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Sample records for a-loaded pegylated chitosan-modified

  1. Preparation and in vitro and in vivo characterization of cyclosporin A-loaded, PEGylated chitosan-modified, lipid-based nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Zhi-Liang; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jin-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background and methods: A new cyclosporin A-loaded, PEGylated chitosan-modified lipid-based nanoparticle was developed to improve upon the formulation of cyclosporin A. PEGylated chitosan, synthesized in three steps using mild reaction conditions, was used to modify the nanoparticles. Cyclosporin A-loaded, PEGylated chitosan-modified nanoparticles were prepared using an emulsification/solvent evaporation method. The drug content and encapsulation efficiency of the cyclosporin A-loaded, PEGylated chitosan-modified nanoparticles were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The average size of the nanoparticles was determined by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The pharmacokinetic behavior of the nanoparticles was investigated in rabbits after intravenous injection. Cyclosporin A concentrations in a whole blood sample were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using tamoxifen as the internal standard. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the 3p87 software program. Results: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed the structure of PEGylated chitosan. The drug content and encapsulation efficiency of the cyclosporin A-loaded, PEGylated chitosan-modified nanoparticles were 37.04% and 69.22%, respectively. The average size of the nanoparticles was 89.4 nm. The nanoparticles released 30% cyclosporin A-loaded in 48 hours in vitro, with no initial burst release. The mode of release in vitro was prone to bulk erosion. The in vivo results showed the biological half-life of the elimination phase (t1/2β) of the nanoparticles was 21 times longer than that of the cyclosporin A solution, and the area under the curve for the nanoparticles was 25.8 times greater than that of the cyclosporin A solution. Conclusion: Modification of PEGylated chitosan prolonged the retention time of the nanoparticles in the circulatory system and improved the bioavailability of cyclosporin A

  2. Preparation and in vitro and in vivo characterization of cyclosporin A-loaded, PEGylated chitosan-modified, lipid-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Zhi-Liang; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jin-Hua

    2013-01-01

    A new cyclosporin A-loaded, PEGylated chitosan-modified lipid-based nanoparticle was developed to improve upon the formulation of cyclosporin A. PEGylated chitosan, synthesized in three steps using mild reaction conditions, was used to modify the nanoparticles. Cyclosporin A-loaded, PEGylated chitosan-modified nanoparticles were prepared using an emulsification/solvent evaporation method. The drug content and encapsulation efficiency of the cyclosporin A-loaded, PEGylated chitosan-modified nanoparticles were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The average size of the nanoparticles was determined by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The pharmacokinetic behavior of the nanoparticles was investigated in rabbits after intravenous injection. Cyclosporin A concentrations in a whole blood sample were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using tamoxifen as the internal standard. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the 3p87 software program. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed the structure of PEGylated chitosan. The drug content and encapsulation efficiency of the cyclosporin A-loaded, PEGylated chitosan-modified nanoparticles were 37.04% and 69.22%, respectively. The average size of the nanoparticles was 89.4 nm. The nanoparticles released 30% cyclosporin A-loaded in 48 hours in vitro, with no initial burst release. The mode of release in vitro was prone to bulk erosion. The in vivo results showed the biological half-life of the elimination phase (t(1/2β)) of the nanoparticles was 21 times longer than that of the cyclosporin A solution, and the area under the curve for the nanoparticles was 25.8 times greater than that of the cyclosporin A solution. Modification of PEGylated chitosan prolonged the retention time of the nanoparticles in the circulatory system and improved the bioavailability of cyclosporin A.

  3. Reinforcement of waterborne polyurethane with chitosan-modified halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Heqing; Wang, Yin; Chen, Weifeng; Xiao, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Waterborne polyurethane/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites were prepared by modified halloysite nanotubes (HTs) with chitosan (CS). Modified HTs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetry, which verified that CS was successfully assembled onto the HTs surface. The chitosan-modified halloysite nanotubes (CHTs) were uniformly dispersed in WPU matrix through the reaction with polyurethane prepolymer, and acted as chain cross-linker as well as reinforcing filler, which increased the cross-linking density of nanocomposites. The experimental results showed that the strong interfacial interaction and hydrogen bonding interaction between CHTs and WPU improved the degree of micro-phase separation, thermal properties, mechanical properties and surface properties of nanocomposites. The tensile strength and elongation at break were simultaneously enhanced when the CHTs loading was below 2 wt%.

  4. Effect of chitosan molecular weight on rheological behavious of chitosan modified nanoclay at highly hydrated state

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effect of chitosan molecular weight (M(cs)) on the rheological properties of chitosan modified clay (CMCs) at highly hydrated state was investigated. With special emphasis on its effect on the thixotropy of CMCs, the structure recovery at rest after underwent a pre-shearing process was further perfo...

  5. Thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liqin; Li, Xuemin; Liu, Lingrong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2013-02-01

    Oral chemotherapy is a key step towards `chemotherapy at home', a dream of cancer patients, which will radically change the clinical practice of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. In this research, three types of nanoparticle formulation from commercial PCL and self-synthesized d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-PCL-TPGS) random copolymer were prepared in this research for oral delivery of antitumor agents, including thiolated chitosan-modified PCL nanoparticles, unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles, and thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLA-PCL-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. Thiolated chitosan greatly increases its mucoadhesiveness and permeation properties, thus increasing the chances of nanoparticle uptake by the gastrointestinal mucosa and improving drug absorption. The PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles were found by FESEM that they are of spherical shape and around 200 nm in diameter. The surface charge of PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles was reversed from anionic to cationic after thiolated chitosan modification. The thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cell uptake than that of thiolated chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro cell viability studies showed advantages of the thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles over Taxol® in terms of cytotoxicity against A549 cells. It seems that the mucoadhesive nanoparticles can increase paclitaxel transport by opening tight junctions and bypassing the efflux pump of P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles modified by thiolated chitosan could enhance the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, which revealed a potential application for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

  6. Thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqin; Li, Xuemin; Liu, Lingrong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2013-02-09

    Oral chemotherapy is a key step towards 'chemotherapy at home', a dream of cancer patients, which will radically change the clinical practice of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. In this research, three types of nanoparticle formulation from commercial PCL and self-synthesized d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-PCL-TPGS) random copolymer were prepared in this research for oral delivery of antitumor agents, including thiolated chitosan-modified PCL nanoparticles, unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles, and thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLA-PCL-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. Thiolated chitosan greatly increases its mucoadhesiveness and permeation properties, thus increasing the chances of nanoparticle uptake by the gastrointestinal mucosa and improving drug absorption. The PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles were found by FESEM that they are of spherical shape and around 200 nm in diameter. The surface charge of PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles was reversed from anionic to cationic after thiolated chitosan modification. The thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cell uptake than that of thiolated chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro cell viability studies showed advantages of the thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles over Taxol® in terms of cytotoxicity against A549 cells. It seems that the mucoadhesive nanoparticles can increase paclitaxel transport by opening tight junctions and bypassing the efflux pump of P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles modified by thiolated chitosan could enhance the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, which revealed a potential application for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

  7. Chitosan-modified lipid nanovesicles for efficient systemic delivery of l-asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shengli; He, Dan; Yuan, Yuming; Yan, Zijun; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Jingqing

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the enhanced catalytic activity, increased stability, in vitro anti-cancer effects on H446 cells and in vivo bioavailability of novel enzyme delivery nanovesicles (l-asparaginase containing chitosan modified lipid nanovesicles, ACLNs) when administered intravenously. It was the first time for the chitosan-modified lipid nanovesicles to be fabricated to deliver l-asparaginase (ASP, a therapeutic enzyme) efficiently. It was indicated that ACLNs markedly increased the enzymatic activity, improved the temperature/acid-base/proteolytic stabilities and favorably changed the in vivo kinetic characteristics. Moreover, ACLNs exhibited higher anti-lung-cancer activity than free ASP. The possible existence status of ASP in ACLNs and the fluorescence changes of ACLNs reflecting the conformational changes after heat treatment were preliminary explored. ACLNs might be novel promising nanovesicles for effective systemic delivery of therapeutic enzyme ASP.

  8. The influence of UV-irradiation on chitosan modified by the tannic acid addition.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, A; Kaczmarek, B; Gnatowska, M; Kowalonek, J

    2015-07-01

    The influence of UV-irradiation with the wavelength 254 nm on the properties of chitosan modified by the tannic acid addition was studied. Tannic acid was added to chitosan solution in different weight ratios and after solvent evaporation thin films were formed. The properties of the films such as thermal stability, Young modulus, ultimate tensile strength, moisture content, swelling behavior before and after UV-irradiation were measured and compared. Moreover, the surface properties were studied by contact angle measurements and by the use of atomic force microscopy. The results showed that UV-irradiation caused both, the degradation of the specimen and its cross-linking. The surface of the films made of chitosan modified by the addition of tannic acid was altered by UV-irradiation.

  9. Removal effects and mechanisms of Microcystic aeruginosa by Chitosan-modified Adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi; Wu, Cuirong; He, Yan; Zhang, Bingru; Li, Fengting

    2010-11-01

    The health of humans and other organisms is threatened by increasingly serious water contamination by algae in all the country's major lakes such as Taihu Lake. This experiment was conducted to investigate the removal effects and mechanism of Microcystic aeruginosa by Chitosan-modified adsorbent, with comparison of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and poly ferric sulfate (PFS). Microcystic aeruginosa grown in the laboratory was used for this experiment. The results showed that the algae-removal efficiency of Chitosan-modified adsorbent presents a good performance. When the dosage of the adsorbent reached 20 ppm, the turbidity and the chlorophyll a of treated water dropped by 90% and 86%, respectively. Compared to conventional coagulation, the dosage was reduced. The adhesive bridge effect of Chitosan and adsorption of modified adsorbent provided an important complement to subsequent dehydrating treatment for algae.

  10. A Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Glass Ionomer Cement and Chitosan-modified Glass Ionomer Cement: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Abi Mathew; Chopra, Saroj; Koshy, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To do a comparative study of microleakage of glass ionomer cement (GIC) and chitosan modified glass ionomer cement and evaluate which exhibited lesser microleakage. Materials and methods: Sixty freshly extracted sound primary molar teeth were obtained. Two groups of samples were created for the study which comprised of group I (glass ionomer cement—GIC) and group II (Chitosan modified glass ionomer cement). Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces. All the tooth surfaces except the restoration and a 1 mm zone adjacent to its margins were covered with two coats of varnish. The specimens were then immersed in 2% basic fuschin dye solution for 24 hours. The teeth were sectioned into two halves buccolingually in an occlusoapical direction. Sections were viewed under stereomicroscope and the degree of microleakage was evaluated using specific scoring criteria. For comparative evaluation of microleakage scores between glass ionomer cement and chitosan modified cement, a nonparametric Mann-Whitney statistical analysis was done. Results: Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between groups I and II with the p-value at >0.05. Conclusion: Chitosan modified GIC holds great promise for general dentistry as a future restorative material with microleakage properties similar to or better than GIC. How to cite this article: Abraham D, Thomas AM, Chopra S, Koshy S. A Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Glass Ionomer Cement and Chitosan-modified Glass Ionomer Cement: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):6-10. PMID:25206230

  11. [Flocculation and removal of water bloom cells Microcystis aeruginosa by chitosan-modified clays].

    PubMed

    Zou, Hua; Pan, Gang; Chen, Hao

    2004-11-01

    The kinetics of flocculation and removal of Microcystis aeruginosa by chitosan-modified clays was studied. The efficiency of flocculating and removing of algal cells was greatly improved after the modification of the clays. About 80% of algae cell was removed in 0.5 hour, and 90% in 2 hours, when 11 mg/L modified sepiolite was added. Algae-removal capacities of different clays were all improved to a similar level of >90% at a total loading of 11 mg/L after being modified with chitosan. The efficiency of algae-removing was reduced when the clay loading was larger or smaller than the optimum loading.

  12. Isolation of flavonoids from Aleurites moluccana using chitosan modified with benzaldehyde (CH-Bz) as chromatographic support.

    PubMed

    Girardi, L G J; Morsch, M; Cechinel-Filho, V; Meyre-Silva, C; Rodrigues, C A

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes the preparation, characterization and use of a derivative of chitosan as a chromatographic sorbent. Chitosan modified with benzenic ring (CH-Bz) was used to separate two flavonoids, swertisin and 2"-O-rhamnosylswertisin, from ethyl acetate fraction of Aleurites moluccana. The results showed that CH-Bz can be used as a sorbent for the separation of flavonoid compounds. The studies showed that CH-Bz in column chromatography produces goods results, separation of the flavonoid compounds.

  13. Ultrafiltration of pegylated proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molek, Jessica R.

    There is considerable clinical interest in the use of "second-generation" therapeutics produced by conjugation of a native protein with various polymers including polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG--protein conjugates, so-called PEGylated proteins, can exhibit enhanced stability, half-life, and bioavailability. One of the challenges in the commercial production of PEGylated proteins is the purification required to remove unreacted polymer, native protein, and in many cases PEGylated proteins with nonoptimal degrees of conjugation. The overall objective of this thesis was to examine the use of ultrafiltration for the purification of PEGylated proteins. This included: (1) analysis of size-based separation of PEGylated proteins using conventional ultrafiltration membranes, (2) use of electrically-charged membranes to exploit differences in electrostatic interactions, and (3) examination of the effects of PEGylation on protein fouling. The experimental results were analyzed using appropriate theoretical models, with the underlying physical properties of the PEGylated proteins evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, and reverse phase chromatography. PEGylated proteins were produced by covalent attachment of activated PEG to a protein via primary amines on the lysine residues. A simple model was developed for the reaction kinetics, which was used to explore the effect of reaction conditions and mode of operation on the distribution of PEGylated products. The effective size of the PEGylated proteins was evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, with appropriate correlations developed for the size in terms of the molecular weight of the native protein and attached PEG. The electrophoretic mobility of the PEGylated proteins were evaluated by capillary electrophoresis with the data in good agreement with a simple model accounting for the increase in protein size and the reduction in the number of protonated amine

  14. Simultaneous removal of harmful algal blooms and microcystins using microorganism- and chitosan-modified local soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Pan, Gang

    2015-05-19

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyano-HAB) and microcystins (MCs) can cause a potential threat to public health. Here, a method for simultaneous removal of cyano-HAB and MCs was developed using chitosan-modified local soil (MLS) flocculation plus microorganism-modified soil capping. The experiment was conducted in simulated columns containing algal water collected from Lake Taihu (China). More than 90% of algal cells and intracellular MCs were flocculated and removed from water using chitosan-MLS and the sunken flocs were treated by different capping materials including Pseudomonas sp. An18 modified local soil. During 40 days of incubation, dissolved MC-LR and MC-RR showed 10-fold increase in the flocculation-only system. The increase of MC-LR and MC-RR in water was reduced by 30 and 70% in soil capping treatments; however, the total content of MCs in the sediment-water column remained similar to that in the control and flocculation only systems. In contrast, both dissolved MCs and total MCs were reduced by 90% in Pseudomonas sp. An18 modified soil capping treatment. The high performance of toxin decomposition was due to the combined effects of flocculation and MC-degrading bacteria that embedded in the capping material, which prevents dilution of bacteria biomass, concentrates algal cells, confines released toxins, and enhances toxin biodegradation.

  15. Carboxymethyl chitosan-modified magnetic-cored dendrimer as an amphoteric adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ran; Jang, Jun-Won; Park, Jae-Woo

    2016-11-05

    Carboxymethyl chitosan-modified magnetic-cored dendrimers (CCMDs) were successfully synthesized in a three step method. The synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, thermogravimetry analysis, zeta potential analyzer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface area analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The CCMD exhibited selective adsorption for anionic and cationic compounds at specific pH conditions. With the substitution of amino groups of MD with carboxymethyl chitosan moieties, the adsorption sites for cationic compounds were greatly increased. Since the adsorption onto CCMD was mainly electrostatic interaction, the adsorption of MB and MO was significantly affected by the pHs. The optimal adsorption pH values were 3 and 11 for MO and MB. The maximal adsorption of MO and MB on the CCMD at pH values of 3 and 11 were 20.85mgg(-1) and 96.31mgg(-1), respectively. Reuse of the CCMD as an adsorbent was experimentally tested through adsorption and desorption with simple pH control. More than 99% and 91% of the initial adsorption of MB and MO on the CCMD was maintained with five consecutive recycling.

  16. PEGylated polyester-based nanoncologicals.

    PubMed

    Conte, Claudia; d'Angelo, Ivana; Miro, Agnese; Ungaro, Francesca; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2014-01-01

    Several PEGylated polyester-based nanoncologicals have been proposed in the literature, some of them nowadays being under preclinical/clinical trials or marketed. In this review, we describe the main features of PEGylated polyesters and their correspondent nanocarriers. A first part is devoted to intravenously injectable PEGylated nanocarriers, which represent the systems most investigated so far. After describing fundamental design rules dictated by the administration route, PEGylated nanocarriers currently under preclinical/clinical investigation or in the market will be described from a technological point of view and related therapeutic implications discussed. Finally, new perspective of use of PEGylated nanocarriers for oral and pulmonary delivery of anticancer drugs will be considered.

  17. Electrochemical determination of nitrite and iodate based on Pt nanoparticles self-assembled on a chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Zhou, Yuan; Xian, Hongying; Wang, Lun; Huo, Jianqiang

    2011-01-01

    A promising electrochemical sensor was fabricated by the self-assembling of Pt nanoparticles (nano-Pts) on a chitosan (CS) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). A field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical techniques were used for characterization of these composites. It has been found that nano-Pts are inserted into the CS layer uniformly, and have a larger surface area compared to the chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrocatalytic experiments for the oxidation of nitrite and the reduction of iodate have shown that nano-Pts/CS/GCE can decrease the over-potential and increase the faradic current, which can be used for the sensitive determination of nitrite and iodate. Moreover, the prepared modified electrode exhibits good reproducibility and stability, and it is possible that this novel electrochemical sensor can be applied in the sensing and/or biosensing field.

  18. Chitosan-Modified Filter Paper for Nucleic Acid Extraction and "in Situ PCR" on a Thermoplastic Microchip.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wupeng; Gu, Yin; Han, Junping; Li, Cai-Xia; Sun, Jing; Liu, Peng

    2017-03-21

    Plastic microfluidic devices with embedded chitosan-modified Fusion 5 filter paper (unmodified one purchased from GE Healthcare) have been successfully developed for DNA extraction and concentration, utilizing two different mechanisms for DNA capture: the physical entanglement of long-chain DNA molecules with the fiber matrix of the filter paper and the electrostatic adsorption of DNA to the chitosan-modified filter fibers. This new method not only provided a high DNA extraction efficiency at a pH of 5 by synergistically combining these two capture mechanisms together, but also resisted the elution of DNA from filters at a pH > 8 due to the entanglement of DNA with fibers. As a result, PCR buffers can be directly loaded into the extraction chamber for "in situ PCR", in which the captured DNA were used for downstream analysis without any loss. We demonstrated that the capture efficiencies of a 3-mm-diameter filter disc in a microchip were 98% and 95% for K562 human genomic DNA and bacteriophage λ-DNA, respectively. The washes with DI water, PCR mixture, and TE buffer cannot elute the captured DNA. In addition, the filter disc can enrich 62% of λ-DNA from a diluted sample (0.05 ng/μL), providing a concentration factor more than 30-fold. Finally, a microdevice with a simple two-chamber structure was developed for on-chip cell lysis, DNA extraction, and 15-plex short tandem repeat amplification from blood. This DNA extraction coupled with "in situ PCR" has great potential to be utilized in fully integrated microsystems for rapid, near-patient nucleic acid testing.

  19. A sustained release formulation of chitosan modified PLCL:poloxamer blend nanoparticles loaded with optical agent for animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Amalendu P.; Zeglam, Karim; Mukerjee, Anindita; Thamake, Sanjay; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop optical imaging agent loaded biodegradable nanoparticles with indocynanine green (ICG) using chitosan modified poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) (PLCL):poloxamer (Pluronic F68) blended polymer. Nanoparticles were formulated with an emulsification solvent diffusion technique using PLCL and poloxamer as blend-polymers. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chitosan were used as stabilizers. The particle size, shape and zeta potential of the formulated nanoparticles and the release kinetics of ICG from these nanoparticles were determined. Further, biodistribution of these nanoparticles was studied in mice at various time points until 24 h following intravenous administration, using a non-invasive imaging system. The average particle size of the nanoparticles was found to be 146 ± 3.7 to 260 ± 4.5 nm. The zeta potential progressively increased from - 41.6 to + 25.3 mV with increasing amounts of chitosan. Particle size and shape of the nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which revealed the particles to be smooth and spherical in shape. These nanoparticles were efficiently delivered to the cytoplasm of the cells, as observed in prostate and breast cancer cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In vitro release studies indicated sustained release of ICG from the nanoparticles over a period of seven days. Nanoparticle distribution results in mice showing improved uptake and accumulation with chitosan modified nanoparticles in various organs and slower clearance at different time points over a 24 h period as compared to unmodified nanoparticles. The successful formulation of such cationically modified nanoparticles for encapsulating optical agents may lead to a potential deep tissue imaging technique for tumor detection, diagnosis and therapy.

  20. Process for protein PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2014-04-28

    PEGylation is a versatile drug delivery technique that presents a particularly wide range of conjugation chemistry and polymer structure. The conjugated protein can be tuned to specifically meet the needs of the desired application. In the area of drug delivery this typically means to increase the persistency in the human body without affecting the activity profile of the original protein. On the other hand, because of the high costs associated with the production of therapeutic proteins, subsequent operations imposed by PEGylation must be optimized to minimize the costs inherent to the additional steps. The closest attention has to be given to the PEGylation reaction engineering and to the subsequent purification processes. This review article focuses on these two aspects and critically reviews the current state of the art with a clear focus on the development of industrial scale processes which can meet the market requirements in terms of quality and costs. The possibility of using continuous processes, with integration between the reaction and the separation steps is also illustrated.

  1. PEGylated chitosan protected silver nanoparticles as water-borne coating for leather with antibacterial property.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gongyan; Li, Kaijun; Luo, Quanqing; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Zongcai

    2017-03-15

    Development of eco-labeled and effectively antibacterial coatings for final leather products has been desiderated both by industry and by consumers. Herein, PEGylated chitosan modified silver nanoparticles (PEG-g-CS@AgNPs) were prepared and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The antimicrobial activity of such silver nanoparticles was investigated against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), exhibiting much lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) than chitosan or PEG-g-CS. Water-borne coating was formed by immobilizing the PEG-g-CS@AgNPs onto the leather surface through the electrostatic interaction between amino groups of chitosan and carboxyl groups of leather collagen. Scanning electron microscopy and water contact angle were employed to study the coating's morphology and hydrophilicity, respectively. After coating, leather samples showed significantly high bactericidal efficiency with reusability after release of dead cells from the coating by simply water washing. The excellent antibacterial property of PEG-g-CS@AgNPs coating was ascribed to the combination of bacteria-resistance and bacteria-release by PEGylation, and dual bacteria-killing based on chitosan and Ag(+) release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Purification of PEGylated proteins, with the example of PEGylated lysozyme and PEGylated scFv.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Anna; Müller, Egbert; Böttinger, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    PEGylation is a common and highly accepted possibility for half-life prolongation of proteins by increasing the hydrodynamic size. The chromatographic purification of PEGylated protein, using PEG (poly-ethylene glycol) of different PEG chain lengths, with the example of lysozyme and a scFv, is described in detail here, and helpful suggestions for the purification of other PEGylated proteins are listed. The relevant characterization methods for PEGylated proteins, important for the successful purification, are also described. The purification starts with a CEX (cation exchange) chromatography leading to about 95 % purity for polishing HIC (hydrophobic interaction chromatography) is described.

  3. Enhanced removal of bisphenol-AF onto chitosan-modified zeolite by sodium cholate in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sha; Hao, Kunyan; Han, Feng; Tang, Zheng; Niu, Beibei; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Zhen; Hong, Song

    2015-10-05

    The removal of bisphenol-AF (BPAF) from aqueous solutions onto chitosan-modified zeolite (Ch-Z) in the absence and presence of sodium cholate (NaC) was investigated. It was found that NaC significantly increased the adsorption capacity of Ch-Z for BPAF. At an initial concentration of 100 μmol/L, the removal of BPAF by adsorption onto Ch-Z with NaC was more than ninefold higher than without NaC, and the maximum removal was achieved at a Ch-Z dosage of 1g/L with a NaC concentration of 1.68 mmol/L. Besides, batch studies were performed to evaluate the effects of various experimental parameters on the removal of BPAF. Kinetic studies and adsorption isotherms indicated that the adsorption process of BPAF onto Ch-Z with NaC could be expressed by a pseudo second-order model and the Freundlich isotherm model, respectively. For the enhanced removal, an interaction mechanism was proposed involving the co-effect of BPAF and NaC adsorbed onto Ch-Z.

  4. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution using magnesium-alginate/chitosan modified biochar microspheres derived from Thalia dealbata.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Dai, Xi; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using magnesium-alginate/chitosan modified biochar microspheres to enhance removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. The introduction of MgCl2 substantially increased surface area of biochar (116.2m(2)g(-1)), and both granulation with alginate/chitosan and modification with magnesium improved phosphate sorption on the biochars. Phosphate sorption on the biochars could be well described by a simple Langmuir model, and the MgCl2-alginate modified biochar microspheres exhibited the highest phosphate sorption capacity (up to 46.56mgg(-1)). The pseudo second order kinetic model better fitted the kinetic data, and both the Yoon-Nelson and Thomas models were superior to other models in describing phosphate dynamic sorption. Precipitation with minerals and ligand exchange were the possible mechanisms of phosphate sorption on the modified biochars. These results imply that MgCl2-alginate modified biochar microspheres have potential as a green cost-effective sorbent for remediating P contaminated water environment.

  5. Physiological responses of Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843 (cyanobacterium) under the stress of chitosan modified kaolinite (CMK) loading.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jihai; Wang, Zhongjie; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hong; Peng, Liang; Wei, Xiangdong; Lei, Ming; Li, Renhui

    2012-04-01

    Flocculation with clays is a promising and environmentally friendly way to remove algal blooms. Physiological responses of Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843 under the stress of chitosan modified kaolinite (CMK) loading were first reported in this paper. Compared with the control, the contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and carotenoids showed no significant difference at a CMK loading of 40 mg/l, but the phycocyanin content was significant lower than the control at this loading level. The contents of Chl a, carotenoids, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin were all significantly lower than the control at 80 and 160 mg/l CMK, and the leakage of phycobilins occurred at these two loading levels suggesting that flocculation with CMK could cause the damage of cellular membranes. The activities of extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity (E-APA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were all dramatically boosted under the stress of CMK loading. The changes of cellular dehydrogenase activity exhibited the same trends as of Chl a and carotenoids, and it decreased to the levels of lower than detectable limits on 12 and 8th day at a CMK loading of 80 and 160 mg/l, respectively. These results indicated that flocculation with CMK could cause cell mortality of M. aeruginosa.

  6. A new porous magnetic chitosan modified by melamine for fast and efficient adsorption of Cu(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhan-Chao; Wang, Zhao-Zhan; Liu, Jie; Yin, Jin-Hua; Kuang, Shao-Ping

    2015-11-01

    A new porous magnetic chitosan modified by melamine (MA-CS/Fe3O4) was synthesized. The compositions and surface topographies were characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The results of adsorption kinetics showed the adsorption behavior could be better described by the pseudo-second-order equation (R>0.999). The adsorption isotherm was well fitted by the Langmuir equation (R>0.999), and the values of separation factors were in the range of 0-1.0. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cu(II) was 2.58mmolg(-1) at the optimal experimental conditions, which were pH=5.5, t=25min, C0=5.0mmolL(-1). The rate-controlling step was supposed to be chemical adsorption rather than mass transport. The adsorbent still exhibited high adsorption capacity after five regeneration cycles. The adsorption mechanism was due to coordination between Cu(II) and N atoms.

  7. Solid phase pegylation of hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Suo, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Chunyang; Yu, Pengzhan; Lu, Xiuling; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2009-01-01

    A solid phase conjugation process was developed for attachment of polyethylene glycol to hemoglobin molecule. Bovine hemoglobin was loaded onto an ion exchange chromatography column and adsorbed by the solid medium. Succinimidyl carbonate mPEG was introduced in the mobile phase after the adsorption. Pegylation took place between the hemoglobin on the solid phase, and the pegylation reagent in the liquid phase. A further elution was carried out to separate the pegylated and the unpegylated protein. Analysis by HPSEC, SDS-PAGE, and MALLS demonstrated that the fractions eluted from the solid phase contained well-defined components. Pegylated hemoglobin with one PEG chain was obtained with the yield of 75%, in comparison to the yield of 30% in the liquid phase pegylation. The P(50) values of the mono-pegylated hemoglobin, prepared with SC-mPEG 5 kDa, 10 kDa and 20 kDa, were 19.97, 20.23 and 20.54 mmHg, which were much closer to the value of red blood cells than that of pegylated hemoglobin prepared with the conventional method.

  8. Preparation of chitosan-modified silica nanoparticles and their applications in the separation of auxins by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lan-Ping; Ding, Guo-Sheng; Tang, An-Na

    2015-09-17

    In recent years, nanoparticles have gained more attention when used in separation science. In this study, chitosan-modified silica nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis and zeta potential measurements, etc. When added into the running buffer solution as pseudo-stationary phase in capillary electrophoresis, the separation of four representative auxins, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid, indole butyric acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, was carried out. Some important factors, such as the nanoparticles concentration, the pH and concentration of the running buffer solution, were also investigated on the separation. Under optimized experimental conditions, all the auxins investigated can be baseline separated within 5 min with higher column performance. The method established can also be used for quantitative analysis. The relative standard deviations obtained for indole-3-acetic acid, indole butyric acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid were in the range of 1.6-5.7% for peak area and 0.53-1.60% for migration time. The calibration curves obtained from the peaks areas for auxins were linear in the range of 0.1-80 mg/L with the correlation coefficients of 0.994-0.999. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 11-75 μg/L. The developed method was also successfully used for the determination of auxins in fruits and vegetables samples with good recoveries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Adsorption of Cu2+ ions using chitosan-modified magnetic Mn ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yuying; Chen, Deyang; Sun, Yitao; Jiao, Dongling; Zeng, Dechang; Liu, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan-modified Mn ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a one-step microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. These Mn ferrite magnetic composite nanoparticles were employed to absorb Cu2+ ions in water. XRD verified the spinel structure of the MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Chitosan modification does not result in any phase change of MnFe2O4. FTIR and zeta potentials curves for all samples suggest that chitosan can be successfully coated on the Mn ferrites. TEM characterization showed that the modified MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have a cubic shape with a mean diameter of ∼100 nm. For adsorption behavior, the effects of experiment parameters such as solution pH value, contact time and initial Cu2+ ions concentration on the adsorption efficiency were systematically investigated. The results showed that increasing solution pH value and extending contact time are favorable for improving adsorption efficiency. Especially, adsorption efficiency can reach up to 100% and 96.7% after 500 min adsorption at pH 6.5 for the solutions with initial Cu2+ ions concentration of 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L. Adsorption data fits well with the Langmuir isotherm models with a maximum adsorption capacity (qm) and a Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant (K) of 65.1 mg/g and 0.090 L/mg, respectively. The adsorption kinetic agrees well with pseudo second order model with the pseudo second rate constants (K2) of 0.0468 and 0.00189 g/mg/min for solutions with initial Cu2+ ions of 50 and 100 mg/L, respectively.

  10. Shrinkage of pegylated and non-pegylated liposomes in serum.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Joy; Suri, Krishna; Yang, Yong; Shen, Jianliang; Celia, Christian; Fresta, Massimo; Zhao, Yuliang; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    An essential requisite for the design of nanodelivery systems is the ability to characterize the size, homogeneity and zeta potential of nanoparticles. Such properties can be tailored in order to create the most efficient drug delivery platforms. An important question is whether these characteristics change upon systemic injection. Here, we have studied the behavior of phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes exposed to serum proteins. The results reveal a serum-induced reduction in the size and homogeneity of both pegylated and non-pegylated liposomes, implicating the possible role of osmotic forces. In addition, changes to zeta-potential were observed upon exposing liposomes to serum. The liposomes with polyethylene glycol expressed different characteristics than their non-polymeric counterparts, suggesting the potential formation of a denser protein corona around the non-pegylated liposomes.

  11. Mechanically adaptive and shape-memory behaviour of chitosan-modified cellulose whisker/elastomer composites in different pH environments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tongfei; Su, Yuli; Chen, Biqiong

    2014-09-15

    Biomimetic polymer composites with water-active mechanically adaptive and shape-memory behaviour in different pH environments are synthesised by using chitosan-modified cellulose whiskers (CS-CWs) as the stimulus-responsive phase and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) as the resilient matrix. The effect of surface modification on the mechanically adaptive behaviour of CS-CW/TPU composites is investigated by using three representative solutions with various pH values. The results show that surface modification significantly enhances the modulus contrast under wet and dry conditions with the acidic solution as the stimulus, while maintaining the high modulus contrast with the basic solution as the stimulus. CS-CW/TPU composites also exhibit excellent shape-memory effects in all three solutions that are comparable to those pristine CW/TPU composites. Furthermore, activation of force generation in the stretched CS-CW/TPU composites by water absorption/desorption was observed.

  12. Effective PEGylation of gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, F.; Friedrich, W.; Hoppe, K.; Vossmeyer, T.; Weller, H.; Lange, H.

    2016-03-01

    Standard procedures to coat gold nanorods (AuNR) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based ligands are not reliable and high PEG-grafting densities are not achieved. In this work, the ligand exchange of AuNR with PEGMUA, a tailored PEG-ligand bearing a C10 alkylene spacer, is studied. PEGMUA provides AuNR with very high stability against oxidative etching with cyanide. This etching reaction is utilized to study the ligand exchange in detail. Ligand exchange is faster, less ligand consuming and more reproducible with assisting chloroform extraction. Compared to PEG ligands commonly used, PEGMUA provides much higher colloidal and chemical stability. Further analyses based on NMR-, IR- and UV/Vis-spectroscopy reveal that significantly higher PEG-grafting densities, up to ~3 nm-2, are obtained with PEGMUA. This demonstrates how the molecular structure of the PEG ligand can be used to dramatically improve the ligand exchange and to synthesize PEGylated AuNR with high chemical and colloidal stability and high PEG grafting densities. Such AuNR are especially interesting for applications in nanomedicine.Standard procedures to coat gold nanorods (AuNR) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based ligands are not reliable and high PEG-grafting densities are not achieved. In this work, the ligand exchange of AuNR with PEGMUA, a tailored PEG-ligand bearing a C10 alkylene spacer, is studied. PEGMUA provides AuNR with very high stability against oxidative etching with cyanide. This etching reaction is utilized to study the ligand exchange in detail. Ligand exchange is faster, less ligand consuming and more reproducible with assisting chloroform extraction. Compared to PEG ligands commonly used, PEGMUA provides much higher colloidal and chemical stability. Further analyses based on NMR-, IR- and UV/Vis-spectroscopy reveal that significantly higher PEG-grafting densities, up to ~3 nm-2, are obtained with PEGMUA. This demonstrates how the molecular structure of the PEG ligand can be used to

  13. Preparation, characterization and adsorption properties of chitosan modified magnetic graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for highly effective removal of a carcinogenic dye from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, HuaYue; Fu, YongQian; Jiang, Ru; Yao, Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, YanWen; Xiao, Ling; Zeng, GuangMing

    2013-11-01

    Novel chitosan-modified magnetic graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CS-m-GMCNTs) were synthesized via a suspension cross-linking method. Composition, morphology and magnetic properties of as-prepared CS-m-GMCNTs were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDS, BET and VSM. The large saturation magnetization (12.27 emu g-1) allows fast separation of CS-m-GMCNTs from treated aqueous solution. The adsorption of congo red (CR) on CS-m-GMCNTs was strongly dependent on pH, temperature of the aqueous phase and adsorbent dosage. Up to 100 and 94.58% color removal could be achieved in 100 min contact time with 10 and 50 mg L-1 of initial concentrations, respectively. The adsorption capacity of CR onto CS-m-GMCNTs could reach 262.9 mg g-1. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.999) was suitable to describe the process of CR adsorption onto CS-m-GMCNTs. The Langmuir model fitted the adsorption isotherm data better than the Freundlich model. Values of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) indicated that the adsorption process was strongly dependent on temperature of the aqueous phase, and spontaneous and endothermic process in nature. Therefore, CS-m-GMCNTs adsorbent displays main advantages of excellent dispersion, convenience separation and high adsorption capacity, which implies their potential application in the environmental cleanup.

  14. Simultaneous enzymatic and SERS properties of bifunctional chitosan-modified popcorn-like Au-Ag nanoparticles for high sensitive detection of melamine in milk powder.

    PubMed

    Li, Junrong; Zhang, Guannan; Wang, Lihua; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we suggest a chitosan-modified popcorn-like Au-Ag nanoparticles (CSPNPs) based assay for high sensitive detection of melamine, in which CSPNPs not only provide with an intrinsic peroxidase-like activity but also act as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. CSPNPs can catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H2O2 to the charge transfer complex (CTC), which contributes to a tremendous surface-enhanced resonant Raman scattering (SERRS) signals with 632.8 nm laser excitation. The target molecule melamine can generate an additional compound with H2O2, which means the available amount of H2O2 for the oxidation of TMB reduced. Correspondingly, the SERRS intensity of CTC is decreased. The decreased Raman intensity is proportional to the concentration of melamine over a wide range from 10 nM to 50 μM (R(2)=0.989), with a limit of detection (LOD) of 8.51 nM. Moreover, the proposed highly selective method is fully capable of rapid, separation-free detection of melamine in milk powder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chromatographic separation and detection of contaminants from whole milk powder using a chitosan-modified silver nanoparticles surface-enhanced Raman scattering device.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Lv, Di Y; Zhu, Qing X; Li, Hao; Chen, Hui; Wu, Mian M; Chai, Yi F; Lu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Methods for the on-site analysis of food contaminants are in high demand. Although portable Raman spectroscopy is commonly used to test food on-site, it can be challenge to achieve this goal with rapid detection and inexpensive substrate. In this study, we detected trace food contaminants in samples of whole milk powder using the methods that combined chromatography with surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection (SERS). We developed a simple and efficient technique to fabricate the paper with chitosan-modified silver nanoparticles as a SERS-active substrate. The soaking time of paper and the concentration of chitosan solution were optimized for chromatographic separation and SERS detection. We then studied the separation properties for real applications including complex sample matrices, and detected melamine at 1mg/L, dicyandiamide at 100mg/L and sodium sulfocyanate at 10mg/L in whole milk powder. As such, our methods have great potential for field-based detection of milk contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. What is the future of PEGylated therapies?

    PubMed Central

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Lee, Kang Choon; Lee, Seulki

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous potential of biologic drugs is hampered by short half-lives in vivo, resulting in significantly lower potency than activity seen in vitro. These short-acting therapeutic agents require frequent dosing profiles that can reduce applicability to the clinic, particularly for chronic conditions. Therefore, half-life extension technologies are entering the clinic to enable improved or new biologic therapies. PEGylation is the first successful technology to improve pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of therapeutic agents and has been applied in the clinic for over 25 years. Over 10 PEGylated therapeutics have entered the clinic since the early 1990s, and new PEGylated agents continue to expand clinical pipelines and drug patent life. PEGylation is the most established half-life extension technology in the clinic with proven safety in humans for over two decades. Still, it is one of the most evolving and emerging technologies that will be applied for the next two decades. PMID:26583759

  17. PEGylated nanoparticles: protein corona and secondary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runa, Sabiha; Hill, Alexandra; Cochran, Victoria L.; Payne, Christine K.

    2014-09-01

    Nanoparticles have important biological and biomedical applications ranging from drug and gene delivery to biosensing. In the presence of extracellular proteins, a "corona" of proteins adsorbs on the surface of the nanoparticles, altering their interaction with cells, including immune cells. Nanoparticles are often functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to reduce this non-specific adsorption of proteins. To understand the change in protein corona that occurs following PEGylation, we first quantified the adsorption of blood serum proteins on bare and PEGylated gold nanoparticles using gel electrophoresis. We find a threefold decrease in the amount of protein adsorbed on PEGylated gold nanoparticles compared to the bare gold nanoparticles, showing that PEG reduces, but does not prevent, corona formation. To determine if the secondary structure of corona proteins was altered upon adsorption onto the bare and PEGylated gold nanoparticles, we use CD spectroscopy to characterize the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin following incubation with the nanoparticles. Our results show no significant change in protein secondary structure following incubation with bare or PEGylated nanoparticles. Further examination of the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin, α2-macroglobulin, and transferrin in the presence of free PEG showed similar results. These findings provide important insights for the use of PEGylated gold nanoparticles under physiological conditions.

  18. Extension arm facilitated PEGylation of hemoglobin: correlation of the properties with the extent of PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxia; Manjula, Belur N; Acharya, A Seetharama

    2006-06-01

    Human hemoglobin (Hb) conjugated with six copies of PEG-5K is nonhypertensive. The hexaPEGylated Hb exhibits molecular size homogeneity in spite of the chemical heterogeneity with respect to the sites of conjugation (Manjula et al., 2005). In the present study, Hb conjugated with an average of 4, 6, 8 and 10 copies of PEG-5K chains have been generated using the extension arm facilitated PEGylation protocol. Except for the tetraPEGylated Hb, all the other products exhibit molecular size homogeneity. The molecular, colligative and functional properties of PEG-Hb conjugates have been correlated with the extent of PEGylation. The results imply that six copies of PEG-5K chains are accommodated on Hb without significant crowding on the molecular surface. As more copies of PEG-5K chains are conjugated to form octa and deca PEGylated Hb, the PEG-chains conjugated appear to undergo transition from a mushroom (compact) to a brush-like conformation (extended conformation) with a concomitant decrease in the propensity of the molecule to transition from oxy to deoxy conformation in the presence of allosteric effectors. The viscosity and the colloidal osmotic pressure of Hb increase with the number of the PEG-chains conjugated in an exponential fashion. The composition of the PEGylated Hb generated appears to be controlled by (i) high reactivity of thiol groups of the extension arms on Hb with maleimide-PEG, (ii) increase in the viscosity of the reaction mixture as the level of PEGylation increases and (iii) increased resistance induced by the PEG-shell of PEGylated Hb to accommodate more PEG-chains as the level of PEGylation increases. Potential implications of extent of PEGylation on the oxygen delivery by PEG-Hb conjugate in vivo have been discussed.

  19. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Green, Andrew E; Rose, Peter G

    2006-01-01

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is a formulation of doxorubicin in which the molecule itself is packaged in a liposome made of various lipids with an outer coating of polyethylene glycol. Liposomal technology is being used in increasing amounts in the therapy of a variety of cancers, including ovarian cancers. This article reviews the mechanistic actions of this formulation, the Phase II and Phase III data that helped define the role of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in recurrent ovarian cancer, as well as a discussion of some of the side-effects and their management. PMID:17717964

  20. A novel selective VPAC2 agonist peptide-conjugated chitosan modified selenium nanoparticles with enhanced anti-type 2 diabetes synergy effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shao-Jun; Wang, De-Hua; Li, Yan-Wei; Han, Lei; Xiao, Xing; Ma, Min; Wan, David Chi-Cheong; Hong, An; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    A novel neuroendocrine peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), was found to have an important role in carbohydrate or lipid metabolism and was susceptible to dipeptidyl peptidase IV degradation. It can not only mediate glucose-dependent insulin secretion and lower blood glucose by activating VPAC2 receptor, but also raise blood glucose by promoting glucagon production by VPAC1 receptor activation. Therefore, its therapeutic application is restricted by the exceedingly short-acting half-life and the stimulatory function for glycogenolysis. Herein, we generated novel peptide-conjugated selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs; named as SCD), comprising a 32-amino acid PACAP-derived peptide DBAYL that selectively binds to VPAC2, and chitosan-modified SeNPs (SeNPs-CTS, SC) as slow-release carrier. The circulating half-life of SCD is 14.12 h in mice, which is 168.4-and 7.1-fold longer than wild PACAP (~5 min) and DBAYL (~1.98 h), respectively. SCD (10 nmol/L) significantly promotes INS-1 cell proliferation, glucose uptake, insulin secretion, insulin receptor expression and also obviously reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in H2O2-injured INS-1 cells. Furthermore, the biological effects of SCD are stronger than Exendin-4 (a clinically approved drug through its insulinotropic effect), DBAYL, SeNPs or SC. A single injection of SCD (20 nmol/kg) into db/db mice with type 2 diabetes leads to enhanced insulin secretion and sustained hypoglycemic effect, and the effectiveness and duration of SCD in enhancing insulin secretion and reducing blood glucose levels are much stronger than Exendin-4, SeNPs or SC. In db/db mice, chronic administration of SCD by daily injection for 12 weeks markedly improved glucose and lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and the structures of pancreatic and adipose tissue. The results indicate that SC can play a role as a carrier for the slow release of bioactive peptides and SCD could be a hopeful therapeutic against

  1. PEGylated human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and quantification of the PEGylation extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahrländer, E.; Schelhaas, S.; Jacobs, A. H.; Langer, K.

    2015-04-01

    Modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a widely used method for the prolongation of plasma half-life of colloidal carrier systems such as nanoparticles prepared from human serum albumin (HSA). However, the quantification of the PEGylation extent is still challenging. Moreover, the influence of different PEG derivatives, which are commonly used for nanoparticle conjugation, has not been investigated so far. The objective of the present study is to develop a method for the quantification of PEG and to monitor the influence of diverse PEG reagents on the amount of PEG linked to the surface of HSA nanoparticles. A size exclusion chromatography method with refractive index detection was established which enabled the quantification of unreacted PEG in the supernatant. The achieved results were confirmed using a fluorescent PEG derivative, which was detected by photometry and fluorimetry. Additionally, PEGylated HSA nanoparticles were enzymatically digested and the linked amount of fluorescently active PEG was directly determined. All the analytical methods confirmed that under optimized PEGylation conditions a PEGylation efficiency of up to 0.5 mg PEG per mg nanoparticle could be achieved. Model calculations made a ‘brush’ conformation of the PEG chains on the particle surface very likely. By incubating the nanoparticles with fetal bovine serum the reduced adsorption of serum proteins on PEGylated HSA nanoparticles compared to non-PEGylated HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the positive effect of PEGylation on plasma half-life was demonstrated in an in vivo study in mice. Compared to unmodified nanoparticles the PEGylation led to a four times larger plasma half-life.

  2. PEGylated human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and quantification of the PEGylation extent.

    PubMed

    Fahrländer, E; Schelhaas, S; Jacobs, A H; Langer, K

    2015-04-10

    Modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a widely used method for the prolongation of plasma half-life of colloidal carrier systems such as nanoparticles prepared from human serum albumin (HSA). However, the quantification of the PEGylation extent is still challenging. Moreover, the influence of different PEG derivatives, which are commonly used for nanoparticle conjugation, has not been investigated so far. The objective of the present study is to develop a method for the quantification of PEG and to monitor the influence of diverse PEG reagents on the amount of PEG linked to the surface of HSA nanoparticles. A size exclusion chromatography method with refractive index detection was established which enabled the quantification of unreacted PEG in the supernatant. The achieved results were confirmed using a fluorescent PEG derivative, which was detected by photometry and fluorimetry. Additionally, PEGylated HSA nanoparticles were enzymatically digested and the linked amount of fluorescently active PEG was directly determined. All the analytical methods confirmed that under optimized PEGylation conditions a PEGylation efficiency of up to 0.5 mg PEG per mg nanoparticle could be achieved. Model calculations made a 'brush' conformation of the PEG chains on the particle surface very likely. By incubating the nanoparticles with fetal bovine serum the reduced adsorption of serum proteins on PEGylated HSA nanoparticles compared to non-PEGylated HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the positive effect of PEGylation on plasma half-life was demonstrated in an in vivo study in mice. Compared to unmodified nanoparticles the PEGylation led to a four times larger plasma half-life.

  3. Site-Specific PEGylation of Therapeutic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Jonathan K.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    The use of proteins as therapeutics has a long history and is becoming ever more common in modern medicine. While the number of protein-based drugs is growing every year, significant problems still remain with their use. Among these problems are rapid degradation and excretion from patients, thus requiring frequent dosing, which in turn increases the chances for an immunological response as well as increasing the cost of therapy. One of the main strategies to alleviate these problems is to link a polyethylene glycol (PEG) group to the protein of interest. This process, called PEGylation, has grown dramatically in recent years resulting in several approved drugs. Installing a single PEG chain at a defined site in a protein is challenging. Recently, there is has been considerable research into various methods for the site-specific PEGylation of proteins. This review seeks to summarize that work and provide background and context for how site-specific PEGylation is performed. After introducing the topic of site-specific PEGylation, recent developments using chemical methods are described. That is followed by a more extensive discussion of bioorthogonal reactions and enzymatic labeling. PMID:26516849

  4. Site-Specific PEGylation of Therapeutic Proteins.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Jonathan K; Distefano, Mark D

    2015-10-28

    The use of proteins as therapeutics has a long history and is becoming ever more common in modern medicine. While the number of protein-based drugs is growing every year, significant problems still remain with their use. Among these problems are rapid degradation and excretion from patients, thus requiring frequent dosing, which in turn increases the chances for an immunological response as well as increasing the cost of therapy. One of the main strategies to alleviate these problems is to link a polyethylene glycol (PEG) group to the protein of interest. This process, called PEGylation, has grown dramatically in recent years resulting in several approved drugs. Installing a single PEG chain at a defined site in a protein is challenging. Recently, there is has been considerable research into various methods for the site-specific PEGylation of proteins. This review seeks to summarize that work and provide background and context for how site-specific PEGylation is performed. After introducing the topic of site-specific PEGylation, recent developments using chemical methods are described. That is followed by a more extensive discussion of bioorthogonal reactions and enzymatic labeling.

  5. Effect of PEG molecular weight and PEGylation degree on the physical stability of PEGylated lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Josefine; Baumann, Pascal; Brunner, Carina; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2017-03-15

    During production, purification, formulation, and storage proteins for pharmaceutical or biotechnological applications face solution conditions that are unfavorable for their stability. Such harmful conditions include extreme pH changes, high ionic strengths or elevated temperatures. The characterization of the main influencing factors promoting undesired changes of protein conformation and aggregation, as well as the manipulation and selective control of protein stabilities are crucially important to biopharmaceutical research and process development. In this context PEGylation, i.e. the covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to proteins, represents a valuable strategy to improve the physico-chemical properties of proteins. In this work, the influence of PEG molecular weight and PEGylation degree on the physical stability of PEGylated lysozyme is investigated. Specifically, conformational and colloidal properties were studied by means of high-throughput melting point determination and automated generation of protein phase diagrams, respectively. Lysozyme from chicken egg-white as a model protein was randomly conjugated to 2kDa, 5kDa and 10kDa mPEG-aldehyde and resulting PEGamer species were purified by chromatographic separation. Besides protein stability assessment, residual enzyme activities were evaluated employing a Micrococcus lysodeikticus based activity assay. PEG molecules with lower molecular weights and lower PEGylation degrees resulted in higher residual activities. Changes in enzyme activities upon PEGylation have shown to result from a combination of steric hindrance and molecular flexibility. In contrast, higher PEG molecular weights and PEGylation degrees enhanced conformational and colloidal stability. By PEGylating lysozyme an increase of the protein solubility by more than 11-fold was achieved.

  6. Toward improving selectivity in affinity chromatography with PEGylated affinity ligands: the performance of PEGylated protein A.

    PubMed

    González-Valdez, José; Yoshikawa, Alex; Weinberg, Justin; Benavides, Jorge; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Przybycien, Todd M

    2014-01-01

    Chemical modification of macromolecular affinity chromatography ligands with polyethylene glycol chains or "PEGylation" can potentially improve selectivity by sterically suppressing non-specific binding interactions without sacrificing binding capacity. For a commercial protein A affinity media and with yeast extract (YE) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) serving as mock contaminants, we found that the ligand accounted for more than 90% of the media-associated non-specific binding, demonstrating an opportunity for improvement. The IgG static binding affinity of protein A mono-PEGylated with 5.0 and 20.7 kDa poly(ethylene glycol) chains was found to be preserved using a biomolecular interaction screening platform. Similar in situ PEGylations of the commercial protein A media were conducted and the modified media was functionally characterized with IgG solutions spiked with YE and FBS. Ligand PEGylation reduced the mass of media-associated contaminants by a factor of two to three or more. Curiously, we also found an increase of up to 15% in the average recovery of IgG on elution after PEGylation. Combined, these effects produced an order of magnitude increase in the IgG selectivity on average when spiked with YE and a two- to three-fold increase when spiked with FBS relative to the commercial media. Dynamic binding capacity and mass-transfer resistance measurements revealed a reduction in dynamic capacity attributed to a decrease in IgG effective pore diffusivity and possibly slower IgG association kinetics for the PEGylated protein A ligands. Ligand PEGylation is a viable approach to improving selectivity in affinity chromatography with macromolecular ligands. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. PEG chain length impacts yield of solid-phase protein PEGylation and efficiency of PEGylated protein separation by ion-exchange chromatography: insights of mechanistic models.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Noriko; Isakari, Yu; Itoh, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2013-07-01

    The mechanisms behind protein PEGylation are complex and dictated by the structure of the protein reactant. Hence, it is difficult to design a reaction process which can produce the desired PEGylated form at high yield. Likewise, efficient purification processes following protein PEGylation must be constructed on an ad hoc basis for each product. The retention and binding mechanisms driving electrostatic interaction-based chromatography (ion-exchange chromatography) of PEGylated proteins (randomly PEGylated lysozyme and mono-PEGylated bovine serum albumin) were investigated, based on our previously developed model Chem. Eng. Technol. 2005, 28, 1387-1393. PEGylation of each protein resulted in a shift to a smaller elution volume compared to the unmodified molecule, but did not affect the number of binding sites appreciably. The shift of the retention volume of PEGylated proteins correlated with the calculated thickness of PEG layer around the protein molecule. Random PEGylation was carried out on a column (solid-phase PEGylation) and the PEGylated proteins were separated on the same column. Solid-phase PEGylation inhibited the production of multi-PEGylated forms and resulted in a relatively low yield of selective mono-PEGylated form. Pore diffusion may play an important role in solid-phase PEGylation. These results suggest the possibility of a reaction and purification process development based on the mechanistic model for PEGylated proteins on ion exchange chromatography.

  8. Advances in PEGylation of important biotech molecules: delivery aspects.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sinéad M; Mantovani, Giuseppe; Wang, Xuexuan; Haddleton, David M; Brayden, David J

    2008-04-01

    Although various injected peptide and protein therapeutics have been developed successfully over the past 25 years, several pharmacokinetic and immunological challenges are still encountered that can limit the efficacy of both novel and established biotech molecules. PEGylation is a popular technique to address such properties. PEGylated drugs exhibit prolonged half-life, higher stability, water solubility, lower immunogenicity and antigenicity, as well as potential for specific cell targeting. Although PEGylated drug conjugates have been on the market for many years, the technology has steadily developed in respect of site-specific chemistry, chain length, molecular weights and purity of conjugate. These developments have occurred in parallel to improvements in physicochemical methods of characterization. This review will discuss recent achievements in PEGylation processes with an emphasis on novel PEG-drugs constructs, the unrealized potential of PEGylation for non-injected routes of delivery, and also on PEGylated versions of polymeric nanoparticles, including dendrimers and liposomes.

  9. Preferential Interactions and the Effect of Protein PEGylation

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Louise Stenstrup; Thulstrup, Peter W.; Kasimova, Marina R.; van de Weert, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background PEGylation is a strategy used by the pharmaceutical industry to prolong systemic circulation of protein drugs, whereas formulation excipients are used for stabilization of proteins during storage. Here we investigate the role of PEGylation in protein stabilization by formulation excipients that preferentially interact with the protein. Methodology/Principal Findings The model protein hen egg white lysozyme was doubly PEGylated on two lysines with 5 kDa linear PEGs (mPEG-succinimidyl valerate, MW 5000) and studied in the absence and presence of preferentially excluded sucrose and preferentially bound guanine hydrochloride. Structural characterization by far- and near-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy was supplemented by investigation of protein thermal stability with the use of differential scanning calorimetry, far and near-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that PEGylated lysozyme was stabilized by the preferentially excluded excipient and destabilized by the preferentially bound excipient in a similar manner as lysozyme. However, compared to lysozyme in all cases the melting transition was lower by up to a few degrees and the calorimetric melting enthalpy was decreased to half the value for PEGylated lysozyme. The ratio between calorimetric and van’t Hoff enthalpy suggests that our PEGylated lysozyme is a dimer. Conclusion/Significance The PEGylated model protein displayed similar stability responses to the addition of preferentially active excipients. This suggests that formulation principles using preferentially interacting excipients are similar for PEGylated and non-PEGylated proteins. PMID:26230338

  10. MP4, a vasodilatory PEGylated hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Cole, Russell H; Vandegriff, Kim D

    2011-01-01

    A vasodilatory hemoglobin (Hb)-based O(2) carrier (HBOC) has been developed by surface conjugation polyethylene glycol to tetrameric human Hb (MP4, Sangart, San Diego). Because the NO-binding kinetics of MP4 are similar to vasoconstrictive HBOCs, we propose that the decoupling of NO scavenging from vascular response is a consequence of MP4's high O(2) affinity (p50 = 5 mmHg) and unique surface chemistry. The release of ATP from erythrocytes is vasodilatory and the application of a high O(2) affinity HBOC minimizes ATP interference with intravascular ATP signaling. A second potential mechanism of action for MP4 involves the surface conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to tetrameric human Hb. It has been shown that the addition of unconjugated high molecular weight (Mw) PEG to cultured lung endothelial cells causes an immediate and significant reduction in endothelial permeability; an effect opposite to that of endothelial agonists such as cell-free Hb. It appears that some of the benefits of the PEG-endothelium interaction are carried onto molecules such as PEGylated Hb and PEGylated albumin, as demonstrated by favorable hemodynamic responses in vivo. PEGylation of ß93 cysteine residues, as in MP4, has also been reported to increase the nitrite reductase activity of Hb and enhance conversion of endogenous nitrite to bioactive NO.

  11. Pegylated silica nanoparticles: cytotoxicity and macrophage uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glorani, Giulia; Marin, Riccardo; Canton, Patrizia; Pinto, Marcella; Conti, Giamaica; Fracasso, Giulio; Riello, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Here, we present a thorough study of pegylated silica nanoparticle (SNP) interaction with different biological environments. The SNPs have a mean diameter of about 40 nm and are coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of different molecular weights. The physicochemical characterization of SNPs allowed the confirmation of the binding of PEG chains to the silica surface, the reproducibility of the synthesis and the narrow size-dispersion. In view of clarifying the SNP interaction with biological environments, we first assessed the SNP reactivity after the incubation with two cell lines (macrophages RAW 264.7 and primary human fibroblasts), observing a reduced toxicity of pegylated SNPs compared to the bare ones. Then, we investigated the effect of the protein adsorption on the SNP surface using the model serum protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). We found that the protein adsorption takes place more heavily on poorly pegylated SNPs, promoting the uptake of the latter by macrophages and leading to an increased mortality of these cells. To better understand this mechanism by means of flow cytometry, the dye Ru(bpy)3Cl2 was incorporated in the SNPs. The overall results highlight the SNP potentialities as a drug delivery system, thanks to the low interactions with the macrophages.

  12. Formulation and PEGylation optimization of the therapeutic PEGylated phenylalanine ammonia lyase for the treatment of phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Sean M.; Wendt, Dan J.; Zhang, Yanhong; Long, Shinong; Tsuruda, Laurie; Zhao, Bin; Laipis, Phillip; Fitzpatrick, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic metabolic disease in which the decrease or loss of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity results in elevated, neurotoxic levels of phenylalanine (Phe). Due to many obstacles, PAH enzyme replacement therapy is not currently an option. Treatment of PKU with an alternative enzyme, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), was first proposed in the 1970s. However, issues regarding immunogenicity, enzyme production and mode of delivery needed to be overcome. Through the evaluation of PAL enzymes from multiple species, three potential PAL enzymes from yeast and cyanobacteria were chosen for evaluation of their therapeutic potential. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW = 20,000), at a particular ratio to modify the protein surface, attenuated immunogenicity in an animal model of PKU. All three PEGylated PAL candidates showed efficacy in a mouse model of PKU (BTBR Pahenu2) upon subcutaneous injection. However, only PEGylated Anabaena variabilis (Av) PAL-treated mice demonstrated sustained low Phe levels with weekly injection and was the only PAL evaluated that maintained full enzymatic activity upon PEGylation. A PEGylated recombinant double mutant version of AvPAL (Cys503Ser/Cys565Ser), rAvPAL-PEG, was selected for drug development based on its positive pharmacodynamic profile and favorable expression titers. PEGylation was shown to be critical for rAvPAL-PEG efficacy as under PEGylated rAvPAL had a lower pharmacodynamic effect. rAvPAL and rAvPAL-PEG had poor stability at 4°C. L-Phe and trans-cinnamate were identified as activity stabilizing excipients. rAvPAL-PEG is currently in Phase 3 clinical trials to assess efficacy in PKU patients. PMID:28282402

  13. Formulation and PEGylation optimization of the therapeutic PEGylated phenylalanine ammonia lyase for the treatment of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sean M; Wendt, Dan J; Zhang, Yanhong; Taylor, Timothy W; Long, Shinong; Tsuruda, Laurie; Zhao, Bin; Laipis, Phillip; Fitzpatrick, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic metabolic disease in which the decrease or loss of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity results in elevated, neurotoxic levels of phenylalanine (Phe). Due to many obstacles, PAH enzyme replacement therapy is not currently an option. Treatment of PKU with an alternative enzyme, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), was first proposed in the 1970s. However, issues regarding immunogenicity, enzyme production and mode of delivery needed to be overcome. Through the evaluation of PAL enzymes from multiple species, three potential PAL enzymes from yeast and cyanobacteria were chosen for evaluation of their therapeutic potential. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW = 20,000), at a particular ratio to modify the protein surface, attenuated immunogenicity in an animal model of PKU. All three PEGylated PAL candidates showed efficacy in a mouse model of PKU (BTBR Pahenu2) upon subcutaneous injection. However, only PEGylated Anabaena variabilis (Av) PAL-treated mice demonstrated sustained low Phe levels with weekly injection and was the only PAL evaluated that maintained full enzymatic activity upon PEGylation. A PEGylated recombinant double mutant version of AvPAL (Cys503Ser/Cys565Ser), rAvPAL-PEG, was selected for drug development based on its positive pharmacodynamic profile and favorable expression titers. PEGylation was shown to be critical for rAvPAL-PEG efficacy as under PEGylated rAvPAL had a lower pharmacodynamic effect. rAvPAL and rAvPAL-PEG had poor stability at 4°C. L-Phe and trans-cinnamate were identified as activity stabilizing excipients. rAvPAL-PEG is currently in Phase 3 clinical trials to assess efficacy in PKU patients.

  14. Effects of PEGylation on biomimetic synthesis of magnetoferritin nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Caiyun; Cao, Changqian; Cai, Yao; Xu, Huangtao; Zhang, Tongwei; Pan, Yongxin

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that ferrimagnetic magnetoferritin nanoparticles are a promising novel magnetic nanomaterial in biomedical applications, including biocatalysis, imaging, diagnostics, and tumor therapy. Here we investigated the PEGylation of human H-ferritin (HFn) proteins and the possible influence on biomimetic synthesis of magnetoferritin nanoparticles. The outer surface of HFn proteins was chemically modified with different PEG molecular weights (PEG10K and PEG20K) and different modification ratios (HFn subunit:PEG20K = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4). The PEGylated HFn proteins were used for biomimetic synthesis of ferrimagnetic magnetoferritin nanoparticles. We found that, compared with magnetoferritin using non-PEGylated HFn protein templates, the synthesized magnetoferritin using the PEGylated HFn protein templates possessed larger magnetite cores, higher magnetization and relaxivity values, and improved thermal stability. These results suggest that the PEGylation of H-ferritin may improve the biomineralization of magnetoferritin nanoparticles and enhance their biomedical applications.

  15. Self-Assembly PEGylation Retaining Activity (SPRA) Technology via a Host-Guest Interaction Surpassing Conventional PEGylation Methods of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hirotsu, Tatsunori; Higashi, Taishi; Abu Hashim, Irhan Ibrahim; Misumi, Shogo; Wada, Koki; Motoyama, Keiichi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-06

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification (PEGylation) is one of the best approaches to improve the stabilities and blood half-lives of protein drugs; however, PEGylation dramatically reduces the bioactivities of protein drugs. Here, we present "self-assembly PEGylation retaining activity" (SPRA) technology via a host-guest interaction between PEGylated β-cyclodextrin (PEG-β-CyD) and adamantane-appended (Ad) proteins. PEG-β-CyD formed stable complexes with Ad-insulin and Ad-lysozyme to yield SPRA-insulin and SPRA-lysozyme, respectively. Both SPRA-proteins showed high stability against heat and trypsin digest, comparable with that of covalently PEGylated protein equivalents. Importantly, the SPRA-lysozyme possessed ca. 100% lytic activity, whereas the activity of the covalently PEGylated lysozyme was ca. 23%. Additionally, SPRA-insulin provided a prolonged and peakless blood glucose profile when compared with insulin glargine. It also showed no loss of activity. In contrast, the covalently PEGylated insulin showed a negligible hypoglycemic effect. These findings indicate that SPRA technology has potential as a generic method, surpassing conventional PEGylation methods for proteins.

  16. Nanoparticle PEGylation for imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jokerst, Jesse V; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Zare, Richard N; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles are an essential component in the emerging field of nanomedical imaging and therapy. When deployed in vivo, these materials are typically protected from the immune system by polyethylene glycol (PEG). A wide variety of strategies to coat and characterize nanoparticles with PEG has established important trends on PEG size, shape, density, loading level, molecular weight, charge and purification. Strategies to incorporate targeting ligands are also prevalent. This article presents a background to investigators new to stealth nanoparticles, and suggests some key considerations needed prior to designing a nanoparticle PEGylation protocol and characterizing the performance features of the product. PMID:21718180

  17. The protein corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes.

    PubMed

    Palchetti, Sara; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Digiacomo, Luca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Pozzi, Daniela; Capriotti, Anna Laura; La Barbera, Giorgia; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Following systemic administration, liposomes are covered by a 'corona' of proteins, and preserving the surface functionality is challenging. Coating the liposome surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most widely used anti-opsonization strategy, but it cannot fully preclude protein adsorption. To date, protein binding has been studied following in vitro incubation to predict the fate of liposomes in vivo, while dynamic incubation mimicking in vivo conditions remains largely unexplored. The main aim of this investigation was to determine whether shear stress, produced by physiologically relevant dynamic flow, could influence the liposome-protein corona. The corona of circulating PEGylated liposome was thoroughly compared with that formed by incubation in vitro. Systematic comparison in terms of size, surface charge and quantitative composition was made by dynamic light scattering, microelectrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Size of coronas formed under static vs. dynamic incubation did not appreciably differ from each other. On the other side, the corona of circulating liposomes was more negatively charged than its static counterpart. Of note, the variety of protein species in the corona formed in a dynamic flow was significantly wider. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes can be considerably different from that formed in a static fluid. This seems to be a key factor to predict the biological activity of a liposomal formulation in a physiological environment.

  18. Insulin complexes with PEGylated basic oligopeptides.

    PubMed

    Tsiourvas, Dimitris; Sideratou, Zili; Sterioti, Nikoletta; Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Nounesis, George; Paleos, Constantinos M

    2012-10-15

    Biodegradable oligolysine and oligoarginine-type homopeptides functionalized with PEG of two different molecular weights interact with insulin, at physiological pH, affording complexes studied by dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential, circular dichroism, FTIR spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). High levels of insulin complexation efficiencies (>99.5%) were determined for all derivatives. FTIR spectra suggest that the positively charged homo-oligopeptide derivatives interact with B chain C-terminus of insulin leading to the formation of nanoparticles than can be traced even at low oligopeptide/insulin molar ratios. The ITC profiles are complex, displaying significant endothermic and exothermic contributions. Oligoarginine-type derivatives exhibit the strongest interactions, while PEGylation of either oligopeptide with the high molecular weight chains significantly affects the ITC profiles and leads to larger enthalpy changes. This may be attributed to PEG-induced aggregation of insulin due to the depletion attraction effect leading to the formation of stable nanocomplexes. Stabilization of complexed insulin against enzymatic degradation by trypsin and α-chymotrypsin is observed especially for the high molecular weight PEGylated arginine-based derivative. Insulin release rates in simulated intestinal fluid are controlled by the length of PEG chains and the presence of arginine end-groups. Released insulin retains its secondary structure as established by circular dichroism spectroscopy.

  19. Integrated process for high conversion and high yield protein PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decades, PEGylation has become a powerful technique to increase the in vivo circulation half-life of therapeutic proteins while maintaining their activity. The development of new therapeutic proteins is likely to require further improvement of the PEGylation methods to reach even better selectivity and yield for reduced costs. The intensification of the PEGylation process was investigated through the integration of a chromatographic step in order to increase yield and conversion for the production of mono-PEGylated protein. Lysozyme was used as a model protein to demonstrate the feasibility of such approach. In the integrated reaction/separation process, chromatography was used as fractionation technique in order to isolate and recycle the unreacted protein from the PEGylated products. This allows operating the reactor with short reaction times so as to minimize the production of multi-PEGylated proteins (i.e., conjugated to more than one polymer). That is, the reaction is stopped before the desired product (i.e., the mono-PEGylated protein) can further react, thus leading to limited conversion but high yield. The recycling of the unreacted protein was then considered to drive the protein overall conversion to completion. This approach has great potential to improve processes whose yield is limited by the further reaction of the product leading to undesirable by-products. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1711-1718. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Safety Assessment of PEGylated oils as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    PEGylated oil is a terminology used to describe cosmetic ingredients that are the etherification and esterification products of glycerides and fatty acids with ethylene oxide. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered the safety of PEGylated oils, which function primarily as surfactants in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that the 130 chemically related PEGylated oils were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. PEGylated Human Serum Albumin: Review of PEGylation, Purification and Characterization Methods

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadehlaleh, Parvin; Mirzaei, Mona; Mashahdi-Keshtiban, Mahdiyeh; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Heydari, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a non-glycosylated, negatively charged protein (Mw: about 65-kDa) that has one free cystein residue (Cys 34), and 17 disulfide bridges that these bridges have main role in its stability and longer biological life-time (15 to 19 days). As HSA is a multifunctional protein, it can also bind to other molecules and ions in addition to its role in maintaining colloidal osmotic pressure (COP) in various diseases. In critical illnesses changes in the level of albumin between the intravascular and extravascular compartments and the decrease in its serum concentration need to be compensated using exogenous albumin; but as the size of HSA is an important parameter in retention within the circulation, therefore increasing its molecular size and hydrodynamic radius of HSA by covalent attachment of poly ethylene glycol (PEG), that is known as PEGylation, provides HSA as a superior volume expander that not only can prevent the interstitial edema but also can reduce the infusion frequency. This review focuses on various PEGylation methods of HSA (solid phase and liquid phase), and compares various methods to purifiy and characterize the pegylated form. PMID:27766215

  2. Coexisting phases in PEGylated phosphocholine membranes: a model study.

    PubMed

    Tanwir, Kanwal; Shahid, Muhammad Naeem; Thomas, Andre; Tsoukanova, Valeria

    2012-10-02

    Understanding the phase behavior of PEGylated phosphocholine membranes is becoming increasingly important in many biomedical applications. Here, we used binary mixtures of phosphocholines and PEG-phospholipids in monolayers on phosphate buffered saline as ideal models of PEGylated phosphocholine membranes. Several phase states and transitions between homogeneously mixed and completely immiscible phases have been visualized in these mixtures by epifluorescence microscopy, which is neither predicted nor easily explained by the existing interpretive schemes. The results of our study suggest that the phase state of PEGylated phosphocholine membranes may drastically vary depending on factors such as aliphatic chain length on phosphocholines and PEG-phospholipids, PEG content, and temperature. These findings are summarized in phase drawings and diagrams to demonstrate a striking variety of possible phases. The diagrams can also be instrumental in predicting the phase state of PEGylated phosphocholine membranes, in particular under physiological conditions.

  3. Cell uptake survey of pegylated nanographene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, M.; Portolés, M. T.; Marques, P. A. A. P.; Feito, M. J.; Matesanz, M. C.; Ramírez-Santillán, C.; Gonçalves, G.; Cruz, S. M. A.; Nieto, A.; Vallet-Regi, M.

    2012-11-01

    Graphene and more specifically, nanographene oxide (GO) has been proposed as a highly efficient antitumoral therapy agent. Nevertheless, its cell uptake kinetics, its influence in different types of cells and the possibility of controlling cellular internalization timing, is still a field that remains unexplored. Herein, different cell types have been cultured in vitro for several incubation periods in the presence of 0.075 mg ml-1 pegylated GO solutions. GO uptake kinetics revealed differences in the agent’s uptake amount and speed as a function of the type of cell involved. Osteoblast-like cells GO uptake is higher and faster without resulting in greater cell membrane damage. Moreover, the dependence on the commonly used PEG nature (number of branches) also influences the viability and cell uptake speed. These facts play an important role in the future definition of timing parameters and selective cell uptake control in order to achieve an effective therapy.

  4. Enhanced contrast efficiency in MRI by PEGylated magnetoliposomes loaded with PEGylated SPION: effect of SPION coating and micro-environment.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A; Martins, M B F; Corvo, M L; Feio, G

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic core coatings modify the efficiency of nanoparticles used as contrast agents for MRI. In studies of these phenomena, care should be given to take into account possible effects of the specific micro-environment where coated nanoparticles are embedded. In the present work, the longitudinal and transverse relaxivities of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with short-chain polyethylene glycol molecules (PEGylated SPIONs) were measured in a 7T magnetic field. PEGylated SPIONs with two different diameters (5 and 10nm) were studied. Two different PEGylated magnetoliposomes having liposome bilayer membranes composed of egg-phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy PEG-2000] were also studied for their relaxivities, after being loaded with the PEGylated SPION of 5 or 10nm. This type of liposomes is known to have long residence time in bloodstream that leads to an attractive option for therapeutic applications. The influence of the magnetic core coating on the efficiency of the nanosystem as a negative contrast agent for MRI was then compared to the cumulative effect of the coating plus the specific micro-environment components. As a result, it was found that the PEGylated magnetoliposomes present a 4-fold higher efficiency as negative contrast agents for MRI than the PEGylated SPION.

