Bisognin, Andrea; Coppe, Alessandro; Ferrari, Francesco; Risso, Davide; Romualdi, Chiara; Bicciato, Silvio; Bortoluzzi, Stefania
Background Publicly available datasets of microarray gene expression signals represent an unprecedented opportunity for extracting genomic relevant information and validating biological hypotheses. However, the exploitation of this exceptionally rich mine of information is still hampered by the lack of appropriate computational tools, able to overcome the critical issues raised by meta-analysis. Results This work presents A-MADMAN, an open source web application which allows the retrieval, annotation, organization and meta-analysis of gene expression datasets obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus. A-MADMAN addresses and resolves several open issues in the meta-analysis of gene expression data. Conclusion A-MADMAN allows i) the batch retrieval from Gene Expression Omnibus and the local organization of raw data files and of any related meta-information, ii) the re-annotation of samples to fix incomplete, or otherwise inadequate, metadata and to create user-defined batches of data, iii) the integrative analysis of data obtained from different Affymetrix platforms through custom chip definition files and meta-normalization. Software and documentation are available on-line at . PMID:19563634
Over the years scholars have examined the allegorical features of the depiction of madness in Lu Xun's "Diary of a Madman," yet to date little research has taken into consideration the intercultural angle embedded in the narrative's intersection of three cultures, namely Russian, Japanese and Chinese. This paper traces the European-Japanese-Sino route of modern neologisms of madness to explore the introduction of such neologisms into the modern Chinese language and how it corresponds with changing patterns of knowledge and power. I use my study of transculturation on the macro scale to frame a reexamination of the lexicon in "Diary of a Madman." I focus especially on kuangren and pohaikuang, the two key words employed by Lu Xun, to see how they contribute to the ambiguity in his attitude towards the power struggle between the East and the West, the old and the new.
Plomin, Robert; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.
Microarrays are revolutionizing genetics by making it possible to genotype hundreds of thousands of DNA markers and to assess the expression (RNA transcripts) of all of the genes in the genome. Microarrays are slides the size of a postage stamp that contain millions of DNA sequences to which single-stranded DNA or RNA can hybridize. This…
Sidorov, Igor A; Reshetov, Denis A; Gorbalenya, Alexander E
A growing diversity of biological data is tagged with unique identifiers (UIDs) associated with polynucleotides and proteins to ensure efficient computer-mediated data storage, maintenance, and processing. These identifiers, which are not informative for most people, are often substituted by biologically meaningful names in various presentations to facilitate utilization and dissemination of sequence-based knowledge. This substitution is commonly done manually that may be a tedious exercise prone to mistakes and omissions. Here we introduce SNAD (Sequence Name Annotation-based Designer) that mediates automatic conversion of sequence UIDs (associated with multiple alignment or phylogenetic tree, or supplied as plain text list) into biologically meaningful names and acronyms. This conversion is directed by precompiled or user-defined templates that exploit wealth of annotation available in cognate entries of external databases. Using examples, we demonstrate how this tool can be used to generate names for practical purposes, particularly in virology. A tool for controllable annotation-based conversion of sequence UIDs into biologically meaningful names and acronyms has been developed and placed into service, fostering links between quality of sequence annotation, and efficiency of communication and knowledge dissemination among researchers.
Bergmayr, Alexander; Grossniklaus, Michael; Wimmer, Manuel; Kappel, Gerti
The capability of UML profiles to serve as annotation mechanism has been recognized in both research and industry. Today's modeling tools offer profiles specific to platforms, such as Java, as they facilitate model-based engineering approaches. However, considering the large number of possible annotations in Java, manually developing the corresponding profiles would only be achievable by huge development and maintenance efforts. Thus, leveraging annotation-based modeling requires an automated approach capable of generating platform-specific profiles from Java libraries. To address this challenge, we present the fully automated transformation chain realized by Jump, thereby continuing existing mapping efforts between Java and UML by emphasizing on annotations and profiles. The evaluation of Jump shows that it scales for large Java libraries and generates profiles of equal or even improved quality compared to profiles currently used in practice. Furthermore, we demonstrate the practical value of Jump by contributing profiles that facilitate reverse engineering and forward engineering processes for the Java platform by applying it to a modernization scenario.
Petersen, David W; Kawasaki, Ernest S
DNA microarray technology has become a powerful tool in the arsenal of the molecular biologist. Capitalizing on high precision robotics and the wealth of DNA sequences annotated from the genomes of a large number of organisms, the manufacture of microarrays is now possible for the average academic laboratory with the funds and motivation. Microarray production requires attention to both biological and physical resources, including DNA libraries, robotics, and qualified personnel. While the fabrication of microarrays is a very labor-intensive process, production of quality microarrays individually tailored on a project-by-project basis will help researchers shed light on future scientific questions.
Walt, David R
This tutorial review describes how fibre optic microarrays can be used to create a variety of sensing and measurement systems. This review covers the basics of optical fibres and arrays, the different microarray architectures, and describes a multitude of applications. Such arrays enable multiplexed sensing for a variety of analytes including nucleic acids, vapours, and biomolecules. Polymer-coated fibre arrays can be used for measuring microscopic chemical phenomena, such as corrosion and localized release of biochemicals from cells. In addition, these microarrays can serve as a substrate for fundamental studies of single molecules and single cells. The review covers topics of interest to chemists, biologists, materials scientists, and engineers.
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Hancock, Dale; Nguyen, Lisa L.; Denyer, Gareth S.; Johnston, Jill M.
A microarray experiment is presented that, in six laboratory sessions, takes undergraduate students from the tissue sample right through to data analysis. The model chosen, the murine erythroleukemia cell line, can be easily cultured in sufficient quantities for class use. Large changes in gene expression can be induced in these cells by…
Yarmush, Martin L.; King, Kevin R.
Living cells are remarkably complex. To unravel this complexity, living-cell assays have been developed that allow delivery of experimental stimuli and measurement of the resulting cellular responses. High-throughput adaptations of these assays, known as living-cell microarrays, which are based on microtiter plates, high-density spotting, microfabrication, and microfluidics technologies, are being developed for two general applications: (a) to screen large-scale chemical and genomic libraries and (b) to systematically investigate the local cellular microenvironment. These emerging experimental platforms offer exciting opportunities to rapidly identify genetic determinants of disease, to discover modulators of cellular function, and to probe the complex and dynamic relationships between cells and their local environment. PMID:19413510
Here we describe some practical concerns surrounding the scanning of microarray slides that have been hybridized with fluorescent dyes. We use a laser scanner that has two lasers, each set to excite a different fluor, and separate detectors to capture emission from each fluor. The laser passes over an address (position on the scanned surface) and the detectors capture photons emitted from each address. Two superimposed image files are written that carry intensities for each channel for each pixel of the image scan. These are the raw data. Image analysis software is used to identify and summarize the intensities of the pixels that make up each spot. After comparison to background pixels, the processed intensity levels representing the gene expression measurements are associated with the identity of each spot.
Mecklenburg, Michael; Xie, Bin
Microarray technology has revolutionized genetic analysis. However, limitations in genome analysis has lead to renewed interest in establishing 'omic' strategies. As we enter the post-genomic era, new microarray technologies are needed to address these new classes of 'omic' targets, such as proteins, as well as lipids and carbohydrates. We have developed a microarray platform that combines self- assembling monolayers with the biotin-streptavidin system to provide a robust, versatile immobilization scheme. A hydrophobic film is patterned on the surface creating an array of tension wells that eliminates evaporation effects thereby reducing the shear stress to which biomolecules are exposed to during immobilization. The streptavidin linker layer makes it possible to adapt and/or develop microarray based assays using virtually any class of biomolecules including: carbohydrates, peptides, antibodies, receptors, as well as them ore traditional DNA based arrays. Our microarray technology is designed to furnish seamless compatibility across the various 'omic' platforms by providing a common blueprint for fabricating and analyzing arrays. The prototype microarray uses a microscope slide footprint patterned with 2 by 96 flat wells. Data on the microarray platform will be presented.
Miyake, Masato; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Fujita, Satoshi; Miyake, Jun
Microarray transfection has been extensively studied for high-throughput functional analysis of mammalian cells. However, control of efficiency and reproducibility are the critical issues for practical use. By using solid-phase transfection accelerators and nano-scaffold, we provide a highly efficient and reproducible microarray-transfection device, "transfection microarray". The device would be applied to the limited number of available primary cells and stem cells not only for large-scale functional analysis but also reporter-based time-lapse cellular event analysis.
Mecham, Brigham H.; Nelson, Peter S.; Storey, John D.
Motivation: A major challenge in utilizing microarray technologies to measure nucleic acid abundances is ‘normalization’, the goal of which is to separate biologically meaningful signal from other confounding sources of signal, often due to unavoidable technical factors. It is intuitively clear that true biological signal and confounding factors need to be simultaneously considered when performing normalization. However, the most popular normalization approaches do not utilize what is known about the study, both in terms of the biological variables of interest and the known technical factors in the study, such as batch or array processing date. Results: We show here that failing to include all study-specific biological and technical variables when performing normalization leads to biased downstream analyses. We propose a general normalization framework that fits a study-specific model employing every known variable that is relevant to the expression study. The proposed method is generally applicable to the full range of existing probe designs, as well as to both single-channel and dual-channel arrays. We show through real and simulated examples that the method has favorable operating characteristics in comparison to some of the most highly used normalization methods. Availability: An R package called snm implementing the methodology will be made available from Bioconductor (http://bioconductor.org). Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20363728
Beilharz, Traude H; Preiss, Thomas
Nearly all eukaryotic mRNAs terminate in a poly(A) tail that serves important roles in mRNA utilization. In the cytoplasm, the poly(A) tail promotes both mRNA stability and translation, and these functions are frequently regulated through changes in tail length. To identify the scope of poly(A) tail length control in a transcriptome, we developed the polyadenylation state microarray (PASTA) method. It involves the purification of mRNA based on poly(A) tail length using thermal elution from poly(U) sepharose, followed by microarray analysis of the resulting fractions. In this chapter we detail our PASTA approach and describe some methods for bulk and mRNA-specific poly(A) tail length measurements of use to monitor the procedure and independently verify the microarray data.
Taleb, S; Van Haaften, R; Henegar, C; Hukshorn, C; Cancello, R; Pelloux, V; Hanczar, B; Viguerie, N; Langin, D; Evelo, C; Zucker, J; Clément, K; Saris, W H M
Leptin is a secreted adipocyte hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of body weight homeostasis. The leptin effect on human white adipose tissue (WAT) is still debated. The aim of this study was to assess whether the administration of polyethylene glycol-leptin (PEG-OB) in a single supraphysiological dose has transcriptional effects on genes of WAT and to identify its target genes and functional pathways in WAT. Blood samples and WAT biopsies were obtained from 10 healthy nonobese men before treatment and 72 h after the PEG-OB injection, leading to an approximate 809-fold increase in circulating leptin. The WAT gene expression profile before and after the PEG-OB injection was compared using pangenomic microarrays. Functional gene annotations based on the gene ontology of the PEG-OB regulated genes were performed using both an 'in house' automated procedure and GenMAPP (Gene Microarray Pathway Profiler), designed for viewing and analyzing gene expression data in the context of biological pathways. Statistical analysis of microarray data revealed that PEG-OB had a major down-regulated effect on WAT gene expression, as we obtained 1,822 and 100 down- and up-regulated genes, respectively. Microarray data were validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Functional gene annotations of PEG-OB regulated genes revealed that the functional class related to immunity and inflammation was among the most mobilized PEG-OB pathway in WAT. These genes are mainly expressed in the cell of the stroma vascular fraction in comparison with adipocytes. Our observations support the hypothesis that leptin could act on WAT, particularly on genes related to inflammation and immunity, which may suggest a novel leptin target pathway in human WAT.
Austin, John; Holway, Antonia H
A review is provided of contact-printing technologies for the fabrication of planar protein microarrays. The key printing performance parameters for creating protein arrays are reviewed. Solid pin and quill pin technologies are described and their strengths and weaknesses compared.
West, Jay A. A. [Castro Valley, CA; Hukari, Kyle W [San Ramon, CA; Hux, Gary A [Tracy, CA
Disclosed are systems that include a manifold in fluid communication with a microfluidic chip having a microarray, an illuminator, and a detector in optical communication with the microarray. Methods for using these systems for biological detection are also disclosed.
Brewster, Jay L.; Beason, K. Beth; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Evans, Irene M.
In recent years, microarray analysis has become a key experimental tool, enabling the analysis of genome-wide patterns of gene expression. This review approaches the microarray revolution with a focus upon four topics: 1) the early development of this technology and its application to cancer diagnostics; 2) a primer of microarray research,…
Sagarzazu, Gabriel; Bedu, Mélanie; Martinelli, Lucio; Ha, Khoi-Nguyen; Pelletier, Nicolas; Safarov, Viatcheslav I.; Weisbuch, Claude; Gacoin, Thierry; Benisty, Henri
Signal-to-noise ratio is a crucial issue in microarray fluorescence read-out. Several strategies are proposed for its improvement. First, light collection in conventional microarrays scanners is quite limited. It was recently shown that almost full collection can be achieved in an integrated lens-free biosensor, with labelled species hybridizing practically on the surface of a sensitive silicon detector [L. Martinelli et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 083901 (2007)]. However, even with such an improvement, the ultimate goal of real-time measurements during hybridization is challenging: the detector is dazzled by the large fluorescence of labelled species in the solution. In the present paper we show that this unwanted signal can effectively be reduced if the excitation light is confined in a waveguide. Moreover, the concentration of excitation light in a waveguide results in a huge signal gain. In our experiment we realized a structure consisting of a high index sol-gel waveguide deposited on a low-index substrate. The fluorescent molecules deposited on the surface of the waveguide were excited by the evanescent part of a wave travelling in the guide. The comparison with free-space excitation schemes confirms a huge gain (by several orders of magnitude) in favour of waveguide-based excitation. An optical guide deposited onto an integrated biosensor thus combines both advantages of ideal light collection and enhanced surface localized excitation without compromising the imaging properties. Modelling predicts a negligible penalty from spatial cross-talk in practical applications. We believe that such a system would bring microarrays to hitherto unattained sensitivities.
Mary-Huard, Tristan; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Robin, Stéphane; Bitton, Frédérique; Cabannes, Eric; Hilson, Pierre
Background Microarray data must be normalized because they suffer from multiple biases. We have identified a source of spatial experimental variability that significantly affects data obtained with Cy3/Cy5 spotted glass arrays. It yields a periodic pattern altering both signal (Cy3/Cy5 ratio) and intensity across the array. Results Using the variogram, a geostatistical tool, we characterized the observed variability, called here the spotting effect because it most probably arises during steps in the array printing procedure. Conclusions The spotting effect is not appropriately corrected by current normalization methods, even by those addressing spatial variability. Importantly, the spotting effect may alter differential and clustering analysis. PMID:15151695
Over the past several years microarray technology has evolved into a critical component of any discovery based program. Since 1999, the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Microarray Research Group (MARG) has conducted biennial surveys designed to generate a pr...
Jonczyk, Rebecca; Kurth, Tracy; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Scheper, Thomas; Stahl, Frank
Living cell microarrays are a highly efficient cellular screening system. Due to the low number of cells required per spot, cell microarrays enable the use of primary and stem cells and provide resolution close to the single-cell level. Apart from a variety of conventional static designs, microfluidic microarray systems have also been established. An alternative format is a microarray consisting of three-dimensional cell constructs ranging from cell spheroids to cells encapsulated in hydrogel. These systems provide an in vivo-like microenvironment and are preferably used for the investigation of cellular physiology, cytotoxicity, and drug screening. Thus, many different high-tech microarray platforms are currently available. Disadvantages of many systems include their high cost, the requirement of specialized equipment for their manufacture, and the poor comparability of results between different platforms. In this article, we provide an overview of static, microfluidic, and 3D cell microarrays. In addition, we describe a simple method for the printing of living cell microarrays on modified microscope glass slides using standard DNA microarray equipment available in most laboratories. Applications in research and diagnostics are discussed, e.g., the selective and sensitive detection of biomarkers. Finally, we highlight current limitations and the future prospects of living cell microarrays. PMID:27600077
Quality control must be maintained at every step of a microarray experiment, from RNA isolation through statistical evaluation. Here we provide suggestions for analyzing microarray data. Because the utility of the results depends directly on the design of the experiment, the first critical step is to ensure that the experiment can be properly analyzed and interpreted. What is the biological question? What is the best way to perform the experiment? How many replicates will be required to obtain the desired statistical resolution? Next, the samples must be prepared, pass quality controls for integrity and representation, and be hybridized and scanned. Also, slides with defects, missing data, high background, or weak signal must be rejected. Data from individual slides must be normalized and combined so that the data are as free of systematic bias as possible. The third phase is to apply statistical filters and tests to the data to determine genes (1) expressed above background, (2) whose expression level changes in different samples, and (3) whose RNA-processing patterns or protein associations change. Next, a subset of the data should be validated by an alternative method, such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Provided that this endorses the general conclusions of the array analysis, gene sets whose expression, splicing, polyadenylation, protein binding, etc. change in different samples can be classified with respect to function, sequence motif properties, as well as other categories to extract hypotheses for their biological roles and regulatory logic.
Over the past several years, the field of microarrays has grown and evolved drastically. In its continued efforts to track this evolution, the ABRF-MARG has once again conducted a survey of international microarray facilities and individual microarray users. The goal of the surve...
Over the past several years, the field of microarrays has grown and evolved drastically. In its continued efforts to track this evolution and transformation, the ABRF-MARG has once again conducted a survey of international microarray facilities and individual microarray users. Th...
DNA microarray technology is revolutionizing biological science. DNA microarrays (also called DNA chips) allow simultaneous screening of many genes for changes in expression between different cells. Now researchers can obtain information about genes in days or weeks that used to take months or years. The paper activity described in this article…
Kochzius, M; Nölte, M; Weber, H; Silkenbeumer, N; Hjörleifsdottir, S; Hreggvidsson, G O; Marteinsson, V; Kappel, K; Planes, S; Tinti, F; Magoulas, A; Garcia Vazquez, E; Turan, C; Hervet, C; Campo Falgueras, D; Antoniou, A; Landi, M; Blohm, D
In many cases marine organisms and especially their diverse developmental stages are difficult to identify by morphological characters. DNA-based identification methods offer an analytically powerful addition or even an alternative. In this study, a DNA microarray has been developed to be able to investigate its potential as a tool for the identification of fish species from European seas based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Eleven commercially important fish species were selected for a first prototype. Oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rDNA sequences obtained from 230 individuals of 27 fish species. In addition, more than 1200 sequences of 380 species served as sequence background against which the specificity of the probes was tested in silico. Single target hybridisations with Cy5-labelled, PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments from each of the 11 species on microarrays containing the complete set of probes confirmed their suitability. True-positive, fluorescence signals obtained were at least one order of magnitude stronger than false-positive cross-hybridisations. Single nontarget hybridisations resulted in cross-hybridisation signals at approximately 27% of the cases tested, but all of them were at least one order of magnitude lower than true-positive signals. This study demonstrates that the 16S rDNA gene is suitable for designing oligonucleotide probes, which can be used to differentiate 11 fish species. These data are a solid basis for the second step to create a "Fish Chip" for approximately 50 fish species relevant in marine environmental and fisheries research, as well as control of fisheries products.
A microarray-based analytical platform has been utilized as a powerful tool in biological assay fields. However, an analyte depletion problem due to the slow mass transport based on molecular diffusion causes low reaction efficiency, resulting in a limitation for practical applications. This paper presents a novel method to improve the efficiency of microarray-based immunoassay via an optically induced electrokinetic phenomenon by integrating an optoelectrofluidic device with a conventional glass slide-based microarray format. A sample droplet was loaded between the microarray slide and the optoelectrofluidic device on which a photoconductive layer was deposited. Under the application of an AC voltage, optically induced AC electroosmotic flows caused by a microarray-patterned light actively enhanced the mass transport of target molecules at the multiple assay spots of the microarray simultaneously, which reduced tedious reaction time from more than 30 min to 10 min. Based on this enhancing effect, a heterogeneous immunoassay with a tiny volume of sample (5 μl) was successfully performed in the microarray-integrated optoelectrofluidic system using immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-IgG, resulting in improved efficiency compared to the static environment. Furthermore, the application of multiplex assays was also demonstrated by multiple protein detection. PMID:27190571
Han, Dongsik; Park, Je-Kyun
A microarray-based analytical platform has been utilized as a powerful tool in biological assay fields. However, an analyte depletion problem due to the slow mass transport based on molecular diffusion causes low reaction efficiency, resulting in a limitation for practical applications. This paper presents a novel method to improve the efficiency of microarray-based immunoassay via an optically induced electrokinetic phenomenon by integrating an optoelectrofluidic device with a conventional glass slide-based microarray format. A sample droplet was loaded between the microarray slide and the optoelectrofluidic device on which a photoconductive layer was deposited. Under the application of an AC voltage, optically induced AC electroosmotic flows caused by a microarray-patterned light actively enhanced the mass transport of target molecules at the multiple assay spots of the microarray simultaneously, which reduced tedious reaction time from more than 30 min to 10 min. Based on this enhancing effect, a heterogeneous immunoassay with a tiny volume of sample (5 μl) was successfully performed in the microarray-integrated optoelectrofluidic system using immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-IgG, resulting in improved efficiency compared to the static environment. Furthermore, the application of multiplex assays was also demonstrated by multiple protein detection.
Toegl, Andreas; Kirchner, Roland; Gauer, Christoph; Wixforth, Achim
Protein and DNA microarrays have become a standard tool in proteomics/genomics research. In order to guarantee fast and reproducible hybridization results, the diffusion limit must be overcome. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) micro-agitation chips efficiently agitate the smallest sample volumes (down to 10 μL and below) without introducing any dead volume. The advantages are reduced reaction time, increased signal-to-noise ratio, improved homogeneity across the microarray, and better slide-to-slide reproducibility. The SAW micromixer chips are the heart of the Advalytix ArrayBooster, which is compatible with all microarrays based on the microscope slide format. PMID:13678150
Lobenhofer, E K; Bushel, P R; Afshari, C A; Hamadeh, H K
Microarray technology has been applied to a variety of different fields to address fundamental research questions. The use of microarrays, or DNA chips, to study the gene expression profiles of biologic samples began in 1995. Since that time, the fundamental concepts behind the chip, the technology required for making and using these chips, and the multitude of statistical tools for analyzing the data have been extensively reviewed. For this reason, the focus of this review will be not on the technology itself but on the application of microarrays as a research tool and the future challenges of the field. PMID:11673116
Koumakis, L; Potamias, G; Tsiknakis, M; Zervakis, M; Moustakis, V
With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the emergence of high-throughput technologies, a vast amount of molecular and biological data are being produced. Two of the most important and significant data sources come from microarray gene-expression experiments and respective databanks (e,g., Gene Expression Omnibus-GEO (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo)), and from molecular pathways and Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) stored and curated in public (e.g., Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes-KEGG (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway.html), Reactome (http://www.reactome.org/ReactomeGWT/entrypoint.html)) as well as in commercial repositories (e.g., Ingenuity IPA (http://www.ingenuity.com/products/ipa)). The association of these two sources aims to give new insight in disease understanding and reveal new molecular targets in the treatment of specific phenotypes.Three major research lines and respective efforts that try to utilize and combine data from both of these sources could be identified, namely: (1) de novo reconstruction of GRNs, (2) identification of Gene-signatures, and (3) identification of differentially expressed GRN functional paths (i.e., sub-GRN paths that distinguish between different phenotypes). In this chapter, we give an overview of the existing methods that support the different types of gene-expression and GRN integration with a focus on methodologies that aim to identify phenotype-discriminant GRNs or subnetworks, and we also present our methodology.
Mlakar, Vid; Glavac, Damjan
Multiple different DNA microarray technologies are available on the market today. They can be used for studying either DNA or RNA with the purpose of identifying and explaining the role of genes involved in different processes. This paper reviews different DNA microarray platforms available for such studies and their usage in cases of malignant melanomas, psoriasis, and exposure of keratinocytes and melanocytes to UV illumination.
Xueqing, Han; Xiangmei, Lin; Yihong, Hou; Shaoqiang, Wu; Jian, Liu; Lin, Mei; Guangle, Jia; Zexiao, Yang
Avian influenza viruses are important human and animal respiratory pathogens and rapid diagnosis of novel emerging avian influenza viruses is vital for effective global influenza surveillance. We developed an oligonucleotide microarray-based method for subtyping all avian influenza virus (16 HA and 9 NA subtypes). In total 25 pairs of primers specific for different subtypes and 1 pair of universal primers were carefully designed based on the genomic sequences of influenza A viruses retrieved from GenBank database. Several multiplex RT-PCR methods were then developed, and the target cDNAs of 25 subtype viruses were amplified by RT-PCR or overlapping PCR for evaluating the microarray. Further 52 oligonucleotide probes specific for all 25 subtype viruses were designed according to published gene sequences of avian influenza viruses in amplified target cDNAs domains, and a microarray for subtyping influenza A virus was developed. Then its specificity and sensitivity were validated by using different subtype strains and 2653 samples from 49 different areas. The results showed that all the subtypes of influenza virus could be identified simultaneously on this microarray with high sensitivity, which could reach to 2.47 pfu/mL virus or 2.5 ng target DNA. Furthermore, there was no cross reaction with other avian respiratory virus. An oligonucleotide microarray-based strategy for detection of avian influenza viruses has been developed. Such a diagnostic microarray will be useful in discovering and identifying all subtypes of avian influenza virus.
Microarray is a high throughput technology to measure the gene expression. Analysis of microarray data brings many interesting and challenging problems. This thesis consists three studies related to microarray data. First, we propose a Bayesian model for microarray data and use Bayes Factors to identify differentially expressed genes. Second, we…
Wapner, Ronald J.; Martin, Christa Lese; Levy, Brynn; Ballif, Blake C.; Eng, Christine M.; Zachary, Julia M.; Savage, Melissa; Platt, Lawrence D.; Saltzman, Daniel; Grobman, William A.; Klugman, Susan; Scholl, Thomas; Simpson, Joe Leigh; McCall, Kimberly; Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Bunke, Brian; Nahum, Odelia; Patel, Ankita; Lamb, Allen N.; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Ledbetter, David H.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Jackson, Laird
Background Chromosomal microarray analysis has emerged as a primary diagnostic tool for the evaluation of developmental delay and structural malformations in children. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy, efficacy, and incremental yield of chromosomal microarray analysis as compared with karyotyping for routine prenatal diagnosis. Methods Samples from women undergoing prenatal diagnosis at 29 centers were sent to a central karyotyping laboratory. Each sample was split in two; standard karyotyping was performed on one portion and the other was sent to one of four laboratories for chromosomal microarray. Results We enrolled a total of 4406 women. Indications for prenatal diagnosis were advanced maternal age (46.6%), abnormal result on Down’s syndrome screening (18.8%), structural anomalies on ultrasonography (25.2%), and other indications (9.4%). In 4340 (98.8%) of the fetal samples, microarray analysis was successful; 87.9% of samples could be used without tissue culture. Microarray analysis of the 4282 nonmosaic samples identified all the aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements identified on karyotyping but did not identify balanced translocations and fetal triploidy. In samples with a normal karyotype, microarray analysis revealed clinically relevant deletions or duplications in 6.0% with a structural anomaly and in 1.7% of those whose indications were advanced maternal age or positive screening results. Conclusions In the context of prenatal diagnostic testing, chromosomal microarray analysis identified additional, clinically significant cytogenetic information as compared with karyotyping and was equally efficacious in identifying aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements but did not identify balanced translocations and triploidies. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01279733.) PMID:23215555
Background Many plants have large and complex genomes with an abundance of repeated sequences. Many plants are also polyploid. Both of these attributes typify the genome architecture in the tribe Triticeae, whose members include economically important wheat, rye and barley. Large genome sizes, an abundance of repeated sequences, and polyploidy present challenges to genome-wide SNP discovery using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of total genomic DNA by making alignment and clustering of short reads generated by the NGS platforms difficult, particularly in the absence of a reference genome sequence. Results An annotation-based, genome-wide SNP discovery pipeline is reported using NGS data for large and complex genomes without a reference genome sequence. Roche 454 shotgun reads with low genome coverage of one genotype are annotated in order to distinguish single-copy sequences and repeat junctions from repetitive sequences and sequences shared by paralogous genes. Multiple genome equivalents of shotgun reads of another genotype generated with SOLiD or Solexa are then mapped to the annotated Roche 454 reads to identify putative SNPs. A pipeline program package, AGSNP, was developed and used for genome-wide SNP discovery in Aegilops tauschii-the diploid source of the wheat D genome, and with a genome size of 4.02 Gb, of which 90% is repetitive sequences. Genomic DNA of Ae. tauschii accession AL8/78 was sequenced with the Roche 454 NGS platform. Genomic DNA and cDNA of Ae. tauschii accession AS75 was sequenced primarily with SOLiD, although some Solexa and Roche 454 genomic sequences were also generated. A total of 195,631 putative SNPs were discovered in gene sequences, 155,580 putative SNPs were discovered in uncharacterized single-copy regions, and another 145,907 putative SNPs were discovered in repeat junctions. These SNPs were dispersed across the entire Ae. tauschii genome. To assess the false positive SNP discovery rate, DNA containing putative SNPs was
Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Dandan; Sun, Xiaohui; Li, Zhiqiang; Ni, Yaqin; Shan, Zhongyan; Li, Hong; Liu, Chengguo; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yi; Zheng, Ruizhi; Pan, Feixia; Zhu, Yimin; Shi, Yongyong; Lai, Maode
Although numbers of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed for serum lipid levels, limited heritability has been explained. Studies showed that combining data from GWAS and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) signals can both enhance the discovery of trait-associated SNPs and gain a better understanding of the mechanism. We performed an annotation-based, multistage genome-wide screening for serum-lipid-level-associated loci in totally 6863 Han Chinese. A serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) associated variant rs1880118 (hg19 chr7:g. 6435220G>C) was replicated (P combined = 1.4E-10). rs1880118 was associated with DAGLB (diacylglycerol lipase, beta) expression levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (P = 5.9E-42) and explained 47.7% of the expression variance. After the replication, an active segment covering variants tagged by rs1880118 near 5' of DAGLB was annotated using histone modification and transcription factor binding signals. The luciferase report assay revealed that the segment containing the minor alleles showed increased transcriptional activity compared with segment contains the major alleles, which was consistent with the eQTL analyses. The expression-trait association tests indicated the association between the DAGLB and serum HDL-C levels using gene-based approaches called "TWAS" (P = 3.0E-8), "SMR" (P = 1.1E-4), and "Sherlock" (P = 1.6E-6). To summarize, we identified a novel HDL-C-associated variant which explained nearly half of the expression variance of DAGLB. Integrated analyses established a genotype-gene-phenotype three-way association and expanded our knowledge of DAGLB in lipid metabolism.
Background Several computational candidate gene selection and prioritization methods have recently been developed. These in silico selection and prioritization techniques are usually based on two central approaches - the examination of similarities to known disease genes and/or the evaluation of functional annotation of genes. Each of these approaches has its own caveats. Here we employ a previously described method of candidate gene prioritization based mainly on gene annotation, in accompaniment with a technique based on the evaluation of pertinent sequence motifs or signatures, in an attempt to refine the gene prioritization approach. We apply this approach to X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), a group of heterogeneous disorders for which some of the underlying genetics is known. Results The gene annotation-based binary filtering method yielded a ranked list of putative XLMR candidate genes with good plausibility of being associated with the development of mental retardation. In parallel, a motif finding approach based on linear discriminatory analysis (LDA) was employed to identify short sequence patterns that may discriminate XLMR from non-XLMR genes. High rates (>80%) of correct classification was achieved, suggesting that the identification of these motifs effectively captures genomic signals associated with XLMR vs. non-XLMR genes. The computational tools developed for the motif-based LDA is integrated into the freely available genomic analysis portal Galaxy (http://main.g2.bx.psu.edu/). Nine genes (APLN, ZC4H2, MAGED4, MAGED4B, RAP2C, FAM156A, FAM156B, TBL1X, and UXT) were highlighted as highly-ranked XLMR methods. Conclusions The combination of gene annotation information and sequence motif-orientated computational candidate gene prediction methods highlight an added benefit in generating a list of plausible candidate genes, as has been demonstrated for XLMR. Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Dr Barbara Bardoni (nominated by Prof Juergen Brosius
Chen, Hua; Li, Jun
Microarrays are important tools for high-throughput analysis of biomolecules. The use of microarrays for parallel screening of nucleic acid and protein profiles has become an industry standard. A few limitations of microarrays are the requirement for relatively large sample volumes and elongated incubation time, as well as the limit of detection. In addition, traditional microarrays make use of bulky instrumentation for the detection, and sample amplification and labeling are quite laborious, which increase analysis cost and delays the time for obtaining results. These problems limit microarray techniques from point-of-care and field applications. One strategy for overcoming these problems is to develop nanoarrays, particularly electronics-based nanoarrays. With further miniaturization, higher sensitivity, and simplified sample preparation, nanoarrays could potentially be employed for biomolecular analysis in personal healthcare and monitoring of trace pathogens. In this chapter, it is intended to introduce the concept and advantage of nanotechnology and then describe current methods and protocols for novel nanoarrays in three aspects: (1) label-free nucleic acids analysis using nanoarrays, (2) nanoarrays for protein detection by conventional optical fluorescence microscopy as well as by novel label-free methods such as atomic force microscopy, and (3) nanoarray for enzymatic-based assay. These nanoarrays will have significant applications in drug discovery, medical diagnosis, genetic testing, environmental monitoring, and food safety inspection.
Hu, Jianjun; Li, Haifeng; Waterman, Michael S; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine
Missing value estimation is an important preprocessing step in microarray analysis. Although several methods have been developed to solve this problem, their performance is unsatisfactory for datasets with high rates of missing data, high measurement noise, or limited numbers of samples. In fact, more than 80% of the time-series datasets in Stanford Microarray Database contain less than eight samples. We present the integrative Missing Value Estimation method (iMISS) by incorporating information from multiple reference microarray datasets to improve missing value estimation. For each gene with missing data, we derive a consistent neighbor-gene list by taking reference data sets into consideration. To determine whether the given reference data sets are sufficiently informative for integration, we use a submatrix imputation approach. Our experiments showed that iMISS can significantly and consistently improve the accuracy of the state-of-the-art Local Least Square (LLS) imputation algorithm by up to 15% improvement in our benchmark tests. We demonstrated that the order-statistics-based integrative imputation algorithms can achieve significant improvements over the state-of-the-art missing value estimation approaches such as LLS and is especially good for imputing microarray datasets with a limited number of samples, high rates of missing data, or very noisy measurements. With the rapid accumulation of microarray datasets, the performance of our approach can be further improved by incorporating larger and more appropriate reference datasets.
Adak, Avijit K; Lin, Ting-Wei; Li, Ben-Yuan; Lin, Chun-Cheng
The interactions between soluble carbohydrates and/or surface displayed glycans and protein receptors are essential to many biological processes and cellular recognition events. Carbohydrate microarrays provide opportunities for high-throughput quantitative analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Over the past decade, various techniques have been implemented for immobilizing glycans on solid surfaces in a microarray format. Herein, we describe a detailed protocol for fabricating carbohydrate microarrays that capitalizes on the intrinsic reactivity of boronic acid toward carbohydrates to form stable boronate diesters. A large variety of unprotected carbohydrates ranging in structure from simple disaccharides and trisaccharides to considerably more complex human milk and blood group (oligo)saccharides have been covalently immobilized in a single step on glass slides, which were derivatized with high-affinity boronic acid ligands. The immobilized ligands in these microarrays maintain the receptor-binding activities including those of lectins and antibodies according to the structures of their pendant carbohydrates for rapid analysis of a number of carbohydrate-recognition events within 30 h. This method facilitates the direct construction of otherwise difficult to obtain carbohydrate microarrays from underivatized glycans.
Peng, Wenjie; Nycholat, Corwin M; Razi, Nahid
Glycan microarrays represent a high-throughput approach to determining the specificity of glycan-binding proteins against a large set of glycans in a single format. This chapter describes the use of a glycan microarray platform for evaluating the activity and substrate specificity of glycosyltransferases (GTs). The methodology allows simultaneous screening of hundreds of immobilized glycan acceptor substrates by in situ incubation of a GT and its appropriate donor substrate on the microarray surface. Using biotin-conjugated donor substrate enables direct detection of the incorporated sugar residues on acceptor substrates on the array. In addition, the feasibility of the method has been validated using label-free donor substrate combined with lectin-based detection of product to assess enzyme activity. Here, we describe the application of both procedures to assess the specificity of a recombinant human α2-6 sialyltransferase. This technique is readily adaptable to studying other glycosyltransferases.
Gene expression microarrays measure the levels of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in a sample using probe sequences that hybridize with transcribed regions. These probe sequences are designed using a reference genome for the relevant species. However, most model organisms and all humans have genomes that deviate from their reference. These variations, which include single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions of additional nucleotides, and nucleotide deletions, can affect the microarray's performance. Genetic experiments comparing individuals bearing different population-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms that intersect microarray probes are therefore subject to systemic bias, as the reduction in binding efficiency due to a technical artifact is confounded with genetic differences between parental strains. This problem has been recognized for some time, and earlier methods of compensation have attempted to identify probes affected by genome variants using statistical models. These methods may require replicate microarray measurement of gene expression in the relevant tissue in inbred parental samples, which are not always available in model organisms and are never available in humans. By using sequence information for the genomes of organisms under investigation, potentially problematic probes can now be identified a priori. However, there is no published software tool that makes it easy to eliminate these probes from an annotation. I present equalizer, a software package that uses genome variant data to modify annotation files for the commonly used Affymetrix IVT and Gene/Exon platforms. These files can be used by any microarray normalization method for subsequent analysis. I demonstrate how use of equalizer on experiments mapping germline influence on gene expression in a genetic cross between two divergent mouse species and in human samples significantly reduces probe hybridization-induced bias, reducing false positive and false negative findings. The
White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Zangar, Richard C.
Our research group develops analytical methods and software for the high-throughput analysis of quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarrays. ELISA microarrays differ from DNA microarrays in several fundamental aspects and most algorithms for analysis of DNA microarray data are not applicable to ELISA microarrays. In this review, we provide an overview of the steps involved in ELISA microarray data analysis and how the statistically sound algorithms we have developed provide an integrated software suite to address the needs of each data-processing step. The algorithms discussed are available in a set of open-source software tools (http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT).
Rouse, Richard JD; Field, Katrine; Lapira, Jennifer; Lee, Allen; Wick, Ivan; Eckhardt, Colleen; Bhasker, C Ramana; Soverchia, Laura; Hardiman, Gary
Background Successful microarray experimentation requires a complex interplay between the slide chemistry, the printing pins, the nucleic acid probes and targets, and the hybridization milieu. Optimization of these parameters and a careful evaluation of emerging slide chemistries are a prerequisite to any large scale array fabrication effort. We have developed a 'microarray meter' tool which assesses the inherent variations associated with microarray measurement prior to embarking on large scale projects. Findings The microarray meter consists of nucleic acid targets (reference and dynamic range control) and probe components. Different plate designs containing identical probe material were formulated to accommodate different robotic and pin designs. We examined the variability in probe quality and quantity (as judged by the amount of DNA printed and remaining post-hybridization) using three robots equipped with capillary printing pins. Discussion The generation of microarray data with minimal variation requires consistent quality control of the (DNA microarray) manufacturing and experimental processes. Spot reproducibility is a measure primarily of the variations associated with printing. The microarray meter assesses array quality by measuring the DNA content for every feature. It provides a post-hybridization analysis of array quality by scoring probe performance using three metrics, a) a measure of variability in the signal intensities, b) a measure of the signal dynamic range and c) a measure of variability of the spot morphologies. PMID:18710498
Dai, Yilin; Guo, Ling; Li, Meng; Chen, Yi-Bu
Microarray data analysis presents a significant challenge to researchers who are unable to use the powerful Bioconductor and its numerous tools due to their lack of knowledge of R language. Among the few existing software programs that offer a graphic user interface to Bioconductor packages, none have implemented a comprehensive strategy to address the accuracy and reliability issue of microarray data analysis due to the well known probe design problems associated with many widely used microarray chips. There is also a lack of tools that would expedite the functional analysis of microarray results. We present Microarray Я US, an R-based graphical user interface that implements over a dozen popular Bioconductor packages to offer researchers a streamlined workflow for routine differential microarray expression data analysis without the need to learn R language. In order to enable a more accurate analysis and interpretation of microarray data, we incorporated the latest custom probe re-definition and re-annotation for Affymetrix and Illumina chips. A versatile microarray results output utility tool was also implemented for easy and fast generation of input files for over 20 of the most widely used functional analysis software programs. Coupled with a well-designed user interface, Microarray Я US leverages cutting edge Bioconductor packages for researchers with no knowledge in R language. It also enables a more reliable and accurate microarray data analysis and expedites downstream functional analysis of microarray results.
Protein microarrays represent a powerful technology with the potential to serve as tools for the detection of a broad range of analytes in numerous applications such as diagnostics, drug development, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Key features of analytical protein microarrays include high throughput and relatively low costs due to minimal reagent consumption, multiplexing, fast kinetics and hence measurements, and the possibility of functional integration. So far, especially fundamental studies in molecular and cell biology have been conducted using protein microarrays, while the potential for clinical, notably point-of-care applications is not yet fully utilized. The question arises what features have to be implemented and what improvements have to be made in order to fully exploit the technology. In the past we have identified various obstacles that have to be overcome in order to promote protein microarray technology in the diagnostic field. Issues that need significant improvement to make the technology more attractive for the diagnostic market are for instance: too low sensitivity and deficiency in reproducibility, inadequate analysis time, lack of high-quality antibodies and validated reagents, lack of automation and portable instruments, and cost of instruments necessary for chip production and read-out. The scope of the paper at hand is to review approaches to solve these problems. PMID:28146048
Microarray Data Analysis Using Multiple Statistical Models
Wenjun Bao1, Judith E. Schmid1, Amber K. Goetz1, Ming Ouyang2, William J. Welsh2,Andrew I. Brooks3,4, ChiYi Chu3,Mitsunori Ogihara3,4, Yinhe Cheng5, David J. Dix1. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Researc...
Microarray technology as applied to areas that include genomics, diagnostics, environmental, and drug discovery, is an interesting research topic for which different chip-based devices have been developed. As an alternative, we have explored the principle of compact disc-based...
Barnard, Betsy; Sussman, Michael; BonDurant, Sandra Splinter; Nienhuis, James; Krysan, Patrick
We have developed and optimized the necessary laboratory materials to make DNA microarray technology accessible to all high school students at a fraction of both cost and data size. The primary component is a DNA chip/array that students "print" by hand and then analyze using research tools that have been adapted for classroom use. The…
Mocellin, Simone; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo
The development of several gene expression profiling methods, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), differential display, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), and gene microarray, together with the sequencing of the human genome, has provided an opportunity to monitor and investigate the complex cascade of molecular events leading to tumor development and progression. The availability of such large amounts of information has shifted the attention of scientists towards a nonreductionist approach to biological phenomena. High throughput technologies can be used to follow changing patterns of gene expression over time. Among them, gene microarray has become prominent because it is easier to use, does not require large-scale DNA sequencing, and allows for the parallel quantification of thousands of genes from multiple samples. Gene microarray technology is rapidly spreading worldwide and has the potential to drastically change the therapeutic approach to patients affected with tumor. Therefore, it is of paramount importance for both researchers and clinicians to know the principles underlying the analysis of the huge amount of data generated with microarray technology.
Bergemann, Tracy; Quiaoit, Filemon; Delrow, Jeffrey J.; Zhao, Lue Ping
Microarray technologies are increasingly used in biomedical research to study genome-wide expression profiles in the post genomic era. Their popularity is largely due to their high throughput and economical affordability. For example, microarrays have been applied to studies of cell cycle, regulatory circuitry, cancer cell lines, tumor tissues, and drug discoveries. One obstacle facing the continued success of applying microarray technologies, however, is the random variaton present on microarrays: within signal spots, between spots and among chips. In addition, signals extracted by available software packages seem to vary significantly. Despite a variety of software packages, it appears that there are two major approaches to signal extraction. One approach is to focus on the identification of signal regions and hence estimation of signal levels above background levels. The other approach is to use the distribution of intensity values as a way of identifying relevant signals. Building upon both approaches, the objective of our work is to develop a method that is statistically rigorous and also efficient and robust. Statistical issues to be considered here include: (1) how to refine grid alignment so that the overall variation is minimized, (2) how to estimate the signal levels relative to the local background levels as well as the variance of this estimate, and (3) how to integrate red and green channel signals so that the ratio of interest is stable, simultaneously relaxing distributional assumptions.
Thoughtful data analysis is as important as experimental design, biological sample quality, and appropriate experimental procedures for making microarrays a useful supplement to traditional toxicology. In the present study, spotted oligonucleotide microarrays were used to profile...
Kochzius, Marc; Seidel, Christian; Antoniou, Aglaia; Botla, Sandeep Kumar; Campo, Daniel; Cariani, Alessia; Vazquez, Eva Garcia; Hauschild, Janet; Hervet, Caroline; Hjörleifsdottir, Sigridur; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur; Kappel, Kristina; Landi, Monica; Magoulas, Antonios; Marteinsson, Viggo; Nölte, Manfred; Planes, Serge; Tinti, Fausto; Turan, Cemal; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Weber, Hannes; Blohm, Dietmar
International fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of the three mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S), cytochrome b (cyt b), and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) for the identification of 50 European marine fish species by combining techniques of "DNA barcoding" and microarrays. In a DNA barcoding approach, neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees of 369 16S, 212 cyt b, and 447 COI sequences indicated that cyt b and COI are suitable for unambiguous identification, whereas 16S failed to discriminate closely related flatfish and gurnard species. In course of probe design for DNA microarray development, each of the markers yielded a high number of potentially species-specific probes in silico, although many of them were rejected based on microarray hybridisation experiments. None of the markers provided probes to discriminate the sibling flatfish and gurnard species. However, since 16S-probes were less negatively influenced by the "position of label" effect and showed the lowest rejection rate and the highest mean signal intensity, 16S is more suitable for DNA microarray probe design than cty b and COI. The large portion of rejected COI-probes after hybridisation experiments (>90%) renders the DNA barcoding marker as rather unsuitable for this high-throughput technology. Based on these data, a DNA microarray containing 64 functional oligonucleotide probes for the identification of 30 out of the 50 fish species investigated was developed. It represents the next step towards an automated and easy-to-handle method to identify fish, ichthyoplankton, and fish products.
Nie, Haisheng; Neerincx, Pieter B T; van der Poel, Jan; Ferrari, Francesco; Bicciato, Silvio; Leunissen, Jack A M; Groenen, Martien A M
This paper describes the results of a Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis of chicken microarray data using the Bioconductor packages. By checking the enriched GO terms in three contrasts, MM8-PM8, MM8-MA8, and MM8-MM24, of the provided microarray data during this workshop, this analysis aimed to investigate the host reactions in chickens occurring shortly after a secondary challenge with either a homologous or heterologous species of Eimeria. The results of GO enrichment analysis using GO terms annotated to chicken genes and GO terms annotated to chicken-human orthologous genes were also compared. Furthermore, a locally adaptive statistical procedure (LAP) was performed to test differentially expressed chromosomal regions, rather than individual genes, in the chicken genome after Eimeria challenge. GO enrichment analysis identified significant (raw p-value < 0.05) GO terms for all three contrasts included in the analysis. Some of the GO terms linked to, generally, primary immune responses or secondary immune responses indicating the GO enrichment analysis is a useful approach to analyze microarray data. The comparisons of GO enrichment results using chicken gene information and chicken-human orthologous gene information showed more refined GO terms related to immune responses when using chicken-human orthologous gene information, this suggests that using chicken-human orthologous gene information has higher power to detect significant GO terms with more refined functionality. Furthermore, three chromosome regions were identified to be significantly up-regulated in contrast MM8-PM8 (q-value < 0.01). Overall, this paper describes a practical approach to analyze microarray data in farm animals where the genome information is still incomplete. For farm animals, such as chicken, with currently limited gene annotation, borrowing gene annotation information from orthologous genes in well-annotated species, such as human, will help improve the pathway analysis
Richard, Arianne C; Lyons, Paul A; Peters, James E; Biasci, Daniele; Flint, Shaun M; Lee, James C; McKinney, Eoin F; Siegel, Richard M; Smith, Kenneth G C
Although numerous investigations have compared gene expression microarray platforms, preprocessing methods and batch correction algorithms using constructed spike-in or dilution datasets, there remains a paucity of studies examining the properties of microarray data using diverse biological samples. Most microarray experiments seek to identify subtle differences between samples with variable background noise, a scenario poorly represented by constructed datasets. Thus, microarray users lack important information regarding the complexities introduced in real-world experimental settings. The recent development of a multiplexed, digital technology for nucleic acid measurement enables counting of individual RNA molecules without amplification and, for the first time, permits such a study. Using a set of human leukocyte subset RNA samples, we compared previously acquired microarray expression values with RNA molecule counts determined by the nCounter Analysis System (NanoString Technologies) in selected genes. We found that gene measurements across samples correlated well between the two platforms, particularly for high-variance genes, while genes deemed unexpressed by the nCounter generally had both low expression and low variance on the microarray. Confirming previous findings from spike-in and dilution datasets, this "gold-standard" comparison demonstrated signal compression that varied dramatically by expression level and, to a lesser extent, by dataset. Most importantly, examination of three different cell types revealed that noise levels differed across tissues. Microarray measurements generally correlate with relative RNA molecule counts within optimal ranges but suffer from expression-dependent accuracy bias and precision that varies across datasets. We urge microarray users to consider expression-level effects in signal interpretation and to evaluate noise properties in each dataset independently.
The recent introduction of new microarray expression technologies and the further development of established platforms ensure that the researcher is presented with a range of options for performing an experiment. Whilst this has opened up the possibilities for future applications, such as exon-specific arrays, increased sample throughput and 'chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on chip' experiments, the initial decision processes and experiment planning are made more difficult. This review will give an overview of the various technologies that are available to perform a microarray expression experiment, from the initial planning stages through to the final data analysis. Both practical aspects and data analysis options will be considered. The relative advantages and disadvantages will be discussed with insights provided for future directions of the technology.
Gogalic, S.; Hageneder, S.; Ctortecka, C.; Bauch, M.; Khan, I.; Preininger, Claudia; Sauer, U.; Dostalek, J.
Plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal in bioassays with microarray detection format is reported. A crossed relief diffraction grating was designed to couple an excitation laser beam to surface plasmons at the wavelength overlapping with the absorption and emission bands of fluorophore Dy647 that was used as a label. The surface of periodically corrugated sensor chip was coated with surface plasmon-supporting gold layer and a thin SU8 polymer film carrying epoxy groups. These groups were employed for the covalent immobilization of capture antibodies at arrays of spots. The plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal on the developed microarray chip was tested by using interleukin 8 sandwich immunoassay. The readout was performed ex situ after drying the chip by using a commercial scanner with high numerical aperture collecting lens. Obtained results reveal the enhancement of fluorescence signal by a factor of 5 when compared to a regular glass chip.
Schlecht, Ulrich; Primig, Michael
Gametogenesis is a key developmental process that involves complex transcriptional regulation of numerous genes including many that are conserved between unicellular eukaryotes and mammals. Recent expression-profiling experiments using microarrays have provided insight into the co-ordinated transcription of several hundred genes during mitotic growth and meiotic development in budding and fission yeast. Furthermore, microarray-based studies have identified numerous loci that are regulated during the cell cycle or expressed in a germ-cell specific manner in eukaryotic model systems like Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus as well as Homo sapiens. The unprecedented amount of information produced by post-genome biology has spawned novel approaches to organizing biological knowledge using currently available information technology. This review outlines experiments that contribute to an emerging comprehensive picture of the molecular machinery governing sexual reproduction in eukaryotes.
Winssinger, Nicolas; Ficarro, Scott; Schultz, Peter G.; Harris, Jennifer L.
The regulation of protein function through posttranslational modification, local environment, and protein–protein interaction is critical to cellular function. The ability to analyze on a genome-wide scale protein functional activity rather than changes in protein abundance or structure would provide important new insights into complex biological processes. Herein, we report the application of a spatially addressable small molecule microarray to an activity-based profile of proteases in crude cell lysates. The potential of this small molecule-based profiling technology is demonstrated by the detection of caspase activation upon induction of apoptosis, characterization of the activated caspase, and inhibition of the caspase-executed apoptotic phenotype using the small molecule inhibitor identified in the microarray-based profile. PMID:12167675
Kim, Hyo-Bin; Kim, Chang-Keun; Iijima, Koji; Kobayashi, Takao; Kita, Hirohito
Background Microarray technology offers a new opportunity to gain insight into global gene and protein expression profiles in asthma. To identify novel factors produced in the asthmatic airway, we analyzed sputum samples by using a membrane-based human cytokine microarray technology in patients with bronchial asthma (BA). Methods Induced sputum was obtained from 28 BA subjects, 20 nonasthmatic atopic control (AC) subjects, and 38 nonasthmatic nonatopic normal control (NC) subjects. The microarray samples of subjects were randomly selected from nine BA subjects, three AC subjects, and six NC subjects. Sputum supernatants were analyzed using a custom human cytokine array (RayBio Custom Human Cytokine Array; RayBiotech; Norcross, GA) designed to analyze 79 specific cytokines simultaneously. The levels of growth-regulated oncogene (GRO)-α, eotaxin-2, and pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC)/CCL18 were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Results By microarray, the signal intensities for GRO-α, eotaxin-2, and PARC were significantly higher in BA subjects than in AC and NC subjects (p = 0.036, p = 0.042, and p = 0.033, respectively). By ELISA, the sputum PARC protein levels were significantly higher in BA subjects than in AC and NC subjects (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, PARC levels correlated significantly with sputum eosinophil percentages (r = 0.570, p < 0.0001) and the levels of EDN(r = 0.633, p < 0.0001), the regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted cytokine (r = 0.440, p < 0.001), interleukin-4 (r = 0.415, p < 0.01), and interferon-γ (r = 0.491, p < 0.001). Conclusions By a nonbiased screening approach, a chemokine, PARC, is elevated in sputum specimens from patients with asthma. PARC may play important roles in development of airway eosinophilic inflammation in asthma. PMID:19017877
Markus-Bustani, Keren; Yaron, Yuval; Goldstein, Myriam; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ben-Shachar, Shay
We report on a case of a female fetus found to be mosaic for Turner syndrome (45,X) and trisomy X (47,XXX). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) failed to detect the aneuploidy because of a normal average dosage of the X chromosome. This case represents an unusual instance in which CMA may not detect chromosomal aberrations. Such a possibility should be taken into consideration in similar cases where CMA is used in a clinical setting. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gaj, Stan; van Erk, Arie; van Haaften, Rachel I M; Evelo, Chris T A
The analysis of microarray experiments requires accurate and up-to-date functional annotation of the microarray reporters to optimize the interpretation of the biological processes involved. Pathway visualization tools are used to connect gene expression data with existing biological pathways by using specific database identifiers that link reporters with elements in the pathways. This paper proposes a novel method that aims to improve microarray reporter annotation by BLASTing the original reporter sequences against a species-specific EMBL subset, that was derived from and crosslinked back to the highly curated UniProt database. The resulting alignments were filtered using high quality alignment criteria and further compared with the outcome of a more traditional approach, where reporter sequences were BLASTed against EnsEMBL followed by locating the corresponding protein (UniProt) entry for the high quality hits. Combining the results of both methods resulted in successful annotation of > 58% of all reporter sequences with UniProt IDs on two commercial array platforms, increasing the amount of Incyte reporters that could be coupled to Gene Ontology terms from 32.7% to 58.3% and to a local GenMAPP pathway from 9.6% to 16.7%. For Agilent, 35.3% of the total reporters are now linked towards GO nodes and 7.1% on local pathways. Our methods increased the annotation quality of microarray reporter sequences and allowed us to visualize more reporters using pathway visualization tools. Even in cases where the original reporter annotation showed the correct description the new identifiers often allowed improved pathway and Gene Ontology linking. These methods are freely available at http://www.bigcat.unimaas.nl/public/publications/Gaj_Annotation/.
Gaj, Stan; van Erk, Arie; van Haaften, Rachel IM; Evelo, Chris TA
Background The analysis of microarray experiments requires accurate and up-to-date functional annotation of the microarray reporters to optimize the interpretation of the biological processes involved. Pathway visualization tools are used to connect gene expression data with existing biological pathways by using specific database identifiers that link reporters with elements in the pathways. Results This paper proposes a novel method that aims to improve microarray reporter annotation by BLASTing the original reporter sequences against a species-specific EMBL subset, that was derived from and crosslinked back to the highly curated UniProt database. The resulting alignments were filtered using high quality alignment criteria and further compared with the outcome of a more traditional approach, where reporter sequences were BLASTed against EnsEMBL followed by locating the corresponding protein (UniProt) entry for the high quality hits. Combining the results of both methods resulted in successful annotation of > 58% of all reporter sequences with UniProt IDs on two commercial array platforms, increasing the amount of Incyte reporters that could be coupled to Gene Ontology terms from 32.7% to 58.3% and to a local GenMAPP pathway from 9.6% to 16.7%. For Agilent, 35.3% of the total reporters are now linked towards GO nodes and 7.1% on local pathways. Conclusion Our methods increased the annotation quality of microarray reporter sequences and allowed us to visualize more reporters using pathway visualization tools. Even in cases where the original reporter annotation showed the correct description the new identifiers often allowed improved pathway and Gene Ontology linking. These methods are freely available at http://www.bigcat.unimaas.nl/public/publications/Gaj_Annotation/. PMID:17897448
Kocabaş, F; Can, T; Baykal, N
The number of microarray and other high-throughput experiments on primary repositories keeps increasing as do the size and complexity of the results in response to biomedical investigations. Initiatives have been started on standardization of content, object model, exchange format and ontology. However, there are backlogs and inability to exchange data between microarray repositories, which indicate that there is a great need for a standard format and data management. We have introduced a metadata framework that includes a metadata card and semantic nets that make experimental results visible, understandable and usable. These are encoded in syntax encoding schemes and represented in RDF (Resource Description Frame-word), can be integrated with other metadata cards and semantic nets, and can be exchanged, shared and queried. We demonstrated the performance and potential benefits through a case study on a selected microarray repository. We concluded that the backlogs can be reduced and that exchange of information and asking of knowledge discovery questions can become possible with the use of this metadata framework.
Lu, Yong; Huggins, Peter; Bar-Joseph, Ziv
Motivation: Many biological systems operate in a similar manner across a large number of species or conditions. Cross-species analysis of sequence and interaction data is often applied to determine the function of new genes. In contrast to these static measurements, microarrays measure the dynamic, condition-specific response of complex biological systems. The recent exponential growth in microarray expression datasets allows researchers to combine expression experiments from multiple species to identify genes that are not only conserved in sequence but also operated in a similar way in the different species studied. Results: In this review we discuss the computational and technical challenges associated with these studies, the approaches that have been developed to address these challenges and the advantages of cross-species analysis of microarray data. We show how successful application of these methods lead to insights that cannot be obtained when analyzing data from a single species. We also highlight current open problems and discuss possible ways to address them. Contact: email@example.com PMID:19357096
Girgenti, Matthew J; Newton, Samuel S
Microarray-based gene profiling has become the centerpiece of gene expression studies in the biological sciences. The ability to now interrogate the entire genome using a single chip demonstrates the progress in technology and instrumentation that has been made over the last two decades. Although this unbiased approach provides researchers with an immense quantity of data, obtaining meaningful insight is not possible without intensive data analysis and processing. Custom developed arrays have emerged as a viable and attractive alternative that can take advantage of this robust technology and tailor it to suit the needs and requirements of individual investigations. The ability to simplify data analysis, reduce noise and carefully optimize experimental conditions makes it a suitable tool that can be effectively utilized in neuroscience drug discovery efforts. Furthermore, incorporating recent advancements in fine focusing gene profiling to include specific cellular phenotypes can help resolve the complex cellular heterogeneity of the brain. This review surveys the use of microarray technology in neuroscience paying special attention to customized arrays and their potential in drug discovery. Novel applications of microarrays and ancillary techniques, such as laser microdissection, FAC sorting and RNA amplification, have also been discussed. The notion that a hypothesis-driven approach can be integrated into drug development programs is highlighted.
