegetarian diet (6,7% i 5,5% vs 3,9%), - in vegan and lactoovovegetarian diet - significantly higher percentage of energy from ALA than in non-vegetarian diet (1,3% i 1,2% vs. 0,8%) - in vegan and lactoovovegetarian diet - significantly lower intake of EPA+DHA than in non-vegetarian diet (0 mg i 15 mg vs 76 mg), - only 25% of non-vegetarian diets fulfilled recommendations on the content of EPA + DHA Conclusions: Vegetarian, particularly vegan, nutrition may promote good balancing of the fatty acids in the diet, except for the long chain polyunsaturated omega-3, which are also deficient in the case of conventional diet.

  8. [Analysis of the fatty acid profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet in the context of some diet-related diseases prevention].

    PubMed

    Kornek, Agata; Kucharska, Alicja; Kamela, Katarzyna

    Research increasingly provide evidence that vegetarian diet can have a positive impact on health. The aim of this study was to analyze the fatty acid profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet and prove which of them is more optimal in the context of some diet-related diseases prevention. The study involved 83 women (47 vegetarians and 36 non-vegetarians). Estimates of the supply of individual fatty acids in the diet was based on analysis of 3-day dietary records (calculations in a computer program DIETA 5). Found: - in vegan diet significantly lower percentage of energy from SFA than in lactoovovegetarian diet and non-vegetarian diet (5,2% vs 11,2% i 11,9%), - in vegan and lactoovovegetarian diet - significantly higher percentage of energy from PUFA than in non-vegetarian diet (9,2% i 7,8% vs 5,0%), - in vegan and lactoovovegetarian diet - significantly higher percentage of energy from LA than in non-vegetarian diet (6,7% i 5,5% vs 3,9%), - in vegan and lactoovovegetarian diet - significantly higher percentage of energy from ALA than in non-vegetarian diet (1,3% i 1,2% vs. 0,8%) - in vegan and lactoovovegetarian diet - significantly lower intake of EPA+DHA than in non-vegetarian diet (0 mg i 15 mg vs 76 mg), - only 25% of non-vegetarian diets fulfilled recommendations on the content of EPA + DHA Conclusions: Vegetarian, particularly vegan, nutrition may promote good balancing of the fatty acids in the diet, except for the long chain polyunsaturated omega-3, which are also deficient in the case of conventional diet.

  9. Folic Acid and Grape Seed Extract Prevent Azathioprine-induced Fetal Malformations and Renal Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; Bayad, Aida E

    2016-12-01

    Azathioprine (AZA) is an important drug commonly used in the therapy of the autoimmune system disorders. It induces many hazard effects that restrict its use. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of AZA on the fetal development and renal function and its co-administration with either folic acid (FA) or grape seed extract (GSE). The effects of administration of GSE or FA on AZA toxicity by gavage simultaneously for 4 weeks were studied by determining the changes in kidney histology, the glutathione level (GSH), and lipid per oxidation content as malondialdehyde in the kidney tissue. Additionally, their effects on the fetal development were investigated. Azathioprine induced a renal damage as indicated from the pronounced changes in histological structure, a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine, and malondialdehyde content in the kidney tissue. Meanwhile, the GSH activity was significantly decreased. Co-treatment with GSE significantly minimized the previously mentioned hazard effects of AZA by ameliorating the antioxidant activity. At this point, FA induced a nonsignificant protective activity. The results also revealed that administration of FA or GSE at 6th to 15th day of gestation did not altered fetal development. While, AZA administration clearly disturbed fetal development as indicated from a significant decrease in fetal weights. Furthermore, co-administration of both drugs significantly minimized similarly the hazards of AZA on the fetal development. It may be concluded that GSE and FA are a useful remedies. Maternal administrations of either both are protective agents against AZA-induced fetal malformations. Grape seed extract was more active than FA in potentiating the antioxidative defenses for controlling AZA-induced oxidative renal damages. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Syringic Acid Prevents Oxidative Stress in l-arginine–Induced Acute Pancreatitis: An Experimental Study on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cikman, Oztekin; Soylemez, Omer; Ozkan, Omer Faruk; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Sayar, Ilyas; Ademoglu, Serkan; Taysi, Seyithan; Karaayvaz, Muammer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of antioxidant treatment with syringic acid (SA) on l-arginine–induced acute pancreatitis (AP) using biochemical and histopathologic approaches. A total of 30 rats were divided into 3 groups. The control group received normal saline intraperitoneally. The AP group was induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine intraperitoneally, administered twice with an interval of 1 hour between administrations. The AP plus SA group, after having AP induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine, was given SA (50 mg kg−1) in 2 parts within 24 hours. The rats were killed, and pancreatic tissue was removed and used in biochemical and histopathologic examinations. Compared with the control group, the mean pancreatic tissue total oxidant status level, oxidative stress index, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were significantly increased in the AP group, being 30.97 ± 7.13 (P < 0.05), 1.76 ± 0.34 (P < 0.0001), and 19.18 ± 4.91 (P < 0.01), respectively. However, mean total antioxidant status and sulfhydryl group levels were significantly decreased in the AP group compared with the control group, being 1.765 ± 0.21 (P < 0.0001) and 0.21 ± 0.04 (P < 0.0001), respectively. SA reduces oxidative stress markers and has antioxidant effects. It also augments antioxidant capacity in l-arginine–induced acute toxicity of pancreas in rats. PMID:26011211

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Syringic Acid Prevents Oxidative Stress in l-arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: An Experimental Study on Rats.

    PubMed

    Cikman, Oztekin; Soylemez, Omer; Ozkan, Omer Faruk; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Sayar, Ilyas; Ademoglu, Serkan; Taysi, Seyithan; Karaayvaz, Muammer

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of antioxidant treatment with syringic acid (SA) on l-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) using biochemical and histopathologic approaches. A total of 30 rats were divided into 3 groups. The control group received normal saline intraperitoneally. The AP group was induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine intraperitoneally, administered twice with an interval of 1 hour between administrations. The AP plus SA group, after having AP induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine, was given SA (50 mg kg(-1)) in 2 parts within 24 hours. The rats were killed, and pancreatic tissue was removed and used in biochemical and histopathologic examinations. Compared with the control group, the mean pancreatic tissue total oxidant status level, oxidative stress index, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were significantly increased in the AP group, being 30.97 ± 7.13 (P < 0.05), 1.76 ± 0.34 (P < 0.0001), and 19.18 ± 4.91 (P < 0.01), respectively. However, mean total antioxidant status and sulfhydryl group levels were significantly decreased in the AP group compared with the control group, being 1.765 ± 0.21 (P < 0.0001) and 0.21 ± 0.04 (P < 0.0001), respectively. SA reduces oxidative stress markers and has antioxidant effects. It also augments antioxidant capacity in l-arginine-induced acute toxicity of pancreas in rats.

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents age-induced bone loss in mice by regulating both osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guanlin; Wang, Huan; Dai, Jun; Li, Xiao; Guan, Ming; Gao, Shutao; Ding, Qing; Wang, Huaixi; Fang, Huang

    2017-08-26

    Osteoporosis (OP) can increase the risk of bone fracture and other complications, which is a major clinical problem. Previous researches have revealed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can promote the bone formation. But the mechanisms are not clear. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that CLA acts on bone formation might be via mTOR Complex1 (mTORC 1) pathway by in vitro and vivo assays. We studied the effect of CLA mix on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts differentiation into osteoblasts, and bone formation under osteoporotic conditions. At the same time, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte with the same CLA mix concentration gradient for 8 days with adipogenic differentiation medium. We found that Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteocalcin (OCN) expressions of pre-osteoblasts were up-regulated. Moreover in presence of CLA, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) were down-regulated. Osteoporosis mice bone parameters in the distal femoral meraphysis were significantly increased compared with placebo mice. Furthermore, the phosphor-S6 (P-S6) was suppressed and phosphor-AKT (P-AKT) was up-regulated. Consistently, CLA can stimulate differentiation of osteoblasts and inhibited pre-adipocytes differentiated into adipocytes via AKT/mTORC1 signal pathway. Overall CLA thus be a suitable candidate for the treatment of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Disruption of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity Prevents the Effects of Chronic Stress on Anxiety and Amygdalar Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Matthew N.; Kumar, Shobha Anil; Filipski, Sarah B.; Iverson, Moriah; Stuhr, Kara L.; Keith, John M.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Chattarji, Sumantra; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the amygdala following chronic stress is believed to be one of the primary mechanisms underlying the increased propensity for anxiety-like behaviors and pathological states; however, the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates amygdalar function are not well characterized. The aim of the current study was to determine the extent to which the endocannabinoid system, which is known to regulate emotional behavior and neuroplasticity, contributes to changes in amygdalar structure and function following chronic stress. To examine the hypothesis, we have exposed C57/Bl6 mice to chronic restraint stress which results in an increase in fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity and a reduction in the concentration of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA) within the amygdala. Chronic restraint stress also increased dendritic arborization, complexity and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) and increased anxiety-like behavior in wild-type mice. All of the stress-induced changes in amygdalar structure and function were absent in mice deficient in FAAH. Further, the anti-anxiety effect of FAAH deletion was recapitulated in rats treated orally with a novel pharmacological inhibitor of FAAH, JNJ5003 (50 mg/kg/day), during exposure to chronic stress. These studies suggest that FAAH is required for chronic stress to induce hyperactivity and structural remodeling of the amygdala. Collectively, these studies indicate that FAAH-mediated decreases in AEA occur following chronic stress and that this loss of AEA signaling is functionally relevant to the effects of chronic stress. These data support the hypothesis that inhibition of FAAH has therapeutic potential in the treatment of anxiety disorders, possibly by maintaining normal amygdalar function in the face of chronic stress. PMID:22776900

  14. Cotton textiles modified with citric acid as efficient anti-bacterial agent for prevention of nosocomial infections

    PubMed Central

    Bischof Vukušić, Sandra; Flinčec Grgac, Sandra; Budimir, Ana; Kalenić, Smilja

    2011-01-01

    Aim To study the antimicrobial activity of citric acid (CA) and sodium hypophosphite monohydrate (SHP) against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and to determine the influence of conventional and microwave thermal treatments on the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment of cotton textiles. Method Textile material was impregnated with CA and SHP solution and thermally treated by either conventional or microwave drying/curing treatment. Antibacterial effectiveness was tested according to the ISO 20743:2009 standard, using absorption method. The surfaces were morphologically observed by scanning electron microscopy, while physical characteristics were determined by wrinkle recovery angles method (DIN 53 891), tensile strength (DIN 53 837), and whiteness degree method (AATCC 110-2000). Results Cotton fabric treated with CA and SHP showed significant antibacterial activity against MRSA (6.38 log10 treated by conventional drying and 6.46 log10 treated by microwave drying before washing, and 6.90 log10 and 7.86 log10, respectively, after 1 cycle of home domestic laundering washing [HDLW]). Antibacterial activity was also remarkable against S. aureus (4.25 log10 by conventional drying, 4.58 log10 by microwave drying) and against P. aeruginosa (1.93 log10 by conventional and 4.66 log10 by microwave drying). Antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa was higher in samples subjected to microwave drying/curing than in those subjected to conventional drying/curing. As expected, antibacterial activity was reduced after 10 HDLW cycles but the compound was still effective. The surface of the untreated cotton polymer was smooth, while minor erosion stripes appeared on the surfaces treated with antimicrobial agent, and long and deep stripes were found on the surface of the washed sample. Conclusion CA can be used both for the disposable (non-durable) materials (gowns, masks, and cuffs for blood pressure measurement) and the materials that require durability to laundering

  15. Use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum intimate liquid soap for external hygiene in the prevention of bacterial vaginosis recurrence after metronidazole oral treatment.

    PubMed

    Bahamondes, M Valeria; Portugal, Priscila Mendes; Brolazo, Eliane Melo; Simões, José Antônio; Bahamondes, Luis

    2011-01-01

    To determine the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) after the use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap starting immediately after the treatment with oral metronidazole and the quality of life of the participants. A total of 123 women with diagnosis of BV with at least three of the following criteria: 1) homogeneous vaginal discharge without inflammation of the vagina or vulva; 2) vaginal pH ≥ 4.5; 3) positive Whiff test; and 4) "clue cells" in more than 20% of the epithelial cells in the vagina. A Nugent score ≥ 4 in the vaginal bacterioscopy was also used. After BV diagnosis, metronidazole 500 mg was administered orally bid during 7 days. Patients cured of BV were then instructed to use 7.5 to 10 mL of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap once-a-day for hygiene of the external genital region. Three subsequent control visits after starting the hygiene treatment (30, 60, and 90 days; ± 5 days) were scheduled. A questionnaire was applied in the form of visual analogue scale (VAS) in all the visits regarding: 1) level of comfort at the genital region; 2) malodorous external genitalia; 3) comfort in sexual intercourse; 4) satisfaction with intimate hygiene; and 5) self-esteem. Ninety two (74.8%) women initiated the use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap at visit 1. At visit 2, 3, and 4 there were 84, 62 and 42 women available for evaluation, respectively. The rate of recurrence of BV was 19.0%, 24.2% and 7.1%, respectively in the three visits and vaginal candidiasis was observed in five treated women. Quality of life was evaluated in the 42 women who completed the four visits schedule and there were significant improvement in the five domains assessed. A lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap for external intimate hygiene may be an option for the prevention of BV recurrence after treatment and cure with oral metronidazole.

  16. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} by GW501516 prevents fatty acid-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Coll, Teresa; Alvarez-Guardia, David; Barroso, Emma; Gómez-Foix, Anna Maria; Palomer, Xavier; Laguna, Juan C; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2010-04-01

    Elevated plasma free fatty acids cause insulin resistance in skeletal muscle through the activation of a chronic inflammatory process. This process involves nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation as a result of diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation and subsequent protein kinase Ctheta (PKCtheta) phosphorylation. At present, it is unknown whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPARdelta) activation prevents fatty acid-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells. In C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, the PPARdelta agonist GW501516 prevented phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 at Ser(307) and the inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation caused by exposure to the saturated fatty acid palmitate. This latter effect was reversed by the PPARdelta antagonist GSK0660. Treatment with the PPARdelta agonist enhanced the expression of two well known PPARdelta target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 and increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, preventing the reduction in fatty acid oxidation caused by palmitate exposure. In agreement with these changes, GW501516 treatment reversed the increase in DAG and PKCtheta activation caused by palmitate. These effects were abolished in the presence of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibitor etomoxir, thereby indicating that increased fatty acid oxidation was involved in the changes observed. Consistent with these findings, PPARdelta activation by GW501516 blocked palmitate-induced NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity. Likewise, drug treatment inhibited the increase in IL-6 expression caused by palmitate in C2C12 and human skeletal muscle cells as well as the protein secretion of this cytokine. These findings indicate that PPARdelta attenuates fatty acid-induced NF-kappaB activation and the subsequent development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells by reducing DAG accumulation

  17. Curcumin and long-chain Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for Prevention of type 2 Diabetes (COP-D): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thota, Rohith N; Acharya, Shamasunder H; Abbott, Kylie A; Garg, Manohar L

    2016-11-29

    Lifestyle interventions, including increase in physical activity and dietary counselling, have shown the ability to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high-risk state individuals, but the prevalence is still skyrocketing in Australia, in line with global prevalence. Currently, no medicines are approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration in Australia for the management of prediabetes. Therefore, there is a need of developing a safer, biologically efficacious and cost-effective alternative for delaying the transition of individual health state from prediabetes into T2D. In the current trial we propose to evaluate the effects of curcumin and/or long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on improving glycosylated haemoglobin as a primary outcome, along with secondary outcomes of glycaemic indices, lipid profile and inflammatory parameters. Eighty individuals diagnosed with prediabetes, aged between 30 and 70 years, will be randomly assigned to double placebo, curcumin alone, fish oil alone or double active groups according to a computer-generated randomisation sequence for 12 weeks. At baseline and post-intervention visits participants will be asked to provide blood samples and undergo body composition measurements. A blood sample is used for estimating glycaemic profiles, lipid profiles and inflammatory parameters (C-reactive protein, whole blood cell count, adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6). The interim visit includes review on compliance with supplements based on capsule log and capsule count, adverse events and anthropometric measurements. In addition to these procedures, participants provide self-reported questionnaires on dietary intake (using a 3-day food record), a physical activity questionnaire and medical history. This trial aims to determine whether curcumin and/or long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect surrogate markers of glycaemic control which is relevant to delaying T2D. To date 38 participants completed the trial. No changes

  18. Bolivian health providers' attitudes toward alternative technologies for cervical cancer prevention: a focus on visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Analía Romina; Altamirano, Victor Conde; Pérez-Castells, Macarena; Espey, David; Padilla, Haydee; Panameño, Karen; Soria, Milton; Santos, Carlos; Saraiya, Mona; Luciani, Silvana

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about health providers' attitudes toward visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in the prevention of cervical cancer, as most research in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has examined attitudes of the general population. This study describes attitudes of Bolivian health professionals toward new technologies for cervical cancer prevention, focusing on VIA and cryotherapy. Between February 2011 and March 2012, we surveyed 7 nurses and 35 physicians who participated in 5-day workshops on VIA and cryotherapy conducted in Bolivia. Multiple choice and open-ended questions were used to assess participants' acceptability of these procedures and the feasibility of their implementation in the context of perceived barriers for the early detection of cervical cancer in this country. Most believed that cultural factors represent the main barrier for the early detection of cervical cancer (70%), although all stated that VIA and cryotherapy would be accepted by women, citing the advantages of VIA over cytology for this belief. Most also believed their colleagues would accept VIA and cryotherapy (71%) and that VIA should replace Pap testing (61%), reiterating the advantages of VIA for these beliefs. Those who believed the contrary expressed a general resistance to change associated with an already existing cytology program and national norms prioritizing Pap testing. Most participants had favorable attitudes toward VIA and cryotherapy; however, a sizable minority cited challenges to their adoption by colleagues and believed VIA should not replace cytology. This report can inform the development of strategies to expand the use of alternative cervical cancer screening methods in LAC and Bolivia.

  19. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of apixaban versus acetylsalicylic acid in the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in Spain].

