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Sample records for a-plane gan film

  1. Non-polar a-plane ZnO films grown on r-Al2O3 substrates using GaN buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Chen, W.; Pan, X. H.; Chen, S. S.; Ye, Z. Z.; Huang, J. Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, GaN buffer layer has been used to grow non-polar a-plane ZnO films by laser-assisted and plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The thickness of GaN buffer layer ranges from ∼3 to 12 nm. The GaN buffer thickness effect on the properties of a-plane ZnO thin films is carefully investigated. The results show that the surface morphology, crystal quality and optical properties of a-plane ZnO films are strongly correlated with the thickness of GaN buffer layer. It was found that with 6 nm GaN buffer layer, a-plane ZnO films display the best crystal quality with X-ray diffraction rocking curve full-width at half-maximum of only 161 arcsec for the (101) reflection.

  2. High-quality nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by the combination of pulsed laser deposition and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weijia; Zhang, Zichen; Wang, Wenliang; Zheng, Yulin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Guoqiang

    2018-05-01

    High-quality a-plane GaN epitaxial films have been grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by the combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). PLD is employed to epitaxial growth of a-plane GaN templates on r-plane sapphire substrates, and then MOCVD is used. The nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films with relatively small thickness (2.9 µm) show high quality, with the full-width at half-maximum values of GaN(11\\bar{2}0) along [1\\bar{1}00] direction and GaN(10\\bar{1}1) of 0.11 and 0.30°, and a root-mean-square surface roughness of 1.7 nm. This result is equivalent to the quality of the films grown by MOCVD with a thickness of 10 µm. This work provides a new and effective approach for achieving high-quality nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films on r-plane sapphire substrates.

  3. A New Selective Area Lateral Epitaxy Approach for Depositing a-Plane GaN over r-Plane Sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changqing; Zhang, Jianping; Yang, Jinwei; Adivarahan, Vinod; Rai, Shiva; Wu, Shuai; Wang, Hongmei; Sun, Wenhong; Su, Ming; Gong, Zheng; Kuokstis, Edmundas; Gaevski, Mikhail; Khan, Muhammad Asif

    2003-07-01

    We report a new epitaxy procedure for growing extremely low defect density a-plane GaN films over r-plane sapphire. By combining selective area growth through a SiO2 mask opening to produce high height to width aspect ratio a-plane GaN pillars and lateral epitaxy from their c-plane facets, we obtained fully coalesced a-plane GaN films. The excellent structural, optical and electrical characteristics of these selective area lateral epitaxy (SALE) deposited films make them ideal for high efficiency III-N electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Local electronic and optical behavior of ELO a-plane GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baski, A. A.; Moore, J. C.; Ozgur, U.; Kasliwal, V.; Ni, X.; Morkoc, H.

    2007-03-01

    Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) and near-field optical microscopy (NSOM) were used to study a-plane GaN films grown via epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO). The ELO films were prepared by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on a patterned SiO2 layer with 4-μm wide windows, which was deposited on a GaN template grown on r-plane sapphire. The window regions of the coalesced ELO films appear as depressions with a high density of surface pits. At reverse bias below 12 V, very low uniform conduction (2 pA) is seen in the window regions. Above 20 V, a lower-quality sample shows localized sites inside the window regions with significant leakage, indicating a correlation between the presence of surface pits and leakage sites. Room temperature NSOM studies also suggest a greater density of surface terminated dislocations in the window regions, while wing regions explicitly show enhanced optical quality of the overgrown GaN. The combination of CAFM and NSOM data therefore indicates a correlation between the presence of surface pits, localized reverse-bias current leakage, and low PL intensity in the window regions.

  5. High brightness nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sukkoo; Chang, Younghak; Bang, Kyu-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Gu; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Hwang, Sung-Min; Baik, Kwang Hyeon

    2012-02-01

    We report on high brightness nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN LEDs using patterned lateral overgrowth (PLOG) epitaxy. High crystal-quality and smooth surfaces for a-plane GaN (a-GaN) films were achieved using PLOG with an array of hexagonal SiO2 patterns. The XRC FWHMs of as-grown PLOG a-GaN films were found to be 414 and 317 arcsec (450 and 455 arcsec for planar a-GaN films) along the c-axis and m-axis directions, respectively. Plan-view CL clearly reveals the periodic hexagonal patterns with higher band edge emission intensity, implying that the luminescence properties of a-GaN films lying above the SiO2 mask are improved. The light output powers of a-InGaN/GaN PLOG LEDs were measured to be 7.5 mW and 20 mW at drive currents of 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively. A negligible blue-shift was observed in the peak emission wavelength with increasing drive current up to 100 mA, indicating that there are no strong internal fields in nonpolar a-InGaN/GaN LEDs. We believe that nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN LEDs hold promise for efficient nitride emitters if the growth conditions are further optimized.

  6. Optimal activation condition of nonpolar a-plane p-type GaN layers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Su; Hyeon Baik, Kwang; Gon Seo, Yong; Song, Hooyoung; Hoon Kim, Ji; Hwang, Sung-Min; Kim, Tae-Geun

    2011-07-01

    The optimal conditions of p-type activation for nonpolar a-plane (1 1 -2 0) p-type GaN films on r-plane (1 -1 0 2) sapphire substrates with various off-axis orientations have been investigated. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements show that Mg doping concentrations of 6.58×10 19 cm -3 were maintained in GaN during epitaxial growth. The samples were activated at various temperatures and periods of time in air, oxygen (O 2) and nitrogen (N 2) gas ambient by conventional furnace annealing (CFA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The activation of nonpolar a-plane p-type GaN was successful in similar annealing times and temperatures when compared with polar c-plane p-type GaN. However, activation ambient of nonpolar a-plane p-type GaN was clearly different, where a-plane p-type GaN was effectively activated in air ambient. Photoluminescence shows that the optical properties of Mg-doped a-plane GaN samples are enhanced when activated in air ambient.

  7. Room-temperature optically pumped laser emission from a-plane GaN with high optical gain characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuokstis, E.; Chen, C. Q.; Yang, J. W.; Shatalov, M.; Gaevski, M. E.; Adivarahan, V.; Khan, M. Asif

    2004-04-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and optical gain (OG) spectra of a-plane GaN layers have been analyzed over a wide range of excitation intensities. The samples were fully coalesced layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition over r-plane sapphire substrates using epitaxial layer overgrowth (ELOG) and selective area lateral epitaxy (SALE) procedures. ELOG and SALE a-plane samples showed a strong stimulated emission line in backscattering-geometry PL spectra along with extremely high OG coefficient values (in SALE samples more than 2000 cm-1). Structures prepared with natural cleaved facet cavities based on these films were used to demonstrate optically pumped room-temperature lasing.

  8. Local electronic and optical behaviors of a-plane GaN grown via epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; Kasliwal, V.; Baski, A. A.; Ni, X.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2007-01-01

    Conductive atomic force microscopy and near-field optical microscopy (NSOM) were used to study the morphology, conduction, and optical properties of a-plane GaN films grown via epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The AFM images for the coalesced ELO films show undulations, where the window regions appear as depressions with a high density of surface pits. At reverse bias below 12V, very low uniform conduction (2pA) is seen in the window regions. Above 20V, a lower-quality sample shows localized sites inside the window regions with significant leakage, indicating a correlation between the presence of surface pits and leakage sites. Room temperature NSOM studies explicitly showed enhanced optical quality in the wing regions of the overgrown GaN due to a reduced density of dislocations, with the wings and the windows clearly discernible from near-field photoluminescence mapping.

  9. In-Plane Anisotropic Photoconduction in Nonpolar Epitaxial a-Plane GaN.

    PubMed

    Pant, Rohit; Shetty, Arjun; Chandan, Greeshma; Roul, Basanta; Nanda, K K; Krupanidhi, S B

    2018-05-16

    Nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films were grown on an r-plane sapphire using the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy system, with various nitrogen plasma power conditions. The crystallinity of the films was characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and reciprocal space mapping. Using the X-ray "rocking curve-phi scan", [0002], [1-100], and [1-102] azimuth angles were identified, and interdigitated electrodes along these directions were fabricated to evaluate the direction-dependent UV photoresponses. UV responsivity ( R) and internal gain ( G) were found to be dependent on the azimuth angle and in the order of [0002] > [1-102] > [1-100], which has been attributed to the enhanced crystallinity and lowest defect density along [0002] azimuth. The temporal response was very stable irrespective of growth conditions and azimuth angles. Importantly, response time, responsivity, and internal gain were 210 ms, 1.88 A W -1 , and 648.9%, respectively, even at a bias as low as 1 V. The results were validated using the Silvaco Atlas device simulator, and experimental observations were consistent with simulated results. Overall, the photoresponse is dependent on azimuth angles and requires further optimization, especially for materials with in-plane crystal anisotropy.

  10. Growth behavior and growth rate dependency in LEDs performance for Mg-doped a-plane GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Keun-Man; Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Dong-Hun; Shin, Chan-Soo; Ko, Chul-Gi; Kong, Bo-Hyun; Cho, Hyung-Koun; Yoon, Dae-Ho

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the influence of growth rate of Mg-doped a-plane GaN on the surface morphological and electrical properties, and the characteristics of InGaN-based nonpolar LEDs. Mg-doped a-plane GaN layers were grown on r-plane sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cathode luminescence (CL) analysis exhibited that the surface morphology changed from stripe features with large triangular pits to rough and rugged surface with small asymmetric V-shape pits, as the growth rate increased. The Mg incorporation into a-plane GaN layers increased with increasing growth rate of Mg-doped a-plane GaN, while the activation efficiency of Mg dopants decreased in a-plane GaN. Additionally, it was found that operation voltage at 20 mA decreased in characteristics of LEDs, as the growth rate of Mg-doped a-plane GaN decreased. Meanwhile, the EL intensity of LEDs with p-GaN layers grown at higher growth rate was improved compared to that of LEDs with p-GaN layers grown at lower growth rate. Such an increase of EL intensity is attributed to the rougher surface morphology with increasing growth rate of Mg-doped a-plane GaN.

  11. Effect of growth pressure on the morphology evolution and doping characteristics in nonpolar a-plane GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Keun Man; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Bong Kyun; Shin, Chan Soo; Ko, Chul Gi; Kong, Bo Hyun; Cho, Hyung Koun; Yoon, Dae Ho; Kim, Hogyoung; Hwang, Sung Min

    2012-02-01

    Nonpolar a-plane GaN layers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates were examined by using a two-step growth process. The higher initial growth pressure for the nucleation layer resulted in the improved crystalline quality with lower density of both threading dislocations and basal stacking faults. This was attributed to the higher degree of initial roughening and recovery time via a growth mode transition from three-dimensional (3D) to quasi two-dimensional (2D) lateral growth. Using Hall-effect measurements, the overgrown Si doped GaN layers grown with higher initial growth pressure were found to have higher mobility. The scattering mechanism due to the dislocations was dominant especially at low temperature (<200 K) for the lower initial growth pressure, which was insignificant for the higher initial growth pressure. The temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurements for the Mg doped GaN with a higher initial growth pressure yielded the activation energy and the acceptor concentration to be 128 meV and 1.2 × 1019 cm-3, respectively, corresponding to about 3.6% of activation at room temperature. Two-step growth scheme with a higher initial growth pressure is suggested as a potential method to improve the performance of nonpolar a-plane GaN based devices.

  12. Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shanjin; Zhang, Yu; Leung, Benjamin; Yuan, Ge; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Hao; Fan, Yingmin; Sun, Qian; Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Ke; Han, Jung

    2013-11-13

    Nanoporous (NP) gallium nitride (GaN) as a new class of GaN material has many interesting properties that the conventional GaN material does not have. In this paper, we focus on the mechanical properties of NP GaN, and the detailed physical mechanism of porous GaN in the application of liftoff. A decrease in elastic modulus and hardness was identified in NP GaN compared to the conventional GaN film. The promising application of NP GaN as release layers in the mechanical liftoff of GaN thin films and devices was systematically studied. A phase diagram was generated to correlate the initial NP GaN profiles with the as-overgrown morphologies of the NP structures. The fracture toughness of the NP GaN release layer was studied in terms of the voided-space-ratio. It is shown that the transformed morphologies and fracture toughness of the NP GaN layer after overgrowth strongly depends on the initial porosity of NP GaN templates. The mechanical separation and transfer of a GaN film over a 2 in. wafer was demonstrated, which proves that this technique is useful in practical applications.

  13. Hydrothermal growth and luminescent properties of nonpolar a-plane (11 2 - 0) ZnCdO films for light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Kwang Hyeon; Kim, Jimin; Jang, Soohwan

    2018-03-01

    Nonpolar a-plane ZnCdO films have been obtained on a-plane GaN using a simple low-cost hydrothermal growth method at the low temperature of 80 °C. The morphological, structural, optical, and electrical properties of a-plane ZnCdO films with various Cd contents have been investigated and compared. The photoluminescence peak of the a-plane Zn0.957Cd 0.043O film, was observed to be centered at 429 nm at 25 °C. We demonstrated a heterostructure light-emitting diode (LED) using nonpolar n-type Zn0.957Cd0.043O/p-type GaN films. The rectifying behavior of the current-voltage characteristics was observed with a turn-on voltage of 5 V. The electroluminescence of the LED showed emission peaks including 430 nm, which indicates the near-band-edge emission of a-plane Zn0.957Cd0.043O at 25 °C.

  14. The origin of the residual conductivity of GaN films on ferroelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Cai, Zhuhua; Ziemer, Katherine; Doolittle, William Alan

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the origin of the conductivity of GaN films grown on ferroelectric materials was investigated using XPS, AES, and XRD analysis tools. Depth profiles confirmed the existence of impurities in the GaN film originating from the substrates. Bonding energy analysis from XPS and AES verified that oxygen impurities from the substrates were the dominant origin of the conductivity of the GaN film. Furthermore, Ga-rich GaN films have a greater chance of enhancing diffusion of lithium oxide from the substrates, resulting in more substrate phase separation and a wider inter-mixed region confirmed by XRD. Therefore, the direct GaN film growth on ferroelectric materials causes impurity diffusion from the substrates, resulting in highly conductive GaN films. Future work needs to develop non-conductive buffer layers for impurity suppression in order to obtain highly resistive GaN films.

  15. Injection Laser Using Rare Earth Doped GaN Thin Films for Visible and Infrared Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    system is used to measure the conductivity of GaN thin films in Nanolab. Undoped GaN thin films are usually n-type conductive with the electron ...being investigated for potential applications in optical communication and displays, due to the wide and direct energy bandgap of GaN resulting in low...enhancement on Eu3+ PL intensity. The electrical properties of GaN:RE thin films were changed from high resistive to

  16. Structural anisotropic properties of a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lotsari, A.; Kehagias, Th.; Katsikini, M.

    2014-06-07

    Heteroepitaxial non-polar III-Nitride layers may exhibit extensive anisotropy in the surface morphology and the epilayer microstructure along distinct in-plane directions. The structural anisotropy, evidenced by the “M”-shape dependence of the (112{sup ¯}0) x-ray rocking curve widths on the beam azimuth angle, was studied by combining transmission electron microscopy observations, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy in a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The structural anisotropic behavior was attributed quantitatively to the high dislocation densities, particularly the Frank-Shockley partial dislocations that delimit the I{sub 1} intrinsic basal stacking faults,more » and to the concomitant plastic strain relaxation. On the other hand, isotropic samples exhibited lower dislocation densities and a biaxial residual stress state. For PAMBE growth, the anisotropy was correlated to N-rich (or Ga-poor) conditions on the surface during growth, that result in formation of asymmetric a-plane GaN grains elongated along the c-axis. Such conditions enhance the anisotropy of gallium diffusion on the surface and reduce the GaN nucleation rate.« less

  17. Low-Angle-Incidence Microchannel Epitaxy of a-Plane GaN Grown by Ammonia-Based Metal-Organic Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Uchiyama, Shota; Maruyama, Takahiro; Naritsuka, Shigeya

    2012-04-01

    Low-angle-incidence microchannel epitaxy (LAIMCE) of a-plane GaN was performed using ammonia-based metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy to obtain wide and thin lateral overgrowth over a SiO2 mask. Trimethylgallium (TMG) was supplied perpendicular to the openings cut in the mask with a low incident angle of 5° relative to the substrate plane. The [NH3]/[TMG] ratio (R) dependence of GaN LAIMCE was optimized by varying R from 5 to 30. A wide lateral overgrowth of 3.7 µm with a dislocation density below the transmission electron microscope detection limit was obtained at R=15 for a thickness of 520 nm.

  18. Characterization of Pb-Doped GaN Thin Films Grown by Thermionic Vacuum Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özen, Soner; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2018-03-01

    Undoped and lead (Pb)-doped gallium nitride (GaN) thin films have been deposited by a thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method. Glass and polyethylene terephthalate were selected as optically transparent substrates. The structural, optical, morphological, and electrical properties of the deposited thin films were investigated. These physical properties were interpreted by comparison with related analysis methods. The crystalline structure of the deposited GaN thin films was hexagonal wurtzite. The optical bandgap energy of the GaN and Pb-doped GaN thin films was found to be 3.45 eV and 3.47 eV, respectively. The surface properties of the deposited thin films were imaged using atomic force microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, revealing a nanostructured, homogeneous, and granular surface structure. These results confirm that the TVA method is an alternative layer deposition system for Pb-doped GaN thin films.

  19. Characterizations of GaN film growth by ECR plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Silie; Chen, Junfang; Zhang, Hongbin; Guo, Chaofen; Li, Wei; Zhao, Wenfen

    2009-06-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technology (ECR-MOPECVD) is adopted to grow GaN films on (0 0 0 1) α-Al2O3 substrate. The gas sources are pure N2 and trimethylgallium (TMG). Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and thermodynamic analysis of GaN growth are applied to understand the GaN growth process. The OES of ECR plasma shows that TMG is significantly dissociated in ECR plasma. Reactants N and Ga in the plasma, obtained easily under the self-heating condition, are essential for the GaN growth. They contribute to the realization of GaN film growth at a relatively low temperature. The thermodynamic study shows that the driving force for the GaN growth is high when N2:TMG>1. Furthermore, higher N2:TMG flow ratio makes the GaN growth easier. Finally, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and atomic force microscope are applied to investigate crystal quality, morphology, and roughness of the GaN films. The results demonstrate that the ECR-MOPECVD technology is favorable for depositing GaN films at low temperatures.

  20. Electrical properties of polycrystalline GaN films functionalized with cysteine and stabilization of GaN nanoparticles in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal; Oviedo, Mariana J; López, Oscar Edel Contreras

    2012-10-01

    GaN was synthesized onto sapphire substrates by chemical vapor deposition, reacting gallium, ammonium chloride and ammonia. The polycrystalline films were immersed in glycine, aspartic acid and cysteine solutions. Cysteine chemisorbed onto GaN films produced detectable changes in conductivity, mobility and Hall coefficient indicating that GaN is capable of detecting and reacting with thiolate groups, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Cys-GaN film solution was adjusted to pH 10, upon which the GaN nanoparticles were transferred to the aqueous phase forming a suspension stable for seven days. The alkaline colloid was then further adjusted down to pH 3 retaining stability for three days. The GaN colloid obtained represents a suitable medium to study GaN properties for biological applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of in-situ deposited SiNx interlayer on crystal quality of GaN epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Teng; Jia, Wei; Tong, Guangyun; Zhai, Guangmei; Li, Tianbao; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-05-01

    GaN epitaxial films with SiNx interlayers were prepared by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates. The influences of deposition times and locations of SiNx interlayers on crystal quality of GaN epitaxial films were studied. Under the optimal growth time of 120 s for the SiNx interlayer, the dislocation density of GaN film is reduced to 4.05 × 108 cm-2 proved by high resolution X-ray diffraction results. It is found that when the SiNx interlayer deposits on the GaN nucleation islands, the subsequent GaN film has the lowest dislocation density of only 2.89 × 108 cm-2. Moreover, a model is proposed to illustrate the morphological evolution and associated propagation processes of TDs in GaN epi-layers with SiNx interlayers for different deposition times and locations.

  2. Resistivity control of unintentionally doped GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorczyk, A. P.; Macht, L.; Hageman, P. R.; Rudzinski, M.; Larsen, P. K.

    2005-05-01

    GaN epilayers were grown on sapphire substrates via low temperature GaN and AlN nucleation layers (NL) by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD). The morphology of the individual NLs strongly depends on the carrier gas used during the growth and recrystallization and this is the key factor for control of the resistivity of the GaN layer grown on it. The GaN nucleation layer grown in presence of N2 has a higher density of islands with a statistically smaller diameter than the samples grown in H2 atmosphere. The NL grown in N2 enables the growth GaN with a sheet resistivity higher than 3×104 cm as opposed to a 0.5 cm value obtained for the NL grown in H2. Introduction of an additional intermediate (IL) low temperature (GaN or AlN) nucleation layer changes the GaN epilayer resistivity to about 50 cm, regardless of the carrier gas used during the growth of the IL. Defect selective etching demonstrated that control of the type and density of the dislocations in GaN enables the growth of highly resistive layers without any intentional acceptor doping (Mg, Zn). It will be demonstrated that by changing the ratio of edge type to screw dislocations the resistivity of the layer can be changed by a few orders of magnitude.

  3. Ion Beam Assisted Deposition of Thin Epitaxial GaN Films.

    PubMed

    Rauschenbach, Bernd; Lotnyk, Andriy; Neumann, Lena; Poppitz, David; Gerlach, Jürgen W

    2017-06-23

    The assistance of thin film deposition with low-energy ion bombardment influences their final properties significantly. Especially, the application of so-called hyperthermal ions (energy <100 eV) is capable to modify the characteristics of the growing film without generating a large number of irradiation induced defects. The nitrogen ion beam assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ion energy <25 eV) is used to deposit GaN thin films on (0001)-oriented 6H-SiC substrates at 700 °C. The films are studied in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction, ex situ by X-ray diffraction, scanning tunnelling microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that the film growth mode can be controlled by varying the ion to atom ratio, where 2D films are characterized by a smooth topography, a high crystalline quality, low biaxial stress, and low defect density. Typical structural defects in the GaN thin films were identified as basal plane stacking faults, low-angle grain boundaries forming between w-GaN and z-GaN and twin boundaries. The misfit strain between the GaN thin films and substrates is relieved by the generation of edge dislocations in the first and second monolayers of GaN thin films and of misfit interfacial dislocations. It can be demonstrated that the low-energy nitrogen ion assisted molecular beam epitaxy is a technique to produce thin GaN films of high crystalline quality.

  4. Characterization of nonpolar a-plane GaN epi-layers grown on high-density patterned r-plane sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinno, Daiki; Otsuki, Shunya; Sugimori, Shogo; Daicho, Hisayoshi; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2018-02-01

    To reduce the number of threading dislocations (TDs) in nonpolar a-plane GaN (a-GaN) epi-layers grown on flat r-plane sapphire substrates (r-FSS), we investigated the effects on the crystalline quality of the a-GaN epi-layers of high-density patterned r-plane sapphire substrates (r-HPSS), the patterns of which were placed at intervals of several hundred nanometers. Two types of r-HPSS, the patterns of which had diameters and heights on the order of several hundred nanometers (r-NHPSS) or several micrometers (r-MHPSS), were prepared with conventional r-FSS. The effect of these r-HPSS on the a-GaN epi-layers was demonstrated by evaluating the surface morphology and the crystalline quality of the epi-layers. The surfaces of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-FSS and r-NHPSS were pit-free and mirror-like, whereas the surface of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-MHPSS was very rough due to the large, irregular GaN islands that grew on the patterns, mainly at the initial growth stage. The crystalline quality of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-NHPSS was better than that of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-FSS. We confirmed that there were fewer TDs in the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-NHPSS than there were in the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-FSS. The TDs propagating to the surface in a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-NHPSS were mainly generated on the flat sapphire regions between the patterns. Interestingly, it was also found that the TDs that propagated to the surface concentrated with a periodic pitch along the c-axis direction. The TD densities of a-GaN epi-layers grown on r-FSS and r-NHPSS were estimated to be approximately 5.0 × 1010 and 1.5 × 109 cm-2, respectively. This knowledge will contribute to the further development of a-GaN epi-layers for high-performance devices.

  5. Investigation on thermodynamics of ion-slicing of GaN and heterogeneously integrating high-quality GaN films on CMOS compatible Si(100) substrates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai; Jia, Qi; You, Tiangui; Zhang, Runchun; Lin, Jiajie; Zhang, Shibin; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Wenjie; Ou, Xin; Wang, Xi

    2017-11-08

    Die-to-wafer heterogeneous integration of single-crystalline GaN film with CMOS compatible Si(100) substrate using the ion-cutting technique has been demonstrated. The thermodynamics of GaN surface blistering is in-situ investigated via a thermal-stage optical microscopy, which indicates that the large activation energy (2.5 eV) and low H ions utilization ratio (~6%) might result in the extremely high H fluence required for the ion-slicing of GaN. The crystalline quality, surface topography and the microstructure of the GaN films are characterized in detail. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) for GaN (002) X-ray rocking curves is as low as 163 arcsec, corresponding to a density of threading dislocation of 5 × 10 7  cm -2 . Different evolution of the implantation-induced damage was observed and a relationship between the damage evolution and implantation-induced damage is demonstrated. This work would be beneficial to understand the mechanism of ion-slicing of GaN and to provide a platform for the hybrid integration of GaN devices with standard Si CMOS process.

  6. Piezo-phototronic effect on electroluminescence properties of p-type GaN thin films.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Lin, Long; Ding, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-07-11

    We present that the electroluminescence (EL) properties of Mg-doped p-type GaN thin films can be tuned by the piezo-phototronic effect via adjusting the minority carrier injection efficiency at the metal-semiconductor (M-S) interface by strain induced polarization charges. The device is a metal-semiconductor-metal structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)-GaN-ITO. Under different straining conditions, the changing trend of the transport properties of GaN films can be divided into two types, corresponding to the different c-axis orientations of the films. An extreme value was observed for the integral EL intensity under certain applied strain due to the adjusted minority carrier injection efficiency by piezoelectric charges introduced at the M-S interface. The external quantum efficiency of the blue EL at 430 nm was changed by 5.84% under different straining conditions, which is 1 order of magnitude larger than the change of the green peak at 540 nm. The results indicate that the piezo-phototronic effect has a larger impact on the shallow acceptor states related EL process than on the one related to the deep acceptor states in p-type GaN films. This study has great significance on the practical applications of GaN in optoelectronic devices under a working environment where mechanical deformation is unavoidable such as for flexible/printable light emitting diodes.

  7. Refractive index of erbium doped GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Alajlouni, S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.

    2014-08-25

    GaN is an excellent host for erbium (Er) to provide optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safe 1540 nm wavelength window. Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) epilayers were synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing a pulsed growth scheme, the crystalline quality of GaN:Er epilayers was significantly improved over those obtained by conventional growth method of continuous flow of reaction precursors. X-ray diffraction rocking curve linewidths of less than 300 arc sec were achieved for the GaN (0002) diffraction peak, which is comparable to the typical results of undoped high quality GaN epilayers andmore » represents a major improvement over previously reported results for GaN:Er. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the GaN:Er epilayers in the 1540 nm wavelength window and a linear dependence on Er concentration was found. The observed refractive index increase with Er incorporation and the improved crystalline quality of the GaN:Er epilayers indicate that low loss GaN:Er optical waveguiding structures are feasible.« less

  8. Partially filled intermediate band of Cr-doped GaN films

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, S.

    2012-05-14

    We investigated the band structure of sputtered Cr-doped GaN (GaCrN) films using optical absorption, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, and charge transport measurements. It was found that an additional energy band is formed in the intrinsic band gap of GaN upon Cr doping, and that charge carriers in the material move in the inserted band. Prototype solar cells showed enhanced short circuit current and open circuit voltage in the n-GaN/GaCrN/p-GaN structure compared to the GaCrN/p-GaN structure, which validates the proposed concept of an intermediate-band solar cell.

  9. Distinct crystallinity and orientations of hydroxyapatite thin films deposited on C- and A-plane sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Housei; Ueno, Yuko

    2014-10-01

    We report how the crystallinity and orientation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) films deposited on sapphire substrates depend on the crystallographic planes. Both solid-phase crystallization of amorphous HAp films and crystallization during sputter deposition at elevated temperatures were examined. The low-temperature epitaxial phase on C-plane sapphire substrates has c-axis orientated HAp crystals regardless of the crystallization route, whereas the preferred orientation switches to the (310) direction at higher temperatures. Only the symmetric stretching mode (ν1) of PO43- units appears in the Raman scattering spectra, confirming well-ordered crystalline domains. In contrast, HAp crystals grown on A-plane sapphire substrates are always oriented toward random orientations. Exhibiting all vibrational modes (ν1, ν3, and ν4) of PO43- units in the Raman scattering spectra reflects random orientation, violating the Raman selection rule. If we assume that Raman intensities of PO43- units represent the crystallinity of HAp films, crystallization terminating the surface with the C-plane is hindered by the presence of excess H2O and OH species in the film, whereas crystallization at random orientations on the A-plane sapphire is rather promoted by these species. Such contrasting behaviors between C-plane and A-plane substrates will reflect surface-plane dependent creation of crystalline seeds and eventually determine the orientation of resulting HAp films.

  10. Melioration of Optical and Electrical Performance of Ga-N Codoped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2018-06-01

    Transparent and conducting p-type zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films doped with gallium (Ga) and nitrogen (N) simultaneously were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. Phase composition analysis by X-ray diffraction confirmed the polycrystallinity of the films with pure ZnO phase. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed excellent incorporation of N in the ZnO matrix by means of codoping. The optical transmittance of N monodoped film was poor but got improved with Ga-N codoping and also resulted in the enhancement of optical energy gap. Hole concentration increased with codoping and consequently, lower resistivity and high stability were obtained.

  11. Comparison of stress states in GaN films grown on different substrates: Langasite, sapphire and silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byung-Guon; Saravana Kumar, R.; Moon, Mee-Lim; Kim, Moon-Deock; Kang, Tae-Won; Yang, Woo-Chul; Kim, Song-Gang

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the evolution of GaN films on novel langasite (LGS) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and assessed the quality of grown GaN film by comparing the experimental results obtained using LGS, sapphire and silicon (Si) substrates. To study the substrate effect, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the microstructure and stress states in GaN films. Wet etching of GaN films in KOH solution revealed that the films deposited on GaN/LGS, AlN/sapphire and AlN/Si substrates possess Ga-polarity, while the film deposited on GaN/sapphire possess N-polarity. XRD, Raman and PL analysis demonstrated that a compressive stress exist in the films grown on GaN/LGS, AlN/sapphire, and GaN/sapphire substrates, while a tensile stress appears on AlN/Si substrate. Comparative analysis showed the growth of nearly stress-free GaN films on LGS substrate due to the very small lattice mismatch ( 3.2%) and thermal expansion coefficient difference ( 7.5%). The results presented here will hopefully provide a new framework for the further development of high performance III-nitride-related devices using GaN/LGS heteroepitaxy.

  12. Understanding luminescence properties of grain boundaries in GaN thin films and their atomistic origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hyobin; Yoon, Sangmoon; Chung, Kunook; Kang, Seoung-Hun; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Kim, Miyoung

    2018-03-01

    We report our findings on the optical properties of grain boundaries in GaN films grown on graphene layers and discuss their atomistic origin. We combine electron backscatter diffraction with cathodoluminescence to directly correlate the structural defects with their optical properties, enabling the high-precision local luminescence measurement of the grain boundaries in GaN films. To further understand the atomistic origin of the luminescence properties, we carefully probed atomic core structures of the grain boundaries by exploiting aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. The atomic core structures of grain boundaries show different ordering behaviors compared with those observed previously in threading dislocations. Energetics of the grain boundary core structures and their correlation with electronic structures were studied by first principles calculation.

  13. Optimization of ion-atomic beam source for deposition of GaN ultrathin films.

    PubMed

    Mach, Jindřich; Šamořil, Tomáš; Kolíbal, Miroslav; Zlámal, Jakub; Voborny, Stanislav; Bartošík, Miroslav; Šikola, Tomáš

    2014-08-01

    We describe the optimization and application of an ion-atomic beam source for ion-beam-assisted deposition of ultrathin films in ultrahigh vacuum. The device combines an effusion cell and electron-impact ion beam source to produce ultra-low energy (20-200 eV) ion beams and thermal atomic beams simultaneously. The source was equipped with a focusing system of electrostatic electrodes increasing the maximum nitrogen ion current density in the beam of a diameter of ≈15 mm by one order of magnitude (j ≈ 1000 nA/cm(2)). Hence, a successful growth of GaN ultrathin films on Si(111) 7 × 7 substrate surfaces at reasonable times and temperatures significantly lower (RT, 300 °C) than in conventional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technologies (≈1000 °C) was achieved. The chemical composition of these films was characterized in situ by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and morphology ex situ using Scanning Electron Microscopy. It has been shown that the morphology of GaN layers strongly depends on the relative Ga-N bond concentration in the layers.

  14. Photochemical Modification of Single Crystalline GaN Film Using n-Alkene with Different Carbon Chain Lengths as Biolinker.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Zhuang, Hao; Huang, Nan; Heuser, Steffen; Schlemper, Christoph; Zhai, Zhaofeng; Liu, Baodan; Staedler, Thorsten; Jiang, Xin

    2016-06-14

    As a potential material for biosensing applications, gallium nitride (GaN) films have attracted remarkable attention. In order to construct GaN biosensors, a corresponding immobilization of biolinkers is of great importance in order to render a surface bioactive. In this work, two kinds of n-alkenes with different carbon chain lengths, namely allylamine protected with trifluoroacetamide (TFAAA) and 10-aminodec-1-ene protected with trifluoroacetamide (TFAAD), were used to photochemically functionalize single crystalline GaN films. The successful linkage of both TFAAA and TFAAD to the GaN films is confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) measurement. With increased UV illumination time, the intensity of the secondary ions corresponding to the linker molecules initially increases and subsequently decreases in both cases. Based on the SIMS measurements, the maximum coverage of TFAAA is achieved after 14 h of UV illumination, while only 2 h is required in the case of TFAAD to reach the situation of a fully covered GaN surface. This finding leads to the conclusion that the reaction rate of TFAAD is significantly higher compared to TFAAA. Measurements by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicate that the coverage of GaN films by a TFAAA layer leads to an increased surface roughness. The atomic terraces, which are clearly observable for the pristine GaN films, disappear once the surface is fully covered by a TFAAA layer. Such TFAAA layers will feature a homogeneous surface topography even for reaction times of 24 h. In contrast to this, TFAAD shows strong cross-polymerization on the surface, this is confirmed by optical microscopy. These results demonstrate that TFAAA is a more suitable candidate as biolinker in context of the GaN surfaces due to its improved controllability.

  15. Aqueous synthesis of zinc oxide films for GaN optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reading, Arthur H.

    GaN-based LEDs have generally made use of ITO transparent contacts as current-spreading layers for uniform current injection. However, the high raw material and processing costs of ITO layers have generated interest in potentially cheaper alternatives. In this work, zinc oxide transparent layers were fabricated by a low-cost, low-temperature aqueous epitaxial growth method at 90°C for use as transparent contacts to GaN LEDs on c-plane sapphire, and on semipolar bulk GaN substrates. Low-voltage operation was achieved for c-plane devices, with voltages below 3.8V for 1mm2 broad-area LEDs at a current density of 30A/cm 2. Blue-green LEDs on 202¯1¯-plane GaN also showed low voltage operation below 3.5V at 30A/cm2. Ohmic contact resistivity of 1:8 x 10-2Ocm2 was measured for films on (202¯1) p-GaN templates. Ga-doped films had electrical conductivities as high as 660S/cm after annealing at 300°C. Optical characterization revealed optical absorption coefficients in the 50--200cm -1 range for visible light, allowing thick films with sheet resistances below 10O/□ to be grown while minimizing absorption of the emitted light. Accurate and reproducible etch-free patterning of the ZnO films was achieved using templated growths with SiOx hard masks. A roughening method is described which was found to increase peak LED efficiencies by 13% on c-plane patterned sapphire (PSS) substrates. In addition, ZnO films were successfully employed as laser-cladding layers for blue (202¯1) lasers, with a threshold current density of 8.8kA/cm 2.

  16. A new approach to epitaxially grow high-quality GaN films on Si substrates: the combination of MBE and PLD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Weijia; Zhu, Yunnong; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-04-22

    High-quality GaN epitaxial films have been grown on Si substrates with Al buffer layer by the combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technologies. MBE is used to grow Al buffer layer at first, and then PLD is deployed to grow GaN epitaxial films on the Al buffer layer. The surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown GaN epitaxial films on Si substrates are studied systematically. The as-grown ~300 nm-thick GaN epitaxial films grown at 850 °C with ~30 nm-thick Al buffer layer on Si substrates show high crystalline quality with the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for GaN(0002) and GaN(102) X-ray rocking curves of 0.45° and 0.61°, respectively; very flat GaN surface with the root-mean-square surface roughness of 2.5 nm; as well as the sharp and abrupt GaN/AlGaN/Al/Si hetero-interfaces. Furthermore, the corresponding growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial films grown on Si substrates with Al buffer layer by the combination of MBE and PLD is hence studied in depth. This work provides a novel and simple approach for the epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN epitaxial films on Si substrates.

  17. Polarity inversion of AlN film grown on nitrided a-plane sapphire substrate with pulsed DC reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorprajuda, Marsetio; Ohtsuka, Makoto; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-01

    The effect of oxygen partial pressure (PO2) on polarity and crystalline quality of AlN films grown on nitrided a-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed direct current (DC) reactive sputtering was investigated as a fundamental study. The polarity inversion of AlN from nitrogen (-c)-polarity to aluminum (+c)-polarity occurred during growth at a high PO2 of 9.4×103 Pa owing to Al-O octahedral formation at the interface of nitrided layer and AlN sputtered film which reset the polarity of AlN. The top part of the 1300 nm-thick AlN film sputtered at the high PO2 was polycrystallized. The crystalline quality was improved owing to the high kinetic energy of Al sputtered atom in the sputtering phenomena. Thinner AlN films were also fabricated at the high PO2 to eliminate the polycrystallization. For the 200 nm-thick AlN film sputtered at the high PO2, the full width at half-maximum values of the AlN (0002) and (10-12) X-ray diffraction rocking curves were 47 and 637 arcsec, respectively.

  18. Structure Shift of GaN Among Nanowall Network, Nanocolumn, and Compact Film Grown on Si (111) by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Aihua; Fan, Ping; Zhong, Yuanting; Zhang, Dongping; Li, Fu; Luo, Jingting; Xie, Yizhu; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-01

    Structure shift of GaN nanowall network, nanocolumn, and compact film were successfully obtained on Si (111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). As is expected, growth of the GaN nanocolumns was observed in N-rich condition on bare Si, and the growth shifted to compact film when the Ga flux was improved. Interestingly, if an aluminum (Al) pre-deposition for 40 s was carried out prior to the GaN growth, GaN grows in the form of the nanowall network. Results show that the pre-deposited Al exits in the form of droplets with typical diameter and height of 80 and 6.7 nm, respectively. A growth model for the nanowall network is proposed and the growth mechanism is discussed. GaN grows in the area without Al droplets while the growth above Al droplets is hindered, resulting in the formation of continuous GaN nanowall network that removes the obstacles of nano-device fabrication.

  19. Structure Shift of GaN Among Nanowall Network, Nanocolumn, and Compact Film Grown on Si (111) by MBE.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Aihua; Fan, Ping; Zhong, Yuanting; Zhang, Dongping; Li, Fu; Luo, Jingting; Xie, Yizhu; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-13

    Structure shift of GaN nanowall network, nanocolumn, and compact film were successfully obtained on Si (111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). As is expected, growth of the GaN nanocolumns was observed in N-rich condition on bare Si, and the growth shifted to compact film when the Ga flux was improved. Interestingly, if an aluminum (Al) pre-deposition for 40 s was carried out prior to the GaN growth, GaN grows in the form of the nanowall network. Results show that the pre-deposited Al exits in the form of droplets with typical diameter and height of ~ 80 and ~ 6.7 nm, respectively. A growth model for the nanowall network is proposed and the growth mechanism is discussed. GaN grows in the area without Al droplets while the growth above Al droplets is hindered, resulting in the formation of continuous GaN nanowall network that removes the obstacles of nano-device fabrication.

  20. Experimental evidence of Ga-vacancy induced room temperature ferromagnetic behavior in GaN films

    SciTech Connect

    Roul, Basanta; Kumar, Mahesh; Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore 560013

    We have grown Ga deficient GaN epitaxial films on (0001) sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and report the experimental evidence of room temperature ferromagnetic behavior. The observed yellow emission peak in room temperature photoluminescence spectra and the peak positioning at 300 cm{sup -1} in Raman spectra confirms the existence of Ga vacancies. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements further confirmed the formation of Ga vacancies; since the N/Ga is found to be >1. The ferromagnetism is believed to originate from the polarization of the unpaired 2p electrons of N surrounding the Ga vacancy.

  1. Hydrogen dissociation in the deposition of GaN films with ECR-PECVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, S. L.; Wang, C. A.; Ding, L. C.; Qin, Y. X.

    2018-05-01

    The hydrogen dissociation and its effect on the GaN film growth in the ECR-PECVD process are investigated in this paper. We use N2 and trimethylgallium (TMG) as N and Ga sources respectively in the ECR- PECVD process. The results show that the rate of hydrogen dissociation increases with the microwave power and it becomes higher at high microwave power (> 500 W). However, this population increase of the H species dissociated from the TMG gas in ECR plasma is not enough to change the growth condition from Ga-rich to N-rich.

  2. Microstructures and growth mechanisms of GaN films epitaxially grown on AlN/Si hetero-structures by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Lin, Yunhao; Zhou, Shizhong; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-11-13

    2 inch-diameter GaN films with homogeneous thickness distribution have been grown on AlN/Si(111) hetero-structures by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with laser rastering technique. The surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown GaN films are characterized in detail. By optimizing the laser rastering program, the ~300 nm-thick GaN films grown at 750 °C show a root-mean-square (RMS) thickness inhomogeneity of 3.0%, very smooth surface with a RMS surface roughness of 3.0 nm, full-width at half-maximums (FWHMs) for GaN(0002) and GaN(102) X-ray rocking curves of 0.7° and 0.8°, respectively, and sharp and abrupt AlN/GaN hetero-interfaces. With the increase in the growth temperature from 550 to 850 °C, the surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown ~300 nm-thick GaN films are gradually improved at first and then decreased. Based on the characterizations, the corresponding growth mechanisms of GaN films grown on AlN/Si hetero-structures by PLD with various growth temperatures are hence proposed. This work would be beneficial to understanding the further insight of the GaN films grown on Si(111) substrates by PLD for the application of GaN-based devices.

  3. Effects of hydrogen treatment on ohmic contacts to p-type GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Chou, Chia-Hui; Ke, Wen-Cheng; Chou, Yi-Lun; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Wu, Meng-chyi

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of hydrogen (H 2) treatment on metal contacts to Mg-doped p-GaN films by Hall-effect measurement, current-voltage ( I- V) analyzer and X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS). The interfacial oxide layer on the p-GaN surface was found to be the main reason for causing the nonlinear I- V behavior of the untreated p-GaN films. The increased nitrogen vacancy (V N) density due to increased GaN decomposition rate at high-temperature hydrogen treatment is believed to form high density surface states on the surface of p-GaN films. Compared to untreated p-GaN films, the surface Fermi level determined by the Ga 2p core-level peak on 1000 °C H 2-treated p-GaN films lies about ˜2.1 eV closer to the conduction band edge (i.e., the surface inverted to n-type behavior). The reduction in barrier height due to the high surface state density pinned the surface Fermi level close to the conduction band edge, and allowed the electrons to easily flow over the barrier from the metal into the p-GaN films. Thus, a good ohmic contact was achieved on the p-GaN films by the surface inversion method.

  4. Predicted lattice-misfit stresses in a gallium-nitride (GaN) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.; Yi, S.

    2017-02-01

    Effective, easy-to-use and physically meaningful analytical predictive models are developed for the evaluation the lattice-misfit stresses (LMS) in a semiconductor film grown on a circular substrate (wafer). The two-dimensional (plane-stress) theory-of-elasticity approximation (TEA) is employed. First of all, the interfacial shearing stresses are evaluated. These stresses might lead to the occurrence and growth of dislocations, as well as to possible delaminations (adhesive strength of the assembly) and the elevated stress and strain in the buffering material, if any (cohesive strength of the assembly). Second of all, the normal radial and circumferential (tangential) stresses acting in the film cross-sections are determined. These stresses determine the short- and long-term strength (fracture toughness) of the film material. It is shown that while the normal stresses in the semiconductor film are independent of its thickness, the interfacial shearing stresses increase with an increase in the induced force (not stress!) acting in the film cross-sections, and that this force increases with an increase in the film thickness. This leads, for a thick enough film, to the occurrence, growth and propagation of dislocations. These start at the assembly ends and propagate, when the film thickness increases, inwards the structure. The TEA data are compared with the results obtained using a simplified strength-of-materials approach (SMA). This approach considers, instead of an actual circular assembly, an elongated bi-material rectangular strip of unit width and of finite length equal to the wafer diameter. The analysis, although applicable to any semiconductor crystal growth (SCG) technology is geared in this analysis to the Gallium-Nitride (GaN) technology. The numerical example is carried out for a GaN film grown on a Silicon Carbide (SiC) substrate. It is concluded that the SMA model is acceptable for understanding the physics of the state of stress and for the prediction

  5. Investigation on the compensation effect of residual carbon impurities in low temperature grown Mg doped GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Zhao, D. G.; Jiang, D. S.; Chen, P.; Liu, Z. S.; Le, L. C.; Li, X. J.; He, X. G.; Liu, J. P.; Zhang, S. M.; Wang, H.; Zhu, J. J.; Yang, H.

    2014-04-01

    The influence of unintentionally doped carbon impurities on electrical resistivity and yellow luminescence (YL) of low-temperature (LT) grown Mg doped GaN films is investigated. It is found that the resistivity of Mg doped GaN films are closely related to the residual carbon impurity concentration, which may be attributed to the compensation effect of carbon impurities. The carbon impurity may preferentially form deep donor complex CN-ON resulting from its relatively low formation energy. This complex is an effective compensate center for MgGa acceptors as well as inducing YL in photoluminescence spectra. Thus, the low resistivity LT grown p-type GaN films can be obtained only when the residual carbon impurity concentration is sufficiently low, which can explain why LT P-GaN films with lower resistivity were obtained more easily when relatively higher pressure, temperature, or NH3/TMGa flow rate ratio were used in the LT grown Mg doped GaN films reported in earlier reports.

  6. Epitaxial Growth of GaN Films by Pulse-Mode Hot-Mesh Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komae, Yasuaki; Yasui, Kanji; Suemitsu, Maki; Endoh, Tetsuo; Ito, Takashi; Nakazawa, Hideki; Narita, Yuzuru; Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi

    2009-07-01

    Intermittent gas supplies for hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the epitaxial growth of gallium nitride (GaN) films were investigated to improve film crystallinity and optical properties. The GaN films were deposited on SiC/Si(111) substrates using an alternating-source gas supply or an intermittent supply of source gases such as ammonia (NH3) and trimethylgallium (TMG) in hot-mesh CVD after deposition of an aluminum nitride (AlN) buffer layer. The AlN layer was deposited using NH3 and trimethylaluminum (TMA) on a SiC layer grown by carbonization of a Si substrate using propane (C3H8). GaN films were grown on the AlN layer by a reaction between NHx radicals generated on a ruthenium (Ru)-coated tungsten (W) mesh and TMG molecules. After testing various gas supply modes, GaN films with good crystallinity and surface morphology were obtained using an intermittent supply of TMG and a continuous supply of NH3 gas. An optimal interval for the TMG gas supply was also obtained for the apparatus employed.

  7. X-ray probe of GaN thin films grown on InGaN compliant substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yang; Liu, Jianming; Wei, Hongyuan; Liu, Xianglin; Yang, Shaoyan; Wang, Zhanguo; Wang, Huanhua

    2013-04-01

    GaN thin films grown on InGaN compliant substrates were characterized by several X-ray technologies: X-ray reciprocal space mapping (RSM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), and X-ray photoemission spectrum (XPS). Narrow Lorentz broadening and stress free state were observed for GaN grown on InGaN compliant substrate, while mosaic structure and large tensile stress were observed at the presence of residual indium atoms. RSM disclosed the mosaicity, and the GIXRD was conducted to investigate the depth dependences of crystal quality and strain states. XPS depth profile of indium contents indicated that residual indium atoms deteriorated the crystal quality of GaN not only by producing lattice mismatch at the interface of InGaN and GaN but also by diffusing into GaN overlayers. Accordingly, two solutions were proposed to improve the efficiency of self-patterned lateral epitaxial overgrowth method. This research goes a further step in resolving the urgent substrate problem in GaN fabrication.

  8. An investigation of GaN thin films on AlN on sapphire substrate by sol-gel spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Nur Fahana Mohd; Ng, Sha Shiong

    2017-12-01

    In this research, the gallium nitride (GaN) thin films were deposited on aluminium nitride on sapphire (AlN/Al2O3) substrate by sol-gel spin coating method. Simple ethanol-based precursor with the addition of diethanolamine solution was used. The structural and morphology properties of synthesized GaN thin films were characterized by using X-ray Diffraction, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. While the elemental compositions and the lattice vibrational properties of the films were investigated by means of the Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. All the results revealed that the wurtzite structure GaN thin films with GaN(002) preferred orientation and smooth surface morphology were successfully grown on AlN/Al2O3 substrate by using inexpensive and simplified sol-gel spin coating technique. The sol-gel spin coated GaN thin film with lowest oxygen content was also achieved.FESEM images show that GaN thin films with uniform and packed grains were formed. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that wurtzite structure GaN thin films were successfully deposited on AlN/Al2O3 substrate.

  9. A Rapid Method for Deposition of Sn-Doped GaN Thin Films on Glass and Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2018-01-01

    We report the influence of Sn doping on microstructure, surface, and optical properties of GaN thin films deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Sn-doped GaN thin films have been deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) at low temperature. TVA is a rapid deposition technology for thin film growth. Surface and optical properties of the thin films were presented. Grain size, height distribution, roughness values were determined. Grain sizes were calculated as 20 nm and 13 nm for glass and PET substrates, respectively. Nano crystalline forms were shown by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Optical band gap values were determined by optical methods and photoluminescence measurement. The optical band gap values of Sn doped GaN on glass and PET were determined to be approximately ˜3.40 eV and ˜3.47 eV, respectively. As a result, TVA is a rapid and low temperature deposition technology for the Sn doped GaN deposited on glass and PET substrate.

  10. GaN thin films growth and their application in photocatalytic removal of sulforhodamine B from aqueous solution under UV pulsed laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Chang, Xiao F; Yamani, Zain H; Yang, Guo F; Ji, Guang B

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN) thin films were fabricated and grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method on c-plane sapphire substrates and then characterized by high resolution-X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The photocatalytic decomposition of Sulforhodamine B (SRB) molecules on GaN thin films was investigated under 355 nm pulsed UV laser irradiation. The results demonstrate that as-grown GaN thin films exhibited efficient degradation of SRB molecules and exhibited an excellent photocatalytic-activity-stability under UV pulsed laser exposure.

  11. Ga flux dependence of Er-doped GaN luminescent thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. S.; Steckl, A. J.

    2002-02-01

    Er-doped GaN thin films have been grown on (111) Si substrates with various Ga fluxes in a radio frequency plasma molecular beam epitaxy system. Visible photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) emission at 537/558 nm and infrared (IR) PL emission at 1.5 μm from GaN:Er films exhibited strong dependence on the Ga flux. Both visible and IR PL and visible EL increase with the Ga flux up to the stoichiometric growth condition, as determined by growth rate saturation. Beyond this condition, all luminescence levels abruptly dropped to the detection limit with increasing Ga flux. The Er concentration, measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering, decreases with increasing Ga flux under N-rich growth conditions and remains constant above the stoichiometric growth condition. X-ray diffraction indicated that the crystalline quality of the GaN:Er film was improved with increasing Ga flux up to stoichiometric growth condition and then saturated. Er ions in the films grown under N-rich conditions appear much more optically active than those in the films grown under Ga-rich conditions.

  12. Effect of annealing time and NH3 flow on GaN films deposited on amorphous SiO2 by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-05-01

    GaN polycrystalline films were successfully grown on amorphous SiO2 by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition to fabricate transferable devices using inorganic films. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images show that by prolonging the annealing time, re-evaporation is enhanced, which reduced the uniformity of the nucleation layer and GaN films. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the decomposition rate of the nucleation layer increases when the annealing flow rate of NH3 is 500 sccm, which makes the unstable plane and amorphous domains decompose rapidly, thereby improving the crystallinity of the GaN films. Photoluminescence spectra also indicate the presence of fewer defects when the annealing flow rate of NH3 is 500 sccm. The excellent crystal structure of the GaN films grown under optimized conditions was revealed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. More importantly, the crystal structure and orientation of GaN grown on SiO2 are the same as that of GaN grown on conventional sapphire substrate when a buffer layer is used. This work can aid in the development of transferable devices using GaN films.

  13. Growth and characterization of GaN thin film on Si substrate by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundakçı, Mutlu; Mantarcı, Asim; Erdoğan, Erman

    2017-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is an attractive material with a wide-direct band gap (3.4 eV) and is one of the significant III-nitride materials, with many advantageous device applications such as high electron mobility transistors, lasers, sensors, LEDs, detectors, and solar cells, and has found applications in optoelectronic devices. GaN could also be useful for industrial research in the future. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), sputter, and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are some of the methods used to fabricate GaN thin film. In this research, a GaN thin film grown on a silicon substrate using the thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique has been extensively studied. Fast deposition, short production time, homogeneity, and uniform nanostructure with low roughness can be seen as some of the merits of this method. The growth of the GaN was conducted at an operating pressure of 1× {{10}-6} \\text{Torr} , a plasma current 0.6 \\text{A} and for a very short period of time of 40 s. For the characterization process, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted to determine the structure and surface morphology of the material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used to comprehend the elemental analysis characterization of the film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze the structure of the film. Raman measurements were taken to investigate the phonon modes of the material. The morphological properties of the material were analyzed in detail by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  14. Influence of hydrogen impurities on p-type resistivity in Mg-doped GaN films

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Degang, E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn; Jiang, Desheng

    2015-03-15

    The effects of hydrogen impurities on p-type resistivity in Mg-doped GaN films were investigated. It was found that hydrogen impurities may have the dual role of passivating Mg{sub Ga} acceptors and passivating donor defects. A decrease in p-type resistivity when O{sub 2} is introduced during the postannealing process is attributed to the fact that annealing in an O{sub 2}-containing environment can enhance the dissociation of Mg{sub Ga}-H complexes as well as the outdiffusion of H atoms from p-GaN films. However, low H concentrations are not necessarily beneficial in Mg-doped GaN films, as H atoms may also be bound at donormore » species and passivate them, leading to the positive effect of reduced compensation.« less

  15. Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Gaoqiang; Zhang, Yuantao; Yu, Ye; Yan, Long; Li, Pengchong; Han, Xu; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Degang; Du, Guotong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, N-polar GaN films with different V/III ratios were grown on vicinal C-face SiC substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. During the growth of N-polar GaN film, the V/III ratio was controlled by adjusting the molar flow rate of ammonia while keeping the trimethylgallium flow rate unchanged. The influence of the V/III ratio on the surface morphology of N-polar GaN film has been studied. We find that the surface root mean square roughness of N-polar GaN film over an area of 20 × 20 μm2 can be reduced from 8.13 to 2.78 nm by optimization of the V/III ratio. Then, using the same growth conditions, N-polar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown on the rough and the smooth N-polar GaN templates, respectively. Compared with the LED grown on the rough N-polar GaN template, dramatically improved interface sharpness and luminescence uniformity of the InGaN/GaN MQWs are achieved for the LED grown on the smooth N-polar GaN template.

  16. Growth of crack-free GaN films on Si(111) substrate by using Al-rich AlN buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuan; Cong, Guangwei; Liu, Xianglin; Lu, Da-Cheng; Zhu, Qinsheng; Wang, Xiaohui; Wu, Jiejun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2004-11-01

    GaN epilayers were grown on Si(111) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. By using the Al-rich AlN buffer which contains Al beyond stoichiometry, crack-free GaN epilayers with 1 μm thickness were obtained. Through x-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analyses, it was found that a lot of Al atoms have diffused into the under part of the GaN epilayer from the Al-rich AlN buffer, which results in the formation of an AlxGa1-xN layer at least with 300 nm thickness in the 1 μm thick GaN epilayer. The Al fraction x was estimated by XRD to be about 2.5%. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth analysis was also applied to investigate the stoichiometry in the Al-rich buffer before GaN growth. It is suggested that the underlayer AlxGa1-xN originated from Al diffusion probably provides a compressive stress to the upper part of the GaN epilayer, which counterbalances a part of tensile stress in the GaN epilayer during cooling down and consequently reduces the cracks of the film effectively. The method using the Al diffusion effect to form a thick AlGaN layer is really feasible to achieve the crack-free GaN films and obtain a high crystal quality simultaneously.

  17. Transmission electron microscopy study of microstructural properties and dislocation characterization in the GaN film grown on the cone-shaped patterned Al2O3 substrate.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Sik; Yang, Jun-Mo; Park, Kyung Jin; Park, Yun Chang; Yoo, Jung Ho; Jeong, Chil Seong; Park, Jucheol; He, Yinsheng; Shin, Keesam

    2014-02-01

    Growing a GaN film on a patterned Al2O3 substrate is one of the methods of reducing threading dislocations (TDs), which can significantly deteriorate the performance of GaN-based LEDs. In this study, the microstructural details of the GaN film grown on a cone-shaped patterned Al2O3 substrate were investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and weak-beam dark-field techniques. Various defects such as misfit dislocations (MDs), recrystallized GaN (R-GaN) islands and nano-voids were observed on the patterned Al2O3 surfaces, i.e. the flat surface (FS), the inclined surface (IS) and the top surface (TS), respectively. Especially, the crystallographic orientation of R-GaN between the GaN film and the inclined Al2O3 substrate was identified as $[\\overline 1 2\\overline 1 0]_{{\\rm GaN}} \\hbox{//}[\\overline 1 101]_{{\\rm R - GaN} \\,{\\rm on}\\,{\\rm IS}} \\hbox{//}[\\overline 1 100]_{ {{\\rm Al}} _{\\rm 2} {\\rm O}_{\\rm 3}} $, $(\\overline 1 012)_{{\\rm GaN}} \\hbox{//}(1\\overline 1 02)_{{\\rm R - Ga}\\,{\\rm Non}\\,{\\rm IS}} \\hbox{//}(\\overline {11} 26)_{ {{\\rm Al}} _{\\rm 2} {\\rm O}_{\\rm 3}} $. In addition, a rotation by 9° between $(10\\overline 1 1)_{{\\rm R - GaN}} $ and $(0002)_{{\\rm GaN}} $ and between $(10\\overline 1 1)_{{\\rm R - GaN}} $ and $(0006)_{ {{\\rm Al}} _{\\rm 2} {\\rm O}_{\\rm 3}} $ was found to reduce the lattice mismatch between the GaN film and the Al2O3 substrate. Many TDs in the GaN film were observed on the FS and TS of Al2O3. However, few TDs were observed on the IS. Most of the TDs generated from the FS of Al2O3 were bent to the inclined facet rather than propagating to the GaN surface, resulting in a reduction in the dislocation density. Most of the TDs generated from the TS of Al2O3 were characterized as edge dislocations.

  18. Influence of different aspect ratios on the structural and electrical properties of GaN thin films grown on nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Fang-Wei; Ke, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Chun-Hong; Liao, Bo-Wei; Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2016-07-01

    This study presents GaN thin films grown on nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSSs) with different aspect ratios (ARs) using a homemade metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system. The anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) technique is used to prepare the dry etching mask. The cross-sectional view of the scanning electron microscope image shows that voids exist between the interface of the GaN thin film and the high-AR (i.e. ∼2) NPSS. In contrast, patterns on the low-AR (∼0.7) NPSS are filled full of GaN. The formation of voids on the high-AR NPSS is believed to be due to the enhancement of the lateral growth in the initial growth stage, and the quick-merging GaN thin film blocks the precursors from continuing to supply the bottom of the pattern. The atomic force microscopy images of GaN on bare sapphire show a layer-by-layer surface morphology, which becomes a step-flow surface morphology for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. The edge-type threading dislocation density can be reduced from 7.1 × 108 cm-2 for GaN on bare sapphire to 4.9 × 108 cm-2 for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. In addition, the carrier mobility increases from 85 cm2/Vs for GaN on bare sapphire to 199 cm2/Vs for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. However, the increased screw-type threading dislocation density for GaN on a low-AR NPSS is due to the competition of lateral growth on the flat-top patterns and vertical growth on the bottom of the patterns that causes the material quality of the GaN thin film to degenerate. Thus, the experimental results indicate that the AR of the particular patterning of a NPSS plays a crucial role in achieving GaN thin film with a high crystalline quality.

  19. Selected Growth of Cubic and Hexagonal GaN Epitaxial Films on Polar MgO(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarov, V. K.; Zimmerman, J.; Cheung, S. H.; Li, L.; Weinert, M.; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M.

    2005-06-01

    Selected molecular beam epitaxy of zinc blende (111) or wurtzite (0001) GaN films on polar MgO(111) is achieved depending on whether N or Ga is deposited first. The cubic stacking is enabled by nitrogen-induced polar surface stabilization, which yields a metallic MgO(111)-(1×1)-ON surface. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory studies indicate that the atomically abrupt semiconducting GaN(111)/MgO(111) interface has a Mg-O-N-Ga stacking, where the N atom is bonded to O at a top site. This specific atomic arrangement at the interface allows the cubic stacking to more effectively screen the substrate and film electric dipole moment than the hexagonal stacking, thus stabilizing the zinc blende phase even though the wurtzite phase is the ground state in the bulk.