Kelmansky, Diana Mabel; Ricci, Lila
The traditional approach with microarray data has been to apply transformations that approximately normalize them, with the drawback of losing the original scale. The alternative stand point taken here is to search for models that ﬁt the data, characterized by the presence of negative values, preserving their scale; one advantage of this strategy is that it facilitates a direct interpretation of the results. A new family of distributions named gpower-normal indexed by p∈R is introduced and it is proven that these variables become normal or truncated normal when a suitable gpower transformation is applied. Expressions are given for moments and quantiles, in terms of the truncated normal density. This new family can be used to model asymmetric data that include non-positive values, as required for microarray analysis. Moreover, it has been proven that the gpower-normal family is a special case of pseudo-dispersion models, inheriting all the good properties of these models, such as asymptotic normality for small variances. A combined maximum likelihood method is proposed to estimate the model parameters, and it is applied to microarray and contamination data. Rcodes are available from the authors upon request.
Phelan, Don; Jackson, Carl; Redfern, R. Michael; Morrison, Alan P.; Mathewson, Alan
New Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodiodes (GM-APD) have been designed and characterized specifically for use in microarray systems. Critical parameters such as excess reverse bias voltage, hold-off time and optimum operating temperature have been experimentally determined for these photon-counting devices. The photon detection probability, dark count rate and afterpulsing probability have been measured under different operating conditions. An active- quench circuit (AQC) is presented for operating these GM- APDs. This circuit is relatively simple, robust and has such benefits as reducing average power dissipation and afterpulsing. Arrays of these GM-APDs have already been designed and together with AQCs open up the possibility of having a solid-state microarray detector that enables parallel analysis on a single chip. Another advantage of these GM-APDs over current technology is their low voltage CMOS compatibility which could allow for the fabrication of an AQC on the same device. Small are detectors have already been employed in the time-resolved detection of fluorescence from labeled proteins. It is envisaged that operating these new GM-APDs with this active-quench circuit will have numerous applications for the detection of fluorescence in microarray systems.
Martínez, Miguel A.; Soto-del Río, María de los Dolores; Gutiérrez, Rosa María; Chiu, Charles Y.; Greninger, Alexander L.; Contreras, Juan Francisco; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F.
Gastroenteritis is a clinical illness of humans and other animals that is characterized by vomiting and diarrhea and caused by a variety of pathogens, including viruses. An increasing number of viral species have been associated with gastroenteritis or have been found in stool samples as new molecular tools have been developed. In this work, a DNA microarray capable in theory of parallel detection of more than 100 viral species was developed and tested. Initial validation was done with 10 different virus species, and an additional 5 species were validated using clinical samples. Detection limits of 1 × 103 virus particles of Human adenovirus C (HAdV), Human astrovirus (HAstV), and group A Rotavirus (RV-A) were established. Furthermore, when exogenous RNA was added, the limit for RV-A detection decreased by one log. In a small group of clinical samples from children with gastroenteritis (n = 76), the microarray detected at least one viral species in 92% of the samples. Single infection was identified in 63 samples (83%), and coinfection with more than one virus was identified in 7 samples (9%). The most abundant virus species were RV-A (58%), followed by Anellovirus (15.8%), HAstV (6.6%), HAdV (5.3%), Norwalk virus (6.6%), Human enterovirus (HEV) (9.2%), Human parechovirus (1.3%), Sapporo virus (1.3%), and Human bocavirus (1.3%). To further test the specificity and sensitivity of the microarray, the results were verified by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) detection of 5 gastrointestinal viruses. The RT-PCR assay detected a virus in 59 samples (78%). The microarray showed good performance for detection of RV-A, HAstV, and calicivirus, while the sensitivity for HAdV and HEV was low. Furthermore, some discrepancies in detection of mixed infections were observed and were addressed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of the viruses involved. It was observed that differences in the amount of genetic material favored the detection of the most abundant
Cho, Hyejin; Chou, Hui-Hsien
Microarray is an efficient apparatus to interrogate the whole transcriptome of species. Microarray can be designed according to annotated gene sets, but the resulted microarrays cannot be used to identify novel transcripts and this design method is not applicable to unannotated species. Alternatively, a whole-genome tiling microarray can be designed using only genomic sequences without gene annotations, and it can be used to detect novel RNA transcripts as well as known genes. The difficulty with tiling microarray design lies in the tradeoff between probe-specificity and coverage of the genome. Sequence comparison methods based on BLAST or similar software are commonly employed in microarray design, but they cannot precisely determine the subtle thermodynamic competition between probe targets and partially matched probe nontargets during hybridizations. Using the whole-genome thermodynamic analysis software PICKY to design tiling microarrays, we can achieve maximum whole-genome coverage allowable under the thermodynamic constraints of each target genome. The resulted tiling microarrays are thermodynamically optimal in the sense that all selected probes share the same melting temperature separation range between their targets and closest nontargets, and no additional probes can be added without violating the specificity of the microarray to the target genome. This new design method was used to create two whole-genome tiling microarrays for Escherichia coli MG1655 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 and the experiment results validated the design.
Durbin, Blythe; Rocke, David M
Durbin et al. (2002), Huber et al. (2002) and Munson (2001) independently introduced a family of transformations (the generalized-log family) which stabilizes the variance of microarray data up to the first order. We introduce a method for estimating the transformation parameter in tandem with a linear model based on the procedure outlined in Box and Cox (1964). We also discuss means of finding transformations within the generalized-log family which are optimal under other criteria, such as minimum residual skewness and minimum mean-variance dependency. R and Matlab code and test data are available from the authors on request.
Seidel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard
Multi-analyte immunoassays on microarrays and on multiplex DNA microarrays have been described for quantitative analysis of small organic molecules (e.g., antibiotics, drugs of abuse, small molecule toxins), proteins (e.g., antibodies or protein toxins), and microorganisms, viruses, and eukaryotic cells. In analytical chemistry, multi-analyte detection by use of analytical microarrays has become an innovative research topic because of the possibility of generating several sets of quantitative data for different analyte classes in a short time. Chemiluminescence (CL) microarrays are powerful tools for rapid multiplex analysis of complex matrices. A wide range of applications for CL microarrays is described in the literature dealing with analytical microarrays. The motivation for this review is to summarize the current state of CL-based analytical microarrays. Combining analysis of different compound classes on CL microarrays reduces analysis time, cost of reagents, and use of laboratory space. Applications are discussed, with examples from food safety, water safety, environmental monitoring, diagnostics, forensics, toxicology, and biosecurity. The potential and limitations of research on multiplex analysis by use of CL microarrays are discussed in this review.
Thygesen, Helene H; Zwinderman, Aeilko H
Background When DNA microarray data are used for gene clustering, genotype/phenotype correlation studies, or tissue classification the signal intensities are usually transformed and normalized in several steps in order to improve comparability and signal/noise ratio. These steps may include subtraction of an estimated background signal, subtracting the reference signal, smoothing (to account for nonlinear measurement effects), and more. Different authors use different approaches, and it is generally not clear to users which method they should prefer. Results We used the ratio between biological variance and measurement variance (which is an F-like statistic) as a quality measure for transformation methods, and we demonstrate a method for maximizing that variance ratio on real data. We explore a number of transformations issues, including Box-Cox transformation, baseline shift, partial subtraction of the log-reference signal and smoothing. It appears that the optimal choice of parameters for the transformation methods depends on the data. Further, the behavior of the variance ratio, under the null hypothesis of zero biological variance, appears to depend on the choice of parameters. Conclusions The use of replicates in microarray experiments is important. Adjustment for the null-hypothesis behavior of the variance ratio is critical to the selection of transformation method. PMID:15202953
Thygesen, Helene H; Zwinderman, Aeilko H
When DNA microarray data are used for gene clustering, genotype/phenotype correlation studies, or tissue classification the signal intensities are usually transformed and normalized in several steps in order to improve comparability and signal/noise ratio. These steps may include subtraction of an estimated background signal, subtracting the reference signal, smoothing (to account for nonlinear measurement effects), and more. Different authors use different approaches, and it is generally not clear to users which method they should prefer. We used the ratio between biological variance and measurement variance (which is an F-like statistic) as a quality measure for transformation methods, and we demonstrate a method for maximizing that variance ratio on real data. We explore a number of transformations issues, including Box-Cox transformation, baseline shift, partial subtraction of the log-reference signal and smoothing. It appears that the optimal choice of parameters for the transformation methods depends on the data. Further, the behavior of the variance ratio, under the null hypothesis of zero biological variance, appears to depend on the choice of parameters. The use of replicates in microarray experiments is important. Adjustment for the null-hypothesis behavior of the variance ratio is critical to the selection of transformation method.
Huerta, Mario; Munyi, Marc; Expósito, David; Querol, Enric; Cedano, Juan
The microarrays performed by scientific teams grow exponentially. These microarray data could be useful for researchers around the world, but unfortunately they are underused. To fully exploit these data, it is necessary (i) to extract these data from a repository of the high-throughput gene expression data like Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and (ii) to make the data from different microarrays comparable with tools easy to use for scientists. We have developed these two solutions in our server, implementing a database of microarray marker genes (Marker Genes Data Base). This database contains the marker genes of all GEO microarray datasets and it is updated monthly with the new microarrays from GEO. Thus, researchers can see whether the marker genes of their microarray are marker genes in other microarrays in the database, expanding the analysis of their microarray to the rest of the public microarrays. This solution helps not only to corroborate the conclusions regarding a researcher's microarray but also to identify the phenotype of different subsets of individuals under investigation, to frame the results with microarray experiments from other species, pathologies or tissues, to search for drugs that promote the transition between the studied phenotypes, to detect undesirable side effects of the treatment applied, etc. Thus, the researcher can quickly add relevant information to his/her studies from all of the previous analyses performed in other studies as long as they have been deposited in public repositories. Marker-gene database tool: http://ibb.uab.es/mgdb © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.
Furge, Laura Lowe; Winter, Michael B.; Meyers, Jacob I.; Furge, Kyle A.
Comprehensive measurement of gene expression using high-density nucleic acid arrays (i.e. microarrays) has become an important tool for investigating the molecular differences in clinical and research samples. Consequently, inclusion of discussion in biochemistry, molecular biology, or other appropriate courses of microarray technologies has…
Cooper, Colin S
Microarrays provide a versatile platform for utilizing information from the Human Genome Project to benefit human health. This article reviews the ways in which microarray technology may be used in breast cancer research. Its diverse applications include monitoring chromosome gains and losses, tumour classification, drug discovery and development, DNA resequencing, mutation detection and investigating the mechanism of tumour development. PMID:11305951
DNA microarray technology is a powerful functional genomics tool increasingly used for investigating global gene expression in environmental studies. Microarrays can also be used in identifying biological networks, as they give insight on the complex gene-to-gene interactions, ne...
Jaenisch, Holger; Handley, James; Williams, Deborah
We implement a Spatial Voting (SV) based analogy of microarray analysis for digital gene marker identification in malware code sections. We examine a famous set of malware formally analyzed by Mandiant and code named Advanced Persistent Threat (APT1). APT1 is a Chinese organization formed with specific intent to infiltrate and exploit US resources. Manidant provided a detailed behavior and sting analysis report for the 288 malware samples available. We performed an independent analysis using a new alternative to the traditional dynamic analysis and static analysis we call Spatial Analysis (SA). We perform unsupervised SA on the APT1 originating malware code sections and report our findings. We also show the results of SA performed on some members of the families associated by Manidant. We conclude that SV based SA is a practical fast alternative to dynamics analysis and static analysis.
Ryan, Denise; Mulrane, Laoighse; Rexhepaj, Elton; Gallagher, William M
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) have recently emerged as very valuable tools for high-throughput pathological assessment, especially in the cancer research arena. This important technology, however, has yet to fully penetrate into the area of toxicology. Here, we describe the creation of TMAs representative of samples produced from conventional toxicology studies within a large-scale, multi-institutional pan-European project, PredTox. PredTox, short for Predictive Toxicology, formed part of an EU FP6 Integrated Project, Innovative Medicines for Europe (InnoMed), and aimed to study pre-clinically 16 compounds of known liver and/or kidney toxicity. In more detail, TMAs were constructed from materials corresponding to the full face sections of liver and kidney from rats treated with different drug candidates by members of the consortium. We also describe the process of digital slide scanning of kidney and liver sections, in the context of creating an online resource of histopathological data.
Coyle, Robert; Jia, Jia; Mei, Ying
Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in tissue engineering and disease modeling. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in developing soluble factors (e.g., small molecules and growth factors) to direct stem cells into a desired phenotype. However, the current lack of suitable synthetic materials to regulate stem cell activity has limited the realization of the enormous potential of stem cells. This can be attributed to a large number of materials properties (e.g., chemical structures and physical properties of materials) that can affect stem cell fate. This makes it challenging to design biomaterials to direct stem cell behavior. To address this, polymer microarray technology has been developed to rapidly identify materials for a variety of stem cell applications. In this article, we summarize recent developments in polymer array technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. Statement of significance Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in tissue engineering and disease modeling. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing chemically defined media to direct stem cells into a desired phenotype. However, the current lack of the suitable synthetic materials to regulate stem cell activities has been limiting the realization of the potential of stem cells. This can be attributed to the number of variables in material properties (e.g., chemical structures and physical properties) that can affect stem cells. Polymer microarray technology has shown to be a powerful tool to rapidly identify materials for a variety of stem cell applications. Here we summarize recent developments in polymer array technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. PMID:26497624
Hipp, Jason; Cheng, Jerome; Pantanowitz, Liron; Hewitt, Stephen; Yagi, Yukako; Monaco, James; Madabhushi, Anant; Rodriguez-canales, Jaime; Hanson, Jeffrey; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Filie, Armando C.; Feldman, Michael D.; Tomaszewski, John E.; Shih, Natalie NC.; Brodsky, Victor; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Emmert-Buck, Michael R.; Balis, Ulysses J.
Introduction: The increasing availability of whole slide imaging (WSI) data sets (digital slides) from glass slides offers new opportunities for the development of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) algorithms. With the all-digital pathology workflow that these data sets will enable in the near future, literally millions of digital slides will be generated and stored. Consequently, the field in general and pathologists, specifically, will need tools to help extract actionable information from this new and vast collective repository. Methods: To address this limitation, we designed and implemented a tool (dCORE) to enable the systematic capture of image tiles with constrained size and resolution that contain desired histopathologic features. Results: In this communication, we describe a user-friendly tool that will enable pathologists to mine digital slides archives to create image microarrays (IMAs). IMAs are to digital slides as tissue microarrays (TMAs) are to cell blocks. Thus, a single digital slide could be transformed into an array of hundreds to thousands of high quality digital images, with each containing key diagnostic morphologies and appropriate controls. Current manual digital image cut-and-paste methods that allow for the creation of a grid of images (such as an IMA) of matching resolutions are tedious. Conclusion: The ability to create IMAs representing hundreds to thousands of vetted morphologic features has numerous applications in education, proficiency testing, consensus case review, and research. Lastly, in a manner analogous to the way conventional TMA technology has significantly accelerated in situ studies of tissue specimens use of IMAs has similar potential to significantly accelerate CAD algorithm development. PMID:22200030
Singh, Anup K.; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Moran-Mirabal, Jose C.
We present the use of micron-sized lipid domains, patterned onto planar substrates and within microfluidic channels, to assay the binding of bacterial toxins via total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). The lipid domains were patterned using a polymer lift-off technique and consisted of ganglioside-populated DSPC:cholesterol supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). Lipid patterns were formed on the substrates by vesicle fusion followed by polymer lift-off, which revealed micron-sized SLBs containing either ganglioside GT1b or GM1. The ganglioside-populated SLB arrays were then exposed to either Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) or Tetanus toxin fragment C (TTC). Binding was assayed on planar substrates bymore » TIRFM down to 1 nM concentration for CTB and 100 nM for TTC. Apparent binding constants extracted from three different models applied to the binding curves suggest that binding of a protein to a lipid-based receptor is strongly affected by the lipid composition of the SLB and by the substrate on which the bilayer is formed. Patterning of SLBs inside microfluidic channels also allowed the preparation of lipid domains with different compositions on a single device. Arrays within microfluidic channels were used to achieve segregation and selective binding from a binary mixture of the toxin fragments in one device. The binding and segregation within the microfluidic channels was assayed with epifluorescence as proof of concept. We propose that the method used for patterning the lipid microarrays on planar substrates and within microfluidic channels can be easily adapted to proteins or nucleic acids and can be used for biosensor applications and cell stimulation assays under different flow conditions. KEYWORDS. Microarray, ganglioside, polymer lift-off, cholera toxin, tetanus toxin, TIRFM, binding constant.4« less
Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Elasri, Mohamed O
Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Elasri, Mohamed O
Yang, Rusong; Wei, Lian; Feng, Ying; Li, Xiujian; Zhou, Quan
Biological laser printing (BioLP) is a promising biomaterial printing technique. It has the advantage of high resolution, high bioactivity, high printing frequency and small transported liquid amount. In this paper, a set of BioLP device is design and made, and protein microarrays are printed by this device. It's found that both laser intensity and fluid layer thickness have an influence on the microarrays acquired. Besides, two kinds of the fluid layer coating methods are compared, and the results show that blade coating method is better than well-coating method in BioLP. A microarray of 0.76pL protein microarray and a "NUDT" patterned microarray are printed to testify the printing ability of BioLP.
ROY, SASHWATI; SEN, CHANDAN K
The cDNA microarray technology and related bioinformatics tools presents a wide range of novel application opportunities. The technology may be productively applied to address food safety. In this mini-review article, we present an update highlighting the late breaking discoveries that demonstrate the vitality of cDNA microarray technology as a tool to analyze food safety with reference to microbial pathogens and genetically modified foods. In order to bring the microarray technology to mainstream food safety, it is important to develop robust user-friendly tools that may be applied in a field setting. In addition, there needs to be a standardized process for regulatory agencies to interpret and act upon microarray-based data. The cDNA microarray approach is an emergent technology in diagnostics. Its values lie in being able to provide complimentary molecular insight when employed in addition to traditional tests for food safety, as part of a more comprehensive battery of tests. PMID:16466843
Foy, Jeffrey E; LoCasto, Paul C; Briner, Stephen W; Dyar, Samantha
Readers rapidly check new information against prior knowledge during validation, but research is inconsistent as to whether source credibility affects validation. We argue that readers are likely to accept highly plausible assertions regardless of source, but that high source credibility may boost acceptance of claims that are less plausible based on general world knowledge. In Experiment 1, participants read narratives with assertions for which the plausibility varied depending on the source. For high credibility sources, we found that readers were faster to read information confirming these assertions relative to contradictory information. We found the opposite patterns for low credibility characters. In Experiment 2, readers read claims from the same high or low credibility sources, but the claims were always plausible based on general world knowledge. Readers consistently took longer to read contradictory information, regardless of source. In Experiment 3, participants read modified versions of "The Tell-Tale Heart," which was narrated entirely by an unreliable source. We manipulated the plausibility of a target event, as well as whether high credibility characters within the story provided confirmatory or contradictory information about the narrator's description of the target event. Though readers rated the narrator as being insane, they were more likely to believe the narrator's assertions about the target event when it was plausible and corroborated by other characters. We argue that sourcing research would benefit from focusing on the relationship between source credibility, message credibility, and multiple sources within a text.
Jaluria, Pratik; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Betenbaugh, Michael; Shiloach, Joseph
With advances in robotics, computational capabilities, and the fabrication of high quality glass slides coinciding with increased genomic information being available on public databases, microarray technology is increasingly being used in laboratories around the world. In fact, fields as varied as: toxicology, evolutionary biology, drug development and production, disease characterization, diagnostics development, cellular physiology and stress responses, and forensics have benefiting from its use. However, for many researchers not familiar with microarrays, current articles and reviews often address neither the fundamental principles behind the technology nor the proper designing of experiments. Although, microarray technology is relatively simple, conceptually, its practice does require careful planning and detailed understanding of the limitations inherently present. Without these considerations, it can be exceedingly difficult to ascertain valuable information from microarray data. Therefore, this text aims to outline key features in microarray technology, paying particular attention to current applications as outlined in recent publications, experimental design, statistical methods, and potential uses. Furthermore, this review is not meant to be comprehensive, but rather substantive; highlighting important concepts and detailing steps necessary to conduct and interpret microarray experiments. Collectively, the information included in this text will highlight the versatility of microarray technology and provide a glimpse of what the future may hold. PMID:17254338
This dissertation describes a new type of molecular assay for nucleic acids and proteins. We call this technique a digital microarray since it is conceptually similar to conventional fluorescence microarrays, yet it performs enumerative ('digital') counting of the number captured molecules. Digital microarrays are approximately 10,000-fold more sensitive than fluorescence microarrays, yet maintain all of the strengths of the platform including low cost and high multiplexing (i.e., many different tests on the same sample simultaneously). Digital microarrays use gold nanorods to label the captured target molecules. Each gold nanorod on the array is individually detected based on its light scattering, with an interferometric microscopy technique called SP-IRIS. Our optimized high-throughput version of SP-IRIS is able to scan a typical array of 500 spots in less than 10 minutes. Digital DNA microarrays may have utility in applications where sequencing is prohibitively expensive or slow. As an example, we describe a digital microarray assay for gene expression markers of bacterial drug resistance.
Biyani, Manish; Ichiki, Takanori
Advances in lithographic approaches to fabricating bio-microarrays have been extensively explored over the last two decades. However, the need for pattern flexibility, a high density, a high resolution, affordability and on-demand fabrication is promoting the development of unconventional routes for microarray fabrication. This review highlights the development and uses of a new molecular lithography approach, called “microintaglio printing technology”, for large-scale bio-microarray fabrication using a microreactor array (µRA)-based chip consisting of uniformly-arranged, femtoliter-size µRA molds. In this method, a single-molecule-amplified DNA microarray pattern is self-assembled onto a µRA mold and subsequently converted into a messenger RNA or protein microarray pattern by simultaneously producing and transferring (immobilizing) a messenger RNA or a protein from a µRA mold to a glass surface. Microintaglio printing allows the self-assembly and patterning of in situ-synthesized biomolecules into high-density (kilo-giga-density), ordered arrays on a chip surface with µm-order precision. This holistic aim, which is difficult to achieve using conventional printing and microarray approaches, is expected to revolutionize and reshape proteomics. This review is not written comprehensively, but rather substantively, highlighting the versatility of microintaglio printing for developing a prerequisite platform for microarray technology for the postgenomic era. PMID:27600226
Sun, Yangyang; Cheng, Li; Gu, Yihua; Xin, Aijie; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Shumin; Guo, Shujuan; Liu, Yin; Diao, Hua; Shi, Huijuan; Wang, Guangyu; Tao, Sheng-ce
Glycosylation is one of the most abundant and functionally important protein post-translational modifications. As such, technology for efficient glycosylation analysis is in high demand. Lectin microarrays are a powerful tool for such investigations and have been successfully applied for a variety of glycobiological studies. However, most of the current lectin microarrays are primarily constructed from plant lectins, which are not well suited for studies of human glycosylation because of the extreme complexity of human glycans. Herein, we constructed a human lectin microarray with 60 human lectin and lectin-like proteins. All of the lectins and lectin-like proteins were purified from yeast, and most showed binding to human glycans. To demonstrate the applicability of the human lectin microarray, human sperm were probed on the microarray and strong bindings were observed for several lectins, including galectin-1, 7, 8, GalNAc-T6, and ERGIC-53 (LMAN1). These bindings were validated by flow cytometry and fluorescence immunostaining. Further, mass spectrometry analysis showed that galectin-1 binds several membrane-associated proteins including heat shock protein 90. Finally, functional assays showed that binding of galectin-8 could significantly enhance the acrosome reaction within human sperms. To our knowledge, this is the first construction of a human lectin microarray, and we anticipate it will find wide use for a range of human or mammalian studies, alone or in combination with plant lectin microarrays. PMID:27364157
Hyun, Ji Young; Pai, Jaeyoung; Shin, Injae
Not only are glycan-mediated binding processes in cells and organisms essential for a wide range of physiological processes, but they are also implicated in various pathological processes. As a result, elucidation of glycan-associated biomolecular interactions and their consequences is of great importance in basic biological research and biomedical applications. In 2002, we and others were the first to utilize glycan microarrays in efforts aimed at the rapid analysis of glycan-associated recognition events. Because they contain a number of glycans immobilized in a dense and orderly manner on a solid surface, glycan microarrays enable multiple parallel analyses of glycan-protein binding events while utilizing only small amounts of glycan samples. Therefore, this microarray technology has become a leading edge tool in studies aimed at elucidating roles played by glycans and glycan binding proteins in biological systems. In this Account, we summarize our efforts on the construction of glycan microarrays and their applications in studies of glycan-associated interactions. Immobilization strategies of functionalized and unmodified glycans on derivatized glass surfaces are described. Although others have developed immobilization techniques, our efforts have focused on improving the efficiencies and operational simplicity of microarray construction. The microarray-based technology has been most extensively used for rapid analysis of the glycan binding properties of proteins. In addition, glycan microarrays have been employed to determine glycan-protein interactions quantitatively, detect pathogens, and rapidly assess substrate specificities of carbohydrate-processing enzymes. More recently, the microarrays have been employed to identify functional glycans that elicit cell surface lectin-mediated cellular responses. Owing to these efforts, it is now possible to use glycan microarrays to expand the understanding of roles played by glycans and glycan binding proteins in
Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark
Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen
Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Jorgensen, Paul; Breitkreutz, Ashton; Tyers, Mike
We have developed a series of programs, collectively packaged as Array File Maker 4.0 (AFM), that manipulate and manage DNA microarray data. AFM 4.0 is simple to use, applicable to any organism or microarray, and operates within the familiar confines of Microsoft Excel. Given a database of expression ratios, AFM 4.0 generates input files for clustering, helps prepare colored figures and Venn diagrams, and can uncover aneuploidy in yeast microarray data. AFM 4.0 should be especially useful to laboratories that do not have access to specialized commercial or in-house software. PMID:11532221
de Paz, Jose L; Seeberger, Peter H
Carbohydrate microarrays have become a powerful tool to elucidate the biological role of complex sugars. Microarrays are particularly useful for the study of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a key class of carbohydrates. The high-throughput chip format enables rapid screening of large numbers of potential GAG sequences produced via a complex biosynthesis while consuming very little sample. Here, we briefly highlight the most recent advances involving GAG microarrays built with synthetic or naturally derived oligosaccharides. These chips are powerful tools for characterizing GAG-protein interactions and determining structure-activity relationships for specific sequences. Thereby, they contribute to decoding the information contained in specific GAG sequences.
Pollack, Jonathan R.
DNA microarray technology matured in the mid-1990s, and the past decade has witnessed a tremendous growth in its application. DNA microarrays have provided powerful tools for pathology researchers seeking to describe, classify, and understand human disease. There has also been great expectation that the technology would advance the practice of pathology. This review highlights some of the key contributions of DNA microarrays to experimental pathology, focusing in the area of cancer research. Also discussed are some of the current challenges in translating utility to clinical practice. PMID:17600117
van Hal, N L; Vorst, O; van Houwelingen, A M; Kok, E J; Peijnenburg, A; Aharoni, A; van Tunen, A J; Keijer, J
DNA microarray technology is a new and powerful technology that will substantially increase the speed of molecular biological research. This paper gives a survey of DNA microarray technology and its use in gene expression studies. The technical aspects and their potential improvements are discussed. These comprise array manufacturing and design, array hybridisation, scanning, and data handling. Furthermore, it is discussed how DNA microarrays can be applied in the working fields of: safety, functionality and health of food and gene discovery and pathway engineering in plants.
Kristiansson, Erik; Sjögren, Anders; Rudemo, Mats; Nerman, Olle
In microarray experiments quality often varies, for example between samples and between arrays. The need for quality control is therefore strong. A statistical model and a corresponding analysis method is suggested for experiments with pairing, including designs with individuals observed before and after treatment and many experiments with two-colour spotted arrays. The model is of mixed type with some parameters estimated by an empirical Bayes method. Differences in quality are modelled by individual variances and correlations between repetitions. The method is applied to three real and several simulated datasets. Two of the real datasets are of Affymetrix type with patients profiled before and after treatment, and the third dataset is of two-colour spotted cDNA type. In all cases, the patients or arrays had different estimated variances, leading to distinctly unequal weights in the analysis. We suggest also plots which illustrate the variances and correlations that affect the weights computed by our analysis method. For simulated data the improvement relative to previously published methods without weighting is shown to be substantial.
Mello, Rafael Barrios; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Alves, Maria Teresa Seixas; Evison, Martin Paul; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio; Francisco, Rafaella Arrabaca; Astolphi, Rafael Dias; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato
Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens. Standard hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and silver methenamine, and picrosirius red staining, and CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry were applied to TMA sections. Osteocyte and osteocyte lacuna counts, percent bone matrix loss, and fungal spheroid element counts could be measured and collagen fibre bundles observed in all specimens. Decalcification with 7% nitric acid proceeded more rapidly than with 0.5 M EDTA and may offer better preservation of histological and cellular structure. No endothelial cells could be detected using CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry. Correlation between osteocytes per lacuna and age at death may reflect reported age-related responses to microdamage. Methodological limitations and caveats, and results of the TMA analysis of post mortem diagenesis in bone are discussed, and implications for DNA survival and recovery considered. PMID:28051148
Nallur, Girish; Luo, Chenghua; Fang, Linhua; Cooley, Stephanie; Dave, Varshal; Lambert, Jeremy; Kukanskis, Kari; Kingsmore, Stephen; Lasken, Roger; Schweitzer, Barry
While microarrays hold considerable promise in large-scale biology on account of their massively parallel analytical nature, there is a need for compatible signal amplification procedures to increase sensitivity without loss of multiplexing. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a molecular amplification method with the unique property of product localization. This report describes the application of RCA signal amplification for multiplexed, direct detection and quantitation of nucleic acid targets on planar glass and gel-coated microarrays. As few as 150 molecules bound to the surface of microarrays can be detected using RCA. Because of the linear kinetics of RCA, nucleic acid target molecules may be measured with a dynamic range of four orders of magnitude. Consequently, RCA is a promising technology for the direct measurement of nucleic acids on microarrays without the need for a potentially biasing preamplification step. PMID:11726701
DNA/RNA and protein microarrays have proven their outstanding bioanalytical performance throughout the past decades, given the unprecedented level of parallelization by which molecular recognition assays can be performed and analyzed. Cell microarrays (CMAs) make use of similar construction principles. They are applied to profile a given cell population with respect to the expression of specific molecular markers and also to measure functional cell responses to drugs and chemicals. This review focuses on the use of cell-based microarrays for assessing the cytotoxicity of drugs, toxins, or chemicals in general. It also summarizes CMA construction principles with respect to the cell types that are used for such microarrays, the readout parameters to assess toxicity, and the various formats that have been established and applied. The review ends with a critical comparison of CMAs and well-established microtiter plate (MTP) approaches.
D'Ambrosio, C; Gatta, L; Bonini, S
In recent years microarray technology has been increasingly used in both basic and clinical research, providing substantial information for a better understanding of genome-environment interactions responsible for diseases, as well as for their diagnosis and treatment. However, in genomic research using microarray technology there are several unresolved issues, including scientific, ethical and legal issues. Networks of excellence like GA(2)LEN may represent the best approach for teaching, cost reduction, data repositories, and functional studies implementation.
Wullschleger, Stan D.; Difazio, Stephen P.
Microarrays have become an important technology for the global analysis of gene expression in humans, animals, plants, and microbes. Implemented in the context of a well-designed experiment, cDNA and oligonucleotide arrays can provide highthroughput, simultaneous analysis of transcript abundance for hundreds, if not thousands, of genes. However, despite widespread acceptance, the use of microarrays as a tool to better understand processes of interest to the plant physiologist is still being explored. To help illustrate current uses of microarrays in the plant sciences, several case studies that we believe demonstrate the emerging application of gene expression arrays in plant physiology weremore » selected from among the many posters and presentations at the 2003 Plant and Animal Genome XI Conference. Based on this survey, microarrays are being used to assess gene expression in plants exposed to the experimental manipulation of air temperature, soil water content and aluminium concentration in the root zone. Analysis often includes characterizing transcript profiles for multiple post-treatment sampling periods and categorizing genes with common patterns of response using hierarchical clustering techniques. In addition, microarrays are also providing insights into developmental changes in gene expression associated with fibre and root elongation in cotton and maize, respectively. Technical and analytical limitations of microarrays are discussed and projects attempting to advance areas of microarray design and data analysis are highlighted. Finally, although much work remains, we conclude that microarrays are a valuable tool for the plant physiologist interested in the characterization and identification of individual genes and gene families with potential application in the fields of agriculture, horticulture and forestry.« less
Salehi-Reyhani, Ali; Burgin, Edward; Ces, Oscar; Willison, Keith R; Klug, David R
Addressable droplet microarrays are potentially attractive as a way to achieve miniaturised, reduced volume, high sensitivity analyses without the need to fabricate microfluidic devices or small volume chambers. We report a practical method for producing oil-encapsulated addressable droplet microarrays which can be used for such analyses. To demonstrate their utility, we undertake a series of single cell analyses, to determine the variation in copy number of p53 proteins in cells of a human cancer cell line.
Knickerbocker, Christopher; Bryant, Lexi; Golova, Julia; Wiles, Cory; Williams, Kenneth H.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Long, Philip E.
The objectives of this study were to unify amplification, labeling, and microarray hybridization chemistries within a single, closed microfluidic chamber (an amplification microarray) and verify technology performance on a series of groundwater samples from an in situ field experiment designed to compare U(VI) mobility under conditions of various alkalinities (as HCO3−) during stimulated microbial activity accompanying acetate amendment. Analytical limits of detection were between 2 and 200 cell equivalents of purified DNA. Amplification microarray signatures were well correlated with 16S rRNA-targeted quantitative PCR results and hybridization microarray signatures. The succession of the microbial community was evident with and consistent between the two microarray platforms. Amplification microarray analysis of acetate-treated groundwater showed elevated levels of iron-reducing bacteria (Flexibacter, Geobacter, Rhodoferax, and Shewanella) relative to the average background profile, as expected. Identical molecular signatures were evident in the transect treated with acetate plus NaHCO3, but at much lower signal intensities and with a much more rapid decline (to nondetection). Azoarcus, Thaurea, and Methylobacterium were responsive in the acetate-only transect but not in the presence of bicarbonate. Observed differences in microbial community composition or response to bicarbonate amendment likely had an effect on measured rates of U reduction, with higher rates probable in the part of the field experiment that was amended with bicarbonate. The simplification in microarray-based work flow is a significant technological advance toward entirely closed-amplicon microarray-based tests and is generally extensible to any number of environmental monitoring applications. PMID:23160129
Lodha, T D; Basak, J
Plant defense responses are mediated by elementary regulatory proteins that affect expression of thousands of genes. Over the last decade, microarray technology has played a key role in deciphering the underlying networks of gene regulation in plants that lead to a wide variety of defence responses. Microarray is an important tool to quantify and profile the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously, with two main aims: (1) gene discovery and (2) global expression profiling. Several microarray technologies are currently in use; most include a glass slide platform with spotted cDNA or oligonucleotides. Till date, microarray technology has been used in the identification of regulatory genes, end-point defence genes, to understand the signal transduction processes underlying disease resistance and its intimate links to other physiological pathways. Microarray technology can be used for in-depth, simultaneous profiling of host/pathogen genes as the disease progresses from infection to resistance/susceptibility at different developmental stages of the host, which can be done in different environments, for clearer understanding of the processes involved. A thorough knowledge of plant disease resistance using successful combination of microarray and other high throughput techniques, as well as biochemical, genetic, and cell biological experiments is needed for practical application to secure and stabilize yield of many crop plants. This review starts with a brief introduction to microarray technology, followed by the basics of plant-pathogen interaction, the use of DNA microarrays over the last decade to unravel the mysteries of plant-pathogen interaction, and ends with the future prospects of this technology.
Kelmansky, Diana M
This review chapter presents a statistical point of view to microarray experiments with the purpose of understanding the apparent contradictions that often appear in relation to their results. We give a brief introduction of molecular biology for nonspecialists. We describe microarray experiments from their construction and the biological principles the experiments rely on, to data acquisition and analysis. The role of epidemiological approaches and sample size considerations are also discussed.
Zhu, Biwei; Jiang, Bo; Na, Zhenkun; Yao, Shao Q
Mammalian cell-based microarray technology has gained wide attention, for its plethora of promising applications. The platform is able to provide simultaneous information on multiple parameters for a given target, or even multiple target proteins, in a complex biological system. Here we describe the preparation of mammalian cell-based microarrays using selectively captured of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3). This platform was then used in controlled drug release and measuring the associated drug effects on these cancer cells.
Daly, Don S.; White, Amanda M.; Varnum, Susan M.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a standard immunoassay to predict a protein concentration in a sample. Deploying ELISA in a microarray format permits simultaneous prediction of the concentrations of numerous proteins in a small sample. These predictions, however, are uncertain due to processing error and biological variability. Evaluating prediction error is critical to interpreting biological significance and improving the ELISA microarray process. Evaluating prediction error must be automated to realize a reliable high-throughput ELISA microarray system. Methods: In this paper, we present a statistical method based on propagation of error to evaluate prediction errors in the ELISA microarray process. Althoughmore » propagation of error is central to this method, it is effective only when comparable data are available. Therefore, we briefly discuss the roles of experimental design, data screening, normalization and statistical diagnostics when evaluating ELISA microarray prediction errors. We use an ELISA microarray investigation of breast cancer biomarkers to illustrate the evaluation of prediction errors. The illustration begins with a description of the design and resulting data, followed by a brief discussion of data screening and normalization. In our illustration, we fit a standard curve to the screened and normalized data, review the modeling diagnostics, and apply propagation of error.« less
Wang, Hsiuying; Chiu, Chia-Chun; Wu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Wei-Sheng
Missing values commonly occur in the microarray data, which usually contain more than 5% missing values with up to 90% of genes affected. Inaccurate missing value estimation results in reducing the power of downstream microarray data analyses. Many types of methods have been developed to estimate missing values. Among them, the regression-based methods are very popular and have been shown to perform better than the other types of methods in many testing microarray datasets. To further improve the performances of the regression-based methods, we propose shrinkage regression-based methods. Our methods take the advantage of the correlation structure in the microarray data and select similar genes for the target gene by Pearson correlation coefficients. Besides, our methods incorporate the least squares principle, utilize a shrinkage estimation approach to adjust the coefficients of the regression model, and then use the new coefficients to estimate missing values. Simulation results show that the proposed methods provide more accurate missing value estimation in six testing microarray datasets than the existing regression-based methods do. Imputation of missing values is a very important aspect of microarray data analyses because most of the downstream analyses require a complete dataset. Therefore, exploring accurate and efficient methods for estimating missing values has become an essential issue. Since our proposed shrinkage regression-based methods can provide accurate missing value estimation, they are competitive alternatives to the existing regression-based methods.
Yassour, Moran; Kaplan, Tommy; Jaimovich, Ariel; Friedman, Nir
The packaging of DNA around nucleosomes in eukaryotic cells plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression, and other DNA-related processes. To better understand the regulatory role of nucleosomes, it is important to pinpoint their position in a high (5-10 bp) resolution. Toward this end, several recent works used dense tiling arrays to map nucleosomes in a high-throughput manner. These data were then parsed and hand-curated, and the positions of nucleosomes were assessed. In this manuscript, we present a fully automated algorithm to analyze such data and predict the exact location of nucleosomes. We introduce a method, based on a probabilistic graphical model, to increase the resolution of our predictions even beyond that of the microarray used. We show how to build such a model and how to compile it into a simple Hidden Markov Model, allowing for a fast and accurate inference of nucleosome positions. We applied our model to nucleosomal data from mid-log yeast cells reported by Yuan et al. and compared our predictions to those of the original paper; to a more recent method that uses five times denser tiling arrays as explained by Lee et al.; and to a curated set of literature-based nucleosome positions. Our results suggest that by applying our algorithm to the same data used by Yuan et al. our fully automated model traced 13% more nucleosomes, and increased the overall accuracy by about 20%. We believe that such an improvement opens the way for a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling gene expression, and how they are encoded in the DNA.
Jörnsten, Rebecka; Ouyang, Ming; Wang, Hui-Yu
DNA microarray experiments are conducted in logical sets, such as time course profiling after a treatment is applied to the samples, or comparisons of the samples under two or more conditions. Due to cost and design constraints of spotted cDNA microarray experiments, each logical set commonly includes only a small number of replicates per condition. Despite the vast improvement of the microarray technology in recent years, missing values are prevalent. Intuitively, imputation of missing values is best done using many replicates within the same logical set. In practice, there are few replicates and thus reliable imputation within logical sets is difficult. However, it is in the case of few replicates that the presence of missing values, and how they are imputed, can have the most profound impact on the outcome of downstream analyses (e.g. significance analysis and clustering). This study explores the feasibility of imputation across logical sets, using the vast amount of publicly available microarray data to improve imputation reliability in the small sample size setting. We download all cDNA microarray data of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Caenorhabditis elegans from the Stanford Microarray Database. Through cross-validation and simulation, we find that, for all three species, our proposed imputation using data from public databases is far superior to imputation within a logical set, sometimes to an astonishing degree. Furthermore, the imputation root mean square error for significant genes is generally a lot less than that of non-significant ones. Since downstream analysis of significant genes, such as clustering and network analysis, can be very sensitive to small perturbations of estimated gene effects, it is highly recommended that researchers apply reliable data imputation prior to further analysis. Our method can also be applied to cDNA microarray experiments from other species, provided good reference data are available.
Zhao, Wei; Dauwels, Justin; Niles, Jacquin C; Cao, Jianshu
Microarrays are widely used to investigate the blood stage of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Starting with synchronized cells, gene expression levels are continually measured over the 48-hour intra-erythrocytic cycle (IDC). However, the cell population gradually loses synchrony during the experiment. As a result, the microarray measurements are blurred. In this paper, we propose a generalized deconvolution approach to reconstruct the intrinsic expression pattern, and apply it to P. falciparum IDC microarray data. We develop a statistical model for the decay of synchrony among cells, and reconstruct the expression pattern through statistical inference. The proposed method can handle microarray measurements with noise and missing data. The original gene expression patterns become more apparent in the reconstructed profiles, making it easier to analyze and interpret the data. We hypothesize that reconstructed gene expression patterns represent better temporally resolved expression profiles that can be probabilistically modeled to match changes in expression level to IDC transitions. In particular, we identify transcriptionally regulated protein kinases putatively involved in regulating the P. falciparum IDC. By analyzing publicly available microarray data sets for the P. falciparum IDC, protein kinases are ranked in terms of their likelihood to be involved in regulating transitions between the ring, trophozoite and schizont developmental stages of the P. falciparum IDC. In our theoretical framework, a few protein kinases have high probability rankings, and could potentially be involved in regulating these developmental transitions. This study proposes a new methodology for extracting intrinsic expression patterns from microarray data. By applying this method to P. falciparum microarray data, several protein kinases are predicted to play a significant role in the P. falciparum IDC. Earlier experiments have indeed confirmed that several of these kinases are involved
Chen, Jun-Hu; Feng, Xin-Yu; Chen, Shao-Hong; Cai, Yu-Chun; Lu, Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Hu, Wei
Background Accurate detection of blood protozoa from clinical samples is important for diagnosis, treatment and control of related diseases. In this preliminary study, a novel DNA microarray system was assessed for the detection of Plasmodium, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia in humans, animals, and vectors, in comparison with microscopy and PCR data. Developing a rapid, simple, and convenient detection method for protozoan detection is an urgent need. Methodology/Principal Findings The microarray assay simultaneously identified 18 species of common blood protozoa based on the differences in respective target genes. A total of 20 specific primer pairs and 107 microarray probes were selected according to conserved regions which were designed to identify 18 species in 5 blood protozoan genera. The positive detection rate of the microarray assay was 91.78% (402/438). Sensitivity and specificity for blood protozoan detection ranged from 82.4% (95%CI: 65.9% ~ 98.8%) to 100.0% and 95.1% (95%CI: 93.2% ~ 97.0%) to 100.0%, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 20.0% (95%CI: 2.5% ~ 37.5%) to 100.0% and 96.8% (95%CI: 95.0% ~ 98.6%) to 100.0%, respectively. Youden index varied from 0.82 to 0.98. The detection limit of the DNA microarrays ranged from 200 to 500 copies/reaction, similar to PCR findings. The concordance rate between microarray data and DNA sequencing results was 100%. Conclusions/Significance Overall, the newly developed microarray platform provides a convenient, highly accurate, and reliable clinical assay for the determination of blood protozoan species. PMID:27911895
Griessner, Matthias; Hartig, Dave; Christmann, Alexander; Pohl, Carsten; Schellhase, Michaela; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva
During the last decade microarrays have become a powerful analytical tool. Commonly microarrays are produced in a non-contact manner using silicone printheads. However, silicone printheads are expensive and not able to be used as a disposable. Here, we show the development and functional characterization of 8-channel plastic microarray printheads that overcome both disadvantages of their conventional silicone counterparts. A combination of injection-molding and laser processing allows us to produce a high quantity of cheap, customizable and disposable microarray printheads. The use of plastics (e.g., polystyrene) minimizes the need for surface modifications required previously for proper printing results. Time-consuming regeneration processes, cleaning procedures and contaminations caused by residual samples are avoided. The utilization of plastic printheads for viscous liquids, such as cell suspensions or whole blood, is possible. Furthermore, functional parts within the plastic printhead (e.g., particle filters) can be included. Our printhead is compatible with commercially available TopSpot devices but provides additional economic and technical benefits as compared to conventional TopSpot printheads, while fulfilling all requirements demanded on the latter. All in all, this work describes how the field of traditional microarray spotting can be extended significantly by low cost plastic printheads.
Xia, Xiaoqin; McClelland, Michael; Wang, Yipeng
Background Many cutting-edge microarray analysis tools and algorithms, including commonly used limma and affy packages in Bioconductor, need sophisticated knowledge of mathematics, statistics and computer skills for implementation. Commercially available software can provide a user-friendly interface at considerable cost. To facilitate the use of these tools for microarray data analysis on an open platform we developed an online microarray data analysis platform, WebArray, for bench biologists to utilize these tools to explore data from single/dual color microarray experiments. Results The currently implemented functions were based on limma and affy package from Bioconductor, the spacings LOESS histogram (SPLOSH) method, PCA-assisted normalization method and genome mapping method. WebArray incorporates these packages and provides a user-friendly interface for accessing a wide range of key functions of limma and others, such as spot quality weight, background correction, graphical plotting, normalization, linear modeling, empirical bayes statistical analysis, false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, chromosomal mapping for genome comparison. Conclusion WebArray offers a convenient platform for bench biologists to access several cutting-edge microarray data analysis tools. The website is freely available at . It runs on a Linux server with Apache and MySQL. PMID:16371165
Bernhardt, Barbara A; Soucier, Danielle; Hanson, Karen; Savage, Melissa S; Jackson, Laird; Wapner, Ronald J
Genomic microarrays can detect copy-number variants not detectable by conventional cytogenetics. This technology is diffusing rapidly into prenatal settings even though the clinical implications of many copy-number variants are currently unknown. We conducted a qualitative pilot study to explore the experiences of women receiving abnormal results from prenatal microarray testing performed in a research setting. Participants were a subset of women participating in a multicenter prospective study "Prenatal Cytogenetic Diagnosis by Array-based Copy Number Analysis." Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 women receiving abnormal prenatal microarray results. We found that five key elements dominated the experiences of women who had received abnormal prenatal microarray results: an offer too good to pass up, blindsided by the results, uncertainty and unquantifiable risks, need for support, and toxic knowledge. As prenatal microarray testing is increasingly used, uncertain findings will be common, resulting in greater need for careful pre- and posttest counseling, and more education of and resources for providers so they can adequately support the women who are undergoing testing.
Bueno Filho, Júlio S S; Gilmour, Steven G; Rosa, Guilherme J M
Microarray experiments have been used recently in genetical genomics studies, as an additional tool to understand the genetic mechanisms governing variation in complex traits, such as for estimating heritabilities of mRNA transcript abundances, for mapping expression quantitative trait loci, and for inferring regulatory networks controlling gene expression. Several articles on the design of microarray experiments discuss situations in which treatment effects are assumed fixed and without any structure. In the case of two-color microarray platforms, several authors have studied reference and circular designs. Here, we discuss the optimal design of microarray experiments whose goals refer to specific genetic questions. Some examples are used to illustrate the choice of a design for comparing fixed, structured treatments, such as genotypic groups. Experiments targeting single genes or chromosomic regions (such as with transgene research) or multiple epistatic loci (such as within a selective phenotyping context) are discussed. In addition, microarray experiments in which treatments refer to families or to subjects (within family structures or complex pedigrees) are presented. In these cases treatments are more appropriately considered to be random effects, with specific covariance structures, in which the genetic goals relate to the estimation of genetic variances and the heritability of transcriptional abundances.
Schax, Emilia; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Märzhäuser, Helene; Stahl, Frank; Scheper, Thomas; Agard, David A; Eichner, Simone; Kirschning, Andreas; Zeilinger, Carsten
Based on the importance of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease or malaria, inhibitors of these chaperons are needed. Today's state-of-the-art techniques to identify HSP inhibitors are performed in microplate format, requiring large amounts of proteins and potential inhibitors. In contrast, we have developed a miniaturized protein microarray-based assay to identify novel inhibitors, allowing analysis with 300 pmol of protein. The assay is based on competitive binding of fluorescence-labeled ATP and potential inhibitors to the ATP-binding site of HSP. Therefore, the developed microarray enables the parallel analysis of different ATP-binding proteins on a single microarray. We have demonstrated the possibility of multiplexing by immobilizing full-length human HSP90α and HtpG of Helicobacter pylori on microarrays. Fluorescence-labeled ATP was competed by novel geldanamycin/reblastatin derivatives with IC50 values in the range of 0.5 nM to 4 μM and Z(*)-factors between 0.60 and 0.96. Our results demonstrate the potential of a target-oriented multiplexed protein microarray to identify novel inhibitors for different members of the HSP90 family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Qin, Li; Rueda, Luis; Ali, Adnan; Ngom, Alioune
Following the invention of microarrays in 1994, the development and applications of this technology have grown exponentially. The numerous applications of microarray technology include clinical diagnosis and treatment, drug design and discovery, tumour detection, and environmental health research. One of the key issues in the experimental approaches utilising microarrays is to extract quantitative information from the spots, which represent genes in a given experiment. For this process, the initial stages are important and they influence future steps in the analysis. Identifying the spots and separating the background from the foreground is a fundamental problem in DNA microarray data analysis. In this review, we present an overview of state-of-the-art methods for microarray image segmentation. We discuss the foundations of the circle-shaped approach, adaptive shape segmentation, histogram-based methods and the recently introduced clustering-based techniques. We analytically show that clustering-based techniques are equivalent to the one-dimensional, standard k-means clustering algorithm that utilises the Euclidean distance.
Wu, Min; Thao, Cheng; Mu, Xiangming; Munson, Ethan V
Background Microarray has been widely used to measure the relative amounts of every mRNA transcript from the genome in a single scan. Biologists have been accustomed to reading their experimental data directly from tables. However, microarray data are quite large and are stored in a series of files in a machine-readable format, so direct reading of the full data set is not feasible. The challenge is to design a user interface that allows biologists to usefully view large tables of raw microarray-based gene expression data. This paper presents one such interface – an electronic table (E-table) that uses fisheye distortion technology. Results The Fisheye Viewer for microarray-based gene expression data has been successfully developed to view MIAME data stored in the MAGE-ML format. The viewer can be downloaded from the project web site . The fisheye viewer was implemented in Java so that it could run on multiple platforms. We implemented the E-table by adapting JTable, a default table implementation in the Java Swing user interface library. Fisheye views use variable magnification to balance magnification for easy viewing and compression for maximizing the amount of data on the screen. Conclusion This Fisheye Viewer is a lightweight but useful tool for biologists to quickly overview the raw microarray-based gene expression data in an E-table. PMID:17038193
Yang, Zhongping; Wang, Xiurong; Tian, Lina; Wang, Yu; Chen, Hualan
Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused great economic loss to the poultry industry and resulted in human deaths in Thailand and Vietnam since 2004. Rapid typing and subtyping of viruses, especially HPAI from clinical specimens, are desirable for taking prompt control measures to prevent spreading of the disease. We described a simultaneous approach using microarray to detect and subtype avian influenza virus (AIV). We designed primers of probe genes and used reverse transcriptase PCR to prepare cDNAs of AIV M gene, H5, H7, H9 subtypes haemagglutinin genes and N1, N2 subtypes neuraminidase genes. They were cloned, sequenced, reamplified and spotted to form a glass-bound microarrays. We labeled samples using Cy3-dUTP by RT-PCR, hybridized and scanned the microarrays to typing and subtyping AIV. The hybridization pattern agreed perfectly with the known grid location of each probe, no cross hybridization could be detected. Examinating of HA subtypes 1 through 15, 30 infected samples and 21 field samples revealed the DNA microarray assay was more sensitive and specific than RT-PCR test and chicken embryo inoculation. It can simultaneously detect and differentiate the main epidemic AIV. The results show that DNA microarray technology is a useful diagnostic method.
Lee, Thomas J; Paulsen, Ian; Karp, Peter
We present a method for inferring and constructing transport reactions for transporter proteins based primarily on the analysis of the names of individual proteins in the genome annotation of an organism. Transport reactions are declarative descriptions of transporter activities, and thus can be manipulated computationally, unlike free-text protein names. Once transporter activities are encoded as transport reactions, a number of computational analyses are possible including database queries by transporter activity; inclusion of transporters into an automatically generated metabolic-map diagram that can be painted with omics data to aid in their interpretation; detection of anomalies in the metabolic and transport networks, such as substrates that are transported into the cell but are not inputs to any metabolic reaction or pathway; and comparative analyses of the transport capabilities of different organisms. On randomly selected organisms, the method achieves precision and recall rates of 0.93 and 0.90, respectively in identifying transporter proteins by name within the complete genome. The method obtains 67.5% accuracy in predicting complete transport reactions; if allowance is made for predictions that are overly general yet not incorrect, reaction prediction accuracy is 82.5%. The method is implemented as part of PathoLogic, the inference component of the Pathway Tools software. Pathway Tools is freely available to researchers at non-commercial institutions, including source code; a fee applies to commercial institutions. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Haller, Anna; Gorges, Tobias M.; Vellekoop, Michael J.; Riethdorf, Sabine; Müller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Fuchs, Harald
Analyses of rare events occurring at extremely low frequencies in body fluids are still challenging. We established a versatile microarray-based platform able to capture single target cells from large background populations. As use case we chose the challenging application of detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs) - about one cell in a billion normal blood cells. After incubation with an antibody cocktail, targeted cells are extracted on a microarray in a microfluidic chip. The accessibility of our platform allows for subsequent recovery of targets for further analysis. The microarray facilitates exclusion of false positive capture events by co-localization allowing for detection without fluorescent labelling. Analyzing blood samples from cancer patients with our platform reached and partly outreached gold standard performance, demonstrating feasibility for clinical application. Clinical researchers free choice of antibody cocktail without need for altered chip manufacturing or incubation protocol, allows virtual arbitrary targeting of capture species and therefore wide spread applications in biomedical sciences.
A successful biodefense strategy relies upon any combination of four approaches. A nation can protect its troops and citizenry first by advanced mass vaccination, second, by responsive ring vaccination, and third, by post-exposure therapeutic treatment (including vaccine therapies). Finally, protection can be achieved by rapid detection followed by exposure limitation (suites and air filters) or immediate treatment (e.g., antibiotics, rapid vaccines and iodine pills). All of these strategies rely upon or are enhanced by microarray technologies. Microarrays can be used to screen, engineer and test vaccines. They are also used to construct early detection tools. While effective biodefense utilizes a variety of tactical tools, microarray technology is a valuable arrow in that quiver.
Microarray hybridization is used to determine the amount and genomic origins of RNA molecules in an experimental sample. Unlabeled probe sequences for each gene or gene region are printed in an array on the surface of a slide, and fluorescently labeled cDNA derived from the RNA target is hybridized to it. This protocol describes a blocking and hybridization protocol for microarray slides. The blocking step is particular to the chemistry of "CodeLink" slides, but it serves to remind us that almost every kind of microarray has a treatment step that occurs after printing but before hybridization. We recommend making sure of the precise treatment necessary for the particular chemistry used in the slides to be hybridized because the attachment chemistries differ significantly. Hybridization is similar to northern or Southern blots, but on a much smaller scale.
Chen, Xi; Wu, Zaoquan; Liu, Zhengchun
DNA microarray has become an essential medical genetic diagnostic tool for its high-throughput, miniaturization and automation. The design and selection of oligonucleotide probes are critical for preparing gene chips with high quality. Several sets of probe design software have been developed and are available to perform this work now. Every set of the software aims to different target sequences and shows different advantages and limitations. In this article, the research and development of these sets of software are reviewed in line with three main criteria, including specificity, sensitivity and melting temperature (Tm). In addition, based on the experimental results from literatures, these sets of software are classified according to their applications. This review will be helpful for users to choose an appropriate probe-design software. It will also reduce the costs of microarrays, improve the application efficiency of microarrays, and promote both the research and development (R&D) and commercialization of high-performance probe design software.
Reddy, Uma M; Page, Grier P; Saade, George R; Silver, Robert M; Thorsten, Vanessa R; Parker, Corette B; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Stoll, Barbara J; Heim-Hall, Josefine; Varner, Michael W; Goldenberg, Robert L; Bukowski, Radek; Wapner, Ronald J; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; O'Brien, Barbara M; Dudley, Donald J; Levy, Brynn
Genetic abnormalities have been associated with 6 to 13% of stillbirths, but the true prevalence may be higher. Unlike karyotype analysis, microarray analysis does not require live cells, and it detects small deletions and duplications called copy-number variants. The Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network conducted a population-based study of stillbirth in five geographic catchment areas. Standardized postmortem examinations and karyotype analyses were performed. A single-nucleotide polymorphism array was used to detect copy-number variants of at least 500 kb in placental or fetal tissue. Variants that were not identified in any of three databases of apparently unaffected persons were then classified into three groups: probably benign, clinical significance unknown, or pathogenic. We compared the results of karyotype and microarray analyses of samples obtained after delivery. In our analysis of samples from 532 stillbirths, microarray analysis yielded results more often than did karyotype analysis (87.4% vs. 70.5%, P<0.001) and provided better detection of genetic abnormalities (aneuploidy or pathogenic copy-number variants, 8.3% vs. 5.8%; P=0.007). Microarray analysis also identified more genetic abnormalities among 443 antepartum stillbirths (8.8% vs. 6.5%, P=0.02) and 67 stillbirths with congenital anomalies (29.9% vs. 19.4%, P=0.008). As compared with karyotype analysis, microarray analysis provided a relative increase in the diagnosis of genetic abnormalities of 41.9% in all stillbirths, 34.5% in antepartum stillbirths, and 53.8% in stillbirths with anomalies. Microarray analysis is more likely than karyotype analysis to provide a genetic diagnosis, primarily because of its success with nonviable tissue, and is especially valuable in analyses of stillbirths with congenital anomalies or in cases in which karyotype results cannot be obtained. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.).