    PubMed

    Escolar-Albaladejo, Ginés; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Zamorano, José Luis; Betegón-Nicolás, Lourdes; Canal-Fontcuberta, Cristina; de Salas-Cansado, Marina; Rubio-Rodríguez, Darío; Rubio-Terrés, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of apixaban versus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) with contraindications of vitamin K antagonists in Spain. A Markov model was adapted, simulating the patient's lifetime. The safety and efficacy of the drugs were obtained from AVERROES clinical trial. The analysis was done from the Spanish National Health System (NHS) and societal perspective. The cost of drugs was calculated according to the recommended doses. The cost of NVAF complications and disease management was obtained from Spanish sources. In a cohort of 1,000 patients with NVAF, during their lifetime numerous complications could be avoided with apixaban versus ASA (48 ischemic strokes, 10 systemic embolism and 53 related deaths). In each patient treated with apixaban more life-years (0.303 LYG) and more quality-adjusted life-years (0.277 QALYs) could be gained. Apixaban would generate more costs per patient for the NHS (€1,742 per patient) but savings would result from the social perspective (€2,887 saved per patient). The cost per LYG and QALY gained would be of €5,749 and €6,289 for the NHS. Apixaban would be dominant (more effective with less costs than ASA) from the societal perspective. The results were stable in both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. According to this model, when costs and estimated lifetime outcomes achieved with apixaban are compared with those of ASA, apixaban was assessed to be a cost-effective treatment for the prevention of stroke in patients with NVAF in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Bolivian Health Providers’ Attitudes Toward Alternative Technologies for Cervical Cancer Prevention: A Focus on Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, Analía Romina; Altamirano, Victor Conde; Pérez-Castells, Macarena; Espey, David; Padilla, Haydee; Panameño, Karen; Soria, Milton; Santos, Carlos; Saraiya, Mona; Luciani, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about health providers’ attitudes toward visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in the prevention of cervical cancer, as most research in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has examined attitudes of the general population. This study describes attitudes of Bolivian health professionals toward new technologies for cervical cancer prevention, focusing on VIA and cryotherapy. Methods Between February 2011 and March 2012, we surveyed 7 nurses and 35 physicians who participated in 5-day workshops on VIA and cryotherapy conducted in Bolivia. Multiple choice and open-ended questions were used to assess participants’ acceptability of these procedures and the feasibility of their implementation in the context of perceived barriers for the early detection of cervical cancer in this country. Results Most believed that cultural factors represent the main barrier for the early detection of cervical cancer (70%), although all stated that VIA and cryotherapy would be accepted by women, citing the advantages of VIA over cytology for this belief. Most also believed their colleagues would accept VIA and cryotherapy (71%) and that VIA should replace Pap testing (61%), reiterating the advantages of VIA for these beliefs. Those who believed the contrary expressed a general resistance to change associated with an already existing cytology program and national norms prioritizing Pap testing. Conclusions Most participants had favorable attitudes toward VIA and cryotherapy; however, a sizable minority cited challenges to their adoption by colleagues and believed VIA should not replace cytology. This report can inform the development of strategies to expand the use of alternative cervical cancer screening methods in LAC and Bolivia. PMID:22816515

  1. Iron/folic acid supplementation during pregnancy prevents neonatal and under-five mortality in Pakistan: propensity score matched sample from two Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Yasir B; Dibley, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies from low- and middle-income countries have reported a protective effect of maternal antenatal iron/folic acid (IFA) on childhood mortality. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal antenatal IFA supplementation on childhood mortality in Pakistan. A propensity score-matched sample of 8,512 infants live-born within the 5 years prior to interview was selected from the pooled data of two Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (2006/07 and 2012/13). The primary outcomes were childhood mortality indicators and the main exposure variable was maternal antenatal IFA supplementation. Post-matched analyses used Cox proportional hazards regression and adjusted for 16 potential confounders. Maternal antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the adjusted risk of death on day 0 by 33% [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=0.67, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.48-0.94], during the neonatal period by 29% (aHR=0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88), and for under-fives by 27% (aHR=0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.89). When IFA was initiated in the first 4 months of pregnancy, the adjusted risk of neonatal and under-five deaths was significantly reduced by 35 and 33%, respectively. Twenty percent of under-five deaths were attributable to non-initiation of IFA in the first 4 months of pregnancy. With universal initiation of IFA in the first 4 months of pregnancy, 80,300 under-five deaths could be prevented annually in Pakistan. Maternal antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced neonatal and under-five deaths in Pakistan. Earlier initiation of supplements in pregnancy was associated with a greater prevention of neonatal and under-five deaths.

  2. Bovine mastitis prevention: humoral and cellular response of dairy cows inoculated with lactic acid bacteria at the dry-off period.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, M; Berardo, N; Giraudo, J; Nader-Macías, M E F; Bogni, C

    2017-08-24

    The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in animal feed, constitute an alternative tool for bovine mastitis prevention. Previously, two LAB strains were isolated from bovine milk and selected for their probiotics properties. So far, immune response of inoculating LAB in bovine udders at dry-off period has not been investigated. The immunoglobulin isotype levels and memory cell proliferation in blood and milk of animals inoculated with Lactobacillus lactis subsp. lactis CRL1655 and Lactobacillus perolens CRL1724 at dry-off period was studied. Ten animals were inoculated intramammarily with 10 6 cells of each LAB (IG) and 2 animals used as control (NIG). Milk and blood samples were taken before inoculation and 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h and 7 and 14 days after inoculation. Somatic cell count (SCC) in milk, the presence of bovine mastitis pathogens, the levels of antibodies and lymphocyte proliferation were determined. In the IG, the SCC was <250,000 cells/ml up to 4 h after intramammary inoculation. Six and 12 h after inoculation, the SCC increased up to 600,000 and 2,000,000 cells/ml, respectively. In the NIG, the SCC reached the maximum value 7 days after inoculation. Microbiological analysis showed that all samples were negative for major bovine mastitis pathogens after 24-48 h of incubation. In general, LAB inoculation increased the amount of IgG isotypes in blood and milk, and these antibodies were able to recognise Staphylococcus aureus epitopes. Lymphocytes proliferation was significantly higher in the IG at all time points assayed, following LAB or S. aureus stimulation. The lymphocytes of animals inoculated with LAB do not react in vitro to the presence of S. aureus antigen.. The results showed that probiotic microorganisms could be a natural and effective alternative in the prevention of bovine mastitis at dry-off period and act as immunomodulatory stimulating local and systemic defence lines.

  3. Epsilon-aminocaproic acid prevents high glucose and insulin induced-invasiveness in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, modulating the plasminogen activator system.

    PubMed

    Viedma-Rodríguez, Rubí; Martínez-Hernández, María Guadalupe; Flores-López, Luis Antonio; Baiza-Gutman, Luis Arturo

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and type II diabetes mellitus have contributed to the increase of breast cancer incidence worldwide. High glucose concentration promotes the proliferation of metastatic cells, favoring the activation of the plasminogen/plasmin system, thus contributing to tumor progression. The efficient formation of plasmin is dependent on the binding of plasminogen to the cell surface. We studied the effect of ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA), an inhibitor of the binding of plasminogen to cell surface, on proliferation, migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and plasminogen activation system, in metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells grown in a high glucose microenvironment and treated with insulin. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with EACA 12.5 mmol/L under high glucose 30 mmol/L (HG) and high glucose and insulin 80 nmol/L (HG-I) conditions, evaluating: cell population growth, % of viability, migratory, and invasive abilities, as well as the expression of uPA, its receptor (uPAR), and its inhibitor (PAI-1), by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNAs were evaluated by RT-PCR. Markers of EMT were evaluated by Western blot. Additionally, the presence of active uPA was studied by gel zymography, using casein-plasminogen as substrates. EACA prevented the increase in cell population, migration and invasion induced by HG and insulin, which was associated with the inhibition of EMT and the attenuation of HG- and insulin-dependent expression of uPA, uPAR, PAI-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, α-enolase (ENO A), and HCAM. The interaction of plasminogen to the cell surface and plasmin formation are mediators of the prometastasic action of hyperglycemia and insulin, potentially, EACA can be employed in the prevention and as adjuvant treatment of breast tumorigenesis promoted by hyperglycemia and insulin.

  4. Retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of epsilon aminocaproic acid for the prevention of postamputation bleeding in retired racing Greyhounds with appendicular bone tumors: 46 cases (2003-2008).

    PubMed

    Marín, Liliana M; Iazbik, M Cristina; Zaldivar-Lopez, Sara; Lord, Linda K; Stingle, Nicole; Vilar, Paulo; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Alvarez, Francisco; Hosoya, Kenji; Nelson, Laura; Pozzi, Antonio; Cooper, Edward; McLoughlin, Mary A; Ball, Rebecca; Kisseberth, William C; London, Cheryl A; Dudley, Robert; Dyce, Jonathan; McMahon, Melanie; Lerche, Phillip; Bednarski, Richard; Couto, C Guillermo

    2012-06-01

    To determine the frequency of delayed postoperative bleeding in retired racing Greyhounds with appendicular bone tumors undergoing limb amputations. To identify if administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) was effective on the prevention of postoperative bleeding. Retrospective study from December 2003 to December 2008. Veterinary university teaching hospital. Forty-six retired racing Greyhounds (RRGs) diagnosed with primary appendicular bone tumors that underwent limb amputation were included in the study. None. Thirteen of 46 RRGs (28%) included in the study had delayed postoperative bleeding starting 48-72 h after surgery. Bleeding episodes included cutaneous, subcutaneous, and external bleeding that extended from the area of the surgical site that became widespread within hours, and that required administration of blood components. A paired t-test suggests that there was a significant decrease in PCV postoperatively for both dogs that bled and dogs that did not bleed (P < 0.0001). Forty of 46 RRGs (86%) received either fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or EACA or both, for the prevention of postoperative bleeding. A logistic regression model determined that dogs that did not receive EACA were 5.7 times more likely to bleed than dogs that did receive EACA, when controlling for whether or not they received FFP (95% CI: 1.02-32.15, P = 0.047). This retrospective study suggests that preemptive postoperative administration of EACA appears to be efficacious in decreasing the frequency of bleeding in RRGs undergoing limb amputation; however, a prospective study is warranted to corroborate its effectiveness. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  5. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Preoperative Administration of Branched-Chain Amino Acids to Prevent Postoperative Ascites in Patients with Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yutaro; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Matsuo, Kenichi; Kawaguchi, Daisuke; Murakami, Takashi; Yabushita, Yasuhiro; Endo, Itaru; Taguri, Masataka; Koda, Keiji; Tanaka, Kuniya

    2016-10-01

    Massive postoperative ascites remains a major threat that can lead to liver failure and other fatal complications, especially in patients with poor liver function. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) administration increases biosynthesis and secretion of albumin by hepatocytes and increases oncotic pressure by elevating blood albumin concentration, thereby decreasing peripheral edema, ascites, and pleural effusion. We randomly allocated consecutive patients undergoing major liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma to either a group where oral BCAA administration was initiated 3 weeks before liver resection, or a non-BCAA group. The primary study endpoint was development of postoperative ascites. Overall, 39 patients were allocated to the BCAA group, while 38 were assigned to the non-BCAA group. No significant difference in the rate of refractory ascites, considered alone, was evident between the BCAA (5.1 %) and non-BCAA groups (13.2 %; p = 0.263). However, the occurrence of refractory ascites and/or pleural effusion was significantly less frequent in the BCAA group (5.1 %) than in the non-BCAA group (21.1 %; p = 0.047). Furthermore, the postoperative serum concentration of reduced-state albumin was greater immediately after liver resection in the BCAA group than in the non-BCAA group. Preoperative administration of BCAA did not significantly improve prevention of refractory ascites, but significant effectiveness in preventing ascites, pleural effusion, or both, as well as improving metabolism of albumin, was demonstrated [University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) reference number 000004244].

  6. NAFLD and Atherosclerosis Are Prevented by a Natural Dietary Supplement Containing Curcumin, Silymarin, Guggul, Chlorogenic Acid and Inulin in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Antonella; Caldara, Gaetano-Felice; Nuzzo, Domenico; Baldassano, Sara; Picone, Pasquale; Rizzo, Manfredi; Mulè, Flavia; Di Carlo, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) confers an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. NAFDL is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance, which in turn lead to atherosclerotic lesions. In the present study, the impact of a natural dietary supplement (NDS) containing Curcuma longa, silymarin, guggul, chlorogenic acid and inulin on NAFLD and atherosclerosis was evaluated, and the mechanism of action was examined. C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFD for 16 weeks; half of the mice were simultaneously treated with a daily oral administration (os) of the NDS. NAFLD and atherogenic lesions in aorta and carotid artery (histological analysis), hepatic expression of genes involved in the NAFLD (PCR array), hepatic angiotensinogen (AGT) and AT1R mRNA expression (real-time PCR) and plasma angiotensin (ANG)-II levels (ELISA) were evaluated. In the NDS group, steatosis, aortic lesions or carotid artery thickening was not observed. PCR array showed upregulation of some genes involved in lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory activity (Cpt2, Ifng) and downregulation of some genes involved in pro-inflammatory response and in free fatty acid up-take (Fabp5, Socs3). Hepatic AGT, AT1R mRNA and ANG II plasma levels were significantly lower with respect to the untreated-group. Furthermore, NDS inhibited the dyslipidemia observed in the untreated animals. Altogether, these results suggest that NDS prevents NAFLD and atherogenesis by modulating the expression of different genes involved in NAFLD and avoiding RAS imbalance. PMID:28505074

  7. Evaluation of polyethylene glycol/polylactic acid films in the prevention of adhesions in the rabbit adhesion formation and reformation sidewall models.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, K; Cohn, D; Hotovely, A; Pines, E; Diamond, M P; diZerega, G

    1998-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of bioresorbable films consisting of various polyethylene glycol 6000 and polylactic acid block copolymers on the formation and reformation of adhesions in rabbit models of adhesion development between the sidewall to the adjacent cecum and bowel. The composition of the different polymers was expressed by the number of monomeric units in the block, namely, ethylene oxide (EO) and lactic acid (LA), respectively. Studies of the efficacy of EO/LA films were conducted in rabbit sidewall adhesion formation studies in the presence and absence of blood and in rabbit adhesion reformation studies. REPEL (Life Medical Sciences, Edison, NJ), a film of EO/LA ratio 3.0 manufactured under commercial conditions, was also tested in these animal models. University-based laboratory. New Zealand white rabbits. Placement of films of various EO/LA ratios at the site of injury to the parietal peritoneum. Adhesion formation and reformation. Films of various EO/LA ratios, Seprafilm (Genzyme, Cambridge, MA) and Interceed (Johnson and Johnson Medical, Arlington, TX) placed over an area of excised sidewall at the time of initial injury were highly efficacious in the prevention of adhesion formation. A film of EO/LA ratio 3.7, in contrast with Interceed, was also shown to maintain maximal efficacy in the reduction of adhesion formation in the presence of blood. Further, a film of EO/LA ratio 3.0 produced under commercial conditions, REPEL, was highly efficacious in reducing adhesion development in the rabbit models of adhesion and reformation. These studies suggest that bioresorbable EO/LA films reduced adhesion development in rabbit models of adhesion formation and reformation.

  8. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevented Adipocyte Hypertrophy by Downregulating DGAT-2 and FABP-4 in a Sex-Dependent Fashion.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Kayode A; Cheema, Sukhinder K

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in fat mass primarily as a result of adipocyte hypertrophy. Diets enriched in omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to reduce obesity, however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA on adipocyte hypertrophy and the key genes involved in adipocyte hypertrophy. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed semi-purified diets (20 % w/w fat) containing high n-3 PUFA before mating, during pregnancy, and until weaning. Male and female offspring were continued on high n-3 PUFA (10 % w/w), medium n-3 PUFA (4 % w/w), or low n-3 PUFA (2 % w/w) diet for 16 weeks postweaning. Adipocyte area was quantified using microscopy, and gonadal mRNA expression of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT-2), fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP-4) and leptin were measured. The high n-3 PUFA group showed higher levels of total n-3 PUFA in gonadal TAG compared to the medium and low n-3 PUFA groups (P < 0.001). The high n-3 PUFA male group had a lower adipocyte area compared to the medium and low n-3 PUFA group (P < 0.001); however, no difference was observed in females. The high n-3 PUFA male group showed lower mRNA expression of FABP-4, DGAT-2 and leptin compared to the low n-3 PUFA group, with no difference in females. Plasma lipid levels were lower in the high n-3 PUFA group compared to the other groups. Our findings show for the first time that n-3 PUFA prevents adipocyte hypertrophy by downregulating FABP-4, DGAT-2 and leptin; the effects are however sex-specific.

  9. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming is cost-effective in preventing anaemia in women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Casey, Gerard J; Sartori, Davide; Horton, Susan E; Phuc, Tran Q; Phu, Luong B; Thach, Dang T; Dai, Tran C; Fattore, Giovanni; Montresor, Antonio; Biggs, Beverley-A

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of a project administering de-worming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to control anaemia in women of reproductive age in Yen Bai province, Vietnam. Cost effectiveness was evaluated using data on programmatic costs based on two surveys in 2006 and 2009 and impact on anaemia and iron status collected in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Data on initial costs for training and educational materials were obtained from the records of the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology and the Yen Bai Malaria Control Program. Structured questionnaires for health workers at district, commune and village level were used to collect ongoing distribution and monitoring costs, and for participants to collect transport and loss of earnings costs. The cost per woman treated (defined as consuming at least 75% of the recommended intake) was USD0.76 per annum. This estimate includes financial costs (for supplies, training), and costs of health care workers' time. Prevalence of anaemia fell from 38% at baseline, to 20% after 12 months. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the project is assessed at USD 4.24 per anaemia case prevented per year. Based on estimated productivity gains for adult women, the benefit:cost ratio is 6.7∶1. Cost of the supplements and anthelminthics was 47% of the total, while costs of training, monitoring, and health workers' time accounted for 53%. The study shows that weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming is a low-cost and cost-effective intervention and would be appropriate for population-based introduction in settings with a high prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency and low malaria infection rates.

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid Increases SorLA/LR11, a Sorting Protein with Reduced Expression in Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (AD): Relevance to AD Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiu-Lan; Teter, Bruce; Ubeda, Oliver J.; Morihara, Takashi; Dhoot, Dilsher; Nyby, Michael D.; Tuck, Michael L.; Frautschy, Sally A.; Cole, Greg M.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and genetic factors, notably ApoE4, contribute to the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). Reduced mRNA and protein for an apolipoprotein E (ApoE) receptor family member, SorLA (LR11) has been found in LOAD but not early-onset AD, suggesting that LR11 loss is not secondary to pathology. LR11 is a neuronal sorting protein that reduces amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking to secretases that generate β-amyloid (Aβ). Genetic polymorphisms that reduce LR11 expression are associated with increased AD risk. However these polymorphisms account for only a fraction of cases with LR11 deficits, suggesting involvement of environmental factors. Because lipoprotein receptors are typically lipid-regulated, we postulated that LR11 is regulated by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential ω-3 fatty acid related to reduced AD risk and reduced Aβ accumulation. In this study, we report that DHA significantly increases LR11 in multiple systems, including primary rat neurons, aged non-Tg mice and an aged DHA-depleted APPsw AD mouse model. DHA also increased LR11 in a human neuronal line. In vivo elevation of LR11 was also observed with dietary fish oil in young rats with insulin resistance, a model for type II diabetes, another AD risk factor. These data argue that DHA induction of LR11 does not require DHA-depleting diets and is not age dependent. Because reduced LR11 is known to increase Aβ production and may be a significant genetic cause of LOAD, our results indicate that DHA increases in SorLA/LR11 levels may play an important role in preventing LOAD. PMID:18160637

  11. Protective effect of lipoic acid on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Elangovan; Prahalathan, Chidambaram; Sudharsan, Periyasamy Thandavan; Varalakshmi, Palaninathan

    2006-05-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), a widely used anticancer and immunosuppressive drug causes severe testicular toxicity. We investigated the protective effect of lipoic acid in CP-induced testicular toxicity. Two groups of male Wistar rats (140+/-20 g) were administered CP (15 mg/kg body weight, oral gavage) once a week for 10 weeks to induce testicular toxicity; one of these groups received lipoic acid treatment (35 mg/kg body weight, i.p., 24 h prior to CP administration) once a week for 10 weeks. A vehicle treated control and a lipoic acid control groups were also included. The untreated CP exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, along with a significant decrease in cellular thiol levels. The activities of testicular marker enzymes such as gamma-glutamyl transferase, beta-glucuronidase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were increased whereas the activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase-X were decreased significantly in the animals treated with CP. In contrast, rats pretreated with lipoic acid showed normal marker enzymic patterns and normal levels of ROS and thiols. Testicular protection by lipoic acid is further substantiated by the normal histologic findings as against shrunken seminiferous tubules with impaired spermatogenesis in the CP administered rats. By the reversal of biochemical and morphological changes towards normalcy, the cytoprotective role of lipoic acid is illuminated in CP-induced testicular toxicity.

  12. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Socol, Gabriel; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Rădulescu, Marius; Surdu, Adrian; Trusca, Roxana; Rădulescu, Radu; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Stan, Miruna S.; Constanda, Sabrina; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  13. Telmisartan prevents hepatic fibrosis and enzyme-altered lesions in liver cirrhosis rat induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Haiyan; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yanbian University Hospital, Yanji, Jilin; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2007-12-28

    Rennin-angiotensin system is involved in liver fibrogenesis through activating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Telmisartan (Tel) is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, could function as a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} activator. Here we studied the effect of Tel on liver fibrosis, pre-neoplastic lesions in vivo and primary HSCs in vitro. In vivo study, we used the choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined (CDAA)-diet induced rat NASH model. The rats were fed the CDAA diet for 8 weeks to induce liver fibrosis and pre-neoplastic lesions, and then co-administrated with Tel for another 10 weeks. Tel prevented liver fibrogenesis and pre-neoplastic lesions bymore » down-regulating TGF{beta}1 and TIMP-1, 2 and increasing MMP-13 expression. Tel inhibited HSCs activation and proliferation. These results suggested that Tel could be a promising drug for NASH related liver fibrosis.« less

  14. The effects of somatostatin and ursodeoxycholic acid in preventing the ischemic injury of the liver following Pringle maneuver in obstructive jaundice-rat model.