  20. Effects of Mn Ion Implantation on XPS Spectroscopy of GaN Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Abdul; Ahmad, Naeem; Rizwan, Muhammad; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Ali, Fekri Abdulraqeb Ahmed; Zhu, Jianjun

    2018-02-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) thin film was deposited onto a sapphire substrate and then implanted with 250 keV Mn ions at two different doses of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 and 5 × 1016 ions/cm2. The as-grown and post-implantation-thermally-annealed samples were studied in detail using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS peaks of Ga 3 d, Ga 2 p, N 1 s, Mn 2 p and C 1 s were recorded in addition to a full survey of the samples. The doublet peaks of Ga 2 p for pure GaN were observed blue-shifted when compared with elemental Ga, and appeared further shifted to higher energies for the implanted samples. These observations point to changes in the bonds and the chemical environment of the host as a result of ion implantation. The results revealed broadening of the N 1 s peak after implantation, which is interpreted in terms of the presence of N-Mn bonds in addition to N-Ga bonds. The XPS spectra of Mn 2 p recorded for ion-implanted samples indicated splitting of Mn 2 p 1/2 and Mn 2 p 3/2 peaks higher than that for metallic Mn, which helps rule out the possibility of clustering and points to substitutional doping of Mn. These observations provide a framework that sheds light on the local environment of the material for understanding the mechanism of magnetic exchange interactions in Mn:GaN based diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  1. Microstructures and growth mechanisms of GaN films epitaxially grown on AlN/Si hetero-structures by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Lin, Yunhao; Zhou, Shizhong; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    2 inch-diameter GaN films with homogeneous thickness distribution have been grown on AlN/Si(111) hetero-structures by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with laser rastering technique. The surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown GaN films are characterized in detail. By optimizing the laser rastering program, the ~300 nm-thick GaN films grown at 750 °C show a root-mean-square (RMS) thickness inhomogeneity of 3.0%, very smooth surface with a RMS surface roughness of 3.0 nm, full-width at half-maximums (FWHMs) for GaN(0002) and GaN(102) X-ray rocking curves of 0.7° and 0.8°, respectively, and sharp and abrupt AlN/GaN hetero-interfaces. With the increase in the growth temperature from 550 to 850 °C, the surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown ~300 nm-thick GaN films are gradually improved at first and then decreased. Based on the characterizations, the corresponding growth mechanisms of GaN films grown on AlN/Si hetero-structures by PLD with various growth temperatures are hence proposed. This work would be beneficial to understanding the further insight of the GaN films grown on Si(111) substrates by PLD for the application of GaN-based devices. PMID:26563573

  2. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bolat, Sami, E-mail: bolat@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla

    2015-01-15

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} PA-ALD based GaN channels aremore » observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH{sub 3} PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} ambient.« less

  3. Preparation and evaluation of Mn3GaN1-x thin films with controlled N compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishino, Sunao; So, Jongmin; Goto, Hirotaka; Hajiri, Tetsuya; Asano, Hidefumi

    2018-05-01

    Thin films of antiperovskite Mn3GaN1-x were grown on MgO (001) substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering, and their structural, magnetic, and magneto-optical properties were systematically investigated. It was found that the combination of the deposition rate and the N2 gas partial pressure could produce epitaxial films with a wide range of N composition (N-deficiency) and resulting c/a values (0.93 - 1.0). While the films with c/a = 0.992 - 1.0 were antiferromagnetic, the films with c/a = 0.93 - 0.989 showed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with the maximum PMA energy up to 1.5×106 erg/cm3. Systematic dependences of the energy spectra of the polar Kerr signals on the c/a ratio were observed, and the Kerr ellipticity was as large as 2.4 deg. at 1.9 eV for perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnetic thin films with c/a = 0.975. These results highlight that the tetragonal distortion plays an important role in magnetic and magneto-optical properties of Mn3GaN1-x thin films.

  4. Polarity control of GaN epitaxial films grown on LiGaO2(001) substrates and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yulin; Wang, Wenliang; Li, Xiaochan; Li, Yuan; Huang, Liegen; Li, Guoqiang

    2017-08-16

    The polarity of GaN epitaxial films grown on LiGaO 2 (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition has been well controlled. It is experimentally proved that the GaN epitaxial films grown on nitrided LiGaO 2 (001) substrates reveal Ga-polarity, while the GaN epitaxial films grown on non-nitrided LiGaO 2 (001) substrates show N-polarity. The growth mechanisms for these two cases are systematically studied by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Theoretical calculation presents that the adsorption of a Ga atom preferentially occurs at the center of three N atoms stacked on the nitrided LiGaO 2 (001) substrates, which leads to the formation of Ga-polarity GaN. Whereas the adsorption of a Ga atom preferentially deposits at the top of a N atom stacked on the non-nitrided LiGaO 2 (001) substrates, which results in the formation of N-polarity GaN. This work of controlling the polarity of GaN epitaxial films is of paramount importance for the fabrication of group-III nitride devices for various applications.

  5. Electrical current flow at conductive nanowires formed in GaN thin films by a dislocation template technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amma, Shin-ichi; Tokumoto, Yuki; Edagawa, Keiichi; Shibata, Naoya; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2010-05-01

    Conductive nanowires were fabricated in GaN thin film by selectively doping of Al along threading dislocations. Electrical current flow localized at the nanowires was directly measured by a contact mode atomic force microscope. The current flow at the nanowires was considered to be Frenkel-Poole emission mode, suggesting the existence of the deep acceptor level along the nanowires as a possible cause of the current flow. The results obtained in this study show the possibility for fabricating nanowires using pipe-diffusion at dislocations in solid thin films.

  6. Dynamics of threading dislocations in porous heteroepitaxial GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutkin, M. Yu.; Rzhavtsev, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Behavior of threading dislocations in porous heteroepitaxial gallium nitride (GaN) films has been studied using computer simulation by the two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics approach. A computational scheme, where pores are modeled as cross sections of cylindrical cavities, elastically interacting with unidirectional parallel edge dislocations, which imitate threading dislocations, is used. Time dependences of coordinates and velocities of each dislocation from dislocation ensembles under investigation are obtained. Visualization of current structure of dislocation ensemble is performed in the form of a location map of dislocations at any time. It has been shown that the density of appearing dislocation structures significantly depends on the ratio of area of a pore cross section to area of the simulation region. In particular, increasing the portion of pores surface on the layer surface up to 2% should lead to about a 1.5-times decrease of the final density of threading dislocations, and increase of this portion up to 15% should lead to approximately a 4.5-times decrease of it.

  7. Lateral polarity control of III-nitride thin film and application in GaN Schottky barrier diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junmei; Guo, Wei; Sheikhi, Moheb; Li, Hongwei; Bo, Baoxue; Ye, Jichun

    2018-05-01

    N-polar and III-polar GaN and AlN epitaxial thin films grown side by side on single sapphire substrate was reported. Surface morphology, wet etching susceptibility and bi-axial strain conditions were investigated and the polarity control scheme was utilized in the fabrication of Schottky barrier diode where ohmic contact and Schottky contact were deposited on N-polar domains and Ga-polar domains, respectively. The influence of N-polarity on on-state resistivity and I–V characteristic was discussed, demonstrating that lateral polarity structure of GaN and AlN can be widely used in new designs of optoelectronic and electronic devices. Project partially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFB0400802), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61704176), and the Open project of Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Advanced Microelectronic Intelligent Systems and Applications (No. ZJUAMIS1704).

  8. Quantitative secondary ion mass spectrometric analysis of secondary ion polarity in GaN films implanted with oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, Minako; Sakaguchi, Isao; Adachi, Yutaka; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative analyses of N and O ions in GaN thin films implanted with oxygen ions (16O+) were conducted by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Positive (CsM+) and negative secondary ions extracted by Cs+ primary ion bombardment were analyzed for oxygen quantitative analysis. The oxygen depth profiles were obtained using two types of primary ion beams: a Gaussian-type beam and a broad spot beam. The oxygen peak concentrations in GaN samples were from 3.2 × 1019 to 7.0 × 1021 atoms/cm3. The depth profiles show equivalent depth resolutions in the two analyses. The intensity of negative oxygen ions was approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of positive ions. In contrast, the O/N intensity ratio measured using CsM+ molecular ions was close to the calculated atomic density ratio, indicating that the SIMS depth profiling using CsM+ ions is much more effective for the measurements of O and N ions in heavy O-implanted GaN than that using negative ions.

  9. Substrate impact on the low-temperature growth of GaN thin films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kizir, Seda; Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2016-07-15

    Gallium nitride (GaN) thin films were grown on Si (100), Si (111), and c-plane sapphire substrates at 200 °C via hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD) using GaEt{sub 3} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma as group-III and V precursors, respectively. The main aim of the study was to investigate the impact of substrate on the material properties of low-temperature ALD-grown GaN layers. Structural, chemical, and optical characterizations were carried out in order to evaluate and compare film quality of GaN on different substrates. X-ray reflectivity measurements showed film density values of 5.70, 5.74, and 5.54 g/cm{sup 3} for GaN grown on Simore » (100), Si (111), and sapphire, respectively. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements exhibited hexagonal wurtzite structure in all HCPA-ALD grown GaN samples. However, dominant diffraction peak for GaN films grown on Si and sapphire substrates were detected differently as (002) and (103), respectively. X-ray diffraction gonio scans measured from GaN grown on c-plane sapphire primarily showed (002) orientation. All samples exhibited similar refractive index values (∼2.17 at 632 nm) with 2–3 at. % of oxygen impurity existing within the bulk of the films. The grain size was calculated as ∼9–10 nm for GaN grown on Si (100) and Si (111) samples while it was ∼5 nm for GaN/sapphire sample. Root-mean-square surface roughness values found as 0.68, 0.76, and 1.83 nm for GaN deposited on Si (100), Si (111), and sapphire, respectively. Another significant difference observed between the samples was the film growth per cycle: GaN/sapphire sample showed a considerable higher thickness value when compared with GaN/Si samples, which might be attributed to a possibly more-efficient nitridation and faster nucleation of sapphire surface.« less

  10. Ga2O3 and GaN nanocrystalline film: reverse micelle assisted solvothermal synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Godhuli; Ganguli, Dibyendu; Chaudhuri, Subhadra

    2008-03-01

    Gallium oxide (beta-Ga2O3) nanoparticles were successfully deposited on quartz glass substrates using sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-hexane/ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) reverse micelle-mediated solvothermal process with different omega values. The mean diameter of Ga2O3 particles was approximately 2-3 nm and found to be approximately independent of omega values of the reverse micelles. However, when the Ga2O3 nanocrystalline films were nitrided at 900 degrees C under flowing NH3 atmosphere for 1 h, the mean diameter of the resulted gallium nitride (wurtzite-GaN) nanoparticles varied from 3-9 nm. Both nanocrystalline films of Ga2O3 and GaN were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence in order to study their chemical and physical properties explicitly.

  11. Microstructure and Optical Properties of Nonpolar m-Plane GaN Films Grown on m-Plane Sapphire by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tongbo; Duan, Ruifei; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Huo, Ziqiang; Yang, Jiankun; Zeng, Yiping

    2008-05-01

    Thick nonpolar (1010) GaN layers were grown on m-plane sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) using magnetron sputtered ZnO buffers, while semipolar (1013) GaN layers were obtained by the conventional two-step growth method using the same substrate. The in-plane anisotropic structural characteristics and stress distribution of the epilayers were revealed by high resolution X-ray diffraction and polarized Raman scattering measurements. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed that the striated surface morphologies correlated with the basal plane stacking faults for both (1010) and (1013) GaN films. The m-plane GaN surface showed many triangular-shaped pits aligning uniformly with the tips pointing to the c-axis after etching in boiled KOH, whereas the oblique hillocks appeared on the semipolar epilayers. In addition, the dominant emission at 3.42 eV in m-plane GaN films displayed a red shift with respect to that in semipolar epilayers, maybe owing to the different strain states present in the two epitaxial layers.

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of ultra-thin Fe films on metal-organic chemical vapour deposited GaN(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun-Young; Ionescu, Adrian; Mansell, Rhodri; Farrer, Ian; Oehler, Fabrice; Kinane, Christy J.; Cooper, Joshaniel F. K.; Steinke, Nina-Juliane; Langridge, Sean; Stankiewicz, Romuald; Humphreys, Colin J.; Cowburn, Russell P.; Holmes, Stuart N.; Barnes, Crispin H. W.

    2017-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of 1-10 nm thick Fe films deposited on GaN(0001) were investigated. In-situ reflecting high energy electron diffraction images indicated a α-Fe(110)/GaN(0001) growth of the 3D Volmer-Weber type. The α-Fe(110) X-ray diffraction peak showed a 1° full-width at half-maximum, indicating ≈20 nm grain sizes. A significant reduction in Fe atomic moment from its bulk value was observed for films thinner than 4 nm. Both GaN/Fe interface roughness and Fe film coercivity increased with Fe thickness, indicating a possible deterioration of Fe crystalline quality. Magnetic anisotropy was mainly uniaxial for all films while hexagonal anisotropies appeared for thicknesses higher than 3.7 nm.

  13. Substrate temperature influence on the properties of GaN thin films grown by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Alevli, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafaalevli@marmara.edu.tr; Gungor, Neşe; Haider, Ali

    2016-01-15

    Gallium nitride films were grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using triethylgallium and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma. An optimized recipe for GaN film was developed, and the effect of substrate temperature was studied in both self-limiting growth window and thermal decomposition-limited growth region. With increased substrate temperature, film crystallinity improved, and the optical band edge decreased from 3.60 to 3.52 eV. The refractive index and reflectivity in Reststrahlen band increased with the substrate temperature. Compressive strain is observed for both samples, and the surface roughness is observed to increase with the substrate temperature. Despite these temperature dependent material properties,more » the chemical composition, E{sub 1}(TO), phonon position, and crystalline phases present in the GaN film were relatively independent from growth temperature.« less

  14. Comparison of trimethylgallium and triethylgallium as “Ga” source materials for the growth of ultrathin GaN films on Si (100) substrates via hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Alevli, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafaalevli@marmara.edu.tr; Haider, Ali; Kizir, Seda

    2016-01-15

    GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMG) and triethylgallium (TEG) as gallium precursors are compared. Optimized and saturated TMG/TEG pulse widths were used in order to study the effect of group-III precursors. The films were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Refractive index follows the same trend of crystalline quality, mean grain, and crystallite sizes. GaN layers grown using TMG precursor exhibited improved structural and optical properties when compared to GaN films grown with TEG precursor.

  15. Time-dependent dielectric breakdown of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 films on GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Toshio; Okubo, Satoshi; Horikawa, Kiyotaka; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    Atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films are the most promising surface passivation and gate insulation layers in non-Si semiconductor devices. Here, we carried out an extensive study on the time-dependent dielectric breakdown characteristics of ALD-Al2O3 films formed on homo-epitaxial GaN substrates using two different oxidants at two different ALD temperatures. The breakdown times were approximated by Weibull distributions with average shape parameters of 8 or larger. These values are reasonably consistent with percolation theory predictions and are sufficiently large to neglect the wear-out lifetime distribution in assessing the long-term reliability of the Al2O3 films. The 63% lifetime of the Al2O3 films increases exponentially with a decreasing field, as observed in thermally grown SiO2 films at low fields. This exponential relationship disproves the correlation between the lifetime and the leakage current. Additionally, the lifetime decreases with measurement temperature with the most remarkable reduction observed in high-temperature (450 °C) O3-grown films. This result agrees with that from a previous study, thereby ruling out high-temperature O3 ALD as a gate insulation process. When compared at 200 °C under an equivalent SiO2 field of 4 MV/cm, which is a design guideline for thermal SiO2 on Si, high-temperature H2O-grown Al2O3 films have the longest lifetimes, uniquely achieving the reliability target of 20 years. However, this target is accomplished by a relatively narrow margin and, therefore, improvements in the lifetime are expected to be made, along with efforts to decrease the density of extrinsic Al2O3 defects, if any, to promote the practical use of ALD Al2O3 films.

  16. Fabrication of WS2/GaN p-n Junction by Wafer-Scale WS2 Thin Film Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Fong, Patrick W. K.; Wang, Shifeng; Surya, Charles

    2016-01-01

    High quality wafer-scale free-standing WS2 grown by van der Waals rheotaxy (vdWR) using Ni as a texture promoting layer is reported. The microstructure of vdWR grown WS2 was significantly modified from mixture of crystallites with their c-axes both parallel to (type I) and perpendicular to (type II) the substrate to large type II crystallites. Wafer-scale transfer of vdWR grown WS2 onto different substrates by an etching-free technique was demonstrated for the first time that utilized the hydrophobic property of WS2 and hydrophilic property of sapphire. Our results show that vdWR is a reliable technique to obtain type-II textured crystallites in WS2, which is the key factor for the wafer-scale etching-free transfer. The transferred films were found to be free of observable wrinkles, cracks, or polymer residues. High quality p-n junctions fabricated by room-temperature transfer of the p-type WS2 onto an n-type GaN was demonstrated with a small leakage current density of 29.6 μA/cm2 at −1 V which shows superior performances compared to the directly grown WS2/GaN heterojunctions. PMID:27897210

  17. Fabrication of WS2/GaN p-n Junction by Wafer-Scale WS2 Thin Film Transfer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Fong, Patrick W K; Wang, Shifeng; Surya, Charles

    2016-11-29

    High quality wafer-scale free-standing WS 2 grown by van der Waals rheotaxy (vdWR) using Ni as a texture promoting layer is reported. The microstructure of vdWR grown WS 2 was significantly modified from mixture of crystallites with their c-axes both parallel to (type I) and perpendicular to (type II) the substrate to large type II crystallites. Wafer-scale transfer of vdWR grown WS 2 onto different substrates by an etching-free technique was demonstrated for the first time that utilized the hydrophobic property of WS 2 and hydrophilic property of sapphire. Our results show that vdWR is a reliable technique to obtain type-II textured crystallites in WS 2 , which is the key factor for the wafer-scale etching-free transfer. The transferred films were found to be free of observable wrinkles, cracks, or polymer residues. High quality p-n junctions fabricated by room-temperature transfer of the p-type WS 2 onto an n-type GaN was demonstrated with a small leakage current density of 29.6 μA/cm 2 at -1 V which shows superior performances compared to the directly grown WS 2 /GaN heterojunctions.

  18. Unveiling structural, chemical and magnetic interfacial peculiarities in ε-Fe2O3/GaN (0001) epitaxial films.

    PubMed

    Ukleev, Victor; Suturin, Sergey; Nakajima, Taro; Arima, Taka-Hisa; Saerbeck, Thomas; Hanashima, Takayasu; Sitnikova, Alla; Kirilenko, Demid; Yakovlev, Nikolai; Sokolov, Nikolai

    2018-06-07

    The metastable ε-Fe 2 O 3 is known to be the most intriguing ferrimagnetic and multiferroic iron oxide phase exhibiting a bunch of exciting physical properties both below and above room temperature. The present paper unveils the structural and magnetic peculiarities of a few nm thick interface layer discovered in these films by a number of techniques. The polarized neutron reflectometry data suggests that the interface layer resembles GaFeO 3 in composition and density and is magnetically softer than the rest of the ε-Fe 2 O 3 film. While the in-depth density variation is in agreement with the transmission electron microscopy measurements, the layer-resolved magnetization profiles are qualitatively consistent with the unusual wasp-waist magnetization curves observed by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Interestingly a noticeable Ga diffusion into the ε-Fe 2 O 3 films has been detected by secondary ion mass spectroscopy providing a clue to the mechanisms guiding the nucleation of exotic metastable epsilon ferrite phase on GaN at high growth temperature and influencing the interfacial properties of the studied films.

  19. Thermal quenching effect of an infrared deep level in Mg-doped p-type GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keunjoo; Chung, Sang Jo

    2002-03-01

    The thermal quenching of an infrared deep level of 1.2-1.5 eV has been investigated on Mg-doped p-type GaN films, using one- and two-step annealing processes and photocurrent measurements. The deep level appeared in the one-step annealing process at a relatively high temperature of 900 °C, but disappeared in the two-step annealing process with a low-temperature step and a subsequent high-temperature step. The persistent photocurrent was residual in the sample including the deep level, while it was terminated in the sample without the deep level. This indicates that the deep level is a neutral hole center located above a quasi-Fermi level, estimated with an energy of EpF=0.1-0.15 eV above the valence band at a hole carrier concentration of 2.0-2.5×1017/cm3.

  20. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Sputtered-Grown InN Films on ZnO Buffered Silicon, Bulk GaN, Quartz and Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Umar; Hassan, Zainuriah; Ahmed, Naser M.; Afzal, Naveed

    2018-05-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were grown on Si (111), bulk GaN, quartz and sapphire substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Prior to the film deposition, a zinc oxide (ZnO) buffer layer was deposited on all the substrates. The x-ray diffraction patterns of InN films on ZnO-buffered substrates indicated c-plane-oriented films whereas the Raman spectroscopy results indicated A1 (LO) and E2 (high) modes of InN on all the substrates. The crystalline quality of InN was found to be better on sapphire and quartz than on the other substrates. The surface roughness of InN was studied using an atomic force microscope. The results indicated higher surface roughness of the film on sapphire as compared to the others; however, roughness of the film was lower than 8 nm on all the substrates. The electrical properties indicated higher electron mobility of InN (20.20 cm2/Vs) on bulk GaN than on the other substrates. The optical band gap of InN film was more than 2 eV in all the cases and was attributed to high carrier concentration in the film.

  1. Far-infrared transmission in GaN, AlN, and AlGaN thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, J.; Hernandez, S.; Alarcon-Llado, E.

    2008-08-01

    We present a far-infrared transmission study on group-III nitride thin films. Cubic GaN and AlN layers and c-oriented wurtzite GaN, AlN, and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x<0.3) layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs and Si(111) substrates, respectively. The Berreman effect allows us to observe simultaneously the transverse optic and the longitudinal optic phonons of both the cubic and the hexagonal films as transmission minima in the infrared spectra acquired with obliquely incident radiation. We discuss our results in terms of the relevant electromagnetic theory of infrared transmission in cubic and wurtzite thin films. We compare the infrared resultsmore » with visible Raman-scattering measurements. In the case of films with low scattering volumes and/or low Raman efficiencies and also when the Raman signal of the substrate material obscures the weaker peaks from the nitride films, we find that the Berreman technique is particularly useful to complement Raman spectroscopy.« less

  2. Epitaxy of Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} (1 1 1) thin films on GaN (0 0 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Chu-Yun; Wu, Jhih-Cheng; Shih, Chuan-Feng, E-mail: cfshih@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► High-permittivity spinel Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} thin films were grown on GaN (0 0 1) by sputtering. ► Oxygen atmosphere and post heat-treatment annealing effectively enhanced epitaxy. ► The epitaxial Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} modifies the dielectric properties of ceramic oxide. - Abstract: High-permittivity spinel Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} thin films were grown on GaN (0 0 1) by rf-sputtering. Grazing-angle, powder, and pole-figure X-ray diffractometries (XRD) were performed to identify the crystallinity and the preferred orientation of the Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} films. Lattice image at the Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} (1 1 1)/GaN (0 0 1) interface was obtained by high-resolutionmore » transmission-electron microscopy (HR-TEM). An oxygen atmosphere in sputtering and post heat-treatment using rapid thermal annealing effectively enhanced the epitaxy. The epitaxial relationship was determined from the XRD and HR-TEM results: (111){sub Zn{sub 2TiO{sub 4}}}||(001){sub GaN}, (202{sup ¯}){sub Zn{sub 2TiO{sub 4}}}||(110){sub GaN},and[21{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}]{sub Zn{sub 2TiO{sub 4}}}||[01{sup ¯}10]{sub GaN}. Finally, the relative permittivity, interfacial trap density and the flat-band voltage of the Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} based capacitor were ∼18.9, 8.38 × 10{sup 11} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and 1.1 V, respectively, indicating the potential applications of the Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} thin film to the GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor.« less

  3. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of N-polar InN quantum dots and thin films on vicinal GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Cory; Catalano, Massimo; Wang, Luhua; Wurm, Christian; Mates, Thomas; Kim, Moon; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Mishra, Umesh K.; Keller, Stacia

    2018-02-01

    N-polar InN layers were deposited using MOCVD on GaN-on-sapphire templates which were miscut 4° towards the GaN m-direction. For thin layers, quantum dot-like features were spontaneously formed to relieve the strain between the InN and GaN layers. As the thickness was increased, the dots elongated along the step direction before growing outward perpendicular to the step direction and coalescing to form a complete InN layer. XRD reciprocal space maps indicated that the InN films relaxed upon quantum dot formation after nominally 1 nm thick growth, resulting in 5-7 nm tall dots with diameters around 20-50 nm. For thicker layers above 10 nm, high electron mobilities of up to 706 cm2/V s were measured using Hall effect measurements indicating high quality layers.

  4. New PLAD apparatus and fabrication of epitaxial films and junctions of functional materials: SiC, GaN, ZnO, diamond and GMR layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Hachizo; Kusumori, Takeshi; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Asano, Takashi; Hori, Takahiro

    2006-04-01

    We have developed a new pulsed laser ablation-deposition (PLAD) apparatus and techniques for fabricating films of high-temperature or functional materials, including two short-wavelength lasers: (a) a YAG 5th harmonic (213 nm) and (b) Raman-shifted lasers containing vacuum ultraviolet light; also involved are (c) a high-temperature heater with a maximum temperature of 1350 °C, (d) dual-target simultaneous ablation mechanics, and (e) hybrid PLAD using a pico-second YAG laser combined with (c) and/or (d). Using the high-T heater, hetero-epitaxial films of 3C-, 2H- and 4H-SiC have been prepared on sapphire-c. In situ p-doping for GaN epitaxial films is achieved by simultaneous ablation of GaN and Mg targets by (d) during film growth. Junctions such as pGaN (Mg-doped)-film/n-SiC(0 0 0 1) substrate and pGaN/n-Si(1 1 1) show good diode characteristics. Epitaxial films with a diamond lattice can be grown on the sapphire-c plane by hybrid PLAD (e) with a high-T heater using a 6H-SiC target. High quality epitaxial films of ZnO are grown by PLAD by introducing a low-temperature self-buffer layer; magnetization of ferromagnetic materials is enforced by overlaying on a ferromagnetic lattice plane of an anti-ferromagnetic material, showing the value of the layer-overlaying method in improving quality. The short-wavelength lasers are useful in reducing surface particles on functional films, including superconductors.

  5. Large-roll growth of 25-inch hexagonal BN monolayer film for self-release buffer layer of free-standing GaN wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenping; Soomro, Abdul Majid; Sun, Feipeng; Wang, Huachun; Huang, Youyang; Wu, Jiejun; Liu, Chuan; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Na; Chen, Xiaohong; Kang, Junyong; Cai, Duanjun

    2016-10-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is known as promising 2D material with a wide band-gap (~6 eV). However, the growth size of h-BN film is strongly limited by the size of reaction chamber. Here, we demonstrate the large-roll synthesis of monolayer and controllable sub-monolayer h-BN film on wound Cu foil by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method. By winding the Cu foil substrate into mainspring shape supported by a multi-prong quartz fork, the reactor size limit could be overcome by extending the substrate area to a continuous 2D curl of plane inward. An extremely large-size monolayer h-BN film has been achieved over 25 inches in a 1.2” tube. The optical band gap of h-BN monolayer was determined to be 6.0 eV. The h-BN film was uniformly transferred onto 2” GaN or 4” Si wafer surfaces as a release buffer layer. By HVPE method, overgrowth of thick GaN wafer over 200 μm has been achieved free of residual strain, which could provide high quality homo-epitaxial substrate.

  6. Direct spontaneous growth and interfacial structural properties of inclined GaN nanopillars on r-plane sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Adikimenakis, A.; Aretouli, K. E.; Tsagaraki, K.

    2015-06-28

    The spontaneous growth of GaN nanopillars (NPs) by direct plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on nitridated r-plane sapphire substrates has been studied. The emanation of metal-polarity NPs from inside an a-plane nonpolar GaN film was found to depend on both the substrate nitridation and the growth conditions. The density of NPs increased with increasing the duration of the nitridation process and the power applied on the radio-frequency plasma source, as well as the III/V flux ratio, while variation of the first two parameters enhanced the roughness of the substrate's surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were employed to reveal the structuralmore » characteristics of the NPs and their nucleation mechanism from steps on the sapphire surface and/or interfacial semipolar GaN nanocrystals. Lattice strain measurements showed a possible Al enrichment of the first 5–6 monolayers of the NPs. By combining cross-sectional and plan-view TEM observations, the three-dimensional model of the NPs was constructed. The orientation relationship and interfacial accommodation between the NPs and the nonpolar a-plane GaN film were also elucidated. The NPs exhibited strong and narrow excitonic emission, suggesting an excellent structural quality.« less

  7. Positron beam study of indium tin oxide films on GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, C. K.; Wang, R. X.; Beling, C. D.; Djurisic, A. B.; Fung, S.

    2007-02-01

    Variable energy Doppler broadening spectroscopy has been used to study open-volume defects formed during the fabrication of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films grown by electron-beam evaporation on n-GaN. The films were prepared at room temperature, 200 and 300 °C without oxygen and at 200 °C under different oxygen partial pressures. The results show that at elevated growth temperatures the ITO has fewer open volume sites and grows with a more crystalline structure. High temperature growth, however, is not sufficient in itself to remove open volume defects at the ITO/GaN interface. Growth under elevated temperature and under partial pressure of oxygen is found to further reduce the vacancy type defects associated with the ITO film, thus improving the quality of the film. Oxygen partial pressures of 6 × 10-3 mbar and above are found to remove open volume defects associated with the ITO/GaN interface. The study suggests that, irrespective of growth temperature and oxygen partial pressure, there is only one type of defect in the ITO responsible for trapping positrons, which we tentatively attribute to the oxygen vacancy.

  8. Role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer on the strain engineering of GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, X. Q.; Takahashi, T.; Matsuhata, H.

    2013-12-02

    We investigate the role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer (SL-IL) on the strain engineering of the GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that micro-cracks limitted only at the SL-IL position are naturally generated. These micro-cracks play an important role in relaxing the tensile strain caused by the difference of the coefficient of thermal expansion between GaN and Si and keeping the residual strain in the crack-free GaN epilayers resulted from the SL-IL during the growth. The mechanism understanding of the strain modulation by the SL-IL in the GaN epilayersmore » grown on Si substrates makes it possible to design new heterostructures of III-nitrides for optic and electronic device applications.« less

  9. Role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer on the strain engineering of GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X. Q.; Takahashi, T.; Rong, X.; Chen, G.; Wang, X. Q.; Shen, B.; Matsuhata, H.; Ide, T.; Shimizu, M.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer (SL-IL) on the strain engineering of the GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that micro-cracks limitted only at the SL-IL position are naturally generated. These micro-cracks play an important role in relaxing the tensile strain caused by the difference of the coefficient of thermal expansion between GaN and Si and keeping the residual strain in the crack-free GaN epilayers resulted from the SL-IL during the growth. The mechanism understanding of the strain modulation by the SL-IL in the GaN epilayers grown on Si substrates makes it possible to design new heterostructures of III-nitrides for optic and electronic device applications.

  10. Preparation of freestanding GaN wafer by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xian; Li, Peng; Liang, Renrong; Xiao, Lei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    A freestanding GaN wafer was prepared on porous Si (111) substrate using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). To avoid undesirable effects of the porous surface on the crystallinity of the GaN, a GaN seed layer was first grown on the Si (111) bare wafer. A pattern with many apertures was fabricated in the GaN seed layer using lithography and etching processes. A porous layer was formed in the Si substrate immediately adjacent to the GaN seed layer by an anodic etching process. A 500-μm-thick GaN film was then grown on the patterned GaN seed layer using HVPE. The GaN film was separated from the Si substrate through the formation of cracks in the porous layer caused by thermal mismatch stress during the cooling stage of the HVPE. Finally, the GaN film was polished to obtain a freestanding GaN wafer.

  11. Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, A. Y., E-mail: aypolyakov@gmail.com; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.

    2014-05-14

    Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ∼10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} to (2–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}. The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ∼5 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} versusmore » 2.9 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration.« less

  12. Epitaxial growth and characterization of approximately 300-nm-thick AlInN films nearly lattice-matched to c-plane GaN grown on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Makoto; Yamanaka, Mizuki; Egawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Tetsuya

    2018-05-01

    AlInN epitaxial films with film thicknesses up to approximately 300 nm were grown nearly lattice-matched to a c-plane GaN-on-sapphire template by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The AlInN films showed relative good crystal qualities and flat surfaces, despite the existence of surface pits connected to dislocations in the underlying GaN film. The refractive index derived in this study agreed well with a previously reported result obtained over the whole visible wavelength region. The extinction coefficient spectrum exhibited a clear absorption edge, and the bandgap energy for AlInN nearly lattice-matched to GaN was determined to be approximately 4.0 eV.

  13. Method of growing GaN films with a low density of structural defects using an interlayer

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic reduction of the dislocation density in GaN was obtained by insertion of a single thin interlayer grown at an intermediate temperature (IT-IL) after the growth of an initial grown at high temperature. A description of the growth process is presented with characterization results aimed at understanding the mechanisms of reduction in dislocation density. A large percentage of the threading dislocations present in the first GaN epilayer are found to bend near the interlayer and do not propagate into the top layer which grows at higher temperature in a lateral growth mode. TEM studies show that the mechanisms of dislocation reduction are similar to those described for the epitaxial lateral overgrowth process, however a notable difference is the absence of coalescence boundaries.

  14. Use of hydrogen etching to remove existing dislocations in GaN epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Yen-Hsien; Chu, Chung-Ming; Wu, Yin-Hao; Hsu, Ying-Chia; Yu, Tzu-Yi; Lee, Wei-I.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, based on the anisotropic nature of hydrogen (H2) etching on GaN, we describe a new approach to the removal of threading dislocations in GaN layers. The top surfaces of c-plane (Ga-face) and a-plane GaNs are considered stable in H2; therefore, H2 etches only crystal imperfections such as dislocation and basal plane stacking fault (BSF) sites. We used H2 to etch undoped c-plane GaN, n-type c-plane GaN, a-plane GaN, and an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure. Several examinations were performed, indicating deep cavities on the c-plane GaN samples after H2 etching; furthermore, gorge-like grooves were observed on the a-plane GaN samples. The deep cavities on the c-plane GaN were considered the etched dislocation sites, and the gorge-like grooves on the a-plane GaN were considered the etched BSF sites. Photoluminescence measurements were performed and the results indicated that the H2-etched samples demonstrate superior optoelectronic properties, probably because of the elimination of dislocations.

  15. Ultraviolet light-absorbing and emitting diodes consisting of a p-type transparent-semiconducting NiO film deposited on an n-type GaN homoepitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Mutsumi; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.

    2017-05-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and related (Al,Ga,In)N alloys provide practical benefits in the production of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes operating in ultraviolet (UV) to green wavelength regions. However, obtaining low resistivity p-type AlN or AlGaN of large bandgap energies (Eg) is a critical issue in fabricating UV and deep UV-LEDs. NiO is a promising candidate for useful p-type transparent-semiconducting films because its Eg is 4.0 eV and it can be doped into p-type conductivity of sufficiently low resistivity. By using these technologies, heterogeneous junction diodes consisting of a p-type transparent-semiconducting polycrystalline NiO film on an n-type single crystalline GaN epilayer on a low threading-dislocation density, free-standing GaN substrate were fabricated. The NiO film was deposited by using the conventional RF-sputtering method, and the GaN homoepitaxial layer was grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. They exhibited a significant photovoltaic effect under UV light and also exhibited an electroluminescence peak at 3.26 eV under forward-biased conditions. From the conduction and valence band (EV) discontinuities, the NiO/GaN heterointerface is assigned to form a staggered-type (TYPE-II) band alignment with the EV of NiO higher by 2.0 eV than that of GaN. A rectifying property that is consistent with the proposed band diagram was observed in the current-voltage characteristics. These results indicate that polycrystalline NiO functions as a hole-extracting and injecting layer of UV optoelectronic devices.

  16. Poole-Frenkel effect on electrical characterization of Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Liao, Chung-Chi; Ke, Wen-Cheng; Chang, Yuan-Ching; Huang, Hao-Ping; Chen, Nai-Chuan

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films directly grown on two types of p-type GaN thin films. The low-pressure p-GaN thin films (LP-p-GaN) exhibited structural properties of high-density edge-type threading dislocations (TDs) and compensated defects (i.e., nitrogen vacancy). Compared with high-pressure p-GaN thin films (HP-p-GaN), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of Ga 3d core levels indicated that the surface Fermi-level shifted toward the higher binding-energy side by approximately 0.7 eV. The high-density edge-type TDs and compensated defects enabled surface Fermi-level shifting above the intrinsic Fermi-level, causing the surface of LP-p-GaN thin films to invert to n-type semiconductor. A highly nonlinear increase in leakage current regarding reverse-bias voltage was observed for AZO/LP-p-GaN. The theoretical fits for the reverse-bias voltage region indicated that the field-assisted thermal ionization of carriers from defect associated traps, which is known as the Poole-Frenkel effect, dominated the I-V behavior of AZO/LP-p-GaN. The fitting result estimated the trap energy level at 0.62 eV below the conduction band edge. In addition, the optical band gap increased from 3.50 eV for as-deposited AZO films to 3.62 eV for 300 °C annealed AZO films because of the increased carrier concentration. The increasing Fermi-level of the 300 °C annealed AZO films enabled the carrier transport to move across the interface into the LP-p-GaN thin films without any thermal activated energy. Thus, the Ohmic behavior of AZO contact can be achieved directly on the low-pressure p-GaN films at room temperature.

  17. Poole-Frenkel effect on electrical characterization of Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Liao, Chung-Chi; Ke, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wcke@saturn.yzu.edu.tw

    2014-03-21

    This paper presents the electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films directly grown on two types of p-type GaN thin films. The low-pressure p-GaN thin films (LP-p-GaN) exhibited structural properties of high-density edge-type threading dislocations (TDs) and compensated defects (i.e., nitrogen vacancy). Compared with high-pressure p-GaN thin films (HP-p-GaN), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of Ga 3d core levels indicated that the surface Fermi-level shifted toward the higher binding-energy side by approximately 0.7 eV. The high-density edge-type TDs and compensated defects enabled surface Fermi-level shifting above the intrinsic Fermi-level, causing the surface of LP-p-GaN thin films to invert to n-type semiconductor. A highlymore » nonlinear increase in leakage current regarding reverse-bias voltage was observed for AZO/LP-p-GaN. The theoretical fits for the reverse-bias voltage region indicated that the field-assisted thermal ionization of carriers from defect associated traps, which is known as the Poole-Frenkel effect, dominated the I-V behavior of AZO/LP-p-GaN. The fitting result estimated the trap energy level at 0.62 eV below the conduction band edge. In addition, the optical band gap increased from 3.50 eV for as-deposited AZO films to 3.62 eV for 300 °C annealed AZO films because of the increased carrier concentration. The increasing Fermi-level of the 300 °C annealed AZO films enabled the carrier transport to move across the interface into the LP-p-GaN thin films without any thermal activated energy. Thus, the Ohmic behavior of AZO contact can be achieved directly on the low-pressure p-GaN films at room temperature.« less

  18. GaN epitaxial layers grown on multilayer graphene by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-04-01

    In this study, GaN epitaxial layers were successfully deposited on a multilayer graphene (MLG) by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Highly crystalline orientations of the GaN films were confirmed through electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). An epitaxial relationship between GaN films and MLG is unambiguously established by transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The Raman spectra was used to analyze the internal stress of GaN films, and the spectrum shows residual tensile stress in the GaN films. Moreover, the results of the TEM analysis and Raman spectra indicate that the high quality of the MLG substrate is maintained even after the growth of the GaN film. This high-quality MLG makes it possible to easily remove epitaxial layers from the supporting substrate by micro-mechanical exfoliation technology. This work can aid in the development of transferable devices using GaN films.

  19. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingxue; Liu, Rong; Xiao, Hongdi; Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin

    2016-11-01

    A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  20. Growth, Structural, Electronic, and Magnetic Characterization of GaN, CrN, Fe Islands on CrN, and Fe/CrN Bilayer Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Khan

    As a part of my Ph.D research, initially I was involved in construction and calibration of an ultra-high vacuum thin film facility, and later on I studied structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of GaN, CrN, Fe/CrN bilayers, and Fe islands on CrN thin films. All of these films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized with a variety of state-of-the-art techniques including variable temperature reflection high energy electron diffraction, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, variable temperature vibrating sample magnetometry, variable temperature neutron diffraction and reflectometry, variable temperature x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectometry, Rutherford backscattering, Auger electron spectroscopy, and cross-sectional tunneling electron microscopy. The experimental results are furthermore understood by comparing with numerical calculations using generalized gradient approximation, local density approximation with Hubbard correction, Refl1D, and data analysis and visual environment program. In my first research project, I studied Ga gas adatoms on GaN surfaces. We discovered frozen-out gallium gas adatoms on atomically smooth c(6x12) GaN(0001¯) surface using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. We identified adsorption sites of the Ga adatoms on c(6x12) reconstructed surface. Their bonding is determined by measuring low unoccupied molecular orbital level. Absorption sites of the Ga gas adatoms on centered 6x12 are identified, and their asymmetric absorption on the chiral domains is investigated. In second project, I investigated magneto-structural phase transition in chromium nitride (CrN) thin films. The CrN thin films are grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Structural and magnetic transition are studied using variable temperature reflection high energy electron diffraction and variable temperature neutron diffraction. We observed a structural phase transition at the surface at 277+/-2 K, and a sharp, first

  1. Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-film-flip-chip InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Hongping

    2012-09-10

    The enhancement of light extraction efficiency for thin-film flip-chip (TFFC) InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with GaN micro-domes on n-GaN layer was studied. The light extraction efficiency of TFFC InGaN QWs LEDs with GaN micro-domes were calculated and compared to that of the conventional TFFC InGaN QWs LEDs with flat surface. The three dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD) method was used to calculate the light extraction efficiency for the InGaN QWs LEDs emitting at 460nm and 550 nm, respectively. The effects of the GaN micro-dome feature size and the p-GaN layer thickness on the light extraction efficiency were studied systematically. Studies indicate that the p-GaN layer thickness is critical for optimizing the TFFC LED light extraction efficiency. Significant enhancement of the light extraction efficiency (2.5-2.7 times for λ(peak) = 460nm and 2.7-2.8 times for λ(peak) = 550nm) is achievable from TFFC InGaN QWs LEDs with optimized GaN micro-dome diameter and height.

  2. High optical quality GaN nanopillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. D.; Chua, S. J.; Tripathy, S.; Sander, M. S.; Chen, P.; Fonstad, C. G.

    2005-02-01

    GaN nanopillar arrays have been fabricated by inductively coupled plasma etching of GaN films using anodic aluminum oxide film as an etch mask. The average diameter and length of these pillars are 60-65nm and 350-400nm, respectively. Ultraviolet microphotoluminescence measurements indicate high photoluminescence intensity and stress relaxation in these GaN nanopillars as compared to the starting epitaxial GaN films. Evidence of good crystalline quality is also observed by micro-Raman measurements, wherein a redshift of the E2high mode from GaN nanopillars suggests partial relaxation of the compressive strain. In addition, breakdown of the polarization selection rules led to the appearance of symmetry-forbidden and quasipolar modes.

  3. Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. D.; Zang, K. Y.; Chua, S. J.; Tripathy, S.; Chen, P.; Fonstad, C. G.

    2005-12-01

    We report the growth of high-quality GaN epilayers on an ordered nanoporous GaN template by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The nanopores in GaN template were created by inductively coupled plasma etching using anodic aluminum oxide film as an etch mask. The average pore diameter and interpore distance is about 65 and 110nm, respectively. Subsequent overgrowth of GaN first begins at the GaN crystallite surface between the pores, and then air-bridge-mediated lateral overgrowth leads to the formation of the continuous layer. Microphotoluminescence and micro-Raman measurements show improved optical properties and significant strain relaxation in the overgrown layer when compared to GaN layer of same thickness simultaneously grown on sapphire without any template. Similar to conventional epitaxial lateral overgrown GaN, such overgrown GaN on a nanopatterned surface would also serve as a template for the growth of ultraviolet-visible light-emitting III-nitride devices.

  4. P-type doping of GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Raechelle Kimberly

    2000-04-01

    After implantation of As, As + Be, and As + Ga into GaN and annealing for short durations at temperatures as high as 1500 C, the GaN films remained highly resistive. It was apparent from c-RBS studies that although implantation damage did not create an amorphous layer in the GaN film, annealing at 1500 C did not provide enough energy to completely recover the radiation damage. Disorder recovered significantly after annealing at temperatures up to 1500 C, but not completely. From SIMS analysis, oxygen contamination in the AIN capping layer causes oxygen diffusion into the GaN film above 1400 C.more » The sapphire substrate (A1203) also decomposed and oxygen penetrated into the backside of the GaN layer above 1400 C. To prevent donor-like oxygen impurities from the capping layer and the substrate from contaminating the GaN film and compensating acceptors, post-implantation annealing should be done at temperatures below 1500 C. Oxygen in the cap could be reduced by growing the AIN cap on the GaN layer after the GaN growth run or by depositing the AIN layer in a ultra high vacuum (UHV) system post-growth to minimize residual oxygen and water contamination. With longer annealing times at 1400 C or at higher temperatures with a higher quality AIN, the implantation drainage may fully recover.« less

  5. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  6. Magnetic resonance studies of the Mg acceptor in thick free-standing and thin-film GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvanut, Mary Ellen

    Mg, the only effective p-type dopant for the nitrides, substitutes for Ga and forms an acceptor with a defect level of about 0.16 eV. The magnetic resonance of such a center should be highly anisotropic, yet early work employing both optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies revealed a defect with a nearly isotropic g-tensor. The results were attributed to crystal fields caused by compensation and/or strain typical of the heteroepitaxially grown films. The theory was supported by observation of the expected highly anisotropic ODMR signature in homoepitaxially grown films in which dislocation-induced non-uniform strain and compensation are reduced. The talk will review EPR measurements of thin films and describe new work which takes advantage of the recently available thick free-standing GaN:Mg substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and high nitrogen pressure solution growth (HNPS). Interestingly, the films and HVPE substrates exhibit characteristically different types of EPR signals, and no EPR response could be induced in the HNPS substrates, with or without illumination. In the heteroepitaxial films, a curious angular dependent line-shape is observed in addition to the nearly isotropic g-tensor characteristic of the Mg-related acceptor. On the other hand, the free-standing HVPE crystals reveal a clear signature of a highly anisotropic shallow acceptor center. Comparison with SIMS measurements implies a direct relation to the Mg impurity, and frequency-dependent EPR studies demonstrate the influence of the anisotropic crystal fields. Overall, the measurements of the thick free-standing crystals show that the Mg acceptor is strongly affected by the local environment. The ODMR was performed by Evan Glaser, NRL and the free-standing Mg-doped HVPE crystals were grown by Jacob Leach, Kyma Tech. The work at UAB is supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1308446.

  7. Atomic force microscopy studies of homoepitaxial GaN layers grown on GaN template by laser MBE

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, B. S.; Rajasthan Technical University, Rawatbhata Road, Kota 324010; Singh, A.

    We have grown homoepitaxial GaN films on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown 3.5 µm thick GaN on sapphire (0001) substrate (GaN template) using an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) laser assisted molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) system. The GaN films were grown by laser ablating a polycrystalline solid GaN target in the presence of active r.f. nitrogen plasma. The influence of laser repetition rates (10-30 Hz) on the surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN layers have been studied using atomic force microscopy. It was found that GaN layer grown at 10 Hz shows a smooth surface with uniform grain size compared to the rough surfacemore » with irregular shape grains obtained at 30 Hz. The variation of surface roughness of the homoepitaxial GaN layer with and without wet chemical etching has been also studied and it was observed that the roughness of the film decreased after wet etching due to the curved structure/rough surface.« less

  8. Epitaxial growth of (001)-oriented Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} thin films on a-plane sapphire with an MgO/ZnO bridge layer

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Bo; Liu Hongrui; Avrutin, Vitaliy

    2009-11-23

    High quality (001)-oriented Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) thin films have been grown on a-plane sapphire (1120) by rf magnetron sputtering using a double bridge layer consisting of (0001)-oriented ZnO (50 nm) and (001)-oriented MgO (10 nm) prepared by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of three sets of in-plane BST domains, offset from one another by 30 deg., which is consistent with the in-plane symmetry of the MgO layer observed by in situ reflective high electron energy diffraction. The in-plane epitaxial relationship of BST, MgO, and ZnO has been determined to be BST [110]//MgO [110]//ZnO [1120]more » and BST [110]/MgO [110]//ZnO [1100]. Capacitance-voltage measurements performed on BST coplanar interdigitated capacitor structures revealed a high dielectric tunability of up to 84% at 1 MHz.« less

  9. Structure guided GANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Feidao; Zhao, Huaici; Liu, Pengfei

    2017-11-01

    Generative adversarial networks (GANs) has achieved success in many fields. However, there are some samples generated by many GAN-based works, whose structure is ambiguous. In this work, we propose Structure Guided GANs that introduce structural similar into GANs to overcome the problem. In order to achieve our goal, we introduce an encoder and a decoder into a generator to design a new generator and take real samples as part of the input of a generator. And we modify the loss function of the generator accordingly. By comparison with WGAN, experimental results show that our proposed method overcomes largely sample structure ambiguous and can generate higher quality samples.

  10. GaN grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Kong; Meixin, Feng; Jin, Cai; Hui, Wang; Huaibing, Wang; Hui, Yang

    2015-04-01

    High-quality gallium nitride (GaN) film was grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) and investigated using XRD and SEM. It was found that the optimum thickness of the GaN buffer layer on the NPSS is 15 nm, which is thinner than that on micro-patterned sapphire substrates (MPSS). An interesting phenomenon was observed for GaN film grown on NPSS:GaN mainly grows on the trench regions and little grows on the sidewalls of the patterns at the initial growth stage, which is dramatically different from GaN grown on MPSS. In addition, the electrical and optical properties of LEDs grown on NPSS were characterized. Project supported by the Suzhou Nanojoin Photonics Co., Ltd and the High-Tech Achievements Transformation of Jiangsu Province, China (No.BA2012010).

  11. Codoping characteristics of Zn with Mg in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. S.; Han, M. S.; Yang, G. M.; Youn, C. J.; Lee, H. J.; Cho, H. K.; Lee, J. Y.

    2000-08-01

    The doping characteristics of Mg-Zn codoped GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are investigated. By means of the concept of Mg-Zn codoping technique, we have grown p-GaN showing a low electrical resistivity (0.72 Ω cm) and a high hole concentration (8.5×1017cm-3) without structural degradation of the film. It is thought that the codoping of Zn atoms with Mg raises the Mg activation ratio by reducing the hydrogen solubility in p-GaN. In addition, the measured specific contact resistance of Mg-Zn codoped GaN film is 5.0×10-4 Ω cm2, which is one order of magnitude lower than that of Mg doped only GaN film (1.9×10-3 Ω cm2).

  12. Integrated thin film Si fluorescence sensor coupled with a GaN microLED for microfluidic point-of-care testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Hannah; Sumitomo, Keiko; Tsujimura, Noriyuki; Kamei, Toshihiro

    2018-02-01

    An integrated fluorescence sensor consisting of a SiO2/Ta2O5 multilayer optical interference filter and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) pin photodiode was coupled with a GaN microLED to construct a compact fluorescence detection module for point-of-care microfluidic biochemical analysis. The combination of the small size of the GaN microLED and asymmetric microlens resulted in a focal spot diameter of the excitation light of approximately 200 µm. The limit of detection of the sensor was as high as 36 nM for fluorescein solution flowing in a 100 µm deep microfluidic channel because of the lack of directionality of the LED light. Nevertheless, we used the GaN microLED coupled with the a-Si:H fluorescence sensor to successfully detect fluorescence from a streptavidin R-phycoerythrin conjugate that bound to biotinylated antibody-coated microbeads trapped by the barrier in the microfluidic channel.

  13. Characterization of an Mg-implanted GaN p-i-n Diode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    unintentionally doped GaN layer was grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on a n+ Ga -face c-oriented GaN substrate. The as-grown MOCVD film...their proper lattice sites. In the case of Mg implanted GaN , the Mg must replace Ga to result in p-type material. In many other semiconductor...Characterization of an Mg-implanted GaN p-i-n Diode Travis J. Anderson, Jordan D. Greenlee, Boris N. Feigelson, Karl D. Hobart, and Francis J

  14. Cubic crystalline erbium oxide growth on GaN(0001) by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Posadas, Agham B.; Kwon, Sunah; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2017-12-01

    Growth of crystalline Er2O3, a rare earth sesquioxide, on GaN(0001) is described. Ex situ HCl and NH4OH solutions and an in situ N2 plasma are used to remove impurities on the GaN surface and result in a Ga/N stoichiometry of 1.02. Using atomic layer deposition with erbium tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) [Er(iPrCp)3] and water, crystalline cubic Er2O3 (C-Er2O3) is grown on GaN at 250 °C. The orientation relationships between the C-Er2O3 film and the GaN substrate are C-Er2O3(222) ǁ GaN(0001), C-Er2O3⟨-440⟩ ǁ GaN ⟨11-20⟩, and C-Er2O3⟨-211⟩ ǁ GaN ⟨1-100⟩. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy are used to examine the microstructure of C-Er2O3 and its interface with GaN. With post-deposition annealing at 600 °C, a thicker interfacial layer is observed, and two transition layers, crystalline GaNwOz and crystalline GaErxOy, are found between GaN and C-Er2O3. The tensile strain in the C-Er2O3 film is studied with x-ray diffraction by changes in both out-of-plane and in-plane d-spacing. Fully relaxed C-Er2O3 films on GaN are obtained when the film thickness is around 13 nm. Additionally, a valence band offset of 0.7 eV and a conduction band offset of 1.2 eV are obtained using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  15. Lattice distortions in GaN on sapphire using the CBED-HOLZ technique.

    PubMed

    Sridhara Rao, D V; McLaughlin, K; Kappers, M J; Humphreys, C J

    2009-09-01

    The convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) methodology was developed to investigate the lattice distortions in wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) from a single zone-axis pattern. The methodology enabled quantitative measurements of lattice distortions (alpha, beta, gamma and c) in transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimens of a GaN film grown on (0,0,0,1) sapphire by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy. The CBED patterns were obtained at different distances from the GaN/sapphire interface. The results show that GaN is triclinic above the interface with an increased lattice parameter c. At 0.85 microm from the interface, alpha=90 degrees , beta=8905 degrees and gamma=11966 degrees . The GaN lattice relaxes steadily back to hexagonal further away from the sapphire substrate. The GaN distortions are mainly confined to the initial stages of growth involving the growth and the coalescence of 3D GaN islands.

  16. Validity of Vegard’s rule for Al1-xInxN (0.08  <  x  <  0.28) thin films grown on GaN templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, S.; Franco, N.; Watson, I. M.; Martin, R. W.; O'Donnell, K. P.; Schenk, H. P. D.; Tang, F.; Sadler, T. C.; Kappers, M. J.; Oliver, R. A.; Monteiro, T.; Martin, T. L.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Moody, M. P.; Alves, E.; Lorenz, K.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, comparative x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) measurements allow a comprehensive characterization of Al1-xInxN thin films grown on GaN. Within the limits of experimental accuracy, and in the compositional range 0.08  <  x  <  0.28, the lattice parameters of the alloys generally obey Vegard’s rule, varying linearly with the InN fraction. Results are also consistent with the small deviation from linear behaviour suggested by Darakchieva et al (2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 261908). However, unintentional incorporation of Ga, revealed by atom probe tomography (APT) at levels below the detection limit for RBS, may also affect the lattice parameters. Furthermore, in certain samples the compositions determined by XRD and RBS differ significantly. This fact, which was interpreted in earlier publications as an indication of a deviation from Vegard’s rule, may rather be ascribed to the influence of defects or impurities on the lattice parameters of the alloy. The wide-ranging set of Al1-xInxN films studied allowed furthermore a detailed investigation of the composition leading to lattice-matching of Al1-xInxN/GaN bilayers.

  17. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer

    PubMed Central

    Muhammed, M. M.; Roldan, M. A.; Yamashita, Y.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Ajia, I. A.; Iizuka, K.; Kuramata, A.; Humphreys, C. J.; Roqan, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1−xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 107 cm−2) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1−xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1−xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design. PMID:27412372

  18. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer.

    PubMed

    Muhammed, M M; Roldan, M A; Yamashita, Y; Sahonta, S-L; Ajia, I A; Iizuka, K; Kuramata, A; Humphreys, C J; Roqan, I S

    2016-07-14

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1-xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 10(7) cm(-2)) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1-xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1-xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  19. Synthesis of p-type GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Wook; Park, Youn Ho; Kim, Ilsoo; Park, Tae-Eon; Kwon, Byoung Wook; Choi, Won Kook; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2013-09-21

    GaN has been utilized in optoelectronics for two decades. However, p-type doping still remains crucial for realization of high performance GaN optoelectronics. Though Mg has been used as a p-dopant, its efficiency is low due to the formation of Mg-H complexes and/or structural defects in the course of doping. As a potential alternative p-type dopant, Cu has been recognized as an acceptor impurity for GaN. Herein, we report the fabrication of Cu-doped GaN nanowires (Cu:GaN NWs) and their p-type characteristics. The NWs were grown vertically via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism using a Au/Ni catalyst. Electrical characterization using a nanowire-field effect transistor (NW-FET) showed that the NWs exhibited n-type characteristics. However, with further annealing, the NWs showed p-type characteristics. A homo-junction structure (consisting of annealed Cu:GaN NW/n-type GaN thin film) exhibited p-n junction characteristics. A hybrid organic light emitting diode (OLED) employing the annealed Cu:GaN NWs as a hole injection layer (HIL) also demonstrated current injected luminescence. These results suggest that Cu can be used as a p-type dopant for GaN NWs.

  20. Direct growth of freestanding GaN on C-face SiC by HVPE.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Hao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yuanbin; Huo, Qin

    2015-06-02

    In this work, high quality GaN crystal was successfully grown on C-face 6H-SiC by HVPE using a two steps growth process. Due to the small interaction stress between the GaN and the SiC substrate, the GaN was self-separated from the SiC substrate even with a small thickness of about 100 μm. Moreover, the SiC substrate was excellent without damage after the whole process so that it can be repeatedly used in the GaN growth. Hot phosphoric acid etching (at 240 °C for 30 min) was employed to identify the polarity of the GaN layer. According to the etching results, the obtained layer was Ga-polar GaN. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were done to characterize the quality of the freestanding GaN. The Raman measurements showed that the freestanding GaN film grown on the C-face 6H-SiC was stress-free. The optical properties of the freestanding GaN layer were determined by photoluminescence (PL) spectra.

  1. Properties of Epitaxial GaN on Refractory Metal Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-28

    Rowland Aymont Technology, Inc., Scotia, New York 12302 Jihyun Kim College of Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, South Korea Mohammad Fatemi...M. Li, D. Wang, C. Ahyi, C.-C. Tin, J. Williams, and M. Park , Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113509 2001. FIG. 4. I-V characteristic of the GaN film on 111

  2. Large electron capture-cross-section of the major nonradiative recombination centers in Mg-doped GaN epilayers grown on a GaN substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichibu, S. F.; Shima, K.; Kojima, K.; Takashima, S.; Edo, M.; Ueno, K.; Ishibashi, S.; Uedono, A.

    2018-05-01

    Complementary time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation measurements were carried out at room temperature on Mg-doped p-type GaN homoepitaxial films for identifying the origin and estimating the electron capture-cross-section ( σ n ) of the major nonradiative recombination centers (NRCs). To eliminate any influence by threading dislocations, free-standing GaN substrates were used. In Mg-doped p-type GaN, defect complexes composed of a Ga-vacancy (VGa) and multiple N-vacancies (VNs), namely, VGa(VN)2 [or even VGa(VN)3], are identified as the major intrinsic NRCs. Different from the case of 4H-SiC, atomic structures of intrinsic NRCs in p-type and n-type GaN are different: VGaVN divacancies are the major NRCs in n-type GaN. The σ n value approximately the middle of 10-13 cm2 is obtained for VGa(VN)n, which is larger than the hole capture-cross-section (σp = 7 × 10-14 cm2) of VGaVN in n-type GaN. Combined with larger thermal velocity of an electron, minority carrier lifetime in Mg-doped GaN becomes much shorter than that of n-type GaN.

  3. Kinetic-limited etching of magnesium doping nitrogen polar GaN in potassium hydroxide solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Junyan; Zhang, Yuantao; Chi, Chen; Yang, Fan; Li, Pengchong; Zhao, Degang; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    KOH based wet etchings were performed on both undoped and Mg-doped N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the etching rate for Mg-doped N-polar GaN gets slow obviously compared with undoped N-polar GaN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis proved that Mg oxide formed on N-polar GaN surface is insoluble in KOH solution so that kinetic-limited etching occurs as the etching process goes on. The etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is tentatively purposed using a simplified ideal atomic configuration. Raman spectroscopy analysis reveals that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN films. Meanwhile, p-type N-polar GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 ÿ 1017 cm⿿3 was obtained by optimizing bis-cyclopentadienyl magnesium flow rates.

  4. Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Power Electronics (FY11)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and ~1010 in films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) when they are deposited...inductively coupled plasma I-V current-voltage L-HVPE low doped HVPE MBE molecular beam epitaxy MOCVD metal-organic chemical vapor deposition...figure of merit HEMT high electron mobility transistor H-HVPE high doped HVPE HPE high power electronics HVPE hydride vapor phase epitaxy ICP

  5. Controlled growth of ordered nanopore arrays in GaN.

    PubMed

    Wildeson, Isaac H; Ewoldt, David A; Colby, Robert; Stach, Eric A; Sands, Timothy D

    2011-02-09

    High-quality, ordered nanopores in semiconductors are attractive for numerous biological, electrical, and optical applications. Here, GaN nanorods with continuous pores running axially through their centers were grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The porous nanorods nucleate on an underlying (0001)-oriented GaN film through openings in a SiN(x) template that are milled by a focused ion beam, allowing direct placement of porous nanorods. Nanopores with diameters ranging from 20-155 nm were synthesized with crystalline sidewalls.

  6. High-quality GaN epitaxially grown on Si substrate with serpentine channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tiantian; Zong, Hua; Jiang, Shengxiang; Yang, Yue; Liao, Hui; Xie, Yahong; Wang, Wenjie; Li, Junze; Tang, Jun; Hu, Xiaodong

    2018-06-01

    A novel serpentine-channeled mask was introduced to Si substrate for low-dislocation GaN epitaxial growth and the fully coalesced GaN film on the masked Si substrate was achieved for the first time. Compared with the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) growth method, this innovative mask only requires one-step epitaxial growth of GaN which has only one high-dislocation region per mask opening. This new growth method can effectively reduce dislocation density, thus improving the quality of GaN significantly. High-quality GaN with low dislocation density ∼2.4 × 107 cm-2 was obtained, which accounted for about eighty percent of the GaN film in area. This innovative technique is promising for the growth of high-quality GaN templates and the subsequent fabrication of high-performance GaN-based devices like transistors, laser diodes (LDs), and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on Si substrate.