Nicolau, Dan V., Jr.; Nicolau, Dan V.; Maini, Philip K.
One the major difficulties of microarray technology relate to the processing of large and - importantly - error-loaded images of the dots on the chip surface. Whatever the source of these errors, those obtained in the first stage of data acquisition - segmentation - are passed down to the subsequent processes, with deleterious results. As it has been demonstrated recently that biological systems have evolved algorithms that are mathematically efficient, this contribution attempts to test an algorithm that mimics a bacterial-"patented" algorithm for the search of available space and nutrients to find, "zero-in" and eventually delimitate the features existent on the microarray surface.
Durinck, Steffen; Allemeersch, Joke; Carey, Vincent J; Moreau, Yves; De Moor, Bart
The microarray gene expression markup language (MAGE-ML) is a widely used XML (eXtensible Markup Language) standard for describing and exchanging information about microarray experiments. It can describe microarray designs, microarray experiment designs, gene expression data and data analysis results. We describe RMAGEML, a new Bioconductor package that provides a link between cDNA microarray data stored in MAGE-ML format and the Bioconductor framework for preprocessing, visualization and analysis of microarray experiments. http://www.bioconductor.org. Open Source.
Kang, Hyunseok P.; Borromeo, Charles D.; Berman, Jules J.; Becich, Michael J.
Background: Tissue microarrays (TMAs) are enormously useful tools for translational research, but incompatibilities in database systems between various researchers and institutions prevent the efficient sharing of data that could help realize their full potential. Resource Description Framework (RDF) provides a flexible method to represent knowledge in triples, which take the form Subject-Predicate-Object. All data resources are described using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs), which are global in scope. We present an OWL (Web Ontology Language) schema that expands upon the TMA data exchange specification to address this issue and assist in data sharing and integration. Methods: A minimal OWL schema was designed containing only concepts specific to TMA experiments. More general data elements were incorporated from predefined ontologies such as the NCI thesaurus. URIs were assigned using the Linked Data format. Results: We present examples of files utilizing the schema and conversion of XML data (similar to the TMA DES) to OWL. Conclusion: By utilizing predefined ontologies and global unique identifiers, this OWL schema provides a solution to the limitations of XML, which represents concepts defined in a localized setting. This will help increase the utilization of tissue resources, facilitating collaborative translational research efforts. PMID:20805954
Lucas, J M
Progress in nanotechnology and DNA recombination techniques have produced tools for the diagnosis and investigation of allergy at molecular level. The most advanced examples of such progress are the microarray techniques, which have been expanded not only in research in the field of proteomics but also in application to the clinical setting. Microarrays of allergic components offer results relating to hundreds of allergenic components in a single test, and using a small amount of serum which can be obtained from capillary blood. The availability of new molecules will allow the development of panels including new allergenic components and sources, which will require evaluation for clinical use. Their application opens the door to component-based diagnosis, to the holistic perception of sensitisation as represented by molecular allergy, and to patient-centred medical practice by allowing great diagnostic accuracy and the definition of individualised immunotherapy for each patient. The present article reviews the application of allergenic component microarrays to allergology for diagnosis, management in the form of specific immunotherapy, and epidemiological studies. A review is also made of the use of protein and gene microarray techniques in basic research and in allergological diseases. Lastly, an evaluation is made of the challenges we face in introducing such techniques to clinical practice, and of the future perspectives of this new technology. Copyright 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Yuan, Daniel S.; Pan, Xuewen; Ooi, Siew Loon; Peyser, Brian D.; Spencer, Forrest A.; Irizarry, Rafael A.; Boeke, Jef D.
A remarkable feature of the Yeast Knockout strain collection is the presence of two unique 20mer TAG sequences in almost every strain. In principle, the relative abundances of strains in a complex mixture can be profiled swiftly and quantitatively by amplifying these sequences and hybridizing them to microarrays, but TAG microarrays have not been widely used. Here, we introduce a TAG microarray design with sophisticated controls and describe a robust method for hybridizing high concentrations of dye-labeled TAGs in single-stranded form. We also highlight the importance of avoiding PCR contamination and provide procedures for detection and eradication. Validation experiments using these methods yielded false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) rates for individual TAG detection of 3–6% and 15–18%, respectively. Analysis demonstrated that cross-hybridization was the chief source of FPs, while TAG amplification defects were the main cause of FNs. The materials, protocols, data and associated software described here comprise a suite of experimental resources that should facilitate the use of TAG microarrays for a wide variety of genetic screens. PMID:15994458
Dehghan Khalilabad, Nastaran; Hassanpour, Hamid
Microarray technology is a powerful genomic tool for simultaneously studying and analyzing the behavior of thousands of genes. The analysis of images obtained from this technology plays a critical role in the detection and treatment of diseases. The aim of the current study is to develop an automated system for analyzing data from microarray images in order to detect cancerous cases. The proposed system consists of three main phases, namely image processing, data mining, and the detection of the disease. The image processing phase performs operations such as refining image rotation, gridding (locating genes) and extracting raw data from images the data mining includes normalizing the extracted data and selecting the more effective genes. Finally, via the extracted data, cancerous cell is recognized. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, microarray database is employed which includes Breast cancer, Myeloid Leukemia and Lymphomas from the Stanford Microarray Database. The results indicate that the proposed system is able to identify the type of cancer from the data set with an accuracy of 95.45%, 94.11%, and 100%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Research has focused on the development of rapid biosensor-based, high-throughput, and multiplexed detection of pathogenic bacteria in foods. Specifically, antibody microarrays in 96-well microtiter plates have been generated for the purpose of selective detection of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (...
Hubble, Jeremy; Demeter, Janos; Jin, Heng; Mao, Maria; Nitzberg, Michael; Reddy, T B K; Wymore, Farrell; Zachariah, Zachariah K; Sherlock, Gavin; Ball, Catherine A
Hundreds of researchers across the world use the Stanford Microarray Database (SMD; http://smd.stanford.edu/) to store, annotate, view, analyze and share microarray data. In addition to providing registered users at Stanford access to their own data, SMD also provides access to public data, and tools with which to analyze those data, to any public user anywhere in the world. Previously, the addition of new microarray data analysis tools to SMD has been limited by available engineering resources, and in addition, the existing suite of tools did not provide a simple way to design, execute and share analysis pipelines, or to document such pipelines for the purposes of publication. To address this, we have incorporated the GenePattern software package directly into SMD, providing access to many new analysis tools, as well as a plug-in architecture that allows users to directly integrate and share additional tools through SMD. In this article, we describe our implementation of the GenePattern microarray analysis software package into the SMD code base. This extension is available with the SMD source code that is fully and freely available to others under an Open Source license, enabling other groups to create a local installation of SMD with an enriched data analysis capability.
Human noroviruses cause up to 21 million cases of foodborne disease in the United States annually and are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. To reduce the burden of foodborne disease associated with viruses, the use of low density DNA microarrays in conjuncti...
Al-Khaldi, Sufian F; Mossoba, Magdi M; Allard, Marc M; Lienau, E Kurt; Brown, Eric D
The era of fast and accurate discovery of biological sequence motifs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is here. The co-evolution of direct genome sequencing and DNA microarray strategies not only will identify, isotype, and serotype pathogenic bacteria, but also it will aid in the discovery of new gene functions by detecting gene expressions in different diseases and environmental conditions. Microarray bacterial identification has made great advances in working with pure and mixed bacterial samples. The technological advances have moved beyond bacterial gene expression to include bacterial identification and isotyping. Application of new tools such as mid-infrared chemical imaging improves detection of hybridization in DNA microarrays. The research in this field is promising and future work will reveal the potential of infrared technology in bacterial identification. On the other hand, DNA sequencing by using 454 pyrosequencing is so cost effective that the promise of $1,000 per bacterial genome sequence is becoming a reality. Pyrosequencing technology is a simple to use technique that can produce accurate and quantitative analysis of DNA sequences with a great speed. The deposition of massive amounts of bacterial genomic information in databanks is creating fingerprint phylogenetic analysis that will ultimately replace several technologies such as Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. In this chapter, we will review (1) the use of DNA microarray using fluorescence and infrared imaging detection for identification of pathogenic bacteria, and (2) use of pyrosequencing in DNA cluster analysis to fingerprint bacterial phylogenetic trees.
In the 2007 Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Microarray Research Group (MARG) project, we analyzed HL-60 DNA with five platforms: Agilent, Affymetrix 500K, Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0, Illumina, and RPCI 19K BAC arrays. Copy number variation (CNV) was analyzed ...
Background Microarrays are powerful tools for DNA-based molecular diagnostics and identification of pathogens. Most target a limited range of organisms and are based on only one or a very few genes for specific identification. Such microarrays are limited to organisms for which specific probes are available, and often have difficulty discriminating closely related taxa. We have developed an alternative broad-spectrum microarray that employs hybridisation fingerprints generated by high-density anonymous markers distributed over the entire genome for identification based on comparison to a reference database. Results A high-density microarray carrying 95,000 unique 13-mer probes was designed. Optimized methods were developed to deliver reproducible hybridisation patterns that enabled confident discrimination of bacteria at the species, subspecies, and strain levels. High correlation coefficients were achieved between replicates. A sub-selection of 12,071 probes, determined by ANOVA and class prediction analysis, enabled the discrimination of all samples in our panel. Mismatch probe hybridisation was observed but was found to have no effect on the discriminatory capacity of our system. Conclusions These results indicate the potential of our genome chip for reliable identification of a wide range of bacterial taxa at the subspecies level without laborious prior sequencing and probe design. With its high resolution capacity, our proof-of-principle chip demonstrates great potential as a tool for molecular diagnostics of broad taxonomic groups. PMID:20163710
It is estimated that more than 160, 000 miles of rivers and streams in the United States are impaired due to the presence of waterborne pathogens. These pathogens typically originate from human and other animal fecal pollution sources; therefore, a rapid microbial source tracking (MST) method is needed to facilitate water quality assessment and impaired water remediation. We report a novel qualitative DNA microarray technology consisting of 453 probes for the detection of general fecal and host-associated bacteria, viruses, antibiotic resistance, and other environmentally relevant genetic indicators. A novel data normalization and reduction approach is also presented to help alleviate false positives often associated with high-density microarray applications. To evaluate the performance of the approach, DNA and cDNA was isolated from swine, cattle, duck, goose and gull fecal reference samples, as well as soiled poultry liter and raw municipal sewage. Based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of results, findings suggest that the novel microarray approach may be useful for pathogen detection and identification of fecal contamination in recreational waters. The ability to simultaneously detect a large collection of environmentally important genetic indicators in a single test has the potential to provide water quality managers with a wide range of information in a short period of time. Future research is warranted to measure microarray performance i
The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SBIR solicitation states that “technology is needed to better identify and monitor sources of pollution and protect water quality.” Microarrays may be particularly well suited to identifying environmental toxic...
enhancements to an existing single-genome pipeline that allows for efficient design of microarray probes common to groups of target genomes. The...for tens or even hundreds of related genomes in a single run. Hybridization results with an unsequenced B. pseudomallei strain indicate that the
von Götz, Franz
Despite the controversy of whether genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are beneficial or harmful for humans, animals, and/or ecosystems, the number of cultivated GMOs is increasing every year. Many countries and federations have implemented safety and surveillance systems for GMOs. Potent testing technologies need to be developed and implemented to monitor the increasing number of GMOs. First, these GMO tests need to be comprehensive, i.e., should detect all, or at least the most important, GMOs on the market. This type of GMO screening requires a high degree of parallel tests or multiplexing. To date, DNA microarrays have the highest number of multiplexing capabilities when nucleic acids are analyzed. This trend article focuses on the evolution of DNA microarrays for GMO testing. Over the last 7 years, combinations of multiplex PCR detection and microarray detection have been developed to qualitatively assess the presence of GMOs. One example is the commercially available DualChip GMO (Eppendorf, Germany; http://www.eppendorf-biochip.com), which is the only GMO screening system successfully validated in a multicenter study. With use of innovative amplification techniques, promising steps have recently been taken to make GMO detection with microarrays quantitative.
Herbáth, Melinda; Papp, Krisztián; Balogh, Andrea; Matkó, János; Prechl, József
Protein microarray technology is becoming the method of choice for identifying protein interaction partners, detecting specific proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, or for characterizing protein interactions and serum antibodies in a massively parallel manner. Availability of the well-established instrumentation of DNA arrays and development of new fluorescent detection instruments promoted the spread of this technique. Fluorescent detection has the advantage of high sensitivity, specificity, simplicity and wide dynamic range required by most measurements. Fluorescence through specifically designed probes and an increasing variety of detection modes offers an excellent tool for such microarray platforms. Measuring for example the level of antibodies, their isotypes and/or antigen specificity simultaneously can offer more complex and comprehensive information about the investigated biological phenomenon, especially if we take into consideration that hundreds of samples can be measured in a single assay. Not only body fluids, but also cell lysates, extracted cellular components, and intact living cells can be analyzed on protein arrays for monitoring functional responses to printed samples on the surface. As a rapidly evolving area, protein microarray technology offers a great bulk of information and new depth of knowledge. These are the features that endow protein arrays with wide applicability and robust sample analyzing capability. On the whole, protein arrays are emerging new tools not just in proteomics, but glycomics, lipidomics, and are also important for immunological research. In this review we attempt to summarize the technical aspects of planar fluorescent microarray technology along with the description of its main immunological applications.
Delehanty, James B.; Ligler, Frances S.
We report the development and characterization of an antibody microarray biosensor for the rapid detection of both protein and bacterial analytes under flow conditions. Using a noncontact microarray printer, biotinylated capture antibodies were immobilized at discrete locations on the surface of an avidin-coated glass microscope slide. Preservation of capture antibody function during the deposition process was accomplished with the use of a low-salt buffer containing sucrose and bovine serum albumin. The slide was fitted with a six-channel flow module that conducted analyte-containing solutions over the array of capture antibody microspots. Detection of bound analyte was subsequently achieved using fluorescent tracer antibodies. The pattern of fluorescent complexes was interrogated using a scanning confocal microscope equipped with a 635-nm laser. This microarray system was employed to detect protein and bacterial analytes both individually and in samples containing mixtures of analytes. Assays were completed in 15 min, and detection of cholera toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, and Bacillus globigii was demonstrated at levels as low as 8 ng/mL, 4 ng/mL, 10 ng/mL, and 6.2 x 10(4) cfu/mL, respectively. The assays presented here are very fast, as compared to previously published methods for measuring antibody-antigen interactions using microarrays (minutes versus hours).
The generation of corroborative data has become a commonly used approach for ensuring the veracity of microarray data. Indeed, the need to conduct corroborative studies has now become official editorial policy for at least two journals, and several more are considering introducin...
The specificity and utility of the Swine Protein-Annotated Oligonucleotide Microarray, or Pigoligoarray (www.pigoligoarray.org), has been evaluated by profiling the expression of transcripts from four porcine tissues. Tools for comparative analyses of expression on the Pigoligoarray were developed i...
Transcriptional profiling experiments utilizing DNA microarrays to study the intracellular accumulation of PHB in Synechocystis has proved difficult in large part because strains that show significant differences in PHB which would justify global analysis of gene expression have not been isolated.
Stropp, Thomas; McPhillips, Timothy; Ludäscher, Bertram; Bieda, Mark
Microarray data analysis has been the subject of extensive and ongoing pipeline development due to its complexity, the availability of several options at each analysis step, and the development of new analysis demands, including integration with new data sources. Bioinformatics pipelines are usually custom built for different applications, making them typically difficult to modify, extend and repurpose. Scientific workflow systems are intended to address these issues by providing general-purpose frameworks in which to develop and execute such pipelines. The Kepler workflow environment is a well-established system under continual development that is employed in several areas of scientific research. Kepler provides a flexible graphical interface, featuring clear display of parameter values, for design and modification of workflows. It has capabilities for developing novel computational components in the R, Python, and Java programming languages, all of which are widely used for bioinformatics algorithm development, along with capabilities for invoking external applications and using web services. We developed a series of fully functional bioinformatics pipelines addressing common tasks in microarray processing in the Kepler workflow environment. These pipelines consist of a set of tools for GFF file processing of NimbleGen chromatin immunoprecipitation on microarray (ChIP-chip) datasets and more comprehensive workflows for Affymetrix gene expression microarray bioinformatics and basic primer design for PCR experiments, which are often used to validate microarray results. Although functional in themselves, these workflows can be easily customized, extended, or repurposed to match the needs of specific projects and are designed to be a toolkit and starting point for specific applications. These workflows illustrate a workflow programming paradigm focusing on local resources (programs and data) and therefore are close to traditional shell scripting or R
Microarray-based gene expression profiling is a critical tool to identify molecular biomarkers of specific chemical stressors. Although current microarray technologies have progressed from their infancy, biological and technical repeatability and reliability are often still limit...
This paper addresses several issues critical to use of zebrafish oligonucleotide microarrays for computational toxicology research on endocrine disrupting chemicals using small fish models, and more generally, the use of microarrays in aquatic toxicology.
Microarray technology represents one of the latest advances in molecular biology. The diverse types of microarrays have been applied to clinical and environmental microbiology, microbial ecology, and in human, veterinary, and plant diagnostics. Since multiple genes can be analyzed simultaneously, ...
Microarrays represent a core technology in pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics; however, before this technology can successfully and reliably be applied in clinical practice and regulatory decision-making, standards and quality measures need to be developed. The Microarray Qualit...
Li, J J; Wang, B Q; Fei, Q; Yang, Y; Li, D
In order to screen the altered gene expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with osteoporosis, we performed an integrated analysis of the online microarray studies of osteoporosis. We searched the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database for microarray studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with osteoporosis. Subsequently, we integrated gene expression data sets from multiple microarray studies to obtain differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between patients with osteoporosis and normal controls. Gene function analysis was performed to uncover the functions of identified DEGs. A total of three microarray studies were selected for integrated analysis. In all, 1125 genes were found to be signiﬁcantly differentially expressed between osteoporosis patients and normal controls, with 373 upregulated and 752 downregulated genes. Positive regulation of the cellular amino metabolic process (gene ontology (GO): 0033240, false discovery rate (FDR) = 1.00E + 00) was significantly enriched under the GO category for biological processes, while for molecular functions, flavin adenine dinucleotide binding (GO: 0050660, FDR = 3.66E-01) and androgen receptor binding (GO: 0050681, FDR = 6.35E-01) were significantly enriched. DEGs were enriched in many osteoporosis-related signalling pathways, including those of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and calcium. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis showed that the significant hub proteins contained ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, X-linked (Degree = 99), ubiquitin specific peptidase 19 (Degree = 57) and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 B (Degree = 57). Analysis of gene function of identified differentially expressed genes may expand our understanding of fundamental mechanisms leading to osteoporosis. Moreover, significantly enriched pathways, such as MAPK and calcium, may involve in osteoporosis through osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation.Cite this article: J. J
Cowan, James D; Rimm, David L; Tuck, David P
Compared with DNA microarray technology, relatively little information is available concerning the special requirements, design influences, and implementation strategies of data systems for tissue microarray technology. These issues include the requirement to accommodate new and different data elements for each new project as well as the need to interact with pre-existing models for clinical, biological, and specimen-related data. To design and implement a flexible, scalable tissue microarray data storage and management system that could accommodate information regarding different disease types and different clinical investigators, and different clinical investigation questions, all of which could potentially contribute unforeseen data types that require dynamic integration with existing data. The unpredictability of the data elements combined with the novelty of automated analysis algorithms and controlled vocabulary standards in this area require flexible designs and practical decisions. Our design includes a custom Java-based persistence layer to mediate and facilitate interaction with an object-relational database model and a novel database schema. User interaction is provided through a Java Servlet-based Web interface. Cruella has become an indispensable resource and is used by dozens of researchers every day. The system stores millions of experimental values covering more than 300 biological markers and more than 30 disease types. The experimental data are merged with clinical data that has been aggregated from multiple sources and is available to the researchers for management, analysis, and export. Cruella addresses many of the special considerations for managing tissue microarray experimental data and the associated clinical information. A metadata-driven approach provides a practical solution to many of the unique issues inherent in tissue microarray research, and allows relatively straightforward interoperability with and accommodation of new data models.
Schneeberg, Alexander; Ehricht, Ralf; Slickers, Peter; Baier, Vico; Neubauer, Heinrich; Zimmermann, Stefan; Rabold, Denise; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Seyboldt, Christian
This study presents a DNA microarray-based assay for fast and simple PCR ribotyping of Clostridium difficile strains. Hybridization probes were designed to query the modularly structured intergenic spacer region (ISR), which is also the template for conventional and PCR ribotyping with subsequent capillary gel electrophoresis (seq-PCR) ribotyping. The probes were derived from sequences available in GenBank as well as from theoretical ISR module combinations. A database of reference hybridization patterns was set up from a collection of 142 well-characterized C. difficile isolates representing 48 seq-PCR ribotypes. The reference hybridization patterns calculated by the arithmetic mean were compared using a similarity matrix analysis. The 48 investigated seq-PCR ribotypes revealed 27 array profiles that were clearly distinguishable. The most frequent human-pathogenic ribotypes 001, 014/020, 027, and 078/126 were discriminated by the microarray. C. difficile strains related to 078/126 (033, 045/FLI01, 078, 126, 126/FLI01, 413, 413/FLI01, 598, 620, 652, and 660) and 014/020 (014, 020, and 449) showed similar hybridization patterns, confirming their genetic relatedness, which was previously reported. A panel of 50 C. difficile field isolates was tested by seq-PCR ribotyping and the DNA microarray-based assay in parallel. Taking into account that the current version of the microarray does not discriminate some closely related seq-PCR ribotypes, all isolates were typed correctly. Moreover, seq-PCR ribotypes without reference profiles available in the database (ribotype 009 and 5 new types) were correctly recognized as new ribotypes, confirming the performance and expansion potential of the microarray. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Suela, Javier; López-Expósito, Isabel; Querejeta, María Eugenia; Martorell, Rosa; Cuatrecasas, Esther; Armengol, Lluis; Antolín, Eugenia; Domínguez Garrido, Elena; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José; Rosell, Jordi; García Planells, Javier; Cigudosa, Juan Cruz
Microarray technology, recently implemented in international prenatal diagnosis systems, has become one of the main techniques in this field in terms of detection rate and objectivity of the results. This guideline attempts to provide background information on this technology, including technical and diagnostic aspects to be considered. Specifically, this guideline defines: the different prenatal sample types to be used, as well as their characteristics (chorionic villi samples, amniotic fluid, fetal cord blood or miscarriage tissue material); variant reporting policies (including variants of uncertain significance) to be considered in informed consents and prenatal microarray reports; microarray limitations inherent to the technique and which must be taken into account when recommending microarray testing for diagnosis; a detailed clinical algorithm recommending the use of microarray testing and its introduction into routine clinical practice within the context of other genetic tests, including pregnancies in families with a genetic history or specific syndrome suspicion, first trimester increased nuchal translucency or second trimester heart malformation and ultrasound findings not related to a known or specific syndrome. This guideline has been coordinated by the Spanish Association for Prenatal Diagnosis (AEDP, «Asociación Española de Diagnóstico Prenatal»), the Spanish Human Genetics Association (AEGH, «Asociación Española de Genética Humana») and the Spanish Society of Clinical Genetics and Dysmorphology (SEGCyD, «Sociedad Española de Genética Clínica y Dismorfología»). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kim, Ki-Yeol; Kim, Byoung-Jin; Yi, Gwan-Su
Background The imputation of missing values is necessary for the efficient use of DNA microarray data, because many clustering algorithms and some statistical analysis require a complete data set. A few imputation methods for DNA microarray data have been introduced, but the efficiency of the methods was low and the validity of imputed values in these methods had not been fully checked. Results We developed a new cluster-based imputation method called sequential K-nearest neighbor (SKNN) method. This imputes the missing values sequentially from the gene having least missing values, and uses the imputed values for the later imputation. Although it uses the imputed values, the efficiency of this new method is greatly improved in its accuracy and computational complexity over the conventional KNN-based method and other methods based on maximum likelihood estimation. The performance of SKNN was in particular higher than other imputation methods for the data with high missing rates and large number of experiments. Application of Expectation Maximization (EM) to the SKNN method improved the accuracy, but increased computational time proportional to the number of iterations. The Multiple Imputation (MI) method, which is well known but not applied previously to microarray data, showed a similarly high accuracy as the SKNN method, with slightly higher dependency on the types of data sets. Conclusions Sequential reuse of imputed data in KNN-based imputation greatly increases the efficiency of imputation. The SKNN method should be practically useful to save the data of some microarray experiments which have high amounts of missing entries. The SKNN method generates reliable imputed values which can be used for further cluster-based analysis of microarray data. PMID:15504240
Shimada, Yutaka; Sato, Fumiaki; Shimizu, Kazuharu; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Tsukada, Kazuhiro
Recent progress in molecular biology has revealed many genetic and epigenetic alterations that are involved in the development and progression of esophageal cancer. Microarray analysis has also revealed several genetic networks that are involved in esophageal cancer. However, clinical application of microarray techniques and use of microarray data have not yet occurred. In this review, we focus on the recent developments and problems with microarray analysis of esophageal cancer.
polysaccharide microarray platform was prepared by immobilizing Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei polysaccharides . This... polysaccharide array was tested with success for detecting B. pseudomallei and B. mallei serum (human and animal) antibodies. The advantages of this microarray... Polysaccharide microarrays; Burkholderia pseudomallei; Burkholderia mallei; Glanders; Melioidosis1. Introduction There has been a great deal of emphasis on the
Lenoir, Tim; Giannella, Eric
The network model of innovation widely adopted among researchers in the economics of science and technology posits relatively porous boundaries between firms and academic research programs and a bi-directional flow of inventions, personnel, and tacit knowledge between sites of university and industry innovation. Moreover, the model suggests that these bi-directional flows should be considered as mutual stimulation of research and invention in both industry and academe, operating as a positive feedback loop. One side of this bi-directional flow--namely; the flow of inventions into industry through the licensing of university-based technologies--has been well studied; but the reverse phenomenon of the stimulation of university research through the absorption of new directions emanating from industry has yet to be investigated in much detail. We discuss the role of federal funding of academic research in the microarray field, and the multiple pathways through which federally supported development of commercial microarray technologies have transformed core academic research fields. Our study confirms the picture put forward by several scholars that the open character of networked economies is what makes them truly innovative. In an open system innovations emerge from the network. The emergence and diffusion of microarray technologies we have traced here provides an excellent example of an open system of innovation in action. Whether they originated in a startup company environment that operated like a think-tank, such as Affymax, the research labs of a large firm, such as Agilent, or within a research university, the inventors we have followed drew heavily on knowledge resources from all parts of the network in bringing microarray platforms to light. Federal funding for high-tech startups and new industrial development was important at several phases in the early history of microarrays, and federal funding of academic researchers using microarrays was fundamental to
Lenoir, Tim; Giannella, Eric
The network model of innovation widely adopted among researchers in the economics of science and technology posits relatively porous boundaries between firms and academic research programs and a bi-directional flow of inventions, personnel, and tacit knowledge between sites of university and industry innovation. Moreover, the model suggests that these bi-directional flows should be considered as mutual stimulation of research and invention in both industry and academe, operating as a positive feedback loop. One side of this bi-directional flow – namely; the flow of inventions into industry through the licensing of university-based technologies – has been well studied; but the reverse phenomenon of the stimulation of university research through the absorption of new directions emanating from industry has yet to be investigated in much detail. We discuss the role of federal funding of academic research in the microarray field, and the multiple pathways through which federally supported development of commercial microarray technologies have transformed core academic research fields. Our study confirms the picture put forward by several scholars that the open character of networked economies is what makes them truly innovative. In an open system innovations emerge from the network. The emergence and diffusion of microarray technologies we have traced here provides an excellent example of an open system of innovation in action. Whether they originated in a startup company environment that operated like a think-tank, such as Affymax, the research labs of a large firm, such as Agilent, or within a research university, the inventors we have followed drew heavily on knowledge resources from all parts of the network in bringing microarray platforms to light. Federal funding for high-tech startups and new industrial development was important at several phases in the early history of microarrays, and federal funding of academic researchers using microarrays was fundamental
White, Amanda M.; Collett, James L.; Seurynck-Servoss, Shannon L.
ELISA-BASE is an open-source database for capturing, organizing and analyzing protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray data. ELISA-BASE is an extension of the BioArray Soft-ware Environment (BASE) database system, which was developed for DNA microarrays. In order to make BASE suitable for protein microarray experiments, we developed several plugins for importing and analyzing quantitative ELISA microarray data. Most notably, our Protein Microarray Analysis Tool (ProMAT) for processing quantita-tive ELISA data is now available as a plugin to the database.
Bae, Jin-Woo; Park, Yong-Ha
Microbial ecological microarrays have been developed for investigating the composition and functions of microorganism communities in environmental niches. These arrays include microbial identification microarrays, which use oligonucleotides, gene fragments or microbial genomes as probes. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of each type of probe are reviewed. Oligonucleotide probes are currently useful for probing uncultivated bacteria that are not amenable to gene fragment probing, whereas the functional gene fragments amplified randomly from microbial genomes require phylogenetic and hierarchical categorization before use as microbial identification probes, despite their high resolution for both specificity and sensitivity. Until more bacteria are sequenced and gene fragment probes are thoroughly validated, heterogeneous bacterial genome probes will provide a simple, sensitive and quantitative tool for exploring the ecosystem structure.
Grody, Wayne W
Because genes and alterations within them determine the identity, characteristics, and inheritance of every individual, the application of genetic science to humans has long been surrounded by apprehension, controversy, and real or perceived potential for abuse. Crude eugenics practices of the past now find a theoretical rebirth and transformation through the use of modern molecular genetic technologies for mutation detection, predictive and prenatal diagnosis, and, ultimately, gene replacement. The advent of oligonucleotide microarray analysis, in which hundreds or thousands of genes and mutations can be tested in parallel, offers tremendous promise for more accurate, sensitive, and efficient genetic testing. At the same time, however, this powerful technology dramatically increases the number and scope of ethical concerns accompanying each individual test request. This article considers the evolution and implications of these concerns, from the initial ordering of a microarray test by the physician to such issues as informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, clinical utility, discrimination, stigmatization, ethnic and population impact, and reimbursement.
McBride, Ryan; Head, Steven R; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Law, Mansun
With the increasing need for understanding antibody specificity in antibody and vaccine research, pepscan assays provide a rapid method for mapping and profiling antibody responses to continuous epitopes. We have developed a relatively low-cost method to generate peptide microarray slides for studying antibody binding. Using a setup of an IntavisAG MultiPep RS peptide synthesizer, a Digilab MicroGrid II 600 microarray printer robot, and an InnoScan 1100 AL scanner, the method allows the interrogation of up to 1536 overlapping, alanine-scanning, and mutant peptides derived from the target antigens. Each peptide is tagged with a polyethylene glycol aminooxy terminus to improve peptide solubility, orientation, and conjugation efficiency to the slide surface.
Barrett, Tanya; Edgar, Ron
The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) has emerged as the leading fully public repository for gene expression data. This chapter describes how to use Web-based interfaces, applications, and graphics to effectively explore, visualize, and interpret the hundreds of microarray studies and millions of gene expression patterns stored in GEO. Data can be examined from both experiment-centric and gene-centric perspectives using user-friendly tools that do not require specialized expertise in microarray analysis or time-consuming download of massive data sets. The GEO database is publicly accessible through the World Wide Web at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo.
Liu-Stratton, Yiwen; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K
The quality and quantity of diet is a key determinant of health and disease. Molecular diagnostics may play a key role in food safety related to genetically modified foods, food-borne pathogens and novel nutraceuticals. Functional outcomes in biology are determined, for the most part, by net balance between sets of genes related to the specific outcome in question. The DNA microarray technology offers a new dimension of strength in molecular diagnostics by permitting the simultaneous analysis of large sets of genes. Automation of assay and novel bioinformatics tools make DNA microarrays a robust technology for diagnostics. Since its development a few years ago, this technology has been used for the applications of toxicogenomics, pharmacogenomics, cell biology, and clinical investigations addressing the prevention and intervention of diseases. Optimization of this technology to specifically address food safety is a vast resource that remains to be mined. Efforts to develop diagnostic custom arrays and simplified bioinformatics tools for field use are warranted.
MacBeath, Gavin; Schreiber, Stuart L.
Systematic efforts are currently under way to construct defined sets of cloned genes for high-throughput expression and purification of recombinant proteins. To facilitate subsequent studies of protein function, we have developed miniaturized assays that accommodate extremely low sample volumes and enable the rapid, simultaneous processing of thousands of proteins. A high-precision robot designed to manufacture complementary DNA microarrays was used to spot proteins onto chemically derivatized glass slides at extremely high spatial densities. The proteins attached covalently to the slide surface yet retained their ability to interact specifically with other proteins, or with small molecules, in solution. Three applications for protein microarrays were demonstrated: screening for protein-protein interactions, identifying the substrates of protein kinases, and identifying the protein targets of small molecules.
Calabrese, Barbara; Cannataro, Mario
High-throughput platforms such as microarray, mass spectrometry, and next-generation sequencing are producing an increasing volume of omics data that needs large data storage and computing power. Cloud computing offers massive scalable computing and storage, data sharing, on-demand anytime and anywhere access to resources and applications, and thus, it may represent the key technology for facing those issues. In fact, in the recent years it has been adopted for the deployment of different bioinformatics solutions and services both in academia and in the industry. Although this, cloud computing presents several issues regarding the security and privacy of data, that are particularly important when analyzing patients data, such as in personalized medicine. This chapter reviews main academic and industrial cloud-based bioinformatics solutions; with a special focus on microarray data analysis solutions and underlines main issues and problems related to the use of such platforms for the storage and analysis of patients data.
Hou, Peng; Ji, Meiju; He, Nongyao; Lu, Zuhong
A new technique to analyze methylation patterns in several adjacent CpG sites was developed and reported here. We selected a 336bp segment of the 5"-untranslated region and the first exon of the p16Ink4a gene, which include the most densely packed CpG fragment of the islands containing 32 CpG dinucleotides, as the investigated target. The probes that include all types of methylation patterns were designed to fabricate a DNA microarray to determine the methylation patterns of seven adjacent CpG dinucleotides sites. High accuracy and reproducibility were observed in several parallel experiments. The results led us to the conclusion that the methylation oligonucleotide microarray can be applied as a novel and powerful tool to map methylation patterns and changes in multiple CpG island loci in a variety of tumors.
Zhang, Huijie; Oellers, Tobias; Feng, Wenqian; Abdulazim, Tarik; Saw, En Ning; Ludwig, Alfred; Levkin, Pavel A; Plumeré, Nicolas
Microarray technology has shown great potential for various types of high-throughput screening applications. The main read-out methods of most microarray platforms, however, are based on optical techniques, limiting the scope of potential applications of such powerful screening technology. Electrochemical methods possess numerous complementary advantages over optical detection methods, including its label-free nature, capability of quantitative monitoring of various reporter molecules, and the ability to not only detect but also address compositions of individual compartments. However, application of electrochemical methods for the purpose of high-throughput screening remains very limited. In this work, we develop a high-density individually addressable electrochemical droplet microarray (eDMA). The eDMA allows for the detection of redox-active reporter molecules irrespective of their electrochemical reversibility in individual nanoliter-sized droplets. Orthogonal band microelectrodes are arranged to form at their intersections an array of three-electrode systems for precise control of the applied potential, which enables direct read-out of the current related to analyte detection. The band microelectrode array is covered with a layer of permeable porous polymethacrylate functionalized with a highly hydrophobic-hydrophilic pattern, forming spatially separated nanoliter-sized droplets on top of each electrochemical cell. Electrochemical characterization of single droplets demonstrates that the underlying electrode system is accessible to redox-active molecules through the hydrophilic polymeric pattern and that the nonwettable hydrophobic boundaries can spatially separate neighboring cells effectively. The eDMA technology opens the possibility to combine the high-throughput biochemical or living cell screenings using the droplet microarray platform with the sequential electrochemical read-out of individual droplets.
Tang, C S; Dusseiller, M; Makohliso, S; Heuschkel, M; Sharma, S; Keller, B; Vörös, J
Microarray technology is a powerful tool that provides a high throughput of bioanalytical information within a single experiment. These miniaturized and parallelized binding assays are highly sensitive and have found widespread popularity especially during the genomic era. However, as drug diagnostics studies are often targeted at membrane proteins, the current arraying technologies are ill-equipped to handle the fragile nature of the protein molecules. In addition, to understand the complex structure and functions of proteins, different strategies to immobilize the probe molecules selectively onto a platform for protein microarray are required. We propose a novel approach to create a (membrane) protein microarray by using an indium tin oxide (ITO) microelectrode array with an electronic multiplexing capability. A polycationic, protein- and vesicle-resistant copolymer, poly(l-lysine)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG), is exposed to and adsorbed uniformly onto the microelectrode array, as a passivating adlayer. An electronic stimulation is then applied onto the individual ITO microelectrodes resulting in the localized release of the polymer thus revealing a bare ITO surface. Different polymer and biological moieties are specifically immobilized onto the activated ITO microelectrodes while the other regions remain protein-resistant as they are unaffected by the induced electrical potential. The desorption process of the PLL-g-PEG is observed to be highly selective, rapid, and reversible without compromising on the integrity and performance of the conductive ITO microelectrodes. As such, we have successfully created a stable and heterogeneous microarray of biomolecules by using selective electronic addressing on ITO microelectrodes. Both pharmaceutical diagnostics and biomedical technology are expected to benefit directly from this unique method.
Koia, Jonni H; Moyle, Richard L; Botella, Jose R
Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit
Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the
Jaakson, K; Zernant, J; Külm, M; Hutchinson, A; Tonisson, N; Glavac, D; Ravnik-Glavac, M; Hawlina, M; Meltzer, M R; Caruso, R C; Testa, F; Maugeri, A; Hoyng, C B; Gouras, P; Simonelli, F; Lewis, R A; Lupski, J R; Cremers, F P M; Allikmets, R
Genetic variation in the ABCR (ABCA4) gene has been associated with five distinct retinal phenotypes, including Stargardt disease/fundus flavimaculatus (STGD/FFM), cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Comparative genetic analyses of ABCR variation and diagnostics have been complicated by substantial allelic heterogeneity and by differences in screening methods. To overcome these limitations, we designed a genotyping microarray (gene chip) for ABCR that includes all approximately 400 disease-associated and other variants currently described, enabling simultaneous detection of all known ABCR variants. The ABCR genotyping microarray (the ABCR400 chip) was constructed by the arrayed primer extension (APEX) technology. Each sequence change in ABCR was included on the chip by synthesis and application of sequence-specific oligonucleotides. We validated the chip by screening 136 confirmed STGD patients and 96 healthy controls, each of whom we had analyzed previously by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technology and/or heteroduplex analysis. The microarray was >98% effective in determining the existing genetic variation and was comparable to direct sequencing in that it yielded many sequence changes undetected by SSCP. In STGD patient cohorts, the efficiency of the array to detect disease-associated alleles was between 54% and 78%, depending on the ethnic composition and degree of clinical and molecular characterization of a cohort. In addition, chip analysis suggested a high carrier frequency (up to 1:10) of ABCR variants in the general population. The ABCR genotyping microarray is a robust, cost-effective, and comprehensive screening tool for variation in one gene in which mutations are responsible for a substantial fraction of retinal disease. The ABCR chip is a prototype for the next generation of screening and diagnostic tools in ophthalmic genetics, bridging clinical and scientific research. Copyright 2003 Wiley
Golova, Julia; Chernov, Boris; Perov, Alexander
New gel-forming reagents including monomers and cross-linkers, which can be applied to gel-drop microarray manufacturing by using co-polymerization approaches are disclosed. Compositions for the preparation of co-polymerization mixtures with new gel-forming monomers and cross-linker reagents are described herein. New co-polymerization compositions and cross-linkers with variable length linker groups between unsaturated C.dbd.C bonds that participate in the formation of gel networks are disclosed.
Hultman, Jenni; Ritari, Jarmo; Romantschuk, Martin; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri
Background Composting is one of the methods utilised in recycling organic communal waste. The composting process is dependent on aerobic microbial activity and proceeds through a succession of different phases each dominated by certain microorganisms. In this study, a ligation-detection-reaction (LDR) based microarray method was adapted for species-level detection of compost microbes characteristic of each stage of the composting process. LDR utilises the specificity of the ligase enzyme to covalently join two adjacently hybridised probes. A zip-oligo is attached to the 3'-end of one probe and fluorescent label to the 5'-end of the other probe. Upon ligation, the probes are combined in the same molecule and can be detected in a specific location on a universal microarray with complementary zip-oligos enabling equivalent hybridisation conditions for all probes. The method was applied to samples from Nordic composting facilities after testing and optimisation with fungal pure cultures and environmental clones. Results Probes targeted for fungi were able to detect 0.1 fmol of target ribosomal PCR product in an artificial reaction mixture containing 100 ng competing fungal ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) area or herring sperm DNA. The detection level was therefore approximately 0.04% of total DNA. Clone libraries were constructed from eight compost samples. The LDR microarray results were in concordance with the clone library sequencing results. In addition a control probe was used to monitor the per-spot hybridisation efficiency on the array. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the LDR microarray method is capable of sensitive and accurate species-level detection from a complex microbial community. The method can detect key species from compost samples, making it a basis for a tool for compost process monitoring in industrial facilities. PMID:19116002
Ladayya, Faroh; Purnami, Santi Wulan; Irhamah
DNA microarrays are data containing gene expression with small sample sizes and high number of features. Furthermore, imbalanced classes is a common problem in microarray data. This occurs when a dataset is dominated by a class which have significantly more instances than the other minority classes. Therefore, it is needed a classification method that solve the problem of high dimensional and imbalanced data. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is one of the classification methods that is capable of handling large or small samples, nonlinear, high dimensional, over learning and local minimum issues. SVM has been widely applied to DNA microarray data classification and it has been shown that SVM provides the best performance among other machine learning methods. However, imbalanced data will be a problem because SVM treats all samples in the same importance thus the results is bias for minority class. To overcome the imbalanced data, Fuzzy SVM (FSVM) is proposed. This method apply a fuzzy membership to each input point and reformulate the SVM such that different input points provide different contributions to the classifier. The minority classes have large fuzzy membership so FSVM can pay more attention to the samples with larger fuzzy membership. Given DNA microarray data is a high dimensional data with a very large number of features, it is necessary to do feature selection first using Fast Correlation based Filter (FCBF). In this study will be analyzed by SVM, FSVM and both methods by applying FCBF and get the classification performance of them. Based on the overall results, FSVM on selected features has the best classification performance compared to SVM.
Schweitzer, Barry; Roberts, Scott; Grimwade, Brian; Shao, Weiping; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Qin; Shu, Quiping; Laroche, Isabelle; Zhou, Zhimin; Tchernev, Velizar T.; Christiansen, Jason; Velleca, Mark; Kingsmore, Stephen F.
Fluorescent-sandwich immunoassays on microarrays hold appeal for proteomics studies, because equipment and antibodies are readily available, and assays are simple, scalable, and reproducible. The achievement of adequate sensitivity and specificity, however, requires a general method of immunoassay amplification. We describe coupling of isothermal rolling-circle amplification (RCA) to universal antibodies for this purpose. A total of 75 cytokines were measured simultaneously on glass arrays with signal amplification by RCA with high specificity, femtomolar sensitivity, 3 log quantitative range, and economy of sample consumption. A 51-feature RCA cytokine glass array was used to measure secretion from human dendritic cells (DCs) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). As expected, LPS induced rapid secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, interleukin (IL)-8, and interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10. We found that eotaxin-2 and I-309 were induced by LPS; in addition, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), soluble interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNF-RI) were induced by TNF-α treatment. Because microarrays can accommodat ~1,000 sandwich immunoassays of this type, a relatively small number of RCA microarrays seem to offer a tractable approach for proteomic surveys. PMID:11923841
Rehrauer, Hubert; Zoller, Stefan; Schlapbach, Ralph
The web application MAGMA provides a simple and intuitive interface to identify differentially expressed genes from two-channel microarray data. While the underlying algorithms are not superior to those of similar web applications, MAGMA is particularly user friendly and can be used without prior training. The user interface guides the novice user through the most typical microarray analysis workflow consisting of data upload, annotation, normalization and statistical analysis. It automatically generates R-scripts that document MAGMA's entire data processing steps, thereby allowing the user to regenerate all results in his local R installation. The implementation of MAGMA follows the model-view-controller design pattern that strictly separates the R-based statistical data processing, the web-representation and the application logic. This modular design makes the application flexible and easily extendible by experts in one of the fields: statistical microarray analysis, web design or software development. State-of-the-art Java Server Faces technology was used to generate the web interface and to perform user input processing. MAGMA's object-oriented modular framework makes it easily extendible and applicable to other fields and demonstrates that modern Java technology is also suitable for rather small and concise academic projects. MAGMA is freely available at www.magma-fgcz.uzh.ch.
Software-based feature extraction from DNA microarray images still requires human intervention on various levels. Manual adjustment of grid and metagrid parameters, precise alignment of superimposed grid templates and gene spots, or simply identification of large-scale artifacts have to be performed beforehand to reliably analyze DNA signals and correctly quantify their expression values. Ideally, a Web-based system with input solely confined to a single microarray image and a data table as output containing measurements for all gene spots would directly transform raw image data into abstracted gene expression tables. Sophisticated algorithms with advanced procedures for iterative correction function can overcome imminent challenges in image processing. Herein is introduced an integrated software system with a Java-based interface on the client side that allows for decentralized access and furthermore enables the scientist to instantly employ the most updated software version at any given time. This software tool is extended from PixClust as used in Extractiff incorporated with Java Web Start deployment technology. Ultimately, this setup is destined for high-throughput pipelines in genome-wide medical diagnostics labs or microarray core facilities aimed at providing fully automated service to its users.
Kelmansky, Diana Mabel; Ricci, Lila
The traditional approach with microarray data has been to apply transformations that approximately normalize them, with the drawback of losing the original scale. The alternative standpoint taken here is to search for models that fit the data, characterized by the presence of negative values, preserving their scale; one advantage of this strategy is that it facilitates a direct interpretation of the results. A new family of distributions named gpower-normal indexed by p∈R is introduced and it is proven that these variables become normal or truncated normal when a suitable gpower transformation is applied. Expressions are given for moments and quantiles, in terms of the truncated normal density. This new family can be used to model asymmetric data that include non-positive values, as required for microarray analysis. Moreover, it has been proven that the gpower-normal family is a special case of pseudo-dispersion models, inheriting all the good properties of these models, such as asymptotic normality for small variances. A combined maximum likelihood method is proposed to estimate the model parameters, and it is applied to microarray and contamination data. R codes are available from the authors upon request. PMID:28208652
Le Berre, Véronique; Trévisiol, Emmanuelle; Dagkessamanskaia, Adilia; Sokol, Serguei; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Meunier, Bernard; François, Jean
Successful use and reliability of microarray technology is highly dependent on several factors, including surface chemistry parameters and accessibility of cDNA targets to the DNA probes fixed onto the surface. Here, we show that functionalisation of glass slides with homemade dendrimers allow production of more sensitive and reliable DNA microarrays. The dendrimers are nanometric structures of size-controlled diameter with aldehyde function at their periphery. Covalent attachment of these spherical reactive chemical structures on amino-silanised glass slides generates a reactive ∼100 Å layer onto which amino-modified DNA probes are covalently bound. This new grafting chemistry leads to the formation of uniform and homogenous spots. More over, probe concentration before spotting could be reduced from 0.2 to 0.02 mg/ml with PCR products and from 20 to 5 µM with 70mer oligonucleotides without affecting signal intensities after hybridisation with Cy3- and Cy5-labelled targets. More interestingly, while the binding capacity of captured probes on dendrimer-activated glass surface (named dendrislides) is roughly similar to other functionalised glass slides from commercial sources, detection sensitivity was 2-fold higher than with other available DNA microarrays. This detection limit was estimated to 0.1 pM of cDNA targets. Altogether, these features make dendrimer-activated slides ideal for manufacturing cost-effective DNA arrays applicable for gene expression and detection of mutations. PMID:12907740
Mukherjee, Sach; Roberts, Stephen J; van der Laan, Mark J
An important task in microarray data analysis is the selection of genes that are differentially expressed between different tissue samples, such as healthy and diseased. However, microarray data contain an enormous number of dimensions (genes) and very few samples (arrays), a mismatch which poses fundamental statistical problems for the selection process that have defied easy resolution. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the selection of differentially expressed genes in which test statistics are learned from data using a simple notion of reproducibility in selection results as the learning criterion. Reproducibility, as we define it, can be computed without any knowledge of the 'ground-truth', but takes advantage of certain properties of microarray data to provide an asymptotically valid guide to expected loss under the true data-generating distribution. We are therefore able to indirectly minimize expected loss, and obtain results substantially more robust than conventional methods. We apply our method to simulated and oligonucleotide array data. By request to the corresponding author.
Hardick, Justin; Woelfel, Roman; Gardner, Warren; Ibrahim, Sofi
Periodic outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers have occurred in Africa over the past four decades with case fatality rates reaching as high as 90%. The latest Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014 raised concerns that these infections can spread across continents and pose serious health risks. Early and accurate identification of the causative agents is necessary to contain outbreaks. In this report, we describe sequencing-by-hybridization (SBH) technique using high density microarrays to identify Ebola and Marburg viruses. The microarrays were designed to interrogate the sequences of entire viral genomes, and were evaluated with three species of Ebolavirus (Reston, Sudan, and Zaire), and three strains of Marburgvirus (Angola, Musoke, and Ravn). The results showed that the consensus sequences generated with four or more hybridizations had 92.1-98.9% accuracy over 95-99% of the genomes. Additionally, with SBH microarrays it was possible to distinguish between different strains of the Lake Victoria Marburgvirus. J. Med. Virol. 88:1303-1308, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kumar Rath, Santanu
The DNA microarray classification technique has gained more popularity in both research and practice. In real data analysis, such as microarray data, the dataset contains a huge number of insignificant and irrelevant features that tend to lose useful information. Classes with high relevance and feature sets with high significance are generally referred for the selected features, which determine the samples classification into their respective classes. In this paper, kernel fuzzy inference system (K-FIS) algorithm is applied to classify the microarray data (leukemia) using t-test as a feature selection method. Kernel functions are used to map original data points into a higher-dimensional (possibly infinite-dimensional) feature space defined by a (usually nonlinear) function ϕ through a mathematical process called the kernel trick. This paper also presents a comparative study for classification using K-FIS along with support vector machine (SVM) for different set of features (genes). Performance parameters available in the literature such as precision, recall, specificity, F-measure, ROC curve, and accuracy are considered to analyze the efficiency of the classification model. From the proposed approach, it is apparent that K-FIS model obtains similar results when compared with SVM model. This is an indication that the proposed approach relies on kernel function. PMID:27433543
DNA microarrays are devices capable of detecting the identity and abundance of numerous DNA or RNA segments in samples. They are used for analyzing gene expressions, identifying genetic markers and detecting mutations on a genomic scale. The fundamental chemical mechanism of DNA microarrays is the hybridization between probes and targets due to the hydrogen bonds of nucleotide base pairing. Since the cross hybridization is inevitable, and probes or targets may form undesirable secondary or tertiary structures, the microarray data contain noise and depend on experimental conditions. It is crucial to apply proper statistical algorithms to obtain useful signals from noisy data. After we obtained the signals of a large amount of probes, we need to derive the biomedical information such as the existence of a transcript in a cell, the difference of expression levels of a gene in multiple samples, and the type of a genetic marker. Furthermore, after the expression levels of thousands of genes or the genotypes of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms are determined, it is usually important to find a small number of genes or markers that are related to a disease, individual reactions to drugs, or other phenotypes. All these applications need careful data analyses and reliable algorithms.
Akkamsetty, Yamini; Hook, Andrew L.; Thissen, Helmut; Hayes, Jason P.; Voelcker, Nicolas H.
Microarrays, high-throughput devices for genomic analysis, can be further improved by developing materials that are able to manipulate the interfacial behaviour of biomolecules. This is achieved both spatially and temporally by smart materials possessing both switchable and patterned surface properties. A system had been developed to spatially manipulate both DNA and cell growth based upon the surface modification of highly doped silicon by plasma polymerisation and polyethylene grafting followed by masked laser ablation for formation of a pattered surface with both bioactive and non-fouling regions. This platform has been successfully applied to transfected cell microarray applications with the parallel expression of genes by utilising its ability to direct and limit both DNA and cell attachment to specific sites. One of the greatest advantages of this system is its application to reverse transfection, whereupon by utilising the switchable adsorption and desorption of DNA using a voltage bias, the efficiency of cell transfection can be enhanced. However, it was shown that application of a voltage also reduces the viability of neuroblastoma cells grown on a plasma polymer surface, but not human embryonic kidney cells. This suggests that the application of a voltage may not only result in the desorption of bound DNA but may also affect attached cells. The characterisation of a DNA microarray by contact printing has also been investigated.
Braun, Jerome J.; Glina, Yan; Judson, Nicholas; Herzig-Marx, Rachel
This paper addresses automatic recognition of microarray patterns, a capability that could have a major significance for medical diagnostics, enabling development of diagnostic tools for automatic discrimination of specific diseases. The paper presents multiclassifier information fusion methods for microarray pattern recognition. The input space partitioning approach based on fitness measures that constitute an a-priori gauging of classification efficacy for each subspace is investigated. Methods for generation of fitness measures, generation of input subspaces and their use in the multiclassifier fusion architecture are presented. In particular, two-level quantification of fitness that accounts for the quality of each subspace as well as the quality of individual neighborhoods within the subspace is described. Individual-subspace classifiers are Support Vector Machine based. The decision fusion stage fuses the information from mulitple SVMs along with the multi-level fitness information. Final decision fusion stage techniques, including weighted fusion as well as Dempster-Shafer theory based fusion are investigated. It should be noted that while the above methods are discussed in the context of microarray pattern recognition, they are applicable to a broader range of discrimination problems, in particular to problems involving a large number of information sources irreducible to a low-dimensional feature space.
Gallagher, Rosa I; Silvestri, Alessandra; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia
The Reverse Phase Protein Microarray (RPMA) is an array platform used to quantitate proteins and their posttranslationally modified forms. RPMAs are applicable for profiling key cellular signaling pathways and protein networks, allowing direct comparison of the activation state of proteins from multiple samples within the same array. The RPMA format consists of proteins immobilized directly on a nitrocellulose substratum. The analyte is subsequently probed with a primary antibody and a series of reagents for signal amplification and detection. Due to the diversity, low concentration, and large dynamic range of protein analytes, RPMAs require stringent signal amplification methods, high quality image acquisition, and software capable of precisely analyzing spot intensities on an array. Microarray detection strategies can be either fluorescent or colorimetric. The choice of a detection system depends on (a) the expected analyte concentration, (b) type of microarray imaging system, and (c) type of sample. The focus of this chapter is to describe RPMA detection and imaging using fluorescent and colorimetric (diaminobenzidine (DAB)) methods.
Nilsson, Jens; Fioretos, Thoas; Höglund, Mattias; Fontes, Magnus
Genome-wide gene expression measurements, as currently determined by the microarray technology, can be represented mathematically as points in a high-dimensional gene expression space. Genes interact with each other in regulatory networks, restricting the cellular gene expression profiles to a certain manifold, or surface, in gene expression space. To obtain knowledge about this manifold, various dimensionality reduction methods and distance metrics are used. For data points distributed on curved manifolds, a sensible distance measure would be the geodesic distance along the manifold. In this work, we examine whether an approximate geodesic distance measure captures biological similarities better than the traditionally used Euclidean distance. We computed approximate geodesic distances, determined by the Isomap algorithm, for one set of lymphoma and one set of lung cancer microarray samples. Compared with the ordinary Euclidean distance metric, this distance measure produced more instructive, biologically relevant, visualizations when applying multidimensional scaling. This suggests the Isomap algorithm as a promising tool for the interpretation of microarray data. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the benefit and importance of taking nonlinearities in gene expression data into account.
Background Gene expression analysis has been intensively researched for more than a decade. Recently, there has been elevated interest in the integration of microarray data analysis with other types of biological knowledge in a holistic analytical approach. We propose a methodology that can be facilitated for pathway based microarray data analysis, based on the observation that a substantial proportion of genes present in biochemical pathway databases are members of a number of distinct pathways. Our methodology aims towards establishing the state of individual pathways, by identifying those truly affected by the experimental conditions based on the behaviour of such genes. For that purpose it considers all the pathways in which a gene participates and the general census of gene expression per pathway. Results We utilise hill climbing, simulated annealing and a genetic algorithm to analyse the consistency of the produced results, through the application of fuzzy adjusted rand indexes and hamming distance. All algorithms produce highly consistent genes to pathways allocations, revealing the contribution of genes to pathway functionality, in agreement with current pathway state visualisation techniques, with the simulated annealing search proving slightly superior in terms of efficiency. Conclusions We show that the expression values of genes, which are members of a number of biochemical pathways or modules, are the net effect of the contribution of each gene to these biochemical processes. We show that by manipulating the pathway and module contribution of such genes to follow underlying trends we can interpret microarray results centred on the behaviour of these genes. PMID:21939531
Pavlidis, Stelios P; Payne, Annette M; Swift, Stephen M
Gene expression analysis has been intensively researched for more than a decade. Recently, there has been elevated interest in the integration of microarray data analysis with other types of biological knowledge in a holistic analytical approach. We propose a methodology that can be facilitated for pathway based microarray data analysis, based on the observation that a substantial proportion of genes present in biochemical pathway databases are members of a number of distinct pathways. Our methodology aims towards establishing the state of individual pathways, by identifying those truly affected by the experimental conditions based on the behaviour of such genes. For that purpose it considers all the pathways in which a gene participates and the general census of gene expression per pathway. We utilise hill climbing, simulated annealing and a genetic algorithm to analyse the consistency of the produced results, through the application of fuzzy adjusted rand indexes and hamming distance. All algorithms produce highly consistent genes to pathways allocations, revealing the contribution of genes to pathway functionality, in agreement with current pathway state visualisation techniques, with the simulated annealing search proving slightly superior in terms of efficiency. We show that the expression values of genes, which are members of a number of biochemical pathways or modules, are the net effect of the contribution of each gene to these biochemical processes. We show that by manipulating the pathway and module contribution of such genes to follow underlying trends we can interpret microarray results centred on the behaviour of these genes.
Background Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites which are produced by numerous fungi and pose a continuous challenge to the safety and quality of food commodities in South Africa. These toxins have toxicologically relevant effects on humans and animals that eat contaminated foods. In this study, a diagnostic DNA microarray was developed for the identification of the most common food-borne fungi, as well as the genes leading to toxin production. Results A total of 40 potentially mycotoxigenic fungi isolated from different food commodities, as well as the genes that are involved in the mycotoxin synthetic pathways, were analyzed. For fungal identification, oligonucleotide probes were designed by exploiting the sequence variations of the elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1 α) coding regions and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA gene cassette. For the detection of fungi able to produce mycotoxins, oligonucleotide probes directed towards genes leading to toxin production from different fungal strains were identified in data available in the public domain. The probes selected for fungal identification and the probes specific for toxin producing genes were spotted onto microarray slides. Conclusions The diagnostic microarray developed can be used to identify single pure strains or cultures of potentially mycotoxigenic fungi as well as genes leading to toxin production in both laboratory samples and maize-derived foods offering an interesting potential for microbiological laboratories. PMID:20307326
Pierik, Anke; Dijksman, Frits; Raaijmakers, Adrie; Wismans, Ton; Stapert, Henk
A robust manufacturing process is essential to make high-quality DNA microarrays, especially for use in diagnostic tests. We investigated different failure modes of the inkjet printing process used to manufacture low-density microarrays. A single nozzle inkjet spotter was provided with two optical imaging systems, monitoring in real time the flight path of every droplet. If a droplet emission failure is detected, the printing process is automatically stopped. We analyzed over 1.3 million droplets. This information was used to investigate the performance of the inkjet system and to obtain detailed insight into the frequency and causes of jetting failures. Of all the substrates investigated, 96.2% were produced without any system or jetting failures. In 1.6% of the substrates, droplet emission failed and was correctly identified. Appropriate measures could then be taken to get the process back on track. In 2.2%, the imaging systems failed while droplet emission occurred correctly. In 0.1% of the substrates, droplet emission failure that was not timely detected occurred. Thus, the overall yield of the microarray manufacturing process was 99.9%, which is highly acceptable for prototyping.