  5. MALDI linear TOF mass spectrometry of PEGylated (glyco)proteins.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, Birgit K; Siekmann, Jürgen; Belgacem, Omar; Wenzel, Ryan J; Turecek, Peter L; Allmaier, Günter

    2010-06-01

    PEGylation of proteins is a fast growing field in biotechnology and pharmaceutical sciences owing to its ability to prolong the serum half-life time of recombinant proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) has been shown to be a powerful tool in the analysis of several PEGylated small proteins. Here we present data obtained with a standard secondary electron multiplier (SEM) and a high mass (HM) detector combined with a MALDI linear TOF MS system for the detection of PEGylated (glyco)proteins in the range of 60-600 kDa. Examples of MALDI TOF MS of small (interferon alpha2a), middle (human serum albumin (HSA)) and high molecular mass proteins (coagulation factor VIII and von Willebrand factor (vWF), both heavily glycosylated proteins) are presented. The particular challenge for the analysis was the heterogeneity of the (glyco)proteins in the high molecular weight range in combination with additional PEGylation, which even introduced more heterogeneity and was more challenging for interpretation. Nevertheless, the performance of MALDI linear TOF MS with both detector systems in terms molecular weight and heterogeneity determination depending on the m/z range was superior to the other methods. Although the SEM was able to obtain information about protein PEGylation in the mass range up to 100 kDa (e.g. PEGylated HSA), the HM system was crucial for detection of HM ions (e.g. PEGylated recombinant vWF), which was impossible with the standard SEM.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of cyclodextrin polypseudorotaxane with PEGylated liposome as a sustained release drug carrier

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Kayoko; Higashi, Taishi; Kono, Daichi; Motoyama, Keiichi; Wada, Koki

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cyclodextrins (CDs) can form polypseudorotaxanes (PPRXs) with drugs or drug carriers possessing linear polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). On the other hand, PEGylated liposomes have been utilized as a representative anticancer drug carrier. However, little is known about the formation of CD PPRX with PEGylated liposome. In the present study, we first report the formation of CD PPRX with PEGylated liposome and evaluate it as a sustained release drug carrier. PEGylated liposome encapsulating doxorubicin was disrupted by the addition of α-CD. Meanwhile, γ-CD included two PEG chains and/or one bending PEG chain of PEGylated liposome and formed PPRX without the disruption of the membrane integrity of the PEGylated liposome. Moreover, the release of doxorubicin and/or PEGylated liposome encapsulating doxorubicin from the PPRX was prolonged in accordance with the matrix type release mechanism. These findings suggest the potential of γ-CD PPRX as sustained release carriers for PEGylated liposome products. PMID:25550741

  7. Preparation and evaluation of cyclodextrin polypseudorotaxane with PEGylated liposome as a sustained release drug carrier.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kayoko; Higashi, Taishi; Kono, Daichi; Motoyama, Keiichi; Wada, Koki; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) can form polypseudorotaxanes (PPRXs) with drugs or drug carriers possessing linear polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). On the other hand, PEGylated liposomes have been utilized as a representative anticancer drug carrier. However, little is known about the formation of CD PPRX with PEGylated liposome. In the present study, we first report the formation of CD PPRX with PEGylated liposome and evaluate it as a sustained release drug carrier. PEGylated liposome encapsulating doxorubicin was disrupted by the addition of α-CD. Meanwhile, γ-CD included two PEG chains and/or one bending PEG chain of PEGylated liposome and formed PPRX without the disruption of the membrane integrity of the PEGylated liposome. Moreover, the release of doxorubicin and/or PEGylated liposome encapsulating doxorubicin from the PPRX was prolonged in accordance with the matrix type release mechanism. These findings suggest the potential of γ-CD PPRX as sustained release carriers for PEGylated liposome products.

  8. Ganglioside inserted into PEGylated liposome attenuates anti-PEG immunity.

    PubMed

    Mima, Yu; Abu Lila, Amr S; Shimizu, Taro; Ukawa, Masami; Ando, Hidenori; Kurata, Yasuko; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2017-03-28

    Despite the clinical introduction of a vast number of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated therapeutics, conjugated PEG is also known for an unfortunate inclination toward immunogenicity. Immunogenicity of PEG, manifested by the robust production of anti-PEG IgM, is known to compromise the therapeutic efficacy and/or reduce the tolerance of PEGylated therapeutics. In the present study, we inserted ganglioside into the membrane of PEGylated liposome (PL) to prepare ganglioside-modified PEGylated liposomes (G-PL), and investigated its efficacy in attenuating the anti-PEG IgM response against PL. A single intravenous injection of G-PL significantly attenuated the anti-PEG IgM production, compared with that of naïve PL. In addition, pretreatment with G-PL substantially alleviated the anti-PEG IgM response elicited by a subsequent dose of PL, presumably via inducing B cell tolerance, and as a consequence, this modification abrogated/attenuated the incidence of the rapid clearance of subsequently administrated PL. These results indicate that incorporating gangliosides in PEGylated liposome membrane not only prevents the immunogenicity of PEG but also induces the tolerance of B cells to subsequent doses of the immunogenic PL. Consequently, liposomal membrane modification with ganglioside might represent a promising approach to attenuating the immunogenicity of PEGylated liposomes while preserving their therapeutic efficacy, particularly upon repeated administration.

  9. Paclitaxel loaded PEGylated gleceryl monooleate based nanoparticulate carriers in chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vikas; Swarnakar, Nitin K; Mishra, Prabhat R; Verma, Ashwni; Kaul, Ankur; Mishra, Anil K; Jain, Narendra K

    2012-10-01

    A PEGylated drug delivery system of paclitaxel (PTX), based on glyceryl monooleate (GMO) was prepared by optimizing various parameters to explore its potential in anticancer therapy. The prepared system was characterized through polarized light microscopy, TEM, AFM and SAXS to reveal its liquid crystalline nature. As GMO based LCNPs exhibit high hemolytic toxicity and faster release of entrapped drug (66.2 ± 2.5% in 24 h), PEGylation strategy was utilized to increase the hemocompatibility (reduction in hemolysis from 60.3 ± 10.2 to 4.4 ± 1.3%) and control the release of PTX (43.6 ± 3.2% released in 24 h). The cytotoxic potential and cellular uptake was assessed in MCF-7 cell lines. Further, biodistribution studies were carried out in EAT (Ehrlich Ascites tumor) bearing mice using (99m)Tc-(Technetium radionuclide) labeled formulations and an enhanced circulation time and tumor accumulation (14 and 8 times, respectively) were observed with PEGylated carriers over plain ones, at 24 h. Finally, tumor growth inhibition experiment was performed and after 15 days, control group exhibited 15 times enhancement in tumor volume, while plain and PEGylated systems exhibited only 8 and 4 times enhancement, respectively, as compared to initial tumor volume. The results suggest that PEGylation enhances the hemocompatibility and efficacy of GMO based system that may serve as an efficient i.v. delivery vehicle for paclitaxel.

  10. Degradable PEGylated Protein Conjugates Utilizing RAFT Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Decker, Caitlin G; Maynard, Heather D

    2015-04-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-protein therapeutics exhibit enhanced pharmacokinetics, but have drawbacks including decreased protein activities and polymer accumulation in the body. Therefore a major aim for second-generation polymer therapeutics is to introduce degradability into the backbone. Herein we describe the synthesis of poly(poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate)) (pPEGMA) degradable polymers with protein-reactive end-groups via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and the subsequent covalent attachment to lysozyme through a reducible disulfide linkage. RAFT copolymerization of cyclic ketene acetal (CKA) monomer 5,6-benzo-2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane (BMDO) with PEGMA yielded two polymers with number-average molecular weight (Mn ) (GPC) of 10.9 and 20.9 kDa and molecular weight dispersities (Ð) of 1.34 and 1.71, respectively. Hydrolytic degradation of the polymers was analyzed by (1)H-NMR and GPC under basic and acidic conditions. The reversible covalent attachment of these polymers to lysozyme, as well as the hydrolytic and reductive cleavage of the polymer from the protein, was analyzed by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Following reductive cleavage of the polymer, an increase in activity was observed for both conjugates, with the released protein having full activity. This represents a method to prepare PEGylated proteins, where the polymer is readily cleaved from the protein and the main chain of the polymer is degradable.

  11. Determining the Topology of Membrane-Bound Proteins Using PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Howe, Vicky; Brown, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Biochemical methods can help elucidate the membrane topology of hydrophobic membrane proteins where X-ray crystallography is difficult or impractical, providing important structural data. Here, we describe the method of PEGylation, which uses a cysteine-reactive molecule, maleimide polyethylene glycol (mPEG), to determine the cytosolic accessibility of introduced cysteine residues. This accessibility is visualized using Western blotting to detect a band shift that indicates cysteine labeling by mPEG. Using scanning cysteine mutagenesis, followed by PEGylation, one can map the accessibility of the introduced cysteines, hence inferring the membrane topology of the protein.We used PEGylation to determine the membrane topology of the sterol regulatory domain of a cholesterol synthesis enzyme, squalene monooxygenase, identifying that it is anchored to the membrane via a re-entrant loop.

  12. Biological and mechanical implications of PEGylating proteins into hydrogel biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Gonen-Wadmany, Maya; Goldshmid, Revital; Seliktar, Dror

    2011-09-01

    Protein PEGylation has been successfully applied in pharmaceuticals and more recently in biomaterials development for making bioactive and structurally versatile hydrogels. Despite many advantages in this regard, PEGylation of proteins is also known to alter biological activity and modify biophysical characteristics in ways that may be detrimental to cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative loss of biological compatibility associated with PEGylating a fibrinogen precursor into a hydrogel scaffold, in comparison to thrombin cross-linked fibrin hydrogels. Specifically, we investigated the consequences of conjugating fibrinogen with linear polyethtylene glycol (PEG) polymer chains (10 kDa) on the ability to cultivate neonatal human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) in 3-D. For this purpose, thrombin cross-linked fibrin (TCL-Fib) and PEGylated fibrinogen (PEG-Fib) gels were prepared with HFFs and cultured for up to seven days. The benchmark biological compatibility test was based on a combined assessment of cellular morphology, proliferation, actin expression, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in the 3-D culture systems. The results showed correlations between modulus and proteolytic biodegradation in both materials, but no correlation between the mechanical properties and the ability of HFFs to remodel the microenvironment. A slight reduction of actin, MMPs, and spindled morphology of the cells in the PEG-Fib hydrogels indicated that the PEGylation process altered the biological compatibility of the fibrin. Nevertheless, the overall benchmark performance of the two materials demonstrated that PEGylated fibrinogen hydrogels still retains much to the inherent biofunctionality of the fibrin precursor when used as a scaffold for 3-D cell cultivation.

  13. Nanoparticle multivalency counterbalances the ligand affinity loss upon PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Robert; Pollinger, Klaus; Veser, Anika; Breunig, Miriam; Goepferich, Achim

    2014-11-28

    The conjugation of receptor ligands to shielded nanoparticles is a widely used strategy to precisely control nanoparticle-cell interactions. However, it is often overlooked that a ligand's affinity can be severely impaired by its attachment to the polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains that are frequently used to protect colloids from serum protein adsorption. Using the model ligand EXP3174, a small-molecule antagonist for the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R), we investigated the ligand's affinity before and after its PEGylation and when attached to PEGylated nanoparticles. The PEGylated ligand displayed a 580-fold decreased receptor affinity compared to the native ligand. Due to their multivalency, the nanoparticles regained a low nanomolar receptor affinity, which is in the range of the affinity of the native ligand. Moreover, a four orders of magnitude higher concentration of free ligand was required to displace PEGylated nanoparticles carrying EXP3174 from the receptor. On average, one nanoparticle was decorated with 11.2 ligand molecules, which led to a multivalent enhancement factor of 22.5 compared to the monovalent PEGylated ligand. The targeted nanoparticles specifically bound the AT1R and showed no interaction to receptor negative cells. Our study shows that the attachment of a small-molecule ligand to a PEG chain can severely affect its receptor affinity. Concomitantly, when the ligand is tethered to nanoparticles, the immense avidity greatly increases the ligand-receptor interaction. Based on our results, we highly recommend the affinity testing of receptor ligands before and after PEGylation to identify potent molecules for active nanoparticle targeting.

  14. Solid-phase PEGylation of an immobilized protein cage on polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    PubMed

    Uto, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Iwahori, Kenji; Aoyagi, Takao; Yamashita, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    We used a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to quantitatively characterize solid-phase poly(ethylene glycol) modification (PEGylation) of apoferritin that was electrostatically immobilized on the surface of a polyelectrolyte multilayer. The solid-phase PEGylation processes were monitored by analyzing QCM frequency shifts, which showed that the PEG chains were covalently introduced onto the surface of the immobilized apoferritin. We investigated the effect of PEG concentration, PEG molecular weight, and two-dimensional coverage of the immobilized apoferritin on the solid-phase PEGylation process in addition to the surface properties of the PEGylated apoferritin film, such as wettability and protein adsorption capacity. Since the reaction field is more spatially restricted in solid-phase PEGylation than in traditional aqueous-phase PEGylation, this study shows that a ferritin protein cage is potentially useful as a tailored building block, one that has well-defined structures different from the PEGylated ferritin prepared by an aqueous-phase approach.

  15. Antiplatelet effect of differentially charged PEGylated lipid-polymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Yameen, Basit; Bong, Soung-Jae; Salvador-Morales, Carolina; Palomo, Ivan; Vilos, Cristian

    2017-04-01

    PEGylated nanoparticles have been extensively investigated in different platforms for drug delivery. However, the physiological effects related to platelet activation, and the potential procoagulant activity which could lead to thrombosis and further cardiovascular diseases have not been widely examined. In this work, we studied the effect of differentially charged PEGylated lipid-polymer nanoparticles in the human platelet aggregation and activation by light transmission aggregometry and flow cytometry. PEGylated nanoparticles inhibited the platelet aggregation with a dose dependency (350, 700, and 1400μg/mL) in both ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, and P-selectin expression. Charged nanoparticles (anionic and cationic) presented higher inhibitions of the platelet aggregation compared to neutral nanoparticles, and particularly the cationic particles generated a slightly higher effect. The obtained results demonstrated the safety of the differentially charged PEGylated lipid-polymer nanoparticles, and their ability to inhibit the aggregation and activation of human platelets stimulated by two classic platelet activators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and in vitro antiproliferative evaluation of PEGylated triterpene acids.

    PubMed

    Medina-O'Donnell, Marta; Rivas, Francisco; Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J; Martinez, Antonio; Galisteo-González, Francisco; Lupiañez, Jose A; Parra, Andres

    2017-07-01

    A set of PEGylated derivatives of oleanolic and maslinic acids has been semi-synthesised, attaching ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol or tetraethylene glycol to the C-28 carboxyl group of these natural triterpenes and some derivatives. Another set of PEGylated derivatives has been semi-synthesised by connecting the same four ethylene glycols to the hydroxyl groups of the A ring of these triterpenic acids, through a carbonate linker, by reaction with trichloromethyl chloroformate. The aqueous solubility of some of these PEGylated derivatives has been compared with that of maslinic acid. The cytotoxic effects of 28 triterpenic PEGylated derivatives in three cancer-cell lines (B16-F10, HT29, and Hep G2) have been assayed. The best results have been achieved with the HT29 cell line, and specifically with the oleanolic acid derivatives having ethylene glycol or tetraethylene glycol attached to the C-28 carboxyl group, which are approximately 27-fold more effective than their natural precursor. Eight PEGylated derivatives have been selected to compare the cytotoxicity results in the HT29 cancer-cell line with those of a non-tumour cell line of the same tissue (IEC-18), four of which were less cytotoxic in the non-tumour cell line. These compounds showed apoptotic effects on treated cells, with percentages of total apoptosis between 20% and 53%, relative to control, at 72h and IC50 concentration, and between 29% to 62%, relative to control, for the same time and IC80 concentration. We have also found that with the treatment of these compounds in HT29 cancer cells, cell-cycle arrest occurred in the G0/G1 phase. Finally, we have also studied changes in mitochondrial membrane potential during apoptosis of HT29 cancer cells, and the results suggest an activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway for these compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PEGylation with the thiosuccinimido butylamine linker significantly increases the stability of haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan-Zhong; Yu, Wei-Li; Zheng, He; Guo, Xuan; Guo, Nan; Hu, Tao; Zhong, Jin-Yi

    2017-07-20

    Haloalkane dehalogenase (HLD) can catalyze the hydrolytic dehalogenation of halogenated compounds. However, HLD suffers from the poor stability to resist the environmental stress. PEGylation is an effective approach to enhance the stability of enzymes. The linker is an important stabilization factor of PEGylation. Thus, the linkers of the PEGylated HLD were optimized to improve the stability of HLD in the present study. The PEGylated haloalkane dehalogenase DhaAs with methylamine (Ml), carbamate (Cm) and thiosuccinimido butylamine (Tb) linkers were prepared, respectively. The effects of the Ml, Cm and Tb linkers on the stability of the PEGylated DhaAs were investigated under different environmental stresses. Among the three linkers, the Tb linker showed the highest efficacy to improve the stability of the PEGylated DhaA. The Tb linker significantly increased the thermal stability of the PEGylated DhaA by slowing its structural unfolding, and the pH stability of the PEGylated DhaA by slowing the protonation process. In addition, the PEGylated DhaA with the Tb linker showed the maximum resistance to high ionic strength (1M NaCl) and organic solvent (40% DMSO). PEGylation with the Tb linker is of general interest to effectively improve the stability of proteins, particularly the protein with poor stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PEGylated protein separation using different hydrophobic interaction supports: Conventional and monolithic supports.

    PubMed

    Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; González-Valdez, José; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Protein hydrophobicity can be modified after a PEGylation process. However, hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) has been used to separate PEGylation reaction products less frequently than other techniques. In this context, chromatographic monoliths represent a good alternative to continue exploring the separation of PEGylated proteins with HIC. In this work, the separation of PEGylated proteins using C4 A monolith as well as Toyopearl Butyl 650C and Butyl Sepharose was analyzed. Three proteins were used as models: RNase A, β-lactoglobulin, and lysozyme. All proteins were PEGylated in the N-terminal amino groups with 20 kDa methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) propionaldehyde. The concentration of ammonium sulfate (1 M) used was the same for all stationary phases. The results obtained demonstrated that the C4 A monolith could better resolve all protein PEGylation reaction mixtures, since the peaks of mono- and di-PEGylated proteins can be clearly distinguished in the chromatographic profiles. On the contrary, while using Butyl Sepharose media only the PEGylation reaction mixtures of RNase A could be partially separated at 35 and 45 CVs. PEGylated proteins of β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme could not be resolved when Toyopearl Butyl 650C and Butyl Sepharose were used. It is then clear that monoliths are an excellent choice to explore the purification process of PEGylated proteins exploiting the advantages of HIC. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:702-707, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Monolith disk chromatography separates PEGylated protein positional isoforms within minutes at low pressure.

    PubMed

    Isakari, Yu; Podgornik, Ales; Yoshimoto, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    Although PEGylation makes proteins drugs more effective, the PEGylation reaction must be controlled carefully in order to obtain a desired PEGylated protein form since various different PEGylated forms may be produced during the reaction. For monitoring the PEGylation reaction, a method with monolith disk ion exchange chromatography, which can separate positional isomers as well as PEGmers, has been developed as a process analytical tool (PAT). The method was optimized for separation of randomly PEGylated protein (lysozyme) isoforms based on the number of resolved peaks, peak resolution, analysis time and pressure drop. In order to increase the retention of mono- and di-PEGylated protein isomers the mobile phase was decreased to pH 4.5, where a large number of mono- and di-PEGylated isomers were resolved within a few minutes. Based on the linear gradient elution optimization model, the following values were determined: gradient slope 0.016 M/mL, disk thickness 3 mm (single disk) and flow rate 10 mL/min. Under these optimal conditions, the analysis was completed within ca. 4 min while the pressure drop was below 1 MPa. As the method was successfully applied to monitoring mono and di-PEGylated positional isoforms in the reaction mixture of random PEGylation of lysozyme, it is expected to be an efficient PAT tool.

  20. Sustained distribution of aerosolized PEGylated liposomes in epithelial lining fluids on alveolar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Keita; Togami, Kohei; Yamamoto, Eri; Wang, Shujun; Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Itagaki, Shirou; Chono, Sumio

    2016-10-01

    The distribution characteristics of aerosolized PEGylated liposomes in alveolar epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were examined in rats, and the ensuing mechanisms were investigated in the in vitro uptake and protein adsorption experiments. Nonmodified or PEGylated liposomes (particle size 100 nm) were aerosolized into rat lungs. PEGylated liposomes were distributed more sustainably in ELFs than nonmodified liposomes. Furthermore, the uptake of PEGylated liposomes by alveolar macrophages (AMs) was less than that of nonmodified liposomes. In further in vitro uptake experiments, nonmodified and PEGylated liposomes were opsonized with rat ELF components and then added to NR8383 cells as cultured rat AMs. The uptake of opsonized PEGylated liposomes by NR8383 cells was lower than that of opsonized nonmodified liposomes. Moreover, the protein absorption levels in opsonized PEGylated liposomes were lower than those in opsonized nonmodified liposomes. These findings suggest that sustained distributions of aerosolized PEGylated liposomes in ELFs reflect evasion of liposomal opsonization with surfactant proteins and consequent reductions in uptake by AMs. These data indicate the potential of PEGylated liposomes as aerosol-based drug delivery system that target ELF for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  1. Computational and nonglycosylated systems: a simpler approach for development of nanosized PEGylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Hadi; Kazemi, Bahram; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Shoari, Alireza; Asgary, Vahid; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Madadkar-Sobhani, Armin; Cohan, Reza Ahangari

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine PEGylation includes several steps, and is difficult to manage in practice. In the current investigation, the cysteine PEGylation of erythropoietin analogs was examined using computational and nonglycosylated systems to define a simpler approach for specific PEGylation. Two model analogs (E31C and E89C) were selected for PEGylation based on lowest structural deviation from the native form, accessibility, and nucleophilicity of the free thiol group. The selected analogs were cloned and the expression was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot using Coomassie blue staining and anti-His monoclonal antibody, respectively. PEGylation with 20 kDa mPEG-maleimide resulted in 79% and 82% conjugation yield for E31C and E89C nonglycosylated erythropoietin (ngEPO) analogs, respectively. The size distribution and charge analysis showed an increase in size and negative charge of the PEGylated forms compared with nonconjugated ones. Biological assay revealed that E31C and E89C mutations and subsequent PEGylation of ngEPO analogs have no deleterious effects on in vitro biological activity when compared to CHO-derived recombinant human erythropoietin. In addition, PEG-conjugated ngEPOs showed a significant increase in plasma half-lives after injection into rats when compared to nonconjugated ones. The development of the cysteine-PEGylated proteins using nonglycosylated expression system and in silico technique can be considered an efficient approach in terms of optimization of PEGylation parameters, time, and cost.

  2. Effects of pegylated hamster red blood cells on microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peter C Y; Huang, Wei; Stassinopoulos, Adonis; Cheung, Anthony T W

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) treated red blood cells (RBCs) on the microcirculation in a hamster back skin window chamber model. Donor hamster RBCs were PEGylated through an incubation with an activated PEG solution, washed, resuspended, and infused through a 10% volume top loading procedure into the carotid artery in an awake Syrian Golden hamster. Eight hamster groups were treated with activated PEG different sizes and concentrations: 0.05 mM-5 kDa PEG, 0.5 mM-5 kDa PEG, 1.1 mM-5 kDa PEG, 2.2 mM-5 kDa PEG, 22 mM-5 kDa PEG, 0.05 mM-20 kDa PEG, 0.5 mM-20 kDa PEG, and 5 mM-20 kDa PEG. Non-treated RBCs were used as control. The microvascular bed under observation was videotaped 30 min before the infusion and followed for 30 min post infusion. The diameter of individual blood vessels and blood flow velocities in selected vessels was measured. Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration were recorded before infusion and at the end of experiment. Tissue pO(2) was also monitored. Results showed the hamsters tolerated the PEGylated RBCs without apparent ill effects. No significant changes were recorded for the hematocrit, the hemoglobin concentration, the blood vessel diameters, blood flow velocities, and the interstitial partial oxygen pressure (pO(2)) before, during, and after the injections of PEG-RBCs (P > 0.05). Unlike most hemoglobin-based oxygen carrying compounds, which can cause vasoconstriction, the PEGylated RBCs did not produce any measurable vasoactivity. Together with the absence of rouleaux formation and the fact that PEG molecules can mask the surface antigens on RBCs, PEGylation appeared promising as a circulation enhancement treatment.

  3. Partially PEGylated PAMAM dendrimers as solubility enhancers of Silybin.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Carola; Guzmán, José L; Jiménez, Verónica A; Alderete, Joel B

    2017-04-03

    PEGylated PAMAM-G4 dendrimers with substitution percentages of 50% and intermediate size PEG chains (0.55 and 2.0 kDa) were synthesized and evaluated as solubility enhancers and potential supramolecular carriers for the poorly soluble drug Silybin (SIL). Aqueous solubility profiles revealed that the PEGylated system with 2.0 kDa chains induced a five-fold solubility increase for SIL and the largest drug-loading capacity within the systems under study with an average complex stoichiometry of 71:1 according to the Higuchi-Connors formulation for multiple binding sites. The supramolecular interaction between SIL and PEGylated PAMAM-G4 dendrimers was confirmed by 2D-NOESY experiments, which evidenced the simultaneous complexation of the drug in both PAMAM-G4 branches and outermost PEG chains. In vitro release studies showed that 2.0 kDa PEG chains induced a more extended release time compared to 0.5 kDa PEG chains. This result was attributed to the enhancement of PEG-assistance to SIL complexation in systems with longer PEG chains, which are able to self-penetrate into dendrimer cavities and cooperate in the stabilization of SIL complexes, thus delaying the release of SIL from the supramolecular host. These results are valuable for the future design and development of novel PAMAM-based systems for SIL complexation and delivery.

  4. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio-nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired.

  5. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio–nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired. PMID:28233871

  6. Site-specific PEGylation of lidamycin and its antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Shang, Boyang; Hu, Lei; Shao, Rongguang; Zhen, Yongsu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, N-terminal site-specific mono-PEGylation of the recombinant lidamycin apoprotein (rLDP) of lidamycin (LDM) was prepared using a polyethyleneglycol (PEG) derivative (Mw 20 kDa) through a reactive terminal aldehyde group under weak acidic conditions (pH 5.5). The biochemical properties of mPEG-rLDP-AE, an enediyne-integrated conjugate, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC, SEC-HPLC and MALDI-TOF. Meanwhile, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of mPEG-rLDP-AE was evaluated by MTT assays and in xenograft model. The results indicated that mPEG-rLDP-AE showed significant antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. After PEGylation, mPEG-rLDP still retained the binding capability to the enediyne AE and presented the physicochemical characteristics similar to that of native LDP. It is of interest that the PEGylation did not diminish the antitumor efficacy of LDM, implying the possibility that this derivative may function as a payload to deliver novel tumor-targeted drugs. PMID:26579455

  7. Transepithelial Transport of PEGylated Anionic Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers: Implications for Oral Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Deborah M.; Kolhatkar, Rohit B.; Ray, Abhijit; Swaan, Peter; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the impact of PEGylation on transepithelial transport of anionic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers. Cytotoxicity, uptake and transport across Caco-2 cells of PEGylated G3.5 and G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers were studied. Methoxy polyethylene glycol (750 Da) was conjugated to carboxylic acid-terminated PAMAM dendrimers at feed ratios of 1, 2 and 4 PEG per dendrimer. Compared to the control, PEGylation of anionic dendrimers did not significantly alter cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 0.1 mM. PEGylation of G3.5 dendrimers significantly decreased cellular uptake and transepithelial transport while PEGylation of G4.5 dendrimers led to a significant increase in uptake, but also a significant decrease in transport. Dendrimer PEGylation reduced the opening of tight junctions as evidenced by confocal microscopy techniques. Modulation of the tight junctional complex correlated well with changes in PEGylated dendrimer transport and suggests that anionic dendrimers are transported primarily through the paracellular route. PEGylated dendrimers show promise in oral delivery applications where increased functionality for drug conjugation and release is desired. PMID:19393702

  8. Synthesis of Mono-PEGylated Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 and Investigation of its Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Beihua; Zhou, Ziniu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an efficient synthetic route to the mono-PEGylated growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and its biological activity in vivo. The commercially available key PEGylating reagent, mPEG-NHS ester, was successfully utilized to the synthesis of mono-PEGylated GHRP-2, during which the PEGylation profiles of GHRP-2 were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The product was purified by cation exchange chromatography, and its biological activity was conducted in rats. The desired mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 as the major product was readily obtained in anhydrous aprotic solvent, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), when the molar ratio of mPEG-NHS ester to GHRP-2 was fixed to be 0.8:1. The products were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The evaluation of the biological activity for the products showed that the mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 gave a more stable activity than GHRP-2, suggesting that PEGylation led to the increase in the half-life of GHRP-2 in plasma without greatly impairing the biological activity. PEGylation of the GHRP-2 is a good choice for the development of the GHRP-2 applications.

  9. Low affinity PEGylated hemoglobin from Trematomus bernacchii, a model for hemoglobin-based blood substitutes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conjugation of human and animal hemoglobins with polyethylene glycol has been widely explored as a means to develop blood substitutes, a novel pharmaceutical class to be used in surgery or emergency medicine. However, PEGylation of human hemoglobin led to products with significantly different oxygen binding properties with respect to the unmodified tetramer and high NO dioxygenase reactivity, known causes of toxicity. These recent findings call for the biotechnological development of stable, low-affinity PEGylated hemoglobins with low NO dioxygenase reactivity. Results To investigate the effects of PEGylation on protein structure and function, we compared the PEGylation products of human hemoglobin and Trematomus bernacchii hemoglobin, a natural variant endowed with a remarkably low oxygen affinity and high tetramer stability. We show that extension arm facilitated PEGylation chemistry based on the reaction of T. bernacchii hemoglobin with 2-iminothiolane and maleimido-functionalyzed polyethylene glycol (MW 5000 Da) leads to a tetraPEGylated product, more homogeneous than the corresponding derivative of human hemoglobin. PEGylated T. bernacchii hemoglobin largely retains the low affinity of the unmodified tetramer, with a p50 50 times higher than PEGylated human hemoglobin. Moreover, it is still sensitive to protons and the allosteric effector ATP, indicating the retention of allosteric regulation. It is also 10-fold less reactive towards nitrogen monoxide than PEGylated human hemoglobin. Conclusions These results indicate that PEGylated hemoglobins, provided that a suitable starting hemoglobin variant is chosen, can cover a wide range of oxygen-binding properties, potentially meeting the functional requirements of blood substitutes in terms of oxygen affinity, tetramer stability and NO dioxygenase reactivity. PMID:22185675

  10. Sequential treatment of oxaliplatin-containing PEGylated liposome together with S-1 improves intratumor distribution of subsequent doses of oxaliplatin-containing PEGylated liposome.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Doi, Yusuke; Abu Lila, Amr S; Nagao, Ai; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    We recently reported that combination therapy with metronomic S-1 dosing and oxaliplatin (l-OHP)-containing PEGylated liposomes improved antitumor activity in a murine colorectal tumor model. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying such improved therapeutic efficacy. Here we investigated the impact of combined treatment on biodistribution, tumor accumulation and intratumor distribution of test PEGylated liposomes and on the structure of tumor vasculature in a solid tumor. The combined treatment clearly enhanced tumor accumulation and intratumor distribution of a subsequent test dose of PEGylated liposome as a result of on the one hand prolonging blood circulation of test liposome and on the other hand the alteration in tumor microenvironment. The l-OHP-containing PEGylated liposomes contributed predominantly to the enhanced tumor accumulation and altered tumor distribution of test liposome. On the other hand, metronomic S-1 dosing contributed to the altered tumor distribution but not the tumor accumulation of test liposome. The antitumor effect of the combined treatment, reflected by the proportion of apoptotic cells in the tumor, was approximately equally accounted for by each of the two treatments, leading to a roughly additive effect. In conclusion, 1-OHP-containing PEGylated liposome together with S-1 enhanced intratumor influx, leading to improved antitumor activity of subsequently injected 1-OHP-containing PEGylated liposomes and/or S-1. This strategy we propose, which is clinically applicable, may overcome the problems related to the use of EPR effect-based nanocarrier systems.

  11. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of PEGylated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Analette I; Reins, Rose Y; McDermott, Alison M; Trautner, Barbara W; Cai, Chengzhi

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of a series of amino-terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) groups. The antibacterial activity of the PAMAM dendrimers and their derivatives against the common ocular pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, was evaluated by their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). For the unmodified third and fifth generation (G3 and G5) amino-terminated dendrimers, the MICs against both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were in the range of 6.3-12.5 microg mL(-1), comparable to that of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 (1.3-12.5 microg mL(-1)) and within the wide range of 0.047-128 microg mL(-1) for the fluoroquinolone antibiotics. PEGylation of the dendrimers decreased their antibacterial activities, especially for the Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus). The reduction in potency is likely due to the decrease in the number of protonated amino groups and shielding of the positive charges by the PEG chains, thus decreasing the electrostatic interactions of the dendrimers with the negatively-charged bacterial surface. Interestingly, localization of a greater number of amino groups on G5 vs. G3 dendrimers did not improve the potency. Significantly, even a low degree of PEGylation, e.g. 6% with EG(11) on G3 dendrimer, greatly reduced the cytotoxicity towards human corneal epithelial cells while maintaining a high potency against P. aeruginosa. The cytotoxicity of the PEGylated dendrimers to host cells is much lower than that reported for antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, the MICs of these dendrimers against P. aeruginosa are more than two orders of magnitude lower than other antimicrobial polymers reported to date. These results motivate further exploration of the potential of cationic dendrimers as a new class of antimicrobial agents that may be less likely to induce bacterial resistance than standard antibiotics.

  12. Preferential Enrichment of a range of Proteins Distinguishes the Corona of PEGylated poly(glycidyl methacrylate) Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Priya S R; Norret, Marck; Smith, Nicole M; Dunlop, Sarah A; Taylor, Nicolas L; Fitzgerald, Melinda; Iyer, K Swaminathan

    2017-10-12

    Composition of the protein corona formed on poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalised (PEGylated) poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) nanoparticles (NPs) was qualitatively and quantitatively compared to the protein corona on non-PEGylated PGMA NPs. Despite the reputation of PEGylated NPs for 'stealth' functionality, we demonstrate preferential enrichment of specific serum proteins of varied biological functions in the protein corona on PEGylated NPs when compared to non-PEGylated NPs. Additionally, we suggest that the base material of polymeric NPs plays a role in the preferential enrichment of select serum proteins to the hard corona.

  13. Tumor Burden Talks in Cancer Treatment with PEGylated Liposomal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia-Je; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Tseng, Yun-Long; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Ting, Gann; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2013-01-01

    Purpose PEGylated liposomes are important drug carriers that can passively target tumor by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in neoplasm lesions. This study demonstrated that tumor burden determines the tumor uptake, and also the tumor response, in cancer treatment with PEGylated liposomal drugs in a C26/tk-luc colon carcinoma-bearing mouse model. Methods Empty PEGylated liposomes (NanoX) and those encapsulated with VNB (NanoVNB) were labeled with In-111 to obtain InNanoX and InVNBL in high labeling yield and radiochemical purity (all >90%). BALB/c mice bearing either small (58.4±8.0 mm3) or large (102.4±22.0 mm3) C26/tk-luc tumors in the right dorsal flank were intravenously administered with NanoVNB, InNanoX, InVNBL, or NanoX as a control, every 7 days for 3 times. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by body weight loss, tumor growth inhibition (using calipers and bioluminescence imaging) and survival fraction. The scintigraphic imaging of tumor mouse was performed during and after treatment. Results The biodistribution study of InVNBL revealed a clear inverse correlation (r2 = 0.9336) between the tumor uptake and the tumor mass ranged from 27.6 to 623.9 mg. All three liposomal drugs showed better therapeutic efficacy in small-tumor mice than in large-tumor mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with InVNBL (a combination drug) showed the highest tumor growth inhibition rate and survival fraction compared to those treated with NanoVNB (chemodrug only) and InNanoX (radionuclide only). Specific tumor targeting and significantly increased tumor uptake after periodical treatment with InVNBL were evidenced by scintigraphic imaging, especially in mice bearing small tumors. Conclusion The significant differences in the outcomes of cancer treatment and molecular imaging between animals bearing small and large tumors revealed that tumor burden is a critical and discriminative factor in cancer therapy using PEGylated liposomal drugs. PMID:23675454

  14. A Novel PEGylation Method for Improving the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Anti-Interleukin-17A RNA Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Kazuhiko; Otaki, Natsuki; Nagamine, Masakazu; Kayo, Tomoyoshi; Sasaki, Asako; Hiramoto, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Masayuki; Hota, Kuniyoshi; Sato, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Hiroaki

    2017-02-01

    The obstacles to the development of therapeutic aptamers for systemic inflammatory diseases, such as nuclease degradation and renal clearance, have not been fully overcome. Here, we report a novel PEGylation method, sbC-PEGylation, which improves the pharmacokinetic properties of RNA aptamers that act against interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in mice and monkeys. sbC-PEGylated aptamers were synthesized by coupling the symmetrical branching molecule 2-cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropyl phosphoroamidite to the 5' end of the aptamer, before conjugating two polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules to the aptamer. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that compared with conventionally PEGylated aptamers, the sbC-PEGylated aptamer exhibited excellent stability in the blood circulation of mice and monkeys. In addition, one of the sbC-PEGylated aptamers, 17M-382, inhibited the interleukin-6 (IL-6) production induced by IL-17A in NIH3T3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of sbC-PEGylated 17M-382 was two times lower than that of non-PEGylated 17M-382. Furthermore, the intraperitoneal administration of sbC-PEGylated 17M-382 significantly inhibited the IL-6 production induced by IL-17A in a mouse air pouch model. Our findings suggest that the novel PEGylation method described in this study, sbC-PEGylation, could be used to develop anti-IL-17A aptamers as a therapeutic option for systemic inflammatory disease.

  15. A Novel PEGylation Method for Improving the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Anti-Interleukin-17A RNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Otaki, Natsuki; Nagamine, Masakazu; Kayo, Tomoyoshi; Sasaki, Asako; Hiramoto, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Masayuki; Hota, Kuniyoshi; Sato, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    The obstacles to the development of therapeutic aptamers for systemic inflammatory diseases, such as nuclease degradation and renal clearance, have not been fully overcome. Here, we report a novel PEGylation method, sbC-PEGylation, which improves the pharmacokinetic properties of RNA aptamers that act against interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in mice and monkeys. sbC-PEGylated aptamers were synthesized by coupling the symmetrical branching molecule 2-cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropyl phosphoroamidite to the 5′ end of the aptamer, before conjugating two polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules to the aptamer. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that compared with conventionally PEGylated aptamers, the sbC-PEGylated aptamer exhibited excellent stability in the blood circulation of mice and monkeys. In addition, one of the sbC-PEGylated aptamers, 17M-382, inhibited the interleukin-6 (IL-6) production induced by IL-17A in NIH3T3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of sbC-PEGylated 17M-382 was two times lower than that of non-PEGylated 17M-382. Furthermore, the intraperitoneal administration of sbC-PEGylated 17M-382 significantly inhibited the IL-6 production induced by IL-17A in a mouse air pouch model. Our findings suggest that the novel PEGylation method described in this study, sbC-PEGylation, could be used to develop anti-IL-17A aptamers as a therapeutic option for systemic inflammatory disease. PMID:27827561

  16. [Pharmacokinetics of a long-circulating PEGylated Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo-jun; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi; Xu, De-sheng; Ruan, Ke-feng

    2011-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a long-circulating PEGylated Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP) was investigated in rats following i.v. or s.c. administration at three dose levels (9, 20, 50 mg x kg(-1)). A moderate coupling reaction between the hydroxyl-activated ROP and the amino-terminated mPEG was chosen to produce PEGylate ROP. The grafting degree of the prepared conjugate was 1.03, and the molecular mass of mPEG used was 20 kDa. High-performance gel permeation chromatorgraphy with fluorescein isothiocyanate prelabeling was established to determine levels of the conjugate in plasma. The results showed that the elimination half-life of the conjugate following s.c. administration was basically identical to that after iv administration. An accurate linear correlation was observed between administration doses and areas under the curve of plasma conjugate level vs. time profile, regardless of the administration route. The absolute bioavailability of the conjugate following sc administration was approximately 56%, and the mean in vivo residence time was 52.1 h, increased 2.4 times compared to those of iv administration. In general, linear pharmacokinetics was observed for the conjugate within the dose range studied, and sc should be a promising administration route for the conjugate.

  17. Microalbuminuria and pegylated interferon in hepatitis-C patients.

    PubMed

    Elshahawi, Yasser; Sany, Dawlat; Abd Elmohsen, Walid Anwar; Tantawi, Tarek

    2015-11-01

    To determine the relation between hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 and microalbuminuria in relation to hepatic histology and viremia in the absence of cryoglobulinemia and to examine the effect of treatment on microalbuminuria, we studied 400 HCV genotype-4-infected patients who were tested for microalbuminuria, albumin creatinine ratio (ACR), urea, creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The parameters were measured again in the HCV patients after six months of treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Microalbuminuria was detected in 56 (14%) HCV-positive patients. There was a highly significant reduction in the microalbuminuria levels among the HCV-positive individuals after six months of therapy (P <0.001). Microalbuminuria was significantly associated with older age [Odds Ratio (OR): 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-1.2, P = 0.01], elevated creatinine (OR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.01- 0.7, P = 0.02), high modified Histological Activity Index score (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, P = 0.004) and increased viral load (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-6.6, P = 0.01). Sustained virological response (SRV) was achieved in 272 (86%) patients. The individuals with SVR had lower microalbuminuria post-treatment (P = 0.56). We conclude that HCV infection can be associated with microalbuminuria, which can be reduced by the use of a combination therapy of pegylated interferon-ribavirin.

  18. Tailoring the degradation kinetics of mesoporous silicon structures through PEGylation

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Biana; Gu, Jianhua; Serda, Rita E.; Bhavane, Rohan; Tasciotti, Ennio; Chiappini, Ciro; Liu, Xuewu; Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Injectable and implantable porosified silicon (pSi) carriers and devices for prolonged and controlled delivery of biotherapeutics offer great promise for treatment of various chronic ailments and acute conditions. Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are important surface modifiers currently used in clinic mostly to avoid uptake of particlulates by reticulo-endothelial system (RES). In this work we show for the first time that covalent attachment of PEGs to the pSi surface can be used as a means to finely tune degradation kinetics of silicon structures. Seven PEGs with varying molecular weights (245, 333, 509, 686, 1214, 3400 and 5000Da) were employed and the degradation of PEGylated pSi hemispherical microparticles in simulated physiological conditions was monitored by means of ICP-AES, SEM and fluorimetry. Biocompatibility of the systems with human macrophages in vitro was also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that controlled PEGylation of silicon microparticles can offer a sensitive tool to finely tune their degradation kinetics and that the systems do not induce release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in THP1 human macrophages. PMID:20694990

  19. Analytical and preparative separation of PEGylated lysozyme for the characterization of chromatography media.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Anna; Christel, Jessica; Boettinger, Heiner; Mueller, Egbert

    2010-01-08

    The effect of PEGylation on cation exchange chromatography was studied with poly(ethylene glycol) of different chain lengths (5kDa, 10kDa and 30kDa) using lysozyme as a model system. A stable binding via reduction of a Schiff base was formed during random PEGylation on lysine residues with methoxy-PEG-aldehyde. A purification method for PEGylated proteins using cation exchange chromatography was developed, and different isoforms of mono-PEGylated lysozyme were isolated. TSKgel SP-5PW and Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M showed the best performance of all tested cation exchange resins, and the separation of PEGylated lysozyme could be also scaled up to semi-preparative level. Size-exclusion chromatography, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used for analysis. Separated mono-PEGylated lysozyme of different sizes was used to determine dynamic binding capacities (DBC) and selectivity of cation exchange chromatography resins. An optimization of binding conditions resulted in a more than 20-fold increase of DBC for Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M with 30kDa mono-PEGylated lysozyme.

  20. Endocytosis of PEGylated nanoparticles accompanied by structural and free energy changes of the grafted polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Kröger, Martin; Liu, Wing Kam

    2014-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are in use to efficiently deliver drug molecules into diseased cells. The surfaces of NPs are usually grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, during so-called PEGylation, to improve water solubility, avoid aggregation, and prevent opsonization during blood circulation. The interplay between grafting density σp and grafted PEG polymerization degree N makes cellular uptake of PEGylated NPs distinct from that of bare NPs. To understand the role played by grafted PEG polymers, we study the endocytosis of 8 nm sized PEGylated NPs with different σp and N through large scale dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The free energy change Fpolymer of grafted PEG polymers, before and after endocytosis, is identified to have an effect which is comparable to, or even larger than, the bending energy of the membrane during endocytosis. Based on self-consistent field theory Fpolymer is found to be dependent on both σp and N. By incorporating Fpolymer, the critical ligand-receptor binding strength for PEGylated NPs to be internalized can be correctly predicted by a simple analytical equation. Without considering Fpolymer, it turns out impossible to predict whether the PEGylated NPs will be delivered into the diseased cells. These simulation results and theoretical analysis not only provide new insights into the endocytosis process of PEGylated NPs, but also shed light on the underlying physical mechanisms, which can be utilized for designing efficient PEGylated NP-based therapeutic carriers with improved cellular targeting and uptake.

  1. Fluorescent proteins as efficient tools for evaluating the surface PEGylation of silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Ma, Minyan; Zhang, Xiao-ai; Zhang, Ze-yu; Saleh, Sayed M.; Wang, Xu-dong

    2017-06-01

    Surface PEGylation is essential for preventing non-specific binding of biomolecules when silica nanoparticles are utilized for in vivo applications. Methods for installing poly(ethylene glycol) on a silica surface have been widely explored but varies from study to study. Because there is a lack of a satisfactory method for evaluating the properties of silica surface after PEGylation, the prepared nanoparticles are not fully characterized before use. In some cases, even non-PEGylated silica nanoparticles were produced, which is unfortunately not recognized by the end-user. In this work, a fluorescent protein was employed, which acts as a sensitive material for evaluating the surface protein adsorption properties of silica nanoparticles. Eleven different methods were systematically investigated for their reaction efficiency towards surface PEGylation. Results showed that both reaction conditions (including pH, catalyst) and surface functional groups of parent silica nanoparticles play critical roles in producing fully PEGylated silica nanoparticles. Great care needs to be taken in choosing the proper coupling chemistry for surface PEGylation. The data and method shown here will guarantee high-quality PEGylated silica nanoparticles to be produced and guide their applications in biology, chemistry, industry and medicine.

  2. Optimal PEGylation can improve the exposure of interferon in the lungs following pulmonary administration.

    PubMed

    Mcleod, Victoria M; Chan, Linda J; Ryan, Gemma M; Porter, Christopher J H; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2015-04-01

    The utility of inhaled protein therapeutics to treat lung-resident diseases is limited by protein degradation in the lungs and rapid clearance. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the impact of PEGylation on the lung and systemic exposure of interferon (IFN) α2 after intratracheal administration to rats. An inverse correlation was observed between PEG chain length and systemic exposure, where bioavailability was 5.5% for the 31 kDa PEGylated construct and <0.4% for the 60 kDa PEGylated construct when compared with 15% for native IFN (19 kDa). Retention of PEGylated IFNα within the lungs increased 2.5-fold to threefold when compared with native IFN. When comparing the lung and systemic exposure of PEGylated and native IFN in terms of protein biological activity, the 31 kDa PEGylated construct increased exposure by 50% and 100%, respectively, when compared with native IFN, but the 60 kDa PEG construct offered no benefit. Preliminary work also indicated that the conjugation of IFNγ with 10 kDa PEG significantly increases the retention of the protein within the lung. Optimal PEGylation may therefore be used as a means to improve the exposure of lung-resident diseases to therapeutic cytokines and potentially reduce systemic exposure and side effects as well as dosing frequency.

  3. PEGylation enhancement of pH stability of uricase via inhibitive tetramer dissociation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong; Guo, Yuan; Gao, Xiangdong; Yao, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    Previously, PEGylated uricase was demonstrated to maintain catalytic activity at pH 5.8, the isoelectric point of uricase, where native uricase ceases to function. To find out whether PEGylation could enhance pH stability of uricase, the enzyme activity to pH curve was completely characterized. Complete characterization of the enzyme activity to pH curve, indicating an inverted bell-shaped relationship not previously documented, is presented. PEGylation enhancement of uricase stability at a pH lower than that commonly found in the liver, can be explored by dynamic dissociation of uricase using ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography. The results suggest the role of PEGylation in enhanced pH stability is via inhibition of subunit disintegration. The mechanism of this effect is characterized by the wrapping of PEG chains around uricase, providing a flexible shell preventing subunit disintegration. The presence of notable PEGylation-induced changes in uricase supports this mechanism and include improved enzyme-substrate affinity and elevated thermal stability. Characterization of PEGylated uricase provides a basis for the rational design of therapeutic PEGylated proteins. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Novel doxorubicin loaded PEGylated cuprous telluride nanocrystals for combined photothermal-chemo cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianwen; Ma, Yan; Chen, Huajian; Wu, Xiaoyi; Qian, Haisheng; Yang, Xianzhu; Zha, Zhengbao

    2017-02-06

    Recently, combined photothermal-chemo therapy has attracted great attention due to its enhanced anti-tumor efficiency via synergistic effects. Herein, PEGylated cuprous telluride nanocrystals (PEGylated Cu2Te NCs) were developed as novel drug nanocarriers for combined photothermal-chemo treatment of cancer cells. PEGylated Cu2Te NCs were fabricated through a simple two-step process, comprised of hot injection and thin-film hydration. The as-prepared PEGylated Cu2Te NCs (average diameter of 5.21±1.05nm) showed a noticeable photothermal conversion efficiency of 33.1% and good capacity to load hydrophobic anti-cancer drug. Due to the protonated amine group at low pH, the doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded PEGylated Cu2Te NCs (PEGylated Cu2Te-DOX NCs) exhibited an acidic pH promoted drug release profile. Moreover, a three-parameter model, which considers the effects of drug-carrier interactions on the initial burst release and the sustained release of drug from micro- and nano-sized carriers, was used to gain insight into how pH and laser irradiation affect drug release from PEGylated Cu2Te-DOX NCs. Based on the results from in vitro cell study, PEGylated Cu2Te-DOX NCs revealed remarkably photothermal-chemo synergistic effect to HeLa cells, attributed to both the PEGylated Cu2Te NCs mediated photothermal ablation and enhanced cellular uptake of the drug. Thus, our results encourage the usage of Cu2Te-DOX drug nanocarriers for enhanced treatment of cancer cells by combined photothermal-chemo therapy.

  5. Pharmacological properties of granulocytic colony-stimulating factor pegylated using electron beam synthesis nanotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Dygai, A M; Zyuz'kov, G N; Zhdanov, V V; Madonov, P G; Udut, E V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Khrichkova, T Yu; Simanina, E V; Stavrova, L A; Artamonov, A V; Bekarev, A A; Kinsht, D N; Chaikovskiy, A V; Markova, T S; Gurto, R V

    2011-11-01

    Granulocytic CSF pegylated using electron-beam synthesis nanotechnology exhibits pronounced granulomonocytopoiesis-stimulating and SC-mobilizing activity. More potent stimulation of committed precursors against the background of less pronounced activation of polypotent hemopoietic cells is a peculiarity of hemostimulating action of pegylated using electron-beam synthesis nanotechnology granulocytic CSF in comparison with its non-modified analog. The mobilizing effect of pegylated using electron-beam synthesis nanotechnology granulocytic CSF on early progenitor elements surpasses that of non-conjugated cytokine.

  6. The unexpected effect of PEGylated gold nanoparticles on the primary function of erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zeng; Liu, Jiaxin; Du, Libo

    2014-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by SIRPα-expressing leukocytes in bloodstream. The results suggested that PEGylated AuNPs have the potential to affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which should be considered when using them as drug carriers.Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by

  7. Discarded free PEG-based assay for obtaining the modification extent of pegylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xing Wen; Wei, Dong Zhi; He, Ming Lei; Xiong, Yu Chun

    2007-01-15

    Free polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a byproduct produced during the process of pegylation and should be removed for the purification of pegylated proteins. In this paper, it was used to develop a new method for obtaining the modification extent of pegylated proteins. This method included two steps of operation. Firstly, the free PEG was separated from crude reaction mixture of pegylated proteins by CM-Sepharose FF. Then PEG was determined based on the formation of a complex with barium chloride and iodine solution. The effective detective range of PEG was 0-7.5mug/ml. The modification extent was calculated according to a formula. This method is simple, sensitive, and applicable to all of the PEG derivatives. The most distinctive aspect is that it does not consume proteins.

  8. Prolonged pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment for recurrent pelvic cancers: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Alex; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Lau, Susie; Gotlieb, Walter H

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a proof of concept study evaluating prolonged treatment with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for recurrent ovarian, tubal and peritoneal carcinoma. Thirteen consecutive patients received an average of 22.6 cycles of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, with an average cumulative dose of 1409 mg/m(2) . Progression-free survival at 18 months was 61.5%, and was longer than the previous progression-free survival in 10 of the 13 patients. Overall 5-year survival was 78.8%. Despite prolonged use and relatively large cumulative doses of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, most of the patients had mild to moderate side-effects, none of the patients had detectable cardio-toxic side-effects, and a positive impact on the performance status was noticed. Thus, in our group of patients, continued pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment was associated with a longer progression-free interval and allowed improved performance status with manageable toxicity.

  9. Pegylated arginine deiminase: a novel anticancer enzyme agent

    PubMed Central

    Feun, Lynn; Savaraj, Niramol

    2011-01-01

    Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) is a novel anticancer enzyme that produces depletion of arginine, which is a nonessential amino acid in humans. Certain tumours, such as malignant melanoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, are auxotrophic for arginine. These tumours that are sensitive to arginine depletion do not express argininosuccinate synthetase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of arginine from citrulline. ADI-PEG20 inhibits human melanomas and hepatocellular carcinomas in vitro and in vivo. Phase I – II trials in patients with melanoma and hepatocellular carcinomas have shown the drug to have antitumour activity and tolerable side effects. Large Phase II trials and randomised, controlled Phase III trials are needed to determine its overall efficacy in the treatment of these malignancies and others. PMID:16787144

  10. PEGylated graphene oxide for tumor-targeted delivery of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongyang; Fan, Minmin; Elhissi, Abdelbary M A; Zhang, Zhirong; Wan, Ka-Wai; Ahmed, Waqar; Phoenix, David A; Sun, Xun

    2015-01-01

    The graphene oxide (GO) sheet has been considered one of the most promising carbon derivatives in the field of material science for the past few years and has shown excellent tumor-targeting ability, biocompatibility and low toxicity. We have endeavored to conjugate paclitaxel (PTX) to GO molecule and investigate its anticancer efficacy. We conjugated the anticancer drug PTX to aminated PEG chains on GO sheets through covalent bonds to get GO-PEG-PTX complexes. The tissue distribution and anticancer efficacy of GO-PEG-PTX were then investigated using a B16 melanoma cancer-bearing C57 mice model. The GO-PEG-PTX complexes exhibited excellent water solubility and biocompatibility. Compared with the traditional formulation of PTX (Taxol®), GO-PEG-PTX has shown prolonged blood circulation time as well as high tumor-targeting and -suppressing efficacy. PEGylated graphene oxide is an excellent nanocarrier for paclitaxel for cancer targeting.

  11. PEGylated PRINT Nanoparticles: The Impact of PEG Density on Protein Binding, Macrophage Association, Biodistribution, and Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jillian L.; Reuter, Kevin G.; Kai, Marc P.; Herlihy, Kevin P.; Jones, Stephen W.; Luft, J. Chris; Napier, Mary; Bear, James E.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    In this account, we varied PEGylation density on the surface of hydrogel PRINT nanoparticles and systematically observed the effects on protein adsorption, macrophage uptake, and circulation time. Interestingly, the density of PEGylation necessary to promote a long-circulating particle was dramatically less than what has been previously reported. Overall, our methodology provides a rapid screening technique to predict particle behavior in vivo and our results deliver further insight to what PEG density is necessary to facilitate long-circulation. PMID:22920324

  12. Site-specific PEGylation of human thyroid stimulating hormone to prolong duration of action.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huawei; Boudanova, Ekaterina; Park, Anna; Bird, Julie J; Honey, Denise M; Zarazinski, Christine; Greene, Ben; Kingsbury, Jonathan S; Boucher, Susan; Pollock, Julie; McPherson, John M; Pan, Clark Q

    2013-03-20

    Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH or Thyrogen) has been approved for thyroid cancer diagnostics and treatment under a multidose regimen due to its short circulating half-life. To reduce dosing frequency, PEGylation strategies were explored to increase the duration of action of rhTSH. Lysine and N-terminal PEGylation resulted in heterogeneous product profiles with 40% or lower reaction yields of monoPEGylated products. Eleven cysteine mutants were designed based on a structure model of the TSH-TSH receptor (TSHR) complex to create unique conjugation sites on both α and β subunits for site-specific conjugation. Sequential screening of mutant expression level, oligomerization tendency, and conjugation efficiency resulted in the identification of the αG22C rhTSH mutant for stable expression and scale-up PEGylation. The introduced cysteine in the αG22C rhTSH mutant was partially blocked when isolated from conditioned media and could only be effectively PEGylated after mild reduction with cysteine. This produced a higher reaction yield, ~85%, for the monoPEGylated product. Although the mutation had no effect on receptor binding, PEGylation of αG22C rhTSH led to a PEG size-dependent decrease in receptor binding. Nevertheless, the 40 kDa PEG αG22C rhTSH showed a prolonged duration of action compared to rhTSH in a rat pharmacodynamics model. Reverse-phase HPLC and N-terminal sequencing experiments confirmed site-specific modification at the engineered Cys 22 position on the α-subunit. This work is another demonstration of successful PEGylation of a cysteine-knot protein by an engineered cysteine mutation.

  13. Combination regimens using doxorubicin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin prior to autologous transplantation in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    Doxorubicin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin are key compounds of several induction regimens used prior to autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with de novo multiple myeloma, such as vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone (VAD), vincristine, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin/Doxil, dexamethasone (DVd) or PS-341/bortezomib, doxorubicin, dexamethasone (PAD). The aim of this article is to summarize the more recent data available on the efficacy of these combinations and to discuss their role as part of initial therapy.

  14. In vivo antitumor effect of cromolyn in PEGylated liposomes for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cha-Eun; Lim, Sun-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Seok

    2012-01-30

    A PEGylated liposomal formulation of cromolyn, composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethyleneglycol)-2000] (DSPE-mPEG2000), has been developed with the purpose of improving the antitumor activity of cromolyn for human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In stability study, the amount of proteins adsorbed onto the PEGylated liposomes encapsulating cromolyn was 4.5-fold lower than the non-PEGylated liposome. In vitro study showed that the cromolyn in PEGylated liposome exhibited better anti-proliferative effect in BxPC-3 cells than in Panc-1 cells, which indicates higher level of endogenous S100P protein in BxPC-3 cells than in Panc-1 cells as a target protein for this drug. Moreover, the combination of cromolyn with gemcitabine in PEGylated liposomes demonstrated the strongest cytotoxicity to BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the highest anti-tumor activity against the BxPC-3 tumor bearing nude mice in vivo. Thus, this PEGylated liposomal formulation of cromolyn is expected to provide a novel approach to the treatment of pancreatic cancer in the future.

  15. Native protein-initiated ATRP: a viable and potentially superior alternative to PEGylation for stabilizing biologics.

    PubMed

    Depp, Virginia; Alikhani, Azadeh; Grammer, Victoria; Lele, Bhalchandra S

    2009-02-01

    Comparison of in vitro serum stability and enzyme activity retention for PEGylated chymotrypsin and structurally different, biocompatible vinyl polymer grafts of chymotrypsin was performed. These polymer grafts were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiated by chymotrypsin covalently modified with 2-bromoisobutyric acid, the ATRP initiator. The maximum number of ATRP initiators attached to chymotrypsin was adjusted to be as close as possible to the maximum number of polyethylene glycol chains attached to chymotrypsin for better comparison and then polymerizations were conducted. In mouse serum, native and PEGylated chymotrypsin deactivated within 24h, whereas chymotrypsin-graft-poly(N-2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide) retained >50% of its catalytic activity even after 5 days of incubation. In human serum, PEGylated chymotrypsin deactivated within 4 days of incubation, whereas native chymotrypsin and chymotrypsin-graft-poly(N-2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide) and chymotrypsin-graft-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) retained >25% catalytic activity after 5 days of incubation. Biocompatible vinyl polymer grafts of chymotrypsin synthesized by protein-initiated ATRP had higher catalytic activity retention and molecular weights and lower polydispersity than PEGylated chymotrypsin. In summary, studying the effects of structures of conjugated polymers on the stability and activity retention of modified proteins can lead to identification of a polymer-protein conjugate having superior pharmacological properties than conventionally PEGylated protein. Also, since vinyl monomers that form biocompatible polymers are easily polymerizable by ATRP, protein-initiated ATRP can become a viable and potentially superior alternative to PEGylation for stabilizing biologics.

  16. An evaluation of anti-tumor effect and toxicity of PEGylated ursolic acid liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Tingting; Liu, Yanping; Xing, Shanshan; Li, Lei; Gao, Dawei

    2016-02-01

    Therapy of solid tumors mediated by nano-drug delivery has attracted considerable interest. In our previous study, ursolic acid (UA) was successfully encapsulated into PEGylated liposomes. The study aimed to evaluate the tumor inhibition effect and cytotoxicity of the PEGylated UA liposomes by U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice. The liposomes were spherical particles with mean particle diameters of 127.2 nm. The tumor inhibition rate of PEGylated UA liposomes was 53.60 % on U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice, which was greater than those of the UA solution (18.25 %) and traditional UA liposome groups (40.75 %). The tumor cells apoptosis rate of PEGylated UA liposomes was 25.81 %, which was significantly higher than that of the traditional UA liposomes (13.37 %). Moreover, the kidney and liver did not emerge the pathological changes in UA therapeutic mice by histopathological analysis, while there were significant differences on tumor tissues among three UA formulation groups. The PEGylated UA liposomes exhibited higher anti-tumor activity and lower cytotoxicity, and the main reason was that the coating PEG layer improved UA liposome properties, such as enhancing the stability of liposomes, promoting the effect of slow release, and prolonging the time of blood circulation. This may shed light on the development of PEGylated nano-vehicles.

  17. A frustrating problem: accelerated blood clearance of PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles following subcutaneous injection in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxue; Wang, Chunling; Wang, Long; Yang, Qiang; Tang, Wenya; She, Zhennan; Deng, Yihui

    2012-08-01

    Colloidal particles have preferential access to the lymphatic system following subcutaneous administration, achieving lymphatic targeting by drug accumulation in the regional lymph nodes. Moreover, the surface PEGylated colloidal particles have shown enhanced drainage into lymphatics and uptake by macrophages of the regional lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection. Nevertheless, it is reported that upon repeated intravenous injection, the PEG-specific IgM produced by the administration of the PEGylated colloidal particles markedly accelerates the clearance of subsequent doses of PEGylated particles. In this article, we report that the first subcutaneous injection of PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles also induces the intravenously administered PEGylated particles to be cleared very rapidly from the circulation, and the "ABC index," a parameter for the intensity of accelerated blood clearance, for subcutaneous injection was equivalent to or even lower than that following the first intravenous injection. Moreover, the small quantities of distributed particles in the spleen after the first s.c. dose but the significantly higher elimination rate of the second i.v. dose, strongly suggest that, in addition to the spleen, the regional lymph nodes also play a promotive role in this phenomenon, although the exact lymphocytes causing this phenomenon remain unclear. Our observations may thus have important implications for considering combination therapy with PEGylated productions requiring different administration routes such as intravenous and subcutaneous injection, and great care is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dielectrophoretic behavior of PEGylated RNase A inside a microchannel with diamond-shaped insulating posts.

    PubMed

    Mata-Gómez, Marco A; Gallo-Villanueva, Roberto C; González-Valdez, José; Martínez-Chapa, Sergio O; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Ribonuclease A (RNase A) has proven potential as a therapeutic agent, especially in its PEGylated form. Grafting of PEG molecules to this protein yields mono-PEGylated (mono-PEG) and di-PEGylated (di-PEG) RNase A conjugates, and the unreacted protein. Mono-PEG RNase A is of great interest. The use of electrokinetic forces in microdevices represents a novel alternative to chromatographic methods to separate this specie. This work describes the dielectrophoretic behavior of the main protein products of the RNase A PEGylation inside a microchannel with insulators under direct current electric fields. This approach represents the first step in route to design micro-bioprocesses to separate PEGylated RNase A from unreacted native protein. The three proteins exhibited different dielectrophoretic behaviors. All of them experienced a marked streaming pattern at 3000 V consistent with positive dielectrophoresis. Native protein was not captured at any of the conditions tested, while mono-PEG RNase A and di-PEG RNase A were captured presumably due to positive dielectrophoresis at 4000 and 2500 V, respectively. Concentration of mono-PEG RNase A with a maximal enrichment efficiency of ≈9.6 times the feed concentration was achieved in few seconds. These findings open the possibility of designing novel devices for rapid separation, concentration, and recovery of PEGylated RNase A in a one-step operation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Use of capillary electrophoresis as a versatile tool to measure interaction constants between a KDR-binding PEGylated lipopeptide and pegylated phospholipid micelles.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Martine; Tranquart, François; Cherkaoui, Samir

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of our molecular imaging activities, a PEGylated lipopeptide has been developed as a specific ligand for the human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, which is considered as one of the important molecular marker of angiogenesis. In this study, the potential of affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) is evaluated to measure the interactions of an active PEGylated lipopeptide, its hydrolysis product and its precursor consisting of a peptide structure with different micelles including Brij-35, Tween-20, and pegylated phospholipids. Given the amphiphilic structure of the PEGylated lipopeptide, a MEKC method allowing the simultaneous separation of the compounds of interest was set up, using low percentages of acetonitrile. Analytes were resolved using a BGE consisting of 100 mM borate buffer pH 9.0, 1 mM Brij, and 25% acetonitrile. Optimized conditions were then used to perform ACE experiments. The affinity constants of the analytes with the micelles were calculated on the basis of their mobility decrease when surfactant concentration increased in the electrolyte. The use of different linearization models to estimate affinity constants was discussed and comparison of different surfactants was reported. PEGylated lipopeptide interacted more strongly with pegylated phospholipid micelles than with Brij-35 or Tween-20. Moreover, it is likely that the chemical structure of the compounds, and particularly the lipidic part of the molecules, significantly affects the interaction with micelles. In conclusion, the ACE method can be readily applied to investigate interactions of our targeting lipopeptides with various micelles currently used for the preparation of pharmaceutical vehicles.

  20. Adjustable bioadhesive control of PEGylated hyperbranch brushes on polystyrene microplate interface for the improved sensitivity of human blood typing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Wen; Chang, Yung; Lee, Rong-Ho; Li, Wen-Tyng; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2014-08-05

    A PEGylated 96-well polystyrene (PS) microplate was first introduced for applications in high-throughput screening for selective blood typing to minimize the risks in blood transfusions. Herein, we present a hemocompatible PS 96-well microplate with adjustable PEGylated hyperbranch brush coverage prepared by ozone pretreated activation and thermally induced surface PEGylation. The grafting properties, hydration capacity, and blood compatibility of the PEGylated hyperbrush immobilized PS surfaces in human blood were illustrated by the combined chemical and physical properties of the surface, and the dependence of the specific absorption of human plasma fibrinogen onto the PEGylated surfaces on the grafting density was analyzed by monoclonal antibodies. The surface coverage of PEGylated brushes plays a major role in the bioadhesive properties of modified PS microplates, which in turn control the level of agglutination sensitivity in blood typing. The bioadhesive resistance toward proteins, platelets, and erythrocytes in human whole blood showed a correlation to the controlled hydration properties of the PEGylated hyperbrush-modified surfaces. Therefore, we suggested that the surface coverage of PEGylated hyperbrushes on PS surfaces can increase the sensitivity of cross-matching blood agglutination by up to 16-fold compared to that of the conventional 96-well virgin PS due to the regulated biorecognition of hematocrit and antibodies of the PEGylated hyperbrush-modified surfaces.

  1. PEGylated recombinant human interferon-ω as a long-acting antiviral agent: structure, antiviral activity and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weili; Yu, Changming; Wu, Ling; Fang, Ting; Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Jinlong; Yu, Ting; Fu, Ling; Chen, Wei; Hu, Tao

    2014-08-01

    Recombinant human interferon-ω (rhIFN-ω) exhibits a potent antiviral activity. Because of poor pharmacokinetics (PK) of rhIFN-ω, frequent dosing of rhIFN-ω is necessitated to achieve the sustained antiviral efficacy. PEGylation can efficiently improve the PK of rhIFN-ω while substantially decrease its bioactivity. The structure, antiviral activity and PK of the PEGylated rhIFN-ω were measured to establish their relationship with PEGylation sites, polyethylene glycol (PEG) mass and PEG structure. Accordingly, N-terminus and the lysine residues were selected as the PEGylation sites. PEGs with Mw of 20kDa and 40kDa were used to investigate the effect of PEG mass. Linear and branched PEGs were used to investigate the effect of PEG structure. PEGylation decreased the antiviral activity of rhIFN-ω and improved its PK. The PEGylation sites determine the bioactivity of the PEGylated rhIFN-ω and the conjugated PEG mass determines the PK. N-terminally PEGylated rhIFN-ω with 40kDa linear PEG maintains 21.7% of the rhIFN-ω antiviral activity with a half-life of 139.6h. Thus, N-terminally PEGylated rhIFN-ω with linear 40kDa PEG is a potential antiviral agent for long-acting treatment of the viral diseases.

  2. Persistence of antimicrobial activity through sustained release of triclosan from pegylated silicone elastomers.

    PubMed

    McBride, Marcella C; Karl Malcolm, R; David Woolfson, A; Gorman, Sean P

    2009-12-01

    Microbial adhesion to silicone elastomer biomaterials is a major problem often resulting in infection and medical device failure. Several strategies have been employed to modulate eukaryotic cell adhesion and to hamper bacterial adherence to polymeric biomaterials. Chemical modification of the surface by grafting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains or the incorporation of non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents such as triclosan into the biomaterial matrix may reduce bacterial adhesion. Here, such strategies are simultaneously applied to the preparation of both condensation-cure and addition-cure silicone elastomer systems, seeking a sustained release antimicrobial device biomaterial. The influence of triclosan incorporation and degree of pegylation on antimicrobial release, surface microbial adherence and persistence (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were evaluated in vitro. Non-pegylated silicone elastomers provided an increased percentage release of triclosan extending over a relatively short duration (99% release by day 64) compared with their pegylated (4% w/w) counterparts (65% and 72% release by day 64, for condensation and addition-cure systems respectively). Viable E. coli adherence to a non-pegylated silicone elastomer containing 1% w/w triclosan was reduced by over 99% after 24 h compared to the non-pegylated silicone elastomer containing no triclosan. No viable S. epidermidis adhered to any of the triclosan-loaded (>0.1% w/w) formulations other than the control. Persistence of the antimicrobial activity of the triclosan-loaded pegylated silicone elastomers continued for at least 70 days compared to the triclosan-loaded non-pegylated elastomers (at least 49 days). Understanding how PEG affects the release of triclosan from silicone elastomers may prove useful in the development of a biomaterial providing prolonged, effective antimicrobial activity.

  3. A Load Cell for Hydrostatic Weighing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Thomas D.; Schroeder, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Although a load cell is more expensive than the autopsy scale for hydrostatic weighing, it is more accurate, easier to read, has no moving parts, is less susceptible to rust, and is less likely to be damaged by large subjects exceeding its capacity. (Author)

  4. A Load Cell for Hydrostatic Weighing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Thomas D.; Schroeder, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Although a load cell is more expensive than the autopsy scale for hydrostatic weighing, it is more accurate, easier to read, has no moving parts, is less susceptible to rust, and is less likely to be damaged by large subjects exceeding its capacity. (Author)

  5. PEGylation site-dependent structural heterogeneity study of monoPEGylated human parathyroid hormone fragment hPTH(1-34).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Ying; Li, Xin; Chen, Wen-Yih; Chang, Li-Chiao; Chen, Yi-Fan; Chen, Hsin-Lung; Sun, Ya-Sen; Lai, Hsiu-Yun; Huang, E-Wen

    2014-09-30

    The structures of C- and N-terminally monoPEGylated human parathyroid hormone fragment hPTH(1-34) as well as their unmodified counterparts, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hPTH(1-34), have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The scattering results show that free hPTH(1-34) in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) aggregates into clusters. After conjugation with PEG, the PEG-peptide conjugates self-assemble into a supramolecular core-shell structure with a cylindrical shape. The PEG chains form a shell around the hPTH(1-34) core to shield hPTH(1-34) from the solvent. The detailed structural information on the self-assembled structures is extracted from SANS using a model of the cylindrical core with a shell of Gaussian chains attached to the core surface. On the basis of the data, because of the charge-dipole interactions between the conjugated PEG chain and the peptide, the conjugated PEG chain forms a more collapsed conformation compared to free PEG. Moreover, the size of the self-assembled structures formed by the C-terminally monoPEGylated hPTH(1-34) is about 3 times larger than that of the N-terminally monoPEGylated hPTH(1-34). The different aggregation numbers of the self-assembled structures, triggered by different PEGylation sites, are reported. These size discrepancies because of different PEGylation sites could potentially affect the pharmacokinetics of the hPTH(1-34) drug.

  6. Fine-tuned PEGylation of chitosan to maintain optimal siRNA-nanoplex bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Guţoaia, Andra; Schuster, Liane; Margutti, Simona; Laufer, Stefan; Schlosshauer, Burkhard; Krastev, Rumen; Stoll, Dieter; Hartmann, Hanna

    2016-06-05

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a widely used modification for drug delivery systems. It reduces undesired interaction with biological components, aggregation of complexes and serves as a hydrophilic linker of ligands for targeted drug delivery. However, PEGylation can also lead to undesired changes in physicochemical characteristics of chitosan/siRNA nanoplexes and hamper gene silencing. To address this conflicting issue, PEG-chitosan copolymers were synthesized with stepwise increasing degrees of PEG substitution (1.5% to 8.0%). Subsequently formed PEG-chitosan/siRNA nanoplexes were characterized physicochemically and biologically. The results showed that small ratios of chitosan PEGylation did not affect nanoplex stability and density. However, higher PEGylation ratios reduced nanoplex size and charge, as well as cell uptake and final siRNA knockdown efficiency. Therefore, we recommend fine-tuning of PEGylation ratios to generate PEG-chitosan/siRNA delivery systems with maximum bioactivity. The degree of PEGylation for chitosan/siRNA nanoplexes should be kept low in order to maintain optimal nanoplex efficiency.