  7. Optical Probing of Low-Pressure Solution Grown GaN Crystal Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    observed in Mg and Si doped epitaxial films deposited by MBE and MOCVD on freestanding GaN HVPE substrates [23–25]. Considering the purity of the precursors...bands with similar energy positions here reported, a dominant deeper acceptor impurity has been assigned to Zn , a well known deep acceptor in GaN . Room...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optical probing of low-pressure solution grown GaN crystal properties 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  8. Effects of Ga:N addition on the electrical performance of zinc tin oxide thin film transistor by solution-processing.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byung Du; Jeon, Hye Ji; Park, Jin-Seong

    2014-06-25

    This paper addressed the effect of gallium nitrate hydrate addition on thin film transistor (TFT) performance and positive bias stability of amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) TFTs by solution processing, Further, the mechanisms responsible for chemical properties and electronic band structure are explored. A broad exothermic peak accompanied by weight loss appeared in the range from about 350 to 570 °C for the ZTO solution; the thermal reaction of the Ga-ZTO:N solution was completed at 520 °C. This is because the gallium nitrate hydrate precursor promoted the decomposition and dehydroxylation reaction for Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O and/or SnCl2·2H2O precursors. The concentrations of carbon and chloride in gallium nitrate hydrate added ZTO films annealed at 400 °C have a lower value (C 0.65, Cl 0.65 at. %) compared with those of ZTO films (C 3.15, Cl 0.82 at. %). Absorption bands at 416, 1550, and 1350 cm(-1) for GaZTO:N films indicated the presence of ZnGa2O4, N-H, and N═O groups by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurement, respectively. As a result, an inverted staggered Ga-ZTO:N TFT exhibited a mobility of 4.84 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the saturation region, a subthreshold swing of 0.35 V/decade, and a threshold gate voltage (Vth) of 0.04 V. In addition, the instability of Vth values of the ZTO TFTs under positive bias stress conditions was suppressed by adding Ga and N from 13.6 to 3.17 V, which caused a reduction in the oxygen-related defects located near the conduction band.

  9. Polarity-inverted lateral overgrowth and selective wet-etching and regrowth (PILOSWER) of GaN.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dongsoo; Jue, Miyeon; Kim, Donghoi; Kim, Hwa Seob; Lee, Hyunkyu; Kim, Chinkyo

    2018-03-07

    On an SiO 2 -patterned c-plane sapphire substrate, GaN domains were grown with their polarity controlled in accordance with the pattern. While N-polar GaN was grown on hexagonally arranged circular openings, Ga-polar GaN was laterally overgrown on mask regions due to polarity inversion occurring at the boundary of the circular openings. After etching of N-polar GaN on the circular openings by H 3 PO 4 , this template was coated with 40-nm Si by sputtering and was slightly etched by KOH. After slight etching, a thin layer of Si left on the circular openings of sapphire,but not on GaN, was oxidized during thermal annealing and served as a dielectric mask during subsequent regrowth. Thus, the subsequent growth of GaN was made only on the existing Ga-polar GaN domains, not on the circular openings of the sapphire substrate. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed no sign of threading dislocations in this film. This approach may help fabricating an unholed and merged GaN film physically attached to but epitaxially separated from the SiO 2 -patterned sapphire.

  10. Atomic layer epitaxy of GaN over sapphire using switched metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A.; Skogman, R. A.; van Hove, J. M.; Olson, D. T.; Kuznia, J. N.

    1992-03-01

    In this letter the first switched atomic layer epitaxy (SALE) of single crystal GaN over basal plane sapphire substrates is reported. A low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LPMOCVD) system was used for the epilayer depositions. In contrast to conventional LPMOCVD requiring temperatures higher than 700 C, the SALE process resulted in single crystal insulating GaN layers at growth temperatures ranging from 900 to 450 C. The band-edge transmission and the photoluminescence of the films from the SALE process were comparable to the best LPMOCVD films. As best as is known this is the first report of insulating GaN films which show excellent band-edge photoluminescence.

  11. Atomic layer epitaxy of GaN over sapphire using switched metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif Khan, M.; Skogman, R. A.; Van Hove, J. M.; Olson, D. T.; Kuznia, J. N.

    1992-03-01

    In this letter we report the first switched atomic layer epitaxy (SALE) of single crystal GaN over basal plane sapphire substrates. A low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LPMOCVD) system was used for the epilayer depositions. In contrast to conventional LPMOCVD requiring temperatures higher than 700 °C, the SALE process resulted in single crystal insulating GaN layers at growth temperatures ranging from 900 to 450 °C. The band-edge transmission and the photoluminescence of the films from the SALE process were comparable to the best LPMOCVD films. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of insulating GaN films which show excellent band-edge photoluminescence.

  12. Electron transport properties of degenerate n-type GaN prepared by pulsed sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Kohei; Fudetani, Taiga; Arakawa, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the transport properties of highly degenerate electrons in Ge-doped and Si-doped GaN epilayers prepared using the pulsed sputtering deposition (PSD) technique. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry and Hall-effect measurements revealed that the doping efficiency of PSD n-type GaN is close to unity at electron concentrations as high as 5.1 × 1020 cm-3. A record low resistivity for n-type GaN of 0.16 mΩ cm was achieved with an electron mobility of 100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at a carrier concentration of 3.9 × 1020 cm-3. We explain this unusually high electron mobility of PSD n-type GaN within the framework of conventional scattering theory by modifying a parameter related to nonparabolicity of the conduction band. The Ge-doped GaN films show a slightly lower electron mobility compared with Si-doped films with the same carrier concentrations, which is likely a consequence of the formation of a small number of compensation centers. The excellent electrical properties presented in this letter clearly demonstrate the striking advantages of the low-temperature PSD technique for growing high-quality and highly conductive n-type GaN.

  13. Ambient-temperature diffusion and gettering of Pt atoms in GaN with surface defect region under 60Co gamma or MeV electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ruixiang; Li, Lei; Fang, Xin; Xie, Ziang; Li, Shuti; Song, Weidong; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Jicai; Huang, Zengli; Li, Qiangjie; Xu, Wanjing; Fu, Engang; Qin, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    Generally, the diffusion and gettering of impurities in GaN needs high temperature. Calculated with the ambient-temperature extrapolation value of the high temperature diffusivity of Pt atoms in GaN reported in literature, the time required for Pt atoms diffusing 1 nm in GaN at ambient temperature is about 19 years. Therefore, the ambient-temperature diffusion and gettering of Pt atoms in GaN can hardly be observed. In this work, the ambient-temperature diffusion and gettering of Pt atoms in GaN is reported for the first time. It is demonstrated by use of secondary ion mass spectroscopy that in the condition of introducing a defect region on the GaN film surface by plasma, and subsequently, irradiated by 60Co gamma-ray or 3 MeV electrons, the ambient-temperature diffusion and gettering of Pt atoms in GaN can be detected. It is more obvious with larger irradiation dose and higher plasma power. With a similar surface defect region, the ambient-temperature diffusion and gettering of Pt atoms in GaN stimulated by 3 MeV electron irradiation is more marked than that stimulated by gamma irradiation. The physical mechanism of ambient-temperature diffusion and gettering of Pt atoms in a GaN film with a surface defect region stimulated by gamma or MeV electron irradiation is discussed.

  14. p-type zinc-blende GaN on GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M. E.; Xue, G.; Zhou, G. L.; Greene, J. E.; Morkoç, H.

    1993-08-01

    We report p-type cubic GaN. The Mg-doped layers were grown on vicinal (100) GaAs substrates by plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy. Thermally sublimed Mg was, with N2 carrier gas, fed into an electron-cyclotron resonance source. p-type zinc-blende-structure GaN films were achieved with hole mobilities as high as 39 cm2/V s at room temperature. The cubic nature of the films were confirmed by x-ray diffractometry. The depth profile of Mg was investigated by secondary ions mass spectroscopy.

  15. GaN growth via HVPE on SiC/Si substrates: growth mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharofidinov, Sh Sh; Redkov, A. V.; Osipov, A. V.; Kukushkin, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article focuses on the study of GaN thin film growth via chloride epitaxy on SiC/Si hybrid substrate. SiC buffer layer was grown by a method of substitution of atoms, which allows one to reduce impact of mechanical stress therein on subsequent growth of III-nitride films. It is shown, that change in GaN growth conditions leads to change in its growth mechanism. Three mechanisms: epitaxial, spiral and stepwise growth are considered and mechanical stresses are estimated via Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Recovery of GaN surface after reactive ion etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qian; Chevtchenko, S.; Ni, Xianfeng; Cho, Sang-Jun; Morko, Hadis

    2006-02-01

    Surface properties of GaN subjected to reactive ion etching and the impact on device performance have been investigated by surface potential, optical and electrical measurements. Different etching conditions were studied and essentially high power levels and low chamber pressures resulted in higher etch rates accompanying with the roughening of the surface morphology. Surface potential for the as-grown c-plane GaN was found to be in the range of 0.5~0.7 V using Scanning Kevin Probe Microscopy. However, after reactive ion etching at a power level of 300 W, it decreased to 0.1~0.2 V. A nearly linear reduction was observed on c-plane GaN with increasing power. The nonpolar a-plane GaN samples also showed large surface band bending before and after etching. Additionally, the intensity of the near band-edge photoluminescence decreased and the free carrier density increased after etching. These results suggest that the changes in the surface potential may originate from the formation of possible nitrogen vacancies and other surface oriented defects and adsorbates. To recover the etched surface, N II plasma, rapid thermal annealing, and etching in wet KOH were performed. For each of these methods, the surface potential was found to increase by 0.1~0.3 V, also the reverse leakage current in Schottky diodes fabricated on treated samples was reduced considerably compared with as-etched samples, which implies a partial-to-complete recovery from the plasma-induced damage.

  17. Roma Gans: Still Writing at 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Joanna

    1991-01-01

    Recounts discussions with reading educator Roma Gans over a 25-year period. Presents Gans' views about reading, teachers, her family, and her years at Teachers College, Columbia. Notes that Gans has seen the teaching of reading come full circle since her first teaching assignment in 1919. (RS)

  18. Drag reduction at a plane wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective is to determine by analytical means how drag on a plane wall may be modified favorably using a minimal amount of flow information - preferably only information at the wall. What quantities should be measured? How should that information be assimilated in order to arrive at effective control? As a prototypical problem, incompressible, viscous flow, governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, past a plane wall at which the no-slip condition was modified was considered. The streamwise and spanwise velocity components are required to be zero, but the normal component is to be specified according to some control law. The challenge is to choose the wall-normal velocity component based on flow conditions at the wall so that the mean drag is as small as possible. There can be no net mass flux through the wall, and the total available control energy is constrained. A turbulent flow is highly unsteady and has detailed spatial structure. The mean drag on the wall is the integral over the wall of the local shear forces exerted by the fluid, which is then averaged in time; it is a 'macroscopic' property of the flow. It is not obvious how unsteady boundary control is to be applied in order to modify the mean flow most effectively, especially in view of the non- self-adjoint nature of the governing equations. An approximate analytical solution to the suboptimal scheme is pursued.

  19. Anharmonic phonon decay in cubic GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuscó, R.; Domènech-Amador, N.; Novikov, S.; Foxon, C. T.; Artús, L.

    2015-08-01

    We present a Raman-scattering study of optical phonons in zinc-blende (cubic) GaN for temperatures ranging from 80 to 750 K. The experiments were performed on high-quality, cubic GaN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) substrates. The observed temperature dependence of the optical phonon frequencies and linewidths is analyzed in the framework of anharmonic decay theory, and possible decay channels are discussed in the light of density-functional-theory calculations. The longitudinal-optical (LO) mode relaxation is found to occur via asymmetric decay into acoustic phonons, with an appreciable contribution of higher-order processes. The transverse-optical mode linewidth shows a weak temperature dependence and its frequency downshift is primarily determined by the lattice thermal expansion. The LO phonon lifetime is derived from the observed Raman linewidth and an excellent agreement with previous theoretical predictions is found.

  20. Understanding the Growth Mechanism of GaN Epitaxial Layers on Mechanically Exfoliated Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe; Jiang, Haiwei

    2018-04-01

    The growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial layers on mechanically exfoliated graphite is explained in detail based on classic nucleation theory. The number of defects on the graphite surface can be increased via O-plasma treatment, leading to increased nucleation density on the graphite surface. The addition of elemental Al can effectively improve the nucleation rate, which can promote the formation of dense nucleation layers and the lateral growth of GaN epitaxial layers. The surface morphologies of the nucleation layers, annealed layers and epitaxial layers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, where the evolution of the surface morphology coincided with a 3D-to-2D growth mechanism. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of GaN. Fast Fourier transform diffraction patterns showed that cubic phase (zinc-blend structure) GaN grains were obtained using conventional GaN nucleation layers, while the hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure) GaN films were formed using AlGaN nucleation layers. Our work opens new avenues for using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite as a substrate to fabricate transferable optoelectronic devices.

  1. Understanding the Growth Mechanism of GaN Epitaxial Layers on Mechanically Exfoliated Graphite.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe; Jiang, Haiwei

    2018-04-27

    The growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial layers on mechanically exfoliated graphite is explained in detail based on classic nucleation theory. The number of defects on the graphite surface can be increased via O-plasma treatment, leading to increased nucleation density on the graphite surface. The addition of elemental Al can effectively improve the nucleation rate, which can promote the formation of dense nucleation layers and the lateral growth of GaN epitaxial layers. The surface morphologies of the nucleation layers, annealed layers and epitaxial layers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, where the evolution of the surface morphology coincided with a 3D-to-2D growth mechanism. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of GaN. Fast Fourier transform diffraction patterns showed that cubic phase (zinc-blend structure) GaN grains were obtained using conventional GaN nucleation layers, while the hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure) GaN films were formed using AlGaN nucleation layers. Our work opens new avenues for using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite as a substrate to fabricate transferable optoelectronic devices.

  2. Effect of SiC buffer layer on GaN growth on Si via PA-MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, S. A.; Mizerov, A. M.; Osipov, A. V.; Redkov, A. V.; Telyatnik, R. S.; Timoshnev, S. N.

    2017-11-01

    The study is devoted to comparison of GaN thin films grown on SiC/Si substrates made by the method of atoms substitution with the films grown directly on Si substrates. The growth was performed in a single process via plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The samples were studied via optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and a comparison of their characteristics was made. Using chemical etching in KOH, the polarity of GaN films grown on SiC/Si and Si substrates was determined.

  3. Design and simulation of GaN based Schottky betavoltaic nuclear micro-battery.

    PubMed

    San, Haisheng; Yao, Shulin; Wang, Xiang; Cheng, Zaijun; Chen, Xuyuan

    2013-10-01

    The current paper presents a theoretical analysis of Ni-63 nuclear micro-battery based on a wide-band gap semiconductor GaN thin-film covered with thin Ni/Au films to form Schottky barrier for carrier separation. The total energy deposition in GaN was calculated using Monte Carlo methods by taking into account the full beta spectral energy, which provided an optimal design on Schottky barrier width. The calculated results show that an 8 μm thick Schottky barrier can collect about 95% of the incident beta particle energy. Considering the actual limitations of current GaN growth technique, a Fe-doped compensation technique by MOCVD method can be used to realize the n-type GaN with a carrier concentration of 1×10(15) cm(-3), by which a GaN based Schottky betavoltaic micro-battery can achieve an energy conversion efficiency of 2.25% based on the theoretical calculations of semiconductor device physics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen-surfactant-assisted coherent growth of GaN on ZnO substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Zhu, Junyi

    2018-01-01

    Heterostructures of wurtzite based devices have attracted great research interest because of the tremendous success of GaN in light emitting diodes (LED) industry. High-quality GaN thin films on inexpensive and lattice matched ZnO substrates are both commercially and technologically desirable. Intrinsic wetting conditions, however, forbid such heterostructures as the energy of ZnO polar surfaces is much lower than that of GaN polar surfaces, resulting in 3D growth mode and poor crystal quality. Based on first-principles calculations, we propose the use of surfactant hydrogen to dramatically alter the growth mode of the heterostructures. Stable H-involved surface configurations and interfaces are investigated with the help of our newly developed modelling techniques. The temperature and chemical potential dependence of our proposed strategy, which is critical in experiments, is predicted by applying the experimental Gibbs free energy of H2. Our thermodynamic wetting condition analysis is a crucial step for the growth of GaN on ZnO, and we find that introducing H will not degrade the stability of ZnO substrate. This approach will allow the growth of high-quality GaN thin films on ZnO substrates. We believe that our new strategy may reduce the manufactory cost, improve the crystal quality, and improve the efficiency of GaN-based devices.

  5. Quantum dynamics of a plane pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Leibscher, Monika; Schmidt, Burkhard

    A semianalytical approach to the quantum dynamics of a plane pendulum is developed, based on Mathieu functions which appear as stationary wave functions. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved for pendular analogs of coherent and squeezed states of a harmonic oscillator, induced by instantaneous changes of the periodic potential energy function. Coherent pendular states are discussed between the harmonic limit for small displacements and the inverted pendulum limit, while squeezed pendular states are shown to interpolate between vibrational and free rotational motion. In the latter case, full and fractional revivals as well as spatiotemporal structures in the time evolution ofmore » the probability densities (quantum carpets) are quantitatively analyzed. Corresponding expressions for the mean orientation are derived in terms of Mathieu functions in time. For periodic double well potentials, different revival schemes, and different quantum carpets are found for the even and odd initial states forming the ground tunneling doublet. Time evolution of the mean alignment allows the separation of states with different parity. Implications for external (rotational) and internal (torsional) motion of molecules induced by intense laser fields are discussed.« less

  6. Growth of β-Ga2O3 and GaN nanowires on GaN for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jih-Shang; Liu, Tai-Yan; Chattopadhyay, Surjit; Hsu, Geng-Ming; Basilio, Antonio M; Chen, Han-Wei; Hsu, Yu-Kuei; Tu, Wen-Hsun; Lin, Yan-Gu; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Li, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2013-02-08

    Enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of Ga(2)O(3) and GaN nanowires (NWs) grown in situ from GaN were demonstrated. The PEC conversion efficiencies of Ga(2)O(3) and GaN NWs have been shown to be 0.906% and 1.09% respectively, in contrast to their 0.581% GaN thin film counterpart under similar experimental conditions. A low crystallinity buffer layer between the grown NWs and the substrate was found to be detrimental to the PEC performance, but the layer can be avoided at suitable growth conditions. A band bending at the surface of the GaN NWs generates an electric field that drives the photogenerated electrons and holes away from each other, preventing recombination, and was found to be responsible for the enhanced PEC performance. The enhanced PEC efficiency of the Ga(2)O(3) NWs is aided by the optical absorption through a defect band centered 3.3 eV above the valence band of Ga(2)O(3). These findings are believed to have opened up possibilities for enabling visible absorption, either by tailoring ion doping into wide bandgap Ga(2)O(3) NWs, or by incorporation of indium to form InGaN NWs.

  7. Interface science of virtual GaN substrates on Si(111) via Sc2O3/Y2O3 buffers: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnawska, L.; Dabrowski, J.; Grzela, T.; Lehmann, M.; Niermann, T.; Paszkiewicz, R.; Storck, P.; Schroeder, T.

    2013-06-01

    The final film quality of GaN on foreign substrates is known to crucially depend on the initial GaN interface and nucleation characteristics. To shed light on these characteristics of recently pioneered virtual, hexagonal GaN(0001) substrates on Si(111) via step graded Sc2O3(111)/Y2O3(111) buffers, a complex GaN(0001)/Sc2O3(111) interface structure model and the initial nucleation scenario is derived from a combined experimental (reflection high energy electron diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and theoretical ab initio study. It is shown that the GaN/Sc2O3 interface chemistry is determined by a N-Ga-O-Sc atomic arrangement leading to N-polar GaN films. However, the atomic GaN(0001)/Sc2O3(111) interface configuration is complex and local perturbations might be at the origin of Ga-polar inversion domains in the mainly N-polar GaN films. The initial growth of GaN on Sc2O3 is characterized by an ultrathin N-Ga-O-Sc wetting layer which carries tensile strain and relaxes with increasing thickness. Further GaN deposition results in the formation of 3D islands which fully relax before island coalescence occurs. The implications of the GaN/Sc2O3 interface configuration, the 3D nucleation growth mode, and the coalescence process of misaligned islands are discussed with respect to the defect characteristics (inversion domains, cubic inclusions, threading dislocations) of the final GaN layer.

  8. Stress related aspects of GaN technology physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, Ephraim

    2015-03-01

    Simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful analytical models have been developed for the assessment of the combined effect of the lattice and thermal mismatch on the induced stresses in an elongated bi-material assembly, as well as on the thermal mismatch on the thermal stresses in a tri-material assembly, in which the lattice mismatched stresses are eliminated in one way or another. This could be done, e.g., by using a polished or an etched substrate. The analysis is carried out in application to Gallium Nitride (GaN)-Silicon Carbide (SiC) and GaN-diamond (C) filmsubstrate assemblies. The calculated data are obtained, assuming that no annealing or other stress reduction means is applied. The data agree reasonably well with the reported (available) in-situ measurements. The most important conclusion from the computed data is that even if a reasonably good lattice match takes place (as, e.g., in the case of a GaN film fabricated on a SiC substrate, when the mismatch strain is only about 3%) and, in addition, the temperature change (from the fabrication/growth temperature to the operation temperature) is significant (as high as 1000 °C), the thermal stresses are still considerably lower than the lattice-mismatch stresses. Although there are structural and technological means for further reduction of the lattice-mismatch stresses (e.g., by high temperature annealing or by providing one or more buffering layers, or by using patterned or porous substrates), there is still a strong incentive to eliminate completely the lattice mismatch stresses. This seems to be indeed possible, if polished or otherwise flattened (e.g., chemically etched) substrates and sputter deposited GaN film is employed. In such a case only thermal stresses remain, but even these could be reduced, if necessary, by using compliant buffering layers, including layers of variable compliance, or by introducing variable compliance into the properly engineered substrate. In any event, it is expected

  9. Nanostructural engineering of nitride nucleation layers for GaN substrate dislocation reduction.

    SciTech Connect

    Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Lemp, Thomas Kerr

    2009-07-01

    With no lattice matched substrate available, sapphire continues as the substrate of choice for GaN growth, because of its reasonable cost and the extensive prior experience using it as a substrate for GaN. Surprisingly, the high dislocation density does not appear to limit UV and blue LED light intensity. However, dislocations may limit green LED light intensity and LED lifetime, especially as LEDs are pushed to higher current density for high end solid state lighting sources. To improve the performance for these higher current density LEDs, simple growth-enabled reductions in dislocation density would be highly prized. GaN nucleation layers (NLs)more » are not commonly thought of as an application of nano-structural engineering; yet, these layers evolve during the growth process to produce self-assembled, nanometer-scale structures. Continued growth on these nuclei ultimately leads to a fully coalesced film, and we show in this research program that their initial density is correlated to the GaN dislocation density. In this 18 month program, we developed MOCVD growth methods to reduce GaN dislocation densities on sapphire from 5 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} using our standard delay recovery growth technique to 1 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} using an ultra-low nucleation density technique. For this research, we firmly established a correlation between the GaN nucleation thickness, the resulting nucleation density after annealing, and dislocation density of full GaN films grown on these nucleation layers. We developed methods to reduce the nuclei density while still maintaining the ability to fully coalesce the GaN films. Ways were sought to improve the GaN nuclei orientation by improving the sapphire surface smoothness by annealing prior to the NL growth. Methods to eliminate the formation of additional nuclei once the majority of GaN nuclei were developed using a silicon nitride treatment prior to the deposition of the nucleation layer. Nucleation layer thickness was

  10. Growth optimization and characterization of GaN epilayers on multifaceted (111) surfaces etched on Si(100) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ansah-Antwi, KwaDwo Konadu, E-mail: kakadee@gmail.com; Chua, Soo Jin; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, E4-5-45, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576

    2015-11-15

    The four nearest Si(111) multifaceted sidewalls were exposed inside an array of 3 μm-wide square holes patterned on an Si(100) substrate, and this patterned Si(100) substrate was used as a substrate for the deposition of a gallium nitride (GaN) epilayer. Subsequently the effect that the growth pressure, the etched-hole profiles, and the etched-hole arrangement had upon the quality of the as-grown GaN was investigated. The coalescence of the as-grown GaN epilayer on the exposed Si(111) facets was observed to be enhanced with reduced growth pressure from 120 to 90 Torr. A larger Si(001) plane area at the bottom of the etched holesmore » resulted in bidirectional GaN domains, which resulted in poor material quality. The bidirectional GaN domains were observed as two sets of six peaks via a high-resolution x-ray diffraction phi scan of the GaN(10-11) reflection. It was also shown that a triangular array of etched holes was more desirable than square arrays of etched holes for the growth high-quality and continuous GaN films.« less

  11. Gradual tilting of crystallographic orientation and configuration of dislocations in GaN selectively grown by vapour phase epitaxy methods

    PubMed

    Kuwan; Tsukamoto; Taki; Horibuchi; Oki; Kawaguchi; Shibata; Sawaki; Hiramatsu

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation was performed for selectively grown gallium nitride (GaN) in order to examine the dependence of GaN microstructure on the growth conditions. The GaN films were grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) or metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on GaN covered with a patterned mask. Thin foil specimens for TEM observation were prepared with focused ion beam (FIB) machining apparatus. It was demonstrated that the c-axis of GaN grown over the terrace of the mask tilts towards the centre of the terrace when the GaN is grown in a carrier gas of N2. The wider terrace results in a larger tilting angle if other growth conditions are identical. The tilting is attributed to 'horizontal dislocations' (HDs) generated during the overgrowth of GaN on the mask terrace. The HDs in HVPE-GaN have a semi-loop shape and are tangled with one another, while those in MOVPE-GaN are straight and lined up to form low-angle grain boundaries.

  12. Catalyst and processing effects on metal-assisted chemical etching for the production of highly porous GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xuewen; Duan, Barrett K.; Grismer, Dane A.; Zhao, Liancheng; Bohn, Paul W.

    2013-06-01

    Metal-assisted chemical etching is a facile method to produce micro-/nanostructures in the near-surface region of gallium nitride (GaN) and other semiconductors. Detailed studies of the production of porous GaN (PGaN) using different metal catalysts and GaN doping conditions have been performed in order to understand the mechanism by which metal-assisted chemical etching is accomplished in GaN. Patterned catalysts show increasing metal-assisted chemical etching activity to n-GaN in the order Ag < Au < Ir < Pt. In addition, the catalytic behavior of continuous films is compared to discontinuous island films. Continuous metal films strongly shield the surface, hindering metal-assisted chemical etching, an effect which can be overcome by using discontinuous films or increasing the irradiance of the light source. With increasing etch time or irradiance, PGaN morphologies change from uniform porous structures to ridge and valley structures. The doping type plays an important role, with metal-assisted chemical etching activity increasing in the order p-GaN < intrinsic GaN < n-GaN. Both the catalyst identity and the doping type effects are explained by the work functions and the related band offsets that affect the metal-assisted chemical etching process through a combination of different barriers to hole injection and the formation of hole accumulation/depletion layers at the metal-semiconductor interface.

  13. Multicycle rapid thermal annealing optimization of Mg-implanted GaN: Evolution of surface, optical, and structural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, Jordan D., E-mail: jordan.greenlee.ctr@nrl.navy.mil; Feigelson, Boris N.; Anderson, Travis J.

    2014-08-14

    The first step of a multi-cycle rapid thermal annealing process was systematically studied. The surface, structure, and optical properties of Mg implanted GaN thin films annealed at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200 °C were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Nomarski microscopy. The GaN thin films are capped with two layers of in-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition -grown AlN and annealed in 24 bar of N{sub 2} overpressure to avoid GaN decomposition. The crystal quality of the GaN improves with increasing annealing temperature as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and the full widths at halfmore » maximums of the E{sub 2} and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman modes. The crystal quality of films annealed above 1100 °C exceeds the quality of the as-grown films. At 1200 °C, Mg is optically activated, which is determined by photoluminescence measurements. However, at 1200 °C, the GaN begins to decompose as evidenced by pit formation on the surface of the samples. Therefore, it was determined that the optimal temperature for the first step in a multi-cycle rapid thermal anneal process should be conducted at 1150 °C due to crystal quality and surface morphology considerations.« less

  14. Multicycle rapid thermal annealing optimization of Mg-implanted GaN: Evolution of surface, optical, and structural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenlee, Jordan D.; Feigelson, Boris N.; Anderson, Travis J.; Tadjer, Marko J.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Mastro, Michael A.; Eddy, Charles R.; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J.

    2014-08-01

    The first step of a multi-cycle rapid thermal annealing process was systematically studied. The surface, structure, and optical properties of Mg implanted GaN thin films annealed at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200 °C were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Nomarski microscopy. The GaN thin films are capped with two layers of in-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition -grown AlN and annealed in 24 bar of N2 overpressure to avoid GaN decomposition. The crystal quality of the GaN improves with increasing annealing temperature as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and the full widths at half maximums of the E2 and A1 (LO) Raman modes. The crystal quality of films annealed above 1100 °C exceeds the quality of the as-grown films. At 1200 °C, Mg is optically activated, which is determined by photoluminescence measurements. However, at 1200 °C, the GaN begins to decompose as evidenced by pit formation on the surface of the samples. Therefore, it was determined that the optimal temperature for the first step in a multi-cycle rapid thermal anneal process should be conducted at 1150 °C due to crystal quality and surface morphology considerations.

  15. Three-dimensional imaging of threading dislocations in GaN crystals using two-photon excitation photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Ohnishi, Kazuki; Kanoh, Masaya; Mukai, Takashi; Matsuoka, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    The three-dimensional imaging of threading dislocations in GaN films was demonstrated using two-photon excitation photoluminescence. The threading dislocations were shown as dark lines. The spatial resolutions near the surface were about 0.32 and 3.2 µm for the in-plane and depth directions, respectively. The threading dislocations with a density less than 108 cm-2 were resolved, although the aberration induced by the refractive index mismatch was observed. The decrease in threading dislocation density was clearly observed by increasing the GaN film thickness. This can be considered a novel method for characterizing threading dislocations in GaN films without any destructive preparations.

  16. Simulation of optimum parameters for GaN MSM UV photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Alhelfi, Mohanad A., E-mail: mhad12344@gmail.com; Ahmed, Naser M., E-mail: nas-tiji@yahoo.com; Hashim, M. R., E-mail: roslan@usm.my

    2016-07-06

    In this study the optimum parameters of GaN M-S-M photodetector are discussed. The evaluation of the photodetector depends on many parameters, the most of the important parameters the quality of the GaN film and others depend on the geometry of the interdigited electrode. In this simulation work using MATLAB software with consideration of the reflection and absorption on the metal contacts, a detailed study involving various electrode spacings (S) and widths (W) reveals conclusive results in device design. The optimum interelectrode design for interdigitated MSM-PD has been specified and evaluated by effect on quantum efficiency and responsivity.

  17. Vacancy-type defects in Al2O3/GaN structure probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uedono, Akira; Nabatame, Toshihide; Egger, Werner; Koschine, Tönjes; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Dickmann, Marcel; Sumiya, Masatomo; Ishibashi, Shoji

    2018-04-01

    Defects in the Al2O3(25 nm)/GaN structure were probed by using monoenergetic positron beams. Al2O3 films were deposited on GaN by atomic layer deposition at 300 °C. Temperature treatment above 800 °C leads to the introduction of vacancy-type defects in GaN due to outdiffusion of atoms from GaN into Al2O3. The width of the damaged region was determined to be 40-50 nm from the Al2O3/GaN interface, and some of the vacancies were identified to act as electron trapping centers. In the Al2O3 film before and after annealing treatment at 300-900 °C, open spaces with three different sizes were found to coexist. The density of medium-sized open spaces started to decrease above 800 °C, which was associated with the interaction between GaN and Al2O3. Effects of the electron trapping/detrapping processes of interface states on the flat band voltage and the defects in GaN were also discussed.

  18. Luminescence from defects in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Morkoç, H.

    2006-04-01

    We briefly review the luminescence properties of defects in GaN and focus on the most interesting defects. In particular, the blue luminescence band peaking at about 3 eV is assigned to different defects and even different types of transitions in undoped, Zn-, C-, and Mg-doped GaN. Another omnipresent luminescence band, the yellow luminescence band may have different origin in nearly dislocation-free freestanding GaN templates, undoped thin layers, and carbon-doped GaN. The Y4 and Y7 lines are caused by recombination at unidentified point defects captured by threading edge dislocations.

  19. Si Complies with GaN to Overcome Thermal Mismatches for the Heteroepitaxy of Thick GaN on Si.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsunori; Choi, Woojin; Chen, Renjie; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2017-10-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth of lattice mismatched materials has advanced through the epitaxy of thin coherently strained layers, the strain sharing in virtual and nanoscale substrates, and the growth of thick films with intermediate strain-relaxed buffer layers. However, the thermal mismatch is not completely resolved in highly mismatched systems such as in GaN-on-Si. Here, geometrical effects and surface faceting to dilate thermal stresses at the surface of selectively grown epitaxial GaN layers on Si are exploited. The growth of thick (19 µm), crack-free, and pure GaN layers on Si with the lowest threading dislocation density of 1.1 × 10 7 cm -2 achieved to date in GaN-on-Si is demonstrated. With these advances, the first vertical GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors on Si substrates with low leakage currents and high on/off ratios paving the way for a cost-effective high power device paradigm on an Si CMOS platform are demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based light-emitting diodes without pre-activation of p-type GaN.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Long; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) without pre-activation of p-type GaN. During the fabrication process, a 100-nm-thick indium tin oxide film was served as the p-type contact layer and annealed at 500°C in N2 ambient for 20 min to increase its transparency as well as to activate the p-type GaN. The electrical measurements showed that the LEDs were featured by a lower forward voltage and higher wall-plug efficiency in comparison with LEDs using pre-activation of p-type GaN. We discussed the mechanism of activation of p-type GaN at 500°C in N2 ambient. Furthermore, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy examinations were carried out to study the improved electrical performances of the LEDs without pre-activation of p-type GaN.

  1. Fabrications and application of single crystalline GaN for high-performance deep UV photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Velazquez, R.; Rivera, M.; Feng, P., E-mail: p.feng@upr.edu

    2016-08-15

    High-quality single crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor has been synthesized using molecule beam epitaxy (MBE) technique for development of high-performance deep ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Thickness of the films was estimated by using surface profile meter and scanning electron microscope. Electronic states and elemental composition of the films were obtained using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The orientation, crystal structure and phase purity of the films were examined using a Siemens x-ray diffractometer radiation. The surface microstructure was studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of metal pairs: Al-Al, Al-Cu or Cu-Cu were used for interdigital electrodes on GaN filmmore » in order to examine the Schottky properties of the GaN based photodetector. The characterizations of the fabricated prototype include the stability, responsivity, response and recovery times. Typical time dependent photoresponsivity by switching different UV light source on and off five times for each 240 seconds at a bias of 2V, respectively, have been obtained. The detector appears to be highly sensitive to various UV wavelengths of light with very stable baseline and repeatability. The obtained photoresponsivity was up to 354 mA/W at the bias 2V. Higher photoresponsivity could be obtained if higher bias was applied but it would unavoidably result in a higher dark current. Thermal effect on the fabricated GaN based prototype was discussed.« less

  2. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    McSkimming, Brian M., E-mail: mcskimming@engineering.ucsb.edu; Speck, James S.; Chaix, Catherine

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions,more » the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.« less

  3. Undoped p-type GaN1-xSbx alloys: Effects of annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segercrantz, N.; Baumgartner, Y.; Ting, M.; Yu, K. M.; Mao, S. S.; Sarney, W. L.; Svensson, S. P.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2016-12-01

    We report p-type behavior for undoped GaN1-xSbx alloys with x ≥ 0.06 grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures (≤400 °C). Rapid thermal annealing of the GaN1-xSbx films at temperatures >400 °C is shown to generate hole concentrations greater than 1019 cm-3, an order of magnitude higher than typical p-type GaN achieved by Mg doping. The p-type conductivity is attributed to a large upward shift of the valence band edge resulting from the band anticrossing interaction between localized Sb levels and extended states of the host matrix.

  4. Optical and structural characterisation of epitaxial nanoporous GaN grown by CVD.

    PubMed

    Mena, Josué; Carvajal, Joan J; Martínez, Oscar; Jiménez, Juan; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z; Parbrook, Peter J; Diaz, Francesc; Aguiló, Magdalena

    2017-09-15

    In this paper we study the optical properties of nanoporous gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers grown by chemical vapour deposition on non-porous GaN substrates, using photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and resonant Raman scattering, and correlate them with the structural characteristic of these films. We pay special attention to the analysis of the residual strain of the layers and the influence of the porosity in the light extraction. The nanoporous GaN epitaxial layers are under tensile strain, although the strain is progressively reduced as the deposition time and the thickness of the porous layer increases, becoming nearly strain free for a thickness of 1.7 μm. The analysis of the experimental data point to the existence of vacancy complexes as the main source of the tensile strain.

  5. Electrical contact of wurtzite GaN mircrodisks on p-type GaN template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Da; Lo, Ikai; Wang, Ying-Chieh; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Shih, Cheng-Hung; Pang, Wen-Yuan; You, Shuo-Ting; Hu, Chia-Hsuan; Chou, Mitch M. C.; Yang, Chen-Chi; Lin, Yu-Chiao

    2015-03-01

    We developed a back processing to fabricate a secure electrical contact of wurtzite GaN microdisk on a transparent p-type GaN template with the orientation, [10-10]disk // [10-10]template. GaN microdisks were grown on LiAlO2 substrate by using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. In the further study, we analyzed the TEM specimen of a sample with annealed GaN microdisk/p-typed GaN template by selection area diffraction (SAD) to confirm the alignment of the microdisks with the template at the interface. From the I-V measurements performed on the samples, we obtained a threshold voltage of ~ 5.9 V for the current passing through the GaN microdisks with a resistance of ~ 45 K Ω. The electrical contact can be applied to the nanometer-scaled GaN light-emitting diode.

  6. Vertical architecture for enhancement mode power transistors based on GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Rümmler, D.; Hartmann, J.; Caccamo, L.; Schimpke, T.; Strassburg, M.; Gad, A. E.; Bakin, A.; Wehmann, H.-H.; Witzigmann, B.; Wasisto, H. S.; Waag, A.

    2016-05-01

    The demonstration of vertical GaN wrap-around gated field-effect transistors using GaN nanowires is reported. The nanowires with smooth a-plane sidewalls have hexagonal geometry made by top-down etching. A 7-nanowire transistor exhibits enhancement mode operation with threshold voltage of 1.2 V, on/off current ratio as high as 108, and subthreshold slope as small as 68 mV/dec. Although there is space charge limited current behavior at small source-drain voltages (Vds), the drain current (Id) and transconductance (gm) reach up to 314 mA/mm and 125 mS/mm, respectively, when normalized with hexagonal nanowire circumference. The measured breakdown voltage is around 140 V. This vertical approach provides a way to next-generation GaN-based power devices.

  7. Enhanced piezoelectric output of NiO/nanoporous GaN by suppression of internal carrier screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseem, Aadil; Jeong, Dae Kyung; Johar, Muhammad Ali; Kang, Jin-Ho; Ha, Jun-Seok; Key Lee, June; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2018-06-01

    The efficiency of piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) significantly depends on the free carrier concentration of semiconductors. In the presence of a mechanical stress, piezoelectric charges are generated at both ends of the PNG, which are rapidly screened by the free carriers. The screening effect rapidly decreases the piezoelectric output within fractions of a second. In this study, the piezoelectric outputs of bulk- and nanoporous GaN-based heterojunction PNGs are compared. GaN thin films were epitaxially grown on sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Nanoporous GaN was fabricated using electrochemical etching, depleted of free carriers owing to the surface Fermi-level pinning. A highly resistive NiO thin film was deposited on bulk- and nanoporous GaN using radio frequency magnetron sputter. The NiO/nanoporous GaN PNG (NPNG) under a periodic compressive stress of 4 MPa exhibited an output voltage and current of 0.32 V and 1.48 μA cm‑2, respectively. The output voltage and current of the NiO/thin film-GaN PNG (TPNG) were three and five times smaller than those of the NPNG, respectively. Therefore, the high-resistivity of NiO and nanoporous GaN depleted by the Fermi-level pinning are advantageous and provide a better piezoelectric performance of the NPNG, compared with that of the TPNG.

  8. Electrochemical fabrication and optoelectronic properties of hybrid heterostructure of CuPc/porous GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Fei; Qin, Shuang-Jiao; Hu, Li-Feng; Wang, Juan-Ye; Yang, Jia-Mei; Chen, Xue-Qing; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2016-05-01

    A new hybrid heterostructure of p-type copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and n-type porous GaN (PGaN) has been fabricated by electrophoretic deposition. The influence of CuPc concentration, electric field intensity, and deposition time on the growth of CuPc film has been explored. The as-prepared CuPc films are made of numerous nanorods. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed that the CuPc films are the β phase and amorphous type on pristine and porous GaN, respectively. Moreover, the prototype devices were fabricated on the basis of the CuPc/PGaN heterostructures. The devices exhibited excellent photodetector performance under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination.

  9. Morphological Control of GaN and Its Effect within Electrochemical Heterojunctions

    DOE PAGES

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Clemens, Bruce

    2016-08-17

    With morphological control through a solid source chemical vapor deposition process, GaN polycrystalline films, single-crystal nanowires, and mixed film/wires are grown on silicon to form a heterojunction that is a basis for III-V nitride device development. By contacting the GaN/Si structure to the CoCp 2 0/ + redox pair and performing impedance spectroscopy measurements, the band diagram of this junction is built for these three configurations. This serves as a basis for understanding the electrical nature of III-V nitride/Si interfaces that exist in several photonic device technologies, especially in context of using GaN nanomaterials grown on silicon for various applications.more » When these junctions are exposed to low-power UV illumination in contact with the Fc/Fc + redox pair, photocurrents of 18, 110, and 482 nA/cm 2 are generated for the nanowires, mixed film/wires, and films respectively. These currents, along with the electrostatics investigated through the impedance spectroscopy, show the trends of photoconversion with GaN morphology in this junction. Furthermore, they suggest that the mixed film/wires are a promising design for solar-based applications such as photovoltaics and water splitting electrodes.« less

  10. Morphological Control of GaN and Its Effect within Electrochemical Heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Clemens, Bruce

    With morphological control through a solid source chemical vapor deposition process, GaN polycrystalline films, single-crystal nanowires, and mixed film/wires are grown on silicon to form a heterojunction that is a basis for III-V nitride device development. By contacting the GaN/Si structure to the CoCp 2 0/ + redox pair and performing impedance spectroscopy measurements, the band diagram of this junction is built for these three configurations. This serves as a basis for understanding the electrical nature of III-V nitride/Si interfaces that exist in several photonic device technologies, especially in context of using GaN nanomaterials grown on silicon for various applications.more » When these junctions are exposed to low-power UV illumination in contact with the Fc/Fc + redox pair, photocurrents of 18, 110, and 482 nA/cm 2 are generated for the nanowires, mixed film/wires, and films respectively. These currents, along with the electrostatics investigated through the impedance spectroscopy, show the trends of photoconversion with GaN morphology in this junction. Furthermore, they suggest that the mixed film/wires are a promising design for solar-based applications such as photovoltaics and water splitting electrodes.« less

  11. The Effect of Growth Environment on the Morphological and Extended Defect Evolution in GaN Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fini, P.; Wu, X.; Tarsa, E.; Golan, Y.; Srikant, V.; Keller, S.; Denbaars, S.; Speck, J.

    1998-08-01

    The evolution of morphology and associated extended defects in GaN thin films grown on sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are shown to depend strongly on the growth environment. For the commonly used two-step growth process, a change in growth parameter such as reactor pressure influences the initial high temperature (HT) GaN growth mechanism. By means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements, it is shown that the initial density of HT islands on the nucleation layer (NL) and subsequently the threading dislocation density in the HT GaN film may be directly controlled by tailoring the initial HT GaN growth conditions.

  12. Synthesis of galium nitride thin films using sol-gel dip coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Maizatul Akmam Ab; Ng, Sha Shiong

    2017-12-01

    In this research, gallium nitride (GaN) thin film were grown on silicon (Si) substrate by a low-cost sol-gel dip coating deposition method. The GaN precursor solution was prepared using gallium (III) nitrate hydrate powder, ethanol and diethanolamine as a starting material, solvent and surfactant respectively. The structural, morphological and optical characteristics of the deposited GaN thin film were investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy observations showed that crack free and dense grains GaN thin films were formed. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed that the oxygen content in the deposited films was low. X-ray diffraction results revealed that deposited GaN thin films have hexagonal wurtzite structure.

  13. Bandgap engineering of GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Bang-Ming; Yan, Hui; Wang, Ru-Zhi, E-mail: wrz@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: yamcy@csrc.ac.cn

    2016-05-15

    Bandgap engineering has been a powerful technique for manipulating the electronic and optical properties of semiconductors. In this work, a systematic investigation of the electronic properties of [0001] GaN nanowires was carried out using the density functional based tight-binding method (DFTB). We studied the effects of geometric structure and uniaxial strain on the electronic properties of GaN nanowires with diameters ranging from 0.8 to 10 nm. Our results show that the band gap of GaN nanowires depends linearly on both the surface to volume ratio (S/V) and tensile strain. The band gap of GaN nanowires increases linearly with S/V, whilemore » it decreases linearly with increasing tensile strain. These linear relationships provide an effect way in designing GaN nanowires for their applications in novel nano-devices.« less

  14. High hole mobility p-type GaN with low residual hydrogen concentration prepared by pulsed sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Yasuaki; Ueno, Kohei; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    We have grown Mg-doped GaN films with low residual hydrogen concentration using a low-temperature pulsed sputtering deposition (PSD) process. The growth system is inherently hydrogen-free, allowing us to obtain high-purity Mg-doped GaN films with residual hydrogen concentrations below 5 × 1016 cm-3, which is the detection limit of secondary ion mass spectroscopy. In the Mg profile, no memory effect or serious dopant diffusion was detected. The as-deposited Mg-doped GaN films showed clear p-type conductivity at room temperature (RT) without thermal activation. The GaN film doped with a low concentration of Mg (7.9 × 1017 cm-3) deposited by PSD showed hole mobilities of 34 and 62 cm2 V-1 s-1 at RT and 175 K, respectively, which are as high as those of films grown by a state-of-the-art metal-organic chemical vapor deposition apparatus. These results indicate that PSD is a powerful tool for the fabrication of GaN-based vertical power devices.

  15. Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, N. A.; Davydov, A. V.; Tsvetkov, D. V.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Keller, S.; Mishra, U. K.; DenBaars, S. P.; Park, S. S.; Han, J. Y.; Molnar, R. J.

    2005-03-01

    Rotational Maker fringes, scaled with respect to χ11(2) of crystalline quartz, were used to determine the second order susceptibilities χ31(2) and χ33(2) for samples of thin AlxGa1-xN films, a thicker GaN film, and a free-standing GaN platelets. The pump wavelength was 1064nm. The AlxGa1-xN samples, ranging in thickness from roughly 0.5to4.4μm, were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) on (0001) sapphire substrates. The Al mole fractions x were 0, 0.419, 0.507, 0.618, 0.660, and 0.666, for the MOCVD-grown samples, and x =0, 0.279, 0.363, and 0.593 for the HVPE-grown samples. An additional HVPE-grown GaN sample ˜70μm thick was also examined. The free-standing bulk GaN platelets consisted of an HVPE grown film ˜226μm thick removed from its growth substrate, and a crystal ˜160μm thick grown by high-pressure techniques. For the AlxGa1-xN samples, the magnitudes of χ31(2) and χ33(2) decrease roughly linearly with increasing x and extrapolate to ˜0 for x =1. Furthermore, the constraint expected for a perfect wurtzite structure, namely χ33(2)=-2χ31(2), was seldom observed, and the samples with x =0.660 and x =0.666 showed χ31(2) and χ33(2) having the same sign. These results are consistent with the theoretical studies of nonlinear susceptibilities for AlN and GaN performed by Chen et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1129 (1995)]. The thicker bulk GaN samples displayed a complex superposition of high- and low-frequency Maker fringes due to the multiple-pass interference of the pump and second-harmonic generation beams, and the nonlinear coefficients were approximately consistent with those measured for the thin-film GaN sample.

  16. Incorporation of Mg in Free-Standing HVPE GaN Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvanut, M. E.; Dashdorj, J.; Freitas, J. A.; Glaser, E. R.; Willoughby, W. R.; Leach, J. H.; Udwary, K.

    2016-06-01

    Mg, the only effective p-type dopant for nitrides, is well studied in thin films due to the important role of the impurity in light-emitting diodes and high-power electronics. However, there are few reports of Mg in thick free-standing GaN substrates. Here, we demonstrate successful incorporation of Mg into GaN grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) using metallic Mg as the doping source. The concentration of Mg obtained from four separate growth runs ranged between 1016 cm-3 and 1019 cm-3. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction revealed that Mg did not induce stress or perturb the crystalline quality of the HVPE GaN substrates. Photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies were performed to investigate the types of point defects in the crystals. The near-band-edge excitonic and shallow donor-shallow acceptor radiative recombination processes involving shallow Mg acceptors were prominent in the PL spectrum of a sample doped to 3 × 1018 cm-3, while the EPR signal was also thought to represent a shallow Mg acceptor. Detection of this signal reflects minimization of nonuniform strain obtained in the thick free-standing HVPE GaN compared with heteroepitaxial thin films.

  17. Hafnium nitride buffer layers for growth of GaN on silicon

    DOEpatents

    Armitage, Robert D.; Weber, Eicke R.

    2005-08-16

    Gallium nitride is grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (111) and (001) silicon substrates using hafnium nitride buffer layers. Wurtzite GaN epitaxial layers are obtained on both the (111) and (001) HfN/Si surfaces, with crack-free thickness up to 1.2 {character pullout}m. However, growth on the (001) surface results in nearly stress-free films, suggesting that much thicker crack-free layers could be obtained.

  18. High-Temperature Growth of GaN and Al x Ga1- x N via Ammonia-Based Metalorganic Molecular-Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billingsley, Daniel; Henderson, Walter; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2010-05-01

    The effect of high-temperature growth on the crystalline quality and surface morphology of GaN and Al x Ga1- x N grown by ammonia-based metalorganic molecular-beam epitaxy (NH3-MOMBE) has been investigated as a means of producing atomically smooth films suitable for device structures. The effects of V/III ratio on the growth rate and surface morphology are described herein. The crystalline quality of both GaN and AlGaN was found to mimic that of the GaN templates, with (002) x-ray diffraction (XRD) full-widths at half- maximum (FWHMs) of ~350 arcsec. Nitrogen-rich growth conditions have been found to provide optimal surface morphologies with a root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of ~0.8 nm, yet excessive N-rich environments have been found to reduce the growth rate and result in the formation of faceted surface pitting. AlGaN exhibits a decreased growth rate, as compared with GaN, due to increased N recombination as a result of the increased pyrolysis of NH3 in the presence of Al. AlGaN films grown directly on GaN templates exhibited Pendellösung x-ray fringes, indicating an abrupt interface and a planar AlGaN film. AlGaN films grown for this study resulted in an optimal RMS roughness of ~0.85 nm with visible atomic steps.

  19. GaN nanowire arrays with nonpolar sidewalls for vertically integrated field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Feng; Yao, Shengbo; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd; Schimpke, Tilman; Strassburg, Martin; Bakin, Andrey; Schumacher, Hans Werner; Peiner, Erwin; Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo; Waag, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Vertically aligned gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire (NW) arrays have attracted a lot of attention because of their potential for novel devices in the fields of optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. In this work, GaN NW arrays have been designed and fabricated by combining suitable nanomachining processes including dry and wet etching. After inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching, the GaN NWs are subsequently treated in wet chemical etching using AZ400K developer (i.e., with an activation energy of 0.69 ± 0.02 eV and a Cr mask) to form hexagonal and smooth a-plane sidewalls. Etching experiments using potassium hydroxide (KOH) water solution reveal that the sidewall orientation preference depends on etchant concentration. A model concerning surface bonding configuration on crystallography facets has been proposed to understand the anisotropic wet etching mechanism. Finally, NW array-based vertical field-effect transistors with wrap-gated structure have been fabricated. A device composed of 99 NWs exhibits enhancement mode operation with a threshold voltage of 1.5 V, a superior electrostatic control, and a high current output of >10 mA, which prevail potential applications in next-generation power switches and high-temperature digital circuits.

  20. GaN nanowire arrays with nonpolar sidewalls for vertically integrated field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng; Yao, Shengbo; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd; Schimpke, Tilman; Strassburg, Martin; Bakin, Andrey; Schumacher, Hans Werner; Peiner, Erwin; Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Waag, Andreas

    2017-03-03

    Vertically aligned gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire (NW) arrays have attracted a lot of attention because of their potential for novel devices in the fields of optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. In this work, GaN NW arrays have been designed and fabricated by combining suitable nanomachining processes including dry and wet etching. After inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching, the GaN NWs are subsequently treated in wet chemical etching using AZ400K developer (i.e., with an activation energy of 0.69 ± 0.02 eV and a Cr mask) to form hexagonal and smooth a-plane sidewalls. Etching experiments using potassium hydroxide (KOH) water solution reveal that the sidewall orientation preference depends on etchant concentration. A model concerning surface bonding configuration on crystallography facets has been proposed to understand the anisotropic wet etching mechanism. Finally, NW array-based vertical field-effect transistors with wrap-gated structure have been fabricated. A device composed of 99 NWs exhibits enhancement mode operation with a threshold voltage of 1.5 V, a superior electrostatic control, and a high current output of >10 mA, which prevail potential applications in next-generation power switches and high-temperature digital circuits.

  1. Luminescence studies of laser MBE grown GaN on ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewan, Sheetal; Tomar, Monika; Kapoor, Ashok K.; Tandon, R. P.; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-08-01

    GaN films have been successfully fabricated using Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy (LMBE) technique on bare c-plane sapphire substrate and ZnO nanostructures (NS) decorated Si (100) substrates. The ZnO nanostructures were grown on Si (100) substrate using high pressure assisted Pulsed laser deposition technique in inert gas ambience. Discrete nanostructured morphology of ZnO was obtained using the PLD growth on Si substrates. Photoluminescence studies performed on the prepared GaN/Sapphire and GaN/ZnO-NS/Si systems, revealed a significant PL enhancement in case of GaN/ZnO-NS/Si system compared to the former. The hexagonal nucleation sites provided by the ZnO nanostructures strategically enhanced the emission of GaN film grown by Laser MBE Technique at relatively lower temperature of 700°C. The obtained results are attractive for the realization of highly luminescent GaN films on Si substrate for photonic devices.

  2. The Formation and Characterization of GaN Hexagonal Pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shi-Ying; Xiu, Xiang-Qian; Lin, Zeng-Qin; Hua, Xue-Mei; Xie, Zi-Li; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Dou

    2013-05-01

    GaN with hexagonal pyramids is fabricated using the photo-assisted electroless chemical etching method. Defective areas of the GaN substrate are selectively etched in a mixed solution of KOH and K2S2O8 under ultraviolet illumination, producing submicron-sized pyramids. Hexagonal pyramids on the etched GaN with well-defined {101¯1¯} facets and very sharp tips are formed. High-resolution x-ray diffraction shows that etched GaN with pyramids has a higher crystal quality, and micro-Raman spectra reveal a tensile stress relaxation in GaN with pyramids compared with normal GaN. The cathodoluminescence intensity of GaN after etching is significantly increased by three times, which is attributed to the reduction in the internal reflection, high-quality GaN with pyramids and the Bragg effect.

  3. P-type surface effects for thickness variation of 2um and 4um of n-type layer in GaN LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, N. S. A. Abdul; Wahid, M. H. A.; Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Rashid, S.; Ramli, M. M.; Shahimin, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    The internal quantum efficiency of III-Nitrides group, GaN light-emitting diode (LED) has been considerably limited due to the insufficient hole injection and this is caused by the lack of performance p-type doping and low hole mobility. The low hole mobility makes the hole less energetic, thus reduced the performance operation of GaN LED itself. The internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based LED with surface roughness (texture) can be changed by texture size, density, and thickness of GaN film or by the combined effects of surface shape and thickness of GaN film. Besides, due to lack of p-type GaN, attempts to look forward the potential of GaN LED relied on the thickness of n-type layer and surface shape of p-type GaN layer. This work investigates the characteristics of GaN LED with undoped n-GaN layer of different thickness and the surface shape of p-type layer. The LEDs performance is significantly altered by modifying the thickness and shape. Enhancement of n-GaN layer has led to the annihilation of electrical conductivity of the chip. Different surface geometry governs the emission rate extensively. Internal quantum efficiency is also predominantly affected by the geometry of n-GaN layer which subjected to the current spreading. It is recorded that the IQE droop can be minimized by varying the thickness of the active layer without amplifying the forward voltage. Optimum forward voltage (I-V), total emission rate relationship with the injected current and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) for 2,4 µm on four different surfaces of p-type layer are also reported in this paper.

  4. The origins and properties of intrinsic nonradiative recombination centers in wide bandgap GaN and AlGaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichibu, S. F.; Uedono, A.; Kojima, K.; Ikeda, H.; Fujito, K.; Takashima, S.; Edo, M.; Ueno, K.; Ishibashi, S.

    2018-04-01

    The nonradiative lifetime (τNR) of the near-band-edge emission in various quality GaN samples is compared with the results of positron annihilation measurement, in order to identify the origin and to determine the capture-cross-section of the major intrinsic nonradiative recombination centers (NRCs). The room-temperature τNR of various n-type GaN samples increased with decreasing the concentration of divacancies composed of a Ga vacancy (VGa) and a N vacancy (VN), namely, VGaVN. The τNR value also increased with increasing the diffusion length of positrons, which is almost proportional to the inverse third root of the gross concentration of all point defects. The results indicate that major intrinsic NRC in n-type GaN is VGaVN. From the relationship between its concentration and τNR, its hole capture-cross-section is estimated to be about 7 × 10-14 cm2. Different from the case of 4H-SiC, the major NRCs in p-type and n-type GaN are different: the major NRCs in Mg-doped p-type GaN epilayers are assigned to multiple vacancies containing a VGa and two (or three) VNs, namely, VGa(VN)n (n = 2 or 3). The ion-implanted Mg-doped GaN films are found to contain larger size vacancy complexes such as (VGa)3(VN)3. In analogy with GaN, major NRCs in Al0.6Ga0.4N alloys are assigned to vacancy complexes containing an Al vacancy or a VGa.

  5. Structures and optical properties of \\text{H}_{2}^{+} -implanted GaN epi-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B. S.; Wang, Z. G.

    2015-06-01

    The implantation damage build-up and optical properties of GaN epitaxial films under \\text{H}2+ ion implantation have been investigated by a combination of Rutherford backscattering in channeling geometry, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. GaN epitaxial films were implanted with 134 keV \\text{H}2+ ions to doses ranging from 3.75   ×   1016 to 1.75   ×   1017 \\text{H}2+  cm-2 at room temperature or the same dose of 1.5   ×   1017 \\text{H}2+  cm-2 at room temperature, 573 and 723 K. The dependence of lattice disorder induced by \\text{H}2+ -implantation on the ion dose can be divided into a three-step damage process. A strong influence of the H concentration on the defect accumulation is discussed. The decrease in relative Ga disorder induced by \\text{H}2+ -implantation is linear with increasing implantation temperature. The absorption coefficient of GaN epitaxial films increases with increasing ion dose, leading to the decrease in Raman scattering spectra of Ga-N vibration. With increasing implantation doses up to 5   ×   1016 \\text{H}2+  cm-2, nanoscale hydrogen bubbles are observed in the H deposition peak region. Interstitial-type dislocation loops are observed in the damaged layer located near the damage peak region, and the geometry of the dislocation loops produced by H implantation is analyzed. The surface layer is almost free of lattice disorder induced by \\text{H}2+ -implantation.

  6. Surfactant effect of gallium during molecular-beam epitaxy of GaN on AlN (0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mula, Guido; Adelmann, C.; Moehl, S.; Oullier, J.; Daudin, B.

    2001-11-01

    We study the adsorption of Ga on (0001) GaN surfaces by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. It is shown that a dynamically stable Ga bilayer can be formed on the GaN surface for appropriate Ga fluxes and substrate temperatures. The influence of the presence of this Ga film on the growth mode of GaN on AlN(0001) by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy is studied. It is demonstrated that under nearly stoichiometric and N-rich conditions, the GaN layer relaxes elastically during the first stages of epitaxy. At high temperatures the growth follows a Stranski-Krastanov mode, whereas at lower temperatures kinetically formed flat platelets are observed. Under Ga-rich conditions-where a Ga bilayer is rapidly formed due to excess Ga accumulating on the surface-the growth follows a Frank-van der Merwe layer-by-layer mode at any growth temperature and no initial elastic relaxation occurs. Hence, it is concluded that excess Ga acts as a surfactant, effectively suppressing both Stranski-Krastanov islanding and platelet formation. It is further demonstrated that the Stranski-Krastanov transition is in competition with elastic relaxation by platelets, and it is only observed when relaxation by platelets is inefficient. As a result, a growth mode phase diagram is outlined for the growth of GaN on AlN(0001).

  7. High thermal stability of abrupt SiO2/GaN interface with low interface state density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truyen, Nguyen Xuan; Taoka, Noriyuki; Ohta, Akio; Makihara, Katsunori; Yamada, Hisashi; Takahashi, Tokio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2018-04-01

    The effects of postdeposition annealing (PDA) on the interface properties of a SiO2/GaN structure formed by remote oxygen plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RP-CVD) were systematically investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy clarified that PDA in the temperature range from 600 to 800 °C has almost no effects on the chemical bonding features at the SiO2/GaN interface, and that positive charges exist at the interface, the density of which can be reduced by PDA at 800 °C. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current density-SiO2 electric field characteristics of the GaN MOS capacitors also confirmed the reduction in interface state density (D it) and the improvement in the breakdown property of the SiO2 film after PDA at 800 °C. Consequently, a high thermal stability of the SiO2/GaN structure with a low fixed charge density and a low D it formed by RP-CVD was demonstrated. This is quite informative for realizing highly robust GaN power devices.