The second phase of the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC-II) project evaluated common practices for developing and validating microarray-based models aimed at predicting toxicological and clinical endpoints. Thirty-six teams developed classifiers for 13 endpoints - some easy, som...
Bogdanov, Valery L.; Boyce-Jacino, Michael
Confined arrays of biochemical probes deposited on a solid support surface (analytical microarray or 'chip') provide an opportunity to analysis multiple reactions simultaneously. Microarrays are increasingly used in genetics, medicine and environment scanning as research and analytical instruments. A power of microarray technology comes from its parallelism which grows with array miniaturization, minimization of reagent volume per reaction site and reaction multiplexing. An optical detector of microarray signals should combine high sensitivity, spatial and spectral resolution. Additionally, low-cost and a high processing rate are needed to transfer microarray technology into biomedical practice. We designed an imager that provides confocal and complete spectrum detection of entire fluorescently-labeled microarray in parallel. Imager uses microlens array, non-slit spectral decomposer, and high- sensitive detector (cooled CCD). Two imaging channels provide a simultaneous detection of localization, integrated and spectral intensities for each reaction site in microarray. A dimensional matching between microarray and imager's optics eliminates all in moving parts in instrumentation, enabling highly informative, fast and low-cost microarray detection. We report theory of confocal hyperspectral imaging with microlenses array and experimental data for implementation of developed imager to detect fluorescently labeled microarray with a density approximately 103 sites per cm2.
Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Cannataro, Mario
A current trend in genomics is the investigation of the cell mechanism using different technologies, in order to explain the relationship among genes, molecular processes and diseases. For instance, the combined use of gene-expression arrays and genomic arrays has been demonstrated as an effective instrument in clinical practice. Consequently, in a single experiment different kind of microarrays may be used, resulting in the production of different types of binary data (images and textual raw data). The analysis of microarray data requires an initial preprocessing phase, that makes raw data suitable for use on existing analysis platforms, such as the TIGR M4 (TM4) Suite. An additional challenge to be faced by emerging data analysis platforms is the ability to treat in a combined way those different microarray formats coupled with clinical data. In fact, resulting integrated data may include both numerical and symbolic data (e.g. gene expression and SNPs regarding molecular data), as well as temporal data (e.g. the response to a drug, time to progression and survival rate), regarding clinical data. Raw data preprocessing is a crucial step in analysis but is often performed in a manual and error prone way using different software tools. Thus novel, platform independent, and possibly open source tools enabling the semi-automatic preprocessing and annotation of different microarray data are needed. The paper presents Micro-Analyzer (Microarray Analyzer), a cross-platform tool for the automatic normalization, summarization and annotation of Affymetrix gene expression and SNP binary data. It represents the evolution of the μ-CS tool, extending the preprocessing to SNP arrays that were not allowed in μ-CS. The Micro-Analyzer is provided as a Java standalone tool and enables users to read, preprocess and analyse binary microarray data (gene expression and SNPs) by invoking TM4 platform. It avoids: (i) the manual invocation of external tools (e.g. the Affymetrix Power
Ambler, Dana R; Golden, Alicia M; Gell, Jennifer S; Saed, Ghassan M; Carey, David J; Diamond, Michael P
To identify molecular markers associated with adhesion and normal peritoneal tissue using microarray expression profiling. Comparative study. University hospital. Five premenopausal women. Adhesion and normal peritoneal tissue samples were obtained from premenopausal women. Ribonucleic acid was extracted using standard protocols and processed for hybridization to Affymetrix Whole Transcript Human Gene Expression Chips. Microarray data were obtained from five different patients, each with adhesion tissue and normal peritoneal samples. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for confirmation using standard protocols. Gene expression in postoperative adhesion and normal peritoneal tissues. A total of 1,263 genes were differentially expressed between adhesion and normal tissues. One hundred seventy-three genes were found to be up-regulated and 56 genes were down-regulated in the adhesion tissues compared with normal peritoneal tissues. The genes were sorted into functional categories according to Gene Ontology annotations. Twenty-six up-regulated genes and 11 down-regulated genes were identified with functions potentially relevant to the pathophysiology of postoperative adhesions. We evaluated and confirmed expression of 12 of these specific genes via polymerase chain reaction. The pathogenesis, natural history, and optimal treatment of postoperative adhesive disease remains unanswered. Microarray analysis of adhesions identified specific genes with increased and decreased expression when compared with normal peritoneum. Knowledge of these genes and ontologic pathways with altered expression provide targets for new therapies to treat patients who have or are at risk for postoperative adhesions. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Xin; Mao, K Z
One problem with discriminant analysis of DNA microarray data is that each sample is represented by quite a large number of genes, and many of them are irrelevant, insignificant or redundant to the discriminant problem at hand. Methods for selecting important genes are, therefore, of much significance in microarray data analysis. In the present study, a new criterion, called LS Bound measure, is proposed to address the gene selection problem. The LS Bound measure is derived from leave-one-out procedure of LS-SVMs (least squares support vector machines), and as the upper bound for leave-one-out classification results it reflects to some extent the generalization performance of gene subsets. We applied this LS Bound measure for gene selection on two benchmark microarray datasets: colon cancer and leukemia. We also compared the LS Bound measure with other evaluation criteria, including the well-known Fisher's ratio and Mahalanobis class separability measure, and other published gene selection algorithms, including Weighting factor and SVM Recursive Feature Elimination. The strength of the LS Bound measure is that it provides gene subsets leading to more accurate classification results than the filter method while its computational complexity is at the level of the filter method. A companion website can be accessed at http://www.ntu.edu.sg/home5/pg02776030/lsbound/. The website contains: (1) the source code of the gene selection algorithm; (2) the complete set of tables and figures regarding the experimental study; (3) proof of the inequality (9). firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background It is of great importance to identify molecular processes and pathways that are involved in disease etiology. Although there has been an extensive use of various high-throughput methods for this task, pathogenic pathways are still not completely understood. Often the set of genes or proteins identified as altered in genome-wide screens show a poor overlap with canonical disease pathways. These findings are difficult to interpret, yet crucial in order to improve the understanding of the molecular processes underlying the disease progression. We present a novel method for identifying groups of connected molecules from a set of differentially expressed genes. These groups represent functional modules sharing common cellular function and involve signaling and regulatory events. Specifically, our method makes use of Bayesian statistics to identify groups of co-regulated genes based on the microarray data, where external information about molecular interactions and connections are used as priors in the group assignments. Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling is used to search for the most reliable grouping. Results Simulation results showed that the method improved the ability of identifying correct groups compared to traditional clustering, especially for small sample sizes. Applied to a microarray heart failure dataset the method found one large cluster with several genes important for the structure of the extracellular matrix and a smaller group with many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The method was also applied to a microarray dataset on melanoma cancer patients with or without metastasis, where the main cluster was dominated by genes related to keratinocyte differentiation. Conclusion Our method found clusters overlapping with known pathogenic processes, but also pointed to new connections extending beyond the classical pathways. PMID:24758699
Cremers, Frans P M; Kimberling, William J; Külm, Maigi; de Brouwer, Arjan P; van Wijk, Erwin; te Brinke, Heleen; Cremers, Cor W R J; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Banfi, Sandro; Simonelli, Francesca; Fleischhauer, Johannes C; Berger, Wolfgang; Kelley, Phil M; Haralambous, Elene; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Webster, Andrew R; Saihan, Zubin; De Baere, Elfride; Leroy, Bart P; Silvestri, Giuliana; McKay, Gareth J; Koenekoop, Robert K; Millan, Jose M; Rosenberg, Thomas; Joensuu, Tarja; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Weil, Dominique; Weston, Mike D; Wissinger, Bernd; Kremer, Hannie
Usher syndrome, a combination of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and sensorineural hearing loss with or without vestibular dysfunction, displays a high degree of clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Three clinical subtypes can be distinguished, based on the age of onset and severity of the hearing impairment, and the presence or absence of vestibular abnormalities. Thus far, eight genes have been implicated in the syndrome, together comprising 347 protein-coding exons. To improve DNA diagnostics for patients with Usher syndrome, we developed a genotyping microarray based on the arrayed primer extension (APEX) method. Allele-specific oligonucleotides corresponding to all 298 Usher syndrome-associated sequence variants known to date, 76 of which are novel, were arrayed. Approximately half of these variants were validated using original patient DNAs, which yielded an accuracy of >98%. The efficiency of the Usher genotyping microarray was tested using DNAs from 370 unrelated European and American patients with Usher syndrome. Sequence variants were identified in 64/140 (46%) patients with Usher syndrome type I, 45/189 (24%) patients with Usher syndrome type II, 6/21 (29%) patients with Usher syndrome type III and 6/20 (30%) patients with atypical Usher syndrome. The chip also identified two novel sequence variants, c.400C>T (p.R134X) in PCDH15 and c.1606T>C (p.C536S) in USH2A. The Usher genotyping microarray is a versatile and affordable screening tool for Usher syndrome. Its efficiency will improve with the addition of novel sequence variants with minimal extra costs, making it a very useful first-pass screening tool.
Epstein, Jason R; Leung, Amy P K; Lee, Kyong Hoon; Walt, David R
A high-density fiber optic DNA microarray has been developed consisting of oligonucleotide-functionalized, 3.1-microm-diameter microspheres randomly distributed on the etched face of an imaging fiber bundle. The fiber bundles are comprised of 6000-50000 fused optical fibers and each fiber terminates with an etched well. The microwell array is capable of housing complementary-sized microspheres, each containing thousands of copies of a unique oligonucleotide probe sequence. The array fabrication process results in random microsphere placement. Determining the position of microspheres in the random array requires an optical encoding scheme. This array platform provides many advantages over other array formats. The microsphere-stock suspension concentration added to the etched fiber can be controlled to provide inherent sensor redundancy. Examining identical microspheres has a beneficial effect on the signal-to-noise ratio. As other sequences of interest are discovered, new microsphere sensing elements can be added to existing microsphere pools and new arrays can be fabricated incorporating the new sequences without altering the existing detection capabilities. These microarrays contain the smallest feature sizes (3 microm) of any DNA array, allowing interrogation of extremely small sample volumes. Reducing the feature size results in higher local target molecule concentrations, creating rapid and highly sensitive assays. The microsphere array platform is also flexible in its applications; research has included DNA-protein interaction profiles, microbial strain differentiation, and non-labeled target interrogation with molecular beacons. Fiber optic microsphere-based DNA microarrays have a simple fabrication protocol enabling their expansion into other applications, such as single cell-based assays.
Ma, Shuangge; Song, Xiao; Huang, Jian
Background A tremendous amount of efforts have been devoted to identifying genes for diagnosis and prognosis of diseases using microarray gene expression data. It has been demonstrated that gene expression data have cluster structure, where the clusters consist of co-regulated genes which tend to have coordinated functions. However, most available statistical methods for gene selection do not take into consideration the cluster structure. Results We propose a supervised group Lasso approach that takes into account the cluster structure in gene expression data for gene selection and predictive model building. For gene expression data without biological cluster information, we first divide genes into clusters using the K-means approach and determine the optimal number of clusters using the Gap method. The supervised group Lasso consists of two steps. In the first step, we identify important genes within each cluster using the Lasso method. In the second step, we select important clusters using the group Lasso. Tuning parameters are determined using V-fold cross validation at both steps to allow for further flexibility. Prediction performance is evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation. We apply the proposed method to disease classification and survival analysis with microarray data. Conclusion We analyze four microarray data sets using the proposed approach: two cancer data sets with binary cancer occurrence as outcomes and two lymphoma data sets with survival outcomes. The results show that the proposed approach is capable of identifying a small number of influential gene clusters and important genes within those clusters, and has better prediction performance than existing methods. PMID:17316436
Cremers, Frans P M; Kimberling, William J; Külm, Maigi; de Brouwer, Arjan P; van Wijk, Erwin; te Brinke, Heleen; Cremers, Cor W R J; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Banfi, Sandro; Simonelli, Francesca; Fleischhauer, Johannes C; Berger, Wolfgang; Kelley, Phil M; Haralambous, Elene; Bitner‐Glindzicz, Maria; Webster, Andrew R; Saihan, Zubin; De Baere, Elfride; Leroy, Bart P; Silvestri, Giuliana; McKay, Gareth J; Koenekoop, Robert K; Millan, Jose M; Rosenberg, Thomas; Joensuu, Tarja; Sankila, Eeva‐Marja; Weil, Dominique; Weston, Mike D; Wissinger, Bernd; Kremer, Hannie
Background Usher syndrome, a combination of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and sensorineural hearing loss with or without vestibular dysfunction, displays a high degree of clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Three clinical subtypes can be distinguished, based on the age of onset and severity of the hearing impairment, and the presence or absence of vestibular abnormalities. Thus far, eight genes have been implicated in the syndrome, together comprising 347 protein‐coding exons. Methods: To improve DNA diagnostics for patients with Usher syndrome, we developed a genotyping microarray based on the arrayed primer extension (APEX) method. Allele‐specific oligonucleotides corresponding to all 298 Usher syndrome‐associated sequence variants known to date, 76 of which are novel, were arrayed. Results Approximately half of these variants were validated using original patient DNAs, which yielded an accuracy of >98%. The efficiency of the Usher genotyping microarray was tested using DNAs from 370 unrelated European and American patients with Usher syndrome. Sequence variants were identified in 64/140 (46%) patients with Usher syndrome type I, 45/189 (24%) patients with Usher syndrome type II, 6/21 (29%) patients with Usher syndrome type III and 6/20 (30%) patients with atypical Usher syndrome. The chip also identified two novel sequence variants, c.400C>T (p.R134X) in PCDH15 and c.1606T>C (p.C536S) in USH2A. Conclusion The Usher genotyping microarray is a versatile and affordable screening tool for Usher syndrome. Its efficiency will improve with the addition of novel sequence variants with minimal extra costs, making it a very useful first‐pass screening tool. PMID:16963483
Li, Taijie; Mo, Cuiju; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan; Liu, Yinkun; Liu, Zhiming
Recently, studies have reported that protein glycosylation plays an important role in the occurrence and development of cancer. Gastric cancer is a common cancer with high morbidity and mortality owing to most gastric cancers are discovered only at an advanced stage. Here, we aim to discover novel specific serum glycanbased biomarkers for gastric cancer. A lectin microarray with 50 kinds of tumor-associated lectin was used to detect the glycan profiles of serum samples between early gastric cancer and healthy controls. Then lectin blot was performed to validate the differences. The result of the lectin microarray showed that the signal intensities of 13 lectins showed significant differences between the healthy controls and early gastric cancer. Compared to the healthy, the normalized fluorescent intensities of the lectins PWA, LEL, and STL were significantly increased, and it implied that their specifically recognized GlcNAc showed an especially elevated expression in early gastric cancer. Moreover, the binding affinity of the lectins EEL, RCA-II, RCA-I, VAL, DSA, PHA-L, UEA, and CAL were higher in the early gastric cancer than in healthy controls. These glycan structures containing GalNAc, terminal Galβ 1-4 GlcNAc, Tri/tetraantennary N-glycan, β-1, 6GlcNAc branching structure, α-linked fucose residues, and Tn antigen were elevated in gastric cancer. While the two lectins CFL GNL reduced their binding ability. In addition, their specifically recognized N-acetyl-D-galactosamine structure and (α-1,3) mannose residues were decreased in early gastric cancer. Furthermore, lectin blot results of LEL, STL, PHA-L, RCA-I were consistent with the results of the lectin microarray. The findings of our study clarify the specific alterations for glycosylation during the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The specific high expression of GlcNAc structure may act as a potential early diagnostic marker for gastric cancer.
Klotchenko, S. A.; Vasin, A. V.; Sandybaev, N. T.; Plotnikova, M. A.; Chervyakova, O. V.; Smirnova, E. A.; Kushnareva, E. V.; Strochkov, V. M.; Taylakova, E. T.; Egorov, V. V.; Koshemetov, J. K.; Kiselev, O. I.; Sansyzbay, A. R.
Influenza is one of the most widespread respiratory viral diseases, infecting humans, horses, pigs, poultry and some other animal populations. Influenza A viruses (IAV) are classified into subtypes on the basis of the surface hemagglutinin (H1 to H16) and neuraminidase (N1 to N9) glycoproteins. The correct determination of IAV subtype is necessary for clinical and epidemiological studies. In this article we propose an oligonucleotide microarray for subtyping of IAV using universal one-step multisegment RT-PCR fluorescent labeling of viral gene segments. It showed to be an advanced approach for fast detection and identification of IAV.
Knudsen, Steen; Workman, Christopher; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Friis, Carsten
GenePublisher, a system for automatic analysis of data from DNA microarray experiments, has been implemented with a web interface at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/GenePublisher. Raw data are uploaded to the server together with a specification of the data. The server performs normalization, statistical analysis and visualization of the data. The results are run against databases of signal transduction pathways, metabolic pathways and promoter sequences in order to extract more information. The results of the entire analysis are summarized in report form and returned to the user.
Ewart, Tom; Carmichael, Stuart; Lea, Peter
Polylysine and aminopropylsilane treated glass comprised the majority of substrates employed in first generation genetic microarray substrates. Second generation single stranded long oligo libraries with amino termini provided for controlled terminal specific attachment, and rationally designed unique sequence libraries with normalized melting temperatures. These libraries benefit from active covalent coupling surfaces such as Epoxysilane. The latter's oxime ring shows versatile reactivity with amino-, thiol- and hydroxyl- groups thus encompassing small molecule, oligo and proteomic microarray applications. Batch-to-batch production uniformity supports entry of the Epoxysilane process into clinical diagnostics. We carried out multiple print runs of 21 clinically relevant bacterial and viral antigens at optimized concentrations, plus human IgG and IgM standards in triplicate on multiple batches of Epoxysilane substrates. A set of 45 patient sera were assayed in a 35 minute protocol using 10 microliters per array in a capillary-fill format (15 minute serum incubation, wash, 15 minute incubation with Cy3-labeled anti-hIgG plus Dy647-labeled anti-hIgM, final wash). The LOD (3 SD above background) was better than 1 microgram/ml for IgG, and standard curves were regular and monotonically increasing over the range 0 to 1000 micrograms/ml. Ninety-five percent of the CVs for the standards were under 10%, and 90% percent of CVs for antigen responses were under 10% across all batches of Epoxysilane and print runs. In addition, where SDs are larger than expected, microarray images may be readily reviewed for quality control purposes and pin misprints quickly identified. In order to determine the influence of stirring on sensitivity and speed of the microarray assay, we printed 10 common ToRCH antigens (H. pylori, T. gondii, Rubella, Rubeola, C. trachomatis, Herpes 1 and 2, CMV, C. jejuni, and EBV) in Epoxysilane-activated slide-wells. Anti-IgG-Cy3 direct binding to printed Ig
Yafouz, Bashar; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Ibrahim, Fatimah
This paper introduces a dielectrophoretic system for the manipulation and separation of microparticles. The system is composed of five layers and utilizes microarray dot electrodes. We validated our system by conducting size-dependent manipulation and separation experiments on 1, 5 and 15 μm polystyrene particles. Our findings confirm the capability of the proposed device to rapidly and efficiently manipulate and separate microparticles of various dimensions, utilizing positive and negative dielectrophoresis (DEP) effects. Larger size particles were repelled and concentrated in the center of the dot by negative DEP, while the smaller sizes were attracted and collected by the edge of the dot by positive DEP.
O-Charoen, Sirimon; Srivannavit, Onnop; Gulari, Erdogan
Microfluidic microarrays have been developed for economical and rapid parallel synthesis of oligonucleotide and peptide libraries. For a synthesis system to be reproducible and uniform, it is crucial to have a uniform reagent delivery throughout the system. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to model and simulate the microfluidic microarrays to study geometrical effects on flow patterns. By proper design geometry, flow uniformity could be obtained in every microreactor in the microarrays. PMID:17480053
Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Zangar, Richard C.
The sandwich ELISA microarray is a powerful screening tool in biomarker discovery and validation due to its ability to simultaneously probe for multiple proteins in a miniaturized assay. The technical challenges of generating and processing the arrays are numerous. However, careful attention to possible pitfalls in the development of your antibody microarray assay can overcome these challenges. In this chapter, we describe in detail the steps that are involved in generating a reliable and reproducible sandwich ELISA microarray assay.
Karampetsou, Evangelia; Morrogh, Deborah; Chitty, Lyn
The advantage of microarray (array) over conventional karyotype for the diagnosis of fetal pathogenic chromosomal anomalies has prompted the use of microarrays in prenatal diagnostics. In this review we compare the performance of different array platforms (BAC, oligonucleotide CGH, SNP) and designs (targeted, whole genome, whole genome, and targeted, custom) and discuss their advantages and disadvantages in relation to prenatal testing. We also discuss the factors to consider when implementing a microarray testing service for the diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aberrations. PMID:26237396
Uslan, Volkan; Bucak, Ihsan Ömür
Microarrays are utilized as that they provide useful information about thousands of gene expressions simultaneously. In this study segmentation step of microarray image processing has been implemented. Clustering-based methods, fuzzy c-means and k-means, have been applied for the segmentation step that separates the spots from the background. The experiments show that fuzzy c-means have segmented spots of the microarray image more accurately than the k-means.
Meng, Da; Broschat, Shira L; Call, Douglas R
Classification microarrays are used for purposes such as identifying strains of bacteria and determining genetic relationships to understand the epidemiology of an infectious disease. For these cases, mixed microarrays, which are composed of DNA from more than one organism, are more effective than conventional microarrays composed of DNA from a single organism. Selection of probes is a key factor in designing successful mixed microarrays because redundant sequences are inefficient and limited representation of diversity can restrict application of the microarray. We have developed a Java-based software tool, called PLASMID, for use in selecting the minimum set of probe sequences needed to classify different groups of plasmids or bacteria. The software program was successfully applied to several different sets of data. The utility of PLASMID was illustrated using existing mixed-plasmid microarray data as well as data from a virtual mixed-genome microarray constructed from different strains of Streptococcus. Moreover, use of data from expression microarray experiments demonstrated the generality of PLASMID. In this paper we describe a new software tool for selecting a set of probes for a classification microarray. While the tool was developed for the design of mixed microarrays-and mixed-plasmid microarrays in particular-it can also be used to design expression arrays. The user can choose from several clustering methods (including hierarchical, non-hierarchical, and a model-based genetic algorithm), several probe ranking methods, and several different display methods. A novel approach is used for probe redundancy reduction, and probe selection is accomplished via stepwise discriminant analysis. Data can be entered in different formats (including Excel and comma-delimited text), and dendrogram, heat map, and scatter plot images can be saved in several different formats (including jpeg and tiff). Weights generated using stepwise discriminant analysis can be stored for
Seefeld, Ting H.; Halpern, Aaron R.; Corn, Robert M.
Protein microarrays are fabricated from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays by a one-step, multiplexed enzymatic synthesis in an on-chip microfluidic format and then employed for antibody biosensing measurements with surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI). A microarray of dsDNA elements (denoted as generator elements) that encode either a His-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP) or a His-tagged luciferase protein is utilized to create multiple copies of messenger RNA (mRNA) in a surface RNA polymerase reaction; the mRNA transcripts are then translated into proteins by cell-free protein synthesis in a microfluidic format. The His-tagged proteins diffuse to adjacent Cu(II)-NTA microarray elements (denoted as detector elements) and are specifically adsorbed. The net result is the on-chip, cell-free synthesis of a protein microarray that can be used immediately for SPRI protein biosensing. The dual element format greatly reduces any interference from the nonspecific adsorption of enzyme or proteins. SPRI measurements for the detection of the antibodies anti-GFP and anti-luciferase were used to verify the formation of the protein microarray. This convenient on-chip protein microarray fabrication method can be implemented for multiplexed SPRI biosensing measurements in both clinical and research applications. PMID:22793370
Sato, Fumiaki; Tsuchiya, Soken; Terasawa, Kazuya; Tsujimoto, Gozoh
Over the last decade, DNA microarray technology has provided a great contribution to the life sciences. The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) project demonstrated the way to analyze the expression microarray. Recently, microarray technology has been utilized to analyze a comprehensive microRNA expression profiling. Currently, several platforms of microRNA microarray chips are commercially available. Thus, we compared repeatability and comparability of five different microRNA microarray platforms (Agilent, Ambion, Exiqon, Invitrogen and Toray) using 309 microRNAs probes, and the Taqman microRNA system using 142 microRNA probes. This study demonstrated that microRNA microarray has high intra-platform repeatability and comparability to quantitative RT-PCR of microRNA. Among the five platforms, Agilent and Toray array showed relatively better performances than the others. However, the current lineup of commercially available microRNA microarray systems fails to show good inter-platform concordance, probably because of lack of an adequate normalization method and severe divergence in stringency of detection call criteria between different platforms. This study provided the basic information about the performance and the problems specific to the current microRNA microarray systems. PMID:19436744
Making sense of microarray data is a complex process, in which the interpretation of findings will depend on the overall experimental design and judgement of the investigator performing the analysis. As a result, differences in tissue harvesting, microarray types, sample labelling and data analysis procedures make post hoc sharing of microarray data a great challenge. To ensure rapid and meaningful data exchange, we need to create some order out of the existing chaos. In these ground-breaking microarray standardization and data sharing efforts, NIH agencies should take a leading role
Zhang, Zhe; Fenstermacher, David
Analyzing microarray data across multiple experiments has been proven advantageous. To support this kind of analysis, we are developing a software system called MAMA (Meta-Analysis of MicroArray data). MAMA utilizes a client-server architecture with a relational database on the server-side for the storage of microarray datasets collected from various resources. The client-side is an application running on the end user's computer that allows the user to manipulate microarray data and analytical results locally. MAMA implementation will integrate several analytical methods, including meta-analysis within an open-source framework offering other developers the flexibility to plug in additional statistical algorithms.
Liu, Kun-Hong; Tong, Muchenxuan; Xie, Shu-Tong; Yee Ng, Vincent To
Recently, more and more machine learning techniques have been applied to microarray data analysis. The aim of this study is to propose a genetic programming (GP) based new ensemble system (named GPES), which can be used to effectively classify different types of cancers. Decision trees are deployed as base classifiers in this ensemble framework with three operators: Min, Max, and Average. Each individual of the GP is an ensemble system, and they become more and more accurate in the evolutionary process. The feature selection technique and balanced subsampling technique are applied to increase the diversity in each ensemble system. The final ensemble committee is selected by a forward search algorithm, which is shown to be capable of fitting data automatically. The performance of GPES is evaluated using five binary class and six multiclass microarray datasets, and results show that the algorithm can achieve better results in most cases compared with some other ensemble systems. By using elaborate base classifiers or applying other sampling techniques, the performance of GPES may be further improved. PMID:25810748
Militon, Cécile; Rimour, Sébastien; Missaoui, Mohieddine; Biderre, Corinne; Barra, Vincent; Hill, David; Moné, Anne; Gagne, Geneviève; Meier, Harald; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre
Microbial diversity is still largely unknown in most environments, such as soils. In order to get access to this microbial 'black-box', the development of powerful tools such as microarrays are necessary. However, the reliability of this approach relies on probe efficiency, in particular sensitivity, specificity and explorative power, in order to obtain an image of the microbial communities that is close to reality. We propose a new probe design algorithm that is able to select microarray probes targeting SSU rRNA at any phylogenetic level. This original approach, implemented in a program called 'PhylArray', designs a combination of degenerate and non-degenerate probes for each target taxon. Comparative experimental evaluations indicate that probes designed with PhylArray yield a higher sensitivity and specificity than those designed by conventional approaches. Applying the combined PhyArray/GoArrays strategy helps to optimize the hybridization performance of short probes. Finally, hybridizations with environmental targets have shown that the use of the PhylArray strategy can draw attention to even previously unknown bacteria.
Kurkuri, Mahaveer D.; Driever, Chantelle; Thissen, Helmut W.; Voelcker, Nicholas H.
Tissue engineering and stem cell technologies have led to a rapidly increasing interest in the control of the behavior of mammalian cells growing on tissue culture substrates. Multifunctional polymer coatings can assist research in this area in many ways, for example, by providing low non-specific protein adsorption properties and reactive functional groups at the surface. The latter can be used for immobilization of specific biological factors that influence cell behavior. In this study, glass slides were coated with copolymers of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA). The coatings were prepared by three different methods based on dip and spin coating as well as polymer grafting procedures. Coatings were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface sensitive infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements. A fluorescently labelled protein was deposited onto reactive coatings using a contact microarrayer. Printing of a model protein (fluorescein labeled bovine serum albumin) was performed at different protein concentrations, pH, temperature, humidity and using different micropins. The arraying of proteins was studied with a microarray scanner. Arrays printed at a protein concentration above 50 Î¼g/mL prepared in pH 5 phosphate buffer at 10°C and 65% relative humidity gave the most favourable results in terms of the homogeneity of the printed spots and the fluorescence intensity.
Rogers, Craig G; Ditlev, Jonathon A; Tan, Min-Han; Sugimura, Jun; Qian, Chao-Nan; Cooper, Jeff; Lane, Brian; Jewett, Michael A; Kahnoski, Richard J; Kort, Eric J; Teh, Bin T
We investigate the feasibility of using microarray gene expression profiling technology to analyze core biopsies of renal tumors for classification of tumor histology. Core biopsies were obtained ex-vivo from 7 renal tumors-comprised of four histological subtypes-following radical nephrectomy using 18-gauge biopsy needles. RNA was isolated from these samples and, in the case of biopsy samples, amplified by in vitro transcription. Microarray analysis was then used to quantify the mRNA expression patterns in these samples relative to non-diseased renal tissue mRNA. Genes with significant variation across all non-biopsy tumor samples were identified, and the relationship between tumor and biopsy samples in terms of expression levels of these genes was then quantified in terms of Euclidean distance, and visualized by complete linkage clustering. Final pathologic assessment of kidney tumors demonstrated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (4), oncocytoma (1), angiomyolipoma (1) and adrenalcortical carcinoma (1). Five of the seven biopsy samples were most similar in terms of gene expression to the resected tumors from which they were derived in terms of Euclidean distance. All seven biopsies were assigned to the correct histological class by hierarchical clustering. We demonstrate the feasibility of gene expression profiling of core biopsies of renal tumors to classify tumor histology.
Rogers, Craig G.; Ditlev, Jonathon A.; Tan, Min-Han; Sugimura, Jun; Qian, Chao-Nan; Cooper, Jeff; Lane, Brian; Jewett, Michael A.; Kahnoski, Richard J.; Kort, Eric J.; Teh, Bin T.
We investigate the feasibility of using microarray gene expression profiling technology to analyze core biopsies of renal tumors for classification of tumor histology. Core biopsies were obtained ex-vivo from 7 renal tumors—comprised of four histological subtypes—following radical nephrectomy using 18-gauge biopsy needles. RNA was isolated from these samples and, in the case of biopsy samples, amplified by in vitro transcription. Microarray analysis was then used to quantify the mRNA expression patterns in these samples relative to non-diseased renal tissue mRNA. Genes with significant variation across all non-biopsy tumor samples were identified, and the relationship between tumor and biopsy samples in terms of expression levels of these genes was then quantified in terms of Euclidean distance, and visualized by complete linkage clustering. Final pathologic assessment of kidney tumors demonstrated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (4), oncocytoma (1), angiomyolipoma (1) and adrenalcortical carcinoma (1). Five of the seven biopsy samples were most similar in terms of gene expression to the resected tumors from which they were derived in terms of Euclidean distance. All seven biopsies were assigned to the correct histological class by hierarchical clustering. We demonstrate the feasibility of gene expression profiling of core biopsies of renal tumors to classify tumor histology. PMID:19966938
Xi, Jin; Guo, Huancheng; Feng, Ye; Xu, Yunbin; Shao, Mingfu; Su, Nan; Wan, Jiayu; Li, Jiping; Tu, Changchun
An oligonucleotide microarray, LyssaChip, has been developed and verified as a highly specific diagnostic tool for differentiation of the 7 major lyssavirus species. As with conventional typing microarray methods, the LyssaChip relies on sequence differences in the 371-nucleotide region coding for the nucleoprotein. This region was amplified using nested reverse transcription-PCR primers that bind to the 7 major lyssaviruses. The LyssaChip includes 57 pairs of species typing and corresponding control oligonucleotide probes (oligoprobes) immobilized on glass slides, and it can analyze 12 samples on a single slide within 8 h. Analysis of 111 clinical brain specimens (65 from animals with suspected rabies submitted to the laboratory and 46 of butchered dog brain tissues collected from restaurants) showed that the chip method was 100% sensitive and highly consistent with the "gold standard," a fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The chip method could detect rabies virus in highly decayed brain tissues, whereas the FAT did not, and therefore the chip test may be more applicable to highly decayed brain tissues than the FAT. LyssaChip may provide a convenient and inexpensive alternative for diagnosis and differentiation of rabies and rabies-related diseases.
Liu, Kun-Hong; Tong, Muchenxuan; Xie, Shu-Tong; Yee Ng, Vincent To
Recently, more and more machine learning techniques have been applied to microarray data analysis. The aim of this study is to propose a genetic programming (GP) based new ensemble system (named GPES), which can be used to effectively classify different types of cancers. Decision trees are deployed as base classifiers in this ensemble framework with three operators: Min, Max, and Average. Each individual of the GP is an ensemble system, and they become more and more accurate in the evolutionary process. The feature selection technique and balanced subsampling technique are applied to increase the diversity in each ensemble system. The final ensemble committee is selected by a forward search algorithm, which is shown to be capable of fitting data automatically. The performance of GPES is evaluated using five binary class and six multiclass microarray datasets, and results show that the algorithm can achieve better results in most cases compared with some other ensemble systems. By using elaborate base classifiers or applying other sampling techniques, the performance of GPES may be further improved.
Jozwik, Catherine; Eidelman, Ofer; Starr, Joshua; Pollard, Harvey B; Srivastava, Meera
Genomics has revolutionized large-scale and high-throughput sequencing and has led to the discovery of thousands of new proteins. Protein chip technology is emerging as a miniaturized and highly parallel platform that is suited to rapid, simultaneous screening of large numbers of proteins and the analysis of various protein-binding activities, enzyme substrate relationships, and posttranslational modifications. Specifically, reverse capture protein microarrays provide the most appropriate platform for identifying low-abundance, disease-specific biomarker proteins in a sea of high-abundance proteins from biological fluids such as blood, serum, plasma, saliva, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid as well as tissues and cells obtained by biopsy. Samples from hundreds of patients can be spotted in serial dilutions on many replicate glass slides. Each slide can then be probed with one specific antibody to the biomarker of interest. That antibody's titer can then be determined quantitatively for each patient, allowing for the statistical assessment and validation of the diagnostic or prognostic utility of that particular antigen. As the technology matures and the availability of validated, platform-compatible antibodies increases, the platform will move further into the desirable realm of discovery science for detecting and quantitating low-abundance signaling proteins. In this chapter, we describe methods for the successful application of the reverse capture protein microarray platform for which we have made substantial contributions to the development and application of this method, particularly in the use of body fluids other than serum/plasma.
Magwene, Paul M; Lizardi, Paul; Kim, Junhyong
Accurate time series for biological processes are difficult to estimate due to problems of synchronization, temporal sampling and rate heterogeneity. Methods are needed that can utilize multi-dimensional data, such as those resulting from DNA microarray experiments, in order to reconstruct time series from unordered or poorly ordered sets of observations. We present a set of algorithms for estimating temporal orderings from unordered sets of sample elements. The techniques we describe are based on modifications of a minimum-spanning tree calculated from a weighted, undirected graph. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach by applying these techniques to an artificial data set as well as several gene expression data sets derived from DNA microarray experiments. In addition to estimating orderings, the techniques we describe also provide useful heuristics for assessing relevant properties of sample datasets such as noise and sampling intensity, and we show how a data structure called a PQ-tree can be used to represent uncertainty in a reconstructed ordering. Academic implementations of the ordering algorithms are available as source code (in the programming language Python) on our web site, along with documentation on their use. The artificial 'jelly roll' data set upon which the algorithm was tested is also available from this web site. The publicly available gene expression data may be found at http://genome-www.stanford.edu/cellcycle/ and http://caulobacter.stanford.edu/CellCycle/.
Shepard, Jason R. E.
The past decade has seen increased development and subsequent adoption of rapid molecular techniques involving DNA analysis for detection of pathogenic microorganisms, also termed microbial forensics. The continued accumulation of microbial sequence information in genomic databases now better positions the field of high-throughput DNA analysis to proceed in a more manageable fashion. The potential to build off of these databases exists as technology continues to develop, which will enable more rapid, cost effective analyses. This wealth of genetic information, along with new technologies, has the potential to better address some of the current problems and solve the key issues involved in DNA analysis of pathogenic microorganisms. To this end, a high density fiber optic microarray has been employed, housing numerous DNA sequences simultaneously for detection of various pathogenic microorganisms, including Bacillus anthracis, among others. Each organism is analyzed with multiple sequences and can be sub-typed against other closely related organisms. For public health labs, real-time PCR methods have been developed as an initial preliminary screen, but culture and growth are still considered the gold standard. Technologies employing higher throughput than these standard methods are better suited to capitalize on the limitless potential garnered from the sequence information. Microarray analyses are one such format positioned to exploit this potential, and our array platform is reusable, allowing repetitive tests on a single array, providing an increase in throughput and decrease in cost, along with a certainty of detection, down to the individual strain level.
Bootkrajang, Jakramate; Kabán, Ata
Previous studies reported that labelling errors are not uncommon in microarray datasets. In such cases, the training set may become misleading, and the ability of classifiers to make reliable inferences from the data is compromised. Yet, few methods are currently available in the bioinformatics literature to deal with this problem. The few existing methods focus on data cleansing alone, without reference to classification, and their performance crucially depends on some tuning parameters. In this article, we develop a new method to detect mislabelled arrays simultaneously with learning a sparse logistic regression classifier. Our method may be seen as a label-noise robust extension of the well-known and successful Bayesian logistic regression classifier. To account for possible mislabelling, we formulate a label-flipping process as part of the classifier. The regularization parameter is automatically set using Bayesian regularization, which not only saves the computation time that cross-validation would take, but also eliminates any unwanted effects of label noise when setting the regularization parameter. Extensive experiments with both synthetic data and real microarray datasets demonstrate that our approach is able to counter the bad effects of labelling errors in terms of predictive performance, it is effective at identifying marker genes and simultaneously it detects mislabelled arrays to high accuracy. The code is available from http://cs.bham.ac.uk/∼jxb008. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Shilova, Irina N; Robidart, Julie C; James Tripp, H; Turk-Kubo, Kendra; Wawrik, Boris; Post, Anton F; Thompson, Anne W; Ward, Bess; Hollibaugh, James T; Millard, Andy; Ostrowski, Martin; J Scanlan, David; Paerl, Ryan W; Stuart, Rhona; Zehr, Jonathan P
Metagenomic approaches have revealed unprecedented genetic diversity within microbial communities across vast expanses of the world's oceans. Linking this genetic diversity with key metabolic and cellular activities of microbial assemblages is a fundamental challenge. Here we report on a collaborative effort to design MicroTOOLs (Microbiological Targets for Ocean Observing Laboratories), a high-density oligonucleotide microarray that targets functional genes of diverse taxa in pelagic and coastal marine microbial communities. MicroTOOLs integrates nucleotide sequence information from disparate data types: genomes, PCR-amplicons, metagenomes, and metatranscriptomes. It targets 19 400 unique sequences over 145 different genes that are relevant to stress responses and microbial metabolism across the three domains of life and viruses. MicroTOOLs was used in a proof-of-concept experiment that compared the functional responses of microbial communities following Fe and P enrichments of surface water samples from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. We detected transcription of 68% of the gene targets across major taxonomic groups, and the pattern of transcription indicated relief from Fe limitation and transition to N limitation in some taxa. Prochlorococcus (eHLI), Synechococcus (sub-cluster 5.3) and Alphaproteobacteria SAR11 clade (HIMB59) showed the strongest responses to the Fe enrichment. In addition, members of uncharacterized lineages also responded. The MicroTOOLs microarray provides a robust tool for comprehensive characterization of major functional groups of microbes in the open ocean, and the design can be easily amended for specific environments and research questions. PMID:24477198
Tchagang, Alain B.; Tewfik, Ahmed H.
Biclustering algorithms refer to a distinct class of clustering algorithms that perform simultaneous row-column clustering. Biclustering problems arise in DNA microarray data analysis, collaborative filtering, market research, information retrieval, text mining, electoral trends, exchange analysis, and so forth. When dealing with DNA microarray experimental data for example, the goal of biclustering algorithms is to find submatrices, that is, subgroups of genes and subgroups of conditions, where the genes exhibit highly correlated activities for every condition. In this study, we develop novel biclustering algorithms using basic linear algebra and arithmetic tools. The proposed biclustering algorithms can be used to search for all biclusters with constant values, biclusters with constant values on rows, biclusters with constant values on columns, and biclusters with coherent values from a set of data in a timely manner and without solving any optimization problem. We also show how one of the proposed biclustering algorithms can be adapted to identify biclusters with coherent evolution. The algorithms developed in this study discover all valid biclusters of each type, while almost all previous biclustering approaches will miss some.
Thissen, H.; Johnson, G.; McFarland, G.; Verbiest, B. C. H.; Gengenbach, T.; Voelcker, N. H.
The evaluation of cell-material surface interactions is important for the design of novel biomaterials which are used in a variety of biomedical applications. While traditional in vitro test methods have routinely used samples of relatively large size, microarrays representing different biomaterials offer many advantages, including high throughput and reduced sample handling. Here, we describe the simultaneous cell-based testing of matrices of polymeric biomaterials, arrayed on glass slides with a low cell-attachment background coating. Arrays were constructed using a microarray robot at 6 fold redundancy with solid pins having a diameter of 375 Î¼m. Printed solutions contained at least one monomer, an initiator and a bifunctional crosslinker. After subsequent UV polymerisation, the arrays were washed and characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cell culture experiments were carried out over 24 hours using HeLa cells. After labelling with CellTracker Â® Green for the final hour of incubation and subsequent fixation, the arrays were scanned. In addition, individual spots were also viewed by fluorescence microscopy. The evaluation of cell-surface interactions in high-throughput assays as demonstrated here is a key enabling technology for the effective development of future biomaterials.
Nowadays, microarray technology has become one of the popular ways to study gene expression and diagnosis of disease. National Center for Biology Information (NCBI) hosts public databases containing large volumes of biological data required to be preprocessed, since they carry high levels of noise and bias. Robust Multiarray Average (RMA) is one of the standard and popular methods that is utilized to preprocess the data and remove the noises. Most of the preprocessing algorithms are time-consuming and not able to handle a large number of datasets with thousands of experiments. Parallel processing can be used to address the above-mentioned issues. Hadoop is a well-known and ideal distributed file system framework that provides a parallel environment to run the experiment. In this research, for the first time, the capability of Hadoop and statistical power of R have been leveraged to parallelize the available preprocessing algorithm called RMA to efficiently process microarray data. The experiment has been run on cluster containing 5 nodes, while each node has 16 cores and 16 GB memory. It compares efficiency and the performance of parallelized RMA using Hadoop with parallelized RMA using affyPara package as well as sequential RMA. The result shows the speed-up rate of the proposed approach outperforms the sequential approach and affyPara approach. PMID:29796018
Manzardo, Ann M.; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Wang, Kun; Butler, Merlin G.
Background Alcohol abuse is associated with cellular and biochemical disturbances that impact upon protein and nucleic acid synthesis, brain development, function and behavioral responses. To further characterize the genetic influences in alcoholism and the effects of alcohol consumption on gene expression, we used a highly sensitive exon microarray to examine mRNA expression in human frontal cortex of alcoholics and control males. Methods Messenger RNA was isolated from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, Brodmann area 9) of 7 adult Alcoholic (6 males, 1 female, mean age 48 years) and 7 matched controls. Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array was performed according to standard procedures and the results analyzed at the gene level. Microarray findings were validated using qRT-PCR, and the ontology of disturbed genes characterized using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results Decreased mRNA expression was observed for genes involved in cellular adhesion (e.g., CTNNA3, ITGA2), transport (e.g., TF, ABCA8), nervous system development (e.g., LRP2, UGT8, GLDN) and signaling (e.g., RASGRP, LGR5) with influence over lipid and myelin synthesis (e.g., ASPA, ENPP2, KLK6). IPA identified disturbances in network functions associated with neurological disease, and development including cellular assembly and organization impacting on psychological disorders. Conclusions Our data in alcoholism support a reduction in expression of dlPFC mRNA for genes involved with neuronal growth, differentiation and signaling that targets white matter of the brain. PMID:24890784
Zhao, Zhengshan; Peytavi, Régis; Diaz-Quijada, Gerardo A.; Picard, Francois J.; Huletsky, Ann; Leblanc, Éric; Frenette, Johanne; Boivin, Guy; Veres, Teodor; Dumoulin, Michel M.; Bergeron, Michel G.
Fabrication of microarray devices using traditional glass slides is not easily adaptable to integration into microfluidic systems. There is thus a need for the development of polymeric materials showing a high hybridization signal-to-background ratio, enabling sensitive detection of microbial pathogens. We have developed such plastic supports suitable for highly sensitive DNA microarray hybridizations. The proof of concept of this microarray technology was done through the detection of four human respiratory viruses that were amplified and labeled with a fluorescent dye via a sensitive reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay. The performance of the microarray hybridization with plastic supports made of PMMA [poly(methylmethacrylate)]-VSUVT or Zeonor 1060R was compared to that with high-quality glass slide microarrays by using both passive and microfluidic hybridization systems. Specific hybridization signal-to-background ratios comparable to that obtained with high-quality commercial glass slides were achieved with both polymeric substrates. Microarray hybridizations demonstrated an analytical sensitivity equivalent to approximately 100 viral genome copies per RT-PCR, which is at least 100-fold higher than the sensitivities of previously reported DNA hybridizations on plastic supports. Testing of these plastic polymers using a microfluidic microarray hybridization platform also showed results that were comparable to those with glass supports. In conclusion, PMMA-VSUVT and Zeonor 1060R are both suitable for highly sensitive microarray hybridizations. PMID:18784318
The development of a fluorescent multiplexed microarray platform able to detect and quantify a wide variety of pollutants in seawater is reported. The microarray platform has been manufactured by spotting 6 different bioconjugate competitors and it uses a cocktail of 6 monoclonal and polyclonal anti...
The amount of microarray gene expression data in public repositories has been increasing exponentially for the last couple of decades. High-throughput microarray data integration and analysis has become a critical step in exploring the large amount of expression data for biological discovery. Howeve...
Parthasarathy, Narayanan; DeShazer, David; England, Marilyn; Waag, David M
A polysaccharide microarray platform was prepared by immobilizing Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei polysaccharides. This polysaccharide array was tested with success for detecting B. pseudomallei and B. mallei serum (human and animal) antibodies. The advantages of this microarray technology over the current serodiagnosis of the above bacterial infections were discussed.
Saberkari, Hamidreza; Bahrami, Sheyda; Shamsi, Mousa; Amoshahy, Mohammad Javad; Ghavifekr, Habib Badri; Sedaaghi, Mohammad Hossein
DNA microarray is a powerful approach to study simultaneously, the expression of 1000 of genes in a single experiment. The average value of the fluorescent intensity could be calculated in a microarray experiment. The calculated intensity values are very close in amount to the levels of expression of a particular gene. However, determining the appropriate position of every spot in microarray images is a main challenge, which leads to the accurate classification of normal and abnormal (cancer) cells. In this paper, first a preprocessing approach is performed to eliminate the noise and artifacts available in microarray cells using the nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering method. Then, the coordinate center of each spot is positioned utilizing the mathematical morphology operations. Finally, the position of each spot is exactly determined through applying a novel hybrid model based on the principle component analysis and the spatial fuzzy c-means clustering (SFCM) algorithm. Using a Gaussian kernel in SFCM algorithm will lead to improving the quality in complementary DNA microarray segmentation. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the real microarray images, which is available in Stanford Microarray Databases. Results illustrate that the accuracy of microarray cells segmentation in the proposed algorithm reaches to 100% and 98% for noiseless/noisy cells, respectively.
Campbell, A. Malcolm; Zanta, Carolyn A.; Heyer, Laurie J.; Kittinger, Ben; Gabric, Kathleen M.; Adler, Leslie
We have developed a wet lab DNA microarray simulation as part of a complete DNA microarray module for high school students. The wet lab simulation has been field tested with high school students in Illinois and Maryland as well as in workshops with high school teachers from across the nation. Instead of using DNA, our simulation is based on pH…
Bodrossy, Levente; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Konrad-Köszler, Marianne; Weilharter, Alexandra; Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Schöfer, David; Sessitsch, Angela
A method was developed for the mRNA-based application of microbial diagnostic microarrays to detect active microbial populations. DNA- and mRNA-based analyses of environmental samples were compared and confirmed via quantitative PCR. Results indicated that mRNA-based microarray analyses may provide additional information on the composition and functioning of microbial communities. PMID:16461725
The development of the gene microarray has provided the field of ecotoxicology a new tool to identify modes of action (MOA) of chemicals and chemical mixtures. Herein we describe the development and application of a 2,000 gene oligonucleotide microarray for the fathead minnow (P...
García-Hoyos, María; Cortón, Marta; Ávila-Fernández, Almudena; Riveiro-Álvarez, Rosa; Giménez, Ascensión; Hernan, Inma; Carballo, Miguel; Ayuso, Carmen
Purpose Presently, 22 genes have been described in association with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP); however, they explain only 50% of all cases, making genetic diagnosis of this disease difficult and costly. The aim of this study was to evaluate a specific genotyping microarray for its application to the molecular diagnosis of adRP in Spanish patients. Methods We analyzed 139 unrelated Spanish families with adRP. Samples were studied by using a genotyping microarray (adRP). All mutations found were further confirmed with automatic sequencing. Rhodopsin (RHO) sequencing was performed in all negative samples for the genotyping microarray. Results The adRP genotyping microarray detected the mutation associated with the disease in 20 of the 139 families with adRP. As in other populations, RHO was found to be the most frequently mutated gene in these families (7.9% of the microarray genotyped families). The rate of false positives (microarray results not confirmed with sequencing) and false negatives (mutations in RHO detected with sequencing but not with the genotyping microarray) were established, and high levels of analytical sensitivity (95%) and specificity (100%) were found. Diagnostic accuracy was 15.1%. Conclusions The adRP genotyping microarray is a quick, cost-efficient first step in the molecular diagnosis of Spanish patients with adRP. PMID:22736939
Gan, Zhuohui; Stowe, Jennifer C; Altintas, Ilkay; McCulloch, Andrew D; Zambon, Alexander C
Increasing numbers of genomic technologies are leading to massive amounts of genomic data, all of which requires complex analysis. More and more bioinformatics analysis tools are being developed by scientist to simplify these analyses. However, different pipelines have been developed using different software environments. This makes integrations of these diverse bioinformatics tools difficult. Kepler provides an open source environment to integrate these disparate packages. Using Kepler, we integrated several external tools including Bioconductor packages, AltAnalyze, a python-based open source tool, and R-based comparison tool to build an automated workflow to meta-analyze both online and local microarray data. The automated workflow connects the integrated tools seamlessly, delivers data flow between the tools smoothly, and hence improves efficiency and accuracy of complex data analyses. Our workflow exemplifies the usage of Kepler as a scientific workflow platform for bioinformatics pipelines.
Ouyang, Ming; Welsh, William J; Georgopoulos, Panos
In microarray experiments, missing entries arise from blemishes on the chips. In large-scale studies, virtually every chip contains some missing entries and more than 90% of the genes are affected. Many analysis methods require a full set of data. Either those genes with missing entries are excluded, or the missing entries are filled with estimates prior to the analyses. This study compares methods of missing value estimation. Two evaluation metrics of imputation accuracy are employed. First, the root mean squared error measures the difference between the true values and the imputed values. Second, the number of mis-clustered genes measures the difference between clustering with true values and that with imputed values; it examines the bias introduced by imputation to clustering. The Gaussian mixture clustering with model averaging imputation is superior to all other imputation methods, according to both evaluation metrics, on both time-series (correlated) and non-time series (uncorrelated) data sets.
Sagi-Dain, Lena; Singer, Amihood; Frumkin, Ayala; Shalata, Adel; Koifman, Arie; Segel, Reeval; Benyamini, Lilach; Rienstein, Shlomit; Kahyat, Morad; Sharony, Reuven; Maya, Idit; Ben Shachar, Shay
To examine the risk for abnormal chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) results among fetuses with an apparently isolated pelvic kidney. Data from all CMA analyses performed due to an isolated pelvic kidney reported to the Israeli Ministry of Health between January 2013 and September 2016 were retrospectively obtained. Risk estimation was performed comparing the rate of abnormal observed CMA findings to the general population risk, based on a systematic review encompassing 9272 cases and on local data of 5541 cases. Of 120 pregnancies with an isolated pelvic kidney, two gain-of-copy number variants suggesting microduplication syndromes were demonstrated (1.67%). In addition, three variants of unknown significance were detected (2.5%). The risk for clinically significant CMA findings among pregnancies with an isolated single pelvic kidney was not significantly different compared to both control populations. The results of our study question the practice of routine CMA analysis in fetuses with an isolated pelvic kidney.
Hayata, Tadayoshi; Blitz, Ira L; Iwata, Nahoko; Cho, Ken W Y
The pancreas is both an exocrine and endocrine endodermal organ involved in digestion and glucose homeostasis. During embryogenesis, the anlagen of the pancreas arise from dorsal and ventral evaginations of the foregut that later fuse to form a single organ. To better understand the molecular genetics of early pancreas development, we sought to isolate markers that are uniquely expressed in this tissue. Microarray analysis was performed comparing dissected pancreatic buds, liver buds, and the stomach region of tadpole stage Xenopus embryos. A total of 912 genes were found to be differentially expressed between these organs during early stages of organogenesis. K-means clustering analysis predicted 120 of these genes to be specifically enriched in the pancreas. Of these, we report on the novel expression patterns of 24 genes. Our analyses implicate the involvement of previously unsuspected signaling pathways during early pancreas development. Developmental Dynamics 238:1455-1466, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Blin, Antoine; Cissé, Ismaïl; Bockelmann, Ulrich
We describe an approach to substituting a fluorescence microarray with a surface made of an arrangement of electrolyte-gated field effect transistors. This was achieved using a dedicated blocking of non-specific interactions and comparing threshold voltage shifts of transistors exhibiting probe molecules of different base sequence. We apply the approach to detection of the 35delG mutation, which is related to non-syndromic deafness and is one of the most frequent mutations in humans. The process involves barcode sequences that are generated by Tas-PCR, a newly developed replication reaction using polymerase blocking. The barcodes are recognized by hybridization to surface attached probes and are directly detected by the semiconductor device.
Greer, Braden T; Khan, Javed
The application of artificial intelligence (AI) to microarray data has been receiving much attention in recent years because of the possibility of automated diagnosis in the near future. Studies have been published predicting tumor type, estrogen receptor status, and prognosis using a variety of AI algorithms. The performance of intelligent computing decisions based on gene expression signatures is in some cases comparable to or better than the current clinical decision schemas. The goal of these tools is not to make clinicians obsolete, but rather to give clinicians one more tool in their armamentarium to accurately diagnose and hence better treat cancer patients. Several such applications are summarized in this chapter, and some of the common pitfalls are noted.
Sochol, R. D.; Casavant, B. P.; Dueck, M. E.; Lee, L. P.; Lin, L.
A microfluidic system has been designed and constructed by means of micromachining processes to integrate both microfluidic mixing of mobile microbeads and hydrodynamic microbead arraying capabilities on a single chip to simultaneously detect multiple bio-molecules. The prototype system has four parallel reaction chambers, which include microchannels of 18 × 50 µm2 cross-sectional area and a microfluidic mixing section of 22 cm length. Parallel detection of multiple DNA oligonucleotide sequences was achieved via molecular beacon probes immobilized on polystyrene microbeads of 16 µm diameter. Experimental results show quantitative detection of three distinct DNA oligonucleotide sequences from the Hepatitis C viral (HCV) genome with single base-pair mismatch specificity. Our dynamic bead-based microarray offers an effective microfluidic platform to increase parallelization of reactions and improve microbead handling for various biological applications, including bio-molecule detection, medical diagnostics and drug screening.
Golova, Julia B.; Chernov, Boris K.; Perov, Alexander N.; Reynolds, Jennifer; Linger, Yvonne L.; Kukhtin, Alexander; Chandler, Darrell P.
By modifying polymer compositions and cross-linking reagents, we have developed a simple yet effective manufacturing strategy for copolymerized three-dimensional gel element arrays. A new gel-forming monomer (2-(hydroxyethyl) methacrylamide; HEMAA) was used that possesses low volatility and improves the stability of copolymerized gel element arrays to on-chip thermal cycling procedures relative to previously used monomers. Probe immobilization efficiency within the new polymer was 55%, equivalent to that obtained with acrylamide (AA) and methacrylamide (MA) monomers. Non-specific binding of single stranded targets was equivalent for all monomers. Increasing cross-linker chain length improved hybridization kinetics and end-point signal intensities relative to N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis). The new copolymer formulation was successfully applied to a model orthopox array. Because HEMAA greatly simplifies gel element array manufacture, we expect it (in combination with new cross-linkers described herein) to find widespread application in microarray science. PMID:22033291
Sanlaville, D; Lapierre, J M; Coquin, A; Turleau, C; Vermeesch, J; Colleaux, L; Borck, G; Vekemans, M; Aurias, A; Romana, S P
Chips technology has allowed to miniaturize process making possible to realize in one step and using the same device a lot of chemical reactions. The application of this technology to molecular cytogenetics resulted in the development of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on microarrays technique. Using this technique it is possible to detect very small genetic imbalances anywhere in the genome. Its usefulness has been well documented in cancer and more recently in constitutional disorders. In particular it has been used to detect interstitial and subtelomeric submicroscopic imbalances, to characterize their size at the molecular level or to define the breakpoints of translocation. The challenge today is to transfer this technology in laboratory medicine. Nevertheless this technology remains expensive and the existence of numerous sequence polymorphisms makes its interpretation difficult. Finally its is unlikely that it will make karyotyping obsolete as it does not allow to detect balanced rearrangements which after meiotic segregation might result in genome imbalance in the progeny.
Cassone, Marco; D'Andrea, Marco M.; Iannelli, Francesco; Oggioni, Marco R.; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Pozzi, Gianni
A DNA microarray was developed to detect bacterial genes conferring resistance to macrolides and related antibiotics. A database containing 65 nonredundant genes selected from publicly available DNA sequences was constructed and used to design 100 oligonucleotide probes that could specifically detect and discriminate all 65 genes. Probes were spotted on a glass slide, and the array was reacted with DNA templates extracted from 20 reference strains of eight different bacterial species (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides fragilis) known to harbor 29 different macrolide resistance genes. Hybridization results showed that probes reacted with, and only with, the expected DNA templates and allowed discovery of three unexpected genes, including msr(SA) in B. fragilis, an efflux gene that has not yet been described for gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16723563
Ovaska, Kristian; Laakso, Marko; Hautaniemi, Sampsa
Analysis of a microarray experiment often results in a list of hundreds of disease-associated genes. In order to suggest common biological processes and functions for these genes, Gene Ontology annotations with statistical testing are widely used. However, these analyses can produce a very large number of significantly altered biological processes. Thus, it is often challenging to interpret GO results and identify novel testable biological hypotheses. We present fast software for advanced gene annotation using semantic similarity for Gene Ontology terms combined with clustering and heat map visualisation. The methodology allows rapid identification of genes sharing the same Gene Ontology cluster. Our R based semantic similarity open-source package has a speed advantage of over 2000-fold compared to existing implementations. From the resulting hierarchical clustering dendrogram genes sharing a GO term can be identified, and their differences in the gene expression patterns can be seen from the heat map. These methods facilitate advanced annotation of genes resulting from data analysis.