  7. Intra-tumor distribution of PEGylated liposome upon repeated injection: No possession by prior dose.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Abu Lila, Amr S; Nishio, Miho; Tanaka, Masao; Ando, Hidenori; Kiwada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2015-12-28

    Liposomes have proven to be a viable means for the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to solid tumors. However, significant variability has been detected in their intra-tumor accumulation and distribution, resulting in compromised therapeutic outcomes. We recently examined the intra-tumor accumulation and distribution of weekly sequentially administered oxaliplatin (l-OHP)-containing PEGylated liposomes. In that study, the first and second doses of l-OHP-containing PEGylated liposomes were distributed diversely and broadly within tumor tissues, resulting in a potent anti-tumor efficacy. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying such a diverse and broad liposome distribution. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of dosage interval on the intra-tumor accumulation and distribution of "empty" PEGylated liposomes. Intra-tumor distribution of sequentially administered "empty" PEGylated liposomes was altered in a dosing interval-dependent manner. In addition, the intra-tumor distribution pattern was closely related to the chronological alteration of tumor blood flow as well as vascular permeability in the growing tumor tissue. These results suggest that the sequential administrations of PEGylated liposomes in well-spaced intervals might allow the distribution to different areas and enhance the total bulk accumulation within tumor tissue, resulting in better therapeutic efficacy of the encapsulated payload. This study may provide useful information for a better design of therapeutic regimens involving multiple administrations of nanocarrier drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mono-PEGylated radix ophiopogonis polysaccharide for the treatment of myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sun, GuiLan; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Wu, Fei; Xu, DeSheng; Ruan, KeFeng; Feng, Yi

    2013-07-16

    This work aimed to improve the clinical application of Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP), a natural anti-myocardial ischemic fructan with Mw of 4.80 kDa, by mono-PEGylation. Three mono-PEGylated ROPs were prepared by a moderate coupling reaction between amino-terminated methoxy-PEG (20-, 30-, or 40-kDa) and excessive hydroxyl-activated ROP. After being fully characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance as well as high-performance gel permeation chromatography and anthrone-sulfuric acid colorimetry coupled assay, they were evaluated for pharmacokinetics and anti-myocardial ischemic activities in rats with coronary artery ligation. The results showed that mono-PEGylated ROPs were successfully and effectively prepared. Compared with ROP, the three mono-PEGylated ROPs showed approximately 32-, 85-, and 100-fold prolonged retention in systemic circulation with plasma half-lives reaching 16.1, 42.4, and 49.8 h, respectively. Studies on anti-myocardial ischemic effects of the conjugates showed that administrated at the same molar dose of 4 μ mol/kg per injection as ROP, they could achieve comparable or even better therapeutic effects although their administration intervals were 2- to 6-fold longer than that of ROP. These findings confirm that PEGylation would be a promising approach to markedly reducing the injection-administered frequency of ROP and hence patient compliance without sacrifice of the therapeutic efficacy by significantly improving its pharmacokinetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantification and Qualitative Effects of Different PEGylations on Poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Åslund, Andreas K O; Sulheim, Einar; Snipstad, Sofie; von Haartman, Eva; Baghirov, Habib; Starr, Nichola; Kvåle Løvmo, Mia; Lelú, Sylvie; Scurr, David; Davies, Catharina de Lange; Schmid, Ruth; Mørch, Ýrr

    2017-02-22

    Protein adsorption on nanoparticles (NPs) used in nanomedicine leads to opsonization and activation of the complement system in blood, which substantially reduces the blood circulation time of NPs. The most commonly used method to avoid protein adsorption is to coat the NPs with polyethylene glycol, so-called PEGylation. Although PEGylation is of utmost importance for designing the in vivo behavior of the NP, there is still a considerable lack of methods for characterization and fundamental understanding related to the PEGylation of NPs. In this work we have studied four different poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) NPs, PEGylated with different types of PEG-based nonionic surfactants-Jeffamine M-2070, Brij L23, Kolliphor HS 15, Pluronic F68-or combinations thereof. We evaluated the PEGylation, both quantitatively by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and qualitatively by studying ζ-potential, protein adsorption, diffusion, cellular interactions, and blood circulation half-life. We found that NMR and ToF-SIMS are complementary methods, while TGA is less suitable to quantitate PEG on polymeric NPs. It was found that longer PEG increases both blood circulation time and diffusion of NPs in collagen gels.

  10. Stability and biological activity evaluations of PEGylated human basic fibroblast growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Hadadian, Shahin; Shamassebi, Dariush Norouzian; Mirzahoseini, Hasan; Shokrgozar, Mohamad Ali; Bouzari, Saeid; Sepahi, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human basic fibroblast growth factor (hBFGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor and stimulates the proliferation of a wide variety of cells and tissues causing survival properties and its stability and biological activity improvements have received much attention. Materials and Methods: In the present work, hBFGF produced by engineered Escherichia coli and purified by cation exchange and heparin affinity chromatography, was PEGylated under appropriate condition employing 10 kD polyethylene glycol. The PEGylated form was separated by size exclusion chromatography. Structural, biological activity, and stability evaluations were performed using Fourier transform infrared (FITR) spectroscopy, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and effect denaturing agent, respectively. Results: FITR spectroscopy revealed that both PEGylated and native forms had the same structures. MTT assay showed that PEGyalated form had a 30% reduced biological activity. Fluorescence spectrophotometry indicated that the PEGylated form denatured at higher concentrations of guanidine HCl (1.2 M) compared with native, which denatured at 0.8 M guanidine HCl. Conclusions: PEGylation of hBFGF makes it more stable against denaturing agent but reduces its bioactivity up to 30%. PMID:26605215

  11. Selective functional activity measurement of a PEGylated protein with a modification-dependent activity assay.

    PubMed

    Weber, Alfred; Engelmaier, Andrea; Mohr, Gabriele; Haindl, Sonja; Schwarz, Hans Peter; Turecek, Peter L

    2017-01-05

    BAX 855 (ADYNOVATE) is a PEGylated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) that showed prolonged circulatory half-life compared to unmodified rFVIII in hemophilic patients. Here, the development and validation of a novel assay is described that selectively measures the activity of BAX 855 as cofactor for the serine protease factor IX, which actives factor X. This method type, termed modification-dependent activity assay, is based on PEG-specific capture of BAX 855 by an anti-PEG IgG preparation, followed by a chromogenic FVIII activity assay. The assay principle enabled sensitive measurement of the FVIII cofactor activity of BAX 855 down to the pM-range without interference by non-PEGylated FVIII. The selectivity of the capture step, shown by competition studies to primarily target the terminal methoxy group of PEG, also allowed assessment of the intactness of the attached PEG chains. Altogether, the modification-dependent activity not only enriches, but complements the group of methods to selectively, accurately, and precisely measure a PEGylated drug in complex biological matrices. In contrast to all other methods described so far, it allows measurement of the biological activity of the PEGylated protein. Data obtained demonstrate that this new method principle can be extended to protein modifications other than PEGylation and to a variety of functional activity assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of the structure of pegylated-recombinant protein therapeutics by the NMR fingerprint assay.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Derek J; Aubin, Yves

    2017-05-10

    A number of recombinant protein therapeutic products, such as filgrastim (methionyl granulocyte colony stimulating factor [Met-GCSF] used to boost the immune system in chemotherapy treated cancer patients), and interferon alpha-2 (used for the treatment of various viral infections), have been chemically modified with the addition of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain. This modification prolongs residency of the drug in the body and reduces metabolic degradation, which allows less frequent administration of the products. Here we show how NMR spectroscopy methods can assess the higher order structure (HOS) of pegylated-filgrastim (Neulasta®), pegylated interferon-α2a (Pegasys®) pegylated interferon-α2b (PEG-Intron®) purchased from the marketplace. The addition of the PEG moiety effectively doubles the molecular weight of the three products. This presents a significant challenge for the application of NMR techniques. Nevertheless, the results showed that high-resolution spectra could be recorded for two of the three products. Comparison of the spectra of the pegylated protein and the non-pegylated protein shows that the chemical modification did not alter the HOS of these proteins.

  13. Rational design of a fully active, long-acting PEGylated factor VIII for hemophilia A treatment.

    PubMed

    Mei, Baisong; Pan, Clark; Jiang, Haiyan; Tjandra, Hendri; Strauss, Jonathan; Chen, Yaoqi; Liu, Tongyao; Zhang, Xin; Severs, Joanne; Newgren, Jim; Chen, Jianmin; Gu, Jian-Ming; Subramanyam, Babu; Fournel, Michael A; Pierce, Glenn F; Murphy, John E

    2010-07-15

    A long-acting factor VIII (FVIII) as a replacement therapy for hemophilia A would significantly improve treatment options for patients with hemophilia A. To develop a FVIII with an extended circulating half-life, but without a reduction in activity, we have engineered 23 FVIII variants with introduced surface-exposed cysteines to which a polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer was specifically conjugated. Screening of variant expression level, PEGylation yield, and functional assay identified several conjugates retaining full in vitro coagulation activity and von Willebrand factor (VWF) binding.PEGylated FVIII variants exhibited improved pharmacokinetics in hemophilic mice and rabbits. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies in VWF knockout mice indicated that larger molecular weight PEG may substitute for VWF in protecting PEGylated FVIII from clearance in vivo. In bleeding models of hemophilic mice, PEGylated FVIII not only exhibited prolonged efficacy that is consistent with the improved pharmacokinetics but also showed efficacy in stopping acute bleeds comparable with that of unmodified rFVIII. In summary site-specifically PEGylated FVIII has the potential to be a long-acting prophylactic treatment while being fully efficacious for on-demand treatment for patients with hemophilia A.

  14. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterization, and antioxidant effect of PEGylated cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yingfei; Balmuri, Sricharani Rao; Patel, Akhil; Sant, Vinayak; Sant, Shilpa

    2017-06-06

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) represent a promising class of antioxidant nanoparticles with potential therapeutic value. Due to the easily reversible oxidation states of cerium (Ce(3+) and Ce(4+)) at the nanoscale, CNPs scavenge excessive reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in a self-regenerative manner. In this study, we have demonstrated a simple method to functionalize shape-specific CNPs (i.e., rod- and cube-shaped) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and studied the effect of PEGylation on the physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and biocompatibility of rod- and cube-shaped CNPs. The chemical conjugation of PEG onto the CNP surface was confirmed by a series of physico-chemical characterizations ((1)H-NMR, FTIR, and surface zeta potential). Rod-shaped CNPs demonstrated greater reactive oxygen species scavenging ability compared to cube-shaped CNPs. PEGylation of CNPs did not affect shape, cerium oxidation state, and cytocompatibility. Importantly, PEGylation significantly reduced the amount of proteins adsorbed onto the CNPs. The antioxidant effects of CNPs were maintained in PEGylated CNPs. We envision that PEGylated rod-shaped CNPs synthesized in this study have the potential to be biocompatible nanoparticles that can combat oxidative stress-related diseases.

  15. Using anti-poly(ethylene glycol) bioparticles for the quantitation of PEGylated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yuan-Chin; Cheng, Ta-Chun; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Li, Jia-Je; Lin, Wen-Wei; Huang, Chien-Chiao; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Roffler, Steve R; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2016-12-19

    Attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules to nanoparticles (PEGylation) is a widely-used method to improve the stability, biocompatibility and half-life of nanomedicines. However, the evaluation of the PEGylated nanomedicine pharmacokinetics (PK) requires the decomposition of particles and purification of lead compounds before analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, etc. Therefore, a method to directly quantify un-decomposed PEGylated nanoparticles is needed. In this study, we developed anti-PEG bioparticles and combined them with anti-PEG antibodies to generate a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for direct measurement of PEGylated nanoparticles without compound purification. The anti-PEG bioparticles quantitative ELISA directly quantify PEG-quantum dots (PEG-QD), PEG-stabilizing super-paramagnetic iron oxide (PEG-SPIO), Lipo-Dox and PEGASYS and the detection limits were 0.01 nM, 0.1 nM, 15.63 ng/mL and 0.48 ng/mL, respectively. Furthermore, this anti-PEG bioparticle-based ELISA tolerated samples containing up to 10% mouse or human serum. There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic studies of radiolabeled PEG-nanoparticles (Nano-X-(111)In) through anti-PEG bioparticle-based ELISA and a traditional gamma counter. These results suggest that the anti-PEG bioparticle-based ELISA may provide a direct and effective method for the quantitation of any whole PEGylated nanoparticles without sample preparation.

  16. Sensitivity of PEGylated interferon detection by anti-polyethylene glycol (PEG) antibodies depends on PEG length.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ta-Chun; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Chen, Michael; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Su, Yu-Cheng; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Kao, Chien-Han; Chen, Bing-Mae; Chang, Long-Sen; Roffler, Steve R; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2013-08-21

    Attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) to proteins can mask immune epitopes to increase serum half-life, reduce immunogenicity, and enhance in vivo biological efficacy. However, PEGylation mediated epitope-masking may also limit sensitivity and accuracy of traditional ELISA. We previously described an anti-PEG-based sandwich ELISA for universal assay of PEGylated molecules. Here, we compared the quantitative assessment of PEGylated interferons by anti-PEG and traditional anti-interferon sandwich ELISA. The detection limits for PEG-Intron (12k-PEG) and Pegasys (40k-PEG) were 1.9 and 0.03 ng/mL for anti-PEG ELISA compared to 0.18 and 0.42 ng/mL for traditional anti-interferon sandwich ELISA. These results indicate that the anti-PEG sandwich ELISA was insensitive to PEGylation mediated epitope-masking and the sensitivity increased in proportion to the length of PEG. By contrast, PEG-masking interfered with detection by traditional anti-interferon sandwich ELISA. Human and mouse serum did not affect the sensitivity of anti-PEG ELISA but impeded traditional anti-interferon sandwich ELISA. The anti-PEG sandwich ELISA was comparable to anti-interferon sandwich ELISA and radioassay of 131I-Pegasys in pharmacokinetic studies in mice. The anti-PEG sandwich ELISA provides a sensitive, accurate, and convenient quantitative measurement of PEGylated protein drugs.

  17. Using anti-poly(ethylene glycol) bioparticles for the quantitation of PEGylated nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yuan-Chin; Cheng, Ta-Chun; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Li, Jia-Je; Lin, Wen-Wei; Huang, Chien-Chiao; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Roffler, Steve R.; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules to nanoparticles (PEGylation) is a widely-used method to improve the stability, biocompatibility and half-life of nanomedicines. However, the evaluation of the PEGylated nanomedicine pharmacokinetics (PK) requires the decomposition of particles and purification of lead compounds before analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, etc. Therefore, a method to directly quantify un-decomposed PEGylated nanoparticles is needed. In this study, we developed anti-PEG bioparticles and combined them with anti-PEG antibodies to generate a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for direct measurement of PEGylated nanoparticles without compound purification. The anti-PEG bioparticles quantitative ELISA directly quantify PEG-quantum dots (PEG-QD), PEG-stabilizing super-paramagnetic iron oxide (PEG-SPIO), Lipo-Dox and PEGASYS and the detection limits were 0.01 nM, 0.1 nM, 15.63 ng/mL and 0.48 ng/mL, respectively. Furthermore, this anti-PEG bioparticle-based ELISA tolerated samples containing up to 10% mouse or human serum. There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic studies of radiolabeled PEG-nanoparticles (Nano-X-111In) through anti-PEG bioparticle-based ELISA and a traditional gamma counter. These results suggest that the anti-PEG bioparticle-based ELISA may provide a direct and effective method for the quantitation of any whole PEGylated nanoparticles without sample preparation. PMID:27991598

  18. Protein-Polymer Conjugation—Moving Beyond PEGylation

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yizhi; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we summarize —from a materials science perspective— the current state of the field of polymer conjugates of peptide and protein drugs, with a focus on polymers that have been developed as alternatives to the current gold standard, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEGylation, or the covalent conjugation of PEG to biological therapeutics to improve their therapeutic efficacy by increasing their circulation half-lives and stability, has been the gold standard in the pharmaceutical industry for several decades. After years of research and development, the limitations of PEG, specifically its non-degradability and immunogenicity have become increasingly apparent. While PEG is still currently the best polymer available with the longest clinical track record, extensive research is underway to develop alternative materials in an effort to address these limitations of PEG. Many of these alternative materials have shown promise, though most of them are still in an early stage of development and their in vivo distribution, mechanism of degradation, route of elimination and immunogenicity have not been investigated to a similar extent as for PEG. Thus, further in-depth in vivo testing is essential to validate whether any of the alternative materials discussed in this review qualify as a replacement for PEG. PMID:26356631

  19. Controlling assembly of helical polypeptides via PEGylation strategies†

    PubMed Central

    Top, Ayben; Zhong, Sheng; Yan, Congqi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in our laboratories have demonstrated that a helical polypeptide (17H6), equipped with a histidine tag and a helical alanine-rich, glutamic-acid-containing domain, exhibits pH-responsive assembly behavior useful in the production of polymorphological nanostructures. In this study, the histidine tag in these polypeptides was replaced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) with different molecular masses (5 kDa, or 10 kDa), and the self-association behavior of 17H6 and the PEGylated conjugates was characterized via dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). DLS experiments illustrated that the polypeptide and its PEG-conjugates undergo reversible assembly under acidic conditions, suggesting that the aggregation state of the polypeptide and the conjugates is controlled by the charged state of the glutamic acid residues. Nanoscale aggregates were detected at polypeptide/conjugate concentrations as low as 20 μM (∼0.3–0.5 mg ml−1) at physiological and ambient temperatures. Scattering and microscopy results showed that the size, the aggregation number, and the morphology of the aggregates can be tuned by the size and the nature of the hydrophilic tag. This tunable nature of the morphology of the aggregates, along with their low critical aggregation concentration, suggests that PEG-alanine-rich polypeptide conjugates may be useful as drug delivery vehicles in which the alanine-rich block serves as a drug attachment domain. PMID:24039625

  20. Pegylated liposomal-encapsulated doxorubicin in cutaneous composite lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Langner, Dana; Hansel, Gesina; Haroske, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cutaneous composite lymphomas are very rare. Their treatment depends upon the different contributing lymphoma entities. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, (PTCL-NOS) represents an aggressive lymphoma subtype. Follicular cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (FCBCL) runs an indolent course. Treatment with pegylated liposomal encapsulated doxorubicin (PLE-DOXO) has yet not been reported in this entity. Case presentation: A 73-year-old male patient presented with 3 rapidly growing, painful nodules on his left leg. He was diagnosed as composite cutaneous lymphoma consisting of PTCL-NOS and FCBCL. All lesions had been surgically removed. Staging was unremarkable. After 4 months a relapse occurred with involvement of inguinal lymph nodes and systemic treatment with PEL-DOXO 20 mg/ m2 every 3 weeks was initiated. After 6 cycles PLE-DOXO, which were well tolerated without grade 3 or 4 toxicities, a mixed response was obtained with complete remission of cutaneous lesions. Lymph nodes were treated by radiotherapy. A second relapse occurred after 8 months and various polychemotherapy regimens were applied without remission. The overall survival was 28 months. Conclusion: PEL-DOXO is a possible initial systemic treatment in case of PCTL-NOS. Whether polychemotherapy offers an advantage for survival remains questionable but further investigations are needed. PMID:27787356

  1. PEGylated graphene oxide as a nanocarrier for podophyllotoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaojia; Zhen, Hong; Li, Yongjun; Wang, Ping; Huang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional nanomaterial, has become a hot spot of research at the interface of nanotechnology and biomedicine. In this study, the oxidized form of graphene, graphene oxide (GO), was functionalized with 6-armed polyethylene glycol (PEG), which rendered it stable and biocompatible in physiological solution. The successful synthesis of PEGylated graphene oxide (GO-PEG) nanocarrier with low toxicity was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. By dynamic light scattering (DLS), the size distribution of the nanoparticles were shown to be 60-200 nm. Furthermore, a complex by loading an aromatic anticancer compound, podophyllotoxin (PPT), onto GO-PEG (GO-PEG/PPT) via π- π stacking and hydrophobic interactions was investigated. It was demonstrated that GO-PEG/PPT showed remarkably high cytotoxicity compared to free PPT in both the human cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cell line and human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cell line. The loading and delivery of anticancer drugs using this kind of graphene-based nanocarrier may find potential application in biomedicine.

  2. Biocompatible PEGylated gold nanorods as colored contrast agents for targeted in vivo cancer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopwitthaya, Atcha; Yong, Ken-Tye; Hu, Rui; Roy, Indrajit; Ding, Hong; Vathy, Lisa A.; Bergey, Earl J.; Prasad, Paras N.

    2010-08-01

    In this contribution, we report the use of a PEGylated gold nanorods formulation as a colored dye for tumor labeling in vivo. We have demonstrated that the nanorod-targeted tumor site can be easily differentiated from the background tissues by the 'naked eye' without the need of sophisticated imaging instruments. In addition to tumor labeling, we have also performed in vivo toxicity and biodistribution studies of PEGylated gold nanorods in vivo by using BALB/c mice as the model. In vivo toxicity studies indicated no mortality or adverse effects or weight changes in BALB/c mice treated with PEGylated gold nanorods. This finding will provide useful guidelines in the future development of diagnostic probes for cancer diagnosis, optically guided tumor surgery, and lymph node mapping applications.

  3. Potential induction of anti-PEG antibodies and complement activation toward PEGylated therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Johan J F; Carpenter, John F; Anchordoquy, Thomas J; Schellekens, Huub

    2014-12-01

    Conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to therapeutics has proven to be an effective approach to increase the serum half-life. However, the increased use of PEGylated therapeutics has resulted in unexpected immune-mediated side-effects. There are claims that these are caused by anti-PEG antibodies inducing rapid clearance. These claims are however hampered by the lack of standardized and well-validated antibody assays. PEGylation has also been associated with the activation of the complement system causing severe hypersensitivity reactions. Here, we critically review the clinical and analytical tools used. In addition, we propose an explanation of the immune-mediated side-effects of PEGylated products based on the haptogenic properties of PEG, responsible for complement activation and the induction of anti-PEG antibodies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Particle Size, Surface Coating, and PEGylation Influence the Biodistribution of Quantum Dots in Living Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schipper, Meike L.; Iyer, Gopal; Koh, Ai Leen; Cheng, Zhen; Ebenstein, Yuval; Aharoni, Assaf; Keren, Shay; Bentolila, Laurent A.; Li, Jianquing; Rao, Jianghong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Banin, Uri; Wu, Anna M.; Sinclair, Robert; Weiss, Shimon

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of particle size, PEGylation, and surface coating on the quantitative biodistribution of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots (QDs) in mice. Polymer- or peptide-coated 64Cu-labeled QDs 2 or 12 nm in diameter, with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 2000, are studied by serial micropositron emission tomography imaging and region-of-interest analysis, as well as transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. PEGylation and peptide coating slow QD uptake into the organs of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), liver and spleen, by a factor of 6–9 and 2–3, respectively. Small particles are in part renally excreted. Peptide-coated particles are cleared from liver faster than physical decay alone would suggest. Renal excretion of small QDs and slowing of RES clearance by PEGylation or peptide surface coating are encouraging steps toward the use of modified QDs for imaging living subjects. PMID:19051182

  5. Conditional internalization of PEGylated nanomedicines by PEG engagers for triple negative breast cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Cheng; Burnouf, Pierre-Alain; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Chen, Bing-Mae; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Roffler, Steve R.

    2017-06-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks effective treatment options due to the absence of traditional therapeutic targets. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has emerged as a promising target for TNBC therapy because it is overexpressed in about 50% of TNBC patients. Here we describe a PEG engager that simultaneously binds polyethylene glycol and EGFR to deliver PEGylated nanomedicines to EGFR+ TNBC. The PEG engager displays conditional internalization by remaining on the surface of TNBC cells until contact with PEGylated nanocarriers triggers rapid engulfment of nanocargos. PEG engager enhances the anti-proliferative activity of PEG-liposomal doxorubicin to EGFR+ TNBC cells by up to 100-fold with potency dependent on EGFR expression levels. The PEG engager significantly increases retention of fluorescent PEG probes and enhances the antitumour activity of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin in human TNBC xenografts. PEG engagers with specificity for EGFR are promising for improved treatment of EGFR+ TNBC patients.

  6. PEGYLATION OF αα-Hb USING SUCCINIMIDYL PROPIONIC ACID PEG 5K

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fantao; Tsai, Amy G.; Intaglietta, Marcos; Acharya, Seetharama A.

    2014-01-01

    PEGylation of intramolecularly crosslinked Hb has been studied here to overcome the limitation of dissociation of Hb tetramers. New hexa and deca PEGylated low oxygen affi nity PEG-αα-Hbs have been generated. Infl uence of PEG conjugation chemistry and the PEG shell structure on the functional properties as well as PEGylation induced plasma expander like properties of the protein has been delineated. The results have established that in the design of PEG-Hbs as oxygen therapeutics, the infl uence of conjugation chemistry and the PEG shell structure on the oxygen affi nity of Hb needs to be optimized independently besides optimizing the PEG shell structure for inducing resuscitation fluid like properties. PMID:24597567

  7. Catechol-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) for PEGylation on versatile substrates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyukjin; Lee, Kang Dae; Pyo, Kyung Bo; Park, Sung Young; Lee, Haeshin

    2010-03-16

    We report on catechol-grafted poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG-g-catechol) for the preparation of nonfouling surfaces on versatile substrates including adhesion-resistant PTFE. PEG-g-catechol was prepared by the step-growth polymerization of PEO to which dopamine, a mussel-derived adhesive molecule, was conjugated. The immersion of substrates into an aqueous solution of PEG-g-catechol resulted in robust PEGylation on versatile surfaces of noble metals, oxides, and synthetic polymers. Surface PEGylation was unambiguously confirmed by various surface analytical tools such as ellipsometry, goniometry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Contrary to existing PEG derivatives that are difficult-to-modify synthetic polymer surfaces, PEG-g-catechol can be considered to be a new class of PEGs for the facile surface PEGylation of various types of surfaces.

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of an in situ gel forming system for the delivery of PEGylated octreotide.

    PubMed

    Erfani Jabarian, Laleh; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Foroumadi, Alireza; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-01-23

    The objective of this study was to develop a controlled delivery system for PEGylated octreotide using a Poloxamer based in situ gel forming polymer. PEGylated octreotide kept its full biological activity and higher serum half-life compared to the original octreotide. The designed drug delivery system contained low concentration of Poloxamer 407 (P407) (<0.16%) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a polymeric additive. Rheological measurements of gel vehicle formulations indicated that the in situ gel forming system with optimum sol-gel transition temperature of 28.7°C could be formed using a combination of P407 and PVA at ratio of 15-10% (w/v). The effect of formulation additives such as buffering agents on rheological behavior demonstrated that sodium bicarbonate and lactic acid have opposite effect on sol-gel transition temperature of the system. Using buffering agents, it was possible to shift the sol-gel transition to lower or higher temperatures. The in vitro release profiles of octreotide and PEGylated octreotide from the selected P407/PVA formulations were measured using a membrane-less device. PEGylated octreotide showed slower release rate from the gel system with different release kinetic compared to octreotide. In animal studies, a sustained release rate was achieved with both PEGylated and non-PEGylated octreotide, but longer delivery was observed for PEGylated octreotide. Tissue histopathological studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the delivery system for PEGylated octreotide, supporting the suitability of P407/PVA mixture as an injectable drug delivery system. The total effects of increasing PEGylated peptide half-life and prolonged release from thermoresponsive gel system offer the potential for sustained delivery of PEGylated octreotide.

  9. Prolonged Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Actions of a Pegylated Parathyroid Hormone (1-34) Peptide Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Khatri, Ashok; Maeda, Akira; Potts, John T; Jüppner, Harald; Gardella, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) addition can prolong the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of a bioactive peptide in vivo, in part by impeding rates of glomerular filtration. For parathyroid hormone (PTH) peptides, pegylation could help in exploring the actions of the hormone in the kidney; e.g., in dissecting the relative roles that filtered versus blood-borne PTH play in regulating phosphate transport. It could also lead to potential alternate forms of treatment for hypoparathyroidism. We thus synthesized the fluorescent pegylated PTH derivative [Lys13(tetramethyl rhodamine {TMR}), Cys35(PEG-20,000 Da)]PTH(1-35) (PEG-PTHTMR) and its non-pegylated counterpart [Lys13(TMR), Cys35]PTH(1-35) (PTHTMR) and assessed their properties in cells and in mice. In PTHR1-expressing HEK-293 cells, PEG-PTHTMR and PTHTMR exhibited similar potencies for inducing cAMP signaling, whereas when injected into mice, the pegylated analog persisted for much longer in the circulation (>24 hours versus ~1 hour) and induced markedly more prolonged calcemic and phosphaturic responses than did the non-pegylated control. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of kidney sections obtained from the injected mice revealed much less PEG-PTHTMR than PTHTMR on the luminal brush-border surfaces of renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs), on which PTH regulates phosphate transporter function, whereas immunostained phosphorylated PKA substrate, a marker of cAMP signaling, was increased to similar extents for the two ligands and for each, was localized to the basolateral portion of the PTCs. Pegylation of a bioactive PTH peptide thus led to prolonged pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties in vivo, as well as to new in vivo data that support a prominent role for PTH action at basolateral surfaces of renal proximal tubule cells. PMID:27428040

  10. High-resolution, preparative purification of PEGylated protein using a laterally-fed membrane chromatography device.

    PubMed

    Madadkar, Pedram; Nino, Sergio Luna; Ghosh, Raja

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the use of a laterally-fed membrane chromatography (or LFMC) device for single-step purification of mono-PEGylated lysozyme. Recent studies have shown such LFMC devices to be suitable for high-resolution, multi-component separation of proteins in the bind-and-elute mode. The device used in this study contained a stack of rectangular cation-exchange membranes having 9.25mL bed volume. PEGylation of lysozyme was carried out in batch mode using 5kDa methoxy-polyethyleneglycol propionaldehyde (or m-PEG propionaldehyde) in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride as reducing agent. Membrane chromatographic separation was carried out at 1.62 membrane bed volumes per minute flow rate, in the bind-and-elute mode. When a salt gradient was applied, the higher PEGylated forms of lysozyme (i.e. the byproducts) eluted earlier than mono-PEGylated lysozyme (the target product), while lysozyme eluted last. Under elution conditions optimized for resolution and speed, the separation could be carried out in less than 15 membrane bed volumes. High purity and recovery of mono-PEGylated lysozyme was obtained. The resolution of separation of mono-PEGylated lysozyme obtained under the above condition was comparable to that reported in the literature for equivalent cation-exchange resin columns while the flow rate expressed in bed volumes/min was 21.7 times higher. Also, the number of theoretical plates per meter was significantly higher with the LFMC device. Therefore the LFMC based purification process discussed in this paper combined high-productivity with high-resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Monoclonal antibody-targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG encapsulating doxorubicin as a potential theranostic agent.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Neus; Al-Ahmady, Zahraa S; Beziere, Nicolas S; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2015-03-30

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDA-approved, strongly photo-absorbent/fluorescent probe that has been incorporated into a clinically-relevant PEGylated liposome as a flexible optoacoustic contrast agent platform. This study describes the engineering of targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG using the anti-MUC-1 "humanized" monoclonal antibody (MoAb) hCTM01 as a tumour-specific theranostic system. We aimed to visualise non-invasively the tumour accumulation of these MoAb-targeted liposomes over time in tumour-bearing mice using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT). Preferential accumulation of targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG was studied after intravenous administration in comparison to non-targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG using both fast growing (4T1) and slow growing (HT-29) MUC-1 positive tumour models. Monitoring liposomal ICG in the tumour showed that both targeted and non-targeted liposome-ICG formulations preferentially accumulated into the tumour models studied. Rapid accumulation was observed for targeted liposomes at early time points mainly in the periphery of the tumour volume suggesting binding to available MUC-1 receptors. In contrast, non-targeted PEGylated liposomes showed accumulation at the centre of the tumour at later time points. In an attempt to take this a step further, we successfully encapsulated the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) into both targeted and non-targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG. The engineering of DOX-loaded targeted ICG liposome systems present a novel platform for combined tumour-specific therapy and diagnosis. This can open new possibilities in the design of advanced image-guided cancer therapeutics.

  12. Modelling of electrokinetic phenomena for capture of PEGylated ribonuclease A in a microdevice with insulating structures

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Gomez, Marco A.; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of PEGylated proteins results in a mixture of protein-polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates and the unreacted native protein. From a ribonuclease A (RNase A) PEGylation reaction, mono-PEGylated RNase A (mono-PEG RNase A) has proven therapeutic effects against cancer, reason for which there is an interest in isolating it from the rest of the reaction products. Experimental trapping of PEGylated RNase A inside an electrokinetically driven microfluidic device has been previously demonstrated. Now, from a theoretical point of view, we have studied the electrokinetic phenomena involved in the dielectrophoretic streaming of the native RNase A protein and the trapping of the mono-PEG RNase A inside a microfluidic channel. To accomplish this, we used two 3D computational models, a sphere and an ellipse, adapted to each protein. The effect of temperature on parameters related to trapping was also studied. A temperature increase showed to rise the electric and thermal conductivities of the suspending solution, hindering dielectrophoretic trapping. In contrast, the dynamic viscosity of the suspending solution decreased as the temperature rose, favoring the dielectrophoretic manipulation of the proteins. Also, our models were able to predict the magnitude and direction of the velocity of both proteins indicating trapping for the PEGylated conjugate or no trapping for the native protein. In addition, a parametric sweep study revealed the effect of the protein zeta potential on the electrokinetic response of the protein. We believe this work will serve as a tool to improve the design of electrokinetically driven microfluidic channels for the separation and recovery of PEGylated proteins in one single step. PMID:27375815

  13. Protein PEGylation decreases observed target association rates via a dual blocking mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kubetzko, Susanne; Sarkar, Casim A; Plückthun, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    PEGylation is an attractive strategy to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of proteins with a short serum half-life. It can be used to extend the serum persistence and to reduce the immunogenicity of proteins. However, PEGylation can also lead to a decrease in the functional activity of the molecule to which it is applied. We constructed site-specifically PEGylated variants of anti-p185(HER-2) antibody fragments in the format of a monovalent single-chain variable fragment and a divalent miniantibody and characterized the antigen binding properties in detail. Mass-transport limited BIAcore measurements and binding assays on HER-2-overexpressing cells demonstrated that the immunoreactivity of the antibody fragments is fully maintained after PEGylation. Nevertheless, we found that the attachment of a 20-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety led to a reduction in apparent affinity of approximately 5-fold, although in both formats, the attachment site was most distal to the antigen binding regions. This decrease in affinity was observed in kinetic BIAcore measurements as well as in equilibrium binding assays on whole cells. By analysis of the binding kinetics, we could pinpoint this reduction exclusively to slower apparent on rates. Through both experimental and computational analyses, we demonstrate that these reduced on-rates do not arise from diffusion limitations. We show that a mathematical model accounting for both intramolecular and intermolecular blocking mechanisms of the PEG moiety can robustly explain the observed binding kinetics. The results suggest that PEGylation can significantly alter the binding-competent fraction of both ligands and receptors and may help to explain some of the beneficial effects of PEGylation in vivo.

  14. Design, modeling, expression, and chemoselective PEGylation of a new nanosize cysteine analog of erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Madadkar-Sobhani, Armin; Khanahmad, Hossein; Roohvand, Farzin; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mohammad Hossein; Barghi, Zahra; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Inanlou, Davoud Nouri; Norouzian, Dariush

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is considered to be one of the most pivotal pharmaceutical drugs in the market because of its clinical application in the treatment of anemia-associated disorders worldwide. However, like other therapeutic proteins, it does not have suitable pharmacokinetic properties for it to be administrated at least two to three times per week. Chemoselective cysteine PEGylation, employing molecular dynamics and graphics in in silico studies, can be considered to overcome such a problem. A special kind of EPO analog was elicited based on a literature review, homology modeling, molecular dynamic simulation, and factors affecting the PEGylation reaction. Then, cDNA of the selected analog was generated by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequently cloned into the expression vector. The construct was transfected to Chinese hamster ovary/dhfr(-) cells, and highly expressed clones were selected via methotrexate amplification. Ion-immobilized affinity and size exclusion (SE) chromatography techniques were used to purify the expressed analog. Thereafter, chemoselective PEGylation was performed and a nanosize PEGylated EPO was obtained through dialysis. The in vitro biologic assay and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters were studied. Finally, E31C analog Fourier transform infrared, analytical SE-high-performance liquid chromatography, zeta potential, and size before and after PEGylation were characterized. The findings indicate that a novel nanosize EPO31-PEG has a five-fold longer terminal half-life in rats with similar biologic activity compared with unmodified rhEPO in proliferation cell assay. The results also show that EPO31-PEG size and charge versus unmodified protein was increased in a nanospectrum, and this may be one criterion of EPO biologic potency enhancement. This kind of novel engineered nanosize PEGylated EPO has remarkable advantages over rhEPO.

  15. Design, modeling, expression, and chemoselective PEGylation of a new nanosize cysteine analog of erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Madadkar-Sobhani, Armin; Khanahmad, Hossein; Roohvand, Farzin; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mohammad Hossein; Barghi, Zahra; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Inanlou, Davoud Nouri; Norouzian, Dariush

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is considered to be one of the most pivotal pharmaceutical drugs in the market because of its clinical application in the treatment of anemia-associated disorders worldwide. However, like other therapeutic proteins, it does not have suitable pharmacokinetic properties for it to be administrated at least two to three times per week. Chemoselective cysteine PEGylation, employing molecular dynamics and graphics in in silico studies, can be considered to overcome such a problem. Methods: A special kind of EPO analog was elicited based on a literature review, homology modeling, molecular dynamic simulation, and factors affecting the PEGylation reaction. Then, cDNA of the selected analog was generated by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequently cloned into the expression vector. The construct was transfected to Chinese hamster ovary/dhfr− cells, and highly expressed clones were selected via methotrexate amplification. Ion-immobilized affinity and size exclusion (SE) chromatography techniques were used to purify the expressed analog. Thereafter, chemoselective PEGylation was performed and a nanosize PEGylated EPO was obtained through dialysis. The in vitro biologic assay and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters were studied. Finally, E31C analog Fourier transform infrared, analytical SE-high-performance liquid chromatography, zeta potential, and size before and after PEGylation were characterized. Results: The findings indicate that a novel nanosize EPO31-PEG has a five-fold longer terminal half-life in rats with similar biologic activity compared with unmodified rhEPO in proliferation cell assay. The results also show that EPO31-PEG size and charge versus unmodified protein was increased in a nanospectrum, and this may be one criterion of EPO biologic potency enhancement. Discussion: This kind of novel engineered nanosize PEGylated EPO has remarkable advantages over rhEPO. PMID:21753873

  16. Serious stomatitis and esophagitis: a peculiar mucous reaction induced by pegylated liposomal doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Han; Chen, Meilan; Liu, Junru; Li, Ying; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is an important antineoplastic agent with activity in a variety of solid tumors. It has a totally different profile of pharmacokinetics and toxicity compared with doxorubicin. It rarely causes side-effects like cardiotoxicity or hair loss, but frequently results in many kinds of mucocutaneous reactions, including palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, diffuse follicular rash, intertrigo-like eruption, new formation of melanotic macules, stomatitis and radiation recall dermatitis. We present a rare case of multiple myeloma who immediately developed serious stomatitis and esophatitis associated with minor palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia after a single course of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin.

  17. PEGylated Nanoceria as Radical Scavenger with Tunable Redox Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Karakoti, Ajay S.; Singh, Sanjay; Kumar, Amit; Malinska, M.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Wozniak, K.; Self, William; Seal, Sudipta

    2009-10-14

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have shown tremendous potential in various applications such as water gas shift catalysis, chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), solar cells4 and high temperature oxidation protection coatings1. Recently, CNPs have been demonstrated to protect biological tissues against radiation induced damage, scavenging of superoxide anions, prevention of laser induced retinal damage, reduction of spinal injury in a tissue culture model, prevention of cardiovascular myopathy, pH dependent antioxidant properties, as a tool for immunoassays as well as other inflammatory diseases2. In most biomedical applications it is speculated that nanoceria is a regenerative radical scavenger with the ability to regenerate its active 3+ oxidation state for radical scavenging. Thus far there are no reports to control the regeneration of Ce3+ oxidation state which is the most important parameter in the application of CNPs as a reliable and regenerative radical scavenger. Thus, there is an imminent need to increase the potency of CNPs to achieve higher degree of protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS), to increase the residence time of CNPs in body and to control the regeneration of 3+ oxidation state. PEG has been reported to increase the residence time of nanoparticles and proteins inside cells and provide biocompatibility3. PEGylated counterparts of the SOD enzymes have shown improved performance over non-PEGylated enzymes. Herein, we report our efforts to synthesize CNPs directly in polyethylene glycol (mol wt 600) solution and determine the effect of increasing concentration of PEG (PEG vol % as 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80) on the SOD mimetic properties exhibited by nanoceria. We also report how the active Ce3+ oxidation state can be regenerated or further tuned to regenerate at faster rate. We further demonstrate the role of PEG on the redox chemistry of CNPs catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide. Several complexes of PEGs

  18. Can pegylated interferon improve the outcome of polycythemia vera patients?

    PubMed

    Crisà, Elena; Cerrano, Marco; Beggiato, Eloise; Benevolo, Giulia; Lanzarone, Giuseppe; Manzini, Paola Maria; Borchiellini, Alessandra; Riera, Ludovica; Boccadoro, Mario; Ferrero, Dario

    2017-01-13

    Pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) was proven by phase II trials to be effective in polycythemia vera (PV); however, it is not clear whether it could improve patient outcome compared to hydroxyurea (HU). Here, we present an observational study on 65 PV patients aged 65 years or younger, who received either peg-IFN (30) or HU (35) according to the physician choice. Median follow-up was 75 months. The two cohorts were comparable for patient and disease characteristics. Eighty-seven percent of the patients treated with peg-INF responded, with a CR rate of 70% as compared to 100 and 49% with HU, respectively. Discontinuation rate was similar in the two groups (20% in peg-IFN vs 17% in HU). JAK2 allele burden was monitored in peg-INF arm only, and a reduction was observed in 88% of the patients. No thrombotic events were observed during peg-IFN treatment compared to three on HU. Disease progression to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia occurred to a patient only in peg-INF, compared to three in HU. Overall, three second malignancies were observed during the study, two in patients who received HU only, and one in a patient largely treated HU who received also peg-IFN for 3 months. Overall survival was significantly better for peg-IFN patients compared to HU, p = 0.027. Our study, albeit limited by small patient and event number and lack of randomization, confirms the efficacy of peg-INF in PV and shows a significant survival advantage for peg-INF-treated patients. Waiting for confirming data from the ongoing phase III trials, our study can support peg-INF as a first-line treatment option for PV, at least for younger patients.

  19. PEGylated apoptotic protein-loaded PLGA microspheres for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Insoo; Choi, Ji Su; Lee, Eun Seong; Shin, Beom Soo; Youn, Yu Seok

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the antitumor potential of poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (PLGA MSs) containing polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated (PEGylated) tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (PEG-TRAIL). PEG-TRAIL PLGA MSs were prepared by using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion method, and the apoptotic activities of supernatants released from the PLGA MSs at days 1, 3, and 7 were examined. The antitumor effect caused by PEG-TRAIL PLGA MSs was evaluated in pancreatic Mia Paca-2 cell-xenografted mice. PEG-TRAIL PLGA MS was found to be spherical and 14.4±1.06 μm in size, and its encapsulation efficiency was significantly greater than that of TRAIL MS (85.7%±4.1% vs 43.3%±10.9%, respectively). The PLGA MS gradually released PEG-TRAIL for 14 days, and the released PEG-TRAIL was shown to have clear apoptotic activity in Mia Paca-2 cells, whereas TRAIL released after 1 day had a negligible activity. Finally, PEG-TRAIL PLGA MS displayed remarkably greater antitumor efficacy than blank or TRAIL PLGA MS in Mia Paca-2 cell-xenografted mice in terms of tumor volume and weight, apparently due to increased stability and well-retained apoptotic activity of PEG-TRAIL in PLGA MS. We believe that this PLGA MS system, combined with PEG-TRAIL, should be considered a promising candidate for treating pancreatic cancer.

  20. PEGylated apoptotic protein-loaded PLGA microspheres for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Insoo; Choi, Ji Su; Lee, Eun Seong; Shin, Beom Soo; Youn, Yu Seok

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the antitumor potential of poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (PLGA MSs) containing polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated (PEGylated) tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (PEG-TRAIL). PEG-TRAIL PLGA MSs were prepared by using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion method, and the apoptotic activities of supernatants released from the PLGA MSs at days 1, 3, and 7 were examined. The antitumor effect caused by PEG-TRAIL PLGA MSs was evaluated in pancreatic Mia Paca-2 cell-xenografted mice. PEG-TRAIL PLGA MS was found to be spherical and 14.4±1.06 μm in size, and its encapsulation efficiency was significantly greater than that of TRAIL MS (85.7%±4.1% vs 43.3%±10.9%, respectively). The PLGA MS gradually released PEG-TRAIL for 14 days, and the released PEG-TRAIL was shown to have clear apoptotic activity in Mia Paca-2 cells, whereas TRAIL released after 1 day had a negligible activity. Finally, PEG-TRAIL PLGA MS displayed remarkably greater antitumor efficacy than blank or TRAIL PLGA MS in Mia Paca-2 cell-xenografted mice in terms of tumor volume and weight, apparently due to increased stability and well-retained apoptotic activity of PEG-TRAIL in PLGA MS. We believe that this PLGA MS system, combined with PEG-TRAIL, should be considered a promising candidate for treating pancreatic cancer. PMID:25632232

  1. Pegylated polystyrene particles as a model system for artificial cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fenghua; Engbers, Gerard H M; Gessner, Andrea; Müller, Reiner H; Feijen, Jan

    2004-07-01

    Pegylated polystyrene particles (PS-PEG) were prepared as a model system for artificial cells, by modification of carboxyl polystyrene particles (PS-COOH) with homo- and hetero-bifunctional polyethylene glycols (PEG, MW 1500, 3400, and 5000) containing an amino end group for immobilization and an amino, hydroxyl, or methoxy end group that is exposed at the surface after immobilization. Protein adsorption from human plasma dilutions (85 v %) onto PS-PEG with a PEG surface concentration higher than 40 pmol/cm2 was reduced up to 90-95% compared with protein adsorption onto PS-COOH with a final protein surface concentration of approximately 30 ng/cm2. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses showed that 30% of the total amount of adsorbed proteins onto PS-PEG are dysopsonins (i.e., nonadhesive proteins like albumin and apolipoproteins). For PS-COOH, <15% of the amount of adsorbed proteins are dysopsonins. In addition, the generation of terminal complement compound (TCC) by PS-PEG particles with a PEG surface concentration lower than approximately 55 pmol/cm2 is not significant. The low protein adsorption, the relatively high percentage of adsorbed dysopsonins, and the low level of complement activation may prevent the uptake of PS-PEG by the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) in vivo. Moreover, PS-PEG (PEG surface concentration > approximately 35 pmol/cm2) shows minimal interaction with cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), which mimics the endothelial lining of the blood vessel wall. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Site-specific PEGylation of hemoglobin at Cys-93(beta): correlation between the colligative properties of the PEGylated protein and the length of the conjugated PEG chain.

    PubMed

    Manjula, B N; Tsai, A; Upadhya, R; Perumalsamy, K; Smith, P K; Malavalli, A; Vandegriff, K; Winslow, R M; Intaglietta, M; Prabhakaran, M; Friedman, J M; Acharya, A S

    2003-01-01

    Increasing the molecular size of acellular hemoglobin (Hb) has been proposed as an approach to reduce its undesirable vasoactive properties. The finding that bovine Hb surface decorated with about 10 copies of PEG5K per tetramer is vasoactive provides support for this concept. The PEGylated bovine Hb has a strikingly larger molecular radius than HbA (1). The colligative properties of the PEGylated bovine Hb are distinct from those of HbA and even polymerized Hb, suggesting a role for the colligative properties of PEGylated Hb in neutralizing the vasoactivity of acellular Hb. To correlate the colligative properties of surface-decorated Hb with the mass of the PEG attached and also its vasoactivity, we have developed a new maleimide-based protocol for the site-specific conjugation of PEG to Hb, taking advantage of the unusually high reactivity of Cys-93(beta) of oxy HbA and the high reactivity of the maleimide to protein thiols. PEG chains of 5, 10, and 20 kDa have been functionalized at one of their hydroxyl groups with a maleidophenyl moiety through a carbamate linkage and used to conjugate the PEG chains at the beta-93 Cys of HbA to generate PEGylated Hbs carrying two copies of PEG (of varying chain length) per tetramer. Homogeneous preparations of (SP-PEG5K)(2)-HbA, (SP-PEG10K)(2)-HbA, and (SP-PEG20K)(2)-HbA have been isolated by ion exchange chromatography. The oxygen affinity of Hb is increased slightly on PEGylation, but the length of the PEG-chain had very little additional influence on the O(2) affinity. Both the hydrodynamic volume and the molecular radius of the Hb increased on surface decoration with PEG and exhibited a linear correlation with the mass of the PEG chain attached. On the other hand, both the viscosity and the colloidal osmotic pressure (COP) of the PEGylated Hbs exhibited an exponential increase with the increase in PEG chain length. In contrast to the molecular volume, viscosity, and COP, the vasoactivity of the PEGylated Hbs was not a

  3. Impact of PEGylation on the biological effects and light heat conversion efficiency of gold nanoshells on silica nanorattles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiyu; Liu, Tianlong; Wang, Hai; Li, Linlin; Tan, Longfei; Fu, Changhui; Nie, Guangjun; Chen, Dong; Tang, Fangqiong

    2013-09-01

    As an excellent photothermal agent candidate, gold nanoshells have attracted a great deal of attention, but the influences of PEGylation on their biological effects and light heat conversion efficiency remain unclear. Here we investigate the influences of PEGylation density on the gold nanoshells on silica nanorattles (GSNPs) to their biological effects, including their cellular uptake, "corona" of biological macromolecules they are covered with, in vivo biodistribution and toxicities, and their in vitro and in vivo light heat conversion efficiency. The results suggest PEGylation obviously impacts the uptake patterns of GSNPs. Less-density PEGylated GSNPs show enhanced cellular uptake caused by the high dose exposure on cell surface due to their rapid aggregation. High-density PEGylated GSNPs show advantages in less toxicity for suppression of aggregation of GSNPs, avoidance of RES, good enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of cancerous tumors, especially the enhanced light heat conversion efficiency in vivo. Less or insufficient PEGylation may induce in vivo toxicity. This study highlights the need to study the effect of PEGylation for near infrared (NIR) light absorbing nanoparticles to predict the effects and safety of nanotherapeutics.

  4. Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry to Study Conformational Changes in Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor upon PEGylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hui; Ahn, Joomi; Yu, Ying Qing; Tymiak, Adrienne; Engen, John R.; Chen, Guodong

    2012-03-01

    PEGylation is the covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol to proteins, and it can be used to alter immunogenicity, circulating half life and other properties of therapeutic proteins. To determine the impact of PEGylation on protein conformation, we applied hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS) to analyze granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) upon PEGylation as a model system. The combined use of HDX automation technology and data analysis software allowed reproducible and robust measurements of the deuterium incorporation levels for peptic peptides of both PEGylated and non-PEGylated G-CSF. The results indicated that significant differences in deuterium incorporation were induced by PEGylation of G-CSF, although the overall changes observed were quite small. PEGylation did not result in gross conformational rearrangement of G-CSF. The data complexity often encountered in HDX MS measurements was greatly reduced through a data processing and presentation format designed to facilitate the comparison process. This study demonstrates the practical utility of HDX MS for comparability studies, process monitoring, and protein therapeutic characterization in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  5. Phenyl amide linker improves the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of N-terminally mono-PEGylated human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Ji, Shaoyang; Shen, Lijuan; Hu, Tao

    2014-09-02

    Human growth hormone (hGH) suffers from a short plasma half-life of ∼15 min, necessitating frequent injections to maintain its physiological effect. PEGylation, conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG), is an effective strategy to prolong the plasma half-life of hGH. However, PEGylation can significantly decrease the bioactivity of hGH. Thus, a new PEGylation approach is desired to improve the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of the PEGylated hGH. In the present study, two N-terminally mono-PEGylated hGHs were prepared using aldehyde chemistry. Phenyl amide and ethyl moieties were used as the linkers between PEG and hGH, respectively. The hydrodynamic volume, proteolytic sensitivity, and immunogenicity of the PEGylated hGH with phenyl amide linker (hGH-phenyl-PEG) were lower than those of the one with propyl linker (hGH-prop-PEG). In addition, hGH-phenyl-PEG showed a higher in vitro bioactivity and better PK and PD than hGH-prop-PEG. The better PK of hGH-phenyl-PEG was mainly due to its lower proteolytic sensitivity and low immunogenicity. The better PD of hGH-phenyl-PEG was mainly due to its higher in vitro bioactivity. Thus, the phenyl amide linker can improve the overall pharmacological profiles of the PEGylated hGH. Our study is expected to advance the development of long-acting protein biotherapeutics with high therapeutic efficacy.

  6. Skin Transport of Hydrophilic Compound-Loaded PEGylated Lipid Nanocarriers: Comparative Study of Liposomes, Niosomes, and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rangsimawong, Worranan; Opanasopit, Praneet; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Duangjit, Sureewan; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface grafting with N-(carbonyl-methoxypolyethylene glycol-2000)-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (PEG2000-DSPE) onto three types of lipid nanocarriers, liposomes, niosomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) on the skin penetration of sodium fluorescein (NaFI) was investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to visualize the penetration pathways. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to determine the skin hydration. The results showed that the physicochemical properties of each nanocarrier were modified after PEG grafting. In the skin penetration study, PEG grafting increased the flux of NaFI-loaded PEGylated liposomes and significantly decreased the flux of NaFI-loaded PEGylated niosomes and NaFI-loaded PEGylated SLNs. The skin deposition study and CLSM images showed that the intact liposome vesicles permeated into the skin. The niosomes and SLNs had little or no vesicles in the skin, suggesting that NaFI may have been released from these nanocarriers before permeation. Additionally, the fluorescent CLSM images of the SLNs showed that NaFI deposited along the length of hair follicles inside the skin, indicating that the skin penetration route may be through the transfollicular pathway. For the PEGylated nanocarriers, the PEGylated liposomes had higher fluorescence intensities than the non-PEGylated liposomes, indicating higher NaFI concentrations. The PEGylated niosomes and PEGylated SLNs had lower fluorescence intensities than those of the non-PEG modified niosomes and SLNs. For FT-IR results, PEGylated liposomes increased the skin hydration, while the grafting PEG onto niosomes and SLN surfaces decreased the skin hydration. This study showed that the surface grafting of PEG onto various nanocarriers affected the skin transport of NaFI.

  7. An evaluation of the anti-tumor efficacy of oleanolic acid-loaded PEGylated liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shengnan; Gao, Dawei; Zhao, Tingting; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Xiaoning

    2013-06-01

    The effective delivery of oleanolic acid (OA) to the target site has several benefits in therapy for different pathologies. However, the delivery of OA is challenging due to its poor aqueous solubility. The study aims to evaluate the tumor inhibition effect of the PEGylated OA nanoliposome on the U14 cervical carcinoma cell line. In our previous study, OA was successfully encapsulated into PEGylated liposome with the modified ethanol injection method. Oral administration of PEGylated OA liposome was demonstrated to be more efficient in inhibiting xenograft tumors. The results of organ index indicated that PEG liposome exhibited higher anti-tumor activity and lower cytotoxicity. It was also found that OA and OA liposomes induced tumor cell apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, effects of OA on the morphology of tumor and other tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The histopathology sections did not show pathological changes in kidney or liver in tested mice. In contrast, there was a significant difference in tumor tissues between treatment groups and the negative control group. These observations imply that PEGylated liposomes seem to have advantages for cancer therapy in terms of effective delivery of OA.

  8. A PEGylated Fibrin-Based Wound Dressing with Antimicrobial and Angiogenic Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-13

    mitigated by topical application of antibacterial / antimicrobial agents. Wound dressings currently used have been designed using biocompatible polymers or...composites incorporating the desired antibacterial agents [30]. Chitosan -based carrier systems, ranging from micro- spheres to nanospheres, have been...A PEGylated fibrin-based wound dressing with antimicrobial and angiogenic activity Shanmuganathan Seetharaman a,c,1, Shanmugasundaram Natesan a,c,1

  9. The role of mucoadhesion of trimethyl chitosan and PEGylated trimethyl chitosan nanocomplexes in insulin uptake.

    PubMed

    Jintapattanakit, Anchalee; Junyaprasert, Varaporn Buraphacheep; Kissel, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the role of mucoadhesion in the insulin uptake of nanocomplexes (NC) based of trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-graft-TMC copolymers. Self-assembled insulin NC were prepared by polyelectrolyte complexation. The effects of PEGylation and positive charge density on mucoadhesion were assessed using a mucin assay and mucus-secreting HT29-MTX-E12 (E12) monolayers. The behaviors of corresponding insulin NC after adhesion to E12 were also established. All PEGylated TMC copolymers showed significantly higher levels of adhesion to mucus than unmodified TMC. The copolymer composed of 298 PEG chains per TMC macromolecules exhibited the highest level of mucoadhesion, being 3.4 times higher than TMC. The higher mucoadhesive properties of PEGylated TMC copolymers resulted from the synergistic effects of interpenetration of PEG chains into the mucus and electrostatic interaction between positive charged TMC and anionic glycoproteins present in the mucus layer. Compared to TMC, insulin NC based on PEGylated TMC copolymers demonstrated no evidence of insulin uptake improvement due to complete release of insulin from NC after adhering to mucus. CLSM revealed the localization of TMC and its corresponding insulin NC at cell surface membranes of E12.

  10. Molecular simulations of PEGylated lipids at interfaces: size selective dispersion of nanoscale objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammalkorpi, Maria; Vierros, Sampsa; van Tassel, Paul R.; Määttä, Jukka

    2015-03-01

    Phospholipids and phospholipid derivatives offer efficient, noncovalent functionalization and dispersion of hydrophobic objects, e.g. therapeutic molecules and nanoparticles including carbon nanotubes (CNTs). However, the relation of lipid aggregates in bulk solution and in the presence of the object, and the resulting dispersion remain important questions. We employ here molecular dynamics simulations to explore PEGylated lipid aggregates at interfaces and the resulting dispersion efficiency. By varying lipid and substrate curvature, and the PEG chain length, we find 1) lipid-CNT and PEGylated lipid-CNT aggregation behavior consistent with recent experiments, 2) the assembled morphology to vary from micellar-like to tubular coating (phospholipids) and micellar to monolayer-like (PEGylated lipids) with the transition depending on lipid curvature and for PEGylated lipids also on the PEG chain length and CNT diameter, 3) aggregation morphology dependent CNT dispersion ability, and 4) good agreement between simulation and scaling theories of a brush-type PEG. Finally, we discuss the implications to size-selective separation of hydrophobic particles and experimental observations.

  11. [Process Optimization of PEGylating Fused Protein of LL-37 and Interferon-α2a].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjie

    2015-12-01

    PEGylating is an effective way for prolonging the half-time period and decreasing the immunogenicity of protein drugs. With experiments of single factor, it was proved that the optimal processes for PEGylating the fused protein of LL-37 and interferon (IFN)-α2a were: PEG molecular weight was 5,000, fused protein concentration was 0.6 mg/mL, the mole ratio of protein to mPEG₅₀₀₀-SS was 1:10, the reaction temperature was 4 °C, and the pH was 9.0, respectively. With orthogonal experiments, we proved that the influential order of 3 main factors is: the fused protein concentration > the mole ratio of protein and mPEG₅₀₀₀-SS > pH and the optimal conditions were the fused protein concentration as 0.6 mg/mL, the mole ratio of protein and mPEG₅₀₀₀-SS as 1:10, pH as 8.8. Under these optimal conditions, the average rate of PEGylated protein with 3 times parallel experiments was 86.98%. After PEGylated, the interferon activity and antimicrobial activity of fused protein could be remained higher than 58% and 97%, respectively.

  12. Hydrophobic Drug-Loaded PEGylated Magnetic Liposomes for Drug-Controlled Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardiansyah, Andri; Yang, Ming-Chien; Liu, Ting-Yu; Kuo, Chih-Yu; Huang, Li-Ying; Chan, Tzu-Yi

    2017-05-01

    Less targeted and limited solubility of hydrophobic-based drug are one of the serious obstacles in drug delivery system. Thus, new strategies to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic drug and controlled release behaviors would be developed. Herein, curcumin, a model of hydrophobic drug, has been loaded into PEGylated magnetic liposomes as a drug carrier platform for drug controlled release system. Inductive magnetic heating (hyperthermia)-stimulated drug release, in vitro cellular cytotoxicity assay of curcumin-loaded PEGylated magnetic liposomes and cellular internalization-induced by magnetic guidance would be investigated. The resultant of drug carriers could disperse homogeneously in aqueous solution, showing a superparamagnetic characteristic and could inductive magnetic heating with external high-frequency magnetic field (HFMF). In vitro curcumin release studies confirmed that the drug carriers exhibited no significant release at 37 °C, whereas exhibited rapid releasing at 45 °C. However, it would display enormous (three times higher) curcumin releasing under the HFMF exposure, compared with that without HFMF exposure at 45 °C. In vitro cytotoxicity test shows that curcumin-loaded PEGylated magnetic liposomes could efficiently kill MCF-7 cells in parallel with increasing curcumin concentration. Fluorescence microscopy observed that these drug carriers could internalize efficiently into the cellular compartment of MCF-7 cells. Thus, it would be anticipated that the novel hydrophobic drug-loaded PEGylated magnetic liposomes in combination with inductive magnetic heating are promising to apply in the combination of chemotherapy and thermotherapy for cancer therapy.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and Osteogenic Potential of PEGylated NELL-1 In Vivo After Systemic Administration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yulong; Park, Juyoung; Chen, Eric; Shen, Jia; Chawan, Chirag; Tanjaya, Justine; Lee, Soonchul; Zhang, Xinli; Wu, Benjamin; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder attributable to an imbalance in osteoblast and osteoclast activity. NELL-1, a secretory protein that promotes osteogenesis while suppressing osteoclastic activity, holds potential as an osteoporosis therapy. Recently, we demonstrated that PEGylation of NELL-1 significantly improves its thermostability while preserving its bioactivity in vitro. However, the effect of PEGylation on the pharmacokinetics and osteogenic potential of NELL-1 in vivo have yet to be investigated. The present study demonstrated that PEGylation of NELL-1 significantly increases the elimination half-life time of the protein from 5.5h to 15.5h while distributing more than 2–3 times the amount of protein to bone tissues (femur, tibia, vertebrae, calvaria) in vivo when compared to naked NELL-1. In addition, microCT and DXA analyses demonstrated that systemic NELL-PEG therapy administered every 4 or 7 days significantly increases not only femoral and lumbar BMD and percent bone volume, but also new bone formation throughout the overall skeleton after four weeks of treatment. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased osteocalcin expression, while TRAP staining showed reduced osteoclast numbers in NELL-PEG groups. Our findings suggest that the PEGylation technique presents a viable and promising approach to further develop NELL-1 into an effective systemic therapeutic for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25913252

  14. PEGylation of Biopharmaceuticals: A Review of Chemistry and Nonclinical Safety Information of Approved Drugs.

    PubMed

    Turecek, Peter L; Bossard, Mary J; Schoetens, Freddy; Ivens, Inge A

    2016-02-01

    Modification of biopharmaceutical molecules by covalent conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules is known to enhance pharmacologic and pharmaceutical properties of proteins and other large molecules and has been used successfully in 12 approved drugs. Both linear and branched-chain PEG reagents with molecular sizes of up to 40 kDa have been used with a variety of different PEG derivatives with different linker chemistries. This review describes the properties of PEG itself, the history and evolution of PEGylation chemistry, and provides examples of PEGylated drugs with an established medical history. A trend toward the use of complex PEG architectures and larger PEG polymers, but with very pure and well-characterized PEG reagents is described. Nonclinical toxicology findings related to PEG in approved PEGylated biopharmaceuticals are summarized. The effect attributed to the PEG part of the molecules as observed in 5 of the 12 marketed products was cellular vacuolation seen microscopically mainly in phagocytic cells which is likely related to their biological function to absorb and remove particles and macromolecules from blood and tissues. Experience with marketed PEGylated products indicates that adverse effects in toxicology studies are usually related to the active part of the drug but not to the PEG moiety.

  15. Effect of increased surface hydrophobicity via drug conjugation on the clearance of inhaled PEGylated polylysine dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Haque, Shadabul; McLeod, Victoria M; Jones, Seth; Fung, Sandy; Whittaker, Michael; McIntosh, Michelle; Pouton, Colin; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2017-10-01

    PEGylated polylysine dendrimers are attractive and well tolerated inhalable drug delivery platforms that have the potential to control the release, absorption kinetics and lung retention time of conjugated drugs. The clinical application of these systems though, would likely require partial substitution of surface PEG groups with drug molecules that are anticipated to alter their lung clearance kinetics and clearance pathways. In the current study, we therefore evaluated the impact of increased surface hydrophobicity via substitution of 50% surface PEG groups with a model hydrophobic drug (α-carboxyl OtButylated methotrexate) on the lung clearance of a Generation 5 PEGylated polylysine dendrimer in rats. PEG substitution with OtBu-methotrexate accelerated lung clearance of the dendrimer by increasing polylysine scaffold catabolism, improving systemic absorption of the intact dendrimer and low molecular weight products of scaffold catabolism, and enhancing mucociliary clearance. These results suggest that the conjugation of hydrophobic drug on the surface of a PEGylated dendrimer is likely to accelerate lung clearance when compared to a fully PEGylated dendrimer. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening of reducing agents for the PEGylation of recombinant human IL-10.

    PubMed

    Ambrogelly, Alexandre; Cutler, Collette; Paporello, Brittany

    2013-06-01

    PEGylation is a technology commonly used to enhance the bioavailability of therapeutic proteins in patients. Reductive alkylation of a protein amino terminal alpha amine in the presence of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain derivatized with propionaldehyde and a reducing agent, typically sodium cyanoborohydride, is one of the technologies available to achieve quantitative and site specific PEGylation. While cyanoborohydride has proven to be a robust and efficient reagent for this type of reaction, it generates aqueous cyanide as a reaction by-product (and its corollary, the very volatile hydrogen cyanide). We report here the screening of reducing agents such as dimethylamine borane, trimethylamine borane, triethylamine borane, tert-butylamine borane, morpholine borane, pyridine borane, 2-picoline borane, and 5-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine borane as alternatives to cyanoborohydride for the PEGylation of recombinant human IL-10. The results of our study show that pyridine borane and 2-picoline borane promote rhIL-10 PEGylation at levels comparable to those observed with cyanoborohydride.

  17. Tolerability and efficacy of pegylated consensus interferon-α in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yan-Hua; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Li; Zhang, Hong; Luo, Hua; Sun, Yan-Fu; Liu, Cheng-Jiao; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Yu-Chen; Chen, Hong; Niu, Jun-Qi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore and evaluate the tolerability and antiviral activity of pegylated recombinant human consensus interferon-α (PEG-CIFN) in adults with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A total of 48 adult subjects chronically infected with HCV were divided into five groups, which were treated separately with PEG-CIFN 1.0 µg/kg (n=10), 1.5 µg/kg (n=10), 2.0 µg/kg (n=9) or 3.0 µg/kg (n=10), or pegylated IFN α-2a (Pegasys) 180 µg (n=9) as controls. Symptoms were observed and laboratory results collected to monitor adverse reactions, adjust drug dosage and evaluate tolerability. The thrombocytopenic effects in all PEG-CIFN dose groups were less than that of pegylated IFN α-2a (at week 14, P<0.05). The rapid virologic response of the PEG-CIFN 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 µg/kg groups and the pegylated IFN α-2a group were significantly higher than that of the PEG-CIFN 1.0 µg/kg group (P<0.05). Patients who had HCV genotype 1b infections had relatively high responses. The early virologic response of the PEG-CIFN 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µg/kg groups and the pegylated IFN α-2a group were 30, 90, 88.8 and 88.8% respectively. PEG-CIFN is well tolerated, and was found to have dose-dependent effectiveness in subjects with chronic hepatitis C. Virological response rates between PEG-CIFN 1.5 or 2.0 µg/kg, and pegylated IFNα-2a were similar, and not significantly different. It is concluded that 1.5 µg/kg PEG-CIFN may be the clinically recommended dose. PEG-CIFN is superior to pegylated IFN α-2a in maintaining platelet levels. PMID:28123460

  18. A PEGylated bovine hemoglobin as a potent hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Linli; Yu, Weili; Gao, Dawei; You, Guoxing; Li, Penglong; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have been used as blood substitutes in surgery medicine and oxygen therapeutics for ischemic stroke. As a potent HBOC, the PEGylated Hb has received much attention for its oxygen delivery and plasma expanding ability. Two PEGylated Hbs, Euro-Hb, and MP4 have been developed for clinical trials, using human adult hemoglobin (HbA) as the original substrate. However, HbA was obtained from outdated human blood and its quantity available from this source may not be sufficient for mass production of PEGylated HbA. In contrast, bovine Hb (bHb) has no quantity constraints for its ample resource. Thus, bHb is of potential to function as an alternative substrate to obtain a PEGylated bHb (bHb-PEG). bHb-PEG was prepared under the same reaction condition as HbA-PEG, using maleimide chemistry. The structural, functional, solution and physiological properties of bHb-PEG were determined and compared with those of HbA-PEG. bHb-PEG showed higher hydrodynamic volume, colloidal osmotic pressure, viscosity and P50 than HbA-PEG. The high P50 of bHb can partially compensate the PEGylation-induced perturbation in the R to T state transition of HbA. bHb-PEG was non-vasoactive and could efficiently recover the mean arterial pressure of mice suffering from hemorrhagic shock. Thus, bHb-PEG is expected to function as a potent HBOC for its high oxygen delivery and strong plasma expanding ability. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:252-260, 2017.

  19. PEGylation Enhances Mosquito-Larvicidal Activity of Lysinibacillus sphaericus Binary Toxin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mahima; Hire, Ramesh S; Hadapad, Ashok B; Gupta, Gagan D; Kumar, Vinay

    2017-02-15

    Toxic strains of Lysinibacillus sphaericus have been used in the field for larval control of mosquito vector diseases. The high toxicity of L. sphaericus is attributed to the binary (BinAB) toxin produced as parasporal crystalline inclusions during the early stages of sporulation. BinA and BinB, the primary components of these spore-crystals, exert high toxicity when administered together. However, instability, short half-lives, and rapid proteolytic digestion can limit their use as an effective insecticide. BinA alone displays larvicidal toxicity, in the absence of BinB, albeit with much reduced activity. Here for the first time, we demonstrate the beneficial effect of PEGylation (covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol) on mosquito-larvicidal activity of BinA. Polymer conjugation was achieved using 750 Da polyethylene glycol (PEG) at two different pH values (pH 7.2 and 8.5). Two different isoforms of the biopolymers, purified to homogeneity, were highly water-soluble and resistant to trypsin and proteinase K. The mono-PEGylated BinA isoforms also displayed preservation of the toxin structure with improved thermal stability by about 3-5 °C, as evident from thermal denaturation studies by circular dichroism and differential scanning fluorimetry. Notably, PEGylation enhanced BinA toxicity by nearly 6-fold. The PEGylated BinA isoforms alone displayed high larvicidal activity (LC50 value of ∼3.4 ng/mL) against the third instar Culex larvae, which compares favorably against LC50 reported for the combination of BinA and BinB proteins. Since BinA can be synthesized easily through recombinant technology and easily PEGylated, the conjugated biopolymers offer a promising opportunity for mosquito control programs.

  20. PEGylation enables the specific tumor accumulation of a peptide identified by phage display.

    PubMed

    Mier, Walter; Krämer, Susanne; Zitzmann, Sabine; Altmann, Annette; Leotta, Karin; Schierbaum, Ursula; Schnölzer, Martina; Eisenhut, Michael; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2013-04-28

    Peptides are excellent alternatives to small molecules and proteinaceous drugs. Their high medicinal potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications has prompted the development of tumor targeting peptides. Despite its excellent tumor binding capacity, FROP-DOTA (H-Glu-Asn-Tyr-Glu-Leu-Met-Asp-Leu-Leu-Ala-Tyr-Leu-Lys(DOTA)-NH2), a peptide that we had identified in phage display libraries, revealed slow binding kinetics. Consequently, biodistribution studies showed that its excretion forestalled a significant tumor accumulation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the conjugation of PEG to FROP-DOTA resulted in a derivative with a prolonged residence time in the blood. A synthetic method for the PEGylation of the tumor specific peptide FROP-DOTA was developed. Thereafter, binding studies were done in vitro and a biodistribution was performed in tumor bearing animals. These were compared to the data obtained with FROP-DOTA. The binding kinetics of the PEGylated FROP-DOTA was even slower than that of FROP-DOTA. Biodistribution studies of the labeled conjugate in mice bearing human FRO82-2 tumors showed a time dependent increased uptake of the PEGylated peptide with a high retention (at 24 h p.i. 76% of the maximal activity concentration persisted in the tumor). The highest uptake values were determined at 120 min p.i. reaching 2.3%ID/g tumor as compared to 0.06%ID/g observed for the non-PEGylated derivative at 135 min p.i. Apparently, PEGylation provides a substantially improved stabilization in the circulation which allowed a stable tumor accumulation.

  1. Pegylated protein encapsulated multivesicular liposomes: a novel approach for sustained release of interferon alpha.

    PubMed

    Vyas, S P; Rawat, M; Rawat, A; Mahor, S; Gupta, P N

    2006-07-01

    Hepatitis C viral chemotherapy suffers from a relatively short half-life of the interferon alpha-2a (IFN alpha). To address this issue, we investigated the effects of polyethylene glycol modification and their subsequent encapsulation in multivesicular liposomes (MVLs), on the release properties of IFN alpha. In the present study, interferon-alpha was conjugated with methoxy-polyethylene glycol (mPEG, MW 5000). Prepared IFN alpha-mPEG5000 conjugate (IFN alpha-mPEG5000) was purified with size exclusion chromatography. The relative in vitro anti-viral activity of pegylated interferon alpha-2a was found to 87.9% of the unmodified IFN alpha. Pegylated IFN alpha encapsulated multivesicular liposomes were prepared by double emulsification technique followed by evaporation of organic solvents from chloroform ether spherules suspended in water. Prepared MVLs were then characterized for shape, size, vesicle count, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release rate. In process stability studies of pegylated IFN alpha protein exhibited better stability when exposed to chloroform: diethyl ether (1:1 ratio) mixture as well as variable vortexing time as compared to native IFN alpha. Relatively high percentage of encapsulation of protein ( approximately 75%) was achieved. In vitro release profile of pegylated IFN alpha-mPEG5000 containing MVLs in the PBS showed lower initial burst release with sustained and incomplete release over a period of 1 week. In contrast, native IFN alpha entrapped MVLs were observed as higher initial burst release, i.e., nearly 35% followed by almost complete release. The results confirmed the possibility of multivesicular liposomes as a long-acting or sustained-release delivery system using a combination of pegylation and encapsulation technique for controlled delivery of interferon alpha.