  8. Influence of vacancy defect on surface feature and adsorption of Cs on GaN(0001) surface.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yanjun; Du, Yujie; Wang, Meishan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Ga and N vacancy defect on the change in surface feature, work function, and characteristic of Cs adsorption on a (2 × 2) GaN(0001) surface have been investigated using density functional theory with a plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential method based on first-principles calculations. The covalent bonds gain strength for Ga vacancy defect, whereas they grow weak for N vacancy defect. The lower work function is achieved for Ga and N vacancy defect surfaces than intact surface. The most stable position of Cs adatom on Ga vacancy defect surface is at T1 site, whereas it is at B(Ga) site on N vacancy defect surface. The E(ads) of Cs on GaN(0001) vacancy defect surface increases compared with that of intact surface; this illustrates that the adsorption of Cs on intact surface is more stable.

  9. Influence of Vacancy Defect on Surface Feature and Adsorption of Cs on GaN(0001) Surface

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yanjun; Du, Yujie; Wang, Meishan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Ga and N vacancy defect on the change in surface feature, work function, and characteristic of Cs adsorption on a (2 × 2) GaN(0001) surface have been investigated using density functional theory with a plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential method based on first-principles calculations. The covalent bonds gain strength for Ga vacancy defect, whereas they grow weak for N vacancy defect. The lower work function is achieved for Ga and N vacancy defect surfaces than intact surface. The most stable position of Cs adatom on Ga vacancy defect surface is at T1 site, whereas it is at BGa site on N vacancy defect surface. The E ads of Cs on GaN(0001) vacancy defect surface increases compared with that of intact surface; this illustrates that the adsorption of Cs on intact surface is more stable. PMID:25126599

  10. Modelling the Landing of a Plane in a Calculus Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  11. Microwave annealing of Mg-implanted and in situ Be-doped GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aluri, Geetha S.; Gowda, Madhu; Mahadik, Nadeemullah A.; Sundaresan, Siddarth G.; Rao, Mulpuri V.; Schreifels, John A.; Freitas, J. A.; Qadri, S. B.; Tian, Y.-L.

    2010-10-01

    An ultrafast microwave annealing method, different from conventional thermal annealing, is used to activate Mg-implants in GaN layer. The x-ray diffraction measurements indicated complete disappearance of the defect sublattice peak, introduced by the implantation process for single-energy Mg-implantation, when the annealing was performed at ≥1400 °C for 15 s. An increase in the intensity of Mg-acceptor related luminescence peak (at 3.26 eV) in the photoluminescence spectra confirms the Mg-acceptor activation in single-energy Mg-implanted GaN. In case of multiple-energy implantation, the implant generated defects persisted even after 1500 °C/15 s annealing, resulting in no net Mg-acceptor activation of the Mg-implant. The Mg-implant is relatively thermally stable and the sample surface roughness is 6 nm after 1500 °C/15 s annealing, using a 600 nm thick AlN cap. In situ Be-doped GaN films, after 1300 °C/5 s annealing have shown Be out-diffusion into the AlN layer and also in-diffusion toward the GaN/SiC interface. The in-diffusion and out-diffusion of the Be increased with increasing annealing temperature. In fact, after 1500 °C/5 s annealing, only a small fraction of in situ doped Be remained in the GaN layer, revealing the inadequateness of using Be-implantation for forming p-type doped layers in the GaN.

  12. Polarity in GaN and ZnO: Theory, measurement, growth, and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zúñiga-Pérez, Jesús; Consonni, Vincent; Lymperakis, Liverios; Kong, Xiang; Trampert, Achim; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Brandt, Oliver; Renevier, Hubert; Keller, Stacia; Hestroffer, Karine; Wagner, Markus R.; Reparaz, Juan Sebastián; Akyol, Fatih; Rajan, Siddharth; Rennesson, Stéphanie; Palacios, Tomás; Feuillet, Guy

    2016-12-01

    The polar nature of the wurtzite crystalline structure of GaN and ZnO results in the existence of a spontaneous electric polarization within these materials and their associated alloys (Ga,Al,In)N and (Zn,Mg,Cd)O. The polarity has also important consequences on the stability of the different crystallographic surfaces, and this becomes especially important when considering epitaxial growth. Furthermore, the internal polarization fields may adversely affect the properties of optoelectronic devices but is also used as a potential advantage for advanced electronic devices. In this article, polarity-related issues in GaN and ZnO are reviewed, going from theoretical considerations to electronic and optoelectronic devices, through thin film, and nanostructure growth. The necessary theoretical background is first introduced and the stability of the cation and anion polarity surfaces is discussed. For assessing the polarity, one has to make use of specific characterization methods, which are described in detail. Subsequently, the nucleation and growth mechanisms of thin films and nanostructures, including nanowires, are presented, reviewing the specific growth conditions that allow controlling the polarity of such objects. Eventually, the demonstrated and/or expected effects of polarity on the properties and performances of optoelectronic and electronic devices are reported. The present review is intended to yield an in-depth view of some of the hot topics related to polarity in GaN and ZnO, a fast growing subject over the last decade.

  13. Reproducible increased Mg incorporation and large hole concentration in GaN using metal modulated epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Shawn D.; Namkoong, Gon; Look, David C.; Clafin, Bruce; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2008-07-01

    The metal modulated epitaxy (MME) growth technique is reported as a reliable approach to obtain reproducible large hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire substrates. An extremely Ga-rich flux was used, and modulated with the Mg source according to the MME growth technique. The shutter modulation approach of the MME technique allows optimal Mg surface coverage to build between MME cycles and Mg to incorporate at efficient levels in GaN films. The maximum sustained concentration of Mg obtained in GaN films using the MME technique was above 7×1020cm-3, leading to a hole concentration as high as 4.5×1018cm-3 at room temperature, with a mobility of 1.1cm2V-1s-1 and a resistivity of 1.3Ωcm. At 580K, the corresponding values were 2.6×1019cm-3, 1.2cm2V-1s-1, and 0.21Ωcm, respectively. Even under strong white light, the sample remained p-type with little change in the electrical parameters.

  14. High-electron-mobility GaN grown on free-standing GaN templates by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, Erin C. H., E-mail: erinkyle@umail.ucsb.edu; Kaun, Stephen W.; Burke, Peter G.

    2014-05-21

    The dependence of electron mobility on growth conditions and threading dislocation density (TDD) was studied for n{sup −}-GaN layers grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. Electron mobility was found to strongly depend on TDD, growth temperature, and Si-doping concentration. Temperature-dependent Hall data were fit to established transport and charge-balance equations. Dislocation scattering was analyzed over a wide range of TDDs (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} to ∼2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}) on GaN films grown under similar conditions. A correlation between TDD and fitted acceptor states was observed, corresponding to an acceptor state for almost every c lattice translation along each threading dislocation. Optimizedmore » GaN growth on free-standing GaN templates with a low TDD (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}) resulted in electron mobilities of 1265 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 296 K and 3327 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 113 K.« less

  15. Fast and slow UV-photoresponse in n-type GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, R.; Koynov, S.; Brogueira, P.

    1999-07-01

    The photocurrent decay in n-type GaN films prepared by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) was measured in the ms-to-s time range using steady-state UV light and in the {micro}s time regime using short high-power pulses from higher harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. A power law time dependence is observed with exponents ranging from {minus}0.1 to {minus}0.3, which is an indication of a broad distribution of trapping states inside the band gap. Combining Hall effect results and the magnitude of the initial slope of the photocurrent decay they estimate a mobility-lifetime product of 2.1 x 10{sup {minus}4} cm{sup 2}/V for photogeneratedmore » electrons at times below a few {micro}s. Slow transients might be a handicap for applications of GaN in UV detectors.« less

  16. Three-Dimensional Hetero-Integration of Faceted GaN on Si Pillars for Efficient Light Energy Conversion Devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Rip; Lee, Chi Hwan; Cho, In Sun; Jang, Hanmin; Jeon, Min Soo; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2017-07-25

    An important pathway for cost-effective light energy conversion devices, such as solar cells and light emitting diodes, is to integrate III-V (e.g., GaN) materials on Si substrates. Such integration first necessitates growth of high crystalline III-V materials on Si, which has been the focus of many studies. However, the integration also requires that the final III-V/Si structure has a high light energy conversion efficiency. To accomplish these twin goals, we use single-crystalline microsized Si pillars as a seed layer to first grow faceted Si structures, which are then used for the heteroepitaxial growth of faceted GaN films. These faceted GaN films on Si have high crystallinity, and their threading dislocation density is similar to that of GaN grown on sapphire. In addition, the final faceted GaN/Si structure has great light absorption and extraction characteristics, leading to improved performance for GaN-on-Si light energy conversion devices.

  17. Piezotronic Effect in Polarity-Controlled GaN Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenfu; Pu, Xiong; Han, Changbao; Du, Chunhua; Li, Linxuan; Jiang, Chunyan; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-25

    Using high-quality and polarity-controlled GaN nanowires (NWs), we studied the piezotronic effect in crystal orientation defined wurtzite structures. By applying a normal compressive force on c-plane GaN NWs with an atomic force microscopy tip, the Schottky barrier between the Pt tip and GaN can be effectively tuned by the piezotronic effect. In contrast, the normal compressive force cannot change the electron transport characteristics in m-plane GaN NWs whose piezoelectric polarization axis is turned in the transverse direction. This observation provided solid evidence for clarifying the difference between the piezotronic effect and the piezoresistive effect. We further demonstrated a high sensitivity of the m-plane GaN piezotronic transistor to collect the transverse force. The integration of c-plane GaN and m-plane GaN indicates an overall response to an external force in any direction.

  18. Enhanced characteristics of blue InGaN /GaN light-emitting diodes by using selective activation to modulate the lateral current spreading length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ray-Ming; Lu, Yuan-Chieh; Chou, Yi-Lun; Chen, Guo-Hsing; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Wu, Meng-Chyi

    2008-06-01

    We have studied the characteristics of blue InGaN /GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) after reducing the length of the lateral current path through the transparent layer through formation of a peripheral high-resistance current-blocking region in the Mg-doped GaN layer. To study the mechanism of selective activation in the Mg-doped GaN layer, we deposited titanium (Ti), gold (Au), Ti /Au, silver, and copper individually onto the Mg-doped GaN layer and investigated their effects on the hole concentration in the p-GaN layer. The Mg-doped GaN layer capped with Ti effectively depressed the hole concentration in the p-GaN layer by over one order of magnitude relative to that of the as-grown layer. This may suggest that high resistive regions are formed by diffusion of Ti and depth of high resistive region from the p-GaN surface depends on the capped Ti film thickness. Selective activation of the Mg-doped GaN layer could be used to modulate the length of the lateral current path. Furthermore, the external quantum efficiency of the LEDs was improved significantly after reducing the lateral current spreading length. In our best result, the external quantum efficiency was 52.3% higher (at 100mA) than that of the as-grown blue LEDs.

  19. Growth optimization toward low angle incidence microchannel epitaxy of GaN using ammonia-based metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Abe, Ryota; Uchiyama, Shota; Maruyama, Takahiro; Naritsuka, Shigeya

    2012-08-01

    Growth optimization toward low angle incidence microchannel epitaxy (LAIMCE) of GaN was accomplished using ammonia-based metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-based MOMBE). Firstly, the [NH3]/[trimethylgallium (TMG)] ratio (R) dependence of selective GaN growth was studied. The growth temperature was set at 860 °C while R was varied from 5 to 200 with precursors being supplied parallel to the openings cut in the SiO2 mask. The selectivity of the growth was superior for all R, because TMG and NH3 preferably decompose on the GaN film. The formation of {112¯0}GaN or {112¯2}GaN sidewalls and (0001)GaN surface were observed by the change in R. The intersurface diffusion of Ga adatoms was also changed by a change in R. Ga adatoms migrate from the sidewalls to the top at R lower than 50, whereas the migration weakened with R greater than 100. Secondly, LAIMCE was optimized by changing the growth temperature. Consequently, 6 μm wide lateral overgrowth in the direction of precursor incidence was achieved with no pit after etching by H3PO4, which was six times wider than that in the opposite direction.

  20. Highly mismatched GaN1-x Sb x alloys: synthesis, structure and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. M.; Sarney, W. L.; Novikov, S. V.; Segercrantz, N.; Ting, M.; Shaw, M.; Svensson, S. P.; Martin, R. W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2016-08-01

    Highly mismatched alloys (HMAs) is a class of semiconductor alloys whose constituents are distinctly different in terms of size, ionicity and/or electronegativity. Electronic properties of the alloys deviate significantly from an interpolation scheme based on small deviations from the virtual crystal approximation. Most of the HMAs were only studied in a dilute composition limit. Recent advances in understanding of the semiconductor synthesis processes allowed growth of thin films of HMAs under non-equilibrium conditions. Thus reducing the growth temperature allowed synthesis of group III-N-V HMAs over almost the entire composition range. This paper focuses on the GaN x Sb1-x HMA which has been suggested as a potential material for solar water dissociation devices. Here we review our recent work on the synthesis, structural and optical characterization of GaN1-x Sb x HMA. Theoretical modeling studies on its electronic structure based on the band anticrossing (BAC) model are also reviewed. In particular we discuss the effects of growth temperature, Ga flux and Sb flux on the incorporation of Sb, film microstructure and optical properties of the alloys. Results obtained from two separate MBE growths are directly compared. Our work demonstrates that a large range of direct bandgap energies from 3.4 eV to below 1.0 eV can be achieved for this alloy grown at low temperature. We show that the electronic band structure of GaN1-x Sb x HMA over the entire composition range is well described by a modified BAC model which includes the dependence of the host matrix band edges as well as the BAC model coupling parameters on composition. We emphasize that the modified BAC model of the electronic band structure developed for the full composition of GaN x Sb1-x is general and is applicable to any HMA.

  1. Solution of a Plane Hydrofracture Problem with Stress Contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkov, I. O.; Linkov, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    A plane hydrofracture problem for the Khristianovich-Geertsma-de Klerk model is extended and solved in the case where a confining stress closing a fracture is not constant in the direction of its propagation. A method is developed for solving the problem with an arbitrary stress contrast. It is stated that the transition through a contact with positive (negative) contrast occurs with fracture arresting (acceleration), whose intensity is controlled by a dimensionless parameter derived from theoretical considerations and numerical results.

  2. Fast Growth of GaN Epilayers via Laser-Assisted Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition for Ultraviolet Photodetector Applications.

    PubMed

    Rabiee Golgir, Hossein; Li, Da Wei; Keramatnejad, Kamran; Zou, Qi Ming; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Fei; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-François; Lu, Yong Feng

    2017-06-28

    In this study, we successfully developed a carbon dioxide (CO 2 )-laser-assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LMOCVD) approach to fast synthesis of high-quality gallium nitride (GaN) epilayers on Al 2 O 3 [sapphire(0001)] substrates. By employing a two-step growth procedure, high crystallinity and smooth GaN epilayers with a fast growth rate of 25.8 μm/h were obtained. The high crystallinity was confirmed by a combination of techniques, including X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. By optimizing growth parameters, the ∼4.3-μm-thick GaN films grown at 990 °C for 10 min showed a smooth surface with a root-mean-square surface roughness of ∼1.9 nm and excellent thickness uniformity with sharp GaN/substrate interfaces. The full-width at half-maximum values of the GaN(0002) X-ray rocking curve of 313 arcsec and the GaN(101̅2) X-ray rocking curve of 390 arcsec further confirmed the high crystallinity of the GaN epilayers. We also fabricated ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors based on the as-grown GaN layers, which exhibited a high responsivity of 0.108 A W -1 at 367 nm and a fast response time of ∼125 ns, demonstrating its high optical quality with potential in optoelectronic applications. Our strategy thus provides a simple and cost-effective means toward fast and high-quality GaN heteroepitaxy growth suitable for fabricating high-performance GaN-based UV detectors.

  3. Improved growth of GaN layers on ultra thin silicon nitride/Si (1 1 1) by RF-MBE

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Mahesh; Roul, Basanta; Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore 560013

    High-quality GaN epilayers were grown on Si (1 1 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using a new growth process sequence which involved a substrate nitridation at low temperatures, annealing at high temperatures, followed by nitridation at high temperatures, deposition of a low-temperature buffer layer, and a high-temperature overgrowth. The material quality of the GaN films was also investigated as a function of nitridation time and temperature. Crystallinity and surface roughness of GaN was found to improve when the Si substrate was treated under the new growth process sequence. Micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) measurement results indicate that the GaN filmmore » grown by the new process sequence has less tensile stress and optically good. The surface and interface structures of an ultra thin silicon nitride film grown on the Si surface are investigated by core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and it clearly indicates that the quality of silicon nitride notably affects the properties of GaN growth.« less

  4. GaN Micromechanical Resonators with Meshed Metal Bottom Electrode.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Azadeh; Liu, Che-Yu; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Ku, Pei-Cheng; Rais-Zadeh, Mina

    2015-03-17

    This work describes a novel architecture to realize high-performance gallium nitride (GaN) bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. The method is based on the growth of a thick GaN layer on a metal electrode grid. The fabrication process starts with the growth of a thin GaN buffer layer on a Si (111) substrate. The GaN buffer layer is patterned and trenches are made and refilled with sputtered tungsten (W)/silicon dioxide (SiO₂) forming passivated metal electrode grids. GaN is then regrown, nucleating from the exposed GaN seed layer and coalescing to form a thick GaN device layer. A metal electrode can be deposited and patterned on top of the GaN layer. This method enables vertical piezoelectric actuation of the GaN layer using its largest piezoelectric coefficient ( d 33 ) for thickness-mode resonance. Having a bottom electrode also results in a higher coupling coefficient, useful for the implementation of acoustic filters. Growth of GaN on Si enables releasing the device from the frontside using isotropic xenon difluoride (XeF₂) etch and therefore eliminating the need for backside lithography and etching.

  5. GaN membrane MSM ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, A.; Konstantinidis, G.; Kostopoulos, A.; Dragoman, M.; Neculoiu, D.; Androulidaki, M.; Kayambaki, M.; Vasilache, D.; Buiculescu, C.; Petrini, I.

    2006-12-01

    GaN exhibits unique physical properties, which make this material very attractive for wide range of applications and among them ultraviolet detection. For the first time a MSM type UV photodetector structure was manufactured on a 2.2 μm. thick GaN membrane obtained using micromachining techniques. The low unintentionally doped GaN layer structure was grown by MOCVD on high resistivity (ρ>10kΩcm) <111> oriented silicon wafers, 500μm thick. The epitaxially grown layers include a thin AlN layer in order to reduce the stress in the GaN layer and avoid cracking. Conventional contact lithography, e-gun Ni/Au (10nm /200nm) evaporation and lift-off techniques were used to define the interdigitated Schottky metalization on the top of the wafer. Ten digits with a width of 1μm and a length of 100μm were defined for each electrode. The distance between the digits was also 1μm. After the backside lapping of the wafer to a thickness of approximately 150μm, a 400nm thick Al layer was patterned and deposited on the backside, to be used as mask for the selective reactive ion etching of silicon. The backside mask, for the membrane formation, was patterned using double side alignment techniques and silicon was etched down to the 2.2μm thin GaN layer using SF 6 plasma. A very low dark current (30ρA at 3V) was obtained. Optical responsivity measurements were performed at 1.5V. A maximum responsivity of 18mA/W was obtained at a wavelength of 370nm. This value is very good and can be further improved using transparent contacts for the interdigitated structure.

  6. A plane mirror experiment inspired by a comic strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lúcio Prados Ribeiro, Jair

    2016-01-01

    A comic strip about a plane mirror was used in a high school optics test, and it was perceived that a large portion of the students believed that the mirror should be larger than the object so the virtual image could be entirely visible. Inspired on the comic strip, an experimental demonstration with flat mirrors was developed, in order to readdress this topic learning. Students were encouraged to create their own investigation of the phenomenon with a simple instrumental apparatus and also suggest different experimental approaches.

  7. Growth of non-polar and semi-polar gallium nitride with plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy: Relatonships between film microstructure, reciprocal lattice and transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaurin, Melvin Barker

    2007-12-01

    The group-III nitrides exhibit significant spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization parallel to the [0001] direction, which are manifested as sheet charges at heterointerfaces. While polarization can be used to engineer the band-structure of a device, internal electric fields generated by polarization discontinuities can also have a number of negative consequences for the performance and design of structures utilizing heterojunctions. The most direct route to polarization free group-III nitride devices is growth on either one of the "non-polar" prismatic faces of the crystal (m-plane (1010) or a-plane (1120)) where the [0001] direction lies in the plane of any heterointerfaces. This dissertation focuses on the growth of non-polar and semi-polar GaN by MBE and on how the dominant feature of the defect structure of non-polar and semi-polar films, basal plane stacking faults, determines the properties of the reciprocal lattice and electrical transport of the films. The first part is a survey of the MBE growth of the two non-polar planes (10 10) and (1120) and three semi-polar planes (1011), (1013) and {11 22} investigated in this work. The relationship between basal plane stacking faults and broadening of the reciprocal lattice is discussed and measured with X-ray diffraction using a lateral-variant of the Williamson-Hall analysis. The electrical properties of m-plane films are investigated using Hall-effect and TLM measurements. Anisotropic mobilities were observed for both electrons and holes along with record p-type conductivities and hole concentrations. By comparison to both inversion-domain free c-plane films and stacking-fault-free free-standing m-plane GaN wafers it was determined that basal plane stacking faults were the source of both the enhanced p-type conductivity and the anisotropic carrier mobilities. Finally, we propose a possible source of anisotropic mobilities and enhanced p-type conduction in faulted films is proposed. Basal plane stacking faults

  8. Exciton Emission from Bare and Alq3/Gold Coated GaN Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Fatemesadat; Kuhnert, Gerd; Hommel, Detlef; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    We study the excitonic and impurity related emission in bare and aluminum quinoline (Alq3)/gold coated wurtzite GaN nanorods by temperature-dependent time-integrated (TI) and time-resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL). The GaN nanorods were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Alq3 as well as Alq3/gold covered nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. In the near-band edge region a donor-bound-exciton (D0X) emission is observed at 3.473 eV. Another emission band at 3.275 eV reveals LO-phonon replica and is attributed to a donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) luminescence. TR PL traces at 20 K show a nearly biexponential decay for the D0X with lifetimes of approximately 180 and 800 ps for both bare and Alq3 coated nanorods. In GaN nanorods which were coated with an Alq3 film and subsequently with a 10 nm thick gold layer we observe a PL quenching of D0X and DAP band and the lifetimes of the D0X transition shorten. The quenching behaviour is partially attributed to the energy-transfer from free excitons and donor-bound-excitons to plasmon oscillations in the gold layer.

  9. On deformation of complex continuum immersed in a plane space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, V. A.; Murashkin, E. V.; Radayev, Y. N.

    2018-05-01

    The present paper is devoted to mathematical modelling of complex continua deformations considered as immersed in an external plane space. The complex continuum is defined as a differential manifold supplied with metrics induced by the external space. A systematic derivation of strain tensors by notion of isometric immersion of the complex continuum into a plane space of a higher dimension is proposed. Problem of establishing complete systems of irreducible objective strain and extrastrain tensors for complex continuum immersed in an external plane space is resolved. The solution to the problem is obtained by methods of the field theory and the theory of rational algebraic invariants. Strain tensors of the complex continuum are derived as irreducible algebraic invariants of contravariant vectors of the external space emerging as functional arguments in the complex continuum action density. Present analysis is restricted to rational algebraic invariants. Completeness of the considered systems of rational algebraic invariants is established for micropolar elastic continua. Rational syzygies for non-quadratic invariants are discussed. Objective strain tensors (indifferent to frame rotations in the external plane space) for micropolar continuum are alternatively obtained by properly combining multipliers of polar decompositions of deformation and extra-deformation gradients. The latter is realized only for continua immersed in a plane space of the equal mathematical dimension.

  10. Helicon mysteries: fitting a plane wave into a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, Rod

    2011-10-01

    Since the first reports in the 1960s, the dispersion of helicon waves in a plasma cylinder has been difficult to describe theoretically for axial wavelengths that are greater than the plasma radius. About 10 years ago, Breizman and Arefiev showed how radial density gradients make the plasma column similar to a coaxial cable, allowing the helicon waves to propagate below the cut-off frequency. The resulting dispersion relation is similar to that of a plane wave propagating parallel to the magnetic field. A few years later, Degeling et. al. presented experimental evidence demonstrating such a plane wave dispersion for a broad range of axial wave numbers. The reason lies in the decoupling of the Hall and electron inertial terms in the dispersion, the former describing the electromagnetic propagation and the latter the electrostatic propagation. Combining the experimental and theoretical results has recently thrown further light on this phenomenon that is applicable to both space and laboratory situations. Radially Localized Helicon Modes in Nonuniform Plasma, Boris N. Breizman and Alexey V. Arefiev, Phys. Rev. Letts. 84, 3863 (2000). Transitions from electrostatic to electromagnetic whistler wave excitation, A. W. Degeling, G. G. Borg and R. W. Boswell, Phys. Plasmas, 11, 2144, (2004).

  11. Influence of stress in GaN crystals grown by HVPE on MOCVD-GaN/6H-SiC substrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Jiaoxian; Hao, Xiaopeng; Wu, Yongzhong; Dai, Yuanbin; Shao, Yongliang; Zhang, Haodong; Tian, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    GaN crystals without cracks were successfully grown on a MOCVD-GaN/6H-SiC (MGS) substrate with a low V/III ratio of 20 at initial growth. With a high V/III ratio of 80 at initial growth, opaque GaN polycrystals were obtained. The structural analysis and optical characterization reveal that stress has a great influence on the growth of the epitaxial films. An atomic level model is used to explain these phenomena during crystal growth. It is found that atomic mobility is retarded by compressive stress and enhanced by tensile stress. PMID:24569601

  12. Later Leaders in Education: Roma Gans--Teacher of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almy, Millie

    1990-01-01

    Retired teacher Roma Gans is described in terms of her early life and education, early teaching experience, teaching experience at Teachers College, publishing experience, citizenship, and retirement. (DG)

  13. Effect of the nand p-type Si(100) substrates with a SiC buffer layer on the growth mechanism and structure of epitaxial layers of semipolar AlN and GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessolov, V. N.; Grashchenko, A. S.; Konenkova, E. V.; Myasoedov, A. V.; Osipov, A. V.; Red'kov, A. V.; Rodin, S. N.; Rubets, V. P.; Kukushkin, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    A new effect of the n-and p-type doping of the Si(100) substrate with a SiC film on the growth mechanism and structure of AlN and GaN epitaxial layers has been revealed. It has been experimentally shown that the mechanism of AlN and GaN layer growth on the surface of a SiC layer synthesized by substituting atoms on n- and p-Si substrates is fundamentally different. It has been found that semipolar AlN and GaN layers on the SiC/Si(100) surface grow in the epitaxial and polycrystalline structures on p-Si and n-Si substrates, respectively. A new method for synthesizing epitaxial semipolar AlN and GaN layers by chloride-hydride epitaxy on silicon substrates has been proposed.

  14. Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg-doped GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Erin C. H.; Kaun, Stephen W.; Young, Erin C.; Speck, James S.

    2015-06-01

    We have examined the effect of an indium surfactant on the growth of p-type GaN by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. p-type GaN was grown at temperatures ranging from 700 to 780 °C with and without an indium surfactant. The Mg concentration in all films in this study was 4.5-6 × 1019 cm-3 as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. All p-type GaN films grown with an indium surfactant had higher p-type conductivities and higher hole concentrations than similar films grown without an indium surfactant. The lowest p-type GaN room temperature resistivity was 0.59 Ω-cm, and the highest room temperature carrier concentration was 1.6 × 1018 cm-3. Fits of the temperature-dependent carrier concentration data showed a one to two order of magnitude lower unintentional compensating defect concentration in samples grown with the indium surfactant. Samples grown at higher temperature had a lower active acceptor concentration. Improvements in band-edge luminescence were seen by cathodoluminescence for samples grown with the indium surfactant, confirming the trends seen in the Hall data.

  15. Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg-doped GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, Erin C. H., E-mail: erinkyle@engineering.ucsb.edu; Kaun, Stephen W.; Young, Erin C.

    2015-06-01

    We have examined the effect of an indium surfactant on the growth of p-type GaN by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. p-type GaN was grown at temperatures ranging from 700 to 780 °C with and without an indium surfactant. The Mg concentration in all films in this study was 4.5–6 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. All p-type GaN films grown with an indium surfactant had higher p-type conductivities and higher hole concentrations than similar films grown without an indium surfactant. The lowest p-type GaN room temperature resistivity was 0.59 Ω-cm, and the highest room temperature carrier concentration wasmore » 1.6 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}. Fits of the temperature-dependent carrier concentration data showed a one to two order of magnitude lower unintentional compensating defect concentration in samples grown with the indium surfactant. Samples grown at higher temperature had a lower active acceptor concentration. Improvements in band-edge luminescence were seen by cathodoluminescence for samples grown with the indium surfactant, confirming the trends seen in the Hall data.« less

  16. Acceptor Ionization Energies in GaN*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Ban Chen, An

    2001-03-01

    The k.p Hamiltonian and a model potential are used to deduce the acceptor ionization energies in GaN from a systematic study of the chemical trend in GaAs, GaP, and InP. The acceptors studied include Be, Mg, Ca, Zn, and Cd on the cation sites and C, Si, and Ge on the anion sites. Our calculated acceptor ionization energies are estimated to be accurate to better than ten percent across the board. The ionization energies of C and Be (152 and 187 meV respectively) in wurtzite GaN are found to be lower than that of Mg (224 meV). The C was found to behave like the hydrogenic acceptor in all systems and it has the smallest ionization energy among all the acceptors studied.

  17. Dislocation filtering in GaN nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Colby, Robert; Liang, Zhiwen; Wildeson, Isaac H; Ewoldt, David A; Sands, Timothy D; García, R Edwin; Stach, Eric A

    2010-05-12

    Dislocation filtering in GaN by selective area growth through a nanoporous template is examined both by transmission electron microscopy and numerical modeling. These nanorods grow epitaxially from the (0001)-oriented GaN underlayer through the approximately 100 nm thick template and naturally terminate with hexagonal pyramid-shaped caps. It is demonstrated that for a certain window of geometric parameters a threading dislocation growing within a GaN nanorod is likely to be excluded by the strong image forces of the nearby free surfaces. Approximately 3000 nanorods were examined in cross-section, including growth through 50 and 80 nm diameter pores. The very few threading dislocations not filtered by the template turn toward a free surface within the nanorod, exiting less than 50 nm past the base of the template. The potential active region for light-emitting diode devices based on these nanorods would have been entirely free of threading dislocations for all samples examined. A greater than 2 orders of magnitude reduction in threading dislocation density can be surmised from a data set of this size. A finite element-based implementation of the eigenstrain model was employed to corroborate the experimentally observed data and examine a larger range of potential nanorod geometries, providing a simple map of the different regimes of dislocation filtering for this class of GaN nanorods. These results indicate that nanostructured semiconductor materials are effective at eliminating deleterious extended defects, as necessary to enhance the optoelectronic performance and device lifetimes compared to conventional planar heterostructures.

  18. Effect of growth temperature on the epitaxial growth of ZnO on GaN by ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Särkijärvi, Suvi; Sintonen, Sakari; Tuomisto, Filip; Bosund, Markus; Suihkonen, Sami; Lipsanen, Harri

    2014-07-01

    We report on the epitaxial growth of ZnO on GaN template by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Diethylzinc (DEZn) and water vapour (H2O) were used as precursors. The structure and the quality of the grown ZnO layers were studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurements and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The ZnO films were confirmed epitaxial, and the film quality was found to improve with increasing deposition temperature in the vicinity of the threshold temperature of two dimensional growth. We conclude that high quality ZnO thin films can be grown by ALD. Interestingly only separate Zn-vacancies were observed in the films, although ZnO thin films typically contain fairly high density of surface pits and vacancy clusters.

  19. Comparison of the physical, chemical and electrical properties of ALD Al 2 O 3 on c- and m- plane GaN: Comparison of the physical, chemical and electrical properties of ALD Al 2 O 3 on c- and m- plane GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, D.; Hossain, T.; Nepal, N.

    2014-02-01

    Our study compares the physical, chemical and electrical properties of Al 2O 3 thin films deposited on gallium polar c- and nonpolar m -plane GaN substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Correlations were sought between the film's structure, composition, and electrical properties. The thickness of the Al 2O 3 films was 19.2 nm as determined from a Si witness sample by spectroscopic ellipsometry. We measured the gate dielectric was slightly aluminum-rich (Al:O=1:1.3) from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profile, and the oxide-semiconductor interface carbon concentration was lower on c -plane GaN. The oxide's surface morphology was similar on both substrates,more » but was smoothest on c -plane GaN as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Circular capacitors (50-300 μm diameter) with Ni/Au (20/100 nm) metal contacts on top of the oxide were created by standard photolithography and e-beam evaporation methods to form metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs). Moreover, the alumina deposited on c -plane GaN showed less hysteresis (0.15 V) than on m -plane GaN (0.24 V) in capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristics, consistent with its better quality of this dielectric as evidenced by negligible carbon contamination and smooth oxide surface. These results demonstrate the promising potential of ALD Al 2O 3 on c -plane GaN, but further optimization of ALD is required to realize the best properties of Al 2O 3 on m -plane GaN.« less

  20. Efficient reduction of defects in (1120) non-polar and (1122) semi-polar GaN grown on nanorod templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J.; Gong, Y.; Xing, K.; Yu, X.; Wang, T.

    2013-03-01

    (1120) non-polar and (1122) semi-polar GaNs with a low defect density have been achieved by means of an overgrowth on nanorod templates, where a quick coalescence with a thickness even below 1 μm occurs. On-axis and off-axis X-ray rocking curve measurements have shown a massive reduction in the linewidth for our overgrown GaN in comparison with standard GaN films grown on sapphire substrates. Transmission electron microscope observation demonstrates that the overgrowth on the nanorod templates takes advantage of an omni-directional growth around the sidewalls of the nanostructures. The dislocations redirect in basal planes during the overgrowth, leading to their annihilation and termination at voids formed due to a large lateral growth rate. In the non-polar GaN, the priority <0001> lateral growth from vertical sidewalls of nanorods allows basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) to be blocked in the nanorod gaps; while for semi-polar GaN, the propagation of BSFs starts to be impeded when the growth front is changed to be along inclined <0001> direction above the nanorods.

  1. Efficient reduction of defects in (1120) non-polar and (1122) semi-polar GaN grown on nanorod templates

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, J.; Gong, Y.; Xing, K.

    2013-03-11

    (1120) non-polar and (1122) semi-polar GaNs with a low defect density have been achieved by means of an overgrowth on nanorod templates, where a quick coalescence with a thickness even below 1 {mu}m occurs. On-axis and off-axis X-ray rocking curve measurements have shown a massive reduction in the linewidth for our overgrown GaN in comparison with standard GaN films grown on sapphire substrates. Transmission electron microscope observation demonstrates that the overgrowth on the nanorod templates takes advantage of an omni-directional growth around the sidewalls of the nanostructures. The dislocations redirect in basal planes during the overgrowth, leading to their annihilationmore » and termination at voids formed due to a large lateral growth rate. In the non-polar GaN, the priority <0001> lateral growth from vertical sidewalls of nanorods allows basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) to be blocked in the nanorod gaps; while for semi-polar GaN, the propagation of BSFs starts to be impeded when the growth front is changed to be along inclined <0001> direction above the nanorods.« less

  2. Electrical and structural properties of (Pd/Au) Schottky contact to as grown and rapid thermally annealed GaN grown by MBE

    SciTech Connect

    Nirwal, Varun Singh, E-mail: varun.nirwal30@gmail.com; Singh, Joginder; Gautam, Khyati

    2016-05-06

    We studied effect of thermally annealed GaN surface on the electrical and structural properties of (Pd/Au) Schottky contact to Ga-polar GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrate. Current voltage (I-V) measurement was used to study electrical properties while X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement was used to study structural properties. The Schottky barrier height calculated using I-V characteristics was 0.59 eV for (Pd/Au) Schottky contact on as grown GaN, which increased to 0.73 eV for the Schottky contact fabricated on 700 °C annealed GaN film. The reverse bias leakage current at -1 V was also significantly reduced from 6.42×10{sup −5} Amore » to 7.31×10{sup −7} A after annealing. The value of series resistance (Rs) was extracted from Cheung method and the value of R{sub s} decreased from 373 Ω to 172 Ω after annealing. XRD results revealed the formation of gallide phases at the interface of (Pd/Au) and GaN for annealed sample, which could be the reason for improvement in the electrical properties of Schottky contact after annealing.« less

  3. Characterization of remote O2-plasma-enhanced CVD SiO2/GaN(0001) structure using photoemission measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truyen, Nguyen Xuan; Ohta, Akio; Makihara, Katsunori; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2018-01-01

    The control of chemical composition and bonding features at a SiO2/GaN interface is a key to realizing high-performance GaN power devices. In this study, an ∼5.2-nm-thick SiO2 film has been deposited on an epitaxial GaN(0001) surface by remote O2-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (O2-RPCVD) using SiH4 and Ar/O2 mixture gases at a substrate temperature of 500 °C. The depth profile of chemical structures and electronic defects of the O2-RPCVD SiO2/GaN structures has been evaluated from a combination of SiO2 thinning examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the total photoelectron yield spectroscopy (PYS) measurements. As a highlight, we found that O2-RPCVD is effective for fabricating an abrupt SiO2/GaN interface.

  4. Stacking fault effects in Mg-doped GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T. M.; Miwa, R. H.; Orellana, W.; Chacham, H.

    2002-01-01

    First-principles total energy calculations are performed to investigate the interaction of a stacking fault with a p-type impurity in both zinc-blende and wurtzite GaN. For both structures we find that, in the presence of a stacking fault, the impurity level is a more localized state in the band gap. In zinc-blende GaN, the minimum energy position of the substitutional Mg atom is at the plane of the stacking fault. In contrast, in wurtzite GaN the substitutional Mg atom at the plane of the stacking fault is a local minimum and the global minimum is the substitutional Mg far from the fault. This behavior can be understood as a packing effect which induces a distinct strain relief process, since the local structure of the stacking fault in zinc-blende GaN is similar to fault-free wurtzite GaN and vice-versa.

  5. Algan/Gan Hemt By Magnetron Sputtering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Perez, Roman

    In this thesis, the growth of the semiconductor materials AlGaN and GaN is achieved by magnetron sputtering for the fabrication of High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The study of the deposited nitrides is conducted by spectroscopy, diffraction, and submicron scale microscope methods. The preparation of the materials is performed using different parameters in terms of power, pressure, temperature, gas, and time. Silicon (Si) and Sapphire (Al2O3) wafers are used as substrates. The chemical composition and surface topography of the samples are analyzed to calculate the materials atomic percentages and to observe the devices surface. The instruments used for the semiconductors characterization are X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The project focused its attention on the reduction of impurities during the deposition, the controlled thicknesses of the thin-films, the atomic configuration of the alloy AlxGa1-xN, and the uniformity of the surfaces.

  6. Radical Beam Gettering Epitaxy of Zno and Gan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgobiani, A. N.; Demin, V. I.; Vorobiev, M. O.; Gruzintsev, A. N.; Hodos, I. I.; Kotljarevsky, M. B.; Kidalov, V. V.; Rogozin, I. V.

    2002-11-01

    P-type ZnO layers with a hole mobility about 23 cm2/(V s), and a hole concentration about 1015 cm-3 were grown by means of radical-beam gettering epitaxy (the annealing of n-ZnO single crystals in atomic oxygen flux). The effect of native defects on the photoluminescence spectra of the layers was studied. The dominant bands in the spectra peaked at 370.2 and 400 nm. These bands were attributed to the annihilation of exciton localised on neutral Vzn and to electron transitions from the conduction band to singly positively charged Vzn correspondingly. The effect of annealing in atomic nitrogen flux of p-CaN:Mg films on their photoluminescence spectra and on the value of their conductivity were studied. Such annealing leads to appearance of a number of emission bands that peaked at 404.9, 390.8 and 378.9 nm and increases hole concentration from 5 × 1015 to 5 × 1016 cm-3, and the hole mobility from 120 to 150 cm2/(V s). The n-ZnO - p-GaN:Mg electroluminescence heterostructures were obtained. Their spectrum contains bands in the excitonic region of GaN at the wavelength 360.2 nm and in the edge region at wavelengths 378.9 and 390.8 nm.

  7. Impact of defects on the electrical transport, optical properties and failure mechanisms of GaN nanowires.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Aubry, Sylvie; Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2010-09-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that focused on understanding the impact of defects on the electrical, optical and thermal properties of GaN-based nanowires (NWs). We describe the development and application of a host of experimental techniques to quantify and understand the physics of defects and thermal transport in GaN NWs. We also present the development of analytical models and computational studies of thermal conductivity in GaN NWs. Finally, we present an atomistic model for GaN NW electrical breakdown supported with experimental evidence. GaN-based nanowires are attractive for applications requiring compact, high-current density devices such asmore » ultraviolet laser arrays. Understanding GaN nanowire failure at high-current density is crucial to developing nanowire (NW) devices. Nanowire device failure is likely more complex than thin film due to the prominence of surface effects and enhanced interaction among point defects. Understanding the impact of surfaces and point defects on nanowire thermal and electrical transport is the first step toward rational control and mitigation of device failure mechanisms. However, investigating defects in GaN NWs is extremely challenging because conventional defect spectroscopy techniques are unsuitable for wide-bandgap nanostructures. To understand NW breakdown, the influence of pre-existing and emergent defects during high current stress on NW properties will be investigated. Acute sensitivity of NW thermal conductivity to point-defect density is expected due to the lack of threading dislocation (TD) gettering sites, and enhanced phonon-surface scattering further inhibits thermal transport. Excess defect creation during Joule heating could further degrade thermal conductivity, producing a viscous cycle culminating in catastrophic breakdown. To investigate these issues, a unique combination of electron microscopy, scanning luminescence and photoconductivity implemented at the nanoscale will be

  8. Research concerning the balancing of a plane mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bădoiu, D.; Petrescu, M. G.; Antonescu, N. N.; Toma, G.

    2018-01-01

    By statically balancing of the plane mechanisms and especially those functioning at high speeds is being pursued the decrease of the value of the resultant force of all inertia forces that work on the component elements, thus obtaining a significant decrease in vibrations and shocks during the functioning. On the other hand, the existence of balancing masses which ensure the balancing of the mechanism leads to increased gauge and its mass. In this paper are presented some possibilities of statically balancing a plane mechanism which is composed of three independent contours. First is analyzed the case when the mechanism is totally balanced. Then a solution is proposed for a partial balancing of the mechanism based on the balancing of the first harmonic of the inertia force developed in a piston of the mechanism. Finally, are presented some simulation results concerning the variation of the value of the resultant inertia force during a cinematic cycle when the mechanism is unbalanced and when it is partially balanced. Also, it is analyzed the variation of the motor moment when the mechanism is unbalanced and when is totally and partially balanced.

  9. Robust Notion Vision For A Vehicle Moving On A Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moni, Shankar; Weldon, E. J.

    1987-05-01

    A vehicle equipped with a cemputer vision system moves on a plane. We show that subject to certain constraints, the system can determine the motion of the vehicle (one rotational and two translational degrees of freedom) and the depth of the scene in front of the vehicle. The constraints include limits on the speed of the vehicle, presence of texture on the plane and absence of pitch and roll in the vehicular motion. It is possible to decouple the problems of finding the vehicle's motion and the depth of the scene in front of the vehicle by using two rigidly connected cameras. One views a field with known depth (i.e. the ground plane) and estimates the motion parameters and the other determines the depth map knowing the motion parameters. The motion is constrained to be planar to increase robustness. We use a least squares method of fitting the vehicle motion to observer brightness gradients. With this method, no correspondence between image points needs to be established and information fran the entire image is used in calculating notion. The algorithm performs very reliably on real image sequences and these results have been included. The results compare favourably to the performance of the algorithm of Negandaripour and Horn [2] where six degrees of freedom are assumed.

  10. Energetics of Mg incorporation at GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Selloni, Annabella; Myers, T. H.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-04-01

    By using density functional calculations in the generalized gradient approximation, we investigate the energetics of Mg adsorption and incorporation at GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces under various Ga and Mg coverage conditions as well as in presence of light or electron beam-induced electronic excitation. We find significant differences in Mg incorporation between Ga- and N-polar surfaces. Mg incorporation is easier at the Ga-polar surface, but high Mg coverages are found to cause important distortions which locally change the polarity from Ga to N polar. At the N-rich and moderately Ga-rich GaN(0001) surface, 0.25 ML of Mg substituting Ga in the top bilayer strongly reduce the surface diffusion barriers of Ga and N adatoms, in agreement with the surfactant effect observed in experiments. As the Mg coverage exceeds 0.5 ML, partial incorporation in the subsurface region (second bilayer) becomes favorable. A surface structure with 0.5 ML of incorporated Mg in the top bilayer and 0.25 ML in the second bilayer is found to be stable over a wide range of Ga chemical potential. At the Ga bilayer-terminated GaN(0001) surface, corresponding to Ga-rich conditions, configurations where Mg is incorporated in the interface region between the metallic Ga bilayer and the underlying GaN bilayer appear to be favored. At the N-polar surface, Mg is not incorporated under N-rich or moderately Ga-rich conditions, whereas incorporation in the adlayer may take place under Ga-rich conditions. In the presence of light or electron beam induced excitation, energy differences between Mg incorporated at the surface and in deeper layers are reduced so that the tendency toward surface segregation is also reduced.

  11. Optimization of GaN thin films via MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, Corey; Wilson, Sylvia L.

    1995-01-01

    A unique characteristic of every semiconductor is the amount of energy required to break an electron bond in the lowest band of allowed states, the valence band. The energy necessary to set an electron free and allow it to conduct in the material is termed the energy gap (Eg). Semiconductors with wide bandgap energies have been shown to possess properties for high power, high temperature, radiation resistance damage, and short wavelength optoelectronic applications. Gallium nitride, which has a wide gap of 3.39 eV, is a material that has demonstrated these characteristics. Various growth conditions are being investigated for quality gallium nitride heteroepitaxy growth via the technique of low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) that can be used for device development.

  12. Nanoselective area growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on 4H-SiC using epitaxial graphene as a mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puybaret, Renaud; Patriarche, Gilles; Jordan, Matthew B.; Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Voss, Paul L.; de Heer, Walt A.; Berger, Claire; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-03-01

    We report the growth of high-quality triangular GaN nanomesas, 30-nm thick, on the C-face of 4H-SiC using nanoselective area growth (NSAG) with patterned epitaxial graphene grown on SiC as an embedded mask. NSAG alleviates the problems of defects in heteroepitaxy, and the high mobility graphene film could readily provide the back low-dissipative electrode in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. A 5-8 graphene-layer film is first grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by confinement-controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Graphene is then patterned and arrays of 75-nm-wide openings are etched in graphene revealing the SiC substrate. A 30-nm-thick GaN is subsequently grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. GaN nanomesas grow epitaxially with perfect selectivity on SiC, in the openings patterned through graphene. The up-or-down orientation of the mesas on SiC, their triangular faceting, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that they are biphasic. The core is a zinc blende monocrystal surrounded with single-crystal wurtzite. The GaN crystalline nanomesas have no threading dislocations or V-pits. This NSAG process potentially leads to integration of high-quality III-nitrides on the wafer scalable epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide platform.

  13. Nanoselective area growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on 4H-SiC using epitaxial graphene as a mask

    SciTech Connect

    Puybaret, Renaud; Jordan, Matthew B.; Voss, Paul L.

    We report the growth of high-quality triangular GaN nanomesas, 30-nm thick, on the C-face of 4H-SiC using nanoselective area growth (NSAG) with patterned epitaxial graphene grown on SiC as an embedded mask. NSAG alleviates the problems of defects in heteroepitaxy, and the high mobility graphene film could readily provide the back low-dissipative electrode in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. A 5–8 graphene-layer film is first grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by confinement-controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Graphene is then patterned and arrays of 75-nm-wide openings are etched in graphene revealing the SiC substrate. A 30-nm-thick GaN is subsequently grown by metalmore » organic vapor phase epitaxy. GaN nanomesas grow epitaxially with perfect selectivity on SiC, in the openings patterned through graphene. The up-or-down orientation of the mesas on SiC, their triangular faceting, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that they are biphasic. The core is a zinc blende monocrystal surrounded with single-crystal wurtzite. The GaN crystalline nanomesas have no threading dislocations or V-pits. This NSAG process potentially leads to integration of high-quality III-nitrides on the wafer scalable epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide platform.« less

  14. An atomistic mechanism study of GaN step-flow growth in vicinal m-plane orientations

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Zhun; Wang, Ru-Zhi; Zapol, Peter

    2016-10-12

    We present elucidation of homoepitaxial growth mechanisms on vicinal non-polar surfaces of GaN that is highly important for gaining an understanding of and control thin film surface morphology and properties. Using first-principles calculations, we study the step-flow growth in m-plane GaN based on atomic row nucleation and kink propagation kinetics. Ga–N dimer adsorption onto the m-plane is energetically more favorable than that of Ga and N isolated adatoms. Therefore, we have treated the dimers as the dominant growth species attached to the step edges. By calculating the free energies of sequentially attached Ga–N dimers, we have elucidated that the a-stepmore » edge kink growth proceeds by parallel attachment rather than by across the step edge approach. We found a series of favorable configurations of kink propagation and calculated the free energy and nucleation barriers for kink evolution on five types of step edges (a, +c, -c, +a + c, and -a - c). By changing the chemical potential μGa and the excess chemical potential Δμ, the growth velocities at the five types of edges are controlled by the corresponding kink pair nucleation barrier E* in their free energy profiles. To explore the kink-flow growth instability observed at different Ga/N flux ratios, calculations of kink pairs on the incompact -c and +c-step edges are further performed to study their formation energies. Variations of these step edge morphologies with a tuned chemical environment are consistent with previous experimental observations, including stable diagonal ±a ± c-direction steps. In conclusion, our work provides a first-principles approach to explore step growth and surface morphology of the vicinal m-plane GaN, which is applicable to analyze and control the step-flow growth of other binary thin films.« less

  15. Determination of carrier diffusion length in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, Shopan; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Özgür, Ümit; Metzner, Sebastian; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Gil, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers along the c-direction were determined from photoluminescence (PL) and cross-sectional cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements in p- and n-type GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The investigated samples incorporate a 6 nm thick In0.15Ga0.85N active layer capped with either 500 nm p-GaN or 1500 nm n-GaN. The top GaN layers were etched in steps and PL from the InGaN active region and the underlying layers was monitored as a function of the top GaN thickness upon photo-generation near the surface region by above bandgap excitation. Taking into consideration the absorption in the top GaN layer as well as active and underlying layers, the diffusion lengths at 295 K and at 15 K were measured to be 93 ± 7 nm and 70 ± 7 nm for Mg-doped p-type GaN and 432 ± 30 nm and 316 ± 30 nm for unintentionally doped n-type GaN, respectively, at photogenerated carrier densities of 4.2 × 1018 cm-3 using PL spectroscopy. CL measurements of the unintentionally doped n-type GaN layer at much lower carrier densities of 1017 cm-3 revealed a longer diffusion length of 525 ± 11 nm at 6 K.

  16. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy study on the effect of magnetron sputtering atmosphere on GaN/SiC interface and gallium nitride thin film crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Huaxiang; Zhu, Guo-Zhen; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Kitai, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    The growth mechanisms of high quality GaN thin films on 6H-SiC by sputtering were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The XRD θ-2θ scans show that high quality ( 0002 ) oriented GaN was deposited on 6H-SiC by reactive magnetron sputtering. Pole figures obtained by 2D-XRD clarify that GaN thin films are dominated by ( 0002 ) oriented wurtzite GaN and { 111 } oriented zinc-blende GaN. A thin amorphous silicon oxide layer on SiC surfaces observed by STEM plays a critical role in terms of the orientation information transfer from the substrate to the GaN epilayer. The addition of H2 into Ar and/or N2 during sputtering can reduce the thickness of the amorphous layer. Moreover, adding 5% H2 into Ar can facilitate a phase transformation from amorphous to crystalline in the silicon oxide layer and eliminate the unwanted { 3 3 ¯ 02 } orientation in the GaN thin film. Fiber texture GaN thin films can be grown by adding 10% H2 into N2 due to the complex reaction between H2 and N2.

  17. MOCVD growth and study of thin films of indium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Abhishek

    This thesis is focused on a study of MOCVD growth of InN with the goal of providing new information on the effects of growth conditions and buffer/substrate materials on InN film properties. Initial studies, using both (111) Si and (0001) sapphire substrates, identified an optimum growth temperature window of 540--560°C for the formation of stable InN films. When attempting to grow InN films on sapphire with thicknesses greater than approximately 150 nanometers using an AlN buffer layer, the InN films were observed to delaminate from the buffer/substrate at growth temperature. The combined effect of compressive stress due to high lattice mismatch between InN and AlN (˜14%) and tensile stress due to grain coalescence along with the relatively weak bond strength of InN compared to GaN and AlN, is believed to cause the InN film to crack along the interface and delaminate. To further investigate the effect of the buffer layer on InN growth, studies were carried out using GaN films grown on sapphire as the growth template. Recent MBE results had indicated a significant difference in the thermal stability and growth mode of In-polar and N-polar InN, with improved properties reported for N-polar material grown on N-polar GaN. MOCVD growth of N-polar GaN is very difficult; consequently, all of the results reported in the literature for InN growth on GaN were likely carried out on Ga-polar material resulting in films with a high surface roughness. By utilizing N-polar and Ga-polar GaN films, it was possible to produce N-polar and In-polar InN films by MOCVD, as determined by convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) analysis. Furthermore, the polarity was found to dramatically alter the surface roughness and growth mode of the InN films with enhanced lateral growth and reduced surface roughness obtained for N-polar InN. A qualitative model was proposed to explain the different growth mechanisms observed for In-polar and N-polar InN. In spite of the improvements in

  18. GaN for LED applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pankove, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    In order to improve the synthesis of GaN the effect of various growth and doping parameters has been studied. Although Be, Li, Mg, and Dy can be used to overcompensate native donors, the most interesting acceptor element is Zn. The emission spectrum and the luminescence efficiency depend on the growth temperature (below 800 C), on the partial pressure of the doping impurity, and on the duration of growth. Blue-green electroluminescence with a power efficiency of 0.1 percent and a brightness of 850 fL (at 0.6 mA and 22.5 V) was obtained. Some diodes allow the color of the emitted light to change by reversing the polarity of the bias. Continuous operation of a diode over a period of 5 months showed no evidence of degradation. The luminescence properties of ion-implanted GaN were studied. Delay effects were found in the electroluminescence of diodes, although, with a dc bias, a 70-MHz modulation was possible.

  19. UMA/GAN network architecture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liang; Li, Wensheng; Deng, Chunjian; Lv, Yi

    2009-07-01

    This paper is to critically analyze the architecture of UMA which is one of Fix Mobile Convergence (FMC) solutions, and also included by the third generation partnership project(3GPP). In UMA/GAN network architecture, UMA Network Controller (UNC) is the key equipment which connects with cellular core network and mobile station (MS). UMA network could be easily integrated into the existing cellular networks without influencing mobile core network, and could provides high-quality mobile services with preferentially priced indoor voice and data usage. This helps to improve subscriber's experience. On the other hand, UMA/GAN architecture helps to integrate other radio technique into cellular network which includes WiFi, Bluetooth, and WiMax and so on. This offers the traditional mobile operators an opportunity to integrate WiMax technique into cellular network. In the end of this article, we also give an analysis of potential influence on the cellular core networks ,which is pulled by UMA network.

  20. Photoemission stability of negative electron affinity GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junju; Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Wenzheng; Tang, Weidong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Li, Biao; Chang, Benkang

    2012-11-01

    The stability for reflection-mode GaN photocathode has been investigated by monitoring the photocurrent and the spectral response at room temperature. We watch that the photocurrent of the cathode decays with time in the vacuum system, and compare the spectral response curves after activation and after degradation. The photocurrent decay mechanism for reflection-mode NEA GaN photocathode was studied by the surface model ?GaN (Mg) :Cs ?:O-Cs. The reduction of the effective dipole quantity, which is caused by harmful gases, is the key factor of the photocurrent reduction.

  1. Silicon-on-insulator with hybrid orientations for heterogeneous integration of GaN on Si (100) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Runchun; Zhao, Beiji; Huang, Kai; You, Tiangui; Jia, Qi; Lin, Jiajie; Zhang, Shibin; Yan, Youquan; Yi, Ailun; Zhou, Min; Ou, Xin

    2018-05-01

    Heterogeneous integration of materials pave a new way for the development of the microsystem with miniaturization and complex functionalities. Two types of hybrid silicon on insulator (SOI) structures, i.e., Si (100)-on-Si (111) and Si (111)-on-Si (100), were prepared by the smart-cut technique, which is consist of ion-slicing and wafer bonding. The precise calculation of the lattice strain of the transferred films without the epitaxial matching relationship to the substrate was demonstrated based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The XRD and Raman measurement results suggest that the transferred films possess single crystalline quality. With a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, the surface roughness of the transferred thin films can be reduced from 5.57 nm to 0.30 nm. The 4-inch GaN thin film epitaxially grown on the as-prepared hybrid SOI of Si (111)-on-Si (100) by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is of improved quality with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 672.54 arcsec extracted from the XRD rocking curve and small surface roughness of 0.40 nm. The wafer-scale GaN on Si (111)-on-Si (100) can serve as a potential platform for the one chip integration of GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) or photonics with the Si (100)-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS).

  2. Potential-dependent recombination kinetics of photogenerated electrons in n- and p-type GaN photoelectrodes studied by time-resolved IR absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamakata, Akira; Yoshida, Masaaki; Kubota, Jun; Osawa, Masatoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2011-07-27

    Recombination kinetics of photogenerated electrons in n-type and p-type GaN photoelectrodes active for H(2) and O(2) evolution, respectively, from water was examined by time-resolved IR absorption (TR-IR) spectroscopy. Illumination of a GaN film with UV pulse (355 nm and 6 ns in duration) gives transient interference spectra in both transmittance and reflection modes. Simulation shows that the interference spectra are caused by photogenerated electrons. We observed that recombination in the microsecond region is greatly affected by the applied potentials, the lifetime becoming longer at negative and positive potentials for n- and p-type GaN electrodes, respectively. There is a good correlation between potential dependence of the steady-state reaction efficiency and that of the number of surviving electrons in the millisecond region. We also performed potential jump measurement to examine the shift in Fermi level by photogenerated charge carriers. In the case of n-type GaN, the electrode potential jumps to the negative side by accumulation of electrons in the bulk. However, in the case of p-type GaN, the electrode potential first jumps to the negative side within 20 μs and gradually shifts to the positive side in a few milliseconds, while the number of charge carriers is constant at >0.2 ms. This two-step process is ascribed to electron transport from the bulk to the surface of GaN, because the electrode potential is sensitive to the number of electrons in the bulk. The results confirm that TR-IR combined with potential jump measurement provides useful information for understanding the behavior of charge carriers in photoelectrochemical systems.

  3. Optical signature of Mg-doped GaN: Transfer processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callsen, G.; Wagner, M. R.; Kure, T.; Reparaz, J. S.; Bügler, M.; Brunnmeier, J.; Nenstiel, C.; Hoffmann, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Tweedie, J.; Bryan, Z.; Aygun, S.; Kirste, R.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2012-08-01

    Mg doping of high quality, metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN films results in distinct traces in their photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra. We analyze GaN:Mg grown on sapphire substrates and identify two Mg related acceptor states, one additional acceptor state and three donor states that are involved in the donor-acceptor pair band transitions situated at 3.26-3.29 eV in GaN:Mg. The presented determination of the donor-acceptor pair band excitation channels by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy in conjunction with temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements results in a direct determination of the donor and acceptor binding, localization, and activation energies, which is put into a broader context based on Haynes's rule. Furthermore, we analyze the biexponential decay dynamics of the photoluminescence signal of the acceptor and donor bound excitons. As all observed lifetimes scale with the localization energy of the donor and acceptor related bound excitons, defect and complex bound excitons can be excluded as their origin. Detailed analysis of the exciton transfer processes in the close energetic vicinity of the GaN band edge reveals excitation via free and bound excitonic channels but also via an excited state as resolved for the deepest localized Mg related acceptor bound exciton. For the two Mg acceptor states, we determine binding energies of 164 ± 5 and 195 ± 5 meV, which is in good agreement with recent density functional theory results. This observation confirms and quantifies the general dual nature of acceptor states in GaN based on the presented analysis of the photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra.

  4. GaN microcavities: Giant Rabi splitting and optical anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavokin, Alexey; Gil, Bernard

    1998-06-01

    Numerical simulation of light reflection from a λ/2 GaN microcavity with Ga0.8Al0.2N/Ga0.5Al0.5N Bragg mirrors grown on the A surface of Al2O3 revealed a Rabi splitting of the order of 50 meV and remarkable optical anisotropy. These effects are originated from the giant exciton oscillator strength in GaN and a pronounced uniaxial strain in the structure.

  5. Characterization of Deep and Shallow Levels in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Bruce

    1997-03-01

    The role of native defects and impurities in compensating n-type GaN was investigated. From the observed dependence of carrier concentration on dopant partial pressure the compensating acceptor in n-type material is attributed to the triply charged gallium vacancy. This is consistent with recent calculations on defect stability using density functional theory. The interaction of hydrogen and point defects in GaN was also investigated using FTIR. The role of these defects in compensation will be discussed.

  6. ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island (AMIE-Gan) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Long, CL; Del Genio, A; Deng, M

    2011-04-11

    The overarching campaign, which includes the ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) deployment in conjunction with the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) and the Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns, is designed to test several current hypotheses regarding the mechanisms responsible for Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) initiation and propagation in the Indian Ocean area. The synergy between the proposed AMF2 deployment with DYNAMO/CINDY2011, and the corresponding funded experiment on Manus, combine for an overarching ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) with two components: AMF2 on Gan Island in the Indian Ocean (AMIE-Gan), where the MJOmore » initiates and starts its eastward propagation; and the ARM Manus site (AMIE-Manus), which is in the general area where the MJO usually starts to weaken in climate models. AMIE-Gan will provide measurements of particular interest to Atmospheric System Research (ASR) researchers relevant to improving the representation of MJO initiation in climate models. The framework of DYNAMO/CINDY2011 includes two proposed island-based sites and two ship-based locations forming a square pattern with sonde profiles and scanning precipitation and cloud radars at both island and ship sites. These data will be used to produce a Variational Analysis data set coinciding with the one produced for AMIE-Manus. The synergy between AMIE-Manus and AMIE-Gan will allow studies of the initiation, propagation, and evolution of the convective cloud population within the framework of the MJO. As with AMIE-Manus, AMIE-Gan/DYNAMO also includes a significant modeling component geared toward improving the representation of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and forecast models. This campaign involves the deployment of the second, marine-capable, AMF; all of the included measurement systems; and especially the scanning and vertically pointing radars. The campaign will include

  7. Elimination of surface band bending on N-polar InN with thin GaN capping

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmík, J., E-mail: Jan.Kuzmik@savba.sk; Haščík, Š.; Kučera, M.