Blin, Antoine; Cissé, Ismaïl; Bockelmann, Ulrich
We describe an approach to substituting a fluorescence microarray with a surface made of an arrangement of electrolyte-gated field effect transistors. This was achieved using a dedicated blocking of non-specific interactions and comparing threshold voltage shifts of transistors exhibiting probe molecules of different base sequence. We apply the approach to detection of the 35delG mutation, which is related to non-syndromic deafness and is one of the most frequent mutations in humans. The process involves barcode sequences that are generated by Tas-PCR, a newly developed replication reaction using polymerase blocking. The barcodes are recognized by hybridization to surface attached probes and are directly detected by the semiconductor device. PMID:24569823
Giarelli, Ellen; Reiff, Marian
The aim of this study was to examine mothers' experiences with chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) for a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is a descriptive qualitative study using thematic content analysis of in-depth interview with 48 mothers of children who had genetic testing for ASD. The principal theme, "something is missing," included missing knowledge about genetics, information on use of the results, explanations of the relevance to the diagnosis, and relevance to life-long care. Two subordinate themes were (a) disappreciation of the helpfulness of scientific information to explain the diagnosis, and (b) returning to personal experience for interpretation. The test "appreciated" in value when results could be linked to the phenotype. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Starting in the late 1990s, Affymetrix, Inc. produced a commercial system for hybridizing, washing, and scanning microarrays that was designed to be easy to operate and reproducible. The system used arrays packaged in a plastic cassette or chamber in which the prefabricated array was mounted and could be filled with fluid through resealable membrane ports either by hand or by an automated "fluidics station" specially designed to handle the arrays. A special rotating hybridization oven and a specially designed scanner were also required. Primarily because of automation and standardization the Affymetrix system was and still remains popular. Here, we provide a skeleton protocol with the potential pitfalls identified. It is designed to augment the protocols provided by Affymetrix.
Pearson, Richard D; Liu, Xuejun; Sanguinetti, Guido; Milo, Marta; Lawrence, Neil D; Rattray, Magnus
Most analyses of microarray data are based on point estimates of expression levels and ignore the uncertainty of such estimates. By determining uncertainties from Affymetrix GeneChip data and propagating these uncertainties to downstream analyses it has been shown that we can improve results of differential expression detection, principal component analysis and clustering. Previously, implementations of these uncertainty propagation methods have only been available as separate packages, written in different languages. Previous implementations have also suffered from being very costly to compute, and in the case of differential expression detection, have been limited in the experimental designs to which they can be applied. puma is a Bioconductor package incorporating a suite of analysis methods for use on Affymetrix GeneChip data. puma extends the differential expression detection methods of previous work from the 2-class case to the multi-factorial case. puma can be used to automatically create design and contrast matrices for typical experimental designs, which can be used both within the package itself but also in other Bioconductor packages. The implementation of differential expression detection methods has been parallelised leading to significant decreases in processing time on a range of computer architectures. puma incorporates the first R implementation of an uncertainty propagation version of principal component analysis, and an implementation of a clustering method based on uncertainty propagation. All of these techniques are brought together in a single, easy-to-use package with clear, task-based documentation. For the first time, the puma package makes a suite of uncertainty propagation methods available to a general audience. These methods can be used to improve results from more traditional analyses of microarray data. puma also offers improvements in terms of scope and speed of execution over previously available methods. puma is recommended for
Laassri, Majid; Chizhikov, Vladimir; Mikheev, Maxim; Shchelkunov, Sergei; Chumakov, Konstantin
Variola virus (VARV), causing smallpox, is a potential biological weapon. Methods to detect VARV rapidly and to differentiate it from other viruses causing similar clinical syndromes are needed urgently. We have developed a new microarray-based method that detects simultaneously and discriminates four orthopoxvirus (OPV) species pathogenic for humans (variola, monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses) and distinguishes them from chickenpox virus (varicella-zoster virus or VZV). The OPV gene C23L/B29R, encoding the CC-chemokine binding protein, was sequenced for 41 strains of seven species of orthopox viruses obtained from different geographical regions. Those C23L/B29R sequences and the ORF 62 sequences from 13 strains of VZV (selected from GenBank) were used to design oligonucleotide probes that were immobilized on an aldehyde-coated glass surface (a total of 57 probes). The microchip contained several unique 13-21 bases long oligonucleotide probes specific to each virus species to ensure redundancy and robustness of the assay. A region approximately 1100 bases long was amplified from samples of viral DNA and fluorescently labeled with Cy5-modified dNTPs, and single-stranded DNA was prepared by strand separation. Hybridization was carried out under plastic coverslips, resulting in a fluorescent pattern that was quantified using a confocal laser scanner. 49 known and blinded samples of OPV DNA, representing different OPV species, and two VZV strains were tested. The oligonucleotide microarray hybridization technique identified reliably and correctly all samples. This new procedure takes only 3 h, and it can be used for parallel testing of multiple samples.
Huang, Shuguang; Yeo, Adeline A; Gelbert, Lawrence; Lin, Xi; Nisenbaum, Laura; Bemis, Kerry G
The hybridization intensities derived from microarray experiments, for example Affymetrix's MAS5 signals, are very often transformed in one way or another before statistical models are fitted. The motivation for performing transformation is usually to satisfy the model assumptions such as normality and homogeneity in variance. Generally speaking, two types of strategies are often applied to microarray data depending on the analysis need: correlation analysis where all the gene intensities on the array are considered simultaneously, and gene-by-gene ANOVA where each gene is analyzed individually. We investigate the distributional properties of the Affymetrix GeneChip signal data under the two scenarios, focusing on the impact of analyzing the data at an inappropriate scale. The Box-Cox type of transformation is first investigated for the strategy of pooling genes. The commonly used log-transformation is particularly applied for comparison purposes. For the scenario where analysis is on a gene-by-gene basis, the model assumptions such as normality are explored. The impact of using a wrong scale is illustrated by log-transformation and quartic-root transformation. When all the genes on the array are considered together, the dependent relationship between the expression and its variation level can be satisfactorily removed by Box-Cox transformation. When genes are analyzed individually, the distributional properties of the intensities are shown to be gene dependent. Derivation and simulation show that some loss of power is incurred when a wrong scale is used, but due to the robustness of the t-test, the loss is acceptable when the fold-change is not very large.
Zarnitsyn, Vladimir G; Meacham, J Mark; Varady, Mark J; Hao, Chunhai; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G
We report on development and experimental characterization of a novel cell manipulation device-the electrosonic ejector microarray-which establishes a pathway for drug and/or gene delivery with control of biophysical action on the length scale of an individual cell. The device comprises a piezoelectric transducer for ultrasound wave generation, a reservoir for storing the sample mixture and a set of acoustic horn structures that form a nozzle array for focused application of mechanical energy. The nozzles are micromachined in silicon or plastic using simple and economical batch fabrication processes. When the device is driven at a particular resonant frequency of the acoustic horn structures, the sample mixture of cells and desired transfection agents/molecules suspended in culture medium is ejected from orifices located at the nozzle tips. During sample ejection, focused mechanical forces (pressure and shear) are generated on a microsecond time scale (dictated by nozzle size/geometry and ejection velocity) resulting in identical "active" microenvironments for each ejected cell. This process enables a number of cellular bioeffects, from uptake of small molecules and gene delivery/transfection to cell lysis. Specifically, we demonstrate successful calcein uptake and transfection of DNA plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) into human malignant glioma cells (cell line LN443) using electrosonic microarrays with 36, 45 and 50 mum diameter nozzle orifices and operating at ultrasound frequencies between 0.91 and 0.98 MHz. Our results suggest that efficacy and the extent of bioeffects are mainly controlled by nozzle orifice size and the localized intensity of the applied acoustic field.
Manzardo, Ann M; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Wang, Kun; Butler, Merlin G
Alcohol abuse is associated with cellular and biochemical disturbances that impact upon protein and nucleic acid synthesis, brain development, function, and behavioral responses. To further characterize the genetic influences in alcoholism and the effects of alcohol consumption on gene expression, we used a highly sensitive exon microarray to examine mRNA expression in human frontal cortex of alcoholics and control males. Messenger RNA was isolated from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC; Brodmann area 9) of 7 adult alcoholic (6 males, 1 female, mean age 49 years) and 7 matched controls. Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array was performed according to standard procedures and the results analyzed at the gene level. Microarray findings were validated using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the ontology of disturbed genes characterized using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Decreased mRNA expression was observed for genes involved in cellular adhesion (e.g., CTNNA3, ITGA2), transport (e.g., TF, ABCA8), nervous system development (e.g., LRP2, UGT8, GLDN), and signaling (e.g., RASGRP3, LGR5) with influence over lipid and myelin synthesis (e.g., ASPA, ENPP2, KLK6). IPA identified disturbances in network functions associated with neurological disease and development including cellular assembly and organization impacting on psychological disorders. Our data in alcoholism support a reduction in expression of dlPFC mRNA for genes involved with neuronal growth, differentiation, and signaling that targets white matter of the brain. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Dickson, B M; Cornett, E M; Ramjan, Z; Rothbart, S B
Microarray-based proteomic platforms have emerged as valuable tools for studying various aspects of protein function, particularly in the field of chromatin biochemistry. Microarray technology itself is largely unrestricted in regard to printable material and platform design, and efficient multidimensional optimization of assay parameters requires fluidity in the design and analysis of custom print layouts. This motivates the need for streamlined software infrastructure that facilitates the combined planning and analysis of custom microarray experiments. To this end, we have developed ArrayNinja as a portable, open source, and interactive application that unifies the planning and visualization of microarray experiments and provides maximum flexibility to end users. Array experiments can be planned, stored to a private database, and merged with the imaged results for a level of data interaction and centralization that is not currently attainable with available microarray informatics tools. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Awad, Ihab AB; Rees, Christian A; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Ball, Catherine A; Sherlock, Gavin
Background Microarray-based comparative genome hybridization experiments generate data that can be mapped onto the genome. These data are interpreted more easily when represented graphically in a genomic context. Results We have developed Caryoscope, which is an open source Java application for visualizing microarray data from array comparative genome hybridization experiments in a genomic context. Caryoscope can read General Feature Format files (GFF files), as well as comma- and tab-delimited files, that define the genomic positions of the microarray reporters for which data are obtained. The microarray data can be browsed using an interactive, zoomable interface, which helps users identify regions of chromosomal deletion or amplification. The graphical representation of the data can be exported in a number of graphic formats, including publication-quality formats such as PostScript. Conclusion Caryoscope is a useful tool that can aid in the visualization, exploration and interpretation of microarray data in a genomic context. PMID:15488149
Li, Zhiguang; Kwekel, Joshua C; Chen, Tao
Functional comparison across microarray platforms is used to assess the comparability or similarity of the biological relevance associated with the gene expression data generated by multiple microarray platforms. Comparisons at the functional level are very important considering that the ultimate purpose of microarray technology is to determine the biological meaning behind the gene expression changes under a specific condition, not just to generate a list of genes. Herein, we present a method named percentage of overlapping functions (POF) and illustrate how it is used to perform the functional comparison of microarray data generated across multiple platforms. This method facilitates the determination of functional differences or similarities in microarray data generated from multiple array platforms across all the functions that are presented on these platforms. This method can also be used to compare the functional differences or similarities between experiments, projects, or laboratories.
Fan, Yuqi; Ouyang, Delong; Li, Bao-Wen; Dang, Feng; Ren, Zongming
Two-dimensional (2D) mesoporous VO2 microarrays have been prepared using an organic-inorganic liquid interface. The units of microarrays consist of needle-like VO2 particles with a mesoporous structure, in which crack-like pores with a pore size of about 2 nm and depth of 20-100 nm are distributed on the particle surface. The liquid interface acts as a template for the formation of the 2D microarrays, as identified from the kinetic observation. Due to the mesoporous structure of the units and high conductivity of the microarray, such 2D VO2 microarrays exhibit a high specific capacitance of 265 F/g at 1 A/g and excellent rate capability (182 F/g at 10 A/g) and cycling stability, suggesting the effect of unique microstructure for improving the electrochemical performance.
Gardner, S; Jaing, C
The overall goal of this project is to forensically characterize 100 unknown Burkholderia isolates in the US-Australia collaboration. We will identify genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from B. pseudomallei and near neighbor species including B. mallei, B. thailandensis and B. oklahomensis. We will design microarray probes to detect these SNP markers and analyze 100 Burkholderia genomic DNAs extracted from environmental, clinical and near neighbor isolates from Australian collaborators on the Burkholderia SNP microarray. We will analyze the microarray genotyping results to characterize the genetic diversity of these new isolates and triage the samples for whole genome sequencing. In this interimmore » report, we described the SNP analysis and the microarray probe design for the Burkholderia SNP microarray.« less
Martinez-Godoy, M Angeles; Mauri, Nuria; Juarez, Jose; Marques, M Carmen; Santiago, Julia; Forment, Javier; Gadea, Jose
Background Understanding of genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of citrus biology will impact future improvements in this economically important crop. Global gene expression analysis demands microarray platforms with a high genome coverage. In the last years, genome-wide EST collections have been generated in citrus, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics in this crop plant. Results We have designed and constructed a publicly available genome-wide cDNA microarray that include 21,081 putative unigenes of citrus. As a functional companion to the microarray, a web-browsable database  was created and populated with information about the unigenes represented in the microarray, including cDNA libraries, isolated clones, raw and processed nucleotide and protein sequences, and results of all the structural and functional annotation of the unigenes, like general description, BLAST hits, putative Arabidopsis orthologs, microsatellites, putative SNPs, GO classification and PFAM domains. We have performed a Gene Ontology comparison with the full set of Arabidopsis proteins to estimate the genome coverage of the microarray. We have also performed microarray hybridizations to check its usability. Conclusion This new cDNA microarray replaces the first 7K microarray generated two years ago and allows gene expression analysis at a more global scale. We have followed a rational design to minimize cross-hybridization while maintaining its utility for different citrus species. Furthermore, we also provide access to a website with full structural and functional annotation of the unigenes represented in the microarray, along with the ability to use this site to directly perform gene expression analysis using standard tools at different publicly available servers. Furthermore, we show how this microarray offers a good representation of the citrus genome and present the usefulness of this genomic tool for global studies in citrus by using it to
Honoré, Paul; Granjeaud, Samuel; Tagett, Rebecca; Deraco, Stéphane; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Rougemont, Jacques; Debono, Stéphane; Hingamp, Pascal
High throughput gene expression profiling (GEP) is becoming a routine technique in life science laboratories. With experimental designs that repeatedly span thousands of genes and hundreds of samples, relying on a dedicated database infrastructure is no longer an option.GEP technology is a fast moving target, with new approaches constantly broadening the field diversity. This technology heterogeneity, compounded by the informatics complexity of GEP databases, means that software developments have so far focused on mainstream techniques, leaving less typical yet established techniques such as Nylon microarrays at best partially supported. MAF (MicroArray Facility) is the laboratory database system we have developed for managing the design, production and hybridization of spotted microarrays. Although it can support the widely used glass microarrays and oligo-chips, MAF was designed with the specific idiosyncrasies of Nylon based microarrays in mind. Notably single channel radioactive probes, microarray stripping and reuse, vector control hybridizations and spike-in controls are all natively supported by the software suite. MicroArray Facility is MIAME supportive and dynamically provides feedback on missing annotations to help users estimate effective MIAME compliance. Genomic data such as clone identifiers and gene symbols are also directly annotated by MAF software using standard public resources. The MAGE-ML data format is implemented for full data export. Journalized database operations (audit tracking), data anonymization, material traceability and user/project level confidentiality policies are also managed by MAF. MicroArray Facility is a complete data management system for microarray producers and end-users. Particular care has been devoted to adequately model Nylon based microarrays. The MAF system, developed and implemented in both private and academic environments, has proved a robust solution for shared facilities and industry service providers alike.
Honoré, Paul; Granjeaud, Samuel; Tagett, Rebecca; Deraco, Stéphane; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Rougemont, Jacques; Debono, Stéphane; Hingamp, Pascal
Background High throughput gene expression profiling (GEP) is becoming a routine technique in life science laboratories. With experimental designs that repeatedly span thousands of genes and hundreds of samples, relying on a dedicated database infrastructure is no longer an option. GEP technology is a fast moving target, with new approaches constantly broadening the field diversity. This technology heterogeneity, compounded by the informatics complexity of GEP databases, means that software developments have so far focused on mainstream techniques, leaving less typical yet established techniques such as Nylon microarrays at best partially supported. Results MAF (MicroArray Facility) is the laboratory database system we have developed for managing the design, production and hybridization of spotted microarrays. Although it can support the widely used glass microarrays and oligo-chips, MAF was designed with the specific idiosyncrasies of Nylon based microarrays in mind. Notably single channel radioactive probes, microarray stripping and reuse, vector control hybridizations and spike-in controls are all natively supported by the software suite. MicroArray Facility is MIAME supportive and dynamically provides feedback on missing annotations to help users estimate effective MIAME compliance. Genomic data such as clone identifiers and gene symbols are also directly annotated by MAF software using standard public resources. The MAGE-ML data format is implemented for full data export. Journalized database operations (audit tracking), data anonymization, material traceability and user/project level confidentiality policies are also managed by MAF. Conclusion MicroArray Facility is a complete data management system for microarray producers and end-users. Particular care has been devoted to adequately model Nylon based microarrays. The MAF system, developed and implemented in both private and academic environments, has proved a robust solution for shared facilities and
Over the last decade, the introduction of microarray technology has had a profound impact on gene expression research. The publication of studies with dissimilar or altogether contradictory results, obtained using different microarray platforms to analyze identical RNA samples, h...
Microarray technology is a powerful tool to investigate the gene expression profiles for thousands of genes simultaneously. In recent years, microarrays have been used to characterize environmental pollutants and identify molecular mode(s) of action of chemicals including endocri...
Over the last decade, the introduction of microarray technology has had a profound impact on gene expression research. The publication of studies with dissimilar or altogether contradictory results, obtained using different microarray platforms to analyze identical RNA samples, ...
Burgarella, Sarah; Cattaneo, Dario; Masseroli, Marco
We developed MicroGen, a multi-database Web based system for managing all the information characterizing spotted microarray experiments. It supports information gathering and storing according to the Minimum Information About Microarray Experiments (MIAME) standard. It also allows easy sharing of information and data among all multidisciplinary actors involved in spotted microarray experiments. PMID:17238488
Background We previously proposed an algorithm for the identification of GO terms that commonly annotate genes whose expression is upregulated or downregulated in some microarray data compared with in other microarray data. We call these “differentially expressed GO terms” and have named the algorithm “matrix-assisted identification method of differentially expressed GO terms” (MIMGO). MIMGO can also identify microarray data in which genes annotated with a differentially expressed GO term are upregulated or downregulated. However, MIMGO has not yet been validated on a real microarray dataset using all available GO terms. Findings We combined Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) with MIMGO to identify differentially expressed GO terms in a yeast cell cycle microarray dataset. GSEA followed by MIMGO (GSEA + MIMGO) correctly identified (p < 0.05) microarray data in which genes annotated to differentially expressed GO terms are upregulated. We found that GSEA + MIMGO was slightly less effective than, or comparable to, GSEA (Pearson), a method that uses Pearson’s correlation as a metric, at detecting true differentially expressed GO terms. However, unlike other methods including GSEA (Pearson), GSEA + MIMGO can comprehensively identify the microarray data in which genes annotated with a differentially expressed GO term are upregulated or downregulated. Conclusions MIMGO is a reliable method to identify differentially expressed GO terms comprehensively. PMID:23232071
Dwifebri Purbolaksono, Mahendra; Widiastuti, Kurnia C.; Syahrul Mubarok, Mohamad; Adiwijaya; Aminy Ma’ruf, Firda
Microarray Technology is one of technology which able to read the structure of gen. The analysis is important for this technology. It is for deciding which attribute is more important than the others. Microarray technology is able to get cancer information to diagnose a person’s gen. Preparation of microarray data is a huge problem and takes a long time. That is because microarray data contains high number of insignificant and irrelevant attributes. So, it needs a method to reduce the dimension of microarray data without eliminating important information in every attribute. This research uses Mutual Information to reduce dimension. System is built with Machine Learning approach specifically Bayes Theorem. This theorem uses a statistical and probability approach. By combining both methods, it will be powerful for Microarray Data Classification. The experiment results show that system is good to classify Microarray data with highest F1-score using Bayesian Network by 91.06%, and Naïve Bayes by 88.85%.
Asanov, Alexander; Zepeda, Angélica; Vaca, Luis
We have developed a novel microarray technology based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) in combination with DNA and protein bioassays immobilized at the TIRF surface. Unlike conventional microarrays that exhibit reduced signal-to-background ratio, require several stages of incubation, rinsing and stringency control, and measure only end-point results, our TIRF microarray technology provides several orders of magnitude better signal-to-background ratio, performs analysis rapidly in one step, and measures the entire course of association and dissociation kinetics between target DNA and protein molecules and the bioassays. In many practical cases detection of only DNA or protein markers alone does not provide the necessary accuracy for diagnosing a disease or detecting a pathogen. Here we describe TIRF microarrays that detect DNA and protein markers simultaneously, which reduces the probabilities of false responses. Supersensitive and multiplexed TIRF DNA and protein microarray technology may provide a platform for accurate diagnosis or enhanced research studies. Our TIRF microarray system can be mounted on upright or inverted microscopes or interfaced directly with CCD cameras equipped with a single objective, facilitating the development of portable devices. As proof-of-concept we applied TIRF microarrays for detecting molecular markers from Bacillus anthracis, the pathogen responsible for anthrax. PMID:22438738
Ramirez, Lisa S.; Wang, Jun
Antibody microarray as a well-developed technology is currently challenged by a few other established or emerging high-throughput technologies. In this report, we renovate the antibody microarray technology by using a novel approach for manufacturing and by introducing new features. The fabrication of our high-density antibody microarray is accomplished through perpendicularly oriented flow-patterning of single stranded DNAs and subsequent conversion mediated by DNA-antibody conjugates. This protocol outlines the critical steps in flow-patterning DNA, producing and purifying DNA-antibody conjugates, and assessing the quality of the fabricated microarray. The uniformity and sensitivity are comparable with conventional microarrays, while our microarray fabrication does not require the assistance of an array printer and can be performed in most research laboratories. The other major advantage is that the size of our microarray units is 10 times smaller than that of printed arrays, offering the unique capability of analyzing functional proteins from single cells when interfacing with generic microchip designs. This barcode technology can be widely employed in biomarker detection, cell signaling studies, tissue engineering, and a variety of clinical applications. PMID:26780370
Zhao, Yuanshun; Zhang, Yonghong; Lin, Dongdong; Li, Kang; Yin, Chengzeng; Liu, Xiuhong; Jin, Boxun; Sun, Libo; Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Aiying; Li, Ning
To develop and evaluate a protein microarray assay with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) chemiluminescence for quantification of α-fetoprotein (AFP) in serum from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A protein microarray assay for AFP was developed. Serum was collected from patients with HCC and healthy control subjects. AFP was quantified using protein microarray and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum AFP concentrations determined via protein microarray were positively correlated (r = 0.973) with those determined via ELISA in patients with HCC (n = 60) and healthy control subjects (n = 30). Protein microarray showed 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity for HCC diagnosis. ELISA had 83.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Protein microarray effectively distinguished between patients with HCC and healthy control subjects (area under ROC curve 0.974; 95% CI 0.000, 1.000). Protein microarray is a rapid, simple and low-cost alternative to ELISA for detecting AFP in human serum. © The Author(s) 2015.
Molas, M Lia; Kiss, John Z
Background The success of the microarray reproducibility is dependent upon the performance of standardized procedures. Since the introduction of microarray technology for the analysis of global gene expression, reproducibility of results among different laboratories has been a major problem. Two of the main contributors to this variability are the use of different microarray platforms and different laboratory practices. In this paper, we address the latter question in terms of how variation in one of the steps of a labelling procedure affects the cDNA product prior to microarray hybridization. Results We used a standard procedure to label cDNA for microarray hybridization and employed different types of column chromatography for cDNA purification. After purifying labelled cDNA, we used the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and agarose gel electrophoresis to assess the quality of the labelled cDNA before its hybridization onto a microarray platform. There were major differences in the cDNA profile (i.e. cDNA fragment lengths and abundance) as a result of using four different columns for purification. In addition, different columns have different efficiencies to remove rRNA contamination. This study indicates that the appropriate column to use in this type of protocol has to be experimentally determined. Finally, we present new evidence establishing the importance of testing the method of purification used during an indirect labelling procedure. Our results confirm the importance of assessing the quality of the sample in the labelling procedure prior to hybridization onto a microarray platform. Conclusion Standardization of column purification systems to be used in labelling procedures will improve the reproducibility of microarray results among different laboratories. In addition, implementation of a quality control check point of the labelled samples prior to microarray hybridization will prevent hybridizing a poor quality sample to expensive micorarrays. PMID:17597522
Molas, M Lia; Kiss, John Z
The success of the microarray reproducibility is dependent upon the performance of standardized procedures. Since the introduction of microarray technology for the analysis of global gene expression, reproducibility of results among different laboratories has been a major problem. Two of the main contributors to this variability are the use of different microarray platforms and different laboratory practices. In this paper, we address the latter question in terms of how variation in one of the steps of a labelling procedure affects the cDNA product prior to microarray hybridization. We used a standard procedure to label cDNA for microarray hybridization and employed different types of column chromatography for cDNA purification. After purifying labelled cDNA, we used the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and agarose gel electrophoresis to assess the quality of the labelled cDNA before its hybridization onto a microarray platform. There were major differences in the cDNA profile (i.e. cDNA fragment lengths and abundance) as a result of using four different columns for purification. In addition, different columns have different efficiencies to remove rRNA contamination. This study indicates that the appropriate column to use in this type of protocol has to be experimentally determined. Finally, we present new evidence establishing the importance of testing the method of purification used during an indirect labelling procedure. Our results confirm the importance of assessing the quality of the sample in the labelling procedure prior to hybridization onto a microarray platform. Standardization of column purification systems to be used in labelling procedures will improve the reproducibility of microarray results among different laboratories. In addition, implementation of a quality control check point of the labelled samples prior to microarray hybridization will prevent hybridizing a poor quality sample to expensive micorarrays.
Li, Dongmei; Le Pape, Marc A; Parikh, Nisha I; Chen, Will X; Dye, Timothy D
Microarrays are widely used for examining differential gene expression, identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms, and detecting methylation loci. Multiple testing methods in microarray data analysis aim at controlling both Type I and Type II error rates; however, real microarray data do not always fit their distribution assumptions. Smyth's ubiquitous parametric method, for example, inadequately accommodates violations of normality assumptions, resulting in inflated Type I error rates. The Significance Analysis of Microarrays, another widely used microarray data analysis method, is based on a permutation test and is robust to non-normally distributed data; however, the Significance Analysis of Microarrays method fold change criteria are problematic, and can critically alter the conclusion of a study, as a result of compositional changes of the control data set in the analysis. We propose a novel approach, combining resampling with empirical Bayes methods: the Resampling-based empirical Bayes Methods. This approach not only reduces false discovery rates for non-normally distributed microarray data, but it is also impervious to fold change threshold since no control data set selection is needed. Through simulation studies, sensitivities, specificities, total rejections, and false discovery rates are compared across the Smyth's parametric method, the Significance Analysis of Microarrays, and the Resampling-based empirical Bayes Methods. Differences in false discovery rates controls between each approach are illustrated through a preterm delivery methylation study. The results show that the Resampling-based empirical Bayes Methods offer significantly higher specificity and lower false discovery rates compared to Smyth's parametric method when data are not normally distributed. The Resampling-based empirical Bayes Methods also offers higher statistical power than the Significance Analysis of Microarrays method when the proportion of significantly differentially
Kračun, Stjepan Krešimir; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Willats, William George Tycho
Cell walls are an important feature of plant cells and a major component of the plant glycome. They have both structural and physiological functions and are critical for plant growth and development. The diversity and complexity of these structures demand advanced high-throughput techniques to answer questions about their structure, functions and roles in both fundamental and applied scientific fields. Microarray technology provides both the high-throughput and the feasibility aspects required to meet that demand. In this chapter, some of the most recent microarray-based techniques relating to plant cell walls are described together with an overview of related contemporary techniques applied to carbohydrate microarrays and their general potential in glycoscience. A detailed experimental procedure for high-throughput mapping of plant cell wall glycans using the comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP) technique is included in the chapter and provides a good example of both the robust and high-throughput nature of microarrays as well as their applicability to plant glycomics.
Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen
Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.
Royce, Thomas E.; Rozowsky, Joel S.; Bertone, Paul; Samanta, Manoj; Stolc, Viktor; Weissman, Sherman; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark
Traditional microarrays use probes complementary to known genes to quantitate the differential gene expression between two or more conditions. Genomic tiling microarray experiments differ in that probes that span a genomic region at regular intervals are used to detect the presence or absence of transcription. This difference means the same sets of biases and the methods for addressing them are unlikely to be relevant to both types of experiment. We introduce the informatics challenges arising in the analysis of tiling microarray experiments as open problems to the scientific community and present initial approaches for the analysis of this nascent technology.
Killion, Patrick J; Sherlock, Gavin; Iyer, Vishwanath R
Background The power of microarray analysis can be realized only if data is systematically archived and linked to biological annotations as well as analysis algorithms. Description The Longhorn Array Database (LAD) is a MIAME compliant microarray database that operates on PostgreSQL and Linux. It is a fully open source version of the Stanford Microarray Database (SMD), one of the largest microarray databases. LAD is available at Conclusions Our development of LAD provides a simple, free, open, reliable and proven solution for storage and analysis of two-color microarray data. PMID:12930545
Osareh, Alireza; Shadgar, Bita
The gene microarray analysis and classification have demonstrated an effective way for the effective diagnosis of diseases and cancers. However, it has been also revealed that the basic classification techniques have intrinsic drawbacks in achieving accurate gene classification and cancer diagnosis. On the other hand, classifier ensembles have received increasing attention in various applications. Here, we address the gene classification issue using RotBoost ensemble methodology. This method is a combination of Rotation Forest and AdaBoost techniques which in turn preserve both desirable features of an ensemble architecture, that is, accuracy and diversity. To select a concise subset of informative genes, 5 different feature selection algorithms are considered. To assess the efficiency of the RotBoost, other nonensemble/ensemble techniques including Decision Trees, Support Vector Machines, Rotation Forest, AdaBoost, and Bagging are also deployed. Experimental results have revealed that the combination of the fast correlation-based feature selection method with ICA-based RotBoost ensemble is highly effective for gene classification. In fact, the proposed method can create ensemble classifiers which outperform not only the classifiers produced by the conventional machine learning but also the classifiers generated by two widely used conventional ensemble learning methods, that is, Bagging and AdaBoost.
Bernau, C; Boulesteix, A-L; Knaus, J
Analysis of recent high-dimensional biological data tends to be computationally intensive as many common approaches such as resampling or permutation tests require the basic statistical analysis to be repeated many times. A crucial advantage of these methods is that they can be easily parallelized due to the computational independence of the resampling or permutation iterations, which has induced many statistics departments to establish their own computer clusters. An alternative is to rent computing resources in the cloud, e.g. at Amazon Web Services. In this article we analyze whether a selection of statistical projects, recently implemented at our department, can be efficiently realized on these cloud resources. Moreover, we illustrate an opportunity to combine computer cluster and cloud resources. In order to compare the efficiency of computer cluster and cloud implementations and their respective parallelizations we use microarray analysis procedures and compare their runtimes on the different platforms. Amazon Web Services provide various instance types which meet the particular needs of the different statistical projects we analyzed in this paper. Moreover, the network capacity is sufficient and the parallelization is comparable in efficiency to standard computer cluster implementations. Our results suggest that many statistical projects can be efficiently realized on cloud resources. It is important to mention, however, that workflows can change substantially as a result of a shift from computer cluster to cloud computing.
Klebes, Ansgar; Kornberg, Thomas B
To understand Drosophila development and other genetically controlled processes, it is often desirable to identify differences in gene expression levels. An experimental approach to investigate these processes is to catalog the transcriptome by hybridization of mRNA to DNA microbar-rays. In these experiments mRNA-derived hybridization probes are produced and hybridized to an array of DNA spots on a solid support. The labeled cDNAs of the complex hybridization probe will bind to their complementary sequences and provide quantification of the relative concentration of the corresponding transcript in the starting material. However, such approaches are often limited by the scarcity of the experimental sample because standard methods of probe preparation require microgram quantities of mRNA template. Linear RNA amplification can alleviate such limitations to support the generation of microarray hybridization probes from a few 100 pg of mRNA. These smaller quantities can be isolated from a few 100 cells. Here, we present a linear amplification protocol designed to preserve both the relative abundance of transcripts as well as their sequence complexity.
Koch, Martin; Royer, Hans-Dieter; Wiese, Michael
Analysis of gene expression profiles is no longer exclusively a task for bioinformatic experts. However, gaining statistically significant results is challenging and requires both biological knowledge and computational know-how. Here we present a novel, user-friendly microarray reporting tool called maRt. The software provides access to bioinformatic resources, like gene ontology terms and biological pathways by use of the DAVID and the BioMart web-service. Results are summarized in structured HTML reports, each presenting a different layer of information. In these report, contents of diverse sources are integrated and interlinked. To speed up processing, maRt takes advantage of the multi-core technology of modern desktop computers by using parallel processing. Since the software is built upon a RCP infrastructure it might be an outset for developers aiming to integrate novel R based applications. Installer, documentation and various kinds of tutorials are available under LGPL license at the website of our institute http://www.pharma.uni-bonn.de/www/mart. This software is free for academic use. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Esteves, Gustavo H; Simoes, Ana CQ; Souza, Estevao; Dias, Rodrigo A; Ospina, Raydonal; Venancio, Thiago M
Background Smallpox is a lethal disease that was endemic in many parts of the world until eradicated by massive immunization. Due to its lethality, there are serious concerns about its use as a bioweapon. Here we analyze publicly available microarray data to further understand survival of smallpox infected macaques, using systems biology approaches. Our goal is to improve the knowledge about the progression of this disease. Results We used KEGG pathways annotations to define groups of genes (or modules), and subsequently compared them to macaque survival times. This technique provided additional insights about the host response to this disease, such as increased expression of the cytokines and ECM receptors in the individuals with higher survival times. These results could indicate that these gene groups could influence an effective response from the host to smallpox. Conclusion Macaques with higher survival times clearly express some specific pathways previously unidentified using regular gene-by-gene approaches. Our work also shows how third party analysis of public datasets can be important to support new hypotheses to relevant biological problems. PMID:17718913
Dacheux, Laurent; Berthet, Nicolas; Dissard, Gabriel; Holmes, Edward C.; Delmas, Olivier; Larrous, Florence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Dickinson, Philip; Faye, Ousmane; Sall, Amadou A.; Old, Iain G.; Kong, Katherine; Kennedy, Giulia C.; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Cole, Stewart T.; Caro, Valérie; Gessain, Antoine; Bourhy, Hervé
The rapid and accurate identification of pathogens is critical in the control of infectious disease. To this end, we analyzed the capacity for viral detection and identification of a newly described high-density resequencing microarray (RMA), termed PathogenID, which was designed for multiple pathogen detection using database similarity searching. We focused on one of the largest and most diverse viral families described to date, the family Rhabdoviridae. We demonstrate that this approach has the potential to identify both known and related viruses for which precise sequence information is unavailable. In particular, we demonstrate that a strategy based on consensus sequence determination for analysis of RMA output data enabled successful detection of viruses exhibiting up to 26% nucleotide divergence with the closest sequence tiled on the array. Using clinical specimens obtained from rabid patients and animals, this method also shows a high species level concordance with standard reference assays, indicating that it is amenable for the development of diagnostic assays. Finally, 12 animal rhabdoviruses which were currently unclassified, unassigned, or assigned as tentative species within the family Rhabdoviridae were successfully detected. These new data allowed an unprecedented phylogenetic analysis of 106 rhabdoviruses and further suggest that the principles and methodology developed here may be used for the broad-spectrum surveillance and the broader-scale investigation of biodiversity in the viral world. PMID:20610710
Foti, Maria; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola; Granucci, Francesca
The immune system of vertebrate animals has evolved to respond to different types of perturbations (invading pathogens, stress signals), limiting self-tissue damage. The decision to activate an immune response is made by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that are quiescent until they encounter a foreign microorganism or inflammatory stimuli. Early activated APCs trigger innate immune responses that represent the first line of reaction against invading pathogens to limit the infections. At later times, activated APCs acquire the ability to prime antigen-specific immune responses that clear the infections and give rise to memory. During the immune response self-tissue damage is limited and tolerance to self is maintained through life. Among the cells that constitute the immune system, dendritic cells (DC) play a central role. They are extremely versatile APCs involved in the initiation of both innate and adaptive immunity and also in the differentiation of regulatory T cells required for the maintenance of self-tolerance. How DC can mediate these diverse and almost contradictory functions has recently been investigated. The plasticity of these cells allows them to undergo a complete genetic reprogramming in response to external microbial stimuli with the sequential acquisition of different regulatory functions in innate and adaptive immunity. The specific genetic reprogramming DC undergo upon activation can be easily investigated by using microarrays to perform global gene expression analysis in different conditions.
Dawson, Erica D; Reppert, Amy E; Rowlen, Kathy L; Kuck, Laura R
Low-density microarrays that utilize short oligos (<100 nt) for capture are highly attractive for use in diagnostic applications, yet these experiments require strict quality control and meticulous reproducibility. However, a survey of current literature indicates vast inconsistencies in the spotting and processing procedures. In this study, spotting and processing protocols were optimized for aldehyde-functionalized glass substrates. Figures of merit were developed for quantitative comparison of spot quality and reproducibility. Experimental variables examined included oligo concentration in the spotting buffer, composition of the spotting buffer, postspotting "curing" conditions, and postspotting wash conditions. Optimized conditions included the use of 3-4 microM oligo in a 3x standard saline citrate/0.05% sodium dodecyl sulfate/0.001% (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonia]-1-propane sulfonate) spotting buffer, 24-h postspotting reaction at 100% relative humidity, and a four-step wash procedure. Evaluation of six types of aldehyde-functionalized glass substrates indicated that those manufactured by CEL Associates, Inc. yield the highest oligo coverage.
Faundes, Víctor; Santa María, Lorena; Morales, Paulina; Curotto, Bianca; Alliende, María Angélica
In 20% of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) and congenital abnormalities (CA) the cause would be a genomic imbalance detectable only by chromosomal microarrays (CMA). To analyze the results of CMA performed at the INTA Laboratory of Molecular Cytogenetics, during a period of four years in patients with NDD or CA. Retrospective study that included all CMA reports of Chilean patients. Age, sex, clinical diagnosis and origin were analyzed, as well as the characteristics of the finding. The percentage of cases diagnosed by CMA was calculated considering all patients with pathogenic (PV) or probably pathogenic variants (VLP). Finally, we studied the association between patients' characteristics and a positive CMA outcome. A total of 236 reports were analyzed. The median age was 5.41 (range 2.25-9.33) years, and 59% were men. Ninety chromosomal imbalances were found, which corresponded mainly to deletions (53.3%), with a median size of 1.662 (range 0.553-6.673) Megabases. The diagnostic rate of CMA in Chilean patients from all over the country was 19.2%. There was a close relationship between the patient's sex and the detection of VLP/VP (p = 0.034). Our diagnostic rate and the association between female sex and a higher percentage of diagnosed cases are concordant with other international studies. Therefore, CMA is a valid diagnostic tool in the Chilean population.
Gottardo, Raphael; Besag, Julian; Stephens, Matthew; Murua, Alejandro
We describe a probabilistic approach to simultaneous image segmentation and intensity estimation for complementary DNA microarray experiments. The approach overcomes several limitations of existing methods. In particular, it (a) uses a flexible Markov random field approach to segmentation that allows for a wider range of spot shapes than existing methods, including relatively common 'doughnut-shaped' spots; (b) models the image directly as background plus hybridization intensity, and estimates the two quantities simultaneously, avoiding the common logical error that estimates of foreground may be less than those of the corresponding background if the two are estimated separately; and (c) uses a probabilistic modeling approach to simultaneously perform segmentation and intensity estimation, and to compute spot quality measures. We describe two approaches to parameter estimation: a fast algorithm, based on the expectation-maximization and the iterated conditional modes algorithms, and a fully Bayesian framework. These approaches produce comparable results, and both appear to offer some advantages over other methods. We use an HIV experiment to compare our approach to two commercial software products: Spot and Arrayvision.
Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C; Jansen, Rick; de Geus, Eco J C N; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boomsma, Dorret I; 't Hoen, Peter A C
Sparse Gaussian graphical models are popular for inferring biological networks, such as gene regulatory networks. In this paper, we investigate the consistency of these models across different data platforms, such as microarray and next generation sequencing, on the basis of a rich dataset containing samples that are profiled under both techniques as well as a large set of independent samples. Our analysis shows that individual node variances can have a remarkable effect on the connectivity of the resulting network. Their inconsistency across platforms and the fact that the variability level of a node may not be linked to its regulatory role mean that, failing to scale the data prior to the network analysis, leads to networks that are not reproducible across different platforms and that may be misleading. Moreover, we show how the reproducibility of networks across different platforms is significantly higher if networks are summarised in terms of enrichment amongst functional groups of interest, such as pathways, rather than at the level of individual edges. Careful pre-processing of transcriptional data and summaries of networks beyond individual edges can improve the consistency of network inference across platforms. However, caution is needed at this stage in the (over)interpretation of gene regulatory networks inferred from biological data.
Godfrey, Emma; Clark, Phillipa
Chromosomal microarray testing (CMA) generally aids paediatric genetic diagnosis. However, pre-CMA counselling is important as results can be ambiguous, generate uncertainty and raise ethical issues. We developed standards for counselling and giving families results; using these we evaluated practice for children seen by the Auckland Developmental Paediatric team in 2011. Pretest discussion was documented in 14 of 28 subjects and potential outcomes in 4of 28. 8 of 28 received information leaflets, 1 of 28 gave signed consent. 3 of 3 with abnormal results and 4 of 5 with variants of unknown significance (VOUS) were offered clinical genetics referral. 8 of 20 families with normal results were written to; two with abnormal results were informed face-to-face and one in writing; most VOUS were communicated by phone, voicemail or letter. CMA testing requires clear patient information sheets and in-depth pretest discussion for informed consent, timely feedback of results and genetics referral as appropriate. Authoritative guidelines and training are needed to strengthen CMA counselling. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sørensen, Iben; Willats, William G T
Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls built largely from complex carbohydrates. The primary walls of growing plant cells consist of interdependent networks of three polysaccharide classes: cellulose, cross-linking glycans (also known as hemicelluloses), and pectins. Cellulose microfibrils are tethered together by cross-linking glycans, and this assembly forms the major load-bearing component of primary walls, which is infiltrated with pectic polymers. In the secondary walls of woody tissues, pectins are much reduced and walls are reinforced with the phenolic polymer lignin. Plant cell walls are essential for plant life and also have numerous industrial applications, ranging from wood to nutraceuticals. Enhancing our knowledge of cell wall biology and the effective use of cell wall materials is dependent to a large extent on being able to analyse their fine structures. We have developed a suite of techniques based on microarrays probed with monoclonal antibodies with specificity for cell wall components, and here we present practical protocols for this type of analysis.
Huyghe, Antoine; François, Patrice; Mombelli, Andrea; Tangomo, Manuela; Girard, Myriam; Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Bolivar, Ignacio; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques
Noma (cancrum oris) is a gangrenous disease of unknown etiology affecting the maxillo-facial region of young children in extremely limited resource countries. In an attempt to better understand the microbiological events occurring during this disease, we used phylogenetic and low-density microarrays targeting the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the gingival flora of acute noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis (ANG) lesions, and compared them to healthy control subjects of the same geographical and social background. Our observations raise doubts about Fusobacterium necrophorum, a previously suspected causative agent of noma, as this species was not associated with noma lesions. Various oral pathogens were more abundant in noma lesions, notably Atopobium spp., Prevotella intermedia, Peptostreptococcus spp., Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus anginosus. On the other hand, pathogens associated with periodontal diseases such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Capnocytophaga spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Fusobacteriales were more abundant in healthy controls. Importantly, the overall loss of bacterial diversity observed in noma samples as well as its homology to that of ANG microbiota supports the hypothesis that ANG might be the immediate step preceding noma. PMID:24086784
Kroll, K Myriam; Barkema, Gerard T; Carlon, Enrico
One important preprocessing step in the analysis of microarray data is background subtraction. In high-density oligonucleotide arrays this is recognized as a crucial step for the global performance of the data analysis from raw intensities to expression values. We propose here an algorithm for background estimation based on a model in which the cost function is quadratic in a set of fitting parameters such that minimization can be performed through linear algebra. The model incorporates two effects: 1) Correlated intensities between neighboring features in the chip and 2) sequence-dependent affinities for non-specific hybridization fitted by an extended nearest-neighbor model. The algorithm has been tested on 360 GeneChips from publicly available data of recent expression experiments. The algorithm is fast and accurate. Strong correlations between the fitted values for different experiments as well as between the free-energy parameters and their counterparts in aqueous solution indicate that the model captures a significant part of the underlying physical chemistry.
Travensolo, Regiane F; Carareto-Alves, Lucia M; Costa, Maria V C G; Lopes, Tiago J S; Carrilho, Emanuel; Lemos, Eliana G M
Xylella fastidiosa genome sequencing has generated valuable data by identifying genes acting either on metabolic pathways or in associated pathogenicity and virulence. Based on available information on these genes, new strategies for studying their expression patterns, such as microarray technology, were employed. A total of 2,600 primer pairs were synthesized and then used to generate fragments using the PCR technique. The arrays were hybridized against cDNAs labeled during reverse transcription reactions and which were obtained from bacteria grown under two different conditions (liquid XDM(2) and liquid BCYE). All data were statistically analyzed to verify which genes were differentially expressed. In addition to exploring conditions for X. fastidiosa genome-wide transcriptome analysis, the present work observed the differential expression of several classes of genes (energy, protein, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, transport, degradation of substances, toxins and hypothetical proteins, among others). The understanding of expressed genes in these two different media will be useful in comprehending the metabolic characteristics of X. fastidiosa, and in evaluating how important certain genes are for the functioning and survival of these bacteria in plants.
Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Maerkle, Frieder; Hahn, Lothar; Foertsch, Tobias; Schillo, Sebastian; Bykovskaya, Valentina; Sedlmayr, Martyna; Weber, Laura K; Ridder, Barbara; Soehindrijo, Miriam; Muenster, Bastian; Striffler, Jakob; Bischoff, F Ralf; Breitling, Frank; Loeffler, Felix F
In this review, we describe different methods of microarray fabrication based on the use of micro-particles/-beads and point out future tendencies in the development of particle-based arrays. First, we consider oligonucleotide bead arrays, where each bead is a carrier of one specific sequence of oligonucleotides. This bead-based array approach, appearing in the late 1990s, enabled high-throughput oligonucleotide analysis and had a large impact on genome research. Furthermore, we consider particle-based peptide array fabrication using combinatorial chemistry. In this approach, particles can directly participate in both the synthesis and the transfer of synthesized combinatorial molecules to a substrate. Subsequently, we describe in more detail the synthesis of peptide arrays with amino acid polymer particles, which imbed the amino acids inside their polymer matrix. By heating these particles, the polymer matrix is transformed into a highly viscous gel, and thereby, imbedded monomers are allowed to participate in the coupling reaction. Finally, we focus on combinatorial laser fusing of particles for the synthesis of high-density peptide arrays. This method combines the advantages of particles and combinatorial lithographic approaches.
Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Maerkle, Frieder; Hahn, Lothar; Foertsch, Tobias; Schillo, Sebastian; Bykovskaya, Valentina; Sedlmayr, Martyna; Weber, Laura K.; Ridder, Barbara; Soehindrijo, Miriam; Muenster, Bastian; Striffler, Jakob; Bischoff, F. Ralf; Breitling, Frank; Loeffler, Felix F.
In this review, we describe different methods of microarray fabrication based on the use of micro-particles/-beads and point out future tendencies in the development of particle-based arrays. First, we consider oligonucleotide bead arrays, where each bead is a carrier of one specific sequence of oligonucleotides. This bead-based array approach, appearing in the late 1990s, enabled high-throughput oligonucleotide analysis and had a large impact on genome research. Furthermore, we consider particle-based peptide array fabrication using combinatorial chemistry. In this approach, particles can directly participate in both the synthesis and the transfer of synthesized combinatorial molecules to a substrate. Subsequently, we describe in more detail the synthesis of peptide arrays with amino acid polymer particles, which imbed the amino acids inside their polymer matrix. By heating these particles, the polymer matrix is transformed into a highly viscous gel, and thereby, imbedded monomers are allowed to participate in the coupling reaction. Finally, we focus on combinatorial laser fusing of particles for the synthesis of high-density peptide arrays. This method combines the advantages of particles and combinatorial lithographic approaches. PMID:27600347
Esteves, Gustavo H; Simoes, Ana C Q; Souza, Estevao; Dias, Rodrigo A; Ospina, Raydonal; Venancio, Thiago M
Smallpox is a lethal disease that was endemic in many parts of the world until eradicated by massive immunization. Due to its lethality, there are serious concerns about its use as a bioweapon. Here we analyze publicly available microarray data to further understand survival of smallpox infected macaques, using systems biology approaches. Our goal is to improve the knowledge about the progression of this disease. We used KEGG pathways annotations to define groups of genes (or modules), and subsequently compared them to macaque survival times. This technique provided additional insights about the host response to this disease, such as increased expression of the cytokines and ECM receptors in the individuals with higher survival times. These results could indicate that these gene groups could influence an effective response from the host to smallpox. Macaques with higher survival times clearly express some specific pathways previously unidentified using regular gene-by-gene approaches. Our work also shows how third party analysis of public datasets can be important to support new hypotheses to relevant biological problems.
Jones, Liat Ben-Tovim; Bean, Richard; McLachlan, Geoffrey J; Zhu, Justin Xi
An important and common problem in microarray experiments is the detection of genes that are differentially expressed in a given number of classes. As this problem concerns the selection of significant genes from a large pool of candidate genes, it needs to be carried out within the framework of multiple hypothesis testing. In this paper, we focus on the use of mixture models to handle the multiplicity issue. With this approach, a measure of the local FDR (false discovery rate) is provided for each gene. An attractive feature of the mixture model approach is that it provides a framework for the estimation of the prior probability that a gene is not differentially expressed, and this probability can subsequently be used in forming a decision rule. The rule can also be formed to take the false negative rate into account. We apply this approach to a well-known publicly available data set on breast cancer, and discuss our findings with reference to other approaches.
Xing, Jinchuan; Watkins, W Scott; Witherspoon, David J; Zhang, Yuhua; Guthery, Stephen L; Thara, Rangaswamy; Mowry, Bryan J; Bulayeva, Kazima; Weiss, Robert B; Jorde, Lynn B
We report an analysis of more than 240,000 loci genotyped using the Affymetrix SNP microarray in 554 individuals from 27 worldwide populations in Africa, Asia, and Europe. To provide a more extensive and complete sampling of human genetic variation, we have included caste and tribal samples from two states in South India, Daghestanis from eastern Europe, and the Iban from Malaysia. Consistent with observations made by Charles Darwin, our results highlight shared variation among human populations and demonstrate that much genetic variation is geographically continuous. At the same time, principal components analyses reveal discernible genetic differentiation among almost all identified populations in our sample, and in most cases, individuals can be clearly assigned to defined populations on the basis of SNP genotypes. All individuals are accurately classified into continental groups using a model-based clustering algorithm, but between closely related populations, genetic and self-classifications conflict for some individuals. The 250K data permitted high-level resolution of genetic variation among Indian caste and tribal populations and between highland and lowland Daghestani populations. In particular, upper-caste individuals from Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh form one defined group, lower-caste individuals from these two states form another, and the tribal Irula samples form a third. Our results emphasize the correlation of genetic and geographic distances and highlight other elements, including social factors that have contributed to population structure.
Bertolino, Francesco; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Racugno, Walter
Multiple hypothesis testing collects a series of techniques usually based on p-values as a summary of the available evidence from many statistical tests. In hypothesis testing, under a Bayesian perspective, the evidence for a specified hypothesis against an alternative, conditionally on data, is given by the Bayes factor. In this study, we approach multiple hypothesis testing based on both Bayes factors and p-values, regarding multiple hypothesis testing as a multiple model selection problem. To obtain the Bayes factors we assume default priors that are typically improper. In this case, the Bayes factor is usually undetermined due to the ratio of prior pseudo-constants. We show that ignoring prior pseudo-constants leads to unscaled Bayes factor which do not invalidate the inferential procedure in multiple hypothesis testing, because they are used within a comparative scheme. In fact, using partial information from the p-values, we are able to approximate the sampling null distribution of the unscaled Bayes factor and use it within Efron's multiple testing procedure. The simulation study suggests that under normal sampling model and even with small sample sizes, our approach provides false positive and false negative proportions that are less than other common multiple hypothesis testing approaches based only on p-values. The proposed procedure is illustrated in two simulation studies, and the advantages of its use are showed in the analysis of two microarray experiments. © The Author(s) 2011.
Galetzka, D; Weis, E; Rittner, G; Schindler, D; Haaf, T
Fanconi anemia (FA) cells are generally hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agents, implying that mutations in the different FANC genes cause a similar DNA repair defect(s). By using a customized cDNA microarray chip for DNA repair- and cell cycle-associated genes, we identified three genes, cathepsin B (CTSB), glutaredoxin (GLRX), and polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), that were misregulated in untreated primary fibroblasts from three unrelated FA-D2 patients, compared to six controls. Quantitative real-time RT PCR was used to validate these results and to study possible molecular links between FA-D2 and other FA subtypes. GLRX was misregulated to opposite directions in a variety of different FA subtypes. Increased CTSB and decreased PLK2 expression was found in all or almost all of the analyzed complementation groups and, therefore, may be related to the defective FA pathway. Transcriptional upregulation of the CTSB proteinase appears to be a secondary phenomenon due to proliferation differences between FA and normal fibroblast cultures. In contrast, PLK2 is known to play a pivotal role in processes that are linked to FA defects and may contribute in multiple ways to the FA phenotype: PLK2 is a target gene for TP53, is likely to function as a tumor suppressor gene in hematologic neoplasia, and Plk2(-/-) mice are small because of defective embryonal development. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Zhao, Ming; Wang, Xuefeng; Nolte, David
Mass transport of analyte to surface-immobilized affinity reagents is the fundamental bottleneck for sensitive detection in solid-support microarrays and biosensors. Analyte depletion in the volume adjacent to the sensor causes deviation from ideal association, significantly slows down reaction kinetics, and causes inhomogeneous binding across the sensor surface. In this paper we use high-resolution molecular interferometric imaging (MI2), a label-free optical interferometry technique for direct detection of molecular films, to study the inhomogeneous distribution of intra-spot binding across 100 micron-diameter protein spots. By measuring intra-spot binding inhomogeneity, reaction kinetics can be determined accurately when combined with a numerical three-dimensional finite element model. To ensure homogeneous binding across a spot, a critical flow rate is identified in terms of the association rate k(a) and the spot diameter. The binding inhomogeneity across a spot can be used to distinguish high-affinity low-concentration specific reactions from low-affinity high-concentration non-specific binding of background proteins.
Berman, Jules J; Edgerton, Mary E; Friedman, Bruce A
Background Tissue Microarrays (TMAs) allow researchers to examine hundreds of small tissue samples on a single glass slide. The information held in a single TMA slide may easily involve Gigabytes of data. To benefit from TMA technology, the scientific community needs an open source TMA data exchange specification that will convey all of the data in a TMA experiment in a format that is understandable to both humans and computers. A data exchange specification for TMAs allows researchers to submit their data to journals and to public data repositories and to share or merge data from different laboratories. In May 2001, the Association of Pathology Informatics (API) hosted the first in a series of four workshops, co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, to develop an open, community-supported TMA data exchange specification. Methods A draft tissue microarray data exchange specification was developed through workshop meetings. The first workshop confirmed community support for the effort and urged the creation of an open XML-based specification. This was to evolve in steps with approval for each step coming from the stakeholders in the user community during open workshops. By the fourth workshop, held October, 2002, a set of Common Data Elements (CDEs) was established as well as a basic strategy for organizing TMA data in self-describing XML documents. Results The TMA data exchange specification is a well-formed XML document with four required sections: 1) Header, containing the specification Dublin Core identifiers, 2) Block, describing the paraffin-embedded array of tissues, 3)Slide, describing the glass slides produced from the Block, and 4) Core, containing all data related to the individual tissue samples contained in the array. Eighty CDEs, conforming to the ISO-11179 specification for data elements constitute XML tags used in the TMA data exchange specification. A set of six simple semantic rules describe the complete data exchange specification. Anyone
Knapen, Dries; Vergauwen, Lucia; Laukens, Kris; Blust, Ronny
Two-colour microarrays are a popular platform of choice in gene expression studies. Because two different samples are hybridized on a single microarray, and several microarrays are usually needed in a given experiment, there are many possible ways to combine samples on different microarrays. The actual combination employed is commonly referred to as the 'hybridization design'. Different types of hybridization designs have been developed, all aimed at optimizing the experimental setup for the detection of differentially expressed genes while coping with technical noise. Here, we first provide an overview of the different classes of hybridization designs, discussing their advantages and limitations, and then we illustrate the current trends in the use of different hybridization design types in contemporary research.
FDAs Critical Path Initiative identifies pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics as key opportunities in advancing medical product development and personalized medicine, and the Guidance for Industry: Pharmacogenomic Data Submissions has been released. Microarrays represent a co...
Jee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Young Soo
A glass platform with high sensitivity for sexually transmitted diseases microarray is described here. An amino-silane-based self-assembled monolayer was coated on the surface of a glass platform using a novel bubbling method. The optimized surface of the glass platform had highly uniform surface modifications using this method, as well as improved hybridization properties with capture probes in the DNA microarray. On the basis of these results, the improved glass platform serves as a highly reliable and optimal material for the DNA microarray. Moreover, in this study, we demonstrated that our glass platform, manufactured by utilizing the bubbling method, had higher uniformity, shorter processing time, lower background signal, and higher spot signal than the platforms manufactured by the general dipping method. The DNA microarray manufactured with a glass platform prepared using bubbling method can be used as a clinical diagnostic tool. PMID:26468293
Jee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Young Soo
A glass platform with high sensitivity for sexually transmitted diseases microarray is described here. An amino-silane-based self-assembled monolayer was coated on the surface of a glass platform using a novel bubbling method. The optimized surface of the glass platform had highly uniform surface modifications using this method, as well as improved hybridization properties with capture probes in the DNA microarray. On the basis of these results, the improved glass platform serves as a highly reliable and optimal material for the DNA microarray. Moreover, in this study, we demonstrated that our glass platform, manufactured by utilizing the bubbling method, had higher uniformity, shorter processing time, lower background signal, and higher spot signal than the platforms manufactured by the general dipping method. The DNA microarray manufactured with a glass platform prepared using bubbling method can be used as a clinical diagnostic tool.