  2. Separation of PEGylated variants of ribonuclease A and apo-α-lactalbumin via reversed phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Ruiz, Mayra; Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Przybycien, Todd M

    2014-09-19

    The covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules to pharmaceutical proteins, "PEGylation", often results in a population of conjugate species that includes differing numbers and locations of attached PEG chains. As some portion of this population may be biologically inactive, a challenging separation problem arises. An interesting alternative to the size-based resolution of these conjugates involves the use of reversed phase chromatography (RPC), treating the PEG moieties as hydrophobic purification tags. The use of RPC raises concerns about protein denaturation in the mobile and on the stationary phase. Here, the potential dual role of conjugated PEG chains as both group-specific separation tags and as steric or structural stabilizers in RPC was explored. In this work, RPC with C18-based media was used to resolve PEGylation number variants of ribonuclease A (RNase A) and apo-α-lactalbumin (apo-αLac) in a neutral pH mobile phase. While the attachment of 20kDa PEG molecules did not modify the structures of RNase A and apo-αLac, as confirmed by structural analysis using circular dichroism, exposure to the mobile phase modifier, acetonitrile, and to the C18 media during separation resulted in perturbations to both the secondary and tertiary structures of all species studied. RNase A experienced small perturbations that were mediated to some extent by PEGylation; these results were consistent with activity assays which showed that PEGylated RNase A species retained native-like activity after RPC separation. Apo-αLac, a more hydrophobic and less stable protein than RNase A, experienced extensive structural perturbations regardless of PEGylation state. The temperature of the mobile phase was found to strongly influence chromatographic separation of PEG-conjugates with conjugate species becoming more strongly retained with increasing temperature. This work shows that it is feasible to employ RPC with neutral pH mobile phases to resolve PEG conjugate

  3. Running with a load increases leg stiffness.

    PubMed

    Silder, Amy; Besier, Thor; Delp, Scott L

    2015-04-13

    Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (p<0.001) and a smaller change in stance phase leg length (p=0.025). When running with load, subjects had longer ground contact times (p<0.020), greater hip (p<0.001) and knee flexion (p=0.048) at the time of initial foot contact, and greater peak stance phase hip, knee, and ankle flexion (p<0.05). Our results reveal that subjects run in a more crouched posture and with higher leg stiffness to accommodate an added load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of post-ischemic blood-brain barrier damage with PEGylated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong-Fang; Qian, Cheng; An, Yan-Li; Chang, Di; Ju, Sheng-Hong; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage during ischemia may induce devastating consequences like cerebral edema and hemorrhagic transformation. This study presents a novel strategy for dynamically imaging of BBB damage with PEGylated supermagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents. The employment of SPIONs as contrast agents made it possible to dynamically image the BBB permeability alterations and ischemic lesions simultaneously with T2-weighted MRI, and the monitoring could last up to 24 h with a single administration of PEGylated SPIONs in vivo. The ability of the PEGylated SPIONs to highlight BBB damage by MRI was demonstrated by the colocalization of PEGylated SPIONs with Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection of SPION-PEG/Gd-DTPA into a mouse. The immunohistochemical staining also confirmed the leakage of SPION-PEG from cerebral vessels into parenchyma. This study provides a novel and convenient route for imaging BBB alteration in the experimental ischemic stroke model.

  5. Solubility and binding properties of PEGylated lysozyme derivatives with increasing molecular weight on hydrophobic-interaction chromatographic resins.

    PubMed

    Müller, Egbert; Josic, Djuro; Schröder, Tim; Moosmann, Anna

    2010-07-09

    Dynamic binding capacities and resolution of PEGylated lysozyme derivatives with varying molecular weights of poly (ethylene) glycol (PEG) with 5 kDa, 10 kDa and 30 kDa for HIC resins and columns are presented. To find the optimal range for the operating conditions, solubility studies were performed by high-throughput analyses in a 96-well plate format, and optimal salt concentrations and pH values were determined. The solubility of PEG-proteins was strongly influenced by the length of the PEG moiety. Large differences in the solubilities of PEGylated lysozymes in two different salts, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride were found. Solubility of PEGylated lysozyme derivatives in ammonium sulfate decreases with increased length of attached PEG chains. In sodium chloride all PEGylated lysozyme derivatives are fully soluble in a concentration range between 0.1 mg protein/ml and 10 mg protein/ml. The binding capacities for PEGylated lysozyme to HIC resins are dependent on the salt type and molecular weight of the PEG polymer. In both salt solutions, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, the highest binding capacity of the resin was found for 5 kDa PEGylated lysozyme. For both native lysozyme and 30 kDa mono-PEGylated lysozyme the binding capacities were lower. In separation experiments on a TSKgel Butyl-NPR hydrophobic-interaction column with ammonium sulfate as mobile phase, the elution order was: native lysozyme, 5 kDa mono-PEGylated lysozyme and oligo-PEGylated lysozyme. This elution order was found to be reversed when sodium chloride was used. Furthermore, the resolution of the three mono-PEGylated forms was not possible with this column and ammonium sulfate as mobile phase. In 4 M sodium chloride a resolution of all PEGylated lysozyme forms was achieved. A tentative explanation for these phenomena can be the increased solvation of the PEG polymers in sodium chloride which changes the usual attractive hydrophobic forces in ammonium sulfate to more repulsive

  6. PEGylated and Functionalized Aliphatic Polycarbonate Polyplex Nanoparticles for Intravenous Administration of HDAC5 siRNA in Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Frère, Antoine; Baroni, Alexandra; Hendrick, Elodie; Delvigne, Anne-Sophie; Orange, François; Peulen, Olivier; Dakwar, George R; Diricq, Jérôme; Dubois, Philippe; Evrard, Brigitte; Remaut, Katrien; Braeckmans, Kevin; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Laloy, Julie; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Feller, Georges; Mespouille, Laetitia; Mottet, Denis; Piel, Géraldine

    2017-01-25

    Guanidine and morpholine functionalized aliphatic polycarbonate polymers are able to deliver efficiently histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) siRNA into the cytoplasm of cancer cells in vitro leading to a decrease of cell proliferation were previously developed. To allow these biodegradable and biocompatible polyplex nanoparticles to overcome the extracellular barriers and be effective in vivo after an intravenous injection, polyethylene glycol chains (PEG750 or PEG2000) were grafted on the polymer structure. These nanoparticles showed an average size of about 150 nm and a slightly positive ζ-potential with complete siRNA complexation. Behavior of PEGylated and non-PEGylated polyplexes were investigated in the presence of serum, in terms of siRNA complexation (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy), size (dynamic light scattering and single-particle tracking), interaction with proteins (isothermal titration calorimetry) and cellular uptake. Surprisingly, both PEGylated and non-PEGylated formulations presented relatively good behavior in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS). Hemocompatibility tests showed no effect of these polyplexes on hemolysis and coagulation. In vivo biodistribution in mice was performed and showed a better siRNA accumulation at the tumor site for PEGylated polyplexes. However, cellular uptake in protein-rich conditions showed that PEGylated polyplex lost their ability to interact with biological membranes and enter into cells, showing the importance to perform in vitro investigations in physiological conditions closed to in vivo situation. In vitro, the efficiency of PEGylated nanoparticles decreases compared to non-PEGylated particles, leading to the loss of the antiproliferative effect on cancer cells.

  7. Acceleration of diabetic-wound healing with PEGylated rhaFGF in healing-impaired streptozocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhifeng; Lu, Meifei; Zhu, Guanghui; Gao, Hongchang; Xie, Liyun; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Ye, Chaohui; Wang, Yan; Sun, Chuanchuan; Li, Xiaokun

    2011-01-01

    Molecular modification with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) is an effective approach to improve protein biostability, in vivo lifetime and therapeutic potency. In the present study, the recombinant human acid fibroblast growth factor (rhaFGF) was site-selectively PEGylated with 20 kDa mPEG-butyraldehyde. Mono-PEGylated rhaFGF was purified to near homogeneity by Sephadex G 25-gel filtration followed by a Heparin Sepharose TM CL-6B affinity chromatography. PEGylated rhaFGF has less effect than the native rhaFGF on the stimulation of 3T3 cell proliferation in vitro; however, its relative thermal stability at normal physiological temperature and structural stability were significantly enhanced, and its half-life time in vivo was significantly extended. Then, the physiological function of PEGylated rhaFGF on diabetic-wound healing was evaluated in type 1 diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. The results showed that, compared with the group of animal treated with native rhaFGF, the group treated with PEGylated rhaFGF exhibited better therapeutic efficacy with shorter healing time, quicker tissue collagen generation, earlier and higher transforming growth factor (TGF)-β expression, and dermal cell proliferation. In addition, in vivo analysis showed that both native and PEGylated rhaFGF were more effective in the wound healing in the diabetic group compared with the nondiabetic one. Taken together, these results suggest that PEGylation of rhaFGF could be a more effective approach to the pharmacological and therapeutic application of native rhaFGF.

  8. ``Sheddable'' PEG-lipid to balance the contradiction of PEGylation between long circulation and poor uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Caiyan; Deng, Hongzhang; Xu, Jing; Li, Shuyi; Zhong, Lin; Shao, Leihou; Wu, Yan; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-05-01

    PEGylated lipids confer longer systemic circulation and tumor accumulation via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, PEGylation inhibits cellular uptake and subsequent endosomal escape. In order to balance the contradiction between the advantages of long circulation and the disadvantages of poor uptake of PEGylated lipids, we prepared a ``sheddable'' PEG-lipid micelle system based on the conjugation of PEG and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DSPE) with a pH sensitive benzoic imine bond. In a physiological environment, the PEG-protected micelles were not readily taken up by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and could be successfully delivered to tumor tissue by the EPR effect. In a tumor acidic microenvironment, the PEG chains detached from the surfaces of the micelles while the degree of linker cleavage could not cause a significant particle size change, which facilitated the carrier binding to tumor cells and improved the cellular uptake. Subsequently, the ``sheddable'' PEG-lipid micelles easily internalized into cells and the increased acidity in the lysosomes further promoted drug release. Thus, this ``sheddable'' PEG-lipid nanocarrier could be a good candidate for effective intracellular drug delivery in cancer chemotherapy.PEGylated lipids confer longer systemic circulation and tumor accumulation via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, PEGylation inhibits cellular uptake and subsequent endosomal escape. In order to balance the contradiction between the advantages of long circulation and the disadvantages of poor uptake of PEGylated lipids, we prepared a ``sheddable'' PEG-lipid micelle system based on the conjugation of PEG and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DSPE) with a pH sensitive benzoic imine bond. In a physiological environment, the PEG-protected micelles were not readily taken up by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and could be successfully delivered to tumor tissue by the EPR effect. In a tumor acidic

  9. Preparation and characterization of PEGylated multiwall carbon nanotubes as covalently conjugated and non-covalent drug carrier: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Habibizadeh, Mina; Rostamizadeh, Kobra; Dalali, Naser; Ramazani, Ali

    2017-05-01

    In this study, PEGylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)-based drug delivery system was developed. Ibuprofen as a model drug was loaded by physical and chemical method. The surface functionalization of nanotubes was carried out by enrichment of acylated groups. In order to synthesis PEGylated MWNTs, hydrophilic diamino-polyethylene glycol was covalently linked to the MWNTs surface via amidation reaction. Finally, ibuprofen was chemically and physically loaded on the PEGylated MWNTs. The resultants were characterized by FTIR, AFM, and DLS techniques. Cytotoxicity of PEGylated MWNTs were examined by MTT assay and the results revealed that PEG functionalized nanotubes did not show significant detrimental effects on the viability of L929 Cells. The percent of drug loading for chemically and physically drug payload carrier were determined to be 52.5% and 38%, respectively. The release of ibuprofen from covalently conjugated and non-covalent drug loaded PEGylated MWNTs at pH=7.4, and 5.3 were investigated, as well. From the results, it was found that chemically loaded MWNTs showed much sustained release behavior compared to the physically loaded one, especially at pH=5.3. The kinetic of drug release was also investigated. The results strongly suggest that the chemically conjugated PEGylated MWNTs could be used as controlled release system for various drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and characterization of hydroxypropyl chitosan modified with collagen peptide.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lihong; Zou, Shengqiong; Ge, Hongyu; Xiao, Yao; Wen, Huigao; Feng, Han; Liu, Meng; Nie, Min

    2016-12-01

    Collagen peptide (COP) had been grafted to hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCS) by using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) as biocatalyst. HPCS was synthesized from chitosan and propylene oxide under alkali condition. The chemical structures of derivative were characterized by FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The process conditions were optimized from the aspects of the reaction time, the reaction temperature, the molar ratio of COP and the mass ratio of MTGase to HPCS. In this study, HPCS-COP could serve not only to reduce the loss of moisture but also to absorb the moisture, and the moisture absorption and moisture retention abilities were closely related to the degree of substitution (DS) values. In addition, with the DS and concentration increase of HPCS-COP, the radical scavenging activity increased in vitro antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay (MTT) was applied to evaluate the biocompatibility of HPCS-COP, and the result indicated that HPCS-COP with the DS of 0.34 displayed pronounced cell viability at 50ppm. Therefore, the results suggest that HPCS-COP could be potential wound dressings for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hexavalent chromium removal by chitosan modified-bioreduced nontronite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajesh; Dong, Hailiang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Li; Rengasamy, Karthikeyan

    2017-08-01

    Recent efforts have focused on structural Fe(II) in chemically or biologically reduced clay minerals to immobilize Cr(VI) from aqueous solution, but the coulombic repulsion between the negatively charged clay surface and the polyanionic form of Cr(VI), e.g., dichromate, can hinder the effectiveness of this process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency and mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by a charge-reversed nontronite (NAu-2), an Fe-rich smectite. Chitosan, a linear polysaccharide derived from chitin found in soil and groundwater, was used to reverse the charge of NAu-2. Intercalation of chitosan into NAu-2 interlayer increased the basal d-spacing of NAu-2 from 1.23 nm to 1.83 nm and zeta potential from -27.17 to +34.13 mV, with the amount of increase depending on chitosan/NAu-2 ratio. Structural Fe(III) in chitosan-exchanged NAu-2 was then biologically reduced by an iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 in bicarbonate buffer with lactate as the sole electron donor, with and without electron shuttle, AQDS. Without AQDS, the extent of Fe(III) reduction increased from the lowest (∼9%) for the chitosan-free NAu-2 to the highest (∼12%) for the highest chitosan loaded NAu-2 (3:1 ratio). This enhancement of Fe(III) reduction was likely due to the attachment of negatively charged bacterial cells to charge-reversed (e.g., positively charged) NAu-2 surfaces, facilitating the electron transfer between cells and structural Fe(III). With AQDS, Fe(III) reduction extent doubled relative to those without AQDS, but the enhancement effect was similar across all chitosan loadings, suggesting that AQDS was more important than chitosan in enhancing Fe(III) bioreduction. Chitosan-exchanged, biologically reduced NAu-2 was then utilized for removing Cr(VI) in batch experiments with three consecutive spikes of 50 μM Cr. With the first Cr spike, the rate of Cr(VI) removal by charged-reversed NAu-2 that was bioreduced without and with AQDS was ∼1.5 and ∼6 μmol g-1 h-1, respectively. However, the capacity of these clays to remove Cr(VI) was progressively exhausted upon addition of subsequent Cr spikes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the reduction product of Cr(VI) by chitosan-exchanged-bioreduced NAu-2 was Cr(III), possibly in the form of Cr(OH)3. In summary, our results demonstrated that the combined effects of sorption and redox reactions by charge-reversed bioreduced nontronite may offer a feasible in-situ approach for remediating Cr(VI) polluted soil and groundwater.

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of PEGylated nanoparticles of bendamustine for treatment of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Pooja; Gidwani, Bina; Pandey, Ravindra; Shukla, Shiv Shankar

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop PEGylated nanoparticles of bendamustine (BM) to improve therapeutic efficiency of drug and reduce the side-effects. The nanoparticles were prepared by a modified diffusion-emulsification method. The particle size and zeta potential of optimized BM-loaded PEGylated NPs were found to be 256 nm and -29.1 mV. The in vitro release showed biphasic behavior, with initial burst release followed by slow sustained delivery. The anti-tumor activity was determined using the A- 549 cell line, by the MTT assay. The stability study revealed that the nanoparticles prepared were stable for 3 months at both 25°C and 4°C.

  13. The potential of PEGylated BaMnO3 nanoparticles as drug delivery agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Khizar; Khurshid, A.; Rafiq, M. A.; Durrani, S. K.; Zaidi, S. S. Z.; Ikram, M.; Hasan, M. M.

    2013-02-01

    Nanoparticles are extensively used as efficient drug carriers in various biological studies. PEGylated barium manganate powder consisting of nanoparticles was synthesized using a hydrothermal technique. The nanoparticle morphology of the powder was confirmed via scanning electron microscopy. The average diameter of the nanoparticles was ˜90 nm. The x-ray diffraction pattern revealed that these nanoparticles consisted of single phase polycrystalline 2H-BaMnO3. The PEGylated BaMnO3 nanoparticles were loaded with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) to evaluate their drug carrying potential. The toxicity of these nanoparticles was tested against the Hep2c cell line and found to be suitable for biological applications. It was seen that the drug uptake was a million times higher in the case of encapsulation compared to a conventional drug delivery system. This new formulation may find extensive use in nanomedicine as a multidrug delivery system.

  14. Microstructured dextran hydrogels for burst-free sustained release of PEGylated protein drugs.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ki Hyun; Lee, Fan; Xu, Keming; Keng, Choong Tat; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Yee Joo; Chen, Qingfeng; Kurisawa, Motoichi

    2015-09-01

    Hydrogels have gained significant attention as ideal delivery vehicles for protein drugs. However, the use of hydrogels for protein delivery has been restricted because their porous structures inevitably cause a premature leakage of encapsulated proteins. Here, we report a simple yet effective approach to regulate the protein release kinetics of hydrogels through the creation of microstructures, which serve as a reservoir, releasing their payloads in a controlled manner. Microstructured dextran hydrogels enable burst-free sustained release of PEGylated interferon over 3 months without compromising its bioactivity. These hydrogels substantially extend the circulation half-life of PEGylated interferon, allowing for less frequent dosing in a humanized mouse model of hepatitis C. The present approach opens up possibilities for the development of sustained protein delivery systems for a broad range of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly stable monodisperse PEGylated iron oxide nanoparticle aqueous suspensions: a nontoxic tracer for homogeneous magnetic bioassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lak, Aidin; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Scholtyssek, Jan M.; Goldmann, Oliver; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Kornowski, Andreas; Kraken, Mathias; Litterst, F. J.; Fiege, Kathrin; Mischnick, Petra; Schilling, Meinhard

    2013-11-01

    Uniformly sized and shaped iron oxide nanoparticles with a mean size of 25 nm were synthesized via decomposition of iron-oleate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy investigations revealed that the particles are spheres primarily composed of Fe3O4 with a small fraction of FeO. From Mössbauer and static magnetization measurements, it was deduced that the particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The hydrophobic particles were successfully transferred into water via PEGylation using nitrodopamine as an anchoring group. IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed the success and efficiency of the phase transfer reaction. After PEGylation, the particles retained monodispersity and their magnetic core remained intact as proven by photon cross-correlation spectroscopy, ac susceptibility, and transmission electron microscopy. The particle aqueous suspensions revealed excellent water stability over a month of monitoring and also against temperature up to 40 °C. The particles exhibited a moderate cytotoxic effect on in vitro cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages and no release of inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines. The PEGylated particles were functionalized with Herceptin antibodies via a conjugation chemistry, their response to a rotating magnetic field was studied using a fluxgate-based setup and was compared with the one recorded for hydrophobic and PEGylated particles. The particle phase lag rose after labeling with Herceptin, indicating the successful conjugation of Herceptin antibodies to the particles.Uniformly sized and shaped iron oxide nanoparticles with a mean size of 25 nm were synthesized via decomposition of iron-oleate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy investigations revealed that the particles are spheres primarily composed of Fe3O4 with a small fraction of FeO. From Mössbauer and static magnetization measurements, it was deduced that the

  16. Solid-phase PEGylation of recombinant interferon alpha-2a for site-specific modification: process performance, characterization, and in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Kook; Kwon, Jin Sook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Lee, E K

    2007-01-01

    'Solid-phase' PEGylation, in which a conjugation reaction attaches proteins to a solid matrix, has distinct advantages over the conventional, solution-phase process. We report a case study in which recombinant interferon (rhIFN) alpha-2a was adsorbed to a cation-exchange resin and PEGylated at the N-terminus by 5, 10, and 20 kDa mPEG aldehydes through reductive alkylation. After PEGylation, a salt gradient elution efficiently purified the mono-PEGylate of unwanted species such as unmodified IFN and unreacted PEG. Mono-PEGylation and purification were integrated into a single, chromatographic step. Depending on the molecular weight of the mPEG aldehyde, the mono-PEGylation yield ranged from 50 to 65%. Major problems associated with the solution-phase process such as random or uncontrollable multi-PEGylation and post-PEGylation purification difficulties were overcome. N-terminus sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrophometry confirmed that the PEG molecule was conjugated only to the N-terminus. A cell proliferation study indicated reduced antiviral activity of the mono-PEGylate compared to that of the unmodified IFN. As higher molecular weight PEG was conjugated, in vitro bioactivity and antibody binding activity, as measured by a surface plasmon resonance biosensor, decreased. Nevertheless, trypsin resistance and thermal stability were considerably improved .

  17. Efficacy and toxicity profile of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Christine; Brucker, Janina; Schuetz, Florian; Domschke, Christoph; Bechstein, Sarah; Heil, Jörg; Golatta, Michael; Wallwiener, Markus; Sohn, Christof; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Rom, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    The prognosis of patients with non-platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer is poor. There is a need for salvage therapies with anti-tumor activity and acceptable toxicity for maintaining quality of life. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD, Caelyx(®)) is a promising drug fulfilling these demands. We present retrospective data of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who were treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin at the University of Heidelberg between 2007 and 2009. Eligible patients for this retrospective study had advanced ovarian cancer and were treated in a palliative setting with PLD at the university hospital of Heidelberg, Germany. Primary objectives were toxicity and efficacy of PLD. 34 patients were included in this study between November 2007 and December 2009; one patient received PLD twice as palliative treatment. The median age of the 34 patients enrolled in this study was 59.9 years (range 27-77 years). The median weight of the patients was 69 kg (range 47-109 kg), the median height 164 cm (range 140-176 cm). Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin was administered every 4 weeks with a dosage of 40 mg/m(2) body surface. PLD was administered for three cycles in median (range 1-9 cycles). Dose reduction was necessary in only four patients. In our study time to progression and overall survival was 8.74 and 14.23 months. In conclusion, this retrospective study showed the efficacy and low toxicity of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with advanced EOC. Further observations are needed to confirm these preliminary experiences on a larger number of patients.

  18. Impact of Large Aggregated Uricases and PEG Diol on Accelerated Blood Clearance of PEGylated Canine Uricase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun; Fan, Kai; Ma, Xuefeng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Uricase has proven therapeutic value in treating hyperuricemia but sufficient reduction of its immunogenicity may be the largest obstacle to its chronic use. In this study, canine uricase was modified with 5 kDa mPEG-SPA and the impact of large aggregated uricases and cross-linked conjugates induced by difunctional PEG diol on immunogenicity was investigated. Methods and Findings Recombinant canine uricase was first expressed and purified to homogeneity. Source 15Q anion-exchange chromatography was used to separate tetrameric and aggregated uricase prior to pegylation, while DEAE anion-exchange chromatography was used to remove Di-acid PEG (precursor of PEG diol) from unfractionated 5 kDa mPEG-propionic acid. Tetrameric and aggregated uricases were separately modified with the purified mPEG-SPA. In addition, tetrameric uricases was modified with unfractionated mPEG-SPA, resulting in three types of 5 kDa mPEG-SPA modified uricase. The conjugate size was evaluated by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. The influence of differently PEGylated uricases on pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity were evaluated in vivo. The accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon previously identified for PEGylated liposomes occurred in rats injected with PEGylated uricase aggregates. Anti-PEG IgM antibodies, rather than neutralizing antibodies, were found to mediate the ABC. Conclusions The size of conjugates is important for triggering such phenomena and we speculate that 40–60 nm is the lower size limit that can trigger ABC. Removal of the uricase aggregates and the PEG diol contaminant and modifying with small PEG reagents enabled ABC to be successfully avoided and sufficient reduction in the immunogenicity of 5 kDa mPEG-modified tetrameric canine uricase. PMID:22745806

  19. Preparation and Characterization of PEGylated Iron Oxide-Gold Nanoparticles for Delivery of Sulforaphane and Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Danafar, Hossein; Sharafi, Ali; Askarlou, Sonia; Manjili, Hamidreza Kheiri

    2017-07-24

    Natural products have been used for the treatment of various diseases such as cancer. Curcumin (CUR) and sulforaphane (SF) have anti-cancer effects, but their application is restricted because of their low water solubility and poor oral bioavailability. To improve the bioavailability and solubility of SF and CUR, we performed an advanced delivery of SF and CUR with PEGylated gold coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (PEGylated Fe3O4@Au NPs) to endorse SF and CUR maintenance as an effective and promising antitumor drugs. The structure of the synthesized nanocarrieris evaluated by, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results revealed that the size of NPs was 20 nm. They were mono-dispersed in water, with high drug-loading capacity and stability. CUR and SF were encapsulated into NPs with loading capacity of 16.32±0.023% and 15.74±0.015% and entrapment efficiency of 74.57±0.14% and 72.20±0.18% respectively. The in-vitro study of SF and CUR loaded PEGylated Fe3O4@Au NPs on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (SK-BR-3) confirmed that cytotoxicity of SF and CUR can enhance when they are loaded on PEGylated Fe3O4@Au NPs in comparison to Free SF and void CUR. The results of flow cytometry and real-time PCR shown that nano-carriers can increase therapeutic effects of SF and CUR by apoptosis and necrosis induction as well as inhibiting of migration in SK-BR-3 cell line. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. PEGylation of bacteriophages increases blood circulation time and reduces T‐helper type 1 immune response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang‐Pyo; Cha, Jeong‐Dan; Jang, Eun‐Hye; Klumpp, Jochen; Hagens, Steven; Hardt, Wolf‐Dietrich; Lee, Kyung‐Yeol; Loessner, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The increasing occurrence of antibiotic‐resistant pathogens is of growing concern, and must be counteracted by alternative antimicrobial treatments. Bacteriophages represent the natural enemies of bacteria. However, the strong immune response following application of phages and rapid clearance from the blood stream are hurdles which need to be overcome. Towards our goal to render phages less immunogenic and prolong blood circulation time, we have chemically modified intact bacteriophages by conjugation of the non‐immunogenic polymer monomethoxy‐polyethylene glycol (mPEG) to virus proteins. As a proof of concept, we have used two different polyvalent and strictly virulent phages of the Myoviridae, representing typical candidates for therapeutical approaches: Felix‐O1 (infects Salmonella) and A511 (infects Listeria). Loss of phage infectivity after PEGylation was found to be proportional to the degree of modification, and could be conveniently controlled by adjusting the PEG concentration. When injected into naïve mice, PEGylated phages showed a strong increase in circulation half‐life, whereas challenge of immunized mice did not reveal a significant difference. Our results suggest that the prolonged half‐life is due to decreased susceptibility to innate immunity as well as avoidance of cellular defence mechanisms. PEGylated viruses elicited significantly reduced levels of T‐helper type 1‐associated cytokine release (IFN‐γ and IL‐6), in both naïve and immunized mice. This is the first study demonstrating that PEGylation can increases survival of infective phage by delaying immune responses, and indicates that this approach can increase efficacy of bacteriophage therapy. PMID:21261844

  1. PEGylation of lipoplexes: The right balance between cytotoxicity and siRNA effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Lechanteur, Anna; Furst, Tania; Evrard, Brigitte; Delvenne, Philippe; Hubert, Pascale; Piel, Géraldine

    2016-10-10

    The delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is an attractive therapeutic approach to treat several pathologies, such as viral infections or cancers. However, the stability and the efficacy of these biotherapies are still a major obstacle to their use. Cationic liposomes (DOTAP/Chol/DOPE 1/0.75/0.5M ratio) have been complexed to siRNA (lipoplexes) in order to be administrated by the vaginal route, in the context of HPV16 induced cervical preneoplastic lesions. To overcome the constraint of the cervico-vaginal mucus, PEGylation is required to allow the diffusion of lipoplexes through it. Thereby, PEGylated lipoplexes coated with three types of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as DSPE-PEG2000, DSPE-PEG750 or C8-PEG2000-Ceramide (Ceramide-PEG2000) at different densities have been developed and characterized. PEGylated lipoplexes were successfully prepared and showed a hydrodynamic diameter around 200nm, appropriate for vaginal application. In vitro assays on HPV16 positive cell lines revealed that a positive charge of PEGylated lipoplexes allows a higher mRNA knockdown by siRNA. However, the cationic property is also associated to cytotoxicity. The addition of a high percentage of PEG prevented this toxicity but seemed also to reduce siRNA endosomal escape, probably by steric hindrance. The decreasing of PEG density of Ceramide-PEG2000 to 20% allows the release of siRNA and in consequence, biological activities, contrarily to DSPE-PEG. These results suggest that Ceramide-PEG is more appropriate for siRNA delivery compared to DSPE-PEG. In conclusion, the right balance between cytotoxicity and siRNA effectiveness has been found with the transfection of lipoplexes coated with 20% of Ceramide-PEG2000. This new nanovector could have a high potential against multiple mucosal diseases, such as human papillomavirus-induced genital lesions.

  2. Drug evaluation: ADI-PEG-20--a PEGylated arginine deiminase for arginine-auxotrophic cancers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Jiuan; Shen, Wei-Chiang

    2006-06-01

    Pheonix is developing ADI-PEG-20, a PEGylated arginine deiminase for the potential treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, for which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products have granted the drug Orphan Drug status, and melanoma, for which the FDA has also awarded ADI-PEG-20 Orphan Drug status. ADI-PEG-20 is also being investigated for the potential treatment of influenza virus infection and hepatitis C virus infection.

  3. Potential role of a new PEGylated recombinant factor VIII for hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Tung Thanh; Gumuscu, Burak

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia A, a deficiency in the activity of coagulation factor (F) VIII, is an X-linked bleeding disorder with an approximate incidence of one in 5,000 male infants. Bleeding-related complications often result in greater severity of disease, poor quality of life, surgical interventions for severe joint destruction, and shortened life span. With the availability of plasma-derived and recombinant FVIII products, the benefits of primary prophylaxis were demonstrated and is now the standard of care for patients with severe factor deficiencies. Current hemophilia research is focusing on the creation of new factor replacement therapies with longer half-lives; accessing alternative mechanisms to achieve desired hemostasis and enhance bypassing activity; and limiting the immunogenicity of the protein. PEGylation involves the covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to a protein, peptide, or a small molecule drug. PEG effectively increases the molecular weight and size of the protein by creating a hydrophilic cloud around the molecule. This molecular change may reduce susceptibility of the molecule to proteolytic activity and degradation. It is also believed that PEGylation changes the surface charge of the protein that ultimately interferes with some receptor-mediated clearance processes. The half-life of PEGylated factor is more prolonged when compared to non-PEGylated full-length recombinant FVIII. The dawn of a new era in the care of hemophilia patients is upon us with the release of recombinant FVIII products with extended half-lives, and products with even more extended half-life will become available in a very short time. With all the promise of these new agents, many questions still remain.

  4. Pilot study with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for advanced or unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schmidinger, M; Wenzel, C; Locker, G J; Muehlbacher, F; Steininger, R; Gnant, M; Crevenna, R; Budinsky, A C

    2001-01-01

    We performed a pilot-study on pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Seventeen patients received 40 mg/m2 PLD intravenously every 4 weeks. A clinical benefit response was achieved in 50% (complete remission 7%, minor remission 7%, stable disease 36%). Toxicities were moderate. In view of these encouraging findings, further studies appear warranted. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747325

  5. PEGylation of cytochrome P450 enhances its biocatalytic performance for pesticide transformation.

    PubMed

    Alejo-González, Karla; Quester, Katrin; Hanson, Erik; Secundino, Ismael; Rosenstein, Yvonne; Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2017-07-06

    Pesticide intoxication is a major public health concern, and unfortunately there is not an effective treatment for severe organophosphorus pesticide intoxication. In this work, a non-immunogenic enzymatic bioconjugate based on cytochrome P450 was assayed for organophosphorus pesticide transformation. Enzyme therapy is an alternative approach to inactivate pesticides in the bloodstream, transforming them into less toxic metabolites. A variant of cytochrome P450 (CYPBM3 F87A) from Bacillus megaterium was chemically modified with polyethylene glycol. The PEGylated enzyme showed enhanced pesticide transformation activity when compared with the unmodified protein. The transformation rates were higher than those obtained with the unmodified enzyme for all six pesticides transformed. The specific activity of PEGylated preparation for parathion and dichlorophen was up to 9-times higher than these obtained with the unmodified enzyme. In addition, the modified CYP (CYP-PEG) remained active at extremely high pHs, maintaining 90% of its maximal activity at pH 11, as opposed to the unmodified CYP that retained less than 20% of its maximal activity at that pH. In addition, the bioconjugate showed good catalytic activity in blood serum and innocuousness on immune cells. The potential use of PEGylated CYP as a detoxification strategy for pesticide poisoning is demonstrated and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis, Radiolabeling, and In Vivo Imaging of PEGylated High-Generation Polyester Dendrimers.

    PubMed

    McNelles, Stuart A; Knight, Spencer D; Janzen, Nancy; Valliant, John F; Adronov, Alex

    2015-09-14

    A fifth generation aliphatic polyester dendrimer was functionalized with vinyl groups at the periphery and a dipicolylamine Tc(I) chelate at the core. This structure was PEGylated with three different molecular weight mPEGs (mPEG160, mPEG350, and mPEG750) using thiol-ene click chemistry. The size of the resulting macromolecules was evaluated using dynamic light scattering, and it was found that the dendrimer functionalized with mPEG750 was molecularly dispersed in water, exhibiting a hydrodynamic diameter of 9.2 ± 2.1 nm. This PEGylated dendrimer was subsequently radiolabeled using [(99m)Tc(CO)3(H2O)3](+) and purified to high (>99%) radiochemical purity. Imaging studies were initially performed on healthy rats to allow comparison to previous Tc-labeled dendrimers and then on xenograft murine tumor models, which collectively showed that the dendrimers circulated in the blood for an extended period of time (up to 24 h). Furthermore, the radiolabeled dendrimer accumulated in H520 xenograft tumors, which could be visualized by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The reported PEGylated aliphatic polyester dendrimers represent a new platform for developing tumor-targeted molecular imaging probes and therapeutics.

  7. Hepatic Tumor Metastases Cause Enhanced PEGylated Liposome Uptake by Kupffer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, Masami; Fujiwara, Yukako; Ando, Hidenori; Shimizu, Taro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Kupffer cells in livers bearing tumor metastases were found to have promoted tumor invasion and exacerbated the metastasis. This implies that the function of Kupffer cells might differ between animals bearing hepatic metastases and those that are healthy. Kupffer cells are considered responsible for the accumulation of liposomes in the liver. In this study, we hypothesized that the alteration in the function of Kupffer cells by hepatic metastasis would also affect the biodistribution of liposomes following intravenous administration. The hepatic accumulation and the blood concentration of PEGylated liposomes were compared between healthy mice and tumor-bearing mice. We noted that hepatic accumulation and elimination from the blood were significantly accelerated in tumor-bearing mice, indicating that our hypothesis was correct. In the tumor-bearing mice, the proportion of Kupffer cells taking up liposomes was significantly increased. Intravenous injection of oxaliplatin (l-OHP) containing PEGylated liposomes decreased the fraction of Kupffer cells, but this administration caused no injury to the hepatocytes. These results suggest that PEGylated liposomes containing l-OHP may have the potential to treat metastatic hepatic cancer-not only via the direct killing of the cancer cells but also via a reduction in tumor-supportive Kupffer cells.

  8. Production, purification and biological characterization of mono-PEGylated anti-IL-17A antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Koussoroplis, Salome-Juliette; Heywood, Sam; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Barilly, Céline; Van Snick, Jacques; Vanbever, Rita

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to maximize the yield of the production of mono-PEGylated anti-interleukin-17A (anti-IL-17A) antibody fragments using large (≥ 20 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains. Particular attention was paid to selectively yield mono-PEGylated species to maintain the maximum possible functionality and to simplify the purification. Neutralization of IL-17A by antibody constructs might find application for the treatment of bronchial hyperreactivity. Amino-directed and sulfhydryl-directed PEGylation of the native antibody fragments were compared. The former was selected as it produced the most interesting construct in terms of yield and preservation of biological activity. In particular, the F(ab')2-PEG conjugate with one 40 kDa branched PEG prepared in this study was produced at a 42% yield. The conjugate presented only a slight decrease in its binding activity and in its in vitro inhibitory potency offering interesting perspectives for in vivo studies.

  9. Effects of PEGylated paclitaxel nanocrystals on breast cancer and its lung metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Hu, Hongxiang; Zhang, Haoran; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xinglin; Wang, Xueqing; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    As an attractive strategy developed rapidly in recent years, nanocrystals are used to deliver insoluble drugs. PEGylation may further prolong the circulation time of nanoparticles and improve the therapeutic outcome of drugs. In this study, paclitaxel (PTX) nanocrystals (PTX-NCs) and PEGylated PTX nanocrystals (PEG-PTX-NCs) were prepared using antisolvent precipitation augmented by probe sonication. The characteristics and antitumor efficacy of nanocrystals were investigated. The results indicated that the nanocrystals showed rod-like morphology, and the average particle size was 240 nm and 330 nm for PTX-NCs and PEG-PTX-NCs, respectively. The PEG molecules covered the surface of nanocrystals with an 11.54 nm fixed aqueous layer thickness (FALT), much higher than that of PTX-NCs (0.2 nm). PEG-PTX-NCs showed higher stability than PTX-NCs under both storage and physiological conditions. In breast cancer xenografted mice, PEG-PTX-NCs showed significantly better tumor inhibition compared to saline (p < 0.001) and PTX-NC groups (p < 0.05) after intravenous administration. In a model of lung tumor metastasis quantified by the luciferase activity, the PEG-PTX-NCs group showed higher anticancer efficacy not only than saline and PTX-NCs groups, but also than Taxol®, achieving an 82% reduction at the end of the experiment. These studies suggested the potential advantages of PEGylated PTX nanocrystals as alternative drug delivery systems for anticancer therapy.

  10. Sulfhydryl-specific PEGylation of phosphotriesterase cysteine mutants for organophosphate detoxification.

    PubMed

    Daffu, Gurdip K; Lopez, Patricia; Katz, Francine; Vinogradov, Michael; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Landry, Donald W; Macdonald, Joanne

    2015-11-01

    The catalytic bioscavenger phosphotriesterase (PTE) is experimentally an effective antidote for organophosphate poisoning. We are interested in the molecular engineering of this enzyme to confer additional functionality, such as improved in vivo longevity. To this aim, we developed PTE cysteine mutants with free sulfhydryls to allow macromolecular attachments to the protein. A library of PTE cysteine mutants were assessed for efficiency in hydrolysing the toxic pesticide metabolite paraoxon, and screened for attachment with a sulfhydryl-reactive small molecule, fluorescein 5-maleimide (F5M), to examine cysteine availability. We established that the newly incorporated cysteines were readily available for labelling, with R90C, E116C and S291C displaying the highest affinity for binding with F5M. Next, we screened for efficiency in attaching a large macromolecule, a 30 000 Da polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecule. Using a solid-phase PEGylation strategy, we found the E116C mutant to be the best single-mutant candidate for attachment with PEG30. Kinetic activity of PEGylated E116C, with paraoxon as substrate, displayed activity approaching that of the unPEGylated wild-type. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, an efficient cysteine mutation and subsequent method for sulfhydryl-specific macromolecule attachment to PTE.

  11. PEGylation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Extends Virus Persistence in Blood Circulation of Passively Immunized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tesfay, Mulu Z.; Kirk, Amber C.; Hadac, Elizabeth M.; Griesmann, Guy E.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Barber, Glen N.; Henry, Stephen M.; Peng, Kah-Whye

    2013-01-01

    We are developing oncolytic vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSVs) for systemic treatment of multiple myeloma, an incurable malignancy of antibody-secreting plasma cells that are specifically localized in the bone marrow. One of the presumed advantages for using VSV as an oncolytic virus is that human infections are rare and preexisting anti-VSV immunity is typically lacking in cancer patients, which is very important for clinical success. However, our studies show that nonimmune human and mouse serum can neutralize clinical-grade VSV, reducing the titer by up to 4 log units in 60 min. In addition, we show that neutralizing anti-VSV antibodies negate the antitumor efficacy of VSV, a concern for repeat VSV administration. We have investigated the potential use of covalent modification of VSV with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or a function-spacer-lipid (FSL)–PEG construct to inhibit serum neutralization and to limit hepatosplenic sequestration of systemically delivered VSV. We report that in mice passively immunized with neutralizing anti-VSV antibodies, PEGylation of VSV improved the persistence of VSV in the blood circulation, maintaining a more than 1-log-unit increase in VSV genome copies for up to 1 h compared to the genome copy numbers for the non-PEGylated virus, which was mostly cleared within 10 min after intravenous injection. We are currently investigating if this increase in PEGylated VSV circulating half-life can translate to increased virus delivery and better efficacy in mouse models of multiple myeloma. PMID:23325695

  12. Improvement of intratumor microdistribution of PEGylated liposome via tumor priming by metronomic S-1 dosing

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yusuke; Abu Lila, Amr S; Matsumoto, Haruna; Okada, Tomoko; Shimizu, Taro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The efficient delivery of nanocarrier-based cancer therapeutics into tumor tissue is problematic. Structural abnormalities, tumor vasculature heterogeneity, and elevated intratumor pressure impose barriers against the preferential accumulation of nanocarrier-based cancer therapeutics within tumor tissues and, consequently, compromise their therapeutic efficacy. Recently, we have reported that metronomic S-1, orally available tegafur formulation, dosing synergistically augmented the therapeutic efficacy of oxaliplatin (l-OHP)-containing PEGylated liposome without increasing the toxicity in animal model. However, the exact mechanism behind such synergistic effect was not fully elucidated. In this study, therefore, we tried to shed the light on the contributions of metronomic S-1 dosing to the enhanced accumulation and/or spatial distribution of PEGylated liposome within tumor tissue. Tumor priming with metronomic S-1 treatment induced a potent apoptotic response against both angiogenic endothelial cells and tumor cells adjacent to tumor blood vessels, resulting in enhanced tumor blood flow via transient normalization of tumor vasculature, along with alleviation of intratumor pressure. Such a change in the tumor microenvironment imparted by S-1 treatment allows efficient delivery of PEGylated liposome to tumor tissue and permits their deep penetration/distribution into the tumor mass. Such a priming effect of S-1 dosing can be exploited as a promising strategy to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of nanocarrier-based cancer therapeutics suffering from inadequate/heterogeneous delivery to tumor tissues. PMID:27822036

  13. Synthesis and characterization of PEGylated bolaamphiphiles with enhanced retention in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyue; Mintzer, Evan; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2016-11-15

    Long-circulating liposomes are typically prepared with poly(ethylene glycol)- (PEG-) modified lipids, where the lipid portion is inserted in the lipid bilayers as an anchor and the hydrophilic PEG coats the surface to prevent liposome aggregation and rapid clearance in vivo. However, these steric protection effects are compromised upon systemic administration due to low retention of PEGylated lipids within liposome membranes upon dilution. Hence, a series of PEGylated bolaamphiphiles (PEG-bolas) were for the first time developed to increase retention in the lipid bilayer, presumably leading to enhanced integrity of the PEG protective layer upon dilution. We hypothesized that PEG-bolas with a sufficiently long hydrophobic domain and rigid central group could predominantly adopt a membrane-spanning configuration, taking full advantage of steric protection offered by PEG and enhanced retention in liposomes enabled by the bola geometry. In this paper, liposomes stabilized by PEG-bolas comprised of a biphenyl core and twelve-carbon alkyl chain not only exhibited similar storage and biological stability compared to conventional PEGylated lipid stabilized liposomes, but also significantly improved retention upon dilution. Our findings facilitate new designs of liposome-stabilizing agents and can be applied to improve the delivery efficiency of liposomal delivery vehicles in vivo.

  14. [Good virological response to pegylated interferon alfa monotherapy of chronic hepatitis C infection in hemodialysis patient].

    PubMed

    Caro, P; Núñez, A; Delgado, R; Dapena, F; Amann, R

    2007-01-01

    Liver disease caused by hepatitis C virus infection is associated to significant morbidity and mortality among patient with end stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Therapy in these patients consists of Interferon, preferably pegylated Interferon (pIFN), thus Ribavirin (RBV) is not recommended for patients with impaired renal function, outside its use in controlled trials. We report a case of 35 years young woman on HD treatment, renal transplantation candidate with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, HCV RNA positive (by PCR), genotype 3a, moderate viral load, light increase of aminotransferases. Pegylated Interferon alfa-2a (135 mcg/weekly/SC) was initiated. She achieved HVC RNA negative within 12 weeks, following with pINF as monotherapy to complete 24 weeks (6 months). Sustained virologic response persisted to 24 and 48 weeks. Most important side effects were light detriment of anemia, moderate neutropenia and thombocytopenia, transitory elevation of transaminases and "flu-like" syndrome. Adverse events were well tolerated with total compliance with pIFN dose, no requiring reduce or stop the treatment. These findings confirm that hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C respond well to pegylated IFN monotherapy and a long-term sustained virologic response is achieved, appears to be better tolerated with less side effects, so combination therapy with pINF plus ribavirin is not necessary in all cases.

  15. Metabolically Stabilized Long-Circulating PEGylated Polyacridine Peptide Polyplexes Mediate Hydrodynamically Stimulated Gene Expression in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Christian A.; Baumhover, Nicholas J.; Duskey, Jason T.; Khargharia, Sanjib; Kizzire, Koby; Ericson, Mark D.; Rice, Kevin G.

    2010-01-01

    A novel class of PEGylated polyacridine peptides was developed that mediate potent stimulated gene transfer in the liver of mice. Polyacridine peptides, (Acr-X)n-Cys-PEG, possessing 2–6 repeats of Lys-acridine (Acr) spaced by either Lys, Arg, Leu or Glu, were Cys derivatized with polyethylene glycol (PEG 5000 Da) and evaluated as in vivo gene transfer agents. An optimal peptide of (Acr-Lys)6-Cys-PEG was able to bind to plasmid DNA (pGL3) with high affinity by polyintercalation, stabilize DNA from metabolism by DNAse and extend the pharmacokinetic half-life of DNA in the circulation for up to 2 hrs. A tail vein dose of PEGylated polyacridine peptide pGL3 polyplexes (1 μg in 50 μl), followed by a stimulatory hydrodynamic dose of normal saline at times ranging from 5–60 min post-DNA administration, led to a high level of luciferase expression in the liver, equivalent to levels mediated by direct hydrodynamic dosing of 1 μg of pGL3. The results establish the unique properties of PEGylated polyacridine peptides as a new and promising class of gene delivery peptides that facilitate reversible binding to plasmid DNA, protecting it from DNase in vivo resulting in an extended circulatory half-life, and release of transfection-competent DNA into the liver to mediate a high-level of gene expression upon hydrodynamic boost. PMID:20720577

  16. Site-selective glycosylation of hemoglobin with variable molecular weight oligosaccharides: potential alternative to PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Styslinger, Thomas J; Zhang, Ning; Bhatt, Veer S; Pettit, Nicholas; Palmer, Andre F; Wang, Peng G

    2012-05-02

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugation (i.e., PEGylation) is a commonly used strategy to increase the circulatory half-life of therapeutic proteins and colloids; however, few viable alternatives exist to replicate its functions. Herein, we report a method for the rapid site-selective glycosylation of proteins with variously sized carbohydrates, up to a molecular weight (MW) of 10,000, thus serving as a potential alternative for PEGylation. More importantly, the method developed has two unique features. First, traditional protecting group strategies that typically accompany the modification of the carbohydrate fragments are circumvented, allowing for the facile site-selective glycosylation of a desired protein with variously sized glycans. Second, the methodology employed is not limited by oligosaccharide size; consequently, glycans of MW similar to that of PEG, used in the PEGylation of therapeutic proteins, can be employed. To demonstrate the usefulness of this technology, hemoglobin (Hb) was site-selectively glycosylated with a series of carbohydrates of increasing MW (from 504 to ∼10,000). Hb was selected on the basis of the vast wealth of biochemical and biophysical knowledge present in the literature and because of its use as a precursor in the synthesis/formulation of artificial red blood cell substitutes. Following the successful site-selective glycosylation of Hb, the impact of increasing the glycan MW on Hb's biophysical properties was investigated in vitro. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  17. Synthesis and characterization of PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rukmani; Paul, Willi; Sharma, Chandra P

    2009-01-01

    The inconvenience of subcutaneous insulin delivery leads to low patient compliance with the dosage regimens. The most desirable form of administration seems to be through the oral route. This work investigates the utility of PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles as oral carriers for insulin. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP) with an average particle size of 47.9 nm (D50) were synthesized and surface modified by conjugating it with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). These modified nanoparticles were having a near zero zeta potential. Protection of insulin from the gastric environment has been achieved by coating the nanoparticles with a pH sensitive polymer that will dissolve in the mildly alkaline pH environment of the intestine. The release profiles of coated nanoparticles exhibited negligible release in acidic (gastric) pH, i.e., only 2% for CaP and 6.5% for PEGylated CaP. However, a sustained release of insulin was observed at neutral (intestinal) pH for over 8 h. The conformation of the released insulin, studied using circular dichroism, was unaltered when compared with native insulin. The released insulin was also stable as it was studied using dynamic light scattering. Radioimmunoassay was performed and the immunoreactivity of the released insulin was found to be intact. These results suggest PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles as an excellent carrier system for insulin toward the development of an oral insulin delivery system.

  18. Improved in vivo delivery of m-THPC via pegylated liposomes for use in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Bovis, Melissa J; Woodhams, Josephine H; Loizidou, Marilena; Scheglmann, Dietrich; Bown, Stephen G; Macrobert, Alexander J

    2012-01-30

    Pegylated liposomal nanocarriers have been developed with the aim of achieving improved uptake of the clinical PDT photosensitiser, m-THPC, into target tissues through increased circulation time and bioavailability. This study investigates the biodistribution and PDT efficacy of m-THPC in its standard formulation (Foscan®) compared to m-THPC incorporated in liposomes with different degrees of pegylation (FosPEG 2% and FosPEG 8%), following i.v. administration to normal and tumour bearing rats. The plasma pharmacokinetics were described using a three compartmental analysis and gave elimination half lives of 90 h, 99 h and 138 h for Foscan®, FosPEG 2% and 8% respectively. The accumulation of m-THPC in tumour and normal tissues, including skin, showed that maximal tumour to skin ratios were observed at ≤ 24 h with FosPEG 2% and 8%, whilst skin photosensitivity studies showed Foscan® induces more damage compared to the liposomes at drug-light intervals of 96 and 168 h. PDT treatment at 24h post-administration (0.05 mg kg⁻¹) showed higher tumour necrosis using pegylated liposomal formulations in comparison to Foscan®, which is attributed to the higher tumour uptake and blood plasma concentrations. Clinically, this improved selectivity has the potential to reduce not only normal tissue damage, but the drug dose required and cutaneous photosensitivity.

  19. The effects of pegylated interferon--alpha2B on mumps orchitis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Goutam

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of pegylated Interferon--alpha2B on mumps orchitis, 80 patients suffering from mumps orchitis, were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 40 patients each. In the first group patients received pegylated interferon--alpha2B and the other group did not, acting as controls. All were confirmed by mumps IgM (ELISA) and evaluated by testis size, semen analysis and hormone level. In the first group, the symptoms resolved within average 2.2 days and testicular size returned to normal within average 5.3 days but in 2nd group, those returned to normal within average 5.7 days and 10.2 days respectively. In the 1st group, oligospermia was detected in 11 patients and subsequently returned to normal in all patients and there was no testicular atrophy. In the 2nd group oligospermia was detected in 13 patients and were persistently low in 3 patients and testicular atrophy detected in 2 patients. The results indicated the beneficial role of pegylated interferon--alpha2B in preventing infertility from mumps orchitis.

  20. pH triggered doxorubicin delivery of PEGylated glycolipid conjugate micelles for tumor targeting therapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fu-Qiang; Zhang, Yin-Ying; You, Jian; Yuan, Hong; Du, Yong-Zhong

    2012-09-04

    The main objective of this study was aimed at tumor microenvironment-responsive vesicle for targeting delivery of the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). A glucolipid-like conjugate (CS) was synthesized by the chemical reaction between chitosan and stearic acid, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was then conjugated with CS via a pH-responsive cis-aconityl linkage to produce acid-sensitive PEGylated CS conjugates (PCCS). The conjugates with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 181.8 μg/mL could form micelles in aqueous phase, and presented excellent DOX loading capacity with a drug encapsulation efficiency up to 87.6%. Moreover, the PCCS micelles showed a weakly acid-triggered PEG cleavage manner. In vitro drug release from DOX-loaded PCCS micelles indicated a relatively faster DOX release in weakly acidic environments (pH 5.0 and 6.5). The CS micelles had excellent cellular uptake ability, which could be significantly reduced by the PEGylation. However, the cellular uptake ability of PCCS was enhanced comparing with insensitive PEGylated CS (PCS) micelles in weakly acidic condition imitating tumor tissue. Taking PCS micelles as a comparative group, the PCCS drug delivery system was demonstrated to show much more accumulation in tumor tissue, followed by a relatively better performance in antitumor activity together with a security benefit on xenograft tumor model.

  1. PEGylation of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microparticles for microfluidic bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kucerova, Jana; Svobodova, Zuzana; Knotek, Petr; Palarcik, Jiri; Vlcek, Milan; Kincl, Miloslav; Horak, Daniel; Autebert, Julien; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Bilkova, Zuzana

    2014-07-01

    In this study, magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microparticles containing carboxyl groups (PGMA-COOH) were coated using highly hydrophilic polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG was used to reduce nonspecific interactions with proteins and cells while decreasing adhesion of particles to the walls of a microfluidic devices from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Zeta potential measurement, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, anti-PEG ELISA assay, and bioaffinity interactions between biotin and streptavidin-HRP successfully proved the presence of PEG on the surface of microspheres. Both neat and PEGylated microspheres were then incubated with the inert protein bovine serum albumin or cells to evaluate the rate of nonspecific adsorption (NSA). PEG with Mr of 30,000 Da was responsible for 45% reduction in NSA of proteins and 74% for cells compared to neat particles. The microspheres' behavior in PDMS and COC microchannels was then evaluated. Aggregation and adhesion of PEGylated microspheres significantly decreased compared to neat particles. Finally, the model enzyme horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on the microspheres through the heterobifunctional PEG chain. The possibility for subsequent covalent coupling of the ligand of interest was confirmed. Such PEGylated microparticles can be efficiently used in PDMS microchips as a carrier for bioaffinity separation or of enzyme for catalysis.

  2. Redox-responsive biodegradable PEGylated nanographene oxide for efficiently chemo-photothermal therapy: a comparative study with non-biodegradable PEGylated nanographene oxide.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Honglian; Guo, Zhouyi; Zhang, Wen; Zhong, Huiqing; Liu, Songhao; Ji, Yanhong

    2014-09-05

    Nanographene oxide (NGO) with a non-sheddable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coating has been used for chemo-photothermal therapy. However, the drug release of PEGylated NGO (NGO-PEG) with an amine bond is adversely affected by the diffusion barrier effect of PEG shells. Here, we developed a simple new method for the preparation of biodegradable PEGylated NGO conjugates (NGO-SS-PEG) with cleavable disulfide bonds for rapid drug release and more efficiently chemo-photothermal therapy. The glutathione (GSH)-induced and photothermal-mediated intracellular release of doxorubicin (DOX) from NGO-SS-PEG was studied in A549 cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. In vivo cytotoxicity experiments were performed on chemo-photothermal therapy. Furthermore, we presented a comparative study of intracellular drug release and biological efficacy between NGO-SS-PEG/DOX and NGO-PEG/DOX. The results demonstrated that the rapid drug release from the NGO-SS-PEG conjugates with sheddable PEG was triggered upon the stimulus of high GSH levels inside A549 cells. Interesting, the DOX release mediated by the photothermal effect from the NGO-SS-PEG conjugates was found to be more obvious than that for NGO-PEG. Additionally, NGO-SS-PEG showed a higher efficacy than NGO-PEG for anti-tumor therapy compared with NGO-PEG. Thus, NGO-SS-PEG can improve therapeutic efficacy and is an attractive drug nanocarrier.

  3. The impact of cell surface PEGylation and short-course immunotherapy on islet graft survival in an allogeneic murine model.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Jaime A; Molano, R Damaris; Rengifo, Hernán R; Fotino, Carmen; Gattás-Asfura, Kerim M; Pileggi, Antonello; Stabler, Cherie L

    2017-02-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for Type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, host inflammatory and immune responses lead to islet dysfunction and destruction, despite potent systemic immunosuppression. Grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to the periphery of cells or tissues can mitigate inflammation and immune recognition via generation of a steric barrier. Herein, we sought to evaluate the complementary impact of islet PEGylation with a short-course immunotherapy on the survival of fully-MHC mismatched islet allografts (DBA/2 islets into diabetic C57BL/6J recipients). Anti-Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1 (LFA-1) antibody was selected as a complementary, transient, systemic immune monotherapy. Islets were PEGylated via an optimized protocol, with resulting islets exhibiting robust cell viability and function. Following transplantation, a significant subset of diabetic animals receiving PEGylated islets (60%) or anti-LFA-1 antibody (50%) exhibited long-term (>100d) normoglycemia. The combinatorial approach proved synergistic, with 78% of the grafts exhibiting euglycemia long-term. Additional studies examining graft cellular infiltrates at early time points characterized the local impact of the transplant protocol on graft survival. Results illustrate the capacity of a simple polymer grafting approach to impart significant immunoprotective effects via modulation of the local transplant environment, while short-term immunotherapy serves to complement this effect. We believe this study is important and of interest to the biomaterials and transplant community for several reasons: 1) it provides an optimized protocol for the PEGylation of islets, with minimal impact on the coated islets, which can be easily translated for clinical applications; 2) this optimized protocol demonstrates the benefits of islet PEGylation in providing modest immunosuppression in a murine model; 3) this work demonstrates the combinatory impact of PEGylation with short

  4. Site-specific PEGylation of exenatide analogues markedly improved their glucoregulatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Nian; Ma, Ai-Niu; Zhang, Li-Jie; Luo, Xiao-Su; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Xu, Michael; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Exenatide is a 39-amino-acid peptide widely used to manage type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it has a short plasma half-life and requires a twice daily injection regime. To overcome these drawbacks we used maleimide-polyethylene glycol to induce site-specific PEGylation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The analogue PB-105 (ExC39) was produced by replacing cysteine at position 39 of exenatide to provide a free thiol group. PB-105 showed the same glucoregulatory activity as exenatide in mice. Site-specific PEGylation of PB-105 was performed to produce PB-110 (ExC39PEG5kDa), PB-106 (ExC39PEG20kDa), PB-107 (ExC39PEG30kDa) and PB-108 (ExC39PEG40kDa). Their effects on intracellular cAMP, acute glucoregulatory activity and pharmacokinetic profile were compared in mice and rats. KEY RESULTS PEGylation shifted the concentration–response curve of PB-105 to the right in a parallel, polyethylene glycol mass-dependent manner but with an inflexion point of at least 20 kDa. The activities of PB-107 and PB-108 but not PB-106 were reduced by 90% and 99%. PEGylation affected in vivo glucoregulatory activity in the same ‘Inflexion-Shift’ fashion at least at 20 kDa, but linearly increased plasma duration and systemic exposure without inflexion. PB-106 had a plasma t1/2 approximately 10-fold that of PB-105, and exhibited superior glucoregulatory activity compared with PB-105 in normal and diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Site-specific PEGylation of exenatide with a permanent amide linkage affects its activity in a new type of ‘Inflexion-Shift’ fashion. PB-106 is a putative new analogue for treating diabetes; it possesses no loss of in vitro activity, prolonged plasma duration and superior, improved in vivo glucoregulatory activity compared with exenatide. PMID:21244372

  5. Benefits of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging of labeled islets

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Man; Oh, Seung-Hoon; Oh, Bae Jun; Suh, Sunghwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    While a few studies have demonstrated the benefit of PEGylation in islet transplantation, most have employed renal subcapsular models and none have performed direct comparisons of islet mass in intraportal islet transplantation using islet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, our aim was to demonstrate the benefit of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation with a novel algorithm for islet MRI. Islets were PEGylated after ferucarbotran labeling in a rat syngeneic intraportal islet transplantation model followed by comparisons of post-transplant glycemic levels in recipient rats infused with PEGylated (n = 12) and non-PEGylated (n = 13) islets. The total area of hypointense spots and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm2 of PEGylated and non-PEGylated islets were quantitatively compared. The total area of hypointense spots (P < 0.05) and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm2 (P < 0.05) were higher in the PEGylated islet group 7 and 14 days post translation (DPT). These results translated into better post-transplant outcomes in the PEGylated islet group 28 DPT. In validation experiments, MRI parameters obtained 1, 7, and 14 DPT predicted normoglycemia 4 wk post-transplantation. We directly demonstrated the benefit of islet PEGylation in protection against nonspecific islet destruction in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation using a novel algorithm for islet MRI. This novel algorithm could serve as a useful tool to demonstrate such benefit in future clinical trials of islet transplantation using PEGylated islets. PMID:25483878

  6. Benefits of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging of labeled islets.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Man; Oh, Seung-Hoon; Oh, Bae Jun; Suh, Sunghwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    While a few studies have demonstrated the benefit of PEGylation in islet transplantation, most have employed renal subcapsular models and none have performed direct comparisons of islet mass in intraportal islet transplantation using islet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, our aim was to demonstrate the benefit of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation with a novel algorithm for islet MRI. Islets were PEGylated after ferucarbotran labeling in a rat syngeneic intraportal islet transplantation model followed by comparisons of post-transplant glycemic levels in recipient rats infused with PEGylated (n = 12) and non-PEGylated (n = 13) islets. The total area of hypointense spots and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm(2) of PEGylated and non-PEGylated islets were quantitatively compared. The total area of hypointense spots (P < 0.05) and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm(2) (P < 0.05) were higher in the PEGylated islet group 7 and 14 days post translation (DPT). These results translated into better post-transplant outcomes in the PEGylated islet group 28 DPT. In validation experiments, MRI parameters obtained 1, 7, and 14 DPT predicted normoglycemia 4 wk post-transplantation. We directly demonstrated the benefit of islet PEGylation in protection against nonspecific islet destruction in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation using a novel algorithm for islet MRI. This novel algorithm could serve as a useful tool to demonstrate such benefit in future clinical trials of islet transplantation using PEGylated islets.

  7. Long-lasting anti-diabetic efficacy of PEGylated FGF-21 and liraglutide in treatment of type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xianlong; Qi, Jianying; Ren, Guiping; Xu, Pengfei; Wu, Yunzhou; Zhu, Shenglong; Yu, Dan; Li, Shujie; Wu, Qiang; Muhi, Rasool Lubna; Li, Deshan

    2015-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) is a new member of the FGF family and potential drug candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, FGF-21 protein has short half-life in vivo, which severely affects its clinical application. In the present study, PEGylated FGF-21 was prepared by modifying the N-terminus of hFGF-21 with 20 kDa mPEG-ALD. The long-acting hypoglycemic effect of PEGylated FGF-21 and liraglutide was compared on type 2 diabetic db/db mice. The pharmacological efficacy of the compounds was evaluated by blood glucose levels, body weight, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, insulin levels, oral glucose tolerance test, lipid levels, and liver function parameters. We noticed that both PEGylated FGF-21 and liraglutide could significantly decrease plasma glucose in db/db mice. However, comparing to liraglutide treatments, PEGylated FGF-21 therapy resulted in more significant effect in lowering blood glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, alleviating insulin resistance, improving lipid profile, liver function, and glucose control of the experimental mice. Our results suggest that PEGylated FGF-21 appears more beneficial anti-diabetic effect in type 2 diabetic mice than liraglutide, which holds significant promise as an ideal candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetic patients.

  8. Interaction of PEGylated anti-hypertensive drugs, amlodipine, atenolol and lisinopril with lipid bilayer membrane: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Yousefpour, Abbas; Modarress, Hamid; Goharpey, Fatemeh; Amjad-Iranagh, Sepideh

    2015-08-01

    The interaction of PEGylated anti-hypertensive drugs, amlodipine, atenolol and lisinopril with lipid bilayer membrane dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) has been studied in nine different simulation systems consisting of 128 lipid molecules and appropriate number of water molecules by molecular dynamics method and by utilizing GROMACS software. The influences of PEGylation on the mentioned drugs and the differences in application of two types of spacer molecules on the performance of drugs and DMPC membrane have been evaluated and mass density of the components in the simulation box, mean square displacement (MSD), electrostatic potential, hydrogen bonding, radial distribution function (RDF), area per lipid, order parameter, and angle distribution of the component molecules including drug, DMPC and PEG has been investigated. Furthermore, umbrella sampling analysis indicated that, PEGylation of the drugs made amlodipine to behave more hydrophilic, whereas in case of lisinopril and atenolol, PEGylation made these drugs to behave more hydrophobic. In almost all of the simulated systems, PEGylation increased the diffusion coefficient of the drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PEGylated helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing human Apo A-I for gene therapy in LDLR-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Leggiero, E; Astone, D; Cerullo, V; Lombardo, B; Mazzaccara, C; Labruna, G; Sacchetti, L; Salvatore, F; Croyle, M; Pastore, L

    2013-12-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vectors have great potential for gene therapy applications; however, their administration induces acute toxicity that impairs safe clinical applications. We previously observed that PEGylation of HD-Ad vectors strongly reduces the acute response in murine and primate models. To evaluate whether PEGylated HD-Ad vectors combine reduced toxicity with the correction of pathological phenotypes, we administered an HD-Ad vector expressing the human apolipoprotein A-I (hApoA-I) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor-deficient mice (a model for familial hypercholesterolemia) fed a high-cholesterol diet. Mice were treated with high doses of HD-Ad-expressing apo A-I or its PEGylated version. Twelve weeks later, LDL levels were lower and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels higher in mice treated with either of the vectors than in untreated mice. After terminal killing, the areas of atherosclerotic plaques were much smaller in the vector-treated mice than in the control animals. Moreover, the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines was lower and consequently the toxicity profile better in mice treated with PEGylated vector than in mice treated with the unmodified vector. This finding indicates that the reduction in toxicity resulting from PEGylation of HD-Ad vectors does not impair the correction of pathological phenotypes. It also supports the clinical potential of these vectors for the correction of genetic diseases.

  10. Site-specific PEGylation for high-yield preparation of Lys(21)-amine PEGylated growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) (1-29) using a GRF(1-29) derivative FMOC-protected at Tyr(1) and Lys(12).

    PubMed

    Youn, Yu Seok; Lee, Kang Choon

    2007-01-01

    PEGylation has been viewed as an effective means of overcoming the therapeutic restriction of growth hormone-releasing factor (1-29) (GRF(1-29)) due to its short biological lifetime caused by severe proteolysis and rapid glomerular filtration. Of three isomers according to the PEGylation sites (Tyr1, Lys12, or Lys21), PEGylated GRF(1-29) at Lys21-amine (Lys21-PEG-GRF(1-29)) was shown to have the highest bioactivity. In this report, we propose a unique two-step site-specific PEGylation method capable of producing only Lys21-PEG-GRF(1-29) with a single composition in high yield using a GRF(1-29) derivative protected at Tyr1 and Lys12 and remained available at Lys21 (FMOC1,12-GRF(1-29)). The first step of this reaction involved the PEG attachment to FMOC1,12-GRF(1-29), and the second step involved the removal of FMOC moieties. This PEGylation process was optimized at the following conditions: 0.2-0.3% (v/v) triethylamine concentration, 5.0-6.0-fold molar amount of PEG, reaction temperature of 25-45 degrees C, and reaction time of 30 min. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of Lys21-PEG-GRF(1-29) produced was ca. approximately 95%, 6.3-fold higher than that by nonspecific PEGylation at pH 8.5. Significantly, this site-specific Lys21-PEG-GRF(1-29) was found to have greatly increased resistance to rat plasma, liver, and kidney homogenates, with 7.0-, 25.4-, and 16.4-fold longer half-lives vs GRF(1-29), respectively. Furthermore, 125I-Lys21-PEG-GRF(1-29) displayed significantly reduced liver and kidney distributions and extended blood presence vs 125I-GRF(1-29) in rats. Due to these benefits, Lys21-PEG-GRF(1-29) displayed an enhanced initial growth hormone release in vivo despite having 15% remaining activity in vitro. This devised PEGylation method using an FMOC-protection/deprotection strategy would provide great usefulness for PEGylating bioactive peptides in terms of improved biological potency, elevated production yield, and a uniform composition.

  11. Improvement of pharmacokinetic and antitumor activity of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles by coating with PEGylated phospholipid membrane

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Mina; Zhang, Zhaoguo; Cui, Shengmiao; Lei, Ming; Zeng, Ke; Liao, Yunhui; Chu, Weijing; Deng, Yihui; Zhao, Chunshun

    2014-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) has attracted considerable attention as a drug carrier. However, because of its poor in vivo behavior, polyethylene glycolylated (PEGylated) phospholipid must be used as a coformer to produce self-assembled core–shell nanoparticles. In the present study, we prepared a PEGylated phospholipid-coated LDH (PLDH) (PEG-PLDH) delivery system. The PEG-PLDH nanoparticles had an average size of 133.2 nm. Their core–shell structure was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In vitro liposome-cell-association and cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated its ability to be internalized by cells. In vivo studies showed that PEGylated phospholipid membranes greatly reduced the blood clearance rate of LDH nanoparticles. PEG-PLDH nanoparticles demonstrated a good control of tumor growth and increased the survival rate of mice. These results suggest that PEG-PLDH nanoparticles can be a useful drug delivery system for cancer therapy. PMID:25364245

  12. Anti-PEG IgM and complement system are required for the association of second doses of PEGylated liposomes with splenic marginal zone B cells.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Taro; Mima, Yu; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Ukawa, Masami; Ando, Hidenori; Kiwada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2015-10-01

    The accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon makes it crucial to use PEGylated liposomes and micelles to deliver drugs. The ABC phenomenon is an immune response against an initial dose of PEGylated liposome, which causes subsequent doses to be rapidly cleared by macrophages in the liver. We recently found that in the early phase of the ABC phenomenon, subsequent doses of PEGylated liposomes were associated with splenic marginal zone (MZ)-B cells and were transported from the MZ to the follicle (FO). In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms behind the association of subsequent doses of PEGylated liposomes with MZ-B cells in the spleen. Serum factors, anti-PEG IgM and complement system, were crucial to the association of PEGylated liposomes with MZ-B cells, while the sensitization of MZ-B cells by the first dose of PEGylated liposomes was not significant. It was the complement receptors (CRs) on the MZ-B cells, rather than either the PEG-specific B-cell receptors or the IgM Fc receptors, that were the main contributors to the association between PEGylated liposomes and MZ-B cells. It appeared that anti-PEG IgM would bind to PEGylated liposomes and causes subsequent complement activation, resulting in the formation of immune complexes of PEGylated liposome-anti-PEG IgM-complement. The MZ-B cells then recognized these immune complexes via their CRs. Such an association via CRs might have triggered the transport of the immune complex by MZ-B cells to the FO in the spleen. The information obtained in this study might be useful in the development of an efficient antigen delivery system to usher PEGylated nanoparticles into FO dendritic cells.

  13. Hemocompatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane grafted with network-like and brush-like antifouling layer controlled via plasma-induced surface PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung; Shih, Yu-Ju; Ko, Chao-Yin; Jhong, Jheng-Fong; Liu, Ying-Ling; Wei, Ta-Chin

    2011-05-03

    In this work, the hemocompatibility of PEGylated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) microporous membranes with varying grafting coverage and structures via plasma-induced surface PEGylation was studied. Network-like and brush-like PEGylated layers on PVDF membrane surfaces were achieved by low-pressure and atmospheric plasma treatment. The chemical composition, physical morphology, grafting structure, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability of prepared membranes were determined to illustrate the correlations between grafting qualities and hemocompatibility of PEGylated PVDF membranes in contact with human blood. Plasma protein adsorption onto different PEGylated PVDF membranes from single-protein solutions and the complex medium of 100% human plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. Hemocompatibility of the PEGylated membranes was evaluated by the antifouling property of platelet adhesion observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the anticoagulant activity of the blood coagulant determined by testing plasma-clotting time. The control of grafting structures of PEGylated layers highly regulates the PVDF membrane to resist the adsorption of plasma proteins, the adhesion of platelets, and the coagulation of human plasma. It was found that PVDF membranes grafted with brush-like PEGylated layers presented higher hydration capability with binding water molecules than with network-like PEGylated layers to improve the hemocompatible character of plasma protein and blood platelet resistance in human blood. This work suggests that the hemocompatible nature of grafted PEGylated polymers by controlling grafting structures gives them great potential in the molecular design of antithrombogenic membranes for use in human blood.

  14. Analysis of binding interaction between pegylated puerarin and bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic methods and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Meirong; Ding, Zhishan; Jiang, Fusheng; Ding, Xinghong; Sun, Jinyue; Chen, Suhong; Lv, Guiyuan

    2011-12-01

    The interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and pegylated puerarin (Pur) in aqueous solution was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectra (CD), as well as dynamic light scattering (DLS). The fluorescence of BSA was strongly quenched by the binding of pegylated Pur to BSA. The binding constants and the number of binding sites of mPEG 5000-Pur with BSA were 2.67 ± 0.12 and 1.37 ± 0.05 folds larger after pegylating, which were calculated from the data obtained from fluorescence quenching experiments. The enthalpy change (Δ H) and entropy change (Δ S) were calculated to be 4.09 kJ mol -1 and 20.01 J mol -1 K -1, respectively, according to Van't Hoff equation, indicating that the hydrophobic force plays a main role in the binding interaction between pegylated Pur and BSA. In addition, the negative sign for Gibbs free energy change (Δ G) implies that the interaction process is spontaneous. Moreover, the results of synchronous fluorescence and CD spectra demonstrated that the microenvironment and the secondary conformation of BSA were changed. Comparing with Pur, all our data collected indicated that pegylated Pur interacted with BSA in the same way as that of Pur, but docked into the hydrophobic pocket of BSA with more accessibility and stronger binding force. DLS measurements showed monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) have an effect on BSA conformation, and revealed that changes in BSA size might be due to increases in binding constant and the absolute values of Δ G after Pur pegylation.