    2015-11-09

    0.5–1 μm thick InN (0001) films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with N- or In-polarity are investigated for the presence of native oxide, surface energy band bending, and effects introduced by 2 to 4 monolayers of GaN capping. Ex situ angle-resolved x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy is used to construct near-surface (GaN)/InN energy profiles, which is combined with deconvolution of In3d signal to trace the presence of InN native oxide for different types of polarity and capping. Downwards surface energy band bending was observed on bare samples with native oxide, regardless of the polarity. It was found that the In-polar InN surface is mostmore » readily oxidized, however, with only slightly less band bending if compared with the N-polar sample. On the other hand, InN surface oxidation was effectively mitigated by GaN capping. Still, as confirmed by ultra-violet photo-electron spectroscopy and by energy band diagram calculations, thin GaN cap layer may provide negative piezoelectric polarization charge at the GaN/InN hetero-interface of the N-polar sample, in addition to the passivation effect. These effects raised the band diagram up by about 0.65 eV, reaching a flat-band profile.« less

  8. Near band gap luminescence in hybrid organic-inorganic structures based on sputtered GaN nanorods.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Mathias; Serban, Elena Alexandra; Hsiao, Ching-Lien; Junaid, Muhammad; Birch, Jens; Pozina, Galia

    2017-04-26

    Novel hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructures fabricated to utilize non-radiative resonant energy transfer mechanism are considered to be extremely attractive for a variety of light emitters for down converting of ultaviolet light and for photovoltaic applications since they can be much more efficient compared to devices grown with common design. Organic-inorganic hybrid structures based on green polyfluorene (F8BT) and GaN (0001) nanorods grown by magnetron sputtering on Si (111) substrates are studied. In such nanorods, stacking faults can form periodic polymorphic quantum wells characterized by bright luminescence. In difference to GaN exciton emission, the recombination rate for the stacking fault related emission increases in the presence of polyfluorene film, which can be understood in terms of Förster interaction mechanism. From comparison of dynamic properties of the stacking fault related luminescence in the hybrid structures and in the bare GaN nanorods, the pumping efficiency of non-radiative resonant energy transfer in hybrids was estimated to be as high as 35% at low temperatures.

  9. Effect of substrate nitridation temperature on the persistent photoconductivity of unintentionally-doped GaN layer grown by PAMBE

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, Nisha, E-mail: prakasnisha@gmail.com; Barvat, Arun; Anand, Kritika

    2016-05-23

    The surface roughness and defect density of GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire substrate are investigated and found to be dependent on nitridation temperature. GaN epitaxial layers grown after nitridation of sapphire at 200°C have a higher defect density and higher surface roughness compared to the GaN layers grown at 646°C nitridation as confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) was observed in both samples and it was found to be decreasing with decreasing temperature in the range 150-300°C due to long carrier lifetime and high electron mobility at low temperature. The photoresponse of the GaNmore » films grown in this study exhibit improved PPC due to their better surface morphology at 646°C nitrided sample. The point defects or extended microstructure defects limits the photocarrier lifetime and electron mobility at 200°C nitrided sample.« less

  10. Design and fabrication of single-crystal GaN nano-bridge on homogeneous substrate for nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Shang-Chao

    2014-12-01

    This study reports a simple method to design and fabricate a freestanding GaN nano-bridge over a homogeneous short column as supporting leg. Test samples were fabricated from MOCVD-grown single-crystal GaN films over sapphire substrate using a FIB milling to leave freestanding short spans. We also investigated the nanoindentation characteristics and the corresponding nanoscopic mechanism of the GaN nano-bridge and its short column with a conical indenter inside transmission electron microscopy. The stress-strain mechanical properties and Young's modulus have also been examined and calculated as 108 GPa ± 4.8 % by the strain energy method. The significant slope switch of the L- D curve corresponds to the transition from the single-point bending indentation to the surface stretching indentation and has been interpreted with the evolution of TEM images. This freestanding fabrication and test have key advantages to characterize nanoscale behavior of one-dimensional bridge structure and greater ease of sample preparation over other micro-fabrication techniques.

  11. Effect of photocatalytic oxidation technology on GaN CMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; Pan, Guoshun; Lu, Xinchun

    2016-01-01

    GaN is so hard and so chemically inert that it is difficult to obtain a high material removal rate (MRR) in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. This paper discusses the application of photocatalytic oxidation technology in GaN planarization. Three N-type semiconductor particles (TiO2, SnO2, and Fe2O3) are used as catalysts and added to the H2O2-SiO2-based slurry. By optical excitation, highly reactive photoinduced holes are produced on the surface of the particles, which can oxidize OH- and H2O absorbed on the surface of the catalysts; therefore, more OH* will be generated. As a result, GaN MRRs in an H2O2-SiO2-based polishing system combined with catalysts are improved significantly, especially when using TiO2, the MRR of which is 122 nm/h. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows the variation trend of chemical composition on the GaN surface after polishing, revealing the planarization process. Besides, the effect of pH on photocatalytic oxidation combined with TiO2 is analyzed deeply. Furthermore, the physical model of GaN CMP combined with photocatalytic oxidation technology is proposed to describe the removal mechanism of GaN.

  12. Polarity Control of Heteroepitaxial GaN Nanowires on Diamond.

    PubMed

    Hetzl, Martin; Kraut, Max; Hoffmann, Theresa; Stutzmann, Martin

    2017-06-14

    Group III-nitride materials such as GaN nanowires are characterized by a spontaneous polarization within the crystal. The sign of the resulting sheet charge at the top and bottom facet of a GaN nanowire is determined by the orientation of the wurtzite bilayer of the different atomic species, called N and Ga polarity. We investigate the polarity distribution of heteroepitaxial GaN nanowires on different substrates and demonstrate polarity control of GaN nanowires on diamond. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy is used to determine the polarity of individual selective area-grown and self-assembled nanowires over a large scale. At standard growth conditions, mixed polarity occurs for selective GaN nanowires on various substrates, namely on silicon, on sapphire and on diamond. To obtain control over the growth orientation on diamond, the substrate surface is modified by nitrogen and oxygen plasma exposure prior to growth, and the growth parameters are adjusted simultaneously. We find that the surface chemistry and the substrate temperature are the decisive factors for obtaining control of up to 93% for both polarity types, whereas the growth mode, namely selective area or self-assembled growth, does not influence the polarity distribution significantly. The experimental results are discussed by a model based on the interfacial bonds between the GaN nanowires, the termination layer, and the substrate.

  13. High nitrogen pressure solution growth of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockowski, Michal

    2014-10-01

    Results of GaN growth from gallium solution under high nitrogen pressure are presented. Basic of the high nitrogen pressure solution (HNPS) growth method is described. A new approach of seeded growth, multi-feed seed (MFS) configuration, is demonstrated. The use of two kinds of seeds: free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN (HVPE-GaN) obtained from metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing HVPE-GaN obtained from the ammonothermally grown GaN crystals, is shown. Depending on the seeds’ structural quality, the differences in the structural properties of pressure grown material are demonstrated and analyzed. The role and influence of impurities, like oxygen and magnesium, on GaN crystals grown from gallium solution in the MFS configuration is presented. The properties of differently doped GaN crystals are discussed. An application of the pressure grown GaN crystals as substrates for electronic and optoelectronic devices is reported.

  14. Impact of oxygen precursor flow on the forward bias behavior of MOCVD-Al2O3 dielectrics grown on GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Bisi, Davide; Liu, Xiang; Yeluri, Ramya; Tahhan, Maher; Keller, Stacia; DenBaars, Steven P.; Meneghini, Matteo; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the oxygen precursor flow supplied during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of Al2O3 films on the forward bias behavior of Al2O3/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. The low oxygen flow (100 sccm) delivered during the in situ growth of Al2O3 on GaN resulted in films that exhibited a stable capacitance under forward stress, a lower density of stress-generated negative fixed charges, and a higher dielectric breakdown strength compared to Al2O3 films grown under high oxygen flow (480 sccm). The low oxygen grown Al2O3 dielectrics exhibited lower gate current transients in stress/recovery measurements, providing evidence of a reduced density of trap states near the GaN conduction band and an enhanced robustness under accumulated gate stress. This work reveals oxygen flow variance in MOCVD to be a strategy for controlling the dielectric properties and performance.

  15. Autonomic nervous system involvement in the giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) KO mouse: implications for human disease.

    PubMed

    Armao, Diane; Bailey, Rachel M; Bouldin, Thomas W; Kim, Yongbaek; Gray, Steven J

    2016-08-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is an inherited severe sensorimotor neuropathy. The aim of this research was to investigate the neuropathologic features and clinical autonomic nervous system (ANS) phenotype in two GAN knockout (KO) mouse models. Little is known about ANS involvement in GAN in humans, but autonomic signs and symptoms are commonly reported in early childhood. Routine histology and immunohistochemistry was performed on GAN KO mouse specimens taken at various ages. Enteric dysfunction was assessed by quantifying the frequency, weight, and water content of defecation in GAN KO mice. Histological examination of the enteric, parasympathetic and sympathetic ANS of GAN KO mice revealed pronounced and widespread neuronal perikaryal intermediate filament inclusions. These neuronal inclusions served as an easily identifiable, early marker of GAN in young GAN KO mice. Functional studies identified an age-dependent alteration in fecal weight and defecation frequency in GAN KO mice. For the first time in the GAN KO mouse model, we described the early, pronounced and widespread neuropathologic features involving the ANS. In addition, we provided evidence for a clinical autonomic phenotype in GAN KO mice, reflected in abnormal gastrointestinal function. These findings in GAN KO mice suggest that consideration should be given to ANS involvement in human GAN, especially when considering treatments and patient care.

  16. Defect-related photoluminescence in Mg-doped GaN nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Messer, B. J.; Jindal, V.; Tripathi, N.; Tungare, M.

    2009-12-01

    Thin film of GaN:Mg, pyramidal GaN:Mg on GaN, sapphire and AlN substrates were grown in a MOCVD system under same growth conditions and at the same time. In samples with Mg-doped GaN pyramids on GaN:Si template a strong ultraviolet (UVL) band with few phonon replicas dominated at low temperature and was attributed to transitions from shallow donors to shallow Mg acceptor. In samples grown on sapphire and AlN substrates the UVL band appeared as a structureless band with the maximum at about 3.25 eV. There is a possibility that the structureless UVL band and the UVL band with phonon structure have different origin. In addition to the UVL band, the blue luminescence (BL) band peaking at 2.9 eV was observed in samples representing GaN:Mg pyramids on GaN:Si substrate. It is preliminary attributed to transitions from shallow donors to Zn acceptor in GaN:Si substrate.

  17. Influences of growth parameters on the reaction pathway during GaN synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi; Liu, Zhongyi; Fang, Haisheng

    2018-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) film growth is a complicated physical and chemical process including fluid flow, heat transfer, species transport and chemical reaction. Study of the reaction mechanism, i.e., the reaction pathway, is important for optimizing the growth process in the actual manufacture. In the paper, the growth pathway of GaN in a closed-coupled showerhead metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (CCS-MOCVD) reactor is investigated in detail using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Influences of the process parameters, such as the chamber pressure, the inlet temperature, the susceptor temperature and the pre-exponential factor, on the reaction pathway are examined. The results show that increases of the chamber pressure or the inlet temperature, as well as reductions of the susceptor temperature or the pre-exponential factor lead to the adduct route dominating the growth. The deposition rate contributed by the decomposition route, however, can be enhanced dramatically by increasing the inlet temperature, the susceptor temperature and the pre-exponential factor.

  18. Phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy on complex mask geometries

    DOE PAGES

    Aagesen, Larry K.; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Han, Jung; ...

    2015-05-15

    Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy were performed. Furthermore, this model includes a crystallographic-orientation-dependent deposition rate and arbitrarily complex mask geometries. The orientation-dependent deposition rate can be determined from experimental measurements of the relative growth rates of low-index crystallographic facets. Growth on various complex mask geometries was simulated on both c-plane and a-plane template layers. Agreement was observed between simulations and experiment, including complex phenomena occurring at the intersections between facets. The sources of the discrepancies between simulated and experimental morphologies were also investigated. We found that the model provides a route to optimize masks andmore » processing conditions during materials synthesis for solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and other electronic and opto-electronic applications.« less

  19. Role of the ganSPQAB Operon in Degradation of Galactan by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Watzlawick, Hildegard; Morabbi Heravi, Kambiz; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2016-10-15

    Bacillus subtilis possesses different enzymes for the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides. This includes a gene cluster containing galactan degradation genes (ganA and ganB), two transporter component genes (ganQ and ganP), and the sugar-binding lipoprotein-encoding gene ganS (previously known as cycB). These genes form an operon that is regulated by GanR. The degradation of galactan by B. subtilis begins with the activity of extracellular GanB. GanB is an endo-β-1,4-galactanase and is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 53. This enzyme was active on high-molecular-weight arabinose-free galactan and mainly produced galactotetraose as well as galactotriose and galactobiose. These galacto-oligosaccharides may enter the cell via the GanQP transmembrane proteins of the galactan ABC transporter. The specificity of the galactan ABC transporter depends on the sugar-binding lipoprotein, GanS. Purified GanS was shown to bind galactotetraose and galactotriose using thermal shift assay. The energy for this transport is provided by MsmX, an ATP-binding protein. The transported galacto-oligosaccharides are further degraded by GanA. GanA is a β-galactosidase that belongs to GH family 42. The GanA enzyme was able to hydrolyze short-chain β-1,4-galacto-oligosaccharides as well as synthetic β-galactopyranosides into galactose. Thermal shift assay as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that galactobiose is the inducer of the galactan operon regulated by GanR. DNase I footprinting revealed that the GanR protein binds to an operator overlapping the -35 box of the σ(A)-type promoter of Pgan, which is located upstream of ganS IMPORTANCE: Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that utilizes different types of carbohydrates, such as pectin, as carbon sources. So far, most of the pectin degradation systems and enzymes have been thoroughly studied in B. subtilis Nevertheless, the B. subtilis utilization system of galactan, which is

  20. Molecular-beam heteroepitaxial growth and characterization of wide-band-gap semiconductor films and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piquette, Eric Charles

    The thesis consists of two parts. Part I describes work on the molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of GaN, AlN, and AlxGa 1-xN alloys, as well as efforts in the initial technical development and demonstration of nitride-based high power electronic devices. The major issues pertaining to MBE growth are discussed, including special requirements of the growth system, substrates, film nucleation, n - and p-type doping, and the dependence of film quality on growth parameters. The GaN films were characterized by a variety of methods, including high resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Hall effect measurement. It is found that the film polarity and extended defect density as well as quality of photoluminescence and electrical transport properties depend crucially on how the nitride layer is nucleated on the substrate and how the subsequent film surface morphology evolves, which can be controlled by the growth conditions. A technique is proposed and demonstrated that utilizes the control of morphology evolution to reduce defect density and improve the structural quality of MBE GaN films. In addition to growth, the design and processing of high voltage GaN Schottky diodes is presented, as well as an experimental study of sputter-deposited ohmic and rectifying metal contacts to GaN. Simple models for high power devices, based on materials properties such as minority carrier diffusion length and critical electric breakdown field, are used to estimate the voltage standoff capability, current carrying capacity, and maximum operating frequency of unipolar and bipolar GaN power devices. The materials and transport properties of GaN pertinent to high power device design were measured experimentally. High voltage Schottky rectifiers were fabricated which verify the impressive electric breakdown field of GaN (2--5 MV/cm). Electron beam induced current (EBIC) experiments were also conducted to measure the minority carrier diffusion length for both electrons and

  1. Growth and characterization of GaN nanostructures under various ammoniating time with fabricated Schottky gas sensor based on Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Q. N.; Ahmed, A. R.; Ali, A. M.; Yam, F. K.; Hassan, Z.; Bououdina, M.; Almessiere, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the investigation of the influence of the ammoniating time of GaN nanowires (NWs) on the crystalline structure, surface morphology, and optical characteristics. Morphological analysis indicates the growth of good quality and high density of NWs with diameters around 50 nm and lengths up to tens of microns after ammoniating for 30 min. Structural analysis shows that GaN NWs have a typical hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. Raman spectroscopy confirms the formation of GaN compound with the presence of compressive stress. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed two band emissions, an UV and a broad visible emission. Hydrogen sensor was subsequently fabricated by depositing Pt Schottky contact onto GaN NWs film. The sensor response was measured at various H2 concentrations ranged from 200 up to 1200 ppm at room temperature. It was found that the response increases significantly for low H2 concentration (200-300 ppm) to reach about 50% then increases smoothly to reach 60% at 1200 ppm. The as-fabricated sensor possesses higher performances as compared to similar devices reported in the literature.

  2. Integration of (208) oriented epitaxial Hf-doped Bi4Ti3O12 with (0002) GaN using SrTiO3/TiO2 buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W. B.; Zhu, J.; Li, Y. R.; Wang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Hf-doped Bi4Ti3O12 (BTH) ferroelectric films with excellent electrical properties were epitaxially integrated with GaN semiconductor using (111) SrTiO3 (STO)/rutile (200) TiO2 as buffer layer. The STO/TiO2 buffer layer was deposited by laser molecular beam epitaxy. The structural characteristics of the buffer layer were in situ and ex situ characterized by reflective high energy electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and high resolution transmission microscopy. The overlaying SrRuO3 (SRO) and BTH films were then deposited by pulsed laser deposition. XRD spectra, including θ-2θ and Φ scans, show that the (208) BTH films were epitaxially grown on GaN, and the BTH films inherit the in-plane twin-domain of STO buffer layer. Electrical measurements demonstrate that the non-c axis BTH films possess a large remnant polarization (2Pr=45 μC/cm2), excellent fatigue endurance (10.2% degradation after 1.1×1010 switching cycles), and a low leakage current density (1.94×10-7 A/cm2 at an electric field of 200 kV/cm). These results reveal that the (208) BTH films with favorable electrical performance could be epitaxially grown on GaN template using STO/TiO2 buffer layer.

  3. Nanoscale morphology and optical property evolution of Pt nanostructures on GaN (0 0 0 1) by the systematic control of annealing temperature and duration with various Pt thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Sundar; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Zhang, Quanzhen; Li, Ming-Yu; Lee, Jihoon

    2017-06-01

    By the controlled fabrication of Pt nanostructures, various surface morphology dependent electronic, catalytic and optical properties can be exploited for a wide range of applications. In this paper, the evolution of Pt nanostructures on GaN (0 0 0 1) by the solid-state dewetting of Pt thin films is investigated. Controlling the annealing temperature, time and film thickness allows us to fabricate distinct size, density and configurations of Pt nanostructures. For 10 nm Pt thickness, tiny voids and Pt hillocks up to 550 °C, extensive void expansion and Pt nanostructure evolution between 600 °C-750 °C and finally Pt nanostructures assisted nanoholes penetration on GaN surface above 800 °C are demonstrated. Furthermore, comparatively elongated Pt nanostructures and NHs are resulted with 20 nm Pt thickness and voids growth and connected Pt nanostructure are formed by annealing duration control. The transformation of Pt films to nanostructures is governed by the surface diffusion, Rayleigh instability, Volmer-Weber growth and energy minimization mechanism whereas NHs penetration is commenced by the decomposition of GaN, Pt-Ga alloying and nitrogen desorption at high temperature. In addition, the optical characteristic of Pt nanostructures on GaN (0 0 0 1) by reflectance, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate the surface morphology dependent spectral response.

  4. Viability and proliferation of endothelial cells upon exposure to GaN nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Braniste, Tudor; Tiginyanu, Ion; Horvath, Tibor; Raevschi, Simion; Cebotari, Serghei; Lux, Marco; Haverich, Axel; Hilfiker, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing and promising field of interest in medicine; however, nanoparticle-cell interactions are not yet fully understood. The goal of this work was to examine the interaction between endothelial cells and gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor nanoparticles. Cellular viability, adhesion, proliferation, and uptake of nanoparticles by endothelial cells were investigated. The effect of free GaN nanoparticles versus the effect of growing endothelial cells on GaN functionalized surfaces was examined. To functionalize surfaces with GaN, GaN nanoparticles were synthesized on a sacrificial layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The uptake of GaN nanoparticles by porcine endothelial cells was strongly dependent upon whether they were fixed to the substrate surface or free floating in the medium. The endothelial cells grown on surfaces functionalized with GaN nanoparticles demonstrated excellent adhesion and proliferation, suggesting good biocompatibility of the nanostructured GaN.

  5. Harmonic surface acoustic waves on gallium nitride thin films.

    PubMed

    Justice, Joshua; Lee, Kyoungnae; Korakakis, D

    2012-08-01

    SAW devices operating at the fundamental frequency and the 5th, 7th, 9th, and 11th harmonics have been designed, fabricated, and measured. Devices were fabricated on GaN thin films on sapphire substrates, which were grown via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Operating frequencies of 230, 962, 1338, 1720, and 2100 MHz were achieved with devices that had a fundamental wavelength, lambda0 = 20 μm. Gigahertz operation is realized with relatively large interdigital transducers that do not require complicated submicrometer fabrication techniques. SAW devices fabricated on the GaN/sapphire bilayer have an anisotropic propagation when the wavelength is longer than the GaN film thickness. It is shown that for GaN thin films, where kh(GaN) > 10 (k = 2pi/lambda and h(GaN) = GaN film thickness), effects of the substrate on the SAW propagation are eliminated. Bulk mode suppression at harmonic operation is also demonstrated.

  6. Gallium hydride vapor phase epitaxy of GaN nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Straight GaN nanowires (NWs) with diameters of 50 nm, lengths up to 10 μm and a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure have been grown at 900°C on 0.5 nm Au/Si(001) via the reaction of Ga with NH3 and N2:H2, where the H2 content was varied between 10 and 100%. The growth of high-quality GaN NWs depends critically on the thickness of Au and Ga vapor pressure while no deposition occurs on plain Si(001). Increasing the H2 content leads to an increase in the growth rate, a reduction in the areal density of the GaN NWs and a suppression of the underlying amorphous (α)-like GaN layer which occurs without H2. The increase in growth rate with H2 content is a direct consequence of the reaction of Ga with H2 which leads to the formation of Ga hydride that reacts efficiently with NH3 at the top of the GaN NWs. Moreover, the reduction in the areal density of the GaN NWs and suppression of the α-like GaN layer is attributed to the reaction of H2 with Ga in the immediate vicinity of the Au NPs. Finally, the incorporation of H2 leads to a significant improvement in the near band edge photoluminescence through a suppression of the non-radiative recombination via surface states which become passivated not only via H2, but also via a reduction of O2-related defects. PMID:21711801

  7. Gallium hydride vapor phase epitaxy of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zervos, Matthew; Othonos, Andreas

    2011-03-28

    Straight GaN nanowires (NWs) with diameters of 50 nm, lengths up to 10 μm and a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure have been grown at 900°C on 0.5 nm Au/Si(001) via the reaction of Ga with NH3 and N2:H2, where the H2 content was varied between 10 and 100%. The growth of high-quality GaN NWs depends critically on the thickness of Au and Ga vapor pressure while no deposition occurs on plain Si(001). Increasing the H2 content leads to an increase in the growth rate, a reduction in the areal density of the GaN NWs and a suppression of the underlying amorphous (α)-like GaN layer which occurs without H2. The increase in growth rate with H2 content is a direct consequence of the reaction of Ga with H2 which leads to the formation of Ga hydride that reacts efficiently with NH3 at the top of the GaN NWs. Moreover, the reduction in the areal density of the GaN NWs and suppression of the α-like GaN layer is attributed to the reaction of H2 with Ga in the immediate vicinity of the Au NPs. Finally, the incorporation of H2 leads to a significant improvement in the near band edge photoluminescence through a suppression of the non-radiative recombination via surface states which become passivated not only via H2, but also via a reduction of O2-related defects.

  8. Movement of basal plane dislocations in GaN during electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yakimov, E. B.; National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy pr. 4, Moscow 119049; Vergeles, P. S.

    The movement of basal plane segments of dislocations in low-dislocation-density GaN films grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth as a result of irradiation with the probing beam of a scanning electron microscope was detected by means of electron beam induced current. Only a small fraction of the basal plane dislocations was susceptible to such changes and the movement was limited to relatively short distances. The effect is explained by the radiation enhanced dislocation glide for dislocations pinned by two different types of pinning sites: a low-activation-energy site and a high-activation-energy site. Only dislocation segments pinned by the former sites can bemore » moved by irradiation and only until they meet the latter pinning sites.« less

  9. Au-Doped Indium Tin Oxide Ohmic Contacts to p-Type GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Andagana, H. B.; Cao, X. A.

    2010-05-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films doped with Au, Ni, or Pt (3.5 at.% to 10.5 at.%) were deposited on p-GaN epilayers (Mg ~4 × 1019 cm-3) using direct-current (DC) sputter codeposition. It was found that undoped ITO con- tacts to p-GaN exhibited leaky Schottky behavior, whereas the incorporation of a small amount of Au (3.5 at.% to 10.5 at.%) significantly improved their ohmic characteristics. Compared with standard Ni/ITO contacts, the Au-doped ITO contacts had a similar specific contact resistance in the low 10-2 Ω cm-2 range, but were more stable above 600°C and more transparent at blue wavelengths. These results provide support for the use of Au-doped ITO ohmic contact to p-type GaN in high-brightness blue light-emitting diodes.

  10. Nano-indentation used to study pyramidal slip in GaN single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimsky, E.; Jones, K. A.; Tompkins, R. P.; Rotella, P.; Ligda, J.; Schuster, B. E.

    2018-02-01

    The nucleation and structure of dislocations created by the nano-indentation of GaN samples with dislocation densities ≈103, 106 or 109 ⊥/cm2 were studied in the interest of learning how dislocations can be created to relieve the mismatch strain in ternary nitride films grown on (0001) oriented binary nitride substrates. Using transmission electron microscopy and stress analyses to assist in interpreting the nano-indentation data, we determined that the pop-ins in the indenter load vs. penetration depth curves are created by an avalanche process at stresses well above the typical yield stress. The process begins by the homogeneous formation of a basal plane screw dislocation that triggers the formation of pyramidal and other basal plane dislocations that relieve the excess stored elastic energy. It appears that pyramidal slip can occur on either the {1122} or {0111} planes, as there is little resistance to the cross slip of screw dislocations.

  11. Photoluminescence Study of Gallium Nitride Thin Films Obtained by Infrared Close Space Vapor Transport.

    PubMed

    Santana, Guillermo; de Melo, Osvaldo; Aguilar-Hernández, Jorge; Mendoza-Pérez, Rogelio; Monroy, B Marel; Escamilla-Esquivel, Adolfo; López-López, Máximo; de Moure, Francisco; Hernández, Luis A; Contreras-Puente, Gerardo

    2013-03-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) studies in GaN thin films grown by infrared close space vapor transport (CSVT-IR) in vacuum are presented in this work. The growth of GaN thin films was done on a variety of substrates like silicon, sapphire and fused silica. Room temperature PL spectra of all the GaN films show near band-edge emission (NBE) and a broad blue and green luminescence (BL, GL), which can be seen with the naked eye in a bright room. The sample grown by infrared CSVT on the silicon substrate shows several emission peaks from 2.4 to 3.22 eV with a pronounced red shift with respect to the band gap energy. The sample grown on sapphire shows strong and broad ultraviolet emission peaks (UVL) centered at 3.19 eV and it exhibits a red shift of NBE. The PL spectrum of GaN films deposited on fused silica exhibited a unique and strong blue-green emission peak centered at 2.38 eV. The presence of yellow and green luminescence in all samples is related to native defects in the structure such as dislocations in GaN and/or the presence of amorphous phases. We analyze the material quality that can be obtained by CSVT-IR in vacuum, which is a high yield technique with simple equipment set-up, in terms of the PL results obtained in each case.

  12. Photoluminescence Study of Gallium Nitride Thin Films Obtained by Infrared Close Space Vapor Transport

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Guillermo; de Melo, Osvaldo; Aguilar-Hernández, Jorge; Mendoza-Pérez, Rogelio; Monroy, B. Marel; Escamilla-Esquivel, Adolfo; López-López, Máximo; de Moure, Francisco; Hernández, Luis A.; Contreras-Puente, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) studies in GaN thin films grown by infrared close space vapor transport (CSVT-IR) in vacuum are presented in this work. The growth of GaN thin films was done on a variety of substrates like silicon, sapphire and fused silica. Room temperature PL spectra of all the GaN films show near band-edge emission (NBE) and a broad blue and green luminescence (BL, GL), which can be seen with the naked eye in a bright room. The sample grown by infrared CSVT on the silicon substrate shows several emission peaks from 2.4 to 3.22 eV with a pronounced red shift with respect to the band gap energy. The sample grown on sapphire shows strong and broad ultraviolet emission peaks (UVL) centered at 3.19 eV and it exhibits a red shift of NBE. The PL spectrum of GaN films deposited on fused silica exhibited a unique and strong blue-green emission peak centered at 2.38 eV. The presence of yellow and green luminescence in all samples is related to native defects in the structure such as dislocations in GaN and/or the presence of amorphous phases. We analyze the material quality that can be obtained by CSVT-IR in vacuum, which is a high yield technique with simple equipment set-up, in terms of the PL results obtained in each case. PMID:28809356

  13. Crystallographic tilt and in-plane anisotropies of an a-plane InGaN/GaN layered structure grown by MOCVD on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. F.; Liu, W.; Guo, S.; Chi, D. Z.

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to investigate the crystallographic tilts and structural anisotropies in epitaxial nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer. The substrate had an unintentional miscut of 0.14° towards its [-4 2 2 3] axis. However, HRXRD revealed a tilt of 0.26° (0.20°) between the ZnO (GaN) (11-20) and the Al2O3 (1-102) atomic planes, with the (11-20) axis of ZnO (GaN) tilted towards its c-axis, which has a difference of 163° in azimuth from that of the substrate’s miscut. Excess broadenings in the GaN/ZnO (11-20) rocking curves (RCs) were observed along its c-axis. Specific analyses revealed that partial dislocations and anisotropic in-plane strains, rather than surface-related effects, wafer curvature or stacking faults, are the dominant factors for the structural anisotropy. The orientation of the partial dislocations is most likely affected by the miscut of the substrate, e.g. via tilting of the misfit dislocation gliding planes created during island coalescences. Their Burgers vector components in the growth direction, in turn, gave rise to crystallographic tilts in the same direction as that of the excess RC-broadenings.

  14. Native defects in GaN: a hybrid functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, Ibrahima Castillo; Demchenko, Denis

    Intrinsic defects play an important role in the performance of GaN-based devices. We present hybrid density functional calculations of the electronic and possible optical properties of interstitial N (Ni-Ni) , N antisite (NGa) , interstitial Ga (Gai) , Ga antisite (GaN) , Ga vacancy (VGa) , N vacancy (VN) and Ga-N divacancies (VGaVN) in GaN. Our results show that the vacancies display relatively low formation energies in certain samples, whereas antisites and interstitials are energetically less favorable. However, interstitials can be created by electron irradiation. For instance, in 2.5 MeV electron-irradiated GaN samples, a strong correlation between the frequently observed photoluminescence (PL) band centered around 0.85 eV accompanied with a rich phonon sideband of ~0.88 eV and the theoretical optical behavior of interstitial Ga is discussed. N vacancies are found to likely contribute to the experimentally obtained green luminescence band (GL2) peaking at 2.24 eV in high-resistivity undoped and Mg-doped GaN. National Science Foundation (DMR-1410125) and the Thomas F. and Kate Miller Jeffress Memorial Trust.

  15. Energy bands and acceptor binding energies of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian-Bai; Cheah, K. W.; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Sun, Dian-Zhao; Kong, Mei-Ying

    1999-04-01

    The energy bands of zinc-blende and wurtzite GaN are calculated with the empirical pseudopotential method, and the pseudopotential parameters for Ga and N atoms are given. The calculated energy bands are in agreement with those obtained by the ab initio method. The effective-mass theory for the semiconductors of wurtzite structure is established, and the effective-mass parameters of GaN for both structures are given. The binding energies of acceptor states are calculated by solving strictly the effective-mass equations. The binding energies of donor and acceptor are 24 and 142 meV for the zinc-blende structure, 20 and 131, and 97 meV for the wurtzite structure, respectively, which are consistent with recent experimental results. It is proposed that there are two kinds of acceptor in wurtzite GaN. One kind is the general acceptor such as C, which substitutes N, which satisfies the effective-mass theory. The other kind of acceptor includes Mg, Zn, Cd, etc., the binding energy of these acceptors is deviated from that given by the effective-mass theory. In this report, wurtzite GaN is grown by the molecular-beam epitaxy method, and the photoluminescence spectra were measured. Three main peaks are assigned to the donor-acceptor transitions from two kinds of acceptors. Some of the transitions were identified as coming from the cubic phase of GaN, which appears randomly within the predominantly hexagonal material.

  16. The 2018 GaN power electronics roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, H.; Baines, Y.; Beam, E.; Borga, Matteo; Bouchet, T.; Chalker, Paul R.; Charles, M.; Chen, Kevin J.; Chowdhury, Nadim; Chu, Rongming; De Santi, Carlo; Merlyne De Souza, Maria; Decoutere, Stefaan; Di Cioccio, L.; Eckardt, Bernd; Egawa, Takashi; Fay, P.; Freedsman, Joseph J.; Guido, L.; Häberlen, Oliver; Haynes, Geoff; Heckel, Thomas; Hemakumara, Dilini; Houston, Peter; Hu, Jie; Hua, Mengyuan; Huang, Qingyun; Huang, Alex; Jiang, Sheng; Kawai, H.; Kinzer, Dan; Kuball, Martin; Kumar, Ashwani; Boon Lee, Kean; Li, Xu; Marcon, Denis; März, Martin; McCarthy, R.; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Meneghini, Matteo; Morvan, E.; Nakajima, A.; Narayanan, E. M. S.; Oliver, Stephen; Palacios, Tomás; Piedra, Daniel; Plissonnier, M.; Reddy, R.; Sun, Min; Thayne, Iain; Torres, A.; Trivellin, Nicola; Unni, V.; Uren, Michael J.; Van Hove, Marleen; Wallis, David J.; Wang, J.; Xie, J.; Yagi, S.; Yang, Shu; Youtsey, C.; Yu, Ruiyang; Zanoni, Enrico; Zeltner, Stefan; Zhang, Yuhao

    2018-04-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a compound semiconductor that has tremendous potential to facilitate economic growth in a semiconductor industry that is silicon-based and currently faced with diminishing returns of performance versus cost of investment. At a material level, its high electric field strength and electron mobility have already shown tremendous potential for high frequency communications and photonic applications. Advances in growth on commercially viable large area substrates are now at the point where power conversion applications of GaN are at the cusp of commercialisation. The future for building on the work described here in ways driven by specific challenges emerging from entirely new markets and applications is very exciting. This collection of GaN technology developments is therefore not itself a road map but a valuable collection of global state-of-the-art GaN research that will inform the next phase of the technology as market driven requirements evolve. First generation production devices are igniting large new markets and applications that can only be achieved using the advantages of higher speed, low specific resistivity and low saturation switching transistors. Major investments are being made by industrial companies in a wide variety of markets exploring the use of the technology in new circuit topologies, packaging solutions and system architectures that are required to achieve and optimise the system advantages offered by GaN transistors. It is this momentum that will drive priorities for the next stages of device research gathered here.

  17. Activation and evaluation of GaN photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, Benkang; Qiao, Jiangliang; Zhang, Yijun; Fu, Rongguo; Qiu, Yafeng

    2009-09-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) photocathodes are potentially attractive as UV detective materials and electron sources. Based on the activation and evaluation system for GaAs photocathode, which consists of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) activation chamber, multi-information measurement system, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet ray photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), the control and measurement system for the activation of UV photocathodes was developed. The developed system, which consists of Xenon lamp, monochromator with scanner, signal-processing module, power control unit of Cs and O source, A/D adapter, digital I/O card, computer and software, can control the activation of GaN photocathodes and measure on-line the spectral response curves of GaN photocathodes. GaN materials on sapphire substrate were grown by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) with p-type Mg doping. The GaN materials were activated by Cs-O. The spectral response and quantum efficiency (QE) were measured and calculated. The experiment results are discussed.

  18. Atomic layer deposition TiO 2-Al 2O 3 stack: An improved gate dielectric on Ga-polar GaN metal oxide semiconductor capacitors

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Daming; Edgar, James H.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; ...

    2014-10-15

    This research focuses on the benefits and properties of TiO 2-Al 2O 3 nano-stack thin films deposited on Ga 2O 3/GaN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) for gate dielectric development. This combination of materials achieved a high dielectric constant, a low leakage current, and a low interface trap density. Correlations were sought between the films’ structure, composition, and electrical properties. The gate dielectrics were approximately 15 nm thick and contained 5.1 nm TiO 2, 7.1 nm Al 2O 3 and 2 nm Ga 2O 3 as determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The interface carbon concentration, as measured by x-ray photoelectronmore » spectroscopy (XPS) depth profile, was negligible for GaN pretreated by thermal oxidation in O 2 for 30 minutes at 850°C. The RMS roughness slightly increased after thermal oxidation and remained the same after ALD of the nano-stack, as determined by atomic force microscopy. The dielectric constant of TiO 2-Al 2O 3 on Ga2O3/GaN was increased to 12.5 compared to that of pure Al 2O 3 (8~9) on GaN. In addition, the nano-stack's capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis was small, with a total trap density of 8.74 × 10 11 cm -2. The gate leakage current density (J=2.81× 10 -8 A/cm 2) was low at +1 V gate bias. These results demonstrate the promising potential of plasma ALD deposited TiO 2/Al 2O 3 for serving as the gate oxide on Ga 2O 3/GaN based MOS devices.« less

  19. Atomic layer deposition TiO 2-Al 2O 3 stack: An improved gate dielectric on Ga-polar GaN metal oxide semiconductor capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Daming; Edgar, James H.; Briggs, Dayrl P.

    This research focuses on the benefits and properties of TiO 2-Al 2O 3 nano-stack thin films deposited on Ga 2O 3/GaN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) for gate dielectric development. This combination of materials achieved a high dielectric constant, a low leakage current, and a low interface trap density. Correlations were sought between the films’ structure, composition, and electrical properties. The gate dielectrics were approximately 15 nm thick and contained 5.1 nm TiO 2, 7.1 nm Al 2O 3 and 2 nm Ga 2O 3 as determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The interface carbon concentration, as measured by x-ray photoelectronmore » spectroscopy (XPS) depth profile, was negligible for GaN pretreated by thermal oxidation in O 2 for 30 minutes at 850°C. The RMS roughness slightly increased after thermal oxidation and remained the same after ALD of the nano-stack, as determined by atomic force microscopy. The dielectric constant of TiO 2-Al 2O 3 on Ga2O3/GaN was increased to 12.5 compared to that of pure Al 2O 3 (8~9) on GaN. In addition, the nano-stack's capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis was small, with a total trap density of 8.74 × 10 11 cm -2. The gate leakage current density (J=2.81× 10 -8 A/cm 2) was low at +1 V gate bias. These results demonstrate the promising potential of plasma ALD deposited TiO 2/Al 2O 3 for serving as the gate oxide on Ga 2O 3/GaN based MOS devices.« less

  20. Alignment control and atomically-scaled heteroepitaxial interface study of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyun; Liu, Baodan; Yang, Wenjin; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xinglai; Labbé, Christophe; Portier, Xavier; An, Vladimir; Jiang, Xin

    2017-04-20

    Well-aligned GaN nanowires are promising candidates for building high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices. In this work, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of well-aligned GaN nanowires on a [0001]-oriented sapphire substrate in a simple catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition process and their alignment control. It is found that the ammonia flux plays a key role in dominating the initial nucleation of GaN nanocrystals and their orientation. Typically, significant improvement of the GaN nanowire alignment can be realized at a low NH 3 flow rate. X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy studies further verified the preferential orientation of GaN nanowires along the [0001] direction. The growth mechanism of GaN nanowire arrays is also well studied based on cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization and it is observed that GaN nanowires have good epitaxial growth on the sapphire substrate following the crystallographic relationship between (0001) GaN ∥(0001) sapphire and (101[combining macron]0) GaN ∥(112[combining macron]0) sapphire . Most importantly, periodic misfit dislocations are also experimentally observed in the interface region due to the large lattice mismatch between the GaN nanowire and the sapphire substrate, and the formation of such dislocations will favor the release of structural strain in GaN nanowires. HRTEM analysis also finds the existence of "type I" stacking faults and voids inside the GaN nanowires. Optical investigation suggests that the GaN nanowire arrays have strong emission in the UV range, suggesting their crystalline nature and chemical purity. The achievement of aligned GaN nanowires will further promote the wide applications of GaN nanostructures toward diverse high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices including nano-LEDs, photovoltaic cells, photodetectors etc.

  1. Structural defects in bulk GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; dos Reis, R.; Mancuso, M.; Song, C. Y.; Grzegory, I.; Porowski, S.; Bockowski, M.

    2014-10-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies of undoped and Mg doped GaN layers grown on the HVPE substrates by High Nitrogen Pressure Solution (HNPS) with the multi-feed-seed (MFS) configuration are shown. The propagation of dislocations from the HVPE substrate to the layer is observed. Due to the interaction between these dislocations in the thick layers much lower density of these defects is observed in the upper part of the HNPS layers. Amorphous Ga precipitates with attached voids pointing toward the growth direction are observed in the undoped layer. This is similar to the presence of Ga precipitates in high-pressure platelets, however the shape of these precipitates is different. The Mg doped layers do not show Ga precipitates, but MgO rectangular precipitates are formed, decorating the dislocations. Results of TEM studies of HVPE layers grown on Ammonothermal substrates are also presented. These layers have superior crystal quality in comparison to the HNPS layers, as far as density of dislocation is concern. Occasionally some small inclusions can be found, but their chemical composition was not yet determined. It is expected that growth of the HNPS layers on these substrate will lead to large layer thickness obtained in a short time and with high crystal perfection needed in devices.

  2. High-Sensitivity GaN Microchemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Yang, Baohua; Liao, Anna; Moon, Jeongsun; Prokopuk, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Systematic studies have been performed on the sensitivity of GaN HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) sensors using various gate electrode designs and operational parameters. The results here show that a higher sensitivity can be achieved with a larger W/L ratio (W = gate width, L = gate length) at a given D (D = source-drain distance), and multi-finger gate electrodes offer a higher sensitivity than a one-finger gate electrode. In terms of operating conditions, sensor sensitivity is strongly dependent on transconductance of the sensor. The highest sensitivity can be achieved at the gate voltage where the slope of the transconductance curve is the largest. This work provides critical information about how the gate electrode of a GaN HEMT, which has been identified as the most sensitive among GaN microsensors, needs to be designed, and what operation parameters should be used for high sensitivity detection.

  3. Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Foronda, Humberto M.; Young, Erin C.; Robertson, Christian A.

    2016-07-21

    We investigate the bow of free standing (0001) oriented hydride vapor phase epitaxy grown GaN substrates and demonstrate that their curvature is consistent with a compressive to tensile stress gradient (bottom to top) present in the substrates. The origin of the stress gradient and the curvature is attributed to the correlated inclination of edge threading dislocation (TD) lines away from the [0001] direction. A model is proposed and a relation is derived for bulk GaN substrate curvature dependence on the inclination angle and the density of TDs. The model is used to analyze the curvature for commercially available GaN substratesmore » as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction. The results show a close correlation between the experimentally determined parameters and those predicted from theoretical model.« less

  4. The controlled growth of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hersee, Stephen D; Sun, Xinyu; Wang, Xin

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports a scalable process for the growth of high-quality GaN nanowires and uniform nanowire arrays in which the position and diameter of each nanowire is precisely controlled. The approach is based on conventional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using regular precursors and requires no additional metal catalyst. The location, orientation, and diameter of each GaN nanowire are controlled using a thin, selective growth mask that is patterned by interferometric lithography. It was found that use of a pulsed MOCVD process allowed the nanowire diameter to remain constant after the nanowires had emerged from the selective growth mask. Vertical GaN nanowire growth rates in excess of 2 mum/h were measured, while remarkably the diameter of each nanowire remained constant over the entire (micrometer) length of the nanowires. The paper reports transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence data.

  5. Transient atomic behavior and surface kinetics of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Michael; Billingsley, Daniel; Henderson, Walter; Trybus, Elaissa; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2009-07-01

    An in-depth model for the transient behavior of metal atoms adsorbed on the surface of GaN is developed. This model is developed by qualitatively analyzing transient reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) signals, which were recorded for a variety of growth conditions of GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) using metal-modulated epitaxy (MME). Details such as the initial desorption of a nitrogen adlayer and the formation of the Ga monolayer, bilayer, and droplets are monitored using RHEED and related to Ga flux and shutter cycles. The suggested model increases the understanding of the surface kinetics of GaN, provides an indirect method of monitoring the kinetic evolution of these surfaces, and introduces a novel method of in situ growth rate determination.

  6. Vacancy-hydrogen complexes in ammonothermal GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomisto, F.; Kuittinen, T.; Zając, M.; Doradziński, R.; Wasik, D.

    2014-10-01

    We have applied positron annihilation spectroscopy to study in-grown vacancy defects in bulk GaN crystals grown by the ammonothermal method. We observe a high concentration of Ga vacancy related defects in n-type samples with varying free electron and oxygen content. The positron lifetimes found in these samples suggest that the Ga vacancies are complexed with hydrogen impurities. The number of hydrogen atoms in each vacancy decreases with increasing free electron concentration and oxygen and hydrogen content. The local vibrational modes observed in infrared absorption support this conclusion. Growth of high-quality ammonothermal GaN single crystals with varying electron concentrations. Identification of defect complexes containing a Ga vacancy and 1 or more hydrogen atoms, and possibly O. These vacancy complexes provide a likely explanation for electrical compensation in ammonothermal GaN.

  7. Temperature dependent growth of GaN nanowires using CVD technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshjihrnp@gmail.com; Singh, R.; Kumar, Vikram

    2016-05-23

    Growth of GaN nanowires have been carried out on sapphire substrates with Au as a catalyst using chemical vapour deposition technique. GaN nanowires growth have been studied with the experimental parameter as growth temperature. Diameter of grown GaN nanowires are in the range of 50 nm to 100 nm while the nanowire length depends on growth temperature. Morphology of the GaN nanowires have been studied by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline nature has been observed by XRD patterns. Optical properties of grown GaN nanowires have been investigated by photoluminescence spectra.

  8. Conductivity based on selective etch for GaN devices and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  9. A DFT study on NEA GaN photocathode with an ultrathin n-type Si-doped GaN cap layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Kong, Yike; Diao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Due to the drawbacks of conventional negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathodes activated by Cs or Cs/O, a new-type NEA GaN photocathodes with heterojunction surface dispense with Cs activation are proposed. This structure can be obtained through the coverage of an ultrathin n-type Si-doped GaN cap layer on the p-type Mg-doped GaN emission layer. The influences of the cap layer on the photocathode are calculated using DFT. This study indicates that the n-type cap layer can promote the photoemission characteristics of GaN photocathode and demonstrates the probability of the preparation of a NEA GaN photocathode with an n-type cap layer.

  10. Synthesis and characterizations of nanoscale single crystal GaN grown by ion assisted gas source MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Bentao; Cohen, P. I.

    2004-03-01

    Nanoscale patterns could be induced by ion bombardment [1, 2]. In this study, an in-situ real time light scattering technique, combined with Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), were used to study the surface morphology evolution during the ion beam assisted growth of GaN in a gas source MBE system. Ga was provided by a thermal effusion cell. Ammonia was used as the nitrogen source. A hot-filament Kaufman ion source was used to supply sub-KeV ion beams. Sapphire and MOCVD GaN templates were used as the substrates. A custom-designed Desorption Mass Spectrometer (DMS) was used to calibrate the growth temperature and determine the growth rate. Before growing GaN, the sapphire substrates were pretreated in an ion flux and then annealed for cleaning. The sapphire surface was then nitrided in ammonia at 1100K for about 10 min. After nitridation, a thin GaN buffer layer was prepared by a sequence of adsorption and annealing steps. During the growth, the short-range surface morphology and film quality were monitored in situ by RHEED. In a real-time way, the long-range surface morphology was monitored in-situ by light scattering technique. Photodiode array detector and CCD camera were used to record the reflected light scattering intensity and spectra profile respectively. Periodical patterns, such as ripple, have been observed during ion bombardment on GaN with or without growth. A linear theory (from Bradley and Harper 1988 [3]) has been modified to explain the dependence of ripple wavelength on ion species and ion energy. Partially supported by the National Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. [1]. J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, E. Chason, M. B. Sinclair, and J. A. Floro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2330 (1998); J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, E. Chason, M. B. Sinclair, and J. A. Floro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5800 (2000). [2]. S. Facsko, T. Dekorsy, C. Koerdt, C. Trappe, H. Kurz, A. Vogt et al.. Science 285, 1551 (1999). [3]. R. M. Bradley

  11. Mg doping of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieten, R. R.; Motsnyi, V.; Zhang, L.; Cheng, K.; Leys, M.; Degroote, S.; Buchowicz, G.; Dubon, O.; Borghs, G.

    2011-04-01

    We present a systematic study on the influence of growth conditions on the incorporation and activation of Mg in GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We show that high quality p-type GaN layers can be obtained on GaN-on-silicon templates. The Mg incorporation and the electrical properties have been investigated as a function of growth temperature, Ga : N flux ratio and Mg : Ga flux ratio. It was found that the incorporation of Mg and the electrical properties are highly sensitive to the Ga : N flux ratio. The highest hole mobility and lowest resistivity were achieved for slightly Ga-rich conditions. In addition to an optimal Ga : N ratio, an optimum Mg : Ga flux ratio was also observed at around 1%. We observed a clear Mg flux window for p-type doping of GaN : 0.31% < Mg : Ga < 5.0%. A lowest resistivity of 0.98 Ω cm was obtained for optimized growth conditions. The p-type GaN layer then showed a hole concentration of 4.3 × 1017 cm-3 and a mobility of 15 cm2 V-1 s-1. Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements indicate an acceptor depth in these samples of 100 meV for a hole concentration of 5.5 × 1017 cm-3. The corresponding Mg concentration is 5 × 1019 cm-3, indicating approximately 1% activation at room temperature. In addition to continuous growth of Mg-doped GaN layers we also investigated different modulated growth procedures. We show that a modulated growth procedure has only limited influence on Mg doping at a growth temperature of 800 °C or higher. This result is thus in contrast to previously reported GaN : Mg doping at much lower growth temperatures of 500 °C.

  12. Zero lattice mismatch and twin-free single crystalline ScN buffer layers for GaN growth on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lupina, L.; Zoellner, M. H.; Dietrich, B.

    2015-11-16

    We report the growth of thin ScN layers deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) substrates. Using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, we find that ScN films grown at 600 °C are single crystalline, twin-free with rock-salt crystal structure, and exhibit a direct optical band gap of 2.2 eV. A high degree of crystalline perfection and a very good lattice matching between ScN and GaN (misfit < 0.1%) makes the ScN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer system a very promising template for the growth of high quality GaN layers on silicon.

  13. Cross-stacked carbon nanotubes assisted self-separation of free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tongbo; Yang, Jiankun; Wei, Yang; Huo, Ziqiang; Ji, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-06-01

    We report a novel method to fabricate high quality 2-inch freestanding GaN substrate grown on cross-stacked carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) coated sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). As nanoscale masks, these CSCNTs can help weaken the interface connection and release the compressive stress by forming voids during fast coalescence and also block the propagation of threading dislocations (TDs). During the cool-down process, thermal stress-induced cracks are initiated at the CSCNTs interface with the help of air voids and propagated all over the films which leads to full self-separation of FS-GaN substrate. Raman and photoluminescence spectra further reveal the stress relief and crystalline improvement of GaN with CSCNTs. It is expected that the efficient, low cost and mass-producible technique may enable new applications for CNTs in nitride optoelectronic fields.

  14. Cross-stacked carbon nanotubes assisted self-separation of free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tongbo; Yang, Jiankun; Wei, Yang; Huo, Ziqiang; Ji, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-06-24

    We report a novel method to fabricate high quality 2-inch freestanding GaN substrate grown on cross-stacked carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) coated sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). As nanoscale masks, these CSCNTs can help weaken the interface connection and release the compressive stress by forming voids during fast coalescence and also block the propagation of threading dislocations (TDs). During the cool-down process, thermal stress-induced cracks are initiated at the CSCNTs interface with the help of air voids and propagated all over the films which leads to full self-separation of FS-GaN substrate. Raman and photoluminescence spectra further reveal the stress relief and crystalline improvement of GaN with CSCNTs. It is expected that the efficient, low cost and mass-producible technique may enable new applications for CNTs in nitride optoelectronic fields.

  15. Cross-stacked carbon nanotubes assisted self-separation of free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tongbo; Yang, Jiankun; Wei, Yang; Huo, Ziqiang; Ji, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel method to fabricate high quality 2-inch freestanding GaN substrate grown on cross-stacked carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) coated sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). As nanoscale masks, these CSCNTs can help weaken the interface connection and release the compressive stress by forming voids during fast coalescence and also block the propagation of threading dislocations (TDs). During the cool-down process, thermal stress-induced cracks are initiated at the CSCNTs interface with the help of air voids and propagated all over the films which leads to full self-separation of FS-GaN substrate. Raman and photoluminescence spectra further reveal the stress relief and crystalline improvement of GaN with CSCNTs. It is expected that the efficient, low cost and mass-producible technique may enable new applications for CNTs in nitride optoelectronic fields. PMID:27340030

  16. Novel activation process for Mg-implanted GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Shin; Nakamura, Takao; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    A novel activation process for Mg-implanted GaN was demonstrated. As opposed to the conventional thermal annealing process, an H2/NH3 alternating supply annealing process achieved better optical activation, stronger near-ultraviolet luminescence and weaker yellow luminescence in the photoluminescence spectroscopy. After this process, small hexagonal hillocks were observed on the surface, which indicated that crystal regrowth was induced by this process, consisting of decomposition of GaN by H2 supplies and re-crystallization by NH3 supplies. It was revealed that the implanted Mg could easily be located at the activation site by means of crystal regrowth by this process.

  17. Surface cleaning for negative electron affinity GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jianliang; Yin, Yingpeng; Gao, Youtang; Niu, Jun; Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, Benkang

    2012-10-01

    In the preparation process for negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathode, the surface cleanness is very important to activation, it influences the sensitivity and stability of NEA GaN photocathode. The traditional corrosion methods based on oxidizing and dissolving can't remove oxygen (O) and carbon (C) on GaN surface effectively. How to get an ideal atom clean surface is still an important question at present. The cleaning techniques for GaN photocathode was studied by using NEA photocathode activation system and XPS surface analysis system. The experiment sample is p-type GaN doped with Mg, doped concentration is 1.37×1017 cm-3, the transfer rate is 3.08 cm2/V-S, and the thickness of activation layer is 0.51 μm, the substrate is 300 μm thick sapphire. The sample was dealed with chemical cleaning depuration at first. And to get the atom clean surface, the vacuum heat cleaning process was needed. The methods of chemical cleaning and the vacuum heating cleaning were given in detail. According to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of GaN surface after chemical cleaning and the vacuum degree curve of the activation chamber during the heat cleaning, the cleaning effect and the cleaning mechanism were discussed. After the effective chemical cleaning and the heating of 700 Centigrade degree about 20 minutes in ultrahigh vacuum system, the oxides and carbon contaminants on cathode surface can be removed effectively, and the ideal atom clean surface can be obtained. The purpose of heating depuration process is that not only to get the atom clean GaN surface, but also to guarantee the contents of Ga, N on GaN surface stabilize and to keep the system ultra-high vacuum degree. Because of the volatilization of oxide and carbon impurity on the cathode surface, the vacuum degree curve drops with the rising of temperature on the whole.

  18. Epitaxial growth of GaN by radical-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (REMOCVD) in the downflow of a very high frequency (VHF) N2/H2 excited plasma - effect of TMG flow rate and VHF power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Oda, Osamu; Takeda, Keigo; Sekine, Makoto; Amano, Hiroshi; Hori, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films have been grown by using our newly developed Radical-Enhanced Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (REMOCVD) system. This system has three features: (1) application of very high frequency (60 MHz) power in order to increase the plasma density, (2) introduction of H2 gas together with N2 gas in the plasma discharge region to generate not only nitrogen radicals but also active NHx molecules, and (3) radical supply under remote plasma arrangement with suppression of charged ions and photons by employing a Faraday cage. Using this new system, we have studied the effect of the trimethylgallium (TMG) source flow rate and of the plasma generation power on the GaN crystal quality by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and double crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that this REMOCVD allowed the growth of epitaxial GaN films of the wurtzite structure of (0001) orientation on sapphire substrates with a high growth rate of 0.42 μm/h at a low temperature of 800 °C. The present REMOCVD is a promising method for GaN growth at relatively low temperature and without using costly ammonia gas.

  19. Coating MCPs with AlN and GaN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensaoula, Abdelhakim; Starikov, David; Boney, Chris

    2006-01-01

    A development effort underway at the time of reporting the information for this article is devoted to increasing the sensitivity of microchannel plates (MCPs) as detectors of photons and ions by coating the MCPs with nitrides of elements in period III of the periodic table. Conventional MCPs are relatively insensitive to slowly moving, large-mass ions for example, ions of biomolecules under analysis in mass spectrometers. The idea underlying this development is to coat an MCP to reduce its work function (decrease its electron affinity) in order to increase both (1) the emission of electrons in response to impingement of low-energy, large-mass ions and (2) the multiplying effect of secondary electron emission. Of particular interest as coating materials having appropriately low or even negative electron affinities are gallium nitride, aluminum nitride, and ternary alloys of general composition Al(x)Ga(1-x)N (where 0films of AlN and GaN both undoped and doped with Si were deposited on commercial MCPs by radio-frequency molecular-beam epitaxy (also known as plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy) at temperatures <200 C. This deposition technique is particularly suitable because (1) MCPs cannot withstand the higher deposition-substrate temperatures used to decompose constituent compounds in some other deposition techniques and (2) in this technique, the constituent Al, Ga, and N

  20. Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Heilmann, M.; Latzel, Michael; Kapoor, Raman; Sharma, Intu; Göbelt, M.; Christiansen, Silke H.; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    The electrical behaviour of Schottky barrier diodes realized on vertically standing individual GaN nanorods and array of nanorods is investigated. The Schottky diodes on individual nanorod show highest barrier height in comparison with large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film which is in contrast with previously published work. The discrepancy between the electrical behaviour of nanoscale Schottky diodes and large area diodes is explained using cathodoluminescence measurements, surface potential analysis using Kelvin probe force microscopy and 1ow frequency noise measurements. The noise measurements on large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film suggest the presence of barrier inhomogeneities at the metal/semiconductor interface which deviate the noise spectra from Lorentzian to 1/f type. These barrier inhomogeneities in large area diodes resulted in reduced barrier height whereas due to the limited role of barrier inhomogeneities in individual nanorod based Schottky diode, a higher barrier height is obtained. PMID:27282258

  1. Structural investigations of GaN grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition on 6H{endash}SiC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from GaCl{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Koynov, S.; Topf, M.; Fischer, S.

    1997-08-01

    GaN films grown on (0001) 6H{endash}SiC and (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition with GaCl{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} as precursors are comparatively explored by optical, scanning tunneling, and transmission electron microscopy. Independent of the substrate material used, the surface of the GaN layers is covered by hexagonally shaped islands. For GaN on 6H{endash}SiC, the islands are larger in diameter ({approx}50 {mu}m) and rather uniformly distributed. An atomically flat interface is observed for GaN on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in contrast to GaN grown on 6H{endash}SiC, where the interface is characterized by large steps. For both substrates,more » faceted holes (named as pinholes) are observed in near-surface regions of the GaN layers occurring with a density of about 7{times}10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}2}. No unequivocal correlation between the density of pinholes and the density of threading dislocations ({approx}1.6{times}10{sup 10} cm{sup {minus}2} for GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {approx}4{times}10{sup 9} cm{sup {minus}2} for GaN/6H{endash}SiC) can be found. Rather, different types of defects are identified to be correlated with the pinholes, implying a dislocation-independent mechanism for the pinhole formation. Despite the small lattice mismatch between GaN and 6H{endash}SiC, the pronounced original surface roughness of this substrate material is believed to account for both the marked interfacial roughness and the still existing high density of threading dislocations. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  2. Fabrication and properties of ZnO/GaN heterostructure nanocolumnar thin film on Si (111) substrate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide thin films have been obtained on bare and GaN buffer layer decorated Si (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), respectively. GaN buffer layer was achieved by a two-step method. The structure, surface morphology, composition, and optical properties of these thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, infrared absorption spectra, and photoluminiscence (PL) spectra, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images indicate that the flower-like grains were presented on the surface of ZnO thin films grown on GaN/Si (111) substrate, while the ZnO thin films grown on Si (111) substrate show the morphology of inclination column. PL spectrum reveals that the ultraviolet emission efficiency of ZnO thin film on GaN buffer layer is high, and the defect emission of ZnO thin film derived from Zni and Vo is low. The results demonstrate that the existence of GaN buffer layer can greatly improve the ZnO thin film on the Si (111) substrate by PLD techniques. PMID:23448090

  3. Fabrication and properties of ZnO/GaN heterostructure nanocolumnar thin film on Si (111) substrate.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xianqi; Zhao, Ranran; Shao, Minghui; Xu, Xijin; Huang, Jinzhao

    2013-02-28

    Zinc oxide thin films have been obtained on bare and GaN buffer layer decorated Si (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), respectively. GaN buffer layer was achieved by a two-step method. The structure, surface morphology, composition, and optical properties of these thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, infrared absorption spectra, and photoluminiscence (PL) spectra, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images indicate that the flower-like grains were presented on the surface of ZnO thin films grown on GaN/Si (111) substrate, while the ZnO thin films grown on Si (111) substrate show the morphology of inclination column. PL spectrum reveals that the ultraviolet emission efficiency of ZnO thin film on GaN buffer layer is high, and the defect emission of ZnO thin film derived from Zni and Vo is low. The results demonstrate that the existence of GaN buffer layer can greatly improve the ZnO thin film on the Si (111) substrate by PLD techniques.

  4. Applicability of Rayleigh–Gans Scattering to Spherical Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kerker, M.; Farone, W. A.; Matijevic, E.

    1963-01-01

    Exact computations of scattering functions for spheres are compared with those obtained from the Rayleigh-Gans theory of scattering of electromagnetic radiation. The range of validity for spheres as a guide for non-homogeneous particles and other geometries. This study is limited to non-absorbing particles with real indices of refraction. (C.E.S.)