    PubMed

    Pergel, Ahmet; Zengin, Kagan; Cercel, Ali; Aki, Hilal; Kaya, Safiye

    2007-01-01

    In our study, the effects of somatostatin (SS) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on ischemic liver injury were studied in (obstructive) jaundice-rat model. For this purpose, jaundice was produced in the first four groups by binding of their choleducts. We performed just laparotomy to the other four groups of animals. To groups 1 and 5, SS was given 15 mcg/kg/day intraperitoneally, and to groups 2 and 6, UDCA was given 20 mg/kg/day enterally. No drugs were given to any other group. At the end of one week, a procedure with ischemia of the liver for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 2 hours, was performed to each rat except for groups 4 and 8. Following this procedure, they were sacrificed. The blood samples were taken to measure SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDH, total and direct bilirubin levels, while liver biopsies were taken for histopathological evaluation. Under normothermic conditions, following 60-minute liver ischemia period, no irreversible histopathological changes were detected. However, increases in liver necrosis parameters were noted biochemically. SS and UDCA were thought to be effective in preventing the injury by decreasing the liver enzymes levels to a significant degree. The damage of the hepatic ischemic injury was found to be more meaningful and prominent in liver with jaundice. In this study, it was noted that SS and UDCA decrease the effects of cholestatic hepatic injury especially and improve the condition.

  15. Tannic Acid Is a Natural β-Secretase Inhibitor That Prevents Cognitive Impairment and Mitigates Alzheimer-like Pathology in Transgenic Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Takashi; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Koyama, Naoki; Arendash, Gary W.; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Kakuda, Nobuto; Horikoshi-Sakuraba, Yuko; Tan, Jun; Town, Terrence

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolysis is essential for production of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides that form β-amyloid plaques in brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Recent focus has been directed toward a group of naturally occurring anti-amyloidogenic polyphenols known as flavonoids. We orally administered the flavonoid tannic acid (TA) to the transgenic PSAPP mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis (bearing mutant human APP and presenilin-1 transgenes) and evaluated cognitive function and AD-like pathology. Consumption of TA for 6 months prevented transgene-associated behavioral impairment including hyperactivity, decreased object recognition, and defective spatial reference memory, but did not alter nontransgenic mouse behavior. Accordingly, brain parenchymal and cerebral vascular β-amyloid deposits and abundance of various Aβ species including oligomers were mitigated in TA-treated PSAPP mice. These effects occurred with decreased cleavage of the β-carboxyl-terminal APP fragment, lowered soluble APP-β production, reduced β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 protein stability and activity, and attenuated neuroinflammation. As in vitro validation, we treated well characterized mutant human APP-overexpressing murine neuron-like cells with TA and found significantly reduced Aβ production associated with less amyloidogenic APP proteolysis. Taken together, these results raise the possibility that dietary supplementation with TA may be prophylactic for AD by inhibiting β-secretase activity and neuroinflammation and thereby mitigating AD pathology. PMID:22219198

  16. Protocol for a pilot, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of prophylactic use of tranexamic acid for preventing postpartum haemorrhage (TAPPH-1)

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Asim; Bopardikar, Ameya; Au, Shelly; Barrett, Jon; Callum, Jeannie; Kiss, Alex; Choi, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the availability of multiple uterotonic agents, the incidence of PPH continues to rise. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to be a safe, effective and inexpensive therapeutic option for the treatment of PPH, however, its use prophylactically in mitigating the risk of PPH is unknown. This pragmatic randomised prospective trial assesses the feasibility and safety of administering TXA at the time of delivery for the prevention of PPH. Methods and analysis A pilot pragmatic randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled trial will be performed. 58 singleton parturients at term >32 weeks, undergoing either spontaneous vaginal delivery, or caesarean section will be randomised to receive 1 g of TXA or placebo (0.9% saline) intravenously. The primary outcome assessed will be the feasibility of administrating TXA, along with collecting data regarding safety of drug administration. The groups will also be analysed on efficacy of mitigating the onset of PPH and clinically relevant variables. Demographic, feasibility, safety and clinical endpoints will be summarised and the appropriate measures of central tendency and dispersion will be presented. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Research Ethics Board (number: 418-2016). The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and at scientific meetings. Trial registration number NCT03069859; Pre-results. PMID:29025850

  17. Implication of the ERK/MAPK pathway in antipsychotics-induced dopamine D2 receptor upregulation and in the preventive effects of (±)-α-lipoic acid in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Deslauriers, Jessica; Desmarais, Christian; Sarret, Philippe; Grignon, Sylvain

    2014-03-01

    Chronic administration of antipsychotics (APs) has been associated with dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) upregulation and tardive dyskinesia. We previously showed that haloperidol, a first-generation AP, exerted a more robust increase in D2R expression than amisulpride, a second-generation AP and that (±)-α-lipoic acid pre-treatment reversed the AP-induced D2R upregulation. We also demonstrated that the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway is involved in the control of D2R expression levels, but is unlikely implicated in the preventive effects of (±)-α-lipoic acid since co-treatment with haloperidol and (±)-α-lipoic acid exerts synergistic effects on Akt/GSK-3β activation. These findings led us to examine whether the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway may be involved in D2R upregulation elicited by APs, and in its reversal by (±)-α-lipoic acid, in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our results revealed that haloperidol, in parallel with an elevation in D2R mRNA levels, induced a larger increase of ERK (p42/p44) phosphorylation than amisulpride. Pre-treatment with the selective ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated haloperidol-induced increase in D2R upregulation. Furthermore, (±)-α-lipoic acid prevented AP-induced ERK activation. These results show that (1) the ERK/MAPK pathway is involved in haloperidol-induced D2R upregulation; (2) the preventive effect of (±)-α-lipoic acid on haloperidol-induced D2R upregulation is in part mediated by an ERK/MAPK-dependent signaling cascade. Taken together, our data suggest that (±)-α-lipoic acid exerts synergistic effects with haloperidol on the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, potentially involved in the therapeutic effects of APs, and antagonism of ERK activation and D2R upregulation, potentially involved in tardive dyskinesia and treatment resistance.

  18. Dietary intervention with narrow-leaved cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) prevents intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Fruet, Andréa Costa; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2012-05-04

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal epithelium that is driven by the intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and the loss of tolerance to the luminal microbiota. The use of dietary products containing ingredients such as fibres and carbohydrates and/or antioxidant compounds have been used as a therapeutic strategy for intestinal diseases because these products are considered effective in the modulation of the immune system and colonic microbiota. We investigated the beneficial effects of cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. In addition, we investigated the effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone, which is a reference drug that is used for treatment of human IBD. The present study included the preparation of flour from rhizomes of cattail (Typha angustifolia L.); an evaluation of the qualitative phytochemical profile of cattail rhizomes; an evaluation of the efficacy of cattail rhizome flour in TNBS-induced rat colitis; an evaluation of the synergistic effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone; and macroscopic, clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological studies to assess the healing effects of cattail rhizome flour and its synergistic effects in TNBS-induced rat colitis. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and χ(2) tests. We tested several concentrations of cattail rhizome flour and found that dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour showed the best effects at reducing the extension of the lesion, the colon weight ratio, adherences to adjacent organs and diarrhoea. These effects were related to inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities and an attenuation of glutathione (GSH) depletion. The 10% cattail rhizome flour was as effective as prednisolone, and no synergistic

  19. Efficacy of an orally administered combination of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, curcumin and quercetin for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Torella, M; Del Deo, F; Grimaldi, A; Iervolino, S A; Pezzella, M; Tammaro, C; Gallo, P; Rappa, C; De Franciscis, P; Colacurci, N

    2016-12-01

    To assess whether the orally administered combination of hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), curcumin and quercetin could be effective in preventing recurrent cystitis in postmenopausal women and whether its efficacy was conditioned by the concurrent use of local estrogen therapy. This was a prospective evaluation of 145 postmenopausal women consecutively recruited from the database of three different investigators. All women should have mild-to-moderate urogenital atrophy and a history of recurrent urinary tract infections (≥2 episodes within 6 months or ≥3 episodes within 12 months documented by positive urine cultures) during the last year. Patients were assigned to three different therapeutic regimens: the first group was treated only with vaginal estrogens, the second group only with HA, CS, curcumin and quercetin per os, and the third group was treated with HA, CS, curcumin and quercetin associated with local estrogens. We evaluated the number of patients with <2 infective episodes in the 6-month follow-up and <3 episodes in the 12-month follow-up (main aim definition) and the reduction of related symptoms through a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) patient symptom scale. Student's t-test and chi-squared test were used for data analysis as appropriate. At 6-month follow up, the main aim rate was 8%, 11.1% and 25% in the three groups, respectively (p<0.05 compared to baseline only in group 3). Although the reduction in the number of recurrent episodes became significant in all groups at 1 year follow-up, the main aim rate was almost double in women receiving both local estrogens and oral therapy (group 3) compared to those receiving single treatments. The improvement of related symptoms was significant in all groups at 12-month follow-up. In postmenopausal women, the combination of HA, CS, curcumin and quercetin per os was effective in preventing recurrent urinary tract infections, especially if

  20. Dietary intervention with narrow-leaved cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) prevents intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal epithelium that is driven by the intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and the loss of tolerance to the luminal microbiota. The use of dietary products containing ingredients such as fibres and carbohydrates and/or antioxidant compounds have been used as a therapeutic strategy for intestinal diseases because these products are considered effective in the modulation of the immune system and colonic microbiota. We investigated the beneficial effects of cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. In addition, we investigated the effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone, which is a reference drug that is used for treatment of human IBD. Methods The present study included the preparation of flour from rhizomes of cattail (Typha angustifolia L.); an evaluation of the qualitative phytochemical profile of cattail rhizomes; an evaluation of the efficacy of cattail rhizome flour in TNBS-induced rat colitis; an evaluation of the synergistic effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone; and macroscopic, clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological studies to assess the healing effects of cattail rhizome flour and its synergistic effects in TNBS-induced rat colitis. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and χ2 tests. Results We tested several concentrations of cattail rhizome flour and found that dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour showed the best effects at reducing the extension of the lesion, the colon weight ratio, adherences to adjacent organs and diarrhoea. These effects were related to inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities and an attenuation of glutathione (GSH) depletion. The 10% cattail rhizome flour was as effective as

  1. Supplementation with Folic Acid, but Not Creatine, Increases Plasma Betaine, Decreases Plasma Dimethylglycine, and Prevents a Decrease in Plasma Choline in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Megan N; Liu, Xinhua; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; Ilievski, Vesna; Lomax-Luu, Angela M; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad N; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2016-01-01

    Background: Folic acid (FA) supplementation facilitates urinary excretion of arsenic, a human carcinogen. A better understanding of interactions between one-carbon metabolism intermediates may improve the ability to design nutrition interventions that further facilitate arsenic excretion. Objective: The objective was to determine if FA and/or creatine supplementation increase choline and betaine and decrease dimethylglycine (DMG). Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults (n = 605, aged 24–55 y, 50.3% male) who received arsenic-removal water filters. We examined treatment effects of FA and/or creatine supplementation on plasma choline, betaine, and DMG concentrations, measured by LC–tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at week 12. Group comparisons were between 1) 400 and 800 μg FA/d (FA400 and FA800, respectively) compared with placebo, 2) creatine (3 g/d) compared with placebo, and 3) creatine plus FA400 compared with FA400. Results: Choline decreased in the placebo group (−6.6%; 95% CI: −10.2%, −2.9%) but did not change in the FA groups (FA400: 2.5%; 95% CI: −0.9%, 6.1%; FA800: 1.4%; 95% CI: −2.5%, 5.5%; P < 0.05). Betaine did not change in the placebo group (−3.5%; 95% CI: −9.3%, 2.6%) but increased in the FA groups (FA400: 14.1%; 95% CI: 9.4%, 19.0%; FA800: 13.0%; 95% CI: 7.2%, 19.1%; P < 0.01). The decrease in DMG was greater in the FA groups (FA400: −26.7%; 95% CI: −30.9%, −22.2%; FA800: −27.8%; 95% CI: −31.8%, −23.4%) than in the placebo group (−12.3%; 95% CI: −18.1%, −6.2%; P < 0.01). The percentage change in choline, betaine, and DMG did not differ between creatine treatment arms and their respective reference groups. Conclusion: Supplementation for 12 wk with FA, but not creatine, increases plasma betaine, decreases plasma DMG, and prevents a decrease in plasma choline in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults. This trial

  2. Supplementation with Folic Acid, but Not Creatine, Increases Plasma Betaine, Decreases Plasma Dimethylglycine, and Prevents a Decrease in Plasma Choline in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults.

    PubMed

    Hall, Megan N; Howe, Caitlin G; Liu, Xinhua; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; Ilievski, Vesna; Lomax-Luu, Angela M; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad N; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2016-05-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation facilitates urinary excretion of arsenic, a human carcinogen. A better understanding of interactions between one-carbon metabolism intermediates may improve the ability to design nutrition interventions that further facilitate arsenic excretion. The objective was to determine if FA and/or creatine supplementation increase choline and betaine and decrease dimethylglycine (DMG). We conducted a secondary analysis of the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults (n = 605, aged 24-55 y, 50.3% male) who received arsenic-removal water filters. We examined treatment effects of FA and/or creatine supplementation on plasma choline, betaine, and DMG concentrations, measured by LC-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at week 12. Group comparisons were between 1) 400 and 800 μg FA/d (FA400 and FA800, respectively) compared with placebo, 2) creatine (3 g/d) compared with placebo, and 3) creatine plus FA400 compared with FA400. Choline decreased in the placebo group (-6.6%; 95% CI: -10.2%, -2.9%) but did not change in the FA groups (FA400: 2.5%; 95% CI: -0.9%, 6.1%; FA800: 1.4%; 95% CI: -2.5%, 5.5%; P < 0.05). Betaine did not change in the placebo group (-3.5%; 95% CI: -9.3%, 2.6%) but increased in the FA groups (FA400: 14.1%; 95% CI: 9.4%, 19.0%; FA800: 13.0%; 95% CI: 7.2%, 19.1%; P < 0.01). The decrease in DMG was greater in the FA groups (FA400: -26.7%; 95% CI: -30.9%, -22.2%; FA800: -27.8%; 95% CI: -31.8%, -23.4%) than in the placebo group (-12.3%; 95% CI: -18.1%, -6.2%; P < 0.01). The percentage change in choline, betaine, and DMG did not differ between creatine treatment arms and their respective reference groups. Supplementation for 12 wk with FA, but not creatine, increases plasma betaine, decreases plasma DMG, and prevents a decrease in plasma choline in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556. © 2016 American Society for

  3. Fish oil and postoperative atrial fibrillation: the Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Marchioli, Roberto; Macchia, Alejandro; Silletta, Maria G; Ferrazzi, Paolo; Gardner, Timothy J; Latini, Roberto; Libby, Peter; Lombardi, Federico; O'Gara, Patrick T; Page, Richard L; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tognoni, Gianni

    2012-11-21

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) is one of the most common complications of cardiac surgery and significantly increases morbidity and health care utilization. A few small trials have evaluated whether long-chain n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce postoperative AF, with mixed results. To determine whether perioperative n-3-PUFA supplementation reduces postoperative AF. The Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. A total of 1516 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery in 28 centers in the United States, Italy, and Argentina were enrolled between August 2010 and June 2012. Inclusion criteria were broad; the main exclusions were regular use of fish oil or absence of sinus rhythm at enrollment. Patients were randomized to receive fish oil (1-g capsules containing ≥840 mg n-3-PUFAs as ethyl esters) or placebo, with preoperative loading of 10 g over 3 to 5 days (or 8 g over 2 days) followed postoperatively by 2 g/d until hospital discharge or postoperative day 10, whichever came first. Occurrence of postoperative AF lasting longer than 30 seconds. Secondary end points were postoperative AF lasting longer than 1 hour, resulting in symptoms, or treated with cardioversion; postoperative AF excluding atrial flutter; time to first postoperative AF; number of AF episodes per patient; hospital utilization; and major adverse cardiovascular events, 30-day mortality, bleeding, and other adverse events. At enrollment, mean age was 64 (SD, 13) years; 72.2% of patients were men, and 51.8% had planned valvular surgery. The primary end point occurred in 233 (30.7%) patients assigned to placebo and 227 (30.0%) assigned to n-3-PUFAs (odds ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.77-1.20]; P = .74). None of the secondary end points were significantly different between the placebo and fish oil groups, including postoperative AF that was sustained, symptomatic, or treated (231

  4. Inhibition of VDAC1 prevents Ca²⁺-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated sonodynamic therapy in THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haibo; Gao, Weiwei; Yang, Yang; Guo, Shuyuan; Wang, Huan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shuisheng; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Haobo; Yao, Jianting; Tian, Zhen; Li, Bicheng; Cao, Wenwu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Tian, Ye

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound combined with endogenous protoporphyrin IX derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-SDT) is known to induce apoptosis in multiple cancer cells and macrophages. Persistent retention of macrophages in the plaque has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of atherosclerosis. Here we investigated the effects of inhibition of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) on ALA-SDT-induced THP-1 macrophages apoptosis. Cells were pre-treated with VDAC1 inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) disodium salt for 1 h or downregulated VDAC1 expression by small interfering RNA and exposed to ultrasound. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, and cell apoptosis along with necrosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Levels of cytochrome c release was assessed by confocal microscope and Western blot. The levels of full length caspases, caspase activation, and VDAC isoforms were analyzed by Western blot. Intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and intracellular Ca(2+) [Ca(2+)]i levels were measured with fluorescent probes. We confirmed that the pharmacological inhibition of VDAC1 by DIDS notably prevented ALA-SDT-induced cell apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages. Additionally, DIDS significantly inhibited intracellular ROS generation and apoptotic biochemical changes such as inner mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, ALA-SDT elevated the [Ca(2+)]i levels and it was also notably reduced by DIDS. Furthermore, both of intracellular ROS generation and cell apoptosis were predominately inhibited by Ca(2+) chelating reagent BAPTA-AM. Intriguingly, ALA-treatment markedly augmented VDAC1 protein levels exclusively, and the downregulation of VDAC1 expression by specific siRNA also significantly abolished cell apoptosis. Altogether, these

  5. Tryptamine-gallic acid hybrid prevents non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy: correction of mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmay; Bindu, Samik; Dey, Sumanta; Alam, Athar; Goyal, Manish; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Sarkar, Souvik; Kumar, Rahul; Halder, Kamal Krishna; Debnath, Mita Chatterjee; Adhikari, Susanta; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2012-01-27

    We have investigated the gastroprotective effect of SEGA (3a), a newly synthesized tryptamine-gallic acid hybrid molecule against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy with mechanistic details. SEGA (3a) prevents indomethacin (NSAID)-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS) and dysfunctions in gastric mucosal cells, which play a pathogenic role in inducing gastropathy. SEGA (3a) offers this mitoprotective effect by scavenging of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O(2)(·-)) and intramitochondrial free iron released as a result of MOS. SEGA (3a) in vivo blocks indomethacin-mediated MOS, as is evident from the inhibition of indomethacin-induced mitochondrial protein carbonyl formation, lipid peroxidation, and thiol depletion. SEGA (3a) corrects indomethacin-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo by restoring defective electron transport chain function, collapse of transmembrane potential, and loss of dehydrogenase activity. SEGA (3a) not only corrects mitochondrial dysfunction but also inhibits the activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by indomethacin. SEGA (3a) inhibits indomethacin-induced down-regulation of bcl-2 and up-regulation of bax genes in gastric mucosa. SEGA (3a) also inhibits indometacin-induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in gastric mucosa. Besides the gastroprotective effect against NSAID, SEGA (3a) also expedites the healing of already damaged gastric mucosa. Radiolabeled ((99m)Tc-labeled SEGA (3a)) tracer studies confirm that SEGA (3a) enters into mitochondria of gastric mucosal cell in vivo, and it is quite stable in serum. Thus, SEGA (3a) bears an immense potential to be a novel gastroprotective agent against NSAID-induced gastropathy.