  15. PEGylation rate influences peptide-based nanoparticles mediated siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Aldrian, Gudrun; Vaissière, Anaïs; Konate, Karidia; Seisel, Quentin; Vivès, Eric; Fernandez, Frédéric; Viguier, Véronique; Genevois, Coralie; Couillaud, Franck; Démèné, Héléne; Aggad, Dina; Covinhes, Aurélie; Barrère-Lemaire, Stéphanie; Deshayes, Sébastien; Boisguerin, Prisca

    2017-06-28

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) present a strong therapeutic potential because of their ability to inhibit the expression of any desired protein. Recently, we developed the retro-inverso amphipathic RICK peptide as novel non-covalent siRNA carrier. This peptide is able to form nanoparticles (NPs) by self-assembling with the siRNA resulting in the fully siRNA protection based on its protease resistant peptide sequence. With regard to an in vivo application, we investigated here the influence of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafting to RICK NPs on their in vitro and in vivo siRNA delivery properties. A detailed structural study shows that PEGylation did not alter the NP formation (only decrease in zeta potential) regardless of the used PEGylation rates. Compared to the native RICK:siRNA NPs, low PEGylation rates (≤20%) of the NPs did not influence their cellular internalization capacity as well as their knock-down specificity (over-expressed or endogenous system) in vitro. Because the behavior of PEGylated NPs could differ in their in vivo application, we analyzed the repartition of fluorescent labeled NPs injected at the one-cell stage in zebrafish embryos as well as their pharmacokinetic (PK) profile after administration to mice. After an intra-cardiac injection of the PEGylated NPs, we could clearly determine that 20% PEG-RICK NPs reduce significantly liver and kidney accumulation. NPs with 20% PEGylation constitutes a modular, easy-to-handle drug delivery system which could be adapted to other types of functional moieties to develop safe and biocompatible delivery systems for the clinical application of RNAi-based cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A PEGylated fibrin-based wound dressing with antimicrobial and angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman, Shanmuganathan; Natesan, Shanmugasundaram; Stowers, Ryan S; Mullens, Conor; Baer, David G; Suggs, Laura J; Christy, Robert J

    2011-07-01

    Wounds sustained under battlefield conditions are considered to be contaminated and their initial treatment should focus on decreasing this contamination and thus reducing the possibility of infection. The early and aggressive administration of antimicrobial treatment starting with intervention on the battlefield has resulted in improved patient outcomes and is considered the standard of care. Chitosan microspheres (CSM) loaded with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) were developed via a novel water-in-oil emulsion technique to address this problem. The SSD-loaded spheres were porous with needle-like structures (attributed to SSD) that were evenly distributed over the spheres. The average particle size of the SSD-CSM was 125-180 μm with 76.50 ± 2.8% drug entrapment. As a potential new wound dressing with angiogenic activity SSD-CSM particles were impregnated in polyethylene glycol (PEGylated) fibrin gels. In vitro drug release studies showed that a burst release of 27.02% in 6h was achieved, with controlled release for 72 h, with an equilibrium concentration of 27.7% (70 μg). SSD-CSM-PEGylated fibrin gels were able to exhibit microbicidal activity at 125 and 100 μg ml(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. The in vitro vasculogenic activity of this composite dressing was shown by seeding adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in SSD-CSM-PEGylated fibrin gels. The ASC spontaneously formed microvascular tube-like structures without the addition of any exogenous factors. This provides a method for the extended release of an antimicrobial drug in a matrix that may provide an excellent cellular environment for revascularization of infected wounds.

  17. Characterization of calcium phosphate nanoparticles based on a PEGylated chelator for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiangang; Andina, Diana; Ge, Jingshui; Labarre, Anne; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Castagner, Bastien

    2017-03-07

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles are promising gene delivery carriers due to their bioresorbability, ease of preparation, high gene loading efficacy and endosomal escape properties. However the rapid aggregation of the particles needs to be addressed in order to have potential in vivo. In addition, there is a need to better understand the relationship between CaP nanoparticle properties and their interactions with cells. Here, a new synthesis routes involving click chemistry was developed to prepare the PEGylated chelator PEG-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (PEG-IP5) that can coat and stabilize CaP nanoparticles. Two methods (1 and 2) differing on the time of addition of the PEGylated chelator were employed to produce stabilized particles. Method 1 yielded amorphous aggregated spheres with a particle size of about 200 nm, whereas method 2 yielded 40 nm amorphous loose aggregates of clusters, which were quickly turned into needle bundle-like crystals of about 80 nm in a few hours. Nanoparticles prepared by method 1 were internalized with significantly higher efficiency in HepG2 cells than those prepared by method 2, and the uptake was dramatically influenced by the reaction time of Ca(2+) and PO4(3-) and sedimentation of the particles. Interestingly, morphological transformations were observed for both types of particles after different storage times, but this barely influenced their in vitro cellular uptake. The transfection efficiency of the particles prepared by method 1 was significantly higher, and none of the formulations tested showed signs of cytotoxicity. This study provides a better understanding of the properties (e.g. size, morphology and crystallinity) of PEGylated CaP nanoparticles and how these influence the particles' in vitro uptake and transfection efficiency.

  18. [Safety of pegylated interferon in patients with hepatitis C virus induced cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Gasztonyi, Beáta; Pár, Gabriella; Pár, Alajos; Hunyady, Béla

    2005-11-27

    The authors described their experience with the therapy with pegylated interferon and its safety in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) induced liver cirrhosis treated at First Department of Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs and at Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Twenty four (12 male, 12 female, average: 55.66 +/- 7. 02 years) anti-HCV and/or HCV-RNA PCR positive cirrhotic patients were examined. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound and/or histological examination of liver biopsy. Different genotypes of HCV were detected: genotype 1 in 7 cases, genotype 2 in 1 person, genotype 3 in 3 cases. Genotype 4 was detected in 10 patients, all of them were treated out of Hungary. Thirteen of 24 patients were not treated earlier, 6 persons were non-responders to previous interferon monotherapy, pegylated interferon was administered to 5 patients because of relapse. Biochemical parameters showed improvement in 16 cases (16/24, 66.66%), but did not in 5 patients. Until now, virological response was achieved in 13 patients (13/24, 54.16%), while three patients remained HCV-PCR positive. Temporary dose reduction was needed in 13/24 cases (54.16%). Withdrawal of therapy became necessary in only 2 patients due to severe neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and/or signs of decompensation. Pegylated interferon treatment is well tolerated by patients with compensated liver cirrhosis (Child-Pough stage A). Frequent side-effects (half of all cases) were usually mild or moderate requiring discontinuation only in 2 of 24 patients. The incidence of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia emphasizes the need of frequent blood cell count tests and patients follow up.

  19. Folic acid-modified methotrexate-conjugated PEGylated poly(ɛ-caprolactone) nanoparticles for targeted delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issarachot, Ousanee; Suksiriworapong, Jiraphong; Takano, Mikihisa; Yumoto, Ryoko; Junyaprasert, Varaporn Buraphacheep

    2014-02-01

    Functionalized nanoparticles of polymer-drug conjugates of PEGylated poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PEGylated P(CL)) with methotrexate (MTX) and folic acid (FOL) were developed and investigated for their targeting efficiency. FOL- and MTX-conjugated PEGylated P(CL) copolymers were employed to prepare P(MTXCLCL)2-PEG NPs and FOL-P(MTXCLCL)2-PEG NPs. By varying the amount of MTX, the different characteristics of nanoparticles were obtained. The results showed that an increase in particle size and more negative surface charge of P(MTXCLCL)2-PEG NPs were related to an increased amount of MTX along the polymer backbone. After being decorated with FOL, the particle size increased by nearly twofolds while the zeta potential decreased. All nanoparticles were spherical as observed under SEM micrographs. The release profiles showed pH-dependent and sustained release over 20 days. Higher extent of MTX was released in pH 4.5 medium as compared to the drug release in pH 7.4 medium. All nanoparticles showed greater toxicity to MCF-7 cells than A549 cells. In addition, FOL-P(MTXCLCL)2-PEG NPs exhibited the highest toxicity to MCF-7 cells as compared to all P(MTXCLCL)2-PEG NPs and free MTX. Furthermore, FOL-P(MTXCLCL)2-PEG NPs were internalized into MCF-7 cells higher than P(MTXCLCL)2-PEG NPs and FOL-P(MTXCLCL)2-PEG NPs incubated with free FOL. The results indicated that FOL-P(MTXCLCL)2-PEG NPs efficiently entered into MCF-7 cells via folate receptor-mediated endocytosis together with adsorptive endocytosis.

  20. Long-circulating PEGylated manganese ferrite nanoparticles for MRI-based molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Pernia Leal, Manuel; Rivera-Fernández, Sara; Franco, Jaime M; Pozo, David; de la Fuente, Jesús M; García-Martín, María Luisa

    2015-02-07

    Magnetic resonance based molecular imaging has emerged as a very promising technique for early detection and treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and vascular diseases. The limited sensitivity and specificity of conventional MRI are being overcome by the development of a new generation of contrast agents, using nanotechnology approaches, with improved magnetic and biological properties. In particular, for molecular imaging, high specificity, high sensitivity, and long blood circulation times are required. Furthermore, the lack of toxicity and immunogenicity together with low-cost scalable production are also necessary to get them into the clinics. In this work, we describe a facile, robust and cost-effective ligand-exchange method to synthesize dual T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents with long circulation times. These contrast agents are based on manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MNPs) between 6 and 14 nm in size covered by a 3 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell that leads to a great stability in aqueous media with high crystallinity and magnetization values, thus retaining the magnetic properties of the uncovered MNPs. Moreover, the PEGylated MNPs have shown different relaxivities depending on their size and the magnetic field applied. Thus, the 6 nm PEGylated MNPs are characterized by a low r2/r1 ratio of 4.9 at 1.5 T, hence resulting in good dual T1 and T2 contrast agents under low magnetic fields, whereas the 14 nm MNPs behave as excellent T2 contrast agents under high magnetic fields (r2 = 335.6 mM(-1) s(-1)). The polymer core shell of the PEGylated MNPs minimizes their cytotoxicity, and allows long blood circulation times. This combination of cellular compatibility and excellent T2 and r2/r1 values under low magnetic fields, together with long circulation times, make these nanomaterials very promising contrast agents for molecular imaging.

  1. PEGylated nanoliposomes encapsulating angiogenic peptides improve perfusion defects: Radionuclide imaging-based study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyosook; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Oh, Phil-Sun; Kim, Minjoo; Lee, Tai-Kyoung; Kwon, JeongIl; Kim, Hyeon-Soo; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2016-09-01

    Although liposomes hold promise for cancer therapy, the effectiveness of treating myocardial ischemia by promoting angiogenesis has yet to be proved. Nanoliposomes loaded with therapeutic agents can effectively target ischemic myocardium via enhanced permeability and retention. Surface polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification can further facilitate effective targeting by prolonging liposomal circulation. This study aimed to determine whether PEGylated nanoliposomes are effective in facilitating targeted drug delivery and treating myocardial ischemia. Rats subjected to 30min of myocardial ischemia were given (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime- or (99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate-labeled liposomes with mean diameters of ~100nm or ~600nm with or without PEG modifications to determine the extent of myocardial uptake in the different conditions. Therapeutic effectiveness was assessed by studying changes in myocardial perfusion defects with (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin autoradiography and vascular density with immunohistochemistry at 7days post-treatment. The liver and spleen showed the largest capacity for liposome uptake. Uptake by the liver and spleen was more pronounced when the liposomes were larger. Conversely, myocardial liposome uptake was significantly greater when the liposomes were ~100nm rather than ~600nm in diameter. Surface modification with PEG significantly augmented myocardial uptake of ~100nm liposomes. PEG modification did not affect the size dependence. To investigate therapeutic efficacy, hearts subjected to ischemia received PEGylated nanoliposomes encapsulated with angiogenic peptides. Our data demonstrated that PEGylated nanoliposomes loaded with angiogenic peptides improved myocardial perfusion defects and increased vascular density. A 10-fold increase in liposomal concentration did not further benefit myocardial ischemia. Liposomal angiogenic formulation with size control and PEG modification may be effective treatment strategy for myocardial

  2. Treatment of eosinophilic otitis media with pegylated interferon-α 2a and 2b.

    PubMed

    Neff, Brian A; Voss, Stephen G; Carlson, Matthew L; O'Brien, Erin K; Butterfield, Joseph H

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a variant of chronic otitis media that is characterized by the development of thick mucoid middle ear effusion, adult onset bronchial asthma, sinonasal polyposis, and aspirin sensitivity. EOM is typically refractory to corticosteroid therapy and surgical intervention. Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) has effectively treated hypereosinophilic syndrome in clinical trials; however, the efficacy of this medication for EOM treatment remains undefined. Retrospective, case series, tertiary academic center. A retrospective chart review was performed on EOM patients from 2008-2014. A total of 32 patients met the clinical criteria for EOM according to established diagnostic guidelines. Outcomes of all patients with severe, refractory EOM who initiated PEG-IFN therapy are reported. Eight patients were treated with pegylated interferon-α 2a or 2b for refractory EOM. Half of the patients had significant side effects with interferon treatment. Three of these were able to continue at a reduced dosage without side effect reoccurrence, and one patient stopped the medication permanently. Four of eight (50%) patients had a complete clinical response with total resolution of otorrhea and normalization of middle ear mucosa, and were able to discontinue corticosteroid treatment. Two patients attempted to stop PEG-IFN therapy after prolonged symptom remission and had recurrent otorrhea. Both patients had symptom resolution after PEG-IFN reinitiation. These data demonstrate that pegylated interferon-α 2a and 2b therapy may benefit patients with severe, refractory EOM. Further larger studies with long-term follow-up are required to validate these early but promising results. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1208-1216, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. In silico designing of a new cysteine analogue of hirudin variant 3 for site specific PEGylation

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Seyed Mehdi; Rahimi, Hamzeh; Mohammadi, Saeed; Faranoush, Mohammad; Mirzahoseini, Hasan; Toogeh, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Hirudin is an anticoagulant agent of the salivary glands of the medicinal leech. Recombinant hirudin (r-Hir) displays certain drawbacks including bleeding and immunogenicity. To solve these problems, cysteine-specific PEGylation has been proposed as a successful technique. However, proper selection of the appropriate cysteine residue for substitution is a critical step. This study has, for the first time, used a computational approach aimed at identifying a single potential PEGylation site for replacement by cysteine residue in the hirudin variant 3 (HV3). Homology modeling (HM) was performed using MODELLER. All non-cysteine residues of the HV3 were replaced with the cysteine. The best model was selected based on the results of discrete optimized protein energy score, PROCHECK software, and Verify3D. The receptor binding was investigated using protein-protein docking by ClusPro web tool which was then visualized using LigPlot+ software and PyMOL. Finally, multiple sequence alignment (MSA) using ClustalW software and disulfide bond prediction were performed. According to the results of HM and docking, Q33C, which was located on the surface of the protein, was the best site for PEGylation. Furthermore, MSA showed that Q33 was not a conserved residue and LigPlot+ software showed that it is not involved in the hirudin-thrombin binding pocket. Moreover, prediction softwares established that it is not involved in disulfide bond formation. In this study, for the first time, the utility of the in silico approach for creating a cysteine analogue of HV3 was introduced. Our study demonstrated that the substitution of Q33 by cysteine probably has no effect on the biological activity of the HV3. However, experimental analyses are required to confirm the results. PMID:28255315

  4. Analysis of the interferences in quantitation of a site-specifically PEGylated exendin-4 analog by the Bradford method.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaowei; Dong, Hongxia; Hu, Xiaojing; Tian, Hong; Guo, Linfeng; Shen, Qingliang; Gao, Xiangdong; Yao, Wenbing

    2014-11-15

    Protein modification has been found to affect the estimation of protein concentration in some of the traditional dye-based absorbance measurements. In this work, a distinct reduction in A595 was observed during the quantitation of a PEGylated exendin-4 analogue (Ex4C) by the Bradford method and the PEGylation process was found to interfere with the measurement. Lys(12), Arg(20), and Lys(27) were further proved to be the major amino acids that functioned as dye-binding sites. The shielding effect produced by the large polymer was demonstrated to depend on the length of PEG that was used for modification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Late onset autoimmune thrombocytopenia associated with pegylated interferon-alpha-2b plus ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Elefsiniotis, Ioannis S; Pantazis, Konstantinos D; Fotos, Nikolaos V; Moulakakis, Antonios; Mavrogiannis, Christos

    2006-03-01

    Interferon-induced, immune-mediated, thrombocytopenia is a rare event. In this report the case is described of development of severe, reversible, autoimmune thrombocytopenia in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, 6 months after the discontinuation of pegylated interferon-alpha-2b plus ribavirin treatment. Physicians must be aware that autoimmune thrombocytopenia can occur even after the end of treatment, as a late onset complication, especially when using the pegylated forms of interferons, which have longer half-lives and prolonged activity.

  6. [Sarcoïdose in patient with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon].

    PubMed

    Moudden, M K; Ziadi, T; Al Bouzidi, A; Ouarssani, A; Hadri, L; El Baaj, M

    2014-12-01

    Induced sarcoïdosis during therapy with interferon for chronic viral hepatitis C involves mainly by isolated cutaneous lesions or with lung lesions. Systemic forms are very rare. We report an observation. A 50-year-old patient developed a systemic sarcoïdosis two months after the end of treatment for hepatitis C with pegylated interferon and ribavirin with lung, joint and hepatic manifestations. After starting corticosteroid therapy, the evolution was favourable. Induced sarcoïdosis by interferon therapy is rare, treatment necessitates stopping interferon, and sometimes corticosteroid therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Interferon-λ polymorphisms and response to pegylated interferon in Iranian hepatitis C patients

    PubMed Central

    Haj-sheykholeslami, Arghavan; Keshvari, Maryam; Sharafi, Heidar; Pouryasin, Ali; Hemmati, Khalil; Mohammadzadehparjikolaei, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of pegylated interferon in Iranian chronic hepatitis C patients in relation to interferon-λ (IFNL) polymorphisms. METHODS: This study enrolled patients with chronic hepatitis C referred to the Tehran Blood Transfusion Hepatitis Clinic in 2011. Patients were included in the study if they had no concomitant hepatic illness, were negative for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies, and had no prior history of treatment with any type of pegylated interferon. Patients were treated with 180 μg pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Pegaferon®) weekly and 800-1200 mg ribavirin daily for 24 or 48 wk depending on weight and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype. Blood samples were collected from patients to obtain DNA for determination of IFNL rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms. The virologic response in patients was then evaluated and compared between the different IFNL genotypes. RESULTS: A total of 152 patients with a mean age of 41.9 ± 10.0 years were included in the study, of which 141/152 were men (92.8%). The most frequent HCV genotype was type-1, infecting 93/152 (61.2%) patients. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was achieved in 81.9% of patients with HCV genotype-1 and 91.1% of patients with HCV genotype-3. Treatment success was achieved in 91.2% (52/57) of patients with the IFNL rs12979860 CC genotype and 82.1% (78/95) in those with other genotypes. Similar treatment response rates were also observed in patients with rs8099917 TT (39/45; 86.7%) and non-TT (61/68; 89.7%) genotypes. Univariate analyses identified the following factors which influenced treatment response for inclusion in a multivariate analysis: age, HCV RNA level, stage of liver fibrosis, rs12979860 CC genotype, and aspartate transaminase level. A logistic regression analysis revealed that only the rs12979860 CC genotype was significantly associated with achievement of SVR (OR = 6.2; 95%CI: 1.2-31.9; P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The rs12979860 CC genotype was associated with

  8. 69. BUILDING NO. 542A, LOADING & UNLOADING DECKS, LOADING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. BUILDING NO. 542-A, LOADING & UNLOADING DECKS, LOADING AND UNLOADING RAMP LOOKING NORTHEAST. BUILDING NO. 550, GENERAL STOREHOUSE, IN BACKGROUND LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  9. Are PEGylated liposomes better than conventional liposomes? A special case for vincristine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuling; Song, Yanzhi; Su, Yuqing; Tian, Qingjing; Li, Boqun; Quan, Jingjing; Deng, Yihui

    2016-05-01

    Cancer poses a significant threat to human health worldwide, and many therapies have been used for its palliative and curative treatments. Vincristine has been extensively used in chemotherapy. However, there are two major challenges concerning its applications in various tumors: (1) Vincristine's antitumor mechanism is cell-cycle-specific, and the duration of its exposure to tumor cells can significantly affect its antitumor activity and (2) Vincristine is widely bio-distributed and can be rapidly eliminated. One solution to these challenges is the encapsulation of vincristine into liposomes. Vincristine can be loaded into conventional liposomes, but it quickly leak out owing to its high membrane permeability. Numerous approaches have been attempted to overcome this problem. Vincristine has been loaded into PEGylated liposomes to prolong circulation time and improve tumor accumulation. These liposomes indeed prolong circulation time, but the payout characteristic of vincristine is severer, resulting in a compromised outcome rather than a better efficacy compared to conventional sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol (Chol) liposomes. In 2012, the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved SM/Chol liposomal vincristine (Marqibo®) for commercial use. In this review, we mainly focus on the drug's rapid leakage problem and the potentially relevant solutions that can be applied during the development of liposomal vincristine and the reason for conventional liposomal vincristine rather than PEGylated liposomes has access to the market.

  10. Acid-responsive PEGylated doxorubicin prodrug nanoparticles for neuropilin-1 receptor-mediated targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Song, Huijuan; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Weiwei; Huang, Pingsheng; Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Jianfeng; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling

    2015-12-01

    Self-assembled prodrug nanoparticles have demonstrated great promise in cancer chemotherapy. In the present study, we developed a new kind of prodrug nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. PEGylated doxorubicin conjugate with an acid-cleavable cis-aconityl spacer was prepared. Then it was functionalized with a tumor-penetrating peptide, Cys-Arg-Gly-Asp-Lys (CRGDK), providing the prodrug nanoparticles with the specific binding ability to neurophilin-1 receptor. In acid mediums, doxorubicin could be released from the prodrug nanoparticles with an accumulative release around 60% through the acid-triggered hydrolysis of cis-aconityl bond and nanoparticle disassembly. Whereas, drug release was slow under a neutral pH and the accumulative drug release was less than 16%. In the cell culture tests, our prodrug nanoparticles showed enhanced endocytosis and cytotoxicity in cancer cells including HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, but lower cytotoxicity in human cardiomyocyte H2C9. In the animal experiments, the prodrug nanoparticles were intravenously injected into Balb/c nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumors. Enhanced drug penetration and accumulation in tumors, accompanying with a rapid early tumor-binding behavior, was observed after intravenous injection of the peptide modified prodrug nanoparticles. These data suggests that the acid-sensitive and tumor-targeting PEGylated doxorubicin prodrug nanoparticle may be an efficient drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Irradiation Induced Fluorescence Enhancement in PEGylated Cyanine-based NIR Nano- and Meso-scale GUMBOS

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chengfei; Das, Susmita; Magut, Paul K. S.; Li, Min; El Zahab, Bilal; Warner, Isiah M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and characterization of a PEGylated IR786 GUMBOS (Group of Uniform Materials Based on Organic Salts). The synthesis of this material was accomplished using a three step protocol: (1) substitution of chloride on the cyclohexenyl ring in the heptamethine chain of IR786 by 6-aminohexanoic acid, (2) grafting of methoxy poly ethyleneglycol (MeOPEG) onto the 6-aminohexanoic acid via an esterification reaction, and (3) anion exchange between [PEG786][I] and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiNTf2) or sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) in order to obtain PEG786 GUMBOS. Examination of spectroscopic data for this PEG786 GUMBOS indicates a large stokes shift (122 nm). It was observed that this PEG786 GUMBOS associates in aqueous solution to form nano-and meso-scale self-assemblies with sizes ranging from 100 to 220 nm. These nano- and meso-scale GUMBOS are also able to resist nonspecific binding to proteins. PEGylation of the original IR786 leads to reduced cytotoxicity. In addition, it was noted that anions, such as NTf2 and AOT, play a significant role in improving the photostability of PEG786 GUMBOS. Irradiation-induced J aggregation in [PEG786][NTf2] and to some extent in [PEG786][AOT] produced enhanced photostability. This observation was supported by use of both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. PMID:22957476

  12. A novel method for synthesizing PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles: strategy, preparation, and in vitro analysis

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Lane, Ciaran; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

    2011-01-01

    Preparation of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-grafted chitosan is essential for improving the biocompatibility and water solubility of chitosan. Presently available methods for this have limitations. This article describes a new method for preparing PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles. For this chitosan was chemoselectively modified using a novel scheme at the C6 position of its repeating units by PEG. The amine groups at the C2 position of the chitosan were protected using phthalic anhydride. Sodium hydride was used to catalyze the etherification reaction between chlorinated chitosan and methyl-PEG, and PEG-grafted chitosan was successfully synthesized. Each step was characterized using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared. After PEGylation the phthaloylated chitosan was successfully deprotected using hydrazine monohydrate. The synthetic scheme proposed demonstrates a new method for grafting PEG onto chitosan with a moderate degree of substitution. The potential of this polymer in nanoparticle preparation using an ionic gelation method and its gene delivery potentials were investigated by complexing a fluorescently labeled control siRNA. The result showed that suitable nanoparticles can be synthesized using this polymer and that they have capacity to carry genes and provide adequate transfection efficacy with no toxicity when tested in neuronal cells. PMID:21562608

  13. Pegylated Polyaspartamide-Polylactide-Based Nanoparticles Penetrating Cystic Fibrosis Artificial Mucus.

    PubMed

    Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Porsio, Barbara; Sardo, Carla; Giammona, Gaetano; Cavallaro, Gennara

    2016-03-14

    Here, the preparation of mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for pulmonary administration of ibuprofen in patients with cystic fibrosis is described. A fluorescent derivative of α,β-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-D,L-aspartamide is synthesized by derivatization with rhodamine, polylactide, and poly(ethylene glycol), to obtain polyaspartamide-polylactide derivatives with different degrees of pegylation. Starting from these copolymers, fluorescent nanoparticles with different poly(ethylene glycol) content, empty and loaded with ibuprofen, showed spherical shape, colloidal size, slightly negative ζ potential, and biocompatibility toward human bronchial epithelial cells. The high surface poly(ethylene glycol) density of fluorescent nanoparticles and poly(ethylene glycol) brush-like conformation assumed on their surface, conferred to pegylated nanoparticles the mucus-penetrating properties, properly demonstrated by assessing their ability to avoid interactions with mucus components and to penetrate cystic fibrosis artificial mucus. Finally, ibuprofen release profile and uptake capacity within human bronchial epithelial cells in the presence of cystic fibrosis artificial mucus showed how these mucus-penetrating nanoparticles could rapidly diffuse through the mucus barrier reaching the mucosal surface, where they could offer a sustained delivery of ibuprofen at the site of disease.

  14. Immune recognition of exposed xenoantigens on the surface of PEGylated bovine red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Sharon I; Kennedy, Melanie S; Palmer, Andre F

    2008-10-01

    Due to potential problems that can occur during blood transfusion and increasing blood shortages, our group engineered methoxypolyethylene glycol conjugated bovine red blood cells (mPEG-bRBCs) as a potential universal oxygen therapeutic. This current work investigates the immunological properties of mPEG-bRBCs incubated with human plasma (hP) and correlates these properties to exposed Galalpha(1,3)Gal xenoantigens. After mPEG-bRBCs were incubated with hP, the amount of bound IgG and IgM was assessed via flow cytometry. Flow cytometry also assessed the amount of GS-IB4 bound to exposed Galalpha(1,3)Gal xenoantigens. The results of this study demonstrate that most hP samples strongly promote agglutination of mPEG-bRBCs regardless of the extent of mPEG surface coverage or donor blood type. IgG and IgM from hP bound strongly to mPEG-bRBCs. In general, the Galalpha(1,3)Gal xenoantigen remains exposed at all levels of PEG surface coverage. PEGylation did block some of the xenoantigens as the amount of exposed Galalpha (1,3)Gal decreased with increased mPEG surface coverage. However, this was not sufficient to prevent a strong agglutination reaction. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that the current strategy for PEGylating bRBCs is unsatisfactory for the development of immunologically silent oxygen therapeutics.

  15. Enzyme replacement with PEGylated cystathionine β-synthase ameliorates homocystinuria in murine model

    PubMed Central

    Bublil, Erez M.; Majtan, Tomas; Park, Insun; Carrillo, Richard S.; Hůlková, Helena; Krijt, Jakub; Kožich, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Homocystinuria, which typically results from cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency, is the most common defect of sulfur amino acid metabolism. CBS condenses homocysteine and serine to cystathionine that is then converted to cysteine. Individuals with homocystinuria have markedly elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and methionine and reduced concentrations of cystathionine and cysteine. Clinical disease manifestations include thromboembolism and neuropsychiatric, ocular, and skeletal complications. Here, we have shown that administration of PEGylated CBS into the circulation of homocystinuria model mice alters the extra- and intracellular equilibrium of sulfur amino acids, resulting in a decrease of approximately 75% in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and normalization of cysteine concentrations. Moreover, the decrease in homocysteine and the normalization of cysteine in PEGylated CBS–treated model mice were accompanied by improvement of histopathological liver symptoms and increased survival. Together, these data suggest that CBS enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is a promising approach for the treatment of homocystinuria and that ERT for metabolic diseases may not necessitate introduction of the deficient enzyme into its natural intracellular compartment. PMID:27183385

  16. Enzyme replacement with PEGylated cystathionine β-synthase ameliorates homocystinuria in murine model.

    PubMed

    Bublil, Erez M; Majtan, Tomas; Park, Insun; Carrillo, Richard S; Hůlková, Helena; Krijt, Jakub; Kožich, Viktor; Kraus, Jan P

    2016-06-01

    Homocystinuria, which typically results from cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency, is the most common defect of sulfur amino acid metabolism. CBS condenses homocysteine and serine to cystathionine that is then converted to cysteine. Individuals with homocystinuria have markedly elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and methionine and reduced concentrations of cystathionine and cysteine. Clinical disease manifestations include thromboembolism and neuropsychiatric, ocular, and skeletal complications. Here, we have shown that administration of PEGylated CBS into the circulation of homocystinuria model mice alters the extra- and intracellular equilibrium of sulfur amino acids, resulting in a decrease of approximately 75% in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and normalization of cysteine concentrations. Moreover, the decrease in homocysteine and the normalization of cysteine in PEGylated CBS-treated model mice were accompanied by improvement of histopathological liver symptoms and increased survival. Together, these data suggest that CBS enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is a promising approach for the treatment of homocystinuria and that ERT for metabolic diseases may not necessitate introduction of the deficient enzyme into its natural intracellular compartment.

  17. Validation of a Janus role of methotrexate-based PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fanghong; Li, Yang; Jia, Mengmeng; Cui, Fei; Wu, Hongjie; Yu, Fei; Lin, Jinyan; Yang, Xiangrui; Hou, Zhenqing; Zhang, Qiqing

    2014-07-01

    Recently, methotrexate (MTX) has been used to target to folate (FA) receptor-overexpressing cancer cells for targeted drug delivery. However, the systematic evaluation of MTX as a Janus-like agent has not been reported before. Here, we explored the validity of using MTX playing an early-phase cancer-specific targeting ligand cooperated with a late-phase therapeutic anticancer agent based on the PEGylated chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) as drug carriers. Some advantages of these nanoscaled drug delivery systems are as follows: (1) the NPs can ensure minimal premature release of MTX at off-target site to reduce the side effects to normal tissue; (2) MTX can function as a targeting ligand at target site prior to cellular uptake; and (3) once internalized by the target cell, the NPs can function as a prodrug formulation, releasing biologically active MTX inside the cells. The (MTX + PEG)-CS-NPs presented a sustained/proteases-mediated drug release. More importantly, compared with the PEG-CS-NPs and (FA + PEG)-CS-NPs, the (MTX + PEG)-CS-NPs showed a greater cellular uptake. Furthermore, the (MTX + PEG)-CS-NPs demonstrated a superior cytotoxicity compare to the free MTX. Our findings therefore validated that the MTX-loaded PEGylated CS-NPs can simultaneously target and treat FA receptor-overexpressing cancer cells.

  18. Structure of a PEGylated protein reveals a highly porous double-helical assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattani, Giada; Vogeley, Lutz; Crowley, Peter B.

    2015-10-01

    PEGylated proteins are a mainstay of the biopharmaceutical industry. Although the use of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to increase particle size, stability and solubility is well-established, questions remain as to the structure of PEG-protein conjugates. Here we report the structural characterization of a model β-sheet protein (plastocyanin, 11.5 kDa) modified with a single PEG 5,000. An NMR spectroscopy study of the PEGylated conjugate indicated that the protein and PEG behaved as independent domains. A crystal structure revealed an extraordinary double-helical assembly of the conjugate, with the helices arranged orthogonally to yield a highly porous architecture. Electron density was not observed for the PEG chain, which indicates that it was disordered. The volume available per PEG chain in the crystal was within 10% of the calculated random coil volume. Together, these data support a minimal interaction between the protein and the synthetic polymer. Our work provides new possibilities for understanding this important class of protein-polymer hybrids and suggests a novel approach to engineering protein assemblies.

  19. Quantification of reactive oxygen species generation by photoexcitation of PEGylated quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Yaghini, Elnaz; Pirker, Katharina F; Kay, Christopher W M; Seifalian, Alexander M; MacRobert, Alexander J

    2014-12-29

    Photocatalytic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from quantum dots (QDs) has been widely reported yet quantitative studies of ROS formation and their quantum yields are lacking. This study investigates the generation of ROS by water soluble PEGylated CdSe/ZnS QDs with red emission. PEGylation of QDs is commonly used to confer water solubility and minimise uptake by organs of the reticuloendothelial system; therefore studies of ROS formation are of biomedical relevance. Using non-photolytic visible wavelength excitation, the superoxide anion radical is shown to be the primary ROS species generated with a quantum efficiency of 0.35%. The yield can be significantly enhanced in the presence of the electron donor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), as demonstrated by oxygen consumption measurements and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with in situ illumination. Direct production of singlet oxygen is not detectable from the QDs alone. A comparison is made with ROS generation by the same QDs complexed with a sulfonated phthalocyanine which can generate singlet oxygen via Förster resonance energy transfer between the QDs and the phthalocyanine. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ophthalmologic complications in children with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon.

    PubMed

    Narkewicz, Michael R; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwarz, Kathleen B; Drack, Arlene; Margolis, Todd; Repka, Michael X

    2010-08-01

    Interferon treatment for chronic viral hepatitis C (HCV) has been associated with the development of retinopathy in 19% to 29% of adults. Our purpose is to describe the ophthalmologic complications of pegylated interferon-alpha2a with either placebo or ribavirin in children with chronic HCV (the PEDS-C trial). Prospective, comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations including slit lamp at enrollment and after 24 and 48 weeks of treatment of 114 children participating in a randomized clinical trial. One hundred and twenty-eight children were screened for entry, of whom 123 had an eye examination and no child had existing retinal disease. One hundred fourteen children were eligible and were treated. One hundred ten children had an eye examination at 24 weeks and 103 children at 48 weeks. Three of 114 subjects (2.6%) developed documented (n = 2) or possible (1) serious eye complications. One subject developed evidence of ischemic retinopathy (cotton-wool spots) by week 24, 1 developed uveitis by week 48, and 1 reported at week 48 transient (<4 hours) monocular blindness that had occurred at week 36 with a subsequent normal examination at week 48. Ophthalmologic complications are infrequent in children who are treated with pegylated interferon-alpha2a for HCV (2%-3%). Because of the potential severity of ischemic retinopathy and uveitis, prospective ocular assessment should remain part of the monitoring strategy for children who are treated with interferon for HCV.

  1. The development of stable aqueous suspensions of PEGylated SPIONs for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hervé, K; Douziech-Eyrolles, L; Munnier, E; Cohen-Jonathan, S; Soucé, M; Marchais, H; Limelette, P; Warmont, F; Saboungi, M L; Dubois, P; Chourpa, I

    2008-11-19

    We report here the development of stable aqueous suspensions of biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). These so-called ferrofluids are useful in a large spectrum of modern biomedical applications, including novel diagnostic tools and targeted therapeutics. In order to provide prolonged circulation times for the nanoparticles in vivo, the initial iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with a biocompatible polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). To permit covalent bonding of PEG to the SPION surface, the latter was functionalized with a coupling agent, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS). This novel method of SPION PEGylation has been reproduced in numerous independent preparations. At each preparation step, particular attention was paid to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of the samples using a number of analytical techniques such as atomic absorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS, used for hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential measurements) and magnetization measurements. The results confirm that aqueous suspensions of PEGylated SPIONs are stabilized by steric hindrance over a wide pH range between pH 4 and 10. Furthermore, the fact that the nanoparticle surface is nearly neutral is in agreement with immunological stealthiness expected for the future biomedical applications in vivo.

  2. Effect of PEGylation on stability of peptide in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Ji; Tak, Tae Hyuk; Na, Dong Hee; Lee, Kang Choon

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of PEGylation on the stabilization of peptide in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres for sustained release delivery. As model peptide, growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) was conjugated with succinimidyl propionate monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with an average molecular weight of 2000 Da. The mono-PEG-GHRP-6 was separated by ion-exchange chromatography, and its molecular mass was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The microspheres encapsulating native GHRP-6 or mono-PEG-GHRP-6 were prepared using the single oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. During incubation in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) for one month at 37 degrees C, native GHRP-6 microspheres were identified to form several acylated peptides by reversed-phase HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS, whereas the mono-PEG-GHRP-6 microspheres was not affected from peptide acylation by PLGA. This study demonstrates that PEGylation can stabilize peptide against the acylation reaction occurred in PLGA microspheres.

  3. PEGylated polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles for combined targeted chemotherapy and photothermal ablation of tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Peng; Sun, Lihong; Li, Qian; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Jinhong; Xu, Zhigang; Kang, Yuejun

    2017-09-08

    The integration of multifunctional therapeutic capabilities into a single nanosystem has attracted much attention for use as an efficient cancer therapy. However, developing biocompatible therapeutic nano-agents with desirable safety, efficiency, targeting, and synergistic effects remains challenging. Herein, we designed a class of multifunctional PEGylated magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with a core-shell structure and polydopamine (PDA) coating, which were loaded with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) for simultaneous targeted chemotherapy and photothermal ablation of tumour cells. This nanosystem showed strong near-infrared absorption due to the polydopamine layer and was capable of magnetic field-guided drug delivery due to the superparamagnetism of the carrier. The resultant product exhibited excellent stability and biocompatibility in vitro due to the PEGylation of dopamine. Notably, the combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy had an evident synergistic effect on the ablation of tumour cells. This multifunctional nanoplatform has promising potential as an efficient therapeutic agent for multimodal cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Formulation and in vitro release studies of pegylated mucin based matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Eraga, Sylvester Okhuelegbe; Arhewoh, Matthew Ikhuoria; Iwuagwu, Magnus Amara; Ukponahiusi, Oyenmwen Enoma

    2015-01-01

    The effects of polymer concentration on the flow properties of granules and in-vitro release profiles from matrix tablets of three model drugs formulated from pegylated mucin base was investigated. Mucin was extracted from the African giant snail and in combination with PEG was used to produce a copolymer matrix base, which was mixed with the model drugs using wet granulation method. The granules and tablets were evaluated according to official and unofficial requirements. Results showed best flow with Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and Chloroquine Phosphate (CQ) granules with Hausner ratio of 1.04-1.2, Carr's index of 4.2-17.5% and angle of repose between 19°-26°. The tablets met B.P specifications with respect to tablet weights, friability and drug content. The release profiles showed faster release of the drug with high content of PEG and a slower release with high concentration of mucin. Pegylated mucin base will find useful application in the development of a wide range of formulations.

  5. Self-assembly PEGylation assists SLN-paclitaxel delivery inducing cancer cell apoptosis upon internalization.

    PubMed

    Arranja, Alexandra; Gouveia, Luís F; Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana F; Pereira, Carolina; Schwartz, Simó; Videira, Mafalda A

    2016-03-30

    In past years, a considerable progress has been made in the conversion of conventional chemotherapy into potent and safe nanomedicines. The ultimate goal is to improve the therapeutic window of current chemotherapeutics by reducing systemic toxicities and to deliver higher concentrations of the chemotherapeutic agents to malignant cells. In this work, we report that PEGylation of the nanocarriers increases drug intracellular bioavailability leading therefore to higher therapeutic efficacy. The surface of the already patented solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) loaded with paclitaxel (SLN-PTX) was coated with a PEG layer (SLN-PTX_PEG) through an innovative process to provide stable and highly effective nanoparticles complying with the predefined pharmaceutical quality target product profile. We observed that PEGylation not only stabilizes the SLN, but also modulates their cellular uptake kinetics. As a consequence, the intracellular concentration of chemotherapeutics delivered by SLN-PTX_PEG increases. This leads to the increase of efficacy and thus it is expected to significantly circumvent cancer cell resistance and increase patient survival and cure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PEGylation of Concanavalin A to decrease nonspecific interactions in a fluorescent glucose sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Alexander A.; Cummins, Brian M.; Locke, Andrea K.; Grunlan, Melissa A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2014-02-01

    The ability of people with diabetes to both monitor and regulate blood sugar levels is limited by the conventional "finger-prick" test that provides intermittent, single point measurements. Toward the development of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system, the lectin, Concanavalin A (ConA), has been utilized as a component in a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), competitive glucose binding assay. Recently, to avoid reversibility problems associated with ConA aggregation, a suitable competing ligand labeled with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (APTS) has been engineered. However, its ability to function as part of a glucose sensing assay is compromised due to the negative charge (at physiological pH) of native ConA that gives rise to non-specific binding with other ConA groups as well as with electrostatically charged assay-delivery carriers. To minimize these undesirable interactions, we have conjugated ConA with monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) (i.e. "PEGylation"). In this preliminary research, fluorescently-labeled ConA was successfully PEGylated with mPEG-Nhydroxylsuccinimide( succinimidyl carbonate) (mPEG-NHS(SC)). The FRET response of APTS-labeled competing ligand (donor) conveyed an increase in the fluorescence intensity with increasing glucose concentrations.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Stealth Archaeosomes Based on a Synthetic PEGylated Archaeal Tetraether Lipid

    PubMed Central

    Barbeau, Julie; Cammas-Marion, Sandrine; Auvray, Pierrick; Benvegnu, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The present studies were focused on the formation and characterization of sterically stabilized archaeosomes made from a synthetic PEGylated archaeal lipid. In a first step, a synthetic archaeal tetraether bipolar lipid was functionalized with a poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, and (PEG45-Tetraether) with the aim of coating the archaeosome surface with a sterically stabilizing hydrophilic polymer. In a second step, Egg-PC/PEG45-Tetraether (90/10 wt%) archaeosomes were prepared, and their physicochemical characteristics were determined by dynamic light scattering (size, polydispersity), cryo-TEM (morphology), and by high-performance thin layer chromatography (lipid composition), in comparison with standard Egg-PC/PEG45-DSPE formulations. Further, a fluorescent dye, the carboxyfluorescein, was encapsulated into the prepared archaeosomes in order to evaluate the potential of such nanostructures as drug carriers. Release studies have shown that the stability of Egg-PC/PEG45-Tetraether-based archaeosomes is significantly higher at 37°C than the one of Egg-PC/PEG45-DSPE-based liposomes, as evidenced by the slower release of the dye encapsulated into PEGylated archaeosomes. This enhanced stability could be related to the membrane spanning properties of the archaeal bipolar lipid as already described with natural or synthetic tetraether lipids. PMID:21603209

  8. Decreased circulation time offsets increased efficacy of PEGylated nanocarriers targeting folate receptors of glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeeley, Kathleen M.; Annapragada, Ananth; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2007-09-01

    Liposomal and other nanocarrier based drug delivery vehicles can localize to tumours through passive and/or active targeting. Passively targeted liposomal nanocarriers accumulate in tumours via 'leaky' vasculature through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Passive accumulation depends upon the circulation time and the degree of tumour vessel 'leakiness'. After extravasation, actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers efficiently deliver their payload by receptor-mediated uptake. However, incorporation of targeting moieties can compromise circulation time in the blood due to recognition and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system, decreasing passive accumulation. Here, we compare the efficacy of passively targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers to that of actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers in a rat 9L brain tumour model. Although folate receptor (FR)-targeted liposomal nanocarriers had significantly reduced blood circulation time compared to PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers; intratumoural drug concentrations both at 20 and 50 h after administration were equal for both treatments. Both treatments significantly increased tumour inoculated animal survival by 60-80% compared to non-treated controls, but no difference in survival was observed between FR-targeted and passively targeted nanocarriers. Therefore, alternate approaches allowing for active targeting without compromising circulation time may be important for fully realizing the benefits of receptor-mediated active targeting of gliomas.

  9. PEGylation of Neuromedin U yields a promising candidate for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ingallinella, Paolo; Peier, Andrea M; Pocai, Alessandro; Marco, Annalise Di; Desai, Kunal; Zytko, Karolina; Qian, Ying; Du, Xiaobing; Cellucci, Antonella; Monteagudo, Edith; Laufer, Ralph; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Marsh, Donald J; Pessi, Antonello

    2012-08-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is an endogenous peptide, whose role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis is well documented. Two NMU receptors have been identified: NMUR1, expressed primarily in the periphery, and NMUR2, expressed predominantly in the brain. We recently demonstrated that acute peripheral administration of NMU exerts potent but acute anorectic activity and can improve glucose homeostasis, with both actions mediated by NMUR1. Here, we describe the development of a metabolically stable analog of NMU, based on derivatization of the native peptide with high molecular weight poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) ('PEGylation'). PEG size, site of attachment, and conjugation chemistry were optimized, to yield an analog which displays robust and long-lasting anorectic activity and significant glucose-lowering activity in vivo. Studies in NMU receptor-deficient mice showed that PEG-NMU displays an expanded pharmacological profile, with the ability to engage NMUR2 in addition to NMUR1. In light of these data, PEGylated derivatives of NMU represent promising candidates for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uptake of PEGylated indocyanine green loaded nanocapsules by cells of reticuloendothelial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahmani, Baharak; Gupta, Sharad; Vullev, Valentine; Anvari, Bahman

    2011-03-01

    Optically active nanoparticles are widely pursued as exogenous chromophores in diagnostic imaging and phototherapeutic applications. However, the blood circulation time of nanoparticles remains limited due to the rapid clearance of the nanoparticles by reticuloendothelial system (RES). Coating with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a strategy to extend the circulation time of nanoparticles. Here, we report synthesis and cellular studies of polymeric-based nanocapsules loaded with Indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA approved near-infrared dye, and coated with PEG molecules of various molecular weights through reductive amination. We report the effect of PEG's molecular weight on the uptake of these nanocapsules by human spleen macrophages and hepatocytes using flow cytometry. Our results indicate that the phagocytic content of PEGylated nanocapsules in human spleen macrophages was reduced as compared to uncoated nanocapsules. Among PEGylated nanocapsules, low molecular weight (5000 Da) PEG-coated nanocapsules displayed lower intracellular uptake by spleen macrophages than high molecular weight (30,000 Da) PEG-coated nanocapsules for up to 90 minutes. Encapsulation within the polymeric nanocapsules reduced the hepatic content of ICG with normal human hepatocytes for up to two hours, while the molecular weight of PEG did not have a statistically significant effect on the content of the nanocapsules in liver cells. Our results suggest that reduced uptake of nanocapsules by RES cells can result in prolonged blood circulation time of these nanoconstructs.

  11. Physicochemical characterization of a PEGylated liposomal drug formulation using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Ulrik; Vermehren, Charlotte; Jensen, Henrik; Østergaard, Jesper

    2011-03-01

    In this work, the applicability of using CE to perform a physicochemical characterization of a PEGylated liposomal drug formulation of the anti-cancer agent oxaliplatin was examined. Characterization of the liposomal drug formulation using CE instrumentation encompassed: determination of the electrophoretic mobilities, size determination by Taylor dispersion analysis and interaction studies. Electrophoretic mobilities determined by CE were compared with the results obtained by laser Doppler electrophoresis, which were found to be subject to larger variation. Average hydrodynamic diameters of the liposome preparations, as determined by Taylor dispersion analysis, were in the range of 61-84 nm and were compared with the results obtained by dynamic light scattering. Interactions between oxaliplatin (and paracetamol) and the PEGylated liposome were non-detectable by CE frontal analysis as well as by liposome electrokinetic chromatography. In contrast, for the more lipophilic compound propranolol, apparent liposome-aqueous phase distribution coefficients (D(lip) ) were successfully determined by both electrokinetic chromatography (log D(lip) =2.10) and by CE frontal analysis (log D(lip) =2.14). It is envisioned that CE and capillary-based techniques, including Taylor dispersion analysis, will be useful tools for the characterization of nanoparticulate (e.g. liposomal) drug formulations. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. PEGylation of membrane proteins like bacteriorhodopsin as a tool to increase their stability toward ethanol.

    PubMed

    Busch, Annegret P; Neebe, Martin; Hampp, Norbert

    2012-12-20

    Protection of biological compounds, for example, enzymes, viruses, or even whole cells, against degradation is very important for many applications. Embedding of such compounds into polymer matrices is a straightforward common method. However, in biotechnology and medicine there is a great interest to prepare micro- and nanosized shells around the biocomponents in order to protect them and having only a minor increase in size. The PEGylation of biological macromolecules has gained attention because degradation by proteolytic enzymes is significantly retarded and, in turn, their bioavailability is enhanced. We found that PEGylation is also a powerful tool to protect biomaterials from degradation by small organic solvent molecules, in particular, ethanol. Methoxy-polyethylene glycol (MPEG) modified BR survives exposure to significant concentrations of ethanol, up to 30%, and preserves its photochromism, whereas unmodified PM is instantaneously denatured at such concentrations. This is useful for potential technical applications of BR but is of relevance for many other applications where biomaterials and, in particular, biomembranes may be exposed to solvents.

  13. Suppression of VEGF by reversible-PEGylated histidylated polylysine in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaojun; Zhu, Haiyan; Dong, Haiqing; Li, Yongyong; Su, Jiansheng; Shi, Donglu

    2014-11-01

    A reversible-PEGylated polylysine is designed and developed for efficient delivery of siRNA. In this unique structure, the ε-amino groups of disulfide linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polylysine (mPEG-SS-PLL) are partially replaced by histidine groups, in order to develop the histidylated reversible-PEGylated polylysine (mPEG-SS-PLH), for enhanced endosome escape ability. The transfection efficacy of mPEG-SS-PLH is found to closely correlate with histidine substitution. Its maximum transfection efficiencies are determined, respectively, to be 75%, 42%, and 24%, against 293T, MCF-7, and PC-3 cells. These data indicate that the transfection efficiencies can equal or even outweigh PEI-25k in the corresponding cells (80%, 38.5%, and 20%). The in vivo circulation and biodistribution of the polyplexes are monitored by fluorescent imaging. The in vivo gene transfection is carried out by intravenous injection of pEGFP to BALB/c mice using the xenograft models. The in vivo experimental results show effective inhibition of tumor growth by mPEG-SS-PLH/siRNA-VEGF, indicating its high potential for clinical applications.

  14. The development of stable aqueous suspensions of PEGylated SPIONs for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, K.; Douziech-Eyrolles, L.; Munnier, E.; Cohen-Jonathan, S.; Soucé, M.; Marchais, H.; Limelette, P.; Warmont, F.; Saboungi, M. L.; Dubois, P.; Chourpa, I.

    2008-11-01

    We report here the development of stable aqueous suspensions of biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). These so-called ferrofluids are useful in a large spectrum of modern biomedical applications, including novel diagnostic tools and targeted therapeutics. In order to provide prolonged circulation times for the nanoparticles in vivo, the initial iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with a biocompatible polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). To permit covalent bonding of PEG to the SPION surface, the latter was functionalized with a coupling agent, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS). This novel method of SPION PEGylation has been reproduced in numerous independent preparations. At each preparation step, particular attention was paid to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of the samples using a number of analytical techniques such as atomic absorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS, used for hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential measurements) and magnetization measurements. The results confirm that aqueous suspensions of PEGylated SPIONs are stabilized by steric hindrance over a wide pH range between pH 4 and 10. Furthermore, the fact that the nanoparticle surface is nearly neutral is in agreement with immunological stealthiness expected for the future biomedical applications in vivo.

  15. Improvement of the Pharmacological Properties of Maize RIP by Cysteine-Specific PEGylation

    PubMed Central

    Au, Ka-Yee; Shi, Wei-Wei; Qian, Shuai; Zuo, Zhong; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2016-01-01

    To improve the pharmacological properties of maize ribosome-inactivating protein (maize RIP) for targeting HIV-infected cells, the previously engineered TAT-fused active form of maize RIP (MOD) was further engineered for cysteine-directed PEGylation. In this work, two potential antigenic sites, namely Lys-78 and Lys-264, were identified. They were mutated to cysteine residue and conjugated with PEG5k or PEG20k. The resultant PEG derivatives of MOD variants were examined for ribosome-inactivating activity, circulating half-life and immunogenicity. Our results showed that MOD-PEG conjugates had two- to five-fold lower biological activity compared to the wild-type. Mutation of the two sites respectively did not decrease the anti-MOD IgG and IgE level in mice, but the conjugation of PEG did dramatically reduce the antigenicity. Furthermore, pharmacokinetics studies demonstrated that attachment of PEG20k prolonged the plasma half-life by five-fold for MOD-K78C and 17-fold for MOD-K264C, respectively. The site-specific mutation together with PEGylation therefore generated MOD derivatives with improved pharmacological properties. PMID:27763506

  16. Proinflammatory effects of bare and PEGylated ORMOSIL-, PLGA- and SUV-NPs on monocytes and PMNs and their modulation by f-MLP.

    PubMed

    Segat, Daniela; Tavano, Regina; Donini, Marta; Selvestrel, Francesco; Rio-Echevarria, Iria; Rojnik, Matija; Kocbek, Petra; Kos, Janko; Iratni, Selma; Sheglmann, Dietrich; Mancin, Fabrizio; Dusi, Stefano; Papini, Emanuele

    2011-08-01

    We wanted to test the proinflammatory effects of vinyltriethoxysilane-based organically modified silica nanoparticles (ORMOSIL-NPs) in vitro on blood leukocytes. Cell selectivity, cytokines/chemokines and O(2) (-) production were analyzed using nonpolyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated and PEGylated ORMOSIL-NPs, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-NPs and small unilamellar vesicles (SUV)-NPs. ORMOSIL-NPs mostly bound to monocytes while other NPs to all leukocyte types similarly. Cell capture of PEGylated-NPs decreased strongly (ORMOSIL), moderately (PLGA) and weakly (SUV). Bare ORMOSIL-NPs effectively stimulated the production of IL-1β/IL-6/TNF-α/IL-8 by monocytes and of IL-8 by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). NP PEGylation inhibited such effects only partially. Formyl-methionine-leucine phenylalanine (f-MLP) further increased the release of cytokines/chemokines by monocytes/PMNs primed with bare and PEGylated ORMOSIL-NPs. PEGylated SUV-NPs, bare and PEGylated ORMOSIL- and PLGA-NPs sensitize PMNs and monocytes to secrete O(2) (-) upon f-MLP stimulation. ORMOSIL-NPs are preferentially captured by circulating monocytes but stimulate both monocytes and PMNs per se or by sensitizing them to another agonist (f-MLP). PEG-coating confers stealth effects but does not completely eliminate leukocyte activation. Safe nanomedical applications require the evaluation of both intrinsic and cooperative proinflammatory potential of NPs.

  17. PEGylation prolongs the pulmonary retention of an anti-IL-17A Fab' antibody fragment after pulmonary delivery in three different species.

    PubMed

    Freches, Danielle; Patil, Harshad P; Machado Franco, Maria; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Heywood, Sam; Vanbever, Rita

    2017-04-15

    The PEGylation of antibody fragments has been shown to greatly prolong their residence time in the lungs in mice. The purpose of this research was to confirm the effect of PEGylation in higher animal species, that is, the rat and the rabbit. An anti-IL-17A Fab' antibody fragment was conjugated to a two-armed 40kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) via site-selective thiol PEGylation. PEGylation did not significantly alter the binding activity of the Fab' fragment but it largely enhanced its inhibitory potency. PEGylation increased the residence time of the Fab' in the lungs of mice, rats and rabbits. Following intratracheal administration, the unconjugated Fab' was cleared from the lungs within 24h while large quantities of the PEGylated Fab' remained present up to 48h. No significant differences in clearance were noted between the three animal species although there was a tendency of longer residence time in higher species. PEGylation represents a promising approach to sustain the presence of antibody fragments in the lungs and to enhance their therapeutic efficacy in respiratory diseases.

  18. Ex-vivo/in-vitro anti-polyethylene glycol (PEG) immunoglobulin M production from murine splenic B cells stimulated by PEGylated liposome.

    PubMed

    Abu Lila, Amr Selim; Ichihara, Masako; Shimizu, Taro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We have reported that PEGylated liposomes lose their long-circulating properties when injected twice into the same animal within a certain interval (the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon). We assumed that this phenomenon was triggered via the abundant secretion of anti-polyethylene glycol (PEG) immunoglobulin M (IgM) in response to the first dose of PEGylated liposomes and that the spleen played an important role in the production of anti-PEG IgM. However, no direct evidence has yet confirmed this suspicion. In the current study, we verified, both in vitro and ex vivo, that spleen cells are indeed responsible for the production of anti-PEG IgM in response to PEGylated liposomes. In this study, spleen cells obtained from either naïve mice or mice pre-treated with PEGylated liposomes induced the production of anti-PEG IgM in a dose- and time-dependent manner, upon incubation with PEGylated liposomes. In addition, we confirmed that among the different fractions of splenic B cells, IgM-positive B cells, rather than CD45R-positive or CD19-positive splenic B cells, which are presumed to be the marginal zone B (MZB) cells, are the major cells producing anti-PEG IgM in the response to stimulation by PEGylated liposomes. These results may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the anti-PEG IgM production in response to the stimulation by PEGylated liposomes.

  19. Linker-extended native cyanovirin-N facilitates PEGylation and potently inhibits HIV-1 by targeting the glycan ligand.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Huang, Dane; Chen, Wei; Guo, Chaowan; Wei, Bo; Wu, Chongchao; Peng, Zhou; Fan, Jun; Hou, Zhibo; Fang, Yongsheng; Wang, Yifei; Kitazato, Kaio; Yu, Guoying; Zou, Chunbin; Qian, Chuiwen; Xiong, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Cyanovirin-N (CVN) potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but both cytotoxicity and immunogenicity have hindered the translation of this protein into a viable therapeutic. A molecular docking analysis suggested that up to 12 residues were involved in the interaction of the reverse parallel CVN dimer with the oligosaccharide targets, among which Leu-1 was the most prominent hot spot residue. This finding provided a possible explanation for the lack of anti-HIV-1 activity observed with N-terminal PEGylated CVN. Therefore, linker-CVN (LCVN) was designed as a CVN derivative with a flexible and hydrophilic linker (Gly4Ser)3 at the N-terminus. The N-terminal α-amine of LCVN was PEGylated to create 10 K PEG-aldehyde (ALD)-LCVN. LCVN and 10 K PEG-ALD-LCVN retained the specificity and affinity of CVN for high mannose N-glycans. Moreover, LCVN exhibited significant anti-HIV-1 activity with attenuated cytotoxicity in the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line and MT-4 T lymphocyte cell lines. 10 K PEG-ALD-LCVN also efficiently inactivated HIV-1 with remarkably decreased cytotoxicity and pronounced cell-to-cell fusion inhibitory activity in vitro. The linker-extended CVN and the mono-PEGylated derivative were determined to be promising candidates for the development of an anti-HIV-1 agent. This derivatization approach provided a model for the PEGylation of biologic candidates without introducing point mutations.

  20. Increased cardiac distribution of mono-PEGylated Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide in both myocardial infarction and ischemia/reperfusion rats

    PubMed Central

    Yao, ChunXia; Shi, XiaoLi; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Xu, DeSheng; Feng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Although PEGylation plays an important role in drug delivery, knowledge about the distribution behavior of PEGylated drugs in ischemic myocardia is rather limited compared to nanoparticles. This work therefore aims to characterize the targeting behavior of the anti-myocardial ischemic mono-PEGylated conjugates of Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP) in two clinically relevant animal models, ie, the myocardial infarction (MI) model and the ischemia/reperfusion (IR) model. To determine the effect of the molecular size of conjugates, two representative conjugates (20- and 40-kDa polyethylene glycol mono-modified ROPs), with hydrodynamic size being approximately and somewhat beyond 10 nm, respectively, were studied in parallel at three time points postdose after a method for determining them quantitatively in biosamples was established. The results showed that the cardiac distribution of the two conjugates was significantly enhanced in both MI and IR rats due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect induced by ischemia. In general, the cardiac targeting efficacy of the conjugates in MI and IR rats was approximately 2; however, different changing in targeting efficacy with time was observed between MI and IR rats and also between the conjugates. Although the enhanced permeability and retention effect-based targeting efficacy for mono-PEGylated ROPs was not high, they, as dissolved macromolecules, are prone to diffusion in the cardiac interstitium space, and thus, facilitate the drug to reach perfusion-deficient and nonperfused areas. These findings are helpful in choosing the cardiac targeting strategy. PMID:25609953

  1. Increased cardiac distribution of mono-PEGylated Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide in both myocardial infarction and ischemia/reperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, ChunXia; Shi, XiaoLi; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Xu, DeSheng; Feng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Although PEGylation plays an important role in drug delivery, knowledge about the distribution behavior of PEGylated drugs in ischemic myocardia is rather limited compared to nanoparticles. This work therefore aims to characterize the targeting behavior of the anti-myocardial ischemic mono-PEGylated conjugates of Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP) in two clinically relevant animal models, ie, the myocardial infarction (MI) model and the ischemia/reperfusion (IR) model. To determine the effect of the molecular size of conjugates, two representative conjugates (20- and 40-kDa polyethylene glycol mono-modified ROPs), with hydrodynamic size being approximately and somewhat beyond 10 nm, respectively, were studied in parallel at three time points postdose after a method for determining them quantitatively in biosamples was established. The results showed that the cardiac distribution of the two conjugates was significantly enhanced in both MI and IR rats due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect induced by ischemia. In general, the cardiac targeting efficacy of the conjugates in MI and IR rats was approximately 2; however, different changing in targeting efficacy with time was observed between MI and IR rats and also between the conjugates. Although the enhanced permeability and retention effect-based targeting efficacy for mono-PEGylated ROPs was not high, they, as dissolved macromolecules, are prone to diffusion in the cardiac interstitium space, and thus, facilitate the drug to reach perfusion-deficient and nonperfused areas. These findings are helpful in choosing the cardiac targeting strategy.

  2. Enhancement in ionic liquid tolerance of cellulase immobilized on PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets: Application in saccharification of lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaxing; Sheng, Zhenhuan; Wang, Xinfeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Xia, Jun; Xiong, Peng; He, Bingfang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to improve ionic liquid (IL) tolerance of cellulase based on the exploration of functional nanoscale carriers for potential application in lignocellulosic biorefinery. PEGylated graphene oxide (GO) composite was successfully fabricated by chemical binding of 4-arm-PEG-NH2 and GO and applied to the immobilization of cellulase. The PEGylated GO-Cellulase retained 61% of the initial activity in 25% (w/v) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl]) while free cellulase only retained 2%. The IL stability was enhanced more than 30 times. The relatively minor change in Km value (from 2.7 to 3.2mgmL(-1)) after the immobilization suggested that PEGylated GO-Cellulase was capable of closely mimicking the performance of free enzyme. After treating rice straw with [Bmim][Cl] and dilution to a final IL concentration of 15% (w/v), the slurry was directly hydrolyzed using PEGylated GO-Cellulase without IL removing and a high hydrolysis rate of 87% was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Binding of human serum albumin to PEGylated liposomes: insights into binding numbers and dynamics by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Kasper; Urquhart, Andrew J; Thormann, Esben; Andresen, Thomas L

    2016-12-01

    Liposomes for medical applications are often administered by intravenous injection. Once in the bloodstream, the liposomes are covered with a "protein corona", which impacts the behavior and eventual fate of the liposomes. Currently, many aspects of the liposomal protein corona are not well understood. For example, there is generally a lack of knowledge about the liposome binding affinities and dynamics of common types of blood plasma proteins. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a powerful experimental technique that potentially can provide such knowledge. In this study, we have used FCS to investigate the binding of human serum albumin (HSA) to standard types of PEGylated fluid-phase liposomes (consisting of DOPC and DOPE-PEG2k) and PEGylated gel-phase liposomes (consisting of DSPC and DSPE-PEG2k) with various PEG chain surface densities. We detected no significant binding of HSA to the PEGylated fluid-phase liposomes. In contrast, we found that HSA bound tightly to the PEGylated gel-phase liposomes, although only a low number of HSA molecules could be accommodated per liposome. Overall, we believe that our data provides a useful benchmark for other researchers interested in studying the liposomal protein corona.

  4. X-ray computed tomography contrast agents prepared by seeded growth of gold nanoparticles in PEGylated dendrimer.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Chie; Umeda, Yasuhito; Ogawa, Mikako; Harada, Atsushi; Magata, Yasuhiro; Kono, Kenji

    2010-06-18

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are a potential x-ray computed tomography (CT) contrast agent. A biocompatible and bioinactive surface is necessary for application of gold nanoparticle to CT imaging. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-attached dendrimers have been used as a drug carrier with long blood circulation. In this study, the Au NPs were grown in the PEGylated dendrimer to produce a CT contrast agent. The Au NPs were grown by adding gold ions and ascorbic acid at various equivalents to the Au NP-encapsulated dendrimer solution. Both size and surface plasmon absorption of the grown Au NPs increased with adding a large number of gold ions. The x-ray attenuation of the Au NPs also increased after the seeded growth. The Au NPs grown in the PEG-attached dendrimer at the maximum under our conditions exhibited a similar CT value to a commercial iodine agent, iopamidol, in vitro. The Au NP-loaded PEGylated dendrimer and iopamidol were injected into mice and CT images were obtained at different times. The Au NP-loaded PEGylated dendrimer achieved a blood pool imaging, which was greater than a commercial iodine agent. Even though iopamidol was excreted rapidly, the PEGylated dendrimer loading the grown Au NP was accumulated in the liver.

  5. Occult hepatitis B infection in egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients: prevalence, impact on pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic HCV infection combined with occult hepatitis B infection has been associated with liver enzymes flare, advanced hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, poor response to standard interferon-α, and increased risk of HCC. This study aimed to elucidate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection in Egyptian chronic HCV patients, and to clarify its role in non-response of those patients to pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy. This study enrolled 155 consecutive chronic HCV patients under pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy. All patients were exposed to clinical assessment, biochemical, histological and virological examinations. HBV parameters (HBV DNA, anti-HBc, anti-HBs) and patients' response status to the combination therapy were determined. Results In this study, occult hepatitis B infection occurs in 3.9% of Egyptian chronic HCV patients; tends to affect younger age patients, associated with higher base line HCV viral load, less hepatic fibrosis than monoinfected patients. This occult hepatitis B infection is not a statistically significant cause of non-response to pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy. Anti-HBs was not associated with any biochemical, histological or virological abnormalities in those patients, contrary to low response rate to therapy and higher HCV viral load that was observed with anti-HBc. Conclusions Detection of HBV DNA in HBsAg negative chronic HCV patients plays a non significant role in non-response of Egyptian patients to pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy. PMID:21083926

  6. Site-specific PEGylation of therapeutic proteins via optimization of both accessible reactive amino acid residues and PEG derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; Yang, Xiao-lan; Yuan, Yong-hua; Pu, Jun; Liao, Fei

    2012-08-01

    Modification of accessible amino acid residues with poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] is a widely used technique for formulating therapeutic proteins. In practice, site-specific PEGylation of all selected/engineered accessible nonessential reactive residues of therapeutic proteins with common activated PEG derivatives is a promising strategy to concomitantly improve pharmacokinetics, allow retention of activity, alleviate immunogenicity, and avoid modification isomers. Specifically, through molecular engineering of a therapeutic protein, accessible essential residues reactive to an activated PEG derivative are substituted with unreactive residues provided that protein activity is retained, and a limited number of accessible nonessential reactive residues with optimized distributions are selected/introduced. Subsequently, all accessible nonessential reactive residues are completely PEGylated with the activated PEG derivative in great excess. Branched PEG derivatives containing new PEG chains with negligible metabolic toxicity are more desirable for site-specific PEGylation. Accordingly, for the successful formulation of therapeutic proteins, optimization of the number and distributions of accessible nonessential reactive residues via molecular engineering can be integrated with the design of large-sized PEG derivatives to achieve site-specific PEGylation of all selected/engineered accessible reactive residues.

  7. Aqueous solution behaviour and membrane disruptive activity of pH-responsive PEGylated pseudo-peptides and their intracellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongjun; Yue, Zhilian; Eccleston, Mark E; Slater, Nigel K H

    2008-11-01

    The effect of PEGylation on the aqueous solution properties and cell membrane disruptive activity of a pH-responsive pseudo-peptide, poly(l-lysine iso-phthalamide), has been investigated by dynamic light scattering, haemolysis and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Intracellular trafficking of the polymers has been examined using confocal and fluorescence microscopy. With increasing degree of PEGylation, the modified polymers can form stabilised compact structures with reduced mean hydrodynamic diameters. Poly(l-lysine iso-phthalamide) with a low degree of PEGylation (17.4 wt%) retained pH-dependent solution behaviour and showed enhanced kinetic membrane disruptive activity compared to the parent polymer. It facilitated trafficking of endocytosed materials into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells. At levels of PEGylation in excess of 25.6 wt%, the modified polymers displayed a single particle size distribution unresponsive to pH, as well as a decrease in cell membrane lytic ability. The mechanism involved in membrane destabilisation was also investigated, and the potential applications of these modified polymers in drug delivery were discussed.

  8. N-terminal mono-PEGylation of growth hormone antagonist: correlation of PEG size and pharmacodynamic behavior.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Ho, Sa V; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping; Zhang, Guifeng; Su, Zhiguo; Hu, Tao

    2013-09-10

    Growth hormone antagonist (GHA), an analog of growth hormone (GH), can inhibit GH action and treat acromegaly. However, GHA suffers from a short plasma half-life of 15-20 min that has limited its clinical application. PEGylation, conjugation with polyethylene glycol (PEG), can increase the plasma half-life of GHA. Single PEG attachment (mono-PEGylation) at N-terminus of GHA has the advantages of product homogeneity and minimization of the bioactivity loss. Conjugation of large PEG molecule may increase the plasma half-life but could potentially decrease the bioactivity of GHA, due to the steric shielding effect of PEG. Thus, N-terminal mono-PEGylation of GHA with 20 kDa and 40 kDa PEG were used to look for a balance of the two competing factors. Sedimentation velocity analysis suggested that 40 kDa PEG was more efficient than 20 kDa PEG to elongate the molecular shape of the conjugate. As reflected by marginal suppression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), GHA conjugated with 40 kDa PEG was statistically indistinguishable from the saline solution that could not inhibit GH action. In contrast, GHA conjugated with 20kDa PEG can apparently inhibit GH action, as reflected by IGF-I suppression of 30-43%. Thus, our work demonstrated the effective therapeutic potency of N-terminally mono-PEGylated GHA.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of PEGylated polyethylenimine-entrapped gold nanoparticles for blood pool and tumor CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Benqing; Zheng, Linfeng; Peng, Chen; Li, Du; Li, Jingchao; Wen, Shihui; Shen, Mingwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang

    2014-10-08

    The synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) entrapped within polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified polyethylenimine (PEI) for blood pool and tumor computed tomography (CT) imaging are reported. In this approach, partially PEGylated PEI was used as a template for AuNP synthesis, followed by acetylating the PEI remaining surface amines. The synthesized PEGylated PEI-entrapped AuNPs (Au PENPs) were characterized via different methods. Our results reveal that the synthesized Au PENPs can be tuned to have an Au core size in a range of 1.9-4.6 nm and to be water-soluble, stable, and noncytotoxic in a studied concentration range. With a demonstrated better X-ray attenuation property than that of clinically used iodinated small molecular contrast agent (e.g., Omnipaque) and the prolonged half-decay time (11.2 h in rat) confirmed by pharmacokinetics studies, the developed PEGylated Au PENPs enabled efficient and enhanced blood pool CT imaging with imaging time up to 75 min. Likewise, thanks to the enhanced permeability and retention effect, the PEGylated Au PENPs were also able to be used as a contrast agent for effective CT imaging of a tumor model. With the proven organ biocompatibility by histological studies, the designed PEGylated Au PENPs may hold great promise to be used as contrast agents for CT imaging of a variety of biological systems. The significance of this study is that rather than the use of dendrimers as templates, cost-effective branched polymers (e.g., PEI) can be used as templates to generate functionalized AuNPs for CT imaging applications.

  10. Lack of Efficacy of Pegylated Interferon Monotherapy for Hepatitis C in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, Jenny; Jensen, Donald M.; Mohanty, Smruti R.; Reau, Nancy; Reddy, K. Gautham

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of pegylated interferon monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients who are on dialysis. Methods From the University of Chicago Clinical Hepatology Database dated May 2001 to July 2005, 13 patients on dialysis with hepatitis C who have been treated with pegylated interferon were identified. Demographic and laboratory data were obtained from medical records. Patients received pegylated interferon alfa-2a at 135 µg subcutaneous (SQ) weekly (n = 8) or pegylated interferon alfa-2b at 1 µg/kg SQ weekly (n = 5). Side effects from the medication were noted. Results There were 7 men and 6 women, with a mean age of 54±11 years; 11 patients (85%) were African American and 11 patients (85%) were infected with HCV genotype 1. The median serum HCV RNA level was 3,273,000 copies/mL (range, 207,000 to >40,000,000), and the median serum alanine aminotransferase level was 29 IU/mL (range, 19–77). Four patients (30%) had bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis on liver biopsy. None of the 13 patients achieved sustained virologic response; 2 patients (15%) had an undetectable viral load at the end of therapy but relapsed within 6 months of follow-up. The most common side effects were fatigue (100%), anemia defined as 2 g/dL or greater drop in hemoglobin level (60%), and psychiatric symptoms (30%). Conclusions Pegylated interferon is ineffective for HCV infection in patients on dialysis. Furthermore, worsening anemia, which is usually prevalent at baseline in dialysis patients, is a common adverse event even in the absence of ribavirin use.