Azumi, Kaoru; Takahashi, Hiroki; Miki, Yasufumi; Fujie, Manabu; Usami, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Hisayoshi; Kitayama, Atsusi; Satou, Yutaka; Ueno, Naoto; Satoh, Nori
A cDNA microarray was constructed from a basal chordate, the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. The draft genome of Ciona has been read and inferred to contain approximately 16,000 protein-coding genes, and cDNAs for transcripts of 13,464 genes have been characterized and compiled as the "Ciona intestinalis Gene Collection Release I". In the present study, we constructed a cDNA microarray of these 13,464 Ciona genes. A preliminary experiment with Cy3- and Cy5-labeled probes showed extensive differential gene expression between fertilized eggs and larvae. In addition, there was a good correlation between results obtained by the present microarray analysis and those from previous EST analyses. This first microarray of a large collection of Ciona intestinalis cDNA clones should facilitate the analysis of global gene expression and gene networks during the embryogenesis of basal chordates.
Wang, Hong; Bi, Yongyi; Tao, Ning; Wang, Chunhong
To detect the differential expression of cell signal transduction genes associated with benzene poisoning, and to explore the pathogenic mechanisms of blood system damage induced by benzene. Peripheral white blood cell gene expression profile of 7 benzene poisoning patients, including one aplastic anemia, was determined by cDNA microarray. Seven chips from normal workers were served as controls. Cluster analysis of gene expression profile was performed. Among the 4265 target genes, 176 genes associated with cell signal transduction were differentially expressed. 35 up-regulated genes including PTPRC, STAT4, IFITM1 etc were found in at least 6 pieces of microarray; 45 down-regulated genes including ARHB, PPP3CB, CDC37 etc were found in at least 5 pieces of microarray. cDNA microarray technology is an effective technique for screening the differentially expressed genes of cell signal transduction. Disorder in cell signal transduction may play certain role in the pathogenic mechanism of benzene poisoning.
Klimushina, M V; Gumanova, N G; Metelskaya, V A
Analysis of serum proteome by antibody microarray is used to identify novel biomarkers and to study signaling pathways including protein phosphorylation and protein-protein interactions. Labeling of serum proteins is important for optimal performance of the antibody microarray. Proper choice of fluorescent label and optimal concentration of protein loaded on the microarray ensure good quality of imaging that can be reliably scanned and processed by the software. We have optimized direct serum protein labeling using fluorescent dye Arrayit Green 540 (Arrayit Corporation, USA) for antibody microarray. Optimized procedure produces high quality images that can be readily scanned and used for statistical analysis of protein composition of the serum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Microarray technology has proven to be a useful tool for analyzing the transcriptome of various organisms representing conditions such as disease states, developmental stages, and responses to chemical exposure. Although most commercially available arrays are limited to organism...
Sperm RNA Amplification for Gene Expression Profiling by DNA Microarray Technology
Hongzu Ren, Kary E. Thompson, Judith E. Schmid and David J. Dix, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triang...
Bingle, Lynne; Fonseca, Felipe P; Farthing, Paula M
Tissue microarrays were first constructed in the 1980s but were used by only a limited number of researchers for a considerable period of time. In the last 10 years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of publications describing the successful use of tissue microarrays in studies aimed at discovering and validating biomarkers. This, along with the increased availability of both manual and automated microarray builders on the market, has encouraged even greater use of this novel and powerful tool. This chapter describes the basic techniques required to build a tissue microarray using a manual method in order that the theory behind the practical steps can be fully explained. Guidance is given to ensure potential disadvantages of the technique are fully considered.
High-Throughput Nano-Biofilm Microarray for Antifungal Drug Discovery Anand Srinivasan,a, c Kai P. Leung,d Jose L. Lopez-Ribot,b, c Anand K...Ramasubramaniana, c Departments of Biomedical Engineeringa and Biologyb and South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, c The University of Texas at San...of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans on a microarray platform. The mi- croarray consists of 1,200 individual cultures of 30 nl of C
Varnum, Susan M.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray was developed for the specific and sensitive detection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), using high-affinity recombinant monoclonal antibodies against the receptor binding domain of the heavy chain of BoNT/A. The ELISA microarray assay, because of its sensitivity, offers a screening test with detection limits comparable to the mouse bioassay, with results available in hours instead of days.
van Huet, Ramon A. C.; Pierrache, Laurence H.M.; Meester-Smoor, Magda A.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; Hoyng, Carel B.; de Wijs, Ilse J.; Collin, Rob W. J.; Hoefsloot, Lies H.
Purpose To determine the efficacy of multiple versions of a commercially available arrayed primer extension (APEX) microarray chip for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). Methods We included 250 probands suspected of arRP who were genetically analyzed with the APEX microarray between January 2008 and November 2013. The mode of inheritance had to be autosomal recessive according to the pedigree (including isolated cases). If the microarray identified a heterozygous mutation, we performed Sanger sequencing of exons and exon–intron boundaries of that specific gene. The efficacy of this microarray chip with the additional Sanger sequencing approach was determined by the percentage of patients that received a molecular diagnosis. We also collected data from genetic tests other than the APEX analysis for arRP to provide a detailed description of the molecular diagnoses in our study cohort. Results The APEX microarray chip for arRP identified the molecular diagnosis in 21 (8.5%) of the patients in our cohort. Additional Sanger sequencing yielded a second mutation in 17 patients (6.8%), thereby establishing the molecular diagnosis. In total, 38 patients (15.2%) received a molecular diagnosis after analysis using the microarray and additional Sanger sequencing approach. Further genetic analyses after a negative result of the arRP microarray (n = 107) resulted in a molecular diagnosis of arRP (n = 23), autosomal dominant RP (n = 5), X-linked RP (n = 2), and choroideremia (n = 1). Conclusions The efficacy of the commercially available APEX microarray chips for arRP appears to be low, most likely caused by the limitations of this technique and the genetic and allelic heterogeneity of RP. Diagnostic yields up to 40% have been reported for next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques that, as expected, thereby outperform targeted APEX analysis. PMID:25999674
Zhang, Wenqian; Yu, Ying; Hertwig, Falk; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Zhang, Wenwei; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Wang, Jian; Furlanello, Cesare; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Cheng, Jie; Deng, Youping; Hero, Barbara; Hong, Huixiao; Jia, Meiwen; Li, Li; Lin, Simon M; Nikolsky, Yuri; Oberthuer, André; Qing, Tao; Su, Zhenqiang; Volland, Ruth; Wang, Charles; Wang, May D; Ai, Junmei; Albanese, Davide; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Avigad, Smadar; Bao, Wenjun; Bessarabova, Marina; Brilliant, Murray H; Brors, Benedikt; Chierici, Marco; Chu, Tzu-Ming; Zhang, Jibin; Grundy, Richard G; He, Min Max; Hebbring, Scott; Kaufman, Howard L; Lababidi, Samir; Lancashire, Lee J; Li, Yan; Lu, Xin X; Luo, Heng; Ma, Xiwen; Ning, Baitang; Noguera, Rosa; Peifer, Martin; Phan, John H; Roels, Frederik; Rosswog, Carolina; Shao, Susan; Shen, Jie; Theissen, Jessica; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Vandesompele, Jo; Wu, Po-Yen; Xiao, Wenzhong; Xu, Joshua; Xu, Weihong; Xuan, Jiekun; Yang, Yong; Ye, Zhan; Dong, Zirui; Zhang, Ke K; Yin, Ye; Zhao, Chen; Zheng, Yuanting; Wolfinger, Russell D; Shi, Tieliu; Malkas, Linda H; Berthold, Frank; Wang, Jun; Tong, Weida; Shi, Leming; Peng, Zhiyu; Fischer, Matthias
Gene expression profiling is being widely applied in cancer research to identify biomarkers for clinical endpoint prediction. Since RNA-seq provides a powerful tool for transcriptome-based applications beyond the limitations of microarrays, we sought to systematically evaluate the performance of RNA-seq-based and microarray-based classifiers in this MAQC-III/SEQC study for clinical endpoint prediction using neuroblastoma as a model. We generate gene expression profiles from 498 primary neuroblastomas using both RNA-seq and 44 k microarrays. Characterization of the neuroblastoma transcriptome by RNA-seq reveals that more than 48,000 genes and 200,000 transcripts are being expressed in this malignancy. We also find that RNA-seq provides much more detailed information on specific transcript expression patterns in clinico-genetic neuroblastoma subgroups than microarrays. To systematically compare the power of RNA-seq and microarray-based models in predicting clinical endpoints, we divide the cohort randomly into training and validation sets and develop 360 predictive models on six clinical endpoints of varying predictability. Evaluation of factors potentially affecting model performances reveals that prediction accuracies are most strongly influenced by the nature of the clinical endpoint, whereas technological platforms (RNA-seq vs. microarrays), RNA-seq data analysis pipelines, and feature levels (gene vs. transcript vs. exon-junction level) do not significantly affect performances of the models. We demonstrate that RNA-seq outperforms microarrays in determining the transcriptomic characteristics of cancer, while RNA-seq and microarray-based models perform similarly in clinical endpoint prediction. Our findings may be valuable to guide future studies on the development of gene expression-based predictive models and their implementation in clinical practice.
informative in this regard. Key signature genes will serve as the basis for rapid diagnostic approaches that could be accessed when an outbreak is suspected...AD Award Number: DAMD17-01-1-0787 TITLE: Use of DNA Microarrays to Identify Diagnostic Signature Transcription Profiles for Host Responses to...Sep 2004) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Use of DNA Microarrays to Identify Diagnostic Signature DAMD17-01-1-0787 Transcription Profiles for
Rees, Christian A; Demeter, Janos; Matese, John C; Botstein, David; Sherlock, Gavin
Chockalingam, Sriram; Aluru, Maneesha; Aluru, Srinivas
Pre-processing of microarray data is a well-studied problem. Furthermore, all popular platforms come with their own recommended best practices for differential analysis of genes. However, for genome-scale network inference using microarray data collected from large public repositories, these methods filter out a considerable number of genes. This is primarily due to the effects of aggregating a diverse array of experiments with different technical and biological scenarios. Here we introduce a pre-processing pipeline suitable for inferring genome-scale gene networks from large microarray datasets. We show that partitioning of the available microarray datasets according to biological relevance into tissue- and process-specific categories significantly extends the limits of downstream network construction. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our pre-processing pipeline by inferring genome-scale networks for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using two different construction methods and a collection of 11,760 Affymetrix ATH1 microarray chips. Our pre-processing pipeline and the datasets used in this paper are made available at http://alurulab.cc.gatech.edu/microarray-pp.
Biological assays formatted as microarrays have become a critical tool for the generation of the comprehensive data sets required for systems-level understanding of biological processes. Manual annotation of data extracted from images of microarrays, however, remains a significant bottleneck, particularly for protein microarrays due to the sensitivity of this technology to weak artifact signal. In order to automate the extraction and curation of data from protein microarrays, we describe an algorithm called Crossword that logically combines information from multiple approaches to fully automate microarray segmentation. Automated artifact removal is also accomplished by segregating structured pixels from the background noise using iterative clustering and pixel connectivity. Correlation of the location of structured pixels across image channels is used to identify and remove artifact pixels from the image prior to data extraction. This component improves the accuracy of data sets while reducing the requirement for time-consuming visual inspection of the data. Crossword enables a fully automated protocol that is robust to significant spatial and intensity aberrations. Overall, the average amount of user intervention is reduced by an order of magnitude and the data quality is increased through artifact removal and reduced user variability. The increase in throughput should aid the further implementation of microarray technologies in clinical studies. PMID:24417579
Lee, Won Sun; Choi, Hwalran; Kang, Jinseok; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Si Hyeock; Lee, Seunghwan; Hwang, Seung Yong
Aphid pests are being brought into Korea as a result of increased crop trading. Aphids exist on growth areas of plants, and thus plant growth is seriously affected by aphid pests. However, aphids are very small and have several sexual morphs and life stages, so it is difficult to identify species on the basis of morphological features. This problem was approached using DNA microarray technology. DNA targets of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were generated with a fluorescent dye-labelled primer and were hybridised onto a DNA microarray consisting of specific probes. After analysing the signal intensity of the specific probes, the unique patterns from the DNA microarray, consisting of 47 species-specific probes, were obtained to identify 23 aphid species. To confirm the accuracy of the developed DNA microarray, ten individual blind samples were used in blind trials, and the identifications were completely consistent with the sequencing data of all individual blind samples. A microarray has been developed to distinguish aphid species. DNA microarray technology provides a rapid, easy, cost-effective and accurate method for identifying aphid species for pest control management. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Gusnanto, Arief; Calza, Stefano; Pawitan, Yudi
To highlight the development in microarray data analysis for the identification of differentially expressed genes, particularly via control of false discovery rate. The emergence of high-throughput technology such as microarrays raises two fundamental statistical issues: multiplicity and sensitivity. We focus on the biological problem of identifying differentially expressed genes. First, multiplicity arises due to testing tens of thousands of hypotheses, rendering the standard P value meaningless. Second, known optimal single-test procedures such as the t-test perform poorly in the context of highly multiple tests. The standard approach of dealing with multiplicity is too conservative in the microarray context. The false discovery rate concept is fast becoming the key statistical assessment tool replacing the P value. We review the false discovery rate approach and argue that it is more sensible for microarray data. We also discuss some methods to take into account additional information from the microarrays to improve the false discovery rate. There is growing consensus on how to analyse microarray data using the false discovery rate framework in place of the classical P value. Further research is needed on the preprocessing of the raw data, such as the normalization step and filtering, and on finding the most sensitive test procedure.
Wang, Lih-Chiann; Kuo, Ya-Ting; Chueh, Ling-Ling; Huang, Dean; Lin, Jiunn-Horng
Canine respiratory diseases are commonly seen in dogs along with co-infections with multiple respiratory pathogens, including viruses and bacteria. Virus infections in even vaccinated dogs were also reported. The clinical signs caused by different respiratory etiological agents are similar, which makes differential diagnosis imperative. An oligonucleotide microarray system was developed in this study. The wild type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV), influenza virus, canine herpesvirus (CHV), Bordetella bronchiseptica and Mycoplasma cynos were detected and differentiated simultaneously on a microarray chip. The detection limit is 10, 10, 100, 50 and 50 copy numbers for CDV, influenza virus, CHV, B. bronchiseptica and M. cynos, respectively. The clinical test results of nasal swab samples showed that the microarray had remarkably better efficacy than the multiplex PCR-agarose gel method. The positive detection rate of microarray and agarose gel was 59.0% (n=33) and 41.1% (n=23) among the 56 samples, respectively. CDV vaccine strain and pathogen co-infections were further demonstrated by the microarray but not by the multiplex PCR-agarose gel. The oligonucleotide microarray provides a highly efficient diagnosis alternative that could be applied to clinical usage, greatly assisting in disease therapy and control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tang, Chang; Cao, Lijuan; Zheng, Xiao; Wang, Minhui
With the rapid development of DNA microarray technology, large amount of genomic data has been generated. Classification of these microarray data is a challenge task since gene expression data are often with thousands of genes but a small number of samples. In this paper, an effective gene selection method is proposed to select the best subset of genes for microarray data with the irrelevant and redundant genes removed. Compared with original data, the selected gene subset can benefit the classification task. We formulate the gene selection task as a manifold regularized subspace learning problem. In detail, a projection matrix is used to project the original high dimensional microarray data into a lower dimensional subspace, with the constraint that the original genes can be well represented by the selected genes. Meanwhile, the local manifold structure of original data is preserved by a Laplacian graph regularization term on the low-dimensional data space. The projection matrix can serve as an importance indicator of different genes. An iterative update algorithm is developed for solving the problem. Experimental results on six publicly available microarray datasets and one clinical dataset demonstrate that the proposed method performs better when compared with other state-of-the-art methods in terms of microarray data classification. Graphical Abstract The graphical abstract of this work.
Background The inference of the number of clusters in a dataset, a fundamental problem in Statistics, Data Analysis and Classification, is usually addressed via internal validation measures. The stated problem is quite difficult, in particular for microarrays, since the inferred prediction must be sensible enough to capture the inherent biological structure in a dataset, e.g., functionally related genes. Despite the rich literature present in that area, the identification of an internal validation measure that is both fast and precise has proved to be elusive. In order to partially fill this gap, we propose a speed-up of Consensus (Consensus Clustering), a methodology whose purpose is the provision of a prediction of the number of clusters in a dataset, together with a dissimilarity matrix (the consensus matrix) that can be used by clustering algorithms. As detailed in the remainder of the paper, Consensus is a natural candidate for a speed-up. Results Since the time-precision performance of Consensus depends on two parameters, our first task is to show that a simple adjustment of the parameters is not enough to obtain a good precision-time trade-off. Our second task is to provide a fast approximation algorithm for Consensus. That is, the closely related algorithm FC (Fast Consensus) that would have the same precision as Consensus with a substantially better time performance. The performance of FC has been assessed via extensive experiments on twelve benchmark datasets that summarize key features of microarray applications, such as cancer studies, gene expression with up and down patterns, and a full spectrum of dimensionality up to over a thousand. Based on their outcome, compared with previous benchmarking results available in the literature, FC turns out to be among the fastest internal validation methods, while retaining the same outstanding precision of Consensus. Moreover, it also provides a consensus matrix that can be used as a dissimilarity matrix
Morris, Brandon E. L.
Here, we introduce the concept of microarrays, discuss the advantages of several different types of arrays and present a case study that illustrates a targeted-profiling approach to bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated site in an Arctic environment. The majority of microorganisms in the terrestrial subsurface, particularly those involved in 'heavy oil' formation, reservoir souring or biofouling remain largely uncharacterised (Handelsman, 2004). There is evidence though that these processes are biologically catalysed, including stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons in oil formations (Pallasser, 2000; Sun et al., 2005), the absence of biodegraded oil from reservoirs warmer than 80°C (Head et al., 2003) or negligible biofouling in the absence of biofilms (Dobretsov et al., 2009; Lewandowski and Beyenal, 2008), and all clearly suggest an important role for microorganisms in the deep biosphere in general and oilfield systems in particular. While the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria in oilfields was first observed in the early twentieth century (Bastin, 1926), it was only through careful experiments with isolates from oil systems or contaminated environments that unequivocal evidence for hydrocarbon biodegradation under anaerobic conditions was provided (for a review, see Widdel et al., 2006). Work with pure cultures and microbial enrichments also led to the elucidation of the biochemistry of anaerobic aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation and the identification of central metabolites and genes involved in the process, e.g. (Callaghan et al., 2008; Griebler et al., 2003; Kropp et al., 2000). This information could then be extrapolated to the environment to monitor degradation processes and determine if in situ microbial populations possessed the potential for contaminant bioremediation, e.g. Parisi et al. (2009). While other methods have also been developed to monitor natural attenuation of hydrocarbons (Meckenstock et al., 2004), we are
Ancona, N; Maglietta, R; Piepoli, A; D'Addabbo, A; Cotugno, R; Savino, M; Liuni, S; Carella, M; Pesole, G; Perri, F
Background In this paper we present a method for the statistical assessment of cancer predictors which make use of gene expression profiles. The methodology is applied to a new data set of microarray gene expression data collected in Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, Foggia – Italy. The data set is made up of normal (22) and tumor (25) specimens extracted from 25 patients affected by colon cancer. We propose to give answers to some questions which are relevant for the automatic diagnosis of cancer such as: Is the size of the available data set sufficient to build accurate classifiers? What is the statistical significance of the associated error rates? In what ways can accuracy be considered dependant on the adopted classification scheme? How many genes are correlated with the pathology and how many are sufficient for an accurate colon cancer classification? The method we propose answers these questions whilst avoiding the potential pitfalls hidden in the analysis and interpretation of microarray data. Results We estimate the generalization error, evaluated through the Leave-K-Out Cross Validation error, for three different classification schemes by varying the number of training examples and the number of the genes used. The statistical significance of the error rate is measured by using a permutation test. We provide a statistical analysis in terms of the frequencies of the genes involved in the classification. Using the whole set of genes, we found that the Weighted Voting Algorithm (WVA) classifier learns the distinction between normal and tumor specimens with 25 training examples, providing e = 21% (p = 0.045) as an error rate. This remains constant even when the number of examples increases. Moreover, Regularized Least Squares (RLS) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers can learn with only 15 training examples, with an error rate of e = 19% (p = 0.035) and e = 18% (p = 0.037) respectively. Moreover, the error rate decreases as the training set
Fenner, Beau J.; Scannell, Michael; Prehn, Jochen H. M.
Signal transduction by the NF-kappaB pathway is a key regulator of a host of cellular responses to extracellular and intracellular messages. The NEMO adaptor protein lies at the top of this pathway and serves as a molecular conduit, connecting signals transmitted from upstream sensors to the downstream NF-kappaB transcription factor and subsequent gene activation. The position of NEMO within this pathway makes it an attractive target from which to search for new proteins that link NF-kappaB signaling to additional pathways and upstream effectors. In this work, we have used protein microarrays to identify novel NEMO interactors. A total of 112 protein interactors were identified, with the most statistically significant hit being the canonical NEMO interactor IKKbeta, with IKKalpha also being identified. Of the novel interactors, more than 30% were kinases, while at least 25% were involved in signal transduction. Binding of NEMO to several interactors, including CALB1, CDK2, SAG, SENP2 and SYT1, was confirmed using GST pulldown assays and coimmunoprecipitation, validating the initial screening approach. Overexpression of CALB1, CDK2 and SAG was found to stimulate transcriptional activation by NF-kappaB, while SYT1 overexpression repressed TNFalpha-dependent NF-kappaB transcriptional activation in human embryonic kidney cells. Corresponding with this finding, RNA silencing of CDK2, SAG and SENP2 reduced NF-kappaB transcriptional activation, supporting a positive role for these proteins in the NF-kappaB pathway. The identification of a host of new NEMO interactors opens up new research opportunities to improve understanding of this essential cell signaling pathway. PMID:20098747
Thallinger, Gerhard G; Baumgartner, Kerstin; Pirklbauer, Martin; Uray, Martina; Pauritsch, Elke; Mehes, Gabor; Buck, Charles R; Zatloukal, Kurt; Trajanoski, Zlatko
With the introduction of tissue microarrays (TMAs) researchers can investigate gene and protein expression in tissues on a high-throughput scale. TMAs generate a wealth of data calling for extended, high level data management. Enhanced data analysis and systematic data management are required for traceability and reproducibility of experiments and provision of results in a timely and reliable fashion. Robust and scalable applications have to be utilized, which allow secure data access, manipulation and evaluation for researchers from different laboratories. TAMEE (Tissue Array Management and Evaluation Environment) is a web-based database application for the management and analysis of data resulting from the production and application of TMAs. It facilitates storage of production and experimental parameters, of images generated throughout the TMA workflow, and of results from core evaluation. Database content consistency is achieved using structured classifications of parameters. This allows the extraction of high quality results for subsequent biologically-relevant data analyses. Tissue cores in the images of stained tissue sections are automatically located and extracted and can be evaluated using a set of predefined analysis algorithms. Additional evaluation algorithms can be easily integrated into the application via a plug-in interface. Downstream analysis of results is facilitated via a flexible query generator. We have developed an integrated system tailored to the specific needs of research projects using high density TMAs. It covers the complete workflow of TMA production, experimental use and subsequent analysis. The system is freely available for academic and non-profit institutions from http://genome.tugraz.at/Software/TAMEE.
Ak, Handan; Zeybek, Burak; Atay, Sevcan; Askar, Niyazi; Akdemir, Ali; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major health problem that impairs the quality of life with a wide clinical spectrum. Since the uterosacral ligaments provide primary support for the uterus and the upper vagina, we hypothesize that the disruption of these ligaments may lead to a loss of support and eventually contribute to POP. In this study, we therefore investigated whether there are any differences in the transcription profile of uterosacral ligaments in patients with POP when compared to those of the control samples. Seventeen women with POP and 8 non-POP controls undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions were included in the study. Affymetrix® Gene Chip microarrays (Human Hu 133 plus 2.0) were used for whole genome gene expression profiling analysis. There was 1 significantly down-regulated gene, NKX2-3 in patients with POP compared to the controls (p=4.28464e-013). KIF11 gene was found to be significantly down-regulated in patients with ≥3 deliveries compared to patients with <3 deliveries (p=0.0156237). UGT1A1 (p=2.43388e-005), SCARB1 (p=1.19001e-006) and NKX2-3 (p=2.17966e-013) genes were found to be significantly down-regulated in the premenopausal patients compared to the premenopausal controls. UGT1A1 gene was also found to be significantly down-regulated in the post menopausal patients compared to the postmenopausal controls (p=0.0005). This study provides evidence for a significant down-regulation of the genes that take role in cell cycle, proliferation and embryonic development along with cell adhesion process on the development of POP for the first time. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Higham, Desmond J; Kalna, Gabriela; Vass, J Keith
We give a simple and informative derivation of a spectral algorithm for clustering and reordering complementary DNA microarray expression data. Here, expression levels of a set of genes are recorded simultaneously across a number of samples, with a positive weight reflecting up-regulation and a negative weight reflecting down-regulation. We give theoretical support for the algorithm based on a biologically justified hypothesis about the structure of the data, and illustrate its use on public domain data in the context of unsupervised tumour classification. The algorithm is derived by considering a discrete optimization problem and then relaxing to the continuous realm. We prove that in the case where the data have an inherent 'checkerboard' sign pattern, the algorithm will automatically reveal that pattern. Further, our derivation shows that the algorithm may be regarded as imposing a random graph model on the expression levels and then clustering from a maximum likelihood perspective. This indicates that the output will be tolerant to perturbations and will reveal 'near-checkerboard' patterns when these are present in the data. It is interesting to note that the checkerboard structure is revealed by the first (dominant) singular vectors--previous work on spectral methods has focussed on the case of nonnegative edge weights, where only the second and higher singular vectors are relevant. We illustrate the algorithm on real and synthetic data, and then use it in a tumour classification context on three different cancer data sets. Our results show that respecting the two-signed nature of the data (thereby distinguishing between up-regulation and down-regulation) reveals structures that cannot be gleaned from the absolute value data (where up- and down-regulation are both regarded as 'changes').
Bugert, Peter; Dugrillon, Alex; Günaydin, Ayse; Eichler, Hermann; Klüter, Harald
Platelets are generally believed to be inactive in terms of de novo protein synthesis. On the other hand, the presence of ribosomes and mRNA molecules is well established. Many studies have used reverse transcriptase (RT) -PCR for detection of gene transcripts in platelets. As RT-PCR is a very sensitive method, any leukocyte contamination of platelet preparations can lead to false results. We performed three filtration procedures to minimize leukocyte contamination of pooled buffy-coat platelet concentrates prior to RNA isolation. Furthermore, by applying a genomic PCR approach with 50 amplification cycles we demonstrated that nucleated cells were not detectable. Microarray hybridization was used to analyze 9,850 individual human genes in RNA from purified platelets. In total we identified 1,526 (15.5%) positive genes. The data were confirmed in six individual experiments each performed on a PC pooled from four individual blood donations. Genes specific for nucleated blood cells such as CD4, CD83 and others were negative and verified the purity of PC. Overrepresentation of positive genes was found in the functional categories of glycoproteins/integrins (22.6% vs. 15.5%, p=0.029) and receptors (20.7% vs. 15.5%, p<0.001). Gene transcripts encoding RANTES, GRO-alpha, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and others were found at high levels of signal intensity and confirmed literature data. This work provides a mRNA profile of human platelets and a complete list of results can be downloaded from the website of our institute www.ma.uni-heidelberg.de/inst/iti/plt_array.xls. The knowledge about gene transcripts may have an impact on the characterization of novel proteins and their functions in platelets.
Papenhausen, Peter; Schwartz, Stuart; Risheg, Hiba; Keitges, Elisabeth; Gadi, Inder; Burnside, Rachel D; Jaswaney, Vikram; Pappas, John; Pasion, Romela; Friedman, Kenneth; Tepperberg, James
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based chromosome microarrays provide both a high-density whole genome analysis of copy number and genotype. In the past 21 months we have analyzed over 13,000 samples primarily referred for developmental delay using the Affymetrix SNP/CN 6.0 version array platform. In addition to copy number, we have focused on the relative distribution of allele homozygosity (HZ) throughout the genome to confirm a strong association of uniparental disomy (UPD) with regions of isoallelism found in most confirmed cases of UPD. We sought to determine whether a long contiguous stretch of HZ (LCSH) greater than a threshold value found only in a single chromosome would correlate with UPD of that chromosome. Nine confirmed UPD cases were retrospectively analyzed with the array in the study, each showing the anticipated LCSH with the smallest 13.5 Mb in length. This length is well above the average longest run of HZ in a set of control patients and was then set as the prospective threshold for reporting possible UPD correlation. Ninety-two cases qualified at that threshold, 46 of those had molecular UPD testing and 29 were positive. Including retrospective cases, 16 showed complete HZ across the chromosome, consistent with total isoUPD. The average size LCSH in the 19 cases that were not completely HZ was 46.3 Mb with a range of 13.5-127.8 Mb. Three patients showed only segmental UPD. Both the size and location of the LCSH are relevant to correlation with UPD. Further studies will continue to delineate an optimal threshold for LCSH/UPD correlation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Dougherty, Edward R; Barrera, Junior; Brun, Marcel; Kim, Seungchan; Cesar, Roberto M; Chen, Yidong; Bittner, Michael; Trent, Jeffrey M
There are many algorithms to cluster sample data points based on nearness or a similarity measure. Often the implication is that points in different clusters come from different underlying classes, whereas those in the same cluster come from the same class. Stochastically, the underlying classes represent different random processes. The inference is that clusters represent a partition of the sample points according to which process they belong. This paper discusses a model-based clustering toolbox that evaluates cluster accuracy. Each random process is modeled as its mean plus independent noise, sample points are generated, the points are clustered, and the clustering error is the number of points clustered incorrectly according to the generating random processes. Various clustering algorithms are evaluated based on process variance and the key issue of the rate at which algorithmic performance improves with increasing numbers of experimental replications. The model means can be selected by hand to test the separability of expected types of biological expression patterns. Alternatively, the model can be seeded by real data to test the expected precision of that output or the extent of improvement in precision that replication could provide. In the latter case, a clustering algorithm is used to form clusters, and the model is seeded with the means and variances of these clusters. Other algorithms are then tested relative to the seeding algorithm. Results are averaged over various seeds. Output includes error tables and graphs, confusion matrices, principal-component plots, and validation measures. Five algorithms are studied in detail: K-means, fuzzy C-means, self-organizing maps, hierarchical Euclidean-distance-based and correlation-based clustering. The toolbox is applied to gene-expression clustering based on cDNA microarrays using real data. Expression profile graphics are generated and error analysis is displayed within the context of these profile graphics. A
Durrenberger, Pascal. F.; Grünblatt, Edna; Fernando, Francesca S.; Monoranu, Camelia Maria; Evans, Jordan; Riederer, Peter; Reynolds, Richard; Dexter, David T.
The aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is yet to be fully understood but it is becoming more and more evident that neuronal cell death may be multifactorial in essence. The main focus of PD research is to better understand substantia nigra homeostasis disruption, particularly in relation to the wide-spread deposition of the aberrant protein α-synuclein. Microarray technology contributed towards PD research with several studies to date and one gene, ALDH1A1 (Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1), consistently reappeared across studies including the present study, highlighting dopamine (DA) metabolism dysfunction resulting in oxidative stress and most probably leading to neuronal cell death. Neuronal cell death leads to increased inflammation through the activation of astrocytes and microglia. Using our dataset, we aimed to isolate some of these pathways so to offer potential novel neuroprotective therapeutic avenues. To that effect our study has focused on the upregulation of P2X7 (purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7) receptor pathway (microglial activation) and on the NOS3 (nitric oxide synthase 3) pathway (angiogenesis). In summary, although the exact initiator of striatal DA neuronal cell death remains to be determined, based on our analysis, this event does not remain without consequence. Extracellular ATP and reactive astrocytes appear to be responsible for the activation of microglia which in turn release proinflammatory cytokines contributing further to the parkinsonian condition. In addition to tackling oxidative stress pathways we also suggest to reduce microglial and endothelial activation to support neuronal outgrowth. PMID:22548201
Barton, G; Abbott, J; Chiba, N; Huang, DW; Huang, Y; Krznaric, M; Mack-Smith, J; Saleem, A; Sherman, BT; Tiwari, B; Tomlinson, C; Aitman, T; Darlington, J; Game, L; Sternberg, MJE; Butcher, SA
Background Microarray experimentation requires the application of complex analysis methods as well as the use of non-trivial computer technologies to manage the resultant large data sets. This, together with the proliferation of tools and techniques for microarray data analysis, makes it very challenging for a laboratory scientist to keep up-to-date with the latest developments in this field. Our aim was to develop a distributed e-support system for microarray data analysis and management. Results EMAAS (Extensible MicroArray Analysis System) is a multi-user rich internet application (RIA) providing simple, robust access to up-to-date resources for microarray data storage and analysis, combined with integrated tools to optimise real time user support and training. The system leverages the power of distributed computing to perform microarray analyses, and provides seamless access to resources located at various remote facilities. The EMAAS framework allows users to import microarray data from several sources to an underlying database, to pre-process, quality assess and analyse the data, to perform functional analyses, and to track data analysis steps, all through a single easy to use web portal. This interface offers distance support to users both in the form of video tutorials and via live screen feeds using the web conferencing tool EVO. A number of analysis packages, including R-Bioconductor and Affymetrix Power Tools have been integrated on the server side and are available programmatically through the Postgres-PLR library or on grid compute clusters. Integrated distributed resources include the functional annotation tool DAVID, GeneCards and the microarray data repositories GEO, CELSIUS and MiMiR. EMAAS currently supports analysis of Affymetrix 3' and Exon expression arrays, and the system is extensible to cater for other microarray and transcriptomic platforms. Conclusion EMAAS enables users to track and perform microarray data management and analysis tasks
Goodman, Corey W; Major, Heather J; Walls, William D; Sheffield, Val C; Casavant, Thomas L; Darbro, Benjamin W
Chromosomal microarrays (CMAs) are routinely used in both research and clinical laboratories; yet, little attention has been given to the estimation of genome-wide true and false negatives during the assessment of these assays and how such information could be used to calibrate various algorithmic metrics to improve performance. Low-throughput, locus-specific methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) preclude rigorous calibration of various metrics used by copy number variant (CNV) detection algorithms. To aid this task, we have established a comparative methodology, CNV-ROC, which is capable of performing a high throughput, low cost, analysis of CMAs that takes into consideration genome-wide true and false negatives. CNV-ROC uses a higher resolution microarray to confirm calls from a lower resolution microarray and provides for a true measure of genome-wide performance metrics at the resolution offered by microarray testing. CNV-ROC also provides for a very precise comparison of CNV calls between two microarray platforms without the need to establish an arbitrary degree of overlap. Comparison of CNVs across microarrays is done on a per-probe basis and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis is used to calibrate algorithmic metrics, such as log2 ratio threshold, to enhance CNV calling performance. CNV-ROC addresses a critical and consistently overlooked aspect of analytical assessments of genome-wide techniques like CMAs which is the measurement and use of genome-wide true and false negative data for the calculation of performance metrics and comparison of CNV profiles between different microarray experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burgarella, Sarah; Cattaneo, Dario; Pinciroli, Francesco; Masseroli, Marco
Improvements of bio-nano-technologies and biomolecular techniques have led to increasing production of high-throughput experimental data. Spotted cDNA microarray is one of the most diffuse technologies, used in single research laboratories and in biotechnology service facilities. Although they are routinely performed, spotted microarray experiments are complex procedures entailing several experimental steps and actors with different technical skills and roles. During an experiment, involved actors, who can also be located in a distance, need to access and share specific experiment information according to their roles. Furthermore, complete information describing all experimental steps must be orderly collected to allow subsequent correct interpretation of experimental results. We developed MicroGen, a web system for managing information and workflow in the production pipeline of spotted microarray experiments. It is constituted of a core multi-database system able to store all data completely characterizing different spotted microarray experiments according to the Minimum Information About Microarray Experiments (MIAME) standard, and of an intuitive and user-friendly web interface able to support the collaborative work required among multidisciplinary actors and roles involved in spotted microarray experiment production. MicroGen supports six types of user roles: the researcher who designs and requests the experiment, the spotting operator, the hybridisation operator, the image processing operator, the system administrator, and the generic public user who can access the unrestricted part of the system to get information about MicroGen services. MicroGen represents a MIAME compliant information system that enables managing workflow and supporting collaborative work in spotted microarray experiment production.
Whetzel, Patricia L; Parkinson, Helen; Causton, Helen C; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Game, Laurence; Heiskanen, Mervi; Morrison, Norman; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Taylor, Chris; White, Joseph; Stoeckert, Christian J
The generation of large amounts of microarray data and the need to share these data bring challenges for both data management and annotation and highlights the need for standards. MIAME specifies the minimum information needed to describe a microarray experiment and the Microarray Gene Expression Object Model (MAGE-OM) and resulting MAGE-ML provide a mechanism to standardize data representation for data exchange, however a common terminology for data annotation is needed to support these standards. Here we describe the MGED Ontology (MO) developed by the Ontology Working Group of the Microarray Gene Expression Data (MGED) Society. The MO provides terms for annotating all aspects of a microarray experiment from the design of the experiment and array layout, through to the preparation of the biological sample and the protocols used to hybridize the RNA and analyze the data. The MO was developed to provide terms for annotating experiments in line with the MIAME guidelines, i.e. to provide the semantics to describe a microarray experiment according to the concepts specified in MIAME. The MO does not attempt to incorporate terms from existing ontologies, e.g. those that deal with anatomical parts or developmental stages terms, but provides a framework to reference terms in other ontologies and therefore facilitates the use of ontologies in microarray data annotation. The MGED Ontology version.1.2.0 is available as a file in both DAML and OWL formats at http://mged.sourceforge.net/ontologies/index.php. Release notes and annotation examples are provided. The MO is also provided via the NCICB's Enterprise Vocabulary System (http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov/NCIBrowser/Dictionary.do). Stoeckrt@pcbi.upenn.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Yao, Jianchao; Chang, Chunqi; Salmi, Mari L; Hung, Yeung Sam; Loraine, Ann; Roux, Stanley J
Currently, clustering with some form of correlation coefficient as the gene similarity metric has become a popular method for profiling genomic data. The Pearson correlation coefficient and the standard deviation (SD)-weighted correlation coefficient are the two most widely-used correlations as the similarity metrics in clustering microarray data. However, these two correlations are not optimal for analyzing replicated microarray data generated by most laboratories. An effective correlation coefficient is needed to provide statistically sufficient analysis of replicated microarray data. In this study, we describe a novel correlation coefficient, shrinkage correlation coefficient (SCC), that fully exploits the similarity between the replicated microarray experimental samples. The methodology considers both the number of replicates and the variance within each experimental group in clustering expression data, and provides a robust statistical estimation of the error of replicated microarray data. The value of SCC is revealed by its comparison with two other correlation coefficients that are currently the most widely-used (Pearson correlation coefficient and SD-weighted correlation coefficient) using statistical measures on both synthetic expression data as well as real gene expression data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two leading clustering methods, hierarchical and k-means clustering were applied for the comparison. The comparison indicated that using SCC achieves better clustering performance. Applying SCC-based hierarchical clustering to the replicated microarray data obtained from germinating spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii, we discovered two clusters of genes with shared expression patterns during spore germination. Functional analysis suggested that some of the genetic mechanisms that control germination in such diverse plant lineages as mosses and angiosperms are also conserved among ferns. This study shows that SCC is an alternative to the Pearson
Mallén, Maria; Díaz-González, María; Bonilla, Diana; Salvador, Juan P; Marco, María P; Baldi, Antoni; Fernández-Sánchez, César
Low-density protein microarrays are emerging tools in diagnostics whose deployment could be primarily limited by the cost of fluorescence detection schemes. This paper describes an electrical readout system of microarrays comprising an array of gold interdigitated microelectrodes and an array of polydimethylsiloxane microwells, which enabled multiplexed detection of up to thirty six biological events on the same substrate. Similarly to fluorescent readout counterparts, the microarray can be developed on disposable glass slide substrates. However, unlike them, the presented approach is compact and requires a simple and inexpensive instrumentation. The system makes use of urease labeled affinity reagents for developing the microarrays and is based on detection of conductivity changes taking place when ionic species are generated in solution due to the catalytic hydrolysis of urea. The use of a polydimethylsiloxane microwell array facilitates the positioning of the measurement solution on every spot of the microarray. Also, it ensures the liquid tightness and isolation from the surrounding ones during the microarray readout process, thereby avoiding evaporation and chemical cross-talk effects that were shown to affect the sensitivity and reliability of the system. The performance of the system is demonstrated by carrying out the readout of a microarray for boldenone anabolic androgenic steroid hormone. Analytical results are comparable to those obtained by fluorescent scanner detection approaches. The estimated detection limit is 4.0 ng mL(-1), this being below the threshold value set by the World Anti-Doping Agency and the European Community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sevenler, Derin; Daaboul, George G; Ekiz Kanik, Fulya; Ünlü, Neşe Lortlar; Ünlü, M Selim
DNA and protein microarrays are a high-throughput technology that allow the simultaneous quantification of tens of thousands of different biomolecular species. The mediocre sensitivity and limited dynamic range of traditional fluorescence microarrays compared to other detection techniques have been the technology's Achilles' heel and prevented their adoption for many biomedical and clinical diagnostic applications. Previous work to enhance the sensitivity of microarray readout to the single-molecule ("digital") regime have either required signal amplifying chemistry or sacrificed throughput, nixing the platform's primary advantages. Here, we report the development of a digital microarray which extends both the sensitivity and dynamic range of microarrays by about 3 orders of magnitude. This technique uses functionalized gold nanorods as single-molecule labels and an interferometric scanner which can rapidly enumerate individual nanorods by imaging them with a 10× objective lens. This approach does not require any chemical signal enhancement such as silver deposition and scans arrays with a throughput similar to commercial fluorescence scanners. By combining single-nanoparticle enumeration and ensemble measurements of spots when the particles are very dense, this system achieves a dynamic range of about 6 orders of magnitude directly from a single scan. As a proof-of-concept digital protein microarray assay, we demonstrated detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen in buffer with a limit of detection of 3.2 pg/mL. More broadly, the technique's simplicity and high-throughput nature make digital microarrays a flexible platform technology with a wide range of potential applications in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics.
Goodman, Corey W.; Major, Heather J.; Walls, William D.; Sheffield, Val C.; Casavant, Thomas L.; Darbro, Benjamin W.
Chromosomal microarrays (CMAs) are routinely used in both research and clinical laboratories; yet, little attention has been given to the estimation of genome-wide true and false negatives during the assessment of these assays and how such information could be used to calibrate various algorithmic metrics to improve performance. Low-throughput, locus-specific methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) preclude rigorous calibration of various metrics used by copy number variant (CNV) detection algorithms. To aid this task, we have established a comparative methodology, CNV-ROC, which is capable of performing a high throughput, low cost, analysis of CMAs that takes into consideration genome-wide true and false negatives. CNV-ROC uses a higher resolution microarray to confirm calls from a lower resolution microarray and provides for a true measure of genome-wide performance metrics at the resolution offered by microarray testing. CNV-ROC also provides for a very precise comparison of CNV calls between two microarray platforms without the need to establish an arbitrary degree of overlap. Comparison of CNVs across microarrays is done on a per-probe basis and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis is used to calibrate algorithmic metrics, such as log2 ratio threshold, to enhance CNV calling performance. CNV-ROC addresses a critical and consistently overlooked aspect of analytical assessments of genome-wide techniques like CMAs which is the measurement and use of genome-wide true and false negative data for the calculation of performance metrics and comparison of CNV profiles between different microarray experiments. PMID:25595567
Bazot, Cécile; Dobigeon, Nicolas; Tourneret, Jean-Yves; Zaas, Aimee K; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Hero, Alfred O
This paper introduces a new constrained model and the corresponding algorithm, called unsupervised Bayesian linear unmixing (uBLU), to identify biological signatures from high dimensional assays like gene expression microarrays. The basis for uBLU is a Bayesian model for the data samples which are represented as an additive mixture of random positive gene signatures, called factors, with random positive mixing coefficients, called factor scores, that specify the relative contribution of each signature to a specific sample. The particularity of the proposed method is that uBLU constrains the factor loadings to be non-negative and the factor scores to be probability distributions over the factors. Furthermore, it also provides estimates of the number of factors. A Gibbs sampling strategy is adopted here to generate random samples according to the posterior distribution of the factors, factor scores, and number of factors. These samples are then used to estimate all the unknown parameters. Firstly, the proposed uBLU method is applied to several simulated datasets with known ground truth and compared with previous factor decomposition methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA), non negative matrix factorization (NMF), Bayesian factor regression modeling (BFRM), and the gradient-based algorithm for general matrix factorization (GB-GMF). Secondly, we illustrate the application of uBLU on a real time-evolving gene expression dataset from a recent viral challenge study in which individuals have been inoculated with influenza A/H3N2/Wisconsin. We show that the uBLU method significantly outperforms the other methods on the simulated and real data sets considered here. The results obtained on synthetic and real data illustrate the accuracy of the proposed uBLU method when compared to other factor decomposition methods from the literature (PCA, NMF, BFRM, and GB-GMF). The uBLU method identifies an inflammatory component closely associated with clinical symptom scores
Bengtsson, Anders; Bengtsson, Henrik
In a microarray experiment the difference in expression between genes on the same slide is up to 103 fold or more. At low expression, even a small error in the estimate will have great influence on the final test and reference ratios. In addition to the true spot intensity the scanned signal consists of different kinds of noise referred to as background. In order to assess the true spot intensity background must be subtracted. The standard approach to estimate background intensities is to assume they are equal to the intensity levels between spots. In the literature, morphological opening is suggested to be one of the best methods for estimating background this way. This paper examines fundamental properties of rank and quantile filters, which include morphological filters at the extremes, with focus on their ability to estimate between-spot intensity levels. The bias and variance of these filter estimates are driven by the number of background pixels used and their distributions. A new rank-filter algorithm is implemented and compared to methods available in Spot by CSIRO and GenePix Pro by Axon Instruments. Spot's morphological opening has a mean bias between -47 and -248 compared to a bias between 2 and -2 for the rank filter and the variability of the morphological opening estimate is 3 times higher than for the rank filter. The mean bias of Spot's second method, morph.close.open, is between -5 and -16 and the variability is approximately the same as for morphological opening. The variability of GenePix Pro's region-based estimate is more than ten times higher than the variability of the rank-filter estimate and with slightly more bias. The large variability is because the size of the background window changes with spot size. To overcome this, a non-adaptive region-based method is implemented. Its bias and variability are comparable to that of the rank filter. The performance of more advanced rank filters is equal to the best region-based methods. However, in
DNA chip technology has drawn tremendous attention since it emerged in the mid 90's as a method that expedites gene sequencing by over 100-fold. DNA chip, also called DNA microarray, is a combinatorial technology in which different single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules of known sequences are immobilized at specific spots. The immobilized ssDNA strands are called probes. In application, the chip is exposed to a solution containing ssDNA of unknown sequence, called targets, which are labeled with fluorescent dyes. Due to specific molecular recognition among the base pairs in the DNA, the binding or hybridization occurs only when the probe and target sequences are complementary. The nucleotide sequence of the target is determined by imaging the fluorescence from the spots. The uncertainty of background in signal detection and statistical error in data analysis, primarily due to the error in the DNA amplification process and statistical distribution of the tags in the target DNA, have become the fundamental barriers in bringing the technology into application for clinical diagnostics. Furthermore, the dye and tagging process are expensive, making the cost of DNA chips inhibitive for clinical testing. These limitations and challenges make it difficult to implement DNA chip methods as a diagnostic tool in a pathology laboratory. The objective of this dissertation research is to provide an alternative approach that will address the above challenges. In this research, a label-free assay is designed and studied. Polystyrene (PS), a commonly used polymeric material, serves as the fluorescence agent. Probe ssDNA is covalently immobilized on polystyrene thin film that is supported by a reflecting substrate. When this chip is exposed to excitation light, fluorescence light intensity from PS is detected as the signal. Since the optical constants and conformations of ssDNA and dsDNA (double stranded DNA) are different, the measured fluorescence from PS changes for the same
Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Seo Eun; Kim, Min Jung; Han, Jin Il; Kim, Bo Kyung; Lee, Yong Sung; Lee, Young Seek; Kim, Jin Hyuk
Background The quality of cDNA microarray data is crucial for expanding its application to other research areas, such as the study of gene regulatory networks. Despite the fact that a number of algorithms have been suggested to increase the accuracy of microarray gene expression data, it is necessary to obtain reliable microarray images by improving wet-lab experiments. As the first step of a cDNA microarray experiment, spotting cDNA probes is critical to determining the quality of spot images. Results We developed a governing equation of cDNA deposition during evaporation of a drop in the microarray spotting process. The governing equation included four parameters: the surface site density on the support, the extrapolated equilibrium constant for the binding of cDNA molecules with surface sites on glass slides, the macromolecular interaction factor, and the volume constant of a drop of cDNA solution. We simulated cDNA deposition from the single model equation by varying the value of the parameters. The morphology of the resulting cDNA deposit can be classified into three types: a doughnut shape, a peak shape, and a volcano shape. The spot morphology can be changed into a flat shape by varying the experimental conditions while considering the parameters of the governing equation of cDNA deposition. The four parameters were estimated by fitting the governing equation to the real microarray images. With the results of the simulation and the parameter estimation, the phenomenon of the formation of cDNA deposits in each type was investigated. Conclusion This study explains how various spot shapes can exist and suggests which parameters are to be adjusted for obtaining a good spot. This system is able to explore the cDNA microarray spotting process in a predictable, manageable and descriptive manner. We hope it can provide a way to predict the incidents that can occur during a real cDNA microarray experiment, and produce useful data for several research applications
Arnold, Christian; Externbrink, Fabian; Hackermüller, Jörg; Reiche, Kristin
Microarrays are widely used in gene expression studies, and custom expression microarrays are popular to monitor expression changes of a customer-defined set of genes. However, the complexity of transcriptomes uncovered recently make custom expression microarray design a non-trivial task. Pervasive transcription and alternative processing of transcripts generate a wealth of interweaved transcripts that requires well-considered probe design strategies and is largely neglected in existing approaches. We developed the web server CEM-Designer that facilitates microarray platform independent design of custom expression microarrays for complex transcriptomes. CEM-Designer covers (i) the collection and generation of a set of unique target sequences from different sources and (ii) the selection of a set of sensitive and specific probes that optimally represents the target sequences. Probe design itself is left to third party software to ensure that probes meet provider-specific constraints. CEM-Designer is available at http://designpipeline.bioinf.uni-leipzig.de. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Bernhard H.; Tinapple, Jon; Surber, Lewis
The intent of this study on micro-array flow control is to demonstrate the viability and economy of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to determine optimal designs of micro-array actuation for controlling the shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions within supersonic inlets and compare these concepts to conventional bleed performance. The term micro-array refers to micro-actuator arrays which have heights of 25 to 40 percent of the undisturbed supersonic boundary layer thickness. This study covers optimal control of shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions using standard micro-vane, tapered micro-vane, and standard micro-ramp arrays at a free stream Mach number of 2.0. The effectiveness of the three micro-array devices was tested using a shock pressure rise induced by the 10 shock generator, which was sufficiently strong as to separate the turbulent supersonic boundary layer. The overall design purpose of the micro-arrays was to alter the properties of the supersonic boundary layer by introducing a cascade of counter-rotating micro-vortices in the near wall region. In this manner, the impact of the shock wave boundary layer (SWBL) interaction on the main flow field was minimized without boundary bleed.
Kim, Kyoungmi; Page, Grier P; Beasley, T Mark; Barnes, Stephen; Scheirer, Katherine E; Allison, David B
Background High-density microarray technology is increasingly applied to study gene expression levels on a large scale. Microarray experiments rely on several critical steps that may introduce error and uncertainty in analyses. These steps include mRNA sample extraction, amplification and labeling, hybridization, and scanning. In some cases this may be manifested as systematic spatial variation on the surface of microarray in which expression measurements within an individual array may vary as a function of geographic position on the array surface. Results We hypothesized that an index of the degree of spatiality of gene expression measurements associated with their physical geographic locations on an array could indicate the summary of the physical reliability of the microarray. We introduced a novel way to formulate this index using a statistical analysis tool. Our approach regressed gene expression intensity measurements on a polynomial response surface of the microarray's Cartesian coordinates. We demonstrated this method using a fixed model and presented results from real and simulated datasets. Conclusion We demonstrated the potential of such a quantitative metric for assessing the reliability of individual arrays. Moreover, we showed that this procedure can be incorporated into laboratory practice as a means to set quality control specifications and as a tool to determine whether an array has sufficient quality to be retained in terms of spatial correlation of gene expression measurements. PMID:16430768
Tra, Yolande V; Evans, Irene M
BIO2010 put forth the goal of improving the mathematical educational background of biology students. The analysis and interpretation of microarray high-dimensional data can be very challenging and is best done by a statistician and a biologist working and teaching in a collaborative manner. We set up such a collaboration and designed a course on microarray data analysis. We started using Genome Consortium for Active Teaching (GCAT) materials and Microarray Genome and Clustering Tool software and added R statistical software along with Bioconductor packages. In response to student feedback, one microarray data set was fully analyzed in class, starting from preprocessing to gene discovery to pathway analysis using the latter software. A class project was to conduct a similar analysis where students analyzed their own data or data from a published journal paper. This exercise showed the impact that filtering, preprocessing, and different normalization methods had on gene inclusion in the final data set. We conclude that this course achieved its goals to equip students with skills to analyze data from a microarray experiment. We offer our insight about collaborative teaching as well as how other faculty might design and implement a similar interdisciplinary course.
Li, Lingyun; Migliore, Nicole; Schaefer, Eugene; Sharfstein, Susan T.; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Linhardt, Robert J.
High throughput (HT) platforms serve as cost-efficient and rapid screening method for evaluating the effect of cell culture conditions and screening of chemicals. The aim of the current study was to develop a high-throughput cell-based microarray platform to assess the effect of culture conditions on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Specifically, growth, transgene expression and metabolism of a GS/MSX CHO cell line, which produces a therapeutic monoclonal antibody, was examined using microarray system in conjunction with conventional shake flask platform in a non-proprietary medium. The microarray system consists of 60 nl spots of cells encapsulated in alginate and separated in groups via an 8-well chamber system attached to the chip. Results show the non-proprietary medium developed allows cell growth, production and normal glycosylation of recombinant antibody and metabolism of the recombinant CHO cells in both the microarray and shake flask platforms. In addition, 10.3 mM glutamate addition to the defined base media results in lactate metabolism shift in the recombinant GS/MSX CHO cells in the shake flask platform. Ultimately, the results demonstrate that the high-throughput microarray platform has the potential to be utilized for evaluating the impact of media additives on cellular processes, such as, cell growth, metabolism and productivity. PMID:24227746
Tsai, Pi-Wen; Lee, Mei-Ling Ting
This article focuses on microarray experiments with two or more factors in which treatment combinations of the factors corresponding to the samples paired together onto arrays are not completely random. A main effect of one (or more) factor(s) is confounded with arrays (the experimental blocks). This is called a split-plot microarray experiment. We utilise an analysis of variance (ANOVA) model to assess differentially expressed genes for between-array and within-array comparisons that are generic under a split-plot microarray experiment. Instead of standard t- or F-test statistics that rely on mean square errors of the ANOVA model, we use a robust method, referred to as 'a pooled percentile estimator', to identify genes that are differentially expressed across different treatment conditions. We illustrate the design and analysis of split-plot microarray experiments based on a case application described by Jin et al. A brief discussion of power and sample size for split-plot microarray experiments is also presented.
Abbaspour, Mohsen; Abugharbieh, Rafeef; Podder, Mohua; Tebbutt, Scott J.
We present a fully-automated and robust microarray image analysis system for handling multi-resolution images (down to 3-micron with sizes up to 80 MBs per channel). The system is developed to provide rapid and accurate data extraction for our recently developed microarray analysis and quality control tool (SNP Chart). Currently available commercial microarray image analysis applications are inefficient, due to the considerable user interaction typically required. Four-channel DNA microarray technology is a robust and accurate tool for determining genotypes of multiple genetic markers in individuals. It plays an important role in the state of the art trend where traditional medical treatments are to be replaced by personalized genetic medicine, i.e. individualized therapy based on the patient's genetic heritage. However, fast, robust, and precise image processing tools are required for the prospective practical use of microarray-based genetic testing for predicting disease susceptibilities and drug effects in clinical practice, which require a turn-around timeline compatible with clinical decision-making. In this paper we have developed a fully-automated image analysis platform for the rapid investigation of hundreds of genetic variations across multiple genes. Validation tests indicate very high accuracy levels for genotyping results. Our method achieves a significant reduction in analysis time, from several hours to just a few minutes, and is completely automated requiring no manual interaction or guidance.
Kaushansky, Alexis; Allen, John E; Gordus, Andrew; Stiffler, Michael A; Karp, Ethan S; Chang, Bryan H; MacBeath, Gavin
Protein microarrays provide an efficient way to identify and quantify protein-protein interactions in high throughput. One drawback of this technique is that proteins show a broad range of physicochemical properties and are often difficult to produce recombinantly. To circumvent these problems, we have focused on families of protein interaction domains. Here we provide protocols for constructing microarrays of protein interaction domains in individual wells of 96-well microtiter plates, and for quantifying domain-peptide interactions in high throughput using fluorescently labeled synthetic peptides. As specific examples, we will describe the construction of microarrays of virtually every human Src homology 2 (SH2) and phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain, as well as microarrays of mouse PDZ domains, all produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli. For domains that mediate high-affinity interactions, such as SH2 and PTB domains, equilibrium dissociation constants (K(D)s) for their peptide ligands can be measured directly on arrays by obtaining saturation binding curves. For weaker binding domains, such as PDZ domains, arrays are best used to identify candidate interactions, which are then retested and quantified by fluorescence polarization. Overall, protein domain microarrays provide the ability to rapidly identify and quantify protein-ligand interactions with minimal sample consumption. Because entire domain families can be interrogated simultaneously, they provide a powerful way to assess binding selectivity on a proteome-wide scale and provide an unbiased perspective on the connectivity of protein-protein interaction networks.
Rao, Archana N; Grainger, David W
Both clinical and analytical metrics produced by microarray-based assay technology have recognized problems in reproducibility, reliability and analytical sensitivity. These issues are often attributed to poor understanding and control of nucleic acid behaviors and properties at solid-liquid interfaces. Nucleic acid hybridization, central to DNA and RNA microarray formats, depends on the properties and behaviors of single strand (ss) nucleic acids (e.g., probe oligomeric DNA) bound to surfaces. ssDNA's persistence length, radius of gyration, electrostatics, conformations on different surfaces and under various assay conditions, its chain flexibility and curvature, charging effects in ionic solutions, and fluorescent labeling all influence its physical chemistry and hybridization under assay conditions. Nucleic acid (e.g., both RNA and DNA) target interactions with immobilized ssDNA strands are highly impacted by these biophysical states. Furthermore, the kinetics, thermodynamics, and enthalpic and entropic contributions to DNA hybridization reflect global probe/target structures and interaction dynamics. Here we review several biophysical issues relevant to oligomeric nucleic acid molecular behaviors at surfaces and their influences on duplex formation that influence microarray assay performance. Correlation of biophysical aspects of single and double-stranded nucleic acids with their complexes in bulk solution is common. Such analysis at surfaces is not commonly reported, despite its importance to microarray assays. We seek to provide further insight into nucleic acid-surface challenges facing microarray diagnostic formats that have hindered their clinical adoption and compromise their research quality and value as genomics tools.