  6. Branched-chain amino acids prevent hepatic fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Takegoshi, Kai; Honda, Masao; Okada, Hikari; Takabatake, Riuta; Matsuzawa-Nagata, Naoto; Campbell, Jean S.; Nishikawa, Masashi; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Shirasaki, Takayoshi; Sakai, Yoshio; Yamashita, Taro; Takamura, Toshinari; Tanaka, Takuji; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks. BCAA supplementation significantly improved hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and tumors in Ath+HF mice at 68 weeks. GeneChip analysis demonstrated the significant resolution of pro-fibrotic gene expression by BCAA supplementation. The anti-fibrotic effect of BCAA was confirmed further using platelet-derived growth factor C transgenic mice, which develop hepatic fibrosis and tumors. In vitro, BCAA restored the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated expression of pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSC). In hepatocytes, BCAA restored TGF-β1-induced apoptosis, lipogenesis, and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling, and inhibited the transformation of WB-F344 rat liver epithelial stem-like cells. BCAA repressed the promoter activity of TGFβ1R1 by inhibiting the expression of the transcription factor NFY and histone acetyltransferase p300. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of BCAA on TGF-β1 signaling was mTORC1 activity-dependent, suggesting the presence of negative feedback regulation from mTORC1 to TGF-β1 signaling. Thus, BCAA induce an anti-fibrotic effect in HSC, prevent apoptosis in hepatocytes, and decrease the incidence of HCC; therefore, BCAA supplementation would be beneficial for patients with advanced liver fibrosis with a high risk of HCC. PMID:28212548

  7. Inhibition of cell surface expression of endothelial adhesion molecules by ursolic acid prevents intimal hyperplasia of venous bypass grafts in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Iris; Wiedemann, Dominik; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stelzmüller, Marlies; Kreutmayer, Simone; Leberfing, Oliver; Stuppner, Hermann; Bernhard, David

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Despite rapid progress in surgical techniques, there is still a significant lack of surgery-supportive pharmacological treatments. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ursolic acid (UA) may prevent intimal hyperplasia of venous bypass grafts. METHODS The hypothesis was tested by means of primary cell isolation and culture followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses, as well as an in vivo rat model for intimal hyperplasia of venous bypass grafts and immunohistochemistry and histochemistry. RESULTS The local application of UA significantly inhibited intimal hyperplasia in vivo (intimal thickness control: 25 μm, UA group: 18 μM–8 weeks after surgery). The UA treatment of grafts significantly resulted in reduced endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression, reduced infiltration of the grafts vessel wall by CD45-positive cells and increased smooth muscle cell (SMC) death. In in vitro condition, it could be shown that UA inhibits VCAM-1 expression downstream of NFκB and is likely to interfere with VCAM-1 protein synthesis in endothelial cells. Quantification of cell death in vascular smooth muscle cells treated with UA indicated that UA is a potent inducer of SMC apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that UA-mediated inhibition of endothelial VCAM-1 expression reduces the infiltration of venous bypass grafts by CD45-positive cells and inhibits intimal hyperplasia. Apoptosis induction in SMCs may be another method in which UA reduces intimal thickening. UA may constitute a surgery-supportive pharmacon that reduces intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts. PMID:22551965

  8. Branched-chain amino acids prevent hepatic fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Takegoshi, Kai; Honda, Masao; Okada, Hikari; Takabatake, Riuta; Matsuzawa-Nagata, Naoto; Campbell, Jean S; Nishikawa, Masashi; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Shirasaki, Takayoshi; Sakai, Yoshio; Yamashita, Taro; Takamura, Toshinari; Tanaka, Takuji; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-03-14

    Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks. BCAA supplementation significantly improved hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and tumors in Ath+HF mice at 68 weeks. GeneChip analysis demonstrated the significant resolution of pro-fibrotic gene expression by BCAA supplementation. The anti-fibrotic effect of BCAA was confirmed further using platelet-derived growth factor C transgenic mice, which develop hepatic fibrosis and tumors. In vitro, BCAA restored the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated expression of pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSC). In hepatocytes, BCAA restored TGF-β1-induced apoptosis, lipogenesis, and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling, and inhibited the transformation of WB-F344 rat liver epithelial stem-like cells. BCAA repressed the promoter activity of TGFβ1R1 by inhibiting the expression of the transcription factor NFY and histone acetyltransferase p300. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of BCAA on TGF-β1 signaling was mTORC1 activity-dependent, suggesting the presence of negative feedback regulation from mTORC1 to TGF-β1 signaling. Thus, BCAA induce an anti-fibrotic effect in HSC, prevent apoptosis in hepatocytes, and decrease the incidence of HCC; therefore, BCAA supplementation would be beneficial for patients with advanced liver fibrosis with a high risk of HCC.

  9. Rilonacept for gout flare prevention during initiation of uric acid-lowering therapy: results from the PRESURGE-2 international, phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mitha, Essack; Schumacher, H Ralph; Fouche, Leon; Luo, Shue-Fen; Weinstein, Steven P; Yancopoulos, George D; Wang, Jian; King-Davis, Shirletta; Evans, Robert R

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of IL-1 inhibitor rilonacept (IL-1 Trap) for gout flare (GF) prevention during initiation of uric acid-lowering therapy (ULT) with allopurinol in a multiregional phase 3 clinical trial. Hyperuricaemic adults (n = 248) from South Africa, Germany and Asia with gout and two or more GFs within the past year were initiated on allopurinol and randomized 1:1:1 to once-weekly s.c. treatment with placebo (PBO), rilonacept 80 mg (R80) or rilonacept 160 mg (R160) for 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was the number of GFs per patient through week 16. The population was predominantly male and racially diverse (white, 53.2%; Asian, 33.1%; black, 13.7%). Across treatments, most patients completed the study (87.8-92.9%). At 16 weeks the mean number of GFs per patient was reduced by 71.3% with R80 (0.35) and by 72.6% with R160 (0.34) relative to PBO (1.23; both P < 0.0001). The proportion of patients without GFs was higher with R80 (74.4%) and R160 (79.5%) than with PBO (43.9%; both P ≤ 0.0001), and the proportions of patients on rilonacept with multiple GFs were significantly lower (P < 0.001). Overall, the incidence of adverse events (AEs) was similar between PBO (61.0%) and rilonacept (65.1%). Injection site reactions, generally mild, were the most frequent AE with rilonacept (1.2% PBO, 12.2% R80 and 17.9% R160); none of these injection site reactions led to withdrawal. There were no study drug-related serious AEs or deaths. Rilonacept significantly reduced the occurrence of GFs associated with initiation of ULT, with >70% of patients having no flares, and demonstrated an acceptable safety and tolerability profile. ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT00958438.

  10. Role of ascorbic acid in the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the prevention of browning in different browning-sensitive Lactuca sativa var. capitata (L.) and Eruca sativa (Mill.) stored as fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Landi, Marco; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and, to a minor extent, peroxidase (POD) represent the key enzymes involved in enzymatic browning, a negative process induced by cutting fresh-cut produce such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa). Although ascorbic acid is frequently utilised as an anti-browning agent, its mechanism in the prevention of the browning phenomenon is not clearly understood. The activity of PPO and POD and their isoforms in lettuce (a high-browning and low-ascorbic acid species) and rocket salad (a low-browning and high-ascorbic species) was characterised. The kinetic parameters of PPO and in vitro ascorbic acid-PPO inhibition were also investigated. In rocket salad, PPO activity was much lower than that in lettuce and cutting induced an increase in PPO activity only in lettuce. Exogenous ascorbic acid (5 mmol L(-1)) reduced PPO activity by about 90% in lettuce. POD did not appear to be closely related to browning in lettuce. PPO is the main enzyme involved in the browning phenomenon; POD appears to play a minor role. The concentration of endogenous ascorbic acid in rocket salad was related to its low-browning sensitivity after cutting. In lettuce, the addition of ascorbic acid directly inhibited PPO activity. The results suggest that the high ascorbic acid content found in rocket salad plays an effective role in reducing PPO activity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle’s historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  12. Ω-3 fatty acids prevent hepatic steatosis, independent of PPAR-α activity, in a murine model of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease.

    PubMed

    Prince, Esther; Lazare, Farrah B; Treem, William R; Xu, Jiliu; Iqbal, Jahangir; Pan, Xiaoyue; Josekutty, Joby; Walsh, Meghan; Anderson, Virginia; Hussain, M Mahmood; Schwarz, Steven M

    2014-07-01

    ω-3 Fatty acids (FAs), natural ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), attenuate parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). However, the mechanisms underlying the protective role of ω-3 FAs are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ω-3 FAs on hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in a murine model of PNALD and to investigate the role of PPAR-α and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) in this experimental setting. 129S1/SvImJ wild-type or 129S4/SvJaePparatm/Gonz/J PPAR-α knockout mice were fed chow and water (controls); oral, fat-free PN solution only (PN-O); PN-O plus intraperitoneal (IP) ω-6 FA-predominant supplements (PN-ω-6); or PN-O plus IP ω-3 FA (PN-ω-3). Control and PN-O groups received sham IP injections of 0.9% NaCl. Hepatic histology, TG and cholesterol, MTP activity, and PPAR-α messenger RNA were assessed after 19 days. In all experimental groups, PN feeding increased hepatic TG and MTP activity compared with controls. Both PN-O and PN-ω-6 groups accumulated significantly greater amounts of TG when compared with PN-ω-3 mice. Studies in PPAR-α null animals showed that PN feeding increases hepatic TG as in wild-type mice. PPAR-α null mice in the PN-O and PN-ω-6 groups demonstrated variable degrees of hepatic steatosis, whereas no evidence of hepatic fat accumulation was found after 19 days of oral PN plus IP ω-3 FAs. PN induces TG accumulation (steatosis) in wild-type and PPAR-α null mice. In PN-fed wild-type and PPAR-α null mice given IP ω-3 FAs, reduced hepatic TG accumulation and absent steatosis are found. Prevention of steatosis by ω-3 FAs results from PPAR-α-independent pathways. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  13. ω-3 Fatty Acids Prevent Hepatic Steatosis, Independent of PPAR-α Activity, in a Murine Model of Parenteral Nutrition–Associated Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Esther; Lazare, Farrah B.; Treem, William R.; Xu, Jiliu; Iqbal, Jahangir; Pan, Xiaoyue; Josekutty, Joby; Walsh, Meghan; Anderson, Virginia; Hussain, M. Mahmood; Schwarz, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives ω-3 Fatty acids (FAs), natural ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor–α (PPAR-α), attenuate parenteral nutrition–associated liver disease (PNALD). However, the mechanisms underlying the protective role of ω-3 FAs are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ω-3 FAs on hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in a murine model of PNALD and to investigate the role of PPAR-α and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) in this experimental setting. Methods 129S1/SvImJ wild-type or 129S4/SvJaePparatm/Gonz/J PPAR-α knockout mice were fed chow and water (controls); oral, fat-free PN solution only (PN-O); PN-O plus intraperitoneal (IP) ω-6 FA-predominant supplements (PN–ω-6); or PN-O plus IP ω-3 FA (PN–ω-3). Control and PN-O groups received sham IP injections of 0.9% NaCl. Hepatic histology, TG and cholesterol, MTP activity, and PPAR-α messenger RNA were assessed after 19 days. Results In all experimental groups, PN feeding increased hepatic TG and MTP activity compared with controls. Both PN-O and PN–ω-6 groups accumulated significantly greater amounts of TG when compared with PN–ω-3 mice. Studies in PPAR-α null animals showed that PN feeding increases hepatic TG as in wild-type mice. PPAR-α null mice in the PN-O and PN–ω-6 groups demonstrated variable degrees of hepatic steatosis, whereas no evidence of hepatic fat accumulation was found after 19 days of oral PN plus IP ω-3 FAs. Conclusions PN induces TG accumulation (steatosis) in wild-type and PPAR-α null mice. In PN-fed wild-type and PPAR-α null mice given IP ω-3 FAs, reduced hepatic TG accumulation and absent steatosis are found. Prevention of steatosis by ω-3 FAs results from PPAR-α–independent pathways. PMID:23757305

  14. Earlier Initiation and Use of a Greater Number of Iron-Folic Acid Supplements during Pregnancy Prevents Early Neonatal Deaths in Nepal and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Early neonatal deaths account for 75% of neonatal deaths globally. Antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation has significantly reduced the risk of early neonatal deaths in China and Indonesia. We investigated the impact of antenatal IFA supplements on the risk of early neonatal deaths in Nepal and Pakistan during the last decade. Methods Data from the most recent singleton live-births of 8,186 from two Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and 13,034 from two Pakistan DHS were selected for the current study. The primary outcome was early neonatal deaths and the main study variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Analyses used multivariate Cox proportional regression, adjusted for the cluster sampling design and for 18 potential confounders. Findings The adjusted risk of early neonatal deaths was significantly reduced by 51% (aHR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.32–0.75) in Nepal and 23% (aHR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.59–0.99) in Pakistan with any use of IFA compared to none. When IFA supplementation started at or before the 5th month of pregnancy, the adjusted risk of early neonatal mortality was significantly reduced by 53% in Nepal, and 28% in Pakistan, compared to no IFA. When >90 IFA supplements were used and started at or before 5th months, the adjusted risk of early neonatal deaths was significantly reduced by 57% in Nepal, and 45% in Pakistan. In Nepal 4,600 and in Pakistan 75,000 early neonatal deaths could be prevented annually if all pregnant women used >90 IFA supplements and started at or before the 5th month of pregnancy. Conclusions Any use of IFA supplements was significantly associated with reduced risk of early neonatal deaths in Nepal and Pakistan. The greatest mortality sparing effect of IFA on early neonatal deaths in both countries was with early initiation and use of a greater number of supplements. PMID:25398011

  15. A review of the possible role of the essential fatty acids and fish oils in the aetiology, prevention or pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Akter, K; Gallo, D A; Martin, S A; Myronyuk, N; Roberts, R T; Stercula, K; Raffa, R B

    2012-04-01

    Fish oils and other essential fatty acids have been purported to ameliorate the symptoms of schizophrenia or the adverse effects of the drugs that are used to manage it. Our objective is to review the basic and clinical evidence regarding replenishment of the reported decreased levels of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, such as the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid, the omega-6 linoleic and arachidonic acids, in brains of patients with schizophrenia. We summarize the literature related to the postulated mechanistic connection between essential fatty acids and schizophrenia and the clinical trials testing fatty acids in patients with schizophrenia. Fatty acids play critical roles in cell membranes of neurons, and certain fatty acids appear to be abnormally low in brains of patients with schizophrenia. The attempt to enhance endogenous levels thus seems a rational and worthwhile goal. The value of such intervention awaits the results of ongoing trials. Despite the limited evidence that supplements ameliorate symptoms of schizophrenia, given the low risk of harm, some clinicians might opt to add omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid to current drug regimens in hope of better symptomatic control in schizophrenia. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL): Rationale and Design of a Large Randomized Controlled Trial of Vitamin D and Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Manson, JoAnn E.; Bassuk, Shari S.; Lee, I-Min; Cook, Nancy R.; Albert, Michelle A.; Gordon, David; Zaharris, Elaine; MacFadyen, Jean G.; Danielson, Eleanor; Lin, Jennifer; Zhang, Shumin M.; Buring, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    Data from laboratory studies, observational research, and/or secondary prevention trials suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for cancer or cardiovascular disease (CVD), but primary prevention trials with adequate dosing in general populations (i.e., unselected for disease risk) are lacking. The ongoing VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial trial of vitamin D (in the form of vitamin D3 [cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 fatty acid (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] + docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1 g/day) supplements in the primary prevention of cancer and CVD among a multi-ethnic population of 20,000 U.S. men aged ≥50 and women aged ≥55. The mean treatment period will be 5 years. Baseline blood samples will be collected in at least 16,000 participants, with follow-up blood collection in about 6000 participants. Yearly follow-up questionnaires will assess treatment compliance (plasma biomarker measures will also assess compliance in a random sample of participants), use of non-study drugs or supplements, occurence of endpoints, and cancer and vascular risk factors. Self-reported endpoints will be confirmed by medical record review by physicians blinded to treatment assignment, and deaths will be ascertained through national registries and other sources. Ancillary studies will investigate whether these agents affect risk for diabetes and glucose intolerance; hypertension; cognitive decline; depression; osteoporosis and fracture; physical disability and falls; asthma and other respiratory diseases; infections; rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid diseases, and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:21986389

  17. Allelopathic potential and ecotoxicity evaluation of gallic and nonanoic acids to prevent cyanobacterial growth in lentic systems: A preliminary mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Techer, Didier; Fontaine, Pascal; Personne, Aline; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle

    2016-03-15

    The increase in anthropogenic nutrient loading affecting many freshwater ecosystems combined with global warming may lead to cyanobacterial blooms on an increasingly frequent basis. Among the various physicochemical and biological methods which have been proposed to rapidly control blue-green algae growth, the use of plant-derived substances such as allelochemicals has gained great interest as an environment-friendly approach. The primary aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of gallic and nonanoic acid application to preemptively inhibit cyanobacterial growth in lentic hydrosystems. In order to address the process feasibility under realistic exposure scenarios, thirteen outdoor freshwater mesocosms (unit volume: 3m(3)) were designed, each containing phytoplankton (including local blue-green algae species) and various non-target organisms from higher trophic levels (Physa, Lymnaea, Gammarus, and Scardinius erythrophthalmus). After an 8-week mesocosm stabilization period, a full factorial design based on the presence/absence of gallic acid (GA) and nonanoic acid (NA) (including a control group) was implemented into the exposure tanks. Regular monitoring of major phytoplankton taxa was conducted during a 28-day experiment using an on-line fluorometer. The main results suggested that gallic acid was more efficient than nonanoic acid at limiting cyanobacterial growth at concentrations as low as 1 mg L(-1). Successive gallic acid applications (at 1, 2 and 4 mg L(-1)) at the early stages of cyanobacterial growth did not allow the complete elimination of blue-green algae from the mesocosms. However, the specificity of the allelopathic effect of gallic acid towards cyanobacteria was compatible with the maintenance of a primary productivity in the treated tanks as indicated by the photoautotrophic growth of other algal taxa. Finally, no biomarker induction signal could be reported in non-target species. Further gallic acid application trials in lentic systems such

  18. Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids prevent astrocyte-mediated toxicity to motor neurons in a cell model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor activation.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Amarilla, Pablo; Miquel, Ernesto; Trostchansky, Andrés; Trias, Emiliano; Ferreira, Ana M; Freeman, Bruce A; Cassina, Patricia; Barbeito, Luis; Vargas, Marcelo R; Rubbo, Homero

    2016-06-01

    Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FA) are electrophilic signaling mediators formed in tissues during inflammation, which are able to induce pleiotropic cytoprotective and antioxidant pathways including up regulation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) responsive genes. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motor neurons associated to an inflammatory process that usually aggravates the disease progression. In ALS animal models, the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 in astrocytes confers protection to neighboring neurons. It is currently unknown whether NO2-FA can exert protective activity in ALS through Nrf2 activation. Herein we demonstrate that nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA) or nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) administrated to astrocytes expressing the ALS-linked hSOD1(G93A) induce antioxidant phase II enzyme expression through Nrf2 activation concomitant with increasing intracellular glutathione levels. Furthermore, treatment of hSOD1(G93A)-expressing astrocytes with NO2-FA prevented their toxicity to motor neurons. Transfection of siRNA targeted to Nrf2 mRNA supported the involvement of Nrf2 activation in NO2-FA-mediated protective effects. Our results show for the first time that NO2-FA induce a potent Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in astrocytes capable of preventing motor neurons death in a culture model of ALS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal prenatal and/or postnatal n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation for preventing allergies in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Anoja W; Makrides, Maria; Collins, Carmel T