  11. Aldehyde PEGylation of laccase from Trametes versicolor in route to increase its stability: effect on enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; González-González, Mirna; Simental-Martínez, Jesús; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Laccase is a multicopper oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds. Laccase can be used in bioremediation, beverage (wine, fruit juice, and beer) processing, ascorbic acid determination, sugar beet pectin gelation baking, and as a biosensor. Recently, the antiproliferative activity of laccase toward tumor cells has been reported. Because of the potential applications of this enzyme, the efforts for enhancing and stabilizing its activity have increased. Thus, the PEGylation of laccase can be an alternative. PEGylation is the covalent attachment of one or more molecules of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) to a protein. Normally, during the PEGylation reaction, the activity is reduced but the stability increases; thus, it is important to minimize the loss of activity. In this work, the effects of molar ratio (1:4, 1:8, and 1:12), concentration of laccase (6 and 12 mg/ml), reaction time (4 and 17 h), molecular weight, and type of mPEG (20, 30, 40 kDa and 40 kDa-branched) were analyzed. The activity was measured using three substrates: ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and syringaldazine. The best conditions for laccase PEGylation were 12 mg/ml of laccase, molar ratio 1:4, and 4 h reaction time. Under these conditions, the enzyme was able to maintain nearly 100% of its enzymatic activity with ABTS. The PEGylation of laccase has not been extensively explored, so it is important to analyze the effects of this bioconjugation in route to produce a robust modified enzyme. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. PEGylated, NH2-terminated PAMAM dendrimers: a microscopic view from atomistic computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2014-05-05

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are promising nanocarriers in a wide range of biomedical applications including gene and drug delivery and as imaging agents. They have unique structural properties and are characterized by high size uniformity, low polydispersity, and a large number of modifiable surface groups. Drug-dendrimer systems are usually further modified through the conjugation of ligands in order to confer the carriers' specific characteristics designed to enhance their efficacy. The chemistry and structure of the solvated ligand-conjugated dendrimer nanocarriers (DNCs) will dictate how they interact with the physiological environment and, therefore, their fate and function. Understanding the microstructures of ligand-conjugated DNCs is, therefore, of great relevance within the context of drug delivery applications. In this work, we investigate the effect of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on the microstructure of solvated, NH2-terminated PAMAM DNCs using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Several variables including dendrimer generation (2-5), PEGylation density (0-50%), and PEG Mw (500 and 1000) were investigated. The results obtained showed a good match with available experimental results, including size as a function of dendrimer degeneration (G2NH2-G5NH2). No back-folding is observed for PAMAM dendrimers with generation lower than G5NH2. G2NH2 and G3NH2 showed a dense-packed, nonglobular structure, and G4NH2 and G5NH2 have a segmented, "open" structure. Our results help settle a long-standing debate with respect to "back-folding" as the microstructural information obtained here is reconciled with experimental results. PEGylation was found to influence the microstructure in a different way, including an expected increase in the overall size of the DNCs, while not affecting much the solvation of unmodified terminal (primary) amines. It also serves to expand the core of dendrimers, reduce the surface charge, and change solvation behavior of

  13. Comparison of bioanalytical methods for the quantitation of PEGylated human insulin.

    PubMed

    de Dios, Kristine; Manibusan, Anthony; Marsden, Robin; Pinkstaff, Jason

    2013-10-31

    The quality of bioanalytical data is dependent upon selective, sensitive, and reproducible analytical methods. With evolving technologies available, bioanalytical scientists must assess which is most appropriate for their molecule through proper method validation. For an early stage PEGylated insulin program, the characteristics of four platforms, ELISA, ECL, Gyrolab, and LC-MS/MS, were evaluated using fit-for-purpose method development and validation, while also evaluating costs. Methods selected for validation required acceptable performance based on satisfaction of a priori criteria prior to proceeding to subsequent stages of validation. LBA pre-validation included reagent selection, evaluation of matrix interference, and range determination. LC-MS/MS pre-validation included selection of a signature peptide; optimization of sample preparation, HPLC, and LC-MS/MS conditions; and calibration range determination. Pre-study validation tested accuracy and precision (mean bias criteria±30%; precision≤30%). Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were estimated for an in vivo study with WinNonlin noncompartmental analysis. Statistics were performed with JMP using ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post hoc analysis. A cost analysis was performed for a 200-sample PK study using the methods from this study. All platforms, except Gyrolab, were taken through validation. However, a typical Gyrolab method was included for the cost analysis. Ranges for the ELISA, ECLA, and LC-MS/MS were 8.52-75, 2.09-125, and 100-1000 ng/mL, respectively, and accuracy and precision fell within a priori criteria. PK samples were analyzed in the 3 validated methods. PK profiles and parameters are similar for all methods, except LC-MS/MS, which differed at t=24h and with AUC0-24. Further investigation into this difference is warranted. The cost analysis identified the Gyrolab platform as the most expensive and ELISA as the least expensive, with method specific consumables attributing significantly to costs. ECLA

  14. Improvement of Topical Palmitoylethanolamide Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Pegylated Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Tronino, Diana; Russo, Roberto; Ostacolo, Carmine; Mazzolari, Angelica; De Caro, Carmen; Avagliano, Carmen; Laneri, Sonia; La Rana, Giovanna; Sacchi, Antonia; Della Valle, Francesco; Vistoli, Giulio; Calignano, Antonio

    2015-09-08

    A small library of polyethylene glycol esters of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) was synthesized with the aim of improving the pharmacokinetic profile of the parent drug after topical administration. Synthesized prodrugs were studied for their skin accumulation, pharmacological activities, in vitro chemical stability, and in silico enzymatic hydrolysis. Prodrugs proved to be able to delay and prolong the pharmacological activity of PEA by modification of its skin accumulation profile. Pharmacokinetic improvements were particularly evident when specific structural requirements, such as flexibility and reduced molecular weight, were respected. Some of the synthesized prodrugs prolonged the pharmacological effects 5 days following topical administration, while a formulation composed by PEA and two pegylated prodrugs showed both rapid onset and long-lasting activity, suggesting the potential use of polyethylene glycol prodrugs of PEA as a suitable candidate for the treatment of skin inflammatory diseases.

  15. Synthesis of PEGylated fullerene-5-fluorouracil conjugates to enhance the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zengpei; Xu, Yingying; Sun, Hongfang; Liu, Yuanfang

    2012-07-01

    Many drugs have been delivered by different types of nanoscale vehicles to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) is a widely used antitumor drug, however its bioavailability still needs to be improved. Herein we synthesized a polyethylene glycol monomethylether-C60-5FU conjugate (mPEG-C60-5FU) and evaluated its antitumor efficacy in vitro. The results show that the inhibition abilities of mPEG-C60-5FU to the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823 are significantly higher than that of 5FU. The conjugate has good stability in murine serum for at least 24 h. Moreover, the PEGylated fullerene (mPEG-C60) vehicle is non-toxic to MCF-7 cells. These results demonstrate that mPEG-C60 is an efficient vehicle for the delivery of 5FU.

  16. Cryptococcal meningitis in a patient with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Hee; Lee, Kee-Ook; Kim, Yong-Seok; Kim, Sun-Moon; Huh, Kyu-Chan; Choi, Young-Woo; Kang, Young-Woo

    2014-05-01

    Various adverse events have been reported during combination therapy with pegylated (PEG)-interferon-α and ribavirin, although opportunistic infections, especially cryptococcal meningitis, are very rare. A 61-year-old woman complained of headaches and a fever during treatment of a chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. She had been treated for 7 months. Her headaches were refractory to analgesics, and she developed subtle nuchal rigidity. The cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) revealed a white blood cell count of 205/mm(3), 51 mg/dL protein, 35 mg/dL glucose, and negative Cryptococcus antigen. The CSF culture resulted in no growth. Five days later, the CSF was positive for Cryptococcus antigen. We administered amphotericin B and flucytosine, followed by fluconazole. Approximately 2 months later, she was discharged. For the first time, we report a case of cryptococcal meningitis during the treatment of chronic HCV with PEG-interferon-α and ribavirin.

  17. Synthesis of water soluble PEGylated magnetic complexes using mPEG-fatty acid for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yang, Jaemoon; Park, Mee-ye; Park, Joseph; Suh, Jin-Suck; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2008-06-15

    We report the successful fabrication of the various types of water soluble PEGylated magnetic complexes (PMCs) for magnetism-related biomedical applications. Various types of PMCs were synthesized and tested to accomplish phase transfer from organic to aqueous phase using monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG)-fatty acid amphiphilic block copolymers (PFs) through conjugation of the hydroxyl group of mPEG with the carboxyl group of fatty acids. We also carefully investigate their colloidal stabilities in aqueous phase according to the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic lengths relying on different types of fatty acids. Synthesized PMCs clearly demonstrated high magnetic sensitivity under magnetic field as magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. Furthermore, PMCs exhibited sufficient cell viabilities and excellent cell affinities in an in vitro model. Our results demonstrated that our PMCs possessed the potential for highly efficient magnetism-related biomedical applications such as MR image agents, drug delivery and tracking of cells.

  18. Difference in microchip electrophoretic mobility between partially and fully PEGylated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Ji; Na, Dong Hee

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the difference in electrophoretic mobility between partially and fully poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (part-PEG-PAMAM and full-PEG-PAMAM, respectively) using a microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (MCGE). While MCGE allowed size-based separation of PEG-PAMAMs prepared with monomethoxy PEG-nitrophenyl carbonate, full-PEG-PAMAMs migrated slower than part-PEG-PAMAMs that were similar in size or larger. When the measured molecular weights obtained from MCGE analysis and the calculated molecular weights were plotted, each part-PEG-PAMAM and full-PEG-PAMAM showed correlation coefficients greater than 0.98. This study indicates that MCGE would be useful for characterizing PEG-PAMAMs with different PEGylation degrees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Half-Life Extension of Biopharmaceuticals using Chemical Methods: Alternatives to PEGylation.

    PubMed

    van Witteloostuijn, Søren B; Pedersen, Søren L; Jensen, Knud J

    2016-11-21

    Peptides and proteins constitute a vast pool of excellent drug candidates. Evolution has equipped these molecules with superior drug-like properties such as high specificity and potency. However, native peptides and proteins suffer from an inadequate pharmacokinetic profile, and their outstanding pharmacological potential can only be realized if this issue is addressed during drug development. To overcome this challenge, a variety of half-life extension techniques relying on covalent chemical modification have been developed. These methods include PEGylation, fusion to unstructured polypeptide-based PEG mimetics, conjugation of large polysaccharides, native-like glycosylation, lipidation, fusion to albumin or the Fc domain of IgG, and derivatization with bio-orthogonal moieties that direct self-assembly. This review provides an overview of available conjugation chemistries, biophysical properties, and safety data associated with these concepts. Moreover, the effects of these modifications on peptide and protein pharmacokinetics are demonstrated through key examples.

  20. Diffuse skin reaction in patient with hepatitis B, treated with two different formulations of pegylated interferon.

    PubMed

    Milkiewicz, Piotr; Yim, Colina; Pache, Isabelle; Heathcote, Jenny

    2005-11-01

    Diffuse skin reactions, commonly leading to discontinuation of the treatment, have been reported in patients with hepatitis C treated with interferon. They were not as yet described in patients treated with a newer formulation of interferon, namely, pegylated interferon (PegINF). A 37-year-old male patient with viral hepatitis B developed a diffuse urticarial skin reaction during treatment with two different forms of PegINF. Despite the skin reaction, the treatment was continued, and the patient responded very well to topical steroids and antihistamines. The present report suggests that despite the severity of reaction, withdrawal of PegINF may not always be required because this particular skin reaction responded well to symptomatic treatment. This is important, because discontinuation of PegINF may decrease the chance of achieving a sustained virological response in patients with viral hepatitis.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid asparagine depletion during pegylated asparaginase therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Louise T; Nersting, Jacob; Raja, Raheel A; Frandsen, Thomas L; Rosthøj, Steen; Schrøder, Henrik; Albertsen, Birgitte K

    2014-07-01

    L-asparaginase is an important drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) asparagine depletion is considered a marker of asparaginase effect in the central nervous system (CNS) and may play a role in CNS-directed anti-leukaemia therapy. The objective of this study was to describe CSF asparagine depletion during 30 weeks of pegylated asparaginase therapy, 1000 iu/m(2) i.m. every second week, and to correlate CSF asparagine concentration with serum L-asparaginase enzyme activity. Danish children (1-17 years) with ALL, treated according to the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology ALL2008 protocol, standard and intermediate risk, were included. CSF samples were obtained throughout L-asparaginase treatment at every scheduled lumbar puncture. A total of 128 samples from 31 patients were available for analysis. Median CSF asparagine concentration decreased from a pre-treatment level of 5·3 μmol/l to median levels ≤1·5 μmol/l. However, only 4/31 patients (five samples) had CSF asparagine concentrations below the limit of detection (0·1 μmol/l). In 11 patients, 24 paired same day serum and CSF samples were obtained. A decrease in CSF asparagine corresponded to serum enzyme activities above 50 iu/l. Higher serum enzyme activities were not followed by more extensive depletion. In conclusion, pegylated asparaginase 1000 iu/m(2) i.m. every second week effectively reduced CSF asparagine levels.

  2. pH-Responsive Reversible PEGylation Improves Performance of Antineoplastic Agent.

    PubMed

    Sun, Diankui; Ding, Jianxun; Xiao, Chunsheng; Chen, Jinjin; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-04-22

    The reversible PEGylation endows antitumor drugs with various fascinating advantages, including prolonged circulation time in blood, enhanced accumulation in tumor tissue, increased cellular uptake, and promoted intracellular drug release, to improve the therapeutic efficacy and security. Here, the obtained succinic anhydride (SA)-functionalized DOX (SAD) (i.e., insensitive succinic anhydride-functionalized doxorubicin (DOX)) and aconitic anhydride (CA)-modified DOX (CAD) (i.e., acid-sensitive cis-aconitic anhydride-modified DOX) are conjugated to the terminal of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) yielding the unresponsive SAD-PEG-SAD and pH-responsive CAD-PEG-CAD prodrugs, respectively. The prepared prodrugs can self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. Both micelles are sufficiently stable at normal physiological pH (i.e., 7.4), while CAD-PEG-CAD micelle gradually swells and finally disassembles at intratumoral (i.e., 6.8) and especially endosomal pHs (i.e., 5.5). DOX release from CAD-PEG-CAD at pH 7.4 is efficiently inhibited, whereas it is significantly accelerated by the rapid cleavage of amide bond at pH 5.5. In addition, CAD-PEG-CAD exhibits more efficient cellular uptake and potent cytotoxicity in vitro, as well as improved tissue distribution and superior tumor suppression in vivo than free DOX and SAD-PEG-SAD. More importantly, the PEGylated DOX exhibits favorable security in vivo. In brief, the smart CAD-PEG-CAD with enhanced antitumor efficacy and decreased side effects shows as a promising powerful platform for the clinical chemotherapy of malignancy.

  3. Islets immunoisolation using encapsulation and PEGylation, simultaneously, as a novel design.

    PubMed

    Nabavimanesh, Mohammad Mahdi; Hashemi-Najafabadi, Sameereh; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim

    2015-04-01

    The most important obstacle in islets transplantation for the treatment of diabetes is graft rejection by the host immune system. To solve this problem, immunosuppressive drugs should be used, but they may have several side effects. To overcome these problems, islets immunoisolation systems such as encapsulation and PEGylation have been developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using encapsulation and PEGylation techniques simultaneously (as a novel design) for immunocamouflaging the islets of Langerhans. For this purpose, the attachment of poly-L-ornithine (PLO) onto the surface of alginate microcapsules and activated methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) onto alginate-PLO microcapsules was verified by Fourier transform infrared analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Viability of the free and encapsulated islets up to the 7th day was approved by acridine orange (AO)/propidium iodide (PI). The obtained results from lymphocytes co-culturing with free and encapsulated islets (in different designs of microcapsules with one to three layers) showed that encapsulation generally reduces the immune response against the islets. However, the addition of PLO and mPEG as second and third layers to the surface of alginate microcapsules decreased interleukine-2 (IL-2) secretion against the islets more and more. Finally, two different activated mPEG, mPEG-succinimidyl carbonate (mPEG-SC) and mPEG-succinimidylvaleric acid (mPEG-SVA), used separately on the surface of microcapsules were investigated, and the results showed that IL-2 secretion was reduced 14.3% and 37.5% in comparison with the alginate-PLO microcapsules, respectively. On the other hand, mPEG-SVA was more effective than mPEG-SC, so it decreased IL-2 secretion 27.1% more than mPEG-SC.

  4. Combined pegylated interferon and ribavirin for the management of chronic hepatitis C in a prison setting.

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Giuliani, Ruggero; Manfredi, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    The elevated frequency of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection found among prison inmates, and the availability of improved pharmacological cure for this potentially life-threatening disorder, make investigations conducted in this somewhat neglected area very relevant, since only a few, open-label experiences have been reported till now. In the metropolitan prison of Bologna (Italy), HCV seroprevalence was found to be over 31% in 2003, so that a pilot feasibility study based on treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin was initiated, after careful counseling carried out by a joint commission of health care personnel of the correctional facility and infectious diseases consultants. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled, and despite expected dropouts due to difficulty in maintaining the same level of counseling pressure over time, and the particularly unfavorable climatic conditions during Summer 2003, a sustained virological response was obtained for 8 out of the 21 patients who remained evaluable after the first three month follow-up, although we need to take into account that a high percentage of subjects (67%) were selected for therapy due to their favorable HCV genotypes (types 2 and 3). Our preliminary experience shows that an intrinsically complicated therapy, such as the administration of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin, can attain a relatively high success rate, even in a very unfavorable and uncomfortable context, such as a prison, where only enforced counseling, active participation of institutional health care operators, and patient's willingness to maintain an elevated level of co-operation and adherence, can overcome most structural and relational difficulties.

  5. Long-circulating delivery of bioactive polysaccharide from radix ophiopogonis by PEGylation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zhuo-Jun; Huang, Fang; Liang, Shuang; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi; Ruan, Ke-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Background Radix ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP) has been found to be effective against myocardial ischemia. One of main problems with its use is its short in-vivo half-life, which makes the development of an effective delivery system necessary. To achieve better therapeutic effects and patient compliance by prolonging its retention in plasma and increasing its distribution in targets, ROP was PEGylated (PEG, polyethylene glycol) in this study. Methods Through a moderate coupling reaction between hydroxyl-activated ROP and amino-terminated methoxy-PEG (mPEG) (30 or 40 kDa), together with a greater than 1 molar ratio of ROP to mPEG in reaction, long-circulating and potentially bioactive PEGylated ROPs, with PEG grafting number of ~1.0, were prepared, characterized, and the pharmacokinetics evaluated. Results Relative to ROP, whose half-life was approximately 0.7 hours, the two conjugates prepared, following intravenous administration, showed markedly prolonged retention in systemic circulation with half-lives in blood of 78.4 and 88.3 hours, respectively. When given subcutaneously, their in-vivo mean residence times were further markedly prolonged by the slow absorption phase. They were found to be well absorbed after subcutaneous administration, with absolute bioavailability being 75.4% and 43.9%, respectively. Conclusion With apparent molecular masses not exceeding 43 kDa, the conjugates prepared have been and will be demonstrated to have prominent advantages for ROP delivery, such as: the good absorption following subcutaneous, intramuscular, or other ways of administration; the effective utilization of the enhanced permeability and retention effect caused by ischemia; and the rapid diffusion within target tissues. PMID:22131832

  6. Long-circulating delivery of bioactive polysaccharide from radix ophiopogonis by PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zhuo-Jun; Huang, Fang; Liang, Shuang; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi; Ruan, Ke-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Radix ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP) has been found to be effective against myocardial ischemia. One of main problems with its use is its short in-vivo half-life, which makes the development of an effective delivery system necessary. To achieve better therapeutic effects and patient compliance by prolonging its retention in plasma and increasing its distribution in targets, ROP was PEGylated (PEG, polyethylene glycol) in this study. Through a moderate coupling reaction between hydroxyl-activated ROP and amino-terminated methoxy-PEG (mPEG) (30 or 40 kDa), together with a greater than 1 molar ratio of ROP to mPEG in reaction, long-circulating and potentially bioactive PEGylated ROPs, with PEG grafting number of ~1.0, were prepared, characterized, and the pharmacokinetics evaluated. Relative to ROP, whose half-life was approximately 0.7 hours, the two conjugates prepared, following intravenous administration, showed markedly prolonged retention in systemic circulation with half-lives in blood of 78.4 and 88.3 hours, respectively. When given subcutaneously, their in-vivo mean residence times were further markedly prolonged by the slow absorption phase. They were found to be well absorbed after subcutaneous administration, with absolute bioavailability being 75.4% and 43.9%, respectively. With apparent molecular masses not exceeding 43 kDa, the conjugates prepared have been and will be demonstrated to have prominent advantages for ROP delivery, such as: the good absorption following subcutaneous, intramuscular, or other ways of administration; the effective utilization of the enhanced permeability and retention effect caused by ischemia; and the rapid diffusion within target tissues.

  7. Evidence of Protein Adsorption in Pegylated Liposomes: Influence of Liposomal Decoration

    PubMed Central

    Sangrà, Marc; Estelrich, Joan; Sabaté, Raimon; Espargaró, Alba; Busquets, Maria Antònia

    2017-01-01

    In order to contribute to a better knowledge of the events involved in the formation of the protein corona when nanoparticles (NPs) come in contact with proteins, we report a study about the changes on the physicochemical properties of pristine, PEGylated and Cyclic Arginine-Glycine-Aspartate peptide (RGD)-functionalized large unilamelar liposomes (LUVs) or magnetoliposomes (MLs) upon incubation with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). The main phospholipid component of both LUVs and MLs was l-α-phosphatydylcholine (PC) or 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) with 20% of cholesterol. The most obvious indication of the interaction of BSA-nanosystems is given by changes in the hydrodynamic diameter of the particles but other evidence is needed to corroborate the process. Our findings indicate that size modification is a process that is accomplished in few hours and that is strongly dependent not only on the surface decoration but also of the lipid composition of both LUVs and MLs. Fluorescence quenching experiments as well as cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) images assessed these changes and confirmed that although each system has to be studied in a particular way, we can establish three distinctive features that turn into more reactive systems: (a) compositions containing PC compared with their DMPC counterparts; (b) the presence of PEG and/or RGD compared to the pristine counterparts; and (c) the presence of SPIONs: MLs show higher interaction than LUVs of the same lipid composition. Consequently, PEGylation (that is supposed to make stealth NPs) actually fails in preventing complete protein binding. PMID:28336870

  8. Sustained release of estrogens from PEGylated nanoparticles for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, John

    Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition which causes neurological damage and can result in paralysis. SCI results in immediate mechanical damage to the spinal cord, but secondary injuries due to inflammation, oxidative damage, and activated biochemical pathways leading to apoptosis exacerbate the injury. The only currently available treatment, methylprednisolone, is controversial because there is no convincing data to support its therapeutic efficacy for SCI treatment. In the absence of an effective SCI treatment option, 17beta-estradiol has gained significant attention for its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic abilities, all events associated with secondary. Sadly, 17beta-estradiol is associated with systemic adverse effects preclude the use of free estrogen even for local administration due to short drug half-life in the body. Biodegradable nanoparticles can be used to increase half-life after local administration and to bestow sustained release. Sustained release using PEGylated biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles constructed from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) will endow a consistent, low, but effective dose to be delivered locally. This will limit systemic effects due to local administration and low dose, sustained release. PLGA was chosen because it has been used extensively for sustained release, and has a record of safety in humans. Here, we show the in vitro efficacy of PEGylated nanoparticles loaded with 17beta-estradiol for treatment of secondary SCI. We achieved a high loading efficiency and controlled release from the particles over a several day therapeutic window. The particles also show neuroprotection in two in vitro cell culture models. Both the dose and pretreatment time with nanoparticles was evaluated in an effort to translate the treatment into an animal model for further study.

  9. Enhanced antibacterial activity of roxithromycin loaded pegylated poly lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study The purpose of this study was to prepare pegylated poly lactide-co-glycolide (PEG-PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with roxithromycin (RXN) with appropriate physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity. Roxithromycin, a semi-synthetic derivative of erythromycin, is more stable than erythromycin under acidic conditions and exhibits improved clinical effects. Methods RXN was loaded in pegylated PLGA NPs in different drug;polymer ratios by solvent evaporation technique and characterized for their size and size distribution, surface charge, surface morphology, drug loading, in vitro drug release profile, and in vitro antibacterial effects on S. aureus, B. subtilis, and S. epidermidis. Results and conclusion NPs were spherical with a relatively mono-dispersed size distribution. The particle size of nanoparticles ranged from 150 to 200 nm. NPs with entrapment efficiency of up to 80.0±6.5% and drug loading of up to 13.0±1.0% were prepared. In vitro release study showed an early burst release of about 50.03±0.99% at 6.5 h and then a slow and steady release of RXN was observed after the burst release. In vitro antibacterial effects determined that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of RXN loaded PEG-PLGA NPs were 9 times lower on S. aureus, 4.5 times lower on B. subtilis, and 4.5 times lower on S. epidermidis compared to RXN solution. In conclusion it was shown that polymeric NPs enhanced the antibacterial efficacy of RXN substantially. PMID:23351784

  10. Evaluation of a load measurement system for cotton harvesters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work is to develop and characterize the performance of a system used onboard a cotton harvester for obtaining seed cotton weight data. This system can be used to measure seed cotton weight on a load by load basis, thereby enhancing the ability for a producer to conduct on-farm ...

  11. Long-circulating PEGylated manganese ferrite nanoparticles for MRI-based molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernia Leal, Manuel; Rivera-Fernández, Sara; Franco, Jaime M.; Pozo, David; de La Fuente, Jesús M.; García-Martín, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance based molecular imaging has emerged as a very promising technique for early detection and treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and vascular diseases. The limited sensitivity and specificity of conventional MRI are being overcome by the development of a new generation of contrast agents, using nanotechnology approaches, with improved magnetic and biological properties. In particular, for molecular imaging, high specificity, high sensitivity, and long blood circulation times are required. Furthermore, the lack of toxicity and immunogenicity together with low-cost scalable production are also necessary to get them into the clinics. In this work, we describe a facile, robust and cost-effective ligand-exchange method to synthesize dual T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents with long circulation times. These contrast agents are based on manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MNPs) between 6 and 14 nm in size covered by a 3 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell that leads to a great stability in aqueous media with high crystallinity and magnetization values, thus retaining the magnetic properties of the uncovered MNPs. Moreover, the PEGylated MNPs have shown different relaxivities depending on their size and the magnetic field applied. Thus, the 6 nm PEGylated MNPs are characterized by a low r2/r1 ratio of 4.9 at 1.5 T, hence resulting in good dual T1 and T2 contrast agents under low magnetic fields, whereas the 14 nm MNPs behave as excellent T2 contrast agents under high magnetic fields (r2 = 335.6 mM-1 s-1). The polymer core shell of the PEGylated MNPs minimizes their cytotoxicity, and allows long blood circulation times. This combination of cellular compatibility and excellent T2 and r2/r1 values under low magnetic fields, together with long circulation times, make these nanomaterials very promising contrast agents for molecular imaging.Magnetic resonance based molecular imaging has emerged as a very promising

  12. In vivo evaluation of PEGylated ⁶⁴Cu-liposomes with theranostic and radiotherapeutic potential using micro PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Anncatrine Luisa; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Binderup, Tina; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing; Rasmussen, Palle Hedengran; Hag, Anne Mette; Kjær, Andreas; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of PEGylated (64)Cu-liposomes in clinical diagnostic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and PEGylated (177)Lu-liposomes in internal tumor radiotherapy through in vivo characterization and dosimetric analysis in a human xenograft mouse model. Liposomes with 5 and 10 mol% PEG were characterized with respect to size, charge, and (64)Cu- and (177)Lu-loading efficiency. The tumor imaging potential of (64)Cu-loaded liposomes was evaluated in terms of in vivo biodistribution, tumor accumulation and tumor-to-muscle (T/M) ratios, using PET imaging. The potential of PEGylated liposomes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications was further evaluated through dosimetry analysis using OLINDA/EXM software. The (64)Cu-liposomes were used as biological surrogates to estimate the organ and tumor kinetics of (177)Lu-liposomes. High remote loading efficiency (>95 %) was obtained for both (64)Cu and (177)Lu radionuclides with PEGylated liposomes, and essentially no leakage of the encapsulated radionuclide was observed upon storage and after serum incubation for 24 h at 37 °C. The 10 mol% PEG liposomes showed higher tumor accumulation (6.2 ± 0.2 %ID/g) than the 5 mol% PEG liposomes, as evaluated by PET imaging. The dosimetry analysis of the (64)Cu-liposomes estimated an acceptable total effective dose of 3.3·10(-2) mSv/MBq for diagnostic imaging in patients. A high absorbed tumor dose (114 mGy/MBq) was estimated for the potential radiotherapeutic (177)Lu-liposomes. The overall preclinical profile of PEGylated (64)Cu-liposomes showed high potential as a new PET theranostic tracer for imaging in humans. Dosimetry results predicted that initial administered activity of 200 MBq of (64)Cu-liposomes should be acceptable in patients. Work is in progress to validate the utility of PEGylated (64)Cu-liposomes in a clinical research programme. The high absorbed tumor dose (114 mGy/MBq) estimated for (177)Lu-liposomes and

  13. The diffusion dynamics of PEGylated liposomes in the intact vitreous of the ex vivo porcine eye: A fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and biodistribution study.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Anne Z; Brewer, Jonathan; Andresen, Thomas L; Urquhart, Andrew J

    2017-04-30

    The diffusion dynamics of nanocarriers in the vitreous and the influence of nanocarrier physicochemical properties on these dynamics is an important aspect of the efficacy of intravitreal administered nanomedicines for the treatment of posterior segment eye diseases. Here we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to determine liposome diffusion coefficients in the intact vitreous (DVit) of ex vivo porcine eyes using a modified Miyake-Apple technique to minimize the disruption of the vitreous fine structure. We chose to investigate whether the zeta potential of polyethylene glycol functionalized (i.e. PEGylated) liposomes altered liposome in situ diffusion dynamics in the vitreous. Non-PEGylated cationic nanocarriers have previously shown little to no diffusion in the vitreous, whilst neutral and anionic have shown diffusion. The liposomes investigated had diameters below 150nm and zeta potentials ranging from -20 to +12mV. We observed that PEGylated cationic liposomes had significantly lower DVit values (1.14μm(2)s(-1)) than PEGylated neutral and anionic liposomes (2.78 and 2.87μm(2)s(-1)). However, PEGylated cationic liposomes had a similar biodistribution profile across the vitreous to the other systems. These results show that PEGylated cationic liposomes with limited cationic charge can diffuse across the vitreous and indicate that the vitreous as a barrier to nanocarriers (Ø<500nm) is more complicated than simply an electrostatic barrier as previously suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mono-PEGylation of Alpha-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica charantia L.: Production, Identification and Anti-Tumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yun; Sun, Fenghui; Li, Jianlong; Wu, Minlu; Fan, Xiang; Meng, Yanfa; Meng, Yao

    2016-10-31

    PEGylation is a well-established and effective strategy to decrease immunogenicity, which can increase the stability and in vivo half-life time. However, the generation of multi-site modified products is inevitable due to the lysine chemistry, which will bring difficulties in subsequent research, such as purification and quantification. Site-specific modification by mPEG-succinimidyl carbonate (mPEG-SC) is a widely used method for N-terminal conjugation. In this study, we used it for site-directed modification on two ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30), from Momordica charantia L. According to the optimization of previous modification conditions, we compared Macro-Cap SP with SP-Sepharose FF chromatography for separating the final mPEGylated RIPs. Two kinds of methods both can obtain homogenous mPEGylated RIPs which were identified by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis. We also used iodine staining method to detect the amount of unmodified PEG. Furthermore, the inhibition activity of both mPEGylated and non-PEGylated RIPs against human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells was detected. All of the results suggested that the mPEGylated α-MMC/MAP30 might be potentially developed as new anti-tumor drugs.

  15. Development of a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for a PEGylated adnectin in cynomolgus monkey plasma using protein precipitation and trypsin digestion.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Michelle L; Gu, Huidong; Wang, Jian; Schuster, Alan E; Haulenbeek, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for a PEGylated adnectin therapeutic protein in cynomolgus monkey plasma. The validated method was performed using protein precipitation coupled with trypsin digestion, followed by LC-MS/MS detection of a surrogate peptide generated from the PEGylated adnectin protein. A tryptic peptide generated from a PEGylated adnectin protein analog was used as the internal standard to standardize the digestion, extraction, and quantitation processes. The protein precipitation extraction of the protein from cynomolgus plasma was performed using an acidic 2-propanol organic solution. Following the extraction, the supernatant was removed and a 45min trypsin digestion was performed at 60°C on the supernatant layer. The linear dynamic range of the assay was 50.0-25,000ng/mL. Chromatographic separation was performed with an Acquity BEH C18 (1.7μm particle size, 2.1mm×50mm) column using gradient elution. The assay proved to have robust accuracy, precision, and stability for the representative surrogate peptide of the PEGylated adnectin protein being evaluated. The validated method was implemented as a high throughput assay for a PEGylated adnectin protein using a similar PEGylated adnectin therapeutic protein as the internal standard that can be used for future monkey toxicokinetic (TK) studies.

  16. Smart AS1411-aptamer conjugated pegylated PAMAM dendrimer for the superior delivery of camptothecin to colon adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Alibolandi, Mona; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad; Ramezani, Pouria; Hosseini Shamili, Fazileh; Farzad, Sara Amel; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-03-15

    In the current study camptothecin-loaded pegylated PAMAM dendrimer were synthesized and were functionalized with AS1411 anti-nucleolin aptamers for site-specific targeting against colorectal cancer cells which over expresses nucleolin receptors. The morphological properties and size dispersity of the prepared nanoparticles were evaluated using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and DLS. The drug-loading content and encapsulation efficiency were obtained 8.1% and 93.67% respectively. The in vitro release of camptothecin from the formulation was provided the sustained release of encapsulated camptothecin during 4days. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that the targeted camptothecin loaded-pegylated dendrimers had higher antiproliferation activity, towards nucleolin-positive HT29 and C26 colorectal cancer cells than nucleolin-negative CHO cell line. Fluorscence microscopy and flow cytometry also confirmed the enhanced cellular uptake of AS1411 targeted pegylated-dendrimer. In vivo study in C26 tumor-bearing BALB/C mice revealed that the AS1411-functionalized camptothecin loaded pegylated dendrimers improved antitumor activity and survival rate of the encapsulated camptothecin. Conjugation of AS1411 aptamer to the camptothecin loaded-pegylated dendrimer surface provides site-specific delivery of camptothecin, inhibit C26 tumor growth in vivo and significantly decrease systemic toxicity. These results suggested that the new nucleolin-targeted pegylated PAMAM dendrimer as a delivery system for camptothecin have the potential for the treatment of nucleolin-overexpressed colorectal cancer.

  17. Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b Monotherapy and Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b plus Lamivudine Combination Therapy for Patients with Hepatitis B Virus E Antigen-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B▿

    PubMed Central

    Kaymakoglu, Sabahattin; Oguz, Dilek; Gur, Gurden; Gurel, Selim; Tankurt, Ethem; Ersöz, Galip; Ozenirler, Seren; Kalayci, Cem; Poturoglu, Sule; Cakaloglu, Yılmaz; Okten, Atilla

    2007-01-01

    Forty-eight hepatitis B virus (HBV) E antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B patients received pegylated interferon alfa-2b either alone or with lamivudine for 48 weeks and were followed for an additional 24 weeks. At the end of follow-up, virological response rates (HBV DNA levels of <400 copies/ml) were similar in the monotherapy (24%) and combination therapy (26%) groups. PMID:17517832

  18. Rapid online proteolytic mapping of PEGylated rhGH for identity confirmation, quantitation of methionine oxidation and quantitation of UnPEGylated N-terminus using HPLC with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Schneiderheinze, Jeffrey; Walden, Zara; Dufield, Rob; Demarest, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Proteolytic mapping is a widely used tool in the BioPharmaceutical Industry for the analysis of post-translation modifications as well as confirmation of protein identity by comparison to a well-characterized reference standard. This manuscript presents an integrated chromatographic approach which provides the ability to rapidly digest and analyze a PEGylated rhGH for methionine oxidation, identity confirmation and free (unPEGylated) N-terminal peptide by RP-HPLC using UV detection at 280 nm. This approach utilizes an online procedure in which the digestion step is integrated to the RP-HPLC analysis via an external column switching valve. A Poroszyme Trypsin cartridge is used in the digestion step, followed by delivery of the digested sample plug through a sample loop to an orthogonal RP-HPLC column for separation and quantitation of the resulting tryptic peptides. Oxidation of the methionine (met14) in the T2 tryptic fragment was quantified with a sensitivity of approximately 1.0% (peak area percent relative to parent T2). The RP-HPLC profile obtained with the integrated system was nearly identical to that obtained via traditional methods (e.g. batch digestion followed by RP-HPLC analysis). The integrated technique, however, represents a 10-fold reduction in total analysis time when compared to the optimized batch digestion procedure. In addition, the identity of the PEGylated rhGH compound could be confirmed as well as the percentage of free N-terminus in a single injection.

  19. In vitro release study of mono-PEGylated growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 from PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Ji; Na, Dong Hee; Lee, Kang Choon

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro release property of mono-PEGylated growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) microspheres. The microspheres encapsulating native GHRP-6 or mono-PEG-GHRP-6 were prepared using the single oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. In vitro release study was performed in 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.02% Tween 80 and sodium azide at 37 or 55 degrees C. The mono-PEG-GHRP-6 microspheres showed a lower initial burst compared with native GHRP-6 microspheres and zero-order release profile for a 1-month period. The release period was dependent on the PEG size attached to the GHRP-6 with more rapid drug release being observed with the smaller PEG size. This study suggests that PEGylated peptide has good potential as a source for a sustained release microsphere delivery system.

  20. Design, synthesis and evaluation of PEGylated lipoic acid derivatives with functionality as potent anti-melanogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chichong; Kim, Bo-Mi; Chai, Kyu Yun

    2011-10-01

    The novel PEGylated lipoic acid (LA) derivatives with functionality were synthesized in satisfactory yield by simple procedures and evaluated about its anti-melanogenic activity on the B16F10 melanoma cells. Grafting a PEG moiety onto the carboxyl group of LA has reduced the cell cytotoxicity and provided the water solubility and functionality to incorporate the other bioactive moieties. We have found that derivatives showed inhibition of melanin formation by up to 36.5% at 0.1 mM, whereas LA decreased the melanin formation by 8.6%. In addition, it also inhibits at least 86.4% UV-induced MMP-1 expression at 0.1 mM which is higher than LA. These data suggest that the novel PEGylated LA derivatives with functionality may thus serve as a potentially effective anti-melanogenic and anti-aging agent.

  1. Clinical improvement of diffuse lymphangiomatosis with pegylated interferon alfa-2b therapy: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Michio; Funato, Michinori; Kanda, Kaori; Ito, Masahumi; Teramoto, Takahide; Kaneko, Hideo; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Diffuse lymphangiomatosis is a very rare congenital disease, characterized by diffuse or multifocal lymphangioma in the skeletal tissue, spleen, liver, mediastinum, and/or lung. The prognosis is usually poor, especially for children with thoracic lesion, and treatments for the disease are controversial. The authors report a 9-year-old boy with diffuse lymphangiomatosis involving the thorax with pleural effusions, the spleen, and systemic bone. The patient was treated with pegylated interferon alfa-2b, and achieved good clinical and radiological improvement.

  2. Interleukin-28B Polymorphisms and Response of Chronic Hepatitis C Patients from Indonesia to Pegylated Interferon/Ribavirin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Juniastuti; Wibowo, Bogi P.; Wibawa, I D. N.; Utsumi, Takako; Mustika, Syifa; Amin, Mochamad; Wahyuni, Rury M.; Kurniawan, Hendra; Hendrayana, Agus; Setiawan, Poernomo B.; Yamani, Laura N.; Soetjipto; Yano, Yoshihiko; Hotta, Hak; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrated that Indonesian patients with chronic hepatitis C (mostly ethnic Java people) mostly were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1; however, they carried mainly the major genotypes of interleukin 28B (IL-28B) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs12979860 CC, rs11881222 TT, rs8103142 AA, and rs8099917 TT), and they mostly achieved sustained virological responses to pegylated interferon/ribavirin treatment. PMID:24696021

  3. Comparison of tissue distribution of a PEGylated Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide in mice with normal and ischemic myocardium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zhuo-Jun; Wang, Shuo; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Xu, De-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    PEGylation was found to be a promising approach to improve the anti-myocardial ischemic activity of Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP) by prolonging its retention in plasma. To fully evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this strategy, the tissue distribution of PEGylated ROP was investigated in this study. A long-circulating and bioactive PEGylated ROP with 1.04 mol 20-kDa mPEG per mol ROP ((1.04)P(20k)-R) was prepared by a moderate coupling reaction between the hydroxyl-activated ROP and the amino-terminated mPEG. Its tissue distribution in mice with normal and ischemic myocardium was studied and compared with ROP. The results show that the descending order of tissue distribution of (1.04)P(20k)-R ranked by AUC was kidney, lung, heart, liver, and brain in normal mice and kidney ≈ lung ≈ heart, liver and brain in mice with myocardial ischemia. With the exception of the heart, myocardial ischemia did not cause obvious changes in the distribution of (1.04)P(20k)-R in the other tissues studied. Owing to the enhanced permeability and retention effect caused by ischemia, the AUC of (1.04)P(20k)-R in ischemic hearts was approximately 1.6-fold greater than in normal hearts. Compared with ROP in rats, the distribution tendency of (1.04)P(20k)-R in mouse kidney, brain, and lung was reduced by approximately 42, 1.6, and 1.3 times, respectively, whereas it was increased by approximately 1.3-fold in the liver. The results of this study are highly instructive for the further pharmaceutical development of PEGylated ROP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. PEGylation and pharmacological characterization of a potential anti-tumor drug, an engineered arginine deiminase originated from Pseudomonas plecoglossicida.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Liu, Menghan; Jamil, Serwanja; Han, Ruizhi; Xu, Guochao; Ni, Ye

    2015-02-01

    Arginine deiminase (ADI) has been studied as a potential anti-cancer agent for arginine-auxotrophic tumors. PEGylation is one of the best methods to formulate a bioconjugated protein with extended physical stability and reduced immunogenicity. Here, PEGylation and pharmacological properties of an engineered ADI originated from Pseudomonas plecoglossicida were studied. Among polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents with succinimidyl ester groups varying in size and linkers, three PEGylated products with high yield and catalytic activity were further characterized, named ADI-SS(20 kDa), ADI-SC(20 kDa), and ADI-SPA(20 kDa). In the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PD/PK) studies with ADI-SPA(20 kDa), a remarkable improvement in circulating half-life compared with native ADI was observed. ADI-SPA(20 kDa) injections via intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes all exhibited superior efficacy than native ADI on depleting serum arginine. Additionally, our results demonstrated that single ADI-SPA(20 kDa) administration of 5 U/mouse via intravenous injection could maintain serum arginine at an undetectable level for 5 days with a half-life of 53.2 h, representing 11-fold improvement in half-life than that of the native ADI. In a mice H22 hepatocarcinoma model, ADI-SPA(20 kDa) dosage of 5 U per 5 days showed an inhibition rate of 95.02% on tumor growth during 15-day treatments.

  5. PEGylated gold nanorods as optical trackers for biomedical applications: an in vivo and in vitro comparative study.

    PubMed

    Abdelrasoul, Gaser N; Magrassi, Raffaella; Dante, Silvia; d'Amora, Marta; d'Abbusco, Marco Scotto; Pellegrino, Teresa; Diaspro, Alberto

    2016-06-24

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) are eligible for a variety of biological applications including cell imaging, sensing, and photothermal therapy thanks to their optical properties. The aim of this work is to show how AuNRs could be employed as non-photobleachable optical contrast agents for biomedical applications. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of their use as optical trackers, we employed two-photon emission confocal microscopy on cells incubated with PEGylated AuNRs. Remarkably, AuNRs were localized mostly in the perinuclear zone and microscopy characterization showed the presence of a considerable number of rods inside cell nuclei. Furthermore, we estimated the toxicity and the efficiency of cellular uptake of the PEGylated AuNRs as a function of administered dose on HeLa/3T3 cell lines and on zebrafish during development, employed as an in vivo model. Eventually, we observed good agreement between in vivo and in vitro experiments. The employed AuNRs were prepared through a photochemical protocol here improved by tuning the amount of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide for the achievement of AuNRs at two different aspect ratios. Furthermore we also investigated if the AuNR aspect ratio influenced the toxicity and the efficiency of cellular uptake of the PEGylated AuNRs in HeLa/3T3 cell lines and in zebrafish embryos.

  6. Lower Viral Response to Pegylated Interferon Alpha 2a Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B in Roma People in Eastern Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Drazilova, Sylvia; Janicko, Martin; Kristian, Pavol; Schreter, Ivan; Kucinsky, Branislav; Kozlej, Marek; Hockickova, Ivana; Jarcuska, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the compliance and virological response to pegylated interferon alpha 2a treatment of chronic hepatitis B in Roma population compared to majority Caucasian population in Slovakia. Methods. Retrospective evaluation of a cohort of all Roma patients treated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a from 2007 to 2013 in 3 centers for treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B. The Study included 43 Roma patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and randomly selected control group. Treatment duration was 48 weeks. Viral response was evaluated after 24 weeks, at the end of treatment, and 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. Complete treatment course was finished by 79.1% of Roma patients compared to all patients from the control group (p = 0.0009). There was a tendency toward lower viral response rate in Roma at all time points; however significant difference was only at end of treatment viral response (51.2% Roma versus 81.4% majority, p = 0.003). We also did not find significant difference at the rate of HBsAg loss. Conclusion. Roma patients with chronic hepatitis B have significantly worse compliance to treatment with pegylated interferon and they have significantly lower rate of end of treatment viral response. PMID:26858755

  7. Pegylated Trastuzumab Fragments Acquire an Increased in Vivo Stability but Show a Largely Reduced Affinity for the Target Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Selis, Fabio; Focà, Giuseppina; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Marra, Carla; Di Mauro, Concetta; Saccani Jotti, Gloria; Scaramuzza, Silvia; Politano, Annalisa; Sanna, Riccardo; Ruvo, Menotti; Tonon, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    PEGylation of biomolecules is a major approach to increase blood stream half-life, stability and solubility of biotherapeutics and to reduce their immunogenicity, aggregation potential and unspecific interactions with other proteins and tissues. Antibodies have generally long half-lives due to high molecular mass and stability toward proteases, however their size lowers to some extent their potential because of a reduced ability to penetrate tissues, especially those of tumor origin. Fab or otherwise engineered smaller fragments are an alternative but are less stable and are much less well retained in circulation. We have here investigated the effects of various PEGylations on the binding properties and in vivo half-life of Fab fragments derived from the enzymatic splitting of Trastuzumab. We find that PEGylation increases the half-life of the molecules but also strongly affects the ability to recognize the target antigen in a way that is dependent on the extent and position of the chemical modification. Data thus support the concept that polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugation on Trastuzumab Fabs increases half-life but reduces their affinity and this is a fine balance, which must be carefully considered for the design of strategies based on the use of antibody fragments. PMID:27043557

  8. Pegylation of poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) nanoparticles is efficient for avoiding mononuclear phagocyte system capture in rats

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, İpek; Segura-Sánchez, Freimar; Bouchemal, Kawthar; Sezak, Murat; Özer, Özgen; Güneri, Tamer; Ponchel, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) (PBLG) derivatives are synthetic polypeptides for preparing nanoparticles with well controlled surface properties. The aim of this paper was to investigate the biodistribution of pegylated PBLG in rats. For this purpose, nanoparticles were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method using mixtures of different PBLG derivates, including a pegylated derivate to avoid mononuclear phagocyte system uptake. The morphology, size distribution, and surface charge of the nanoparticles were investigated as a function of the amount of polymer employed for the preparation. Moderately polydispersed nanoparticles (polydispersity index less than 0.2) were obtained. Their size increased with polymer concentration. The zeta potential values were negative whatever the formulations. The availability of polyethylene glycol chains on the nanoparticles’ surface was confirmed by measuring the decrease in bovine serum albumin adsorption. For in vivo distribution studies, pegylated and nonpegylated nanoparticles were prepared with polymer mixtures containing PBLG-fluorescein isothiocyanate and imaged by fluorescence microscopy to measure their accumulation in liver and spleen tissues of rats after intravenous administration. Injection of stealth formulations resulted in negligible fluorescence in liver and spleen compared with nonpegylated formulations, which suggests that these nanoparticles are promising candidates as a stealth-type long-circulating drug carrier system and could be useful for active targeting of drugs while reducing systemic side effects. PMID:21270961

  9. PEGylated gold nanorods as optical trackers for biomedical applications: an in vivo and in vitro comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrasoul, Gaser N.; Magrassi, Raffaella; Dante, Silvia; d'Amora, Marta; Scotto d'Abbusco, Marco; Pellegrino, Teresa; Diaspro, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) are eligible for a variety of biological applications including cell imaging, sensing, and photothermal therapy thanks to their optical properties. The aim of this work is to show how AuNRs could be employed as non-photobleachable optical contrast agents for biomedical applications. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of their use as optical trackers, we employed two-photon emission confocal microscopy on cells incubated with PEGylated AuNRs. Remarkably, AuNRs were localized mostly in the perinuclear zone and microscopy characterization showed the presence of a considerable number of rods inside cell nuclei. Furthermore, we estimated the toxicity and the efficiency of cellular uptake of the PEGylated AuNRs as a function of administered dose on HeLa/3T3 cell lines and on zebrafish during development, employed as an in vivo model. Eventually, we observed good agreement between in vivo and in vitro experiments. The employed AuNRs were prepared through a photochemical protocol here improved by tuning the amount of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide for the achievement of AuNRs at two different aspect ratios. Furthermore we also investigated if the AuNR aspect ratio influenced the toxicity and the efficiency of cellular uptake of the PEGylated AuNRs in HeLa/3T3 cell lines and in zebrafish embryos.

  10. One-pot solventless preparation of PEGylated black phosphorus nanoparticles for photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caixia; Wen, Ling; Zeng, Jianfeng; Wang, Yong; Sun, Qiao; Deng, Lijuan; Zhao, Chongjun; Li, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) nanostructures such as nanosheets and nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to their unique properties and great potential in various physical, chemical, and biological fields. In this article, water-soluble and biocompatible PEGylated BP nanoparticles with a high yield were prepared by one-pot solventless high energy mechanical milling technique. The resultant BP nanoparticles can efficiently convert near infrared (NIR) light into heat, and exhibit excellent photostability, which makes them suitable as a novel nanotheranostic agent for photoacoustic (PA) imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer. The in-vitro results demonstrate the excellent biocompatibility of PEGylated BP nanoparticles, which can be used for photothermal ablation of cancer cells under irradiation with NIR light. The in-vivo PA images demonstrate that these BP nanoparticles can be efficiently accumulated in tumors through the enhanced permeability retention effect. The resultant BP nanoparticles can be further utilized for photothermal ablation of tumors by irradiation with NIR light. The tumor-bearing mice were completely recovered after photothermal treatment with BP nanoparticles, in comparison with mice from control groups. Our research highlights the great potential of PEGylated BP nanoparticles in detection and treatment of cancer.

  11. Biocompatible PEGylated MoS2 nanosheets: controllable bottom-up synthesis and highly efficient photothermal regression of tumor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shige; Li, Kai; Chen, Yu; Chen, Hangrong; Ma, Ming; Feng, Jingwei; Zhao, Qinghua; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, particularly MoS2 nanosheets, have been deemed as a novel category of NIR photothermal transducing agent. Herein, an efficient and versatile one-pot solvothermal synthesis based on "bottom-up" strategy has been, for the first time, proposed for the controlled synthesis of PEGylated MoS2 nanosheets by using a novel "integrated" precursor containing both Mo and S elements. This facile but unique PEG-mediated solvothermal procedure endowed MoS2 nanosheets with controlled size, increased crystallinity and excellent colloidal stability. The photothermal performance of nanosheets was optimized via modulating the particulate size and surface PEGylation. PEGylated MoS2 nanosheets with desired photothermal conversion performance and excellent colloidal and photothermal stability were further utilized for highly efficient photothermal therapy of cancer in a tumor-bearing mouse xenograft. Without showing observable in vitro and in vivo hemolysis, coagulation and toxicity, the optimized MoS2-PEG nanosheets showed promising in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer efficacy.

  12. Earth surface response to a load moving in a tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukrainets, V. N.

    2009-04-01

    Using the solution of the problem on an elastic half-space subjected to a load uniformly propagating on the surface of a circular cylindrical cavity along its generator parallel to the free boundary of the half-space, we study the stress-strain state of the Earth surface over the tunnel under the action of normal axisymmetric periodic and aperiodic loads moving in the tunnel. Numerical results are analyzed on the basis of the tables and graphs presented in the paper.

  13. 19 CFR 4.65a - Load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Load lines. 4.65a Section 4.65a Customs Duties U.S... FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.65a Load lines. (a) If a port director is notified by... engaged in the foreign trade under the International Voyage Load Line Act of 1973, clearance shall not be...

  14. Gold Nanorod Mediated Mild Hyperthermia and PEGylated Human Serum Albumin Drug Delivery for Cancer Therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehtala, Jonathan G.

    Photothermally active gold nanorods were used to sensitize cells to chemotherapeutic agents by producing mildly hyperthermic effects (42-43 °C). We examined the synergistic effects of GNR-mediated mild hyperthermia (MHT) on cisplatin (CP) activity against SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. In vitro studies were performed using CP at cytostatic concentrations (5 μM) and mPEG-stabilized GNRs (lambdamax 815 nm) with near-infrared laser excitation for MHT (or external heating as a positive control), followed by 72 hours incubation at 37 °C. The amount of PEG-GNRs needed for GNR-mediated MHT was determined to be 1 μg/mL, several times lower than the loadings used in tumor tissue ablation. A cell viability assay indicated 80% enhancement in CP-mediated cytotoxicity 3 days after GNR-mediated MHT relative to the projected additive effect. A pilot in vivo study showed preliminary results that cisplatin chemotherapy can be developed in combination with low loadings of GNR-mediated MHT for localized MHT to treat tumors. Stable aqueous dispersions of citrate-stabilized gold nanorods were prepared in scalable fashion by surfactant exchange from cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized GNRs, using sodium polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) as a detergent. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was used to measure the size of the Cit-GNR dispersions, which provides particle sizing resolution several times better than that of dynamic light scattering (DLS). Cit-GNRs were further functionalized with human serum albumin (HSA) and thiols and dithiocarbamates (DTCs) of varying molecular weights. The quality of the Cit-GNR dispersions allows us to address fundamental questions relating GNR stabilization to surface adsorption, including insights into the formation of the protein corona in serum-containing media. Mono-PEGylated human serum albumin was synthesized to investigate its ability to improve the bioavailability of the ability of paclitaxel (PTX), a poorly soluble drug. Matrix assisted

  15. Packing density of the PEG-shell in PEG-albumins: PEGylation induced viscosity and COP are inverse correlate of packing density.

    PubMed

    Ananda, K; Manjula, Belur N; Meng, Fantao; Acharya, Vivek N; Intaglietta, Marcos; Acharya, Seetharama A

    2012-02-01

    PEG-Alb represents a new class of low viscogenic plasma expanders that achieve super perfusion in vivo by mimicking the vasodilatory influence of high viscogenic plasma expanders. PEGylation-engineered structure of PEG albumin can be envisaged as a deformable molecular domain around the rigid central protein core. The correlation between the structure of PEG-shell in terms of packing of the PEG inside the PEG shell and PEGylation induced plasma expander (PE)-like properties of albumin has been investigated as a function of the number and length of the PEG-chain. The increase in molecular radius of albumin on PEGylation is non-linear as a function of the number of PEG chains conjugated. The packing density of PEG within the PEG-shell is an inverse correlate of PEG-chain size; i.e. the shorter chains pack more compactly than the longer ones. The PEGylation induced increase in the viscosity and COP of albumin is an exponential correlation of the number of ethylene oxide units (-CH(2)-CH(2)-O-) conjugated and is also a function of the PEG-chain length. At equivalence of PEG mass conjugated, the viscosity and COP of PEG-albumin adducts correlate inversely with packing density of PEG. All PEGylated albumins are not equivalent on the basis of total PEG mass conjugated. Accordingly, the structure of PEG albumin and its solution properties can be engineered to optimize a given total PEG mass for the application of PEG albumin as a resuscitation fluid. The extension arms minimize the influence of PEG shell on the structure of the protein core. We speculate that EAF-PEGylation is a preferable platform for PEGylation of protein therapeutics and is expected to generate products with better therapeutic efficacy.

  16. PEGylation of a proprotein convertase peptide inhibitor for vaginal route of drug delivery: in vitro bioactivity, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Ho, Huiting; Nero, Tracy L; Singh, Harmeet; Parker, Michael W; Nie, Guiying

    2012-12-01

    Uterine proprotein convertase (PC) 6 is critical for embryo implantation in mice and women. It is also one of the PC family members that play a vital role in HIV infectivity. We hypothesized that inhibiting PC6 in the female reproductive tract (vagina, cervix and uterus), may protect women from both pregnancy and HIV infection. One key requirement to prove this concept in an animal model is a vaginally deliverable PC6 inhibitor. Nona-D-arginine (Poly R) is a potent peptide PC inhibitor and is able to inhibit HIV in cell culture. We modified Poly R by PEGylation with different strategies and determined their biochemical properties in vitro and in vivo. PEGylation at the C-terminus, regardless of the PEG size (30 kDa or 1239 Da) did not compromise the inhibitory potency of Poly R. In contrast, PEGylation at both termini (1239 Da) dramatically reduced its inhibitory activity. Poly R and C-PEGylated Poly Rs also showed equal potency in inhibiting a PC6-dependent cellular process critical for embryo implantation. Poly R and the equipotent C-PEGylated Poly Rs were further tested for their serum stability in vitro and pharmacokinetics in vivo following vaginal administration in mice. All Poly Rs were equally stable in mouse serum in vitro for 24h; C-PEGylated Poly Rs showed enhanced vaginal absorption and penetration across the vaginal mucosa/epithelium. This is the first report that C-terminal PEGylation significantly enhances the therapeutic properties of Poly R for vaginal drug delivery. Our findings also provide important insights into future design of Poly R derivatives.

  17. Xanthan gum stabilized PEGylated gold nanoparticles for improved delivery of curcumin in cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami Muddineti, Omkara; Kumari, Preeti; Ajjarapu, Srinivas; Manish Lakhani, Prit; Bahl, Rishabh; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have received immense interest in various biomedical applications including drug delivery, photothermal ablation of cancer and imaging agent for cancer diagnosis. However, the synthesis of AuNPs poses challenges due to the poor reproducibility and stability of the colloidal system. In the present work, we developed a one step, facile procedure for the synthesis of AuNPs from hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) hydrate (HAuCl4. 3H2O) by using ascorbic acid and xanthan gum (XG) as reducing agent and stabilizer, respectively. The effect of concentrations of HAuCl4, 3H2O, ascorbic acid and methoxy polyethylene glycol-thiol (mPEG800-SH) were optimized and it was observed that stable AuNPs were formed at concentrations of 0.25 mM, 50 μM and 1 mM for HAuCl4.3H2O, ascorbic acid, and mPEG800-SH, respectively. The XG stabilized, deep red wine colored AuNPs (XG-AuNPs) were obtained by drop-wise addition of aqueous solution of ascorbic acid (50 mM) and XG (1.5 mg ml-1). Synthesized XG-AuNPs showed λmax at 540 nm and a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 80 ± 3 nm. PEGylation was performed with mPEG800-SH to obtain PEGylated XG-AuNPs (PX-AuNPs) and confirmed by Ellman’s assay. No significant shift observed in λmax and hydrodynamic diameter between XG-AuNPs and PX-AuNPs. Colloidal stability of PX-AuNPs was studied in normal saline, buffers within a pH range of 1.2-7.4, DMEM complete medium and in normal storage condition at 4 ˚C. Further, water soluble curcumin was prepared using PVP-K30 as solid dispersion and loaded on to PX-AuNPs (CPX-AuNPs), and evaluated for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in Murine melanoma (B16F10) cells. Time and concentration dependent studies using CPX-AuNPs showed efficient uptake and decreased cell viability compared to free curcumin.

  18. Immune mechanisms regulating pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEGylated liposomal anticancer agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gina

    Nanotechnology has made significant advances in drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer. Among various nanoparticle (NP) platforms, liposomes have been most widely used as a NP drug carrier for cancer therapy. High variation in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of liposome-based therapeutics has been reported. However, the interaction of liposome-based therapeutics with the immune system, specifically the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), and underlying molecular mechanisms for variable responses to liposomal drugs remain poorly understood. The objective of this dissertation was to elucidate immune mechanisms for the variable responses to PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD; DoxilRTM), a clinically relevant NP, in animal models and in patients. In vitro, in vivo and clinical systems were investigated to evaluate the effects of chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5), heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment, and genetic variations on PK and PD of PLD. Results showed that there was a significantly positive linear relationship between PLD exposure (AUC) and total amount of CCL2 and CCL5, most prevalent chemokines in plasma, in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. Consistent with these findings, preclinical studies using mice bearing SKOV3 orthotopic ovarian cancer xenografts demonstrated that PLD induced the production and secretion of chemokines into plasma. In addition, in vitro studies using human monocytic THP-1 cells demonstrated that PLD altered monocyte migration towards CCL2 and CCL5. The PK and efficacy studies of PLD in murine models of breast cancer showed that heterogeneous tumor microenvironment was associated with significantly different tumor delivery and efficacy of PLD, but not small molecule doxorubicin between two breast tumor models. A candidate genetic locus that was associated with clearance of PLD in 23 inbred mouse strains contains a gene that encodes for engulfment adapter PTB domain containing 1 (Gulp1). By using

  19. Janus nanogels of PEGylated Taxol and PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymer for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Wang, Huaimin; Zhu, Meifeng; Ding, Dan; Li, Dongxia; Yin, Zhinan; Wang, Lianyong; Yang, Zhimou

    2013-09-01

    Nanogels are promising carriers for the delivery of anti-cancer drugs for cancer therapy. We report in this study on a Janus nanogel system formed by mixing a prodrug of Taxol (PEGylated Taxol) and a copolymer of PLGA-PEG-PLGA. The Janus nanogels have good stability over months in aqueous solutions and the freeze-dried powder of nanogels can be re-dispersed instantly in aqueous solutions. The Janus nanogels show an enhanced inhibition effect on tumor growth in a mice breast cancer model probably due to the enhanced uptake of the nano-sized materials by the EPR effect. What is more, the nanogels can also serve as physical carriers to co-deliver other anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin to further improve the anti-cancer efficacy. The results obtained from H&E staining and TUNEL assay also support the observation of tumor growth inhibition. These results suggest the potential of this novel delivery system for cancer therapy.Nanogels are promising carriers for the delivery of anti-cancer drugs for cancer therapy. We report in this study on a Janus nanogel system formed by mixing a prodrug of Taxol (PEGylated Taxol) and a copolymer of PLGA-PEG-PLGA. The Janus nanogels have good stability over months in aqueous solutions and the freeze-dried powder of nanogels can be re-dispersed instantly in aqueous solutions. The Janus nanogels show an enhanced inhibition effect on tumor growth in a mice breast cancer model probably due to the enhanced uptake of the nano-sized materials by the EPR effect. What is more, the nanogels can also serve as physical carriers to co-deliver other anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin to further improve the anti-cancer efficacy. The results obtained from H&E staining and TUNEL assay also support the observation of tumor growth inhibition. These results suggest the potential of this novel delivery system for cancer therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis and characterization of compounds, dynamic time sweep, H

  20. DEPRESSIVE EPISODE INCIDENCE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C TREATED WITH PEGYLATED INTERFERON AND RIBAVIRIN.

    PubMed

    Vabo, Izabella Liguori Corsino; Ferreira, Lincoln Eduardo Villela Vieira de Castro; Pace, Fábio Heleno Lima

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of antiviral therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C is far from ideal and presents several adverse events. Among such events, there is the depressive episode that can even lead to treatment discontinuity. Analyze the incidence of depressive episodes in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon (IFN-PEG) and ribavirin, as well as the possible factors associated with its occurrence and its impact on patients' sustained virological response. People with chronic hepatitis C undergoing antiviral therapy were interviewed at the baseline, at the 4th, 12th, 24th and 48th treatment weeks and 4 weeks after the end of it, using the HADS scale for tracking the depressive episode. Patients with HADS ≥9 were subjected to Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) to grade the episode. Clinical, sociodemographic, laboratorial and histological variables were obtained to identify factors related to the onset of depression. The sustained virological response rate (negative HCV-RNA 6 months after end of therapy) was compared among patients with and without depressive symptoms. The study comprised 32 patients, most men (59%) with mean age of 54±11.13 years old. Genotype non-1 was prevalent (56%) and 81% of the patients were non-cirrhotic. The depressive episode was diagnosed in 25% of the patients and the peak incidence was found in the 12th treatment week. The depressive episode was moderate in 87% of the patients and only one patient abandoned the treatment. None of the analyzed factors was associated with depressive episode onset. A trend was observed in female patients ( P =0.08). The sustained virological response rate was of 75% and 67% in patients with and without depressive episode, respectively ( P =0.66). The incidence of depressive episodes in patients with chronic hepatitis C undergoing antiviral therapy was of 25% and the 12th treatment week was the most critical one. The presence of depressive

  1. Influence of PEGylation on nanoparticle mobility in different models of the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Tomasetti, Luise; Liebl, Renate; Wastl, Daniel S; Breunig, Miriam

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticle transport inside the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a crucial factor affecting the therapeutic success. In this work, two in vitro ECM models - a neutrally charged collagen I network with an effective pore size of 0.47μm and Matrigel, a basement membrane matrix with strong negative charge and effective pore size of 0.14μm - were assessed for barrier function in the context of diffusing nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a size of 120nm were coated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) of different molecular weights - 2, 5 and 20kDa - over a range of gradually increasing coating densities - precisely 0.2, 2, 8 and 20PEG/nm(2). The PEG corona was imaged in its native state without any drying process by atomic force microscopy, revealing that the experimentally determined arrangement of PEG at the surface did not match with what was theoretically expected. In a systematic investigation of nanoparticle mobility via fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, increasing both PEG MW and PEGylation density gradually improved diffusion properties predominately in collagen. Due to its smaller pore size and electrostatic obstruction, diffusion coefficients were about ten times lower in Matrigel than in the collagen network and an extension of the PEG MW and density did not necessarily lead to better diffusing particles. Consequently, collagen gels were revealed to be a poor model for nanoparticle mobility assessment, as neither their pore size nor their electrostatic properties reflect the expected in vivo conditions. In Matrigel, diffusion proceeded according to a sigmoidal increase with gradually increasing PEG densities showing threshold zeta potentials of 11.6mV (PEG2kDa) and 13.8mV (PEG5kDa), below which particles were regarded as mobile. Irrespective of the molecular weight particles with a PEGylation density lower than 2PEG/nm(2) were defined as immobile and those with a PEG coverage of more than 8PEG/nm(2) as mobile.

  2. Economic evaluation of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C in Thailand: genotype 1 and 6.

    PubMed

    Kapol, Nattiya; Lochid-Amnuay, Surasit; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2016-08-05

    Pegylated interferon alpha 2a, alpha 2b and ribavirin have been included to the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) for treatment of only chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2 and 3 in Thailand. This reimbursement policy has not covered for other genotypes of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) especially for genotypes 1 and 6 that account for 30-50 % of all HCV infection in Thailand. Therefore, this research determined whether pegylated interferon alpha 2a or alpha 2b plus ribavirin is more cost-effective than a palliative care for treatment of HCV genotype 1 and 6 in Thailand. A cost-utility analysis using a model-based economic evaluation was conducted based on a societal perspective. A Markov model was developed to estimate costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) comparing between the combination of pegylated interferon alpha 2a or alpha 2b and ribavirin with a usual palliative care for genotype 1 and 6 HCV patients. Health-state transition probabilities, virological responses, and utility values were obtained from published literatures. Direct medical and direct non-medical costs were included and retrieved from published articles and Thai Standard Cost List for Health Technology Assessment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was presented as costs in Thai baht per QALY gained. HCV treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a or alpha 2b plus ribavirin was dominant or cost-saving in Thailand compared to a palliative care. The ICER value was negative with lower in total costs (peg 2a- 747,718vs. peg 2b- 819,921 vs. palliative care- 1,169,121 Thai baht) and more in QALYs (peg 2a- 13.44 vs. peg 2b- 13.14 vs. palliative care- 11.63 years) both in HCV genotypes 1 and 6. As cost-saving results, the Subcommittee for Development of the NLEM decided to include both pegylated interferon alpha 2a and alpha 2b into the NLEM for treatment of HCV genotype 1 and 6 recently. Economic evaluation for these current drugs can be further applied to other novel

  3. PEGylation enhances tumor targeting of plasmid DNA by an artificial cationized protein with repeated RGD sequences, Pronectin.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2004-05-31

    The objective of this study is to investigate feasibility of a non-viral gene carrier with repeated RGD sequences (Pronectin F+) in tumor targeting for gene expression. The Pronectin F+ was cationized by introducing spermine (Sm) to the hydroxyl groups to allow to polyionically complex with plasmid DNA. The cationized Pronectin F+ prepared was additionally modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules which have active ester and methoxy groups at the terminal, to form various PEG-introduced cationized Pronectin F+. The cationized Pronectin F+ with or without PEGylation at different extents was mixed with a plasmid DNA of LacZ to form respective cationized Pronectin F+-plasmid DNA complexes. The plasmid DNA was electrophoretically complexed with cationized Pronectin F+ and PEG-introduced cationized Pronectin F+, irrespective of the PEGylation extent, although the higher N/P ratio of complexes was needed for complexation with the latter Pronectin F+. The molecular size and zeta potential measurements revealed that the plasmid DNA was reduced in size to about 250 nm and the charge was changed to be positive by the complexation with cationized Pronectin F+. For the complexation with PEG-introduced cationized Pronectin F+, the charge of complex became neutral being almost 0 mV with the increasing PEGylation extents, while the molecular size was similar to that of cationized Pronectin F+. When cationized Pronectin F+-plasmid DNA complexes with or without PEGylation were intravenously injected to mice carrying a subcutaneous Meth-AR-1 fibrosarcoma mass, the PEG-introduced cationized Pronectin F+-plasmid DNA complex specifically enhanced the level of gene expression in the tumor, to a significantly high extent compared with the cationized Pronectin F+-plasmid DNA complexes and free plasmid DNA. The enhanced level of gene expression depended on the percentage of PEG introduced, the N/P ratio, and the plasmid DNA dose. A fluorescent microscopic study revealed that the

  4. Curcumin-loaded guanidine functionalized PEGylated I3ad mesoporous silica nanoparticles KIT-6: practical strategy for the breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ma'mani, Leila; Nikzad, Safoora; Kheiri-Manjili, Hamidreza; Al-Musawi, Sharafaldin; Saeedi, Mina; Askarlou, Sonia; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas

    2014-08-18

    In this research, we have synthesized guanidine functionalized PEGylated mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a novel and efficient drug delivery system (DDS). For this purpose, guanidine functionalized PEGylated I3ad mesoporous silica nanoparticle KIT-6 [Gu@PEGylated KIT-6] was utilized as a promising system for the effective delivery of curcumin into the breast cancer cells. The modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was fully characterized by different techniques such as transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM & SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption measurement, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The average particle size of [Gu@PEGylated KIT-6] and curcumin loaded [Gu@PEGylated KIT-6] nanoparticles were about 60 and 70 nm, respectively. This new system exhibited high drug loading capacity, sustained drug release profile, and high and long term anticancer efficacy in human cancer cell lines. It showed pH-responsive controlled characteristics and highly programmed release of curcumin leading to the satisfactory results in in vitro breast cancer therapy. Our results depicted that the pure nanoparticles have no cytotoxicity against human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7), mouse breast cancer cells (4T1), and human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancement of radiosensitivity of melanoma cells by pegylated gold nanoparticles under irradiation of megavoltage electrons.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Mehdi; Nedaei, Hassan Ali; Khoei, Samideh; Eynali, Samira; Khoshgard, Karim; Robatjazi, Mostafa; Iraji Rad, Rasoul

    2017-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNP) have significant potential as radiosensitizer agents due to their distinctive properties. Several studies have shown that the surface modification of nanoparticles with methyl polyethylene glycol (mPEG) can increase their biocompatibility. However, the present study investigated the radiosensitization effects of mPEG-coated GNP (mPEG-GNP) in B16F10 murine melanoma cells under irradiation of 6 MeV Electron beam. The synthesized GNP were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential. Enhancement of radiosensitization was evaluated by the clonogenic assay at different radiation doses of megavoltage electron beams. It was observed that mPEG-GNP with a hydrodynamic size of approximately 50 nm are almost spherical and cellular uptake occurred at all concentrations. Both proliferation efficiency and survival fraction decreased with increasing mPEG-GNP concentration. Furthermore, significant GNP sensitization occurred with a maximum dose enhancement factor of 1.22 at a concentration of 30 μM. Pegylated-GNP are taken up by B16F10 cancer cells and cause radiosensitization in the presence of 6 MeV electrons. The radiosensitization effects of GNP may probably be due to biological processes. Therefore, the underlying biological mechanisms beyond the physical dose enhancement need to be further clarified.

  6. Effects of pegylated interferon alpha-2a on hepatitis-C-virus-associated glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tokio; Yamada, Takuji; Kimpara, Yuri; Fujita, Naoya; Goto, Kenji; Koyama, Norihisa

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to chronic liver disease, but it has also been associated with extrahepatic manifestations. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is the most common renal disease associated with HCV. Although renal disease related to HCV in adults has been well studied, it has not been well studied in children because it is rare. A recent study found that antiviral therapy was effective for adult patients with HCV-associated MPGN. We report a 9-year-old girl with HCV-associated MPGN. Her HCV genotype was 1b, and her virus load was high. The first renal biopsy showed mesangial proliferation and partial double contours of the basement membrane on light microscopy and immunofluorescence staining with immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG, and C3. The patient was successfully treated with pegylated interferon (IFN) alpha-2a monotherapy. The antiviral therapy was generally well tolerated. After antiviral therapy, a sustained virological response-defined as negative HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) at least 24 weeks after antiviral treatment-was achieved, the proteinuria disappeared, and the second renal biopsy showed improvement.