Cole, Steve W; Galic, Zoran; Zack, Jerome A
Theoretical considerations suggest that current microarray screening algorithms may fail to detect many true differences in gene expression (Type II analytic errors). We assessed 'false negative' error rates in differential expression analyses by conventional linear statistical models (e.g. t-test), microarray-adapted variants (e.g. SAM, Cyber-T), and a novel strategy based on hold-out cross-validation. The latter approach employs the machine-learning algorithm Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) to infer minimum thresholds for reliable change in gene expression from Boolean conjunctions of fold-induction and raw fluorescence measurements. Monte Carlo analyses based on four empirical data sets show that conventional statistical models and their microarray-adapted variants overlook more than 50% of genes showing significant up-regulation. Conjoint PRIM prediction rules recover approximately twice as many differentially expressed transcripts while maintaining strong control over false-positive (Type I) errors. As a result, experimental replication rates increase and total analytic error rates decline. RT-PCR studies confirm that gene inductions detected by PRIM but overlooked by other methods represent true changes in mRNA levels. PRIM-based conjoint inference rules thus represent an improved strategy for high-sensitivity screening of DNA microarrays. Freestanding JAVA application at http://microarray.crump.ucla.edu/focus
Chao, Jie; Li, Zhenhua; Li, Jing; Peng, Hongzhen; Su, Shao; Li, Qian; Zhu, Changfeng; Zuo, Xiaolei; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lianhui; Wang, Lihua
Microarrays of biomolecules hold great promise in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and clinical assays on account of their remarkably parallel and high-throughput assay capability. However, the fluorescence detection used in most conventional DNA microarrays is still limited by sensitivity. In this study, we have demonstrated a novel universal and highly sensitive platform for fluorescent detection of sequence specific DNA at the femtomolar level by combining dextran-coated microarrays with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) signal amplification. Three-dimensional dextran matrix was covalently coated on glass surface as the scaffold to immobilize DNA recognition probes to increase the surface binding capacity and accessibility. DNA nanowire tentacles were formed on the matrix surface for efficient signal amplification by capturing multiple fluorescent molecules in a highly ordered way. By quantifying microscopic fluorescent signals, the synergetic effects of dextran and HCR greatly improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays, with a detection limit of 10fM (1×10(5) molecules). This detection assay could recognize one-base mismatch with fluorescence signals dropped down to ~20%. This cost-effective microarray platform also worked well with samples in serum and thus shows great potential for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aydadenta, Husna; Adiwijaya
Cancer is one of the deadly diseases, according to data from WHO by 2015 there are 8.8 million more deaths caused by cancer, and this will increase every year if not resolved earlier. Microarray data has become one of the most popular cancer-identification studies in the field of health, since microarray data can be used to look at levels of gene expression in certain cell samples that serve to analyze thousands of genes simultaneously. By using data mining technique, we can classify the sample of microarray data thus it can be identified with cancer or not. In this paper we will discuss some research using some data mining techniques using microarray data, such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Naive Bayes, k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), and C4.5, and simulation of Random Forest algorithm with technique of reduction dimension using Relief. The result of this paper show performance measure (accuracy) from classification algorithm (SVM, ANN, Naive Bayes, kNN, C4.5, and Random Forets).The results in this paper show the accuracy of Random Forest algorithm higher than other classification algorithms (Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Naive Bayes, k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), and C4.5). It is hoped that this paper can provide some information about the speed, accuracy, performance and computational cost generated from each Data Mining Classification Technique based on microarray data.
Ogunnaike, Babatunde A; Gelmi, Claudio A; Edwards, Jeremy S
Gene expression studies generate large quantities of data with the defining characteristic that the number of genes (whose expression profiles are to be determined) exceed the number of available replicates by several orders of magnitude. Standard spot-by-spot analysis still seeks to extract useful information for each gene on the basis of the number of available replicates, and thus plays to the weakness of microarrays. On the other hand, because of the data volume, treating the entire data set as an ensemble, and developing theoretical distributions for these ensembles provides a framework that plays instead to the strength of microarrays. We present theoretical results that under reasonable assumptions, the distribution of microarray intensities follows the Gamma model, with the biological interpretations of the model parameters emerging naturally. We subsequently establish that for each microarray data set, the fractional intensities can be represented as a mixture of Beta densities, and develop a procedure for using these results to draw statistical inference regarding differential gene expression. We illustrate the results with experimental data from gene expression studies on Deinococcus radiodurans following DNA damage using cDNA microarrays. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahn, Soohyoun; Kulis, David M; Erdner, Deana L; Anderson, Donald M; Walt, David R
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a serious threat to coastal resources, causing a variety of impacts on public health, regional economies, and ecosystems. Plankton analysis is a valuable component of many HAB monitoring and research programs, but the diversity of plankton poses a problem in discriminating toxic from nontoxic species using conventional detection methods. Here we describe a sensitive and specific sandwich hybridization assay that combines fiber-optic microarrays with oligonucleotide probes to detect and enumerate the HAB species Alexandrium fundyense, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, and Pseudo-nitzschia australis. Microarrays were prepared by loading oligonucleotide probe-coupled microspheres (diameter, 3 mum) onto the distal ends of chemically etched imaging fiber bundles. Hybridization of target rRNA from HAB cells to immobilized probes on the microspheres was visualized using Cy3-labeled secondary probes in a sandwich-type assay format. We applied these microarrays to the detection and enumeration of HAB cells in both cultured and field samples. Our study demonstrated a detection limit of approximately 5 cells for all three target organisms within 45 min, without a separate amplification step, in both sample types. We also developed a multiplexed microarray to detect the three HAB species simultaneously, which successfully detected the target organisms, alone and in combination, without cross-reactivity. Our study suggests that fiber-optic microarrays can be used for rapid and sensitive detection and potential enumeration of HAB species in the environment.
Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gui, Taijiang; Wang, Ke; Gao, Changlu
Nonspecific binding or adsorption of biomolecules presents as a major obstacle to higher sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility in microarray technology. We report herein a method to fabricate antifouling microarray via photopolymerization of biomimetic betaine compounds. In brief, carboxybetaine methacrylate was polymerized as arrays for protein sensing, while sulfobetaine methacrylate was polymerized as background. With the abundant carboxyl groups on array surfaces and zwitterionic polymers on the entire surfaces, this microarray allows biomolecular immobilization and recognition with low nonspecific interactions due to its antifouling property. Therefore, low concentration of target molecules can be captured and detected by this microarray. It was proved that a concentration of 10ngmL -1 bovine serum albumin in the sample matrix of bovine serum can be detected by the microarray derivatized with anti-bovine serum albumin. Moreover, with proper hydrophilic-hydrophobic designs, this approach can be applied to fabricate surface-tension droplet arrays, which allows surface-directed cell adhesion and growth. These light controllable approaches constitute a clear improvement in the design of antifouling interfaces, which may lead to greater flexibility in the development of interfacial architectures and wider application in blood contact microdevices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Evans, Irene M.
BIO2010 put forth the goal of improving the mathematical educational background of biology students. The analysis and interpretation of microarray high-dimensional data can be very challenging and is best done by a statistician and a biologist working and teaching in a collaborative manner. We set up such a collaboration and designed a course on microarray data analysis. We started using Genome Consortium for Active Teaching (GCAT) materials and Microarray Genome and Clustering Tool software and added R statistical software along with Bioconductor packages. In response to student feedback, one microarray data set was fully analyzed in class, starting from preprocessing to gene discovery to pathway analysis using the latter software. A class project was to conduct a similar analysis where students analyzed their own data or data from a published journal paper. This exercise showed the impact that filtering, preprocessing, and different normalization methods had on gene inclusion in the final data set. We conclude that this course achieved its goals to equip students with skills to analyze data from a microarray experiment. We offer our insight about collaborative teaching as well as how other faculty might design and implement a similar interdisciplinary course. PMID:20810954
Rao, Archana N.; Grainger, David W.
Both clinical and analytical metrics produced by microarray-based assay technology have recognized problems in reproducibility, reliability and analytical sensitivity. These issues are often attributed to poor understanding and control of nucleic acid behaviors and properties at solid-liquid interfaces. Nucleic acid hybridization, central to DNA and RNA microarray formats, depends on the properties and behaviors of single strand (ss) nucleic acids (e.g., probe oligomeric DNA) bound to surfaces. ssDNA’s persistence length, radius of gyration, electrostatics, conformations on different surfaces and under various assay conditions, its chain flexibility and curvature, charging effects in ionic solutions, and fluorescent labeling all influence its physical chemistry and hybridization under assay conditions. Nucleic acid (e.g., both RNA and DNA) target interactions with immobilized ssDNA strands are highly impacted by these biophysical states. Furthermore, the kinetics, thermodynamics, and enthalpic and entropic contributions to DNA hybridization reflect global probe/target structures and interaction dynamics. Here we review several biophysical issues relevant to oligomeric nucleic acid molecular behaviors at surfaces and their influences on duplex formation that influence microarray assay performance. Correlation of biophysical aspects of single and double-stranded nucleic acids with their complexes in bulk solution is common. Such analysis at surfaces is not commonly reported, despite its importance to microarray assays. We seek to provide further insight into nucleic acid-surface challenges facing microarray diagnostic formats that have hindered their clinical adoption and compromise their research quality and value as genomics tools. PMID:24765522
Guo, Qingsheng; Bai, Zhixiong; Liu, Yuqian; Sun, Qingjiang
In this work, we report the application of streptavidin-coated quantum dot (strAV-QD) in molecular beacon (MB) microarray assays by using the strAV-QD to label the immobilized MB, avoiding target labeling and meanwhile obviating the use of amplification. The MBs are stem-loop structured oligodeoxynucleotides, modified with a thiol and a biotin at two terminals of the stem. With the strAV-QD labeling an "opened" MB rather than a "closed" MB via streptavidin-biotin reaction, a sensitive and specific detection of label-free target DNA sequence is demonstrated by the MB microarray, with a signal-to-background ratio of 8. The immobilized MBs can be perfectly regenerated, allowing the reuse of the microarray. The MB microarray also is able to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms, exhibiting genotype-dependent fluorescence signals. It is demonstrated that the MB microarray can perform as a 4-to-2 encoder, compressing the genotype information into two outputs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Han, Jingying; He, Zhiwei; Li, Kun; Hou, Lu
Recurrent oral ulcer seriously threatens patients' daily life and health. This study investigated potential genes and pathways that participate in the pathogenesis of recurrent oral ulcer by high throughput bioinformatic analysis. RT-PCR and Western blot were applied to further verify screened interleukins effect. Recurrent oral ulcer related genes were collected from websites and papers, and further found out from Human Genome 280 6.0 microarray data. Each pathway of recurrent oral ulcer related genes were got through chip hybridization. RT-PCR was applied to test four recurrent oral ulcer related genes to verify the microarray data. Data transformation, scatter plot, clustering analysis, and expression pattern analysis were used to analyze recurrent oral ulcer related gene expression changes. Recurrent oral ulcer gene microarray was successfully established. Microarray showed that 551 genes involved in recurrent oral ulcer activity and 196 genes were recurrent oral ulcer related genes. Of them, 76 genes up-regulated, 62 genes down-regulated, and 58 genes up-/down-regulated. Total expression level up-regulated 752 times (60%) and down-regulated 485 times (40%). IL-2 plays an important role in the occurrence, development and recurrence of recurrent oral ulcer on the mRNA and protein levels. Gene microarray can be used to analyze potential genes and pathways in recurrent oral ulcer. IL-2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of recurrent oral ulcer.
Astuti, Widi; Adiwijaya
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide although a significant proportion of it can be cured if it is detected early. In recent decades, technology called microarray takes an important role in the diagnosis of cancer. By using data mining technique, microarray data classification can be performed to improve the accuracy of cancer diagnosis compared to traditional techniques. The characteristic of microarray data is small sample but it has huge dimension. Since that, there is a challenge for researcher to provide solutions for microarray data classification with high performance in both accuracy and running time. This research proposed the usage of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as a dimension reduction method along with Support Vector Method (SVM) optimized by kernel functions as a classifier for microarray data classification. The proposed scheme was applied on seven data sets using 5-fold cross validation and then evaluation and analysis conducted on term of both accuracy and running time. The result showed that the scheme can obtained 100% accuracy for Ovarian and Lung Cancer data when Linear and Cubic kernel functions are used. In term of running time, PCA greatly reduced the running time for every data sets.
Katsigiannis, Stamos; Zacharia, Eleni; Maroulis, Dimitris
Complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray is a powerful tool for simultaneously studying the expression level of thousands of genes. Nevertheless, the analysis of microarray images remains an arduous and challenging task due to the poor quality of the images that often suffer from noise, artifacts, and uneven background. In this study, the MIGS-GPU [Microarray Image Gridding and Segmentation on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)] software for gridding and segmenting microarray images is presented. MIGS-GPU's computations are performed on the GPU by means of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) in order to achieve fast performance and increase the utilization of available system resources. Evaluation on both real and synthetic cDNA microarray images showed that MIGS-GPU provides better performance than state-of-the-art alternatives, while the proposed GPU implementation achieves significantly lower computational times compared to the respective CPU approaches. Consequently, MIGS-GPU can be an advantageous and useful tool for biomedical laboratories, offering a user-friendly interface that requires minimum input in order to run.
von Schalburg, Kristian R; Rise, Matthew L; Cooper, Glenn A; Brown, Gordon D; Gibbs, A Ross; Nelson, Colleen C; Davidson, William S; Koop, Ben F
Background We have developed and fabricated a salmonid microarray containing cDNAs representing 16,006 genes. The genes spotted on the array have been stringently selected from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. The EST databases presently contain over 300,000 sequences from over 175 salmonid cDNA libraries derived from a wide variety of tissues and different developmental stages. In order to evaluate the utility of the microarray, a number of hybridization techniques and screening methods have been developed and tested. Results We have analyzed and evaluated the utility of a microarray containing 16,006 (16K) salmonid cDNAs in a variety of potential experimental settings. We quantified the amount of transcriptome binding that occurred in cross-species, organ complexity and intraspecific variation hybridization studies. We also developed a methodology to rapidly identify and confirm the contents of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library containing Atlantic salmon genomic DNA. Conclusion We validate and demonstrate the usefulness of the 16K microarray over a wide range of teleosts, even for transcriptome targets from species distantly related to salmonids. We show the potential of the use of the microarray in a variety of experimental settings through hybridization studies that examine the binding of targets derived from different organs and tissues. Intraspecific variation in transcriptome expression is evaluated and discussed. Finally, BAC hybridizations are demonstrated as a rapid and accurate means to identify gene content. PMID:16164747
Hajiloo, Mohsen; Rabiee, Hamid R; Anooshahpour, Mahdi
The abundance of gene expression microarray data has led to the development of machine learning algorithms applicable for tackling disease diagnosis, disease prognosis, and treatment selection problems. However, these algorithms often produce classifiers with weaknesses in terms of accuracy, robustness, and interpretability. This paper introduces fuzzy support vector machine which is a learning algorithm based on combination of fuzzy classifiers and kernel machines for microarray classification. Experimental results on public leukemia, prostate, and colon cancer datasets show that fuzzy support vector machine applied in combination with filter or wrapper feature selection methods develops a robust model with higher accuracy than the conventional microarray classification models such as support vector machine, artificial neural network, decision trees, k nearest neighbors, and diagonal linear discriminant analysis. Furthermore, the interpretable rule-base inferred from fuzzy support vector machine helps extracting biological knowledge from microarray data. Fuzzy support vector machine as a new classification model with high generalization power, robustness, and good interpretability seems to be a promising tool for gene expression microarray classification.
Lee, Jung-Rok; Haddon, D. James; Wand, Hannah E.; Price, Jordan V.; Diep, Vivian K.; Hall, Drew A.; Petri, Michelle; Baechler, Emily C.; Balboni, Imelda M.; Utz, Paul J.; Wang, Shan X.
High titer, class-switched autoantibodies are a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Dysregulation of the interferon (IFN) pathway is observed in individuals with active SLE, although the association of specific autoantibodies with chemokine score, a combined measurement of three IFN-regulated chemokines, is not known. To identify autoantibodies associated with chemokine score, we developed giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor microarrays, which allow the parallel measurement of multiple serum antibodies to autoantigens and peptides. We used the microarrays to analyze serum samples from SLE patients and found individuals with high chemokine scores had significantly greater reactivity to 13 autoantigens than individuals with low chemokine scores. Our findings demonstrate that multiple autoantibodies, including antibodies to U1-70K and modified histone H2B tails, are associated with IFN dysregulation in SLE. Further, they show the microarrays are capable of identifying autoantibodies associated with relevant clinical manifestations of SLE, with potential for use as biomarkers in clinical practice.
He, Xianmin; Wei, Qing; Sun, Meiqian; Fu, Xuping; Fan, Sichang; Li, Yao
Biological techniques such as Array-Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and affymetrix single nucleotide pleomorphism (SNP) array have been used to detect cytogenetic aberrations. However, on genomic scale, these techniques are labor intensive and time consuming. Comparative genomic microarray analysis (CGMA) has been used to identify cytogenetic changes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using gene expression microarray data. However, CGMA algorithm can not give precise localization of aberrations, fails to identify small cytogenetic changes, and exhibits false negatives and positives. Locally un-weighted smoothing cytogenetic aberrations prediction (LS-CAP) based on local smoothing and binomial distribution can be expected to address these problems. LS-CAP algorithm was built and used on HCC microarray profiles. Eighteen cytogenetic abnormalities were identified, among them 5 were reported previously, and 12 were proven by CGH studies. LS-CAP effectively reduced the false negatives and positives, and precisely located small fragments with cytogenetic aberrations.
Dubrovin, E V; Presnova, G V; Rubtsova, M Yu; Egorov, A M; Grigorenko, V G; Yaminsky, I V
Oligonucleotide microarrays are considered today to be one of the most efficient methods of gene diagnostics. The capability of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize the three-dimensional morphology of single molecules on a surface allows one to use it as an effective tool for the 3D analysis of a microarray for the detection of nucleic acids. The high resolution of AFM offers ways to decrease the detection threshold of target DNA and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, we suggest an approach to the evaluation of the results of hybridization of gold nanoparticle-labeled nucleic acids on silicon microarrays based on an AFM analysis of the surface both in air and in liquid which takes into account of their three-dimensional structure. We suggest a quantitative measure of the hybridization results which is based on the fraction of the surface area occupied by the nanoparticles.
Choong, Miew Keen; Charbit, Maurice; Yan, Hong
Missing value estimation is important in DNA microarray data analysis. A number of algorithms have been developed to solve this problem, but they have several limitations. Most existing algorithms are not able to deal with the situation where a particular time point (column) of the data is missing entirely. In this paper, we present an autoregressive-model-based missing value estimation method (ARLSimpute) that takes into account the dynamic property of microarray temporal data and the local similarity structures in the data. ARLSimpute is especially effective for the situation where a particular time point contains many missing values or where the entire time point is missing. Experiment results suggest that our proposed algorithm is an accurate missing value estimator in comparison with other imputation methods on simulated as well as real microarray time series datasets.
Elingaramil, Sauli; Li, Xiaolong; He, Nongyue
Next-generation sequencing technologies, microarrays and advances in bio nanotechnology have had an enormous impact on research within a short time frame. This impact appears certain to increase further as many biomedical institutions are now acquiring these prevailing new technologies. Beyond conventional sampling of genome content, wide-ranging applications are rapidly evolving for next-generation sequencing, microarrays and nanotechnology. To date, these technologies have been applied in a variety of contexts, including whole-genome sequencing, targeted re sequencing and discovery of transcription factor binding sites, noncoding RNA expression profiling and molecular diagnostics. This paper thus discusses current applications of nanotechnology, next-generation sequencing technologies and microarrays in biomedical research and highlights the transforming potential these technologies offer.
Díaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Muñoz, María de Lourdes; Perez-Ramirez, Gerardo; Altuzar, Victor; Burgueño, Juan; Mendoza-Alvarez, Julio G; Martínez-Muñoz, Jorge P; Cisneros, Alejandro; Navarrete-Espinosa, Joel; Sanchez-Sinencio, Feliciano
Here; we have described and tested a microarray based-method for the screening of dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. This DNA microarray assay is specific and sensitive and can detect dual infections with two dengue virus serotypes and single-serotype infections. Other methodologies may underestimate samples containing more than one serotype. This technology can be used to discriminate between the four DENV serotypes. Single-stranded DNA targets were covalently attached to glass slides and hybridised with specific labelled probes. DENV isolates and dengue samples were used to evaluate microarray performance. Our results demonstrate that the probes hybridized specifically to DENV serotypes; with no detection of unspecific signals. This finding provides evidence that specific probes can effectively identify single and double infections in DENV samples.
Díaz-Badillo, Alvaro; de Lourdes Muñoz, María; Perez-Ramirez, Gerardo; Altuzar, Victor; Burgueño, Juan; Mendoza-Alvarez, Julio G.; Martínez-Muñoz, Jorge P.; Cisneros, Alejandro; Navarrete-Espinosa, Joel; Sanchez-Sinencio, Feliciano
Here; we have described and tested a microarray based-method for the screening of dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. This DNA microarray assay is specific and sensitive and can detect dual infections with two dengue virus serotypes and single-serotype infections. Other methodologies may underestimate samples containing more than one serotype. This technology can be used to discriminate between the four DENV serotypes. Single-stranded DNA targets were covalently attached to glass slides and hybridised with specific labelled probes. DENV isolates and dengue samples were used to evaluate microarray performance. Our results demonstrate that the probes hybridized specifically to DENV serotypes; with no detection of unspecific signals. This finding provides evidence that specific probes can effectively identify single and double infections in DENV samples. PMID:24776933
Trevino, Victor; Falciani, Francesco; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.
Among the many benefits of the Human Genome Project are new and powerful tools such as the genome-wide hybridization devices referred as microarrays. Initially designed to measure gene transcriptional levels, microarray technologies are now used for comparing other genome features among individuals and their tissues and cells. Results provide valuable information on disease subcategories, disease prognosis, and treatment outcome. Likewise, reveal differences in genetic makeup, regulatory mechanisms and subtle variations are approaching the era of personalized medicine. To understand this powerful tool, its versatility and how it is dramatically changing the molecular approach to biomedical and clinical research, this review describes the technology, its applications, a didactic step-by-step review of a typical microarray protocol, and a real experiment. Finally, it calls the attention of the medical community to integrate multidisciplinary teams, to take advantage of this technology and its expanding applications that in a slide reveals our genetic inheritance and destiny. PMID:17660860
Dankolo, Muhammad Nasiru; Radzi, Nor Haizan Mohamed; Sallehuddin, Roselina; Mustaffa, Noorfa Haszlinna
Microarray systems enable experts to examine gene profile at molecular level using machine learning algorithms. It increases the potentials of classification and diagnosis of many diseases at gene expression level. Though, numerous difficulties may affect the efficiency of machine learning algorithms which includes vast number of genes features comprised in the original data. Many of these features may be unrelated to the intended analysis. Therefore, feature selection is necessary to be performed in the data pre-processing. Many feature selection algorithms are developed and applied on microarray which including the metaheuristic optimization algorithms. This paper discusses the application of the metaheuristics algorithms for feature selection in microarray dataset. This study reveals that, the algorithms have yield an interesting result with limited resources thereby saving computational expenses of machine learning algorithms.
Nguyen, H. T.; Dupont, L. N.; Jean, A. M.; Géhin, T.; Chevolot, Y.; Laurenceau, E.; Gijs, M. A. M.
We report here a new microfluidic method allowing for the quantification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression levels from formalin-fixed breast cancer tissues. After partial extraction of proteins from the tissue slide, the extract is routed to an antibody (Ab) microarray for HER2 titration by fluorescence. Then the HER2-expressing cell area is evaluated by immunofluorescence (IF) staining of the tissue slide and used to normalize the fluorescent HER2 signal measured from the Ab microarray. The number of HER2 gene copies measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on an adjacent tissue slide is concordant with the normalized HER2 expression signal. This work is the first study implementing biomarker extraction and detection from cancer tissue slides using microfluidics in combination with a microarray system, paving the way for further developments towards multiplex and precise quantification of cancer biomarkers.
Mobbs, Charles V; Yen, Kelvin; Mastaitis, Jason; Nguyen, Ha; Watson, Elizabeth; Wurmbach, Elisa; Sealfon, Stuart C; Brooks, Andrew; Salton, Stephen R J
DNA microarray analysis has been used to investigate relative changes in the level of gene expression in the CNS, including changes that are associated with disease, injury, psychiatric disorders, drug exposure or withdrawal, and memory formation. We have used oligonucleotide microarrays to identify hypothalamic genes that respond to nutritional manipulation. In addition to commonly used microarray analysis based on criteria such as fold-regulation, we have also found that simply carrying out multiple t tests then sorting by P value constitutes a highly reliable method to detect true regulation, as assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), even for relatively low abundance genes or relatively low magnitude of regulation. Such analyses directly suggested novel mechanisms that mediate effects of nutritional state on neuroendocrine function and are being used to identify regulated gene products that may elucidate the metabolic pathology of obese ob/ob, lean Vgf-/Vgf-, and other models with profound metabolic impairments.
Seefeld, Ting Hu; Zhou, Wen-Juan; Corn, Robert M.
A four chamber microfluidic biochip is fabricated for the rapid detection of multiple proteins and nucleic acids from microliter volume samples with the technique of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI). The 18 mm × 18 mm biochip consists of four 3 μL microfluidic chambers attached to an SF10 glass substrate, each of which contains three individually addressable SPRI gold thin film microarray elements. The twelve element (4 × 3) SPRI microarray consists of gold thin film spots (1 mm2 area; 45 nm thickness) each in individually addressable 0.5 μL volume microchannels. Microarrays of single-stranded DNA and RNA (ssDNA and ssRNA respectively) are fabricated by either chemical and/or enzymatic attachment reactions in these microchannels; the SPRI microarrays are then used to detect femtomole amounts (nanomolar concentrations) of DNA and proteins (single stranded DNA binding protein and thrombin via aptamer-protein bioaffinity interactions). Microarrays of ssRNA microarray elements were also used for the ultrasensitive detection of zeptomole amounts (femtomolar concentrations) of DNA via the technique of RNase H-amplified SPRI. Enzymatic removal of ssRNA from the surface due to the hybridization adsorption of target ssDNA is detected as a reflectivity decrease in the SPR imaging measurements. The observed reflectivity loss was proportional to the log of the target ssDNA concentration with a detection limit of 10 fM or 30 zeptomoles (18,000 molecules). This enzymatic amplified ssDNA detection method is not limited by diffusion of ssDNA to the interface, and thus is extremely fast, requiring only 200 seconds in the microliter volume format. PMID:21488682
Grubaugh, Nathan D.; McMenamy, Scott S.; Turell, Michael J.; Lee, John S.
Background Arthropod-borne viruses are important emerging pathogens world-wide. Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, such as dengue, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, infect hundreds of millions of people and animals each year. Global surveillance of these viruses in mosquito vectors using molecular based assays is critical for prevention and control of the associated diseases. Here, we report an oligonucleotide DNA microarray design, termed ArboChip5.1, for multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae), Alphavirus (Togaviridae), Orthobunyavirus (Bunyaviridae), and Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). Methodology/Principal Findings The assay utilizes targeted PCR amplification of three genes from each virus genus for electrochemical detection on a portable, field-tested microarray platform. Fifty-two viruses propagated in cell-culture were used to evaluate the specificity of the PCR primer sets and the ArboChip5.1 microarray capture probes. The microarray detected all of the tested viruses and differentiated between many closely related viruses such as members of the dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and Semliki Forest virus clades. Laboratory infected mosquitoes were used to simulate field samples and to determine the limits of detection. Additionally, we identified dengue virus type 3, Japanese encephalitis virus, Tembusu virus, Culex flavivirus, and a Quang Binh-like virus from mosquitoes collected in Thailand in 2011 and 2012. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated that the described assay can be utilized in a comprehensive field surveillance program by the broad-range amplification and specific identification of arboviruses from infected mosquitoes. Furthermore, the microarray platform can be deployed in the field and viral RNA extraction to data analysis can occur in as little as 12 h. The information derived from the ArboChip5.1 microarray can help to establish public health
Hu, Chao-Jun; Song, Guang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Guo-Zhen; Deng, Chui-Wen; Zeng, Hai-Pan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Zhang, Xuan; Jeong, Jun Seop; Blackshaw, Seth; Jiang, Li-Zhi; Zhu, Heng; Wu, Lin; Li, Yong-Zhe
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiology and is considered to be an autoimmune disease. Autoantibodies are important tools for accurate diagnosis of PBC. Here, we employed serum profiling analysis using a human proteome microarray composed of about 17,000 full-length unique proteins and identified 23 proteins that correlated with PBC. To validate these results, we fabricated a PBC-focused microarray with 21 of these newly identified candidates and nine additional known PBC antigens. By screening the PBC microarrays with additional cohorts of 191 PBC patients and 321 controls (43 autoimmune hepatitis, 55 hepatitis B virus, 31 hepatitis C virus, 48 rheumatoid arthritis, 45 systematic lupus erythematosus, 49 systemic sclerosis, and 50 healthy), six proteins were confirmed as novel PBC autoantigens with high sensitivities and specificities, including hexokinase-1 (isoforms I and II), Kelch-like protein 7, Kelch-like protein 12, zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 2, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C, subunit 1. To facilitate clinical diagnosis, we developed ELISA for Kelch-like protein 12 and zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 2 and tested large cohorts (297 PBC and 637 control sera) to confirm the sensitivities and specificities observed in the microarray-based assays. In conclusion, our research showed that a strategy using high content protein microarray combined with a smaller but more focused protein microarray can effectively identify and validate novel PBC-specific autoantigens and has the capacity to be translated to clinical diagnosis by means of an ELISA-based method.
McIndoe, Richard A; Lanzen, Aaron; Hurtz, Kimberly
The human genome project and the development of new high-throughput technologies have created unparalleled opportunities to study the mechanism of diseases, monitor the disease progression and evaluate effective therapies. Gene expression profiling is a critical tool to accomplish these goals. The use of nucleic acid microarrays to assess the gene expression of thousands of genes simultaneously has seen phenomenal growth over the past five years. Although commercial sources of microarrays exist, investigators wanting more flexibility in the genes represented on the array will turn to in-house production. The creation and use of cDNA microarrays is a complicated process that generates an enormous amount of information. Effective data management of this information is essential to efficiently access, analyze, troubleshoot and evaluate the microarray experiments. We have developed a distributable software package designed to track and store the various pieces of data generated by a cDNA microarray facility. This includes the clone collection storage data, annotation data, workflow queues, microarray data, data repositories, sample submission information, and project/investigator information. This application was designed using a 3-tier client server model. The data access layer (1st tier) contains the relational database system tuned to support a large number of transactions. The data services layer (2nd tier) is a distributed COM server with full database transaction support. The application layer (3rd tier) is an internet based user interface that contains both client and server side code for dynamic interactions with the user. This software is freely available to academic institutions and non-profit organizations at http://www.genomics.mcg.edu/niddkbtc.
Chavan, Shweta S; Bauer, Michael A; Peterson, Erich A; Heuck, Christoph J; Johann, Donald J
Transcriptome analysis by microarrays has produced important advances in biomedicine. For instance in multiple myeloma (MM), microarray approaches led to the development of an effective disease subtyping via cluster assignment, and a 70 gene risk score. Both enabled an improved molecular understanding of MM, and have provided prognostic information for the purposes of clinical management. Many researchers are now transitioning to Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approaches and RNA-seq in particular, due to its discovery-based nature, improved sensitivity, and dynamic range. Additionally, RNA-seq allows for the analysis of gene isoforms, splice variants, and novel gene fusions. Given the voluminous amounts of historical microarray data, there is now a need to associate and integrate microarray and RNA-seq data via advanced bioinformatic approaches. Custom software was developed following a model-view-controller (MVC) approach to integrate Affymetrix probe set-IDs, and gene annotation information from a variety of sources. The tool/approach employs an assortment of strategies to integrate, cross reference, and associate microarray and RNA-seq datasets. Output from a variety of transcriptome reconstruction and quantitation tools (e.g., Cufflinks) can be directly integrated, and/or associated with Affymetrix probe set data, as well as necessary gene identifiers and/or symbols from a diversity of sources. Strategies are employed to maximize the annotation and cross referencing process. Custom gene sets (e.g., MM 70 risk score (GEP-70)) can be specified, and the tool can be directly assimilated into an RNA-seq pipeline. A novel bioinformatic approach to aid in the facilitation of both annotation and association of historic microarray data, in conjunction with richer RNA-seq data, is now assisting with the study of MM cancer biology.
Xenitidis, P; Seimenis, I; Kakolyris, S; Adamopoulos, A
High-throughput technology like microarrays is widely used in the inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs). We focused on time series data since we are interested in the dynamics of GRNs and the identification of dynamic networks. We evaluated the amount of information that exists in artificial time series microarray data and the ability of an inference process to produce accurate models based on them. We used dynamic artificial gene regulatory networks in order to create artificial microarray data. Key features that characterize microarray data such as the time separation of directly triggered genes, the percentage of directly triggered genes and the triggering function type were altered in order to reveal the limits that are imposed by the nature of microarray data on the inference process. We examined the effect of various factors on the inference performance such as the network size, the presence of noise in microarray data, and the network sparseness. We used a system theory approach and examined the relationship between the pole placement of the inferred system and the inference performance. We examined the relationship between the inference performance in the time domain and the true system parameter identification. Simulation results indicated that time separation and the percentage of directly triggered genes are crucial factors. Also, network sparseness, the triggering function type and noise in input data affect the inference performance. When two factors were simultaneously varied, it was found that variation of one parameter significantly affects the dynamic response of the other. Crucial factors were also examined using a real GRN and acquired results confirmed simulation findings with artificial data. Different initial conditions were also used as an alternative triggering approach. Relevant results confirmed that the number of datasets constitutes the most significant parameter with regard to the inference performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier
Bruland, Torunn; Anderssen, Endre; Doseth, Berit; Bergum, Hallgeir; Beisvag, Vidar; Laegreid, Astrid
The measurement of gene expression using microarray technology is a complicated process in which a large number of factors can be varied. Due to the lack of standard calibration samples such as are used in traditional chemical analysis it may be a problem to evaluate whether changes done to the microarray procedure actually improve the identification of truly differentially expressed genes. The purpose of the present work is to report the optimization of several steps in the microarray process both in laboratory practices and in data processing using criteria that do not rely on external standards. We performed a cDNA microarry experiment including RNA from samples with high expected differential gene expression termed "high contrasts" (rat cell lines AR42J and NRK52E) compared to self-self hybridization, and optimized a pipeline to maximize the number of genes found to be differentially expressed in the "high contrasts" RNA samples by estimating the false discovery rate (FDR) using a null distribution obtained from the self-self experiment. The proposed high-contrast versus self-self method (HCSSM) requires only four microarrays per evaluation. The effects of blocking reagent dose, filtering, and background corrections methodologies were investigated. In our experiments a dose of 250 ng LNA (locked nucleic acid) dT blocker, no background correction and weight based filtering gave the largest number of differentially expressed genes. The choice of background correction method had a stronger impact on the estimated number of differentially expressed genes than the choice of filtering method. Cross platform microarray (Illumina) analysis was used to validate that the increase in the number of differentially expressed genes found by HCSSM was real. The results show that HCSSM can be a useful and simple approach to optimize microarray procedures without including external standards. Our optimizing method is highly applicable to both long oligo-probe microarrays which
Bruland, Torunn; Anderssen, Endre; Doseth, Berit; Bergum, Hallgeir; Beisvag, Vidar; Lægreid, Astrid
Background The measurement of gene expression using microarray technology is a complicated process in which a large number of factors can be varied. Due to the lack of standard calibration samples such as are used in traditional chemical analysis it may be a problem to evaluate whether changes done to the microarray procedure actually improve the identification of truly differentially expressed genes. The purpose of the present work is to report the optimization of several steps in the microarray process both in laboratory practices and in data processing using criteria that do not rely on external standards. Results We performed a cDNA microarry experiment including RNA from samples with high expected differential gene expression termed "high contrasts" (rat cell lines AR42J and NRK52E) compared to self-self hybridization, and optimized a pipeline to maximize the number of genes found to be differentially expressed in the "high contrasts" RNA samples by estimating the false discovery rate (FDR) using a null distribution obtained from the self-self experiment. The proposed high-contrast versus self-self method (HCSSM) requires only four microarrays per evaluation. The effects of blocking reagent dose, filtering, and background corrections methodologies were investigated. In our experiments a dose of 250 ng LNA (locked nucleic acid) dT blocker, no background correction and weight based filtering gave the largest number of differentially expressed genes. The choice of background correction method had a stronger impact on the estimated number of differentially expressed genes than the choice of filtering method. Cross platform microarray (Illumina) analysis was used to validate that the increase in the number of differentially expressed genes found by HCSSM was real. Conclusion The results show that HCSSM can be a useful and simple approach to optimize microarray procedures without including external standards. Our optimizing method is highly applicable to both long
Bumm, Klaus; Zheng, Mingzhong; Bailey, Clyde; Zhan, Fenghuang; Chiriva-Internati, M; Eddlemon, Paul; Terry, Julian; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John D
Clinical GeneOrganizer (CGO) is a novel windows-based archiving, organization and data mining software for the integration of gene expression profiling in clinical medicine. The program implements various user-friendly tools and extracts data for further statistical analysis. This software was written for Affymetrix GeneChip *.txt files, but can also be used for any other microarray-derived data. The MS-SQL server version acts as a data mart and links microarray data with clinical parameters of any other existing database and therefore represents a valuable tool for combining gene expression analysis and clinical disease characteristics.
Lusa, L; Cappelletti, V; Gariboldi, M; Ferrario, C; De Cecco, L; Reid, J F; Toffanin, S; Gallus, G; McShane, L M; Daidone, M G; Pierotti, M A
We describe a microarray experiment using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in two different experimental conditions for which the same number of independent pools as the number of individual samples was hybridized on Affymetrix GeneChips. Unexpectedly, when using individual samples, the number of probe sets found to be differentially expressed between treated and untreated cells was about three times greater than that found using pools. These findings indicate that pooling samples in microarray experiments where the biological variability is expected to be small might not be helpful and could even decrease one's ability to identify differentially expressed genes.
Stokes, Todd H; Torrance, JT; Li, Henry; Wang, May D
Background A survey of microarray databases reveals that most of the repository contents and data models are heterogeneous (i.e., data obtained from different chip manufacturers), and that the repositories provide only basic biological keywords linking to PubMed. As a result, it is difficult to find datasets using research context or analysis parameters information beyond a few keywords. For example, to reduce the "curse-of-dimension" problem in microarray analysis, the number of samples is often increased by merging array data from different datasets. Knowing chip data parameters such as pre-processing steps (e.g., normalization, artefact removal, etc), and knowing any previous biological validation of the dataset is essential due to the heterogeneity of the data. However, most of the microarray repositories do not have meta-data information in the first place, and do not have a a mechanism to add or insert this information. Thus, there is a critical need to create "intelligent" microarray repositories that (1) enable update of meta-data with the raw array data, and (2) provide standardized archiving protocols to minimize bias from the raw data sources. Results To address the problems discussed, we have developed a community maintained system called ArrayWiki that unites disparate meta-data of microarray meta-experiments from multiple primary sources with four key features. First, ArrayWiki provides a user-friendly knowledge management interface in addition to a programmable interface using standards developed by Wikipedia. Second, ArrayWiki includes automated quality control processes (caCORRECT) and novel visualization methods (BioPNG, Gel Plots), which provide extra information about data quality unavailable in other microarray repositories. Third, it provides a user-curation capability through the familiar Wiki interface. Fourth, ArrayWiki provides users with simple text-based searches across all experiment meta-data, and exposes data to search engine crawlers
Wang, Min S; Luo, Zhen; Cherukuri, Sundar; Nitin, Nitin
A simple method to generate cell microarrays with high-percentage well occupancy and well-defined cell confinement is presented. This method uses a synergistic combination of vacuum degassing and coverslip sweeping. The vacuum degassing step dislodges air bubbles from the microwells, which in turn enables the cells to enter the microwells, while the physical sweeping step using a glass coverslip removes the excess cells outside the microwells. This low-cost preparation method provides a simple solution to generating cell microarrays that can be performed in basic research laboratories and point-of-care settings for routine cell-based screening assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tan, Qihua; Thomassen, Mads; Burton, Mark; Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Kruse, Torben
Modeling complex time-course patterns is a challenging issue in microarray study due to complex gene expression patterns in response to the time-course experiment. We introduce the generalized correlation coefficient and propose a combinatory approach for detecting, testing and clustering the heterogeneous time-course gene expression patterns. Application of the method identified nonlinear time-course patterns in high agreement with parametric analysis. We conclude that the non-parametric nature in the generalized correlation analysis could be an useful and efficient tool for analyzing microarray time-course data and for exploring the complex relationships in the omics data for studying their association with disease and health.
Bolshakova, Nadia; Cunningham, Pádraig
cluML is a new markup language for microarray data clustering and cluster validity assessment. The XML-based format has been designed to address some of the limitations observed in traditional formats, such as inability to store multiple clustering (including biclustering) and validation results within a dataset. cluML is an effective tool to support biomedical knowledge representation in gene expression data analysis. Although cluML was developed for DNA microarray analysis applications, it can be effectively used for the representation of clustering and for the validation of other biomedical and physical data that has no limitations.
Omheni, Nizar; Kalboussi, Anis; Mazhoud, Omar; Kacem, Ahmed Hadj
Researchers in distance education are interested in observing and modeling learners' personality profiles, and adapting their learning experiences accordingly. When learners read and interact with their reading materials, they do unselfconscious activities like annotation which may be key feature of their personalities. Annotation activity…
Zhang, Kai; Hu, Jiwei; Liu, Quan; Lou, Ping
Automatic image annotation is now a tough task in computer vision, the main sense of this tech is to deal with managing the massive image on the Internet and assisting intelligent retrieval. This paper designs a new image annotation model based on visual bag of words, using the low level features like color and texture information as well as mid-level feature as SIFT, and mixture the pic2pic, label2pic and label2label correlation to measure the correlation degree of labels and images. We aim to prune the specific features for each single label and formalize the annotation task as a learning process base on Positive-Negative Instances Learning. Experiments are performed using the Corel5K Dataset, and provide a quite promising result when comparing with other existing methods.
Ruettger, Anke; Nieter, Johanna; Skrypnyk, Artem; Engelmann, Ines; Ziegler, Albrecht; Moser, Irmgard; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf
Membrane-based spoligotyping has been converted to DNA microarray format to qualify it for high-throughput testing. We have shown the assay's validity and suitability for direct typing from tissue and detecting new spoligotypes. Advantages of the microarray methodology include rapidity, ease of operation, automatic data processing, and affordability. PMID:22553239
Ruettger, Anke; Nieter, Johanna; Skrypnyk, Artem; Engelmann, Ines; Ziegler, Albrecht; Moser, Irmgard; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Sachse, Konrad
Membrane-based spoligotyping has been converted to DNA microarray format to qualify it for high-throughput testing. We have shown the assay's validity and suitability for direct typing from tissue and detecting new spoligotypes. Advantages of the microarray methodology include rapidity, ease of operation, automatic data processing, and affordability.
Zhang, Aiying; Yin, Chengzeng; Wang, Zhenshun; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Yuanshun; Li, Ang; Sun, Huanqin; Lin, Dongdong; Li, Ning
Objective To develop a simple, effective, time-saving and low-cost fluorescence protein microarray method for detecting serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method Non-contact piezoelectric print techniques were applied to fluorescence protein microarray to reduce the cost of prey antibody. Serum samples from patients with HCC and healthy control subjects were collected and evaluated for the presence of AFP using a novel fluorescence protein microarray. To validate the fluorescence protein microarray, serum samples were tested for AFP using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results A total of 110 serum samples from patients with HCC ( n = 65) and healthy control subjects ( n = 45) were analysed. When the AFP cut-off value was set at 20 ng/ml, the fluorescence protein microarray had a sensitivity of 91.67% and a specificity of 93.24% for detecting serum AFP. Serum AFP quantified via fluorescence protein microarray had a similar diagnostic performance compared with ELISA in distinguishing patients with HCC from healthy control subjects (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.906 for fluorescence protein microarray; 0.880 for ELISA). Conclusion A fluorescence protein microarray method was developed for detecting serum AFP in patients with HCC.
Zhang, Aiying; Yin, Chengzeng; Wang, Zhenshun; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Yuanshun; Li, Ang; Sun, Huanqin; Lin, Dongdong
Objective To develop a simple, effective, time-saving and low-cost fluorescence protein microarray method for detecting serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method Non-contact piezoelectric print techniques were applied to fluorescence protein microarray to reduce the cost of prey antibody. Serum samples from patients with HCC and healthy control subjects were collected and evaluated for the presence of AFP using a novel fluorescence protein microarray. To validate the fluorescence protein microarray, serum samples were tested for AFP using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results A total of 110 serum samples from patients with HCC (n = 65) and healthy control subjects (n = 45) were analysed. When the AFP cut-off value was set at 20 ng/ml, the fluorescence protein microarray had a sensitivity of 91.67% and a specificity of 93.24% for detecting serum AFP. Serum AFP quantified via fluorescence protein microarray had a similar diagnostic performance compared with ELISA in distinguishing patients with HCC from healthy control subjects (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.906 for fluorescence protein microarray; 0.880 for ELISA). Conclusion A fluorescence protein microarray method was developed for detecting serum AFP in patients with HCC. PMID:27885040
Chang, Ming-Mei; Briggs, George M.
DNA microarrays are microscopic arrays on a solid surface, typically a glass slide, on which DNA oligonucleotides are deposited or synthesized in a high-density matrix with a predetermined spatial order. Several types of DNA microarrays have been developed and used for various biological studies. Here, we developed an undergraduate laboratory…
Parthasarathy, N; Saksena, R; Kováč, P; Deshazer, D; Peacock, S J; Wuthiekanun, V; Heine, H S; Friedlander, A M; Cote, C K; Welkos, S L; Adamovicz, J J; Bavari, S; Waag, D M
We developed a microarray platform by immobilizing bacterial 'signature' carbohydrates onto epoxide modified glass slides. The carbohydrate microarray platform was probed with sera from non-melioidosis and melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei) individuals. The platform was also probed with sera from rabbits vaccinated with Bacillus anthracis spores and Francisella tularensis bacteria. By employing this microarray platform, we were able to detect and differentiate B. pseudomallei, B. anthracis and F. tularensis antibodies in infected patients, and infected or vaccinated animals. These antibodies were absent in the sera of naïve test subjects. The advantages of the carbohydrate microarray technology over the traditional indirect hemagglutination and microagglutination tests for the serodiagnosis of melioidosis and tularemia are discussed. Furthermore, this array is a multiplex carbohydrate microarray for the detection of all three biothreat bacterial infections including melioidosis, anthrax and tularemia with one, multivalent device. The implication is that this technology could be expanded to include a wide array of infectious and biothreat agents.
Yu, Hualong; Hong, Shufang; Yang, Xibei; Ni, Jun; Dan, Yuanyuan; Qin, Bin
DNA microarray technology can measure the activities of tens of thousands of genes simultaneously, which provides an efficient way to diagnose cancer at the molecular level. Although this strategy has attracted significant research attention, most studies neglect an important problem, namely, that most DNA microarray datasets are skewed, which causes traditional learning algorithms to produce inaccurate results. Some studies have considered this problem, yet they merely focus on binary-class problem. In this paper, we dealt with multiclass imbalanced classification problem, as encountered in cancer DNA microarray, by using ensemble learning. We utilized one-against-all coding strategy to transform multiclass to multiple binary classes, each of them carrying out feature subspace, which is an evolving version of random subspace that generates multiple diverse training subsets. Next, we introduced one of two different correction technologies, namely, decision threshold adjustment or random undersampling, into each training subset to alleviate the damage of class imbalance. Specifically, support vector machine was used as base classifier, and a novel voting rule called counter voting was presented for making a final decision. Experimental results on eight skewed multiclass cancer microarray datasets indicate that unlike many traditional classification approaches, our methods are insensitive to class imbalance.
Background The large amount of high-throughput genomic data has facilitated the discovery of the regulatory relationships between transcription factors and their target genes. While early methods for discovery of transcriptional regulation relationships from microarray data often focused on the high-throughput experimental data alone, more recent approaches have explored the integration of external knowledge bases of gene interactions. Results In this work, we develop an algorithm that provides improved performance in the prediction of transcriptional regulatory relationships by supplementing the analysis of microarray data with a new method of integrating information from an existing knowledge base. Using a well-known dataset of yeast microarrays and the Yeast Proteome Database, a comprehensive collection of known information of yeast genes, we show that knowledge-based predictions demonstrate better sensitivity and specificity in inferring new transcriptional interactions than predictions from microarray data alone. We also show that comprehensive, direct and high-quality knowledge bases provide better prediction performance. Comparison of our results with ChIP-chip data and growth fitness data suggests that our predicted genome-wide regulatory pairs in yeast are reasonable candidates for follow-up biological verification. Conclusion High quality, comprehensive, and direct knowledge bases, when combined with appropriate bioinformatic algorithms, can significantly improve the discovery of gene regulatory relationships from high throughput gene expression data. PMID:20122245
Jang, Jun Hyeong; Kim, Sun-Joong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Gu, Man Bock; Chang, Hyo-Ihl
This study describes a method using a DNA microarray chip to rapidly and simultaneously detect Alicyclobacillus species in orange juice based on the hybridization of genomic DNA with random probes. Three food spoilage bacteria were used in this study: Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Alicyclobacillus cycloheptanicus. The three Alicyclobacillus species were adjusted to 2 × 10(3) CFU/ml and inoculated into pasteurized 100% pure orange juice. Cy5-dCTP labeling was used for reference signals, and Cy3-dCTP was labeled for target genomic DNA. The molar ratio of 1:1 of Cy3-dCTP and Cy5-dCTP was used. DNA microarray chips were fabricated using randomly fragmented DNA of Alicyclobacillus spp. and were hybridized with genomic DNA extracted from Bacillus spp. Genomic DNA extracted from Alicyclobacillus spp. showed a significantly higher hybridization rate compared with DNA of Bacillus spp., thereby distinguishing Alicyclobacillus spp. from Bacillus spp. The results showed that the microarray DNA chip containing randomly fragmented genomic DNA was specific and clearly identified specific food spoilage bacteria. This microarray system is a good tool for rapid and specific detection of thermophilic spoilage bacteria, mainly Alicyclobacillus spp., and is useful and applicable to the fruit juice industry.
Rivera, Robert; Wang, Jie; Yu, Xiaobo; Demirkan, Gokhan; Hopper, Marika; Bian, Xiaofang; Tahsin, Tasnia; Magee, D Mitchell; Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua; Wallstrom, Garrick
In recent studies involving NAPPA microarrays, extra-well fluorescence is used as a key measure for identifying disease biomarkers because there is evidence to support that it is better correlated with strong antibody responses than statistical analysis involving intraspot intensity. Because this feature is not well quantified by traditional image analysis software, identification and quantification of extra-well fluorescence is performed manually, which is both time-consuming and highly susceptible to variation between raters. A system that could automate this task efficiently and effectively would greatly improve the process of data acquisition in microarray studies, thereby accelerating the discovery of disease biomarkers. In this study, we experimented with different machine learning methods, as well as novel heuristics, for identifying spots exhibiting extra-well fluorescence (rings) in microarray images and assigning each ring a grade of 1-5 based on its intensity and morphology. The sensitivity of our final system for identifying rings was found to be 72% at 99% specificity and 98% at 92% specificity. Our system performs this task significantly faster than a human, while maintaining high performance, and therefore represents a valuable tool for microarray image analysis.
Negm, Ola H; Hamed, Mohamed R; Dilnot, Elizabeth M; Shone, Clifford C; Marszalowska, Izabela; Lynch, Mark; Loscher, Christine E; Edwards, Laura J; Tighe, Patrick J; Wilcox, Mark H; Monaghan, Tanya M
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, and spore-forming bacterium that is the leading worldwide infective cause of hospital-acquired and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Several studies have reported associations between humoral immunity and the clinical course of C. difficile infection (CDI). Host humoral immune responses are determined using conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Herein, we report the first use of a novel protein microarray assay to determine systemic IgG antibody responses against a panel of highly purified C. difficile-specific antigens, including native toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB, respectively), recombinant fragments of toxins A and B (TxA4 and TxB4, respectively), ribotype-specific surface layer proteins (SLPs; 001, 002, 027), and control proteins (tetanus toxoid and Candida albicans). Microarrays were probed with sera from a total of 327 individuals with CDI, cystic fibrosis without diarrhea, and healthy controls. For all antigens, precision profiles demonstrated <10% coefficient of variation (CV). Significant correlation was observed between microarray and ELISA in the quantification of antitoxin A and antitoxin B IgG. These results indicate that microarray is a suitable assay for defining humoral immune responses to C. difficile protein antigens and may have potential advantages in throughput, convenience, and cost. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Negm, Ola H.; Hamed, Mohamed R.; Dilnot, Elizabeth M.; Shone, Clifford C.; Marszalowska, Izabela; Lynch, Mark; Loscher, Christine E.; Edwards, Laura J.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Wilcox, Mark H.
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, and spore-forming bacterium that is the leading worldwide infective cause of hospital-acquired and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Several studies have reported associations between humoral immunity and the clinical course of C. difficile infection (CDI). Host humoral immune responses are determined using conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Herein, we report the first use of a novel protein microarray assay to determine systemic IgG antibody responses against a panel of highly purified C. difficile-specific antigens, including native toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB, respectively), recombinant fragments of toxins A and B (TxA4 and TxB4, respectively), ribotype-specific surface layer proteins (SLPs; 001, 002, 027), and control proteins (tetanus toxoid and Candida albicans). Microarrays were probed with sera from a total of 327 individuals with CDI, cystic fibrosis without diarrhea, and healthy controls. For all antigens, precision profiles demonstrated <10% coefficient of variation (CV). Significant correlation was observed between microarray and ELISA in the quantification of antitoxin A and antitoxin B IgG. These results indicate that microarray is a suitable assay for defining humoral immune responses to C. difficile protein antigens and may have potential advantages in throughput, convenience, and cost. PMID:26178385
Cronobacter is a recently defined genus synonymous with Enterobacter sakazakii. This new genus currently comprises 6 genomospecies. To extend our understanding of the genetic relationship between Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 and the other species of this genus, microarray-based comparative genomi...
Watson, Christopher M.; Crinnion, Laura A.; Gurgel‐Gianetti, Juliana; Harrison, Sally M.; Daly, Catherine; Antanavicuite, Agne; Lascelles, Carolina; Markham, Alexander F.; Pena, Sergio D. J.; Bonthron, David T.
ABSTRACT Autozygosity mapping is a powerful technique for the identification of rare, autosomal recessive, disease‐causing genes. The ease with which this category of disease gene can be identified has greatly increased through the availability of genome‐wide SNP genotyping microarrays and subsequently of exome sequencing. Although these methods have simplified the generation of experimental data, its analysis, particularly when disparate data types must be integrated, remains time consuming. Moreover, the huge volume of sequence variant data generated from next generation sequencing experiments opens up the possibility of using these data instead of microarray genotype data to identify disease loci. To allow these two types of data to be used in an integrated fashion, we have developed AgileVCFMapper, a program that performs both the mapping of disease loci by SNP genotyping and the analysis of potentially deleterious variants using exome sequence variant data, in a single step. This method does not require microarray SNP genotype data, although analysis with a combination of microarray and exome genotype data enables more precise delineation of disease loci, due to superior marker density and distribution. PMID:26037133
Rosenzweig, Barry A; Pine, P Scott; Domon, Olen E; Morris, Suzanne M; Chen, James J; Sistare, Frank D
A significant limitation to the analytical accuracy and precision of dual-labeled spotted cDNA microarrays is the signal error due to dye bias. Transcript-dependent dye bias may be due to gene-specific differences of incorporation of two distinctly different chemical dyes and the resultant differential hybridization efficiencies of these two chemically different targets for the same probe. Several approaches were used to assess and minimize the effects of dye bias on fluorescent hybridization signals and maximize the experimental design efficiency of a cell culture experiment. Dye bias was measured at the individual transcript level within each batch of simultaneously processed arrays by replicate dual-labeled split-control sample hybridizations and accounted for a significant component of fluorescent signal differences. This transcript-dependent dye bias alone could introduce unacceptably high numbers of both false-positive and false-negative signals. We found that within a given set of concurrently processed hybridizations, the bias is remarkably consistent and therefore measurable and correctable. The additional microarrays and reagents required for paired technical replicate dye-swap corrections commonly performed to control for dye bias could be costly to end users. Incorporating split-control microarrays within a set of concurrently processed hybridizations to specifically measure dye bias can eliminate the need for technical dye swap replicates and reduce microarray and reagent costs while maintaining experimental accuracy and technical precision. These data support a practical and more efficient experimental design to measure and mathematically correct for dye bias. PMID:15033598
Reiff, Marian; Giarelli, Ellen; Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Easley, Ebony; Spinner, Nancy B.; Sankar, Pamela L.; Mulchandani, Surabhi
Clinical guidelines recommend chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) for all children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We explored the test's perceived usefulness among parents of children with ASD who had undergone CMA, and received a result categorized as pathogenic, variant of uncertain significance, or negative. Fifty-seven parents…
Trakadis, Yannis; Shevell, Michael
Aim: Microarray technology has a significantly higher clinical yield than karyotyping in individuals with global developmental delay (GDD). Despite this, it has not yet been routinely implemented as a screening test owing to the perception that this approach is more expensive. We aimed to evaluate the effect that replacing karyotype with…
Matsudaira, Takahiro; Tsuzuki, Saki; Wada, Akira; Suwa, Akira; Kohsaka, Hitoshi; Tomida, Maiko; Ito, Yoshihiro
Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and autoimmune diabetes are characterized by the production of autoantibodies that serve as useful diagnostic markers, surrogate markers, and prognostic factors. We devised an in vitro system to detect these clinically pivotal autoantibodies using a photoimmobilized autoantigen microarray. Photoimmobilization was useful for preparing the autoantigen microarray, where autoantigens are covalently immobilized on a plate, because it does not require specific functional groups of the autoantigens and any organic material can be immobilized by a radical reaction induced by photoirradiation. Here, we prepared the microarray using a very convenient method. Aqueous solutions of each autoantigen were mixed with a polymer of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and a photoreactive crosslinker, and the mixtures were microspotted on a plate and dried in air. Finally, the plate was irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp to obtain immobilization. In the assay, patient serum was added to the microarray plate. Antigen-specific IgG adsorbed on the microspotted autoantigen was detected by peroxidase-conjugated anti-IgG antibody. The chemical luminescence intensities of the substrate decomposed by the peroxidase were detected with a sensitive CCD camera. All autoantigens were immobilized stably by this method and used to screen antigen-specific IgG. In addition, the plate was covered with a polydimethylsiloxane sheet containing microchannels and automated measurement was carried out.
Seok, Junhee; Kaushal, Amit; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong
The large amount of high-throughput genomic data has facilitated the discovery of the regulatory relationships between transcription factors and their target genes. While early methods for discovery of transcriptional regulation relationships from microarray data often focused on the high-throughput experimental data alone, more recent approaches have explored the integration of external knowledge bases of gene interactions. In this work, we develop an algorithm that provides improved performance in the prediction of transcriptional regulatory relationships by supplementing the analysis of microarray data with a new method of integrating information from an existing knowledge base. Using a well-known dataset of yeast microarrays and the Yeast Proteome Database, a comprehensive collection of known information of yeast genes, we show that knowledge-based predictions demonstrate better sensitivity and specificity in inferring new transcriptional interactions than predictions from microarray data alone. We also show that comprehensive, direct and high-quality knowledge bases provide better prediction performance. Comparison of our results with ChIP-chip data and growth fitness data suggests that our predicted genome-wide regulatory pairs in yeast are reasonable candidates for follow-up biological verification. High quality, comprehensive, and direct knowledge bases, when combined with appropriate bioinformatic algorithms, can significantly improve the discovery of gene regulatory relationships from high throughput gene expression data.