    2015-07-22

    Allergies have become more prevalent globally over the last 20 years. Dietary consumption of n-3 (or omega 3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has declined over the same period of time. This, together with the known role of n-3 LCPUFA in inhibiting inflammation, has resulted in speculation that n-3 LCPUFA may prevent allergy development. Dietary n-3 fatty acids supplements may change the developing immune system of the newborn before allergic responses are established, particularly for those with a genetic predisposition to the production of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody. Individuals with IgE-mediated allergies have both the signs and symptoms of the allergic disease and a positive skin prick test (SPT) to the allergen. To assess the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnant and/or breastfeeding women on allergy outcomes (food allergy, atopic dermatitis (eczema), allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and asthma/wheeze) in their children. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (6 August 2014), PubMed (1966 to 01 August 2014), CINAHL via EBSCOhost (1984 to 01 August 2014), Scopus (1995 to 01 August 2014), Web of Knowledge (1864 to 01 August 2014) and ClinicalTrials.gov (01 August 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation of pregnant and/or lactating women (compared with placebo or no treatment) on allergy outcomes of the infants or children. Trials using a cross-over design and trials examining biochemical outcomes only were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and performed data extraction. Where the review authors were also investigators on trials selected, an independent reviewer assessed trial quality and performed data extraction. Eight trials involving 3366 women and their 3175 children were included in the review. In these trials, women

  20. EPA, not DHA, prevents fibrosis in pressure overload-induced heart failure: potential role of free fatty acid receptor 4[S

    PubMed Central

    Eclov, Julie A.; Qian, Qingwen; Redetzke, Rebecca; Chen, Quanhai; Wu, Steven C.; Healy, Chastity L.; Ortmeier, Steven B.; Harmon, Erin; Shearer, Gregory C.; O’Connell, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is half of all HF, but standard HF therapies are ineffective. Diastolic dysfunction, often secondary to interstitial fibrosis, is common in HFpEF. Previously, we found that supra-physiologic levels of ω3-PUFAs produced by 12 weeks of ω3-dietary supplementation prevented fibrosis and contractile dysfunction following pressure overload [transverse aortic constriction (TAC)], a model that resembles aspects of remodeling in HFpEF. This raised several questions regarding ω3-concentration-dependent cardioprotection, the specific role of EPA and DHA, and the relationship between prevention of fibrosis and contractile dysfunction. To achieve more clinically relevant ω3-levels and test individual ω3-PUFAs, we shortened the ω3-diet regimen and used EPA- and DHA-specific diets to examine remodeling following TAC. The shorter diet regimen produced ω3-PUFA levels closer to Western clinics. Further, EPA, but not DHA, prevented fibrosis following TAC. However, neither ω3-PUFA prevented contractile dysfunction, perhaps due to reduced uptake of ω3-PUFA. Interestingly, EPA did not accumulate in cardiac fibroblasts. However, FFA receptor 4, a G protein-coupled receptor for ω3-PUFAs, was sufficient and required to block transforming growth factor β1-fibrotic signaling in cultured cardiac fibroblasts, suggesting a novel mechanism for EPA. In summary, EPA-mediated prevention of fibrosis could represent a novel therapy for HFpEF. PMID:26435012

  1. The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevented colitis-associated carcinogenesis through blocking dissociation of β-catenin complex, inhibiting COX-2 through repressing NF-κB, and inducing 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Min; Jeong, Migyeung; Park, Jong-Min; Kim, Mi-Young; Go, Eun-Jin; Cha, Ji Young; Kim, Kyung Jo; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that diets containing an increased ratio of ω-6 : ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are a risk factor for colon cancer and might affect tumorigenesis. Therefore, dietary ω-3 PUFA administration may be a preventive strategy against colon cancer. Until now, the exact molecular mechanisms and required dietary doses of ω-3 PUFAs for cancer prevention were unknown. In this study, we explored the anti-tumorigenic mechanisms of ω-3 PUFAs against a colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model. Through in vitro cell models involving docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administration, down-regulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and up-regulation of Bax, accompanied by blockage of β-catenin complex dissociation, the main mechanisms responsible for DHA-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells were determined. Results included significant reduction in azoxymethane-initiated, dextran sodium sulfate-promoted CACs, as well as significant preservation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and significant inhibition of Cyclooxyganase-2 (COX-2) and Prostaglandin E2(P < 0.01). Additional mechanisms and significant induction of apoptosis in both tumor and non-tumor tissues were also noted in fat-1 transgenic (TG) mice. The lipid profiles of colon tissues measured in all specimens revealed that intake greater than 3 g ω-3 PUFA/60 kg of body weight showed tissue levels similar to those seen in fat-1 TG mice, preventing cancer. Our study concluded that COX-2 inhibition, 15-PGDH preservation, apoptosis induction, and blockage of β-catenin complex dissociation contributed to the anti-tumorigenesis effect of ω-3 PUFAs, and an intake higher than 3g ω-3 PUFAs/60 kg of body weight can assist in CAC prevention. PMID:27566583

  2. Ferulic acid supresses Th2 immune response and prevents remodeling in ovalbumin-induced pulmonary allergy associated with inhibition of epithelial-derived cytokines.

    PubMed

    Sin Singer Brugiolo, Alessa; Carvalho Gouveia, Ana Cláudia; de Souza Alves, Caio César; de Castro E Silva, Flávia Márcia; Esteves de Oliveira, Érick; Ferreira, Ana Paula

    2017-08-01

    Asthma is characterized by intermittent airway obstruction and chronic inflammation, orchestrated primarily by Th2 cytokines. There is a strong rationale for developing new asthma therapies, since current treatment protocols present side effects and may not be effective in cases of difficult-to-control asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ferulic acid, a phenolic acid commonly present in plants, in the ovalbumin-induced pulmonary allergy murine model. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin, and treatments were provided by gavage. Six groups of mice (n = 6) were studied, labeled as: control, pulmonary allergy, dexamethasone, and 3 receiving ferulic acid (at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were collected for analysis. Ferulic acid treatment inhibited an established allergic Th2-response by decreasing the key features of pulmonary allergy, including lung and airway inflammation, eosinophil infiltration, mucus production and serum levels of OVA-specific IgE. These results were associated with lower levels of CCL20, CCL11 and CCL5 chemokines and IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TSLP, IL-25 and IL-33 cytokines in lung tissue homogenate. In this study it was demonstrated for the first time that ferulic acid treatment is able to suppress one of the main features of the airway remodeling, indicated by reduction of mucus production, besides the Th2 pathogenic response on ovalbumin-induced pulmonary allergy. Taken together, results shows that the immunopathological mechanism underlying these effects is linked to a reduction of the epithelial-derived chemokines and cytokines, suggesting that ferulic acid may be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Glycyrrhizic acid prevents high calorie diet-induced metabolic aberrations despite the suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong Sheng; Yaw, Hui Ping; Ton, So Ha; Choy, Siew Mei; Kong, Joana Magdelene Xiao Fang; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of glycyrrhizic acid supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in rodents consuming a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Twenty-four male, 8-week old Sprague Dawley rats with an initial weight of 160 to 200 g were randomised into three groups (n = 6 for each group): groups A (standard rat chow), B (high-fat, high-sucrose diet), and C (high-fat, high-sucrose diet + 100 mg/kg/d of glycyrrhizic acid via oral administration). The rats were treated accordingly for 4 wk. Glycaemic parameters, lipid profile, stress hormones, and adiponectin levels were measured after the treatment. Relative gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ, lipoprotein lipase as well as gluconeogenic enzymatic activities in different tissues were also determined. Consumption of high-fat, high-sucrose diet triggered hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, which were effectively attenuated by supplementation with glycyrrhizic acid. Glycyrrhizic acid supplementation also effectively reduced circulating adrenaline, alleviated gluconeogenic enzymes overactivity, and promoted the upregulation of lipoprotein lipase expression in the cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscles. A high calorie diet also triggered hypoadiponectinaemia and suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression, which did not improve with glycyrrhizic acid treatment. Supplementation with glycyrrhizic acid could alleviate high calorie diet-induced glucose and lipid metabolic dysregulations by reducing circulatory stress hormones, normalizing gluconeogenic enzyme activities, and elevating muscular lipid uptake. The beneficial effects of these bioactivities outweighed the adverse effects caused by diet-induced repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression, resulting in the maintenance of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of raising HDL cholesterol by adding prolonged-release nicotinic acid to statin therapy in the secondary prevention setting: a French perspective.

    PubMed

    Roze, S; Ferrières, J; Bruckert, E; Van Ganse, E; Chapman, M J; Liens, D; Renaudin, C

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with add-on nicotinic acid in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and low HDL-C, from the French healthcare system perspective. Computer simulation economic modelling incorporating two decision analytic submodels was used. The first submodel generated a cohort of 2000 patients and simulated lipid changes using baseline characteristics and treatment effects from the ARterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing cholesterol (ARBITER 2) study. Prolonged-release (PR) nicotinic acid (1 g/day) was added in patients with HDL-C < 40 mg/dl (1.03 mmol/l) on statin alone. The second submodel used standard Markov techniques to evaluate long-term clinical and economic outcomes based on Framingham risk estimates. Direct medical costs were accounted from a third party payer perspective [2004 Euros (euro)] and discounted by 3%. Addition of PR nicotinic acid to statin therapy resulted in substantial health gain and increased life expectancy, at a cost well within the threshold (< 50,000 euros per life year gained) considered good value for money in Western Europe. Raising HDL-C by adding PR nicotinic acid to statin therapy in CHD patients was cost-effective in France at a level considered to represent good value for money by reimbursement authorities in Europe. This strategy was highly cost-effective in CHD patients with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Christopher E; Zamora, Daisy; Leelarthaepin, Boonseng; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Faurot, Keturah R; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Ringel, Amit; Davis, John M; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2013-02-04

    To evaluate the effectiveness of replacing dietary saturated fat with omega 6 linoleic acid, for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death. Evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study, a single blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial conducted in 1966-73; and an updated meta-analysis including these previously missing data. Ambulatory, coronary care clinic in Sydney, Australia. 458 men aged 30-59 years with a recent coronary event. Replacement of dietary saturated fats (from animal fats, common margarines, and shortenings) with omega 6 linoleic acid (from safflower oil and safflower oil polyunsaturated margarine). Controls received no specific dietary instruction or study foods. All non-dietary aspects were designed to be equivalent in both groups. All cause mortality (primary outcome), cardiovascular mortality, and mortality from coronary heart disease (secondary outcomes). We used an intention to treat, survival analysis approach to compare mortality outcomes by group. The intervention group (n=221) had higher rates of death than controls (n=237) (all cause 17.6% v 11.8%, hazard ratio 1.62 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 2.64), P=0.05; cardiovascular disease 17.2% v 11.0%, 1.70 (1.03 to 2.80), P=0.04; coronary heart disease 16.3% v 10.1%, 1.74 (1.04 to 2.92), P=0.04). Inclusion of these recovered data in an updated meta-analysis of linoleic acid intervention trials showed non-significant trends toward increased risks of death from coronary heart disease (hazard ratio 1.33 (0.99 to 1.79); P=0.06) and cardiovascular disease (1.27 (0.98 to 1.65); P=0.07). Advice to substitute polyunsaturated fats for saturated fats is a key component of worldwide dietary guidelines for coronary heart disease risk reduction. However, clinical benefits of the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega 6 linoleic acid, have not been established. In this cohort, substituting dietary linoleic acid in place of saturated fats

  6. Intermittent minodronic acid treatment with sufficient bone resorption inhibition prevents reduction in bone mass and strength in ovariectomized rats with established osteopenia comparable with daily treatment.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Aishi; Tanaka, Makoto; Nozaki, Kazutoshi; Mori, Masamichi; Fukushima, Shinji; Mori, Hiroshi; Shiroya, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2013-07-01

    This study examined and compared the effects of four-week intermittent and daily administrations of minodronic acid, a highly potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on bone mineral density (BMD), bone strength, bone turnover, and histomorphometry on established osteopenia in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Fourteen-week-old female F344 rats were OVX or sham-operated. At 12 weeks post surgery, minodronic acid was orally administered once every 4 weeks at 0.2, 1, and 5 mg/kg and once daily at 0.006, 0.03, and 0.15 mg/kg for 12 months. The total dosing amount was comparable between the two dosing regimens. The levels of urinary deoxypyridinoline and serum osteocalcin were measured to assess bone turnover. BMD as assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bone structure and dynamical changes in vertebral trabecula and biomechanical properties were measured ex vivo at 12 months to assess bone content and material properties. Minodronic acid dose-dependently ameliorated the decrease in BMD of lumbar vertebrae and the femur in both treatment regimens similarly. Minodronic acid suppressed elevated urinary levels of deoxypyridinoline, a bone resorption marker, and reduced the serum levels of osteocalcin, a bone formation marker. In the mechanical test at 12 months of treatment, minodronic acid dose-dependently ameliorated the reduction in bone strength in femur and vertebral body. There is no significant difference in parameters between the two regimens except maximal load of lower doses in lumbar vertebral body and absorption energy of middle doses in femur. With these parameters with significant differences, values of the intermittent regimen were significantly lower than that of daily repeated regimen. Bone histomorphometric analysis of the lumbar vertebral body showed that minodronic acid significantly ameliorated the decrease in bone mass, trabecular thickness and number, and the increase in trabecular separation, bone resorption indices (Oc.S/BS and N.Oc/BS), and

  7. Effect of α-lipoic acid on symptoms and quality of life in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Agathos, Evangelos; Tentolouris, Anastasios; Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Katsaouni, Panagiota; Nemtzas, Ioannis; Petrou, Alexandra; Papanikolaou, Christina; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2018-05-01

    Objective To examine the effect of α-lipoic acid on neuropathic symptoms in patients with diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods Patients with painful DN were treated with 600 mg/day α-lipoic acid, orally, for 40 days. Neuropathy Symptom Score (NSS), Subjective Peripheral Neuropathy Screen Questionnaire (SPNSQ) and douleur neuropathique (DN)4 questionnaire scores were assessed at baseline and day 40. Quality-of-life treatment effects were assessed by Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Changes in body weight, arterial blood pressure, fasting serum glucose and lipids were also assessed. Results Out of 72 patients included, significant reductions in neuropathic symptoms were shown by reduced NSS, SPNSQ and DN4 scores at day 40 versus baseline. BPI, NPSI, and SDS in terms of work disability, social life disability, and family life disability scores were also significantly reduced. Moreover, 50% of patients rated their health condition as 'very much better' or 'much better' following α-lipoic acid administration. Fasting triglyceride levels were reduced, but no difference was found in body weight, blood pressure, fasting glucose, or other lipids at day 40 versus baseline. Conclusions A-lipoic acid administration was associated with reduced neuropathic symptoms and triglycerides, and improved quality of life.

  8. The spot sign and tranexamic acid on preventing ICH growth--AUStralasia Trial (STOP-AUST): protocol of a phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Meretoja, Atte; Churilov, Leonid; Campbell, Bruce C V; Aviv, Richard I; Yassi, Nawaf; Barras, Christen; Mitchell, Peter; Yan, Bernard; Nandurkar, Harshal; Bladin, Christopher; Wijeratne, Tissa; Spratt, Neil J; Jannes, Jim; Sturm, Jonathan; Rupasinghe, Jayantha; Zavala, Jorge; Lee, Andrew; Kleinig, Timothy; Markus, Romesh; Delcourt, Candice; Mahant, Neil; Parsons, Mark W; Levi, Christopher; Anderson, Craig S; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Davis, Stephen M

    2014-06-01

    No evidence-based acute therapies exist for intracerebral hemorrhage. Intracerebral hemorrhage growth is an important determinant of patient outcome. Tranexamic acid is known to reduce hemorrhage in other conditions. The study aims to test the hypothesis that intracerebral hemorrhage patients selected with computed tomography angiography contrast extravasation 'spot sign' will have lower rates of hematoma growth when treated with intravenous tranexamic acid within 4.5-hours of stroke onset compared with placebo. The Spot sign and Tranexamic acid On Preventing ICH growth--AUStralasia Trial is a multicenter, prospective, 1:1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, investigator-initiated, academic Phase II trial. Intracerebral hemorrhage patients fulfilling clinical criteria (e.g. Glasgow Coma Scale >7, intracerebral hemorrhage volume <70 ml, no identified secondary cause of intracerebral hemorrhage, no thrombotic events within the previous 12 months, no planned surgery) and demonstrating contrast extravasation on computed tomography angiography will receive either intravenous tranexamic acid 1 g 10-min bolus followed by 1 g eight-hour infusion or placebo. A second computed tomography will be performed at 24 ± 3 hours to evaluate intracerebral hemorrhage growth and patients followed up for three-months. The primary outcome measure is presence of intracerebral hemorrhage growth by 24 ± 3 hours, defined as either >33% or >6 ml increase from baseline, and will be adjusted for baseline intracerebral hemorrhage volume. Secondary outcome measures include growth as a continuous measure, thromboembolic events, and the three-month modified Rankin Scale score. This is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid in intracerebral hemorrhage patients selected based on an imaging biomarker of high likelihood of hematoma growth. The trial is registered as NCT01702636. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  9. Efficacy of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the prevention of infection and dry socket after third molar extraction. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Arteagoitia, M-I; Barbier, L; Santamaría, J; Santamaría, G; Ramos, E

    2016-07-01

    Prophylactic use of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, although controversial, is common in routine clinical practice in third molar surgery. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of prophylactic amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid in reducing the incidence of dry socket and/or infection after third molar extraction. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis consulting electronic databases and references in retrieved articles. We included double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials published up to June 2015 investigating the efficacy of amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid on the incidence of the aforementioned conditions after third molar extraction. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated with a generic inverse-variance approach and a random effect model using Stata/IC 13 and Review Manager Version 5.2. Stratified analysis was performed by antibiotic type. We included 10 papers in the qualitative review and in the quantitative synthesis (1997 extractions: 1072 in experimental groups and 925 in controls, with 27 and 74 events of dry socket and/or infection, respectively). The overall RR was 0.350 (p<0.001; 95% CI 0.214 to 0.574). We found no evidence of heterogeneity (I2=0%, p=0.470). The number needed to treat was 18 (95% CI 13 to 29). Five studies reported adverse reactions (RR=1.188, 95% CI 0.658 to 2.146, p =0.567). The RRs were 0.563 for amoxicillin (95% CI 0.295 to 1.08, p=0.082) and 0.215 for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (95% CI 0.117 to 0.395, p<0.001). Prophylactic use of amoxicillin does not significantly reduce the risk of infection and/or dry socket after third molar extraction. With amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, the risk decreases significantly. Nevertheless, considering the number needed to treat, low prevalence of infection, potential adverse reactions to antibiotics and lack of serious complications in placebo groups, the routine prescription of amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid is not

  10. Prevention of Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of Biomarkers to Guide Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    6 and 12 months during the first year; participants are re-randomized after 12 months with subsequent data collection at 18 and 24 months. Currently...bone mass, bone strength, osteoporosis, zoledronic acid 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME...and bone markers will be obtained at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months. KEYWORDS: spinal cord

  11. Potential drugs which activate nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 signaling to prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications: A focus on fumaric acid esters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shanshan; Jin, Jingpeng; Bai, Tao; Sachleben, Leroy R; Cai, Lu; Zheng, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes and its cardiovascular complications have been a major public health issue. These complications are mainly attributable to a severe imbalance between free radical and reactive oxygen species production and the antioxidant defense systems. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that controls the basal and inducible expression of a battery of antioxidant enzyme genes and other cyto-protective phase II detoxifying enzymes. As a result, Nrf2 has gained great attention as a promising drug target for preventing diabetic cardiovascular complications. And while animal studies have shown that several Nrf2 activators manifest a potential to efficiently prevent the diabetic complications, their use in humans has not been approved due to the lack of substantial evidence regarding safety and efficacy of the Nrf2 activation. We provide here a brief review of a few clinically-used drugs that can up-regulate Nrf2 with the potential of extending their usage to diabetic patients for the prevention of cardiovascular complications and conclude with a closer inspection of dimethyl fumarate and its mimic members. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 prevents arachidonic acid incorporation and phospholipid remodeling in P388D1 macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Balsinde, J; Bianco, I D; Ackermann, E J; Conde-Frieboes, K; Dennis, E A