  7. Design and potential application of PEGylated gold nanoparticles with size-dependent permeation through brain microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Etame, Arnold B; Smith, Christian A; Chan, Warren C W; Rutka, James T

    2011-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained prominence in several targeting applications involving systemic cancers. Their enhanced permeation and retention within permissive tumor microvasculature provides a selective advantage for targeting. Malignant brain tumors also exhibit transport-permissive microvasculature secondary to blood-brain barrier disruption. Hence AuNPs may have potential relevance for brain tumor targeting. However, there are currently no studies that systematically examine brain microvasculature permeation of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-functionalized AuNPs. Such studies could pave the way for rationale AuNP design for passive targeting of malignant tumors. In this report we designed and characterized AuNPs with varying core particle sizes (4-24 nm) and PEG chain lengths [molecular weight 1000-10,000]. Using an in-vitro model designed to mimic the transport-permissive brain microvasculature, we demonstrate size-dependent permeation properties with respect to core particle size and PEG chain length. In general short PEG chain length (molecular weight 1000-2000) in combination with smallest core size led to optimum permeation in our model system. In this report the authors designed and characterized PEGylated gold NPs with varying core particle sizes and PEG chain lengths and demonstrate that short PEG chain length in combination with smallest core size led to optimum permeation of a blood-brain barrier model system. These findings may pave the way to optimized therapy of malignant brain tumors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Arginine deprivation using pegylated arginine deiminase has activity against primary acute myeloid leukemia cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Miraki-Moud, Farideh; Ghazaly, Essam; Ariza-McNaughton, Linda; Hodby, Katharine A; Clear, Andrew; Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Liapis, Konstantinos; Grantham, Marianne; Sohrabi, Fareeda; Cavenagh, Jamie; Bomalaski, John S; Gribben, John G; Szlosarek, Peter W; Bonnet, Dominique; Taussig, David C

    2015-06-25

    The strategy of enzymatic degradation of amino acids to deprive malignant cells of important nutrients is an established component of induction therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here we show that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells from most patients with AML are deficient in a critical enzyme required for arginine synthesis, argininosuccinate synthetase-1 (ASS1). Thus, these ASS1-deficient AML cells are dependent on importing extracellular arginine. We therefore investigated the effect of plasma arginine deprivation using pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) against primary AMLs in a xenograft model and in vitro. ADI-PEG 20 alone induced responses in 19 of 38 AMLs in vitro and 3 of 6 AMLs in vivo, leading to caspase activation in sensitive AMLs. ADI-PEG 20-resistant AMLs showed higher relative expression of ASS1 than sensitive AMLs. This suggests that the resistant AMLs survive by producing arginine through this metabolic pathway and ASS1 expression could be used as a biomarker for response. Sensitive AMLs showed more avid uptake of arginine from the extracellular environment consistent with their auxotrophy for arginine. The combination of ADI-PEG 20 and cytarabine chemotherapy was more effective than either treatment alone resulting in responses in 6 of 6 AMLs tested in vivo. Our data show that arginine deprivation is a reasonable strategy in AML that paves the way for clinical trials.

  9. Gemcitabine-loaded PEGylated unilamellar liposomes vs GEMZAR: biodistribution, pharmacokinetic features and in vivo antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Racanicchi, Leda; Trapasso, Elena; Celia, Christian; Iannone, Michelangelo; Puxeddu, Efisio; Costante, Giuseppe; Filetti, Sebastiano; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2010-06-01

    The systemic efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used to treat solid tumors is limited by their low therapeutic index. Previously, our research group improved the in vitro antitumoral activity of gemcitabine, an anticancer agent rapidly deaminated to the inactive metabolite 2',2'-difluorodeoxyuridine, entrapping it into unilamellar pegylated liposomes made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-snglycero-3-phosphocholine monohydrate/cholesterol/N-(carbonyl-methoxypolyethylene glycol-2000)-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (6:3:1 molar ratio). In this work, we investigated the in vivo efficiency of the gemcitabine liposomal formulation (5mg/kg) with respect to the antitumoral commercial product GEMZAR (50mg/kg) on an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma xenograft model obtaining similar effects in terms of inhibition of tumor mass proliferation after 4weeks of treatment. The investigation of the carrier biodistribution and the drug pharmacokinetic profile furnished the rationalization of the efficacy of the vesicular system containing the active compound 10-fold less concentrated; in fact, liposomes promoted the concentration of the drug inside the tumor and they increased its plasmatic half-life. In addition, no signs of blood toxicity were observed when vesicular devices of effective doses of the drug were used.

  10. Studies on the aggregation behaviour of pegylated human red blood cells with the Zeta sedimentation technique.

    PubMed

    Jovtchev, S; Stoeff, S; Arnold, K; Zschörnig, O

    2008-01-01

    Covalent binding of poly(ethylene glycol), abbreviated as PEG, to red blood cells (RBC) surface leads to masking of the RBC blood group determinants and the PEG layer on the cell surface sterically hinders RBC-RBC and RBC-plasma protein interactions. We cross-linked linear mPEG-SPA of various molecular mass (2000, 5000, 20000) to washed human RBC under varying incubation ratios polymer to RBC. The electrophoretic mobility (EM) of the modified RBC decreases with increasing of chain length and concentration of PEG up to 50%. It may reflect the alteration in the surface layer thickness and friction. The aggregation behaviour of the pegylated RBC was studied with the Zeta sedimentation technique modifying the cell-cell interactions pressing them toward each other under centrifugal forces of various magnitudes. As a rule at low centrifugation forces the increase in chain length and concentration of PEG linked to RBC surface reduces the dextran-induced aggregation probably via elevation of the steric repulsion, which counteracts the depletion force generated by the free polymer. This effect was reversed to some extent by elevation of free dextran concentration and centrifugation forces. If cell-cell polymer bridging starts playing a role under these conditions requires further experimental and theoretical investigations.

  11. Cys34-PEGylated Human Serum Albumin for Drug Binding and Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mehtala, Jonathan G.; Kulczar, Chris; Lavan, Monika; Knipp, Gregory; Wei, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives were conjugated onto the Cys-34 residue of human serum albumin (HSA) to determine their effects on the solubilization, permeation, and cytotoxic activity of hydrophobic drugs such as paclitaxel (PTX). PEG(C34)HSA conjugates were prepared on a multigram scale by treating native HSA (n-HSA) with 5- or 20-kDa mPEG-maleimide, resulting in up to 77% conversion of the mono-PEGylated adduct. Nanoparticle tracking analysis of PEG(C34)HSA formulations in phosphate buffer revealed an increase in nanosized aggregates relative to n-HSA, both in the absence and presence of PTX. Cell viability studies conducted with MCF-7 breast cancer cells indicated that PTX cytotoxicity was enhanced by PEG(C34)HSA when mixed at 10:1 mole ratios, up to a two-fold increase in potency relative to n-HSA. The PEG(C34)HSA conjugates were also evaluated as PTX carriers across monolayers of HUVEC and hCMEC/D3 cells, and found to have nearly identical permeation profiles as n-HSA. PMID:25918947

  12. Efficacy of surface charge in targeting pegylated nanoparticles of sulpiride to the brain.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Tapan; Bommana, Murali Mohan; Squillante, Emilio

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the study was to formulate sulpiride-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) that can improve bioretention and achieve dose reduction by passively targeting the drug near the site of action. Methoxy PEG-PLA and maleimide PEG-PLA were synthesized via ring opening polymerization of L-lactide and used to prepare pegylated nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with sulpiride by emulsification and solvent evaporation method. Thiolated cationized bovine serum albumin (CBSA) was conjugated through the maleimide function to the NPs. Rhodamine B and Alexa Fluor 488 were used as fluorescent markers for nanoparticle uptake studies. The nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, zeta potential and drug loading. Sprague Dawley rats were administered with each of CBSA-NPs, BSA-NPs and uncoated NPs (10mg/kg) via tail vein; plasma and urine concentrations were measured and tissue sections were observed under fluorescence microscope. Characterized particles (mean particle size 329+/-44 nm) indicated the conjugation of cationic albumin to NPs (zeta potential shift from -39 mV to -19 mV). Fluorescence showed a high accumulation of CBSA-NPs in brain compared to that of BSA-NPs and uncoated NPs supported by plasma and urine profile. The significant results proved that CBSA-NPs could be a promising brain drug delivery for sulpiride.

  13. In vivo drug delivery of gemcitabine with PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Razzazan, Ali; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Bahram; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2016-05-01

    Gemcitabine (GEM) is an anticancer agent widely used in non-small cell lung and pancreatic cancers. The clinical use of GEM has been limited by its rapid metabolism and short plasma half-life. These restrictions lead to frequent administration of high drug doses which can cause severe side effects. Therefore, new delivery strategies are needed aiming toward improved therapeutic effects. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are emerging as promising carriers for drug delivery due to their unique properties including high drug loading capacities, notable cell membrane penetrability and prolonged circulation times. In this work, pristine SWCNTs were functionalized through carboxylation, acylation, amination, PEGylation and finally GEM conjugation. The prepared SWCNT-GEM and SWCNT-PEG-GEM conjugates were characterized by FTIR, NMR, DSC and TEM to confirm the successful functionalization. The amount of GEM bound to the conjugates was 43.14% (w/w) for the SWCNT-GEM and 37.32% for the SWCNT-PEG-GEM, indicating high loading capacity. MTT assay on the human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) and the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (MIA PaCa-2) demonstrated that the SWCNT-GEM was more cytotoxic than SWCNT-PEG-GEM and GEM. The SWCNT-PEG-GEM conjugates afford higher efficacy in suppressing tumor growth than SWCNT-GEM and GEM in B6 nude mice. The results demonstrate that the new formulation of GEM is useful strategy for improving the antitumor efficacy of GEM.

  14. Targeted therapy of colorectal neoplasia with rapamycin in peptide-labeled pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles.

    PubMed

    Khondee, Supang; Rabinsky, Emily F; Owens, Scott R; Joshi, Bishnu P; Qiu, Zhen; Duan, Xiyu; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Thomas D

    2015-02-10

    Many powerful drugs have limited clinical utility because of poor water solubility and high systemic toxicity. Here, we formulated a targeted nanomedicine, rapamycin encapsulated in pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles labeled with a new ligand for colorectal neoplasia, LTTHYKL peptide. CPC;Apc mice that spontaneously develop colonic adenomas were treated with free rapamycin, plain rapamycin micelles, and peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles via intraperitoneal injection for 35days. Endoscopy was performed to monitor adenoma regression in vivo. We observed complete adenoma regression at the end of therapy. The mean regression rate for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles was significantly greater than that for plain rapamycin micelles, P<0.01. On immunohistochemistry, we observed a significant reduction in phospho-S6 but not β-catenin expression and reduced tumor cell proliferation, suggesting greater inhibition of downstream mTOR signaling. We observed significantly reduced renal toxicity for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles compared to that of free drug, and no other toxicities were found on chemistries. Together, this unique targeted micelle represents a potential therapeutic for colorectal neoplasia with comparable therapeutic efficacy to rapamycin free drug and significantly less systemic toxicity.

  15. Cost comparison of treating chronic hepatitis C genotype one with pegylated interferons in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Knies, Saskia; Golubovska, Olha; Duda, Oleksandr; Dudar, Larisa; Fedorchenko, Sergiy; Zaliska, Olha; (Hans) Severens, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the pivotal trial showing no clinically relevant differences between pegylated interferon α-2b (Peg-α-2b) and α-2a (Peg-α-2a) combined with ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection in Ukraine, a cost-minimization analysis was performed using a 1 year time horizon and both a health care and patients’ perspective. A decision tree reflects treatment pathways. Drug costs were based on drug labeling and adjusted to the average body mass in Ukraine. Subgroup analysis was applied to deal with heterogeneity of patient’s weight causing dose changes. A break-even price of Peg-α-2a and Peg-α-2b (based on the average dose) was calculated. Univariate sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were carried out to reflect decision uncertainty. For an average body weight, total medical costs per patient differ from US$9220 for Peg-α-2b to US$9513 for Peg-α-2a from a health care perspective, and from US$15,212 to US$15,696 from a patients’ perspective. Sensitivity analyses show these results are robust. With average body weight, the break-even price of Peg-α-2b may be 7.3% higher than Peg-α-2a to have similar total costs. PMID:28352673

  16. Solid tumor penetration by integrin-mediated pegylated poly(trimethylene carbonate) nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinyi; Xin, Hongliang; Gu, Jijin; Xu, Ximing; Xia, Weiyi; Chen, Shuo; Xie, Yike; Chen, Liangcen; Chen, Yanzuo; Sha, Xianyi; Fang, Xiaoling

    2013-02-01

    Limited penetration of antineoplastic agents is one of the contributing factors for chemotherapy failure of many solid tumors. In order to enhance drug penetration into solid cancer, especially, into the avascular regions inside tumors, we proposed cyclic RGD peptide functionalized PEGylated poly(trimethylene carbonate) nanoparticles (c(RGDyK)-NP). By integrin-mediated transcytosis and enhanced drug permeation, c(RGDyK)-NP could access the neoplastic cells distant from blood vessels, and consequently, avoiding the capability of cancer regeneration from these tumor cells. In the present study, the solid tumor penetration, homing specificity and anticancer efficacy were evaluated both on the ex vivo 3D tumor spheroids and on the subcutaneous xenograft mice model. In comparison with conventional nanoparticles (NP/PTX) and Taxol, c(RGDyK)-NP/PTX showed the strongest penetration and accumulation into 3D tumor spheroids, a marked tumor-homing specificity in vivo and the greatest tumor growth inhibitory effect in vitro and in vivo. Histochemistry analysis revealed that no obvious histopathological abnormalities or lesions were observed in major organs after intravenous administration with the treatment doses. In conclusion, cyclic RGD peptide-conjugated PEG-PTMC nanoparticle could facilitate drug penetration and accumulation in tumor tissues and may be a promising vehicle for enhancing the chemotherapy of solid cancers.

  17. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and immunomodulatory drug combinations in multiple myeloma: rationale and clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Chanan-Khan, Asher Alban; Lee, Kelvin

    2007-04-01

    The availability of new agents for multiple myeloma (MM) provides an opportunity to further improve response rates through the development of new combination regimens. Such new agents include pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and the immunomodulatory drugs thalidomide and lenalidomide, all of which have demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory MM. Based on their complementary mechanisms of action and nonoverlapping toxicity profiles, PLD and the immunomodulatory drugs might provide incremental benefits when used in combined treatment regimens. Thus, they have been evaluated in clinical studies that combine PLD/vincristine/dexamethasone and thalidomide (DVd-T) or PLD/vincristine/dexamethasone and lenalidomide (DVd-R) as well as in a study combining bortezomib with PLD and thalidomide. Results of all these studies have included high overall response rates, with improved rates of complete/near complete response compared with similar regimens that do not include chemotherapy (ie, immunomodulatory drugs plus dexamethasone). This article provides the clinical rationale for the use of PLD in combination with immunomodulatory drugs to treat patients with MM and summarizes the clinical experience with these combinations to date. Notably, the early phase I/II study results have been sufficiently encouraging to warrant further investigation in additional large-scale, phase II/III studies. Future clinical trials should focus on determining the optimal dose and schedule for each of these agents when used in combination and whether the addition of other new agents provides an additional response benefit.

  18. Pegylated interferon alfa for chronic hepatitis B: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, V; Abreu, R M; Nakagawa, D M; Baldassare, R M; Carrilho, F J; Ono, S K

    2016-03-01

    Conventional interferon alfa and nucleos(t)ide analogues, such as lamivudine, are frequently used for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment, but are associated with adverse effects and viral resistance. Here we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating all studies of pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFNα) treatment in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients with CHB. We searched electronic databases--PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and LILACS--for randomized controlled trials evaluating PEG-IFNα therapy between 1999 and September 2014. Virological response was the primary outcome. We identified 14 studies involving 2829 patients. Our analysis revealed that PEG-IFNα + lamivudine combination therapy produced better virological and biochemical responses than PEG-IFNα monotherapy in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients at the end of treatment. PEG-IFNα + adefovir dipivoxil achieved better seroconversion rate than PEG-IFNα in HBeAg-positive patients at the end of treatment. The present findings demonstrated a beneficial response rate following PEG-IFNα combination therapy with nucelos(t)ides among HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients with CHB. Further trials are needed to investigate simultaneous and sequential therapy strategies. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Viral Hepatitis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Artifactual prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time with PEGylated compounds in silica-based assays.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Bethanne; Parrula, Maria C M; Perigard, Christopher J; Li, Jinze

    2014-12-01

    Conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to another molecule prolongs its half-life in the body, but has a potential to artifactually increase the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) as measured with certain assays. Studies conducted in-house at Bristol-Myers Squibb using the STA-PTT Automate 5 assay, the routine assay used to measure aPTT, demonstrated prolongation of aPTT in plasma samples spiked in vitro with 40-kDa branched PEG (PEG40) conjugated compounds or PEG40 alone, but not in samples spiked with vehicle or non-PEGylated compound, suggesting that the interference is because of the PEG40 moiety. To investigate the cause of this phenomenon, cynomolgus monkey and rat plasma samples were spiked with different concentrations of PEG40 and the aPTT was measured using different proprietary assays. With one exception, prolongation of aPTT was observed with all assays containing silica as the contact activator. No changes in aPTT were noted in assays using kaolin as a contact activator. The findings indicated that the observed prolongation of aPTT is largely because of interference of PEG40 with the silica, but other features of the reagent mixture may also influence aPTT times.

  20. PEGylated liposomal vancomycin: a glimmer of hope for improving treatment outcomes in MRSA pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Pumerantz, Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) plays a significant role in the pandemic of multidrug resistant bacterial infections and is a major cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia. MRSA pneumonia carries a high morbidity and mortality rate especially in elderly diabetics with chronic kidney disease. S. aureus is highly virulent and successful respiratory pathogen. Vancomycin and linezolid are the only two antimicrobial agents FDA-approved to treat MRSA pneumonia. Standard vancomycin dosing is associated with high clinical failure rates and higher dosages are associated with increased nephrotoxicity. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic limitations are major contributors to poor outcomes with vancomycin. New agents are needed to improve treatment outcomes with MRSA pneumonia. Recently released antimicrobials with in vitro activity are not FDA-approved for treating MRSA pneumonia. Other novel agents are being investigated though none are in late-stage development. Pharmaceutical industry perception of low returns on investment, a Sisyphean regulatory environment, and obstacles to patentability have contributed to declining interest in both the development of novel antibiotics and the improvement of existing generic formulations. Despite decades of investigation into liposomal encapsulation as a drug delivery system that would increase efficacy and decrease toxicity, only liposomal amphotericin B and doxorubicin are commercially available. In this article, the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a novel PEGylated liposomal vancomycin formulation along with passive targeting and the enhanced permeability and retention effect of liposomal drug delivery; the pathogenesis of MRSA pneumonia; and recent patents of novel anti-MRSA agents, including inhalational liposomal vancomycin, are reviewed.

  1. Molecular analysis of patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia receiving pegylated interferon α-2a

    PubMed Central

    Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Manshouri, Taghi; Kilpivaara, Outi; Cortes, Jorge; Roupie, Anne-Laure; Zhang, Su-Jiang; Harris, David; Estrov, Zeev; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2013-01-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (PEG-IFN-α-2a) has previously been shown to induce hematologic and molecular responses in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythemia (ET). Here we present a follow-up of a phase 2 trial with PEG-IFN-α-2a treatment in 43 PV and 40 ET patients with detailed molecular analysis. After a median follow-up of 42 months, complete hematologic response was achieved in 76% of patients with PV and 77% of those with ET. This was accompanied by complete molecular response (CMR) (ie, undetectable JAK2V617F) in 18% and 17%, of PV and ET patients, respectively. Serial sequencing of TET2, ASXL1, EZH2, DNMT3A, and IDH1/2 revealed that patients failing to achieve CMR had a higher frequency of mutations outside the Janus kinase–signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway and were more likely to acquire new mutations during therapy. Patients with both JAK2V617F and TET2 mutations at therapy onset had a higher JAK2V617F mutant allele burden and a less significant reduction in JAK2V617F allele burden compared with JAK2 mutant/TET2 wild-type patients. These data demonstrate that PEG-IFN-α-2a induces sustained CMR in a subset of PV or ET patients, and that genotypic context may influence clinical and molecular response to PEG-IFN-α-2a. PMID:23782935

  2. A pegylated leptin antagonist ameliorates CKD-associated cachexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wai W; Ding, Wei; Gunta, Sujana S; Gu, Yong; Tabakman, Rinat; Klapper, Leah N; Gertler, Arieh; Mak, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Elevated serum leptin levels correlate with inflammation and predict changes in lean body mass in patients with CKD, and activation of the melanocortin system by leptin signaling mediates the pathophysiology of CKD-associated cachexia. We tested whether treatment with a pegylated leptin receptor antagonist (PLA) attenuates cachexia in mice with CKD. CKD and Sham mice received vehicle or PLA (2 or 7 mg/kg per day). At these doses, PLA did not influence serum leptin levels in mice. Treatment with 7 mg/kg per day PLA stimulated appetite and weight gain, improved lean mass and muscle function, reduced energy expenditure, and normalized the levels of hepatic TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA in mice with CKD. Furthermore, treatment with 7 mg/kg per day PLA attenuated the CKD-associated increase in the transcriptional and protein abundance of uncoupling proteins that mediates thermogenesis, and it normalized the molecular signatures of processes associated with muscle wasting in CKD, including proteolysis, myogenesis and muscle regeneration, and expression of proinflammatory muscle cytokines, such as IL-1α, -1β, and -6 and TNF-α. Our results suggest that leptin antagonism may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for cachexia in CKD.

  3. Myasthenia Crisis Induced by Pegylated-Interferon in Patient With Chronic Hepatitis C: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Baik, Su Jung; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Hye In; Rhie, Jeong Yeon

    2016-05-01

    Myasthenia gravis is occasionally associated with thymoma that needs surgical resection and may progress to severe respiratory failure. We experienced a rare case of myasthenia crisis during antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C, in whom mediastinal thymoma was discovered and successfully managed with surgical thymectomy and meticulous medical care.A 47-year-old-male patient complained of sudden diplopia 1 week after stopping 11-week administration of pegylated-interferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. Ophthalmologic examinations revealed ptosis on the right eyelid and restricted right eye movement. Myasthenia gravis was confirmed by positive repetitive nerve stimulation test and positive serum antiacetylcholine receptor antibody test, and mediastinal thymoma was found on chest CT scan. The ocular myasthenia gravis progressed to respiratory failure even after discontinuing antiviral treatment but eventually recovered with thymectomy, anticholinesterase administration, steroid pulse therapy, and prolonged ventilator care. We describe the clinical features of this life-threatening complication of interferon treatment along with previous myasthenia crisis cases by interferon for chronic hepatitis C.In patients with chronic hepatitis C who is going to receive interferon-based antiviral treatment, physicians need to keep in mind the potential life-threatening manifestations of myasthenia gravis before and during antiviral treatment especially when patients complain of muscular weakness and easy fatigability.

  4. Improved complementary polymer pair system: switching for enzyme activity by PEGylated polymers.

    PubMed

    Kurinomaru, Takaaki; Tomita, Shunsuke; Kudo, Shinpei; Ganguli, Sumon; Nagasaki, Yukio; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2012-03-06

    The development of technology for on/off switching of enzyme activity is expected to expand the applications of enzyme in a wide range of research fields. We have previously developed a complementary polymer pair system (CPPS) that enables the activity of several enzymes to be controlled by a pair of oppositely charged polymers. However, it failed to control the activity of large and unstable α-amylase because the aggregation of the complex between anionic α-amylase and cationic poly(allylamine) (PAA) induced irreversible denaturation of the enzyme. To address this issue, we herein designed and synthesized a cationic copolymer with a poly(ethylene glycol) backbone, poly(N,N-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEAMA-b-PEG). In contrast to PAA, α-amylase and β-galactosidase were inactivated by PEAMA-b-PEG with the formation of soluble complexes. The enzyme/PEAMA-b-PEG complexes were then successfully recovered from the complex by the addition of anionic poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc). Thus, dispersion of the complex by PEG segment in PEAMA-b-PEG clearly plays a crucial role for regulating the activities of these enzymes, suggesting that PEGylated charged polymer is a new candidate for CPPS for large and unstable enzymes.

  5. Ophthalmologic Complications In Children With Chronic Hepatitis C Treated With Pegylated Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Narkewicz, Michael R.; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwarz, Kathleen B; Drack, Arlene; Margolis, Todd; Repka, Michael X.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Interferon treatment for chronic viral hepatitis C (HCV) has been associated with the development of retinopathy in 19–29% of adults. Our purpose is to describe the ophthalmological complications of pegylated interferon (PEG) α2a with either placebo or ribavirin in children with chronic HCV (THE PEDS-C TRIAL). Methods Prospective comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations including slit lamp at enrollment and after 24 and 48 weeks of treatment of 114 children participating in a randomized clinical trial. Results 128 children were screened for entry of which 123 had an eye exam and no child had existing retinal disease. 114 children were eligible and were treated. 110 children had an eye exam at 24 weeks and 103 at 48 weeks. 3 of 114 subjects (2.6%) developed documented (n=2) or possible (1) serious eye complications: One developed evidence of ischemic retinopathy (cotton wool spots) by week 24, one developed uveitis by week 48, and one reported at week 48 transient (<4 hours) monocular blindness that had occurred at week 36 with a subsequent normal exam at week 48. Conclusions Ophthalmologic complications are infrequent in children who are treated with PEG α2a for HCV (2–3%). Because of the potential severity of ischemic retinopathy and uveitis, prospective ocular assessment should remain part of the monitoring strategy for children who are treated with interferon for HCV. PMID:20512062

  6. Pegylated arginase I: a potential therapeutic approach in T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Claudia P.; Morrow, Kevin; Lopez-Barcons, Lluis A.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Sierra, Rosa; Velasco, Cruz; Cole, John

    2010-01-01

    Adult patients with acute lymphoblastic T cell leukemia (T-ALL) have a very poor prognosis and few effective therapeutic options. Therefore, novel therapies that increase the efficacy of the treatments and that prolong T-ALL patient survival are needed. Malignant T cells require high concentrations of nutrients to sustain their increased rate of proliferation. In this study, we determined whether L-Arginine depletion by the pegylated form of the L-Arginine-metabolizing enzyme arginase I (peg-Arg I) impairs the proliferation of malignant T cells. Our results show that peg-Arg I depleted L-Arginine levels in vitro and in vivo. In addition, treatment of malignant T-cell lines with peg-Arg I significantly impaired their proliferation, which correlated with a decreased progression into the cell cycle, followed by the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, peg-Arg I impaired the expression of cyclin D3, a fundamental protein in T-ALL proliferation, through a global arrest in protein synthesis. Injection of peg-Arg I plus chemotherapy agent Cytarabine prolonged survival in mice bearing T-ALL tumors. This antitumoral effect correlated with an inhibition of T-ALL proliferation in vivo, a decreased expression of cyclin D3, and T-ALL apoptosis. The results suggest the potential benefit of L-Arginine depletion by peg-Arg I in the treatment of T-cell malignancies. PMID:20407034

  7. Effect of solubilizing agents on mupirocin loading into and release from PEGylated nanoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Cern, Ahuva; Nativ-Roth, Einat; Goldblum, Amiram; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2014-07-01

    Mupirocin was identified by quantitative structure property relationship models as a good candidate for remote liposomal loading. Mupirocin is an antibiotic that is currently restricted to topical administration because of rapid hydrolysis in vivo to its inactive metabolite. Formulating mupirocin in PEGylated nanoliposomes may potentially expand its use to parenteral administration by protecting it from degradation in the circulation and target it (by the enhanced permeability effect) to the infected tissue. Mupirocin is slightly soluble in aqueous medium and its solubility can be increased using solubilizing agents. The effect of the solubilizing agents on mupirocin remote loading was studied when the solubilizing agents were added to the drug loading solution. Propylene glycol was found to increase mupirocin loading, whereas polyethylene glycol 400 showed no effect. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) showed a concentration-dependent effect on mupirocin loading; using the optimal HPCD concentration increased loading, but higher concentrations inhibited it. The inclusion of HPCD in the liposome aqueous phase while forming the liposomes resulted in increased drug loading and substantially inhibited drug release in serum.

  8. Weekly pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast carcinoma: A phase II study

    PubMed Central

    LEONARDI, VITA; PALMISANO, VALENTINA; PEPE, ALESSIO; USSET, ANTONELLA; MANUGUERRA, GIOVANNA; SAVIO, GIUSEPPINA; DE BELLA, MANUELA TAMBURO; LAUDANI, AGATA; ALÙ, MASSIMO; CUSIMANO, MARIA PIA; SCIANNA, CATERINA; GIRESI, ARMANDO; AGOSTARA, BIAGIO

    2010-01-01

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has the advantage of delivering active anthracycline directly to the tumor site, while exposing the patient to a lesser degree of doxorubicin-associated toxicities. Recently, a regimen in which paclitaxel is infused weekly over 1 h produced substantial antitumor activity with little myelosuppression. We designed a phase II trial to study the efficacy and toxicity of 10 mg/m2 PLD on Days 1, 8 and 15, plus 70 mg/m2 paclitaxel weekly in patients with untreated metastatic breast cancer and a high risk of cardiotoxicity. The study included 35 patients, with 31 (88.5%) evaluable for efficacy and 35 (100%) for toxicity. A total of 28 patients (80%) had two or more sites of disease. Overall, 4 complete and 16 partial responses were noted with an overall response rate of 64.5%, with 6 cases of stable and 5 cases of progressive disease. Toxicity was found to be manageable in that the only grade 3–4 side effects recorded were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, 8.5%; mucositis, 2.8%; leucopenia, 12.5%; anemia, 2.8% and AST/ALT, 2.8%. No cardiotoxicity was observed. In conclusion, weekly PLD plus paclitaxel appears to be a well-tolerated and effective approach for metastatic breast cancer patients with a high risk of cardiotoxicity. PMID:22966374

  9. Synergistic plasmonic effects of metal nanoparticle-decorated PEGylated graphene oxides in polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ming-Kai; Chen, Fang-Chung

    2015-04-08

    Metal nanostructures that trigger plasmonic near-field effects are often incorporated in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) to improve their light-harvesting ability. These nanostructures usually can be positioned in two different locations in a device: (i) within the photon absorption layers and (ii) at the interfaces between the active layer and the metal electrodes. In this study, we developed amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for use in dual plasmonic nanostructures within OPVs. We employed graphene oxide as the template to anchor the Au NPs, thereby avoiding their aggregation. Furthermore, we added poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) bis(amine) to the synthesis medium to improve the solubility of the nanocomposites, such that they could be dispersed well in water and in several organic solvents. Accordingly, we could incorporate the PEGylated Au NP/graphene oxides readily into both the buffer layer and photoactive layer of OPVs, which, as a result, exhibited obvious enhancements in their photocurrents and overall device efficiencies. Moreover, we observed different spectral enhancement regions when we positioned the nanocomposites at different locations, reflecting the different dielectric environments surrounding the NPs; this unexpected behavior should assist in enhancing the broadband absorption of solar irradiation.

  10. Oral Absorption Enhancement of Probucol by PEGylated G5 PAMAM Dendrimer Modified Nanoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qian; Han, Yingchun; Chen, Cong; Cao, Yini; Wang, Siling; Shen, Wenwen; Zhang, Huayu; Li, Yanzhi; van Dongen, Mallory A.; He, Bing; Yu, Maomao; Xu, Lu; Banaszak Holl, Mark M.; Liu, George; Zhang, Qiang; Qi, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Probucol (PB), an antioxidant drug, is commonly used as a lipid concentration lowering drug to reduce blood plasma cholesterol levels in the clinic. However, the therapeutic effects of this drug are negatively impacted by its poor water solubility and low oral absorption efficiency. In this study, a PEGylated G5 PAMAM dendrimer (G5-PEG) modified nanoliposome was employed to increase water solubility, transepithelial transport, and oral absorption of PB. The uptake mechanism was explored in vitro in Caco-2 cells with the results suggesting that the absorption improvement of G5-PEG modified PB-liposome (PB-liposome/G5-PEG) was related to P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump, but was independent of caveolae endocytosis pathways. Additionally, plasma lipid concentration lowering effects of PB-liposome/G5-PEG were evaluated in vivo in a LDLR−/− hyperlipidemia mouse model. Compared with saline treated group, treatment with PB-liposome/G5-PEG significantly inhibited the increase of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) of mice induced by a high fat diet. Moreover, its lipid concentration lowering effects and plasma drug concentration were greater than PB alone or commercial PB tablets. Our results demonstrated that PB-liposome/G5-PEG significantly increased the oral absorption of PB and therefore, significantly improved its pharmacodynamic effects. PMID:25587935

  11. The performance of PEGylated nanocapsules of perfluorooctyl bromide as an ultrasound contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Díaz-López, Raquel; Tsapis, Nicolas; Santin, Mathieu; Bridal, Sharon Lori; Nicolas, Valérie; Jaillard, Danielle; Libong, Danielle; Chaminade, Pierre; Marsaud, Véronique; Vauthier, Christine; Fattal, Elias

    2010-03-01

    The surface of polymeric nanocapsules used as ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) was modified with PEGylated phospholipids in order to escape recognition and clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte system and achieve passive tumor targeting. Nanocapsules consisted of a shell of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) encapsulating a liquid core of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB). They were decorated with poly(ethylene glycol-2000)-grafted distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE-PEG) incorporated in the organic phase before the solvent emulsification-evaporation process. The influence of DSPE-PEG concentration on nanocapsule size, surface charge, morphology, hydrophobicity and complement activation was evaluated. Zeta potential measurements, Hydrophobic interaction chromatography and complement activation provide evidence of DSPE-PEG presence at nanocapsule surface. Electronic microscopy reveals that the core/shell structure is preserved up to 2.64 mg of DSPE-PEG for 100 mg PLGA. In vivo ultrasound imaging was performed in mice bearing xenograft tumor with MIA PaCa-2 cells, either after an intra-tumoral or intravenous injection of nanocapsules. Tumor was observed only after the intra-tumoral injection. Despite the absence of echogenic signal in the tumor after intravenous injection of nanocapsules, histological analysis reveals their accumulation within the tumor tissue demonstrating that tissue distribution is not the unique property required for ultrasound contrast agents to be efficient. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pegylated arginase I: a potential therapeutic approach in T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Claudia P; Morrow, Kevin; Lopez-Barcons, Lluis A; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Sierra, Rosa; Velasco, Cruz; Cole, John; Rodriguez, Paulo C

    2010-06-24

    Adult patients with acute lymphoblastic T cell leukemia (T-ALL) have a very poor prognosis and few effective therapeutic options. Therefore, novel therapies that increase the efficacy of the treatments and that prolong T-ALL patient survival are needed. Malignant T cells require high concentrations of nutrients to sustain their increased rate of proliferation. In this study, we determined whether L-Arginine depletion by the pegylated form of the L-Arginine-metabolizing enzyme arginase I (peg-Arg I) impairs the proliferation of malignant T cells. Our results show that peg-Arg I depleted L-Arginine levels in vitro and in vivo. In addition, treatment of malignant T-cell lines with peg-Arg I significantly impaired their proliferation, which correlated with a decreased progression into the cell cycle, followed by the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, peg-Arg I impaired the expression of cyclin D3, a fundamental protein in T-ALL proliferation, through a global arrest in protein synthesis. Injection of peg-Arg I plus chemotherapy agent Cytarabine prolonged survival in mice bearing T-ALL tumors. This antitumoral effect correlated with an inhibition of T-ALL proliferation in vivo, a decreased expression of cyclin D3, and T-ALL apoptosis. The results suggest the potential benefit of L-Arginine depletion by peg-Arg I in the treatment of T-cell malignancies.

  13. Aqueous synthesis of PEGylated copper sulfide nanoparticles for photoacoustic imaging of tumors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ke; Zeng, Jianfeng; Jing, Lihong; Qiao, Ruirui; Liu, Chunyan; Jiao, Mingxia; Li, Zhen; Gao, Mingyuan

    2015-07-07

    By integrating high imaging sensitivity and high resolution in a single modality, photoacoustic (PA) imaging emerges as a promising diagnostic tool for clinical applications. Benefiting from the absorption in the near-infrared region (NIR), copper sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) as a contrast agent are potentially useful for increasing the sensitivity of PA imaging. However, the aqueous synthesis of size-tunable, biocompatible and colloidally stable copper sulfide NPs remains challenging due to the intrinsic dipole-dipole interactions among particles. In this work, aqueous synthesis of PEGylated copper sulfide NPs with controllable size between 3 and 7 nm was developed. The particle size-dependent contrast enhancement effect of the copper sulfide NPs for PA imaging was carefully studied both in vitro and in vivo. Although the contrast enhancement effect of the copper sulfide NPs is proportional to particle size, the in vivo studies revealed that copper sulfide NPs smaller than 5 nm presented higher tumor imaging performance, especially at the tumor boundary site, which was further discussed in combination with the pharmacokinetic behaviors of differently sized particles.

  14. PEGylated silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles as novel photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy against Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Nadhman, Akhtar; Nazir, Samina; Khan, Malik Ihsanullah; Arooj, Syeda; Bakhtiar, Muhammad; Shahnaz, Gul; Yasinzai, Masoom

    2014-12-01

    We describe daylight responsive silver (Ag) doped semiconductor nanoparticles of zinc oxide (DSNs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) against Leishmania. The developed materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and band-gap analysis. The Ag doped semiconductor nanoparticles of zinc oxide were PEGylated to enhance their biocompatibility. The DSNs demonstrated effective daylight response in the PDT of Leishmania protozoans, through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a quantum yield of 0.13 by nondoped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NDSN) whereas 0.28 by DSNs. None of the nanoparticles have shown any antileishmanial activity in dark, confirming that only ROS produced in the daylight were involved in the killing of leishmanial cells. Furthermore, the synthesized nanoparticles were found biocompatible. Using reactive oxygen species scavengers, cell death was attributable mainly to 77-83% singlet oxygen and 18-27% hydroxyl radical. The nanoparticles caused permeability of the cell membrane, leading to the death of parasites. Further, the uptake of nanoparticles by Leishmania cells was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). We believe that these DSNs are widely applicable for the PDT of leishmaniasis, cancers, and other infections due to daylight response.

  15. Enhanced MRI T 2 Relaxivity in Contrast-Probed Anchor-Free PEGylated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Bibek; Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo

    2017-04-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, 11-nm cores) were PEGylated without anchoring groups and studied as efficient MRI T 2 contrast agents (CAs). The ether group of PEG is efficiently and directly linked to the positively charged surface of SPIONs, and mediated through a dipole-cation covalent interaction. Anchor-free PEG-SPIONs exhibit a spin-spin relaxivity of 123 ± 6 mM-1s-1, which is higher than those of PEG-SPIONs anchored with intermediate biomolecules, iron oxide nanoworms, or Feridex. They do not induce a toxic response for Fe concentrations below 2.5 mM, as tested on four different cell lines with and without an external magnetic field. Magnetic resonance phantom imaging studies show that anchor-free PEG-SPIONs produce a significant contrast in the range of 0.1-0.4 [Fe] mM. Our findings reveal that the PEG molecules attached to the cores immobilize water molecules in large regions of 85 nm, which would lead to blood half-life of a few tens of minutes. This piece of research represents a step forward in the development of next-generation CAs for nascent-stage cancer detection.

  16. Factorial design studies of antiretroviral drug-loaded stealth liposomal injectable: PEGylation, lyophilization and pharmacokinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, Beeravelli; Krishna, Mylangam Chaitanya; Murthy, Kolapalli Venkata Ramana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate the ritonavir-loaded stealth liposomes by using 32 factorial design and intended to delivered by parenteral delivery. Liposomes were prepared by ethanol injection method using 32 factorial designs and characterized for various physicochemical parameters such as drug content, size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. The optimization process was carried out using desirability and overlay plots. The selected formulation was subjected to PEGylation using 10 % PEG-10000 solution. Stealth liposomes were characterized for the above-mentioned parameters along with surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, differential scanning calorimeter, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Stealth liposomes showed better result compared to conventional liposomes due to effect of PEG-10000. The in vivo studies revealed that stealth liposomes showed better residence time compared to conventional liposomes and pure drug solution. The conventional liposomes and pure drug showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, whereas stealth liposomes showed long circulation half-life compared to conventional liposomes and pure ritonavir solution. The results of statistical analysis showed significance difference as the p value is (<0.05) by one-way ANOVA. The result of the present study revealed that stealth liposomes are promising tool in antiretroviral therapy.

  17. PEGylated polyplex with optimized PEG shielding enhances gene introduction in lungs by minimizing inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Satoshi; Itaka, Keiji; Chen, Qixian; Osada, Kensuke; Ishii, Takehiko; Shibata, Masa-Aki; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    Safety is a critical issue in clinical applications of nonviral gene delivery systems. Safe and effective gene introduction into the lungs was previously achieved using polyplexes from poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG)-block-polycation [PEG-block-PAsp(DET)] and plasmid DNA (pDNA). Although PEGylated polyplexes appeared to be safe, an excess ratio of polycation to pDNA was needed to obtain sufficient transgene expression, which may cause toxicities shortly after gene introduction. In the present study, we investigated the combined use of two polymers, PEG-block-PAsp(DET) (B) and homo PAsp(DET) (H) across a range of mixing ratios to construct polyplexes. Although transgene expressions following in vitro transfections increased in parallel with increased proportions of H, polyplexes with B/H = 50/50 formulation produced the highest expression level following in vivo intratracheal administration. Higher proportions of H elicited high levels of cytokine induction with significant inflammation as assessed by histopathological examinations. Based on the aggregation behavior of polyplexes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs), we suggested that rapid aggregation of polyplexes in the lung induced acute inflammatory responses, resulting in reduced transgene expression. B/H formulation of polyplex can help to improve gene therapy for the respiratory system because it achieves both effective PEG shielding of polyplexes and functioning of PAsp(DET) polycations to enhance endosomal escape.

  18. An extended treatment protocol with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Nikroo; Araya, Victor; Tufail, Kashif; Thummalakunta, Laxmi; Feyssa, Eyob; Azhar, Ashaur; Niazi, Mumtaz; Ortiz, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of an extended treatment protocol and to determine the predictors of sustained virological response (SVR) after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: Between August 2005 and November 2008, patients with recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) after LT were selected for treatment if liver biopsy showed at least grade 2 inflammation and/or stage 2 fibrosis. All patients were to receive pegylated interferon (PEG)/regimens combining ribavirin (RBV) for an additional 48 wk after HCV undetectability. RESULTS: Extended protocol treatment was initiated in thirty patients. Overall, 73% had end of treatment response and 60% had SVR. Nineteen patients completed treatment per protocol, of them, sixteen (84%) had end of treatment response, and fourteen (74%) achieved SVR. Both early virological response and 24-week virological response were individually associated with SVR but this association was not significant on multivariate analysis. Eleven patients (37%) discontinued therapy due to adverse effects. Cytopenias were the most common and most severe adverse effect, and required frquent growth factor use, dose adjustments and treatment cessations. The risk of rejection was not increased. CONCLUSION: Recurrent HCV after LT can be safely treated with extended virological response-guided therpy using PEG/RBV, but requires close monitoring for treatment-related adverse effects, particularly cytopenias. PMID:21866251

  19. Myasthenia Crisis Induced by Pegylated-Interferon in Patient With Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Su Jung; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Hye In; Rhie, Jeong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Myasthenia gravis is occasionally associated with thymoma that needs surgical resection and may progress to severe respiratory failure. We experienced a rare case of myasthenia crisis during antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C, in whom mediastinal thymoma was discovered and successfully managed with surgical thymectomy and meticulous medical care. A 47-year-old-male patient complained of sudden diplopia 1 week after stopping 11-week administration of pegylated-interferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. Ophthalmologic examinations revealed ptosis on the right eyelid and restricted right eye movement. Myasthenia gravis was confirmed by positive repetitive nerve stimulation test and positive serum antiacetylcholine receptor antibody test, and mediastinal thymoma was found on chest CT scan. The ocular myasthenia gravis progressed to respiratory failure even after discontinuing antiviral treatment but eventually recovered with thymectomy, anticholinesterase administration, steroid pulse therapy, and prolonged ventilator care. We describe the clinical features of this life-threatening complication of interferon treatment along with previous myasthenia crisis cases by interferon for chronic hepatitis C. In patients with chronic hepatitis C who is going to receive interferon-based antiviral treatment, physicians need to keep in mind the potential life-threatening manifestations of myasthenia gravis before and during antiviral treatment especially when patients complain of muscular weakness and easy fatigability. PMID:27227948

  20. Ocular effects of pegylated interferon-α in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Koktekir, Bengu Ekinci; Sumer, Sua; Bakbak, Berker; Gedik, Sansal; Gonul, Saban; Ural, Onur

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the early retinal changes and its reflection on the visual field examination in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients using pegylated interferon-α (PEGIFN-α) monotherapy. Thirty eyes of fifteen patients with CHB were examined prospectively for changes in the fundus examination and visual field examination (both Humphrey Perimetry and Frequency Doubling Perimetry). The patients were examined before and in 3 months intervals after starting the PEGIFN-α treatment. The changes in the fundus examination were noted and the visual field examinations, retinal nerve fiber thickness, Schirmer scores and color vision before and at 3 months of the treatment were compared. The statistical evaluation was performed with paired-t test, using SPSS 16.0 Inc. (Chicago, IL). The mean age of the 15 patients (seven male, eight female) was 52.5 ± 12.4 years. There was no significant retinal change in none of the patients. Neither the visual field examination with Humphrey Field Analyzer nor the Frequency Doubling Perimetry results has demonstrated any significant change during 3 months follow-up. There was a statistically significant increase in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness; while Schirmer test scores for dry eye assessment was significantly decreased. PEGIFN-α monotherapy, which is used for treatment of CHB, may cause some changes in the thickness of RNFL that may necessitate the close follow-up for further morphological changes of the optic disc in these patients.

  1. siRNA-loaded PEGylated porous silicon nanoparticles for lung cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaomu; Ni, Bin; Huang, Haitao; Chen, Xiaochun; Ma, Haitao

    2014-10-01

    Biocompatible and biodegradable porous silicon nanoparticles (pSiNPs) with tunable pore size have been used as vehicles for drug delivery. Our pSiNPs have a mean size of 110 nm with an average pore size of 26 nm. Approximately 16.3 µg of siRNA can be loaded per mg of pSiNPs followed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface coating. siRNA-loaded PEGylated pSiNPs (P-pSiNPs) can be uptaken by A549 cells, and target pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) mRNA and protein expression were effectively downregulated to 6.3 and 26.8 %, respectively. Cell viability decreased to 37.6 %; meanwhile, cell apoptosis upregulated to 17.3 %. The results prove that the siRNA-loaded pSiNPs coated with PEG can effectively deliver siRNA into cancer cells, and the efficiency is comparable to that of lipofectamine.

  2. Self-assembled polymeric nanoparticle of PEGylated chitosan-ceramide conjugate for systemic delivery of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Battogtokh, Gantumur; Ko, Young Tag

    2014-11-01

    Chitosan has been widely explored as one of the most favorable biomaterials for various pharmaceutical applications due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. Here, we report novel PEGylated-chitosan-ceramide (PEG-CS-CE) that forms stable polymeric nanoparticles capable of functioning as efficient carriers of hydrophobic drug molecules. The chitosan-ceramide conjugate (CS-CE) was linked with amine-polyethyleneglycol (NH2-PEG2000) by using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (DCC-NHS) to obtain PEG-CS-CE that could exhibit steric stabilization in biological environments. The structure of the conjugate was determined by proton ((1)H) NMR and FT-IR spectrometry. Under suitable conditions, the PEG-CS-CE self-assembled to form colloidally stable nanoparticles with a mean diameter of ∼ 200 nm. Further, hydrophobic anti-tumor agent paclitaxel (PTX) was incorporated into the polymeric nanoparticle with 90% loading efficiency and 11.3% loading capacity via an emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The PTX-loaded PEG-CS-CE nanoparticle showed sustained release and exhibited higher cellular uptake and a comparable cytotoxic efficacy to that of free PTX on B16F10 melanoma and MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. The empty nanoparticle showed no toxicity, indicating that the co-polymer is safe to use in drug delivery. The polymeric nanoparticle PEG-CS-CE developed by us represent promising nanocarriers of hydrophobic drug molecules.

  3. Tailored Dual PEGylation of Inorganic Porous Nanocarriers for Extremely Long Blood Circulation in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Nissinen, Tuomo; Näkki, Simo; Laakso, Hanne; Kučiauskas, Dalius; Kaupinis, Algirdas; Kettunen, Mikko I; Liimatainen, Timo; Hyvönen, Mervi; Valius, Mindaugas; Gröhn, Olli; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka

    2016-12-07

    Drug carrier systems based on mesoporous inorganic nanoparticles generally face the problem of fast clearance from bloodstream thus failing in passive and active targeting to cancer tissue. To address this problem, a specific dual PEGylation (DPEG) method for mesoporous silicon (PSi) was developed and studied in vitro and in vivo. The DPEG coating changed significantly the behavior of the nanoparticles in vivo, increasing the circulation half-life from 1 to 241 min. Furthermore, accumulation of the coated particles was mainly taking place in the spleen whereas uncoated nanoparticles were rapidly deposited in the liver. The protein coronas of the particles differed considerably from each other. The uncoated particles had substantially more proteins adsorbed including liver and immune active proteins, whereas the coated particles had proteins capable of suppressing cellular uptake. These reasons along with agglomeration observed in blood circulation were concluded to cause the differences in the behavior in vivo. The biofate of the particles was monitored with magnetic resonance imaging by incorporating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals inside the pores of the particles making dynamic imaging of the particles feasible. The results of the present study pave the way for further development of the porous inorganic delivery system in the sense of active targeting as the carriers can be easily chemically modified allowing also magnetically targeted delivery and diagnostics.

  4. Photosensitizer-Loaded Branched Polyethylenimine-PEGylated Ceria Nanoparticles for Imaging-Guided Synchronous Photochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhang-You; Li, Hong; Zeng, Yi-Ping; Hao, Yu-Hui; Liu, Cong; Liu, Jing; Wang, Wei-Dong; Li, Rong

    2015-11-04

    A multifunctional theranostic platform based on photosensitizer (chlorin e6, Ce6)-loaded branched polyethylenimine-PEGylated ceria nanoparticles (PPCNPs-Ce6) was created for the development of effective cancer treatments involving the use of imaging-guided synchronous photochemotherapy. PPCNPs-Ce6 with high Ce6 photosensitizer loading (Ce6: cerium ∼40 wt %) significantly enhanced the delivery of Ce6 into cells and its accumulation in lysosomes, remarkably improving photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) efficacy levels compared to those in the administration of free Ce6 at ultralow drug doses (∼200 nM). Interestingly, PPCNPs-Ce6 efficiently induced HeLa cell death even at low concentrations (∼10 μM) without the use of laser irradiation and exhibit chemocytotoxicity. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and biology transmission electron microscopy (Bio-TEM) analyses demonstrated that ceria nanoparticles enter cells abundantly and accumulate in lysosomes or large vesicles. We then evaluated the effects of the different materials on lysosomal integrity and function, which revealed that PPCNPs-Ce6 catastrophically impaired lysosomal function compared to results with PPCNPs and Ce6. Studies of apoptosis revealed greater induction of apoptosis by PPCNPs-Ce6 treatment. This multifunctional nanocarrier also exhibited a high degree of solubility and stability in aqueous solutions, suggesting its applicability for extensive biomedical application.

  5. PEGylated poly(ethylene imine) copolymer-delivered siRNA inhibits HIV replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Weber, Nick D; Merkel, Olivia M; Kissel, Thomas; Muñoz-Fernández, María Ángeles

    2012-01-10

    RNA interference is increasingly being utilized for the specific targeting and down-regulation of disease-causing genes, including targeting viral infections such as HIV. T lymphocytes, the primary target for HIV, are very difficult to treat with gene therapy applications such as RNA interference because of issues with drug delivery. To circumvent these problems, we investigated poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) as a method of improving transfection efficiency of siRNA to T lymphocytes. Additionally, polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties were engrafted to the PEI polymers with the goals of improving stability and reducing cytotoxicity. Initial studies on PEG-PEI/siRNA polyplex formation, size and their interaction with cell membranes demonstrated their feasibility as drug delivery agents. Assays with lymphocytes revealed low cytotoxicity profiles of the polyplexes at pharmacologically relevant concentrations with PEGylated copolymers obtaining the best results. Successful transfection of a T cell line or primary T cells with siRNA was observed via flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Finally, the biological effect of copolymer-delivered siRNA was measured. Of particular significance, siRNA targeted to the HIV gene nef and delivered by one of the PEG-PEI copolymers in repetitive treatments every 2-3 days was observed to inhibit HIV replication to the same extent as azidothymidine over the course of 15 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PEGylated Dendrimers as Drug Delivery Vehicles for the Photosensitizer Silicon Phthalocyanine Pc 4 for Candidal Infections.

    PubMed

    Hutnick, Melanie A; Ahsanuddin, Sayeeda; Guan, Linna; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D; Pokorski, Jonathan K

    2017-02-13

    Fungi account for billions of infections worldwide. The second most prominent causative agent for fungal infections is Candida albicans (C. albicans). As strains of fungi become resistant to antifungal medications, new treatment modalities must be investigated to combat these infections. One approach is to employ photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT utilizes a photosensitizer, light, and cellular O2 to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which then induce oxidative stress resulting in apoptosis. Silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 is a photosensitizer that has exhibited success in clinical trials for a myriad of skin diseases. The hydrophobic nature of Pc 4, however, poses significant formulation and delivery challenges in the use of this therapy. To mitigate these concerns, a drug delivery vehicle was synthesized to better formulate Pc 4 into a viable PDT agent for treating fungal infections. Utilizing poly(amidoamine) dendrimers as the framework for the vehicle, ∼13% of the amine chain ends were PEGylated to promote water solubility and deter nonspecific adsorption. In vitro studies with C. albicans demonstrate that the potency of Pc 4 was not hindered by the dendrimer vehicle. Encapsulated Pc 4 was able to effectively generate ROS and obliterate fungal pathogens upon photoactivation. The results presented within describe a nanoparticulate delivery vehicle for Pc 4 that readily kills drug-resistant C. albicans and eliminates solvent toxicity, thus, improving formulation characteristics for the hydrophobic photosensitizer.

  7. Passively Targeted Curcumin-Loaded PEGylated PLGA Nanocapsules for Colon Cancer Therapy In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Klippstein, Rebecca; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; El-Gogary, Riham I; Bai, Jie; Mustafa, Falisa; Rubio, Noelia; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Al-Jamal, Wafa T; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications of curcumin for the treatment of cancer and other chronic diseases have been mainly hindered by its short biological half-life and poor water solubility. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have the potential to enhance the efficacy of poorly soluble drugs for systemic delivery. This study proposes the use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based polymeric oil-cored nanocapsules (NCs) for curcumin loading and delivery to colon cancer in mice after systemic injection. Formulations of different oil compositions are prepared and characterized for their curcumin loading, physico-chemical properties, and shelf-life stability. The results indicate that castor oil-cored PLGA-based NC achieves high drug loading efficiency (≈18% w(drug)/w(polymer)%) compared to previously reported NCs. Curcumin-loaded NCs internalize more efficiently in CT26 cells than the free drug, and exert therapeutic activity in vitro, leading to apoptosis and blocking the cell cycle. In addition, the formulated NC exhibits an extended blood circulation profile compared to the non-PEGylated NC, and accumulates in the subcutaneous CT26-tumors in mice, after systemic administration. The results are confirmed by optical and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. In vivo growth delay studies are performed, and significantly smaller tumor volumes are achieved compared to empty NC injected animals. This study shows the great potential of the formulated NC for treating colon cancer. PMID:26140363

  8. Conversion from latent to symptomatic Sheehan's syndrome by pegylated interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Keitaro; Kayahara, Takahisa; Seno, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Yukitaka; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C was admitted to our hospital to receive interferon (IFN) therapy. Twenty years earlier she had received blood transfusion because of obstetric hemorrhage. Blood test showed mild hypothyroidism and a relatively elevated eosinophil count. Therapy with pegylated IFNalpha-2a was started, and two days later she complained of nausea and severe malaise. Blood test showed hyponatremia, and plasma prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol levels were all decreased. A simultaneous administration test of lutenizing hormone releasing-, corticotrophin releasing-, growth hormone releasing- and thyrotropin releasing-hormones revealed that only adrenocorticotropic hormone was responsive. Magnetic resonance imaging showed atrophy of anterior lobe of pituitary gland. We diagnosed that IFN therapy disclosed latent Sheehan's syndrome due to previous obstetric hemorrhage. Following supplementation of thyroid and adrenal cortical hormones, we were able to complete IFN therapy. Thus, before IFN therapy for woman patients it is important to suspect latent Sheehan's syndrome when the patient had a history of obstetric hemorrhage.

  9. Shape effect in cellular uptake of PEGylated nanoparticles: comparison between sphere, rod, cube and disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Kröger, Martin; Liu, Wing Kam

    2015-10-01

    The size, shape, surface property and material composition of polymer-coated nanoparticles (NPs) are four important parameters in designing efficient NP-based carriers for targeted drug delivery. However, due to the complex interplay between size, shape and surface property, most studies lead to ambiguous descriptions of the relevance of shape. To clarify its influence on the cellular uptake of PEGylated NPs, large scale molecular simulations have been performed to study differently shaped convex NPs, such as sphere, rod, cube and disk. Comparing systems with identical NP surface area, ligand-receptor interaction strength, and grafting density of the polyethylene glycol, we find that the spherical NPs exhibit the fastest internalization rate, followed by the cubic NPs, then rod- and disk-like NPs. The spherical NPs thus demonstrate the highest uptake among these differently shaped NPs. Based on a detailed free energy analysis, the NP shape effect is found to be mainly induced by the different membrane bending energies during endocytosis. The spherical NPs need to overcome a minimal membrane bending energy barrier, compared with the non-spherical counterparts, while the internalization of disk-like NPs involves a strong membrane deformation, responsible for a large free energy barrier. Besides, the free energy change per tethered chain is about a single kBT regardless of NP shape, as revealed by our self-consistent field theory calculations, where kB and T denote Boltzmann constant and temperature, respectively. Thus, the NP shape only plays the secondary role in the free energy change of grafted PEG polymers during internalization. We also find that star-shaped NPs can be quickly wrapped by the cell membrane, similar to their spherical counterparts, indicating star-shaped NPs can be used for drug delivery with high efficacy. Our findings seem to provide useful guidance in the molecular design of PEGylated NPs for controllable cellular uptake and help establish

  10. A click chemistry route to 2-functionalised PEGylated and cationic β-cyclodextrins: co-formulation opportunities for siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Aoife M; Ogier, Julien; Desgranges, Stephane; Cryan, John F; Darcy, Raphael; O'Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2012-07-07

    A new approach to the synthesis of amphiphilic β-cyclodextrins has used 'click' chemistry to selectively modify the secondary 2-hydroxyl group. The resulting extended polar groups can be either polycationic or neutral PEGylated groups and these two amphiphile classes are compatible in dual cyclodextrin formulations for delivery of siRNA. When used alone with an siRNA, a cationic cyclodextrin was shown to have good transfection properties in cell culture. Co-formulation with a PEGylated cyclodextrin altered the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles formed with siRNA. Improved particle properties included lower surface charges and reduced tendency to aggregate. However, as expected, the transfection efficiency of the cationic vector was lowered by co-formulation with the PEGylated cyclodextrin, requiring future surface modification of particles with targeting ligands for effective siRNA delivery.

  11. Raynaud's phenomenon and bilateral olecranon bursitis co-existing in a patient with chronic hepatitis B and D treated with pegylated interferon.

    PubMed

    Arain, Shafique Rehman; Umer, Tahira Perveen

    2016-06-01

    Pegylated interferon remains the first line treatment for patients with hepatitis D virus and more than one year therapy may be necessary. Interferon a has the most extensive clinical application and is used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and D virus as well as HCV infections. The attachment of polyethylene glycol to interferon increases its half-life. Treatment with peg interferon is associated with many troublesome and occasionally with serious or even life-threatening side effects. In this case report, we have described a patient with chronic hepatitis B and D, who developed Raynaud's phenomenon, ischaemic digital necrosis and bilateral olecranon bursitis during Pegylated interferon therapy. The patient underwent a very extensive workup in order to determine the underlying cause of his digital ischaemia and olecranon bursitis, which was finally determined to be secondary to the use of Pegylated interferon.

  12. PEGylation affects cytotoxicity and cell-compatibility of poly(ethylene imine) for lung application: Structure-function relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerle, Andrea; Merkel, Olivia; Stoeger, Tobias; Kissel, Thomas

    2010-01-15

    Poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) has widely been used as non-viral gene carrier due to its capability to form stable complexes by electrostatic interactions with nucleic acids. To reduce cytotoxicity of PEI, several studies have addressed modified PEIs such as block or graft copolymers containing cationic and hydrophilic non-ionic components. Copolymers of PEI and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with various molecular weights and graft densities were shown to exhibit decreased cytotoxicity and potential for DNA and siRNA delivery. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity and cell-compatibility of different PEGylated PEI polymers in two murine lung cell lines. We found that the degree of PEGylation correlated with both cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, but not with proinflammatory effects. AB type copolymers with long PEG blocks caused high membrane damage and significantly decreased the metabolic activity of lung cells. In addition, they significantly increased the release of two lipid mediators such as 8-isoprostanes (8-IP) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the cytokine profiles which indicated high levels of acute-phase cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, and G-CSF did not follow any clear structure-function relationship. In conclusion, we found that modification of PEI 25kDa with high degree of PEGylation and low PEG chain length reduced cytotoxic and oxidative stress response in lung cells, while the proinflammatory potential remained unaffected. A degree of substitution in the range of 10 to 30 and PEG-chain lengths up to 2000 Da seem to be beneficial and merit further investigations.

  13. Consensus Interferon Plus Ribavirin for Hepatitis C Genotype 3 Patients Previously Treated With Pegylated Interferon Plus Ribavirin

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaigham; Tayyab, Ghiasun Nabi; Qureshi, Mustafa; Memon, Mohammad Sadik; Subhan, Amna; Shakir, Tanzila; Jafri, Wasim; Hamid, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Background Not enough data are available about the effectiveness of consensus interferon (CIFN) among HCV genotype 3 patients who failed to respond to pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Objectives We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of CIFN and ribavirin in non-responders and relapsers to pegylated interferon with ribavirin therapy. Patients and Methods This open-label investigator-initiated study included 44 patients who received CIFN 15 µg /day plus ribavirin 800-1200 mg daily. In patients with an early virological response (EVR), the dose of CIFN was reduced to 15 µg thrice a week for further 36 weeks. Patients with delayed virological response continued to receive daily CIFN plus ribavirin to complete 48 weeks. The patients were considered “non-responders” if there were less than 2 log reduction in HCV RNA at 12 weeks and detectable HCV RNA at 24 weeks. Results Twenty-four patients (55%) were non-responders and 20 patients were relapsers to the previous treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (mean age 43.6 ± 9.4 years, males 25 (57%)). Nine patients were clinically cirrhotic (Child A). End of treatment virological response was achieved in 19 (43.1%) patients and sustained virological response (SVR) occurred in 12 (27.3%). Out of these 12 patients, eight were non-responders and four were relapsers to the previous treatment. Advanced fibrosis or clinical cirrhosis was associated with low SVR. Adverse events were fever, myalgia, anorexia, depression, and weight loss. Two patients received granulocyte colony stimulating factor for transient neutropenia. Seven patients were given erythropoietin to improve hemoglobin, and six were treated for mild depression. Two patients developed portosystemic encephalopathy. Conclusions More than one-quarter of treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotype 3 achieved SVR after re-treatment with consensus interferon plus ribavirin. PMID:24358041

  14. [Bilateral non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy during treatment of viral hepatitis C with pegylated interferon and Ribavirin].

    PubMed

    Iferkhass, S; Elasri, F; Chatioui, S; Khoyaali, A; Bargach, T; Reda, K; Oubaaz, A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a serious viral infection, for which the current treatment is based on the combination of pegylated interferon (IFN) and Ribavirin(®). Ophthalmic complications observed with PEG-IFN are infrequent and of variable prognosis. They often include an ischemic retinopathy with typical cotton-wool spots, hemorrhage and retinal edema, and rarely acute non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy as illustrated by our report. We report the case of a 51-year-old man followed for chronic active hepatitis C, who presented in the fourth month of treatment with pegylated interferon and vidarabine with a sharp decline in visual acuity secondary to acute bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. The hepatitis C treatment was discontinued. His course was notable by the third week for a significant regression of papilledema with improvement in visual acuity in the right eye and no change in the left eye, remaining at counting fingers. After regressing for four years, the disease progressed to bilateral temporal optic atrophy without change in visual acuity. Pegylated interferon and Ribavirin(®) are commonly used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. They are the source of various ophthalmologic complications of varied severity. The pathophysiology of this ocular toxicity currently remains hypothetical. Non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy is still a relatively rare complication with a poor functional prognosis, often requiring discontinuation of treatment. Thus, careful ophthalmologic monitoring before and during antiviral treatment of patients with hepatitis C appears necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of phospholipid types and animal models on the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon of PEGylated liposomes upon repeated injection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Ye, Feifei; Hu, Meina; Yin, Pengpeng; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yan; Yu, Xiu; Deng, Yihui

    2015-01-01

    When polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated liposomes were repeatedly injected into the same animal, the second dose of liposomes would rapidly clear from the bloodstream and enhance accumulation in the liver and spleen, and this phenomenon is called "accelerated blood clearance (ABC)". There are many factors known to influence ABC phenomenon, in this study, we mainly focused on the effects of different phospholipids (PL) types and animal models. The effects of PL types on ABC phenomenon were examined by repeating injection of PEGylated liposomes prepared by five different types of PL (hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, egg sphingomyelin, soybean phosphatidycholin, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and egg phosphatidycholin) in rats. Dramatically, repeated injection of different types of PL could induce ABC phenomenon altogether. Both t1/2 and AUC of experimental group (EG) were lower significantly than those of control group (CG). Our results also showed that the liver accumulation of second dose increased significantly (p < 0.01) in all EG as compared that of CG. Interestingly, ABC phenomenon of liposomes prepared by unsaturated PL was more obvious than that of saturated PL. All the first dose could induce the antibody (anti-PEG IgM) level increasing significantly (p < 0.01). For different animal models, we found that after repeated injection of PEGylated liposomes, rats, mice, rabbits and guinea pigs could produce ABC phenomenon. Various PL types and animal models could all produce the ABC phenomenon. However, their extent of accelerated clearance differed. ABC phenomenon is possibly a ubiquitous immune phenomenon in life.

  16. Changes in Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanoparticles in Cellular Environments are Modulated by Nanoparticle PEGylation and Serum Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Allen L.; Jackson, Meredith A.; Lin, Adam Y.; Figueroa, Elizabeth R.; Hu, Ying S.; Evans, Emily R.; Asthana, Vishwaratn; Young, Joseph K.; Drezek, Rebekah A.

    2016-06-01

    When plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) are internalized by cells and agglomerate within intracellular vesicles, their optical spectra can shift and broaden as a result of plasmonic coupling of NPs in close proximity to one another. For such optical changes to be accounted for in the design of plasmonic NPs for light-based biomedical applications, quantitative design relationships between designable factors and spectral shifts need to be established. Here we begin building such a framework by investigating how functionalization of gold NPs (AuNPs) with biocompatible poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG), and the serum conditions in which the NPs are introduced to cells impact the optical changes exhibited by NPs in a cellular context. Utilizing darkfield hyperspectral imaging, we find that PEGylation decreases the spectral shifting and spectral broadening experienced by 100 nm AuNPs following uptake by Sk-Br-3 cells, but up to a 33 ± 12 nm shift in the spectral peak wavelength can still occur. The serum protein-containing biological medium also modulates the spectral changes experienced by cell-exposed NPs through the formation of a protein corona on the surface of NPs that mediates NP interactions with cells: PEGylated AuNPs exposed to cells in serum-free conditions experience greater spectral shifts than in serum-containing environments. Moreover, increased concentrations of serum (10, 25, or 50 %) result in the formation of smaller intracellular NP clusters and correspondingly reduced spectral shifts after 5 and 10 h NP-cell exposure. However, after 24 h, NP cluster size and spectral shifts are comparable and become independent of serum concentration. By elucidating the impact of PEGylation and serum concentration on the spectral changes experienced by plasmonic NPs in cells, this study provides a foundation for the optical engineering of plasmonic NPs for use in biomedical environments.

  17. A new method to produce monoPEGylated dimeric cytokines shown with human interferon-α2b.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chien-Hsing; Rossi, Edmund A; Cardillo, Thomas M; Nordstrom, Diane L; McBride, William J; Goldenberg, David M

    2009-10-21

    We have adapted the dock-and-lock (DNL) method into a novel PEGylation technology using human interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) as an example. Central to DNL is a pair of distinct protein domains involved in the natural association between cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). These domains serve as linkers for site-specific conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to a dimeric form of IFN-α2b. The combination of a fusion protein comprising IFN-α2b and the dimerization-and-docking domain (DDD) of PKA with a PEG-derivatized anchoring domain (AD) of an interactive AKAP results in facile formation of a trimeric complex containing two copies of IFN-α2b and a single site-specifically linked PEG chain. Three such monoPEGylated dimers of IFN-α2b have been generated, the first with a 20 kDa linear PEG, referred to as α2b-362, the second with a 30 kDa linear PEG (α2b-413), and the third with a 40 kDa branched PEG (α2b-457). All three retained antiviral and antitumor activity in vitro and showed improved pharmacokinetic properties in mice, which translated into potent and prolonged therapeutic efficacy in the Daudi human lymphoma xenograft model. We anticipate wide applicability of the DNL method for developing long-acting therapeutics that are dimeric and monoPEGylated with the increased bioavailability allowing for less frequent dosing.

  18. Association of SCARB1 Gene Polymorphisms with Virological Response in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Receiving Pegylated Interferon plus Ribavirin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Hsu, Shih-Jer; Liu, Wei-Liang; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    The scavenger receptor type B class I(SR-BI) is a receptor for high-density lipoproteins(HDL) and one of entry factors for hepatitis C virus(HCV). We examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) of the SCARB1 gene, which encodes SR-BI, with virologic responses to pegylated interferon-based treatment in Asian chronic hepatitis C(CHC) patients. Human genomic and clinical data were collected from 156 consecutive Taiwanese HCV genotype 1 or 2 patients who received pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy and 153 non-HCV healthy subjects. Three SNPs(rs10846744, rs5888, and rs3782287) of the SCARB1 gene that have been linked to humans diseases were investigated. rs10846744 rather than rs5888 or rs3782287 was associated with serum HCV RNA level and sustained virologic response(SVR) to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy in CHC patients(GG vs. non-GG genotype, Adjusted Odds Ratio, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.11–0.95, P = 0.039). Among patients with IL28B rs8099917 non-TT genotypes, those with rs10846744 non-GG genotype had a higher SVR rate than those with GG genotypes. In addition, patients with GG genotype had a higher fasting blood glucose level than those with CC genotype. In conclusion, SCARB1 gene polymorphisms may serve as a potential predictor of treatment responses in CHC patients receiving interferon-based therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02714712). PMID:27561198

  19. Pharmacokinetics, Brain Delivery, and Efficacy in Brain Tumor-Bearing Mice of Glutathione Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin (2B3-101)

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Pieter J.; Appeldoorn, Chantal C. M.; Dorland, Rick; van Kregten, Joan; Manca, Francesca; Vugts, Danielle J.; Windhorst, Bert; van Dongen, Guus A. M. S.; de Vries, Helga E.; Maussang, David; van Tellingen, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Brain cancer is a devastating disease affecting many people worldwide. Effective treatment with chemotherapeutics is limited due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that tightly regulates the diffusion of endogenous molecules but also xenobiotics. Glutathione pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (2B3-101) is being developed as a new treatment option for patients with brain cancer. It is based on already marketed pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil®/Caelyx®), with an additional glutathione coating that safely enhances drug delivery across the BBB. Uptake of 2B3-101 by human brain capillary endothelial cells in vitro was time-, concentration- and temperature-dependent, while pegylated liposomal doxorubicin mainly remained bound to the cells. In vivo, 2B3-101 and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin had a comparable plasma exposure in mice, yet brain retention 4 days after administration was higher for 2B3-101. 2B3-101 was overall well tolerated by athymic FVB mice with experimental human glioblastoma (luciferase transfected U87MG). In 2 independent experiments a strong inhibition of brain tumor growth was observed for 2B3-101 as measured by bioluminescence intensity. The effect of weekly administration of 5 mg/kg 2B3-101 was more pronounced compared to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (p<0.05) and saline (p<0.01). Two out of 9 animals receiving 2B3-101 showed a complete tumor regression. Twice-weekly injections of 5 mg/kg 2B3-101 again had a significant effect in inhibiting brain tumor growth (p<0.001) compared to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and saline, and a complete regression was observed in 1 animal treated with 2B3-101. In addition, twice-weekly dosing of 2B3-101 significantly increased the median survival time by 38.5% (p<0.001) and 16.1% (p<0.05) compared to saline and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, respectively. Overall, these data demonstrate that glutathione pegylated liposomal doxorubicin enhances the effective delivery of doxorubicin to brain

  20. [Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2b in a patient with HIV/HCV coinfection: case report].

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Bil Randerson; Trés, Eduardo Sturzeneker; Ciríaco, Jovana Gobbi Marchesi; Pinto Neto, Lauro Ferreira Silva

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has a strong association with HIV and HCV infection. A rare association between chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon alpha was described recently. We described the first case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with pegylated interferon alpha 2b in a white man infected with HIV and HCV. The patient recovered completely with the use of intravenous hyperimmune immunoglobulin. Infectologists and hepatologists should be alert regarding this rare and serious association, which requires immediately drug discontinuation and early treatment.

  1. Transferrin-mediated PEGylated nanoparticles for delivery of DNA/PLL.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wangwen; Xu, Zhenghong; Gao, Yu; Chen, Lingli; Li, Yaping

    2006-08-28

    The purpose of this work was to determine the stability of pDNA/poly(L-lysine) complex (DNA/PLL) during microencapsulation, prepare transferrin (TF) conjugated PEGylated nanoparticles (TF-PEG-NP) loading DNA/PLL, and assess its physicochemical characteristics and in vitro transfection efficiency. The DNA/PLL was prepared by mixing plasmid DNA (pDNA) in deionized water with various amounts of PLL. PEGylated nanoparticles (PEG-NP) loading DNA/PLL were prepared by a water-oil-water double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. TF-PEG-NP was prepared by coupling TF with PEG-NP. The physicochemical characteristics of TF-PEG-NP and in vitro transfection efficiency on K562 cells were measured. The results showed that free pDNA reserved its double supercoiled form (dsDNA) for only on average 25.7% after sonification, but over 70% of dsDNA was reserved after pDNA was contracted with PLL. The particle size range of TF-PEG-NP loading DNA/PLL was 150-450 nm with entrapment efficiency over 70%. TF-PEG-NP exhibited the low burst effect (<10%) within 1 day. After the first phase, DNA/PLL displayed a sustained release. The amount of cumulated DNA/PLL release from TF-PEG-NP with 2% polymer over 7 days was 85.4% for DNA/PLL (1:0.3 mass ratio), 59.8% and 43.1% for DNA/PLL (1:0.6) and DNA/PLL (1:1.0), respectively. To TF-PEG-NP loading DNA/PLL without chloroquine, the percentage of EGFP expressing cells was 28.9% for complexes consisting of DNA/PLL (1:0.3), 38.5% and 39.7% for DNA/PLL (1:0.6) and DNA/PLL (1:1.0), respectively. In TF-PEG-NP loading DNA/PLL with chloroquine, more cells were transfected, the percentage of positive cells was 37.6% (DNA/PLL, 1:0.3), 47.1% (DNA/PLL, 1:0.6) and 45.8% (DNA/PLL, 1:1.0), which meant that the transfection efficiency of pDNA was increased by over 50 times when PLL and TF-PEG-NP were jointly used as a plasmid DNA carrier, in particular, the maximal percentage of positive cells (47.1%) from TF-PEG-NP loading DNA/PLL (1:0.6) was about 70 times the

  2. Extensive Psoriasis Induced by Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a and Ribavirin in the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gun-Wook; Jwa, Seung-Wook; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C was treated with pegylated interferon alfa-2a in combination with ribavirin. However, psoriatic lesions appeared and worsened dramatically during therapy. Because of the extensive skin eruptions, he stopped therapy for chronic hepatitis C and subsequently started narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy and topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment. After this, the psoriasis improved in a slow but comprehensive manner. Our case suggests that physicians should keep in mind the possibility of psoriasis as a side effect of interferon treatment for chronic hepatitis C. PMID:24371397

  3. Application of core-shell PEGylated CdS/Cd(OH) 2 quantum dots as biolabels of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, C. R.; Fontes, A.; Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; de Menezes, F. D.; Ferreira, R. C.; Cesar, C. L.; Galembeck, A.; Figueiredo, R. C. B. Q.