Stekel, Dov J.; Sarti, Donatella; Trevino, Victor; Zhang, Lihong; Salmon, Mike; Buckley, Chris D.; Stevens, Mark; Pallen, Mark J.; Penn, Charles; Falciani, Francesco
A key step in the analysis of microarray data is the selection of genes that are differentially expressed. Ideally, such experiments should be properly replicated in order to infer both technical and biological variability, and the data should be subjected to rigorous hypothesis tests to identify the differentially expressed genes. However, in microarray experiments involving the analysis of very large numbers of biological samples, replication is not always practical. Therefore, there is a need for a method to select differentially expressed genes in a rational way from insufficiently replicated data. In this paper, we describe a simple method that uses bootstrapping to generate an error model from a replicated pilot study that can be used to identify differentially expressed genes in subsequent large-scale studies on the same platform, but in which there may be no replicated arrays. The method builds a stratified error model that includes array-to-array variability, feature-to-feature variability and the dependence of error on signal intensity. We apply this model to the characterization of the host response in a model of bacterial infection of human intestinal epithelial cells. We demonstrate the effectiveness of error model based microarray experiments and propose this as a general strategy for a microarray-based screening of large collections of biological samples. PMID:15800204
McGrew, Susan G.; Peters, Brittany R.; Crittendon, Julie A.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy
Genetic testing is recommended for patients with ASD; however specific recommendations vary by specialty. American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Neurology guidelines recommend G-banded karyotype and Fragile X DNA. The American College of Medical Genetics recommends Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). We determined the yield of…
GENE EXPRESSION IN THE TESTES OF NORMOSPERMIC VERSUS TERATOSPERMIC DOMESTIC CATS USING HUMAN cDNA MICROARRAY ANALYSES
B.S. Pukazhenthi1, J. C. Rockett2, M. Ouyang3, D.J. Dix2, J.G. Howard1, P. Georgopoulos4, W.J. J. Welsh3 and D. E. Wildt1
1Department of Reproductiv...
Imholte, Gregory; Gottardo, Raphael
Summary The peptide microarray immunoassay simultaneously screens sample serum against thousands of peptides, determining the presence of antibodies bound to array probes. Peptide microarrays tiling immunogenic regions of pathogens (e.g. envelope proteins of a virus) are an important high throughput tool for querying and mapping antibody binding. Because of the assay’s many steps, from probe synthesis to incubation, peptide microarray data can be noisy with extreme outliers. In addition, subjects may produce different antibody profiles in response to an identical vaccine stimulus or infection, due to variability among subjects’ immune systems. We present a robust Bayesian hierarchical model for peptide microarray experiments, pepBayes, to estimate the probability of antibody response for each subject/peptide combination. Heavy-tailed error distributions accommodate outliers and extreme responses, and tailored random effect terms automatically incorporate technical effects prevalent in the assay. We apply our model to two vaccine trial datasets to demonstrate model performance. Our approach enjoys high sensitivity and specificity when detecting vaccine induced antibody responses. A simulation study shows an adaptive thresholding classification method has appropriate false discovery rate control with high sensitivity, and receiver operating characteristics generated on vaccine trial data suggest that pepBayes clearly separates responses from non-responses. PMID:27061097
Nguyen, Thanh; Khosravi, Abbas; Creighton, Douglas; Nahavandi, Saeid
This paper introduces a novel approach to gene selection based on a substantial modification of analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The modified AHP systematically integrates outcomes of individual filter methods to select the most informative genes for microarray classification. Five individual ranking methods including t-test, entropy, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, Wilcoxon and signal to noise ratio are employed to rank genes. These ranked genes are then considered as inputs for the modified AHP. Additionally, a method that uses fuzzy standard additive model (FSAM) for cancer classification based on genes selected by AHP is also proposed in this paper. Traditional FSAM learning is a hybrid process comprising unsupervised structure learning and supervised parameter tuning. Genetic algorithm (GA) is incorporated in-between unsupervised and supervised training to optimize the number of fuzzy rules. The integration of GA enables FSAM to deal with the high-dimensional-low-sample nature of microarray data and thus enhance the efficiency of the classification. Experiments are carried out on numerous microarray datasets. Results demonstrate the performance dominance of the AHP-based gene selection against the single ranking methods. Furthermore, the combination of AHP-FSAM shows a great accuracy in microarray data classification compared to various competing classifiers. The proposed approach therefore is useful for medical practitioners and clinicians as a decision support system that can be implemented in the real medical practice. PMID:25823003
Nguyen, Thanh; Khosravi, Abbas; Creighton, Douglas; Nahavandi, Saeid
This paper introduces a novel approach to gene selection based on a substantial modification of analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The modified AHP systematically integrates outcomes of individual filter methods to select the most informative genes for microarray classification. Five individual ranking methods including t-test, entropy, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, Wilcoxon and signal to noise ratio are employed to rank genes. These ranked genes are then considered as inputs for the modified AHP. Additionally, a method that uses fuzzy standard additive model (FSAM) for cancer classification based on genes selected by AHP is also proposed in this paper. Traditional FSAM learning is a hybrid process comprising unsupervised structure learning and supervised parameter tuning. Genetic algorithm (GA) is incorporated in-between unsupervised and supervised training to optimize the number of fuzzy rules. The integration of GA enables FSAM to deal with the high-dimensional-low-sample nature of microarray data and thus enhance the efficiency of the classification. Experiments are carried out on numerous microarray datasets. Results demonstrate the performance dominance of the AHP-based gene selection against the single ranking methods. Furthermore, the combination of AHP-FSAM shows a great accuracy in microarray data classification compared to various competing classifiers. The proposed approach therefore is useful for medical practitioners and clinicians as a decision support system that can be implemented in the real medical practice.
Brodsky, Leonid; Leontovich, Andrei; Shtutman, Michael; Feinstein, Elena
Mathematical methods of analysis of microarray hybridizations deal with gene expression profiles as elementary units. However, some of these profiles do not reflect a biologically relevant transcriptional response, but rather stem from technical artifacts. Here, we describe two technically independent but rationally interconnected methods for identification of such artifactual profiles. Our diagnostics are based on detection of deviations from uniformity, which is assumed as the main underlying principle of microarray design. Method 1 is based on detection of non-uniformity of microarray distribution of printed genes that are clustered based on the similarity of their expression profiles. Method 2 is based on evaluation of the presence of gene-specific microarray spots within the slides’ areas characterized by an abnormal concentration of low/high differential expression values, which we define as ‘patterns of differentials’. Applying two novel algorithms, for nested clustering (method 1) and for pattern detection (method 2), we can make a dual estimation of the profile’s quality for almost every printed gene. Genes with artifactual profiles detected by method 1 may then be removed from further analysis. Suspicious differential expression values detected by method 2 may be either removed or weighted according to the probabilities of patterns that cover them, thus diminishing their input in any further data analysis. PMID:14999086
Unc, Adrian; Zurek, Ludek; Peterson, Greg; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Springthorpe, Susan V; Sattar, Syed A
Potential risks associated with impaired surface water quality have commonly been evaluated by indirect description of potential sources using various fecal microbial indicators and derived source-tracking methods. These approaches are valuable for assessing and monitoring the impacts of land-use changes and changes in management practices at the source of contamination. A more detailed evaluation of putative etiologically significant genetic determinants can add value to these assessments. We evaluated the utility of using a microarray that integrates virulence genes with antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes to describe and discriminate among spatially and seasonally distinct water samples from an agricultural watershed creek in Eastern Ontario. Because microarray signals may be analyzed as binomial distributions, the significance of ambiguous signals can be easily evaluated by using available off-the-shelf software. The FAMD software was used to evaluate uncertainties in the signal data. Analysis of multilocus fingerprinting data sets containing missing data has shown that, for the tested system, any variability in microarray signals had a marginal effect on data interpretation. For the tested watershed, results suggest that in general the wet fall season increased the downstream detection of virulence and resistance genes. Thus, the tested microarray technique has the potential to rapidly describe the quality of surface waters and thus to provide a qualitative tool to augment quantitative microbial risk assessments. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
Lan, Liang; Vucetic, Slobodan
A major challenge in microarray classification is that the number of features is typically orders of magnitude larger than the number of examples. In this paper, we propose a novel feature filter algorithm to select the feature subset with maximal discriminative power and minimal redundancy by solving a quadratic objective function with binary integer constraints. To improve the computational efficiency, the binary integer constraints are relaxed and a low-rank approximation to the quadratic term is applied. The proposed feature selection algorithm was extended to solve multi-task microarray classification problems. We compared the single-task version of the proposed feature selection algorithm with 9 existing feature selection methods on 4 benchmark microarray data sets. The empirical results show that the proposed method achieved the most accurate predictions overall. We also evaluated the multi-task version of the proposed algorithm on 8 multi-task microarray datasets. The multi-task feature selection algorithm resulted in significantly higher accuracy than when using the single-task feature selection methods.
Yang, Yunfeng; Zhu, Mengxia; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong
Using genomic DNA as common reference in microarray experiments has recently been tested by different laboratories. Conflicting results have been reported with regard to the reliability of microarray results using this method. To explain it, we hypothesize that data processing is a critical element that impacts the data quality. Microarray experiments were performed in a gamma-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis. Pair-wise comparison of three experimental conditions was obtained either with two labeled cDNA samples co-hybridized to the same array, or by employing Shewanella genomic DNA as a standard reference. Various data processing techniques were exploited to reduce the amount of inconsistency between both methods and the results were assessed. We discovered that data quality was significantly improved by imposing the constraint of minimal number of replicates, logarithmic transformation and random error analyses. These findings demonstrate that data processing significantly influences data quality, which provides an explanation for the conflicting evaluation in the literature. This work could serve as a guideline for microarray data analysis using genomic DNA as a standard reference.
Oneda, Beatrice; Baldinger, Rosa; Reissmann, Regina; Reshetnikova, Irina; Krejci, Pavel; Masood, Rahim; Ochsenbein-Kölble, Nicole; Bartholdi, Deborah; Steindl, Katharina; Morotti, Denise; Faranda, Marzia; Baumer, Alessandra; Asadollahi, Reza; Joset, Pascal; Niedrist, Dunja; Breymann, Christian; Hebisch, Gundula; Hüsler, Margaret; Mueller, René; Prentl, Elke; Wisser, Josef; Zimmermann, Roland; Rauch, Anita
The objective of this study was to determine for the first time the reliability and the diagnostic power of high-resolution microarray testing in routine prenatal diagnostics. We applied high-resolution chromosomal microarray testing in 464 cytogenetically normal prenatal samples with any indication for invasive testing. High-resolution testing revealed a diagnostic yield of 6.9% and 1.6% in cases of fetal ultrasound anomalies and cases of advanced maternal age (AMA), respectively, which is similar to previous studies using low-resolution microarrays. In three (0.6%) additional cases with an indication of AMA, an aberration in susceptibility risk loci was detected. Moreover, one case (0.2%) showed an X-linked aberration in a female fetus, a finding relevant for future family planning. We found the rate of cases, in which the parents had to be tested for interpretation of unreported copy number variants (3.7%), and the rate of remaining variants of unknown significance (0.4%) acceptably low. Of note, these findings did not cause termination of pregnancy after expert genetic counseling. The 0.4% rate of confined placental mosaicism was similar to that observed by conventional karyotyping and notably involved a case of placental microdeletion. High-resolution prenatal microarray testing is a reliable technique that increases diagnostic yield by at least 17.3% when compared with conventional karyotyping, without an increase in the frequency of variants of uncertain significance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Entrocassi, Carolina; Portu, Ana I; Castro, Erica; Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo
Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Based on sequence variation in the ompA gene encoding the major outer membrane protein, the genotyping scheme distinguishes 17 recognized genotypes, i.e. A, B, Ba, C, D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, Ia, J, K, L1, L2, and L3. Genotyping is an important tool for epidemiological tracking of C. trachomatis infections, including the revelation of transmission pathways and association with tissue tropism and pathogenicity. Moreover, genotyping can be useful for clinicians to establish the correct treatment when LGV strains are detected. Recently a microarray assay was described that offers several advantages, such as rapidity, ease of standardization and detection of mixed infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the DNA microarray-based assay for C. trachomatis genotyping of clinical samples already typed by PCR-RFLP from South America. The agreement between both typing techniques was 90.05% and the overall genotype distribution obtained with both techniques was similar. Detection of mixed-genotype infections was significantly higher using the microarray assay (8.4% of cases) compared to PCR-RFLP (0.5%). Among 178 samples, the microarray assay identified 10 ompA genotypes, i.e. D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L2. The most predominant type was genotype E, followed by D and F.
Lee, Yun-Shien; Chen, Chun-Houh; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Chao, Angel; Wang, Tzu-Hao
Interlaboratory comparison of microarray data, even when using the same platform, imposes several challenges to scientists. RNA quality, RNA labeling efficiency, hybridization procedures and data-mining tools can all contribute variations in each laboratory. In Affymetrix GeneChips, about 11–20 different 25-mer oligonucleotides are used to measure the level of each transcript. Here, we report that ‘labeling extension values (LEVs)’, which are correlation coefficients between probe intensities and probe positions, are highly correlated with the gene expression levels (GEVs) on eukayotic Affymetrix microarray data. By analyzing LEVs and GEVs in the publicly available 2414 cel files of 20 Affymetrix microarray types covering 13 species, we found that correlations between LEVs and GEVs only exist in eukaryotic RNAs, but not in prokaryotic ones. Surprisingly, Affymetrix results of the same specimens that were analyzed in different laboratories could be clearly differentiated only by LEVs, leading to the identification of ‘laboratory signatures’. In the examined dataset, GSE10797, filtering out high-LEV genes did not compromise the discovery of biological processes that are constructed by differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, LEVs provide a new filtering parameter for microarray analysis of gene expression and it may improve the inter- and intralaboratory comparability of Affymetrix GeneChips data. PMID:19295132
Lee, Joseph C; Stiles, David; Lu, Jun; Cam, Margaret C
Background Microarrays are a popular tool used in experiments to measure gene expression levels. Improving the reproducibility of microarray results produced by different chips from various manufacturers is important to create comparable and combinable experimental results. Alternative splicing has been cited as a possible cause of differences in expression measurements across platforms, though no study to this point has been conducted to show its influence in cross-platform differences. Results Using probe sequence data, a new microarray probe/transcript annotation was created based on the AceView Aug05 release that allowed for the categorization of genes based on their expression measurements' susceptibility to alternative splicing differences across microarray platforms. Examining gene expression data from multiple platforms in light of the new categorization, genes unsusceptible to alternative splicing differences showed higher signal agreement than those genes most susceptible to alternative splicing differences. The analysis gave rise to a different probe-level visualization method that can highlight probe differences according to transcript specificity. Conclusion The results highlight the need for detailed probe annotation at the transcriptome level. The presence of alternative splicing within a given sample can affect gene expression measurements and is a contributing factor to overall technical differences across platforms. PMID:17708771
Background The synthesis of information across microarray studies has been performed by combining statistical results of individual studies (as in a mosaic), or by combining data from multiple studies into a large pool to be analyzed as a single data set (as in a melting pot of data). Specific issues relating to data heterogeneity across microarray studies, such as differences within and between labs or differences among experimental conditions, could lead to equivocal results in a melting pot approach. Results We applied statistical theory to determine the specific effect of different means and heteroskedasticity across 19 groups of microarray data on the sign and magnitude of gene-to-gene Pearson correlation coefficients obtained from the pool of 19 groups. We quantified the biases of the pooled coefficients and compared them to the biases of correlations estimated by an effect-size model. Mean differences across the 19 groups were the main factor determining the magnitude and sign of the pooled coefficients, which showed largest values of bias as they approached ±1. Only heteroskedasticity across the pool of 19 groups resulted in less efficient estimations of correlations than did a classical meta-analysis approach of combining correlation coefficients. These results were corroborated by simulation studies involving either mean differences or heteroskedasticity across a pool of N > 2 groups. Conclusions The combination of statistical results is best suited for synthesizing the correlation between expression profiles of a gene pair across several microarray studies. PMID:23822712
The accurate detection and identification of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms is critical for food safety nowadays. In the present work, a visual DNA microarray was established and applied to detect pathogens commonly found in food, including Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in food samples. Multiplex PCR (mPCR) was employed to simultaneously amplify specific gene fragments, fimY for Salmonella, ipaH for Shigella, iap for L. monocytogenes and ECs2841 for E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Biotinylated PCR amplicons annealed to the microarray probes were then reacted with a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3'-indolylphosphate, p-toluidine salt (NBT/BCIP); the positive results were easily visualized as blue dots formatted on the microarray surface. The performance of a DNA microarray was tested against 14 representative collection strains and mock-contamination food samples. The combination of mPCR and a visual micro-plate chip specifically and sensitively detected Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in standard strains and food matrices with a sensitivity of ∼10(2) CFU/mL of bacterial culture. Thus, the developed method is advantageous because of its high throughput, cost-effectiveness and ease of use.
Beaudet, Arthur L.
Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has emerged as a powerful new tool to identify genomic abnormalities associated with a wide range of developmental disabilities including congenital malformations, cognitive impairment, and behavioral abnormalities. CMA includes array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism…
MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION
Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have demonstrated the hepatocarcinogenicity of DCA in rodents when administered in dri...
Human noroviruses cause up to 21 million cases of foodborne disease in the United States annually and are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. To reduce the burden of foodborne disease associated with viruses, the use of low density DNA microarrays in conjunct...
Harvey, Benjamin Simeon; Ji, Soo-Yeon
As microarray data available to scientists continues to increase in size and complexity, it has become overwhelmingly important to find multiple ways to bring forth oncological inference to the bioinformatics community through the analysis of large-scale cancer genomic (LSCG) DNA and mRNA microarray data that is useful to scientists. Though there have been many attempts to elucidate the issue of bringing forth biological interpretation by means of wavelet preprocessing and classification, there has not been a research effort that focuses on a cloud-scale distributed parallel (CSDP) separable 1-D wavelet decomposition technique for denoising through differential expression thresholding and classification of LSCG microarray data. This research presents a novel methodology that utilizes a CSDP separable 1-D method for wavelet-based transformation in order to initialize a threshold which will retain significantly expressed genes through the denoising process for robust classification of cancer patients. Additionally, the overall study was implemented and encompassed within CSDP environment. The utilization of cloud computing and wavelet-based thresholding for denoising was used for the classification of samples within the Global Cancer Map, Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, and The Cancer Genome Atlas. The results proved that separable 1-D parallel distributed wavelet denoising in the cloud and differential expression thresholding increased the computational performance and enabled the generation of higher quality LSCG microarray datasets, which led to more accurate classification results.
Li, Wei; Zhao, Botao; Jin, Youxin; Ruan, Kangcheng
MicroRNA (miRNA) microarray is a powerful tool to explore the expression profiling of miRNA. The current detection method used in miRNA microarray is mainly fluorescence based, which usually requires costly detection system such as laser confocal scanner of tens of thousands of dollars. Recently, we developed a low-cost yet sensitive detection method for miRNA microarray based on enzyme-linked assay. In this approach, the biotinylated miRNAs were captured by the corresponding oligonucleotide probes immobilized on microarray slide; and then the biotinylated miRNAs would capture streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase. A purple-black precipitation on each biotinylated miRNA spot was produced by the enzyme catalytic reaction. It could be easily detected by a charge-coupled device digital camera mounted on a microscope, which lowers the detection cost more than 100 fold compared with that of fluorescence method. Our data showed that signal intensity of the spot correlates well with the biotinylated miRNA concentration and the detection limit for miRNAs is at least 0.4 fmol and the detection dynamic range spans about 2.5 orders of magnitude, which is comparable to that of fluorescence method.
Kim, Chang Sup; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Cha, Hyung Joon
The development of analytical tools is important for understanding the infection mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria or viruses. In the present work, a functional carbohydrate microarray combined with a fluorescence immunoassay was developed to analyze the interactions of Vibrio cholerae toxin (ctx) proteins and GM1-related carbohydrates. Ctx proteins were loaded onto the surface-immobilized GM1 pentasaccharide and six related carbohydrates, and their binding affinities were detected immunologically. The analysis of the ctx-carbohydrate interactions revealed that the intrinsic selectivity of ctx was GM1 pentasaccharide ≫ GM2 tetrasaccharide > asialo GM1 tetrasaccharide ≥ GM3trisaccharide, indicating that a two-finger grip formation and the terminal monosaccharides play important roles in the ctx-GM1 interaction. In addition, whole cholera toxin (ctxAB(5)) had a stricter substrate specificity and a stronger binding affinity than only the cholera toxin B subunit (ctxB). On the basis of the quantitative analysis, the carbohydrate microarray showed the sensitivity of detection of the ctxAB(5)-GM1 interaction with a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 2 ng mL(-1) (23 pM), which is comparable to other reported high sensitivity assay tools. In addition, the carbohydrate microarray successfully detected the actual toxin directly secreted from V. cholerae, without showing cross-reactivity to other bacteria. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the functional carbohydrate microarray is suitable for analyzing toxin protein-carbohydrate interactions and can be applied as a biosensor for toxin detection.
Zimmer, Daniel P; Paliy, Oleg; Thomas, Brian; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Kustu, Sydney
We have developed programs to facilitate analysis of microarray data in Escherichia coli. They fall into two categories: manipulation of microarray images and identification of known biological relationships among lists of genes. A program in the first category arranges spots from glass-slide DNA microarrays according to their position in the E. coli genome and displays them compactly in genome order. The resulting genome image is presented in a web browser with an image map that allows the user to identify genes in the reordered image. Another program in the first category aligns genome images from two or more experiments. These images assist in visualizing regions of the genome with common transcriptional control. Such regions include multigene operons and clusters of operons, which are easily identified as strings of adjacent, similarly colored spots. The images are also useful for assessing the overall quality of experiments. The second category of programs includes a database and a number of tools for displaying biological information about many E. coli genes simultaneously rather than one gene at a time, which facilitates identifying relationships among them. These programs have accelerated and enhanced our interpretation of results from E. coli DNA microarray experiments. Examples are given. Copyright 2004 Genetics Society of America
Background Multiclass classification of microarray data samples with a reduced number of genes is a rich and challenging problem in Bioinformatics research. The problem gets harder as the number of classes is increased. In addition, the performance of most classifiers is tightly linked to the effectiveness of mandatory gene selection methods. Critical to gene selection is the availability of estimates about the maximum number of genes that can be handled by any classification algorithm. Lack of such estimates may lead to either computationally demanding explorations of a search space with thousands of dimensions or classification models based on gene sets of unrestricted size. In the former case, unbiased but possibly overfitted classification models may arise. In the latter case, biased classification models unable to support statistically significant findings may be obtained. Results A novel bound on the maximum number of genes that can be handled by binary classifiers in binary mediated multiclass classification algorithms of microarray data samples is presented. The bound suggests that high-dimensional binary output domains might favor the existence of accurate and sparse binary mediated multiclass classifiers for microarray data samples. Conclusions A comprehensive experimental work shows that the bound is indeed useful to induce accurate and sparse multiclass classifiers for microarray data samples. PMID:21342522
Bălăcescu, Loredana; Bălăcescu, O; Crişan, N; Fetica, B; Petruţ, B; Bungărdean, Cătălina; Rus, Meda; Tudoran, Oana; Meurice, G; Irimie, Al; Dragoş, N; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana
Prostate cancer represents the first leading cause of cancer among western male population, with different clinical behavior ranging from indolent to metastatic disease. Although many molecules and deregulated pathways are known, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of prostate cancer are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular variation underlying the prostate cancer, based on microarray analysis and bioinformatics approaches. Normal and prostate cancer tissues were collected by macrodissection from prostatectomy pieces. All prostate cancer specimens used in our study were Gleason score 7. Gene expression microarray (Agilent Technologies) was used for Whole Human Genome evaluation. The bioinformatics and functional analysis were based on Limma and Ingenuity software. The microarray analysis identified 1119 differentially expressed genes between prostate cancer and normal prostate, which were up- or down-regulated at least 2-fold. P-values were adjusted for multiple testing using Benjamini-Hochberg method with a false discovery rate of 0.01. These genes were analyzed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and were established 23 genetic networks. Our microarray results provide new information regarding the molecular networks in prostate cancer stratified as Gleason 7. These data highlighted gene expression profiles for better understanding of prostate cancer progression.
To analyze transcriptome response to virus infection, we have assembled currently available microarray data on changes in gene expression levels in compatible Arabidopsis-virus interactions. We used the mean r (Pearson’s correlation coefficient) for neighboring pairs to estimate pairwise local simil...
The use of commercial microarrays are rapidly becoming the method of choice for profiling gene expression and assessing various disease states. Research Genetics has provided a series of well defined biological and software tools to the research community for these analyses. Th...
Woo, Yong; Krueger, Winfried; Kaur, Anupinder; Churchill, Gary
Three-color microarrays, compared with two-color microarrays, can increase design efficiency and power to detect differential expression without additional samples and arrays. Furthermore, three-color microarray technology is currently available at a reasonable cost. Despite the potential advantages, clear guidelines for designing and analyzing three-color experiments do not exist. We propose a three- and a four-color cyclic design (loop) and a complementary graphical representation to help design experiments that are balanced, efficient and robust to hybridization failures. In theory, three-color loop designs are more efficient than two-color loop designs. Experiments using both two- and three-color platforms were performed in parallel and their outputs were analyzed using linear mixed model analysis in R/MAANOVA. These results demonstrate that three-color experiments using the same number of samples (and fewer arrays) will perform as efficiently as two-color experiments. The improved efficiency of the design is somewhat offset by a reduced dynamic range and increased variability in the three-color experimental system. This result suggests that, with minor technological improvements, three-color microarrays using loop designs could detect differential expression more efficiently than two-color loop designs. http://www.jax.org/staff/churchill/labsite/software Multicolor cyclic design construction methods and examples along with additional results of the experiment are provided at http://www.jax.org/staff/churchill/labsite/pubs/yong.
Scheler, Ott; Glynn, Barry; Parkel, Sven; Palta, Priit; Toome, Kadri; Kaplinski, Lauris; Remm, Maido; Maher, Majella; Kurg, Ants
Background Here we present a novel promising microbial diagnostic method that combines the sensitivity of Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) with the high information content of microarray technology for the detection of bacterial tmRNA molecules. The NASBA protocol was modified to include aminoallyl-UTP (aaUTP) molecules that were incorporated into nascent RNA during the NASBA reaction. Post-amplification labeling with fluorescent dye was carried out subsequently and tmRNA hybridization signal intensities were measured using microarray technology. Significant optimization of the labeled NASBA protocol was required to maintain the required sensitivity of the reactions. Results Two different aaUTP salts were evaluated and optimum final concentrations were identified for both. The final 2 mM concentration of aaUTP Li-salt in NASBA reaction resulted in highest microarray signals overall, being twice as high as the strongest signals with 1 mM aaUTP Na-salt. Conclusion We have successfully demonstrated efficient combination of NASBA amplification technology with microarray based hybridization detection. The method is applicative for many different areas of microbial diagnostics including environmental monitoring, bio threat detection, industrial process monitoring and clinical microbiology. PMID:19445684
Tra, Yolande V.; Evans, Irene M.
"BIO2010" put forth the goal of improving the mathematical educational background of biology students. The analysis and interpretation of microarray high-dimensional data can be very challenging and is best done by a statistician and a biologist working and teaching in a collaborative manner. We set up such a collaboration and designed a course on…
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) causes stripe rust, one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. To identify Pst genes involved in infection and sporulation, a custom oligonucleotide Genechip was made using sequences of 442 genes selected from Pst cDNA libraries. Microarray analy...
With the advent of sequence information for entire mammalian genomes, it is now possible to analyze gene expression and gene polymorphisms on a genomic scale. The primary tool for analysis of gene expression is the DNA microarray. We have used commercially available cDNA micro...
Frisca, Bustamam, Alhadi; Siswantining, Titin
Clustering is one of data analysis methods that aims to classify data which have similar characteristics in the same group. Spectral clustering is one of the most popular modern clustering algorithms. As an effective clustering technique, spectral clustering method emerged from the concepts of spectral graph theory. Spectral clustering method needs partitioning algorithm. There are some partitioning methods including PAM, SOM, Fuzzy c-means, and k-means. Based on the research that has been done by Capital and Choudhury in 2013, when using Euclidian distance k-means algorithm provide better accuracy than PAM algorithm. So in this paper we use k-means as our partition algorithm. The major advantage of spectral clustering is in reducing data dimension, especially in this case to reduce the dimension of large microarray dataset. Microarray data is a small-sized chip made of a glass plate containing thousands and even tens of thousands kinds of genes in the DNA fragments derived from doubling cDNA. Application of microarray data is widely used to detect cancer, for the example is carcinoma, in which cancer cells express the abnormalities in his genes. The purpose of this research is to classify the data that have high similarity in the same group and the data that have low similarity in the others. In this research, Carcinoma microarray data using 7457 genes. The result of partitioning using k-means algorithm is two clusters.
Arsenic (As) is a common environmental toxicant and known human carcinogen. Epidemiological studies link As exposure to various disorders and cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms for As toxicity and carcinogenicity are not completely known. The cDNA microarray, a high-th...
A primary reason for using two-color microarrays is that the use of two samples labeled with different dyes on the same slide and that bind to probes on the same spot is supposed to adjust for many factors that introduce noise and errors into the analysis. Most users assume that any differences bet...
Qin, Huaizhen; Feng, Tao; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Zhang, Shuanglin
Motivation Microarray experiments typically analyze thousands to tens of thousands of genes from small numbers of biological replicates. The fact that genes are normally expressed in functionally relevant patterns suggests that gene-expression data can be stratified and clustered into relatively homogenous groups. Cluster-wise dimensionality reduction should make it feasible to improve screening power while minimizing information loss. Results We propose a powerful and computationally simple method for finding differentially expressed genes in small microarray experiments. The method incorporates a novel stratification-based tight clustering algorithm, principal component analysis and information pooling. Comprehensive simulations show that our method is substantially more powerful than the popular SAM and eBayes approaches. We applied the method to three real microarray datasets: one from a Populus nitrogen stress experiment with 3 biological replicates; and two from public microarray datasets of human cancers with 10 to 40 biological replicates. In all three analyses, our method proved more robust than the popular alternatives for identification of differentially expressed genes. Availability The C++ code to implement the proposed method is available upon request for academic use. PMID:18453554
Do, Jin Hwan; Choi, Dong-Kug
The analysis of microarray data is essential for large amounts of gene expression data. In this review we focus on clustering techniques. The biological rationale for this approach is the fact that many co-expressed genes are co-regulated, and identifying co-expressed genes could aid in functional annotation of novel genes, de novo identification of transcription factor binding sites and elucidation of complex biological pathways. Co-expressed genes are usually identified in microarray experiments by clustering techniques. There are many such methods, and the results obtained even for the same datasets may vary considerably depending on the algorithms and metrics for dissimilarity measures used, as well as on user-selectable parameters such as desired number of clusters and initial values. Therefore, biologists who want to interpret microarray data should be aware of the weakness and strengths of the clustering methods used. In this review, we survey the basic principles of clustering of DNA microarray data from crisp clustering algorithms such as hierarchical clustering, K-means and self-organizing maps, to complex clustering algorithms like fuzzy clustering.
Microarray expression profiles are inherently noisy and many different sources of variation exist in microarray experiments. It is still a significant challenge to develop stochastic models to realize noise in microarray expression profiles, which has profound influence on the reverse engineering of genetic regulation. Using the target genes of the tumour suppressor gene p53 as the test problem, we developed stochastic differential equation models and established the relationship between the noise strength of stochastic models and parameters of an error model for describing the distribution of the microarray measurements. Numerical results indicate that the simulated variance from stochastic models with a stochastic degradation process can be represented by a monomial in terms of the hybridization intensity and the order of the monomial depends on the type of stochastic process. The developed stochastic models with multiple stochastic processes generated simulations whose variance is consistent with the prediction of the error model. This work also established a general method to develop stochastic models from experimental information. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Viti, Federica; Merelli, Ivan; Caprera, Andrea; Lazzari, Barbara; Stella, Alessandra; Milanesi, Luciano
Background Tissue MicroArray technique is becoming increasingly important in pathology for the validation of experimental data from transcriptomic analysis. This approach produces many images which need to be properly managed, if possible with an infrastructure able to support tissue sharing between institutes. Moreover, the available frameworks oriented to Tissue MicroArray provide good storage for clinical patient, sample treatment and block construction information, but their utility is limited by the lack of data integration with biomolecular information. Results In this work we propose a Tissue MicroArray web oriented system to support researchers in managing bio-samples and, through the use of ontologies, enables tissue sharing aimed at the design of Tissue MicroArray experiments and results evaluation. Indeed, our system provides ontological description both for pre-analysis tissue images and for post-process analysis image results, which is crucial for information exchange. Moreover, working on well-defined terms it is then possible to query web resources for literature articles to integrate both pathology and bioinformatics data. Conclusions Using this system, users associate an ontology-based description to each image uploaded into the database and also integrate results with the ontological description of biosequences identified in every tissue. Moreover, it is possible to integrate the ontological description provided by the user with a full compliant gene ontology definition, enabling statistical studies about correlation between the analyzed pathology and the most commonly related biological processes. PMID:18460177
Beyer, Sasha J; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jimenez, Rafael E; Lee, Mei-Ling T; Richardson, Andrea L; Huang, Kun; Jhiang, Sissy M
Na+/I- symporter (NIS)-mediated iodide uptake allows radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. NIS is also expressed in breast tumors, raising potential for radionuclide therapy of breast cancer. However, NIS expression in most breast cancers is low and may not be sufficient for radionuclide therapy. We aimed to identify biomarkers associated with NIS expression such that mechanisms underlying NIS modulation in human breast tumors may be elucidated. Published oligonucleotide microarray data within the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus database were analyzed to identify gene expression tightly correlated with NIS mRNA level among human breast tumors. NIS immunostaining was performed in a tissue microarray composed of 28 human breast tumors which had corresponding oligonucleotide microarray data available for each tumor such that gene expression associated with cell surface NIS protein level could be identified. NIS mRNA levels do not vary among breast tumors or when compared to normal breast tissues when detected by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray platforms. Cell surface NIS protein levels are much more variable than their corresponding NIS mRNA levels. Despite a limited number of breast tumors examined, our analysis identified cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase as a biomarker that is highly associated with cell surface NIS protein levels in the ER-positive breast cancer subtype. Further investigation on genes associated with cell surface NIS protein levels within each breast cancer molecular subtype may lead to novel targets for selectively increasing NIS expression/function in a subset of breast cancers patients.
Kim, Eun-Youn; Kim, Seon-Young; Ashlock, Daniel; Nam, Dougu
Background Uncovering subtypes of disease from microarray samples has important clinical implications such as survival time and sensitivity of individual patients to specific therapies. Unsupervised clustering methods have been used to classify this type of data. However, most existing methods focus on clusters with compact shapes and do not reflect the geometric complexity of the high dimensional microarray clusters, which limits their performance. Results We present a cluster-number-based ensemble clustering algorithm, called MULTI-K, for microarray sample classification, which demonstrates remarkable accuracy. The method amalgamates multiple k-means runs by varying the number of clusters and identifies clusters that manifest the most robust co-memberships of elements. In addition to the original algorithm, we newly devised the entropy-plot to control the separation of singletons or small clusters. MULTI-K, unlike the simple k-means or other widely used methods, was able to capture clusters with complex and high-dimensional structures accurately. MULTI-K outperformed other methods including a recently developed ensemble clustering algorithm in tests with five simulated and eight real gene-expression data sets. Conclusion The geometric complexity of clusters should be taken into account for accurate classification of microarray data, and ensemble clustering applied to the number of clusters tackles the problem very well. The C++ code and the data sets tested are available from the authors. PMID:19698124
Lin, Jin-Ran; Liang, Jun; Zhang, Qiao-An; Huang, Qiong; Wang, Shang-Shang; Qin, Hai-Hong; Chen, Lian-Jun; Xu, Jin-Hua
Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) is a rare cutaneous malignancy accounting for approximately 1-2% of vulvar cancers. The rarity of this disease has caused difficulties in characterization and the molecular mechanism underlying EMPD development remains largely unclear. Here we used microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in EMPD of the scrotum comparing with normal epithelium from healthy donors. Agilent single-channel microarray was used to compare the gene expression between 6 EMPD specimens and 6 normal scrotum epithelium samples. A total of 799 up-regulated genes and 723 down-regulated genes were identified in EMPD tissues. Real-time PCR was conducted to verify the differential expression of some representative genes, including ERBB4, TCF3, PAPSS2, PIK3R3, PRLR, SULT1A1, TCF7L1, and CREB3L4. Generally, the real-time PCR results were consistent with microarray data, and the expression of ERBB4, PRLR, TCF3, PIK3R3, SULT1A1, and TCF7L1 was significantly overexpressed in EMPD (P<0.05). Moreover, the overexpression of PRLR in EMPD, a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. These data demonstrate that the differentially expressed genes from the microarray-based identification are tightly associated with EMPD occurrence. PMID:26221264
Price, Jordan V.; Haddon, David J.; Kemmer, Dodge; Delepine, Guillaume; Mandelbaum, Gil; Jarrell, Justin A.; Gupta, Rohit; Balboni, Imelda; Chakravarty, Eliza F.; Sokolove, Jeremy; Shum, Anthony K.; Anderson, Mark S.; Cheng, Mickie H.; Robinson, William H.; Browne, Sarah K.; Holland, Steven M.; Baechler, Emily C.; Utz, Paul J.
Autoantibodies against cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors inhibit normal immunity and are implicated in inflammatory autoimmune disease and diseases of immune deficiency. In an effort to evaluate serum from autoimmune and immunodeficient patients for Abs against cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in a high-throughput and unbiased manner, we constructed a multiplex protein microarray for detection of serum factor–binding Abs and used the microarray to detect autoantibody targets in SLE. We designed a nitrocellulose-surface microarray containing human cytokines, chemokines, and other circulating proteins and demonstrated that the array permitted specific detection of serum factor–binding probes. We used the arrays to detect previously described autoantibodies against cytokines in samples from individuals with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 and chronic mycobacterial infection. Serum profiling from individuals with SLE revealed that among several targets, elevated IgG autoantibody reactivity to B cell–activating factor (BAFF) was associated with SLE compared with control samples. BAFF reactivity correlated with the severity of disease-associated features, including IFN-α–driven SLE pathology. Our results showed that serum factor protein microarrays facilitate detection of autoantibody reactivity to serum factors in human samples and that BAFF-reactive autoantibodies may be associated with an elevated inflammatory disease state within the spectrum of SLE. PMID:24270423
Xu, Xiaodan; Li, Yingcong; Zhao, Heng; Wen, Si-yuan; Wang, Sheng-qi; Huang, Jian; Huang, Kun-lun; Luo, Yun-bo
To devise a rapid and reliable method for the detection and identification of genetically modified (GM) events, we developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with a DNA microarray system simultaneously aiming at many targets in a single reaction. The system included probes for screening gene, species reference gene, specific gene, construct-specific gene, event-specific gene, and internal and negative control genes. 18S rRNA was combined with species reference genes as internal controls to assess the efficiency of all reactions and to eliminate false negatives. Two sets of the multiplex PCR system were used to amplify four and five targets, respectively. Eight different structure genes could be detected and identified simultaneously for Roundup Ready soybean in a single microarray. The microarray specificity was validated by its ability to discriminate two GM maizes Bt176 and Bt11. The advantages of this method are its high specificity and greatly reduced false-positives and -negatives. The multiplex PCR coupled with microarray technology presented here is a rapid and reliable tool for the simultaneous detection of GM organism ingredients.
Yao, Chunyan; Chen, Qinghai; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Bo; Luo, Yang; Huang, Qing; Huang, Junfu; Fu, Weiling
A novel multi-channel 2 x 5 model of piezoelectric (PZ) micro-array immunosensor has been developed for quantitative detection of human immunoglobulinE (IgE) in serum. Every crystal unit of the fabricated piezoelectric IgE micro-array immunosensor can oscillate without interfering each other. A multi-channel 2 x 5 model micro-array immunosensor as compared with the traditional one-channel immunosensor can provide eight times higher detection speeds for IgE assay. The anti-IgE antibody is deposited on the gold electrode's surface of 10 MHz AT-cut quartz crystals by SPA (staphylococcal protein A), and serves as an antibody recognizing layer. The highly ordered antibody monolayers ensure well-controlled surface structure and offer many advantages to the performance of the sensor. The uniform amount of antibody monolayer coated by the SPA is good, and non-specific reaction caused by other immunoglobulin in sample is found. The fabricated PZ immunosensor can be used for human IgE determination in the range of 5-300 IU/ml with high precision (CV is 4%). 50 human serum samples were detected by the micro-array immunosensor, and the results agreed well with those given by the commercially ELISA test kits. The correlation coefficient is 0.94 between ELISA and PZ immunosensor. After regeneration with NaOH the coated immunosensor can be reused 6 times without appreciable loss of activity.
USING DNA MICROARRAYS TO CHARACTERIZE GENE EXPRESSION
IN TESTES OF FERTILE AND INFERTILE HUMANS AND MICE
John C. Rockett1, J. Christopher Luft1, J. Brian Garges1, M. Stacey Ricci2, Pasquale Patrizio2, Norman B. Hecht2 and David J. Dix1
Reproductive Toxicology Divisio...
Background The combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation with two-channel microarray technology enables genome-wide mapping of binding sites of DNA-interacting proteins (ChIP-on-chip) or sites with methylated CpG di-nucleotides (DNA methylation microarray). These powerful tools are the gateway to understanding gene transcription regulation. Since the goals of such studies, the sample preparation procedures, the microarray content and study design are all different from transcriptomics microarrays, the data pre-processing strategies traditionally applied to transcriptomics microarrays may not be appropriate. Particularly, the main challenge of the normalization of "regulation microarrays" is (i) to make the data of individual microarrays quantitatively comparable and (ii) to keep the signals of the enriched probes, representing DNA sequences from the precipitate, as distinguishable as possible from the signals of the un-enriched probes, representing DNA sequences largely absent from the precipitate. Results We compare several widely used normalization approaches (VSN, LOWESS, quantile, T-quantile, Tukey's biweight scaling, Peng's method) applied to a selection of regulation microarray datasets, ranging from DNA methylation to transcription factor binding and histone modification studies. Through comparison of the data distributions of control probes and gene promoter probes before and after normalization, and assessment of the power to identify known enriched genomic regions after normalization, we demonstrate that there are clear differences in performance between normalization procedures. Conclusion T-quantile normalization applied separately on the channels and Tukey's biweight scaling outperform other methods in terms of the conservation of enriched and un-enriched signal separation, as well as in identification of genomic regions known to be enriched. T-quantile normalization is preferable as it additionally improves comparability between microarrays. In
Rai, Muhammad Farooq; Tycksen, Eric D; Sandell, Linda J; Brophy, Robert H
Microarrays and RNA-seq are at the forefront of high throughput transcriptome analyses. Since these methodologies are based on different principles, there are concerns about the concordance of data between the two techniques. The concordance of RNA-seq and microarrays for genome-wide analysis of differential gene expression has not been rigorously assessed in clinically derived ligament tissues. To demonstrate the concordance between RNA-seq and microarrays and to assess potential benefits of RNA-seq over microarrays, we assessed differences in transcript expression in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tissues based on time-from-injury. ACL remnants were collected from patients with an ACL tear at the time of ACL reconstruction. RNA prepared from torn ACL remnants was subjected to Agilent microarrays (N = 24) and RNA-seq (N = 8). The correlation of biological replicates in RNA-seq and microarrays data was similar (0.98 vs. 0.97), demonstrating that each platform has high internal reproducibility. Correlations between the RNA-seq data and the individual microarrays were low, but correlations between the RNA-seq values and the geometric mean of the microarrays values were moderate. The cross-platform concordance for differentially expressed transcripts or enriched pathways was linearly correlated (r = 0.64). RNA-Seq was superior in detecting low abundance transcripts and differentiating biologically critical isoforms. Additional independent validation of transcript expression was undertaken using microfluidic PCR for selected genes. PCR data showed 100% concordance (in expression pattern) with RNA-seq and microarrays data. These findings demonstrate that RNA-seq has advantages over microarrays for transcriptome profiling of ligament tissues when available and affordable. Furthermore, these findings are likely transferable to other musculoskeletal tissues where tissue collection is challenging and cells are in low abundance. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research
Tomlinson, Chris; Thimma, Manjula; Alexandrakis, Stelios; Castillo, Tito; Dennis, Jayne L; Brooks, Anthony; Bradley, Thomas; Turnbull, Carly; Blaveri, Ekaterini; Barton, Geraint; Chiba, Norie; Maratou, Klio; Soutter, Pat; Aitman, Tim; Game, Laurence
Background Despite considerable efforts within the microarray community for standardising data format, content and description, microarray technologies present major challenges in managing, sharing, analysing and re-using the large amount of data generated locally or internationally. Additionally, it is recognised that inconsistent and low quality experimental annotation in public data repositories significantly compromises the re-use of microarray data for meta-analysis. MiMiR, the Microarray data Mining Resource was designed to tackle some of these limitations and challenges. Here we present new software components and enhancements to the original infrastructure that increase accessibility, utility and opportunities for large scale mining of experimental and clinical data. Results A user friendly Online Annotation Tool allows researchers to submit detailed experimental information via the web at the time of data generation rather than at the time of publication. This ensures the easy access and high accuracy of meta-data collected. Experiments are programmatically built in the MiMiR database from the submitted information and details are systematically curated and further annotated by a team of trained annotators using a new Curation and Annotation Tool. Clinical information can be annotated and coded with a clinical Data Mapping Tool within an appropriate ethical framework. Users can visualise experimental annotation, assess data quality, download and share data via a web-based experiment browser called MiMiR Online. All requests to access data in MiMiR are routed through a sophisticated middleware security layer thereby allowing secure data access and sharing amongst MiMiR registered users prior to publication. Data in MiMiR can be mined and analysed using the integrated EMAAS open source analysis web portal or via export of data and meta-data into Rosetta Resolver data analysis package. Conclusion The new MiMiR suite of software enables systematic and
Chiu, Chia-Chun; Chan, Shih-Yao; Wang, Chung-Ching; Wu, Wei-Sheng
Microarray data are usually peppered with missing values due to various reasons. However, most of the downstream analyses for microarray data require complete datasets. Therefore, accurate algorithms for missing value estimation are needed for improving the performance of microarray data analyses. Although many algorithms have been developed, there are many debates on the selection of the optimal algorithm. The studies about the performance comparison of different algorithms are still incomprehensive, especially in the number of benchmark datasets used, the number of algorithms compared, the rounds of simulation conducted, and the performance measures used. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive comparison by using (I) thirteen datasets, (II) nine algorithms, (III) 110 independent runs of simulation, and (IV) three types of measures to evaluate the performance of each imputation algorithm fairly. First, the effects of different types of microarray datasets on the performance of each imputation algorithm were evaluated. Second, we discussed whether the datasets from different species have different impact on the performance of different algorithms. To assess the performance of each algorithm fairly, all evaluations were performed using three types of measures. Our results indicate that the performance of an imputation algorithm mainly depends on the type of a dataset but not on the species where the samples come from. In addition to the statistical measure, two other measures with biological meanings are useful to reflect the impact of missing value imputation on the downstream data analyses. Our study suggests that local-least-squares-based methods are good choices to handle missing values for most of the microarray datasets. In this work, we carried out a comprehensive comparison of the algorithms for microarray missing value imputation. Based on such a comprehensive comparison, researchers could choose the optimal algorithm for their datasets easily
Background Microarray data are usually peppered with missing values due to various reasons. However, most of the downstream analyses for microarray data require complete datasets. Therefore, accurate algorithms for missing value estimation are needed for improving the performance of microarray data analyses. Although many algorithms have been developed, there are many debates on the selection of the optimal algorithm. The studies about the performance comparison of different algorithms are still incomprehensive, especially in the number of benchmark datasets used, the number of algorithms compared, the rounds of simulation conducted, and the performance measures used. Results In this paper, we performed a comprehensive comparison by using (I) thirteen datasets, (II) nine algorithms, (III) 110 independent runs of simulation, and (IV) three types of measures to evaluate the performance of each imputation algorithm fairly. First, the effects of different types of microarray datasets on the performance of each imputation algorithm were evaluated. Second, we discussed whether the datasets from different species have different impact on the performance of different algorithms. To assess the performance of each algorithm fairly, all evaluations were performed using three types of measures. Our results indicate that the performance of an imputation algorithm mainly depends on the type of a dataset but not on the species where the samples come from. In addition to the statistical measure, two other measures with biological meanings are useful to reflect the impact of missing value imputation on the downstream data analyses. Our study suggests that local-least-squares-based methods are good choices to handle missing values for most of the microarray datasets. Conclusions In this work, we carried out a comprehensive comparison of the algorithms for microarray missing value imputation. Based on such a comprehensive comparison, researchers could choose the optimal algorithm for
Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been cultivated for around 9,000 years and is therefore one of the oldest cultivated species. Today, flax is still grown for its oil (oil-flax or linseed cultivars) and its cellulose-rich fibres (fibre-flax cultivars) used for high-value linen garments and composite materials. Despite the wide industrial use of flax-derived products, and our actual understanding of the regulation of both wood fibre production and oil biosynthesis more information must be acquired in both domains. Recent advances in genomics are now providing opportunities to improve our fundamental knowledge of these complex processes. In this paper we report the development and validation of a high-density oligo microarray platform dedicated to gene expression analyses in flax. Results Nine different RNA samples obtained from flax inner- and outer-stems, seeds, leaves and roots were used to generate a collection of 1,066,481 ESTs by massive parallel pyrosequencing. Sequences were assembled into 59,626 unigenes and 48,021 sequences were selected for oligo design and high-density microarray (Nimblegen 385K) fabrication with eight, non-overlapping 25-mers oligos per unigene. 18 independent experiments were used to evaluate the hybridization quality, precision, specificity and accuracy and all results confirmed the high technical quality of our microarray platform. Cross-validation of microarray data was carried out using quantitative qRT-PCR. Nine target genes were selected on the basis of microarray results and reflected the whole range of fold change (both up-regulated and down-regulated genes in different samples). A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained comparing expression levels for each target gene across all biological replicates both in qRT-PCR and microarray results. Further experiments illustrated the capacity of our arrays to detect differential gene expression in a variety of flax tissues as well as between two contrasted
Tomlinson, Chris; Thimma, Manjula; Alexandrakis, Stelios; Castillo, Tito; Dennis, Jayne L; Brooks, Anthony; Bradley, Thomas; Turnbull, Carly; Blaveri, Ekaterini; Barton, Geraint; Chiba, Norie; Maratou, Klio; Soutter, Pat; Aitman, Tim; Game, Laurence
Despite considerable efforts within the microarray community for standardising data format, content and description, microarray technologies present major challenges in managing, sharing, analysing and re-using the large amount of data generated locally or internationally. Additionally, it is recognised that inconsistent and low quality experimental annotation in public data repositories significantly compromises the re-use of microarray data for meta-analysis. MiMiR, the Microarray data Mining Resource was designed to tackle some of these limitations and challenges. Here we present new software components and enhancements to the original infrastructure that increase accessibility, utility and opportunities for large scale mining of experimental and clinical data. A user friendly Online Annotation Tool allows researchers to submit detailed experimental information via the web at the time of data generation rather than at the time of publication. This ensures the easy access and high accuracy of meta-data collected. Experiments are programmatically built in the MiMiR database from the submitted information and details are systematically curated and further annotated by a team of trained annotators using a new Curation and Annotation Tool. Clinical information can be annotated and coded with a clinical Data Mapping Tool within an appropriate ethical framework. Users can visualise experimental annotation, assess data quality, download and share data via a web-based experiment browser called MiMiR Online. All requests to access data in MiMiR are routed through a sophisticated middleware security layer thereby allowing secure data access and sharing amongst MiMiR registered users prior to publication. Data in MiMiR can be mined and analysed using the integrated EMAAS open source analysis web portal or via export of data and meta-data into Rosetta Resolver data analysis package. The new MiMiR suite of software enables systematic and effective capture of extensive
Fenart, Stéphane; Ndong, Yves-Placide Assoumou; Duarte, Jorge; Rivière, Nathalie; Wilmer, Jeroen; van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Lucau, Anca; Cariou, Emmanuelle; Neutelings, Godfrey; Gutierrez, Laurent; Chabbert, Brigitte; Guillot, Xavier; Tavernier, Reynald; Hawkins, Simon; Thomasset, Brigitte
Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been cultivated for around 9,000 years and is therefore one of the oldest cultivated species. Today, flax is still grown for its oil (oil-flax or linseed cultivars) and its cellulose-rich fibres (fibre-flax cultivars) used for high-value linen garments and composite materials. Despite the wide industrial use of flax-derived products, and our actual understanding of the regulation of both wood fibre production and oil biosynthesis more information must be acquired in both domains. Recent advances in genomics are now providing opportunities to improve our fundamental knowledge of these complex processes. In this paper we report the development and validation of a high-density oligo microarray platform dedicated to gene expression analyses in flax. Nine different RNA samples obtained from flax inner- and outer-stems, seeds, leaves and roots were used to generate a collection of 1,066,481 ESTs by massive parallel pyrosequencing. Sequences were assembled into 59,626 unigenes and 48,021 sequences were selected for oligo design and high-density microarray (Nimblegen 385K) fabrication with eight, non-overlapping 25-mers oligos per unigene. 18 independent experiments were used to evaluate the hybridization quality, precision, specificity and accuracy and all results confirmed the high technical quality of our microarray platform. Cross-validation of microarray data was carried out using quantitative qRT-PCR. Nine target genes were selected on the basis of microarray results and reflected the whole range of fold change (both up-regulated and down-regulated genes in different samples). A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained comparing expression levels for each target gene across all biological replicates both in qRT-PCR and microarray results. Further experiments illustrated the capacity of our arrays to detect differential gene expression in a variety of flax tissues as well as between two contrasted flax varieties
Tong, Dong Ling; Schierz, Amanda C
Suitable techniques for microarray analysis have been widely researched, particularly for the study of marker genes expressed to a specific type of cancer. Most of the machine learning methods that have been applied to significant gene selection focus on the classification ability rather than the selection ability of the method. These methods also require the microarray data to be preprocessed before analysis takes place. The objective of this study is to develop a hybrid genetic algorithm-neural network (GANN) model that emphasises feature selection and can operate on unpreprocessed microarray data. The GANN is a hybrid model where the fitness value of the genetic algorithm (GA) is based upon the number of samples correctly labelled by a standard feedforward artificial neural network (ANN). The model is evaluated by using two benchmark microarray datasets with different array platforms and differing number of classes (a 2-class oligonucleotide microarray data for acute leukaemia and a 4-class complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray dataset for SRBCTs (small round blue cell tumours)). The underlying concept of the GANN algorithm is to select highly informative genes by co-evolving both the GA fitness function and the ANN weights at the same time. The novel GANN selected approximately 50% of the same genes as the original studies. This may indicate that these common genes are more biologically significant than other genes in the datasets. The remaining 50% of the significant genes identified were used to build predictive models and for both datasets, the models based on the set of genes extracted by the GANN method produced more accurate results. The results also suggest that the GANN method not only can detect genes that are exclusively associated with a single cancer type but can also explore the genes that are differentially expressed in multiple cancer types. The results show that the GANN model has successfully extracted statistically significant genes from the
Background Large discrepancies in signature composition and outcome concordance have been observed between different microarray breast cancer expression profiling studies. This is often ascribed to differences in array platform as well as biological variability. We conjecture that other reasons for the observed discrepancies are the measurement error associated with each feature and the choice of preprocessing method. Microarray data are known to be subject to technical variation and the confidence intervals around individual point estimates of expression levels can be wide. Furthermore, the estimated expression values also vary depending on the selected preprocessing scheme. In microarray breast cancer classification studies, however, these two forms of feature variability are almost always ignored and hence their exact role is unclear. Results We have performed a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of microarray breast cancer classification under the two types of feature variability mentioned above. We used data from six state of the art preprocessing methods, using a compendium consisting of eight diferent datasets, involving 1131 hybridizations, containing data from both one and two-color array technology. For a wide range of classifiers, we performed a joint study on performance, concordance and stability. In the stability analysis we explicitly tested classifiers for their noise tolerance by using perturbed expression profiles that are based on uncertainty information directly related to the preprocessing methods. Our results indicate that signature composition is strongly influenced by feature variability, even if the array platform and the stratification of patient samples are identical. In addition, we show that there is often a high level of discordance between individual class assignments for signatures constructed on data coming from different preprocessing schemes, even if the actual signature composition is identical. Conclusion Feature variability can
Background Current biosensors are designed to target and react to specific nucleic acid sequences or structural epitopes. These 'target-specific' platforms require creation of new physical capture reagents when new organisms are targeted. An 'open-target' approach to DNA microarray biosensing is proposed and substantiated using laboratory generated data. The microarray consisted of 12,900 25 bp oligonucleotide capture probes derived from a statistical model trained on randomly selected genomic segments of pathogenic prokaryotic organisms. Open-target detection of organisms was accomplished using a reference library of hybridization patterns for three test organisms whose DNA sequences were not included in the design of the microarray probes. Results A multivariate mathematical model based on the partial least squares regression (PLSR) was developed to detect the presence of three test organisms in mixed samples. When all 12,900 probes were used, the model correctly detected the signature of three test organisms in all mixed samples (mean(R2)) = 0.76, CI = 0.95), with a 6% false positive rate. A sampling algorithm was then developed to sparsely sample the probe space for a minimal number of probes required to capture the hybridization imprints of the test organisms. The PLSR detection model was capable of correctly identifying the presence of the three test organisms in all mixed samples using only 47 probes (mean(R2)) = 0.77, CI = 0.95) with nearly 100% specificity. Conclusions We conceived an 'open-target' approach to biosensing, and hypothesized that a relatively small, non-specifically designed, DNA microarray is capable of identifying the presence of multiple organisms in mixed samples. Coupled with a mathematical model applied to laboratory generated data, and sparse sampling of capture probes, the prototype microarray platform was able to capture the signature of each organism in all mixed samples with high sensitivity and specificity. It was demonstrated
Background Mandatory deposit of raw microarray data files for public access, prior to study publication, provides significant opportunities to conduct new bioinformatics analyses within and across multiple datasets. Analysis of raw microarray data files (e.g. Affymetrix CEL files) can be time consuming, complex, and requires fundamental computational and bioinformatics skills. The development of analytical workflows to automate these tasks simplifies the processing of, improves the efficiency of, and serves to standardize multiple and sequential analyses. Once installed, workflows facilitate the tedious steps required to run rapid intra- and inter-dataset comparisons. Results We developed a workflow to facilitate and standardize Meta-Analysis of Affymetrix Microarray Data analysis (MAAMD) in Kepler. Two freely available stand-alone software tools, R and AltAnalyze were embedded in MAAMD. The inputs of MAAMD are user-editable csv files, which contain sample information and parameters describing the locations of input files and required tools. MAAMD was tested by analyzing 4 different GEO datasets from mice and drosophila. MAAMD automates data downloading, data organization, data quality control assesment, differential gene expression analysis, clustering analysis, pathway visualization, gene-set enrichment analysis, and cross-species orthologous-gene comparisons. MAAMD was utilized to identify gene orthologues responding to hypoxia or hyperoxia in both mice and drosophila. The entire set of analyses for 4 datasets (34 total microarrays) finished in ~ one hour. Conclusions MAAMD saves time, minimizes the required comp