    1995-01-01

    Cellular levels of free arachidonic acid (AA) are controlled by a deacylation/reacylation cycle whereby the fatty acid is liberated by phospholipases and reincorporated by acyltransferases. We have found that the esterification of AA into membrane phospholipids is a Ca(2+)-independent process and that it is blocked up to 60-70% by a bromoenollactone (BEL) that is a selective inhibitor of a newly discovered Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in macrophages. The observed inhibition correlates with a decreased steady-state level of lysophospholipids as well as with the inhibition of the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 activity in these cells. This inhibition is specific for the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 in that neither group IV PLA2, group II PLA2, arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase, lysophospholipid:arachidonoyl-CoA acyltransferase, nor CoA-independent transacylase is affected by treatment with BEL. Moreover, two BEL analogs that are not inhibitors of the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2--namely a bromomethyl ketone and methyl-BEL--do not inhibit AA incorporation into phospholipids. Esterification of palmitic acid is only slightly affected by BEL, indicating that de novo synthetic pathways are not inhibited by BEL. Collectively, the data suggest that the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 in P388D1 macrophages plays a major role in regulating the incorporation of AA into membrane phospholipids by providing the lysophospholipid acceptor employed in the acylation reaction. PMID:7667324

  13. Curcumin delivery from poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hollow microparticles prevents dopamine-induced toxicity in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Krassimira; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Tzankova, Virginia; Petrov, Petar; Laouani, Mohamed; Halacheva, Silvia S

    2015-01-01

    The potential of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-AA) copolymers to form hollow particles and their further formulation as curcumin delivery system have been explored. The particles were functionalized by crosslinking the acrylic acid groups via bis-amide formation with either cystamine (CYS) or 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide (DTP) which simultaneously incorporated reversibility due to the presence of disulfide bonds within the crosslinker. Optical micrographs showed the formation of spherical hollow microparticles with a size ranging from 1 to 7 μm. Curcumin was loaded by incubation of its ethanol solution with aqueous dispersions of the cross-linked particles and subsequent evaporation of the ethanol. Higher loading was observed in the microparticles with higher content of hydrophobic PMMA units indicating its influence upon the loading of hydrophobic molecules such as curcumin. The in vitro release studies in a phosphate buffer showed no initial burst effect and sustained release of curcumin that correlated with the swelling of the particles under these conditions. The capacity of encapsulated and free curcumin to protect rat brain synaptosomes against dopamine-induced neurotoxicity was examined. The encapsulated curcumin showed greater protective effects in rat brain synaptosomes as measured by synaptosomal viability and increased intracellular levels of glutathione. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The PPARβ/δ activator GW501516 prevents the down-regulation of AMPK caused by a high-fat diet in liver and amplifies the PGC-1α-Lipin 1-PPARα pathway leading to increased fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Emma; Rodríguez-Calvo, Ricardo; Serrano-Marco, Lucía; Astudillo, Alma M; Balsinde, Jesús; Palomer, Xavier; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome-associated dyslipidemia is mainly initiated by hepatic overproduction of the plasma lipoproteins carrying triglycerides. Here we examined the effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-β/δ activator GW501516 on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Exposure to the HFD caused hypertriglyceridemia that was accompanied by reduced hepatic mRNA levels of PPAR-γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1)-α and lipin 1, and these effects were prevented by GW501516 treatment. GW501516 treatment also increased nuclear lipin 1 protein levels, leading to amplification in the PGC-1α-PPARα signaling system, as demonstrated by the increase in PPARα levels and PPARα-DNA binding activity and the increased expression of PPARα-target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. These effects of GW501516 were accompanied by an increase in plasma β-hydroxybutyrate levels, demonstrating enhanced hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Moreover, GW501516 increased the levels of the hepatic endogenous ligand for PPARα, 16:0/18:1-phosphatidilcholine and markedly enhanced the expression of the hepatic Vldl receptor. Interestingly, GW501516 prevented the reduction in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and the increase in phosphorylated levels of ERK1/2 caused by HFD. In addition, our data indicate that the activation of AMPK after GW501516 treatment in mice fed HFD might be the result of an increase in the AMP to ATP ratio in hepatocytes. These findings indicate that the hypotriglyceridemic effect of GW501516 in HFD-fed mice is accompanied by an increase in phospho-AMPK levels and the amplification of the PGC-1α-lipin 1-PPARα pathway.

  15. Neurotoxicity induced by dexamethasone in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line can be prevented by folic acid.

    PubMed

    Budni, J; Romero, A; Molz, S; Martín-de-Saavedra, M D; Egea, J; Del Barrio, L; Tasca, C I; Rodrigues, A L S; López, M G

    2011-09-08

    Folic acid (folate) is a vitamin of the B-complex group that is essential for cell replication. Folate is a major determinant of one-carbon metabolism, in which S-adenosylmethionine donates methyl groups that are crucial for neurological function. Many roles for folic acid have been reported, including neuroprotective and antidepressant properties. On the other hand, increased concentrations of corticoids have proven neurotoxic effects and hypersecretion of glucocorticoids has been linked to different mood disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of folic acid on dexamethasone-induced cellular death in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and the possible intracellular signaling pathway involved in such effect. Exposure to 1 mM dexamethasone for 48 h caused a significant reduction of cell viability measured as 3-[4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells for 72 h to increasing concentrations of folate (1-300 μM) was not cytotoxic. However, pretreatment with folate (10-300 μM) reduced dexamethasone-induced toxicity in a significant manner. To explore the putative intracellular signaling pathways implicated in the protective effect of folate we used different protein kinase inhibitors. The protective effect of folic acid on dexamethasone-induced neurotoxicity was reversed by the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt, LY294002), Ca²⁺/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, KN-93), and protein kinase A (PKA, H-89) inhibitors, but not the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK1/2, PD98059) and protein kinase C (PKC, chelerythrine) inhibitors. In conclusion, the results of this study show that folic acid can protect against dexamethasone-induced neurotoxicity and its protective mechanism is related to a signaling pathway that involves PI3K/Akt, CaMKII, and PKA. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Hydroxytyrosol prevents reduction in liver activity of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturases, oxidative stress, and depletion in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in different tissues of high-fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Echeverria, Francisca; Ortiz, Macarena; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Illesca, Paola; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2017-04-11

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural antioxidant, has an important cytoprotective effects in different cells and tissues. Male mice C57BL/6 J were fed a control diet (CD) (10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or a HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 weeks. Animals were daily supplemented with saline (CD) or 5 mg HT (HFD), and blood and the studied tissues were analyzed after the HT intervention. Parameters studied included liver histology (optical microscopy), activity of hepatic desaturases 5 and 6 (gas-liquid chromatography of methyl esters derivatives) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase by spectrophotometry), oxidative stress indicators (glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactants, and the antioxidant capacity of plasma), gene expression assays for sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) (qPCR and ELISA), and LCPUFA profiles in liver, erythrocyte, brain, heart, and testicle (gas-liquid chromatography). HFD led to insulin resistance and liver steatosis associated with SREBP-1c upregulation, with enhancement in plasma and liver oxidative stress status and diminution in the synthesis and storage of n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs in the studied tissues, compared to animals given control diet. HT supplementation significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and plasma as well as tissue metabolic alterations induced by HFD. Furthermore, a normalization of desaturase activities

  17. Screen-and-Treat Approach to Cervical Cancer Prevention Using Visual Inspection With Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy: Experiences, Perceptions, and Beliefs From Demonstration Projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L.; Bartolini, Rosario M.; Penny, Mary E.; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success. PMID:24217554

  18. Screen-and-treat approach to cervical cancer prevention using visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy: experiences, perceptions, and beliefs from demonstration projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L; Bartolini, Rosario M; Penny, Mary E; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Jeronimo, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success.

  19. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Inhibits Clostridium difficile Spore Germination and Vegetative Growth, and Prevents the Recurrence of Ileal Pouchitis Associated With the Infection.

    PubMed

    Weingarden, Alexa R; Chen, Chi; Zhang, Ningning; Graiziger, Carolyn T; Dosa, Peter I; Steer, Clifford J; Shaughnessy, Megan K; Johnson, James R; Sadowsky, Michael J; Khoruts, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    To test whether ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is inhibitory to Clostridium difficile and can be used in the treatment of C. difficile-associated ileal pouchitis. The restoration of secondary bile metabolism may be the key mechanism for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating recurrent C. difficile infections (RCDI). Therefore, it is possible that exogenous administration of inhibitory bile acids may be used directly as nonantibiotic therapeutics for this indication. The need for such a treatment alternative is especially significant in patients with refractory C. difficile-associated pouchitis, where the efficacy of FMT may be limited. We measured the ability of UDCA to suppress the germination and the vegetative growth of 11 clinical isolate strains of C. difficile from patients treated with FMT for RCDI. In addition, we used oral UDCA to treat a patient with RCDI pouchitis that proved refractory to multiple antibiotic treatments and FMT. UDCA was found to be inhibitory to the germination and the vegetative growth of all C. difficile strains tested. Fecal concentrations of UDCA from the patient with RCDI pouchitis exceeded levels necessary to inhibit the germination and the growth of C. difficile in vitro. The patient has remained infection free for over 10 months after the initiation of UDCA. UDCA can be considered as a therapeutic option in patients with C. difficile-associated pouchitis. Further studies need to be conducted to define the optimal dose and duration of such a treatment. In addition, bile acid derivatives inhibitory to C. difficile that are able to achieve high intracolonic concentrations may be developed as therapeutics for RCDI colitis.

  20. Importance of pre-pregnancy and pregnancy iron status: can long-term weekly preventive iron and folic acid supplementation achieve desirable and safe status?

    PubMed

    Viteri, Fernando E; Berger, Jacques

    2005-12-01

    Most women worldwide enter pregnancy without adequate iron reserves or are already iron deficient. Estimates of iron needs during pregnancy are markedly reduced when iron reserves are available. The needs of absorbed iron to correct mild to moderate anemia in the last two trimesters are estimated. Pre-pregnancy and prenatal weekly supplementation can improve iron reserves effectively and safely, preventing excess iron and favoring better pregnancy outcomes. We explain how the weekly supplementation idea was developed, why current hemoglobin norms may be inadequately high (especially in pregnancy), and why excess iron as recommended by many agencies for developing populations can be undesirable.

  1. Negative modultors of excitatory amino acids in episodic and chronic migraine: preventing and reverting chronic migraine. Special lecture 7th INWIN Congress.

    PubMed

    Nicolodi, M; Sicuteri, F

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism capable of transforming episodic migraine into chronic migraine is attributed by the authors to hyperalgesia and related neuroplastic changes, chiefly long-term potentiation, due to the action of excitatory amino acids, chiefly the ones acting at N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. A preeminent role has been attributed to 'third hyperalgesia', a newly observed type of hyperalgesia which is inheritable and can act as a ground for the above-mentioned mechanism of 'chronicization' of migraine. The role of primary and secondary hyperalgesia in giving redundance to neuraxial abnormalities is also discussed. The fact that NMDA noncompetitive antagonist ketamine and gabapentin, inhibitor of the neuronal synthesis of L-glutamate, can cure chronic migraine, so far considered refractory to prophylactic therapies, gives indirect but evident support to the mechanism suggested above. The antinociceptive role of the above-mentioned negative modulators of excitatory amino acids and the possible interplay between ionotropic and metabotropic receptors are also taken into consideration.

  2. Dietary phytic acid prevents fatty liver by reducing expression of hepatic lipogenic enzymes and modulates gut microflora in rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Sekita, Ayaka; Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phytic acid (PA) on fatty liver and gut microflora in rats fed a high-sucrose (HSC) diet. Three groups of rats were fed a high-starch (HSR) diet or an HSC diet with or without 1.02% sodium PA for 12 d. We evaluated hepatic weight, total lipids, and triacylglycerol (TG) levels, the activities and expression of hepatic lipogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme 1, and fatty acid synthetase), and fecal microflora. The HSC diet significantly increased hepatic total lipids and TG levels, and the activities and expression of the hepatic lipogenic enzymes compared with the HSR diet. These upregulations were clearly suppressed by dietary PA. Consumption of PA elevated the fecal ratio of Lactobacillus spp. and depressed the ratio of Clostridium cocoides, and suppressed the elevation in the ratio of C. leptum induced by the HSC diet. This work showed that dietary PA ameliorates sucrose-induced fatty liver through reducing the expression of hepatic lipogenesis genes and modulates gut microflora in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Prevent Cisplatin-Induced Renal Apoptosis through a p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase–Regulated Mitochondrial Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingmei; Lu, Xiaodan; Nguyen, Sinh; Olson, Jean L.; Webb, Heather K.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) catalyzes the conversion of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids into less active eicosanoids, and inhibitors of sEH have anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. Based on previous observations that sEH inhibition attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by modulating nuclear factor-κB signaling, we hypothesized that this strategy would also attenuate cisplatin-induced renal apoptosis. Inhibition of sEH with AR9273 [1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(1-methylsulfonyl-piperidin-4-yl-urea)] reduced cisplatin-induced apoptosis through mechanisms involving mitochondrial apoptotic pathways and by reducing reactive oxygen species. Renal mitochondrial Bax induction following cisplatin treatment was significantly decreased by treatment of mice with AR9273 and these antiapoptotic effects involved p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Similar mechanisms contributed to reduced apoptosis in Ephx2−/− mice treated with cisplatin. Moreover, in pig kidney proximal tubule cells, cisplatin-induced mitochondrial trafficking of Bax and cytochrome c, caspase-3 activation, and oxidative stress are significantly attenuated in the presence of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Collectively, these in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate a role for EETs in limiting cisplatin-induced renal apoptosis. Inhibition of sEH represents a novel therapeutic strategy for protection against cisplatin-induced renal damage. PMID:24092818

  4. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  5. Anthocyanins in black rice, soybean and purple corn increase fecal butyric acid and prevent liver inflammation in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Guo, Xueqi; Zhang, Min; Yang, Lu; Liu, Rui; Yin, Jinjin

    2017-09-20

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that anthocyanin consumption reduces the incidence of chronic and degenerative diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether black rice anthocyanin (BRA), black soybean anthocyanin (BSA), and purple corn anthocyanin (PCA) could mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation associated obesity in C57BL/6 mice fed with a high-fat diet. BRA, BSA, or PCA was administered at doses of 200 mg kg -1 throughout the 12-week experiment and reduced the bodyweight by 9.6%, 13.3%, or 16.6%, respectively. Furthermore, BRA, BSA or PCA administration could effectively increase fecal butyric acid levels, elevate hepatic SOD and GPx activities, decrease lipid peroxidation, and downregulate the gene expression levels of TNFα, IL-6, iNOS, and NF-κB. Hence, BRA, BSA, or PCA might ameliorate diet-induced obesity by alleviating both oxidative stress and inflammation.

  6. Efficacy and Safety of a Once-Yearly Intravenous Zoledronic Acid 5 mg for Fracture Prevention in Elderly Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis Aged 75 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Boonen, Steven; Black, Dennis M.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Eastell, Richard; Magaziner, Jay S.; Eriksen, Erik Fink; Mesenbrink, Peter; Haentjens, Patrick; Lyles, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the efficacy of once-yearly intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL) 5 mg in reducing risk of clinical vertebral, nonvertebral, and any clinical fractures in elderly osteoporotic postmenopausal women. DESIGN A post hoc subgroup analysis of pooled data from the Health Outcome and Reduced Incidence with Zoledronic Acid One Yearly (HORIZON) Pivotal Fracture Trial and the HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial. SETTING Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. PARTICIPANTS Postmenopausal women (aged ≥75) with documented osteoporosis (T-score ≤ −2.5 at femoral neck or ≥1 prevalent vertebral or hip fracture) or a recent hip fracture. INTERVENTION Patients were randomized to receive an intravenous infusion of ZOL 5 mg (n =1,961) or placebo (n =1,926) at baseline and 12 and 24 months. MEASUREMENTS Primary endpoints were incidence of clinical vertebral and nonvertebral and any clinical fracture after treatment. RESULTS At 3 years, incidence of any clinical, clinical vertebral, and nonvertebral fracture were significantly lower in the ZOL group than in the placebo group (10.8% vs 16.6%, 1.1% vs 3.7%, and 9.9% vs 13.7%, respectively) (hazard ratio (HR) =0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.54–0.78, P<.001; HR =0.34, 95% CI =0.21–0.55, P<.001; and HR =0.73, 95% CI =0.60–0.90, P =.002, respectively). The incidence of hip fracture was lower with ZOL but did not reach statistical significance. The incidence rate of postdose adverse events were higher with ZOL, although the rate of serious adverse events and deaths was comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSION Once-yearly intravenous ZOL 5 mg was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of new clinical fractures (vertebral and nonvertebral) in elderly postmenopausal women with osteroporosis. PMID:20070415

  7. Acetyl-L-carnitine prevents total body hydroxyl free radical and uric acid production induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Loots, Du Toit; Mienie, Lodewyk J; Bergh, Jacobus J; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J

    2004-07-23

    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is intimately involved in the transport of long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ALCAR also has been reported to attenuate the occurrence of parkinsonian symptoms associated with 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in vivo, and protects in vitro against the toxicity of the neurotoxic 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) metabolite of MPTP. The mechanism for these protective effects remains unclear. ALCAR may attenuate hydroxyl (HO*) free radical production in the MPTP/MPP+ neurotoxic pathway through several mechanisms. Most studies on MPTP/MPP+ toxicity and protection by ALCAR have focused on in vivo brain chemistry and in vitro neuronal culture studies. The present study investigates the attenuative effects of ALCAR on whole body oxidative stress markers in the urine of rats treated with MPTP. In a first study, ALCAR totally prevented the MPTP-induced formation of HO* measured by salicylate radical trapping. In a second study, the production of uric acid after MPTP administration-a measure of oxidative stress mediated through xanthine oxidase-was also prevented by ALCAR. Because ALCAR is unlikely to be a potent radical scavenger, these studies suggest that ALCAR protects against MPTP/MPP+-mediated oxidative stress through other mechanisms. We speculate that ALCAR may operate through interference with organic cation transporters such as OCTN2 and/or carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT), based partly on the above findings and on semi-empirical electronic similarity calculations on ALCAR, MPP+, and two other substrates for these transporters.

  8. Suicide Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... help high schools, school districts, and their partners design and implement strategies to prevent suicide and promote behavioral health among their students. Now Is The Time—Prevention and Early Intervention ...

  9. Chlorogenic Acid from Hawthorn Berry (Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit) Prevents Stress Hormone-Induced Depressive Behavior, Through Monoamine Oxidase B-reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Hippocampal Astrocytes of Mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Han, Taewon; Jung, Jonghoon; Song, Yuri; Um, Min Young; Yoon, Minseok; Kim, Yun Tai; Cho, Seungmok; Kim, In-Ho; Han, Daeseok; Lee, Changho; Lee, Jaekwang

    2018-06-12

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in mental disorders, including depression. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a phenolic compound abundant in herbs and fruits, has been reported to have antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties. In this study, we investigated the antidepressant-like effects and active mechanisms of CGA from the extract of Crataegus pinnatifida (CP) fruit. Depression-like phenotypes were induced in mice by daily injection of stress hormone for 1-2 weeks. The brains of these animals exhibited reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and increased astrocytic hypertrophy, which are typical markers of depression in animal models. Stress hormone injection 1) upregulated monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) expression and 2) reduced spine numbers along neuronal dendrites, which indicates synaptic depression. The oral administration of CGA (30 mg/kg) or CP (300 mg/kg) prevented MAOB activation following reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and had an ameliorative effect on depressive behavioral tests (e.g., tail suspension and forced swim tests). In vitro assays performed on cultured C8-D1A cells revealed that CGA and CP inhibited MAOB activity and ROS production. Our study indicates that CGA and CP extracts prevented depressive behavior and thereby have potential as natural antidepressants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of the butyric acid-producing strain Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 on broiler and piglet zootechnical performance and prevention of necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Motomichi; McCartney, Elinor; Knox, Anne; Francesch, Maria; Oka, Kentaro; Wada, Kaoruko; Ideno, Marie; Uno, Koji; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Gracia, Marta I; Morales, Joaquin; Kritas, Spyridon K; Esteve-Garcia, Enric; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a probiotic strain Clostridium butyricumMIYAIRI 588 (CBM588) on broiler and weaned piglet health and zootechnical performance. Five field studies were carried out in broilers and five in weaned piglets under European feed additive guidelines. Each study followed a randomized blocked design with two treatments: Control (basal diet) and CBM588 supplemented groups. The zootechnical performance parameters selected were body weight, daily gain, feed intake and feed efficiency (feed:gain). Broilers fed diets with CBM588 gained significantly more weight (+2%, p < .001) and exhibited significantly better feed efficiency (-1.6%, p < .001) in comparison with Controls. Similarly, analysis of pooled data of weaned piglet trials showed that CBM588-fed piglets were significantly heavier than Controls (+2.6%, p = .014), exhibited significantly higher mean daily gain (+4.7%; p = .004), and significantly improved feed efficiency (-4.2%, p = .001). In addition to the zootechnical efficacy studies, the preventive effect of CBM588 on necrotic enteritis (NE) was assessed in a natural challenge model in broilers where CBM588 reduced the incidence and severity of NE lesions. These data indicate the potential of CBM588 to improve broiler and weaned piglet zootechnical performance, and to make a positive contribution to animal health. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Prevention of growth and metastasis of murine melanoma through enhanced natural-killer cytotoxicity by fatty acid-conjugate of protopanaxatriol.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Suzuki, Ryuichi; Nagaoka, Takema; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Saiki, Ikuo

    2002-07-01

    Ginsenosides, the glycosides of Panax ginseng, are metabolized (deglycosylated) by intestinal bacteria after oral administration. 20(S)-Protopanaxatriol (M4) is the main bacterial metabolite of protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides and mediates their antitumor effects. To clarify the mechanism of the M4-mediated antitumor effect, the antitumor activity and metabolism of M4 was examined, using the C57BL/6 mice implanted with B16-BL6 melanoma. The chronic oral administration of M4 inhibited the growth of B16-BL6 melanoma at the implanted site. Analyses using TLC, HPLC, MS and NMR suggest that orally administered M4 was absorbed from the small intestine into the mesenteric lymphatics followed by the rapid esterification of M4 with fatty acids and its accumulation in the tissues including the liver and lung. The administration of M4 prior to the intravenous injection of B16-BL6 cells abrogated the enhanced lung metastasis in the mice pretreated with 2-chloroadenosine more effectively than in those pretreated with anti-asialo GM1. The esterified M4 (EM4) did not directly affect tumor growth in vitro, whereas it stimulated splenic NK cells to become cytotoxic to tumor cells. These results indicate that the antitumor activity of M4 is based on the NK cell-mediated tumor lysis enhanced by EM4.