  5. Basic ammonothermal GaN growth in molybdenum capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimputkar, S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystal, bulk gallium nitride (GaN) crystals were grown using the basic ammonothermal method in a high purity growth environment created using a non-hermetically sealed molybdenum (Mo) capsule and compared to growths performed in a similarly designed silver (Ag) capsule and capsule-free René 41 autoclave. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis revealed transition metal free (<1×1017 cm-3) GaN crystals. Anomalously low oxygen concentrations ((2-6)×1018 cm-3) were measured in a {0001} seeded crystal boule grown using a Mo capsule, despite higher source material oxygen concentrations ((1-5)×1019 cm-3) suggesting that molybdenum (or molybdenum nitrides) may act to getter oxygen under certain conditions. Total system pressure profiles from growth runs in a Mo capsule system were comparable to those without a capsule, with pressures peaking within 2 days and slowly decaying due to hydrogen diffusional losses. Measured Mo capsule GaN growth rates were comparable to un-optimized growth rates in capsule-free systems and appreciably slower than in Ag-capsule systems. Crystal quality replicated that of the GaN seed crystals for all capsule conditions, with high quality growth occurring on the (0001) Ga-face. Optical absorption and impurity concentration characterization suggests reduced concentrations of hydrogenated gallium vacancies (VGa-Hx).

  6. Thermal quenching of the yellow luminescence in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Albarakati, N. M.; Monavarian, M.; Avrutin, V.; Morkoç, H.

    2018-04-01

    We observed varying thermal quenching behavior of the yellow luminescence band near 2.2 eV in different GaN samples. In spite of the different behavior, the yellow band in all the samples is caused by the same defect—the YL1 center. In conductive n-type GaN, the YL1 band quenches with exponential law, and the Arrhenius plot reveals an ionization energy of ˜0.9 eV for the YL1 center. In semi-insulating GaN, an abrupt and tunable quenching of the YL1 band is observed, where the apparent activation energy in the Arrhenius plot is not related to the ionization energy of the defect. In this case, the ionization energy can be found by analyzing the shift of the characteristic temperature of PL quenching with excitation intensity. We conclude that only one defect, namely, the YL1 center, is responsible for the yellow band in undoped and doped GaN samples grown by different techniques.

  7. Photoluminescence of Zn-implanted GaN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pankove, J. I.; Hutchby, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The photoluminescence spectrum of Zn-implanted GaN peaks at 2.87 eV at room temperature. The emission efficiency decreases linearly with the logarithm of the Zn concentration in the range from 1 x 10 to the 18th to 20 x 10 to the 18th Zn/cu cm.

  8. GaN and ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fündling, Sönke; Sökmen, Ünsal; Behrends, Arne; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Merzsch, Stephan; Li, Shunfeng; Bakin, Andrey; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas; Lähnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning

    2010-07-01

    GaN and ZnO are both wide band gap semiconductors with interesting properties concerning optoelectronic and sensor device applications. Due to the lack or the high costs of native substrates, alternatives like sapphire, silicon, or silicon carbide are taken, but the resulting lattice and thermal mismatches lead to increased defect densities which reduce the material quality. In contrast, nanostructures with high aspect ratio have lower defect densities as compared to layers. In this work, we give an overview on our results achieved on both ZnO as well as GaN based nanorods. ZnO nanostructures were grown by a wet chemical approach as well as by VPT on different substrates - even on flexible polymers. To compare the growth results we analyzed the structures by XRD and PL and show possible device applications. The GaN nano- and microstructures were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy either in a self- organized process or by selective area growth for a better control of shape and material composition. Finally we take a look onto possible device applications, presenting our attempts, e.g., to build LEDs based on GaN nanostructures.

  9. Ultradeep electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching of GaN

    DOE PAGES

    Harrison, Sara E.; Voss, Lars F.; Torres, Andrea M.; ...

    2017-07-25

    Here, ultradeep (≥5 μm) electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching of GaN micropillars was investigated. Parametric studies on the influence of the applied radio-frequency power, chlorine content in a Cl 2/Ar etch plasma, and operating pressure on the etch depth, GaN-to-SiO 2 selectivity, and surface morphology were performed. Etch depths of >10 μm were achieved over a wide range of parameters. Etch rates and sidewall roughness were found to be most sensitive to variations in RF power and % Cl 2 in the etch plasma. Selectivities of >20:1 GaN:SiO 2 were achieved under several chemically driven etch conditions where a maximummore » selectivity of ~39:1 was obtained using a 100% Cl 2 plasma. The etch profile and (0001) surface morphology were significantly influenced by operating pressure and the chlorine content in the plasma. Optimized etch conditions yielded >10 μm tall micropillars with nanometer-scale sidewall roughness, high GaN:SiO 2 selectivity, and nearly vertical etch profiles. These results provide a promising route for the fabrication of ultradeep GaN microstructures for use in electronic and optoelectronic device applications. In addition, dry etch induced preferential crystallographic etching in GaN microstructures is also demonstrated, which may be of great interest for applications requiring access to non- or semipolar GaN surfaces.« less

  10. Ultraviolet GaN photodetectors on Si via oxide buffer heterostructures with integrated short period oxide-based distributed Bragg reflectors and leakage suppressing metal-oxide-semiconductor contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Szyszka, A., E-mail: szyszka@ihp-microelectronics.com, E-mail: adam.szyszka@pwr.wroc.pl; Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw; Lupina, L.

    2014-08-28

    Based on a novel double step oxide buffer heterostructure approach for GaN integration on Si, we present an optimized Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM)-based Ultraviolet (UV) GaN photodetector system with integrated short-period (oxide/Si) Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) and leakage suppressing Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) electrode contacts. In terms of structural properties, it is demonstrated by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray studies that the DBR heterostructure layers grow with high thickness homogeneity and sharp interface structures sufficient for UV applications; only minor Si diffusion into the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films is detected under the applied thermal growth budget. Asmore » revealed by comparative high resolution x-ray diffraction studies on GaN/oxide buffer/Si systems with and without DBR systems, the final GaN layer structure quality is not significantly influenced by the growth of the integrated DBR heterostructure. In terms of optoelectronic properties, it is demonstrated that—with respect to the basic GaN/oxide/Si system without DBR—the insertion of (a) the DBR heterostructures and (b) dark current suppressing MOS contacts enhances the photoresponsivity below the GaN band-gap related UV cut-off energy by almost up to two orders of magnitude. Given the in-situ oxide passivation capability of grown GaN surfaces and the one order of magnitude lower number of superlattice layers in case of higher refractive index contrast (oxide/Si) systems with respect to classical III-N DBR superlattices, virtual GaN substrates on Si via functional oxide buffer systems are thus a promising robust approach for future GaN-based UV detector technologies.« less

  11. Luminescence properties of defects in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshchikov, Michael A.; Morkoç, Hadis

    2005-03-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and its allied binaries InN and AIN as well as their ternary compounds have gained an unprecedented attention due to their wide-ranging applications encompassing green, blue, violet, and ultraviolet (UV) emitters and detectors (in photon ranges inaccessible by other semiconductors) and high-power amplifiers. However, even the best of the three binaries, GaN, contains many structural and point defects caused to a large extent by lattice and stacking mismatch with substrates. These defects notably affect the electrical and optical properties of the host material and can seriously degrade the performance and reliability of devices made based on these nitride semiconductors. Even though GaN broke the long-standing paradigm that high density of dislocations precludes acceptable device performance, point defects have taken the center stage as they exacerbate efforts to increase the efficiency of emitters, increase laser operation lifetime, and lead to anomalies in electronic devices. The point defects include native isolated defects (vacancies, interstitial, and antisites), intentional or unintentional impurities, as well as complexes involving different combinations of the isolated defects. Further improvements in device performance and longevity hinge on an in-depth understanding of point defects and their reduction. In this review a comprehensive and critical analysis of point defects in GaN, particularly their manifestation in luminescence, is presented. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of native point defects, the signatures of intentionally and unintentionally introduced impurities are addressed. The review discusses in detail the characteristics and the origin of the major luminescence bands including the ultraviolet, blue, green, yellow, and red bands in undoped GaN. The effects of important group-II impurities, such as Zn and Mg on the photoluminescence of GaN, are treated in detail. Similarly, but to a lesser extent, the effects of

  12. Morphological evolution and characterization of GaN pyramid arrays fabricated by photo-assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiying; Xiu, Xiangqian; Xu, Qingjun; Li, Yuewen; Hua, Xuemei; Chen, Peng; Xie, Zili; Liu, Bin; Zhou, Yugang; Han, Ping; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-12-01

    GaN pyramid arrays have been successfully synthesized by selective photo-assisted chemical etching in a K2S2O8/KOH solution. A detailed analysis of time evolution of surface morphology has been conducted, which describes an etching process of GaN pyramids. Room temperature cathodoluminescence images indicate that these pyramids are composed of crystalline GaN surrounding dislocations, which is caused by the greater recombination rate of electrons and holes at dislocation than that of crystalline GaN. The Raman results show a stress relaxation in GaN pyramids compared with unetched GaN. The optical property of both unetched GaN and GaN pyramids has been studied by photoluminescence. The formation mechanism and feature of GaN pyramids are also rationally explained.

  13. Specific peptide for functionalization of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estephan, E.; Larroque, C.; Cloitre, T.; Cuisinier, F. J. G.; Gergely, C.

    2008-04-01

    Nanobiotechnology aims to exploit biomolecular recognition and self-assembly capabilities for integrating advanced materials into medicine and biology. However frequent problems are encountered at the interface of substrate-biological molecule, as the direct physical adsorption of biological molecules is dependent of unpredictable non-specific interactions with the surface, often causing their denaturation. Therefore, a proper functionalization of the substrate should avoid a loss of biological activity. In this work we address the functionalization of the semiconductor GaN (0001) for biosensing applications. The basic interest of using III-V class semiconductors is their good light emitting properties and a fair chemical stability that allows various applications of these materials. The technology chosen to elaborate GaN-specific peptides is the combinatorial phage-display method, a biological screening procedure based on affinity selection. An M13 bacteriophage library has been used to screen 10 10 different peptides against the GaN (0001) surface to finally isolate one specific peptide. The preferential attachment of the biotinylated selected peptide onto the GaN (0001), in close proximity to a surface of different chemical and structural composition has been demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy. Further physicochemical studies have been initiated to evaluate the semiconductor-peptide interface and understand the details in the specific recognition of peptides for semiconductor substrates. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy in Attenuated Total Reflection mode (FTIR-ATR) has been employed to prove the presence of peptides on the surface. Our Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies on the morphology of the GaN surface after functionalization revealed a total surface coverage by a very thin, homogeneous peptide layer. Due to its good biocompatibility, functionalized GaN devices might evolve in a new class of implantable biosensors for medical applications.

  14. Substitutional and interstitial oxygen in wurtzite GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. F.

    2005-11-01

    Density-functional theory was used to compute energy-minimum configurations and formation energies of substitutional and interstitial oxygen (O) in wurtzite GaN. The results indicate that O substituted at a N site (ON) acts as a single donor with the ionized state (ON+1) being the most stable O state in p-type GaN. In n-type GaN, interstitial O (OI) is predicted to be a double acceptor and O substituted at a Ga site (OGa) is predicted to be a triple acceptor. The formation energies of these two species are comparable to that of ON in n-type GaN and, as such, they should form and compensate the ON donors. The extent of compensation was estimated for both Ga-rich and N-rich conditions with a total O concentration of 1017cm-3. Ga-rich conditions yielded negligible compensation and an ON concentration in excess of 9.9×1016cm-3. N-rich conditions yielded a 25% lower ON concentration, due to the increased stability of OI and OGa relative to ON, and moderate compensation. These findings are consistent with experimental results indicating that O acts as a donor in GaN(O). Complexes of ON with the Mg acceptor and OI with the Si donor were examined. Binding energies for charge-conserving reactions were ⩾0.5eV, indicating that these complexes can exist in equilibrium at room temperature. Complexes of ON with the Ga vacancy in n-type GaN were also examined and their binding energies were 1.2 and 1.4eV, indicating that appreciable concentrations can exist in equilibrium even at elevated temperatures.

  15. Hydrogen effects on the electroluminescence of n-ZnO nanorod/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Zhao, Dongxu; Li, Binghui; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Shen, Dezhen

    2010-07-07

    Through a facile low-temperature solution process, vertically n-type ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on a GaN film to form a n-ZnO nanorod/p-GaN film heterojunction. A study of the electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of the heterojunction in air and in air with 2000 ppm hydrogen revealed the sensitivity of such a device to the surrounding atmosphere. The additional hydrogen shallow donors increased the effective electron concentration in ZnO nanorods and the EL recombination zone changed from the ZnO nanorods to the GaN film, which can be identified visually from the color change.

  16. Total photoelectron yield spectroscopy of energy distribution of electronic states density at GaN surface and SiO2/GaN interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Akio; Truyen, Nguyen Xuan; Fujimura, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Makihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2018-06-01

    The energy distribution of the electronic state density of wet-cleaned epitaxial GaN surfaces and SiO2/GaN structures has been studied by total photoelectron yield spectroscopy (PYS). By X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, the energy band diagram for a wet-cleaned epitaxial GaN surface such as the energy level of the valence band top and electron affinity has been determined to obtain a better understanding of the measured PYS signals. The electronic state density of GaN surface with different carrier concentrations in the energy region corresponding to the GaN bandgap has been evaluated. Also, the interface defect state density of SiO2/GaN structures was also estimated by not only PYS analysis but also capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics. We have demonstrated that PYS analysis enables the evaluation of defect state density filled with electrons at the SiO2/GaN interface in the energy region corresponding to the GaN midgap, which is difficult to estimate by C–V measurement of MOS capacitors.

  17. Chemical lift-off of (11-22) semipolar GaN using periodic triangular cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Dae-Woo; Lee, Seung-Jae; Jeong, Tak; Baek, Jong Hyeob; Park, Jae-Woo; Jang, Lee-Woon; Kim, Myoung; Lee, In-Hwan; Ju, Jin-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Chemical lift-off of (11-22) semipolar GaN using triangular cavities was investigated. The (11-22) semipolar GaN was grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on m-plane sapphire, in such a way as to keep N terminated surface of c-plane GaN exposed in the cavities. After regrowing 300 μm thick (11-22) semipolar GaN by hydride vapor phase epitaxy for a free-standing (11-22) semipolar GaN substrate, the triangular cavities of the templates were chemically etched in molten KOH. The (000-2) plane in the triangular cavities can be etched in the [0002] direction with the high lateral etching rate of 196 μm/min. The resulting free-standing (11-22) semipolar GaN substrate was confirmed to be strain-free by the Raman analysis.

  18. Graphene oxide assisted synthesis of GaN nanostructures for reducing cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jingying; Han, Qiusen; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chao; Yang, Yanlian; Dong, Hongwei; Wang, Chen

    2013-11-21

    We report a general approach for the synthesis of large-scale gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures by the graphene oxide (GO) assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. A modulation effect of GaN nanostructures on cell adhesion has been observed. The morphology of the GaN surface can be controlled by GO concentrations. This approach, which is based on the predictable choice of the ratio of GO to catalysts, can be readily extended to the synthesis of other materials with controllable nanostructures. Cell studies show that GaN nanostructures reduced cell adhesion significantly compared to GaN flat surfaces. The cell-repelling property is related to the nanostructure and surface wettability. These observations of the modulation effect on cell behaviors suggest new opportunities for novel GaN nanomaterial-based biomedical devices. We believe that potential applications will emerge in the biomedical and biotechnological fields.

  19. Growth of GaN micro/nanolaser arrays by chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Hanlu; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Yingjiu; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-09-02

    Optically pumped ultraviolet lasing at room temperature based on GaN microwire arrays with Fabry-Perot cavities is demonstrated. GaN microwires have been grown perpendicularly on c-GaN/sapphire substrates through simple catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition. The GaN microwires are [0001] oriented single-crystal structures with hexagonal cross sections, each with a diameter of ∼1 μm and a length of ∼15 μm. A possible growth mechanism of the vertical GaN microwire arrays is proposed. Furthermore, we report room-temperature lasing in optically pumped GaN microwire arrays based on the Fabry-Perot cavity. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit lasing typically at 372 nm with an excitation threshold of 410 kW cm(-2). The result indicates that these aligned GaN microwire arrays may offer promising prospects for ultraviolet-emitting micro/nanodevices.

  20. Influence of surface hydroxylation on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane growth mode during chemical functionalization of GaN Surfaces: an angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Arranz, A; Palacio, C; García-Fresnadillo, D; Orellana, G; Navarro, A; Muñoz, E

    2008-08-19

    A comparative study of the chemical functionalization of undoped, n- and p-type GaN layers grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was carried out. Both types of samples were chemically functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using a well-established silane-based approach for functionalizing hydroxylated surfaces. The untreated surfaces as well as those modified by hydroxylation and APTES deposition were analyzed using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Strong differences were found between the APTES growth modes on n- and p-GaN surfaces that can be associated with the number of available hydroxyl groups on the GaN surface of each sample. Depending on the density of surface hydroxyl groups, different mechanisms of APTES attachment to the GaN surface take place in such a way that the APTES growth mode changes from a monolayer to a multilayer growth mode when the number of surface hydroxyl groups is decreased. Specifically, a monolayer growth mode with a surface coverage of approximately 78% was found on p-GaN, whereas the formation of a dense film, approximately 3 monolayers thick, was observed on n-GaN.

  1. Vacancy-type defects in Mg-doped GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, Akira; Malinverni, Marco; Martin, Denis

    Vacancy-type defects in Mg-doped GaN were probed using a monoenergetic positron beam. GaN films with a thickness of 0.5–0.7 μm were grown on GaN/sapphire templates using ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by measuring Doppler broadening spectra. Although no vacancies were detected in samples with a Mg concentration [Mg] below 7 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}, vacancy-type defects were introduced starting at above [Mg] = 1 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}. The major defect species was identified as a complex between Ga vacancy (V{sub Ga}) and multiple nitrogen vacancies (V{sub N}s). The introduction of vacancy complexes was found to correlate with a decreasemore » in the net acceptor concentration, suggesting that the defect introduction is closely related to the carrier compensation. We also investigated Mg-doped GaN layers grown using In as the surfactant. The formation of vacancy complexes was suppressed in the subsurface region (≤80 nm). The observed depth distribution of defects was attributed to the thermal instability of the defects, which resulted in the introduction of vacancy complexes during the deposition process.« less

  2. Growth of Single Crystals and Fabrication of GaN and AlN Wafers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Chemical Physics of Solid Surfaces and Heterogeneous Catalysis, Synthesis and Decomposition of Ammonia ", 4, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company...Solid Surfaces and Heterogeneous Catalysis, Synthesis and Decomposition of Ammonia ", 4, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1982). 119...GaN(s), (2) Ga(g) + _ N2(g) = GaN(s) 93 APPENDIX C: AMMONIA DECOMPOSITION Despite the apparent simplicity of the GaN synthesis from elemental Ga and

  3. Epitaxy of GaN in high aspect ratio nanoscale holes over silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kejia; Wang, Anqi; Ji, Qingbin; Hu, Xiaodong; Xie, Yahong; Sun, Ying; Cheng, Zhiyuan

    2017-12-01

    Dislocation filtering in gallium nitride (GaN) by epitaxial growth through patterned nanoscale holes is studied. GaN grown from extremely high aspect ratio holes by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is examined by transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This selective area epitaxial growth method with a reduced epitaxy area and an increased depth to width ratio of holes leads to effective filtering of dislocations within the hole and improves the quality of GaN significantly.

  4. Application of the wavenumber jump condition to the normal and oblique interaction of a plane acoustic wave and a plane shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinstein, G. G.; Gunzburger, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The kinematics of normal and oblique interactions between a plane acoustic wave and a plane shock wave are investigated separately using an approach whereby the shock is considered as a sharp discontinuity surface separating two half-spaces, so that the dispersion relation on either side of the shock and the wavenumber jump condition across a discontinuity surface completely specify the kinematics of the problem in the whole space independently of the acoustic-field dynamics. The normal interaction is analyzed for a stationary shock, and the spectral change of the incident wave is investigated. The normal interaction is then examined for the case of a shock wave traveling into an ambient region where an acoustic disturbance is propagating in the opposite direction. Detailed attention is given to the consequences of the existence of a critical shock speed above which the frequency of the transmitted wave becomes negative. Finally, the oblique interaction with a fixed shock is considered, and the existence and nature of the transmitted wave is investigated, particularly as a function of the angle of incidence.

  5. Absolute surface energy calculations of Wurtzite (0001)/(000-1): a study of ZnO and GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Deng, Bei; Xu, Hu; Zhu, Junyi

    The accurate absolute surface energies of (0001)/(000-1) surfaces of wurtzite structures are crucial in determining the thin film growth mode of important energy materials. However, the surface energies still remain to be solved due to the intrinsic difficulty of calculating dangling bond energy of asymmetrically bonded surface atoms. We used a pseudo-hydrogen passivation method to estimate the dangling bond energy and calculate the polar surfaces of ZnO and GaN. The calculations were based on the pseudo chemical potentials obtained from a set of tetrahedral clusters or simple pseudo-molecules, using density functional theory approaches, for both GGA and HSE. And the surface energies of (0001)/(000-1) surfaces of wurtzite ZnO and GaN we obtained showed relatively high self-consistencies. A wedge structure calculation with a new bottom surface passivation scheme of group I and group VII elements was also proposed and performed to show converged absolute surface energy of wurtzite ZnO polar surfaces. Part of the computing resources was provided by the High Performance Cluster Computing Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University. This work was supported by the start-up funding and direct Grant with the Project code of 4053134 at CUHK.

  6. High performance of Ga-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers using MOCVD for GaN LED applications.

    PubMed

    Horng, Ray-Hua; Shen, Kun-Ching; Yin, Chen-Yang; Huang, Chiung-Yi; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2013-06-17

    High performance of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) prepared using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was employed in GaN blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as transparent conductive layers (TCL). By the post-annealing process, the annealed 800°C GZO films exhibited a high transparency above 97% at wavelength of 450 nm. The contact resistance of GZO decreased with the annealing temperature increasing. It was attributed to the improvement of the GZO crystal quality, leading to an increase in electron concentration. It was also found that some Zn atom caused from the decomposition process diffused into the p-GaN surface of LED, which generated a stronger tunneling effect at the GZO/p-GaN interface and promoted the formation of ohmic contact. Moreover, contrast to the ITO-LED, a high light extraction efficiency of 77% was achieved in the GZO-LED at injection current of 20 mA. At 350 mA injection current, the output power of 256.51 mW of GZO-LEDs, corresponding to a 21.5% enhancement as compared to ITO-LEDs was obtained; results are promising for the development of GZO using the MOCVD technique for GaN LED applications.

  7. Optical properties of Mg doped p-type GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsha, Avinash; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Dhara, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Mg doped p-type GaN nanowires are grown using chemical vapor deposition technique in vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. Morphological and structural studies confirm the VLS growth process of nanowires and wurtzite phase of GaN. We report the optical properties of Mg doped p-type GaN nanowires. Low temperature photoluminescence studies on as-grown and post-growth annealed samples reveal the successful incorporation of Mg dopants. The as-grwon and annealed samples show passivation and activation of Mg dopants, respectively, in GaN nanowires.

  8. Dislocation-induced nanoparticle decoration on a GaN nanowire.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Yuan, Fang; Liu, Qingyun; Huang, Nan; Qiu, Jianhang; Staedler, Thorsten; Liu, Baodan; Jiang, Xin

    2015-02-04

    GaN nanowires with homoepitaxial decorated GaN nanoparticles on their surface along the radial direction have been synthesized by means of a chemical vapor deposition method. The growth of GaN nanowires is catalyzed by Au particles via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Screw dislocations are generated along the radial direction of the nanowires under slight Zn doping. In contrast to the metal-catalyst-assisted VLS growth, GaN nanoparticles are found to prefer to nucleate and grow at these dislocation sites. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis demonstrates that the GaN nanoparticles possess two types of epitaxial orientation with respect to the corresponding GaN nanowire: (I) [1̅21̅0]np//[1̅21̅0]nw, (0001)np//(0001)nw; (II) [1̅21̅3]np//[12̅10]nw, (101̅0)np//(101̅0)nw. An increased Ga signal in the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) profile lines of the nanowires suggests GaN nanoparticle growth at the edge surface of the wires. All the crystallographic results confirm the importance of the dislocations with respect to the homoepitaxial growth of the GaN nanoparticles. Here, screw dislocations situated on the (0001) plane provide the self-step source to enable nucleation of the GaN nanoparticles.

  9. N-Face GaN Electronics for Heteroepitaxial and Bonded Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    GaN ! ?" InGaAs’Channel’ InAlAs’ !!!!!S! !!!!!!D! !!!!G! Ga (In)N’Dri2 ’Region! Wafer* Bonded! Junc2on! !!!!!S...Gate InGaAs InAlAs (In, Ga )N Source GaN on Sapphire Aperture CBL WBI InGaN n-InGaAs InAlAs n+ GaN S D WBI...about. Polarization effects at the interface may need to be considered. For Ga -polar InGaN- GaN homojunctions,

  10. Structural defects in GaN revealed by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna

    This paper reviews the various types of structural defects observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy in GaN heteroepitaxial layers grown on foreign substrates and homoepitaxial layers grown on bulk GaN substrates. The structural perfection of these layers is compared to the platelet self-standing crystals grown by High Nitrogen Pressure Solution. Defects in undoped and Mg doped GaN are discussed. Lastly, some models explaining the formation of inversion domains in heavily Mg doped layers that are possible defects responsible for the difficulties of p-doping in GaN are also reviewed.

  11. Structural defects in GaN revealed by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna

    2014-09-08

    This paper reviews the various types of structural defects observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy in GaN heteroepitaxial layers grown on foreign substrates and homoepitaxial layers grown on bulk GaN substrates. The structural perfection of these layers is compared to the platelet self-standing crystals grown by High Nitrogen Pressure Solution. Defects in undoped and Mg doped GaN are discussed. Lastly, some models explaining the formation of inversion domains in heavily Mg doped layers that are possible defects responsible for the difficulties of p-doping in GaN are also reviewed.

  12. Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende GaN Crystals.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongbo; Luan, Xinghe; Feng, Chuang; Yang, Daoguo; Zhang, Guoqi

    2017-12-12

    For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli, shear moduli, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratios of the two GaN polycrystals were calculated using Voigt and Hill approximations, and the results show wurtzite GaN has larger shear and elastic moduli and exhibits more obvious brittleness. Moreover, both wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN monocrystals present obvious mechanical anisotropic behavior. For wurtzite GaN monocrystal, the maximum and minimum elastic moduli are located at orientations [001] and <111>, respectively, while they are in the orientations <111> and <100> for zinc-blende GaN monocrystal, respectively. Compared to the elastic modulus, the shear moduli of the two GaN monocrystals have completely opposite direction dependences. However, different from elastic and shear moduli, the bulk moduli of the two monocrystals are nearly isotropic, especially for the zinc-blende GaN. Besides, in the wurtzite GaN, Poisson's ratios at the planes containing [001] axis are anisotropic, and the maximum value is 0.31 which is located at the directions vertical to [001] axis. For zinc-blende GaN, Poisson's ratios at planes (100) and (111) are isotropic, while the Poisson's ratio at plane (110) exhibits dramatically anisotropic phenomenon. Additionally, the calculated Debye temperatures of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 641.8 and 620.2 K, respectively. At 300 K, the calculated heat capacities of wurtzite and zinc-blende are 33.6 and 33.5 J mol -1 K -1 , respectively. Finally, the band gap is located at the G point for the two crystals, and the band gaps of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 3.62 eV and 3.06 eV, respectively. At the G point, the lowest energy of conduction band in the wurtzite GaN is larger, resulting in a wider band

  13. Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende GaN Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Xinghe; Feng, Chuang; Yang, Daoguo; Zhang, Guoqi

    2017-01-01

    For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli, shear moduli, elastic moduli and Poisson’s ratios of the two GaN polycrystals were calculated using Voigt and Hill approximations, and the results show wurtzite GaN has larger shear and elastic moduli and exhibits more obvious brittleness. Moreover, both wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN monocrystals present obvious mechanical anisotropic behavior. For wurtzite GaN monocrystal, the maximum and minimum elastic moduli are located at orientations [001] and <111>, respectively, while they are in the orientations <111> and <100> for zinc-blende GaN monocrystal, respectively. Compared to the elastic modulus, the shear moduli of the two GaN monocrystals have completely opposite direction dependences. However, different from elastic and shear moduli, the bulk moduli of the two monocrystals are nearly isotropic, especially for the zinc-blende GaN. Besides, in the wurtzite GaN, Poisson’s ratios at the planes containing [001] axis are anisotropic, and the maximum value is 0.31 which is located at the directions vertical to [001] axis. For zinc-blende GaN, Poisson’s ratios at planes (100) and (111) are isotropic, while the Poisson’s ratio at plane (110) exhibits dramatically anisotropic phenomenon. Additionally, the calculated Debye temperatures of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 641.8 and 620.2 K, respectively. At 300 K, the calculated heat capacities of wurtzite and zinc-blende are 33.6 and 33.5 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. Finally, the band gap is located at the G point for the two crystals, and the band gaps of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 3.62 eV and 3.06 eV, respectively. At the G point, the lowest energy of conduction band in the wurtzite GaN is larger, resulting in a

  14. Synthesis and Raman scattering of GaN nanorings, nanoribbons and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. J.; Chen, X. L.; Li, H. J.; Tu, Q. Y.; Yang, Z.; Xu, Y. P.; Hu, B. Q.

    Low-dimensional GaN materials, including nanorings, nanoribbons and smooth nanowires have been synthesized by reacting gallium and ammonia using Ag particles as a catalyst on the substrate of MgO single crystals. They were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). EDX, XRD indicated that the low-dimensional nanomaterials were wurtzite GaN. New features are found in Raman scatterings for these low-dimensional GaN materials, which are different from the previous observations of GaN materials.

  15. Phosphor-Free Apple-White LEDs with Embedded Indium-Rich Nanostructures Grown on Strain Relaxed Nano-epitaxy GaN.

    PubMed

    Soh, C B; Liu, W; Yong, A M; Chua, S J; Chow, S Y; Tripathy, S; Tan, R J N

    2010-08-01

    Phosphor-free apple-white light emitting diodes have been fabricated using a dual stacked InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells comprising of a lower set of long wavelength emitting indium-rich nanostructures incorporated in multiple quantum wells with an upper set of cyan-green emitting multiple quantum wells. The light-emitting diodes were grown on nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN template formed by regrowth of GaN over SiO(2) film patterned with an anodic aluminum oxide mask with holes of 125 nm diameter and a period of 250 nm. The growth of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on these stress relaxed low defect density templates improves the internal quantum efficiency by 15% for the cyan-green multiple quantum wells. Higher emission intensity with redshift in the PL peak emission wavelength is obtained for the indium-rich nanostructures incorporated in multiple quantum wells. The quantum wells grown on the nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN has a weaker piezoelectric field and hence shows a minimal peak shift with application of higher injection current. An enhancement of external quantum efficiency is achieved for the apple-white light emitting diodes grown on the nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN template based on the light -output power measurement. The improvement in light extraction efficiency, η(extraction,) was found to be 34% for the cyan-green emission peak and 15% from the broad long wavelength emission with optimized lattice period.

  16. Phosphor-Free Apple-White LEDs with Embedded Indium-Rich Nanostructures Grown on Strain Relaxed Nano-epitaxy GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, C. B.; Liu, W.; Yong, A. M.; Chua, S. J.; Chow, S. Y.; Tripathy, S.; Tan, R. J. N.

    2010-11-01

    Phosphor-free apple-white light emitting diodes have been fabricated using a dual stacked InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells comprising of a lower set of long wavelength emitting indium-rich nanostructures incorporated in multiple quantum wells with an upper set of cyan-green emitting multiple quantum wells. The light-emitting diodes were grown on nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN template formed by regrowth of GaN over SiO2 film patterned with an anodic aluminum oxide mask with holes of 125 nm diameter and a period of 250 nm. The growth of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on these stress relaxed low defect density templates improves the internal quantum efficiency by 15% for the cyan-green multiple quantum wells. Higher emission intensity with redshift in the PL peak emission wavelength is obtained for the indium-rich nanostructures incorporated in multiple quantum wells. The quantum wells grown on the nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN has a weaker piezoelectric field and hence shows a minimal peak shift with application of higher injection current. An enhancement of external quantum efficiency is achieved for the apple-white light emitting diodes grown on the nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN template based on the light -output power measurement. The improvement in light extraction efficiency, ηextraction, was found to be 34% for the cyan-green emission peak and 15% from the broad long wavelength emission with optimized lattice period.

  17. Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on in-situ grown GaN/4H-SiC buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, David; Tingberg, Tobias; Andersson, Thorvald; Ive, Tommy

    2015-04-01

    Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was used to grow ZnO (0001) layers on GaN(0001)/4H-SiC buffer layers deposited in the same growth chamber equipped with both N- and O-plasma sources. The GaN buffer layers were grown immediately before initiating the growth of ZnO. Using a substrate temperature of 440°C-445°C and an O2 flow rate of 2.0-2.5 sccm, we obtained ZnO layers with smooth surfaces having a root-mean-square roughness of 0.3 nm and a peak-to-valley distance of 3 nm shown by AFM. The FWHM for X-ray rocking curves recorded across the ZnO(0002) and ZnO(10bar 15) reflections were 200 and 950 arcsec, respectively. These values showed that the mosaicity (tilt and twist) of the ZnO film was comparable to corresponding values of the underlying GaN buffer. It was found that a substrate temperature > 450°C and a high Zn-flux always resulted in a rough ZnO surface morphology. Reciprocal space maps showed that the in-plane relaxation of the GaN and ZnO layers was 82.3% and 73.0%, respectively and the relaxation occurred abruptly during the growth. Room-temperature Hall-effect measurements showed that the layers were intrinsically n-type with an electron concentration of 1019 cm-3 and a Hall mobility of 50 cm2·V-1·s-1.

  18. Thermal stability of implanted dopants in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. G.; Pearton, S. J.; Abernathy, C. R.; Zavada, J. M.

    1995-04-01

    Results are reported of measurements of depth profiles and stability against redistribution with annealing up to 800 or 900 °C, for implanted Be, C, Mg, Si, S, Zn, Ge, and Se as dopants in GaN. The results confirm the high-temperature stability of dopants in this material up to temperatures that vary from 600 to 900 °C. S redistributes for temperatures above 600 °C, and Zn and Se, for temperatures above 800 °C. All of the other elements are stable to 900 °C. These results indicate that direct implantation of dopants rather than masked diffusion will probably be necessary to define selective area doping of III-V nitride device structures based on these results for GaN.

  19. Calculations of acceptor ionization energies in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Chen, A.-B.

    2001-03-01

    The k.p Hamiltonian and a model potential are used to deduce the acceptor ionization energies in GaN from a systematic study of the chemical trend in GaAs, GaP, and InP. The acceptors studied include Be, Mg, Ca, Zn, and Cd on the cation sites and C, Si, and Ge on the anion sites. Our calculated acceptor ionization energies are estimated to be accurate to better than 10% across the board. The ionization energies of C and Be (152 and 187 meV, respectively) in wurtzite GaN are found to be lower than that of Mg (224 meV). The C was found to behave like the hydrogenic acceptor in all systems and it has the smallest ionization energy among all the acceptors studied.

  20. Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Pearton, S. J.; Ren, F.; Theys, B.; Jomard, F.; Teukam, Z.; Dmitriev, V. A.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Usikov, A. S.; Nikitina, I. P.

    2001-09-01

    Hydrogen diffusion studies were performed in GaN samples with different Fermi level positions. It is shown that, at 350 °C, hydrogen diffusion is quite fast in heavily Mg doped p-type material with the Fermi level close to Ev+0.15 eV, considerably slower in high-resistivity p-GaN(Zn) with the Fermi level Ev+0.9 eV, while for conducting and semi-insulating n-GaN samples with the Fermi level in the upper half of the band gap no measurable hydrogen diffusion could be detected. For these latter samples it is shown that higher diffusion temperature of 500 °C and longer times (50 h) are necessary to incorporate hydrogen to appreciable depth. These findings are in line with previously published theoretical predictions of the dependence of hydrogen interstitials formation in GaN on the Fermi level position.

  1. Size dictated thermal conductivity of GaN

    DOE PAGES

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Fuller, Elliot James; ...

    2016-04-01

    The thermal conductivity on n- and p-type doped gallium nitride (GaN) epilayers having thickness of 3-4 μm was investigated using time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR). Despite possessing carrier concentrations ranging across 3 decades (10 15 – 10 18 cm –3), n-type layers exhibit a nearly constant thermal conductivity of 180 W/mK. The thermal conductivity of p-type epilayers, in contrast, reduces from 160 to 110 W/mK with increased doping. These trends–and their overall reduction relative to bulk–are explained leveraging established scattering models where it is shown that size effects play a primary role in limiting thermal conductivity for layers even tens ofmore » microns thick. GaN device layers, even of pristine quality, will therefore exhibit thermal conductivities less than the bulk value of 240 W/mK owing to their finite thickness.« less

  2. Thermal functionalization of GaN surfaces with 1-alkenes.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stefan U; Cimalla, Volker; Eichapfel, Georg; Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan; Ambacher, Oliver

    2013-05-28

    A thermally induced functionalization process for gallium nitride surfaces with 1-alkenes is introduced. The resulting functionalization layers are characterized with atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to reference samples without and with a photochemically generated functionalization layer. The resulting layers show very promising characteristics as functionalization for GaN based biosensors. On the basis of the experimental results, important characteristics of the functionalization layers are estimated and a possible chemical reaction scheme is proposed.

  3. Photoluminescence of ion-implanted GaN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pankove, J. I.; Hutchby, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-five elements were implanted in GaN. Their photoluminescence spectra were measured and compared to those of an unimplanted control sample. Most impurities emit a peak at about 2.15 eV. Mg, Zn, Cd, Ca, As, Hg, and Ag have more characteristic emissions. Zn provides the most efficient recombination center. A set of midgap states is generated during the damage-annealing treatment.

  4. First-Principles Study of Defects in GaN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-29

    This means both Mg and Be are not suitable p-type dopants in AlN. c) We have calculated the Ga Frenkel pairs (interstitial Ga and gallium vacancy... gallium vacancy complexes) in GaN. We studied both the stability of the pair at different separations and the barriers for the pair to form/disintegrate...high in energy than vacancy defects, especially for covalent materials. However, in ionic materials the charged interstitial defects can have low

  5. Growth and characterizations of various GaN nanostructures on C-plane sapphire using laser MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch., Ramesh; Tyagi, P.; Maurya, K. K.; Kumar, M. Senthil; Kushvaha, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    We have grown various GaN nanostructures such as three-dimensional islands, nanowalls and nanocolumns on c-plane sapphire substrates using laser assisted molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) system. The shape of the GaN nanostructures was controlled by using different nucleation surfaces such as bare and nitridated sapphire with GaN or AlN buffer layers. The structural and surface morphological properties of grown GaN nanostructures were characterized by ex-situ high resolution x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The symmetric x-ray rocking curve along GaN (0002) plane shows that the GaN grown on pre-nitridated sapphire with GaN or AlN buffer layer possesses good crystalline quality compared to sapphire without nitridation. The Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed the wurtzite phase for all the GaN nanostructures grown on c-sapphire.

  6. Radiation sensors based on GaN microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheij, D.; Peres, M.; Cardoso, S.; Alves, L. C.; Alves, E.; Durand, C.; Eymery, J.; Lorenz, K.

    2018-05-01

    GaN microwires were shown to possess promising characteristics as building blocks for radiation resistant particle detectors. They were grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy with diameters between 1 and 2 μm and lengths around 20 μm. Devices were fabricated by depositing gold contacts at the extremities of the wires using photolithography. The response of these single wire radiation sensors was then studied under irradiation with 2 MeV protons. Severe degradation of the majority of devices only sets in for fluences above protons cm‑2 revealing good radiation resistance. During proton irradiation, a clear albeit small current gain was observed with a corresponding decay time below 1 s. Photoconductivity measurements upon irradiation with UV light were carried out before and after the proton irradiation. Despite a relatively low gain, attributed to significant dark currents caused by a high dopant concentration, fast response times of a few seconds were achieved comparable to state-of-the-art GaN nanowire photodetectors. Irradiation and subsequent annealing resulted in an overall improvement of the devices regarding their response to UV radiation. The photocurrent gain increased compared to the values that were obtained prior to the irradiation, without compromising the decay times. The results indicate the possibility of using GaN microwires not only as UV detectors, but also as particle detectors.

  7. Dopant Adsorption and Incorporation at Irradiated GaN Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Selloni, Annabella; Myers, Thomas; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-03-01

    Mg and O are two of the common dopants in GaN, but, in spite of extensive investigation, the atomic scale understanding of their adsorption and incorporation is still incomplete. In particular, high-energy electron irradiation, such as occurring during RHEED, has been reported to have an important effect on the incorporation of these impurities, but no study has addressed the detailed mechanisms of this effect yet. Here we use DFT calculations to study the adsorption and incorporation of Mg and O at the Ga- and N-polar GaN surfaces under various Ga, Mg and O coverage conditions as well as in presence of light or electron beam-induced electronic excitation. We find that the adsorption and incorporation of the two impurities have opposite surface polarity dependence: substitutional Mg prefers to incorporate at the GaN(0001) surface, while O prefers to adsorb and incorporate at the N-polar surface. In addition, our results indicate that in presence of light irradiation the tendency of Mg to surface-segregate is reduced. The O adsorption energy on the N-polar surface is also significantly reduced, consistent with the experimental observation of a much smaller concentration of oxygen in the irradiated samples.

  8. On the laser lift-off of lightly doped micrometer-thick n-GaN films from substrates via the absorption of IR radiation in sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Voronenkov, V. V.; Virko, M. V.; Kogotkov, V. S.

    The intense absorption of CO{sub 2} laser radiation in sapphire is used to separate GaN films from GaN templates on sapphire. Scanning of the sapphire substrate by the laser leads to the thermal dissociation of GaN at the GaN/sapphire interface and to the detachment of GaN films from the sapphire. The threshold density of the laser energy at which n-GaN started to dissociate is 1.6 ± 0.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The mechanical-stress distribution and the surface morphology of GaN films and sapphire substrates before and after laser lift-off are studied by Raman spectroscopy, atomic-force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. A verticalmore » Schottky diode with a forward current density of 100 A/cm{sup 2} at a voltage of 2 V and a maximum reverse voltage of 150 V is fabricated on the basis of a 9-μm-thick detached n-GaN film.« less

  9. Reactor design rules for GaN epitaxial layer growths on sapphire in metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keunjoo; Noh, Sam Kyu

    2000-08-01

    The thermal process of the growth of GaN-based semiconductors was analysed for two home-made horizontal reactors. The reactors were designed to make the ammonia gas flow in the opposite direction to the main gas flow. For two horizontal reactors different in dimension, the low Reynolds numbers of Re = 2.94 and 4.15 were chosen for stable laminar flow and the Rayleigh numbers governing the heat convection were optimized to the values of Ra = 6.0 and 76.2, respectively. The qualities of GaN and InGaN films were characterized by Hall effect measurement, x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence and compared with respect to the reactor dependency.

  10. Negligible carrier freeze-out facilitated by impurity band conduction in highly p-type GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, Brendan; Lowder, Jonathan; Moseley, Michael; Alan Doolittle, W.

    2012-08-01

    Highly p-type GaN films with hole concentrations exceeding 6 × 1019 cm-3 grown by metal-modulated epitaxy are electrically characterized. Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements at cryogenic temperatures reveal minimal carrier freeze-out in highly doped samples, while less heavily doped samples exhibited high resistivity and donor-compensated conductivity as is traditionally observed. Effective activation energies as low as 43 meV were extracted, and a maximum Mg activation efficiency of 52% was found. In addition, the effective activation energy was found to be negatively correlated to the hole concentration. These results indicate the onset of the Mott-Insulator transition leading to impurity band conduction.

  11. The Fermionic Signature Operator and Hadamard States in the Presence of a Plane Electromagnetic Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finster, Felix; Reintjes, Moritz

    2017-05-01

    We give a non-perturbative construction of a distinguished state for the quantized Dirac field in Minkowski space in the presence of a time-dependent external field of the form of a plane electromagnetic wave. By explicit computation of the fermionic signature operator, it is shown that the Dirac operator has the strong mass oscillation property. We prove that the resulting fermionic projector state is a Hadamard state.

  12. Viability and proliferation of endothelial cells upon exposure to GaN nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Braniste, Tudor; Tiginyanu, Ion; Horvath, Tibor; Raevschi, Simion; Cebotari, Serghei; Lux, Marco; Haverich, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing and promising field of interest in medicine; however, nanoparticle–cell interactions are not yet fully understood. The goal of this work was to examine the interaction between endothelial cells and gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor nanoparticles. Cellular viability, adhesion, proliferation, and uptake of nanoparticles by endothelial cells were investigated. The effect of free GaN nanoparticles versus the effect of growing endothelial cells on GaN functionalized surfaces was examined. To functionalize surfaces with GaN, GaN nanoparticles were synthesized on a sacrificial layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The uptake of GaN nanoparticles by porcine endothelial cells was strongly dependent upon whether they were fixed to the substrate surface or free floating in the medium. The endothelial cells grown on surfaces functionalized with GaN nanoparticles demonstrated excellent adhesion and proliferation, suggesting good biocompatibility of the nanostructured GaN. PMID:27826507

  13. The investigation of stress in freestanding GaN crystals grown from Si substrates by HVPE.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonsang; Mikulik, Dmitry; Yang, Mino; Park, Sungsoo

    2017-08-17

    We investigate the stress evolution of 400 µm-thick freestanding GaN crystals grown from Si substrates by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) and the in situ removal of Si substrates. The stress generated in growing GaN can be tuned by varying the thickness of the MOCVD AlGaN/AlN buffer layers. Micro Raman analysis shows the presence of slight tensile stress in the freestanding GaN crystals and no stress accumulation in HVPE GaN layers during the growth. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the residual tensile stress in HVPE GaN is caused only by elastic stress arising from the crystal quality difference between Ga- and N-face GaN. TEM analysis revealed that the dislocations in freestanding GaN crystals have high inclination angles that are attributed to the stress relaxation of the crystals. We believe that the understanding and characterization on the structural properties of the freestanding GaN crystals will help us to use these crystals for high-performance opto-electronic devices.

  14. Electronic and Optical Properties of Two-Dimensional GaN from First-Principles.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Nocona; Bayerl, Dylan; Shi, Guangsha; Mengle, Kelsey A; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2017-12-13

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is an important commercial semiconductor for solid-state lighting applications. Atomically thin GaN, a recently synthesized two-dimensional material, is of particular interest because the extreme quantum confinement enables additional control of its light-emitting properties. We performed first-principles calculations based on density functional and many-body perturbation theory to investigate the electronic, optical, and excitonic properties of monolayer and bilayer two-dimensional (2D) GaN as a function of strain. Our results demonstrate that light emission from monolayer 2D GaN is blueshifted into the deep ultraviolet range, which is promising for sterilization and water-purification applications. Light emission from bilayer 2D GaN occurs at a similar wavelength to its bulk counterpart due to the cancellation of the effect of quantum confinement on the optical gap by the quantum-confined Stark shift. Polarized light emission at room temperature is possible via uniaxial in-plane strain, which is desirable for energy-efficient display applications. We compare the electronic and optical properties of freestanding two-dimensional GaN to atomically thin GaN wells embedded within AlN barriers in order to understand how the functional properties are influenced by the presence of barriers. Our results provide microscopic understanding of the electronic and optical characteristics of GaN at the few-layer regime.

  15. Mechanism of radiative recombination in acceptor-doped bulk GaN crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, M.; Suski, T.; Grzegory, I.; Porowski, S.; Bergman, J. P.; Chen, W. M.; Monemar, B.

    1999-12-01

    Optical and electrical properties of acceptor-doped bulk GaN crystals are discussed. Though introducing Zn and Ca to bulk GaN does not significantly change electron concentration, it results in the appearance of a blue photoluminescence band accompanying the relatively strong yellow band usually present. Highly resistive GaN : Mg crystals are obtained when high amount of Mg is introduced to the Ga melt during high-pressure synthesis. Change of electrical properties of Mg-doped bulk crystals is accompanied by the appearance of a strong blue emission of GaN similar to that in Ca- and Zn-doped crystals. Optically detected magnetic resonance investigations indicate a multi-band character of this blue emission and suggest possible mechanism of compensation in acceptor-doped bulk GaN.

  16. Study on GaN nanostructures: Growth and the suppression of the yellow emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Fei; Ji, Xiaohong; Zhang, Qinyuan

    2018-07-01

    GaN nanostructures were synthesized via a simple chemical vapor deposition using Ga2O3 and NH3 as precursors. Structural and morphological properties were systematically characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The configuration of GaN nanostructures was found to be strongly dependent on the growth temperature and the NH3 flow rate. Photoluminescence analysis revealed that all the fabricated GaN NSs exhibited a strong ultra-violet emission (∼364 nm), and the yellow emission of GaN nanorods can be suppressed at appropriate III/V ratio. The suppression of the yellow emission was attributed to the low density of surface or the VGa defect. The work demonstrates that the GaN nanostructures have potential applications in the optoelectronic and nanoelectronic devices.

  17. Spin injection in epitaxial MnGa(111)/GaN(0001) heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zube, Christian; Malindretos, Joerg; Watschke, Lars; Zamani, Reza R.; Disterheft, David; Ulbrich, Rainer G.; Rizzi, Angela; Iza, Michael; Keller, Stacia; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2018-01-01

    Ferromagnetic MnGa(111) layers were grown on GaN(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy. MnGa/GaN Schottky diodes with a doping level of around n = 7 × 1018 cm-3 were fabricated to achieve single step tunneling across the metal/semiconductor junction. Below the GaN layer, a thin InGaN quantum well served as optical spin detector ("spin-LED"). For electron spin injection from MnGa into GaN and subsequent spin transport through a 45 nm (70 nm) thick GaN layer, we observe a circular polarization of 0.3% (0.2%) in the electroluminescence at 80 K. Interface mixing, spin polarization losses during electrical transport in the GaN layer, and spin relaxation in the InGaN quantum well are discussed in relation with the low value of the optically detected spin polarization.

  18. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  19. The optimal thickness of a transmission-mode GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Shi, Feng; Guo, Hui; Hu, Cang-Lu; Cheng, Hong-Chang; Chang, Ben-Kang; Ren, Ling; Du, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Jun-Ju

    2012-08-01

    A 150-nm-thick GaN photocathode with a Mg doping concentration of 1.6 × 1017 cm-3 is activated by Cs/O in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber, and a quantum efficiency (QE) curve of the negative electron affinity transmission-mode (t-mode) of the GaN photocathode is obtained. The maximum QE reaches 13.0% at 290 nm. According to the t-mode QE equation solved from the diffusion equation, the QE curve is fitted. From the fitting results, the electron escape probability is 0.32, the back-interface recombination velocity is 5 × 104 cm·s-1, and the electron diffusion length is 116 nm. Based on these parameters, the influence of GaN thickness on t-mode QE is simulated. The simulation shows that the optimal thickness of GaN is 90 nm, which is better than the 150-nm GaN.

  20. GaN: From three- to two-dimensional single-layer crystal and its multilayer van der Waals solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onen, A.; Kecik, D.; Durgun, E.; Ciraci, S.

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) GaN is a III-V compound semiconductor with potential optoelectronic applications. In this paper, starting from 3D GaN in wurtzite and zinc-blende structures, we investigated the mechanical, electronic, and optical properties of the 2D single-layer honeycomb structure of GaN (g -GaN ) and its bilayer, trilayer, and multilayer van der Waals solids using density-functional theory. Based on high-temperature ab initio molecular-dynamics calculations, we first showed that g -GaN can remain stable at high temperature. Then we performed a comparative study to reveal how the physical properties vary with dimensionality. While 3D GaN is a direct-band-gap semiconductor, g -GaN in two dimensions has a relatively wider indirect band gap. Moreover, 2D g -GaN displays a higher Poisson ratio and slightly less charge transfer from cation to anion. In two dimensions, the optical-absorption spectra of 3D crystalline phases are modified dramatically, and their absorption onset energy is blueshifted. We also showed that the physical properties predicted for freestanding g -GaN are preserved when g -GaN is grown on metallic as well as semiconducting substrates. In particular, 3D layered blue phosphorus, being nearly lattice-matched to g -GaN , is found to be an excellent substrate for growing g -GaN . Bilayer, trilayer, and van der Waals crystals can be constructed by a special stacking sequence of g -GaN , and they can display electronic and optical properties that can be controlled by the number of g -GaN layers. In particular, their fundamental band gap decreases and changes from indirect to direct with an increasing number of g -GaN layers.

  1. Edge enhanced growth induced shape transition in the formation of GaN nanowall network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajendra; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    We address the mechanism of early stages of growth and shape transition of the unique nanowall network (NwN) of GaN by experimentally monitoring its morphological evolution and complementing it by first-principles calculations. Using atomic force and scanning electron microscopy, we observe the formation of oval shaped islands at very early stages of the growth which later transformed into tetrahedron shaped (3 faced pyramid) islands. These tetrahedron shaped islands further grow anisotropically along their edges of the (20 2 ¯ 1) facets to form the wall-like structure as the growth proceeds. The mechanism of this crystal growth is discussed in light of surface free energies of the different surfaces, adsorption energy, and diffusion barrier of Ga ad-atoms on the (20 2 ¯ 1) facets. By first-principles calculations, we find that the diffusion barrier of ad-atoms reduces with decreasing width of facets and is responsible for the anisotropic growth leading to the formation of NwN. This study suggests that formation of NwN is an archetype example of structure dependent attachment kinetic instability induced shape transition in thin film growth.

  2. Lattice disorder produced in GaN by He-ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi; Peng, Jinxin; Li, Bingsheng; Wang, Zhiguang; Wei, Kongfang; Shen, Tielong; Sun, Jianrong; Zhang, Limin; Yao, Cunfeng; Gao, Ning; Gao, Xing; Pang, Lilong; Zhu, Yabin; Chang, Hailong; Cui, Minghuan; Luo, Peng; Sheng, Yanbin; Zhang, Hongpeng; Zhang, Li; Fang, Xuesong; Zhao, Sixiang; Jin, Jin; Huang, Yuxuan; Liu, Chao; Tai, Pengfei; Wang, Dong; He, Wenhao

    2017-09-01

    The lattice disorders induced by He-ion implantation in GaN epitaxial films to fluences of 2 × 1016, 5 × 1016 and 1 × 1017 cm-2 at room temperature (RT) have been investigated by a combination of Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), nano-indentation, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results present that Raman intensity decreases with increasing fluence. Raman frequency "red shift" occurs after He-ion implantation. Strain increases with increasing fluence. The hardness of the highly damaged layer increases monotonically with increasing fluence. Microstructural results demonstrate that the width of the damage band and the number density of observed dislocation loops increases with increasing fluence. High-resolution TEM images exhibit that He-ion implantation lead to the formation of planar defects and most of the lattice defects are of interstitial-type basal loops. The relationships of Raman intensity, lattice strain, swelling and hardness with He-implantation-induced lattice disorders are discussed.

  3. Structural and electrical properties of Pb(Zr ,Ti)O3 grown on (0001) GaN using a double PbTiO3/PbO bridge layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bo; Gu, Xing; Izyumskaya, Natalia; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Xie, Jinqiao; Liu, Huiyong; Morkoç, Hadis

    2007-10-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering on silicon-doped GaN(0001)/c-sapphire with a PbTiO3/PbO oxide bridge layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction data showed the highly (111)-oriented perovskite phase in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films with PbTiO3/PbO bridge layers, compared to the pyrochlore phase grown directly on GaN. The in-plane epitaxial relationships were found from x-ray pole figures to be PZT[112¯]‖GaN[11¯00] and PZT[11¯0]‖GaN[112¯0]. The polarization-electric field measurements revealed the ferroelectric behavior with remanent polarization of 30-40μC /cm2 and asymmetric hysteresis loops due to the depletion layer formed in GaN under reverse bias which resulted in a high negative coercive electric field (950kV/cm).

  4. Growth kinetics and characterizations of gallium nitride thin films by remote PECVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. W.; Bachmann, K. J.; Lucovsky, G.

    1993-01-01

    Thin films of GaN have been deposited at relatively low growth temperatures by remote plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (RPECVD), using a plasma excited NH3, and trimethylgallium (TMG), injected downstream from the plasma. The activation energy for GaN growth has been tentatively assigned to the dissociation of NH groups as the primary N-atom precursors in the surface reaction with adsorbed TMG, or TMG fragments. At high He flow rates, an abrupt increase in the growth rate is observed and corresponds to a change in the reaction mechanism attributed to the formation of atomic N. XRD reveals an increased tendency to ordered growth in the (0001) direction with increasing growth temperature, He flow rate, and RF plasma power. IR spectra show the fundamental lattice mode of GaN at 530 cm without evidence for vibrational modes of hydrocarbon groups.

  5. Control of Ga-oxide interlayer growth and Ga diffusion in SiO2/GaN stacks for high-quality GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with improved gate dielectric reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kenta; Nozaki, Mikito; Yamada, Hisashi; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2018-01-01

    A simple and feasible method for fabricating high-quality and highly reliable GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices was developed. The direct chemical vapor deposition of SiO2 films on GaN substrates forming Ga-oxide interlayers was carried out to fabricate SiO2/GaO x /GaN stacked structures. Although well-behaved hysteresis-free GaN-MOS capacitors with extremely low interface state densities below 1010 cm-2 eV-1 were obtained by postdeposition annealing, Ga diffusion into overlying SiO2 layers severely degraded the dielectric breakdown characteristics. However, this problem was found to be solved by rapid thermal processing, leading to the superior performance of the GaN-MOS devices in terms of interface quality, insulating property, and gate dielectric reliability.

  6. GaN Nanowire Devices: Fabrication and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Reum

    The development of microelectronics in the last 25 years has been characterized by an exponential increase of the bit density in integrated circuits (ICs) with time. Scaling solid-state devices improves cost, performance, and power; as such, it is of particular interest for companies, who gain a market advantage with the latest technology. As a result, the microelectronics industry has driven transistor feature size scaling from 10 μm to ~30 nm during the past 40 years. This trend has persisted for 40 years due to optimization, new processing techniques, device structures, and materials. But when noting processor speeds from the 1970's to 2009 and then again in 2010, the implication would be that the trend has ceased. To address the challenge of shrinking the integrated circuit (IC), current research is centered on identifying new materials and devices that can supplement and/or potentially supplant it. Bottom-up methods tailor nanoscale building blocks---atoms, molecules, quantum dots, and nanowires (NWs)---to be used to overcome these limitations. The Group IIIA nitrides (InN, AlN, and GaN) possess appealing properties such as a direct band gap spanning the whole solar spectrum, high saturation velocity, and high breakdown electric field. As a result nanostructures and nanodevices made from GaN and related nitrides are suitable candidates for efficient nanoscale UV/ visible light emitters, detectors, and gas sensors. To produce devices with such small structures new fabrication methods must be implemented. Devices composed of GaN nanowires were fabricated using photolithography and electron beam lithography. The IV characteristics of these devices were noted under different illuminations and the current tripled from 4.8*10-7 A to 1.59*10 -6 A under UV light which persisted for at least 5hrs.

  7. Chemical trends for acceptor impurities in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    1999-03-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of acceptor impurities in GaN, based on first-principles total-energy calculations. Two main factors are identified that determine acceptor incorporation: the strength of chemical bonding between the acceptor and its neighbors (which can be assessed by comparison with existing compounds) and the atomic size match between the acceptor and the host atom for which it substitutes. None of the candidates (Li, Na, K, Be, Zn, and Ca) exhibits characteristics which surpass those of Mg in all respects. Only Be emerges as a potential alternative dopant, although it may suffer from compensation by Be interstitial donors.

  8. Transport mechanisms in Schottky diodes realized on GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Sarrah; Ahaitouf, Ali; Ahaitouf, Abdelaziz; Salvestrini, Jean Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdellah

    2017-03-01

    This work is focused on the conducted transport mechanisms involved on devices based in gallium nitride GaN and its alloys. With considering all conduction mechanisms of current, its possible to understanded these transport phenomena. Thanks to this methodology the current-voltage characteristics of structures with unusual behaviour are further understood and explain. Actually, the barrier height (SBH) is a complex problem since it depends on several parameters like the quality of the metal-semiconductor interface. This study is particularly interesting as solar cells are made on this material and their qualification is closely linked to their transport properties.

  9. Photoluminescence enhancement from GaN by beryllium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gutiérrez, R.; Ramos-Carrazco, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Hirata, G. A.; Contreras, O. E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2016-10-01

    High quality Be-doped (Be = 0.19 at.%) GaN powder has been grown by reacting high purity Ga diluted alloys (Be-Ga) with ultra high purity ammonia in a horizontal quartz tube reactor at 1200 °C. An initial low-temperature treatment to dissolve ammonia into the Ga melt produced GaN powders with 100% reaction efficiency. Doping was achieved by dissolving beryllium into the gallium metal. The powders synthesized by this method regularly consist of two particle size distributions: large hollow columns with lengths between 5 and 10 μm and small platelets in a range of diameters among 1 and 3 μm. The GaN:Be powders present a high quality polycrystalline profile with preferential growth on the [10 1 bar 1] plane, observed by means of X-ray diffraction. The three characteristics growth planes of the GaN crystalline phase were found by using high resolution TEM microscopy. The optical enhancing of the emission in the GaN powder is attributed to defects created with the beryllium doping. The room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra of GaN:Be powders, revealed the presence of beryllium on a shoulder peak at 3.39 eV and an unusual Y6 emission at 3.32eV related to surface donor-acceptor pairs. Also, a donor-acceptor-pair transition at 3.17 eV and a phonon replica transition at 3.1 eV were observed at low temperature (10 K). The well-known yellow luminescence band coming from defects was observed in both spectra at room and low temperature. Cathodoluminescence emission from GaN:Be powders presents two main peaks associated with an ultraviolet band emission and the yellow emission known from defects. To study the trapping levels related with the defects formed in the GaN:Be, thermoluminescence glow curves were obtained using UV and β radiation in the range of 50 and 150 °C.

  10. Characterisation of Cs ion implanted GaN by DLTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoepe, P. N. M.; Meyer, W. E.; Auret, F. D.; Omotoso, E.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; Diale, M.