    2008-11-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are a promising class of materials in the labeling of biological systems. In the present study we show the marking pattern of Trypanosoma cruzi ( T. cruzi) live parasites using PEGylated CdS/Cd(OH) 2 fluorescent nanocrystals. The analysis obtained by confocal fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicates that only the endocytic paths of parasites were labeled. The parasites were alive after the incubation with the CdS/Cd(OH) 2-PEG suspension. Labeling the T. cruzi with quantum dots can help to better understand the endocytosis process and also the cellular differentiation.

  4. Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus During Pegylated-interferon Alfa and Ribavirin Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Raghini; Janarthanan, Krishnaveni; Rajasekaran, Senthilkumar

    2012-01-01

    A 16-year-old female was treated with pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa (a)-2b and ribavirin combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. She attained rapid virological response. She presented with diabetic ketoacidosis after 41 weeks of therapy. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and islet cell antibodies were negative. Her fasting serum C-peptide level was <0.1 ng/mL, and the treatment course was completed. This case underlines the importance of periodic plasma glucose monitoring in patients during and after PEG-IFN and ribavirin therapy. PMID:25755410

  5. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy due to the administration of pegylated interferon α-2b: a neuropathology case report.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Kensuke; Tanaka, Eijiroh; Isayama, Reina; Mizuno, Toshiki; Itoh, Kyoko; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    We report a 35-year-old man who developed weakness in his extremities five months after pegylated interferon α (IFNα)-2b was administered. The serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) was elevated and nerve conduction studies revealed demyelination both in the distal and intermediate segments. The sural nerve pathology showed mild demyelinating process. The cessation of IFNα and administration of intravenous immunoglobulin improved both his clinical symptoms and the temporal dispersion in motor nerve conduction study. IFNα-induced CIDP is presumably a transient immunological condition that requires immunomodulatory therapy. The elevated serum TNFα may implicate the degree of downstream autoimmunity induced by IFNα.

  6. Effect of the Route of Administration and PEGylation of Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers on Their Systemic and Lung Cellular Biodistribution

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qian; Merkel, Olivia M.; Reineke, Joshua J.; da Rocha, Sandro R. P.

    2017-01-01

    There are many opportunities in the development of oral inhalation (oi) formulations for the delivery of small molecule therapeutics and biologics to and through the lungs. Nanocarriers have the potential to play a key role in advancing oi technologies and pushing the boundary of the pulmonary delivery market. In this work we investigate the effect of the route of administration and PEGylation on the systemic and lung cellular biodistribution of generation 3, amino-terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers (G3NH2). Pharmacokinetic profiles show that the dendrimers reach their peak concentration in systemic circulation within a few hours after pulmonary delivery, independent of their chemistry (PEGylated or not), charge (+24 mV for G3NH2 vs −3.7 mV for G3NH2-24PEG1000), or size (5.1 nm for G3NH2 and 9.9 nm for G3NH2-24PEG1000). However, high density of surface modification with PEG enhances pulmonary absorption and the peak plasma concentration upon pulmonary delivery. The route of administration and PEGylation also significantly impact the whole body and local (lung cellular) distribution of the dendrimers. While ca. 83% of G3NH2 is found in the lungs upon pulmonary delivery at 6.5 h post administration, only 2% reached the lungs upon intravenous (iv) delivery. Moreover, no measurable concentration of either G3NH2 or G3NH2-24PEG1000 is found in the lymph nodes upon iv administration, while these are the tissues with the second highest mass distribution of dendrimers post pulmonary delivery. Dendrimer chemistry also significantly impacts the (cellular) distribution of the nanocarriers in the lung tissue. Upon pulmonary delivery, approximately 20% of the lung endothelial cells are seen to internalize G3NH2-24PEG1000, compared to only 6% for G3NH2. Conversely, G3NH2 is more readily taken up by lung epithelial cells (35%) when compared to its PEGylated counterpart (24%). The results shown here suggest that both the pulmonary route of administration and dendrimer

  7. Application of meta- and para- phenylenediamine as enhanced oxime ligation catalysts for protein labeling, PEGylation, immobilization and release

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Mohammad M.; Rashidian, Mohammad; Zhang, Yi; Distefano, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Meta- and para- phenylenediamines have recently been shown to catalyze oxime and hydrazone ligation reactions at rates much faster than aniline, a commonly used catalyst. Here, it is demonstrated how these new catalysts can be used in a generally applicable procedure for fluorescent labeling, PEGylation, immobilization and release of aldehyde and ketone functionalized proteins. The chemical orthogonality of phenylenediamine-catalyzed oxime ligation versus copper catalyzed click reaction has also been harnessed for simultaneous dual labeling of bifunctional proteins containing both aldehyde and alkyne groups in high yield. PMID:25640893

  8. Application of meta- and para-Phenylenediamine as Enhanced Oxime Ligation Catalysts for Protein Labeling, PEGylation, Immobilization, and Release.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Mohammad M; Rashidian, Mohammad; Zhang, Yi; Distefano, Mark D

    2015-02-02

    Meta- and para-phenylenediamines have recently been shown to catalyze oxime and hydrazone ligation reactions at rates much faster than aniline, a commonly used catalyst. Here, we demonstrate how these new catalysts can be used in a generally applicable procedure for fluorescent labeling, PEGylation, immobilization, and release of aldehyde- and ketone- functionalized proteins. The chemical orthogonality of phenylenediamine-catalyzed oxime ligation versus copper-catalyzed click reaction has also been harnessed for simultaneous dual labeling of bifunctional proteins containing both aldehyde and alkyne groups in high yield.

  9. Biweekly Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin (Caelyx) in Heavily Pretreated Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Phase 2 Study.

    PubMed

    Jehn, Christian F; Hemmati, Philipp; Lehenbauer-Dehm, Silvia; Kümmel, Sherko; Flath, Bernd; Schmid, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has shown to be as effective as conventional doxorubicin in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer but provides a lower risk of cardiotoxicity. This phase 2 study in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer was initiated to evaluate a biweekly instead of a 4-week schedule of PLD in order to obtain a more flexible and tolerable regimen. A total of 25 patients with 2 or more prior lines of chemotherapy for metastatic disease were treated with PLD (25 mg/m(2)) at 2-week intervals for a maximum of 12 courses. Pretreatment with anthracyclines was allowed as long as the cumulative doxorubicin dose at study entry was below 400 mg/m(2). Most patients were pretreated with anthracyclines, taxanes, vinorelbine, alkylating agents, and capecitabine. The clinical benefit rate, ie, objective response or stable disease, for at least 6 months was 22.7% for all patients and 22.2% in anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated patients, respectively. Median duration of clinical benefit and median time to progression were 12.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.1-32.3) and 7 weeks (95% CI, 5.4-8.6), respectively. Median overall survival was 9.6 months (95% CI, 5.4-13.9). One- and 2-year survival rates were 38% and 4%, respectively. Myelosuppression was low, with no grade 3 or 4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Most common nonhematologic toxicities were nausea, alopecia, asthenia, and hand-foot syndrome. The low rate of hematologic toxicity and hand-foot syndrome is clinically noteworthy. Biweekly PLD is an easily manageable schedule with a favorable toxicity profile. Efficacy was moderate in heavily pretreated patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin as Adjuvant Therapy for Stage I-III Operable Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yin-Che; Ou-Yang, F U; Hsieh, Chia-Ming; Chang, King-Jen; Chen, Dar-Ren; Tu, Chi-Wen; Wang, Hwei-Chung; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Conventional anthracyclines play an essential role for the treatment of breast cancer and have potent cytotoxic activity, but are associated with severe toxicity. In metastatic breast cancer, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is a formulation with efficacy similar to conventional doxorubicin but with reduced toxicity. This multicenter study evaluated the efficacy and safety of PLD-based adjuvant chemotherapy for women with stage I-III operable breast cancer. One hundred and eighty women with stage I-III breast cancer who received PLD-based adjuvant chemotherapy at six different Institutions in Taiwan from February 2002 to March 2008 were included and followed-up until April 2015. Treatment efficacy was determined by disease-free survival (DFS) rate and safety was evaluated by adverse events. The 5- and 10-year DFS rates were 76.3 and 72.6%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that tumor size >5 cm (p=0.045; hazard ratio=3.31) and stage III (hazard ratio=3.54; p=0.019) were each associated with shorter DFS. Only stage III (hazard ratio=5.60; p=0.018) retained statistical significance with regard to DFS in the multivariate analysis. Grade 3/4 hematological toxicity was neutropenia (n=13; 7.2%). The women receiving PLD had low-grade 3 or 4 nausea/vomiting, mucositis, and alopecia. Grade 3 hand-foot syndrome occurred in three patients (1.7%). PLD could be considered an effective and safe alternative to conventional anthracyclines in the treatment of stage I-III operable breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation and characterization of PEGylated chitosan nanocapsules as a carrier for pharmaceutical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafabadi, Alireza Hassani; Abdouss, Majid; Faghihi, Shahab

    2014-03-01

    A new method to conjugate methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) to C6 position of chitosan under the mild condition is introduced that improves the biocompatibility and water solubility of chitosan. Harsh deprotecting step and several purification cycles are two major disadvantages of the current methods for preparing PEGylated chitosan. In this study, the amine groups at C2 position of chitosan are protected using SDS followed by grafting the PEG. The protecting group of chitosan is simply removed by dialyzing against Tris solution. The chemical structure of the prepared polymer is characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Fourier transformed-infrared (FT-IR) and 1H NMR spectra confirmed that the mPEG is successfully grafted to C6 position of chitosan. Prepared methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) is then employed to prepare the nanocapsules for the encapsulation of poor water-soluble drug, propofol. The TEM, AFM, and DLS techniques are used to characterize the prepared nanocapsules size and morphology. The results show a size of about 80 nm with spherical shape for nanocapsules. In vitro drug release is carried out to evaluate the potential of nanocarriers for the intravenous delivery of drugs. The profile of release from formulated nanocapsules is similar to those of commercial lipid emulsion (CLE). In vivo animal sleep-recovery test on rats shows a close similarity between the time of unconsciousness and recovery of righting reflex between nanoparticles and CLE. This study provides an efficient, novel, and easy method for preparing a carrier system that requires less intensive reaction conditions, fewer reaction steps, and less purification steps. In addition, the nanocapsules introduced here could be a promising nano carrier for the delivery of poor water-soluble drugs.

  12. PEGylated Silicon Nanowire Coated Silica Microparticles for Drug Delivery across Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Uskoković, Vuk; Lee, Phin-Peng; Walsh, Laura; Fischer, Kathleen; Desai, Tejal

    2011-01-01

    Composite particles made by growing nanoscopic silicon wires from the surface of monodispersed, microsized silica beads were tested in this study for their ability to affect the integrity and permeability of an epithelial cell layer. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is known to sterically stabilize particles and prevent protein binding; as such, it is a routine way to impart in vivo longevity to drug carriers. The effect of the silica beads, both with and without silicon nanowires and PEG, on the disruption of the tight junctions in Caco-2 cells was evaluated by means of: (a) analysis of the localization of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-1 and f-actin; (b) measurements of trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER); (c) real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the expression of PKC-α and PKC-z, which regulate the fluidity of cell membranes, and RhoA and Rac1, which are mainly involved in mechanotransduction processes; and (d) drug permeability experiments with fluorescein-sodium. The results have shown that Si-nanowire-coated silica microparticles added to Caco-2 cells in culture lead to alterations in tight junction permeability and the localization of ZO-1 and f-actin, as well as to decreased width of ZO-1 and claudin-1 at the tight junction and increased expression of PKC transcripts. Si-nanowire-coated silica microparticles increased the permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers to fluorescein-sodium in proportion to their amount. Effects indicative of loosening the Caco-2 cell monolayers and increasing their permeability were less pronounced for PEGylated particles, owing to their greater supposed inertness in comparison with the non-functionalized beads and nanowires. The analyzed Si-nanowire-coated silica microparticles have thus been shown to affect membrane barrier integrity in vitro, suggesting the possibility of using nanostructured microparticles to enhance drug permeability through the intestinal epithelium in vivo. PMID:22116000

  13. Alpha-fetoprotein before and after pegylated interferon therapy for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma development

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yasuto; Ikeda, Fusao; Osawa, Toshiya; Araki, Yasuyuki; Takaguchi, Kouichi; Morimoto, Youichi; Hashimoto, Noriaki; Sakaguchi, Kousaku; Sakata, Tatsuro; Ando, Masaharu; Makino, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Shuji; Takayama, Hiroki; Seki, Hiroyuki; Nanba, Shintarou; Moritou, Yuki; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Ohnishi, Hideki; Takaki, Akinobu; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate factors that accurately predict hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development after antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHODS: CHC patients who received pegylated interferon and ribavirin were enrolled in this cohort study that investigated the ability of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) to predict HCC development after interferon (IFN) therapy. RESULTS: Of 1255 patients enrolled, 665 developed sustained virological response (SVR) during mean follow-up period of 5.4 years. HCC was occurred in 89 patients, and 20 SVR patients were included. Proportional hazard models showed that HCC occurred in SVR patients showing AFP ≥ 5 ng/mL before therapy and in non-SVR patients showing AFP ≥ 5 ng/mL before and 1 year after therapy besides older age, and low platelet counts. SVR patients showing AFP ≥ 5 ng/mL before therapy and no decrease in AFP to < 5 ng/mL 1 year after therapy had significantly higher HCC incidence than non-SVR patients showing AFP ≥ 5 ng/mL before therapy and decreased AFP (P = 0.043). AFP ≥ 5 ng/mL before therapy was significantly associated with low platelet counts and high values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in stepwise logistic regression analysis. After age, gender, platelet count, and ALT was matched by propensity score, significantly lower HCC incidence was shown in SVR patients showing AFP < 5 ng/mL before therapy than in those showing AFP ≥ 5 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: The criteria of AFP < 5 ng/mL before and 1 year after IFN therapy is a benefical predictor for HCC development in CHC patients. PMID:26380048

  14. Translocation of PEGylated quantum dots across rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Fazlollahi, Farnoosh; Sipos, Arnold; Kim, Yong Ho; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D

    2011-01-01

    Background In this study, primary rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECM) were used to investigate transalveolar epithelial quantum dot trafficking rates and underlying transport mechanisms. Methods Trafficking rates of quantum dots (PEGylated CdSe/ZnS, core size 5.3 nm, hydrodynamic size 25 nm) in the apical-to-basolateral direction across RAECM were determined. Changes in bioelectric properties (ie, transmonolayer resistance and equivalent active ion transport rate) of RAECM in the presence or absence of quantum dots were measured. Involvement of endocytic pathways in quantum dot trafficking across RAECM was assessed using specific inhibitors (eg, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, chlorpromazine, and dynasore for caveolin-, clathrin-, and dynamin-mediated endocytosis, respectively). The effects of lowering tight junctional resistance on quantum dot trafficking were determined by depleting Ca2+ in apical and basolateral bathing fluids of RAECM using 2 mM EGTA. Effects of temperature on quantum dot trafficking were studied by lowering temperature from 37°C to 4°C. Results Apical exposure of RAECM to quantum dots did not elicit changes in transmonolayer resistance or ion transport rate for up to 24 hours; quantum dot trafficking rates were not surface charge-dependent; methyl-β-cyclodextrin, chlorpromazine, and dynasore did not decrease quantum dot trafficking rates; lowering of temperature decreased transmonolayer resistance by approximately 90% with a concomitant increase in quantum dot trafficking by about 80%; and 24 hours of treatment of RAECM with EGTA decreased transmonolayer resistance by about 95%, with increased quantum dot trafficking of up to approximately 130%. Conclusion These data indicate that quantum dots do not injure RAECM and that quantum dot trafficking does not appear to take place via endocytic pathways involving caveolin, clathrin, or dynamin. We conclude that quantum dot translocation across RAECM takes place via both transcellular and

  15. Hepatitis C: viral and host factors associated with non-response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Estrabaud, Emilie; Bieche, Ivan; Lapalus, Martine; De Muynck, Simon; Vidaud, Michel; Saadoun, David; Soumelis, Vassili; Marcellin, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has evolved considerably in the last years. The standard of care (SOC) for HCV infection consists in the combination of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin. However, it only induces a sustained virological response (SVR) in half of genotype 1-infected patients. Several viral and host factors have been associated with non-response: steatosis, obesity, insulin resistance, age, male sex, ethnicity and genotypes. Many studies have demonstrated that in non-responders, some interferon-stimulated genes were upregulated before treatment. Those findings associated to clinical, biochemical and histological data may help detect responders before starting any treatment. This is a very important issue because the standard treatment is physically and economically demanding. The future of HCV treatment would probably consist in the addition of specifically targeted antiviral therapy for HCV such as protease and/or polymerase inhibitors to the SOC. In genotype 1 patients, very promising results have been reported when the protease inhibitor telaprevir or boceprevir is added to the SOC. It increases the SVR rates from approximately 50% (PEG-IFN plus ribavirin) to 70% (for patients treated with a combination of PEG-IFN plus ribavirin plus telaprevir). Different elements are associated with non-response: (i) viral factors, (ii) host factors and (iii) molecular mechanisms induced by HCV proteins to inhibit the IFN signalling pathway. The goal of this review is to present the mechanisms of non-response, to overcome it and to identify factors that can help to predict the response to anti-HCV therapy. PMID:20633102

  16. Tuning PEGylation of mixed micelles to overcome intracellular and systemic siRNA delivery barriers

    PubMed Central

    Miteva, Martina; Kirkbride, Kellye C.; Kilchrist, Kameron V.; Werfel, Thomas A.; Li, Hongmei; Nelson, Christopher E.; Gupta, Mukesh K.; Giorgio, Todd D.; Duvall, Craig L.

    2017-01-01

    A series of endosomolytic mixed micelles was synthesized from two diblock polymers, poly[ethylene glycol-b-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-co-propylacrylic acid-co-butyl methacrylate)] (PEG-b-pDPB) and poly[dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-b-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-co-propylacrylic acid-co-butyl methacrylate)] (pD-b-pDPB), and used to determine the impact of both surface PEG density and PEG molecular weight on overcoming both intracellular and systemic siRNA delivery barriers. As expected, the percent PEG composition and PEG molecular weight in the corona had an inverse relationship with mixed micelle zeta potential and rate of cellular internalization. Although mixed micelles were internalized more slowly, they generally produced similar gene silencing bioactivity (~80% or greater) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells as the micelles containing no PEG (100D/no PEG). The mechanistic explanation for the potent bioactivity of the promising 50 mol% PEG-b-DPB/50 mol% pD-b-pDPB (50D) mixed micelle formulation, despite its relatively low rate of cellular internalization, was further investigated as a function of PEG molecular weight (5 k, 10 k, or 20 k PEG). Results indicated that, although larger molecular weight PEG decreased cellular internalization, it improved cytoplasmic bioavailability due to increased intracellular unpackaging (quantitatively measured via FRET) and endosomal release. When delivered intravenously in vivo, 50D mixed micelles with a larger molecular weight PEG in the corona also demonstrated significantly improved blood circulation half-life (17.8 min for 20 k PEG micelles vs. 4.6 min for 5 kDa PEG micelles) and a 4-fold decrease in lung accumulation. These studies provide new mechanistic insights into the functional effects of mixed micelle-based approaches to nanocarrier surface PEGylation. Furthermore, the ideal mixed micelle formulation identified (50D/20 k PEG) demonstrated desirable intracellular and systemic pharmacokinetics and thus

  17. Translocation of PEGylated quantum dots across rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Fazlollahi, Farnoosh; Sipos, Arnold; Kim, Yong Ho; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D

    2011-01-01

    In this study, primary rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECM) were used to investigate transalveolar epithelial quantum dot trafficking rates and underlying transport mechanisms. Trafficking rates of quantum dots (PEGylated CdSe/ZnS, core size 5.3 nm, hydrodynamic size 25 nm) in the apical-to-basolateral direction across RAECM were determined. Changes in bioelectric properties (ie, transmonolayer resistance and equivalent active ion transport rate) of RAECM in the presence or absence of quantum dots were measured. Involvement of endocytic pathways in quantum dot trafficking across RAECM was assessed using specific inhibitors (eg, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, chlorpromazine, and dynasore for caveolin-, clathrin-, and dynamin-mediated endocytosis, respectively). The effects of lowering tight junctional resistance on quantum dot trafficking were determined by depleting Ca(2+) in apical and basolateral bathing fluids of RAECM using 2 mM EGTA. Effects of temperature on quantum dot trafficking were studied by lowering temperature from 37°C to 4°C. Apical exposure of RAECM to quantum dots did not elicit changes in transmonolayer resistance or ion transport rate for up to 24 hours; quantum dot trafficking rates were not surface charge-dependent; methyl-β-cyclodextrin, chlorpromazine, and dynasore did not decrease quantum dot trafficking rates; lowering of temperature decreased transmonolayer resistance by approximately 90% with a concomitant increase in quantum dot trafficking by about 80%; and 24 hours of treatment of RAECM with EGTA decreased transmonolayer resistance by about 95%, with increased quantum dot trafficking of up to approximately 130%. These data indicate that quantum dots do not injure RAECM and that quantum dot trafficking does not appear to take place via endocytic pathways involving caveolin, clathrin, or dynamin. We conclude that quantum dot translocation across RAECM takes place via both transcellular and paracellular pathways and, based on

  18. Anti-leukemic mechanisms of pegylated arginase I in acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, K; Hernandez, CP; Raber, P; Valle, L Del; Wilk, AM; Majumdar, S; Wyczechowska, D; Reiss, K; Rodriguez, PC

    2013-01-01

    New treatments for adults with acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia (T-ALL) are urgently needed, as the current rate of overall remission in these patients is only about 40 percent. We recently showed the potential therapeutic benefit of the pegylated-human-arginase I (peg-Arg I) in T-ALL. However, the mechanisms by which peg-Arg I induces an anti-T-ALL effect remained unknown. Our results show the induction of T-ALL cell apoptosis by peg-Arg I, which associated with a global arrest in protein synthesis and with the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic-translation-initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α). Inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation in T-ALL cells prevented the apoptosis induced by peg-Arg I, whereas the expression of a phosphomimetic eIF2α form increased the sensibility of T-ALL cells to peg-Arg I. Phosphorylation of eIF2α by peg-Arg I was mediated through kinases PERK and GCN2 and down-regulation of phosphatase GADD34. GCN2 and decreased GADD34 promoted T-ALL cell apoptosis after treatment with peg-Arg I, whereas PERK had an unexpected anti-apoptotic role. Additional results showed that phospho-eIF2α signaling further increased the anti-leukemic effects induced by peg-Arg I in T-ALL-bearing mice. These results suggest the central role of phospho-eIF2α in the anti-T-ALL effects induced by peg-Arg I and support its study as a therapeutic target. PMID:22926702

  19. PEGylated Curcumin Derivative Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis via CREB/PPAR-γ/CD36 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Cheng, Fei; Luo, Yuxuan; Zhan, Zhu; Ren, Hong; Tang, Huadong

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin has the potential to cure dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, its therapeutic effects are curbed by poor bioavailability. Our previous work has shown that modification of curcumin with polyethylene glycol (PEG) improves blood concentration and tissue distribution. This study sought to investigate the role of a novel PEGylated curcumin derivative (Curc-mPEG454) in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in a high-fat-diet- (HFD-) fed C57BL/6J mouse model. Mice were fed either a control chow diet (D12450B), an HFD (D12492) as the NAFLD model, or an HFD with Curc-mPEG454 administered by intraperitoneal injection at 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg for 16 weeks. We found that Curc-mPEG454 significantly lowered the body weight and serum triglyceride (TG) levels and reduced liver lipid accumulation in HFD-induced NAFLD mice. It was also shown that Curc-mPEG454 suppressed the HFD-induced upregulated expression of CD36 and hepatic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), a positive regulator of CD36. Moreover, Curc-mPEG454 dramatically activated cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, which negatively controls hepatic PPAR-γ expression. These findings suggest that Curc-mPEG454 reverses HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via the activation of CREB inhibition of the hepatic PPAR-γ/CD36 pathway, which may be an effective therapeutic for high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD. PMID:28770225

  20. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, melphalan and prednisone therapy for elderly patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    García-Sanz, R; Hernández, J M; Sureda, A; García-Laraña, J; Prósper, F; Alegre, A; Bárez, A; Mateos, M V; San Miguel, J F

    2006-12-01

    Melphalan & Prednisone (MP) is considered as the standard therapy for Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients not eligible for high-dose therapy. Here, we report the results of a phase I-II study to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the association of PLD to the conventional MP regimen during the first six cycles of the front-line therapy for untreated MM patients older than 70. Thirty patients were included in the study with a median age of 77 years (71-84) and a M/F ratio of 17/13. The phase I of the study demonstrated that the maximum tolerable dose of PLD in this setting was 30 mg/m(2), so it was the final dose evaluated in the study. Twenty-nine patients were valuable for response, which was: complete in 4 (14%) partial in 15 (52%) minor/no changes in 7 (24%) and progressive in 3 (10%). The median progression free survival (PFS) was 24 months. The median overall survival (OS) has not been reached yet, with a 3-year probability for OS and PFS of 52 and 37%, respectively. Haematological toxicity was frequent but usually weak/moderate (grades 1 & 2 of the WHO scale) and it was resolved only with dose delays. Infection was a relatively frequent event (30% of patients), but only in 4 cases it was of grade 3. No cases of palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia were observed. In conclusion, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin can be safely added to the other chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of elderly MM patients, which can be very useful for patients in whom novel agents are not tolerated or inefficient.

  1. Pegylated interferon fractal pharmacokinetics: individualized dosing for hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mamta K; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Alder, Lara; Lee, William M; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2013-03-01

    Despite recent advances in hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutics, the combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEGIFN/RBV) remains the cornerstone of treatment. Optimization and individualization of PEGIFN dosing could improve outcomes. Week one PEGIFN serum concentrations in 42 HCV genotype 1-infected patients treated with conventional PEGIFN/RBV were analyzed using multicompartmental pharmacokinetic models. For each patient, pharmacokinetic parameter estimates, weight, age, interleukin-28B (IL-28B) single-nucleotide polymorphism, CD4 count, baseline HCV RNA, gender, race, and HIV status were examined using classification and regression tree analysis to identify factors predictive of sustained viral response (SVR). Survival analysis was performed to compare the time to undetectable viral load in patients with and without the highest scoring predictor. PEGIFN concentrations varied at least 87-fold. Pharmacokinetics were best described by a two-compartment model with an 8.4-h absorption lag. Patient weight correlated with PEGIFN systemic clearance based on fractal geometry relationships. SVR was achieved in 36% of patients; a PEGIFN cumulative 1-week area under the curve (AUC) of ≤0.79 mg · h/liter scored highest in predicting poor response, followed by a weight of ≥93.7 kg. Patients with a PEGIFN AUC of >0.79 mg · h/liter achieved undetectable viral load more rapidly than those with a lower AUC (hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.04). PEGIFN exhibits wide pharmacokinetic variability, mainly driven by patient weight, so that the standard dose may not reach levels needed to achieve SVR. Optimizing dose to patient weight and PEGIFN AUC in the first week offers a solution to improve SVR and to potentially shorten duration of therapy.

  2. Development, Optimization, and Characterization of PEGylated Nanoemulsion of Prostaglandin E1 for Long Circulation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Miao; Hu, Huijing; Liu, Daozhou; Zhou, Siyuan

    2016-04-01

    Lipo-PGE1 is the most widely used formulation of PGE1 in clinic. However, PGE1 is easier to leak out from lipo-PGE1 and this will lead to the phlebophlogosis when intravenous injection. The stability of lipo-PGE1 in storage and in vivo is also discounted. The aim of this study is to develop a long-circulating prostaglandin E1-loaded nanoemulsion modified with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG) to improve the stability and pharmacokinetics profiles of lipo-PGE1. PEGylated PGE1 nanoemulsion was prepared using a dispersing-homogenized method. The stability of nanoemulsion in 1 month was investigated. Pharmacokinetic studies were employed to evaluate the in vivo profile of the optimized nanoemulsion. The optimized nanoemulsion PGE1-PEG2000(1%)-NE showed an oil droplet size <100 nm with a surface charge of -14 mV. Approximately, 97% of the PGE1 was encapsulated in the nanoemulsion. The particle size, zeta potential, and drug loading of PGE1-PEG2000(1%)-NE were stable in 1 month. After PGE1-PEG2000(1%)-NE was intravenously administered to rats, the area under curve (AUC) and half-life of PGE1 were, respectively, 1.47-fold and 5.98-fold higher than those of lipo-PGE1 (commercial formulation). PGE1-PEG2000(1%)-NE was an ideal formulation for prolonging the elimination time of PGE1. This novel parenteral colloidal delivery system of PGE1 has a promising potential in clinic use.

  3. Modulation of Endosomal Escape of IRQ-PEGylated Nano-carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudhakir, Diky; Akita, Hidetaka; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2011-12-01

    The novel IRQ peptide is one of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) that has ability to induce endosomal escape. It has been demonstrated that IRQ ligand had ability to facilitate an escape of liposomes encapsulating siRNA from the endosomes presumably by fusion-independent mechanism [1,2]. In the present study, we attempted to modulate the intracellular trafficking of IRQ-modified nano-carrier in term of escaping process by changing the lipid composition. The peptide was attached to the terminal end of maleimide group of polyethylene glycol-modified liposomes (IRQ-PEG-Lip). The liposomes were composed of DOTAP, DOPE and cholesterol and it was labeled by water soluble sulpho-rhodamine B (Sr-B). The escape of PEG-coated liposomes was then observed by confocal laser scanning microscope after the endosomes were stained with Lysosensor. The results exhibited that IRQ-PEG-Lip was escaped from endosomal compartment after 1 h transfection when 40% of DOPE was incorporated into the nanostructure comparing to that of PEG-Lip. These results are consistent with the previous results that the IRQ facilitates endosomal escape via independent-mechanism. However, IRQ-PEG-Lip were then completely co-localized in the acidic compartment when density of DOPE was reduced approximately 20%. These results indicated that the utilizing of DOPE is important for the escape process even in the presence of hydrophilic PEG polymer. In conclusion, the regulation of endosomal escape ability of the PEGylated-IRQ nano-carrier was induced by fusion-independent manner as well as fusogenic lipid.

  4. A validated stability-indicating HPLC method for the determination of PEGylated puerarin in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyi; Yu, Boyang; Wang, Naijie; Zhang, Bei; Du, Feng; He, Cheng; Ye, Zuguang

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a validated specific stability-indicating HPLC method for the quantitative determination of PEGylated puerarin (PEG-PUE) in aqueous solutions. The method was validated by subjecting PEG-PUE to forced degradation under stress conditions of acid, alkali, water hydrolysis, and oxidation. Both PEG-PUE and puerarin (PUE) were simultaneously determined and separated on CAPCELL PAK C18 column by gradient elution with 0.2% aqueous phosphoric acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL min(-1) and detection wavelength was set at 250 nm. Both calibration curves showed good linear regression (r> or =0.9998) within test ranges. The LOD and LOQ of PEG-PUE were determined to be 3 and 9 microg mL(-1) respectively. Degradation of PEG-PUE followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with t(1/2) of 59 min at pH 9.0 and 17.79 h at pH 7.4. However, at pH 5.0 and 2.0, there was no significant degradation of PEG-PUE over time. In conclusion, the method was observed to have the necessary specificity, precision, and accuracy, and to be suitable for quantity monitoring the degradation process of PEG-PUE during stability studies. The degradation studies may give insight into useful information for formulation development of PEG-PUE. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Low dose BMP-2 treatment for bone repair using a PEGylated fibrinogen hydrogel matrix.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Dror; Srouji, Samer; Shapira-Schweitzer, Keren; Kossover, Olga; Ivanir, Eran; Kuhn, Gisela; Müller, Ralph; Seliktar, Dror; Livne, Erella

    2013-04-01

    Bone repair strategies utilizing resorbable biomaterial implants aim to stimulate endogenous cells in order to gradually replace the implant with functional repair tissue. These biomaterials should therefore be biodegradable, osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and maintain their integrity until the newly formed host tissue can contribute proper function. In recent years there has been impressive clinical outcomes for this strategy when using osteoconductive hydrogel biomaterials in combination with osteoinductive growth factors such as human recombinant bone morphogenic protein (hrBMP-2). However, the success of hrBMP-2 treatments is not without risks if the factor is delivered too rapidly and at very high doses because of a suboptimal biomaterial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a PEGylated fibrinogen (PF) provisional matrix as a delivery system for low-dose hrBMP-2 treatment in a critical size maxillofacial bone defect model. PF is a semi-synthetic hydrogel material that can regulate the release of physiological doses of hrBMP-2 based on its controllable physical properties and biodegradation. hrBMP-2 release from the PF material and hrBMP-2 bioactivity were validated using in vitro assays and a subcutaneous implantation model in rats. Critical size calvarial defects in mice were treated orthotopically with PF containing 8 μg/ml hrBMP-2 to demonstrate the capacity of these bioactive implants to induce enhanced bone formation in as little as 6 weeks. Control defects treated with PF alone or left empty resulted in far less bone formation when compared to the PF/hrBMP-2 treated defects. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a semi-synthetic biomaterial containing small doses of osteoinductive hrBMP-2 as an effective treatment for maxillofacial bone defects.

  6. Liposomal pegylated doxorubicin and oxaliplatin as salvage chemotherapy in patients with metastatic gastric cancer treated earlier.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Guerriero, Gabriele; Piazze, Juan; Desideri, Giovambattista; Necozione, Stefano; Rea, Silvio

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity and safety of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and oxaliplatin (LOHP) as salvage chemotherapy in patients with metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) who had earlier been treated with docetaxel, capecitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin. Treatment consisted of PLD (40 mg/m(2)) and LOHP (120 mg/m(2)) administered over 2 days, every 3 weeks. Response to therapy was assessed using the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors; toxicity was evaluated by the National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria (version 2.0). Thirty-six patients with pretreated MGC and a mean age of 66 years were recruited for the study. After a median follow-up of 11 months and 202 courses of chemotherapy administered (median, five courses per patient), the overall response rate in the 36 evaluable patients was estimated to be 28%. Grades 3 and 4 hematological toxicities were neutropenia in 44% of patients, grade 2-3 diarrhea in 14% of patients, and grade 2 neuropathy in 12 patients. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 5.8 and 9.2 months, respectively, with 1-year survival rate of 36%, [95% confidence interval (CI): 21-54%]. Median survival time from the diagnosis of metastatic disease was 31.5 months. Seventy-two percent of patients (n=26) (95% CI: 58-88%) obtained a clinical benefit from this chemotherapy regimen. PLD and LOHP is an active regimen, able to give palliation in a substantial percentage of MCG patients who have been pretreated with taxanes.

  7. Modeling pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-induced hand-foot syndrome and intestinal mucositis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yau-Hung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yun-Chen; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has been widely used to treat cancer. The adverse effects of PLD noted in clinical practice, especially hand-foot syndrome (HFS), are regarded as unique, and the management methods for them remain limited. This study was aimed at developing a feasible experimental model for translational medicine to solve this clinical issue by using skin fluorescent transgenic zebrafish. We established an optimal protocol for the administration of Lipo-Dox™, a PLD in current clinical use, to the Tg(k18:dsred) zebrafish line expressing red fluorescence in keratinocytes. We made use of bodyweight, survival rate, gross observation, flssuorescent microscopic assessment, and pathological examination of the zebrafish to assess this model. The consecutive administration protocol of PLD resulted in growth retardation of the zebrafish embryo and survival impairment, indicating establishment of a significant toxicity. We observed fin necrosis and keratinocyte dissociation phenotypes in the PLD-treated fish after consecutive administration. The skin toxicity induced by the Lipo-Dox injection was subsequently reversible, which might be compatible with a clinical course of skin recovery after discontinuation of Lipo-Dox administration. Furthermore, we found that the number of intestinal goblet cells, an important marker of intestinal inflammation, in the Lipo-Dox-injected zebrafish was markedly increased, accompanied by impaired mucosal integrity. The intestinal inflammation induced by Lipo-Dox resembled the intestinal mucositis the clinical patients suffered from after the administration of PLD. In conclusion, we established a zebrafish model for PLD-induced HFS. The intestinal mucositis simultaneously noted in the PLD-treated zebrafish validated the similarity of clinical courses after administration of PLD. This model is easily assessable, efficient, and worthy for use in developing a new therapeutic protocol for prevention or treatment of HFS as well

  8. Aqueous Synthesis of PEGylated Quantum Dots with Increased Colloidal Stability and Reduced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Mehriban; Jonczyk, Rebecca; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Springer, Sergej; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Stahl, Frank; Green, Mark; Scheper, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    Ligands used on the surface of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) have a significant impact on physiochemical properties of NPs and their interaction in biological environments. In this study, we report a one-pot aqueous synthesis of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-functionalized CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (Qdots) in the presence of thiol-terminated methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) molecules as a surface coordinating ligand. The resulting mPEG-Qdots were characterized by using ζ potential, FTIR, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and microscale thermophoresis (MST) studies. We investigated the effect of mPEG molecules and their grafting density on the Qdots photophysical properties, colloidal stability, protein binding affinity, and in vitro cellular toxicity. Moreover, cellular binding features of the resulting Qdots were examined by using three-dimensional (3D) tumor-like spheroids, and the results were discussed in detail. Promisingly, mPEG ligands were found to increase colloidal stability of Qdots, reduce adsorption of proteins to the Qdot surface, and mitigate Qdot-induced side effects to a great extent. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that PEGylated Qdots exhibited distinctive cellular interactions with respect to their mPEG grafting density. As a result, mPEG molecules demonstrated a minimal effect on the ZnS shell deposition and the Qdot fluorescence efficiency at a low mPEG density, whereas they showed pronounced effect on Qdot colloidal stability, protein binding affinity, cytotoxicity, and nonspecific binding at a higher mPEG grafting amount.

  9. Formation of Pegylated polyurethane and Lysine-coated polyurea nanoparticles obtained from O/W nano-emulsions.

    PubMed

    Morral-Ruíz, Genoveva; Solans, Conxita; García, María Luisa; García-Celma, María José

    2012-04-17

    The present work describes the formation of Pegylated polyurethane and Lysine-coated polyurea nanoparticles obtained from O/W nano-emulsions via an interfacial polycondensation process in the aqueous solution/polysorbate 80/diisocyanate/medium chain triglyceride systems. The initial nano-emulsions were prepared using the phase inversion composition (PIC) method. Dynamic light scattering studies revealed the changes in the particle size occurring during the process of nanoparticle formation. Well-defined polymeric nanoparticles with a small particle diameter (below 80 nm) and low polydispersity index were obtained using a highly hydrophilic component (polyethylene glycol or lysine) and an aliphatic diisocyante monomer. FT-IR and AFM studies showed that the polymeric matrix of nanoparticles was built by copolymers derived from reaction between the diisocyanate and the hydroxyl groups of both nonionic surfactant and the highly hydrophilic component. Pegylated-polyurethane and lysine-coated polyurea nanoparticles designed in this study are promising tools for future applications in biomedical sciences.

  10. Facile Synthesis of PEGylated PLGA Nanoparticles Encapsulating Doxorubicin and its In Vitro Evaluation as Potent Drug Delivery Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajiv; Kulkarni, Apurva; Nabulsi, Jude; Nagesha, Dattatri K; Cormack, Robert; Makrigiorgos, Mike G; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    The advent of nanotechnology has bolstered a variety of nanoparticles based platforms for different biomedical applications. A better understanding for engineering novel nanoparticles for applications in cancer staging and therapy requires careful assessment of the nanoparticle’s physico-chemical properties. Herein we report a facile synthesis method for PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating anti-cancer drug doxorubicin for cancer imaging and therapy. The simple nanoprecipitation method reported here resulted in very robust PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles with close to 95% drug encapsulation efficiency. The nanoparticles showed a size of ~110 nm as characterized by TEM and DLS. The nanoparticles were further characterized by optical UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The encapsulated doxorubicin showed a sustained release (>80%) from the nanoparticles matrix over a period of 8 days. The drug delivery efficiency of the nanoparticles was confirmed in vitro confocal imaging with PC3 and HeLa cell lines. In vitro quantitative estimation of drug accumulation in PC3 cell line showed a 22 times higher concentration of drug in case of nanoparticles based formulation in comparison to free drug and this was further reflected in the in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Overall the synthesis method reported here provides a simple and robust PLGA based platform for efficient drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23914343

  11. Effects of PEGylated lipid nanoparticles on the oral absorption of one BCS II drug: a mechanistic investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingwang; Chen, Guijiang; Zhang, Tianpeng; Ma, Zhiguo; Wu, Baojian

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanocarriers are becoming a versatile platform for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. In this article, we aimed to explore the gastrointestinal behaviors of lipid nanoparticles and the effect of PEGylation on oral absorption of fenofibrate (FN), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) II model drug. FN-loaded PEGylated lipid nanoparticles (FN-PLNs) were prepared by the solvent-diffusion method and characterized by particle size distribution, morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and drug release. Lipolytic experiments were performed to assess the resistance of lipid nanoparticles against pancreatic lipase. Pharmacokinetics was evaluated in rats after oral administration of FN preparations. The obtained FN-PLNs were 186.7 nm in size with an entrapment efficiency of >95%. Compared to conventional lipid nanoparticles, PLNs exhibited slower drug release in the lipase-containing medium, strikingly reduced mucin binding, and suppressed lipolysis in vitro. Further, oral absorption of FN was significantly enhanced using PLNs with relative bioavailability of 123.9% and 157.0% to conventional lipid nanoparticles and a commercial formulation (Lipanthyl(®)), respectively. It was demonstrated that reduced mucin trapping, suppressed lipolysis, and/or improved mucosal permeability were responsible for increased oral absorption. These results facilitated a better understanding of the in vivo fate of lipid nanoparticles, and suggested the potential of PLNs as oral carriers of BCS II drugs.

  12. Enzyme-Sensitive and Amphiphilic PEGylated Dendrimer-Paclitaxel Prodrug-Based Nanoparticles for Enhanced Stability and Anticancer Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Cai, Hao; Jiang, Lei; Hu, Jiani; Bains, Ashika; Hu, Jesse; Gong, Qiyong; Luo, Kui; Gu, Zhongwei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we prepared a smart polymeric vehicle for the hydrophobic drug paclitaxel (PTX) that allowed a maximum steady-state circulation and a fast intracellular release in tumors. PTX was linked to the Janus PEGylated (PEG = poly(ethylene glycol)) peptide dendrimer via an enzyme-sensitive linker glycylphenylalanylleucylglycine tetrapeptide by efficient click reaction, resulting in Janus dendritic prodrug with 20.9% PTX content. The prodrug self-assembled into nanoscale particles with appropriate nanosizes, compact morphology, and negative surface charge. In addition to high stability during circulation, as demonstrated by protein adsorption assays and drug release studies in the cancer's intracellular environment, the nanoparticles were able to quickly release the drug intact in its original molecular structure, as verified via high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses. Compared to free PTX, the enzyme-responsive feature of nanoparticles promoted higher cytotoxicity against 4T1 cancer cells and much lower cytotoxicity against normal cells. The nanoparticles accumulated in the tumor and were retained for an extended period of time, as confirmed by fluorescence imaging. Therefore, these nanoparticles exhibited significantly enhanced antitumor efficiency in the 4T1 breast cancer model as indicated by the observed inhibition of angiogenesis and proliferation as well as induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the nanoparticles reduced the occurrence of side effects, particularly dose-limited toxicities, as monitored by body weight and hematological features. Hence, our Janus PEGylated dendrimer-PTX prodrug-based nanoparticles may potentially serve as nanoscale vehicles for breast cancer therapy.

  13. Effect of Relative Arrangement of Cationic and Lipophilic Moieties on Hemolytic and Antibacterial Activities of PEGylated Polyacrylates

    PubMed Central

    Punia, Ashish; Lee, Kevin; He, Edward; Mukherjee, Sumit; Mancuso, Andrew; Banerjee, Probal; Yang, Nan-Loh

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic amphiphilic polymers have been established as potentially efficient agents to combat widespread deadly infections involving antibiotic resistant superbugs. Incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains into amphiphilic copolymers can reduce their hemolytic activity while maintaining high antibacterial activity. Our study found that the incorporation of PEG has substantially different effects on the hemolytic and antibacterial activities of copolymers depending on structural variations in the positions of cationic centers relative to hydrophobic groups. The PEG side chains dramatically reduced the hemolytic activities in copolymers with hydrophobic hexyl and cationic groups on the same repeating unit. However, in case of terpolymers with cationic and lipophilic groups placed on separate repeating units, the presence of PEG has significantly lower effect on hemolytic activities of these copolymers. PEGylated terpolymers displayed substantially lower activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) than Escherichia coli (E. coli) suggesting the deterring effect of S. aureus’ peptidoglycan cell wall against the penetration of PEGylated polymers. Time-kill studies confirmed the bactericidal activity of these copolymers and a 5 log reduction in E. coli colony forming units was observed within 2 h of polymer treatment. PMID:26473831

  14. PEGylated polypeptide lipid nanocapsules to enhance the anticancer efficacy of erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghwan; Ramasamy, Thiruganesh; Choi, Ju Yeon; Kim, Ssang Tae; Youn, Yu Seok; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a core-shell type polypeptide-based lipid nanocapsule was developed to enhance anticancer efficacy of erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancers. Mean particle size of PEGylated polypeptide-lipid nanocapsules (PLN) for erlotinib (ERL) delivery was ∼200nm with an effective surface charge of -20mV. Protective PEGylated polypeptide layer acted as a molecular fence and effectively controlled the diffusion of erlotinib from the lipid nanocapsule core, whereas pH-responsiveness of poly(L-aspartic acid) accelerated the release of erlotinib in acidic conditions. Blank lipid nanocapsules showed excellent biocompatibility. ERL-loaded PLN (ERL-PLN) showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity in NCI-H358 and HCC-827 lung cancer cells. ERL-PLN treatment resulted in a superior tumor regression profile in a xenograft tumor model, compared to free ERL and control, suggesting high therapeutic efficacy. ERL-PLN-treated mice showed 5- and 2-fold smaller tumor volume compared to control and free ERL groups, respectively. Based on these results, PLN provide a promising drug delivery approach for lung cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stealth filaments: polymer chain length and conformation affect the in vivo fate of PEGylated potato virus X

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Karin L.; Shukla, Sourabh; Wu, Mengzhi; Ayat, Nadia R.; El Sanadi, Caroline E.; Wen, Amy M.; Edelbrock, John F.; Pokorski, Jonathan K.; Commandeur, Ulrich; Dubyak, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles hold great promise for delivering medical cargos to cancerous tissues to enhance contrast and sensitivity of imaging agents or to increase specificity and efficacy of therapeutics. A growing body of data suggests that nanoparticle shape, in combination with surface chemistry, affects their in vivo fates, with elongated filaments showing enhanced tumor targeting and tissue penetration, while promoting immune evasion. The synthesis of high aspect ratio filamentous materials at the nanoscale remains challenging using synthetic routes; therefore we turned toward nature’s materials, developing and studying the filamentous structures formed by the plant virus potato virus X (PVX). We recently demonstrated that PVX shows enhanced tumor homing in various preclinical models. Like other nanoparticle systems, the proteinaceous platform is cleared from circulation and tissues by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). To increase bioavailability we set out to develop PEGylated stealth filaments and evaluate the effects of PEG chain length and conformation on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, as well as potential immune and inflammatory responses. We demonstrate that PEGylation effectively reduces immune recognition while increasing pharmacokinetic profiles. Stealth filaments show biodistribution consistent with MPS clearance mechanisms; the protein:polymer hybrids are cleared from the body indicating biodegradability and biocompatibility. Tissue compatibility is indicated with no apparent inflammatory signaling in vivo. Tailoring PEG chain length and conformation (brush vs. mushroom) allows tuning of the pharmacokinetics, yielding long-circulating stealth filaments for applications in nanomedicine. PMID:25769228

  16. DNA/polyethylenimine transfection particles: influence of ligands, polymer size, and PEGylation on internalization and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ogris, M; Steinlein, P; Carotta, S; Brunner, S; Wagner, E

    2001-01-01

    Receptor-binding ligands have been incorporated into DNA/polyethylenimine (PEI) complexes to enhance cell binding and cellular internalization. This study characterizes receptor-mediated uptake of DNA/PEI complexes on a cellular basis. A novel assay based on flow cytometry was applied, discriminating between total cell-associated and extracellularly bound DNA complexes. Receptor-mediated uptake of ligand-containing DNA/PEI (molecular weight, 800 kd) complexes was found to occur quickly (within 1 hour), whereas unspecific uptake through adsorptive endocytosis is less efficient or requires extended periods to reach the same degree of internalization. Rapid, receptor-mediated internalization requires a small complex size; however, large, aggregated complexes show higher gene expression. Using PEI 25 kd conjugated to large proteins such as transferrin or antibodies, improper condensation with DNA leads to suboptimal uptake and gene expression, whereas partial replacement of ligand-PEI with unconjugated PEI increases both uptake and transfection. In contrast, the 8 kd protein epidermal growth factor conjugated to PEI 25 kd properly condenses DNA and mediates specific uptake into human adenocarcinoma (KB) cells. Modification of the complex surface with appropriate amounts of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) does not block ligand-mediated internalization. A higher degree of PEGylation reduces the internalization of transferrin or antibody-containing complexes to a level similar to that of ligand-free complexes. In contrast, epidermal growth factor "mediated uptake is less effected by excessive PEGylation.

  17. Enhanced drug delivery via hyperthermal membrane disruption using targeted gold nanoparticles with PEGylated Protein-G as a cofactor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinghua; Zhang, Guandong; Keynton, Robert S; O'Toole, Martin G; Patel, Dhruvinkumar; Gobin, Andre M

    2013-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with near infrared (NIR) plasmon resonance have been promisingly used in photothermal cancer therapy as a less invasive treatment. Recombinant Protein-G (ProG) was PEGylated to act as a cofactor to immobilize immunoglobulins (IgGs) on GNPs by the Fc region, resulting in optimal orientation of IgGs for efficient cancer targeting. In-vitro studies showed that HER-2 overexpressing breast cancer cells, SK-BR-3, were efficiently targeted and ablated at a laser power of 900 J/cm(2) (5 W/cm(2) for 3 min). However, as a means of enhancing treatment efficacy by increasing cellular sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents, we showed that GNP exposure to lower power laser resulted in small disruptions of cell membrane due to localized hyperthermia. This did not lead to cell death but provided a mechanism for killing cancer cells by providing enhanced uptake of drug molecules thus leading to a new avenue for hyperthermia-anticancer drug combined cancer therapeutics. PEGylated recombinant Protein-G was used as a cofactor to optimize the orientation of IgGs providing "target seeking" properties to gold nanoparticles used in photothermal cancer therapy. The system demonstrated excellent properties in cancer therapy, with the hope and expectation of future clinical translation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution and Cellular Uptake of PEGylated Polymeric Particles in the Lung Towards Cell-Specific Targeted Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tammy W.; Fromen, Catherine A.; Kai, Marc P.; Luft, J. Christopher; Rahhal, Tojan B.; Robbins, Gregory R.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the role of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) surface coating to increase residence times and alter the cellular fate of nano- and microparticles delivered to the lung. Methods Three sizes of PRINT hydrogel particles (80×320 nm, 1.5 and 6 um donuts) with and without a surface PEG coating were instilled in the airways of C57/b6 mice. At time points of 1, 7, and 28 days, BALF and whole lungs were evaluated for the inflammatory cytokine Il-6 and chemokine MIP-2, histopathology, cellular populations of macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and granulocytes, and particulate uptake within these cells through flow cytometry, ELISAs, and fluorescent imaging. Results Particles of all sizes and surface chemistries were readily observed in the lung with minimal inflammatory response at all time points. Surface modification with PEGylation was found to significantly increase lung residence times and homogeneous lung distribution, delaying macrophage clearance of all sizes, with the largest increase in residence time observed for 80×320 nm particles. Additionally, it was observed that DCs were recruited to the airway following administration of unPEGylated particles and preferentially associated with these particles. Conclusions Pulmonary drug delivery vehicles designed with a PEG surface coating can be used to delay particle uptake and promote cell-specific targeting of therapeutics. PMID:26002743

  19. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and blood compatibility of native and PEGylated tobacco mosaic virus nano-rods and -spheres in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bruckman, Michael A.; Randolph, Lauren N.; VanMeter, Allen; Hern, Stephen; Shoffstall, Andrew J.; Taurog, Rebecca E.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the pharmacokinetics, blood compatibility, biodistribution and clearance properties of nanoparticles is of great importance to their translation to clinical application. In this paper we report the biodistribution and pharmacokinetic properties of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in the forms of 300×18 nm rods and 54 nm-sized spheres. The availability of rods and spheres made of the same protein provides a unique scaffold to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on in vivo fate. For enhanced biocompatibility, we also considered a PEGylated formulation. Overall, the versions of nanoparticles exhibited comparable in vivo profiles; a few differences were noted: data indicate that rods circulate longer than spheres, illustrating the effect that shape plays on circulation. Also, PEGylation increased circulation times. We found that macrophages in the liver and spleen cleared the TMV rods and spheres from circulation. In the spleen, the viral nanoparticles trafficked through the marginal zone before eventually co-localizing in B-cell follicles. TMV rods and spheres were cleared from the liver and spleen within days with no apparent changes in histology, it was noted that spheres are more rapidly cleared from tissues compared to rods. Further, blood biocompatibility was supported, as none of the formulations induced clotting or hemolysis. This work lays the foundation for further application and tailoring of TMV for biomedical applications. PMID:24418549

  20. Effects of PEGylated lipid nanoparticles on the oral absorption of one BCS II drug: a mechanistic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingwang; Chen, Guijiang; Zhang, Tianpeng; Ma, Zhiguo; Wu, Baojian

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanocarriers are becoming a versatile platform for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. In this article, we aimed to explore the gastrointestinal behaviors of lipid nanoparticles and the effect of PEGylation on oral absorption of fenofibrate (FN), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) II model drug. FN-loaded PEGylated lipid nanoparticles (FN-PLNs) were prepared by the solvent-diffusion method and characterized by particle size distribution, morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and drug release. Lipolytic experiments were performed to assess the resistance of lipid nanoparticles against pancreatic lipase. Pharmacokinetics was evaluated in rats after oral administration of FN preparations. The obtained FN-PLNs were 186.7 nm in size with an entrapment efficiency of >95%. Compared to conventional lipid nanoparticles, PLNs exhibited slower drug release in the lipase-containing medium, strikingly reduced mucin binding, and suppressed lipolysis in vitro. Further, oral absorption of FN was significantly enhanced using PLNs with relative bioavailability of 123.9% and 157.0% to conventional lipid nanoparticles and a commercial formulation (Lipanthyl®), respectively. It was demonstrated that reduced mucin trapping, suppressed lipolysis, and/or improved mucosal permeability were responsible for increased oral absorption. These results facilitated a better understanding of the in vivo fate of lipid nanoparticles, and suggested the potential of PLNs as oral carriers of BCS II drugs. PMID:25473287

  1. Imaging, Autoradiography, and Biodistribution of 188Re-Labeled PEGylated Nanoliposome in Orthotopic Glioma Bearing Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Feng-Yun J.; Lee, Te-Wei; Kao, Chih-Hao K.; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Zhang, Xiaoning; Lee, Wan-Yu; Chen, Wan-Jou; Wang, Shu-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The 188Re-labeled pegylated nanoliposome (abbreviated as 188Re-Liposome) was prepared and evaluated for its potential as a theragnostic agent for glioma. 188Re-BMEDA complex was loaded into the pegylated liposome core with pH 5.5 ammonium sulfate gradient to produce 188Re-Liposome. Orthotopic Fischer344/F98 glioma tumor-bearing rats were prepared and intravenously injected with 188Re-Liposome. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetic study, autoradiography (ARG), histopathology, and nano-SPECT/CT imaging were conducted for the animal model. The result showed that 188Re-Liposome accumulated in the brain tumor of the animal model from 0.28%±0.09% injected dose (ID)/g (n=3) at 1 hour to a maximum of 1.95%±0.35% ID/g (n=3) at 24 hours postinjection. The tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratio (T/N ratio) increased from 3.5 at 1 hour to 32.5 at 24 hours. Both ARG and histopathological images clearly showed corresponding tumor regions with high T/N ratios. Nano-SPECT/CT detected a very clear tumor image from 4 hours till 48 hours. This study reveals the potential of 188Re-Liposome as a theragnostic agent for brain glioma. PMID:22145660

  2. The in vitro kinetics of the interactions between PEG-ylated magnetic-fluid-loaded liposomes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Martina, Marie-Sophie; Nicolas, Valerie; Wilhelm, Claire; Ménager, Christine; Barratt, Gillian; Lesieur, Sylviane

    2007-10-01

    Binding and uptake kinetics of magnetic-fluid-loaded liposomes (MFL) by endocytotic cells were investigated in vitro on the model cell-line J774. MFL consisted of unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles (mean hydrodynamic diameter close to 200nm) encapsulating 8-nm nanocrystals of maghemite (gamma-Fe(2)O(3)) and sterically stabilized by introducing 5mol% of distearylphosphatidylcholine poly(ethylene glycol)(2,000) (DSPE-PEG(2,000)) in the vesicle bilayer. The association processes with living macrophages were followed at two levels. On one hand, the lipid vesicles were imaged by confocal fluorescence microscopy. For this purpose 1mol% of rhodamine-marked phosphatidylethanolamine was added to the liposome composition. On the other hand, the iron oxide particles associated with cells were independently quantified by magnetophoresis. All the experiments were similarly performed with PEG-ylated or conventional MFL to point out the role of polymer coating. The results showed cell association with both types of liposomes resulting from binding followed by endocytosis. Steric stabilization by PEG chains reduced binding efficiency limiting the amount of MFL internalized by the macrophages. In contrast, PEG coating did not change the kinetics of endocytosis which exhibited the same first-order rate constant for both conventional and PEG-ylated liposomes. Moreover, lipids and iron oxide particle uptakes were perfectly correlated, indicating that MFL vesicle structure and encapsulation rate were preserved upon cell penetration.

  3. In vitro and in vivo characteristics of core-shell type nanogel particles: optimization of core cross-linking density and surface poly(ethylene glycol) density in PEGylated nanogels.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masato; Ichinohe, Satoshi; Tamura, Atsushi; Ikeda, Yutaka; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2011-09-01

    The biocompatibility and body distribution of PEGylated polyamine nanogels composed of chemically cross-linked poly(2-N,N-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PEAMA) gel cores surrounded by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains were investigated to evaluate their feasibility as drug nanocarriers for systemic administration. PEGylated nanogels with different cross-linking densities (1, 2, and 5mol.%) were prepared to evaluate their biocompatibilities by in vitro cytotoxicity assay, hemolysis assay, and in vivo acute toxicity assay. The toxic effect of the PEGylated nanogels derived from polyamine gel cores was significantly reduced when the cross-linking density was increased, and those with a cross-linking density of 5mol.% showed a remarkably high median lethal dose (LD(50)) value >200mgkg(-1),despite the abundance of amino groups in the core. One hour after intravenous injection the PEGylated nanogels were found to have been eliminated from the systemic circulation, and less than 1% of the injected dose (ID) remained in the bloodstream. To improve the blood circulation time by increasing the surface PEG density of the PEGylated nanogels post-PEGylation of the PEGylated nanogels (via the Menschutkin reaction between tertiary amines of the PEAMA gel core and bromobenzyl-terminated short PEG) was carried out. A biodistribution study of these post-PEGylated nanogels revealed that the blood circulation time of the nanogels was definitely prolonged as the PEG content was increased. Therefore, the precise design of PEGylated nanogels with increased cross-linking densities in their polyamine gel cores and increased surface PEG densities seems promising for systemic applications. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Self locking coupling mechanism for engaging and moving a load

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Richard L.; Casamajor, Alan B.; Parsons, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    Coupling mechanism (11) for engaging and lifting a load (12) has a housing (19) with a guide passage (18) for receiving a knob (13) which is secured to the load (12) through a neck (15) of smaller diameter. A hollow ball (23) in the housing (19) has an opening (27) which receives the knob (13) and the ball (23) is then turned to displace the opening (27) from the housing passage (18) and to cause the neck (15) to enter a slot (29) in the ball (23) thereby securing the load (12) to the coupling mechanism (11) as elements (49) of the housing (19) block travel of the neck (15) back into the opening (27) when the ball (23) is turned to the load holding orientation. As engagement of the load (12) and locking of the coupling mechanism are accomplished simultaneously by the same ball (23) motion, operation is simplified and reliability is greatly increased. The ball (23) is preferably turned by a motor (32) through worm gearing (36) and the coupling mechanism (11) may be controlled from a remote location. Among other uses, the coupling mechanism (11) is adaptable to the handling of spent nuclear reactor fuel elements (12).

  5. Self locking coupling mechanism for engaging and moving a load

    DOEpatents

    Wood, R.L.; Casamajor, A.B.; Parsons, R.E.

    1980-09-12

    A coupling mechanism for engaging and lifting a load has a housing with a guide passage for receiving a knob which is secured to the load through a neck of smaller diameter. A hollow ball in the housing has an opening which receives the knob and the ball is then turned to displace the opening from the housing passage and to cause the neck to enter a slot in the ball thereby securing the load to the coupling mechanism as elements of the housing block travel of the neck back into the opening when the ball is turned to the load holding orientation. As engagement of the load and locking of the coupling mechanism are accomplished simultaneously by the same ball motion, operation is simplified and reliability is greatly increased. The ball is preferably turned by a motor through worm gearing and the coupling mechanism may be controlled from a remote location. Among other uses, the coupling mechanism is adaptable to the handling of spent nuclear reactor fuel elements.

  6. Apparatus for feeding nuclear fuel pellets to a loading tray

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, T.B.

    1981-12-08

    Apparatus for feeding nuclear fuel pellets at a uniform, predetermined rate between pellet centering and grinding apparatus and a tray used for loading pellets into a nuclear fuel rod are described. Pellets discharged from the grinder are conveyed by a woven wire belt to a drive wheel which develops a force available to be applied to pellets preceding it on the belt. The pellets pass under the drive wheel which adds additional weight acting vertically on each pellet. This total weight of pellet and drive wheel coupled with wire belt linear movement acts to push a line of about 36 pellets onto a pellet dumping mechanism. As the dumping mechanism is actuated to dump the pellets on to a loading tray, the pellets moving toward the mechanism are clamped in a stationary position and the drive wheel simultaneously is lifted from its pellet contacting position until the pellet dumping process is completed. The clamping device is then lifted from its pellet and the drive wheel simultaneously is lowered into a pellet contacting position.

  7. Hydration of surfactant-modified and PEGylated cationic cholesterol-based liposomes and corresponding lipoplexes by monitoring a fluorescent probe and the dielectric relaxation time.

    PubMed

    Maitani, Yoshie; Nakamura, Ayako; Tanaka, Takumi; Aso, Yukio

    2012-05-10

    For the optimization of plasmid DNA (pDNA)-cationic lipid complexes and lipoplex delivery, proper indexes of the physicochemical properties of lipoplexes are required. In general, the characteristics of lipoplexes are defined by particle size and zeta-potential at various mixing ratios of cationic liposomes and pDNA. In this study, we characterized the hydration level of surfactant-modified and PEGylated cationic cholesterol-based (OH-Chol) liposomes and their lipoplexes by monitoring both the fluorescent probe laurdan and the dielectric relaxation time. Fluorescence measurement using laurdan detected hydration of the headgroup of lipids in surfactant-modified liposomes and PEGylated DOTAP-liposomes, but hardly any fluorescence was detected in PEGylated OH-Chol-liposomes because the PEG layers may extend and cover the fluorescent maker. On the other hand, the measurement of dielectric relaxation time of water molecules revealed total hydration, including hydration of the PEG layer and the headgroup of cationic lipids. Furthermore, we found an inverse correlation between hydration level and cellular uptake of PEGylated lipoplexes (R=0.946). This finding indicated that the dielectric relaxation time of water molecules provides an important indicator of hydration of liposome and lipoplexes along with the fluorescence intensity of laurdan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus and Graves' disease during treatment with pegylated interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Kataoka, Yuko; Tachikawa, Kazushige; Koguchi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Currently, a combination therapy of pegylated (PEG) interferon (IFN) alpha-2b and ribavirin are being widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We describe here a case of dual onset of type 1 DM accompanied by ketoacidosis, and Graves' disease during the combination therapy via the autoimmune process.

  9. Cysteine as a Monothiol Reducing Agent to Prevent Copper-Mediated Oxidation of Interferon Beta During PEGylation by CuAAC.

    PubMed

    Nairn, Natalie W; Bariola, Pauline A; Graddis, Thomas J; VanBrunt, Michael Pete; Wang, Aijun; Li, Gary; Grabstein, Kenneth

    2015-10-21

    Bioconjugation by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) provides a powerful means to produce site-specifically modified proteins. However, the use of a copper catalyst brings about the possible generation of reactive oxygen species that could cause degradation of vulnerable amino acid residues. We investigated whether PEGylation by CuAAC caused any modifications to the therapeutic protein interferon beta-1b, which was produced via global amino acid substitution with azidohomo-alanine at the N-terminus and contains no methionine residues. Using previously reported reaction conditions, LC-MS peptide mapping detected +32 Da and +48 Da oxidation modifications of tryptic peptides 28-33 (LEYCLK) and 137-147 (EYSHCAWTIVR) in the protein post-PEGylation. The oxidative degradation increased with reaction time, whereas reducing the copper concentration slowed the PEGylation rate as well as the oxidation rate. Replacing dithiothreitol (DTT) with any of five different monothiol reducing agents in anaerobic conditions allowed efficient PEGylation in 2-4 h and abrogated oxidative degradation. Free cysteine provided reproducible reaction results as a reducing agent in this system and has been successfully applied to other protein conjugations. Monothiol reducing agents, such as cysteine, may be useful tools as protective reducing agents for CuAAC in some bioconjugation systems.

  10. PEGylated rhFGF-2 conveys long-term neuroprotection and improves neuronal function in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanghui; Chen, Ganping; Shi, Lu; Feng, Jenny; Wang, Yan; Ye, Chaohui; Feng, Wenke; Niu, Jianlou; Huang, Zhifeng

    2015-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) has a neurotrophic effect on dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo, and exhibits beneficial effects in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The poor stability and short half-life of FGF-2, however, have hampered its clinical use for neurological diseases. In the present study, we modified native recombinant human FGF-2 (rhFGF-2) by covalently attaching polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, named PEGylation, to enhance its neuroprotection efficacy in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced model of PD. In vitro, PEG-rhFGF-2 performed better biostability in 6-OHDA-induced PC-12 cells than native rhFGF-2. The in vivo data showed that, compared with native rhFGF-2, PEGylated rhFGF-2 was more efficacious in preventing 6-OHDA-induced lesion upon tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), improving the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and the 6-OHDA-induced decline in tissue concentration of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites. Importantly, our data showed that the superior pharmacological activity of PEGylated rhFGF-2 is probably due to its greater permeability through the blood-brain barrier and better in vivo stability compared to native rhFGF-2. The enhanced stability and bioavailability of PEGylated rhFGF-2 make this molecule a great therapeutic candidate for neurodegenerative diseases such as PD and mood disorders.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of PEGylated liposome-associated proteins relating to the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon by combination with shotgun analysis and conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Munehira; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Shimizu, Taro; Sagawa, Ikuko; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    PEGylated liposome, sterically stabilized by polyethylene glycol (PEG), results in reduced recognition of the liposome by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Recently, we reported regarding the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon that PEGylated liposome is cleared very rapidly from blood circulation upon repeated injection. Anti-PEG IgM production and subsequent complement activation were crucial in causing the ABC phenomenon. However, there still remains the possibility that unknown plasma factors might affect the fate of PEGylated liposome that is subjected to the ABC phenomenon. A label-free approach to shotgun analysis is a great tool for characterizing proteins in a biological system. In this study, therefore, a shotgun analysis was employed to identify plasma protein bound on PEGylated liposome after the ABC phenomenon was induced in the mouse model. The analysis revealed that immunoglobulin and complement components (C1 and C3) are the major proteins. Subsequent analysis with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting showed that the immunoglobulin was IgM and that the complement system was mainly activated via an anti-PEG IgM-mediated classical pathway. These results support our earlier assumptions-anti-PEG IgM and complement activation were the major causes of the ABC phenomenon. Our proposed analytical strategy would be expected to provide useful information for the development and design of the nanocarrier drug delivery system.

  12. A facile one-pot synthesis of colloidal stable, monodisperse, highly PEGylated CuS@mSiO2 nanocomposites for the combination of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Lin; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-06-11

    A facile one-pot approach was developed for the synthesis of colloidal stable, monodisperse, highly PEGylated mesoporous silica coated copper sulfide nanocomposites for the combination of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy. The proposed method can also be extended to the synthesis of other metal sulfide nanocomposites.

  13. Supramolecular PEGylated Dendritic Systems as pH/Redox Dual-Responsive Theranostic Nanoplatforms for Platinum Drug Delivery and NIR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunkun; Li, Yachao; Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Xianghui; Zhang, Zhijun; Hu, Cheng; He, Yiyan; Gu, Zhongwei

    2016-01-01

    Recently, self-assembling small dendrimers into supramolecular dendritic systems offers an alternative strategy to develop multifunctional nanoplatforms for biomedical applications. We herein report a dual-responsive supramolecular PEGylated dendritic system for efficient platinum-based drug delivery and near-infrared (NIR) tracking. With a refined molecular/supramolecular engineering, supramolecular dendritic systems were stabilized by bioreducible disulfide bonds and endowed with NIR fluorescence probes, and PEGylated platinum derivatives coordinated onto the abundant peripheral groups of supramolecular dendritic templates to generate pH/redox dual-responsive theranostic supramolecular PEGylated dendritic systems (TSPDSs). TSPDSs markedly improved the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of platinum-based drugs, owing to their stable nanostructures and PEGylated shells during the blood circulation. Tumor intracellular environment (low pH value and high glutathione concentration) could trigger the rapid disintegration of TSPDSs due to acid-labile coordination bonds and redox-cleavable disulfide linkages, and then platinum-based drugs were delivered into the nuclei to exert antitumor activity. In vivo antitumor treatments indicated TSPDSs not only provided high antitumor efficiency which was comparable to clinical cisplatin, but also reduced renal toxicity of platinum-based drugs. Moreover, NIR fluorescence of TSPDSs successfully visualized in vitro and in vivo fate of nanoplatforms and disclosed the intracellular platinum delivery and pharmacokinetics. These results confirm tailor-made supramolecular dendritic system with sophisticated nanostructure and excellent performance is a promising candidate as smart theranostic nanoplatforms. PMID:27375780

  14. Biophysical Characterization of Met-G-CSF: Effects of Different Site-Specific Mono-Pegylations on Protein Stability and Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Natalello, Antonino; Ami, Diletta; Collini, Maddalena; D’Alfonso, Laura; Chirico, Giuseppe; Tonon, Giancarlo; Scaramuzza, Silvia; Schrepfer, Rodolfo; Doglia, Silvia Maria

    2012-01-01

    The limited stability of proteins in vitro and in vivo reduces their conversion into effective biopharmaceuticals. To overcome this problem several strategies can be exploited, as the conjugation of the protein of interest with polyethylene glycol, in most cases, improves its stability and pharmacokinetics. In this work, we report a biophysical characterization of the non-pegylated and of two different site-specific mono-pegylated forms of recombinant human methionyl-granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Met-G-CSF), a protein used in chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. In particular, we found that the two mono-pegylations of Met-G-CSF at the N-terminal methionine and at glutamine 135 increase the protein thermal stability, reduce the aggregation propensity, preventing also protein precipitation, as revealed by circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopies and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Interestingly, the two pegylation strategies were found to drastically reduce the polydispersity of Met-G-CSF, when incubated under conditions favouring protein aggregation, as indicated by DLS measurements. Our in vitro results are in agreement with preclinical studies, underlining that preliminary biophysical analyses, performed in the early stages of the development of new biopharmaceutical variants, might offer a useful tool for the identification of protein variants with improved therapeutic values. PMID:22905140

  15. Usefulness of hexamethylenetetramine in combination with chemotherapy using free and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in vivo, referring to the effect on quiescent cells.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Kono, Kenji; Nakamura, Jun; Tano, Keizo; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masami; Kashino, Genro; Suzuki, Minoru; Kinashi, Yuko; Liu, Yong; Ono, Koji

    2009-05-01

    SCC VII tumor-bearing mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all intratumor proliferating (P) cells. They received hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) either once intraperitoneally or continuously subcutaneously together with chemotherapy using intraperitoneally administered free doxorubicin (DXR) or intravenously injected pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). One hour after the free DXR loading or 24 h after the PLD loading, the response of intratumor quiescent (Q) cells was assessed in terms of the micronucleus frequency using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The response of the total (P + Q) tumor cell population was determined from the tumors not treated with BrdU. Encapsulation of DXR into pegylated liposomes significantly enhanced cytotoxicity, especially in Q cells. HMTA, especially when administered continuously, efficiently increased the sensitivity to DXR, particularly in Q cells. The increase in sensitivity on the continuous rather than single administration of HMTA was a little clearer in the total cell population than in Q cells. DXR's encapsulation into pegylated liposomes and combination with HMTA, particularly when administered continuously, apparently reduced the difference in sensitivity to free DXR between the total and Q cell populations. In terms of the tumor cell-killing effect as a whole, including Q cells, the encapsulation of DXR into pegylated liposomes and combination with HMTA, particularly through continuous administration, are very promising, taking into account that HMTA has been used clinically.

  16. Mixed-effects modelling of the interspecies pharmacokinetic scaling of pegylated hum