  12. Glycyrrhetinic acid prevents acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of CYP2E1 expression and HMGB1-TLR4 signal activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Genling; Zhang, Li; Ma, Li; Jiang, Rong; Kuang, Ge; Li, Ke; Tie, Hongtao; Wang, Bin; Chen, Xinyu; Xie, Tianjun; Gong, Xia; Wan, Jingyuan

    2017-09-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic drug, which is safe and effective at the therapeutic dose. Unfortunately, excessive dosage of APAP could cause severe liver injury due to lack of effective therapy. Successful therapeutic strategies are urgently requested in clinic. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), derived from a traditional medicine licorice, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. In this study, the effect and the underlying mechanism of GA on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity were explored. Our results showed that pretreatment with GA significantly reduced serum ALT and AST activities, alleviated hepatic pathological damages with hepatocellular apoptosis, down-regulated expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein, increased GSH levels, and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions in the liver of APAP-exposed mice. Furthermore, GA obviously inhibited APAP-induced HMGB1-TLR4 signal activation, as evaluated by reduced hepatic HMGB1 release, p-IRAK1, p-MAPK and p-IκB expression as well as the productions of TNF-α and IL-1β. In addition, GA attenuated hepatic neutrophils recruitment and macrophages infiltration caused by APAP. These findings reflected that GA could alleviate APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, the possible mechanism is associated with down-regulation of CYP2E1 expression and deactivation of HMGB1-TLR4 signal pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Carnosic acid prevents COL1A2 transcription through the reduction of Smad3 acetylation via the AMPKα1/SIRT1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Shi, Xue; Ding, Chunchun; Feng, Dongcheng; Li, Yang; Hu, Yan; Wang, Li; Gao, Dongyan; Tian, Xiaofeng; Yao, Jihong

    2018-01-15

    Carnosic acid (CA), a major bioactive component in rosemary extract, has many biological and pharmaceutical activities. Smad3 acetylation can regulate the transcription of type I α2 collagen (COL1A2), which is the major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether CA inhibits COL1A2 transcription via the reduction of Smad3 acetylation against liver fibrosis. The results showed that CA treatment significantly suppressed COL1A2 transcription and markedly decreased the deposition of ECM induced by dimethylamine (DMN) in rats. Importantly, the suppression of COL1A2 transcription following CA treatment depended on the reduction of Smad3 acetylation via the activation of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide + (NAD + )-dependent deacetylase. SIRT1 siRNA increased the acetylation of Smad3 and blocked CA-down-regulated Smad3 deacetylation. Notably, CA-mediated AMP-activated protein kinase-α1 (AMPKα1) activation not only increased AMPKα1 phosphorylation but also increased SIRT1 expression, thus leading to a significant reduction in Smad3 acetylation. Furthermore, CA-mediated SIRT1 activation was inhibited by AMPKα1 siRNA. Collectively, CA can inhibit the transcription of COL1A2 through SIRT1-mediated Smad3 deacetylation, and the activation of SIRT1 by CA involves the AMPKα1/SIRT1 pathway in liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary Intake of Structured Lipids with Different Contents of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids on Obesity Prevention in C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengmin; Wang, Yueqiang; Jiang, Yuanrong; Zhang, Zhongfei; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2017-08-01

    Three medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) with different contents of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) (10% to 30%, w/w) were prepared and evaluated for their anti-obesity potential in C57BL/6J mice. The group fed with a high fat diet of MLCT containing 30% (w/w) MCFA showed significantly decreased body weight and fat mass (P < 0.05) relative to the control mice fed an obesity-inducing high fat rapeseed oil diet. In addition, serum parameters including triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B in the treatment group fed with 30% (w/w) MCFA were close to those of mice fed with a low fat rapeseed oil diet, but significantly different (P < 0.05) from those of the obesity control group. Moreover, the intake of MLCT with high content of MCFA reduced the size of adipocytes. In addition, the visceral fat and liver weights, as well as the liver triacylglycerol for 3 treatment groups were lower than those of the obesity control group. These results demonstrate the great potential of MLCT with high content of MCFA in weight loss. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Rape prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual-assault.htm . Updated June 4, ...

  16. Rilonacept for gout flare prevention in patients receiving uric acid-lowering therapy: results of RESURGE, a phase III, international safety study.

    PubMed

    Sundy, John S; Schumacher, H Ralph; Kivitz, Alan; Weinstein, Steven P; Wu, Richard; King-Davis, Shirletta; Evans, Robert R

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of once-weekly subcutaneous rilonacept 160 mg for prevention of gout flares in patients initiating or continuing urate-lowering therapy (ULT). This phase III study was conducted in the United States, South Africa, Europe, and Asia. Adults (n = 1315, 18-80 yrs) with gout, who were initiating or continuing ULT, were randomized to treatment with weekly subcutaneous injections of rilonacept 160 mg or placebo for 16 weeks followed by a 4-week safety followup. The primary endpoint was safety, assessed by adverse events (AE) and laboratory values. Efficacy was a secondary endpoint. Demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between treatments; predominantly male (87.8%), mean age 52.7 ± 11.3 years. Patients with ≥ 1 AE were 66.6% with rilonacept versus 59.1% placebo, with slightly more AE-related withdrawals with rilonacept (4.7% vs 3.0%) because of the greater incidence of injection site reactions (15.2% rilonacept, 3.3% placebo). Serious AE were similar in both groups, as were serious infections (0.9% placebo, 0.5% rilonacept); no tuberculosis or opportunistic infections occurred. Most common AE were headache, arthralgia, injection site erythema, accidental overdose, and pain in extremity. Of the 6 deaths, only 1 in the placebo group was considered treatment-related. At Week 16, rilonacept resulted in 70.3% fewer gout flares per patient (p < 0.0001), fewer patients with ≥ 1 and ≥ 2 gout flares (p < 0.0001), and 64.9% fewer gout flare days (p < 0.0001) relative to placebo. Weekly subcutaneous administration of rilonacept 160 mg showed no new safety signals. The safety profile was consistent with previous studies. Rilonacept also significantly reduced the risk of gout flares. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00856206; EudraCT No. 2008-007784-16.

  17. An Increased Dietary Supply of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids during Early Weaning in Rodents Prevents Excessive Fat Accumulation in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van der Beek, Eline M.

    2017-01-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are a directly and readily absorbed source of energy. Exposure early-in-life to increased MCFA levels might affect development and impact (lipid) metabolism later in life. We tested whether an increased MCFA intake early-in-life positively affects adult body composition and metabolic status when challenged by a western-style diet (WSD). Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were fed a control diet (CTRL; 10 w% fat, 14% MCFA) or a medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) diet with 20% MCFA until postnatal (PN) day 42, whereupon animals were fed a WSD (10 w% fat) until PN day 98. Body composition was monitored by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). In rats, glucose homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT); in mice, the HOmeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. At autopsy on PN day 98, plasma lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, and adipokines were measured; organs and fat pads were collected and the adipocyte size distribution was analysed. Milk analysis in mice showed that the maternal MCT diet was not translated into milk, and pups were thus only exposed to high MCT levels from early weaning onward: PN day 16 until 42. Mice exposed to MCT showed 28% less fat accumulation vs. CTRL during WSD. The average adipocyte cell size, fasting plasma triglycerides (TG), and leptin levels were reduced in MCT mice. In rats, no effects were found on the adult body composition, but the adipocyte cell size distribution shifted towards smaller adipocytes. Particularly mice showed positive effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Increased MCFA intake early-in-life protected against the detrimental effects of an obesogenic diet in adulthood. PMID:28632178

  18. Ursolic acid incorporation does not prevent the formation of a non-lamellar phase in pH-sensitive and long-circulating liposomes.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Sávia C A; Novais, Marcus V M; Ferreira, Diêgo S; Braga, Fernão C; Magalhães-Paniago, Rogério; Malachias, Ângelo; Oliveira, Mônica C

    2014-12-23

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a triterpene found in different plant species that has been shown to possess significant antitumor activity. However, UA presents a low water solubility, which limits its biological applications. In this context, our research group has proposed the incorporation of UA in long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes (SpHL-UA).These liposomes, composed of dioleylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS), and distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine-polyethylene glycol2000 (DSPE-PEG2000), were shown to be very promising carriers for UA. Considering that the release of UA from SpHL-UA and its antitumor activity depend upon the occurrence of the lamellar to non-lamellar phase transition of DOPE, in the present work, the interactions of UA with the components of the liposomes were evaluated, aiming to clarify their role in the structural organization of DOPE. The study was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) under low hydration conditions. DSC studies revealed that DOPE phase transition temperatures did not shift significantly upon UA addition. On the other hand, in SAXS studies, a different pattern of DOPE phase organization was observed in the presence of UA, with the occurrence of the cubic phase Im3m at 20 °C and the cubic phase Pn3m at 60 °C. These findings suggest that UA interacts with the lipids and changes their self-assembly. However, these interactions between the lipids and UA were unable to eliminate the lamellar to non-lamellar phase transition, which is essential for the cytoplasmic delivery of UA molecules from SpHL-UA.

  19. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  20. Exercise in ZDF rats does not attenuate weight gain, but prevents hyperglycemia concurrent with modulation of amino acid metabolism and AKT/mTOR activation in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, Olasunkanmi A J; Bates, Holly E; Kiraly, Michael A; Vranic, Mladen; Riddell, Michael C; Marliss, Errol B

    2015-08-01

    Protein metabolism is altered in obesity, accompanied by elevated plasma amino acids (AA). Previously, we showed that exercise delayed progression to type 2 diabetes in obese ZDF rats with maintenance of β cell function and reduction in hyperglucocorticoidemia. We hypothesized that exercise would correct the abnormalities we found in circulating AA and other indices of skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Male obese prediabetic ZDF rats (7-10/group) were exercised (swimming) 1 h/day, 5 days/week from ages 6-19 weeks, and compared with age-matched obese sedentary and lean ZDF rats. Food intake and weight gain were unaffected. Protein metabolism was altered in obese rats as evidenced by increased plasma concentrations of essential AA, and increased muscle phosphorylation (ph) of Akt(ser473) (187%), mTOR(ser2448) (140%), eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) (111%), and decreased formation of 4E-BP1*eIF4E complex (75%, 0.01 ≤ p ≤ 0.05 for all measures) in obese relative to lean rats. Exercise attenuated the increase in plasma essential AA concentrations and muscle Akt and mTOR phosphorylation. Exercise did not modify phosphorylation of S6K1, S6, and 4E-BP1, nor the formation of 4E-BP1*eIF4E complex, mRNA levels of ubiquitin or the ubiquitin ligase MAFbx. Positive correlations were observed between ph-Akt and fed circulating branched-chain AA (r = 0.56, p = 0.008), postprandial glucose (r = 0.42, p = 0.04) and glucose AUC during an IPGTT (r = 0.44, p = 0.03). Swimming exercise-induced attenuation of hyperglycemia in ZDF rats is independent of changes in body weight and could result in part from modulation of muscle AKT activation acting via alterations of systemic AA metabolism.

  1. The role of vitamin E in the prevention of zoledronic acid-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: a light and electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sert, İbrahim Unal; Kilic, Ozcan; Akand, Murat; Saglik, Lutfi; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Erdemli, Esra

    2018-03-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used in metastatic cancer such as prostate and breast cancer, and their nephrotoxic effects have been established previously. In this study we aimed to evaluate both the nephrotoxic effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) and the protective effects of vitamin E (Vit-E) on this process under light and electron microscopy. A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group constituted the control group. The second group was given i.v. ZA of 3 mg/kg once every 3 weeks for 12 weeks from the tail vein. The third group received the same dosage of ZA with an additional i.m . injection of 15 mg Vit-E every week for 12 weeks. Tissues were taken 4 days after the last dose of ZA for histopathological and ultrastructural evaluation. Paller score, tubular epithelial thickness and basal membrane thickness were calculated for each group. For group 2, the p -values are all < 0.001 for Paller score, epitelial thickness, and basal membrane thickness. For group 3 (ZA + Vit. E), the p -values are < 0.001 for Paller score, 0.996 for epitelial thickness, and < 0.001 basal membrane thickness. Significant differences were also observed in ultrastructural changes for group 2. However, adding Vit-E to ZA administration reversed all the histopathological changes to some degree, with statistical significance. Administration of ZA had nephrotoxic effects on rat kidney observed under both light and electron microscopy. Concomitant administration of Vit-E significantly reduces toxic histopathological effects of ZA.

  2. Salicylic acid improves salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis by restoring membrane potential and preventing salt-induced K+ loss via a GORK channel

    PubMed Central

    Jayakannan, Maheswari; Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Rengel, Zed; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous reports implicating salicylic acid (SA) in plant salinity responses, the specific ionic mechanisms of SA-mediated adaptation to salt stress remain elusive. To address this issue, a non-invasive microelectrode ion flux estimation technique was used to study kinetics of NaCl-induced net ion fluxes in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to various SA concentrations and incubation times. NaCl-induced K+ efflux and H+ influx from the mature root zone were both significantly decreased in roots pretreated with 10–500 μM SA, with strongest effect being observed in the 10–50 μM SA range. Considering temporal dynamics (0–8-h SA pretreatment), the 1-h pretreatment was most effective in enhancing K+ retention in the cytosol. The pharmacological, membrane potential, and shoot K+ and Na+ accumulation data were all consistent with the model in which the SA pretreatment enhanced activity of H+-ATPase, decreased NaCl-induced membrane depolarization, and minimized NaCl-induced K+ leakage from the cell within the first hour of salt stress. In long-term treatments, SA increased shoot K+ and decreased shoot Na+ accumulation. The short-term NaCl-induced K+ efflux was smallest in the gork1-1 mutant, followed by the rbohD mutant, and was highest in the wild type. Most significantly, the SA pretreatment decreased the NaCl-induced K+ efflux from rbohD and the wild type to the level of gork1-1, whereas no effect was observed in gork1-1. These data provide the first direct evidence that the SA pretreatment ameliorates salinity stress by counteracting NaCl-induced membrane depolarization and by decreasing K+ efflux via GORK channels. PMID:23580750

  3. Fructooligosaccharides and fiber partially prevent the alterations in fecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acid concentrations caused by standard enteral formula in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Kevin; Judd, Patricia A; Preedy, Victor R; Simmering, Rainer; Jann, Alfred; Taylor, Moira A

    2005-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota are important during enteral tube feeding because they exert colonization resistance and produce SCFAs. However, the effect of the enteral formula composition on major bacterial groups of the microbiota has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of enteral formulas with and without prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and fiber on the fecal microbiota and SCFAs. Healthy subjects (n = 10; 4 men, 6 women) consumed both a standard enteral formula and one containing FOS (5.1 g/L) and fiber (8.9 g/L) as a sole source of nutrition for 14 d in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial with a 6-wk washout phase. Fecal samples were collected at the start and end of each formula phase, and were analyzed for major bacterial groups and SCFA concentrations using fluorescent in situ hybridization and GLC, respectively. Although there were reductions in total fecal bacteria due to both formula treatments, concentrations were higher after the FOS/fiber formula period compared with the standard formula period (11.2 +/- 0.2 vs. 11.0 +/- 0.2 log(10) cells/g, P = 0.005). The FOS/fiber formula increased bifidobacteria (P = 0.004) and reduced clostridia (P = 0.006). Compared with the standard formula, the FOS/fiber formula resulted in higher concentrations of total SCFA (332.4 +/- 133.8 vs. 220.1 +/- 124.5 micromol/g, P = 0.022), acetate (219.6 +/- 96.3 vs. 136.8 +/- 74.5 micromol/g, P = 0.034) and propionate (58.4 +/- 37.4 vs. 35.6 +/- 25.5 micromol/g, P = 0.02). This study demonstrates that standard enteral formula leads to adverse alterations to the fecal microbiota and SCFA concentrations in healthy subjects, and these alterations are partially prevented by fortification of the formula with FOS and fiber.

  4. Targeting Inflammatory T Helper Cells via Retinoic Acid-Related Orphan Receptor Gamma t Is Ineffective to Prevent Allo-Response-Driven Colitis.