    2018-04-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to characterise Cs implanted GaN grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE). This implantation was done at room temperature using energy of 360 keV to a fluence of 10-11 cm-2. A defect with activation energy of 0.19 eV below the conduction band and an apparent capture cross section of 1.1 × 10-15 cm2 was induced. This defect has previously been observed after rare earth element (Eu, Er and Pr) implantation. It has also been reported after electron, proton and He ion implantation.

  11. Pressure-induced phase transition in GaN nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Q.; Pan, Y.; Zhang, W.; Wang, X.; Zhang, J.; Cui, T.; Xie, Y.; Liu, J.; Zou, G.

    2002-11-01

    High-pressure in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments on GaN nanocrystals with 50 nm diameter have been carried out using a synchrotron x-ray source and a diamond-anvil cell up to about 79 GPa at room temperature. A pressure-induced first-order structural phase transition from the wurtzite-type structure to the rock-salt-type structure starts at about 48.8 GPa. The rock-salt-type phase persists to the highest pressure in our experimental range.

  12. The Peculiarities of Strain Relaxation in GaN/AlN Superlattices Grown on Vicinal GaN (0001) Substrate: Comparative XRD and AFM Study.

    PubMed

    Kuchuk, Andrian V; Kryvyi, Serhii; Lytvyn, Petro M; Li, Shibin; Kladko, Vasyl P; Ware, Morgan E; Mazur, Yuriy I; Safryuk, Nadiia V; Stanchu, Hryhorii V; Belyaev, Alexander E; Salamo, Gregory J

    2016-12-01

    Superlattices (SLs) consisting of symmetric layers of GaN and AlN have been investigated. Detailed X-ray diffraction and reflectivity measurements demonstrate that the relaxation of built-up strain in the films generally increases with an increasing number of repetitions; however, an apparent relaxation for subcritical thickness SLs is explained through the accumulation of Nagai tilt at each interface of the SL. Additional atomic force microscopy measurements reveal surface pit densities which appear to correlate with the amount of residual strain in the films along with the appearance of cracks for SLs which have exceeded the critical thickness for plastic relaxation. These results indicate a total SL thickness beyond which growth may be limited for the formation of high-quality coherent crystal structures; however, they may indicate a growth window for the reduction of threading dislocations by controlled relaxation of the epilayers.

  13. Large-eddy simulation of flow in a plane, asymmetric diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaltenbach, Hans-Jakob

    1993-01-01

    Recent improvements in subgrid-scale modeling as well as increases in computer power make it feasible to investigate flows using large-eddy simulation (LES) which have been traditionally studied with techniques based on Reynolds averaging. However, LES has not yet been applied to many flows of immediate technical interest. Preliminary results from LES of a plane diffuser flow are described. The long term goal of this work is to investigate flow separation as well as separation control in ducts and ramp-like geometries.

  14. Stratification of a two-phase monodisperse system in a plane laminar flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, V. B., E-mail: vbfedoseev@yandex.ru

    2016-05-15

    A thermodynamic approach is used to describe the distribution of particles of a disperse phase in a plane laminar flow. The effect of the density, shape, and velocity of disperse particles in the flow is considered. Conditions are described under which various modes of stratification of the flow (near-wall, central, intermediate, and multilayer modes) arise. The equilibrium distributions obtained are self-similar; this allows one to compare the behavior of colloidal, highly disperse, coarsely disperse, and coarse-grain systems for various shear velocities and flow widths.

  15. Analysis of a thin-walled pressurized torus in contact with a plane. [aircraft tires study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, M. J., Jr.; Gassman, P. M.; Baumgarten, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis is applied to study the large deflection of a standing torus loaded by a plane. The internally pressurized thin-walled structure is found to have an elliptical footprint area. Considerable bulge occurs in the sidewall in the region of the load plane. Stress distributions throughout the torus are shown for various load levels and for various modeling strategies at a given load level. In large load ranges finite element calculations show compressive circumferential stress and negative curvature in the footprint region. Results are compared with inelastic wall analysis.

  16. Optical design of GaN nanowire arrays for photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnerl, Julia; Hudeczek, Richard; Stutzmann, Martin

    2018-05-01

    GaN nanowire (NW) arrays are interesting candidates for photocatalytic applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio and their waveguide character. The integration of GaN NW arrays on GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs), serving as a platform for electrically driven NW-based photocatalytic devices, enables an efficient coupling of the light from the planar LED to the GaN NWs. Here, we present a numerical study of the influence of the NW geometries, i.e., the NW diameter, length, and period, and the illumination wavelength on the transmission of GaN NW arrays on transparent substrates. A detailed numerical analysis reveals that the transmission characteristics for large periods are determined by the waveguide character of the single NW, whereas for dense GaN NW arrays inter-wire coupling and diffraction effects originating from the periodic arrangement of the GaN NWs dominate the transmission. The numerically simulated results are confirmed by experimental transmission measurements. We also investigate the influence of a dielectric NW shell and of the surrounding medium on the transmission characteristics of a GaN NW array.

  17. Theoretical study for heterojunction surface of NEA GaN photocathode dispensed with Cs activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Meishan; Kong, Yike

    2016-09-01

    For the disadvantages of conventional negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathodes activated by Cs or Cs/O, new-type NEA GaN photocathodes with heterojunction surface dispensed with Cs activation are investigated based on first-principle study with density functional theory. Through the growth of an ultrathin n-type GaN cap layer on p-type GaN emission layer, a p-n heterojunction is formed on the surface. According to the calculation results, it is found that Si atoms tend to replace Ga atoms to result in an n-type doped cap layer which contributes to the decreasing of work function. After the growth of n-type GaN cap layer, the atom structure near the p-type emission layer is changed while that away from the surface has no obvious variations. By analyzing the E-Mulliken charge distribution of emission surface with and without cap layer, it is found that the positive charge of Ga and Mg atoms in the emission layer decrease caused by the cap layer, while the negative charge of N atom increases. The conduction band moves downwards after the growth of cap layer. Si atom produces donor levels around the valence band maximum. The absorption coefficient of GaN emission layer decreases and the reflectivity increases caused by n-type GaN cap layer.

  18. Determination of carrier diffusion length in p- and n-type GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, Shopan; Metzner, Sebastian; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Karbaum, Christopher; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Gil, Bernard; Özgür, Ümit

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers along the c-direction were determined from photoluminescence (PL) measurements in p- and n-type GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The investigated samples incorporate a 6 nm thick In0.15Ga0.85N active layer capped with either 500 nm p- GaN or 1300 nm n-GaN. The top GaN layers were etched in steps and PL from the InGaN active region and the underlying layers was monitored as a function of the top GaN thickness upon photogeneration near the surface region by above bandgap excitation. Taking into consideration the absorption in the active and underlying layers, the diffusion lengths at 295 K and at 15 K were measured to be about 92 ± 7 nm and 68 ± 7 nm for Mg-doped p-type GaN and 432 ± 30 nm and 316 ± 30 nm for unintentionally doped n-type GaN, respectively. Cross-sectional cathodoluminescence line-scan measurement was performed on a separate sample and the diffusion length in n-type GaN was measured to be 280 nm.

  19. Impact of substrate off-angle on the m-plane GaN Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hisashi; Chonan, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effects of the substrate off-angle on the m-plane GaN Schottky diodes. GaN epitaxial layers were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on m-plane GaN substrates having an off-angle of 0.1, 1.1, 1.7, or 5.1° toward [000\\bar{1}]. The surface of the GaN epitaxial layers on the 0.1°-off substrate consisted of pyramidal hillocks and contained oxygen (>1017 cm-3) and carbon (>1016 cm-3) impurities. The residual carbon and oxygen impurities decreased to <1016 cm-3 when the off-angle of the m-plane GaN substrate was increased. The leakage current of the 0.1°-off m-plane GaN Schottky diodes originated from the +c facet of the pyramidal hillocks. The leakage current was efficiently suppressed through the use of an off-angle that was observed to be greater than 1.1°. The off-angle of the m-plane GaN substrate is critical in obtaining high-performance Schottky diodes.

  20. Study on photoemission surface of varied doping GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jianliang; Du, Ruijuan; Ding, Huan; Gao, Youtang; Chang, Benkang

    2014-09-01

    For varied doping GaN photocathode, from bulk to surface the doping concentrations are distributed from high to low. The varied doping GaN photocathode may produce directional inside electric field within the material, so the higher quantum efficiency can be obtained. The photoemission surface of varied doping GaN photocathode is very important to the high quantum efficiency, but the forming process of the surface state after Cs activation or Cs/O activation has been not known completely. Encircling the photoemission mechanism of varied GaN photocathode, considering the experiment phenomena during the activation and the successful activation results, the varied GaN photocathode surface model [GaN(Mg):Cs]:O-Cs after activation with cesium and oxygen was given. According to GaN photocathode activation process and the change of electronic affinity, the comparatively ideal NEA property can be achieved by Cs or Cs/O activation, and higher quantum efficiency can be obtained. The results show: The effective NEA characteristic of GaN can be gotten only by Cs. [GaN(Mg):Cs] dipoles form the first dipole layer, the positive end is toward the vacuum side. In the activation processing with Cs/O, the second dipole layer is formed by O-Cs dipoles, A O-Cs dipole includes one oxygen atom and two Cs atoms, and the positive end is also toward the vacuum side thus the escape of electrons can be promoted.

  1. Film Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  2. Laser damage mechanisms in conductive widegap semiconductor films

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Menor, Marlon G.; Adams, John J.; ...

    2016-07-25

    Here, laser damage mechanisms of two conductive wide-bandgap semiconductor films - indium tin oxide (ITO) and silicon doped GaN (Si:GaN) were studied via microscopy, spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and elemental analysis. Nanosecond laser pulse exposures with a laser photon energy (1.03 eV, 1064 nm) smaller than the conductive films bandgaps were applied and radically different film damage morphologies were produced. The laser damaged ITO film exhibited deterministic features of thermal degradation. In contrast, laser damage in the Si:GaN film resulted in highly localized eruptions originating at interfaces. For ITO, thermally driven damage was related to free carrier absorption and, for GaN,more » carbon complexes were proposed as potential damage precursors or markers.« less

  3. Estimating ice particle scattering properties using a modified Rayleigh-Gans approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yinghui; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Aydin, Kültegin; Verlinde, Johannes

    2014-09-01

    A modification to the Rayleigh-Gans approximation is made that includes self-interactions between different parts of an ice crystal, which both improves the accuracy of the Rayleigh-Gans approximation and extends its applicability to polarization-dependent parameters. This modified Rayleigh-Gans approximation is both efficient and reasonably accurate for particles with at least one dimension much smaller than the wavelength (e.g., dendrites at millimeter or longer wavelengths) or particles with sparse structures (e.g., low-density aggregates). Relative to the Generalized Multiparticle Mie method, backscattering reflectivities at horizontal transmit and receive polarization (HH) (ZHH) computed with this modified Rayleigh-Gans approach are about 3 dB more accurate than with the traditional Rayleigh-Gans approximation. For realistic particle size distributions and pristine ice crystals the modified Rayleigh-Gans approach agrees with the Generalized Multiparticle Mie method to within 0.5 dB for ZHH whereas for the polarimetric radar observables differential reflectivity (ZDR) and specific differential phase (KDP) agreement is generally within 0.7 dB and 13%, respectively. Compared to the A-DDA code, the modified Rayleigh-Gans approximation is several to tens of times faster if scattering properties for different incident angles and particle orientations are calculated. These accuracies and computational efficiencies are sufficient to make this modified Rayleigh-Gans approach a viable alternative to the Rayleigh-Gans approximation in some applications such as millimeter to centimeter wavelength radars and to other methods that assume simpler, less accurate shapes for ice crystals. This method should not be used on materials with dielectric properties much different from ice and on compact particles much larger than the wavelength.

  4. A plane wave generation method by wave number domain point focusing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ji-Ho; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2010-11-01

    A method for generation of a wave-field that is a plane wave is described. This method uses an array of loudspeakers phased so that the field in the wave-number domain is nearly concentrated at a point, this point being at the wave-number vector of the desired plane wave. The method described here for such a wave-number concentration makes use of an expansion in spherical harmonics, and requires a relatively small number of measurement points for a good approximate achievement of a plane wave. The measurement points are on a spherical surface surrounding the array of loudspeakers. The input signals for the individual loudspeakers can be derived without a matrix inversion or without explicit assumptions about the loudspeakers. The mathematical development involves spherical harmonics and three-dimensional Fourier transforms. Some numerical examples are given, with various assumptions concerning the nature of the loudspeakers, that support the premise that the method described in the present paper may be useful in applications.

  5. Size dictated thermal conductivity of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beechem, Thomas E.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Fuller, Elliot J.; Talin, A. Alec; Rost, Christina M.; Maria, Jon-Paul; Gaskins, John T.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2016-09-01

    The thermal conductivity of n- and p-type doped gallium nitride (GaN) epilayers having thicknesses of 3-4 μm was investigated using time domain thermoreflectance. Despite possessing carrier concentrations ranging across 3 decades (1015-1018 cm-3), n-type layers exhibit a nearly constant thermal conductivity of 180 W/mK. The thermal conductivity of p-type epilayers, in contrast, reduces from 160 to 110 W/mK with increased doping. These trends—and their overall reduction relative to bulk—are explained leveraging established scattering models where it is shown that, while the decrease in p-type layers is partly due to the increased impurity levels evolving from its doping, size effects play a primary role in limiting the thermal conductivity of GaN layers tens of microns thick. Device layers, even of pristine quality, will therefore exhibit thermal conductivities less than the bulk value of 240 W/mK owing to their finite thickness.

  6. MARTA GANs: Unsupervised Representation Learning for Remote Sensing Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Daoyu; Fu, Kun; Wang, Yang; Xu, Guangluan; Sun, Xian

    2017-11-01

    With the development of deep learning, supervised learning has frequently been adopted to classify remotely sensed images using convolutional networks (CNNs). However, due to the limited amount of labeled data available, supervised learning is often difficult to carry out. Therefore, we proposed an unsupervised model called multiple-layer feature-matching generative adversarial networks (MARTA GANs) to learn a representation using only unlabeled data. MARTA GANs consists of both a generative model $G$ and a discriminative model $D$. We treat $D$ as a feature extractor. To fit the complex properties of remote sensing data, we use a fusion layer to merge the mid-level and global features. $G$ can produce numerous images that are similar to the training data; therefore, $D$ can learn better representations of remotely sensed images using the training data provided by $G$. The classification results on two widely used remote sensing image databases show that the proposed method significantly improves the classification performance compared with other state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Magneto-ballistic transport in GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Santoruvo, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.santoruvo@epfl.ch; Allain, Adrien; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry

    2016-09-05

    The ballistic filtering property of nanoscale crosses was used to investigate the effect of perpendicular magnetic fields on the ballistic transport of electrons on wide band-gap GaN heterostructures. The straight scattering-less trajectory of electrons was modified by a perpendicular magnetic field which produced a strong non-linear behavior in the measured output voltage of the ballistic filters and allowed the observation of semi-classical and quantum effects, such as quenching of the Hall resistance and manifestation of the last plateau, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. A large measured phase coherence length of 190 nm allowed the observation of universal quantum fluctuationsmore » and weak localization of electrons due to quantum interference up to ∼25 K. This work also reveals the prospect of wide band-gap GaN semiconductors as a platform for basic transport and quantum studies, whose properties allow the investigation of ballistic transport and quantum phenomena at much larger voltages and temperatures than in other semiconductors.« less

  8. GaN nanophosphors for white-light applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mirgender; Singh, V. P.; Dubey, Sarvesh; Suh, Youngsuk; Park, Si-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    GaN nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by carbothermal reduction combined with nitridation, using Ga2O3 powder and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as precursors. Characterization of the NPs was performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was also performed to detect the chemical states of the different species. A universal yellow luminescence (YL) band was observed from complexes of Ga vacancies with O anti-sites and of O anti-sites with C. Further increments in the C content were observed with continued growth and induced an additional blue luminescence (BL) band. Tuning of the YL and BL bands resulted in white-light emission under certain experimental conditions, thus offering a new way of employing GaN nanophosphors for solid-state white lighting. Calculations of the correlated color temperature and color-quality scale parameters confirmed the utility of the experimental process for different applications.

  9. Properties of GaN grown on sapphire substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.; Debnam, W. J.; Fripp, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of GaN on sapphire substrates using an open-tube growth furnace has been carried out to study the effects of substrate orientation and transfer gas upon the properties of the layers. It has been found that for the (0001) substrates, surface appearance was virtually independent of carrier gas and of doping levels. For the (1(-1)02) substrates surface faceting was greatly reduced when He was used as a transfer gas as opposed to H2. Faceting was also reduced when the GaN was doped with Zn, and the best surfaces for the (1(-1)02) substrates were obtained in a Zn-doped run using He as the transfer gas. The best sample in terms of electrical properties for the (1(-1)02) substrate had a mobility greater than 400 sq cm/V per sec and a carrier concentration of about 10 to the 17th per cu cm. This sample was undoped and used He as the transfer gas. The best (0001) sample was also grown undoped with He as the transfer gas and had a mobility of 300 sq cm/V per sec and a carrier concentration of 1 x 10 to the 18th per cu cm.

  10. Low voltage operation of GaN vertical nanowire MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Dong-Hyeok; Jo, Young-Woo; Seo, Jae Hwa; Won, Chul-Ho; Im, Ki-Sik; Lee, Yong Soo; Jang, Hwan Soo; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Kang, In Man; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2018-07-01

    GaN gate-all-around (GAA) vertical nanowire MOSFET (VNWMOSFET) with channel length of 300 nm and diameter of 120 nm, the narrowest GaN-based vertical nanowire transistor ever achieved from the top-down approach, was fabricated by utilizing anisotropic side-wall wet etching in TMAH solution and photoresist etch-back process. The VNWMOSFET exhibited output characteristics with very low saturation drain voltage of less than 0.5 V, which is hardly observed from the wide bandgap-based devices. Simulation results indicated that the narrow diameter of the VNWMOSFET with relatively short channel length is responsible for the low voltage operation. The VNWMOSFET also demonstrated normally-off mode with threshold voltage (VTH) of 0.7 V, extremely low leakage current of ∼10-14 A, low drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 125 mV/V, and subthreshold swing (SS) of 66-122 mV/decade. The GaN GAA VNWMOSFET with narrow channel diameter investigated in this work would be promising for new low voltage logic application. He has been a Professor with the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, since 1993

  11. GaN nanostructure design for optimal dislocation filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhiwen; Colby, Robert; Wildeson, Isaac H.; Ewoldt, David A.; Sands, Timothy D.; Stach, Eric A.; García, R. Edwin

    2010-10-01

    The effect of image forces in GaN pyramidal nanorod structures is investigated to develop dislocation-free light emitting diodes (LEDs). A model based on the eigenstrain method and nonlocal stress is developed to demonstrate that the pyramidal nanorod efficiently ejects dislocations out of the structure. Two possible regimes of filtering behavior are found: (1) cap-dominated and (2) base-dominated. The cap-dominated regime is shown to be the more effective filtering mechanism. Optimal ranges of fabrication parameters that favor a dislocation-free LED are predicted and corroborated by resorting to available experimental evidence. The filtering probability is summarized as a function of practical processing parameters: the nanorod radius and height. The results suggest an optimal nanorod geometry with a radius of ˜50b (26 nm) and a height of ˜125b (65 nm), in which b is the magnitude of the Burgers vector for the GaN system studied. A filtering probability of greater than 95% is predicted for the optimal geometry.

  12. Impact of Group-II Acceptors on the Electrical and Optical Properties of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, John L.; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2013-08-01

    We explore the properties of group-II acceptors in GaN by performing hybrid density functional calculations. We find that MgGa gives rise to hole localization in zinc-blende GaN, similar to the behavior in the wurtzite phase. Alternative acceptor impurities, such as Zn and Be, also lead to localized holes in wurtzite GaN, and their ionization energies are larger than that of Mg. All these group-II acceptors also cause large lattice distortions in their neutral charge state, which in turn lead to deep and broad luminescence signals. We explore the consequences of these results for p-type doping.

  13. Interfacial Structure and Chemistry of GaN on Ge(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Zhang, Yucheng; Cui, Ying; Freysoldt, Christoph; Neugebauer, Jörg; Lieten, Ruben R.; Barnard, Jonathan S.; Humphreys, Colin J.

    2013-12-01

    The interface of GaN grown on Ge(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is resolved by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. A novel interfacial structure with a 5∶4 closely spaced atomic bilayer is observed that explains why the interface is flat, crystalline, and free of GeNx. Density functional theory based total energy calculations show that the interface bilayer contains Ge and Ga atoms, with no N atoms. The 5∶4 bilayer at the interface has a lower energy than a direct stacking of GaN on Ge(111) and enables the 5∶4 lattice-matching growth of GaN.

  14. Photoassisted Kelvin probe force microscopy at GaN surfaces: The role of polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. D.; Li, S. F.; Atamuratov, A.; Wehmann, H.-H.; Waag, A.

    2010-10-01

    The behavior of GaN surfaces during photoassisted Kelvin probe force microscopy is demonstrated to be strongly dependant on surface polarity. The surface photovoltage of GaN surfaces illuminated with above-band gap light is analyzed as a function of time and light intensity. Distinct differences between Ga-polar and N-polar surfaces could be identified, attributed to photoinduced chemisorption of oxygen during illumination. These differences can be used for a contactless, nondestructive, and easy-performable analysis of the polarity of GaN surfaces.

  15. Effect of precursors condition on the structural morphology of synthesized GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzammil, P.; Basha, S. Munawar; Muhammad, G. Shakil

    2018-05-01

    GaN nanostructures were synthesized using different mole concentration of precursor composing of gallium nitrate and PVP by sol-gel method. The structural analysis using X-ray diffraction shows the wurtzite form of GaN nanostructure, also it observed that the concentration of precursor play a vital role in structural quality as FWHM increase for higher concentration. From the SEM image it observed that for 0.25 and 0.5 M concentration the honey bee and nanorod structure were obtained. The micro-Raman analysis shows a strong E2H peak of GaN nanostructure.

  16. Femtosecond-laser-driven photoelectron-gun for time-resolved cathodoluminescence measurement of GaN.

    PubMed

    Onuma, T; Kagamitani, Y; Hazu, K; Ishiguro, T; Fukuda, T; Chichibu, S F

    2012-04-01

    A rear-excitation femtosecond-laser-driven photoelectron gun (PE-gun) is developed for measuring time-resolved cathodoluminescence (TRCL) spectrum of wide bandgap materials and structures such as semiconductors and phosphors. The maximum quantum efficiency of a 20-nm-thick Au photocathode excited using a frequency-tripled Al(2)O(3):Ti laser under a rear-excitation configuration is 3.6×10(-6), which is a reasonable value for a PE-gun. When the distance between the front edge of the PE-gun and the observation point is 10 mm, the narrowest electron-beam (e-beam) diameter is 19 μm, which corresponds to one tenth of the laser-beam diameter and is comparable to the initial e-beam diameter of a typical W hair-pin filament of thermionic electron-gun. From the results of TRCL measurements on the freestanding GaN grown by the ammonothermal method and a GaN homoepitaxial film grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, overall response time for the present TRCL system is estimated to be 8 ps. The value is the same as that of time-resolved photoluminescence measurement using the same excitation laser pulses, meaning that the time-resolution is simply limited by the streak-camera, not by the PE-gun performance. The result of numerical simulation on the temporal e-beam broadening caused by the space-charge-effect suggests that the present PE-gun can be used as a pulsed e-beam source for spatio-time-resolved cathodoluminescence, when equipped in a scanning electron microscope. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  17. Femtosecond-laser-driven photoelectron-gun for time-resolved cathodoluminescence measurement of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuma, T.; Kagamitani, Y.; Hazu, K.; Ishiguro, T.; Fukuda, T.; Chichibu, S. F.

    2012-04-01

    A rear-excitation femtosecond-laser-driven photoelectron gun (PE-gun) is developed for measuring time-resolved cathodoluminescence (TRCL) spectrum of wide bandgap materials and structures such as semiconductors and phosphors. The maximum quantum efficiency of a 20-nm-thick Au photocathode excited using a frequency-tripled Al2O3:Ti laser under a rear-excitation configuration is 3.6×10-6, which is a reasonable value for a PE-gun. When the distance between the front edge of the PE-gun and the observation point is 10 mm, the narrowest electron-beam (e-beam) diameter is 19 μm, which corresponds to one tenth of the laser-beam diameter and is comparable to the initial e-beam diameter of a typical W hair-pin filament of thermionic electron-gun. From the results of TRCL measurements on the freestanding GaN grown by the ammonothermal method and a GaN homoepitaxial film grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, overall response time for the present TRCL system is estimated to be 8 ps. The value is the same as that of time-resolved photoluminescence measurement using the same excitation laser pulses, meaning that the time-resolution is simply limited by the streak-camera, not by the PE-gun performance. The result of numerical simulation on the temporal e-beam broadening caused by the space-charge-effect suggests that the present PE-gun can be used as a pulsed e-beam source for spatio-time-resolved cathodoluminescence, when equipped in a scanning electron microscope.

  18. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-01-01

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic layer deposition. This “compliant” buffer layer is capable of relaxing strain due to the absorption of misfit dislocations in a region within ~10 nm from the interface, leading to a high-quality overlying GaN epilayer with an unusual TD density as low as 2.2 × 105 cm−2. In addition, this GaN compliant buffer layer exhibits excellent uniformity up to a 6” wafer, revealing a promising means to realize large-area GaN hetero-epitaxy for efficient LEDs and high-power transistors. PMID:26329829

  19. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs.

    PubMed

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-09-02

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic layer deposition. This "compliant" buffer layer is capable of relaxing strain due to the absorption of misfit dislocations in a region within ~10 nm from the interface, leading to a high-quality overlying GaN epilayer with an unusual TD density as low as 2.2 × 10(5) cm(-2). In addition, this GaN compliant buffer layer exhibits excellent uniformity up to a 6" wafer, revealing a promising means to realize large-area GaN hetero-epitaxy for efficient LEDs and high-power transistors.

  20. Low-cost growth of magnesium doped gallium nitride thin films by sol-gel spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, N. Mohd; Ng, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost sol-gel spin coating growth of magnesium (Mg) doped gallium nitride (GaN) thin films with different concentrations of Mg was reported. The effects of the Mg concentration on the structural, surface morphology, elemental compositions, lattice vibrational, and electrical properties of the deposited films were investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that the Mg-doped samples have wurtzite structure with preferred orientation of GaN(002). The crystallite size decreases and the surface of the films with pits/pores were formed, while the crystalline quality of the films degraded as the Mg concentration increases from 2% to 6. %. All the Raman active phonon modes of the wurtzite GaN were observed while a broad peak attributed to the Mg-related lattice vibrational mode was detected at 669 cm-1. Hall effect results show that the resistivity of the thin films decreases while the hole concentration and hall mobility of thin films increases as the concentration of the Mg increases.

  1. Topological superconductivity and the fractional Josephson effect in quasi-one dimensional wires on a plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhmedov, E.; Mammadova, S.; Alekperov, O.

    2016-01-01

    A time-reversal invariant topological superconductivity is suggested to be realized in a quasi-one-dimensional structure on a plane, which is fabricated by filling the superconducting materials into the periodic channel of dielectric matrices like zeolite and asbestos under high pressure. The topological superconducting phase sets up in the presence of large spin-orbit interactions when intra-wire s-wave and inter-wire d-wave pairings take place. Kramers pairs of Majorana bound states emerge at the edges of each wire. We analyze effects of the Zeeman magnetic field on Majorana zero-energy states. In-plane magnetic field was shown to make asymmetric the energy dispersion, nevertheless Majorana fermions survive due to protection of a particle-hole symmetry. Tunneling of Majorana quasiparticle from the end of one wire to the nearest-neighboring one yields edge fractional Josephson current with 4π-periodicity.

  2. Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Yuan; Lin, Lan-Lan

    2003-04-01

    Transfer-matrix methods adopting a plane-wave basis have been routinely used to calculate the scattering of electromagnetic waves by general multilayer gratings and photonic crystal slabs. In this paper we show that this technique, when combined with Bloch's theorem, can be extended to solve the photonic band structure for 2D and 3D photonic crystal structures. Three different eigensolution schemes to solve the traditional band diagrams along high-symmetry lines in the first Brillouin zone of the crystal are discussed. Optimal rules for the Fourier expansion over the dielectric function and electromagnetic fields with discontinuities occurring at the boundary of different material domains have been employed to accelerate the convergence of numerical computation. Application of this method to an important class of 3D layer-by-layer photonic crystals reveals the superior convergency of this different approach over the conventional plane-wave expansion method.

  3. Compact cross-dispersion device based on a prism and a plane transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qinghua; Wang, Weiqiang

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a cross-dispersion prism-grating device using a plane transmission grating attached directly to a prism, which is different from traditional cross-dispersion grating-prism systems that are based on the reflection grating. Unlike conventional direct-vision grism or constant-dispersion grism in which both the prism and grating have the same dispersion direction, for this device the dispersion directions of the prism and grating are different. The analytical expressions for the cross-dispersion of this device are derived in detail and the formulas of the footprint of the dispersed spectra are given. The numerical results and ray-tracing simulations by ZEMAX are shown. The device provides a compact, small-sized and broadband cross-dispersion device used for the medium resolution spectrometer.

  4. High breakdown single-crystal GaN p-n diodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Meng; Zhao, Yuning; Yan, Xiaodong

    2015-12-07

    Molecular beam epitaxy grown GaN p-n vertical diodes are demonstrated on single-crystal GaN substrates. A low leakage current <3 nA/cm{sup 2} is obtained with reverse bias voltage up to −20 V. With a 400 nm thick n-drift region, an on-resistance of 0.23 mΩ cm{sup 2} is achieved, with a breakdown voltage corresponding to a peak electric field of ∼3.1 MV/cm in GaN. Single-crystal GaN substrates with very low dislocation densities enable the low leakage current and the high breakdown field in the diodes, showing significant potential for MBE growth to attain near-intrinsic performance when the density of dislocations is low.

  5. Synthesis and excellent field emission properties of three-dimensional branched GaN nanowire homostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Enling; Sun, Lihe; Cui, Zhen; Ma, Deming; Shi, Wei; Wang, Xiaolin

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional branched GaN nanowire homostructures have been synthesized on the Si substrate via a two-step approach by chemical vapor deposition. Structural characterization reveals that the single crystal GaN nanowire trunks have hexagonal wurtzite characteristics and grow along the [0001] direction, while the homoepitaxial single crystal branches grow in a radial direction from the six-sided surfaces of the trunks. The field emission measurements demonstrate that the branched GaN nanowire homostructures have excellent field emission properties, with low turn-on field at 2.35 V/μm, a high field enhancement factor of 2938, and long emission current stability. This indicates that the present branched GaN nanowire homostructures will become valuable for practical field emission applications.

  6. The GaN trench gate MOSFET with floating islands: High breakdown voltage and improved BFOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lingyan; Müller, Stephan; Cheng, Xinhong; Zhang, Dongliang; Zheng, Li; Xu, Dawei; Yu, Yuehui; Meissner, Elke; Erlbacher, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    A novel GaN trench gate (TG) MOSFET with P-type floating islands (FLI) in drift region, which can suppress the electric field peak at bottom of gate trench during the blocking state and prevent premature breakdown in gate oxide, is proposed and investigated by TCAD simulations. The influence of thickness, position, doping concentration and length of the FLI on breakdown voltage (BV) and specific on-resistance (Ron_sp) is studied, providing useful guidelines for design of this new type of device. Using optimized parameters for the FLI, GaN FLI TG-MOSFET obtains a BV as high as 2464 V with a Ron_sp of 3.0 mΩ cm2. Compared to the conventional GaN TG-MOSFET with the same structure parameters, the Baliga figure of merit (BFOM) is enhanced by 150%, getting closer to theoretical limit for GaN devices.

  7. Synthesis and optical properties of Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ doped GaN nanocrystallite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyk, M.; Kudrawiec, R.; Strek, W.; Misiewicz, J.

    2006-05-01

    The GaN nanocrystallite powders obtained by thermal decomposition of pure and doped gallium nitrate followed by nitridation with ammonia are investigated in this paper. The evolution of the phase composition, structure and morphology was studied. The average size of GaN nanocrystallites estimated from the broadening of XRD diffraction peaks was found to be ˜9-21 nm. The photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of pure and Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ doped GaN nanocrystallites were measured and analyzed. A strong emission related to f-f electron transition in Eu and Tb ions has been observed. In addition, a red/yellow emission related to a recombination in the GaN nanocrystalline grains has been observed. It has been shown that this emission strongly depends on the excitation source.

  8. Droplet heteroepitaxy of zinc-blende vs. wurtzite GaN quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, C.; Jeon, S.; Hill, T.; Jones, C.; Shusterman, S.; Yacoby, Y.; Clarke, R.; Deng, H.; Goldman, Rs

    We have developed a GaN droplet heteroepitaxy process based upon plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. Using various surface treatments and Ga deposition parameters, we have demonstrated polycrystalline, zinc-blende (ZB), and wurtzite (WZ) GaN quantum dots (QDs) on Si(001), r-Al2O3, Si(111), and c-GaN substrates. For the polar substrates (i.e. Si(111) and c-GaN), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and coherent Bragg rod analysis reveals the formation of coherent WZ GaN QDs with nitridation-temperature-dependent sizes and densities. For the non-polar substrates (i.e. Si(001) and r-Al2O3) , QDs with strong near-band photoluminescence emission are observed and ZB GaN QD growth on Si(001) is demonstrated for the first time.

  9. Boron doped GaN and InN: Potential candidates for spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, S. W.; Huang, X. N.; Yao, K. L.

    2017-02-01

    The full potential linearized augmented plane wave method together with the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential is utilized to investigate the electronic structures and magnetism for boron doped GaN and InN. Calculations show the boron substituting nitrogen (BN defects) could induce the GaN and InN to be half-metallic ferromagnets. The magnetic moments mainly come from the BN defects, and each BN defect would produce the 2.00 μB total magnetic moment. The electronic structures indicate the carriers-mediated double exchange interaction plays a crucial role in forming the ferromagnetism. Positive chemical pair interactions imply the BN defects would form the homogeneous distribution in GaN and InN matrix. Moderate formation energies suggest that GaN and InN with BN defects could be fabricated experimentally.

  10. Tuning electronic and magnetic properties of GaN nanosheets by surface modifications and nanosheet thickness.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meixia; Yao, Tingzhen; Ao, Zhimin; Wei, Peng; Wang, Danghui; Song, Haiyang

    2015-04-14

    Density-functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the effects of surface modifications and nanosheet thickness on the electronic and magnetic properties of gallium nitride (GaN) nanosheets (NSs). Unlike the bare GaN NSs terminating with polar surfaces, the systems with hydrogenated Ga (H-GaN), fluorinated Ga (F-GaN), and chlorinated Ga (Cl-GaN) preserve their initial wurtzite structures and exhibit ferromagnetic states. The abovementioned three different decorations on Ga atoms are energetically more favorable for thicker GaN NSs. Moreover, as the thickness increases, H-GaN and F-GaN NSs undergo semiconductor to metal and half-metal to metal transition, respectively, while Cl-GaN NSs remain completely metallic. The predicted diverse and tunable electronic and magnetic properties highlight the potential of GaN NSs for novel electronic and spintronic nanodevices.

  11. Surface potential barrier in m-plane GaN studied by contactless electroreflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Lukasz; Misiewicz, Jan; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Sawicka, Marta; Skierbiszewski, Czeslaw; Kudrawiec, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Contactless electroreflectance (CER) is used to study the surface potential barrier in m-plane GaN UN+ [GaN (d = 20,30,50,70 nm)/GaN:Si] structures grown by using molecular beam epitaxy. Clear bandgap-related transitions followed by Franz-Keldysh oscillations (FKO) have been observed in the CER spectra of all samples at room temperature. The built-in electric fields in the undoped cap layers have been determined from the FKO period. From the built-in electric field and the undoped GaN layer thickness, the Fermi level location at the air-exposed m-plane GaN surface has been estimated as 0.42 ± 0.05 eV below the conduction band.

  12. Understanding the power reflection and transmission coefficients of a plane wave at a planar interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qian; Jiang, Yikun; Lin, Haoze

    2017-03-01

    In most textbooks, after discussing the partial transmission and reflection of a plane wave at a planar interface, the power (energy) reflection and transmission coefficients are introduced by calculating the normal-to-interface components of the Poynting vectors for the incident, reflected and transmitted waves, separately. Ambiguity arises among students since, for the Poynting vector to be interpreted as the energy flux density, on the incident (reflected) side, the electric and magnetic fields involved must be the total fields, namely, the sum of incident and reflected fields, instead of the partial fields which are just the incident (reflected) fields. The interpretation of the cross product of partial fields as energy flux has not been obviously justified in most textbooks. Besides, the plane wave is actually an idealisation that is only ever found in textbooks, then what do the reflection and transmission coefficients evaluated for a plane wave really mean for a real beam of limited extent? To provide a clearer physical picture, we exemplify a light beam of finite transverse extent by a fundamental Gaussian beam and simulate its reflection and transmission at a planar interface. Due to its finite transverse extent, we can then insert the incident fields or reflected fields as total fields into the expression of the Poynting vector to evaluate the energy flux and then power reflection and transmission coefficients. We demonstrate that the power reflection and transmission coefficients of a beam of finite extent turn out to be the weighted sum of the corresponding coefficients for all constituent plane wave components that form the beam. The power reflection and transmission coefficients of a single plane wave serve, in turn, as the asymptotes for the corresponding coefficients of a light beam as its width expands infinitely.

  13. Photoelectrochemical etching measurement of defect density in GaN grown by nanoheteroepitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdous, M. S.; Sun, X. Y.; Wang, X.; Fairchild, M. N.; Hersee, S. D.

    2006-05-01

    The density of dislocations in n-type GaN was measured by photoelectrochemical etching. A 10× reduction in dislocation density was observed compared to planar GaN grown at the same time. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that defect reduction is due to the mutual cancellation of dislocations with equal and opposite Burger's vectors. The nanoheteroepitaxy sample exhibited significantly higher photoluminescence intensity and higher electron mobility than the planar reference sample.

  14. Linear Distributed GaN MMIC Power Amplifier with Improved Power-added Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    Laboratories, 3011 Malibu Canyon Road, Malibu, CA 90265 Abstract: We report on a multi-octave (100 MHz ‒ 8 GHz), linear nonuniform distributed...amplifier (NDPA) in a MMIC architecture using scaled 120-nm short-gate- length GaN HEMTs. The linear NDPAs were built with six sections in a nonuniform ...MHz ‒ 8 GHz) GaN MMIC nonuniform distributed amplifier (NDPA) with built-in linearization and a gm3 cancellation method in class A and class C

  15. Electronic Characteristics of Rare Earth Doped GaN Schottky Diodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-21

    REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 04 Sep 2011 - Mar 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ELECTRONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RARE EARTH ...ELECTRONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RARE EARTH DOPED GaN SCHOTTKY DIODES THESIS Aaron B. Blanning...United States. AFIT-ENP-13-M-03 Electronic Characteristics of Rare Earth Doped GaN Schottky Diodes THESIS Presented to the Faculty

  16. Flexible GaN for High Performance, Strainable Radio Frequency Devices (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-02

    devices on van der Waals (vdW) layers has been facilitated by the recent avail - ability of high -quality atomically smooth BN and graphene epi- taxial...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0333 FLEXIBLE GaN FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE, STRAINABLE RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES (POSTPRINT) Elizabeth A. Moore and Timothy...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 5 April 2017 Interim 8 September 2014 – 5 March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FLEXIBLE GaN FOR HIGH

  17. Influence of ammonia flow rate for improving properties of polycrystalline GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, N.

    2018-06-01

    Post-annealing treatment in ammonia ambient is widely accepted for GaN material, but less works have been done to investigate the influence of the ammonia (NH3) flow rate for reducing the N-deficiency as well as improving the quality of the material. In this work, we investigated the influence of NH3 flow rate at 1, 2, 3, and 4 slm in improving properties of a ∼1 μm thick polycrystalline GaN layer. Our simulation work suggested that the uniformity of temperature and pressure gradient of the NH3 gas did not lead to the reduction of N-deficiency of the polycrystalline GaN layer. Instead, it was found that the mitigation of the N-deficiency was strongly influenced by the fluid velocity of the NH3 gas, which had passed over the layer. Either at lower or higher fluid velocity, the chance for the active N atoms to incorporate into the GaN lattice structure was low. Therefore, the N-deficiency on the polycrystalline GaN layer could not be minimized under these conditions. As measured by EDX, the N atoms incorporation was the most effective when the NH3 flow rate at 3 slm, suggesting the flow rate significantly improved the N-deficiency of the polycrystalline GaN layer. Furthermore, it favored the formation of larger hexagonal faceted grains, with the smallest FWHM of XRD peaks from the GaN diffractions in (10 1 bar 0), (0002) and (10 1 bar 1) orientations, while allowing the polycrystalline GaN layer to show sharp and intense emissions peak of NBE in a PL spectrum.

  18. Determination of the nitrogen vacancy as a shallow compensating center in GaN doped with divalent metals.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, J; Catlow, C R A; Scanlon, D O; Keal, T W; Sherwood, P; Miskufova, M; Walsh, A; Woodley, S M; Sokol, A A

    2015-01-09

    We report accurate energetics of defects introduced in GaN on doping with divalent metals, focusing on the technologically important case of Mg doping, using a model that takes into consideration both the effect of hole localization and dipolar polarization of the host material, and includes a well-defined reference level. Defect formation and ionization energies show that divalent dopants are counterbalanced in GaN by nitrogen vacancies and not by holes, which explains both the difficulty in achieving p-type conductivity in GaN and the associated major spectroscopic features, including the ubiquitous 3.46 eV photoluminescence line, a characteristic of all lightly divalent-metal-doped GaN materials that has also been shown to occur in pure GaN samples. Our results give a comprehensive explanation for the observed behavior of GaN doped with low concentrations of divalent metals in good agreement with relevant experiment.

  19. Determination of the Nitrogen Vacancy as a Shallow Compensating Center in GaN Doped with Divalent Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckeridge, J.; Catlow, C. R. A.; Scanlon, D. O.; Keal, T. W.; Sherwood, P.; Miskufova, M.; Walsh, A.; Woodley, S. M.; Sokol, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    We report accurate energetics of defects introduced in GaN on doping with divalent metals, focusing on the technologically important case of Mg doping, using a model that takes into consideration both the effect of hole localization and dipolar polarization of the host material, and includes a well-defined reference level. Defect formation and ionization energies show that divalent dopants are counterbalanced in GaN by nitrogen vacancies and not by holes, which explains both the difficulty in achieving p -type conductivity in GaN and the associated major spectroscopic features, including the ubiquitous 3.46 eV photoluminescence line, a characteristic of all lightly divalent-metal-doped GaN materials that has also been shown to occur in pure GaN samples. Our results give a comprehensive explanation for the observed behavior of GaN doped with low concentrations of divalent metals in good agreement with relevant experiment.

  20. Carrier confinement effects of InxGa1-xN/GaN multi quantum disks with GaN surface barriers grown in GaN nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngsin; Chan, Christopher C. S.; Taylor, Robert A.; Kim, Nammee; Jo, Yongcheol; Lee, Seung W.; Yang, Woochul; Im, Hyunsik

    2018-04-01

    Structural and optical properties of InxGa1-xN/GaN multi quantum disks (QDisks) grown on GaN nanorods by molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and micro-photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Two types of InGaN QDisks were grown: a pseudo-3D confined InGaN pillar-type QDisks embedded in GaN nanorods; and QDisks in flanged cone type GaN nanorods. The PL emission peak and excitation dependent PL behavior of the pillar-type Qdisks differ greatly from those of the flanged cone type QDisks. Time resolved PL was carried out to probe the differences in charge carrier dynamics. The results suggest that by constraining the formation of InGaN QDisks within the centre of the nanorod, carriers are restricted from migrating to the surface, decreasing the surface recombination at high carrier densities.

  1. Oxygen adsorption and incorporation at irradiated GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces: First-principles density-functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Selloni, Annabella; Myers, T. H.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-11-01

    Density functional theory calculations of oxygen adsorption and incorporation at the polar GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces have been carried out to explain the experimentally observed reduced oxygen concentration in GaN samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy in the presence of high energy (˜10keV) electron beam irradiation [Myers , J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2295 (2000)]. Using a model in which the effect of the irradiation is to excite electrons from the valence to the conduction band, we find that both the energy cost of incorporating oxygen impurities in deeper layers and the oxygen adatom diffusion barriers are significantly reduced in the presence of the excitation. The latter effect leads to a higher probability for two O adatoms to recombine and desorb, and thus to a reduced oxygen concentration in the irradiated samples, consistent with experimental observations.

  2. Hybrid device based on GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Min Jeong; Gwon, Dong-Oh; Lee, Chan-Mi

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A hybrid device was demonstrated by using MEH-PPV, PEDOT:PSS, and GaN nanoneedles. • I–V curve of the hybrid device showed its rectification behaviour, similar to a diode. • EL peak originated by the different potential barriers at MEH-PPV and GaN interface. - Abstract: A hybrid device that combines the properties of organic and inorganic semiconductors was fabricated and studied. It incorporated poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as organic polymers and GaN nanoneedles as an inorganic semiconductor. Layers of the two polymers were spin coated on to the GaN nanoneedles. The one peak in the electroluminescence spectrum originatedmore » from the MEH-PPV layer owing to the different potential barriers of electrons and holes at its interface with the GaN nanoneedles. However, the photoluminescence spectrum showed peaks due to both GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV. Such hybrid structures, suitably developed, might be able to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.« less

  3. [Two novel pathogenic mutations of GAN gene identified in a patient with giant axonal neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Ma, Qingwen; Cai, Qin; Liu, Yanna; Wang, Wei; Ren, Zhaorui

    2016-06-01

    To explore the disease-causing mutations in a patient suspected for giant axonal neuropathy(GAN). Target sequence capture sequencing was used to screen potential mutations in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood sample of the patient. Sanger sequencing was applied to confirm the detected mutation. The mutation was verified among 400 GAN alleles from 200 healthy individuals by Sanger sequencing. The function of the mutations was predicted by bioinformatics analysis. The patient was identified as a compound heterozygote carrying two novel pathogenic GAN mutations, i.e., c.778G>T (p.Glu260Ter) and c.277G>A (p.Gly93Arg). Sanger sequencing confirmed that the c.778G>T (p.Glu260Ter) mutation was inherited from his father, while c.277G>A (p.Gly93Arg) was inherited from his mother. The same mutations was not found in the 200 healthy individuals. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the two mutations probably caused functional abnormality of gigaxonin. Two novel GAN mutations were detected in a patient with GAN. Both mutations are pathogenic and can cause abnormalities of gigaxonin structure and function, leading to pathogenesis of GAN. The results may also offer valuable information for similar diseases.

  4. Light Modulation and Water Splitting Enhancement Using a Composite Porous GaN Structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Xi, Xin; Yu, Zhiguo; Cao, Haicheng; Li, Jing; Lin, Shan; Ma, Zhanhong; Zhao, Lixia

    2018-02-14

    On the basis of the laterally porous GaN, we designed and fabricated a composite porous GaN structure with both well-ordered lateral and vertical holes. Compared to the plane GaN, the composite porous GaN structure with the combination of the vertical holes can help to reduce UV reflectance and increase the saturation photocurrent during water splitting by a factor of ∼4.5. Furthermore, we investigated the underlying mechanism for the enhancement of the water splitting performance using a finite-difference time-domain method. The results show that the well-ordered vertical holes can not only help to open the embedded pore channels to the electrolyte at both sides and reduce the migration distance of the gas bubbles during the water splitting reactions but also help to modulate the light field. Using this composite porous GaN structure, most of the incident light can be modulated and trapped into the nanoholes, and thus the electric fields localized in the lateral pores can increase dramatically as a result of the strong optical coupling. Our findings pave a new way to develop GaN photoelectrodes for highly efficient solar water splitting.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of GaN nanowire doubly clamped resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Maliakkal, Carina B., E-mail: carina@tifr.res.in; Mathew, John P.; Hatui, Nirupam

    2015-09-21

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) have been intensely researched as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and photonic device applications; however, the mechanical properties of GaN nanostructures have not been explored in detail. The rigidity, thermal stability, and piezoelectric properties of GaN make it an interesting candidate for nano-electromechanical systems. We have fabricated doubly clamped GaN NW electromechanical resonators on sapphire using electron beam lithography and estimated the Young's modulus of GaN from resonance frequency measurements. For wires of triangular cross section with side ∼90 nm, we obtained values for the Young's modulus to be about 218 and 691 GPa, which are ofmore » the same order of magnitude as the values reported for bulk GaN. We also discuss the role of residual strain in the nanowire on the resonant frequency and the orientation dependence of the Young's modulus in wurtzite crystals.« less

  6. Stacking fault related luminescence in GaN nanorods.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, M; Serban, A; Poenaru, I; Hsiao, C-L; Junaid, M; Birch, J; Pozina, G

    2015-09-04

    Optical and structural properties are presented for GaN nanorods (NRs) grown in the [0001] direction on Si(111) substrates by direct-current reactive magnetron sputter epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals clusters of dense stacking faults (SFs) regularly distributed along the c-axis. A strong emission line at ∼3.42 eV associated with the basal-plane SFs has been observed in luminescence spectra. The optical signature of SFs is stable up to room temperatures with the activation energy of ∼20 meV. Temperature-dependent time-resolved photoluminescence properties suggest that the recombination mechanism of the 3.42 eV emission can be understood in terms of multiple quantum wells self-organized along the growth axis of NRs.

  7. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; ...

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444kW/cm 2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent controlmore » over the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.« less

  8. Vacancy charged defects in two-dimensional GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Roberto; López-Pérez, William; González-García, Álvaro; Moreno-Armenta, María G.; González-Hernández, Rafael

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we have studied the structural and electronic properties of vacancy charged defects in the graphene phase (honeycomb type) of gallium nitride (g-GaN) by using first-principle calculations within the framework of the Density Functional Theory. It is found that the vacancies introduce defect levels in the band gap, and these generate a total magnetization in the g-GaN system. The formation energy with different charge states for the vacancies of gallium and nitrogen were calculated, obtaining higher energies than the GaN wurtzite phase (w-GaN). Furthermore, nitrogen vacancies were found to be more stable than gallium vacancies in a whole range of electronic chemical potential. Finally, gallium and nitrogen vacancies produce a nonzero magnetic moment in g-GaN, making it a potential candidate for future spintronics applications.

  9. Hole-mediated stabilization of cubic GaN.

    PubMed

    Dalpian, Gustavo M; Wei, Su-Huai

    2004-11-19

    We propose here a new approach to stabilize the cubic zinc-blende (ZB) phase by incorporation of impurities into a compound that has a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) ground state. For GaN, we suggest that this can be achieved by adding 3d acceptors such as Zn, Mn, or Cu because the p-d repulsion between the 3d impurity levels and the valence band maximum is larger in the ZB phase than in the WZ phase. This makes the top of the valence states of the ZB structure higher than that of the WZ structure. As holes are created at the top of the valence states by the impurities, it will cost less energy for the holes to be created in the ZB structure, thus stabilizing this phase. Our first-principles total energy calculations confirm this novel idea.

  10. [Effect of jian-gan-le on advanced schistosomiasis].

    PubMed

    He, Zheng-Wen; Wang, You-Bin; Huang, Wen-Jun

    2011-06-01

    A total of 80 cases of advanced schistosomiasis were selected and divided into an experiment group and a control group, 40 cases each group, by the random sampling method. The patients in the experiment group were administered with Jian-gan-le, and the patients in the control group received compound purple granules. In the experiment group, the curative rate was 25.0%, the improving rate was 70.0%, the inefficacy rate was 5%, and the efficiency rate was 95.0%. In the control group, the curative rate was 12.5%, the improving rate was 75%, the inefficacy rate was 12.5%. There was no statistic difference between the 2 groups (P all > 0.05). The expense was cheaper in the experiment group than in the control group.

  11. Spatial distribution of defect luminescence in GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiming; Wang, George T

    2010-05-12

    The spatial distribution of defect-related and band-edge luminescence from GaN nanowires grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was studied by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy. A surface layer exhibiting strong yellow luminescence (YL) near 566 nm in the nanowires was revealed, compared to weak YL in the bulk. In contrast, other defect-related luminescence near 428 nm (blue luminescence) and 734 nm (red luminescence), in addition to band-edge luminescence (BEL) at 366 nm, were observed in the bulk of the nanowires but were largely absent at the surface. As the nanowire width approaches a critical dimension, the surface YL layer completely quenches the BEL. The surface YL is attributed to the diffusion and piling up of mobile point defects, likely isolated gallium vacancies, at the surface during growth.

  12. Method For Growth of Crystal Surfaces and Growth of Heteroepitaxial Single Crystal Films Thereon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor); Larkin, David J. (Inventor); Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Matus, Lawrence G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method of growing atomically-flat surfaces and high quality low-defect crystal films of semiconductor materials and fabricating improved devices thereon is discussed. The method is also suitable for growing films heteroepitaxially on substrates that are different than the film. The method is particularly suited for growth of elemental semiconductors (such as Si), compounds of Groups III and V elements of the Periodic Table (such as GaN), and compounds and alloys of Group IV elements of the Periodic Table (such as SiC).

  13. [Clinical trial on treatment of Parkinson's disease of Gan-Shen yin deficiency type by recipe for nourishing Gan-Shen].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Li, Wen-Wei; Gao, Jun-Peng

    2007-09-01

    To observe the curative effect of the recipe for nourishing Gan-Shen on Parkinson's disease (PD) of Gan-Shen yin deficiency type. One hundred and twenty-one PD patients were ran-domly assigned by blocking design to the control group and the treated group in the ratio of 1:1. All were treated according to the international medication guiding principle for PD treatment, but the treated group was ad-ministered with the recipe for nourishing Gan-Shen additionally. The treatment course lasted for 12 consecutive months, and the end point was the end of the 12th month. The unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UP-DRS) score, TCM primary and secondary symptom scores were evaluated before treatment, every 3 months of treatment and at the end point. The average daily levodopa dose and the Hoehn & Yahr grading were assessed before treatment and at the end point. After treatment, UPDRS score in both groups showed an ascending trend at a slower rate in the treated groups than in the control group. At the 9th and 12th month of medication, a significant difference was found in UPDRS score between the two groups (P < 0.05), and the TCM symptom score was obviously lower in the treated group than in the control group (P < 0.05). At the end point of the trial, the average daily levodopa dose used was lower in the treated group than in the control group (P < 0.05) and there was no significant difference in the Hoehn & Yahr score between the two groups (P > 0.05). The recipe for norishing Gan-Shen can slow the ascending trend of UPDRS score in the PD patients, improve the symptoms of Gan-Shen yin deficiency, and decrease the daily levodopa dose used, showing a curative effect on PD of Gan-Shen yin deficiency type.

  14. The trap states in lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE on a freestanding GaN substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tetsuo; Tokuda, Yutaka; Kogiso, Tatsuya; Tomita, Kazuyoshi; Kachi, Tetsu

    2018-04-01

    We investigated traps in lightly Mg-doped (2 × 1017 cm-3) p-GaN fabricated by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on a freestanding GaN substrate and the subsequent post-growth annealing, using deep level transient spectroscopy. We identified four hole traps with energy levels of EV + 0.46, 0.88, 1.0, and 1.3 eV and one electron trap at EC - 0.57 eV in a p-type GaN layer uniformly doped with magnesium (Mg). The Arrhenius plot of hole traps with the highest concentration (˜3 × 1016 cm-3) located at EV + 0.88 eV corresponded to those of hole traps ascribed to carbon on nitrogen sites in n-type GaN samples grown by MOVPE. In fact, the range of the hole trap concentrations at EV + 0.88 eV was close to the carbon concentration detected by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Moreover, the electron trap at EC - 0.57 eV was also identical to the dominant electron traps commonly observed in n-type GaN. Together, these results suggest that the trap states in the lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE show a strong similarity to those in n-type GaN, which can be explained by the Fermi level close to the conduction band minimum in pristine MOVPE grown samples due to existing residual donors and Mg-hydrogen complexes.

  15. GaN Based Electronics And Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fan

    2002-03-01

    The Group III-nitrides were initially researched for their promise to fill the void for a blue solid state light emitter. Electronic devices from III-nitrides have been a more recent phenomenon. The thermal conductivity of GaN is three times that of GaAs. For high power or high temperature applications, good thermal conductivity is imperative for heat removal or sustained operation at elevated temperatures. The development of III-N and other wide bandgap technologies for high temperature applications will likely take place at the expense of competing technologies, such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI), at moderate temperatures. At higher temperatures (>300°C), novel devices and components will become possible. The automotive industry will likely be one of the largest markets for such high temperature electronics. One of the most noteworthy advantages for III-N materials over other wide bandgap semiconductors is the availability of AlGaN/GaN and InGaN/GaN heterostructures. A 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) has been shown to exist at the AlGaN/GaN interface, and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) from these materials can exhibit 2DEG mobilities approaching 2000 cm2 / V?s at 300K. Power handling capabilities of 12 W/mm appear feasible, and extraordinary large signal performance has already been demonstrated, with a current state-of-the-art of >10W/mm at X-band. In this talk, high speed and high temperature AlGaN/GaN HEMTs as well as MOSHEMTs, high breakdown voltage GaN (>6KV) and AlGaN (9.7 KV) Schottky diodes, and their applications will be presented.

  16. Zn-dopant dependent defect evolution in GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bing; Liu, Baodan; Wang, Yujia; Zhuang, Hao; Liu, Qingyun; Yuan, Fang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-10-01

    Zn doped GaN nanowires with different doping levels (0, <1 at%, and 3-5 at%) have been synthesized through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution, including stacking fault, dislocation, twin boundary and phase boundary, has been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Undoped GaN nanowires show a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure with good crystallinity. Several kinds of twin boundaries, including (101&cmb.macr;3), (101&cmb.macr;1) and (202&cmb.macr;1), as well as Type I stacking faults (...ABABC&cmb.b.line;BCB...), are observed in the nanowires. The increasing Zn doping level (<1 at%) induces the formation of screw dislocations featuring a predominant screw component along the radial direction of the GaN nanowires. At high Zn doping level (3-5 at%), meta-stable cubic zinc blende (ZB) domains are generated in the WZ GaN nanowires. The WZ/ZB phase boundary (...ABABAC&cmb.b.line;BA...) can be identified as Type II stacking faults. The density of stacking faults (both Type I and Type II) increases with increasing the Zn doping levels, which in turn leads to a rough-surface morphology in the GaN nanowires. First-principles calculations reveal that Zn doping will reduce the formation energy of both Type I and Type II stacking faults, favoring their nucleation in GaN nanowires. An understanding of the effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution provides an important method to control the microstructure and the electrical properties of p-type GaN nanowires.Zn doped GaN nanowires with different doping levels (0, <1 at%, and 3-5 at%) have been synthesized through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution, including stacking fault, dislocation, twin boundary and phase boundary, has been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Undoped GaN nanowires show a

  17. Effect of V/III ratio on the surface morphology and electrical properties of m-plane (10 1 bar 0) GaN homoepitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Ousmane I.; Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagamatsu, Kentaro; Bae, Si-Young; Lekhal, Kaddour; Matsushita, Junya; Deki, Manato; Nitta, Shugo; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated the effect of V/III ratio on the surface morphology, impurity concentration and electrical properties of m-plane (10 1 bar 0) Gallium Nitride (GaN) homoepitaxial layers. Four-sided pyramidal hillocks are observed on the nominally on-axis m-plane GaN films. Hillocks sizes relatively increase by increasing the V/III ratio. All facets of pyramidal hillocks exhibit well-defined step-terrace features. Secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiles reveal that carbon impurities decrease by increasing the V/III ratio while the lowest oxygen content is found at an optimized V/III ratio of 900. Vertical Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on the m-GaN samples were characterized. Low leakage current densities of the order of 10-10 A/cm2 at -5 V are obtained at the optimum V/III ratio. Oxygen impurities and screw-component dislocations around hillocks are found to have more detrimental impact on the leakage current mechanism.

  18. ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kun; Xie, Yiyang; Ma, Huali; Du, Yinxiao; Zeng, Fanguang; Ding, Pei; Gao, Zhiyuan; Xu, Chen; Sun, Jie

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, by virtue of one-dimensional ZnO nanorods and two-dimensional graphene film hybrid structures, both the enhanced current spreading and enhanced light extraction were realized at the same time. A 1 nm/1 nm Ni/Au layer was used as an interlayer between graphene and pGaN to form ohmic contact, which makes the device have a good forward conduction properties. Through the comparison of the two groups of making ZnO nanorods or not, it was found that the 30% light extraction efficiency of the device was improved by using the ZnO nanorods. By analysis key parameters of two groups such as the turn-on voltage, work voltage and reverse leakage current, it was proved that the method for preparing surface nano structure by hydrothermal method self-organization growth ZnO nanorods applied in GaN LEDs has no influence to device's electrical properties. The hybrid structure application in GaN LED, make an achievement of a good ohmic contact, no use of ITO and enhancement of light extraction at the same time, meanwhile it does not change the device structure, introduce additional process, worsen the electrical properties.

  19. Band offsets and growth mode of molecular beam epitaxy grown MgO (111) on GaN (0002) by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, H. S.; Collazo, R.; Losego, M. D.; Mita, S.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P.

    2007-10-01

    MgO is a proposed dielectric for use as a tunneling barrier in devices integrating GaN and ferroelectric oxides. In this study, we present data regarding the growth mode and band offsets of MgO grown epitaxially on GaN (0002) surfaces using molecular beam epitaxy. Using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and molecular beam epitaxy, we determine, from sequential growth experiments, that the growth of MgO proceeds via the Volmer-Weber (three-dimensional) mode, and full coalescence of the film does not occur until approximately 12nm of MgO has been deposited. The observation of a three-dimensional growth mode is in agreement with previously published data. For the valence band offset, we find a value of 1.2±0.2eV, which corresponds to a 3.2eV conduction band offset. XPS measurements suggest a chemically abrupt interface and no effect on band lineup due to the slow coalescence behavior.

  20. Multicycle rapid thermal annealing technique and its application for the electrical activation of Mg implanted in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, B. N.; Anderson, T. J.; Abraham, M.; Freitas, J. A.; Hite, J. K.; Eddy, C. R.; Kub, F. J.

    2012-07-01

    No reliable results were reported up-to-date on electrical activation of Mg implanted GaN without co-doping with other ions. The main reason of the poor ion-implanted activation in GaN is lack of the adequate GaN annealing technique. We have developed a new approach, Multicycle Rapid Thermal Annealing to overcome this limitation and enable longer annealing times at high temperature. We have applied this new technique to Mg-implanted GaN, and demonstrated p-type conductivity.

  1. Preparation of p-type GaN-doped SnO2 thin films by e-beam evaporation and their applications in p-n junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Shuliang; Zhou, Yawei; Xu, Wenwu; Mao, Wenfeng; Wang, Lingtao; Liu, Yong; He, Chunqing

    2018-01-01

    Various transparent GaN-doped SnO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by e-beam evaporation using GaN:SnO2 targets of different GaN weight ratios. It is interesting to find that carrier polarity of the thin films was converted from n-type to p-type with increasing GaN ratio higher than 15 wt.%. The n-p transition in GaN-doped SnO2 thin films was explained for the formation of GaSn and NO with increasing GaN doping level in the films, which was identified by Hall measurement and XPS analysis. A transparent thin film p-n junction was successfully fabricated by depositing p-type GaN:SnO2 thin film on SnO2 thin film, and a low leakage current (6.2 × 10-5 A at -4 V) and a low turn-on voltage of 1.69 V were obtained for the p-n junction.

  2. Molecular dynamics studies of defect formation during heteroepitaxial growth of InGaN alloys on (0001) GaN surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Gruber, J.; Zhou, X. W.; Jones, R. E.; ...

    2017-05-15

    Here, we investigate the formation of extended defects during molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of GaN and InGaN growth on (0001) and (11more » $$\\bar{2}$$0) wurtzite-GaN surfaces. The simulated growths are conducted on an atypically large scale by sequentially injecting nearly a million individual vapor-phase atoms towards a fixed GaN surface; we apply time-and-position-dependent boundary constraints that vary the ensemble treatments of the vapor-phase, the near-surface solid-phase, and the bulk-like regions of the growing layer. The simulations employ newly optimized Stillinger-Weber In-Ga-N-system potentials, wherein multiple binary and ternary structures are included in the underlying density-functional-theory training sets, allowing improved treatment of In-Ga-related atomic interactions. To examine the effect of growth conditions, we study a matrix of >30 different MD-growth simulations for a range of InxGa1-xN-alloy compositions (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) and homologous growth temperatures [0.50 ≤ T/T* m(x) ≤ 0.90], where T* m(x) is the simulated melting point. Growths conducted on polar (0001) GaN substrates exhibit the formation of various extended defects including stacking faults/polymorphism, associated domain boundaries, surface roughness, dislocations, and voids. In contrast, selected growths conducted on semi-polar (11$$\\bar{2}$$0) GaN, where the wurtzite-phase stacking sequence is revealed at the surface, exhibit the formation of far fewer stacking faults. We discuss variations in the defect formation with the MD growth conditions, and we compare the resulting simulated films to existing experimental observations in InGaN/GaN. Finally, while the palette of defects observed by MD closely resembles those observed in the past experiments, further work is needed to achieve truly predictive large-scale simulations of InGaN/GaN crystal growth using MD methodologies.« less

  3. Molecular dynamics studies of defect formation during heteroepitaxial growth of InGaN alloys on (0001) GaN surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, J.; Zhou, X. W.; Jones, R. E.; Lee, S. R.; Tucker, G. J.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the formation of extended defects during molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of GaN and InGaN growth on (0001) and ( 11 2 ¯ 0 ) wurtzite-GaN surfaces. The simulated growths are conducted on an atypically large scale by sequentially injecting nearly a million individual vapor-phase atoms towards a fixed GaN surface; we apply time-and-position-dependent boundary constraints that vary the ensemble treatments of the vapor-phase, the near-surface solid-phase, and the bulk-like regions of the growing layer. The simulations employ newly optimized Stillinger-Weber In-Ga-N-system potentials, wherein multiple binary and ternary structures are included in the underlying density-functional-theory training sets, allowing improved treatment of In-Ga-related atomic interactions. To examine the effect of growth conditions, we study a matrix of >30 different MD-growth simulations for a range of InxGa1-xN-alloy compositions (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) and homologous growth temperatures [0.50 ≤ T/T*m(x) ≤ 0.90], where T*m(x) is the simulated melting point. Growths conducted on polar (0001) GaN substrates exhibit the formation of various extended defects including stacking faults/polymorphism, associated domain boundaries, surface roughness, dislocations, and voids. In contrast, selected growths conducted on semi-polar ( 11 2 ¯ 0 ) GaN, where the wurtzite-phase stacking sequence is revealed at the surface, exhibit the formation of far fewer stacking faults. We discuss variations in the defect formation with the MD growth conditions, and we compare the resulting simulated films to existing experimental observations in InGaN/GaN. While the palette of defects observed by MD closely resembles those observed in the past experiments, further work is needed to achieve truly predictive large-scale simulations of InGaN/GaN crystal growth using MD methodologies.

  4. Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on Si(111) substrates for application to nanocolumn emitters with systematic analysis of dislocation filtering effect of nanocolumns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishino, Katsumi; Ishizawa, Shunsuke

    2015-06-01

    The growth of highly uniform arrays of GaN nanocolumns with diameters from 122 to 430 nm on Si (111) substrates was demonstrated. The employment of GaN film templates with flat surfaces (root mean square surface roughness of 0.84 nm), which were obtained using an AlN/GaN superlattice (SL) buffer on Si, contributed to the high-quality selective-area growth of nanocolumns using a thin Ti mask of 5 nm thickness by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Although the GaN template included a large number of dislocations (dislocation density ˜1011 cm-2), the dislocation filtering effect of nanocolumns was enhanced with decreasing nanocolumn diameters (D). Systematic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation enabled us to explain the dependence of the dislocation propagation behavior in nanocolumns on the nanocolumn diameter for the first time. Plan-view TEM analysis was performed for nanocolumns with D = 120-324 nm by slicing the nanocolumns horizontally at a height of ˜300 nm above their bottoms and dislocation propagation through the nanocolumns was analyzed by the cross-sectional TEM observation of nanocolumns with D ˜ 200 nm. It was clarified that dislocations were effectively filtered in the bottom 300 nm region of the nanocolumns, the dislocation density of the nanocolumns decreased with decreasing D, and for narrow nanocolumns with D < 200 nm, dislocation-free crystals were obtained in the upper part of the nanocolumns. The dramatic improvement in the emission properties of GaN nanocolumns observed with decreasing diameter is discussed in relation to the decreased dislocation density. The laser action of InGaN/GaN-based nanocolumn arrays with a nanocolumn diameter of 170 nm and a period of 200 nm on Si under optical excitation was obtained with an emission wavelength of 407 nm. We also fabricated red-emitting InGaN-based nanocolumn light-emitting diodes on Si that operated at a wavelength of 652 nm, demonstrating vertical conduction through the Al

  5. Molecular dynamics studies of defect formation during heteroepitaxial growth of InGaN alloys on (0001) GaN surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gruber, J; Zhou, X W; Jones, R E; Lee, S R; Tucker, G J

    2017-05-21

    We investigate the formation of extended defects during molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of GaN and InGaN growth on (0001) and ([Formula: see text]) wurtzite-GaN surfaces. The simulated growths are conducted on an atypically large scale by sequentially injecting nearly a million individual vapor-phase atoms towards a fixed GaN surface; we apply time-and-position-dependent boundary constraints that vary the ensemble treatments of the vapor-phase, the near-surface solid-phase, and the bulk-like regions of the growing layer. The simulations employ newly optimized Stillinger-Weber In-Ga-N-system potentials, wherein multiple binary and ternary structures are included in the underlying density-functional-theory training sets, allowing improved treatment of In-Ga-related atomic interactions. To examine the effect of growth conditions, we study a matrix of >30 different MD-growth simulations for a range of In x Ga 1-x N-alloy compositions (0 ≤  x  ≤ 0.4) and homologous growth temperatures [0.50 ≤  T/T * m ( x ) ≤ 0.90], where T * m ( x ) is the simulated melting point. Growths conducted on polar (0001) GaN substrates exhibit the formation of various extended defects including stacking faults/polymorphism, associated domain boundaries, surface roughness, dislocations, and voids. In contrast, selected growths conducted on semi-polar ([Formula: see text]) GaN, where the wurtzite-phase stacking sequence is revealed at the surface, exhibit the formation of far fewer stacking faults. We discuss variations in the defect formation with the MD growth conditions, and we compare the resulting simulated films to existing experimental observations in InGaN/GaN. While the palette of defects observed by MD closely resembles those observed in the past experiments, further work is needed to achieve truly predictive large-scale simulations of InGaN/GaN crystal growth using MD methodologies.

  6. Phase transformation of molecular beam epitaxy-grown nanometer-thick Gd₂O₃ and Y₂O₃ on GaN.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Shao-Yun; Lee, Chih-Hsun; Lai, Te-Yang; Lee, Yi-Jun; Chang, Pen; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Huang, Tsung-Shiew; Kwo, J Raynien; Hong, Minghwei

    2013-02-01

    High quality nanometer-thick Gd₂O₃ and Y₂O₃ (rare-earth oxide, R₂O₃) films have been epitaxially grown on GaN (0001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The R₂O₃ epi-layers exhibit remarkable thermal stability at 1100 °C, uniformity, and highly structural perfection. Structural investigation was carried out by in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) with synchrotron radiation. In the initial stage of epitaxial growth, the R₂O₃ layers have a hexagonal phase with the epitaxial relationship of R₂O₃ (0001)(H)<1120>(H)//GaN(0001)(H)<1120>(H). With the increase in R₂O₃ film thickness, the structure of the R₂O₃ films changes from single domain hexagonal phase to monoclinic phase with six different rotational domains, following the R₂O₃ (201)(M)[020](M)//GaN(0001)(H)<1120>(H) orientational relationship. The structural details and fingerprints of hexagonal and monoclinic phase Gd₂O₃ films have also been examined by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Approximate 3-4 nm is the critical thickness for the structural phase transition depending on the composing rare earth element.

  7. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of high-mobility AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures on GaN templates and native GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jr-Tai, E-mail: jrche@ifm.liu.se; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Forsberg, Urban

    2015-02-28

    Severe surface decomposition of semi-insulating (SI) GaN templates occurred in high-temperature H{sub 2} atmosphere prior to epitaxial growth in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system. A two-step heating process with a surface stabilization technique was developed to preserve the GaN template surface. Utilizing the optimized heating process, a high two-dimensional electron gas mobility ∼2000 cm{sup 2}/V·s was obtained in a thin AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure with an only 100-nm-thick GaN spacer layer homoepitaxially grown on the GaN template. This technique was also demonstrated viable for native GaN substrates to stabilize the surface facilitating two-dimensional growth of GaN layers. Very high residual silicon andmore » oxygen concentrations were found up to ∼1 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} at the interface between the GaN epilayer and the native GaN substrate. Capacitance-voltage measurements confirmed that the residual carbon doping controlled by growth conditions of the GaN epilayer can be used to successfully compensate the donor-like impurities. State-of-the-art structural properties of a high-mobility AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure was then realized on a 1 × 1 cm{sup 2} SI native GaN substrate; the full width at half maximum of the X-ray rocking curves of the GaN (002) and (102) peaks are only 21 and 14 arc sec, respectively. The surface morphology of the heterostructure shows uniform parallel bilayer steps, and no morphological defects were noticeable over the entire epi-wafer.« less

  8. The three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer near a plane of symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, A. T.; Smith, F. T.; Walker, J. D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The asymptotic structure of the three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer near a plane of symmetry is considered in the limit of large Reynolds number. A self-consistent two-layer structure is shown to exist wherein the streamwise velocity is brought to rest through an outer defect layer and an inner wall layer in a manner similar to that in two-dimensional boundary layers. The cross-stream velocity distribution is more complex and two terms in the asymptotic expansion are required to yield a complete profile which is shown to exhibit a logarithmic region. The flow in the inner wall layer is demonstrated to be collateral to leading order; pressure-gradient effects are formally of higher order but can cause the velocity profile to skew substantially near the wall at the large but finite Reynolds numbers encountered in practice. The governing set of ordinary differential equations describing a self-similar flow is derived. The calculated numerical solutions of these equations are matched asymptotically to an inner wall-layer solution and the results show trends that are consistent with experimental observations.

  9. Two charges on a plane in a magnetic field: hidden algebra, (particular) integrability, polynomial eigenfunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbiner, A. V.; Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The quantum mechanics of two Coulomb charges on a plane (e1, m1) and (e2, m2) subject to a constant magnetic field B perpendicular to the plane is considered. Four integrals of motion are explicitly indicated. It is shown that for two physically important particular cases, namely that of two particles of equal Larmor frequencies, {e_c} \\propto \\frac{e_1}{m_1}-\\frac{e_2}{m_2}=0 (e.g. two electrons) and one of a neutral system (e.g. the electron-positron pair, hydrogen atom) at rest (the center-of-mass momentum is zero) some outstanding properties occur. They are the most visible in double polar coordinates in CMS (R, ϕ) and relative (ρ, φ) coordinate systems: (i) eigenfunctions are factorizable, all factors except one with the explicit ρ-dependence are found analytically, they have definite relative angular momentum, (ii) dynamics in the ρ-direction is the same for both systems, it corresponds to a funnel-type potential and it has hidden sl(2) algebra, at some discrete values of dimensionless magnetic fields b ⩽ 1, (iii) particular integral(s) occur, (iv) the hidden sl(2) algebra emerges in finite-dimensional representation, thus, the system becomes quasi-exactly-solvable and (v) a finite number of polynomial eigenfunctions in ρ appear. Nine families of eigenfunctions are presented explicitly.

  10. Generation of phase singularity through diffracting a plane or Gaussian beam by a spiral phase plate.

    PubMed

    Kotlyar, Victor V; Almazov, Anton A; Khonina, Svetlana N; Soifer, Victor A; Elfstrom, Henna; Turunen, Jari

    2005-05-01

    We deduce and study an analytical expression for Fresnel diffraction of a plane wave by a spiral phase plate (SPP) that imparts an arbitrary-order phase singularity on the light field. Estimates for the optical vortex radius that depends on the singularity's integer order n (also termed topological charge, or order of the dislocation) have been derived. The near-zero vortex intensity is shown to be proportional to rho2n, where p is the radial coordinate. Also, an analytical expression for Fresnel diffraction of the Gaussian beam by a SPP with nth-order singularity is analyzed. The far-field intensity distribution is derived. The radius of maximal intensity is shown to depend on the singularity number. The behavior of the Gaussian beam intensity after a SPP with second-order singularity (n = 2) is studied in more detail. The parameters of the light beams generated numerically with the Fresnel transform and via analytical formulas are in good agreement. In addition, the light fields with first- and second-order singularities were generated by a 32-level SPP fabricated on the resist by use of the electron-beam lithography technique.

  11. Diffraction of a plane wave by a three-dimensional corner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, L.; Kung, F.

    1971-01-01

    By the superposition of the conical solution for the diffraction of a plane pulse by a three dimensional corner, the solution for a general incident plane wave is constructed. A numerical program is presented for the computation of the pressure distribution on the surface due to an incident plane wave of any wave form and at any incident angle. Numerical examples are presented to show the pressure signature at several points on the surface due to incident wave with a front shock wave, two shock waves in succession, or a compression wave with same peak pressure. The examples show that when the distance of a point on the surface from the edges or the vertex is comparable to the distance for the front pressure raise to reach the maximum, the peak pressure at that point can be much less than that given by a regular reflection, because the diffracted wave front arrives at that point prior to the arrival of the peak incident wave.

  12. Zn-dopant dependent defect evolution in GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Liu, Baodan; Wang, Yujia; Zhuang, Hao; Liu, Qingyun; Yuan, Fang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-10-21

    Zn doped GaN nanowires with different doping levels (0, <1 at%, and 3-5 at%) have been synthesized through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution, including stacking fault, dislocation, twin boundary and phase boundary, has been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Undoped GaN nanowires show a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure with good crystallinity. Several kinds of twin boundaries, including (101¯3), (101¯1) and (202¯1), as well as Type I stacking faults (…ABABCBCB…), are observed in the nanowires. The increasing Zn doping level (<1 at%) induces the formation of screw dislocations featuring a predominant screw component along the radial direction of the GaN nanowires. At high Zn doping level (3-5 at%), meta-stable cubic zinc blende (ZB) domains are generated in the WZ GaN nanowires. The WZ/ZB phase boundary (…ABABACBA…) can be identified as Type II stacking faults. The density of stacking faults (both Type I and Type II) increases with increasing the Zn doping levels, which in turn leads to a rough-surface morphology in the GaN nanowires. First-principles calculations reveal that Zn doping will reduce the formation energy of both Type I and Type II stacking faults, favoring their nucleation in GaN nanowires. An understanding of the effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution provides an important method to control the microstructure and the electrical properties of p-type GaN nanowires.

  13. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jamond, N; Chrétien, P; Houzé, F; Lu, L; Largeau, L; Maugain, O; Travers, L; Harmand, J C; Glas, F; Lefeuvre, E; Tchernycheva, M; Gogneau, N

    2016-08-12

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ∼12.7 mW cm(-3). This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  14. GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, George

    2015-07-03

    For nearly 4 ½ years, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) led a very successful, DoE-funded team effort to develop GaN-on-Si materials and devices, targeting high-voltage (>1 kV), high-power, cost-effective electronics for grid applications. This effort, called the GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA) program, was initially made up of MIT/LL, the MIT campus group of Prof. Tomas Palacios (MIT), and the industrial partner M/A Com Technology Solutions (MTS). Later in the program a 4th team member was added (IQE MA) to provide commercial-scale GaN-on-Si epitaxial materials. A basic premise of the GIGA program was that power electronics, for ubiquitous utilization -evenmore » for grid applications - should be closer in cost structure to more conventional Si-based power electronics. For a number of reasons, more established GaN-on-SiC or even SiC-based power electronics are not likely to reach theses cost structures, even in higher manufacturing volumes. An additional premise of the GIGA program was that the technical focus would be on materials and devices suitable for operating at voltages > 1 kV, even though there is also significant commercial interest in developing lower voltage (< 1 kV), cost effective GaN-on-Si devices for higher volume applications, like consumer products. Remarkable technical progress was made during the course of this program. Advances in materials included the growth of high-quality, crack-free epitaxial GaN layers on large-diameter Si substrates with thicknesses up to ~5 μm, overcoming significant challenges in lattice mismatch and thermal expansion differences between Si and GaN in the actual epitaxial growth process. Such thick epilayers are crucial for high voltage operation of lateral geometry devices such as Schottky barrier (SB) diodes and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). New “Normally-Off” device architectures were demonstrated – for safe operation of power electronics circuits. The trade-offs between lateral

  15. Size effects in the thermal conductivity of gallium oxide (β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films grown via open-atmosphere annealing of gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Szwejkowski, Chester J.; Giri, Ashutosh; Donovan, Brian F.

    2015-02-28

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a widely used semiconductor for high frequency and high power devices due to of its unique electrical properties: a wide band gap, high breakdown field, and high electron mobility. However, thermal management has become a limiting factor regarding efficiency, lifetime, and advancement of GaN devices and GaN-based applications. In this work, we study the thermal conductivity of beta-phase gallium oxide (β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films, a component of typical gate oxides used in such devices. We use time domain thermoreflectance to measure the thermal conductivity of a variety of polycrystalline β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films of differentmore » thicknesses grown via open atmosphere annealing of the surfaces of GaN films on sapphire substrates. We show that the measured effective thermal conductivity of these β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films can span 1.5 orders of magnitude, increasing with an increased film thickness, which is indicative of the relatively large intrinsic thermal conductivity of the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown via this technique (8.8 ± 3.4 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}) and large mean free paths compared to typical gate dielectrics commonly used in GaN device contacts. By conducting time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) measurements with different metal transducers (Al, Au, and Au with a Ti wetting layer), we attribute this variation in effective thermal conductivity to a combination of size effects in the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} film resulting from phonon scattering at the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN interface and thermal transport across the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN interface. The measured thermal properties of open atmosphere-grown β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and its interface with GaN set the stage for thermal engineering of gate contacts in high frequency GaN-based devices.« less

  16. GaN Microwave DC-DC Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Franco, Ignacio

    Increasing the operating frequency of switching converters can have a direct impact in the miniaturization and integration of power converters. The size of energy-storage passive components and the difficulty to integrate them with the rest of the circuitry is a major challenge in the development of a fully integrated power supply on a chip. The work presented in this thesis attempts to address some of the difficulties encountered in the design of high-frequency converters by applying concepts and techniques usually used in the design of high-efficiency power amplifiers and high-efficiency rectifiers at microwave frequencies. The main focus is in the analysis, design, and characterization of dc-dc converters operating at microwave frequencies in the low gigahertz range. The concept of PA-rectifier duality, where a high-efficiency power amplifier operates as a high-efficiency rectifier is investigated through non-linear simulations and experimentally validated. Additionally, the concept of a self-synchronous rectifier, where a transistor rectifier operates synchronously without the need of a RF source or driver is demonstrated. A theoretical analysis of a class-E self-synchronous rectifier is presented and validated through non-linear simulations and experiments. Two GaN class-E2 dc-dc converters operating at a switching frequency of 1 and 1.2 GHz are demonstrated. The converters achieve 80 % and 75 % dc-dc efficiency respectively and are among the highest-frequency and highest-efficiency reported in the literature. The application of the concepts established in the analysis of a self-synchronous rectifier to a power amplifier culminated in the development of an oscillating, self-synchronous class-E 2 dc-dc converter. Finally, a proof-of-concept fully integrated GaN MMIC class-E 2 dc-dc converter switching at 4.6 GHz is demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The 3.8 mm x 2.6 mm chip contains distributed inductors and does not require any

  17. Diffraction of a plane wave on two-dimensional conductive structures and a surface wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidovich, Mikhael V.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the structures type of two-dimensional electron gas in the form of a thin conductive, in particular, graphene films described by tensor conductivity, which are isolated or located on the dielectric layers. The dispersion equation for hybrid modes, as well as scattering parameters. We show that free wave (eigenwaves) problem follow from the problem of diffraction when linking the amplitude of the current of the linear equations are unsolvable, i.e., the determinant of this system is zero. As a particular case the dispersion equation follow from the conditions of matching (with zero reflection coefficient).

  18. Strain-mediated electronic properties of pristine and Mn-doped GaN monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Venus; Srivastava, Sunita

    2018-04-01

    Graphene-like two-dimensional (2D) monolayer structures GaN has gained enormous amount of interest due to high thermal stability and inherent energy band gap for practical applications. First principles calculations are performed to investigate the electronic structure and strain-mediated electronic properties of pristine and Mn-doped GaN monolayer. Binding energy of Mn dopant at various adsorption site is found to be nearly same indicating these sites to be equally favorable for adsorption of foreign atom. Depending on the adsorption site, GaN monolayer can act as p-type or n-type magnetic semiconductor. The tensile strength of both pristine and doped GaN monolayer (∼24 GPa) at ultimate tensile strain of 34% is comparable with the tensile strength of graphene. The in-plane biaxial strain modulate the energy band gap of both pristine and doped-monolayer from direct to indirect gap semiconductor and finally retendered theme into metal at critical value of applied strain. These characteristics make GaN monolayer to be potential candidate for the future applications in tunable optoelectronics.

  19. Fabrication of GaN doped ZnO nanocrystallines by laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, N; Shin, B C; Bhuvana, K P; Elanchezhiyan, J; Balasubramanian, T

    2008-08-01

    Here, we present the fabrication of pure and GaN doped ZnO nanocrystallines on Si(111) substrates by KrF excimer laser. The targets for the ablation have been prepared by conventional ceramic method. The fabricated nanocrystallines have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and atomic force microscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the crystalline size of pure ZnO is 36 nm and it is 41 nm while doped with 0.8 mol% of GaN due to best stoichiometry between Zn and O. Photoluminescence studies reveal that intense deep level emissions have been observed for pure ZnO and it has been suppressed for the GaN doped ZnO structures. The images of atomic force microscope show that the rms surface roughness is 27 nm for pure ZnO and the morphology is improved with decrease in rms roughness, 18 nm with fine crystallines while doped with 1 mol% GaN. The improved structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO nanocrystalline due to GaN dopant have been discussed in detail.

  20. Electron spin relaxation in two polymorphic structures of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Nam Lyong

    2015-03-01

    The relaxation process of electron spin in systems of electrons interacting with piezoelectric deformation phonons that are mediated through spin-orbit interactions was interpreted from a microscopic point of view using the formula for the electron spin relaxation times derived by a projection-reduction method. The electron spin relaxation times in two polymorphic structures of GaN were calculated. The piezoelectric material constant for the wurtzite structure obtained by a comparison with a previously reported experimental result was {{P}pe}=1.5 × {{10}29} eV {{m}-1}. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the relaxation times for both wurtzite and zinc-blende structures were similar, but the relaxation times in zinc-blende GaN were smaller and decreased more rapidly with increasing temperature and magnetic field than that in wurtzite GaN. This study also showed that the electron spin relaxation for wurtzite GaN at low density could be explained by the Elliot-Yafet process but not for zinc-blende GaN in the metallic regime.

  1. Acceptor binding energies in GaN and AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Francisco; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    1998-08-01

    We employ effective-mass theory for degenerate hole bands to calculate the acceptor binding energies for Be, Mg, Zn, Ca, C, and Si substitutional acceptors in GaN and AlN. The calculations are performed through the 6×6 Rashba-Sheka-Pikus and the Luttinger-Kohn matrix Hamiltonians for wurtzite (WZ) and zinc-blende (ZB) crystal phases, respectively. An analytic representation for the acceptor pseudopotential is used to introduce the specific nature of the impurity atoms. The energy shift due to polaron effects is also considered in this approach. The ionization energy estimates are in very good agreement with those reported experimentally in WZ GaN. The binding energies for ZB GaN acceptors are all predicted to be shallower than the corresponding impurities in the WZ phase. The binding-energy dependence upon the crystal-field splitting in WZ GaN is analyzed. Ionization levels in AlN are found to have similar ``shallow'' values to those in GaN, but with some important differences which depend on the band structure parametrizations, especially the value of the crystal-field splitting used.

  2. Effects of catalyst concentration and ultraviolet intensity on chemical mechanical polishing of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; Pan, Guoshun; Lu, Xinchun

    2016-08-01

    Effects of catalyst concentration and ultraviolet intensity on chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of GaN were deeply investigated in this paper. Working as an ideal homogeneous substrate material in LED industry, GaN ought to be equipped with a smooth and flat surface. Taking the strong chemical stability of GaN into account, photocatalytic oxidation technology was adopted in GaN CMP process to realize efficient removal. It was found that, because of the improved reaction rate of photocatalytic oxidation, GaN material removal rate (MRR) increases by a certain extent with catalyst concentration increasing. Cross single line analysis on the surface after polishing by Phase Shift MicroXAM-3D was carried out to prove the better removal effect with higher catalyst concentration. Ultraviolet intensity field in H2O2-SiO2-based polishing system was established and simulated, revealing the variation trend of ultraviolet intensity around the outlet of the slurry. It could be concluded that, owing to the higher planarization efficiency and lower energy damage, the UV lamp of 125 W is the most appropriate lamp in this system. Based on the analysis, defects removal model of this work was proposed to describe the effects of higher catalyst concentration and higher power of UV lamp.

  3. Growth of hierarchical GaN nanowires for optoelectronic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Rishabh; Vignesh, Veeramuthu; Ra, Yong-Ho; Nirmala, Rajkumar; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Navamathavan, Rangaswamy

    2017-01-01

    Gallium nitride nanostructures have been receiving considerable attention as building blocks for nanophotonic technologies due to their unique high aspect ratios, promising the realization of photonic and biological nanodevices such as blue light emitting diodes (LEDs), short-wavelength ultraviolet nanolasers, and nanofluidic biochemical sensors. We report on the growth of hierarchical GaN nanowires (NWs) by dynamically adjusting the growth parameters using the pulsed flow metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique. We carried out two step growth processes to grow hierarchical GaN NWs. In the first step, the GaN NWs were grown at 950°C, and in the second, we suitably decreased the growth temperature to 630°C and 710°C to grow the hierarchical structures. The surface morphology and optical characterization of the grown GaN NWs were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and cathodoluminescence measurements. These kinds of hierarchical GaN NWs are promising for allowing flat band quantum structures that are shown to improve the efficiency of LEDs.

  4. Use of GaN as a Scintillating Ionizing Radiation Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensman, Johnathan; Guardala, Noel; Mathur, Veerendra; Alasagas, Leslie; Vanhoy, Jeffrey; Statham, John; Marron, Daniel; Millett, Marshall; Marsh, Jarrod; Currie, John; Price, Jack

    2017-09-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a III/V direct bandgap semiconductor which has been used in light emitting diodes (LEDs) since the 1990s. Currently, due to a potential for increased efficiency, GaN is being investigated as a replacement for silicon in power electronics finding potential uses ranging from data centers to electric vehicles. In addition to LEDs and power electronics though, doped GaN can be used as a gamma insensitive fast neutron detector due to the direct band-gap, light propagation properties, and response to ionizing radiations. Investigation of GaN as a semiconductor scintillator for use in a radiation detection system involves mapping the response function of the detector crystal over a range of photon and neutron energies, and measurements of light generation in the GaN crystal due to proton, alpha, and nitrogen projectiles. In this presentation we discuss the measurements made to date, and plausible interpretations of the response functions. This work funded in part by the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division In-house Laboratory Independent Research program.

  5. Effect of different electrolytes on porous GaN using photo-electrochemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Heuseen, K.; Hashim, M. R.; Ali, N. K.

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the properties and the behavior of GaN during the photoelectrochemical etching process using four different electrolytes. The measurements show that the porosity strongly depends on the electrolyte and highly affects the surface morphology of etched samples, which has been revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Peak intensity of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the porous GaN samples was observed to be enhanced and strongly depend on the electrolytes. Among the samples, there is a little difference in the peak position indicating that the change of porosity has little influence on the PL peak shift, while it highly affecting the peak intensity. Raman spectra of porous GaN under four different solution exhibit phonon mode E 2 (high), A 1 (LO), A 1 (TO) and E 2 (low). There was a red shift in E 2 (high) in all samples, indicating a relaxation of stress in the porous GaN surface with respect to the underlying single crystalline epitaxial GaN. Raman and PL intensities were high for samples etched in H 2SO 4:H 2O 2 and KOH followed by the samples etched in HF:HNO 3 and in HF:C 2H 5OH.

  6. Ultrafast Hot Carrier Dynamics in GaN and Its Impact on the Efficiency Droop.

    PubMed

    Jhalani, Vatsal A; Zhou, Jin-Jian; Bernardi, Marco

    2017-08-09

    GaN is a key material for lighting technology. Yet, the carrier transport and ultrafast dynamics that are central in GaN light-emitting devices are not completely understood. We present first-principles calculations of carrier dynamics in GaN, focusing on electron-phonon (e-ph) scattering and the cooling and nanoscale dynamics of hot carriers. We find that e-ph scattering is significantly faster for holes compared to electrons and that for hot carriers with an initial 0.5-1 eV excess energy, holes take a significantly shorter time (∼0.1 ps) to relax to the band edge compared to electrons, which take ∼1 ps. The asymmetry in the hot carrier dynamics is shown to originate from the valence band degeneracy, the heavier effective mass of holes compared to electrons, and the details of the coupling to different phonon modes in the valence and conduction bands. We show that the slow cooling of hot electrons and their long ballistic mean free paths (over 3 nm at room temperature) are a possible cause of efficiency droop in GaN light-emitting diodes. Taken together, our work sheds light on the ultrafast dynamics of hot carriers in GaN and the nanoscale origin of efficiency droop.

  7. Exciton emission from bare and hybrid plasmonic GaN nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Fatemesadat; Kunert, Gerd; Hommel, Detlef; Ge, Jingxuan; Duscher, Gerd; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Wagner, Hans Peter

    We study the exciton emission of hybrid gold nanoparticle/Alq3 (aluminiumquinoline)/wurtzite GaN nanorods. GaN nanorods of 1.5 μm length and 250 nm diameter were grown by plasma assisted MBE. Hybrid GaN nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. Temperature and power dependent time integrated (TI) and time resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed on bare and hybrid structures. Bare nanorods show donor (D0,X) and acceptor bound (A0,X) exciton emission at 3.473 eV and at 3.463 eV, respectively. TR-PL trace modeling reveal lifetimes of 240 ps and 1.4 ns for the (D0,X) and (A0,X) transition. 10 nm gold coated GaN nanorods show a significant PL quenching and (D0,X) lifetime shortening which is tentatively attributed to impact ionization of (D0,X) due to hot electron injection from the gold nanoparticles. This is supported by electron energy loss spectroscopy that shows a redshift of a midgap state transition indicating a reduction of a preexisting band-bending at the nanorod surface due to positive charging of the gold nanoparticles. Inserting a nominally 5 nm thick Alq3 spacer between the nanorod and the gold reduces the PL quenching and lifetime shortening. Plasmonic nanorods with a 30 nm thick Alq3 spacer reveal lifetimes which are nearly identical to uncoated GaN nanorods.

  8. Infrared Reflectance Analysis of Epitaxial n-Type Doped GaN Layers Grown on Sapphire.

    PubMed

    Tsykaniuk, Bogdan I; Nikolenko, Andrii S; Strelchuk, Viktor V; Naseka, Viktor M; Mazur, Yuriy I; Ware, Morgan E; DeCuir, Eric A; Sadovyi, Bogdan; Weyher, Jan L; Jakiela, Rafal; Salamo, Gregory J; Belyaev, Alexander E

    2017-12-01

    Infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy is applied to study Si-doped multilayer n + /n 0 /n + -GaN structure grown on GaN buffer with GaN-template/sapphire substrate. Analysis of the investigated structure by photo-etching, SEM, and SIMS methods showed the existence of the additional layer with the drastic difference in Si and O doping levels and located between the epitaxial GaN buffer and template. Simulation of the experimental reflectivity spectra was performed in a wide frequency range. It is shown that the modeling of IR reflectance spectrum using 2 × 2 transfer matrix method and including into analysis the additional layer make it possible to obtain the best fitting of the experimental spectrum, which follows in the evaluation of GaN layer thicknesses which are in good agreement with the SEM and SIMS data. Spectral dependence of plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes for each GaN layer is obtained from the spectral dependence of dielectric of Si doping impurity, which is attributed to compensation effects by the acceptor states.

  9. Strain engineering of atomic and electronic structures of few-monolayer-thick GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobov, A. V.; Fons, P.; Saito, Y.; Tominaga, J.; Hyot, B.; André, B.

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors possess the potential to ultimately minimize the size of devices and concomitantly drastically reduce the corresponding energy consumption. In addition, materials in their atomic-scale limit often possess properties different from their bulk counterparts paving the way to conceptually novel devices. While graphene and 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides remain the most studied materials, significant interest also exists in the fabrication of atomically thin structures from traditionally 3D semiconductors such as GaN. While in the monolayer limit GaN possesses a graphenelike structure and an indirect band gap, it was recently demonstrated that few-layer GaN acquires a Haeckelite structure in the direction of growth with an effectively direct gap. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of strain engineering of the atomic and electronic structure of few-monolayer-thick GaN structures, which opens new avenues for their practical application in flexible nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics. Our simulations further suggest that due to the weak van der Waals-like interaction between a substrate and an overlayer, the use of a MoS2 substrate may be a promising route to fabricate few-monolayer Haeckelite GaN experimentally.

  10. Conversion between hexagonal GaN and beta-Ga(2)O(3) nanowires and their electrical transport properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianye; An, Lei; Lu, Chenguang; Liu, Jie

    2006-02-01

    We have observed that the hexagonal GaN nanowires grown from a simple chemical vapor deposition method using gallium metal and ammonia gas are usually gallium-doped. By annealing in air, the gallium-doped hexagonal GaN nanowires could be completely converted to beta-Ga(2)O(3) nanowires. Annealing the beta-Ga(2)O(3) nanowires in ammonia could convert them back to undoped hexagonal GaN nanowires. Field effect transistors based on these three kinds of nanowires were fabricated, and their performances were studied. Because of gallium doping, the as-grown GaN nanowires show a weak gating effect. Through the conversion process of GaN nanowires (gallium-doped) --> Ga(2)O(3) nanowires --> GaN nanowires (undoped) via annealing, the final undoped GaN nanowires display different electrical properties than the initial gallium-doped GaN nanowires, show a pronounced n-type gating effect, and can be completely turned off.

  11. Reduced MLH3 Expression in the Syndrome of Gan-Shen Yin Deficiency in Patients with Different Diseases.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Zhong, Maofeng; Liu, Dong; Liang, Shufang; Liu, Xiaolin; Cheng, Binbin; Zhang, Yani; Yin, Zifei; Wang, Yuan; Ling, Changquan

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the characteristic genes of gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution in different diseases. Fifty primary liver cancer (PLC) patients, 94 hypertension (HBP) patients, and 100 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients were enrolled and classified into gan-shen Yin deficiency group and non-gan-shen Yin deficiency group according to the body constitution questionnaire to assess the clinical manifestation of patients. The mRNA expressions of 17 genes in PLC patients with gan-shen Yin deficiency were different from those without gan-shen Yin deficiency. However, considering all patients with PLC, HBP, and DM, only MLH3 was significantly lower in gan-shen Yin deficiency group than that in non-gen-shen Yin deficiency. By ROC analysis, the relationship between MLH3 and gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution was confirmed. Treatment of MLH3 (-/- and -/+) mice with Liuweidihuang wan, classical prescriptions for Yin deficiency, partly ameliorates the body constitution of Yin deficiency in MLH3 (-/+) mice, but not in MLH3 (-/-) mice. MLH3 might be one of material bases of gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution.

  12. The GAN Exonuclease or the Flap Endonuclease Fen1 and RNase HII Are Necessary for Viability of Thermococcus kodakarensis.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Brett W; Cubonova, Lubomira; Heider, Margaret R; Kelman, Zvi; Reeve, John N; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2017-07-01

    Many aspects of and factors required for DNA replication are conserved across all three domains of life, but there are some significant differences surrounding lagging-strand synthesis. In Archaea , a 5'-to-3' exonuclease, related to both bacterial RecJ and eukaryotic Cdc45, that associates with the replisome specifically through interactions with GINS was identified and designated GAN (for G INS- a ssociated n uclease). Despite the presence of a well-characterized flap endonuclease (Fen1), it was hypothesized that GAN might participate in primer removal during Okazaki fragment maturation, and as a Cdc45 homologue, GAN might also be a structural component of an archaeal CMG (Cdc45, MCM, and GINS) replication complex. We demonstrate here that, individually, either Fen1 or GAN can be deleted, with no discernible effects on viability and growth. However, deletion of both Fen1 and GAN was not possible, consistent with both enzymes catalyzing the same step in primer removal from Okazaki fragments in vivo RNase HII has also been proposed to participate in primer processing during Okazaki fragment maturation. Strains with both Fen1 and RNase HII deleted grew well. GAN activity is therefore sufficient for viability in the absence of both RNase HII and Fen1, but it was not possible to construct a strain with both RNase HII and GAN deleted. Fen1 alone is therefore insufficient for viability in the absence of both RNase HII and GAN. The ability to delete GAN demonstrates that GAN is not required for the activation or stability of the archaeal MCM replicative helicase. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms used to remove primer sequences from Okazaki fragments during lagging-strand DNA replication differ in the biological domains. Bacteria use the exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase I, whereas eukaryotes and archaea encode a flap endonuclease (Fen1) that cleaves displaced primer sequences. RNase HII and the GINS-associated exonuclease GAN have also been hypothesized to assist in primer

  13. Low resistivity and low compensation ratio Ga-doped ZnO films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Han; Chyi, Jen-Inn

    2015-09-01

    In this study, Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films were deposited on GaN templates by using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. To obtain low resistivity GZO films, in-situ post-annealing under Zn overpressure was carried out to avoid the generation of acceptor-liked Zn vacancies. The resultant films showed optical transparency over 95% in the visible spectral range. By reducing the acceptor-like defects, GZO films with compensation ratio near 0.4 and resistivity simultaneously lower than 1×10-4 Ω cm have been successfully demonstrated.

  14. One-step fabrication of porous GaN crystal membrane and its application in energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shouzhi; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Sun, Changlong; Huo, Qin; Zhang, Baoguo; Hu, Haixiao; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2017-03-01

    Single-crystal gallium nitride (GaN) membranes have great potential for a variety of applications. However, fabrication of single-crystalline GaN membranes remains a challenge owing to its chemical inertness and mechanical hardness. This study prepares large-area, free-standing, and single-crystalline porous GaN membranes using a one-step high-temperature annealing technique for the first time. A promising separation model is proposed through a comprehensive study that combines thermodynamic theories analysis and experiments. Porous GaN crystal membrane is processed into supercapacitors, which exhibit stable cycling life, high-rate capability, and ultrahigh power density, to complete proof-of-concept demonstration of new energy storage application. Our results contribute to the study of GaN crystal membranes into a new stage related to the elelctrochemical energy storage application.

  15. Study of GaN nanowires converted from β-Ga2O3 and photoconduction in a single nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Sudheer; Chauhan, Neha; Sakthi Kumar, D.; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, R.

    2017-08-01

    The formation of GaN nanowires from β-Ga2O3 nanowires and photoconduction in a fabricated single GaN nanowire device has been studied. Wurtzite phase GaN were formed from monoclinic β-Ga2O3 nanowires with or without catalyst particles at their tips. The formation of faceted nanostructures from catalyst droplets presented on a nanowire tip has been discussed. The nucleation of GaN phases in β-Ga2O3 nanowires and their subsequent growth due to interfacial strain energy has been examined using a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The high quality of the converted GaN nanowire is confirmed by fabricating single nanowire photoconducting devices which showed ultra high responsivity under ultra-violet illumination.

  16. High quality self-separated GaN crystal grown on a novel nanoporous template by HVPE.

    PubMed

    Huo, Qin; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Zhang, Baoguo; Hu, Haixiao; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2018-02-16

    In this study, a novel nanoporous template was obtained by a two-step etching process from MOCVD-GaN/Al 2 O 3 (MGA) with electrochemical etching sequentially followed by chemical wet etching. The twice-etched MOCVD-GaN/Al 2 O 3 (TEMGA) templates were utilized to grow GaN crystals by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method. The GaN crystals were separated spontaneously from the TEMGA template with the assistance of voids formed by the etched nanopores. Several techniques were utilized to characterize the quality of the free-standing GaN crystals obtained from the TEMGA template. Results showed that the quality of the as-obtained GaN crystals was improved obviously compared with those grown on the MGA. This convenient technique can be applied to grow high-quality free-standing GaN crystals.

  17. Effects of hydrogen implantation into GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearton, S. J.; Abernathy, C. R.; Wilson, R. G.; Zavada, J. M.; Song, C. Y.; Weinstein, M. G.; Stavola, M.; Han, J.; Shul, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    Proton implantation in GaN is found to reduce the free carrier density through two mechanisms - first, by creating electron and hole traps at around EC - 0.8 eV and EV + 0.9 eV that lead to compensation in both n- and p-type material, and second, by leading to formation of (AH)° complexes, where A is any acceptor (Mg, Ca, Zn, Be, Cd). The former mechanism is useful in creating high resistivity regions for device isolation, whereas the latter produces unintentional acceptor passivation that is detrimental to device performance. The strong affinity of hydrogen for acceptors leads to markedly different redistribution behavior for implanted H + in n- and p-GaN due to the chemical reaction to form neutral complexes in the latter. The acceptors may be reactivated by simple annealing at ⩾600°C, or by electron injection at 25-150°C that produces debonding of the (AH)° centers. Implanted hydrogen is also strongly attracted to regions of strain in heterostructure samples during annealing, leading to pile-up at epi-epi and epi-substrate interfaces. IR spectroscopy shows that implanted hydrogen also decorates VGa defects in undoped and n-GaN.

  18. Intermediate Nucleation State of GaN Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L. X.; Xie, M. H.; Tong, S. Y.

    2001-03-01

    Homoexpitaxial nucleation of GaN during molecular-beam epitaxy is followed by scanning tunneling microcopy (STM). We observe a metastable nucleation state, which manifests as “ghost” islands in STM images. These “ghost” islands can be irreversibly driven into normal islands by continuous STM imaging. It is further established that the “ghost” island formation is related to the presence of excess Ga atoms on the surface: Normal islands are only seen under the N-rich or stoichiometric flux condition, whereas “ghost” islands are observed under Ga-rich conditions. For intermediate excess-Ga coverages, both normal and “ghost” islands are present, however, they show distinctly different sizes, suggesting different nucleation states for the two. A growth model is proposed to account for the formation of metastable, “ghost” islands. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation is carried out and main features of the surface are reproduced. We acknowledge financial support from HK RGC under grant Nos. 7396/00P, 7142/99P, and 7121/00P.

  19. Radiation Characterization of Commercial GaN Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Richard D.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Hoffman, James P.; Thrivikraman, Tushar; Jenabi, Masud; Gim, Yonggyu; Miyahira, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Radiative feedback from primordial protostars and final mass of the first star Commercially available devices fabricated from GaN are beginning to appear from a number of different suppliers. Based on previous materials and prototype device studies, it is expected that these commercial devices will be quite tolerant to the types of radiation encountered in space. This expectation needs to be verified and the study described herein was undertaken for that purpose. All of the parts discussed in this report are readily available commercially. The parts chosen for study are all targeted for RF applications. Three different studies were performed: 1) a preliminary DDD/TID test of a variety of part types was performed by irradiating with 50 MeV protons, 2) a detailed DDD/TID study of one particular part type was performed by irradiating with 50 MeV protons, and 3) a SEB/SEGR test was performed on a variety of part types by irradiating with heavy ions. No significant degradation was observed in the tests performed in this study.

  20. AMIE Gan Island Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Oue, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), in January 2012 a disdrometer observation took place with the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2), the Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (SACR), the Texas A&M SMART-R C-band radar, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) dual wavelength S- and Ka-bands polarimetric (SPolKa) radar on Gan Island, Maldives. In order to measure raindrop size distributions, a disdrometer of Nagoya University, Japan, was set up close to the ARM Two-Dimensional (2D) Video Disdrometer (2DVD). The SMART-R and SPolKa radars performedmore » range-height-indicator scanning in the direction of the disdrometer site. Comparing the disdrometer data with 2DVD data, the raindrop size distribution data will be calibrated. Furthermore, the analysis of the raindrop size distribution and radar data will be expected to clarify the microphysics in tropical convective clouds.« less

  1. [Optical emission analyses of N2/TMG ECR plasma for deposition of GaN film].

    PubMed

    Fu, Si-Lie; Wang, Chun-An; Chen, Jun-Fang

    2013-04-01

    The optical emission spectroscopy of hybrid N2/trimethylgallium (TMG) plasma in an ECR-PECVD system was investigated. The results indicate that the TMG gas is strongly dissociated into Ga*, CH and H even under self-heating condition. Ga species and nitrogen molecule in metastable state are dominant in hybrid ECR plasma. The concentration of metastable nitrogen molecule increases with the microwave power. On the other hand, the concentration of excited nitrogen molecules and of nitrogen ion decreases when the microwave power is higher than 400 W.

  2. A high efficiency C-band internally-matched harmonic tuning GaN power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Zhao, B. C.; Zheng, J. X.; Zhang, H. S.; Zheng, X. F.; Ma, X. H.; Hao, Y.; Ma, P. J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a high efficiency C-band gallium nitride (GaN) internally-matched power amplifier (PA) is presented. This amplifier consists of 2-chips of self-developed GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with 16 mm total gate width on SiC substrate. New harmonic manipulation circuits are induced both in the input and output matching networks for high efficiency matching at fundamental and 2nd-harmonic frequency, respectively. The developed amplifier has achieved 72.1% power added efficiency (PAE) with 107.4 W output power at 5 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this amplifier exhibits the highest PAE in C-band GaN HEMT amplifiers with over 100 W output power. Additionally, 1000 hours' aging test reveals high reliability for practical applications.

  3. P-type doping of GaN(000\\bar{1}) by magnesium ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tetsuo; Kachi, Tetsu; Kataoka, Keita; Uesugi, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium ion implantation has been performed on a GaN(000\\bar{1}) substrate, whose surface has a high thermal stability, thus allowing postimplantation annealing without the use of a protective layer. The current-voltage characteristics of p-n diodes fabricated on GaN(000\\bar{1}) showed distinct rectification at a turn-on voltage of about 3 V, although the leakage current varied widely among the diodes. Coimplantation with magnesium and hydrogen ions effectively suppressed the leakage currents and device-to-device variations. In addition, an electroluminescence band was observed at wavelengths shorter than 450 nm for these diodes. These results provide strong evidence that implanted magnesium ions create acceptors in GaN(000\\bar{1}).

  4. Electron band bending of polar, semipolar and non-polar GaN surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoš, I.; Romanyuk, O., E-mail: romanyuk@fzu.cz; Houdkova, J.

    2016-03-14

    The magnitudes of the surface band bending have been determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for polar, semipolar, and non-polar surfaces of wurtzite GaN crystals. All surfaces have been prepared from crystalline GaN samples grown by the hydride-vapour phase epitaxy and separated from sapphire substrates. The Ga 3d core level peak shifts have been used for band bending determination. Small band bending magnitudes and also relatively small difference between the band bendings of the surfaces with opposite polarity have been found. These results point to the presence of electron surface states of different amounts and types on surfaces of different polaritymore » and confirm the important role of the electron surface states in compensation of the bound surface polarity charges in wurtzite GaN crystals.« less

  5. Study of GaN nanorods converted from β-Ga2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuewen; Xiong, Zening; Zhang, Dongdong; Xiu, Xiangqian; Liu, Duo; Wang, Shuang; Hua, Xuemei; Xie, Zili; Tao, Tao; Liu, Bin; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2018-05-01

    We report here high-quality β-Ga2O3 nanorods (NRs) grown on sapphire substrates by hydrothermal method. Ammoniating the β-Ga2O3 NRs results in strain-free wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) NRs. It was shown by XRD and Raman spectroscopy that β-Ga2O3 was partially converted to GaN/β-Ga2O3 at 1000 °C and then completely converted to GaN NRs at 1050 °C, as confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). There is no band-edge emission of β-Ga2O3 in the cathodoluminescence spectrum, and only a deep-level broad emission observed at 3.68-3.73 eV. The band edge emission (3.39 eV) of GaN NRs converted from β-Ga2O3 can also be observed.

  6. Coaxial metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) Au/Ga2O3/GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chin-Hua; Chang, Mu-Tung; Chien, Yu-Jen; Chou, Li-Jen; Chen, Lih-Juann; Chen, Chii-Dong

    2008-10-01

    Coaxial metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) Au-Ga2O3-GaN heterostructure nanowires were successfully fabricated by an in situ two-step process. The Au-Ga2O3 core-shell nanowires were first synthesized by the reaction of Ga powder, a mediated Au thin layer, and a SiO2 substrate at 800 degrees C. Subsequently, these core-shell nanowires were nitridized in ambient ammonia to form a GaN coating layer at 600 degrees C. The GaN shell is a single crystal, an atomic flat interface between the oxide and semiconductor that ensures that the high quality of the MOS device is achieved. These novel 1D nitride-based MOS nanowires may have promise as building blocks to the future nitride-based vertical nanodevices.

  7. AB INITIO Investigations of the Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Fe-DOPED GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jie; Zhou, Jing; Xu, Wei; Dong, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a first principle investigation on Fe-doped GaN with wurtzite and zinc-blend structure using full potential density functional calculations. Data point out that the magnetic behavior of Fe-doped GaN system is strongly dependent on Fe doping configurations. In agreement with the experimental reports, and independently by doping, antiferromagnetism occurs in the zinc-blend structure, while in the wurtzite structure ferromagnetism depends on the Fe doping configurations. Detailed analyses combined with density of state calculations support the assignment that the ferromagnetism is closely related to the impurity band at the origin of the hybridization of Fe 3d and N 2p states in the Fe-doped GaN of wurtzite phase.

  8. Defect reduction in GaN on dome-shaped patterned-sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Hsun; Su, Vin-Cent; Wu, Shang-Hsuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung

    2018-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the behavior of defect reduction in un-doped GaN (u-GaN) grown on a commercial dome-shaped patterned-sapphire substrate (CDPSS). Residual strain inside the u-GaN grown on the CDPSS have been investigated as well. As verified by the experimentally measured data, the limited growth rate of the u-GaN on the sidewall of the CDPSS enhances the lateral growth of the GaN on the trench region while increasing the growth time. This subsequently contributes to improve the crystalline quality of the GaN on the CDPSS. The more prominent dislocations occur in the u-GaN epilayers on the CDPSS after reaching the summit of the accumulated strain inside the epilayers. Such prominent bent dislocations improve their blocking abilities, followed by the achievement of the better crystalline quality for the growth of the u-GaN on the CDPSS.

  9. Radiation Damage Formation And Annealing In Mg-Implanted GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Sean; Kelly, Michael J.; Yan, John

    2005-06-30

    We have implanted GaN with Mg ions over an energy range of 200keV to 1MeV at substrate temperatures of -150 (cold) and +300 deg. C (hot). The radiation damage formation in GaN was increased for cold implants when compared to samples implanted at elevated temperatures. The increase in damage formation is due to a reduction in the dynamic defect annealing during ion irradiation. The dopant stopping in the solid also depends upon the implant temperature. For a fixed implant energy and dose, Mg ions have a shorter range in GaN for cold implants when compared to hot implants which ismore » caused by the increase in scattering centres (disorder)« less

  10. Site-controlled GaN nanocolumns with InGaN insertions grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaev, D. V.; Semenov, A. N.; Koshelev, O. A.; Jmerik, V. N.; Davydov, V. Yu; Smirnov, A. N.; Pozina, G.; Shubina, T. V.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The site-controlled plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA MBE) has been developed to fabricate the regular array of GaN nanocolumns (NCs) with InGaN insertions on micro-cone patterned sapphire substrates (μ-CPSSs). Two-stage growth of GaN NCs, including a nucleation layer grown at metal-rich conditions and high temperature GaN growth in strong N-rich condition, has been developed to achieve the selective growth of the NCs. Microcathodoluminescence measurements have demonstrated pronounced emission from the InGaN insertions in 450-600 nm spectral range. The optically isolated NCs can be used as effective nano-emitters operating in the visible range.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of trimethylgallium decomposition during GaN metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Kazuki; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Chokawa, Kenta; Araidai, Masaaki; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    We analyzed the decomposition of Ga(CH3)3 (TMG) during the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of GaN on the basis of first-principles calculations and thermodynamic analysis. We performed activation energy calculations of TMG decomposition and determined the main reaction processes of TMG during GaN MOVPE. We found that TMG reacts with the H2 carrier gas and that (CH3)2GaH is generated after the desorption of the methyl group. Next, (CH3)2GaH decomposes into (CH3)GaH2 and this decomposes into GaH3. Finally, GaH3 becomes GaH. In the MOVPE growth of GaN, TMG decomposes into GaH by the successive desorption of its methyl groups. The results presented here concur with recent high-resolution mass spectroscopy results.

  12. Photophysics of GaN single-photon emitters in the visible spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhane, Amanuel M.; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Bradac, Carlo; Walsh, Michael; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present a detailed photophysical analysis of recently discovered, optically stable single-photon emitters (SPEs) in gallium nitride (GaN). Temperature-resolved photoluminescence measurements reveal that the emission lines at 4 K are three orders of magnitude broader than the transform-limited width expected from excited-state lifetime measurements. The broadening is ascribed to ultrafast spectral diffusion. The photophysical study on several emitters at room temperature (RT) reveals an average brightness of (427 ±215 )kCounts /s . Finally, polarization measurements from 14 emitters are used to determine visibility as well as dipole orientation of defect systems within the GaN crystal. Our results underpin some of the fundamental properties of SPEs in GaN both at cryogenic and RT, and define the benchmark for future work in GaN-based single-photon technologies.

  13. Unstable behaviour of normally-off GaN E-HEMT under short-circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, P. J.; Maset, E.; Sanchis-Kilders, E.; Esteve, V.; Jordán, J.; Bta Ejea, J.; Ferreres, A.

    2018-04-01

    The short-circuit capability of power switching devices plays an important role in fault detection and the protection of power circuits. In this work, an experimental study on the short-circuit (SC) capability of commercial 600 V Gallium Nitride enhancement-mode high-electron-mobility transistors (E-HEMT) is presented. A different failure mechanism has been identified for commercial p-doped GaN gate (p-GaN) HEMT and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) HEMT. In addition to the well known thermal breakdown, a premature breakdown is shown on both GaN HEMTs, triggered by hot electron trapping at the surface, which demonstrates that current commercial GaN HEMTs has requirements for improving their SC ruggedness.

  14. Correlation of doping, structure, and carrier dynamics in a single GaN nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Ming-Yen; Lu, Yu-Jung; Gwo, Shangjr; Gradečak, Silvija

    2013-06-01

    We report the nanoscale optical investigation of a single GaN p-n junction nanorod by cathodoluminescence (CL) in a scanning transmission electron microscope. CL emission characteristic of dopant-related transitions was correlated to doping and structural defect in the nanorod, and used to determine p-n junction position and minority carrier diffusion lengths of 650 nm and 165 nm for electrons and holes, respectively. Temperature-dependent CL study reveals an activation energy of 19 meV for non-radiative recombination in Mg-doped GaN nanorods. These results directly correlate doping, structure, carrier dynamics, and optical properties of GaN nanostructure, and provide insights for device design and fabrication.

  15. Botulinum toxin detection using AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Chu, B. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Lele, T. P.; Tseng, Y.; Pearton, S. J.; Ramage, J.; Hooten, D.; Dabiran, A.; Chow, P. P.; Ren, F.

    2008-12-01

    Antibody-functionalized, Au-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect botulinum toxin. The antibody was anchored to the gate area through immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when the target toxin in a buffer was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. We could detect a range of concentrations from 1to10ng/ml. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of field-deployable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for botulinum toxin detection.

  16. Depletion-Mode GaN HEMT Q-Spoil Switches for MRI Coils

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jonathan Y.; Grafendorfer, Thomas; Zhang, Tao; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Robb, Fraser; Pauly, John M.; Scott, Greig C.

    2017-01-01

    Q-spoiling is the process of decoupling an MRI receive coil to protect the equipment and patient. Conventionally, Q-spoiling is performed using a PIN diode switch that draws significant current. In this work, a Q-spoiling technique using a depletion-mode Gallium Nitride HEMT device was developed for coil detuning at both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. The circuits with conventional PIN diode Q-spoiling and the GaN HEMT device were implemented on surface coils. SNR was measured and compared for all surfaces coils. At both 1.5 T and 3 T, comparable SNR was achieved for all coils with the proposed technique and conventional Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device has significantly reduced the required power for Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device also provides useful safety features by detuning the coil when unpowered. PMID:27362895

  17. Characterization of vertical GaN p-n diodes and junction field-effect transistors on bulk GaN down to cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilyalli, I. C.; Aktas, O.

    2015-12-01

    There is great interest in wide-bandgap semiconductor devices and most recently in vertical GaN structures for power electronic applications such as power supplies, solar inverters and motor drives. In this paper the temperature-dependent electrical behavior of vertical GaN p-n diodes and vertical junction field-effect transistors fabricated on bulk GaN substrates of low defect density (104 to 106 cm-2) is described. Homoepitaxial MOCVD growth of GaN on its native substrate and the ability to control the doping in the drift layers in GaN have allowed the realization of vertical device architectures with drift layer thicknesses of 6 to 40 μm and net carrier electron concentrations as low as 1 × 1015 cm-3. This parameter range is suitable for applications requiring breakdown voltages of 1.2 kV to 5 kV. Mg, which is used as a p-type dopant in GaN, is a relatively deep acceptor (E A ≈ 0.18 eV) and susceptible to freeze-out at temperatures below 200 K. The loss of holes in p-GaN has a deleterious effect on p-n junction behavior, p-GaN contacts and channel control in junction field-effect transistors at temperatures below 200 K. Impact ionization-based avalanche breakdown (BV > 1200 V) in GaN p-n junctions is characterized between 77 K and 423 K for the first time. At higher temperatures the p-n junction breakdown voltage improves due to increased phonon scattering. A positive temperature coefficient in the breakdown voltage is demonstrated down to 77 K; however, the device breakdown characteristics are not as abrupt at temperatures below 200 K. On the other hand, contact resistance to p-GaN is reduced dramatically above room temperature, improving the overall device performance in GaN p-n diodes in all cases except where the n-type drift region resistance dominates the total forward resistance. In this case, the electron mobility can be deconvolved and is found to decrease with T -3/2, consistent with a phonon scattering model. Also, normally-on vertical junction

  18. Valence band offset of β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Qin, Zhixin; Fan, Shunfei; Li, Zhiwei; Shi, Kai; Zhu, Qinsheng; Zhang, Guoyi

    2012-10-10

    A sample of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure has been grown by dry thermal oxidation of GaN on a sapphire substrate. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the β-Ga2O3 layer was formed epitaxially on GaN. The valence band offset of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure is measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the valence band of the β-Ga2O3/GaN structure is 1.40 ± 0.08 eV.

  19. Valence band offset of β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A sample of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure has been grown by dry thermal oxidation of GaN on a sapphire substrate. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the β-Ga2O3 layer was formed epitaxially on GaN. The valence band offset of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure is measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the valence band of the β-Ga2O3/GaN structure is 1.40 ± 0.08 eV. PMID:23046910

  20. Axial p-n junction and space charge limited current in single GaN nanowire.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhihua; Donatini, Fabrice; Daudin, Bruno; Pernot, Julien

    2018-01-05

    The electrical characterizations of individual basic GaN nanostructures, such as axial nanowire (NW) p-n junctions, are becoming indispensable and crucial for the fully controlled realization of GaN NW based devices. In this study, electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements were performed on two single axial GaN p-n junction NWs grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. I-V characteristics revealed that both ohmic and space charge limited current (SCLC) regimes occur in GaN p-n junction NW. Thanks to an improved contact process, both the electric field induced by the p-n junction and the SCLC in the p-part of GaN NW were disclosed and delineated by EBIC signals under different biases. Analyzing the EBIC profiles in the vicinity of the p-n junction under 0 V and reverse bias, we deduced a depletion width in the range of 116-125 nm. Following our previous work, the acceptor N a doping level was estimated to be 2-3 × 10 17 at cm -3 assuming a donor level N d of 2-3 × 10 18 at cm -3 . The hole diffusion length in n-GaN was determined to be 75 nm for NW #1 and 43 nm for NW #2, demonstrating a low surface recombination velocity at the m-plane facet of n-GaN NW. Under forward bias, EBIC imaging visualized the electric field induced by the SCLC close to p-side contact, in agreement with unusual SCLC previously reported in GaN NWs.