    PubMed

    Buchele, Vera; Abendroth, Benjamin; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Vogler, Tina; Rothamer, Johanna; Ghimire, Sakhila; Ullrich, Evelyn; Holler, Ernst; Neurath, Markus F; Hildner, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a life-threatening, inflammatory donor T cell-mediated complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In the light of the reported efficacy of interleukin-23 (IL-23)-blockade to mitigate syngeneic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease patients, targeting IL-23 and thereby interleukin-17a (IL-17a) producing T helper (Th17) cells as the T cell subset assumed to be mostly regulated by IL-23, has emerged as a putatively general concept to harness immune-mediated mucosal inflammation irrespective of the underlying trigger. However, the role of Th17 cells during allo-response driven colitis remains ambiguous due to a series of studies with inconclusive results. Interestingly, we recently identified granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF + ) T cells to be promoted by interleukin-7 (IL-7) signaling and controlled by the activating protein-1 transcription factor family member basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like (BATF) as critical mediators of intestinal GvHD in mice. Given the dual role of BATF, the contribution of IL-23-mediated signaling within donor T cells and bona fide Th17 cells remains to be delineated from the regulation of GM-CSF + T cells in the absence of BATF. Here, we found in a complete MHC class I-mismatched model that genetic inactivation of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) or the transcription factor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) within donor T cells similarly ablated Th17 cell formation in vivo but preserved the T cells' ability to induce intestinal GvHD in a compared to wild-type controls indistinguishable manner. Importantly, RORγt-independent manifestation of intestinal GvHD was completely dependent on BATF-regulated GM-CSF + T cells as BATF/RORγt double-deficient T cells failed to induce colitis and the antibody-mediated blockage of IL-7/IL-7R interaction and GM-CSF significantly diminished signs

  5. Prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: Comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schwantes, Ulrich; Dautel, Hans; Jung, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Background Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus are the main vectors of Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-borne Encephalitis – two rapidly emerging diseases in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore minimize the transmission of tick-borne diseases. We developed and tested seven different dodecanoic acid (DDA)-formulations for their efficacy in repelling host-seeking nymphs of I. ricinus by laboratory screening. The ultimately selected formulation was then used for comparative investigations of commercially available tick repellents in humans. Methods Laboratory screening tests were performed using the Moving-object (MO) bioassay. All test formulations contained 10% of the naturally occurring active substance DDA and differed only in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of inactive ingredients and fragrances. The test procedure used in the human bioassays is a modification of an assay described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recommended for regulatory affairs. Repellency was computed using the equation: R = 100 - NR/N × 100, where NR is the number of non-repelled ticks, and N is the respective number of control ticks. All investigations were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment offering standardized test conditions. Results All test formulations strongly repelled nymphs of I. ricinus (100-81% protection) as shown by the MO-bioassay. The majority of ticks dropped off the treated surface of the heated rotating drum that served as the attractant (1 mg/cm2 repellent applied). The 10% DDA-based formulation, that produced the best results in laboratory screening, was as effective as the coconut oil-based reference product. The mean protection time of both preparations was generally similar and averaged 8 hours. Repellency investigations in humans showed that the most effective 10% DDA-based formulation (~1.67 mg/cm2 applied) strongly avoided the attachment of I. ricinus nymphs

  6. Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Bolognini, D; Rock, EM; Cluny, NL; Cascio, MG; Limebeer, CL; Duncan, M; Stott, CG; Javid, FA; Parker, LA; Pertwee, RG

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose To evaluate the ability of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) to reduce nausea and vomiting and enhance 5-HT1A receptor activation in animal models. Experimental Approach We investigated the effect of CBDA on (i) lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned gaping to a flavour (nausea-induced behaviour) or a context (model of anticipatory nausea) in rats; (ii) saccharin palatability in rats; (iii) motion-, LiCl- or cisplatin-induced vomiting in house musk shrews (Suncus murinus); and (iv) rat brainstem 5-HT1A receptor activation by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and mouse whole brain CB1 receptor activation by CP55940, using [35S]GTPγS-binding assays. Key Results In shrews, CBDA (0.1 and/or 0.5 mg·kg−1 i.p.) reduced toxin- and motion-induced vomiting, and increased the onset latency of the first motion-induced emetic episode. In rats, CBDA (0.01 and 0.1 mg·kg−1 i.p.) suppressed LiCl- and context-induced conditioned gaping, effects that were blocked by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635 (0.1 mg·kg−1 i.p.), and, at 0.01 mg·kg−1 i.p., enhanced saccharin palatability. CBDA-induced suppression of LiCl-induced conditioned gaping was unaffected by the CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (1 mg·kg−1 i.p.). In vitro, CBDA (0.1–100 nM) increased the Emax of 8-OH-DPAT. Conclusions and Implications Compared with cannabidiol, CBDA displays significantly greater potency at inhibiting vomiting in shrews and nausea in rats, and at enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation, an action that accounts for its ability to attenuate conditioned gaping in rats. Consequently, CBDA shows promise as a treatment for nausea and vomiting, including anticipatory nausea for which no specific therapy is currently available. PMID:23121618

  7. Antenatal iron/folic acid supplements, but not postnatal care, prevents neonatal deaths in Indonesia: analysis of Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys 2002/2003–2007 (a retrospective cohort study)

    PubMed Central

    Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Dibley, Michael John

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the contribution of postnatal services to the risk of neonatal mortality, and the relative contributions of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements and postnatal care in preventing neonatal mortality in Indonesia. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting and participants Data used in this study were the 2002–2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys, nationally representative surveys. The pooled data provided survival information of 26 591 most recent live-born infants within the 5-years prior to each interview. Primary outcomes Primary outcomes were early neonatal mortality, that is, deaths in the first week, and all neonatal mortality, that is, deaths in the first month of life. Exposures were antenatal iron/folic acid supplementation and postnatal care from days 1 to 7. Potential confounders were community, socio-economic status and birthing characteristics and perinatal healthcare. Cox regression was used to assess the association between study factors and neonatal mortality. Results Postnatal care services were not associated with newborn survival. Postnatal care on days 1–7 after birth did not reduce neonatal death (HR=1.00, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.83, p=1.00) and early postnatal care on day 1 was associated with an increased risk of early neonatal death (HR=1.27, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.32, p=0.44) possibly reflecting referral of ill newborns. Early postnatal care on day 1 was not protective for neonatal deaths on days 2–7 whether provided by doctors (HR 3.61, 95% CI 1.54 to 8.45, p<0.01), or by midwives or nurses (HR 1.38, 95% CI 0.53 to 3.57, p=0.512). In mothers who took iron/folic acid supplements during pregnancy, the risk of early neonatal death was reduced by 51% (HR=0.49, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.79, p<0.01). Conclusions We found no protective effect of postnatal care against neonatal deaths in Indonesia. However, important reductions in the risk of neonatal death were found for women who reported use of antenatal iron

  8. A Single Amino Acid Substitution Prevents Recognition of a Dominant Human Aquaporin-4 Determinant in the Context of HLA-DRB1*03:01 by a Murine TCR

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, Benjamine; Hussain, Rehana; Miller-Little, William A.; Herndon, Emily; Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Eagar, Todd N.; Lewis, Robert; Healey, Don; Vernino, Steven; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Stüve, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Background Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is considered a putative autoantigen in patients with Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoinflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). HLA haplotype analyses of patients with NMO suggest a positive association with HLA-DRB1* 03:01. We previously showed that the human (h) AQP4 peptide 281–300 is the dominant immunogenic determinant of hAQP4 in the context of HLA-DRB1*03:01. This immunogenic peptide stimulates a strong Th1 and Th17 immune response. AQP4281-300-specific encephalitogenic CD4+ T cells should initiate CNS inflammation that results in a clinical phenotype in HLA-DRB1*03:01 transgenic mice. Methods Controlled study with humanized experimental animals. HLA-DRB1*03:01 transgenic mice were immunized with hAQP4281-300, or whole-length hAQP4 protein emulsified in complete Freund’s adjuvant. Humoral immune responses to both antigens were assessed longitudinally. In vivo T cell frequencies were assessed by tetramer staining. Mice were followed clinically, and the anterior visual pathway was tested by pupillometry. CNS tissue was examined histologically post-mortem. Flow cytometry was utilized for MHC binding assays and to immunophenotype T cells, and T cell frequencies were determined by ELISpot assay. Results Immunization with hAQP4281-300 resulted in an in vivo expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, and an immunoglobulin isotype switch. HLA-DRB1*03:01 TG mice actively immunized with hAQP4281-300, or with whole-length hAQP4 protein were resistant to developing a neurological disease that resembles NMO. Experimental mice show no histological evidence of CNS inflammation, nor change in pupillary responses. Subsequent analysis reveals that a single amino acid substitution from aspartic acid in hAQP4 to glutamic acid in murine (m)AQP4 at position 290 prevents the recognition of hAQP4281-300 by the murine T cell receptor (TCR). Conclusion Induction of a CNS inflammatory autoimmune disorder by active immunization of

  9. Fish Oil and Post-Operative Atrial Fibrillation – Results of the Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-Operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Marchioli, Roberto; Macchia, Alejandro; Silletta, Maria G.; Ferrazzi, Paolo; Gardner, Timothy J.; Latini, Roberto; Libby, Peter; Lombardi, Federico; O’Gara, Patrick T.; Page, Richard L.; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tognoni, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Context Post-operative atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) is one of the most common complications of cardiac surgery and significantly increases morbidity and healthcare utilization. A few small trials have evaluated whether long-chain n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce post-op AF, with mixed results. Objective To determine whether peri-operative n-3-PUFA supplementation reduces post-op AF. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, clinical trial. Patients A total of 1,516 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery across 28 centers in the US, Italy, and Argentina, enrolled between Aug 2010 and Jun 2012. Inclusion criteria were broad; the main exclusions were regular use of fish oil or absence of sinus rhythm at enrollment. Forty-eight percent of screened patients and 94% of eligible patients were enrolled. Intervention Patients were randomized to receive fish oil (1 g capsules containing ≥840 mg n-3-PUFA as ethyl esters) or placebo, with pre-operative loading of 10g over 3-5 days (or 8g over 2 days) followed post-operatively by 2g/d until hospital discharge or post-op day10, whichever first. Main Outcome Measures The primary endpoint was occurrence of post-op AF >30 sec. We also evaluated post-op AF lasting >1hr, resulting in symptoms, or treated with cardioversion; other secondary post-op AF endpoints; other tachyarrhythmias; hospital utilization; and major adverse cardiovascular events, 30-day mortality, bleeding, and other adverse events. All endpoints and analyses plans were prespecified. Results At enrollment, mean±SD age was 64±13 years, 72.2% were male, and 51.8% had planned valvular surgery. The primary endpoint occurred in 233 (30.7%) and 227 (30.0%) patients assigned to placebo and n-3-PUFA, respectively (OR=0.96, 95%CI=0.77-1.20; P=0.74). None of the secondary endpoints were significantly different, including post-op AF that was sustained, symptomatic, or treated (n=231 [30.5%] vs. n=224 [29.6%], P=0.70) or number of

  10. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  11. Preventing ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Beitler, Jeremy R.; Schoenfeld, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in critical care practice have led to a substantial decline in the incidence of ARDS over the past several years. Low tidal volume ventilation, timely resuscitation and antimicrobial administration, restrictive transfusion practices, and primary prevention of aspiration and nosocomial pneumonia have likely contributed to this reduction. Despite decades of research, there is no proven pharmacologic treatment of ARDS, and mortality from ARDS remains high. Consequently, recent initiatives have broadened the scope of lung injury research to include targeted prevention of ARDS. Prediction scores have been developed to identify patients at risk for ARDS, and clinical trials testing aspirin and inhaled budesonide/formoterol for ARDS prevention are ongoing. Future trials aimed at preventing ARDS face several key challenges. ARDS has not been validated as an end point for pivotal clinical trials, and caution is needed when testing toxic therapies that may prevent ARDS yet potentially increase mortality. PMID:25288000

  12. Herbal medicine Inchin-ko-to (TJ-135) prevents liver fibrosis and enzyme-altered lesions in rat liver cirrhosis induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet.

    PubMed

    Sakaida, Isao; Tsuchiya, Masako; Kawaguchi, Kotarou; Kimura, Teruaki; Terai, Shuji; Okita, Kiwamu

    2003-06-01

    The herbal medicine Inchin-ko-to (TJ-135), extract power from three herbs, has recently been reported possessing anti-apoptotic activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TJ-135 has any influence on the development of preneoplastic lesions as well as liver fibrosis. The effects of the TJ-135 were examined using the choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet-induced liver fibrosis model. In addition, the effect of TJ-135 on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, type III procollagen mRNA expression and the medium N-terminal procollagen III propeptide (PIIINP) concentration in a hepatic stellate cell line (LI90) were examined. TJ-135 prevented fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner up to 1.5% (w/w). TJ-135 also reduced the expression of type III procollagen mRNA in the liver, as well as the number of activated stellate cells. Furthermore, TJ-135 reduced the area of preneoplastic lesions in the liver. With LI90 cells, TJ-135 reduced MAP kinase (ERK and JNK but not P38) activities resulting in reduced type III procollagen mRNA and PIIINP concentrations in the medium in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that although TJ-135 has anti-apoptotic activity, TJ-135 does not increase preneoplastic lesions but significantly reduces liver fibrosis through the inhibition of stellate cell activation without a reduction of hepatocyte cell death.

  13. Novelty in hypertension in children and adolescents: focus on hypertension during the first year of life, use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, role of physical activity in prevention and treatment, simple carbohydrates and uric acid as risk factors.

    PubMed

    Strambi, Mirella; Giussani, Marco; Ambruzzi, Maria Amalia; Brambilla, Paolo; Corrado, Ciro; Giordano, Ugo; Maffeis, Claudio; Maringhin, Silvio; Matteucci, Maria Chiara; Menghetti, Ettore; Salice, Patrizia; Schena, Federico; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Valerio, Giuliana; Viazzi, Francesca; Virdis, Raffaele; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2016-07-16

    The present article intends to provide an update of the article "Focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents" published in 2013 (Spagnolo et al., Ital J Pediatr 39:20, 2013) in this journal. This revision is justified by the fact that during the last years there have been several new scientific contributions to the problem of hypertension in pediatric age and during adolescence. Nevertheless, for what regards some aspects of the previous article, the newly acquired information did not require substantial changes to what was already published, both from a cultural and from a clinical point of view. We felt, however, the necessity to rewrite and/or to extend other parts in the light of the most recent scientific publications. More specifically, we updated and extended the chapters on the diagnosis and management of hypertension in newborns and unweaned babies, on the use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and on the usefulness of and indications for physical activity. Furthermore, we added an entirely new section on the role that simple carbohydrates (fructose in particular) and uric acid may play in the pathogenesis of hypertension in pediatric age.

  14. Supplementation with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil prevents hepatic oxidative stress and reduction of desaturation capacity in mice fed a high-fat diet: Effects on fatty acid composition in liver and extrahepatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Angel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Marambio, Macarena; Espinosa, Alejandra; Mayer, Susana; Romero, Nalda; Barrera M Sc, Cynthia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in mice on the reduction of desaturase and antioxidant enzymatic activities in liver, concomitantly with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profiles in liver and extrahepatic tissues induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice C57 BL/6 J were fed with a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 wk. Animals were supplemented with 100 mg/d EVOO with different antioxidant contents (EVOO I, II, and III). After the intervention, blood and several tissues were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with EVOO with the highest antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity (EVOO III) significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and the plasmatic metabolic alterations caused by HFD and produced a normalization of oxidative stress-related parameters, desaturase activities, and LCPUFA content in tissues. Data suggest that dietary supplementation with EVOO III may prevent oxidative stress and reduction of biosynthesis and accretion of ω-3 LCPUFA in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel co-drug of aspirin and ursolic acid interrupts adhesion, invasion and migration of cancer cells to vascular endothelium via regulating EMT and EGFR-mediated signaling pathways: multiple targets for cancer metastasis prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiao; Liu, Yajun; Li, Tao; Yang, Xiang; Zheng, Guirong; Chen, Hongning; Jia, Lee; Shao, Jingwei

    2016-11-08

    Metastasis currently remains the predominant cause of breast carcinoma treatment failure. The effective targeting of metastasis-related-pathways in cancer holds promise for a new generation of therapeutics. In this study, we developed an novel Asp-UA conjugate, which was composed of classical "old drug" aspirin and low toxicity natural product ursolic acid for targeting breast cancer metastasis. Our results showed that Asp-UA could attenuate the adhesion, migration and invasion of breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a more safe and effective manner in vitro. Molecular and cellular study demonstrated that Asp-UA significantly down-regulated the expression of cell adhesion and invasion molecules including integrin α6β1, CD44 ,MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, EGFR and ERK proteins, and up-regulated the epithelial markers "E-cadherin" and "β-catenin", and PTEN proteins. Furthermore, Asp-UA (80 mg/kg) reduced lung metastasis in a 4T1 murine breast cancer metastasis model more efficiently, which was associated with a decrease in the expression of CD44. More importantly, we did not detect side effects with Asp-UA in mice such as weight loss and main viscera tissues toxicity. Overall, our research suggested that co-drug Asp-UA possessed potential metastasis chemoprevention abilities via influencing EMT and EGFR-mediated pathways and could be a more promising drug candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer metastasis.

  16. SIMPL: A Simplified Model-Based Program for the Analysis and Visualization of Groundwater Rebound in Abandoned Mines to Prevent Contamination of Water and Soils by Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Min

    2018-01-01

    Cessation of dewatering following underground mine closure typically results in groundwater rebound, because mine voids and surrounding strata undergo flooding up to the levels of the decant points, such as shafts and drifts. SIMPL (Simplified groundwater program In Mine workings using the Pipe equation and Lumped parameter model), a simplified lumped parameter model-based program for predicting groundwater levels in abandoned mines, is presented herein. The program comprises a simulation engine module, 3D visualization module, and graphical user interface, which aids data processing, analysis, and visualization of results. The 3D viewer facilitates effective visualization of the predicted groundwater level rebound phenomenon together with a topographic map, mine drift, goaf, and geological properties from borehole data. SIMPL is applied to data from the Dongwon coal mine and Dalsung copper mine in Korea, with strong similarities in simulated and observed results. By considering mine workings and interpond connections, SIMPL can thus be used to effectively analyze and visualize groundwater rebound. In addition, the predictions by SIMPL can be utilized to prevent the surrounding environment (water and soil) from being polluted by acid mine drainage. PMID:29747480

  17. Erythrocyte stearidonic acid and other n-3 fatty acids and CHD in the Physicians’ Health Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intake of marine-based n-3 fatty acids (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA) is recommended to prevent CHD. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based n-3 fatty acid, is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than a-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soyabeans might supply SDA at ...

  18. Prevent Cyberbullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips for Teachers Report Cyberbullying Print Share Prevent Cyberbullying Be Aware of What Your Kids are Doing ... Signs a Child is Being Cyberbullied or is Cyberbullying Others Many of the warning signs that cyberbullying ...

  19. Preventing accidents

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  20. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000052.htm Preventing falls To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. People with medical problems are at risk of falling or tripping. This can result in ...

  1. Preventing stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 65. Goldstein LB. Prevention and management of ischemic stroke. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hemorrhagic Stroke Ischemic Stroke Stroke Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  2. Preventing Rejection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you to prevent causing harmful medication interactions. Organization tips Get into a routine of taking your ... Organ Sharing , a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization | Guidestar | Sitemap | Legal Share This https://www.facebook. ...

  3. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  4. Prevention of congenital malformations and other adverse pregnancy outcomes with 4.0 mg of folic acid: community-based randomized clinical trial in Italy and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010 a Cochrane review confirmed that folic acid (FA) supplementation prevents the first- and second-time occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs). At present some evidence from observational studies supports the hypothesis that FA supplementation can reduce the risk of all congenital malformations (CMs) or the risk of a specific and selected group of them, namely cardiac defects and oral clefts. Furthermore, the effects on the prevention of prematurity, foetal growth retardation and pre-eclampsia are unclear. Although the most common recommendation is to take 0.4 mg/day, the problem of the most appropriate dose of FA is still open. The aim of this project is to assess the effect a higher dose of peri-conceptional FA supplementation on reducing the occurrence of all CMs. Other aims include the promotion of pre-conceptional counselling, comparing rates of selected CMs, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, small for gestational age, abruptio placentae. Methods/Design This project is a joint effort by research groups in Italy and the Netherlands. Women of childbearing age, who intend to become pregnant within 12 months are eligible for the studies. Women are randomly assigned to receive 4 mg of FA (treatment in study) or 0.4 mg of FA (referent treatment) daily. Information on pregnancy outcomes are derived from women-and-physician information. We foresee to analyze the data considering all the adverse outcomes of pregnancy taken together in a global end point (e.g.: CMs, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, small for gestational age). A total of about 1,000 pregnancies need to be evaluated to detect an absolute reduction of the frequency of 8%. Since the sample size needed for studying outcomes separately is large, this project also promotes an international prospective meta-analysis. Discussion The rationale of these randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is the hypothesis that a higher intake of FA is related to a higher risk reduction of

  5. A mild hand cleanser, alkyl ether sulphate supplemented with alkyl ether carboxylic acid and alkyl glucoside, improves eczema on the hand and prevents the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on the skin surface.

    PubMed

    Fukui, S; Morikawa, T; Hirahara, M; Terada, Y; Shimizu, M; Takeuchi, K; Takagi, Y

    2016-12-01

    Washing the hands using cleansers with antiseptic materials is the most popular method for hand hygiene and helps maintain health by preventing food poisoning and bacterial infections. However, repeated hand washing tends to induce eczema of the hand, such as dryness, cracking and erythema. Moreover, eczema on the hand leads to increased levels in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) on the skin surface in contrast to expectations. Thus, mild hand cleansers which induce less eczema even with repeated washings are desired. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a hand cleanser formulated with alkyl ether sulphate (AES), alkyl ether carboxylic acid (AEC) and alkyl glucoside (AG) that contains isopropyl methylphenol (IPMP) on skin symptoms and S. aureus levels. Eczema of the hand and the presence of S. aureus on the skin surface were analysed prior to and following 4 weeks of usage of the hand cleanser. A soap